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September 2005 Vol.18 No.4
When the grass is not always greener Editorial comment by Tom Davey Katrina will leave Gulf States grappling with a toxic legacy Engineered wetlands can be effective cold climate wastewater
Issued September, 2005 ÂŁS<Sf invites articies (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmentai protection topics, if you are interested in submitting an articie for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at email@example.com. Please note that Environmentai Science & Engineering Publications inc. reserves the right to edit ail submissions without notice.
Construction underway on Durham Region's wastewater system upgrade
Laboratory workstation odour control at MaRS/Toronto Upgrading Sainte-Julie wastewater facilities in Quebec
Hundreds of millions of membrane fibres in Ontario, but who's counting? The evolution of diverse chamber system applications Use of phreatophytes in management of groundwater
34 38 40 44 48 55 56
Automated nutrient monitoring for water and wastewater Can Winbags solve emergency waste storage problems? Fall conference previews Automatic valve closure improves chlorine gas safety Refocusing on small water purification systems Canada's climate change strategy US border restrictions worry waste managers
DEPARTMENTS 52 57 60 63 68 72
Coal ash may offer hope for millions of Bangladeshis Gulf of Mexico not right for methane gas hydrate formation Technological innovation for sodium hypochlorite dosing Surfactant desorption is key to successful PAH bioremediation New take on ancient art of monitoring Eliminating harmonics improves plant performance
4 Environmental Science c& Engineering, September 2005
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When the grass is notalways greener
Grass is a versatile word
By Tom Davey
visit our place and he expressed
which has mutated into
amazement that the condition of
four quite separate mean ings. For decades grass was the most widely-used noun for the verdant garden plant which
my property had been the subject of a complaint. The absurdity of the event was driven home by an e-mail from
forms the lawns of most domestic
Ontario Clean Alliance, that week, which reported that Ontario had already had 34 smog alerts in 2005
gardens throughout North America and Europe. In recent years, grass has mutated into a second noun for
the most widely-used illegal sub stance in the world, cannabis.
and implored people to review their personal impacts on air quality. Ontario has several hundred
But, as those who enjoy the BBC TV detective programs will know, the word grass has mutated again, this time as both noun and verb. In the UK, a police informer is disparagingly known as 'a grass' while the actual act of informing is in the form of the verb 'to grass.' Indeed, these slang terms have, almost literally, grown like weeds in the UK and are now spreading in
thousand gas or electric lawn mow ers. The gas mowers emit green house gases directly. Electric mow-
recently from our local council about a Clean Yards' Complaint. I
air polluters respectively. But many Canadians have a great love for their verdant lawns which often mimics parental child care. In addition to the large vol umes of water, chemical weed
was incredulous to read that: ''The
killers and fertilizers are often lav
Town of Aurora has received a complaint about the condition of your property'. The council note warned that I was required: 'to cut/maintain grass groundcover on a weekly basis'. Ironically, it now seems that someone has grassed on me; I have no suspicions that this came from a neighbour. The notice came at a particularly bad time as my wife was having serious health problems culminating in a stay in hospital.
ished on many lawns to achieve the perfect weed-free grass. 1 have minimal objections when chemicals and fertilizers are applied in moderation, especially by experts. But, run-off from improp erly applied fertilizer can accelerate eutrophication, which adversely affects the water quality of our
Speaking of the word grass, when used for informers, I was absolutely amazed to get a notice
carts over the town's grounds, fol lowed by operators with several grass trimmers which are also motorized. Cutting grass this way is fine, but surely it should be done when growth warrants it, not as a routine?
I do not quibble that yard main tenance is the decent thing for homeowners to do. However, I must mention that defining aesthet ics has proved impossible in the world of both written and perform ing arts, let alone lawn care. Books that are panned by critics often
Ontario had already had 34smog alerts during the period 1 was ordered to'cut/malntain grass on a weekly basls^ ers do it vicariously from electrici ty generated at Nanticoke and Lambton, Ontario's number 1 and 2
emerge later as masterpieces. The renowned academie francaise, in Paris, rejected many books which are now regarded as masterpieces. But one of the most famous law
suits defining aesthetics was in Eondon when Whistler sued Ruskin,
a renowned art critic of his day. Ruskin had described Whistler's
'Nocturne' as: "Throwing a pot of paint in the public's face." Whistler won the case but was awarded one
farthing in damages, the lowest coin of the Realm. While the court case
bankrupted Whistler, his reputation as an artist survived as did Ruskin's
reputation as a writer. But Whistler ran off to Venice with his mistress; Ruskin never consummated his mar
riage. The grass was greener in Italy.
rivers and lakes.
The current furor over global warming - with increasing smog alerts - makes it absurd to legislate
The name of the informer was
that homeowners: 'cut/maintain
withheld from me, nor was the by law officer able to come right away. However 1 was able to get a promi nent and knowledgeable citizen to
grass groundcover on a weekly basis.' For example, my town has at least four large motorized grass cutters which are driven like golf
September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 1
& Engineering Editor
Federal Government will Invest
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (No attachments please)
more than $150 million
Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag,com Sales Director
in 2005 - 2006 for remediation
E-mali: email@example.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: email@example.com Design & Production CHRIS MacDONALD E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Publisher
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario
The Government of Canada is
investing $138.7 million in measures to help remediate 97 priority contaminated sites under federal responsibility across
Dr. Robert 0. Landine
Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE
has been earmarked for the assessment
of an estimated 500 sites, which will
"Canada's North includes some of
determine the next steps and the scien tific support that is necessary. The funding is part of the Budget 2004 long-term commitment of $3.5
the country's most complex clean ups;
billion to remediate contaminated sites
under federal responsibility. Environment Minister Stephane
nated under the Action Plan for Federal Contaminated Sites. The Government
Stanley Mason, P.Eng.
of Canada is trying to reduce the dan gers that contaminants pose to human health and the environment.
"The Government of Canada takes
John Meunier inc., Quebec
Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater
plant operators and contractors. Information contained In ÂŁS<5f has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. fS5f cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial mat ter. Although the Information contained In this magazine Is believed to be correct, no responsibility Is assumed. Articles in this magazine are Intended to provide Infor mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-malled to email@example.com.
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L4G SVG, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com
that's what makes our commitment to
remediation so important," said Andy Scott, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and Federal
R. V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario
maintenance. Activities at the site this
year will involve additional site inves tigations, assessments and surface
Yellowknife, at the site of the former Giant Mine which is among the higher risk sites in the Canadian North desig
ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick
Giant Mine is currently under care and
Canada. An additional $14.3 million
Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario
collaboration to develop long-term remediation solutions. In the interim,
seriously its responsibility to protect this heritage and the health of the Canadian public by remediating sites under federal responsibility," said Minister Dion. "We are taking action to undo the harmful effects of past practices, while ensuring that from now on environmentally-friendly val ues necessary to health are applied on the human, environmental and eco nomic levels in Canada."
Yellowknife's Giant Mine began operations in 1948 and has a long and impressive history as one of Canada's earliest and richest gold mines. Over its lifespan, Giant Mine produced more than 7 million ounces of gold and played a significant role as a major employer and economic engine for Canada's North. The mine reverted back to the Crown in 1999 when the
mine's owner at the time, Royal Oak Mines Inc., went into receivership. The main issue at Giant is the
237,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust stored underground at the site. The dust was created during the gold pro duction process. The Government of
Interlocutor for Metis and Non status
"One of our objectives when reme diating contaminated sites in the North is to promote social and economic ben efits for local First Nations, Metis, Inuit and Northerners," remarked the Flonourable Ethel Blondin Andrew, Member of Parliament for the Western
Arctic and Minister of State (Northern Development). "From contracting opportunities, advanced training and job creation, clean ups at contaminated sites like Giant Mine will leave a posi tive lasting legacy in terms of the local economy and a skilled workforce." To ensure the remediation of con taminated sites is carried out in a well-
coordinated matter, the Government of Canada will develop a strategic longterm plan and will report on progress to Canadians each year. The Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan sup ports the Government of Canada's Project Green, which incorporates immediate, short-term, medium-term and long-term goals and initiatives for promoting a clean and healthy environ ment.
View the federal contaminated sites inventory at: www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/dfrp-rbif/cs-sc
Information contained in ES&E
has been compiled from sources believed to be correct.
Canada and the Government of the
ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other
Northwest Territories are working in
8 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
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Engineered for life
Katrina will leave Gulf States grappling with a toxic legacy said. "We haven't found
high levels of pesticides, heavy metals, PCBs or other toxic materials."
Fuel from thousands
of fuel tanks at gasoline stations and leaking gaso line from flooded cars
and boats has given the water an oily sheen. In addition, there are flood ed industrial areas and
160,000 households with their cans of paints, sol vents, fertilizers and pes ticides stewing in flooded garages and basements. Despite all the con tamination, New Orleans'
us President George \N. Bush, joined by Vice Admiral Thad Allen, (left), Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco, in red. New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, right of Bush, and White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card, second right of Bush, during a tour of downtown New Orleans, on Sept. 12, 2005.(AP Photo/Susan Walsh)
Thetrue environmental impact of
the Gulf of Mexico and
ing wetlands and Gulf," said Kelly,
Hurricane Katiina, including oil spills, chemical leaks and toxic waste, will remain unknown for months. "Unless you've seen it, you can't comprehend the scope of the damage," Jean Kelly of Louisiana's Department of Environmental Quality(DEQ)stressed. The August 29 hurricane wrecked a huge area in southern Louisiana and Mississippi, with scores of towns flat
adding that there are likely other spills of oil, gasoline, diesel and chemicals throughout the region. Until all the floodwaters are gone, it is impossible to
tened and unaccounted for. More than
know for certain.
At least 525 sewage treatment plants in Louisiana were also damaged, many of them flooded. More than 1,200 drinking water treatment plants were knocked out in Louisiana, Mississippi
4.5 million homes and businesses were
Health and enviromuental officials
without power at one point. Satellite photos taken after the storm show that
are sampling floodwaters throughout the region but had only released results from New Orleans, as of September 9, 2005. At that time about 60 percent of
the Chandeleur Islands southeast of
New Orleans, the home of the Beeton
National Wildlife Refuge, have van ished. In fact, the photos show that the coastline of the state has been signifi cantly altered, requiring new maps and navigation charts. A 3.5-million gallon spill from leaking refinery storage tanks in Chalmette has contaminated much of
the town and surrounding wetlands, the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) reported. "Ruptured storage tanks at the mouth of the Mississippi River in Venice, 75 miles south ofNew Orleans, have dumped an estimated 3.3 million gallons of crude oil into the surround
filthy floodwaters are being pumped into Lake Pontchartrain, which is actually a huge estuary that opens directly into
has some unique and rare species, including the endangered manatee. "We're hoping that by the time the contaminated water gets into the Gulf it will be diluted enough to not have any impact," Kelly said. Not surprisingly, state and federal environmental laws have been tem
porarily suspended. Randy Lanctot, executive director of the Louisiana Wildlife Federation, an
environmental group, agreed with the suspension. "We don't have any choice, at least until all the water is pumped out," Lanctot said. "I hope environmen tal officials are staying on top of what's
New Orleans remained under water,
in the water," he added, with a view to the eventual final cleanup of contami
and those waters were highly contami nated by bacteria from human and
Leaves have turned brown on many trees in the city and it is not known if they will recover. There have also been media reports of dead birds falling out of the sky. However, EPA says that its air quality testing has not found any hazardous levels of pollutants or air borne toxins despite numerous fires and natural gas leaks.
nated shorelines and sediments on the
Once dry. New Orleans itself will require disposal of an estimated 60 mil lion tons of debris and extensive decon
tamination that may take years and bil lions of dollars. A major restoration effort will also be needed for the natu ral environment. No one knows how
much at this point because the full extent of the damage is unknown.
As for other toxins in the floodwa
ters, only high levels of lead have been found in preliminary testing, Kelly
10 Environmental Science c& Engineering. September 2005
Source: Global Information Network
Associated Engineering is a
Canadian, employee-owned and operated consulting engineering and project management firm. We focus on four key sectors: • Water • Environmental
•Transportation Our people are our strength.
We have the depth and diversity it takes to deliver quality, service and
value for every project.
Bill De Angelis, Vice President and General Manager of our Ontario operation, announces the following additions to our growing Toronto office. Alex Leong, M.Sc., P.Eng., has joined Associated Engineering as Manager of the Water Group in Ontario. Alex has 25 years of experience in the municipal water and wastewater sectors, including project management, studies, design, construction supervision and commis sioning of facilities in Canada and
Fred Albanese, P.Eng. will lead our Instrumentation and Controls team
in Ontario. Fred has over 20 years of experience in control systems for water and wastewater facilities. This experi ence includes process and control systems, design, programming,systems start up and project management.
Pat Coleman, Ph.D. joins Associated Engineering as a Senior Wastewater Process Specialist. Pat has 20 years experience on wastewater projects across Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. A specialist in biological nutrient removal, Pat's experience includes assessments, design, process optimization, commissioning and training.
Ed Salenieks, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. has joined our team as Manager of the Wastewater Group in Ontario. Ed has 25 years of experience in the wastewater and water sectors. He will be
responsible for wastewater engineering services, including planning, evaluation, design, construction services and commissioning of pumping and treatment facilities.
For more information about Associated Engineering, please visit our website at www.ae.ca
Engineering GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE. LOCAL FOCUS.
Engineered wetlands can be effective cold climate wastewater treatment
North America has not seen
By Scott D.Wallace,P.E.
residential growth equal to
that of the last decade since the end of the Second World
War. At the same time, aging water and sewer infrastructure must be upgraded and replaced, leading to a number of redevelopment challenges. The cre ation of open space for recreation and wildlife habitat is often a top priority in creating livable, people-friendly communities. Successfully meeting these challenges requires combining the talents of a variety of professionals including engineers, landscape archi tects, planners, environmental scien tists, and contractors.
The new challenges in land devel opment (and redevelopment) are forc ing everyone involved to be receptive to innovative approaches to infrastruc ture service. Engineered wetlands are playing a leading role in the new, green treatment infrastructure of the 21st
Types of wetland treatment systems There are three major types of con
British Petroleum wetland in Casper, Wyoming area and are ideal for situations where
space is limited. Cold climate wetland design and performance Introduction of engineered wetland technology into Canada and northern
structed wetlands: free water surface
areas of the United States has been
(surface flow, or open water), horizon tal subsurface flow (vegetated sub merged bed, root-zone or rock-reed fil ters), and vertical flow systems. Free
limited by the ability of conventional wetland systems to operate without freezing during the winter. A new design approach is to use horizontal subsurface-flow and vertical-flow con
Engineered wetlands are playing a leading role in the new,green treatment infrastructure ofthe
21St century. water surface wetlands are man-made
equivalents to natural marshes. These systems provide habitat for the most wildlife, fforizontal subsurface flow
wetlands were developed in Germany in the 1960s. In these systems, water flows horizontally through a gravel bed planted with reeds. Because no water is exposed during the treatment process, these wetlands are ideal for residential sewage treatment. The newest types of wetlands are vertical flow processes; they provide the great est amount of treatment within a given
structed wetlands that are covered with
an insulating mulch layer to prevent freezing.
is limited by low oxygen transfer rates. Another advancement in engineered wetland technology has been the development of aerated wetland sys tems.(This technology, termed Forced Bed Aerationâ&#x201E;˘ is patented in Canada and the U.S.) Aerated systems are not limited in their ability to transfer oxy
gen to the wastewater and as a result, are very effective in ammonia removal. Combining Forced Bed Aeration with insulation produces engineered wetlands that can work effectively year-round, even under very cold winter conditions.
Properly designed insulation of the wetland bed is effective in preventing freezing and resulting hydraulic fail ure. Relying on snow and ice cover does not provide reliable insulation during cold periods with limited snow
Scott Wallace, EE; is Executive Vice President, North American Wetland
pack. Placing a mulch layer over the system allows the wetland to operate effectively throughout the winter months. The type of mulch insulation used can strongly affect the perform ance of the system. Only well decom posed organic materials can be used without degrading treatment efficien cy. To be effective, insulation must be uniform in coverage, which requires that it be designed as an integral part of the wetland system. Treatment in most wetland systems
12 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
is the principal author on
WERE design manual, "Feasibilit)>, Design Criteria, and O&M Requirements for Small-Scale Constructed
Treatment Systems"scheduledforpublica tion in 2005.
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Construction underway on Durham Region's $164 million wastewater system upgrade By Marek Krynski,P.Eng.,and George Powell,P.Eng.
''^'•'"''^jii}.}- ■". !"v".
With a population now
approaching 600,000 and projected to reach over 900,000 in the next 15
years, Ontario's Durham Region is one of Canada's fastest growing municipal ities. The single most significant growth pressure the Region faces is a dramatic increase in residential devel
opment, which in turn, stresses its 11 wastewater treatment facilities.
One of the region's larger facilities, the Harmony Creek Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), which services the
Courtice, is nearing its rated capacity of 68,200 mVd (15 MIGD). Half of the secondary treatment process compris es a trickling filtration facility, com missioned in 1962, which is now reaching the end of its useful life. Significant upgrading and/or replace ment is needed for the WPCP to meet
its present effluent requirements. It is also important to note that the present Water Pollution Control Plant site is insufficient
Artist's renditions of digesters (top) and headworks building.
planned growth in the area. Therefore, in March 1999, the Regional Municipality of Durham completed a class environmental assessment (EA) for additional water pollution capacity for the Whitby, Oshawa, and Clarington (Courtice) areas. The report recommended estab-
lishing, in the municipality of Clarington, a new water pollution con trol plant (WPCP) with an ultimate average day design flow capacity of 272,760 mVd (60 MIGD). The plan is for the ultimate decommissioning (over time) of the Harmony Creek WPCP, and conveyance of the tributary flow to the new Courtice WPCP.
Initially, only Harmony Creek WPCP No. 1, the trickling filter facility, will be decommissioned. All average day flows in excess of 34,100 mVd (7.5 MIGD), the rated capacity of Harmony Creek WPCP No.2, will be conveyed
and scheduled for completion in the fall 2007. The selected site for the WPCP is in southeast Durham and has an area of
65.5 hectares (ha). It abuts Lake Ontario, immediately east of Courtice Road, south of the Canadian National
Railway (CNR) main line, and west of the Darlington nuclear generating sta tion.
The Project The main components of the Courtice Water Pollution Control Plant
project are: • The Harmony Creek Pumping
to the new Courtice WPCP.
The Courtice WPCP is being con structed in phases with the first phase, presently under construction, having a capacity of 68,200 mVday (15 MIGD)
• Conveyance of flows to the Courtice
14 Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2005
• The Courtice WPCP. • The outfall into Lake Ontario.
Wastewater growth in the Courtice area. The forcemain alignment crosses Tooley, Robinson, and Harmony Creek as well as marshlands to the west at
Second Marsh and McLaughlin Bay. As a result, in these environmentally sensitive areas, special mitigation measures will be implemented in con structing the forcemains. The main agencies involved in gaining approval for the alignment included the Central Lake Ontario Conservation Authority, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans, as well as the municipalities of Oshawa and Clarington, and the Friends of the Second Marsh. Courtice WPCP
Numerous treatment processes were evaluated during the Class Environmental Assessment process, including the conventional activated sludge process, sequencing batch reac tor (SBR) process, trickling filter process, rotating biological contactor process, and constructed wetland sys tems. Based on the assessment, it was concluded that the Courtice WPCP
will generally consist of a nitrifying activated sludge process with chlorination/dechlorination for disinfection, and conventional anaerobic digestion for
Artist's renditions of liquid train secondary gaiiery (top) and liquid train.
have an initial Phase 1 peak wet weath er capacity of 171,072 mVday (37.6 MIGD), a Phase 2 capacity of 241,920 mVday (53 MIGD), and an ultimate station capacity of 331,517 mVday (73
• Two discharge headers located in the basement of the pumping station designed for ultimate flow conditions. • A 2000 kW prime duty stand-by diesel generator. Conveyance Conveyance from the Harmony Creek Pumping Station to the Courtice WPCP will be along Colonel Sam Drive to the Darlington Provincial Park, and more or less paralleling the alignment of the CN main line to the
Courtice WPCP, a distance of 6.5 km.
The station will house the following equipment: • Two mechanically cleaned bar screens with 50 mm spacing. • Six submersible pumping units with space for an additional 4 units (initial ly).
Initially, one 1050 mm diameter force-
Harmony Creek Pumping Station The Harmony Creek Pumping Station
north-west corner of the existing Harmony Creek WPCP site, abutting Colonel Sam Drive. The station will
main will be constructed. There is
space in the conveyance easement for a second forcemain and a 300 mm
Regional watermain, which will be constructed with the forcemain to service the WPCP site and future
biosolids storage. The plant site devel opment allows for the possibility of future biological nutrient removal and UV disinfection to be added, and solids handling processes (including biosolids dewatering and incineration or composting) could be provided. Initially, the Courtice WPCP will be designed for 68,200 mVday (15 MIGD) and will have a peak wet weather flow of 2.65 times the design flow, or 180,730 mVday (40 MIGD). The plant will be designed in stages to provide "just in time delivery" of capacity. Battery sizes are 34,200 mVday (7.5 MIGD). For the ultimate plant capacity of 272,800 mVday (60 MIGD), a total of eight batteries are proposed and can be readily accommo dated on site.
