Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 2005

Page 1


^ katrina will leave Gulf States Igrappling with a toxic legacy Construction underway on Durham Region's wastewater



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September 2005 Vol.18 No.4


When the grass is not always greener Editorial comment by Tom Davey Katrina will leave Gulf States grappling with a toxic legacy Engineered wetlands can be effective cold climate wastewater

Issued September, 2005 ÂŁS<Sf invites articies (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmentai protection topics, if you are interested in submitting an articie for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmentai Science & Engineering Publications inc. reserves the right to edit ail submissions without notice.





Construction underway on Durham Region's wastewater system upgrade

18 20

Laboratory workstation odour control at MaRS/Toronto Upgrading Sainte-Julie wastewater facilities in Quebec


Hundreds of millions of membrane fibres in Ontario, but who's counting? The evolution of diverse chamber system applications Use of phreatophytes in management of groundwater

26 32


34 38 40 44 48 55 56

Automated nutrient monitoring for water and wastewater Can Winbags solve emergency waste storage problems? Fall conference previews Automatic valve closure improves chlorine gas safety Refocusing on small water purification systems Canada's climate change strategy US border restrictions worry waste managers

DEPARTMENTS 52 57 60 63 68 72

Coal ash may offer hope for millions of Bangladeshis Gulf of Mexico not right for methane gas hydrate formation Technological innovation for sodium hypochlorite dosing Surfactant desorption is key to successful PAH bioremediation New take on ancient art of monitoring Eliminating harmonics improves plant performance

4 Environmental Science c& Engineering, September 2005

Environmental News


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When the grass is notalways greener

Grass is a versatile word

By Tom Davey

visit our place and he expressed

which has mutated into

amazement that the condition of

four quite separate mean ings. For decades grass was the most widely-used noun for the verdant garden plant which

my property had been the subject of a complaint. The absurdity of the event was driven home by an e-mail from

forms the lawns of most domestic

Ontario Clean Alliance, that week, which reported that Ontario had already had 34 smog alerts in 2005

gardens throughout North America and Europe. In recent years, grass has mutated into a second noun for

the most widely-used illegal sub stance in the world, cannabis.

and implored people to review their personal impacts on air quality. Ontario has several hundred

But, as those who enjoy the BBC TV detective programs will know, the word grass has mutated again, this time as both noun and verb. In the UK, a police informer is disparagingly known as 'a grass' while the actual act of informing is in the form of the verb 'to grass.' Indeed, these slang terms have, almost literally, grown like weeds in the UK and are now spreading in

thousand gas or electric lawn mow ers. The gas mowers emit green house gases directly. Electric mow-


recently from our local council about a Clean Yards' Complaint. I

air polluters respectively. But many Canadians have a great love for their verdant lawns which often mimics parental child care. In addition to the large vol umes of water, chemical weed

was incredulous to read that: ''The

killers and fertilizers are often lav

Town of Aurora has received a complaint about the condition of your property'. The council note warned that I was required: 'to cut/maintain grass groundcover on a weekly basis'. Ironically, it now seems that someone has grassed on me; I have no suspicions that this came from a neighbour. The notice came at a particularly bad time as my wife was having serious health problems culminating in a stay in hospital.

ished on many lawns to achieve the perfect weed-free grass. 1 have minimal objections when chemicals and fertilizers are applied in moderation, especially by experts. But, run-off from improp erly applied fertilizer can accelerate eutrophication, which adversely affects the water quality of our

Speaking of the word grass, when used for informers, I was absolutely amazed to get a notice

carts over the town's grounds, fol lowed by operators with several grass trimmers which are also motorized. Cutting grass this way is fine, but surely it should be done when growth warrants it, not as a routine?

I do not quibble that yard main tenance is the decent thing for homeowners to do. However, I must mention that defining aesthet ics has proved impossible in the world of both written and perform ing arts, let alone lawn care. Books that are panned by critics often

Ontario had already had 34smog alerts during the period 1 was ordered to'cut/malntain grass on a weekly basls^ ers do it vicariously from electrici ty generated at Nanticoke and Lambton, Ontario's number 1 and 2

emerge later as masterpieces. The renowned academie francaise, in Paris, rejected many books which are now regarded as masterpieces. But one of the most famous law

suits defining aesthetics was in Eondon when Whistler sued Ruskin,

a renowned art critic of his day. Ruskin had described Whistler's

'Nocturne' as: "Throwing a pot of paint in the public's face." Whistler won the case but was awarded one

farthing in damages, the lowest coin of the Realm. While the court case

bankrupted Whistler, his reputation as an artist survived as did Ruskin's

reputation as a writer. But Whistler ran off to Venice with his mistress; Ruskin never consummated his mar

riage. The grass was greener in Italy.

rivers and lakes.

The current furor over global warming - with increasing smog alerts - makes it absurd to legislate

The name of the informer was

that homeowners: 'cut/maintain

withheld from me, nor was the by law officer able to come right away. However 1 was able to get a promi nent and knowledgeable citizen to

grass groundcover on a weekly basis.' For example, my town has at least four large motorized grass cutters which are driven like golf


September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 1


Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor

Federal Government will Invest


E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please)

more than $150 million

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag,com Sales Director

in 2005 - 2006 for remediation


E-mali: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denlse@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: vlrglnla@esemag.com Design & Production CHRIS MacDONALD E-mail: chris@esemag.com Publisher


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL, Ontario

The Government of Canada is

investing $138.7 million in measures to help remediate 97 priority contaminated sites under federal responsibility across

Dr. Robert 0. Landine

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE

has been earmarked for the assessment

remediation activities.

of an estimated 500 sites, which will

"Canada's North includes some of

determine the next steps and the scien tific support that is necessary. The funding is part of the Budget 2004 long-term commitment of $3.5

the country's most complex clean ups;

billion to remediate contaminated sites

under federal responsibility. Environment Minister Stephane


made the

announcement in

nated under the Action Plan for Federal Contaminated Sites. The Government

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

of Canada is trying to reduce the dan gers that contaminants pose to human health and the environment.

Marie Meunier

"The Government of Canada takes

John Meunier inc., Quebec

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater

plant operators and contractors. Information contained In ÂŁS<5f has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. fS5f cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial mat ter. Although the Information contained In this magazine Is believed to be correct, no responsibility Is assumed. Articles in this magazine are Intended to provide Infor mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-malled to chris@esemag.com.

pmnBPA Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail


Product Agreement No.40065446

Registration No.7750 Printed In Canada. No part of this pub lication may be reproduced by any

means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: '

Canada $75.00 (plus $5.25 GST). All advertising space orders, copy, art work,film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30,Aurora,Ontario, Canada,

L4G SVG, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

that's what makes our commitment to

remediation so important," said Andy Scott, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and Federal

R. V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario

British Columbia

maintenance. Activities at the site this

year will involve additional site inves tigations, assessments and surface

Yellowknife, at the site of the former Giant Mine which is among the higher risk sites in the Canadian North desig

ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick

Giant Mine is currently under care and

Canada. An additional $14.3 million


Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario

collaboration to develop long-term remediation solutions. In the interim,

seriously its responsibility to protect this heritage and the health of the Canadian public by remediating sites under federal responsibility," said Minister Dion. "We are taking action to undo the harmful effects of past practices, while ensuring that from now on environmentally-friendly val ues necessary to health are applied on the human, environmental and eco nomic levels in Canada."

Yellowknife's Giant Mine began operations in 1948 and has a long and impressive history as one of Canada's earliest and richest gold mines. Over its lifespan, Giant Mine produced more than 7 million ounces of gold and played a significant role as a major employer and economic engine for Canada's North. The mine reverted back to the Crown in 1999 when the

mine's owner at the time, Royal Oak Mines Inc., went into receivership. The main issue at Giant is the

237,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust stored underground at the site. The dust was created during the gold pro duction process. The Government of

Interlocutor for Metis and Non status

"One of our objectives when reme diating contaminated sites in the North is to promote social and economic ben efits for local First Nations, Metis, Inuit and Northerners," remarked the Flonourable Ethel Blondin Andrew, Member of Parliament for the Western

Arctic and Minister of State (Northern Development). "From contracting opportunities, advanced training and job creation, clean ups at contaminated sites like Giant Mine will leave a posi tive lasting legacy in terms of the local economy and a skilled workforce." To ensure the remediation of con taminated sites is carried out in a well-

coordinated matter, the Government of Canada will develop a strategic longterm plan and will report on progress to Canadians each year. The Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan sup ports the Government of Canada's Project Green, which incorporates immediate, short-term, medium-term and long-term goals and initiatives for promoting a clean and healthy environ ment.

View the federal contaminated sites inventory at: www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/dfrp-rbif/cs-sc

Information contained in ES&E

has been compiled from sources believed to be correct.

Canada and the Government of the

ES&E cannot be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other

Northwest Territories are working in

editorial matter.

8 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005


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Katrina will leave Gulf States grappling with a toxic legacy said. "We haven't found

high levels of pesticides, heavy metals, PCBs or other toxic materials."


Fuel from thousands

of fuel tanks at gasoline stations and leaking gaso line from flooded cars

and boats has given the water an oily sheen. In addition, there are flood ed industrial areas and

160,000 households with their cans of paints, sol vents, fertilizers and pes ticides stewing in flooded garages and basements. Despite all the con tamination, New Orleans'

us President George \N. Bush, joined by Vice Admiral Thad Allen, (left), Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco, in red. New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, right of Bush, and White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card, second right of Bush, during a tour of downtown New Orleans, on Sept. 12, 2005.(AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Thetrue environmental impact of

the Gulf of Mexico and

ing wetlands and Gulf," said Kelly,

Hurricane Katiina, including oil spills, chemical leaks and toxic waste, will remain unknown for months. "Unless you've seen it, you can't comprehend the scope of the damage," Jean Kelly of Louisiana's Department of Environmental Quality(DEQ)stressed. The August 29 hurricane wrecked a huge area in southern Louisiana and Mississippi, with scores of towns flat

adding that there are likely other spills of oil, gasoline, diesel and chemicals throughout the region. Until all the floodwaters are gone, it is impossible to

tened and unaccounted for. More than

and Alabama.

know for certain.

At least 525 sewage treatment plants in Louisiana were also damaged, many of them flooded. More than 1,200 drinking water treatment plants were knocked out in Louisiana, Mississippi

4.5 million homes and businesses were

Health and enviromuental officials

without power at one point. Satellite photos taken after the storm show that

are sampling floodwaters throughout the region but had only released results from New Orleans, as of September 9, 2005. At that time about 60 percent of

the Chandeleur Islands southeast of

New Orleans, the home of the Beeton

National Wildlife Refuge, have van ished. In fact, the photos show that the coastline of the state has been signifi cantly altered, requiring new maps and navigation charts. A 3.5-million gallon spill from leaking refinery storage tanks in Chalmette has contaminated much of

the town and surrounding wetlands, the U.S. Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA) reported. "Ruptured storage tanks at the mouth of the Mississippi River in Venice, 75 miles south ofNew Orleans, have dumped an estimated 3.3 million gallons of crude oil into the surround

filthy floodwaters are being pumped into Lake Pontchartrain, which is actually a huge estuary that opens directly into

has some unique and rare species, including the endangered manatee. "We're hoping that by the time the contaminated water gets into the Gulf it will be diluted enough to not have any impact," Kelly said. Not surprisingly, state and federal environmental laws have been tem

porarily suspended. Randy Lanctot, executive director of the Louisiana Wildlife Federation, an

environmental group, agreed with the suspension. "We don't have any choice, at least until all the water is pumped out," Lanctot said. "I hope environmen tal officials are staying on top of what's

New Orleans remained under water,

in the water," he added, with a view to the eventual final cleanup of contami

and those waters were highly contami nated by bacteria from human and

lake bottom.

other wastes.

Leaves have turned brown on many trees in the city and it is not known if they will recover. There have also been media reports of dead birds falling out of the sky. However, EPA says that its air quality testing has not found any hazardous levels of pollutants or air borne toxins despite numerous fires and natural gas leaks.

nated shorelines and sediments on the

Once dry. New Orleans itself will require disposal of an estimated 60 mil lion tons of debris and extensive decon

tamination that may take years and bil lions of dollars. A major restoration effort will also be needed for the natu ral environment. No one knows how

much at this point because the full extent of the damage is unknown.

As for other toxins in the floodwa

ters, only high levels of lead have been found in preliminary testing, Kelly

10 Environmental Science c& Engineering. September 2005

Source: Global Information Network

Associated Engineering is a

Canadian, employee-owned and operated consulting engineering and project management firm. We focus on four key sectors: • Water • Environmental

• Infrastructure

•Transportation Our people are our strength.

We have the depth and diversity it takes to deliver quality, service and

value for every project.

Bill De Angelis, Vice President and General Manager of our Ontario operation, announces the following additions to our growing Toronto office. Alex Leong, M.Sc., P.Eng., has joined Associated Engineering as Manager of the Water Group in Ontario. Alex has 25 years of experience in the municipal water and wastewater sectors, including project management, studies, design, construction supervision and commis sioning of facilities in Canada and

Fred Albanese, P.Eng. will lead our Instrumentation and Controls team

in Ontario. Fred has over 20 years of experience in control systems for water and wastewater facilities. This experi ence includes process and control systems, design, programming,systems start up and project management.



Pat Coleman, Ph.D. joins Associated Engineering as a Senior Wastewater Process Specialist. Pat has 20 years experience on wastewater projects across Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. A specialist in biological nutrient removal, Pat's experience includes assessments, design, process optimization, commissioning and training.

Ed Salenieks, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. has joined our team as Manager of the Wastewater Group in Ontario. Ed has 25 years of experience in the wastewater and water sectors. He will be

responsible for wastewater engineering services, including planning, evaluation, design, construction services and commissioning of pumping and treatment facilities.


For more information about Associated Engineering, please visit our website at www.ae.ca



Engineered wetlands can be effective cold climate wastewater treatment

North America has not seen

By Scott D.Wallace,P.E.

residential growth equal to

that of the last decade since the end of the Second World

War. At the same time, aging water and sewer infrastructure must be upgraded and replaced, leading to a number of redevelopment challenges. The cre ation of open space for recreation and wildlife habitat is often a top priority in creating livable, people-friendly communities. Successfully meeting these challenges requires combining the talents of a variety of professionals including engineers, landscape archi tects, planners, environmental scien tists, and contractors.

The new challenges in land devel opment (and redevelopment) are forc ing everyone involved to be receptive to innovative approaches to infrastruc ture service. Engineered wetlands are playing a leading role in the new, green treatment infrastructure of the 21st


Types of wetland treatment systems There are three major types of con

British Petroleum wetland in Casper, Wyoming area and are ideal for situations where

space is limited. Cold climate wetland design and performance Introduction of engineered wetland technology into Canada and northern

structed wetlands: free water surface

areas of the United States has been

(surface flow, or open water), horizon tal subsurface flow (vegetated sub merged bed, root-zone or rock-reed fil ters), and vertical flow systems. Free

limited by the ability of conventional wetland systems to operate without freezing during the winter. A new design approach is to use horizontal subsurface-flow and vertical-flow con

Engineered wetlands are playing a leading role in the new,green treatment infrastructure ofthe

21St century. water surface wetlands are man-made

equivalents to natural marshes. These systems provide habitat for the most wildlife, fforizontal subsurface flow

wetlands were developed in Germany in the 1960s. In these systems, water flows horizontally through a gravel bed planted with reeds. Because no water is exposed during the treatment process, these wetlands are ideal for residential sewage treatment. The newest types of wetlands are vertical flow processes; they provide the great est amount of treatment within a given

structed wetlands that are covered with

an insulating mulch layer to prevent freezing.

is limited by low oxygen transfer rates. Another advancement in engineered wetland technology has been the development of aerated wetland sys tems.(This technology, termed Forced Bed Aeration™ is patented in Canada and the U.S.) Aerated systems are not limited in their ability to transfer oxy

gen to the wastewater and as a result, are very effective in ammonia removal. Combining Forced Bed Aeration with insulation produces engineered wetlands that can work effectively year-round, even under very cold winter conditions.

Properly designed insulation of the wetland bed is effective in preventing freezing and resulting hydraulic fail ure. Relying on snow and ice cover does not provide reliable insulation during cold periods with limited snow

Scott Wallace, EE; is Executive Vice President, North American Wetland

pack. Placing a mulch layer over the system allows the wetland to operate effectively throughout the winter months. The type of mulch insulation used can strongly affect the perform ance of the system. Only well decom posed organic materials can be used without degrading treatment efficien cy. To be effective, insulation must be uniform in coverage, which requires that it be designed as an integral part of the wetland system. Treatment in most wetland systems

12 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Engineering, He

is the principal author on


WERE design manual, "Feasibilit)>, Design Criteria, and O&M Requirements for Small-Scale Constructed



Treatment Systems"scheduledforpublica tion in 2005.


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Construction underway on Durham Region's $164 million wastewater system upgrade By Marek Krynski,P.Eng.,and George Powell,P.Eng.


''^'•'"''^jii}.}- ■". !"v".

With a population now

approaching 600,000 and projected to reach over 900,000 in the next 15

years, Ontario's Durham Region is one of Canada's fastest growing municipal ities. The single most significant growth pressure the Region faces is a dramatic increase in residential devel

opment, which in turn, stresses its 11 wastewater treatment facilities.

One of the region's larger facilities, the Harmony Creek Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), which services the




Courtice, is nearing its rated capacity of 68,200 mVd (15 MIGD). Half of the secondary treatment process compris es a trickling filtration facility, com missioned in 1962, which is now reaching the end of its useful life. Significant upgrading and/or replace ment is needed for the WPCP to meet

its present effluent requirements. It is also important to note that the present Water Pollution Control Plant site is insufficient



Artist's renditions of digesters (top) and headworks building.



planned growth in the area. Therefore, in March 1999, the Regional Municipality of Durham completed a class environmental assessment (EA) for additional water pollution capacity for the Whitby, Oshawa, and Clarington (Courtice) areas. The report recommended estab-

lishing, in the municipality of Clarington, a new water pollution con trol plant (WPCP) with an ultimate average day design flow capacity of 272,760 mVd (60 MIGD). The plan is for the ultimate decommissioning (over time) of the Harmony Creek WPCP, and conveyance of the tributary flow to the new Courtice WPCP.