Effluent compliance requirements, as stipulated by the Ministry of Environment, are found in Table 1. The new Courtice Water Pollution
Control Plant (WPCP) will consist of the following unit processes:
September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 15
Wastewater diffusers spaced over a distance of 150 m are provided to diffuse effluent in Lake Ontario, approximately 1 km off
Total Suspended Solids
shore in 9 to 11 m of water.
As an important part of the Courtice project, a study area for the
new outfall was defined. This area was
Summer(May 1 - Get 31)
Winter(Nov 1 - Apr 30)
identified based on pollutant plume modelling completed during the Class EA and on geotechnical and aquatic information. The plume modelling
indicated that the outfall diffuser at the E.coli
200 organisms / 100 mL
* Compliance will be based on monthly average concentration ** Ammonia + ammonium nitrogen
the nearshore currents, and therefore, on the Courtice effluent plume off
1. Preliminary Treatment: Headworks with screening and aerated grit
using liquid chemical addition.
anaerobic digestion of raw primary solids and waste solids from secondary treatment, and on-site biosolids and raw sludge storage tanks.
2. Primary Treatment: Rectangular chain and flight primary clarifiers. 3. Secondary Treatment: Nitrifying activated sludge with anoxic selectors, energy efficient fine bubble aeration, and phosphorus removal by applica tion of metallic salts followed by "Gould type" rectangular chain and flight secondary clarifiers. 4. Disinfection: Final effluent disin fection via chlorination/dechlorination
5. Solids Treatment: Conventional
shore of South Courtice.
The large heated water discharge from the DNGS outfall provides a high initial dilution and pushes the effluent plume offshore away from the beach at Darlington Provincial Park as well, as
DNGS's water intake. It was therefore
As part ofthe Courtice WPCP proj ect, a 1676 mm diameter outfall will be provided, sized to meet the Phase 2 peak flow requirements.
concluded that the best location for the effluent outfall would be as close to the
The outfall consists of an outfall
pipe with a staged diffuser section. To handle the peak capacity, forty-five
Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) has significant impact upon
l imi ted
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DNGS heated water discharge as prac tically possible. The modelling also indicated that to meet MOE effluent dilution require ments, the outfall diffusers must be
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Process Products and Instrumentation - SOLUTIONS 16 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Wastewater located within a water depth at least of six metres. The proposed outfall diffusers will be at water depths of9 to 11 m, providing better than over 46 to 1 dilution at ultimate peak flow eapacity. Within the study area, three possi ble alignments for the outfall were
Associates (geotechnical), ASl Group (Aquatic), C.B. Fairn & Associates (Marine Construction Specialist), Warme Engineering and Biological Services (Biology), and Archaeological Services (Archaeology).
identified that allowed the outfall to be
In July 2005, the Region of Durham
close to DNGS outfall, and meet efflu
ent dilution requirements. These align ments were along the westerly edge of the study area, the easterly edge, and a
Kenaidan Contracting Ltd.. in the amount of $88,870,000, and the
location in the middle.
International Inc., in the amount of
To identify the preferred location, bathymetry, habitat, and geotechnical investigations of the lake bottom were conducted on the three potential pipe alignments. The aquatic study included a video of the bottom describing the surface features and fish and aquatic growth observed, along with bathyme try and soil sampling and analysis. Soil investigation to shale bedrock was car
$8,513,000. The Conveyance contract
new Courtice WPCP is scheduled for
tendering in the late fall of 2005 and the Harmony Creek Pumping Station is scheduled for tendering in early 2006. The current estimate for the
overall program is $163,950,000.
from the Harmony Creek WPCP to the
Outfall into Lake Ontario to McNally
Marek Kiynski. P.Eug., is with the Regional Municipality ofDurham. George Powell, PEng., is with CH2M HILL. Contact e-mail:
ried out in the lake to determine the sub surface soil conditions. These
investigations concluded that the most westerly alignment for the outfall is preferred, due to the following; • Clays are present and are highly plastic, potentially reducing siltation concerns. Blasting is not thought to be LJI.U
• It avoids the ridge of dense sandy
Memosens digital pH/ORP measurement
silt till towards the east. • There is an absence of useable fish habitat.
• The distance to satisfactory depth
Increase your process up time
of water for effective diffusion is shorter than the other locations.
Safe, easy, reliable, economical
The methods of construction of the
outfall at the preferred alignment were documented
■ Field calibration unnecessary
in the Environmental ■ The inductive connection
Study Report (ESR). These methods included either an open trench marine excavation, totally or partially buried, or as a tunnel. After careful review, the construction method ehosen was open
completely eliminates dirt and moisture problems ■ Up to 6 times longer life time ■ No special cables are necessary - any four wire cable will work
trench marine construction.
Project Team The Region of Durham is supported by a team responsible for various parts of the project, as follows: Region ofDurham Works Department; Stantec ConsultantsProgram Management; Team Courtice CH2M
■ Reduced price for complete loop
Consultants; Simcoe Engineering GroupWPCP and prime teehnieal consultant; Earth Tech - Harmony Creek Pumpmg Station; Totten, Sims, Hubicki (TSH)Conveyance; R.Y Anderson Associates (RVA)-Outfall. There is also support from special ists, including Geo-Canada, Golder
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 17
Laboratory workstation odour control at MaRS/Toronto
Buildings that generate odours
are under increasing scrutiny not only by neighbours, but regulatory authorities as well. This, despite the fact that for the most part, odours are perceived differ ently by different people. No matter; if a facility's odiferous exhaust is a source of complaint, it should prompt a quick response by the "offender" to avoid further problems and remain a "good neighbour." While many people think of odifer ous exhaust as emanating from chemi cal processing or manufacturing plants, or other industrial facilities, many scientific and research laborato ries must also manage odiferous exhaust emissions. This requirement results from not only a good neighbour policy but sometimes serious health issues for the building's workers. In almost all cases these laboratories use
workstations equipped with sophisti cated, computer controlled fume hood exhaust systems. The chemicals used at these workstations may be toxic, noxious, odiferous, or some combina tion.
While there are many ways to exhaust laboratory workstations into the atmosphere, over the past few decades one method known as "mixed
flow impeller technology" has become increasingly popular for these applica tions.
Safely exhausting laboratories at the MaRS Centre
This technology is playing a major role at a new research facility known as the "MaRS" (Medical and Related Sciences) Centre in Toronto, Ontario, (www.marsdd.com). MaRS was estab lished about five years ago for the pur pose of"promoting the growth of small research related technology companies and successful commercialization ofaca demic research." MaRS is the first facili
ty of its kind in Canada, and is modeled after similar facilities
Essentially, the model for these kinds of research centers is to seamlessly integrate state of the art research and development
By PaulA.Tetley facilities, commer cial business entities, and related support services within an overall
campus develop ment.
The MaRS com
plex encompasses 1.5 million square feet and is valued at
about $345 million.
"With its proximity to some of the lead
ing minds and insti tutions in Toronto's
bioscience cluster, MaRS is ideal for
our drug research Toronto Medical Discovery Tower. and development work in Canada," says Dr. Hunter Jackson of NFS laboratories. In doing so. Smith & Andersen worked closely with Belnor Pharmaceuticals in Salt Lake City, Engineering (Toronto) which has rep Utah. The complex has been construct resented the manufacturer of these sys ed in two different phases: Phase One is comprised of 700,000 square feet in tems for many years. The mixed flow impeller fans for the two towers, and Phase Two will com laboratories' workstation fume hoods prise 600,000 square feet with occu pancy scheduled for next year or 2007. eliminate re-entrainment possibilities into the workplace, prevent neighbor Fume hood exhaust is hood odours, and aid compliance with critical at MaRS appropriate pollution abatement stan The scores of research laboratories at the MaRS facility - while designed dards. As an added feature the rooffor many functions - share a common mounted fans also help meet applicable aesthetic codes with regard to eliminat characteristic. Their laboratory work station fume hoods also require safe ing tall exhaust stacks above the roofline. This last point is important, and efficient exhaust systems to pre vent any possibility of exhaust re- since many times community ordi entrainment into the facility or adjacent nances restrict total building height, or height above the roofline of various buildings; to eliminate neighborhood odours; and, to comply with applicable appurtenances and accessories. In addi pollution abatement standards, among tion, tall exhaust stacks usually impart negative connotations in a communityother considerations. in other words, another neighborhood Proper management of these polluter! exhaust emissions ^ particularly at the According to Danny Vistolli at building's biosafety level (BSL) labo Belnor, the City of Toronto imposed ratories - is critical, since mismanage building height restrictions on the ment will likely cause serious implica MaRS complex, mainly because exist tions. Consequently, the consulting ing buildings in the vicinity are in the engineers responsible for these func tions at MaRS (Smith & Andersen, heart of the city's downtown. "This was another consideration for use of Toronto) specified mixed flow impeller roof exhaust systems for its low profile mixed flow impeller
18 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Odour Control exhaust systems," Vistolli said. MaRS'Toronto Medical
Discovery Tower The mixed flow impeller systems at the MaRS complex are mounted on its Toronto Medical Discovery Tower (TMDT). Twelve low profile fans are connected with four plenums (each plenum accommodates three individ ual fans) for a total air moving capaci ty of 280,000 CFM. Belnor also worked closely with the facility's own ers, the contractor (Ellis Don Construction), as well as Smith and
Mixed flow impeller technology offers many advantages Laboratory workstation fume hood exhaust systems incorporating mixed flow impeller technology offer many advantages for research facilities, pharmaceutical pilot plant processing areas, and other enclosed, controlled environment areas such as clean rooms and vivariums. When asked about mixed flow
impeller systems, a Belnor spokesper son said that his firm had used them
for other projects with considerable success, and that one of the main rea-
Rooftop installation of the mixed flow impeller systems. sons for their use was the elimination
of re-entrainment possibilities to assure worker safety, along with elimi nation of tall, unsightly exhaust stacks on the building's roof. "Tall exhaust stacks would have required major(and costly) roof reinforcements, guy wires, pitch pockets, and other expensive hardware and equipment which was
not necessary with the mixed flow technology approach," he commented, adding that his firm has also received an additional order for four more sim
ilar systems for the MaRS complex. Paul A. Tetley is with Strobic Air Corporation. Information at www.strobicair.com
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Upgrading Salnte-Julle wastewater facilities in Quebec
The Town of Sainte-Julie,
Quebec, is facing rising popu lations and more stringent effluent standards, making an upgrade to their existing wastewater treatment facility virtually inevitable. Currently, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consists of a series of four lagoons, with minimal land area for expansion. While considering tech nology that would help maximize the organic removal of the existing plant,
By Ivy Cormier increased freatment capacity within a
charged directly to the second lagoon.
The first reactor in the series was filled
The AnoxKaldnes Pilot System that was used for this study is a 20 foot con
to the maximum 67% fill with biome
tainerized trailer built onto a chassis for
easy transport between sites. The pilot unit comes complete with an influent chamber with a 6mm punch plate
Throughout the study, the average flow rate was 1.875 US gallons per minute (7.10 litres per minute), providing a
dia, whereas the second reactor was to
the Town of Sainte-Julie commissioned
AnoxKaldnes, Inc. to conduct a pilot
study of the Moving BedÂŽ Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) process at its wastewater treatment facility. The Town set a target of less than 29 mg BOD5 /L after decanting for 30 minutes, which was met from the effluent of the single stage
MBBR at 26 mg BOD5 /L. The MBBR operates as a stand alone treatment process with no return activated sludge from a secondary clarifier, thereby minimizing operator maintenance and time. The MBBR
process utilizes polyethylene carrier elements which are suspended and mixed using custom designed medium bubble aeration systems or mechanical mixers, depending on the process appli cation of organic removal, nitrification,
Different media types Inset: Reactors inside the pilot trailer.
or denitrification. Because the media is
system and specially designed sieves, and a stainless steel hopper clarifier. Also included are blowers, pumps, test ing equipment, including online and manual DO and pH probes, flow meters, composite samplers, and a refrigerator. The trailer also includes a full laboratory set up for on-site testing of samples. Such equipment includes: HACK spectrophotometer, COD reac tor, digital balance, vacuum pump,TSS oven, VSS furnace, and glassware. The pilot study at Sainte-Julie
kept within each basin by custom designed sieves, the bacteria have a chance to mature into specialized "workers" within each separate basin, consuming whatever food is available, organics, ammonia, or nitrates. The media also are constantly sloughing the sieves, creating a process with no head loss or need for backwashing. Due to the increased surface area for
bacterial growth created by the addition of media, it is possible to multiply treat ment capacity with minimal footprint. Additional capacity can also be added by simply adding more media. The K1 type biomedia,used in the pilot study in Sainte-Julie, provides 500 m^ of surface area per each m^ of media, allowing for
screen, two 156 US gallon stainless steel reactors fitted with an aeration
WWTP was carried out from October
2004 to February 2005, with both reac tors running in series under aerobic conditions. Effluent from the first
lagoon of the plant was used as influent to the pilot trailer, and effluent was dis-
20 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
BOD load of 0.66 kg/day and an NH3N load of 0.165 kg/day. The hydraulic residence time was 1.39 hours in each
reactor, with a total of2.77 hours for the complete two-stage system. The main goal of the pilot study was to demonstrate the MBBR's ability to remove organic matter in a single stage by reaching an effluent goal ofless than 29 mg/L TBOD, after a 30 minute set tling period. This goal was achieved, as
the average concentration of decanted BOD (DBOD)from the effluent of the single stage MBBR was 26 mg/L at an average loading rate of 3.29 g Total BOD5(TBOD5)/ m^-day. Effluent from the two-stage MBBR averaged 20 mg/L DBOD.
Although the main goal of the study was to demonstrate increased organic continued overleaf...
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Wastewater pH were constantly monitored through out the study both manually and by online instruments. pH throughout the
removal, nitrification was achieved in the second stage of the MBBR. The WWTP currently does not have effluent requirements for ammonia, but future regulations are on the horizon. At an
MBBR remained stable during the
study, even as influent pH spiked above the target maximum of 7.5 in January. Dissolved oxygen was kept above the target concentration of 3 mg/L in the first reactor and 6 mg/L in the second. Temperatures ranged from 17.5°C in November to 3.0°C in January.
average loading rate of 0.8 g NH3-N/ m2-day, the MBBR removed an average of 76% of the load. Even at tempera tures as low as 3.0°C, the average efflu
ent was 3.9 mg/L, down from an aver age influent of 16.2 mg/L. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and
The MBBR is evaluated based on
the organic removal versus the loading rate for the effective surface area of the
media in the basin. Surface area loading rate (SALR) is calculated by multiply ing influent organic concentration by flow to obtain organic load and dividing that value by the effective biofilm carri er element surface area provided in the MBBR.
Through regression analysis con ducted on SALR data and actual
removal rates, a 50% removal of TCOD
at loading rates of up to 12 g/m^-day and 57% removal of DCOD at loading
rates up to 6 g/m^-day was predicted. Regression analysis run on SALR and
removal rate data collected for NH3-N
predicted a 50% removal in the second reactor only. Average actual removal of jeerjifioloqies
The Moving BedBiofilm Reactor process is the product of overs decade of
Total Suspended Sohds
careful research and
nterface Leye|.Anal¥^ri ilZf Filter Backwash TlonTtoji •Wastewater Samplers
NH3-N in the two-stage MBBR was
• Residual Chlorine^;^i^ •■ Conductivitv: ^
77%. Since influent soluble BOD5 was, on average, less than 6 mg/L, total BOD5 consisted primarily of TSS. The MBBR reduced overall organics by increasing flocculation and degrading sludge, reducing TSS effluent concen tration to 35 mg/L out of the second stage, down from an influent concentra tion of 118 mg/L. The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor process is the product of over a decade of careful research and development. Its principle of packing a rich amount of surface area for biomass growth into a compact reactor yields a reliable system with small footprint and price tag. The flexible technology, proven by numer ous full-scale installations and pilot studies, is a solution to treatment plants looking for an upgrade with minimal new tankage.
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22 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Ivy Cormier is the Senior Pilot Technician for AnoxKaldnes Inc. E-mail: ivy@anoxkaldnes. com
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Drinking Water I
Hundreds of millions of membrane fibres In
Ontario,but who's counting?
The development of back-
By Brian Sahely, M.A.Sc.,P.Eng.
washable low pressure, s
demand at a marginal increase in capital cost. As additional water production is needed, either the
hollow core fibre technol| ogy has resulted in mem- .|
brane filtration becoming | costeffective for implementation in " water treatment plants (WTPs) in Ontario since 1998. By the end of 2006, 37 low pressure membrane filtration plants with a combined capacity of 409 ML/D will be installed in Ontario. This equates
increased upon agreement with the membrane supplier or additional membrane modules/elements/car-
Cumulative Number of Membrane WTPs in Ontario
tridges can be installed without the need for a general contractor. The small footprint of mem branes can minimize building costs and in some cases can allow an
to hundreds of millions of mem
existing water treatment plant to be
brane fibres, but who's counting? |Figure 2
retrofitted with membrane technol
ogy to increase water production. The improved manufacturing of the membranes and improved design of the overall system frame
These data are reflected in ?
Figures 1 and 2, respectively, gwhich show the cumulative num- s
her and capacity of membrane | water treatment plants each year S since 1998. Membrane plants that are anticipated to be commis sioned in 2006 are also included in
these figures, which show the cumulative capacity of membrane plants expected to more than double between 2005 and 2006 alone.
By 2006, 73% of the membrane plants commissioned will have been designed with capacities less than 10
ML/D, while 49% of the plants com missioned will have been designed for capacities less than 3.78 ML/D. Examples include new facilities in South
USFilter/Memcor membranes (Figure 3), Petrolia WTP with Pall membranes (Figure 4) and Port Hope WTP with Zenon membranes (Figure 5). So why is the number of membrane WTPs on the rise in municipalities in Ontario? A primary factor is that membranes with nominal pore size of less than or equal to 0.1 pm pore size
work have resulted in a decrease in
Cumulative Capacity of Membrane WTPs In Ontario
the capital and operating costs of membrane water treatment plants. This has resulted in the purchase of large volumes of membranes, which in effect has resulted in a decrease
are available and proven. This pore size is less than the size of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, result ing in high log removal credits ofthese protozoa using membrane filtration. This gives municipalities confidence that membrane technology will meet current and future regulations, which are continuously becoming more and more stringent. With the development of the membrane integrity test (MIT), municipalities are also becoming more confident that the safety of the mem brane system is measurable. The required number of membrane modules/elements/cartridges can be installed now to meet current water
demand, with the ancillary equipment
in membrane costs. All of the above factors will contin
ue to increase the implementation of membrane technology in Ontario, with the cumulative capacity of membrane water treatment plants in Ontario expected to double the 2006 capacity by 2007 and more than triple or possi bly quadruple the 2006 capacity before 2010. The author would like to thank
USFilter/Memcor, Pall (Canada) Ltd. and Zenon Environmental Inc. for pro viding data for this article. Brian Sahely is with KMK Consultants Ltd.,Brampton, Ontario. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
installed now to meet future water
8 Figure 3- USFilter/Memcor CMFM10V Membranes
Figure 4 - Pali MIcroza USV-6203 Membranes
24 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Figure 5 - Zenon ZeeWeedÂŽ 1000 Membranes
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AWl FILTER OPTIMIZATION
The evolution of diverse chamber
On-site wastewater treatment
By Dennis F. Hallahan RE. ment plants, with pretreatment devices,
cent of homes in the United
bers are included in over 15 percent of all septic systems. In some areas, that number is as high as 74 percent. In
States and Canada. Over the
Manitoba, where Infiltrator chambers
past 30 years, chambers have evolved dramatically in design and are now commonly used for onsite treatment in
are the only chambers approved for use in the province, it is estimated that 46 percent of all septic systems installed
basic and advanced applications.
utilize these chambers. In the United
heavy trucks used to transport stone.
States, it is estimated that one in every four wastewater treatment systems constructed today is a chamber system. While the principles of treatment remain the same, plastie chambers
Installations are faster and save on
systems serve over 25 per
The first chambers to be used com
mercially were constructed of concrete and installed in New England in the early 197Gs. These initial concrete "gallery" chamber systems or "ameration chambers" (USEPA, 1980) were more efficient than previous tradition al stone and pipe systems. They were, however, heavy and unwieldy to trans port, and labor intensive to install. It became clear that an alternative mate rial was needed to manufacture cham
bers that would not sacrifice strength, durability, and treatment performance. The rapid advancement of plastics technology made plastic the next logi cal step in the evolution in chamber design. Several years of research and design culminated with the introduc tion of plastic chambers to the market place by Infiltrator Systems Inc. in 1987. Today, plastic chambers are manufactured by four different compa nies and have become widely accepted by installers, designers, and regulators. In Ontario, Infiltrator plastic cham-
offer tremendous benefits over their
concrete predecessors and even greater benefits when compared to the older
and even on toxic waste remediation sites.