Initially, only Harmony Creek WPCP No. 1, the trickling filter facility, will be decommissioned. All average day flows in excess of 34,100 mVd (7.5 MIGD), the rated capacity of Harmony Creek WPCP No.2, will be conveyed

and scheduled for completion in the fall 2007. The selected site for the WPCP is in southeast Durham and has an area of

65.5 hectares (ha). It abuts Lake Ontario, immediately east of Courtice Road, south of the Canadian National

Railway (CNR) main line, and west of the Darlington nuclear generating sta tion.

The Project The main components of the Courtice Water Pollution Control Plant

project are: • The Harmony Creek Pumping

to the new Courtice WPCP.


The Courtice WPCP is being con structed in phases with the first phase, presently under construction, having a capacity of 68,200 mVday (15 MIGD)

• Conveyance of flows to the Courtice

14 Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2005


• The Courtice WPCP. • The outfall into Lake Ontario.

Wastewater growth in the Courtice area. The forcemain alignment crosses Tooley, Robinson, and Harmony Creek as well as marshlands to the west at

Second Marsh and McLaughlin Bay. As a result, in these environmentally sensitive areas, special mitigation measures will be implemented in con structing the forcemains. The main agencies involved in gaining approval for the alignment included the Central Lake Ontario Conservation Authority, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans, as well as the municipalities of Oshawa and Clarington, and the Friends of the Second Marsh. Courtice WPCP

Numerous treatment processes were evaluated during the Class Environmental Assessment process, including the conventional activated sludge process, sequencing batch reac tor (SBR) process, trickling filter process, rotating biological contactor process, and constructed wetland sys tems. Based on the assessment, it was concluded that the Courtice WPCP

will generally consist of a nitrifying activated sludge process with chlorination/dechlorination for disinfection, and conventional anaerobic digestion for

Artist's renditions of liquid train secondary gaiiery (top) and liquid train.

have an initial Phase 1 peak wet weath er capacity of 171,072 mVday (37.6 MIGD), a Phase 2 capacity of 241,920 mVday (53 MIGD), and an ultimate station capacity of 331,517 mVday (73

• Two discharge headers located in the basement of the pumping station designed for ultimate flow conditions. • A 2000 kW prime duty stand-by diesel generator. Conveyance Conveyance from the Harmony Creek Pumping Station to the Courtice WPCP will be along Colonel Sam Drive to the Darlington Provincial Park, and more or less paralleling the alignment of the CN main line to the


Courtice WPCP, a distance of 6.5 km.

The station will house the following equipment: • Two mechanically cleaned bar screens with 50 mm spacing. • Six submersible pumping units with space for an additional 4 units (initial ly).

Initially, one 1050 mm diameter force-

Harmony Creek Pumping Station The Harmony Creek Pumping Station






north-west corner of the existing Harmony Creek WPCP site, abutting Colonel Sam Drive. The station will

main will be constructed. There is

space in the conveyance easement for a second forcemain and a 300 mm

Regional watermain, which will be constructed with the forcemain to service the WPCP site and future





biosolids storage. The plant site devel opment allows for the possibility of future biological nutrient removal and UV disinfection to be added, and solids handling processes (including biosolids dewatering and incineration or composting) could be provided. Initially, the Courtice WPCP will be designed for 68,200 mVday (15 MIGD) and will have a peak wet weather flow of 2.65 times the design flow, or 180,730 mVday (40 MIGD). The plant will be designed in stages to provide "just in time delivery" of capacity. Battery sizes are 34,200 mVday (7.5 MIGD). For the ultimate plant capacity of 272,800 mVday (60 MIGD), a total of eight batteries are proposed and can be readily accommo dated on site.

Effluent compliance requirements, as stipulated by the Ministry of Environment, are found in Table 1. The new Courtice Water Pollution

Control Plant (WPCP) will consist of the following unit processes:

continued overleaf...

September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 15

Wastewater diffusers spaced over a distance of 150 m are provided to diffuse effluent in Lake Ontario, approximately 1 km off

Table 1

Compliance Criteria*


Total Suspended Solids

Biochemical Oxygen

Design Objective


15 mg/L

shore in 9 to 11 m of water.

25 mg/L

15 mg/L

As an important part of the Courtice project, a study area for the


new outfall was defined. This area was


Summer(May 1 - Get 31)

15 mg/L

8 mg/L

Winter(Nov 1 - Apr 30)

24 mg/L

12 mg/L

Total Phosphorus


identified based on pollutant plume modelling completed during the Class EA and on geotechnical and aquatic information. The plume modelling

0.8 mg/L

indicated that the outfall diffuser at the E.coli

200 organisms / 100 mL


* Compliance will be based on monthly average concentration ** Ammonia + ammonium nitrogen

the nearshore currents, and therefore, on the Courtice effluent plume off

1. Preliminary Treatment: Headworks with screening and aerated grit

using liquid chemical addition.


anaerobic digestion of raw primary solids and waste solids from secondary treatment, and on-site biosolids and raw sludge storage tanks.

2. Primary Treatment: Rectangular chain and flight primary clarifiers. 3. Secondary Treatment: Nitrifying activated sludge with anoxic selectors, energy efficient fine bubble aeration, and phosphorus removal by applica tion of metallic salts followed by "Gould type" rectangular chain and flight secondary clarifiers. 4. Disinfection: Final effluent disin fection via chlorination/dechlorination

5. Solids Treatment: Conventional

shore of South Courtice.

The large heated water discharge from the DNGS outfall provides a high initial dilution and pushes the effluent plume offshore away from the beach at Darlington Provincial Park as well, as


DNGS's water intake. It was therefore

As part ofthe Courtice WPCP proj ect, a 1676 mm diameter outfall will be provided, sized to meet the Phase 2 peak flow requirements.

concluded that the best location for the effluent outfall would be as close to the

The outfall consists of an outfall

pipe with a staged diffuser section. To handle the peak capacity, forty-five

aspd soles

Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) has significant impact upon

l imi ted

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DNGS heated water discharge as prac tically possible. The modelling also indicated that to meet MOE effluent dilution require ments, the outfall diffusers must be

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Process Products and Instrumentation - SOLUTIONS 16 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Wastewater located within a water depth at least of six metres. The proposed outfall diffusers will be at water depths of9 to 11 m, providing better than over 46 to 1 dilution at ultimate peak flow eapacity. Within the study area, three possi ble alignments for the outfall were

Associates (geotechnical), ASl Group (Aquatic), C.B. Fairn & Associates (Marine Construction Specialist), Warme Engineering and Biological Services (Biology), and Archaeological Services (Archaeology).

identified that allowed the outfall to be

In July 2005, the Region of Durham

close to DNGS outfall, and meet efflu


ent dilution requirements. These align ments were along the westerly edge of the study area, the easterly edge, and a

Kenaidan Contracting Ltd.. in the amount of $88,870,000, and the

location in the middle.

International Inc., in the amount of

To identify the preferred location, bathymetry, habitat, and geotechnical investigations of the lake bottom were conducted on the three potential pipe alignments. The aquatic study included a video of the bottom describing the surface features and fish and aquatic growth observed, along with bathyme try and soil sampling and analysis. Soil investigation to shale bedrock was car

$8,513,000. The Conveyance contract


new Courtice WPCP is scheduled for

tendering in the late fall of 2005 and the Harmony Creek Pumping Station is scheduled for tendering in early 2006. The current estimate for the

overall program is $163,950,000.



from the Harmony Creek WPCP to the



Outfall into Lake Ontario to McNally

Marek Kiynski. P.Eug., is with the Regional Municipality ofDurham. George Powell, PEng., is with CH2M HILL. Contact e-mail:



opAer&tcvnA wel

ried out in the lake to determine the sub surface soil conditions. These

investigations concluded that the most westerly alignment for the outfall is preferred, due to the following; • Clays are present and are highly plastic, potentially reducing siltation concerns. Blasting is not thought to be LJI.U


I iiiiiiiiiiita

• It avoids the ridge of dense sandy

Memosens digital pH/ORP measurement

silt till towards the east. • There is an absence of useable fish habitat.

• The distance to satisfactory depth

Increase your process up time

of water for effective diffusion is shorter than the other locations.

Safe, easy, reliable, economical

The methods of construction of the

outfall at the preferred alignment were documented

■ Field calibration unnecessary

in the Environmental ■ The inductive connection

Study Report (ESR). These methods included either an open trench marine excavation, totally or partially buried, or as a tunnel. After careful review, the construction method ehosen was open

completely eliminates dirt and moisture problems ■ Up to 6 times longer life time ■ No special cables are necessary - any four wire cable will work

trench marine construction.

Project Team The Region of Durham is supported by a team responsible for various parts of the project, as follows: Region ofDurham Works Department; Stantec ConsultantsProgram Management; Team Courtice CH2M



■ Reduced price for complete loop


Consultants; Simcoe Engineering GroupWPCP and prime teehnieal consultant; Earth Tech - Harmony Creek Pumpmg Station; Totten, Sims, Hubicki (TSH)Conveyance; R.Y Anderson Associates (RVA)-Outfall. There is also support from special ists, including Geo-Canada, Golder

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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 17

Odour Control

Laboratory workstation odour control at MaRS/Toronto

Buildings that generate odours

are under increasing scrutiny not only by neighbours, but regulatory authorities as well. This, despite the fact that for the most part, odours are perceived differ ently by different people. No matter; if a facility's odiferous exhaust is a source of complaint, it should prompt a quick response by the "offender" to avoid further problems and remain a "good neighbour." While many people think of odifer ous exhaust as emanating from chemi cal processing or manufacturing plants, or other industrial facilities, many scientific and research laborato ries must also manage odiferous exhaust emissions. This requirement results from not only a good neighbour policy but sometimes serious health issues for the building's workers. In almost all cases these laboratories use

workstations equipped with sophisti cated, computer controlled fume hood exhaust systems. The chemicals used at these workstations may be toxic, noxious, odiferous, or some combina tion.

While there are many ways to exhaust laboratory workstations into the atmosphere, over the past few decades one method known as "mixed

flow impeller technology" has become increasingly popular for these applica tions.

Safely exhausting laboratories at the MaRS Centre

This technology is playing a major role at a new research facility known as the "MaRS" (Medical and Related Sciences) Centre in Toronto, Ontario, (www.marsdd.com). MaRS was estab lished about five years ago for the pur pose of"promoting the growth of small research related technology companies and successful commercialization ofaca demic research." MaRS is the first facili

ty of its kind in Canada, and is modeled after similar facilities




Essentially, the model for these kinds of research centers is to seamlessly integrate state of the art research and development

By PaulA.Tetley facilities, commer cial business entities, and related support services within an overall


campus develop ment.

The MaRS com

plex encompasses 1.5 million square feet and is valued at

about $345 million.

"With its proximity to some of the lead

ing minds and insti tutions in Toronto's

bioscience cluster, MaRS is ideal for

our drug research Toronto Medical Discovery Tower. and development work in Canada," says Dr. Hunter Jackson of NFS laboratories. In doing so. Smith & Andersen worked closely with Belnor Pharmaceuticals in Salt Lake City, Engineering (Toronto) which has rep Utah. The complex has been construct resented the manufacturer of these sys ed in two different phases: Phase One is comprised of 700,000 square feet in tems for many years. The mixed flow impeller fans for the two towers, and Phase Two will com laboratories' workstation fume hoods prise 600,000 square feet with occu pancy scheduled for next year or 2007. eliminate re-entrainment possibilities into the workplace, prevent neighbor Fume hood exhaust is hood odours, and aid compliance with critical at MaRS appropriate pollution abatement stan The scores of research laboratories at the MaRS facility - while designed dards. As an added feature the rooffor many functions - share a common mounted fans also help meet applicable aesthetic codes with regard to eliminat characteristic. Their laboratory work station fume hoods also require safe ing tall exhaust stacks above the roofline. This last point is important, and efficient exhaust systems to pre vent any possibility of exhaust re- since many times community ordi entrainment into the facility or adjacent nances restrict total building height, or height above the roofline of various buildings; to eliminate neighborhood odours; and, to comply with applicable appurtenances and accessories. In addi pollution abatement standards, among tion, tall exhaust stacks usually impart negative connotations in a communityother considerations. in other words, another neighborhood Proper management of these polluter! exhaust emissions ^ particularly at the According to Danny Vistolli at building's biosafety level (BSL) labo Belnor, the City of Toronto imposed ratories - is critical, since mismanage building height restrictions on the ment will likely cause serious implica MaRS complex, mainly because exist tions. Consequently, the consulting ing buildings in the vicinity are in the engineers responsible for these func tions at MaRS (Smith & Andersen, heart of the city's downtown. "This was another consideration for use of Toronto) specified mixed flow impeller roof exhaust systems for its low profile mixed flow impeller

18 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Odour Control exhaust systems," Vistolli said. MaRS'Toronto Medical

Discovery Tower The mixed flow impeller systems at the MaRS complex are mounted on its Toronto Medical Discovery Tower (TMDT). Twelve low profile fans are connected with four plenums (each plenum accommodates three individ ual fans) for a total air moving capaci ty of 280,000 CFM. Belnor also worked closely with the facility's own ers, the contractor (Ellis Don Construction), as well as Smith and



Mixed flow impeller technology offers many advantages Laboratory workstation fume hood exhaust systems incorporating mixed flow impeller technology offer many advantages for research facilities, pharmaceutical pilot plant processing areas, and other enclosed, controlled environment areas such as clean rooms and vivariums. When asked about mixed flow

impeller systems, a Belnor spokesper son said that his firm had used them

for other projects with considerable success, and that one of the main rea-

Rooftop installation of the mixed flow impeller systems. sons for their use was the elimination

of re-entrainment possibilities to assure worker safety, along with elimi nation of tall, unsightly exhaust stacks on the building's roof. "Tall exhaust stacks would have required major(and costly) roof reinforcements, guy wires, pitch pockets, and other expensive hardware and equipment which was

not necessary with the mixed flow technology approach," he commented, adding that his firm has also received an additional order for four more sim

ilar systems for the MaRS complex. Paul A. Tetley is with Strobic Air Corporation. Information at www.strobicair.com

The first



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Upgrading Salnte-Julle wastewater facilities in Quebec

The Town of Sainte-Julie,

Quebec, is facing rising popu lations and more stringent effluent standards, making an upgrade to their existing wastewater treatment facility virtually inevitable. Currently, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consists of a series of four lagoons, with minimal land area for expansion. While considering tech nology that would help maximize the organic removal of the existing plant,

By Ivy Cormier increased freatment capacity within a

charged directly to the second lagoon.

compact area.

The first reactor in the series was filled

The AnoxKaldnes Pilot System that was used for this study is a 20 foot con

to the maximum 67% fill with biome

tainerized trailer built onto a chassis for


easy transport between sites. The pilot unit comes complete with an influent chamber with a 6mm punch plate

Throughout the study, the average flow rate was 1.875 US gallons per minute (7.10 litres per minute), providing a

dia, whereas the second reactor was to




the Town of Sainte-Julie commissioned

AnoxKaldnes, Inc. to conduct a pilot

study of the Moving BedÂŽ Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) process at its wastewater treatment facility. The Town set a target of less than 29 mg BOD5 /L after decanting for 30 minutes, which was met from the effluent of the single stage

MBBR at 26 mg BOD5 /L. The MBBR operates as a stand alone treatment process with no return activated sludge from a secondary clarifier, thereby minimizing operator maintenance and time. The MBBR

process utilizes polyethylene carrier elements which are suspended and mixed using custom designed medium bubble aeration systems or mechanical mixers, depending on the process appli cation of organic removal, nitrification,

Different media types Inset: Reactors inside the pilot trailer.

or denitrification. Because the media is

system and specially designed sieves, and a stainless steel hopper clarifier. Also included are blowers, pumps, test ing equipment, including online and manual DO and pH probes, flow meters, composite samplers, and a refrigerator. The trailer also includes a full laboratory set up for on-site testing of samples. Such equipment includes: HACK spectrophotometer, COD reac tor, digital balance, vacuum pump,TSS oven, VSS furnace, and glassware. The pilot study at Sainte-Julie

kept within each basin by custom designed sieves, the bacteria have a chance to mature into specialized "workers" within each separate basin, consuming whatever food is available, organics, ammonia, or nitrates. The media also are constantly sloughing the sieves, creating a process with no head loss or need for backwashing. Due to the increased surface area for

bacterial growth created by the addition of media, it is possible to multiply treat ment capacity with minimal footprint. Additional capacity can also be added by simply adding more media. The K1 type biomedia,used in the pilot study in Sainte-Julie, provides 500 m^ of surface area per each m^ of media, allowing for

screen, two 156 US gallon stainless steel reactors fitted with an aeration

WWTP was carried out from October

2004 to February 2005, with both reac tors running in series under aerobic conditions. Effluent from the first

lagoon of the plant was used as influent to the pilot trailer, and effluent was dis-

20 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

BOD load of 0.66 kg/day and an NH3N load of 0.165 kg/day. The hydraulic residence time was 1.39 hours in each

reactor, with a total of2.77 hours for the complete two-stage system. The main goal of the pilot study was to demonstrate the MBBR's ability to remove organic matter in a single stage by reaching an effluent goal ofless than 29 mg/L TBOD, after a 30 minute set tling period. This goal was achieved, as

the average concentration of decanted BOD (DBOD)from the effluent of the single stage MBBR was 26 mg/L at an average loading rate of 3.29 g Total BOD5(TBOD5)/ m^-day. Effluent from the two-stage MBBR averaged 20 mg/L DBOD.

Although the main goal of the study was to demonstrate increased organic continued overleaf...