In most chamber applications, no stone or geotextile is required. This eliminates concern over stone quality and fines content and the need for
heavy equipment operation costs. Chamber installations also reduce site
disturbance and minimize compaction of the soils, a definite plus for system longevity. Chambers are currently manufac tured using technologically advanced
methods of installations that involved
moulds that cost in the millions of dol
stone and pipe trenches. Initially, chambers were used for the leachfield component of the on
lars. These produce precisely engi neered products with uniform dimen sions. Typically, they are very complex with tight tolerances that allow for interlocking joints and open louvered sidewalls that prevent soil from enter ing the system. Chambers can be moulded in various sizes ranging from six to 30-inch heights and to a width
site wastewater treatment system. As the needs evolved, designers and installers began to specify the technol ogy for a number of differing applica tions. What they found is that the chamber is highly adaptable and effec tive for specialized system designs and treatment needs. In addition to the traditional use in
septic system leaching trenches and beds, chambers have been used in sand
filters, mound systems, evapotranspiration beds, community systems, con structed wetlands, wastewater treat
over 50 inches.
Advanced chamber system designs and applications Commercial facilities can be sub
ject to large peak flows that the cham ber can readily retain. These decentral ized cluster septic systems serve multicontinued overleaf...
- .. :
Chambers are used on remediation sites. Here a iarge wetland ceii utilizing chambers will help to clean up a
The use of chambers has expanded to include sand fil ters. The chambers allow a better effluent dispersal and
toxic waste site.
26 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
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Using the wastewater's own flow energy to suppress turbulence, aerate the sewage and oxidize dissolved hydrogen sulfldes (H2S), the IPEX VFI's patented spiral flow design sucks odorous gases downward towards the bottom of the structure where they are entrained back into the sewage flow. APWA Technical The VFI's pre-fabricated, one-piece assembly installs easily Innovation Award in sewer drops, pumping stations and forcemain discharges. Intensive dissipation of the flow energy in the pool at the bottom of the structure prevents solids from settling, making the VFI selfcleansing and maintenance free. What's more, installed upstream of the treatment plant, the VFI actually Improves wastewater quality prior to
entrain sewer gas
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Wastewater Treatment pie residential dwellings or commerciai establishments. They use technoiogicaiiy advanced filters, pumps, tank configurations, and drainage chambers to provide a higher ievei of treatment. Decentralized cluster systems treat wastewater and return it to the ground very near to where the wastewater was generated as opposed to transporting it long distances to a centralized sewer facility. The driving force behind this trend is the high cost of sewers and lack of quality land available, forcing builders to consider developing sites that would have previously been deemed unusable due to location or
geology. Sand filters
Some sand filters today are designed utilizing the benefits of
C 0 N S U I. r A N T S
chamber technology. Chambers pro vide increased distribution coverage, allowing the effluent to be applied over the entire surface area of the bot tom of the chamber. A sand filter is a
type of packed bed filter that has been used for over a century. Newer packed bed technologies consist of peat, tex tile, or foam media and are generally very reliable, providing good treat
bers for the same reasons it occurs in
Once ponding occurs in the trench the effluent will flow laterally out the trench sidewall, allowing capillary action of the soil to take place. From
Evapotranspiration systems Another common application for chambers is their use in evapotranspi ration (ET) systems. In the arid regions of the United States and Canada, systems have been specifical ly designed for evapotransipiration. With these systems, people thought that the solid arch at the top of the
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tion. However, upon investigation of the physics of water and air movement through soil, it can be understood that evapotranspiration occurs with cham stone trenches.
chamber would inhibit evapotranspira
capillary action, water is pulled upward in the soil matrix. The water then changes to vapour form (gas phase), which allows it to move verti cally through the soil pores to the atfiTosphere. Wetland treatment systems Natural wetlands have been used as
convenient wastewater discharge sites for as long as sewage has been collect ed. By the early 1970s, research into the treatment capabilities of natural wetlands led to the development of engineered, or "constructed" wetlands that replicated the cleansing capabili ties of these natural marsh systems. Wetland treatment systems are typical ly used to polish treated wastewater, and are often designed as multi-func-
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Wastewater Treatment tion treatment and wildlife habitat sys
amines, and VOCs. These odours are
biodegraded to odorless substances in the biofilter. Water flowing through the
These systems may be large com mercial or community systems, or small wetland treatment cells serving an individual home. One of the most
common types is the subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland. Effluent is treated through shallow subsurface
channels in which emergent plants are established. The treatment cells pro duce a high quality treated effluent that is required to be disposed to the sub surface. Chambers have frequently been specified for the wetland cell and the subsurface disposal applications due to cost savings and chamber relia bility as compared to older traditional
biofilter will leach these non-toxic
chemicals from the media, lengthening the life ofthe media. According to Lew Naylor, Ph D., of Black and Veatch, chambers
improve air distribution through the media, provide more efficient drainage, increase media life, ease of construction of the biofilter, and sim
plify media replacement.
Remediation site clean-up Environmental clean-up sites have many treatment schemes, one of which is known as "pump and treat". In this scenario, contaminated groundwater is pumped to the surface, treated, and then discharged subsurface to recharge groundwater levels and maintain flow patterns. The size of the recharge bed is determined by the infiltration rate of the soil and the quantity of flow. Previous methods of recharging continued overleaf...
construction options. In areas with sensitive soils, the ease and speed of installation and minimal construction
traffic (less time to be exposed to rain storms and construction machinery) can protect the structure ofthe soil and its infiltration capacity. Wastewater treatment facilities
A great example of the use of chambers in extending the life of wastewater treatment facilities is in
High solids Un-loading for Pump
Bayham, Ontario, at the Port Burwell Sewage Treatment Plant. Here the out fall discharges to a creek in close prox imity to Lake Erie. Expansion of the plant required a major upgrade to the outfall extending out a distance into
the lake. The creek could not assimi late the increase in minimum contami
nants and, therefore, an outfall to the
lake was proposed. After an extensive investigation of options, an onsite solution was recom
> Heavy-duty, bigger steel cutters • Larger screening drums
mended to convert the outfall to an
exfiltration bed utilizing chambers. The chamber system saved consider able cost and also provided additional pollutant removal. The benefit of installing an exfiltration bed at the treatment plant is the reduction in phosphorous. Additional phosphorous will be removed by the natural ability of the soil to absorb the nutrient, there
by removing the impact to the sensitive
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lake environment. Biofilters
Chambers are also now being spec ified in biofilters, beds of organic media that are used to scrub objection
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Chamber systems have long been used in arid regions of the US and Canada in evapotranspiration beds. This chamber ET is serving a state park.
After an extensive value engineering review the Port
ground water included stone beds. However, the fines asso ciated with stone can have a significant adverse effect on the infiltration rate, thereby increasing the size of the recharge bed. Engineers have determined that if chambers are installed as the recharge solution the concerns regarding the
ers and engineers are challenged to create innovative solu tions to the world's wastewater problems, chambers could be
Burweii Wastewater Treatment Riant installed an "onsite
outfall" with substantial cost savings.
in the forefront of those solutions.
Dennis F. Hallahan P.E., is Technical Director,
adverse affect of fines can be minimized.
In the future we will surely see many new system designs and advanced treatment options developed in response to
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Potential use of phreatophytes in passive management of groundwater seepage By Greg Bickerton, M.Sc, P. Eng. Dale Van Stempvoort, Ph.D, Marcos Alvarez, Ph.D, and Steven Rose, M.Sc., P. Eng.
The overall intent of this
research was to investigate the potential to use phreatophyte tree species to control seep age of contaminated groundwater from an old landfill at Belle Park, located along the waterfront in Kingston, Ontario. Phreatophytes are terrestrial plant species that thrive under shallow water table conditions by extending their roots to the phreatic (water-satu rated) zone and transpiring groundwa
tion using phreatophytes, could be used effectively at Belle Park. In this approach the seepage of ammonia and iron in groundwater along the margins of the site would be captured or reduced by phreatophyte transpiration, a form of solar pumping. Uptake of ammonia as a nutrient by phreatophytes is anticipated. To determine the potential of phreophytes as a remediation alternative at Belle Park, transpiration rates of two mature black willows (Salix nigra)
ter. Conventional remediation tech
located near the south shore of Belle
nologies, including the current pump and treat approach being used at Belle Park, are expensive. Alternative, emerging remediation approaches may be better choices, or offer cost savings if used in combina tion with conventional approaches. Parallel investigations were conduct ed at Belle Park by Malroz Engineering
Park were investigated by: I) monitor ing patterns in groundwater fluctua tions in the vicinity of the study trees, and 2) direct sap-flow measurements (measured in one willow). The City of Kingston provided on-site meteorolog ical data. Groundwater was sampled from selected wells on two occasions
to determine any effects ofthe trees on
Inc. and Environment Canada. This arti
the distribution of ammonia and other
The automated sap flow data col lected in May 2003 displayed a diurnal pattern. Calculations indicated a range in sap flow of approximately 1,200 L to 3,000 L per day for the tree studied, similar to some rates reported else where. Sap flow data were not avail able after May 2003 due to theft of equipment. Automated groundwater levels collected near the willows also
indicated a diurnal pattern. These data give a more direct indication of groundwater uptake by willows during transpiration. Clear diurnal signals were observed over most of the active
growing season for 2003, but not dur ing the period when sap flow data were collected (May 2003). We speculate that in May 2003, the willows at the study site were primarily transpiring water derived from a wet soil profile, related to a spring snowmelt event. Analyses of groundwater samples indicated anoxic, reducing conditions,
and also provides a brief summary of results by Malroz Engineering. Site specific infor mation and other phytoremediation studies
were reviewed, with a focus on information
relevant to 1) potential for hydraulic control of groundwater seepage by phreatophytes (e.g., poplar and willow); 2) potential for phreato phytes to uptake the two main contaminants
of concern at the study site:
iron. The high ammo nia concentration in the
groundwater at Belle Park is typical of old landfills. This review indicated there is some
potential that a "pas sive" technology, landbased phytoremedia-
Greg Bickerton installs the datalogger for automated measurement ofsap flow in a willow at Belle Park.
32 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Groundwater with high iron, ammonia, chloride and
cated that these species can readily
methane. Some contaminant concen
establish themselves within the landfill
trations tended to be highest in the vicinity of trees, suggesting evapotranspiration has left high residues in groundwater. Distribution of ammonia did not indicate a consistent ability of
footprint. It is anticipated that future research will reattempt to obtain contemporane ous monitoring of groundwater fluctu ations and sap flow to reduce uncer tainty in quantification of transpira tion, with ongoing monitoring of the phreatophyte plantings.
willows to lower its concentration.
However, low ammonia concentrations
in the vicinity of one willow suggests nitrogen uptake. Numerical simulation of 2003 diur
Greg Bickerton, e-mail: email@example.com and Dale Van Stempvoort e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, are with the National Water Research Institute,
Burlington, Ontario, Marcos Alvarez is with Environmental Biotechnology Applications, Environment Canada, Gatineau, Quebec, e-mail: email@example.com. Steven Rose is with Malroz Engineering, Kingston, Ontario, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
nal fluctuations in groundwater sug gests transpiration rates of approxi mately 20,000 L/day for the single mature willow studied in detail. These rates are consistent with some studies of
mature willows, but appear to violate the theoretical maximum evapotranspiration rate based on thermodynamic considerations and are not consistent
with other reports. The simulation rates are an order in
magnitude larger than the sap flow rates observed in May. Possible explanations for this discrepancy include uncertain ties associated with sap flow measure ments (25%), uncertainties in parame ters used in numerical simulations (e.g., hydraulic conductivity of soil/wastes), changes in transpiration rates associated with leaf development (after May 2003), and a potential role of hydraulic lift, whereby the willows might extract water from a deep layer of the soil pro file and redistribute it to shallow, dry soil layer (i.e. reduced amount of tran spiration per unit of groundwater uptake by roots). A simple numerical capture zone analysis based on estimated rates of transpiration (obtained from the sap flow measurements)suggests that it may be possible to arrange mature black wil lows such that adequate hydraulic con trol can be obtained during active grow ing seasons, without interfering signifi cantly with current park uses. If this hydraulic control by willows can be con firmed for other locations at Belle Park,
this approach may be an economical, "green" alternative to seasonally offset or replace the conventional pumping system currently in use. In the parallel study by Malroz Engineering Inc., two plots of young bare root phreatophytes were simulta neously planted to investigate their ability to adapt to the landfill setting,
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and to observe their early influence on the shallow groundwater table. These
plantings (willows in particular) indi September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 33
Automated nutrient monitoring for water and wastewater By R. Keir, Mohamed Aboul Elsh,Ph.D., D.L. Davis and R.H.Clifford,Ph.D.
Nutrient pollution of water
ways is a very serious issue experienced all over the world. Adverse human activ
major issues limiting the ability to
charging their waste through wastewater treatment plants, and inconsis tency of the data collected about nutri ents loading from certain wastewater treatment plants. In addition, more data is needed to be generated about
decrease the effect of the nutrients'
the effect of the nutrients on the
the regulations have not eliminated the problem completely, they have some what controlled the infiltration of the nutrients and decreased the effect of
ities increase the nutrients beyond the normal levels through point and nonpoint sources, such as deforestation
the nutrients in some areas. Two of the
and urbanization, use of fertilizers,
pollution are insufficient monitoring
Canadian ecosystem in order to find an
inadequate treatment of human sewage, increased animal waste, indus trial wastewater and aquaculture oper ations. Resulting nutrients enter into water systems, rivers and lakes, and
data from industries that are not dis-
effective solution. Continuous efforts are made to find
about the nutrients discharge and, as a result, reduce the nutrients discharged
lead to both enrichment and toxic
problems. Other problems caused by an
ing/processing control techniques that would help provide more information
and their effect on the environment. A new on-line TNPC-4110C
.g 90 (0
increase in nutrient levels include acid
ification due to runofffrom agricultur al lands. Additionally, the runoff may lead to an increase in levels of ammo
nia and nitrate, which are harmful to humans and aquatic life. Canada
9,984,670 sq km that constitutes 9,093,507 sq km of land and 891,163 sq km of water. About 7,200 sq km is irrigated land and, as a result, fertiliz ers and animal waste that are either
used or present on the land are washed as runoff into the surrounding rivers, lakes, and eventually major oceans and
labour and cost.
bodies of waters, such as the Arctic,
Pacific, Atlantic and Hudson Bay. Reports have suggested that nonpoint sources, such as the use of fertil izers and manure, can contribute 293,000 tons of nitrogen and 56,000 tons of phosphorus armually to the
Shimadzu analyzer, capable of analyz ing/monitoring total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus(TP), and total organ ic carbon (TOC), has been recently introduced. The analyzer can be used for both monitoring processes and process control. It automatically per forms the sampling, pretreatment (physical and chemical), digestion, and analysis. So, in addition to helping meet current and future regulations regarding levels of nutrients being dis charged, the analyzer will save on
A study was performed in which this analyzer was installed in a wastewater reclamation plant that is respon sible for treating and discharging about 18 million gallons of water per day. Throughout the study, the instrument was not only used to demonstrate its ability to upgrade the technology being used, but also to automate the monitor ing and process control system within the plant to provide maximum effi ciency. The analyzer was installed between the primary clarifier and the biological
total nutrient levels in the Canadian
environment. On the other hand, pointsource pollution results mainly from municipal sewage, and contributes 80,000 tons of nitrogen and 5,600 tons of phosphorus annually. As municipal ities enhance their wastewater treat
nutrient reactor. It was used to monitor
ment facilities, the level of the nutri ents discharged is lowered, but the big ger concern is with utilities that still use primary treatment and communi ties that do not use any treatment. Certain regulations have been developed to control the nutrients' input into the environment. Although
the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and total organic carbon in the influent, and accordingly adjust the fermentate added for better treatment. Previous to installation of the TNPC-4110C ana 0.315277778
Hourly/daily nutrient trend
34 Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2005
lyzer, manual techniques were used for monitoring, which resulted in increased continued overleaf...
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Instrumentation labour, wasted time, and increased cost.
As a result, monitoring was performed biweekly. Biweekly monitoring was constrained not only by availability of labour but also by availability of time to sample, digest, and analyze.
changes, and accordingly a better treated discharge. Automation of the whole monitoring process also meant that less error was involved in the sam
ple handling and analysis, which ensured more consistent data.
point-source pollution problems, can help in achieving one of the initiatives of the Canadian Council of Ministers
of the Environment, which is Pollution Prevention. This analyzer through its automated monitoring/analyses process
Reports have suggested that non-point sources,such as the use of fertilizers and manure,can contribute 293,000 tons of nitrogen and 56,000 tons of phosphorus annually to the total nutrient levels in the Canadian environment. Consequently, the reporting frequency was not consistent. Inconsistency caused over treatment or under treat
ment of water and, as a result, a dis
charge that would either introduce more chemicals or nutrients into the environment.
After installation of the analyzer, the automation capability not only reduced the involved labour and time,
With such an analyzer, a trend can be developed or obtained about the nutrient levels within the stream, which can help in improving the effi ciency of the treatment. Increasing the frequency of monitoring also meant developing a database of information about the nutrient levels not only with in a specific stream, but also informa tion that would help in relating the
will provide the wastewater treatment
plant with an advanced technology that will help accelerate the reduction in pollutants discharged and accordingly minimize the health risk involved. Not
only that but the TNPC-41 IOC analyz er automation capability, reduces the energy, resources, and materials used in the process.
but also enabled an increase in the fre
nutrient levels to other factors such as
Richard Keir is with Mandel
quency of monitoring and consistency of analysis. Increasing the frequency of monitoring was possible from biweekly, to daily or hourly, and as a result provided a tool which would allow a faster response to sudden
seasonal changes, industrial dis charges, or sudden input of nutrients into the system. In conclusion, using the TNPC41 IOC analyzer, in monitoring/analy sis/process control of one of the major
Scientific, Guelph, Ontario, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. MohamedAboul
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v_ 36 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
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water contamination and the
to our environment.
Cadman Power Equipment Ltd., located in Courtland, Ontario, special izes in the development and produc tion of liquid manure and wastewater management equipment and has recog nized the need for storage vessels that could respond quickly in emergencies.
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The system, known as the Winsystem" consisting of a trailer like structure with a rotating turn table and hydraulically powered winding system to rotate the drum, is used in conjunc tion with the Winbag". The complete unit can be pulled to the desired loca tion very easily by an ordinary pickup truck or SUV.
Once the unit arrives on site, the Winsystem trailer rotates to allow the operator to begin unwinding the Winbag and setting it on the desired location. Winbags are available in sizes from lOOm' (26,420 US gallons) to 200m'(52,830 US gallons). The Winsystem trailer can now return to its home location and return
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38 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
"The largest water quality conference in North America." "La plus grande conference sur la qualite de Teau en Amerlque du Nord."
QUEBEC CITY, QUEBEC | NOVEMBER 6-10,2005 TOPICS DISCUSSED INCLUDE: ■ monitoring and detection techniques
EES SUJETS DISCUTES INCLUS: ■ techniques analytiques et
• treatment processes
■ procedes de traitement
■ disinfection by-products
■ sous-produits de desinfection
■ coagulation and filtration
■ coagulation et filtration
■ organic and inorganic
■ contaminants organiques et inorganiques
■ distribution system water quality ■ emerging issues
methodes de detection
■ quaiite de i'eau dans le reseau de distribution
■ nouveaux enjeux TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THESE OUTSTANDING OPPORTUNITIES:
TIREZ AVANTAGES DE TOUTES EES OPPORTUNITES:
■ technical sessions
■ sessions techniques
■ special topic sessions on timely issues
■ sessions speciales sur des sujets chauds
• early bird sessions
■ sessions pour leve-tot
■ in-depth and interactive workshops
• ateliers interactifs sur des
• technical facility tours
■ visites techniques
FOR MORE INFORMATION, VISITWWW.AWWA.ORG/CONFERENCES/WQTC
4"^ American Water Works Association The Authoritative Resource on Safe Water"
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Ranked in the top 1% of all trade shows in North America, WEFTEC is a
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Attendees can choose from 110 techni
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William K. Reilly, President and CEO of Aqua International Partners LP will address the opening general ses sion. Mr. Reilly is a founding partner of the company, which invests in water projects and companies in developing countries. He formerly served as admin Protection Agency, the Payne visiting professor at the Institute for
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Also addressing the opening general session will be Sunita Narain, from the Centre for Science and Environment in
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Conference Previews experience and gain insights into devel
CBC journalist Rex Murphy will open
opments, regulations, and research, as
the 57th annual WCWWA conference
well as emerging technologies and proven approaches to everyday water quality challenges. Other conference highlights include the intense skills competition of Operations Challenge 2005, the
in Saskatoon, October 16-19. Mr. Murphy is well known for his informed, insightful and sometimes bit ing commentary on The National and his weekly talk show on CBC Radio.
AEESP/WEF Scientist Luncheon and
The conference's technical program will include some 60 papers covering:
Lecture, the WEFTeach, the Global Center, poster presentations, award pre
treatment, stormwater management,
sentations, WEFFilms luncheon pro gram, student activities, and much more.
For the latest updates, event and reg istration details, visit www.weftec.org.
Rex Murphy to open the 57"^ Annual Conference of the Western Canada Water and Wastewater Association
drinking water treatment, wastewater
sludge and residuals management, plant upgrades and optimization, sys tems management and regulations, operations and maintenance, water dis
tribution systems, rural and small sys tems, design and construction, process control.
ing: microbiology, combined and sani tary sewer overflows and filter audits for plant operators. CEUs will be offered for all workshops. The Monday evening networking event at the Top of the Inn (Sheraton Cavalier) will provide a great view of Saskatoon while delegates enjoy food, drink, comedy, and a game on the big screen. This "pub night" offers a chance for delegates to unwind, and renew or make new contacts. A come
dian will provide "half time" entertain ment.
A delegate luncheon on Tuesday will be hosted by the Western Canada Section AWWA. Delegates can meet the WCWWA board of directors,
Conference tours will include the
AWWA Vice President Mike Leonard
Canadian Light Source Synchrotron,
from Georgia, and learn about Water for People. The WCWWA Banquet will be held at the Sheraton Cavalier. A delegate luncheon on Wednesday will be hosted by the Western Canada Water Environment Association. Delegates continued overleaf...
Retention Ponds and a KWFI Pipe Manufacturing Plant.
Three pre-conference workshops will be offered on October 16, cover
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 41
Conference Previews Quebec city, site of AWWA water quality conference
will hear a presentation from WEF rep resentative Dr. Mohamed Dahab and meet the WCWEA board of Directors.
An extensive guest program is also offered. Flighlights include: Sunday, October 16 • Scenic city tour • Lunch at The Berry Barn • Mendel Art Gallery Monday, October 17 •Tour of Wanuskewin Fleritage Park • Lunch and wine tasting at the Forestry Farm Tea House Tuesday, October 18 • Broadway Avenue shopping • Spa treatment at Spa Ahava • Lunch at Calories Cafe
All tours include a professional guide, motorcoach transportation, site admissions, and lunch. Registration is limited and is on a first come first served basis.
For further details, visit the Western Canada
Association web site: www.wcwwa.ca
or e-mail: email@example.com
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Not seeing a return on your time investment? Our Waterloo, Ontario team of professional engineers is looking to add an intermediate level Wastewater Engineer who is looking to take their career to the next level. Visit our website for complete details. www.geomatrix.com
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42 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Geomatrix Geomatrix is an Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/V/D
Quebec City to host AWWA water quality conference Quebec City will host the AWWA's 2005 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, November 6-10, 2005. Held each year in a different US or Canadian city, the WQTC typically attracts some 1,500 delegates and offers a comprehensive educational program covering all aspects of drinldng water quality and technology. Topics for 2005 will include the following: • Water quality monitoring techniques • Waterborne pathogen occurrence
biofilm microbiology, data mining for
On Tuesday, there will be a special evening reception at Le Musee national des beaux-arts du Quebec. Nestled in the heart of Quebec City, in a historic park perched above the St. Lawrence
water quality planning, and contaminant warning systems. There are also two offsite workshops covering macroinvertabrate/bioassessment, and USEPA • Three technical facility tours will include the Quebec City Water
River, Le Musee national des beaux-arts du Quebec is an art museum that is also an exceptional architectural achieve
Treatment Plant, a tour of the historic
water reservoir under Les Plaines
and detection methods
• Treatment processes and techniques • Disinfection practices • Laboratory methods and assessment
• Coagulation/filtration issues • Distribution system issues • Inorganic and organic
TOM AL" IWIETERiNCS SYSTEMS
TOMALMULTISCREW FEEDER The TOMALMultiscrew Feeder substitutes conventional
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contaminants • Taste and odor issues • Membranes
• Emerging issues • Disinfection by-products • Groundwater quality • Source water protection • Regulatory issues
At least 2 screws per feeder • Accuracy up to 0.5-1% • Linear discharge curve • Self-cleaning feeder screws
This event also features:
• Seven special sessions on the time ly topics of early Implementation issues for LT2 and Stage 2 DBPR, taste and odor solutions, Canadian and U.S. bor der source water protection, pathogenbased treatment requirements, mem branes for NOM removal, microbial source tracking, and a review of USEPA's TCR White Papers. • Three early-bird sessions: Two on Tuesday morning will cover an AWWARF research update, and the start of the special topic technical ses sion titled "Pathogen-based Treatment Requirements: Honing the Tools." Wednesday morning's early bird ses
Polymer make-up unit • Moisture prevention by an automatic closure of feeder discharge • No "Fish Eyes" formation • More than 25 years of experience of dosing and blending of polymer
Reliable system and easy to use • Robust and low-wear construction
sion will cover a new AWWA book on
Lime • Activated Carbon - Dry Polymer • Liquid Polymer
biodegradable organic matter. • Nine in-depth and interactive work shops: There will be seven on-site work
Sodium Bicarbonate - Potassium Permanganate
shops on a number of topics including, chloramination control and monitoring, UV disinfection using USEPA's Guidance Manual, source water protec tion, membrane filtration for compli ance with LT2, recent developments in
• Internal memory in case of failure • Multiple options available Big Bag, voltage, size of the hopper...
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 43
Drinking Water I
Automatic valve closure improves chlorine gas safety at Petrolia water treatment plant By Terry Blackmore,P.Eng,Wendy Trottier and Vlad Petran,P.Eng.
The Petrolia Water Treatment
Plant, located in the neighbour ing town of Brights Grove, Ontario, was established in
chlorination system. Coagulation using aluminum sulphate (alum) fol lowed, with filtration using anthracite, sand, gravel, and stone coming online
1896. Following failed attempts to drill deep wells in neighbouiing townships, the town voted in favour of spending $172,000 to build an 11 mile (18 km) long cast iron pipeline from Lake Huron
Brampton, Ontario, was selected by the Town of Petrolia to design and manage the construction of an upgrade to the
to Petrolia and 14 miles(23 km)ofa dis
Water Treatment Plant to be able to
tribution network in town for the supply
produce up to 8 MLD,serving a popu lation of9,000 people. The major scope of the project included upgrades to the low lift pump station, installation of a membrane microfiltration system (Pall Corporation), installation of an emul sion polymer makedown unit (USFilter Stranco Products) as part of the residue management system upgrade, installa tion of liquid chemical feed systems
of the much needed fresh, clean water. The original pump house was located at the present day Water Treatment Plant. The Ontario Government began to set minimum water quality standards and in 1929 the department of health recommended chlorine disinfection, which the Petrolia WTP complied with
in 1930 with the installation of a gas
much later in the 1980s.
In 2002, KMK Consultants Limited,
Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc.
Sign located at the Petrolia WTP with the original spelling of the town name.
(LMl-Milton Roy), and modifications to the existing chlorine contact tank. Another major aspect of the project involved the upgrade of the chlorina tion system including a new chlorine gas feed and control system and inte gration ofthe two existing chlorinators (USFilter Wallace & Tiernan). The
Chopping and pumping of difficult mediums LANDIA chopper pumps solve the toughest problems when pumping difficultto-handle-liquids with high solid contents. Chop
Raw unscreened effluents
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Paper mills Slurries and
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•flexible modular design •golf courses,trailer parks, rural subdivisions •surface,subsurface or re-use options •low maintenance, low energy, no aerobic sludge •seasonal or year-round operation •remote monitoring service
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pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate
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60 years of experience, we offer just the right solution for your next pumping job. Distributed By:
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44 Environmental Science c6 Engineering, September 2005
Drinking Water closure device is that the source of the
leak can be isolated, stopping the leak before it becomes a reportable incident. In some cases, with adequate subse quent ventilation, the operator is able to
to be initiated (i.e. contacting the local HAZMAT organization), the incident would have to be reported and instru mentation within the chlorine room
enter the chlorine room without the need
could be severely damaged due to chlo rine gas exposure.
for a self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing to troubleshoot
Uniform Fire Codes in the United
and find the source of the leak. Without
the ability to close the valve stem, the entire contents of the container would
empty without operator intervention, the plant's emergency protocol would have
States, as an alternative to treatment sys tems for 68-kg and 1-tonne toxic gas containers, such as chlorine, sulfur diox ide, and ammonia, recognize automatic continued overleaf...
UPGRADE YOUR WWTP TO MEET NEW BNR
REQUIRMENTS FOR PENNIES
NOT DOLLARS/GALLON Installation of two 68-kg chlorine gas cylinders, each with a yellow auto matic valve closure devise installed.
Town of Petrolia preferred the use of chlorine gas to sodium hypochlorite but understood the safety concerns of operations staff as well as the residen tial community, which has encroached on the Water Treatment Plant over the
many decades the plant has been in operation. The Petrolia WTP uses two 68 kg chlorine gas cylinders and three
No upsets resulting from solids washout Increase capacity in existing tanks Less expensive than other BNR options
Operator friendly - stable system performance No redworms Proven and documented Over 400 installations in 44 countries
Achieve Nitrification even at 5°C / 41°F
chlorinators for pre-chlorination, postchlorination, and trim. The objective is to produce potable water with a chlo rine residual of 2.0 mg/L before mak ing the 11 mile (18 km) trek to the Mandaumin in-ground storage reser voir and finally to Petrolia for storage in the water tower.
In order to address the safety con cerns, the Town of Petrolia and KMK agreed to investigate the use of auto
matic valve closure systems to provide added safety to the chlorine gas sys tem. Automatic valve closure systems are actuators that mount directly onto the cylinder valve stem system (CGA Connection 820 yoke and adapter). An automatic valve closure system is designed to provide 40-50 ft-lb of clos ing torque to the valve stem upon receipt of an emergency shutdown sig nal, stopping any leakage that may be occurring. The advantage of an automatic valve
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 45
Drinking Water valve closure systems. The Chlorine Institute (CI) recognizes these devices and publishes "Recommendations for Emergency Closure Devices for Chlorine Institute Standard Cylinder and Ton Container Valves
The British Columbia Occupational Health and Safety Regulation discuss es toxic gases and states that" in the event of an emergency or accidental release, the employer must ensure that ... the gas supply can be shut down manually from a remote location or by the alarm system so as to isolate the reserve supply within the system and stop the generation or flow of the gas...". Halogen Valve Systems of Irvine, California, was selected as the basis of design. The Terminator Emergency Shutoff System, designed specifically for 150-lb gas cylinders, is an electri
cally driven actuator that acts directly on the cylinder valve stem. The actuator mounts on the cylinder
valve stem by means of a drive bushing and two parallel rods that straddle the gas valve nozzle making it easy to remove during cylinder changes. The actuator is designed to apply 40 ft-lb of
closing torque to the valve stem after receiving an emergency shut down sig nal from any number of sources such as a chlorine gas detector. The actuator is designed as an emergency closure device and therefore is powered only in the closing direction. The duty opera tor must always accomplish opening of the valve manually. The electronic cir cuit board within the Gemini control
panel, designed to operate two actua tors, contains a microprocessor pro grammed to precisely control the valve closing cycle time and apply the required torque to the valve stem. An uninterruptible 12 VDC battery power supply ensures operation even during loss of plant power. In the event of a sustained loss of charging power(up to seven days), the microprocessor will
SCADA. Plant operators utilize the actuators to close the valves during change out ofthe eylinders. As well, the actuators are tested again when installed on the new cylinders, which ensures that the actuators are operating according to design specification. Since installation of the Halogen automatic valve closure system, there have not been any incidents with respect to chlorine gas leakage. However, oper ators at the Petrolia WTP are confident
that the actuators are in position and ready to use should the situation war rant, which will minimize chlorine leaks and any risk to themselves and to the community. Halogen Valve Systems is represent ed in Eastern Canada by Indachem Inc., Toronto, Ontario.
initiate actuator closure while suffi
cient power remains to apply the spec ified torque to the valve stem. At the Petrolia WTP, the actuators are installed on two 68-kg chlorine gas cylinders designed for automatic switchover. The actuator is tied into the
chlorine gas detector installed within the chlorine gas building as well as the Emergency Shutdown Button and plant
Terty Blackmore is with Town ofPetrolia e-mail: email@example.com Wendy Trottier is with Petrolia WTP e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Vlad Petran is with KMK Consutants
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46 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
/ 50th V y Anniversary y
Imports and exports of hazardous waste decline
Figures released by Environment Canada demonstrate that, for the fifth year in a row, there has
been a decline in the amount of
hazardous wastes and hazardous recy clable materials imported into Canada. Hazardous waste exports also declined between 2003 and 2004.
rial governments in 2000 and 2001. These hazardous wastes and recycla ble materials can come from many dif ferent sources, including industrial waste, or from household products such as cleansers, used batteries, oilbased paints and leftover pesticides. Due to their makeup, these wastes can
Most notable is the decline in the quantity of imported
Because of Canada's close geographic and economic relationship with the US, reducing the distance hazardous waste needs to travel for instance, can
significantly reduce cost to industry and the risks associated with the time
spent during transport. Since 1992, the Government of Canada has had strict regulations on the transboundary movement and tracking
hazardous wastes destined for incineration and
of hazardous wastes and hazardous
physical/chemical treatment in the province of Quebec.
recyclable materials. In addition, the recently published Export and Import
The figures for 2004 indicate that imports of hazardous wastes destined for disposal declined by over 12,000 tonnes from 2003 quantities. During the same period, imports of hazardous recyclable materials destined for envi ronmentally sound recovery or recy
cling operations increased by nearly
pose potential risks to both human
of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous
health and the environment.
The disposal of the waste we pro duce, be it household non-hazardous garbage or hazardous industrial waste,
November ofthis year, will further con tribute to the protection of the environ
needs to be done in an environmental
ment and human health and will mod
ly sound manner, so that human health
ernize the control regime.
11,000 tonnes, or 5.8%. Most notable
and the environment are protected. Managing waste in an environmentally
For further information visit:
is the decline in the quantity ofimport
sound manner makes economic sense.
ed hazardous wastes destined for
incineration and physical/chemical treatment in the province of Quebec. The Government of Quebec has placed more stringent controls on the registration of disposal facilities and their operating conditions, as well as implemented pre-treatment require ments for landfilling. As a conse quence, in 2004 a number of facilities in Quebec have reduced their imports from other countries for disposal as they make modifications to their oper
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- Meets all highway safety standards - Fully galvanized tandem axle trailer
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Each year. Environment Canada releases statistics on the export and import of hazardous wastes and haz ardous recyclables to measure progress against waste reduction and environ mental sound management of waste goals set by federal-provincial-territo-
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www.cadmanpower.com September 2005. Environmental Science & Engineering 47
Drinking Water Water / Waste Water
Refocusing on small water purification systems By Suchit Kaila,Ahron Nahmias,P.Eng.and Maggie Patterson, MSc.F.
Although waterborne disease Without KSB,
Canadian towns and cities,
The system is designed to treat a surface water source or a groundwater
the tragic occurrence of
No One Would
sickness and death due to waterborne
Set Foot in Here
pathogens in Walkerton, Ontario, and North Battleford, Saskatchewan, have refocused Canadians on the impor
With KSB, rivers, lakes and seas
can keep their natural balance. Our tried and tested pumps and mixers help clean up in munici pal and industrial waste water disposal and treatment systems. They also transport clean water to where it is needed. You can draw
on over 100 years of fluid flow expertise. As a reliable and effi cient systems supplier and service partner, we'll put your projects on a sound footing. KSB Pumps Inc.â&#x20AC;˘ Mississauga, Ontario
not able to treat the water to drinking
outbreaks are uncommon in
source under the direct influence of surface water to the MOE standards. It
is not designed to treat brackish water or water with unacceptable levels of
tance of our water.
chemical or mineral contamination.
Ontario's response to these events has culminated in the current Drinking Water Systems Regulation (Regulation 170/03). Although this regulation is currently being revised, its impact has already had a major effect on small water systems that use a surface water source or groundwater source under
The system is designed and engi neered by integrating different equip ment and technologies into a single package and developing integrated solutions for control, monitoring and reporting. The system is made up of the following equipment: 1. Chemical feed panel to dose coagu lant for chemically assisted filtration. 2. Media filters for particulate removal.
the direct influence of surface water.
Because the monitoring and reporting requirements are difficult for small sites without full-time trained staff,
pre-packaged treatment, monitoring and reporting systems offer a solution to what might otherwise be an inten sively manual water system operation. Metcon Sales & Engineering
3. Absolute rated one micron filter car
tridges. 4. UV disinfection system. 5. Online turbidimeter to measure tur
bidity. 6. Chemical feed panel for chlorination. 7. Online chlorine & pH monitor and
Limited realized the need for effective
Tel.(905) 568-9200â&#x20AC;˘ www.ksb.ca
water treatment with efficient remote
8. Videographic chart recorder.
The Amarex-KRT sub
mersible motor pump for
all kinds of waste water.
monitoring. This led to the develop ment of pre-engineered packaged water treatment systems which meet the filtration and disinfection require ments of the Ministry of Environment (MOE), monitor and record turbidity, chlorine residual, pH, UV, distribution flows and are compatible for remote site monitoring without needing certi fied personnel to visit the site regular ly to collect and record data and pre pare reports. Pilot studies were conducted at var ious sites with varied influent water
quality parameters, including high lev els of iron and manganese, to design a packaged system that could address all concerns and provide an efficient, unmanned and fail-safe solution to
produce safe drinking water. The Metcon Packaged Filtration System filters and disinfects water. It continually monitors treated water tur bidity, free chlorine residual, pH, UV, distribution flows and tank levels, and records these values for reporting requirements. It will shut water flow off and activate an alarm circuit if it is
48 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
9. Auto alarm dialer. 10. MRS software for remote monitor
ing and reporting. For sites where high levels of iron and manganese are present, an addi tional chemical feed panel to feed oxidant is added to the system for oxida tion and precipitation of iron and man ganese, which are then filtered by macrolite media filters. In some cases
granular activated carbon filter(GAC) is also required after macrolite filter to adsorb oxidant, colour, taste, and odour. Where GAC is used, chlorina
tion is required before and after the fil tration system. 1. Chemical Feed System for Coagulant - An engineered chemical feed system with Surefeed controller technology and ProMinent metering pumps for duty standby operation. The coagulant feed system is flow paced by a signal from the flowmeter. 2. Macrolite Media Filter â&#x20AC;&#x201D; When
fine pre-filtration is critical, this inno vative ceramic media is used to remove
particles as small as three microns. It normally requires no conventional pre-
Drinking Water treatment such as coagulation or flocculation to remove particles. This special media effectively removes particles such as clay, silt, oxidized iron and manganese, dead microorganisms and precipitates from other treatment processes. The Macrolite Media Filter System features metered and ondemand control, adjustable backwash times to accommodate changing inlet water characteristics. Effective filtering capability assures continuous, high quality, filtered water and the compact media beds require less water for back wash.
advantage of minimizing chemical usage for operational cost savings. The system incorporates a pause contact, to freeze the control signal when the well pump is off. 7. Online Chlorine Monitor and
ment in the industry. The measuring probe is reagent less and buifer less, thus there are no operational costs associated with chemicals usage. The only consum ables are the electrolyte and cap which are replaced approximately every 9-12
Controller -The ProMinent Dulcometer
months. The chlorine measurement is
Chlorine Residual Analyser is an amperometric type analyser with a membranecovered probe. It has many features, which makes it the most preferred instru
both pH and temperature compensated to ensure the chlorine residual is as accurate
as possible. continued overleaf...
Rotary Lobe & Disc Pumps Right first time, every time
POLY-PLEAT absolute one-micron
rated filter cartridge meets or exceeds the three logs (99.9%) removal requirements described in NSF Standard 53 for cyst sized particles and is ideal to control cryptosporidium, giardia cysts and other harmful microorganisms to help ensure cystfree drinking water. These cartridges are ideal as final filters for municipal water filtration and provide long filter life due to their pleated design and
What you want from a pump is quite simple: It should perform to specification, year after year, with minimum maintenance. The right pump is the one you can virtually forget about once it's installed. So it pays to choose carefully. if you're specifying rotary lobe pumps or single/dual disc pumps, that means choosing the SSP brand. No one knows the technology better. SSP Pumps, formerly sold under the brand names of Lobefio, MGi and Alfa Laval, offers the broadest range of rotary lobe pumps available in the world today. Our proven, high specification designs are manufactured with the precision to keep on working the way you intended from day one ... whatever the duty across a whole range of industries.
increased surface area. The filter mate
rials are FDA listed for use in potable water and the filters themselves are certified to ANSI/NSF 61 standards
for use in potable water. 4. UV Disinfection Systems - The UV reactor meets the minimum 40
mJ/cm- (40,000 pwsec/cm-) treatment requirement, in addition to being a NSF/ANSI Standard 55-Class A sys tem which is designed to disinfect and/or remove microorganisms from contaminated water, including bacteria
SSP Single Disc pumps are designed for use within effluent processes for pumping
SSP Dual Disc pumps are designed for use within effluent and industrial treatment
sludges and other waste media having
processes where arduous duties in harsh
Flow rates up to 24 m'/h
Differential pressures up to 1.5 bar Sludge thickness content up to 6%
• • •
Flow rates up to 52 m^/h Differential pressures up to 3 bar Sludge thickness content up to 10%
and viruses, to a safe level.
5. Online Turbidity Monitor - The H.F. Scientific MicroToL on-line tur
bidity monitor meets USEPA method 180.1 and ISO 7027 design and per formance criteria. It has a fast response time and inexpensive calibration due to low sample volume. The unit has removable sample cuvettes to allow for easy cleaning and calibrating. 6. Chemical Feed System for Chlorine - An engineered chemical feed system with Surefeed controller technology and ProMinent metering pumps for duty standby operation. The chlorine feed system is proportionally paced by both flow and chlorine resid ual (using the chlorine analyser/con troller), allowing tight control over the
SSP Series D ductile iron rotary lobe pumps fulfil positive transfer duties
SSP Series G rotary lobe pumps are
throughout industry by providing durable cost effective performance.