. -s

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Wastewater pH were constantly monitored through out the study both manually and by online instruments. pH throughout the

removal, nitrification was achieved in the second stage of the MBBR. The WWTP currently does not have effluent requirements for ammonia, but future regulations are on the horizon. At an

MBBR remained stable during the

study, even as influent pH spiked above the target maximum of 7.5 in January. Dissolved oxygen was kept above the target concentration of 3 mg/L in the first reactor and 6 mg/L in the second. Temperatures ranged from 17.5°C in November to 3.0°C in January.

average loading rate of 0.8 g NH3-N/ m2-day, the MBBR removed an average of 76% of the load. Even at tempera tures as low as 3.0°C, the average efflu

ent was 3.9 mg/L, down from an aver age influent of 16.2 mg/L. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and

The MBBR is evaluated based on

the organic removal versus the loading rate for the effective surface area of the

media in the basin. Surface area loading rate (SALR) is calculated by multiply ing influent organic concentration by flow to obtain organic load and dividing that value by the effective biofilm carri er element surface area provided in the MBBR.

Through regression analysis con ducted on SALR data and actual

removal rates, a 50% removal of TCOD

at loading rates of up to 12 g/m^-day and 57% removal of DCOD at loading

rates up to 6 g/m^-day was predicted. Regression analysis run on SALR and


removal rate data collected for NH3-N

predicted a 50% removal in the second reactor only. Average actual removal of jeerjifioloqies

The Moving BedBiofilm Reactor process is the product of overs decade of

Total Suspended Sohds

careful research and


nterface Leye|.Anal¥^ri ilZf Filter Backwash TlonTtoji •Wastewater Samplers

NH3-N in the two-stage MBBR was

• Residual Chlorine^;^i^ •■ Conductivitv: ^




77%. Since influent soluble BOD5 was, on average, less than 6 mg/L, total BOD5 consisted primarily of TSS. The MBBR reduced overall organics by increasing flocculation and degrading sludge, reducing TSS effluent concen tration to 35 mg/L out of the second stage, down from an influent concentra tion of 118 mg/L. The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor process is the product of over a decade of careful research and development. Its principle of packing a rich amount of surface area for biomass growth into a compact reactor yields a reliable system with small footprint and price tag. The flexible technology, proven by numer ous full-scale installations and pilot studies, is a solution to treatment plants looking for an upgrade with minimal new tankage.

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22 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Ivy Cormier is the Senior Pilot Technician for AnoxKaldnes Inc. E-mail: ivy@anoxkaldnes. com


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Drinking Water I

Hundreds of millions of membrane fibres In

Ontario,but who's counting?

The development of back-

By Brian Sahely, M.A.Sc.,P.Eng.

washable low pressure, s

demand at a marginal increase in capital cost. As additional water production is needed, either the

Figure i

hollow core fibre technol| ogy has resulted in mem- .|


brane filtration becoming | costeffective for implementation in " water treatment plants (WTPs) in Ontario since 1998. By the end of 2006, 37 low pressure membrane filtration plants with a combined capacity of 409 ML/D will be installed in Ontario. This equates





increased upon agreement with the membrane supplier or additional membrane modules/elements/car-









Cumulative Number of Membrane WTPs in Ontario

tridges can be installed without the need for a general contractor. The small footprint of mem branes can minimize building costs and in some cases can allow an

to hundreds of millions of mem

existing water treatment plant to be

brane fibres, but who's counting? |Figure 2

retrofitted with membrane technol

ogy to increase water production. The improved manufacturing of the membranes and improved design of the overall system frame

These data are reflected in ?

Figures 1 and 2, respectively, gwhich show the cumulative num- s

her and capacity of membrane | water treatment plants each year S since 1998. Membrane plants that are anticipated to be commis sioned in 2006 are also included in

these figures, which show the cumulative capacity of membrane plants expected to more than double between 2005 and 2006 alone.

By 2006, 73% of the membrane plants commissioned will have been designed with capacities less than 10

ML/D, while 49% of the plants com missioned will have been designed for capacities less than 3.78 ML/D. Examples include new facilities in South




USFilter/Memcor membranes (Figure 3), Petrolia WTP with Pall membranes (Figure 4) and Port Hope WTP with Zenon membranes (Figure 5). So why is the number of membrane WTPs on the rise in municipalities in Ontario? A primary factor is that membranes with nominal pore size of less than or equal to 0.1 pm pore size

work have resulted in a decrease in









Cumulative Capacity of Membrane WTPs In Ontario

the capital and operating costs of membrane water treatment plants. This has resulted in the purchase of large volumes of membranes, which in effect has resulted in a decrease

are available and proven. This pore size is less than the size of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, result ing in high log removal credits ofthese protozoa using membrane filtration. This gives municipalities confidence that membrane technology will meet current and future regulations, which are continuously becoming more and more stringent. With the development of the membrane integrity test (MIT), municipalities are also becoming more confident that the safety of the mem brane system is measurable. The required number of membrane modules/elements/cartridges can be installed now to meet current water

demand, with the ancillary equipment

in membrane costs. All of the above factors will contin

ue to increase the implementation of membrane technology in Ontario, with the cumulative capacity of membrane water treatment plants in Ontario expected to double the 2006 capacity by 2007 and more than triple or possi bly quadruple the 2006 capacity before 2010. The author would like to thank

USFilter/Memcor, Pall (Canada) Ltd. and Zenon Environmental Inc. for pro viding data for this article. Brian Sahely is with KMK Consultants Ltd.,Brampton, Ontario. Contact: hrians@kmk.ca

installed now to meet future water

8 Figure 3- USFilter/Memcor CMFM10V Membranes

Figure 4 - Pali MIcroza USV-6203 Membranes

24 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Figure 5 - Zenon ZeeWeedÂŽ 1000 Membranes

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Wastewater Treatment

The evolution of diverse chamber

system applications

On-site wastewater treatment

By Dennis F. Hallahan RE. ment plants, with pretreatment devices,

cent of homes in the United

bers are included in over 15 percent of all septic systems. In some areas, that number is as high as 74 percent. In

States and Canada. Over the

Manitoba, where Infiltrator chambers

past 30 years, chambers have evolved dramatically in design and are now commonly used for onsite treatment in

are the only chambers approved for use in the province, it is estimated that 46 percent of all septic systems installed

basic and advanced applications.

utilize these chambers. In the United

heavy trucks used to transport stone.

States, it is estimated that one in every four wastewater treatment systems constructed today is a chamber system. While the principles of treatment remain the same, plastie chambers

Installations are faster and save on

systems serve over 25 per

The first chambers to be used com

mercially were constructed of concrete and installed in New England in the early 197Gs. These initial concrete "gallery" chamber systems or "ameration chambers" (USEPA, 1980) were more efficient than previous tradition al stone and pipe systems. They were, however, heavy and unwieldy to trans port, and labor intensive to install. It became clear that an alternative mate rial was needed to manufacture cham

bers that would not sacrifice strength, durability, and treatment performance. The rapid advancement of plastics technology made plastic the next logi cal step in the evolution in chamber design. Several years of research and design culminated with the introduc tion of plastic chambers to the market place by Infiltrator Systems Inc. in 1987. Today, plastic chambers are manufactured by four different compa nies and have become widely accepted by installers, designers, and regulators. In Ontario, Infiltrator plastic cham-

offer tremendous benefits over their

concrete predecessors and even greater benefits when compared to the older

and even on toxic waste remediation sites.

In most chamber applications, no stone or geotextile is required. This eliminates concern over stone quality and fines content and the need for

heavy equipment operation costs. Chamber installations also reduce site

disturbance and minimize compaction of the soils, a definite plus for system longevity. Chambers are currently manufac tured using technologically advanced

methods of installations that involved

moulds that cost in the millions of dol

stone and pipe trenches. Initially, chambers were used for the leachfield component of the on

lars. These produce precisely engi neered products with uniform dimen sions. Typically, they are very complex with tight tolerances that allow for interlocking joints and open louvered sidewalls that prevent soil from enter ing the system. Chambers can be moulded in various sizes ranging from six to 30-inch heights and to a width

site wastewater treatment system. As the needs evolved, designers and installers began to specify the technol ogy for a number of differing applica tions. What they found is that the chamber is highly adaptable and effec tive for specialized system designs and treatment needs. In addition to the traditional use in

septic system leaching trenches and beds, chambers have been used in sand

filters, mound systems, evapotranspiration beds, community systems, con structed wetlands, wastewater treat

over 50 inches.

Advanced chamber system designs and applications Commercial facilities can be sub

ject to large peak flows that the cham ber can readily retain. These decentral ized cluster septic systems serve multicontinued overleaf...

- .. :

Chambers are used on remediation sites. Here a iarge wetland ceii utilizing chambers will help to clean up a

The use of chambers has expanded to include sand fil ters. The chambers allow a better effluent dispersal and

toxic waste site.

gas exchange.

26 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

There's a simpler way to eliminate sewer odor emissions. Introducing Vortex Flow™ Inserts (VFI) from IPEX - a revolutionary new technology for eliminating odorous emissions and minimizing corrosion in vertical sewer drops. Simple, cost-effective and \ reliable, VFI's have been proven to deliver significant cost savings in installations across North America. Influent line

Sewage is aerated with

VlgnuuB mixing actjons

Using the wastewater's own flow energy to suppress turbulence, aerate the sewage and oxidize dissolved hydrogen sulfldes (H2S), the IPEX VFI's patented spiral flow design sucks odorous gases downward towards the bottom of the structure where they are entrained back into the sewage flow. APWA Technical The VFI's pre-fabricated, one-piece assembly installs easily Innovation Award in sewer drops, pumping stations and forcemain discharges. Intensive dissipation of the flow energy in the pool at the bottom of the structure prevents solids from settling, making the VFI selfcleansing and maintenance free. What's more, installed upstream of the treatment plant, the VFI actually Improves wastewater quality prior to


entrain sewer gas

Into effluent

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Wastewater Treatment pie residential dwellings or commerciai establishments. They use technoiogicaiiy advanced filters, pumps, tank configurations, and drainage chambers to provide a higher ievei of treatment. Decentralized cluster systems treat wastewater and return it to the ground very near to where the wastewater was generated as opposed to transporting it long distances to a centralized sewer facility. The driving force behind this trend is the high cost of sewers and lack of quality land available, forcing builders to consider developing sites that would have previously been deemed unusable due to location or

geology. Sand filters

Some sand filters today are designed utilizing the benefits of


C 0 N S U I. r A N T S

INC. m.

chamber technology. Chambers pro vide increased distribution coverage, allowing the effluent to be applied over the entire surface area of the bot tom of the chamber. A sand filter is a

type of packed bed filter that has been used for over a century. Newer packed bed technologies consist of peat, tex tile, or foam media and are generally very reliable, providing good treat

bers for the same reasons it occurs in

Once ponding occurs in the trench the effluent will flow laterally out the trench sidewall, allowing capillary action of the soil to take place. From

Evapotranspiration systems Another common application for chambers is their use in evapotranspi ration (ET) systems. In the arid regions of the United States and Canada, systems have been specifical ly designed for evapotransipiration. With these systems, people thought that the solid arch at the top of the

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tion. However, upon investigation of the physics of water and air movement through soil, it can be understood that evapotranspiration occurs with cham stone trenches.


Tackling municipal/industrial

chamber would inhibit evapotranspira

capillary action, water is pulled upward in the soil matrix. The water then changes to vapour form (gas phase), which allows it to move verti cally through the soil pores to the atfiTosphere. Wetland treatment systems Natural wetlands have been used as

convenient wastewater discharge sites for as long as sewage has been collect ed. By the early 1970s, research into the treatment capabilities of natural wetlands led to the development of engineered, or "constructed" wetlands that replicated the cleansing capabili ties of these natural marsh systems. Wetland treatment systems are typical ly used to polish treated wastewater, and are often designed as multi-func-


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Wastewater Treatment tion treatment and wildlife habitat sys

amines, and VOCs. These odours are


biodegraded to odorless substances in the biofilter. Water flowing through the

These systems may be large com mercial or community systems, or small wetland treatment cells serving an individual home. One of the most

common types is the subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland. Effluent is treated through shallow subsurface

channels in which emergent plants are established. The treatment cells pro duce a high quality treated effluent that is required to be disposed to the sub surface. Chambers have frequently been specified for the wetland cell and the subsurface disposal applications due to cost savings and chamber relia bility as compared to older traditional

biofilter will leach these non-toxic

chemicals from the media, lengthening the life ofthe media. According to Lew Naylor, Ph D., of Black and Veatch, chambers





improve air distribution through the media, provide more efficient drainage, increase media life, ease of construction of the biofilter, and sim

plify media replacement.


Remediation site clean-up Environmental clean-up sites have many treatment schemes, one of which is known as "pump and treat". In this scenario, contaminated groundwater is pumped to the surface, treated, and then discharged subsurface to recharge groundwater levels and maintain flow patterns. The size of the recharge bed is determined by the infiltration rate of the soil and the quantity of flow. Previous methods of recharging continued overleaf...



construction options. In areas with sensitive soils, the ease and speed of installation and minimal construction

traffic (less time to be exposed to rain storms and construction machinery) can protect the structure ofthe soil and its infiltration capacity. Wastewater treatment facilities

A great example of the use of chambers in extending the life of wastewater treatment facilities is in

High solids Un-loading for Pump

Bayham, Ontario, at the Port Burwell Sewage Treatment Plant. Here the out fall discharges to a creek in close prox imity to Lake Erie. Expansion of the plant required a major upgrade to the outfall extending out a distance into


the lake. The creek could not assimi late the increase in minimum contami

nants and, therefore, an outfall to the

lake was proposed. After an extensive investigation of options, an onsite solution was recom

> Heavy-duty, bigger steel cutters • Larger screening drums

mended to convert the outfall to an

exfiltration bed utilizing chambers. The chamber system saved consider able cost and also provided additional pollutant removal. The benefit of installing an exfiltration bed at the treatment plant is the reduction in phosphorous. Additional phosphorous will be removed by the natural ability of the soil to absorb the nutrient, there

by removing the impact to the sensitive

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Chambers are also now being spec ified in biofilters, beds of organic media that are used to scrub objection

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Wastewater Treatment

Chamber systems have long been used in arid regions of the US and Canada in evapotranspiration beds. This chamber ET is serving a state park.

After an extensive value engineering review the Port

ground water included stone beds. However, the fines asso ciated with stone can have a significant adverse effect on the infiltration rate, thereby increasing the size of the recharge bed. Engineers have determined that if chambers are installed as the recharge solution the concerns regarding the

ers and engineers are challenged to create innovative solu tions to the world's wastewater problems, chambers could be

Burweii Wastewater Treatment Riant installed an "onsite

outfall" with substantial cost savings.

in the forefront of those solutions.

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adverse affect of fines can be minimized.

In the future we will surely see many new system designs and advanced treatment options developed in response to

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Potential use of phreatophytes in passive management of groundwater seepage By Greg Bickerton, M.Sc, P. Eng. Dale Van Stempvoort, Ph.D, Marcos Alvarez, Ph.D, and Steven Rose, M.Sc., P. Eng.

The overall intent of this

research was to investigate the potential to use phreatophyte tree species to control seep age of contaminated groundwater from an old landfill at Belle Park, located along the waterfront in Kingston, Ontario. Phreatophytes are terrestrial plant species that thrive under shallow water table conditions by extending their roots to the phreatic (water-satu rated) zone and transpiring groundwa

tion using phreatophytes, could be used effectively at Belle Park. In this approach the seepage of ammonia and iron in groundwater along the margins of the site would be captured or reduced by phreatophyte transpiration, a form of solar pumping. Uptake of ammonia as a nutrient by phreatophytes is anticipated. To determine the potential of phreophytes as a remediation alternative at Belle Park, transpiration rates of two mature black willows (Salix nigra)

ter. Conventional remediation tech

located near the south shore of Belle

nologies, including the current pump and treat approach being used at Belle Park, are expensive. Alternative, emerging remediation approaches may be better choices, or offer cost savings if used in combina tion with conventional approaches. Parallel investigations were conduct ed at Belle Park by Malroz Engineering

Park were investigated by: I) monitor ing patterns in groundwater fluctua tions in the vicinity of the study trees, and 2) direct sap-flow measurements (measured in one willow). The City of Kingston provided on-site meteorolog ical data. Groundwater was sampled from selected wells on two occasions

to determine any effects ofthe trees on

Inc. and Environment Canada. This arti

the distribution of ammonia and other








The automated sap flow data col lected in May 2003 displayed a diurnal pattern. Calculations indicated a range in sap flow of approximately 1,200 L to 3,000 L per day for the tree studied, similar to some rates reported else where. Sap flow data were not avail able after May 2003 due to theft of equipment. Automated groundwater levels collected near the willows also

indicated a diurnal pattern. These data give a more direct indication of groundwater uptake by willows during transpiration. Clear diurnal signals were observed over most of the active

growing season for 2003, but not dur ing the period when sap flow data were collected (May 2003). We speculate that in May 2003, the willows at the study site were primarily transpiring water derived from a wet soil profile, related to a spring snowmelt event. Analyses of groundwater samples indicated anoxic, reducing conditions,

Environment Canada,

and also provides a brief summary of results by Malroz Engineering. Site specific infor mation and other phytoremediation studies

were reviewed, with a focus on information

relevant to 1) potential for hydraulic control of groundwater seepage by phreatophytes (e.g., poplar and willow); 2) potential for phreato phytes to uptake the two main contaminants

of concern at the study site:



iron. The high ammo nia concentration in the

groundwater at Belle Park is typical of old landfills. This review indicated there is some

potential that a "pas sive" technology, landbased phytoremedia-

Greg Bickerton installs the datalogger for automated measurement ofsap flow in a willow at Belle Park.

32 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Groundwater with high iron, ammonia, chloride and

cated that these species can readily

methane. Some contaminant concen

establish themselves within the landfill

trations tended to be highest in the vicinity of trees, suggesting evapotranspiration has left high residues in groundwater. Distribution of ammonia did not indicate a consistent ability of

footprint. It is anticipated that future research will reattempt to obtain contemporane ous monitoring of groundwater fluctu ations and sap flow to reduce uncer tainty in quantification of transpira tion, with ongoing monitoring of the phreatophyte plantings.

willows to lower its concentration.