• Differential pressures up to 15 bar
and are amongst the world's largest pumps of this type. • Flow rates up to 680 m^/h • Differential pressures up to 10 bar
• Flow rates up to 160 mVh Port sizes 80- 150 mm
Locally Distributed By: Aquateck 2485,Guenette
designed for high volume transfer duties
Port sizes 150 - 300 mm
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chlorine residual which has the added
September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 49
Skid-mounted filtration and UV system, rated for 60 GPM manufactured for the Manorview WTP.
8. Videographic Chart Recorder -
9. Auto Alarm Dialer -The Metcon
Monitors and records treated water
EcboDial is an automatic alarm dialer,
parameters like free chlorine residual, pH, treated water turbidity, UV inten sity distribution flows, and tank levels. An optional Ethernet modem can be added as built in with the data logger so that all data can be remotely moni tored and downloaded to generate reports through MRS software from a
which notifies personnel in the event of a process alarm. The EcboDial allows for up to 96 analog or dry con tact inputs and 16 different phone numbers to be programmed. The user recordable alarm message allows and cause of an alarm. The EcboDial
Software is the solution for remote
has a sophisticated lightning and surge
data collection and report generation
instant identification of the location
protection system, containing three levels of protection. The unit also has a line seizure feature, which will inter rupt a phone conversation, or an offthe hook phone in order to call out, ensur ing that you always know the potential problems in your system. 10. Automatic Reporting SoftwareMRS (Metcon Reporting System)
Got Bleach? Get ProMinent Metering Pump Technology. Many innovations and features are built into the designs of our Sigma and gamma/L metering pumps and Pre-Engineered systems to address the problems specifically associated with bleach (sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypo, hypochlorite sodium, hypo, or hypochlorite )feed, monitoring and control (and similar chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and ammonium hydroxide).
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50 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Drinking Water of data collected from the videographic chart recorder. MRS simplifies the repetitive tasks of data collection, archiving and report formatting. It contains a set of reports tailored to solve the large reporting requirements for the water industry.
water, full treatment and reporting will likely remain part ofthe regime. Hence the demand for a user-friendly pre packaged solution for small water sys tems is here to stay.
Suchit Kaila, Ahron Nahmias and
Maggie Patterson are with Metcon Sales &
Engineering Limited. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
The software is installed on the
user's computer and is configured to collect data for field recorders either
by modem or manual upload via card reader. MRS uses a secure, robust and structured SQL database format. This
allows Crystal Reports to present data in a professional and meaningful man ner. The base software is supplied with a selection of reports for chlorine, tur bidity, and flow. MRS generates suit able graphical and tabular reports for flow, chlorine, turbidity, and UV mon itoring. Summary details and summary reports are available to the user. Reports generated by MRS can be exported for further analysis with Microsoft Excel and other spreadsheet programs.
In Ontario, for those water systems that have no history of problems with their groundwater, and are not under the influence of surface water, it is
expected that the treatment and report ing requirements may be more relaxed under the upcoming Regulation 170. However, the risk associated with
drinking untreated water that has not been adequately filtered through the ground, means that for those sites that use surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 51
For millions of Bangladeshis,ash may offer hope By Dan Krotz
involve coating the ash with a com
pound that attracts arsenic, filling tea bag-sized pouches with the powder, and distributing the filters throughout the countryside, one per family per day. Water drawn from any one of the millions of contaminated wells that dot
Bangladesh could then be poured through the filter and safely con sumed.
Ashok Gadgil, a scientist in
After receiving $5,000 in seed funding from the Berkeley Lab Technology Transfer Department in
Figure 1: Bottom ash before (left) and after coating with ferric oxide
the Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), is develop ing a cheap and effective way to pro vide safe drinking water to 60 million Bangladeshis who live with the threat of arsenic poisoning. Gadgil's idea is to create arsenic filters from coal ash, the fine gray powder that piles up, waiting to be discarded, at the bottom of fur naces at all coal-fired power stations. Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh
has been called one of the largest mass
2003, Gadgil set out to develop a filter
poisonings in human history, expected to cause 10 percent of all future adult deaths in the impoverished nation of
that is affordable and effective. His
130 million. For reasons not entirely understood, the shallow tube-wells that
Bangladeshis depend on for water con tain dangerous concentrations of the toxic substance; if ingested at these concentrations over long periods of time, arsenic leads to debilitating
options quickly narrowed; he needed a material that has a high surface-to-vol ume ratio, is pathogen free, and is available in large quantities at low cost. Reflecting on carbon as a commonly used
thought about left-over coal ash, the large piles that collect at all coal-fired power stations, waiting to be sent to
lesions, cancer, and death.
landfills. An additional $20,000 in
Although still in the investigational stage, Gadgil's technique would
seed funding from the Blue Planet Run continued overleaf...
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Drinking Water Foundation helped him explore this option.
Coal ash is composed of particles that measure between one and 10
microns in diameter, much smaller than a 100-micron-diameter human hair. This means that even a small vol
ume of the powder has a lot of surface
area, maximizing the opportunity for surface reactions to snare arsenic. The
ash is also heated to 800 degrees Celsius during the coal burning process, so it's sterile and free of
volatile compounds. And it's plentiful. Coal-fired power plants provide most of neighboring India's electricity, and the locally mined coal used is uniquely suited for Gadgil's purposes; it's only 60 percent carbon, meaning 40 percent becomes ash.
specially treated coal ash makes a very powerful filter. After spiking lab water with so much arsenic that its concen
tration soared to an extremely toxic 2,400 parts per billion (ppb), the team
water with concentrations above 10
arsenic concentration to 10 ppb. The Bangladeshi standard for safe drinking water is 50 ppb. Gadgil estimates that five grams of
ppb. Gadgil will determine whether
filter material could render about three
gallons of Bangladeshi well water— with an average arsenic concentration of 400 ppb—safe to drink. Put another way, a filter the size of a tea bag could provide drinking water for a family of six for one day. He also estimates the
technique will cost about thirty cents per person per year. The next-best option is a filter developed by a Bangladeshi
After obtaining some ash from
engineer, backed by the non-profit organization IDE-International, that uses pulverized brick instead of ash. It
Pang, Christie Galitsky, Duo Wang, and Anna Blumstein. Together, they developed a way to coat each ash par ticle with ferric hydroxide, a chemical
would cost $9.70 per person per year.
element to precipitate onto the particle (see Figure 1). Initial tests indicate this
600,000 California residents consume
found that the filter lowered the water's
India, he assembled Team Arsenic, which includes Lara Gundel, Yanbo
that reacts with arsenic and forces the
Environmental Protection Agency rule, effective in 2006, that tightens the U.S. arsenic drinking water standard from 50 ppb to 10 ppb. Currently,
Closer to home, the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research program recently
awarded Gadgil $250,000 to explore whether a variation of this technique can help the state comply with a U.S.
ash derived from U.S. coal can be
developed into a filtration system and whether such a system can work at small municipal water treatment facili ties.
Initial results appear promising. Currently, the cost of arsenic removal at small municipal water systems
ranges from $58 to $327 per household per year. Gadgil estimates that his
method would cost less than $1 per household per year, not including the one-time cost of coating the ash with ferric hydroxide. In addition to this research close to home, Gadgil will also intensify his efforts to help Bangladesh—if he secures more fund ing.
Dan Kvotz is a writer in Berkeley Lab s Public Information Office. Contact: DAKrotz@lbl.gov
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54 Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2005
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Canada's climate change strategy By Paul Manning,Wilims & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP Ottawa has fleshed
domestic or international emission
out its strategy to force large emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG) to
reduction credits, or contribute to a new Technology Investment Fund
intend to add GHGs to Schedule 1 of the
(TIE), which will help promote techno logical innovation and reductions beyond the Kyoto period. Access to the TIE will be capped at 9 megatonnes. If a company cannot meet its target, Ottawa has pledged not to seek a penal ty "greater than $200 per excess tonne
Canadian Environmental Protection Act,
of emissions unless circumstances dic
enabling the promulgation of enforceable back-up regulations luider the Act. While working to guarantee compli ance with the forthcoming compulsory
meet their individ ual reduction tar
gets by 2012. As expected, the feds
limits, the feds have also offered to
soften the economic blow of cutting GHGs by capping reduction costs. The measures, which should be in place by 2008, would affect about 700 compa nies in the oil and gas, mining and manufacturing, and thermal electricity sectors.
Emitters will have several compli ance options. They could invest in inhouse emission reductions, purchase
The plan includes a potentially cost ly pledge. To promote compliance, Ottawa would implement, "if required, a price assurance mechanism to ensure that companies would be able to meet their regulatory obligations at a cost of no more than $ 15/tonne for the period 2008-2012." Special credits, rebates, or a new investment fund are among the funding supports suggested. Companies that have surplus emis sion reductions may sell them to other companies or to the Climate Fund. Ottawa will establish the basic rules for
trading domestic offset credits and an electronic system for tracking transac tions. However, the private sector is expected to set up and run brokerages, carbon exchanges and other compo nents of the trading infrastructure. Details on setting emission reduc tion targets, compliance mechanisms, and the preferred regulatory options were published in the Canada Gazette Part I on July 16, 2005. In addition, the scientific rationale for regulating GHGs under CEPA s.64 has been posted on the CEPA Environmental Registry. The Canadian plan mirrors renewed international support for the Kyoto Protocol. Despite the distraction of the London bombings during the G8 sum mit meetings of early July, the leaders (including the Americans!) found time to issue an extensive communique reaf firming their commitment to reduce GHG gas emissions, enhance energy security, support clean power and ener gy efficiency, and cut air pollution. continued overleaf...
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 55
US border restrictions worry waste managers By John Willms,Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP
Canadian Agreement) would also be applied to solid waste transfers. The bill (H.R. 2491) now moves to the full House for a vote.
After years of debate, Washington may begin to tight en the U.S. border to Canadian solid
dom has always held that NAFTA
would preclude any closure. However, recent developments suggest NAFTA
may no longer guarantee oiu^ trash access to U.S. landfills.
On June 29, the U.S. Congressional Committee on Energy and Commerce approved The International Importation and Solid Waste Management Act to give individual states greater conti'ol over the wastes that pass their borders. The notice and consent provisions that currently apply to transboundary hazwaste shipments (under the U.S.-
Then in July, the U.S. Senate passed a provision that would prohibit vehicles containing Canadian waste from enter ing the U.S. until the Secretary of Homeland Security certifies the meth ods used to inspect the vehicles for potential threats. Claiming we face "a waste manage ment crisis", the Ontario Waste Management Association has called on the province to quickly implement an integrated waste management plan to handle Ontario's waste within its own
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borders. A study completed by RIS International earlier this year says the disposal situation will become "much worse over the next five years." The study showed that: • Delays and inspections of Ontario waste crossing into the U.S. are already causing major problems. • Michigan is imposing restrictions on waste imports and increasing the fees it charges on waste imports. • If the border closed, Ontario's waste transfer stations have only two days capacity to manage the situation. It's not just about Toronto's garbage. About two-thirds of the waste being trucked to the U.S. comes from other
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to worry about the U.S. border closing to Canadian garbage, according to Michael Neely, area president of Republic Services, which holds the dis posal contracts for a number of Ontario cities, including Toronto, Owen Sound and Kitchener. In a recent issue of
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56 Environmental Science & Engineering, September2005
Sediments in northern Gulf of Mexico not
right for methane gas hydrate formation By Jane M.Sanders,Research Horizons,Georgia Tech Researchers investi
gated methane gas hydrates in the north ern Gulf of Mexico off
the coast of New
Orleans in the fall of 2002.
Marine sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico
are likely too warm and salty to hold the amount of methane gas hydrates - a potential energy resource - originally thought to
the gas hydrates at these sites, but the deposits are likely thin or non-existent, Ruppel said. Researchers collected their data during a two-week research cruise in October 2002.
Methane gas hydrates are touted as
a potential new source of natural gas, but scientists are also studying them because they may contribute to global warming and could represent a threat to deep-sea petroleum production. contimted overleaf...
exist in the ocean floor there.
Researchers reported high-resolu tion geophysical and geochemical data for two representative sites off the coast of New Orleans, La., that suggest previous estimates for the region should be revised sharply downward, according to their paper published in the March 15 issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters(GRL).
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between Georgia Tech, Rice University and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, was funded by the National Science Foundation. The
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researchers continue to analyze their data to get a quantitative estimate of September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 57
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Carolyn Ruppel of Georgia Tech, chief scientist on a cruise to investigate methane gas hydrates in the northern Guif of Mexico, with coiiaborator Jerry Dickens of Rice University, aboard the R/V Seward Johnson.
Methane is produced by the decoinposition of organic material in the sed iment or by thermal processes similar to those responsible for the formation of oil. As the methane moves through
the sediment, it combines with water at
the low temperatures and high pres sures beneath the ocean to produce an ice-like solid. Methane gas hydrates exist along continental margins world wide, most in sediments tens to hun dreds of meters below the sea floor in
equipment from the lab of co-author and Georgia Tech Assistant Professor Daniel Lizarralde to image the sea floor and to find conduits through which fluids could flow. Geochemist and co-author Gerald
Dickens of Rice University worked with graduate students to analyze water samples from cores of sediment extracted from the sea floor. They developed chemical profiles that revealed, for example, salt and sulfate concentrations. Sulfate measurements
waters more than 500 meters deep. These hydrates exist as disseminated deposits, chunks several centimeters
across and sometimes as concentrated
interaction of microbes that produce sulfate and methane.
layers. In the northern Gulf of Mexico,
Standards(CSa & cgsb)
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resolution heat flow measurements to
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gas hydrates assumed homogeneous conditions (e.g., same temperature and geology) and did not consider the impact of salt on hydrate formation, Ruppel noted. "The methods we used are very good at helping us understand the con ditions in the sediment and make a pre diction of what's there," she explained. "We found conditions that are not
compatible with published estimates that imply large methane gas hydrate deposits in the northern Gulf." Ruppel and her colleagues took a multidisciplinary approach, using overlapping methods to characterize the two sites they studied, she said. They used high-resolution seismic
58 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
are important for understanding the biology of the system, specifically the
Ruppel was responsible for highconstrain temperature and the rate of fluid
Collaborators from Scripps Institution of Oceanography also collected data on fluid flux from the sea floor in the
northern Gulf - an important con straint on the hydrology of the system and its potential for hydrate formation, Ruppel noted. These measurements were not incorporated into the analysis published in GRL. "When you put all of this together, you get a good idea of the conditions in the gas hydrate reservoir - that is, the sediments that contain gas hydrates," Ruppel added. Research to characterize methane
gas hydrates is ongoing throughout
Energy Research North America and the world, Ruppel noted. She and her colleagues have also studied hydrates at Blake Ridge off the South Carolina coast during normal oceanographic cruises, deep sea drilling legs, and submersible dives. On the Blake Ridge, they char acterized hydrates both below and on the ocean floor. Through the interna tional Ocean Drilling Program, other seientists have drilled or will soon drill
boreholes to explore hydrates off the eoasts of Oregon and Vancouver. Other
hydrates as potential energy sources, as well as the safety issues related to drilling. These issues include the potential for sea floor destabilization that could occur as hot fluids are
pumped up from deep sediments through the hydrate stability zone, Ruppel explained. "Methane gas hydrates are like ice," she added. "They can melt and cause the sea floor
to collapse. The oil companies are interested in understanding this issue
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Ruppel and colleague J. Carlos Santamarina, a Georgia Teeh professor in
Environmental Engineering, will focus on these questions when their research group participates in drilling this spring in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Department of Energy is
funding this work through a joint industry project with ChevronTexaco. "There's a lot of research
hydrates going on," Ruppel said. "Ultimately, these studies around North America and the world will shed
more light on how much hydrate is out there. I hope that will get us closer to answering the question about whether hydrates are a viable energy resource. It's going to take some time. If we do learn it's a viable resource, then we'll have to face a new set of issues on how
to actually produce energy from this resource."
Producing methane from gas hydrates faces some daunting chal lenges. A key question is whether it would take more energy to extract the gas hydrates than the gas may provide,
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Technological innovation for sodium hypochlorlte dosing
Water disinfection is the
By Nicholas Valente, Marc Lariviere,Valerie Lefebvre and Julie Heroux
tested means of water and wastewater
in various processes for disinfection and bleaching. Also referred to as NaCOl, bleach, hypo, or chlorine, it is subject to degradation within the pip ing and pump system as it releases oxygen gas and results in crystalliza
disinfection is chlorination. Two fun
tion of the residual.
damental methods include gas chlori nation (CI2) and liquid chlorination (NaOCl) otherwise known as sodium hypochlorite. Chlorination was intro duced as a commercial water purifier
If the oxygen gas or vapour is allowed to build up within the piping and reagent head in sufficient volume, a typical reciprocating piston metering pump, used for accurately feeding chlorine to the process, will not func tion properly as gas in the pump head is compressed, minimizing the dis charge check valve to open upon dis charge stroke of the pump. Consequently, this effect could require that the pump be reprimed for opera
most critical process in
the treatment of water and wastewater. The world's most universal and time
in 1908. Chlorination has since been
acknowledged as the optimum method for water disinfection due to its unique ability to provide residual protection throughout the water distribution sys tem.
As a result of safety concerns with handling gas chlorine, the application of CI2 continues to decline while liquid chlorination and other alternative yet more recent technologies such as UV (ultraviolet light) and Ozone (O3) con tinue to be more promising and a safer means of disinfecting water and wastewater. Yet of great significance, sodi um hypochlorite or liquid chlorination water disinfection has been proven to be a reliable application for treating water globally for over 50 years. Sodium hypochlorite is widely used
The Pulsar HypoPump features a patent-pending design that aiiows pressurized process fluid to cyciicaiiy flush vapours and liquids through the pump's discharge check system while maintaining high performance and chemical dosing accuracy.
tion. Conditions that tend to increase
gassing in sodium hypochlorite solu tions are:
• Elevated temperatures. • High concentrating solution. • Exposure to sunlight or UV rays. • Reduction in pressure. • Cavitation.
• Poor piping conditions. • Contact with metallic impurities. • Contact with organic impurities. • Age of solution. • Quality of solution.
Reciprocating piston metering pumps or diaphragm metering pumps have been historically preferred in the dispensing of sodium hypochlorite because of their superior ability to accurately dose chemicals into a
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60 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Disinfection process stream with great precision and repeatability at a constant pres sure. Additionally, the diaphragm metering pump is sealless and leak proof by design with negligible main tenance and simple commissioning. Traditionally, the diaphragm meter ing pump industry has promoted the use of degas valves on the discharge port of the pump which diverts gas back to the suction supply source of the bleach. This method has been
widely accepted and successful in many applications. However, the small
diameter ports in the valve system tend to plug and require continuous flush ing or cleaning through human inter vention since the system is open to atmosphere on the discharge side of the orifice. Additionally, an external bypass piping system and degas valve assembly require additional costs and maintenance while presenting more opportunities for undesired chlorine leak paths. New technology developed Pulsafeeder has developed a new technology that provides a simple and
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is integral to the pump head and elim inates the need for expensive, unreli able, and undesirable bypass systems, including piping, valves, fittings, and instrumentation. Most notably, this continued overleaf...
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Disinfection I The unit is available in PVC and The automatic valve
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62 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Dorval, QC H9P 2M9 Tel.: 514-636-8712 Fax: 514-636-9718
Surfactant desorption Is key to successful PAH bloremedlatlon By Tony Robson
Fomiulations which are patented
non-ionic surfactant mixtures used in the in situ and ex situ
treatment of petroleum hydro carbons, chlorinated solvents, heavy met als, and more recently PAHs, PCBs and involved
MTBE type contaminated waste are
Bioremediation (SEB®) using Ivey-
sol®. These surfactant formulations have
the ability to enhance soil biodegrada-
During in situ and exsiU( bioremediation,
the effectiveness of the bioremediation
process is a function of balancing several physical and chemical parameters to achieve effective bio-mineralization of
the target contaminants. The addition of Ivey-sol to the substrate can aid in the controlled desorption of the contami nants making them more bio-available. As a result, the duration of hydrophobic
oi'ganic chemicals (HOC) bioremedia tion can be reduced by as much as 30 to 60%,or more.
Normally hydrophobic organic chemicals exhibit limited bioavailabil-
ity to microorganisms as the contami
matrix. This partitioning can account for as much as 95% or more of the total contaminant mass. Thus this lim its the concentration of HOC available
to the microbial population. Hence eertain HOCs such a polycyclic aro-
nants tend to partition onto the soil
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Site Remediation matic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and phtalates can persist in the soil matrix for long periods of time. The use of Ivey-sol surfactant formulations, as part of a well designed bioremediation process, will provide a mech anism to desorb and mobilize the target contaminants from the surface of soil and bed rock to make them more available
to the indigenous or introduced microbial populations. Bioavailability is governed by the substrate concentration
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responsible for the increased bioavailability of the HOC and surface-bound nutrients. SEB using Ivey-sol is effective at low surfactant concentrations. It expedites bioremediation of the contaminated soil and positively affects the surfactant-soil-NAPL systems (e.g., mass transfer of HOCs, cell hydrophobicity, and cell attachment at interfaces) while averting the inhibiting and/or microbial toxic effects associ ated with some surfactants (i.e., catonic and anionic) which are only effective at much higher concentrations. How Ivey-sol technology works An illustration of how the SEB - Ivey-sol technology works, is shown in Figure 1. This should be used to augment one's present knowledge of bioremediation to understand the Ivey-sol surfactants' effects on a microscopic scale in improving the controlled liberation of hydrocarbons and nutrients (i.e., surfactant-aqueous HOCs and nutrients-aque ous) and their controlled availability for mineralization by the microorganisms present. This illustration demonstrates how the technology desorbs contamination in the soil and either dissolves it for in situ or
ex situ applications. In the case ofex situ Surfactant Enhanced
MacViro Acquires Environmental Hydraulics Gro MacVIro recently acquired Environmental Hydraulics Group Inc. (EHG) to complement existing hydrotechnical service capabilities. Founded In 1987 by Dr. Alan Fok, Ph.D., P.Eng., a PEO-Designated Hydraulics Specialist, EHG has emerged as a world leader in hydraulic surcharge and surge analysis of complex projects for public and private sector clients. EHG continues to provide hydraulic conveyance reviews and optimisations from Intakes through pumping stations, open-channel elements and outfalls with focus on water and wastewater treatment plants. MacViro Consultants Inc. is an Ontario based company located in Markham providing consulting engineering, planning and scientific services to our clients In the private and public sectors. As a multldlsclpllne engineering services organization, we are dedicated to creating environmental and energy solutions for a healthier tomorrow. MacViro Consultants Inc.
600 Cochrane Drive, Suite 500 Markham ON L3R 5K3
Tel:(905)475-7270 Fax:(905)475-5994 vww.macviro.com 64 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Site Remediation Bioremediation (SEB), the surfactants desorb the contaminants, making them
process. After excavating and bio-piling the soil, the surfactant enhanced bioremediation treatment was applied and the bio-pile was then covered. Daily aeration was done during the treatment period. After only 12 weeks samples taken from the pile showed
alone will not remove it from the sur
population. Range of applications Ivey-sol surfactant formulation can selectively dissolve a broad range of petroleum hydrocarbons from light, to medium, to heavy-end HOC type con tamination. In addition, formulations have also been developed that are very effective on: chlorinated solvents,
PCBs, PAHs, and MTBE. It has also
been shown to enhance the effective
Standards and the soil was safe to re
ness of in situ soil and groundwater bioremediation, and ex situ soil (landfarm) type bioremediation processes by increasing HOC bioavailability. Case Study (PAH & diesel soil remediation) Ivey International Inc. was retained by Quinsam Coal Corporation to reme diate over 200,000 kilograms (440,000 lbs) of diesel and PAH contaminated soil at their mining operation located
more bio-available and, as a result,
expedite the biodegradation process. This mechanism can be described as follows:
• When HOC (i.e., petroleum prod uct) is absorbed on a soil grain, water is
hydrophobic characteristics of the HOC, which repels the water at its sur face, and its inherent low water solu
bility. • With the addition of SEB Ivey-sol surfactants, the Ivey-sol hydrophobic grouping is repelled by the water but attracted to the HOC on the surface. At
the same time, the hydrophilic group ing is attracted to the water molecules. • These opposing forces loosen the HOC from the surface of the soil
matrix and suspend it in the water phase. Once dissolved, the suspended
that the remediation of the Fueloil/Diesel and PAH contamination was
PAH Case Study (bench scale) During the spring of 2005, Ivey International's Research & Development Division was retained to conduct a
bench-scale testing to determine the effectiveness of Ivey-sol for the desorption of PAH contaminants off silty-sand soils that had originated from an indus trial brownfield site with over 100,000 tons of contaminated soil. The remedia
near Vancouver, BC. Baseline total
tion plan involved a combination of in situ and ex situ bioremediation of said
tion in a 'surfactant-aqueous HOC microscopic outward appearance, it is
petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations exceeded 10,000 ppm and several of the PAH parameters exceeded the applicable Envirorunental Standards. Ivey International Inc. treated the con taminated soils using their new
more bioavailable to the microbial
Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation
HOC is more visible to the microbial
population present. • Once liberated in low concentra
soils. The critical barrier associated with PAH bioremediation is its low bioavail
ability due to the fact that 90 to 95% of PAHs preferentially absorb on to sur faces versus being dissolved in the aquecontinued overleaf...
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Site Remediation ous phase. If Ivey-sol could desorb and
Table 1 Parameters
Hydrocarbons >C10-C21 Hydrocarbons >C21-<C32 Hydrocarbons
Volatile Hydrocarbons Benzene
Xylene (Total) 06 - C10(less BTEX)
liberate the PAHs, it would in effect increase their bioavailability for microbial and mineralization. The bench scale test involved the
mixing of a 20:1 volume of PAH con taminated soil from which a represen tative baseline sample was collected for PAH analysis. Then a 1 L volume of contaminated soil was washed and
the liquid phase was decanted. A post Ivey-sol wash sample was then collect ed and submitted for analysis(Table 1).
1 -Methylnaphthalene 2-IVIethylnaphthalene Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene
As the bench scale test results
Benzo(a)anthracene Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(b)fluoranthene Benzo(ghi)perylene Benzo(k)fluoranthene
demonstrate, Ivey-sol was effective at desorbing all 19 PAH compounds. On average, pre to post PAH concentra tions dropped by >90%. The lowest desorption/removal was observed for
lndeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene Naphthalene Perylene
benzo(ghi)perylene of 84.3%, while the highest desorption/removal was observed for 2-methylnaphthalene at 97.3%.
Tony Robson is Director, Mining Plant & Equipment, Quinsam Coal Corp. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Soil washed with Ivey-sol(106 Formulation)
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66 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
^ Environmental NewSj
Canadian students compete in the Stockholm Junior Water Prize competition
Patrick Danielson and Robin
Prize in a formal ceremony at Dansens Hus in Stockholm. The award, present ed by Crown Princess Victoria, on
tition is organized by the Canadian
Miron, both of North Bay, Ontario, have recently returned
from the Stockholm Junior
Water Prize (SJWP) competition in Stockliolm, Sweden. The two 17-year old students, from Algonquin Secondary School, won the Canadian competition, held last May in
Foundation, is accompanied by a $5000 US scholarship and a crystal sculpture. The prestigious SJWP event recog
research. The Canadian SJWP compe
Their project, entitled MacroInvertebrate Sampling Technology (MIST), involved the development of a flow-through lake water sampler that can sample in real time, macro-inverte brates such as Mysis relicta and Bythotrephes longimaniis. Patrick explained to the judges that "these zooplankton species are alien to Canadian lakes and are poised to potentially dis rupt aquatic life in northern Ontario lakes". The sampler and accompanying software can be used to produce three-
nizes students for excellence in water
Affairs Council of the WEE The Canadian
Member Associations ofWEF and ITT
Flygt Industries provided funding. For more information visit: www.stockholmjiiniorwaterprize.org
The ¥lof%d*% citl\f Non-Contact
Velocity/Aiea Siwer Flowmeter
dimensional charts, either in real time or back in the lab. Rick Corbett, the Chief Judge for the Canadian SJWP competition noted that "the technique that Patrick and Robin have developed will allow scientists to scan the lake
water column very quickly and then decide on what depths and areas to con centrate conventional zooplankton sampling methods."
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 67
Flow Monitoring I
New take on ancient art of monitoring rivers,streams and sewers
For centuries, City engineers
By Gary Fricke advancement of radar and ultrasonic
have been measuring and quantifying flows in rivers,
flow measurement (non invasive), the need to visit the site is drastically
streams and sewers. In the
early days it was as easy as tossing an orange peel into the flow and measur ing the time it took to pass from one point to another. Nowadays, as well as monitoring flows, rainfall and sur charge conditions are also required to understand the hydraulic conditions within the sewer collection system. With the introduction of electronic
data recorders and flow meters, water
resource managers can make informed
Information Management Collection system operators can employ Telogers to monitor all remote wastewater system parameters of inter est. Using wireless communications, the remote site data can be forwarded
to the operator's host computer net work on demand, on schedule (e.g.
daily, hourly) or in response to alarm or amplitude exceedance conditions at each site. Typical applications include:
decisions based on accurate field data.
Flow meters - Recorders can monitor
In most cases, AN (Area Velocity) flow meters require routine mainte nance to clean sensors, replace batter ies and download the data. This is gen erally done every two weeks and may
flow meters by accepting the analog output signals produced by the flow meter or by digitally interrogating the flow parameters via the flow meter's data communications port. A battery
require confined space entry equip ment, traffic control and a two to three
powered recorder with a wireless modem can be deployed in a manhole
person crew to complete. With the
or vault with the flow meter, or
Rain gauges - Recorders can directly interface tipping bucket type rain gauges, counting each tip that occurs
installed in an enclosure above ground
powered by battery, solar or utility
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Flow Monltonng within user-programmed intervals (e.g. 15 minutes). Because the recorder and communications method consumes
message log or the forwarding of an alphanumeric message to a paging service provider, cell phone or email
The recorder is connected to an anten
na buried in the pavement adjacent to the manhole.
address to alert personnel of a remote site problem. The user can select alarm
very little energy, a recorder and wire less modem can be deployed with rain gauges operating on battery power for
conditions from a menu of choices
extended time periods without mainte
including external power failure, input
nance. Data can be forwarded on
signal hi and low level exceedance, battery low, AC power fail, external event triggers, memory nearly full, tamper switch detection, recorder fault conditions, etc. A remote recorder (RTU) monitors
the cellular carrier infrastructure and the Internet to the host. An Internet
a wastewater flow meter in a manhole.
schedule or more frequently during rain events.
CSO/SSO Surcharge Levels - A stan dard data recorder intended to monitor
water levels in manholes and report by alarm whenever levels exceed user defined thresholds. Lift Stations - Wastewater lift and
pump stations can be monitored with a
recorder system providing the operator information on sump level, pump run times and flow through the station. Automatic site alarms include sump level overflow, AC power fail, flow blockage, etc. Water Quality - Recorders can be supplied with water quality sensors
(e.g. pH, ORP,etc.) for waste pre-treatment monitoring applications. The recorder, water quality sensors and
wireless modem can be deployed entirely underground for permanent
The RTU collects data from the
flow meter (typically level, velocity and flow computations) at a userdefined interval (e.g. 15 minutes) then forwards this data to the DMS host
computer. The communications path begins wirelessly between the burial antenna and a local cell tower, then via
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When employing the Hetek DMS, the customer's remote site recorders
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Two smart UV sensors, mounted in air, constantly monitor lamp performance and water quality. Computerized alarms ensure that only safe water can NSP/ANSI 55 CLASS A CERTIFIED
enter the water management system. Systems include a 4-20 mA display for onboard or remote monitoring.
The customer may also have access to their DMS database by using an Enterprise Client at their facility and logging onto the DMS server over the Internet using a Virtual Private Network (VPN). This permits the cus tomer's system administrator or data analyst to edit data, add sites and measurements and modify systemoperating parameters from their office. Hetek DMS also will receive and
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Flow Monitoring Protocol (IP) address within each data packet instructs the network routers where to send each packet. Administrative
Enterprise Server limit access to data to those web site visitors that log on with the appropriate user name and pass word. DMS customers may provide access rights to their clients to permit them access to information from spe cific sites, for example a single custody transfer flow meter.
Telogers Enterprise adds three high-performance data management
elements to Telogers for Windows: a flow analysis module, a fully relation al database and a web module for dis
playing data on an intranet or the Internet.
Enterprise stores all data from
data to networked users operating com mon web browsers (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer) as web pages. This could include any computers connected to the user's intranet, or if desired the Internet.
remote sites into a relational database
Website Data Access
on the server, including all recorder configurations, event logs, site parame ters, etc. Any networked computer ninning the Enterprise Client software (with appropriate permissions) may
Telogers Enterprise provides a web module that permits sharing a wide range of information to authorized
then access the data stored in the data
base. Additionally, Enterprise can serve
users, via a corporate intranet or the Internet using web browsers: Currently, data provided by the Enterprise web module is read only; the user has no access to modify the database or any operational system configurations. A client access control utility is included with Enterprise that permits the system administrator to control data content to authorized par ties by user name and password. This would permit, for example, utility cus tomers to gain access to final flow data from flow meters servicing only their communities, while the utilities man
agement and consulting engineer might have permission to view all measure
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Immediate accessibility to histori cal and real-time data from all key sys
tem monitored parameters during wetweather events allows operators to make informed decisions on how best
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firstname.lastname@example.org 70 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
Greenhouse gases causing ocean to turn more acidic - UK Royal Society
Increasing emissions of carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere are making the global ocean more acidic, with potentially catastroph ic and irreversible consequences for marine life, according to a new report from Britain's prestigious Royal Society. Over the past 200 years, oceans have absorbed approximately fifty per cent ofthe carbon dioxide that has been
emitted into the atmosphere as a result of the burning of fossil fuels. When CO2 enters the ocean, it forms a weak acid, carbonic acid; calculations by the Royal Society indicate that this uptake has led to a reduction in the pH of the ocean by 0.1 points. If global emissions of CO2 from human activities continue to rise on
current trends, says the report, then the average pH of the oceans could fall by 0.5 imits by the year 2100. This pH is probably lower than has been experi enced for hundreds of millennia and, critically, this rate of change is proba bly one hundred times greater than at any time over this period. Furthermore, the report notes, ocean acidification is essentially irreversible during our life times. It will take tens of thousands of
years for ocean chemistry to return to a condition similar to that occurring at pre-industrial times (about 200 years ago). Although predicting and quantifying the magnitude and impact of such
changes is difficult, the Royal Society is able to make some predictions with a reasonable degree of certainty. In particular, it notes that there is convinc
ing evidence to suggest that acidification will affect the
process of calcification, by which
corals and mollusks make
shells and plates from cal cium carbonate.
The tropical and sub tropical corals are expect ed to be among the worst affected, with implications for the stability and longevity of the reefs that they build and the organisms that depend on them. Cold-water coral reefs are also likely to be adversely affected, before they have been fully explored. Other calcifying organisms that may be affected are components of the phytoplankton and the zooplankton, and are a major food source for fish and other animals. Regional variations in pH will mean that by 2100 the process of calcification may have become extremely difficult for these groups of organisms, particularly in the Southern
and may anyway cause additional harm to marine environments.
Reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere appears to be the only prac tical way to minimize the risk of largescale and long-term changes to the oceans. Action needs to be taken now
to reduce global emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere to avoid the risk of irre versible damage to the oceans.
There is little evidence that mitiga tion techniques such as adding chemi
Source: Royal Society. 2005. Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Royal Society, London www.royalsoc.ac.uk
cals is the answer. Such efforts are like
ly to be effective only on local levels.
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 71
Eliminating harmonics improves productivity and reliability at wastewater treatment plant
Power electronic loads such as drives, ozone generators and UV filtration equipment have
become abundant in the water and wastewater treatment industries
due to their many benefits. But they have one major drawback in common; they might produce a problematic con dition
Corvallis, Oregon Water Reclamation Facility fell victim to harmonics, but found a solution in a power correction system from Schneider Electric. The term harmonics is used to
describe a component of a periodic voltage or current waveform having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental power line frequen cy, 60Hz in the U.S. This irregular
nearby waterways. Besides cleanup costs, which can
sequence relays in the LV switchgear,
run into the millions, in the US,
ing of the influent control gates. The plant reverted to manual con trol but the faults - although less fre quent - continued. Operators then noted that these problems seemed to
Environmental Protection Agency imposed fines are extremely harsh for sewage spills, and the impact of such a spill on the health of local wildlife and people can be substantial. Warning symptoms of problematic harmonic levels include overheating motors, drives and cables, thermal trip ping of protective devices and logic faults of digital devices (CNC, PLC, computers) and generator faulting, all of which can result in process down time.
This 'non-linear' current draw results
These warning symptoms began at the Corvallis facility after a major upgrade that included four new influ ent pumps, new distribution equipment and a SCADA system to provide over all control, data collection and plant performance documentation. Variable frequency drives (VFD) were chosen
in a distorted waveform.
as the most efficient means for con
waveform results because the wave
form required by power electronic loads is quite different than the sinu soidal voltage delivered by the utility.
High levels of harmonic distortion
trolling the two new pumps.
can stress the electrical network within
After completion of the equipment
a water treatment facility and on the servicing utility, causing problems for sensitive electronic equipment. The impact on a facility can be very costly, especially when processes are disrupt ed or shut down,reducing productivity, increasing repair and maintenance costs, and possibly spilling partially
installation, commissioning pro gressed smoothly until the last of the new equipment, the SCADA system, was brought on line. The facility man agers were immediately plagued with considerable downtime due to logic faults in the SCADA system, nuisance tripping of ground fault circuit break ers, frequent activation of zero
treated or untreated wastewater into
and random and autonomous switch
increase when two or more drives were
operating on a common MCC bus at one time.
1) Ground fault trips occurred when the speed of the pumps was changed. 2) Ground fault breakers tripped when the VFD was started or stopped. 3) Influent pump gates switched when the speed was changed. 4)Negative sequence relays activat ed when the speed was changed. Facility managers hired an inde
pendent test service to analyze the problems. They measured harmonic voltage and current distortion, current and voltage transients during accelera tion and deceleration of the pumps, control signals, zero sequence current during speed changes, and neutral to ground voltage in the breakers. The harmonic voltage and current distor tion were measured at varying carrier frequencies to determine if such changes affected the harmonic condi tions. The tests indicated that:
1) There was no measurable differ ence in the line harmonics when the
carrier frequency was changed from
If we don't measure it, how do you manage it? Providing a full range of flow monitoring and flow meter calibration services for municipal water, wastewater, and industrial applications.
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Flow Meter Calibration Services
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72 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
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Operations 4.5 kHz to 1.5 kHz.
2) The total harmonic current dis tortion [THD (I)] level measured at 89% output speed (approximately 95% load) of one VFD was 38.8% with the 5th order and 7th order having the highest amplitude. Note that each VFD had 3% impedance line reactors. 3) The total harmonic voltage dis tortion [THD (V)] measured 3.8%. 4) A high frequency noise, very
separate from the control wiring. Second, a review of the harmonics
test data for the facility revealed that THD(V)exceeded 5% when two VFD were operating on one bus, and the TDD (total demand distortion) exceed ed IEEE 519-1992 recommended lim
active filters are often the best choice
its of 20% for this installation.
for harmonic filtering when compared to such alternatives as passive filters or 18 pulse drives. With active filters, an engineer can review a group of loads easily and accurately in the design stage without having to perform any expensive harmonic studies. Standards compliance can be guaranteed and the potentially costly problems are avoid
A THD (V) that exceeds 5% can affect many different types of equip ment - often, electronic equipment -
close to that of the VFD carrier fre
in an electrical network. The fact that
quency, appeared on the 4-20 mA DC gate signal when the VFD was acceler ated, decelerated, started or stopped. These noise impulses caused the gate to adjust position. 5) The zero sequence (neutral) cur rent and voltage (208/120Y V) were sensitive to changes in the carrier fre quency. As the carrier frequency increased from 1.5kHz to 4.5kHz, the zero sequence current increased from 2niA to 400 mA.This corresponded to
the SCADA tripped occasionally sug gested that high THD (V) was
a dramatic increase in the incidence of
breaker trips. 6) Notably, a high frequency, con sistently seven times that of the carrier frequency, existed in the zero sequence current waveform.
After several remedies were sug gested and implemented, the problems occurred less frequently but were not entirely eliminated. Fifteen months passed before a local electrical distributor working with the Corvallis facility contacted the power quality specialists at Schneider Electric's plant in Salem, Oregon.
should be considered during the design of a power electronic system. Proper installation techniques and harmonic mitigation equipment can eliminate problems before they occur. From an economic and performance standpoint,
involved. To reduce the levels of TDD within
the guidelines of IEEE 519-1992 and THD(V)to less than 5%,the team rec
ommended an AccuSine PCS active
monics can disrupt water and wastewater treatment processes, driving up costs. This troubling power issue should be considered during the design stage of a project. Research your many options in harmonic mitigation equip
harmonic filter rated at 50 amperes. After
installed and the power cables rerouted through grounded metal conduit, the performance and reliability of the plant electrical system were greatly improved. The TDD was measured in the 5-7% range for one VFD and 1821% range for two VFD. The THD(V) was less than 5% for all circumstances.
The damaging effects of harmonics
The Corvallis case shows how har
ment to find the most cost effective
and reliable solution for your facility. For more information please contact Eric Truesdale at
Westfaiia Separator Not Just Better Technology, But Technology That Pays
Several members of the AccuSine Active Harmonic filter team met with
An unmatched commitment to R&D has
representatives of the facility, toured the plant and reviewed test data. The team noted several likely con tributors to the problems. First, cables
resulted in sludge thickening and dewatering centrifuge technology that virtually pays for itself. Because of our improved performance, many municipalities have
of VFD are broadcast antennae for
high frequency noise that can radiate to other cables in the same vicinity. All cables act like receiving antennae for this high frequency noise and low volt age control wiring is highly suscepti ble. As a result, the low voltage signals are easily corrupted. To protect control wiring from this noise, it should never be installed running parallel to VFD power cabling even if each set of cables is in a separate metal conduit. In fact, the only time that VFD power cables should come close to control
cables is when they cross at 90 degrees. Because of this, the team rec ommended that the power cables be installed in grounded metal conduit
reaped the benefit of superior technolo gies available exclusively from Westfaiia Separator.