However, low ammonia concentrations

in the vicinity of one willow suggests nitrogen uptake. Numerical simulation of 2003 diur

Greg Bickerton, e-mail: greg.bickerton@ec.gc.ca and Dale Van Stempvoort e-mail: dale.vanstempvoort@ec.gc.ca, are with the National Water Research Institute,

Burlington, Ontario, Marcos Alvarez is with Environmental Biotechnology Applications, Environment Canada, Gatineau, Quebec, e-mail: alvarezm@agrgc.ca. Steven Rose is with Malroz Engineering, Kingston, Ontario, e-mail rose@nialroz.com

nal fluctuations in groundwater sug gests transpiration rates of approxi mately 20,000 L/day for the single mature willow studied in detail. These rates are consistent with some studies of

mature willows, but appear to violate the theoretical maximum evapotranspiration rate based on thermodynamic considerations and are not consistent

with other reports. The simulation rates are an order in

magnitude larger than the sap flow rates observed in May. Possible explanations for this discrepancy include uncertain ties associated with sap flow measure ments (25%), uncertainties in parame ters used in numerical simulations (e.g., hydraulic conductivity of soil/wastes), changes in transpiration rates associated with leaf development (after May 2003), and a potential role of hydraulic lift, whereby the willows might extract water from a deep layer of the soil pro file and redistribute it to shallow, dry soil layer (i.e. reduced amount of tran spiration per unit of groundwater uptake by roots). A simple numerical capture zone analysis based on estimated rates of transpiration (obtained from the sap flow measurements)suggests that it may be possible to arrange mature black wil lows such that adequate hydraulic con trol can be obtained during active grow ing seasons, without interfering signifi cantly with current park uses. If this hydraulic control by willows can be con firmed for other locations at Belle Park,

this approach may be an economical, "green" alternative to seasonally offset or replace the conventional pumping system currently in use. In the parallel study by Malroz Engineering Inc., two plots of young bare root phreatophytes were simulta neously planted to investigate their ability to adapt to the landfill setting,

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and to observe their early influence on the shallow groundwater table. These

plantings (willows in particular) indi September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 33


Automated nutrient monitoring for water and wastewater By R. Keir, Mohamed Aboul Elsh,Ph.D., D.L. Davis and R.H.Clifford,Ph.D.

Nutrient pollution of water

ways is a very serious issue experienced all over the world. Adverse human activ

major issues limiting the ability to

charging their waste through wastewater treatment plants, and inconsis tency of the data collected about nutri ents loading from certain wastewater treatment plants. In addition, more data is needed to be generated about

decrease the effect of the nutrients'

the effect of the nutrients on the

the regulations have not eliminated the problem completely, they have some what controlled the infiltration of the nutrients and decreased the effect of

ities increase the nutrients beyond the normal levels through point and nonpoint sources, such as deforestation

the nutrients in some areas. Two of the

and urbanization, use of fertilizers,

pollution are insufficient monitoring

Canadian ecosystem in order to find an

inadequate treatment of human sewage, increased animal waste, indus trial wastewater and aquaculture oper ations. Resulting nutrients enter into water systems, rivers and lakes, and

data from industries that are not dis-

effective solution. Continuous efforts are made to find

about the nutrients discharge and, as a result, reduce the nutrients discharged

lead to both enrichment and toxic

problems. Other problems caused by an

better monitor

ing/processing control techniques that would help provide more information

and their effect on the environment. A new on-line TNPC-4110C

.g 90 (0


increase in nutrient levels include acid

ification due to runofffrom agricultur al lands. Additionally, the runoff may lead to an increase in levels of ammo

nia and nitrate, which are harmful to humans and aquatic life. Canada








Time (hrs)

9,984,670 sq km that constitutes 9,093,507 sq km of land and 891,163 sq km of water. About 7,200 sq km is irrigated land and, as a result, fertiliz ers and animal waste that are either

used or present on the land are washed as runoff into the surrounding rivers, lakes, and eventually major oceans and

labour and cost.

bodies of waters, such as the Arctic,

Pacific, Atlantic and Hudson Bay. Reports have suggested that nonpoint sources, such as the use of fertil izers and manure, can contribute 293,000 tons of nitrogen and 56,000 tons of phosphorus armually to the

Shimadzu analyzer, capable of analyz ing/monitoring total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus(TP), and total organ ic carbon (TOC), has been recently introduced. The analyzer can be used for both monitoring processes and process control. It automatically per forms the sampling, pretreatment (physical and chemical), digestion, and analysis. So, in addition to helping meet current and future regulations regarding levels of nutrients being dis charged, the analyzer will save on




Time (hrs)

A study was performed in which this analyzer was installed in a wastewater reclamation plant that is respon sible for treating and discharging about 18 million gallons of water per day. Throughout the study, the instrument was not only used to demonstrate its ability to upgrade the technology being used, but also to automate the monitor ing and process control system within the plant to provide maximum effi ciency. The analyzer was installed between the primary clarifier and the biological

total nutrient levels in the Canadian

environment. On the other hand, pointsource pollution results mainly from municipal sewage, and contributes 80,000 tons of nitrogen and 5,600 tons of phosphorus annually. As municipal ities enhance their wastewater treat

nutrient reactor. It was used to monitor

ment facilities, the level of the nutri ents discharged is lowered, but the big ger concern is with utilities that still use primary treatment and communi ties that do not use any treatment. Certain regulations have been developed to control the nutrients' input into the environment. Although

the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and total organic carbon in the influent, and accordingly adjust the fermentate added for better treatment. Previous to installation of the TNPC-4110C ana 0.315277778


Time (hrs)

Hourly/daily nutrient trend

34 Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2005

lyzer, manual techniques were used for monitoring, which resulted in increased continued overleaf...

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Instrumentation labour, wasted time, and increased cost.

As a result, monitoring was performed biweekly. Biweekly monitoring was constrained not only by availability of labour but also by availability of time to sample, digest, and analyze.

changes, and accordingly a better treated discharge. Automation of the whole monitoring process also meant that less error was involved in the sam

ple handling and analysis, which ensured more consistent data.

point-source pollution problems, can help in achieving one of the initiatives of the Canadian Council of Ministers

of the Environment, which is Pollution Prevention. This analyzer through its automated monitoring/analyses process

Reports have suggested that non-point sources,such as the use of fertilizers and manure,can contribute 293,000 tons of nitrogen and 56,000 tons of phosphorus annually to the total nutrient levels in the Canadian environment. Consequently, the reporting frequency was not consistent. Inconsistency caused over treatment or under treat

ment of water and, as a result, a dis

charge that would either introduce more chemicals or nutrients into the environment.

After installation of the analyzer, the automation capability not only reduced the involved labour and time,

With such an analyzer, a trend can be developed or obtained about the nutrient levels within the stream, which can help in improving the effi ciency of the treatment. Increasing the frequency of monitoring also meant developing a database of information about the nutrient levels not only with in a specific stream, but also informa tion that would help in relating the

will provide the wastewater treatment

plant with an advanced technology that will help accelerate the reduction in pollutants discharged and accordingly minimize the health risk involved. Not

only that but the TNPC-41 IOC analyz er automation capability, reduces the energy, resources, and materials used in the process.

but also enabled an increase in the fre

nutrient levels to other factors such as

Richard Keir is with Mandel

quency of monitoring and consistency of analysis. Increasing the frequency of monitoring was possible from biweekly, to daily or hourly, and as a result provided a tool which would allow a faster response to sudden

seasonal changes, industrial dis charges, or sudden input of nutrients into the system. In conclusion, using the TNPC41 IOC analyzer, in monitoring/analy sis/process control of one of the major

Scientific, Guelph, Ontario, e-mail: rkeir@mandel.ca. MohamedAboul

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Can Winbags solve emergency waste storage problems?

Constantly our society is forced to deal with issues per taining to pollution, ground

Holland, known internationally for its production and design of flexible plas

ever changing environmental regula tions. Ordinary citizens and corporate

vessels and covers for the industrial, municipal and agricultural sectors, became a partner in the concerted

entities must confront these issues on a


daily basis to avoid any further damage

Throughout North America today, we find areas with a mix of a high con centration of people, industrial entities and large agricultural operations all within close proximity to each other. Add to that the ever changing climatic conditions that produce sudden storms

water contamination and the

to our environment.

Cadman Power Equipment Ltd., located in Courtland, Ontario, special izes in the development and produc tion of liquid manure and wastewater management equipment and has recog nized the need for storage vessels that could respond quickly in emergencies.

and excessive amounts of rainfall and

the need for emergency supplies of

Management set in motion a con

potable water and the containment of

centrated effort to both enhance exist

liquid waste has never been greater. The joint effort of the two compa nies has led to the development of a completely portable system to facili

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tics and fibres for use as containment

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tainment bags to the site location with

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The system, known as the Winsystem" consisting of a trailer like structure with a rotating turn table and hydraulically powered winding system to rotate the drum, is used in conjunc tion with the Winbag". The complete unit can be pulled to the desired loca tion very easily by an ordinary pickup truck or SUV.

Once the unit arrives on site, the Winsystem trailer rotates to allow the operator to begin unwinding the Winbag and setting it on the desired location. Winbags are available in sizes from lOOm' (26,420 US gallons) to 200m'(52,830 US gallons). The Winsystem trailer can now return to its home location and return

with other Winbags if necessary because of the removable drum feature

Cadman has designed into the system. Once the emergency has passed and the liquids have been properly treated or disposed of, the bag is then re-rolled



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returned to its original location. The many features of this interna tionally patented system, allow the response teams or individuals to han dle the emergency situations with ease, preventing very costly cleanups and environmental problems. Other products in the line allow for the immediate supply of potable water to storm stricken areas or the collec

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38 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

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"The largest water quality conference in North America." "La plus grande conference sur la qualite de Teau en Amerlque du Nord."

QUEBEC CITY, QUEBEC | NOVEMBER 6-10,2005 TOPICS DISCUSSED INCLUDE: ■ monitoring and detection techniques

EES SUJETS DISCUTES INCLUS: ■ techniques analytiques et

• treatment processes

■ procedes de traitement

■ disinfection by-products

■ sous-produits de desinfection

■ coagulation and filtration

■ coagulation et filtration

■ organic and inorganic

■ contaminants organiques et inorganiques


■ distribution system water quality ■ emerging issues

methodes de detection

■ quaiite de i'eau dans le reseau de distribution



■ technical sessions

■ sessions techniques

■ special topic sessions on timely issues

■ sessions speciales sur des sujets chauds

• early bird sessions

■ sessions pour leve-tot

■ in-depth and interactive workshops

• ateliers interactifs sur des

• technical facility tours

■ visites techniques

sujets pointus


4"^ American Water Works Association The Authoritative Resource on Safe Water"

Advocacy Communications ► Conferences

Education and Training Science and Technology Sections

Conference Previews

ES&E's annual fail

conference previews

Sunita Narain

Centre and the director of the Society for Environmental Communications and

publisher of the fortnightly magazine, Down To Earth.

Ranked in the top 1% of all trade shows in North America, WEFTEC is a

mega-show that is expected to draw over 16,000 attendees. With nearly 800 exhibiting companies and a renowned technical program, the show offers edu cational and networking opportunities. William K. Reilly

Attendees can choose from 110 techni

cal sessions,24 workshops and 11 facil ity tours to design their own learning

US Capital to host WEFTEC 05

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For Continuous Duty and V.F.D. Applications

William K. Reilly, President and CEO of Aqua International Partners LP will address the opening general ses sion. Mr. Reilly is a founding partner of the company, which invests in water projects and companies in developing countries. He formerly served as admin Protection Agency, the Payne visiting professor at the Institute for

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Also addressing the opening general session will be Sunita Narain, from the Centre for Science and Environment in

New Delhi, India. The Centre will receive the 2005 Stockholm Water

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Prize. She is currently the director ofthe 40 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Conference Previews experience and gain insights into devel

CBC journalist Rex Murphy will open

opments, regulations, and research, as

the 57th annual WCWWA conference

well as emerging technologies and proven approaches to everyday water quality challenges. Other conference highlights include the intense skills competition of Operations Challenge 2005, the

in Saskatoon, October 16-19. Mr. Murphy is well known for his informed, insightful and sometimes bit ing commentary on The National and his weekly talk show on CBC Radio.

AEESP/WEF Scientist Luncheon and

The conference's technical program will include some 60 papers covering:

Lecture, the WEFTeach, the Global Center, poster presentations, award pre

treatment, stormwater management,

sentations, WEFFilms luncheon pro gram, student activities, and much more.

For the latest updates, event and reg istration details, visit www.weftec.org.

Rex Murphy to open the 57"^ Annual Conference of the Western Canada Water and Wastewater Association

drinking water treatment, wastewater

sludge and residuals management, plant upgrades and optimization, sys tems management and regulations, operations and maintenance, water dis

tribution systems, rural and small sys tems, design and construction, process control.

ing: microbiology, combined and sani tary sewer overflows and filter audits for plant operators. CEUs will be offered for all workshops. The Monday evening networking event at the Top of the Inn (Sheraton Cavalier) will provide a great view of Saskatoon while delegates enjoy food, drink, comedy, and a game on the big screen. This "pub night" offers a chance for delegates to unwind, and renew or make new contacts. A come

dian will provide "half time" entertain ment.

A delegate luncheon on Tuesday will be hosted by the Western Canada Section AWWA. Delegates can meet the WCWWA board of directors,

Conference tours will include the

AWWA Vice President Mike Leonard

Canadian Light Source Synchrotron,

from Georgia, and learn about Water for People. The WCWWA Banquet will be held at the Sheraton Cavalier. A delegate luncheon on Wednesday will be hosted by the Western Canada Water Environment Association. Delegates continued overleaf...



Manufacturing, Treatment





Water Water

Retention Ponds and a KWFI Pipe Manufacturing Plant.

Three pre-conference workshops will be offered on October 16, cover

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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 41

Conference Previews Quebec city, site of AWWA water quality conference

will hear a presentation from WEF rep resentative Dr. Mohamed Dahab and meet the WCWEA board of Directors.

An extensive guest program is also offered. Flighlights include: Sunday, October 16 • Scenic city tour • Lunch at The Berry Barn • Mendel Art Gallery Monday, October 17 •Tour of Wanuskewin Fleritage Park • Lunch and wine tasting at the Forestry Farm Tea House Tuesday, October 18 • Broadway Avenue shopping • Spa treatment at Spa Ahava • Lunch at Calories Cafe

All tours include a professional guide, motorcoach transportation, site admissions, and lunch. Registration is limited and is on a first come first served basis.

For further details, visit the Western Canada




Association web site: www.wcwwa.ca

or e-mail: member@wcwwa.ca

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42 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Geomatrix Geomatrix is an Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/V/D

Conference Previews

Quebec City to host AWWA water quality conference Quebec City will host the AWWA's 2005 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, November 6-10, 2005. Held each year in a different US or Canadian city, the WQTC typically attracts some 1,500 delegates and offers a comprehensive educational program covering all aspects of drinldng water quality and technology. Topics for 2005 will include the following: • Water quality monitoring techniques • Waterborne pathogen occurrence

biofilm microbiology, data mining for

On Tuesday, there will be a special evening reception at Le Musee national des beaux-arts du Quebec. Nestled in the heart of Quebec City, in a historic park perched above the St. Lawrence

water quality planning, and contaminant warning systems. There are also two offsite workshops covering macroinvertabrate/bioassessment, and USEPA • Three technical facility tours will include the Quebec City Water

River, Le Musee national des beaux-arts du Quebec is an art museum that is also an exceptional architectural achieve

Treatment Plant, a tour of the historic


Method 1623.

water reservoir under Les Plaines

d'Abraham, and









Protection tour.


and detection methods

• Treatment processes and techniques • Disinfection practices • Laboratory methods and assessment

• Coagulation/filtration issues • Distribution system issues • Inorganic and organic


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contaminants • Taste and odor issues • Membranes

• Emerging issues • Disinfection by-products • Groundwater quality • Source water protection • Regulatory issues

At least 2 screws per feeder • Accuracy up to 0.5-1% • Linear discharge curve • Self-cleaning feeder screws

This event also features:

• Seven special sessions on the time ly topics of early Implementation issues for LT2 and Stage 2 DBPR, taste and odor solutions, Canadian and U.S. bor der source water protection, pathogenbased treatment requirements, mem branes for NOM removal, microbial source tracking, and a review of USEPA's TCR White Papers. • Three early-bird sessions: Two on Tuesday morning will cover an AWWARF research update, and the start of the special topic technical ses sion titled "Pathogen-based Treatment Requirements: Honing the Tools." Wednesday morning's early bird ses

Polymer make-up unit • Moisture prevention by an automatic closure of feeder discharge • No "Fish Eyes" formation • More than 25 years of experience of dosing and blending of polymer

Reliable system and easy to use • Robust and low-wear construction

sion will cover a new AWWA book on

Lime • Activated Carbon - Dry Polymer • Liquid Polymer

biodegradable organic matter. • Nine in-depth and interactive work shops: There will be seven on-site work

Sodium Bicarbonate - Potassium Permanganate

shops on a number of topics including, chloramination control and monitoring, UV disinfection using USEPA's Guidance Manual, source water protec tion, membrane filtration for compli ance with LT2, recent developments in

Sodium Silicate

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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 43

Drinking Water I

Automatic valve closure improves chlorine gas safety at Petrolia water treatment plant By Terry Blackmore,P.Eng,Wendy Trottier and Vlad Petran,P.Eng.

The Petrolia Water Treatment

Plant, located in the neighbour ing town of Brights Grove, Ontario, was established in

chlorination system. Coagulation using aluminum sulphate (alum) fol lowed, with filtration using anthracite, sand, gravel, and stone coming online

1896. Following failed attempts to drill deep wells in neighbouiing townships, the town voted in favour of spending $172,000 to build an 11 mile (18 km) long cast iron pipeline from Lake Huron

Brampton, Ontario, was selected by the Town of Petrolia to design and manage the construction of an upgrade to the

to Petrolia and 14 miles(23 km)ofa dis

Water Treatment Plant to be able to

tribution network in town for the supply

produce up to 8 MLD,serving a popu lation of9,000 people. The major scope of the project included upgrades to the low lift pump station, installation of a membrane microfiltration system (Pall Corporation), installation of an emul sion polymer makedown unit (USFilter Stranco Products) as part of the residue management system upgrade, installa tion of liquid chemical feed systems

of the much needed fresh, clean water. The original pump house was located at the present day Water Treatment Plant. The Ontario Government began to set minimum water quality standards and in 1929 the department of health recommended chlorine disinfection, which the Petrolia WTP complied with

in 1930 with the installation of a gas

much later in the 1980s.