• Vari-Pond® for superior process flexibility • High torque 2-Gear Drive® for optimum control
• Positive scroll drive for minimun energy consumption
• Deep pond for maximum clarification
MmmM V Canada, inc. Leading Technologies. Individual Solutions 5353 John Lucas Drive ♦ Burlington • ON L7L 6G5 Tel: (90S) 319-3900 • Fax:(905) 319-3903
• Slotted feed zone for optimal polymer utilization
Our clients know they can count on Westfaiia for reliable, uninterrupted performance and
www.wsus.com E-mail; email@example.com
immediate assistance when required.
A company of mg technologies group
To find out more call Frank Scriver now at 905-259-4801.
September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 73
Environmental NewsjRecent industry report positive about public-private partnerships
sible ranking. No respondents rate overall satisfaction as anything less than "satisfied."
The Water Partnership Council recent ly released its first industry report on public-private partnerships. Based on interviews with 31 community leaders currently engaged in public-private partnerships, An Evaluation ofPublicPrivate Partnerships for Water and Wastewater Systems says satisfaction with partnerships is high, employees are satisfied, and impacts on the envirorunent, customers and the communi ty are positive. "The Water Partnership Council has compiled the first statistical data about the impacts of public-private partner ships, and it comes straight from the
people who know best: public officials who have partnerships in their commu nities today," says Water Partnership Council President Leonard F. Graziano.
Key findings in this first-of-its-kind report include: • 50 percent of respondents rate overall satisfaction with the partnership as "extremely satisfied," the highest pos
• 74 percent rate regulatory compli ance as better under the partnership than prior to the partnership. • 92 percent of respondents that pro jected cost savings achieved those sav ings; the other 8 percent indicate it is too early in the partnership to tell. • 93 percent of respondents note that involuntary employee turnover declined or remained the same.
• 93 percent of respondents say that employees have more training and pro fessional growth opportunities than they did prior to the partnership. • 64 percent of respondents report a decrease in employee grievances under the partnership; none report an
Refinery company fined for non-compliance with organic chemical regulation Imperial Oil Limited was fined $135,000 after pleading guilty to three counts under The Organic Chemical Sector Regulation 63/95 pursuant to the
The company owns and operates a petroleum refinery along the east shore of the St. Glair River in Samia, Ontario. The refinery must comply
with conditions under Regulation 63/95 that set out a daily loading limit of 117 kilograms per day and a month ly average loading limit of 40 kilo grams.
These legislated requirements must be met and reports must be made to the
• 93 percent of respondents note that private partners proactively participate in community activities above and beyond what's required in their con
District Office when exceedances
Ministry of the Environment's Samia occur.
The court heard that, on February 25 and March 4, 2004, Imperial Oil failed to ensure that the daily process
effluent plant loading calculated for
^www.neovalves.com^ Fifty years in this business have taught us that valves are criticai to the reliabiiity of your project and the
'ong term cost-effectiveness of your piant. Valves are not a component you want to
cut corners on and risk compromising
RF RFAljY your professional reputation.
FOR YOUR BUSINESS Offering a complete line of valves for water and wastewater
It's not a risk we're prepared to take either; with your reputation, or ours! When you say specify I\1E0, you can be certain you are specifying quality vaives without compromise. Regardiess of the application, cail us for immediate, expert attention to your vaive requirements; support you shouid expect ...and definitely deserve. We're ready for your business.
Toll Free:888-515-8885 Fax:
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1-800-248-2744 74 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
^ Environmental Newsj dissolved organic carbon did not exceed the daily plant loading limit
specified in the regulation. Once dis covered, the company failed to orally report these findings to the Director as soon as reasonably possible. As a
result of further investigation by the ministry's Investigations and Enforcement Branch, the company
was charged. It was confirmed that
• Manual Gears
there was no evidence of any adverse
• Complete Valve Automation
effect on the St. Clair River as a result of these exceedances.
John Meunier to supply clarifiers and filters to
BC water plant The District of Summerland, in British Columbia has selected John Meunier
to supply water treatment equipment for the future Trout Creek Water Treatment Plant. The contract is valued
at $2.8 million (Cdn). John Meunier will design and supply two ACTIFLO® clarifiers and six filters, for a total capacity of 72 million litres per day. Site preparation has begun and the new water treatment plant is scheduled for start-up in late 2006. Urban Systems of
TROY-ONTOR J Inc.
100 tonnes per year. Also, by generat ing their own electricity, the company will be freeing up enough grid-sup plied electricity to power approximate Hybridyne Power Systems Canada Inc. specializes in the turn-key design and installation of hybrid (wind, solar and other dynamic source) renewable energy systems. For further informa
Hach aids rural
Western Canada include the Greater
In response to the Katrina disaster, Hach
Vancouver Water District (Seymour-
Company, a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation, is donating money, techni cal training and water analytical equip
Red Deer Water Treatment Plant and
in the process of collecting funds to
tion visit, www.hybridynepower.ca
The project will be John Meunier's largest project in British Columbia. Other recent ACTIFLO projects in
the City of Calgary (Bearspaw and Glenmore Water Treatment Plants). For more information please visit
Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The company believes these rural water professionals will be able to use this aid to help the largest number of people get access to safe drinking water and adequate sewage treatment in the shortest time possible. In addition, both Danaher Corporation and the Associates of Hach Company are
ly 50 homes.
Kelowna will act as Project Manager.
Capilano Filtration Plant), the City of
ment to the Rural Water Associations of
donate to the American Red Cross. Hach
is also making their Analytical Waste Water Trailers available to water profes sionals in the impacted areas to assist with the clean-up efforts. Finally, Hach Company is donating equipment to Miox Corporation for use on a self-contained,
portable drinking water plant which will provide 24,000 gallons of clean and safe drinking water a day, to those in need.
Sewer anywhere and save. With ^/One Sewer Systems, you can develop parcels where gravity sewers are too expensive — or simply impossible to put in.
Aurora Cable Internet orders
new hybrid renewable energy system Aurora Cable Internet(ACI)located in
No massive trenches. The ^/One low pressure system uses a small main
in a shallow trench that follows the
Hybridyne Power Systems Canada Inc. to supply and build a new hybrid renewable energy system. Scheduled to be fully operational by the end of 2005, this installation will initially capture energy from the wind with three high-efficiency wind turbines. Future expansion is possible by com bining solar power with the wind tur bines.
ACI will be reducing their "Greenhouse Gas" emissions by about
contour of the land.
EE SEWER SYSTEMS
Flat, wet, reeky, hilly ■ E/Dne Sewer Systems can make tough sites buildahle -- and, cut yuur sewering costs up to 5D% Ruid Handling SolLrtions"
I SPRAYING PUMPING FILTERING All from one
You can sewer virtually anywhere. Including the site where old septic systems may be dying and polluting. And,^One Systems are totally reliable — no preventive maintenance, all but invisible. Let Us Prove It!
Send us the topo map for your next tough project. We'll show you how we can make it viable — and save you up to 50%. Call 1-877-624-5757 today.
September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 75
P PEPAC software
Reducing hydrogen sulfide from gas and air streams
Easy upgrade for nitrogen removal in waste
Eliminate hydro gen sulfide from biogas and air streams using our SULFA-BIND™
adsorption process. 99.98% removal on con
centrations up to Widely used interactive software for selecting the right material for buried infrastructure systems. Determine the real cost of materials you specify over the design life of the project through three independent programs. Tel: 972-
506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682,
E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association
3, "U o
j (U u
media. Tel: 506-
451-7407, Fax: 506-459-3954, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.adi.ca.
Web: www.anoxkaldnes.com. AnoxKaldnes Inc.
Rotary lobe pumps
Corrugated steel pipe
For almost 100 years, Armtec has been providing the construction industry with Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) prod ucts, deliver ing low cost engineered
• • • •
Rotary Lobe Pump know how Application experience Reliability Comprehensive range
• Customer focus
• Right first time. Every time
Tel: 514-633-0999, 1-800-633-0999, Fax: 514-633-9374,
E-mail:email@example.com. Web: www.aquateck.com Aquateck
Capacity of 0.5 grams of sulfur per gram of
SSP Pumps offers a broad range of rotaiy lobe pumps, and a range of disc pumps. Tlie range of high-quality pumps is channelled exclusively through a selected worldwide distribution network, and directly from the company's production facility located in Eastbourne, England. Benefits to customers:
• Global excellence
Chemical tank cleaning
Armtec's deep-comtgated structural steel plate (Bridge-Plate) can provide one of the most cost-effective and rapid solutions to short-span bridging needs. BridgePlate was developed with the benefit of 70 years' experience in providing soilsteel bridging solutions.Tel: 519-8220210, Fax: 519-822-1160, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
■u c ro u
numbers. Eleavy deposits lead to increased corrosion and reduce the life
time of surface coatings. NSF approved
Floran products have been developed for convenient and efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and fil ter surfaces. Tel: 800-387-7503, Web: www.cleartech.ca. ClearTech Industries
76 Emiwnmental Science
stonn water detention systems, culverts, bridges and other construction projects. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160, E-mail: email@example.com. Armtec
Water priming systems CompreVac, one of the largest suppliers of process Vacuum Systems and Water
priming systems using Rietschle
Tank surfaces in contact with water will
cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBPs, and increased HPC
throughout Canada. CSP is an economi cal and durable choice for storm sewers,
in Canada, have designed water
accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can
solutions to customers
AnoxKaldnes, Inc's FIYBAS^" treatment
process is a type of Integrated Fixed-Fihn Activated Sludge LFAS process. This sys tem is especially suitable for nitrogen re moval in existing activated sludge sys tems. It can upgrade systems using exist ing tankage on site to meet new effluent ammonia or even total nitrogen limits. HYBAS increases aerobic sludge age without increasing the solids loading rate to the secondary clarifier. Tel: 401-270-3898, Fax: 401-270-3908, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
that do not require a liquid seal system, unlike conventional liquid ring pumps. Maintenance costs and energy requfrements are lower. These systems reach a much deeper vacuum and do not require any seal ing fluids. Water can be primed very quick ly from a maximum depth of 33 feet.
Comstock An EMCOR Company
Comstock Canada Ltd. has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc tion services to the Canadian water and wastewater sectors for almost 100
years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Tel: 905335-3333, Fax: 905-335-0304, E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.comprevac.com CompreVac
Comstock Canada Ltd.
Engineering, September 2005
Showcase ecoSep below grade oil/water separators
Engineering guide available
Water systems and services
The CON/SPAN Engineering Guide is a valuable tool with all the necessary information to consider the CON/SPAN
System for many different design appli
cations. Filled with
numerous figures and
Cost-effective and safe, this highly efficient below grade oil/water separa tor provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs. Check
ecoSep...the clear choice for clean water. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519763-1982, E-mail: sales@concastpipe. com. Web: www.concastpipe.com. Con Cast Pipe
Engineering Guide provides a refer ence of design parameters, stan
dard detail illustra
tions, and limited
design methodolo gies. Available in binder or CD Rom format. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519-
763-1982, E-mail: sales@ concastpipe. com. Web: www.concastpipe.com.
Corrpro provides complete turnkey systems and maintenance services for the cathodic protection of water stor age tanks, treatment clarifiers, distri bution and transmission piping in compliance with AWWA and NACE Standards. Tel: 905-677-2700 Fax: 905-677-2432
E-mail: Ontario@corrpro.ca Web: www.corrpro.ca. Corrpro Canada
Design of underground detention systems for stormwater management In
Drive solutions for w/ater and wastewater to
les tuyaux de tdle ondul^
manage the quality of storm water runoff it is essential to
Plusieurs publications techniques et
des etudes de cas sont maintenant
disponibles sur notre site Internet. On
CD includes a
vous invite a nous visitor! Tel: 866-
descriptive video outlining the economic and envi ronmental advantages of underground detention systems. Comprehensive design software takes the designer from preliminary site hydrology to detailed system layout. Tel: 866-295-
295-2416, Telecopieur: 519-650-8081, Couriel: email@example.com. Site Internet: www. cspi.ca.
2416, Fax: 519-650-8081, E-mail:
Institut pour les tuyaux de tole
firstname.lastname@example.org, Web: www.cspi.ca. Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute
Solid dual rod sensors Gems
of the tank contents and output a 420mA signal proportional to liquid level. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905829-2630, E-mail: info@daviscontrols.
VLT* drives ensure reduced energy consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For
829-2630, E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com. Web: www.daviscontrols.com. Davis Controls Limited
Prevent asphalt cracking If you were planning to rout and seal your
wave guides to reach within 1" of a tank bottom; espe cially beneficial when con trolling expensive fluids, where undetected inventory beneath common sensors represents costly
to measure the distance to the surface
efits. For wastewater treatment the
costs. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-
Sensors feature solid state
they may be trimmed to required length during installation. Detector* sensors use Micropower Impulse Radar(MIR), or Time Domain Reflectometry(TDR),
For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben
water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance
waste. Available with rods of24" to 72"
asphalt joints after they fail, think about the added
repairing what you've , already done. Denso
.rf re-instatement tape is a polymer modified bituminous strip that is cold applied and designed to seal the joints between asphalt, concrete and steel, the first time. Re-instatement tape seals around catch basins, manholes, utility cuts and next to concrete curbs prior to paving. Do it right the first time
Odor control systems Duall offers a wide selection of cost-
effective, corrosion-resistant FRF dual laminate and thermoplastic scrubbers, fans and ventilation products for odor control applications including the new AroBIOSâ&#x201E;˘ Bioscrubbers incorporat ing international award-winning bio logical odor control technology with out the need for costly chemicals, Tel: 989-725-8184; Fax: 989-725-8188; E-
mail: email@example.com. Web: www.dualldiv.com
with Denso Road Products. Tel: 416-
291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898, E-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.densona.
com. Web: www.daviscontrols.com.
Davis Controls Limited
Denso North America
Duall Division, Met-Pro Corp.
September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 77
;e Showcase New optical oxygen sensor for the wastewater Industry
E-Z Out Lift Out Coupling Our Patented lift out slide rail system is designed for most vertical discharge type submersible pumps under 5 H.P.,
with 1-1/4", 2" and 3" NPT
discharge nozzles or 2-1/2" or 3" horizontal discharge. Our popular lift out check valve option is now available for 3" discharge pumps. Designed to provide easy service access for most submersible sewage, sump and grinder pumps from wet pit applica tions. The system can prevent the need or risk of a confined space entry to service pumps. Pumps are removed from above sump for inspection and
completes its i product portfolio
ECO CANADA Environmental Careers Organization L'Organisation pour ies carrieres en environnement
ECO Canada Conference 2005:
Opportunities, Strategies, Growth November,2005 Toronto, Ontario The ECO Canada Conference 2005 is a new national conference that will iden
tify emerging areas of business within the environmental sector and demon
strate the importance of a skilled envi
wastewater applications with the
— optical oxygen sensor Oxymax W C0S61, the fluorescent
method for oxygen measurement. Sensor predictive maintenance warns when mainte nance is required and can be calibrated direct ly in the medium. With no electrolyte to han
dle, no polarization time, no poisoning by HjS,the measuring point is easy and mainte
ronmental workforce. Tel: 403-233-
nance free. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-
service. Tel: 604-942-7994, Fax: 604942-7954, E-mail: email@example.com.
0748, Fax: 403-269-9544, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Web: www.eco.ca.
9444, E-mail: email@example.com, Web:
E-Z Out Manufacturing Inc.
Leak detection studies
Myers optimizes system efficiencies
Vortex Mixing System can be
with complete engi
neering services, providing cost-effec
approaches toward the development of proper leak
immediate cost sav
ings when planning a pump station. Myers collection system design service provides a comprehensive analysis and design of the complete network, ensur ing the system operates at peak effi ciencies under various running condi tions. Software programs provide the engineering tools to properly design the ideal station, including the number of pumps, type of control and lift system.
gies. Working to gether with 'key' personnel to
Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. EE Myers
understand the network enables
Flowmetrix to deliver today's best man agement practices reducing your nonrevenue water in the most cost-effec
suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the
tive manner. Tel: Western office 416-
Water Environment Federation. Tel:
779-1531, Eastern office 613-398-
519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157, Email: email@example.com. Web: www.greatario.com.
0296, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.flowmetrix.ca Flowmetrix Technical Services
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
Hach increases lab efficiency Hach Compa ny's new DR 5000 Spectrophotometer and TNT
reagents for streamlined laboratory analysis provide automatic method de tection and reagent blanking that are said to increase productivity and reduce er rors. Coupled with the new Hach TNT Plus reagent vials, the DR 5000 Spectrophotometer automatically recognizes the text method, determines the reagent blank and yields 10-fold measurement and averaging. Tel: 970-663-1377, Fax: 970-962-6710, E-mail: sstephens@ hach.com, Web: www.hach.com.
Wind monitoring station Designed for a broad range of wind monitor ing applications, from wind power site evalua tion to crop spray deci sions and
tion, the HOBO® Wind Monitoring Station accepts up to four wind
speed and direction sen sors, making it ideal for wind profiling at multi ple heights, and reports average wind speeds, wind gusts, and wind
Inland Aquatics is involved with both aquatic weed harvesting and dredging operations. Dredging works are available for storm pond maintenance, river, lake, marina works and those jobs that start on
direction. Other features
land and move into the water.
include plug-and-play operation, bat tery-powered operation and wireless
data retrieval. Web: www.hoskin.ca. Hoskin Scientific Ltd.
78 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
E-mail: email@example.com, www.inlandaquatics.ca Inland Aquatics
Pressure pipe system
Slim line submersible pumps
Eliminate sewer odour The Vortex Flow Insert eliminates
ITT Flygt has released a
sewer odour and controls corrosion
using a high-tech, low-maintenance design that has no moving parts. The
pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new
nates the need
for high-main TerraBrute™' is the first AWWA C900
PVC pressure pipe system specifically
engineered for Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) and other trenchless applications. Now you can standardize on PVC throughout your potable water and sewer infrastructure, whether you're using open-cut or trenchless methods. Tel: 905-403-0264, Fax: 905-
60Hz models, which can
handle up to 55 1/s and pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between 300 and 500 mm in diam
eter, with 3" and 4" hoses. They are
made from cast aluminum and have an
outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC 60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514-
403-1124, E-mail: marketing@ipexinc. com, Web: www.ipexinc.com.
but also costly chemical injection systems. Appli cations include drop manholes or pumping stations with odorous dis charges. Tel: 905-403-0264, Fax: 905403-1124, E-mail: marketing(S)ipexinc. com. Web: www.ipexinc.com.
New 5100 and 5150
ITT Flygt has launched its next gen eration of slurry pumps. They are designed specifically
695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web:
www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt
JWC offers wide range of pump station grinders The latest version of the
to handle the most
abrasive slurries, in a wide spectrum of tough industrial envi ronments. The pumps
(SEB) uses patented Ivey-soF mix
have the latest ITT
tures to desorb contaminants from
Flygt technology incorporated, ensur ing high efficiency, reliability and a long
soils increasing their bioavailability.
Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation
As a result, the duration for TPH, PAH be
Channel Monster® Extreme
Duty - XD. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-
Web: www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt
Ivey International Inc.
Kinetico Canada tive media for ar
Systems to treat individual
dwellings, small and medium sized
Ultrasorb-T or Ultrasorb-F media.
Chopper pumps Landia chopper pumps solve the tough est problems when pumping difficultto-handle liquids with high solid con tents. Chop and reduce solids particle size while pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate clogging problems and prevent costly
833-8858, E-mail:jwce@Jwce.com, Web: wwwjwce.com JWC Environmental
has three adsorp-
tems, For infor mation on Kineti-
Channel Monster® grinding and screening system is a product suited for extreme heavy loading applications such as large wastewater pump stations. JWC also has a large selection of pump sta tion grinders, well suited for the smallest applications, using the Channel Monster® CMD-1205, all the way up to the largest using the new
reduced by as much as 20 to 40% or more. Tel: 800-246-2744, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.sptt. net.
working life. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605,
Kinetico's Macrollte media is now
available for upgrading filter perform ance or increasing flow of existing pressure and gravity filter systems. The media is permanently installed, has the best warranties in the industry and is suitable for all applications. Tel: 519927-9500, E-mail: email@example.com.
Kinetico Canada Inc.
Kinetico Canada Inc.
break downs. Landia
chopper pumps are operating in: raw
food industry efflu ents, paper mills, slurries and sludges, and much more. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Landia
September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 79
Multi-stage filter for small drinking water applications
New Pipe Rao version 3
Parkson's Geo-Reactor'" is an attached
growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result is
DO,increased The MS Filter is a solution to a small
system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no membranes to replace, and yet treat ment performance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced popula
of the mixed
tions up to 2,000. Tel: 905-853-0164, Fax: 905-853-8807,E-mail: elew@msfilter. com, Web: www.msfilter.com.
Pipe Pac version 3, has arrived. For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905, E-mail: paul.smeltzer@ ocpa.com. Web: www.ocpa.com. Ontario Concrete Pipe Association
MS Filter Inc.
Package Water and
liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer
BOD reduction and nitrification can
easily be accomplished. Tel: 514-6368712, Fax: 514-636-9718, E-mail:
email@example.com. Web: www. parkson.com. Parkson
The Smith & Loveless
Complete chemical treatment package
PISTA* Grit Chamber
maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies
wide range of daily flows because of its
We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment
Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377,
exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete parti cles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in down stream basins, channels, weirs and pip ing. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web:
SPD Sales Limited could offer you a complete chemical treatment package for remote sites housed in an insulated /
heated fiberglass building, including metering pumps, tanks, analyzers and data storage systems ready for field in stallation. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-
293-9774, E-mail: sales@spdsales. com. Web: www.spdsales.com.
Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.
Smith & Loveless
E-mail: email@example.com. Web:
Asbestos and mold abatement|
Tri-Phase Environmental Inc.'s retnediHffiOVERY
Command. Other services also include
Emergency Response Equipment, and Supplies Assessments using video. To leant more: Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905578-6644, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.spillmanagement.ca
Spill Management Inc.
have defined stormwater treatment excellence for over a decade and have
an unsurpassed 15,000 installations
worldwide. To learn more: Tel: 800-
Tel: 905-823-7965, Fax: 905-823-7932,
565-4801, E-mail: info@stormceptor. com. Web: www.stormceptor.com. Stormceptor® Group
E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.pcbdisposal.com.
Spill Management offers On-Site SiteSpecific, All-risk and All-hazard Response Training for chemical spills using workshops with hands-on training, classroom instruction, Emergency Response Planning and Incident
used to help clients develop the most appro priate and costeffective remedial action plan; securing permits, ensuring site specific Health and Safety compliance, and providing expert remediation. Services include: • Asbestos removal/encapsulation of mechanical insulation systems, sprayed fireproofing and architectural finishes. • Supply and install insulation/finishes.
Stormceptor is the North American leader of engineered stormwater oil and sediment treatment systems. Rigorously tested, Stortiiceptor Systems effectively remove pollutants and ensure compliance. With a patent ed internal bypass, Stormceptor Systems treat all rainfall events and prevent scouring. Stormceptor Systetns
80 Environmental 5 <? c ' 4. Engineering, September 2005
Tri-Phase Environmental Inc.
Hatch safety net The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When
closed, the net system allows people to move freely around con fined space open ing without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limit
Aiima's 2-wire digital communication keeps the customer in control. Communication protocols such as Modhus, DeviceNet and Profibus are very complex and have been developed by the best computer communication minds in the industry. They allow the exchange of information between devices in the field, e.g. actuators, sen sors and controls, as required for the automation of controlled processes. Tel: 705-721-8247, Fax: 705-721-5851, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Troy-Ontor Inc.
ed maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening to facilitate full access to the confined space. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901, E-mail: email@example.com.
Showcase 5* o a
Join pipe to 144" Depend-0Lok: the new
joining pipe to 144". En
gineered for restrained and
strained sys tems,
pend-O-Lok allows angular deflection and pipeline thermal expansion/con traction while maintaining seal integri ty. Specify in systems to 600 PSl for strength, reliability and ease of mainte
nance. Tel: 905-884-7444, E-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.
i/) Controlling contaminated groundwater
Membrane Bioreactor(MBR) ZENON's ZeeWeed®
MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater treatment. The proven system replaces con
Waterloo Barrier is a
low permeability cut off wall for ground-
The New Waterra Pow-
water containment and iiimu
erLift-3 is a
It is a new
design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints
powerful portable actu
ator with the
that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the
ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/ patent pending status in several countries. Canadian
Metal Rolling Mills assisted in devel oping the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759, E-mail: info@ waterloo-barrier.com,
durability of the
Power Pump2's mechanism
and the light weight of the Hydrolift-ll's motor, gear and con trol. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-2385704, E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.waterra.com.
waterloo-barrier.com. Waterloo Barrier Inc.
ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treat ment plants. This ultrafil-
Green Turtle^'^ Group Green Turtle pro vides business, insti tutions and industry with
ventional filtration and combines clar
ification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expanded in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hundreds of installations, ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MGD.Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web:zenon.com.
O a c n
ZENON Environmental Inc.
Small drinking water systems
Water chloramination process control with Chemscan 2150
Chloramination of water
is performed to produce a
I more stable disinfectant
water treatment solu
tions that ensure reg ulatory compliance, including Proceptor™ oil and grease separators, and PHIX™ Neutralization Systems. A leader throughout North
America, Green Turtle''''^' is committed
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tive, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistent ly producing high quality water. Tel:
and works with our clients to deliver
905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: email@example.com, Web: www.
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ZENON Environmental Inc.
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innovative wastewater solutions to meet their needs. To learn more: Tel:
compared to free chlorine.
shown to reduce the for mation of THM and other disinfec
tion by-products by as much as 80%, while reducing taste and odor prob lems. A single ChemScan® Analyzer can detect monochloramine, ammo nia and/or free chlorine from multi
ple sample points in the process. Tel: 905-569-6246, Fax: 905-569-6244, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web. www.cancoppas.com Cancoppas
September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 81
^Environmental News jJoint research on rubber
struction operations are essentially the
same for both types. The reduced thickness and longer life ofrubber asphalt concrete allows it to become economically competitive
launched an innovative research proj
to conventional materials in some
ect with several key partners to exam ine the potential of crumb rubber asphalt concrete on Saskatchewan's highways.
cases. Its use also provides a market opportunity for recycled rubber pro duced in Saskatchewan.
The research project is the result of
Highways and Transportation Maynard Sonntag said; "Safe and effi cient transportation drives economic development and is a top priority for the people and industry of Saskatchewan." The project is located on Highway 11, from the south junction of Highway 2 to Chamberlain, for a total of approx imately 20 kilometres. The rubber asphalt, which is produced using crumb rubber manufactured from recycled
collaboration between Saskatchewan
Highways and Transportation, the University of Regina, the Saskatchewan Scrap Tire Corporation, the City of Regina, the National Research Council and the Prairie Rubber Corporation.
tion in northwestern BC. The court ruled that the board must ensure that
pest management plans will not lead to unreasonable adverse impacts on the environment. The decision also sets an
important precedent for the province's new de-regulated approach to pesticide use. The decision marks the end of a
two-year legal battle between the Ministry of Forests and EDRF (Environment Dispute Resolution Fund) client, the Granby Wilderness Society.
Summa celebrates 25th with
charity golf event
For more information visit the web
site at: www.highways.gov.sk.ca
Plans to spray grizzly forage with pesticides put on hold
scrap tires, will be used in the north bound and southbound driving lanes,
with conventional asphalt for the pass ing lanes and shoulders. Rubber asphalt concrete offers sev eral benefits, including lower traffic noise, reduced pavement thickness, and longer pavement life versus con ventional asphalt concrete. Road con
A July 2005 decision of the BC Supreme Court ordered the provincial Environmental Appeal Board(BAB)to reconsider the Ministry of Forests' plans to use pesticides on plants relied on by an endangered grizzly popula-
nthrafilter FILTER MEDI^ ^ i-. i
Frank Cosentino (left) and Fernando • ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax:(519)751-0617 E-mail: email@example.com • Web: www.anthrafiiter.net
High Pressure Water Jetting lina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services
77 ORCHARD ROAD
AJAX, ONTARIO L1S6K9
Waste Water Treatment
Sponge Jet Cleaning
BAYCOR FIBRE TECH INC.
The Best Screen In The World Is A Baycor Screen
82 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
576 Elgin St., Unit D Brantford, Ontario Tel: (519)751-7787 Fax:(519) 751-7712 firstname.lastname@example.org www.baycorfibre.com
Summa Engineering Limited located in Mississauga, Ontario, celebrated its 25th anniversary, July 29, with a creative combination of fellowship and golf. Some 140 golfers played at the renowned Hockley Valley resort. Golfers paid $125 per person, with the resort charging Summa a low rate; the difference was donated to the Heart
and Stroke Foundation. Additionally leading consulting and equipment com panies each sponsored a hole with pro ceeds also going to the Foundation. Later some 235 people attended din ner. At the banquet, founding partners Frank Cosentino and Fernando Chua
traced the origin oftheir company which
had begun in a basement apartment a quarter century ago. Frank later announced that Summa had topped up the contribution to the Heart and Stroke
Foundation resulting in a S10,000 dona tion from golfing activities. The Foundation also provided prizes for
Fine Screening and
^ Environmental NewSj BC power plant proposals terminated When BC Hydro announced on June 17th that it was abandoning plans to meet Vancouver Island's electricity needs through a natural gas power
plant at Duke Point in Nanaimo, envi ronmental groups and concerned citi zens let out a collective sigh of relief. The Duke Point Power Plant proposal was the last vestige of a strategy which originally called for the now-cancelled Georgia Straight Crossing gas pipeline and up to three gas-fired generation plants on the Island.
Minto wastewater system receives funding for upgrade The Village of Minto will receive $2,634,494 under the Canada-New Brunsvdck Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund for the upgrade ofthe municipality's wastewater infrastructure. The announce
ment was made Aug. 30 by Premier Bernard Lord; Andy Scott, Member of Parliament for Fredericton and Regional
remaining $33 million will come from local governments whose projects win support from the fund. To date, two proj
and Minto Mayor Gary DiPaolo. Thanks to this fund agreement, every 33 cents that a participating municipality invests in an infrastruc ture project becomes a $1 investment for that community." The project involves the replace ment of the existing mechanical sewage treatment plant with an aerated lagoon system including ultraviolet
ects have been announced in New Brunswick under the Canada-New
Brunswick Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund agreement, for total funding of $12,588,064. In New Brunswick, ACOA is
responsible for the implementation of the program federally, while the Department of the Environment and
Municipal Rural Infrasti-ucture Fund agreement, signed on Dec. 3, 2004, will
Local Government, in conjunction with the Regional Development Corp.,
invest $99 million in communities across
are responsible for the provincial juris
New Brunswick over five years. The gov
ernments of Canada and New Brunswick
For more information visit www.gnb.ca and www.infrasfructure.gc.ca. continued overleaf...
are each investing $33 million. The
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 83
Turn-Key Environmental Engineering:
Hydrogen Fuel Generation
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Lucy Casacia, B.Sc. Metallurgy
^ Environmental Newsj Bennett authorized to
accept Nova Scotia soil Bennett
Air Pollution & Dust Control
President & C.E.O.
authorization to accept about 1,500
tonnes of hydrocarbon contaminated
Phone; 416.301.4958 or 905.464.2586
www.adventisoapitai.com • E-mail: email@example.com
soil from the former Domtar site locat
ed in Sydney, Nova Scotia. The con taminated soil is coming from the clean up ofa previous storage tank that
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contained coal tar material from the former Domtar site located on the
Coke Ovens site in Sydney, Nova Scotia.
The soil is acceptable for process ing during commissioning of the Belledune facility and is well below the acceptance criteria stipulated in the draft Approval to Operate for Bennett. Bennett Environmental has been
working for several months to obtain sufficient quantities of contaminated soil in order to complete commission ing and conduct testing on stack emis
R.V.Anderson Associates Limited environment • infrastructure
tel 416 497 8600 web www.rvandersQn.com
toronto welland Ottawa sudbury london moncton fredericton charlottetown bombay
American Concrete Pipe Association appoints
engineering ■ operations ■ management
C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS
Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Collingwood
CLEARVIEW Geophysics Inc.
Get a dear view of: • UST's, buried metal, debris & fiil
Matt Childs, PE,has been appointed
• Fermer excavations & structures
President of the American Concrete
"Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations"
• Leachate piumes
• Voids and fractures
Pipe Association. He has been with ACPA for five years, most recently
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.geophyslcs.ca
• Pipes and utilities
CONTAMINATED REAL ESTATE We specialize in purchasing contaminated residential, industrial and commercial properties in Ontario. Work out options are avail able where the clean-up costs exceed the value of the property. Complete Environmental Solutions, 123 Briggs Avenue, Richmond Hill, Ont. L4B 1X6
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84 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
serving as Director of Engineering Services. While in that position, he completed programs for various ACPA committees by serving as a staff liaison to the Technical, Manufacturing Quality and Goverranent Relations Committees. Also, he has been
involved in helping develop marketing material for the Association, and in planning many ACPA training courses. Mr Childs is replacing John Duffy who recently retired. For more infonnation e-mail email@example.com
Environmental Newsj CONESTOGA-ROVERS & ASSOCIATES
New equipment to enhance
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Environment Ministry's regional office, the new equipment will identify potential sources of large and small particulate matter, which will help the provincial government and its partners to continue to develop the Prince George Airshed Management Plan.
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First jail sentence under
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Jeffrey Dressier pleaded guilty to two charges under the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste Regulations made pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. He received a sen
tence of 30 days on each count, to be
served concurrently. The charges were related to actions taken by Mr. Dressier while employed by Battery Broker Environmental
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Dressier oversaw the export of more than 37,800 kilograms of waste batter ies for recycling to the United States. There were no permits in place authorizing the exports. In addition, he failed to ensure that copies of the rele
Planning & Engineering Solutions www.gartnerlee.com British Columbia I Alberta I Yukon I Northwest Territories I Ontario I Quebec
vant waste manifests were forwarded to
Environment Canada, as required. It was his responsibility to do so on behalf of the company. Charges were laid on February 25, 2005, after a year-long investigation by
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Unit G, 420 Weber St. North, Waterioo, Ontario N2L 4E7
13, 2005, in St. Catharines, Ontario. continued overleaf... September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 85
Giffels An Ingenium Group Company
ADI receives National
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The Composting Council of Canada has presented its Award of Merit to the staff of ADI International (PEI) Inc. in recognition of ADI's significant achievement and support of compost ing across Canada. Susan Antler, Executive Director of the Composting Council of Canada presented the award to ADI staff located at the Brookfieid, PEI composting facility, which ADI
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"Through the efforts of dedicated ADI staff, as well as home and business owners, the province of PEI has achieved a waste diversion rate of over
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The Central Composting Facility also won the Benefit to Society Award presented by Consulting Engineers of New Brunswick. The Benefit to Society Award acknowledges engineering design projects that have a positive effect on communities in which they are located. The technology was designed specifically for the Central Composting Facility to meet the province's strict environmental regula tions, and furthers the realization of the
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Victaulic provides emergency repair in record time
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Providing a wide range of Environmental Services
major break in their 36" HDPE line,
they called Victaulic Depend-O-Lok
Water & Wastewater Treatment I Environmental Assessment & Planning Solid Waste Management I Stormwater Management I Watermain & Sewer Rehabilitation
).L. Richards & Associates Limited
When Canadian Electrolytic Zinc Limited, a zinc processing facility in Vaiieyfieid, Quebec, experienced a
Inc. for help. Located next to the St.Lawrence River, CEZinc suffered a
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86 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
time was of the essence. Victaulic
Depend-O-Loc custom designed, pro duced and delivered a 36" x 16" ExE
Type 2 coupling in under 56 hours,
helping CEZinc avert a lengthy and costly stoppage. The Type 2 is a flexible, unre strained sleeve coupling for use in polyethylene (HDPE) pipe and is typi cally installed in plain pipe ends. The custom-designed stainless steel cou-
Environmental Newsj pling was created in two separate pieces to allow easy installation with out having to remove the existing pipe. Victaulic hand-delivered the cou
pling and worked with a CEZinc con tractor on the installation, which took less than 45 minutes.
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This allowed CEZinc to get the plant up and running at its optimal Leaders in
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Engineering & Climate/weather conditions
not seen for 50 to 100 years Scientists and engineers who have studied extreme weather this summer
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and compared the data to historical
weather patterns, say that they are the result of the rare convergence of cli matic and weather phenomena. The
simultaneous occurrence of all current
weather activity may not have taken place in the last 50 to 100 years or longer, they say. Dr. Jayantha Obeysekera, Director of the Hydrologic and Environmental Systems Modeling Department at the
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South Florida Water Management District, said: "We are experiencing an uncommon event. South Florida cli
mate varies in cycles, some that form patterns with long return frequencies. This certainly is an event of a magni tude that normally occurs once every 50 to 100 years. The concurrence of these weather/climate factors, which is
our current situation, is a rarity. Though seasonal climatic forecasts may have significant uncertainties, water managers need to take actions in advance when climatic outlooks indi
cate a risk of extremely wet condi
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tions." A monster hurricane like Katrina-
and the fact that Florida was hit by four large hurricanes last summer - are but the most extreme manifestations of the
unusual weather patterns we are expe riencing, the scientists say. Other evi dence: A rare warm phase in the North Atlantic; record rainfall; historic record water levels in lakes; predic tions of much higher than normal rain fall; extremely warm ocean currents and, of course, unusually high predic tions of hurricane activity. For a full copy of this report, log on to www.sfwmd.gov continued overleaf...
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eliminate odour in municipal pipeline sewer drops Sanitary sewer manholes and pumping stations that discharge H2S gas and other foul odours can be serious prob lems for inhabitants of surrounding businesses and residences.
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lions of dollars on chemical injection, hiofiiters and other forms of odour and corrosion control.
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88 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
The proposed Red Chris Copper-Gold Mine project in BC has received envi ronmental approval following a com prehensive review by British Columbia's Environmental Assessment Office.
Located 450 ion north of Smithers
and i 8 km southeast of fskut, the Red
Chris Mine project involves the con struction and operation of an open-pit mine, including storage areas, waste dumps, an access road, a power line to the site, a worker camp and a water supply. Capital cost is approximately $228 million, and the project will provide approximately 250 full-time jobs dur ing its 25-year operation. Construction is scheduled to begin in spring 2006. continued overleaf...
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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 89
^Environmental NewsjWater filtration systems donated to Katrina relief effort
ZENON Environmental and Maytag are donating water filtration systems to aid in relief efforts in affected areas in
Mississippi and Louisiana. ZENON has already sent 40 of its Homespring central water filtration systems to Louisiana and Maytag, its distributor in North America, has agreed to match these donations.
deployed in easily accessible public locations, the 80 units provided are capable of providing clean, safe drink ing water to approximately 600,000 people. ITT offers funds and
equipment to Katrina relief efforts
ITT Industries has pledged $250,000.00 (US)to the Red Cross to fund immedi ate hurricane relief. It also made avail
Six public schools and several churches in Hancock and Harrison Counties have been identified as initial
sites for the filtration system. Several disaster relief housing centers in the New Orleans area are also being con sidered.
The central water filtration systems will help prevent further spread of bac teria-borne and parasitic diseases, which constitute a major health prob lem for survivors and rescue teams at the moment.
Each Maytag-Homespring filtration system can potentially produce up to 5,000 gallons of water per day. When
able fluid technology equipment for delivery to Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama, including dewatering pumps and reverse osmosis systems which could
Additionally, the company sent night vision equipment and personnel to assist in round-the-clock search and rescue efforts in the affected areas.
The company has installed more than 70 large pumps in New Orleans over the years as part ofthe city's flood control system. Together, these pumps are capable of pumping up to 2 billion US gallons an hour. To supplement these in the hurricane's aftermath, the
company has prepared a fleet of more than 100 large submersible pumps, routinely rented for dewatering proj ects, on standby to help remove the flood
Developed just prior to the "Great Midwest Flood of 1993," these enginedriven pumps can each remove 20,000 gallons of water per minute. Additionally, the company has pre
pared chlorination and UV disinfec tion equipment to help provide potable water to victims of Hurricane Katrina.
This equipment can provide up to 250,000 gallons of water per day. Chlorinators Inc. celebrates
30 years in business Chlorinators Incorporated, manufac turer of the REGAL gas chlorinator, celebrates 30 years in business in October 2005.
Founded in 1975 by Jim and Diane Haskett to service the swimming pool industry, the company has grown over the years to provide water and wastewater disinfection to various industries .
MAXIMIZE PERFORMANCE - MINIMIZE SLUDGE Fluidynes's ISAM™ (Integrated Surge-AnoxicMix) represents the latest in advanced wastewater treatment and biological nutrient removal. The ISAM™ produces high-quality water, meeting the strictest effluent limits while minimizing sludge production. Ideal for industrial and municipal wastewater, the technology is perfect for treating highly variable flows and loadings. Treatment plants ranging from 5,000 gpd to multi-MGD are operating.
The ISAM™ provides the following advantages over other activated sludge processes: Reduces capital, operation and maintenance costs Reduces tank size by 25%
Reduces sludge production by more than 85% Sll:' Reduces energy requirements
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90 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005
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SOME THINGS DO NOT BELONG TOGETHER
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Con Cast Pipe's ecoStorm is third party tested at NWRI, MOE NETE reviewed and boasts 80% net Total Suspended Solids (TSS) removal. It's a clear choice for your stormwater treatment system. Con Cast Pipe's ecoStorm product is the cost-effective solution for removing floating pollutants, debris and contaminated solids from stormwater. It is engineered site specific for your application and exceeds pollutant removal regulations in
industrial, commercial and residential applications. ecoStorm benefits from efficient installation using standard precast components and low maintenance costs due to easy access for inspection or contaminant removal. Visit www.concastpipe.com to CON CAST PIPE discover more regarding ecoStorm and other key water treatment products. 1 -800-668-PIPE Licensed by Con Cast Pipe from Royal Environmental Systems Inc., A Division of Royal Enterprises America
September 2005, Envitvnmental Science & Engineering 91
THIS IS NOT THE TIME TO FIND OUT YOU HAVEN'T USED THE
MOST ACCURATE AND RELIABLE SENSORS.
©2005 Hach Company
Your job is too critical to put your trust in anything less than the gold standard.Thafs why the Hach Digital Sensor Family, with the set00™ or set000™ multi-parameter controllers, offers a total solution for all your water analysis
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