In 2002, KMK Consultants Limited,

Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc.

Sign located at the Petrolia WTP with the original spelling of the town name.

(LMl-Milton Roy), and modifications to the existing chlorine contact tank. Another major aspect of the project involved the upgrade of the chlorina tion system including a new chlorine gas feed and control system and inte gration ofthe two existing chlorinators (USFilter Wallace & Tiernan). The

Chopping and pumping of difficult mediums LANDIA chopper pumps solve the toughest problems when pumping difficultto-handle-liquids with high solid contents. Chop

Raw unscreened effluents

Food industry effluents

Paper mills Slurries and

sludges And much more. With more than

and reduce

solids particle size while

•flexible modular design •golf courses,trailer parks, rural subdivisions •surface,subsurface or re-use options •low maintenance, low energy, no aerobic sludge •seasonal or year-round operation •remote monitoring service

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pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate

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60 years of experience, we offer just the right solution for your next pumping job. Distributed By:

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44 Environmental Science c6 Engineering, September 2005

Drinking Water closure device is that the source of the

leak can be isolated, stopping the leak before it becomes a reportable incident. In some cases, with adequate subse quent ventilation, the operator is able to

to be initiated (i.e. contacting the local HAZMAT organization), the incident would have to be reported and instru mentation within the chlorine room

enter the chlorine room without the need

could be severely damaged due to chlo rine gas exposure.

for a self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing to troubleshoot

Uniform Fire Codes in the United

and find the source of the leak. Without

the ability to close the valve stem, the entire contents of the container would

empty without operator intervention, the plant's emergency protocol would have






States, as an alternative to treatment sys tems for 68-kg and 1-tonne toxic gas containers, such as chlorine, sulfur diox ide, and ammonia, recognize automatic continued overleaf...



NOT DOLLARS/GALLON Installation of two 68-kg chlorine gas cylinders, each with a yellow auto matic valve closure devise installed.

Town of Petrolia preferred the use of chlorine gas to sodium hypochlorite but understood the safety concerns of operations staff as well as the residen tial community, which has encroached on the Water Treatment Plant over the

many decades the plant has been in operation. The Petrolia WTP uses two 68 kg chlorine gas cylinders and three

No upsets resulting from solids washout Increase capacity in existing tanks Less expensive than other BNR options

Operator friendly - stable system performance No redworms Proven and documented Over 400 installations in 44 countries

Achieve Nitrification even at 5°C / 41°F

chlorinators for pre-chlorination, postchlorination, and trim. The objective is to produce potable water with a chlo rine residual of 2.0 mg/L before mak ing the 11 mile (18 km) trek to the Mandaumin in-ground storage reser voir and finally to Petrolia for storage in the water tower.

In order to address the safety con cerns, the Town of Petrolia and KMK agreed to investigate the use of auto

matic valve closure systems to provide added safety to the chlorine gas sys tem. Automatic valve closure systems are actuators that mount directly onto the cylinder valve stem system (CGA Connection 820 yoke and adapter). An automatic valve closure system is designed to provide 40-50 ft-lb of clos ing torque to the valve stem upon receipt of an emergency shutdown sig nal, stopping any leakage that may be occurring. The advantage of an automatic valve

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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 45

Drinking Water valve closure systems. The Chlorine Institute (CI) recognizes these devices and publishes "Recommendations for Emergency Closure Devices for Chlorine Institute Standard Cylinder and Ton Container Valves

The British Columbia Occupational Health and Safety Regulation discuss es toxic gases and states that" in the event of an emergency or accidental release, the employer must ensure that ... the gas supply can be shut down manually from a remote location or by the alarm system so as to isolate the reserve supply within the system and stop the generation or flow of the gas...". Halogen Valve Systems of Irvine, California, was selected as the basis of design. The Terminator Emergency Shutoff System, designed specifically for 150-lb gas cylinders, is an electri

cally driven actuator that acts directly on the cylinder valve stem. The actuator mounts on the cylinder

valve stem by means of a drive bushing and two parallel rods that straddle the gas valve nozzle making it easy to remove during cylinder changes. The actuator is designed to apply 40 ft-lb of

closing torque to the valve stem after receiving an emergency shut down sig nal from any number of sources such as a chlorine gas detector. The actuator is designed as an emergency closure device and therefore is powered only in the closing direction. The duty opera tor must always accomplish opening of the valve manually. The electronic cir cuit board within the Gemini control

panel, designed to operate two actua tors, contains a microprocessor pro grammed to precisely control the valve closing cycle time and apply the required torque to the valve stem. An uninterruptible 12 VDC battery power supply ensures operation even during loss of plant power. In the event of a sustained loss of charging power(up to seven days), the microprocessor will

SCADA. Plant operators utilize the actuators to close the valves during change out ofthe eylinders. As well, the actuators are tested again when installed on the new cylinders, which ensures that the actuators are operating according to design specification. Since installation of the Halogen automatic valve closure system, there have not been any incidents with respect to chlorine gas leakage. However, oper ators at the Petrolia WTP are confident

that the actuators are in position and ready to use should the situation war rant, which will minimize chlorine leaks and any risk to themselves and to the community. Halogen Valve Systems is represent ed in Eastern Canada by Indachem Inc., Toronto, Ontario.

initiate actuator closure while suffi

cient power remains to apply the spec ified torque to the valve stem. At the Petrolia WTP, the actuators are installed on two 68-kg chlorine gas cylinders designed for automatic switchover. The actuator is tied into the

chlorine gas detector installed within the chlorine gas building as well as the Emergency Shutdown Button and plant

Terty Blackmore is with Town ofPetrolia e-mail: works@town.petrolia.on.ca Wendy Trottier is with Petrolia WTP e-mail: wendy@waterworksmw.com, Vlad Petran is with KMK Consutants

e-mail: vladp@kmk.on.ca


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46 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

/ 50th V y Anniversary y


Hazardous Waste

Imports and exports of hazardous waste decline

Figures released by Environment Canada demonstrate that, for the fifth year in a row, there has

been a decline in the amount of

hazardous wastes and hazardous recy clable materials imported into Canada. Hazardous waste exports also declined between 2003 and 2004.

rial governments in 2000 and 2001. These hazardous wastes and recycla ble materials can come from many dif ferent sources, including industrial waste, or from household products such as cleansers, used batteries, oilbased paints and leftover pesticides. Due to their makeup, these wastes can

Most notable is the decline in the quantity of imported

Because of Canada's close geographic and economic relationship with the US, reducing the distance hazardous waste needs to travel for instance, can

significantly reduce cost to industry and the risks associated with the time

spent during transport. Since 1992, the Government of Canada has had strict regulations on the transboundary movement and tracking

hazardous wastes destined for incineration and

of hazardous wastes and hazardous

physical/chemical treatment in the province of Quebec.

recyclable materials. In addition, the recently published Export and Import

The figures for 2004 indicate that imports of hazardous wastes destined for disposal declined by over 12,000 tonnes from 2003 quantities. During the same period, imports of hazardous recyclable materials destined for envi ronmentally sound recovery or recy

cling operations increased by nearly

pose potential risks to both human

of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous

health and the environment.



The disposal of the waste we pro duce, be it household non-hazardous garbage or hazardous industrial waste,








November ofthis year, will further con tribute to the protection of the environ

needs to be done in an environmental

ment and human health and will mod

ly sound manner, so that human health

ernize the control regime.

11,000 tonnes, or 5.8%. Most notable

and the environment are protected. Managing waste in an environmentally

For further information visit:

is the decline in the quantity ofimport

sound manner makes economic sense.


ed hazardous wastes destined for

incineration and physical/chemical treatment in the province of Quebec. The Government of Quebec has placed more stringent controls on the registration of disposal facilities and their operating conditions, as well as implemented pre-treatment require ments for landfilling. As a conse quence, in 2004 a number of facilities in Quebec have reduced their imports from other countries for disposal as they make modifications to their oper


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www.cadmanpower.com September 2005. Environmental Science & Engineering 47

Drinking Water Water / Waste Water


Refocusing on small water purification systems By Suchit Kaila,Ahron Nahmias,P.Eng.and Maggie Patterson, MSc.F.

Although waterborne disease Without KSB,

water standards.

Canadian towns and cities,

The system is designed to treat a surface water source or a groundwater

the tragic occurrence of

No One Would

sickness and death due to waterborne

Set Foot in Here

pathogens in Walkerton, Ontario, and North Battleford, Saskatchewan, have refocused Canadians on the impor

With KSB, rivers, lakes and seas

can keep their natural balance. Our tried and tested pumps and mixers help clean up in munici pal and industrial waste water disposal and treatment systems. They also transport clean water to where it is needed. You can draw

on over 100 years of fluid flow expertise. As a reliable and effi cient systems supplier and service partner, we'll put your projects on a sound footing. KSB Pumps Inc.• Mississauga, Ontario

not able to treat the water to drinking

outbreaks are uncommon in

source under the direct influence of surface water to the MOE standards. It

is not designed to treat brackish water or water with unacceptable levels of

tance of our water.

chemical or mineral contamination.

Ontario's response to these events has culminated in the current Drinking Water Systems Regulation (Regulation 170/03). Although this regulation is currently being revised, its impact has already had a major effect on small water systems that use a surface water source or groundwater source under

The system is designed and engi neered by integrating different equip ment and technologies into a single package and developing integrated solutions for control, monitoring and reporting. The system is made up of the following equipment: 1. Chemical feed panel to dose coagu lant for chemically assisted filtration. 2. Media filters for particulate removal.

the direct influence of surface water.

Because the monitoring and reporting requirements are difficult for small sites without full-time trained staff,

pre-packaged treatment, monitoring and reporting systems offer a solution to what might otherwise be an inten sively manual water system operation. Metcon Sales & Engineering

3. Absolute rated one micron filter car

tridges. 4. UV disinfection system. 5. Online turbidimeter to measure tur

bidity. 6. Chemical feed panel for chlorination. 7. Online chlorine & pH monitor and

E-mail: ksbcanada@ksbcanada.com

Limited realized the need for effective


Tel.(905) 568-9200• www.ksb.ca

water treatment with efficient remote

8. Videographic chart recorder.

The Amarex-KRT sub

mersible motor pump for

all kinds of waste water.

monitoring. This led to the develop ment of pre-engineered packaged water treatment systems which meet the filtration and disinfection require ments of the Ministry of Environment (MOE), monitor and record turbidity, chlorine residual, pH, UV, distribution flows and are compatible for remote site monitoring without needing certi fied personnel to visit the site regular ly to collect and record data and pre pare reports. Pilot studies were conducted at var ious sites with varied influent water

quality parameters, including high lev els of iron and manganese, to design a packaged system that could address all concerns and provide an efficient, unmanned and fail-safe solution to

produce safe drinking water. The Metcon Packaged Filtration System filters and disinfects water. It continually monitors treated water tur bidity, free chlorine residual, pH, UV, distribution flows and tank levels, and records these values for reporting requirements. It will shut water flow off and activate an alarm circuit if it is

48 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

9. Auto alarm dialer. 10. MRS software for remote monitor

ing and reporting. For sites where high levels of iron and manganese are present, an addi tional chemical feed panel to feed oxidant is added to the system for oxida tion and precipitation of iron and man ganese, which are then filtered by macrolite media filters. In some cases

granular activated carbon filter(GAC) is also required after macrolite filter to adsorb oxidant, colour, taste, and odour. Where GAC is used, chlorina

tion is required before and after the fil tration system. 1. Chemical Feed System for Coagulant - An engineered chemical feed system with Surefeed controller technology and ProMinent metering pumps for duty standby operation. The coagulant feed system is flow paced by a signal from the flowmeter. 2. Macrolite Media Filter — When

fine pre-filtration is critical, this inno vative ceramic media is used to remove

particles as small as three microns. It normally requires no conventional pre-

Drinking Water treatment such as coagulation or flocculation to remove particles. This special media effectively removes particles such as clay, silt, oxidized iron and manganese, dead microorganisms and precipitates from other treatment processes. The Macrolite Media Filter System features metered and ondemand control, adjustable backwash times to accommodate changing inlet water characteristics. Effective filtering capability assures continuous, high quality, filtered water and the compact media beds require less water for back wash.

3. Absolute

Cartridge Filter



advantage of minimizing chemical usage for operational cost savings. The system incorporates a pause contact, to freeze the control signal when the well pump is off. 7. Online Chlorine Monitor and

ment in the industry. The measuring probe is reagent less and buifer less, thus there are no operational costs associated with chemicals usage. The only consum ables are the electrolyte and cap which are replaced approximately every 9-12

Controller -The ProMinent Dulcometer

months. The chlorine measurement is

Chlorine Residual Analyser is an amperometric type analyser with a membranecovered probe. It has many features, which makes it the most preferred instru

both pH and temperature compensated to ensure the chlorine residual is as accurate

as possible. continued overleaf...

Rotary Lobe & Disc Pumps Right first time, every time


The Harmsco

POLY-PLEAT absolute one-micron

rated filter cartridge meets or exceeds the three logs (99.9%) removal requirements described in NSF Standard 53 for cyst sized particles and is ideal to control cryptosporidium, giardia cysts and other harmful microorganisms to help ensure cystfree drinking water. These cartridges are ideal as final filters for municipal water filtration and provide long filter life due to their pleated design and

What you want from a pump is quite simple: It should perform to specification, year after year, with minimum maintenance. The right pump is the one you can virtually forget about once it's installed. So it pays to choose carefully. if you're specifying rotary lobe pumps or single/dual disc pumps, that means choosing the SSP brand. No one knows the technology better. SSP Pumps, formerly sold under the brand names of Lobefio, MGi and Alfa Laval, offers the broadest range of rotary lobe pumps available in the world today. Our proven, high specification designs are manufactured with the precision to keep on working the way you intended from day one ... whatever the duty across a whole range of industries.

Single Disc

Dual Disc


increased surface area. The filter mate

rials are FDA listed for use in potable water and the filters themselves are certified to ANSI/NSF 61 standards

for use in potable water. 4. UV Disinfection Systems - The UV reactor meets the minimum 40

mJ/cm- (40,000 pwsec/cm-) treatment requirement, in addition to being a NSF/ANSI Standard 55-Class A sys tem which is designed to disinfect and/or remove microorganisms from contaminated water, including bacteria

SSP Single Disc pumps are designed for use within effluent processes for pumping

SSP Dual Disc pumps are designed for use within effluent and industrial treatment

sludges and other waste media having

processes where arduous duties in harsh

entrained solids.

conditions exist.

Flow rates up to 24 m'/h

• •

Differential pressures up to 1.5 bar Sludge thickness content up to 6%

• • •

Flow rates up to 52 m^/h Differential pressures up to 3 bar Sludge thickness content up to 10%

Series G

Series D

and viruses, to a safe level.

5. Online Turbidity Monitor - The H.F. Scientific MicroToL on-line tur

bidity monitor meets USEPA method 180.1 and ISO 7027 design and per formance criteria. It has a fast response time and inexpensive calibration due to low sample volume. The unit has removable sample cuvettes to allow for easy cleaning and calibrating. 6. Chemical Feed System for Chlorine - An engineered chemical feed system with Surefeed controller technology and ProMinent metering pumps for duty standby operation. The chlorine feed system is proportionally paced by both flow and chlorine resid ual (using the chlorine analyser/con troller), allowing tight control over the

SSP Series D ductile iron rotary lobe pumps fulfil positive transfer duties

SSP Series G rotary lobe pumps are

throughout industry by providing durable cost effective performance.

• Differential pressures up to 15 bar

and are amongst the world's largest pumps of this type. • Flow rates up to 680 m^/h • Differential pressures up to 10 bar

• Flow rates up to 160 mVh Port sizes 80- 150 mm

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chlorine residual which has the added

September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 49

Drinking Water


Skid-mounted filtration and UV system, rated for 60 GPM manufactured for the Manorview WTP.

8. Videographic Chart Recorder -

9. Auto Alarm Dialer -The Metcon

Monitors and records treated water

EcboDial is an automatic alarm dialer,

parameters like free chlorine residual, pH, treated water turbidity, UV inten sity distribution flows, and tank levels. An optional Ethernet modem can be added as built in with the data logger so that all data can be remotely moni tored and downloaded to generate reports through MRS software from a

which notifies personnel in the event of a process alarm. The EcboDial allows for up to 96 analog or dry con tact inputs and 16 different phone numbers to be programmed. The user recordable alarm message allows and cause of an alarm. The EcboDial

Software is the solution for remote

remote location.

has a sophisticated lightning and surge

data collection and report generation

instant identification of the location

protection system, containing three levels of protection. The unit also has a line seizure feature, which will inter rupt a phone conversation, or an offthe hook phone in order to call out, ensur ing that you always know the potential problems in your system. 10. Automatic Reporting SoftwareMRS (Metcon Reporting System)

Got Bleach? Get ProMinent Metering Pump Technology. Many innovations and features are built into the designs of our Sigma and gamma/L metering pumps and Pre-Engineered systems to address the problems specifically associated with bleach (sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypo, hypochlorite sodium, hypo, or hypochlorite )feed, monitoring and control (and similar chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and ammonium hydroxide).

Auto-Degassing Valve Q

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50 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Drinking Water of data collected from the videographic chart recorder. MRS simplifies the repetitive tasks of data collection, archiving and report formatting. It contains a set of reports tailored to solve the large reporting requirements for the water industry.

water, full treatment and reporting will likely remain part ofthe regime. Hence the demand for a user-friendly pre packaged solution for small water sys tems is here to stay.

Suchit Kaila, Ahron Nahmias and

Maggie Patterson are with Metcon Sales &

Engineering Limited. Contact: ahron@metconeng.com

The software is installed on the

user's computer and is configured to collect data for field recorders either

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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 51

Drinking Water

For millions of Bangladeshis,ash may offer hope By Dan Krotz

involve coating the ash with a com

pound that attracts arsenic, filling tea bag-sized pouches with the powder, and distributing the filters throughout the countryside, one per family per day. Water drawn from any one of the millions of contaminated wells that dot

Bangladesh could then be poured through the filter and safely con sumed.

Ashok Gadgil, a scientist in

After receiving $5,000 in seed funding from the Berkeley Lab Technology Transfer Department in

Figure 1: Bottom ash before (left) and after coating with ferric oxide

the Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), is develop ing a cheap and effective way to pro vide safe drinking water to 60 million Bangladeshis who live with the threat of arsenic poisoning. Gadgil's idea is to create arsenic filters from coal ash, the fine gray powder that piles up, waiting to be discarded, at the bottom of fur naces at all coal-fired power stations. Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh

has been called one of the largest mass

2003, Gadgil set out to develop a filter

poisonings in human history, expected to cause 10 percent of all future adult deaths in the impoverished nation of

that is affordable and effective. His

130 million. For reasons not entirely understood, the shallow tube-wells that

Bangladeshis depend on for water con tain dangerous concentrations of the toxic substance; if ingested at these concentrations over long periods of time, arsenic leads to debilitating

options quickly narrowed; he needed a material that has a high surface-to-vol ume ratio, is pathogen free, and is available in large quantities at low cost. Reflecting on carbon as a commonly used




thought about left-over coal ash, the large piles that collect at all coal-fired power stations, waiting to be sent to

lesions, cancer, and death.

landfills. An additional $20,000 in

Although still in the investigational stage, Gadgil's technique would

seed funding from the Blue Planet Run continued overleaf...

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Drinking Water Foundation helped him explore this option.

Coal ash is composed of particles that measure between one and 10

microns in diameter, much smaller than a 100-micron-diameter human hair. This means that even a small vol

ume of the powder has a lot of surface

area, maximizing the opportunity for surface reactions to snare arsenic. The

ash is also heated to 800 degrees Celsius during the coal burning process, so it's sterile and free of

volatile compounds. And it's plentiful. Coal-fired power plants provide most of neighboring India's electricity, and the locally mined coal used is uniquely suited for Gadgil's purposes; it's only 60 percent carbon, meaning 40 percent becomes ash.

specially treated coal ash makes a very powerful filter. After spiking lab water with so much arsenic that its concen

tration soared to an extremely toxic 2,400 parts per billion (ppb), the team

water with concentrations above 10

arsenic concentration to 10 ppb. The Bangladeshi standard for safe drinking water is 50 ppb. Gadgil estimates that five grams of

ppb. Gadgil will determine whether

filter material could render about three

gallons of Bangladeshi well water— with an average arsenic concentration of 400 ppb—safe to drink. Put another way, a filter the size of a tea bag could provide drinking water for a family of six for one day. He also estimates the

technique will cost about thirty cents per person per year. The next-best option is a filter developed by a Bangladeshi

After obtaining some ash from

engineer, backed by the non-profit organization IDE-International, that uses pulverized brick instead of ash. It

Pang, Christie Galitsky, Duo Wang, and Anna Blumstein. Together, they developed a way to coat each ash par ticle with ferric hydroxide, a chemical

would cost $9.70 per person per year.

element to precipitate onto the particle (see Figure 1). Initial tests indicate this

600,000 California residents consume

found that the filter lowered the water's

India, he assembled Team Arsenic, which includes Lara Gundel, Yanbo

that reacts with arsenic and forces the

Environmental Protection Agency rule, effective in 2006, that tightens the U.S. arsenic drinking water standard from 50 ppb to 10 ppb. Currently,

Closer to home, the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research program recently

awarded Gadgil $250,000 to explore whether a variation of this technique can help the state comply with a U.S.

ash derived from U.S. coal can be

developed into a filtration system and whether such a system can work at small municipal water treatment facili ties.

Initial results appear promising. Currently, the cost of arsenic removal at small municipal water systems

ranges from $58 to $327 per household per year. Gadgil estimates that his

method would cost less than $1 per household per year, not including the one-time cost of coating the ash with ferric hydroxide. In addition to this research close to home, Gadgil will also intensify his efforts to help Bangladesh—if he secures more fund ing.

Dan Kvotz is a writer in Berkeley Lab s Public Information Office. Contact: DAKrotz@lbl.gov



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International Law

Canada's climate change strategy By Paul Manning,Wilims & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP Ottawa has fleshed

domestic or international emission

out its strategy to force large emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG) to

reduction credits, or contribute to a new Technology Investment Fund

intend to add GHGs to Schedule 1 of the

(TIE), which will help promote techno logical innovation and reductions beyond the Kyoto period. Access to the TIE will be capped at 9 megatonnes. If a company cannot meet its target, Ottawa has pledged not to seek a penal ty "greater than $200 per excess tonne

Canadian Environmental Protection Act,

of emissions unless circumstances dic

enabling the promulgation of enforceable back-up regulations luider the Act. While working to guarantee compli ance with the forthcoming compulsory

tate otherwise."

meet their individ ual reduction tar

gets by 2012. As expected, the feds

limits, the feds have also offered to

soften the economic blow of cutting GHGs by capping reduction costs. The measures, which should be in place by 2008, would affect about 700 compa nies in the oil and gas, mining and manufacturing, and thermal electricity sectors.

Emitters will have several compli ance options. They could invest in inhouse emission reductions, purchase

The plan includes a potentially cost ly pledge. To promote compliance, Ottawa would implement, "if required, a price assurance mechanism to ensure that companies would be able to meet their regulatory obligations at a cost of no more than $ 15/tonne for the period 2008-2012." Special credits, rebates, or a new investment fund are among the funding supports suggested. Companies that have surplus emis sion reductions may sell them to other companies or to the Climate Fund. Ottawa will establish the basic rules for

trading domestic offset credits and an electronic system for tracking transac tions. However, the private sector is expected to set up and run brokerages, carbon exchanges and other compo nents of the trading infrastructure. Details on setting emission reduc tion targets, compliance mechanisms, and the preferred regulatory options were published in the Canada Gazette Part I on July 16, 2005. In addition, the scientific rationale for regulating GHGs under CEPA s.64 has been posted on the CEPA Environmental Registry. The Canadian plan mirrors renewed international support for the Kyoto Protocol. Despite the distraction of the London bombings during the G8 sum mit meetings of early July, the leaders (including the Americans!) found time to issue an extensive communique reaf firming their commitment to reduce GHG gas emissions, enhance energy security, support clean power and ener gy efficiency, and cut air pollution. continued overleaf...

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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 55

International Law

US border restrictions worry waste managers By John Willms,Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP

Canadian Agreement) would also be applied to solid waste transfers. The bill (H.R. 2491) now moves to the full House for a vote.

After years of debate, Washington may begin to tight en the U.S. border to Canadian solid



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dom has always held that NAFTA

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Then in July, the U.S. Senate passed a provision that would prohibit vehicles containing Canadian waste from enter ing the U.S. until the Secretary of Homeland Security certifies the meth ods used to inspect the vehicles for potential threats. Claiming we face "a waste manage ment crisis", the Ontario Waste Management Association has called on the province to quickly implement an integrated waste management plan to handle Ontario's waste within its own

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borders. A study completed by RIS International earlier this year says the disposal situation will become "much worse over the next five years." The study showed that: • Delays and inspections of Ontario waste crossing into the U.S. are already causing major problems. • Michigan is imposing restrictions on waste imports and increasing the fees it charges on waste imports. • If the border closed, Ontario's waste transfer stations have only two days capacity to manage the situation. It's not just about Toronto's garbage. About two-thirds of the waste being trucked to the U.S. comes from other

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to worry about the U.S. border closing to Canadian garbage, according to Michael Neely, area president of Republic Services, which holds the dis posal contracts for a number of Ontario cities, including Toronto, Owen Sound and Kitchener. In a recent issue of

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56 Environmental Science & Engineering, September2005

Energy Research

Sediments in northern Gulf of Mexico not

right for methane gas hydrate formation By Jane M.Sanders,Research Horizons,Georgia Tech Researchers investi

gated methane gas hydrates in the north ern Gulf of Mexico off

New Orlean


the coast of New

Orleans in the fall of 2002.

25°N lOO'W


Marine sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico

are likely too warm and salty to hold the amount of methane gas hydrates - a potential energy resource - originally thought to



the gas hydrates at these sites, but the deposits are likely thin or non-existent, Ruppel said. Researchers collected their data during a two-week research cruise in October 2002.

Methane gas hydrates are touted as

a potential new source of natural gas, but scientists are also studying them because they may contribute to global warming and could represent a threat to deep-sea petroleum production. contimted overleaf...

exist in the ocean floor there.

Researchers reported high-resolu tion geophysical and geochemical data for two representative sites off the coast of New Orleans, La., that suggest previous estimates for the region should be revised sharply downward, according to their paper published in the March 15 issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters(GRL).







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"We found that conditions are not favorable for the formation of methane

gas hydrates at these sites because of the geology of the northern Gulf of Mexico, which consists of salt domes that one can think of as mushroom

clouds of salt that rise buoyantly through sediments," said Carolyn Ruppel, an associate professor of geo physics in the Georgia Institute of Technology's School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and lead author on the paper. "The thermal properties of salt make the sediments hotter there, and the heat, coupled with the pres ence of the salt in pore spaces, makes it harder to form gas hydrates." The




between Georgia Tech, Rice University and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, was funded by the National Science Foundation. The

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researchers continue to analyze their data to get a quantitative estimate of September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 57

iimiifciii ii IIin——

Energy Research

sign up for a Free trial www.ccohs.ca/iegislation

stay in


Carolyn Ruppel of Georgia Tech, chief scientist on a cruise to investigate methane gas hydrates in the northern Guif of Mexico, with coiiaborator Jerry Dickens of Rice University, aboard the R/V Seward Johnson.

Supports your

Methane is produced by the decoinposition of organic material in the sed iment or by thermal processes similar to those responsible for the formation of oil. As the methane moves through


the sediment, it combines with water at

Requirements w

Includes both

the low temperatures and high pres sures beneath the ocean to produce an ice-like solid. Methane gas hydrates exist along continental margins world wide, most in sediments tens to hun dreds of meters below the sea floor in

Environmental and

equipment from the lab of co-author and Georgia Tech Assistant Professor Daniel Lizarralde to image the sea floor and to find conduits through which fluids could flow. Geochemist and co-author Gerald

Dickens of Rice University worked with graduate students to analyze water samples from cores of sediment extracted from the sea floor. They developed chemical profiles that revealed, for example, salt and sulfate concentrations. Sulfate measurements

OSH Legislation

waters more than 500 meters deep. These hydrates exist as disseminated deposits, chunks several centimeters


across and sometimes as concentrated

interaction of microbes that produce sulfate and methane.

Provides referenced

layers. In the northern Gulf of Mexico,

Standards(CSa & cgsb)

previous research on potential methane

resolution heat flow measurements to


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gas hydrates assumed homogeneous conditions (e.g., same temperature and geology) and did not consider the impact of salt on hydrate formation, Ruppel noted. "The methods we used are very good at helping us understand the con ditions in the sediment and make a pre diction of what's there," she explained. "We found conditions that are not

compatible with published estimates that imply large methane gas hydrate deposits in the northern Gulf." Ruppel and her colleagues took a multidisciplinary approach, using overlapping methods to characterize the two sites they studied, she said. They used high-resolution seismic

58 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

are important for understanding the biology of the system, specifically the

Ruppel was responsible for highconstrain temperature and the rate of fluid





Collaborators from Scripps Institution of Oceanography also collected data on fluid flux from the sea floor in the

northern Gulf - an important con straint on the hydrology of the system and its potential for hydrate formation, Ruppel noted. These measurements were not incorporated into the analysis published in GRL. "When you put all of this together, you get a good idea of the conditions in the gas hydrate reservoir - that is, the sediments that contain gas hydrates," Ruppel added. Research to characterize methane

gas hydrates is ongoing throughout

Energy Research North America and the world, Ruppel noted. She and her colleagues have also studied hydrates at Blake Ridge off the South Carolina coast during normal oceanographic cruises, deep sea drilling legs, and submersible dives. On the Blake Ridge, they char acterized hydrates both below and on the ocean floor. Through the interna tional Ocean Drilling Program, other seientists have drilled or will soon drill

boreholes to explore hydrates off the eoasts of Oregon and Vancouver. Other





hydrates as potential energy sources, as well as the safety issues related to drilling. These issues include the potential for sea floor destabilization that could occur as hot fluids are

pumped up from deep sediments through the hydrate stability zone, Ruppel explained. "Methane gas hydrates are like ice," she added. "They can melt and cause the sea floor

to collapse. The oil companies are interested in understanding this issue

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Ruppel and colleague J. Carlos Santamarina, a Georgia Teeh professor in






Environmental Engineering, will focus on these questions when their research group participates in drilling this spring in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Department of Energy is

funding this work through a joint industry project with ChevronTexaco. "There's a lot of research


hydrates going on," Ruppel said. "Ultimately, these studies around North America and the world will shed

more light on how much hydrate is out there. I hope that will get us closer to answering the question about whether hydrates are a viable energy resource. It's going to take some time. If we do learn it's a viable resource, then we'll have to face a new set of issues on how

to actually produce energy from this resource."

Producing methane from gas hydrates faces some daunting chal lenges. A key question is whether it would take more energy to extract the gas hydrates than the gas may provide,

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Technological innovation for sodium hypochlorlte dosing

Water disinfection is the

By Nicholas Valente, Marc Lariviere,Valerie Lefebvre and Julie Heroux

tested means of water and wastewater

in various processes for disinfection and bleaching. Also referred to as NaCOl, bleach, hypo, or chlorine, it is subject to degradation within the pip ing and pump system as it releases oxygen gas and results in crystalliza

disinfection is chlorination. Two fun

tion of the residual.

damental methods include gas chlori nation (CI2) and liquid chlorination (NaOCl) otherwise known as sodium hypochlorite. Chlorination was intro duced as a commercial water purifier

If the oxygen gas or vapour is allowed to build up within the piping and reagent head in sufficient volume, a typical reciprocating piston metering pump, used for accurately feeding chlorine to the process, will not func tion properly as gas in the pump head is compressed, minimizing the dis charge check valve to open upon dis charge stroke of the pump. Consequently, this effect could require that the pump be reprimed for opera

most critical process in

the treatment of water and wastewater. The world's most universal and time

in 1908. Chlorination has since been

acknowledged as the optimum method for water disinfection due to its unique ability to provide residual protection throughout the water distribution sys tem.

As a result of safety concerns with handling gas chlorine, the application of CI2 continues to decline while liquid chlorination and other alternative yet more recent technologies such as UV (ultraviolet light) and Ozone (O3) con tinue to be more promising and a safer means of disinfecting water and wastewater. Yet of great significance, sodi um hypochlorite or liquid chlorination water disinfection has been proven to be a reliable application for treating water globally for over 50 years. Sodium hypochlorite is widely used

The Pulsar HypoPump features a patent-pending design that aiiows pressurized process fluid to cyciicaiiy flush vapours and liquids through the pump's discharge check system while maintaining high performance and chemical dosing accuracy.

tion. Conditions that tend to increase

gassing in sodium hypochlorite solu tions are:

• Elevated temperatures. • High concentrating solution. • Exposure to sunlight or UV rays. • Reduction in pressure. • Cavitation.

• Poor piping conditions. • Contact with metallic impurities. • Contact with organic impurities. • Age of solution. • Quality of solution.

Reciprocating piston metering pumps or diaphragm metering pumps have been historically preferred in the dispensing of sodium hypochlorite because of their superior ability to accurately dose chemicals into a


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Disinfection process stream with great precision and repeatability at a constant pres sure. Additionally, the diaphragm metering pump is sealless and leak proof by design with negligible main tenance and simple commissioning. Traditionally, the diaphragm meter ing pump industry has promoted the use of degas valves on the discharge port of the pump which diverts gas back to the suction supply source of the bleach. This method has been

widely accepted and successful in many applications. However, the small

diameter ports in the valve system tend to plug and require continuous flush ing or cleaning through human inter vention since the system is open to atmosphere on the discharge side of the orifice. Additionally, an external bypass piping system and degas valve assembly require additional costs and maintenance while presenting more opportunities for undesired chlorine leak paths. New technology developed Pulsafeeder has developed a new technology that provides a simple and

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Site Remediation

Surfactant desorption Is key to successful PAH bloremedlatlon By Tony Robson

Fomiulations which are patented


non-ionic surfactant mixtures used in the in situ and ex situ





treatment of petroleum hydro carbons, chlorinated solvents, heavy met als, and more recently PAHs, PCBs and involved





MTBE type contaminated waste are




Bioremediation (SEB®) using Ivey-

! c/

sol®. These surfactant formulations have

the ability to enhance soil biodegrada-



During in situ and exsiU( bioremediation,



^AD 1—O


the effectiveness of the bioremediation

process is a function of balancing several physical and chemical parameters to achieve effective bio-mineralization of

the target contaminants. The addition of Ivey-sol to the substrate can aid in the controlled desorption of the contami nants making them more bio-available. As a result, the duration of hydrophobic

Figure 1

oi'ganic chemicals (HOC) bioremedia tion can be reduced by as much as 30 to 60%,or more.

Normally hydrophobic organic chemicals exhibit limited bioavailabil-

ity to microorganisms as the contami

matrix. This partitioning can account for as much as 95% or more of the total contaminant mass. Thus this lim its the concentration of HOC available

to the microbial population. Hence eertain HOCs such a polycyclic aro-

nants tend to partition onto the soil

continued overleaf...

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Site Remediation matic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and phtalates can persist in the soil matrix for long periods of time. The use of Ivey-sol surfactant formulations, as part of a well designed bioremediation process, will provide a mech anism to desorb and mobilize the target contaminants from the surface of soil and bed rock to make them more available

to the indigenous or introduced microbial populations. Bioavailability is governed by the substrate concentration



Ex Situ Bioremediation.

that the cell membrane comes in contact with (i.e., what the microorganisms 'see') as well as the rate of mass transfer from potentially bioavailable (e.g., non-aqueous HOCs)phase to the

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directly bioavailable (e.g., surfactant-aqueous HOC) phase. Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation affects the sorption of HOC and surfactants at the solid-liquid interface (i.e., the surface-H20-NAPL interface). This mechanism is in part

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responsible for the increased bioavailability of the HOC and surface-bound nutrients. SEB using Ivey-sol is effective at low surfactant concentrations. It expedites bioremediation of the contaminated soil and positively affects the surfactant-soil-NAPL systems (e.g., mass transfer of HOCs, cell hydrophobicity, and cell attachment at interfaces) while averting the inhibiting and/or microbial toxic effects associ ated with some surfactants (i.e., catonic and anionic) which are only effective at much higher concentrations. How Ivey-sol technology works An illustration of how the SEB - Ivey-sol technology works, is shown in Figure 1. This should be used to augment one's present knowledge of bioremediation to understand the Ivey-sol surfactants' effects on a microscopic scale in improving the controlled liberation of hydrocarbons and nutrients (i.e., surfactant-aqueous HOCs and nutrients-aque ous) and their controlled availability for mineralization by the microorganisms present. This illustration demonstrates how the technology desorbs contamination in the soil and either dissolves it for in situ or

ex situ applications. In the case ofex situ Surfactant Enhanced

MacViro Acquires Environmental Hydraulics Gro MacVIro recently acquired Environmental Hydraulics Group Inc. (EHG) to complement existing hydrotechnical service capabilities. Founded In 1987 by Dr. Alan Fok, Ph.D., P.Eng., a PEO-Designated Hydraulics Specialist, EHG has emerged as a world leader in hydraulic surcharge and surge analysis of complex projects for public and private sector clients. EHG continues to provide hydraulic conveyance reviews and optimisations from Intakes through pumping stations, open-channel elements and outfalls with focus on water and wastewater treatment plants. MacViro Consultants Inc. is an Ontario based company located in Markham providing consulting engineering, planning and scientific services to our clients In the private and public sectors. As a multldlsclpllne engineering services organization, we are dedicated to creating environmental and energy solutions for a healthier tomorrow. MacViro Consultants Inc.


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Tel:(905)475-7270 Fax:(905)475-5994 vww.macviro.com 64 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

Site Remediation Bioremediation (SEB), the surfactants desorb the contaminants, making them

process. After excavating and bio-piling the soil, the surfactant enhanced bioremediation treatment was applied and the bio-pile was then covered. Daily aeration was done during the treatment period. After only 12 weeks samples taken from the pile showed

alone will not remove it from the sur

population. Range of applications Ivey-sol surfactant formulation can selectively dissolve a broad range of petroleum hydrocarbons from light, to medium, to heavy-end HOC type con tamination. In addition, formulations have also been developed that are very effective on: chlorinated solvents,

face. This

PCBs, PAHs, and MTBE. It has also


been shown to enhance the effective

Standards and the soil was safe to re

ness of in situ soil and groundwater bioremediation, and ex situ soil (landfarm) type bioremediation processes by increasing HOC bioavailability. Case Study (PAH & diesel soil remediation) Ivey International Inc. was retained by Quinsam Coal Corporation to reme diate over 200,000 kilograms (440,000 lbs) of diesel and PAH contaminated soil at their mining operation located

use on-site.

more bio-available and, as a result,

expedite the biodegradation process. This mechanism can be described as follows:

• When HOC (i.e., petroleum prod uct) is absorbed on a soil grain, water is



of the

hydrophobic characteristics of the HOC, which repels the water at its sur face, and its inherent low water solu

bility. • With the addition of SEB Ivey-sol surfactants, the Ivey-sol hydrophobic grouping is repelled by the water but attracted to the HOC on the surface. At

the same time, the hydrophilic group ing is attracted to the water molecules. • These opposing forces loosen the HOC from the surface of the soil

matrix and suspend it in the water phase. Once dissolved, the suspended

that the remediation of the Fueloil/Diesel and PAH contamination was




PAH Case Study (bench scale) During the spring of 2005, Ivey International's Research & Development Division was retained to conduct a

bench-scale testing to determine the effectiveness of Ivey-sol for the desorption of PAH contaminants off silty-sand soils that had originated from an indus trial brownfield site with over 100,000 tons of contaminated soil. The remedia

near Vancouver, BC. Baseline total

tion plan involved a combination of in situ and ex situ bioremediation of said

tion in a 'surfactant-aqueous HOC microscopic outward appearance, it is

petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations exceeded 10,000 ppm and several of the PAH parameters exceeded the applicable Envirorunental Standards. Ivey International Inc. treated the con taminated soils using their new

more bioavailable to the microbial

Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation

HOC is more visible to the microbial

population present. • Once liberated in low concentra

soils. The critical barrier associated with PAH bioremediation is its low bioavail

ability due to the fact that 90 to 95% of PAHs preferentially absorb on to sur faces versus being dissolved in the aquecontinued overleaf...


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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 65

Site Remediation ous phase. If Ivey-sol could desorb and

Table 1 Parameters


Hydrocarbons >C10-C21 Hydrocarbons >C21-<C32 Hydrocarbons

Ivey-sol 106

% Reduction










Volatile Hydrocarbons Benzene















Xylene (Total) 06 - C10(less BTEX)



liberate the PAHs, it would in effect increase their bioavailability for microbial and mineralization. The bench scale test involved the

mixing of a 20:1 volume of PAH con taminated soil from which a represen tative baseline sample was collected for PAH analysis. Then a 1 L volume of contaminated soil was washed and

the liquid phase was decanted. A post Ivey-sol wash sample was then collect ed and submitted for analysis(Table 1).

1 -Methylnaphthalene 2-IVIethylnaphthalene Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene






As the bench scale test results











Benzo(a)anthracene Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(b)fluoranthene Benzo(ghi)perylene Benzo(k)fluoranthene










demonstrate, Ivey-sol was effective at desorbing all 19 PAH compounds. On average, pre to post PAH concentra tions dropped by >90%. The lowest desorption/removal was observed for























lndeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene Naphthalene Perylene



















benzo(ghi)perylene of 84.3%, while the highest desorption/removal was observed for 2-methylnaphthalene at 97.3%.

Tony Robson is Director, Mining Plant & Equipment, Quinsam Coal Corp. E-mail: tonyr@oberon.ark.com

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^ Environmental NewSj

Canadian students compete in the Stockholm Junior Water Prize competition

Patrick Danielson and Robin

Prize in a formal ceremony at Dansens Hus in Stockholm. The award, present ed by Crown Princess Victoria, on

tition is organized by the Canadian

Miron, both of North Bay, Ontario, have recently returned

from the Stockholm Junior







Water Prize (SJWP) competition in Stockliolm, Sweden. The two 17-year old students, from Algonquin Secondary School, won the Canadian competition, held last May in

Foundation, is accompanied by a $5000 US scholarship and a crystal sculpture. The prestigious SJWP event recog


research. The Canadian SJWP compe

Their project, entitled MacroInvertebrate Sampling Technology (MIST), involved the development of a flow-through lake water sampler that can sample in real time, macro-inverte brates such as Mysis relicta and Bythotrephes longimaniis. Patrick explained to the judges that "these zooplankton species are alien to Canadian lakes and are poised to potentially dis rupt aquatic life in northern Ontario lakes". The sampler and accompanying software can be used to produce three-

nizes students for excellence in water

Affairs Council of the WEE The Canadian






Member Associations ofWEF and ITT

Flygt Industries provided funding. For more information visit: www.stockholmjiiniorwaterprize.org

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dimensional charts, either in real time or back in the lab. Rick Corbett, the Chief Judge for the Canadian SJWP competition noted that "the technique that Patrick and Robin have developed will allow scientists to scan the lake

water column very quickly and then decide on what depths and areas to con centrate conventional zooplankton sampling methods."

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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 67

Flow Monitoring I

New take on ancient art of monitoring rivers,streams and sewers

For centuries, City engineers

By Gary Fricke advancement of radar and ultrasonic

have been measuring and quantifying flows in rivers,

flow measurement (non invasive), the need to visit the site is drastically

streams and sewers. In the


early days it was as easy as tossing an orange peel into the flow and measur ing the time it took to pass from one point to another. Nowadays, as well as monitoring flows, rainfall and sur charge conditions are also required to understand the hydraulic conditions within the sewer collection system. With the introduction of electronic

data recorders and flow meters, water

resource managers can make informed

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decisions based on accurate field data.

Flow meters - Recorders can monitor

In most cases, AN (Area Velocity) flow meters require routine mainte nance to clean sensors, replace batter ies and download the data. This is gen erally done every two weeks and may

flow meters by accepting the analog output signals produced by the flow meter or by digitally interrogating the flow parameters via the flow meter's data communications port. A battery


require confined space entry equip ment, traffic control and a two to three

powered recorder with a wireless modem can be deployed in a manhole

person crew to complete. With the

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Rain gauges - Recorders can directly interface tipping bucket type rain gauges, counting each tip that occurs

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Flow Monltonng within user-programmed intervals (e.g. 15 minutes). Because the recorder and communications method consumes

message log or the forwarding of an alphanumeric message to a paging service provider, cell phone or email

The recorder is connected to an anten

na buried in the pavement adjacent to the manhole.

address to alert personnel of a remote site problem. The user can select alarm

very little energy, a recorder and wire less modem can be deployed with rain gauges operating on battery power for

conditions from a menu of choices

extended time periods without mainte

including external power failure, input

nance. Data can be forwarded on

signal hi and low level exceedance, battery low, AC power fail, external event triggers, memory nearly full, tamper switch detection, recorder fault conditions, etc. A remote recorder (RTU) monitors

the cellular carrier infrastructure and the Internet to the host. An Internet

a wastewater flow meter in a manhole.

continued overleaf...

schedule or more frequently during rain events.

CSO/SSO Surcharge Levels - A stan dard data recorder intended to monitor

water levels in manholes and report by alarm whenever levels exceed user defined thresholds. Lift Stations - Wastewater lift and

pump stations can be monitored with a

recorder system providing the operator information on sump level, pump run times and flow through the station. Automatic site alarms include sump level overflow, AC power fail, flow blockage, etc. Water Quality - Recorders can be supplied with water quality sensors

(e.g. pH, ORP,etc.) for waste pre-treatment monitoring applications. The recorder, water quality sensors and

wireless modem can be deployed entirely underground for permanent

The RTU collects data from the

flow meter (typically level, velocity and flow computations) at a userdefined interval (e.g. 15 minutes) then forwards this data to the DMS host

computer. The communications path begins wirelessly between the burial antenna and a local cell tower, then via






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applications, or moved from site to site

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Data Management Service Hetek Solutions Inc. provides a Data Management Service (DMS) for customers who prefer to outsource the data collection and data management


Two high-powered lamps with elliptical reflectors inactivate pathogens from 360 degrees. Flow rate capacities up to 4000 m3/day. NSF/ANSI 55 Class A Certified.

functions. This also reduces the cus

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When employing the Hetek DMS, the customer's remote site recorders

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Two smart UV sensors, mounted in air, constantly monitor lamp performance and water quality. Computerized alarms ensure that only safe water can NSP/ANSI 55 CLASS A CERTIFIED

enter the water management system. Systems include a 4-20 mA display for onboard or remote monitoring.


The customer may also have access to their DMS database by using an Enterprise Client at their facility and logging onto the DMS server over the Internet using a Virtual Private Network (VPN). This permits the cus tomer's system administrator or data analyst to edit data, add sites and measurements and modify systemoperating parameters from their office. Hetek DMS also will receive and

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Flow Monitoring Protocol (IP) address within each data packet instructs the network routers where to send each packet. Administrative




Enterprise Server limit access to data to those web site visitors that log on with the appropriate user name and pass word. DMS customers may provide access rights to their clients to permit them access to information from spe cific sites, for example a single custody transfer flow meter.

Telogers Enterprise adds three high-performance data management

elements to Telogers for Windows: a flow analysis module, a fully relation al database and a web module for dis

playing data on an intranet or the Internet.

Enterprise stores all data from

data to networked users operating com mon web browsers (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer) as web pages. This could include any computers connected to the user's intranet, or if desired the Internet.

remote sites into a relational database

Website Data Access

on the server, including all recorder configurations, event logs, site parame ters, etc. Any networked computer ninning the Enterprise Client software (with appropriate permissions) may

Telogers Enterprise provides a web module that permits sharing a wide range of information to authorized

then access the data stored in the data

base. Additionally, Enterprise can serve

users, via a corporate intranet or the Internet using web browsers: Currently, data provided by the Enterprise web module is read only; the user has no access to modify the database or any operational system configurations. A client access control utility is included with Enterprise that permits the system administrator to control data content to authorized par ties by user name and password. This would permit, for example, utility cus tomers to gain access to final flow data from flow meters servicing only their communities, while the utilities man

agement and consulting engineer might have permission to view all measure


ments from all sites. Common Data Platform

A key benefit of the Telogers sys tem is that data from all collection sys


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Canadian distributorfor Teiog Data Recorders. Contact Gary Fricke at

gary.fricke@iietek.com 70 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005


Greenhouse gases causing ocean to turn more acidic - UK Royal Society

Increasing emissions of carbon

dioxide into the atmosphere are making the global ocean more acidic, with potentially catastroph ic and irreversible consequences for marine life, according to a new report from Britain's prestigious Royal Society. Over the past 200 years, oceans have absorbed approximately fifty per cent ofthe carbon dioxide that has been

emitted into the atmosphere as a result of the burning of fossil fuels. When CO2 enters the ocean, it forms a weak acid, carbonic acid; calculations by the Royal Society indicate that this uptake has led to a reduction in the pH of the ocean by 0.1 points. If global emissions of CO2 from human activities continue to rise on

current trends, says the report, then the average pH of the oceans could fall by 0.5 imits by the year 2100. This pH is probably lower than has been experi enced for hundreds of millennia and, critically, this rate of change is proba bly one hundred times greater than at any time over this period. Furthermore, the report notes, ocean acidification is essentially irreversible during our life times. It will take tens of thousands of

years for ocean chemistry to return to a condition similar to that occurring at pre-industrial times (about 200 years ago). Although predicting and quantifying the magnitude and impact of such


changes is difficult, the Royal Society is able to make some predictions with a reasonable degree of certainty. In particular, it notes that there is convinc

ing evidence to suggest that acidification will affect the

process of calcification, by which

animals such


corals and mollusks make

shells and plates from cal cium carbonate.

The tropical and sub tropical corals are expect ed to be among the worst affected, with implications for the stability and longevity of the reefs that they build and the organisms that depend on them. Cold-water coral reefs are also likely to be adversely affected, before they have been fully explored. Other calcifying organisms that may be affected are components of the phytoplankton and the zooplankton, and are a major food source for fish and other animals. Regional variations in pH will mean that by 2100 the process of calcification may have become extremely difficult for these groups of organisms, particularly in the Southern

and may anyway cause additional harm to marine environments.

Reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere appears to be the only prac tical way to minimize the risk of largescale and long-term changes to the oceans. Action needs to be taken now

to reduce global emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere to avoid the risk of irre versible damage to the oceans.


There is little evidence that mitiga tion techniques such as adding chemi

Source: Royal Society. 2005. Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Royal Society, London www.royalsoc.ac.uk

cals is the answer. Such efforts are like

ly to be effective only on local levels.


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" Process optimization and modeling " Plant condition assessments and

facility plans

"Treatment technology evaluation and selection

r Treatment plant design and construction fnanagement

~ Biosotids and residue management " Operations and maintenance consulting - Regulatory compliance and operations planning

September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 71


Eliminating harmonics improves productivity and reliability at wastewater treatment plant

Power electronic loads such as drives, ozone generators and UV filtration equipment have

become abundant in the water and wastewater treatment industries

due to their many benefits. But they have one major drawback in common; they might produce a problematic con dition



harmonics. The

Corvallis, Oregon Water Reclamation Facility fell victim to harmonics, but found a solution in a power correction system from Schneider Electric. The term harmonics is used to

describe a component of a periodic voltage or current waveform having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental power line frequen cy, 60Hz in the U.S. This irregular

nearby waterways. Besides cleanup costs, which can

sequence relays in the LV switchgear,

run into the millions, in the US,

ing of the influent control gates. The plant reverted to manual con trol but the faults - although less fre quent - continued. Operators then noted that these problems seemed to

Environmental Protection Agency imposed fines are extremely harsh for sewage spills, and the impact of such a spill on the health of local wildlife and people can be substantial. Warning symptoms of problematic harmonic levels include overheating motors, drives and cables, thermal trip ping of protective devices and logic faults of digital devices (CNC, PLC, computers) and generator faulting, all of which can result in process down time.

This 'non-linear' current draw results

These warning symptoms began at the Corvallis facility after a major upgrade that included four new influ ent pumps, new distribution equipment and a SCADA system to provide over all control, data collection and plant performance documentation. Variable frequency drives (VFD) were chosen

in a distorted waveform.

as the most efficient means for con

waveform results because the wave

form required by power electronic loads is quite different than the sinu soidal voltage delivered by the utility.

High levels of harmonic distortion

trolling the two new pumps.

can stress the electrical network within

After completion of the equipment

a water treatment facility and on the servicing utility, causing problems for sensitive electronic equipment. The impact on a facility can be very costly, especially when processes are disrupt ed or shut down,reducing productivity, increasing repair and maintenance costs, and possibly spilling partially

installation, commissioning pro gressed smoothly until the last of the new equipment, the SCADA system, was brought on line. The facility man agers were immediately plagued with considerable downtime due to logic faults in the SCADA system, nuisance tripping of ground fault circuit break ers, frequent activation of zero

treated or untreated wastewater into

and random and autonomous switch

increase when two or more drives were

operating on a common MCC bus at one time.

1) Ground fault trips occurred when the speed of the pumps was changed. 2) Ground fault breakers tripped when the VFD was started or stopped. 3) Influent pump gates switched when the speed was changed. 4)Negative sequence relays activat ed when the speed was changed. Facility managers hired an inde

pendent test service to analyze the problems. They measured harmonic voltage and current distortion, current and voltage transients during accelera tion and deceleration of the pumps, control signals, zero sequence current during speed changes, and neutral to ground voltage in the breakers. The harmonic voltage and current distor tion were measured at varying carrier frequencies to determine if such changes affected the harmonic condi tions. The tests indicated that:

1) There was no measurable differ ence in the line harmonics when the

carrier frequency was changed from

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Operations 4.5 kHz to 1.5 kHz.

2) The total harmonic current dis tortion [THD (I)] level measured at 89% output speed (approximately 95% load) of one VFD was 38.8% with the 5th order and 7th order having the highest amplitude. Note that each VFD had 3% impedance line reactors. 3) The total harmonic voltage dis tortion [THD (V)] measured 3.8%. 4) A high frequency noise, very

separate from the control wiring. Second, a review of the harmonics

test data for the facility revealed that THD(V)exceeded 5% when two VFD were operating on one bus, and the TDD (total demand distortion) exceed ed IEEE 519-1992 recommended lim

active filters are often the best choice

its of 20% for this installation.

for harmonic filtering when compared to such alternatives as passive filters or 18 pulse drives. With active filters, an engineer can review a group of loads easily and accurately in the design stage without having to perform any expensive harmonic studies. Standards compliance can be guaranteed and the potentially costly problems are avoid

A THD (V) that exceeds 5% can affect many different types of equip ment - often, electronic equipment -

close to that of the VFD carrier fre

in an electrical network. The fact that

quency, appeared on the 4-20 mA DC gate signal when the VFD was acceler ated, decelerated, started or stopped. These noise impulses caused the gate to adjust position. 5) The zero sequence (neutral) cur rent and voltage (208/120Y V) were sensitive to changes in the carrier fre quency. As the carrier frequency increased from 1.5kHz to 4.5kHz, the zero sequence current increased from 2niA to 400 mA.This corresponded to

the SCADA tripped occasionally sug gested that high THD (V) was

a dramatic increase in the incidence of

breaker trips. 6) Notably, a high frequency, con sistently seven times that of the carrier frequency, existed in the zero sequence current waveform.

After several remedies were sug gested and implemented, the problems occurred less frequently but were not entirely eliminated. Fifteen months passed before a local electrical distributor working with the Corvallis facility contacted the power quality specialists at Schneider Electric's plant in Salem, Oregon.

should be considered during the design of a power electronic system. Proper installation techniques and harmonic mitigation equipment can eliminate problems before they occur. From an economic and performance standpoint,

involved. To reduce the levels of TDD within

the guidelines of IEEE 519-1992 and THD(V)to less than 5%,the team rec


ommended an AccuSine PCS active

monics can disrupt water and wastewater treatment processes, driving up costs. This troubling power issue should be considered during the design stage of a project. Research your many options in harmonic mitigation equip

harmonic filter rated at 50 amperes. After





installed and the power cables rerouted through grounded metal conduit, the performance and reliability of the plant electrical system were greatly improved. The TDD was measured in the 5-7% range for one VFD and 1821% range for two VFD. The THD(V) was less than 5% for all circumstances.

The damaging effects of harmonics

The Corvallis case shows how har

ment to find the most cost effective

and reliable solution for your facility. For more information please contact Eric Truesdale at


Westfaiia Separator Not Just Better Technology, But Technology That Pays


for itself

Several members of the AccuSine Active Harmonic filter team met with

An unmatched commitment to R&D has

representatives of the facility, toured the plant and reviewed test data. The team noted several likely con tributors to the problems. First, cables

resulted in sludge thickening and dewatering centrifuge technology that virtually pays for itself. Because of our improved performance, many municipalities have

of VFD are broadcast antennae for

high frequency noise that can radiate to other cables in the same vicinity. All cables act like receiving antennae for this high frequency noise and low volt age control wiring is highly suscepti ble. As a result, the low voltage signals are easily corrupted. To protect control wiring from this noise, it should never be installed running parallel to VFD power cabling even if each set of cables is in a separate metal conduit. In fact, the only time that VFD power cables should come close to control

cables is when they cross at 90 degrees. Because of this, the team rec ommended that the power cables be installed in grounded metal conduit

reaped the benefit of superior technolo gies available exclusively from Westfaiia Separator.

• Vari-Pond® for superior process flexibility • High torque 2-Gear Drive® for optimum control

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A company of mg technologies group

To find out more call Frank Scriver now at 905-259-4801.

September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 73

Environmental NewsjRecent industry report positive about public-private partnerships

sible ranking. No respondents rate overall satisfaction as anything less than "satisfied."

The Water Partnership Council recent ly released its first industry report on public-private partnerships. Based on interviews with 31 community leaders currently engaged in public-private partnerships, An Evaluation ofPublicPrivate Partnerships for Water and Wastewater Systems says satisfaction with partnerships is high, employees are satisfied, and impacts on the envirorunent, customers and the communi ty are positive. "The Water Partnership Council has compiled the first statistical data about the impacts of public-private partner ships, and it comes straight from the

people who know best: public officials who have partnerships in their commu nities today," says Water Partnership Council President Leonard F. Graziano.

Key findings in this first-of-its-kind report include: • 50 percent of respondents rate overall satisfaction with the partnership as "extremely satisfied," the highest pos


• 74 percent rate regulatory compli ance as better under the partnership than prior to the partnership. • 92 percent of respondents that pro jected cost savings achieved those sav ings; the other 8 percent indicate it is too early in the partnership to tell. • 93 percent of respondents note that involuntary employee turnover declined or remained the same.

• 93 percent of respondents say that employees have more training and pro fessional growth opportunities than they did prior to the partnership. • 64 percent of respondents report a decrease in employee grievances under the partnership; none report an

Refinery company fined for non-compliance with organic chemical regulation Imperial Oil Limited was fined $135,000 after pleading guilty to three counts under The Organic Chemical Sector Regulation 63/95 pursuant to the





The company owns and operates a petroleum refinery along the east shore of the St. Glair River in Samia, Ontario. The refinery must comply

with conditions under Regulation 63/95 that set out a daily loading limit of 117 kilograms per day and a month ly average loading limit of 40 kilo grams.


These legislated requirements must be met and reports must be made to the

• 93 percent of respondents note that private partners proactively participate in community activities above and beyond what's required in their con

District Office when exceedances







Ministry of the Environment's Samia occur.

The court heard that, on February 25 and March 4, 2004, Imperial Oil failed to ensure that the daily process

effluent plant loading calculated for

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1-800-248-2744 74 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

^ Environmental Newsj dissolved organic carbon did not exceed the daily plant loading limit


specified in the regulation. Once dis covered, the company failed to orally report these findings to the Director as soon as reasonably possible. As a

• Electric

result of further investigation by the ministry's Investigations and Enforcement Branch, the company

• Pneumatic

was charged. It was confirmed that

• Manual Gears

• Hydraulic

there was no evidence of any adverse

• Complete Valve Automation

effect on the St. Clair River as a result of these exceedances.


John Meunier to supply clarifiers and filters to

BC water plant The District of Summerland, in British Columbia has selected John Meunier

to supply water treatment equipment for the future Trout Creek Water Treatment Plant. The contract is valued

at $2.8 million (Cdn). John Meunier will design and supply two ACTIFLO® clarifiers and six filters, for a total capacity of 72 million litres per day. Site preparation has begun and the new water treatment plant is scheduled for start-up in late 2006. Urban Systems of



E-mail: troy-ontor@troy-ontor.ca

100 tonnes per year. Also, by generat ing their own electricity, the company will be freeing up enough grid-sup plied electricity to power approximate Hybridyne Power Systems Canada Inc. specializes in the turn-key design and installation of hybrid (wind, solar and other dynamic source) renewable energy systems. For further informa

Hach aids rural

water associations

Western Canada include the Greater

In response to the Katrina disaster, Hach

Vancouver Water District (Seymour-

Company, a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation, is donating money, techni cal training and water analytical equip

Red Deer Water Treatment Plant and


in the process of collecting funds to

tion visit, www.hybridynepower.ca

The project will be John Meunier's largest project in British Columbia. Other recent ACTIFLO projects in

the City of Calgary (Bearspaw and Glenmore Water Treatment Plants). For more information please visit

Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The company believes these rural water professionals will be able to use this aid to help the largest number of people get access to safe drinking water and adequate sewage treatment in the shortest time possible. In addition, both Danaher Corporation and the Associates of Hach Company are

ly 50 homes.

Kelowna will act as Project Manager.

Capilano Filtration Plant), the City of


ment to the Rural Water Associations of

donate to the American Red Cross. Hach

is also making their Analytical Waste Water Trailers available to water profes sionals in the impacted areas to assist with the clean-up efforts. Finally, Hach Company is donating equipment to Miox Corporation for use on a self-contained,

portable drinking water plant which will provide 24,000 gallons of clean and safe drinking water a day, to those in need.

Sewer anywhere and save. With ^/One Sewer Systems, you can develop parcels where gravity sewers are too expensive — or simply impossible to put in.

Aurora Cable Internet orders

new hybrid renewable energy system Aurora Cable Internet(ACI)located in

No massive trenches. The ^/One low pressure system uses a small main


in a shallow trench that follows the




Hybridyne Power Systems Canada Inc. to supply and build a new hybrid renewable energy system. Scheduled to be fully operational by the end of 2005, this installation will initially capture energy from the wind with three high-efficiency wind turbines. Future expansion is possible by com bining solar power with the wind tur bines.

ACI will be reducing their "Greenhouse Gas" emissions by about

contour of the land.


Flat, wet, reeky, hilly ■ E/Dne Sewer Systems can make tough sites buildahle -- and, cut yuur sewering costs up to 5D% Ruid Handling SolLrtions"



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Send us the topo map for your next tough project. We'll show you how we can make it viable — and save you up to 50%. Call 1-877-624-5757 today.

September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 75

P PEPAC software

Reducing hydrogen sulfide from gas and air streams

Easy upgrade for nitrogen removal in waste

Eliminate hydro gen sulfide from biogas and air streams using our SULFA-BIND™

adsorption process. 99.98% removal on con

centrations up to Widely used interactive software for selecting the right material for buried infrastructure systems. Determine the real cost of materials you specify over the design life of the project through three independent programs. Tel: 972-


506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682,

E-mail: idiunter@concrete-pipe.org. Web: www.concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association

"13 •I

i u

3, "U o

j (U u

media. Tel: 506-

451-7407, Fax: 506-459-3954, E-mail: elw@adi.ca. Web: www.adi.ca.

Web: www.anoxkaldnes.com. AnoxKaldnes Inc.

ADI International

Rotary lobe pumps

Bridge-Plate® corrugated

Corrugated steel pipe

steel solution

For almost 100 years, Armtec has been providing the construction industry with Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) prod ucts, deliver ing low cost engineered

• • • •

Rotary Lobe Pump know how Application experience Reliability Comprehensive range

• Customer focus

• Right first time. Every time

Tel: 514-633-0999, 1-800-633-0999, Fax: 514-633-9374,

E-mail:jmarotta@aquateck-e.com. Web: www.aquateck.com Aquateck



Capacity of 0.5 grams of sulfur per gram of

SSP Pumps offers a broad range of rotaiy lobe pumps, and a range of disc pumps. Tlie range of high-quality pumps is channelled exclusively through a selected worldwide distribution network, and directly from the company's production facility located in Eastbourne, England. Benefits to customers:

• Global excellence


J 30,000

Chemical tank cleaning

Armtec's deep-comtgated structural steel plate (Bridge-Plate) can provide one of the most cost-effective and rapid solutions to short-span bridging needs. BridgePlate was developed with the benefit of 70 years' experience in providing soilsteel bridging solutions.Tel: 519-8220210, Fax: 519-822-1160, E-mail: sales@armtec.com.

■u c ro u


13 O

numbers. Eleavy deposits lead to increased corrosion and reduce the life

time of surface coatings. NSF approved

Floran products have been developed for convenient and efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and fil ter surfaces. Tel: 800-387-7503, Web: www.cleartech.ca. ClearTech Industries

76 Emiwnmental Science

stonn water detention systems, culverts, bridges and other construction projects. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160, E-mail: sales@armtec.com. Armtec


Water priming systems CompreVac, one of the largest suppliers of process Vacuum Systems and Water

priming systems using Rietschle

Tank surfaces in contact with water will

cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBPs, and increased HPC

throughout Canada. CSP is an economi cal and durable choice for storm sewers,

Web: www.armtec.com

in Canada, have designed water

accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can

solutions to customers

Web: www.armtec.com

Aeration Blowers


AnoxKaldnes, Inc's FIYBAS^" treatment

process is a type of Integrated Fixed-Fihn Activated Sludge LFAS process. This sys tem is especially suitable for nitrogen re moval in existing activated sludge sys tems. It can upgrade systems using exist ing tankage on site to meet new effluent ammonia or even total nitrogen limits. HYBAS increases aerobic sludge age without increasing the solids loading rate to the secondary clarifier. Tel: 401-270-3898, Fax: 401-270-3908, E-mail: usa@anoxkaldnes.com



that do not require a liquid seal system, unlike conventional liquid ring pumps. Maintenance costs and energy requfrements are lower. These systems reach a much deeper vacuum and do not require any seal ing fluids. Water can be primed very quick ly from a maximum depth of 33 feet.

Comstock An EMCOR Company

Comstock Canada Ltd. has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc tion services to the Canadian water and wastewater sectors for almost 100

years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Tel: 905335-3333, Fax: 905-335-0304, E-mail: info@comstockcanada.com. Web: www.

Tel: 1-888-603-6172


E-mail: jonathan@comprevac.com. Web: www.comprevac.com CompreVac

Comstock Canada Ltd.

Engineering, September 2005

Showcase ecoSep below grade oil/water separators

Engineering guide available

Water systems and services

The CON/SPAN Engineering Guide is a valuable tool with all the necessary information to consider the CON/SPAN

System for many different design appli


cations. Filled with


numerous figures and

Cost-effective and safe, this highly efficient below grade oil/water separa tor provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs. Check






ecoSep...the clear choice for clean water. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519763-1982, E-mail: sales@concastpipe. com. Web: www.concastpipe.com. Con Cast Pipe



Engineering Guide provides a refer ence of design parameters, stan

enginoeiing guide

dard detail illustra

tions, and limited

design methodolo gies. Available in binder or CD Rom format. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519-

763-1982, E-mail: sales@ concastpipe. com. Web: www.concastpipe.com.


Corrpro provides complete turnkey systems and maintenance services for the cathodic protection of water stor age tanks, treatment clarifiers, distri bution and transmission piping in compliance with AWWA and NACE Standards. Tel: 905-677-2700 Fax: 905-677-2432

E-mail: Ontario@corrpro.ca Web: www.corrpro.ca. Corrpro Canada


Design of underground detention systems for stormwater management In



Drive solutions for w/ater and wastewater to

institut pour

les tuyaux de tdle ondul^

manage the quality of storm water runoff it is essential to

Plusieurs publications techniques et



des etudes de cas sont maintenant

quantity. This

disponibles sur notre site Internet. On

CD includes a

vous invite a nous visitor! Tel: 866-

descriptive video outlining the economic and envi ronmental advantages of underground detention systems. Comprehensive design software takes the designer from preliminary site hydrology to detailed system layout. Tel: 866-295-

295-2416, Telecopieur: 519-650-8081, Couriel: info@cspi.ca. Site Internet: www. cspi.ca.

2416, Fax: 519-650-8081, E-mail:

Institut pour les tuyaux de tole

info@cspi.ca, Web: www.cspi.ca. Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute


Solid dual rod sensors Gems


of the tank contents and output a 420mA signal proportional to liquid level. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905829-2630, E-mail: info@daviscontrols.

VLT* drives ensure reduced energy consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For

829-2630, E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com. Web: www.daviscontrols.com. Davis Controls Limited

Prevent asphalt cracking If you were planning to rout and seal your

wave guides to reach within 1" of a tank bottom; espe cially beneficial when con trolling expensive fluids, where undetected inventory beneath common sensors represents costly

to measure the distance to the surface

efits. For wastewater treatment the

costs. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-

Sensors feature solid state

they may be trimmed to required length during installation. Detector* sensors use Micropower Impulse Radar(MIR), or Time Domain Reflectometry(TDR),

For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben

water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance


waste. Available with rods of24" to 72"


asphalt joints after they fail, think about the added

costs of

repairing what you've , already done. Denso

.rf re-instatement tape is a polymer modified bituminous strip that is cold applied and designed to seal the joints between asphalt, concrete and steel, the first time. Re-instatement tape seals around catch basins, manholes, utility cuts and next to concrete curbs prior to paving. Do it right the first time

Odor control systems Duall offers a wide selection of cost-

effective, corrosion-resistant FRF dual laminate and thermoplastic scrubbers, fans and ventilation products for odor control applications including the new AroBIOS™ Bioscrubbers incorporat ing international award-winning bio logical odor control technology with out the need for costly chemicals, Tel: 989-725-8184; Fax: 989-725-8188; E-

mail: info@dualldiv.com. Web: www.dualldiv.com

with Denso Road Products. Tel: 416-

291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898, E-mail:

blair@densona.com. Web: www.densona.

com. Web: www.daviscontrols.com.


Davis Controls Limited

Denso North America

Duall Division, Met-Pro Corp.

September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 77

;e Showcase New optical oxygen sensor for the wastewater Industry

The original

E-Z Out Lift Out Coupling Our Patented lift out slide rail system is designed for most vertical discharge type submersible pumps under 5 H.P.,



with 1-1/4", 2" and 3" NPT

discharge nozzles or 2-1/2" or 3" horizontal discharge. Our popular lift out check valve option is now available for 3" discharge pumps. Designed to provide easy service access for most submersible sewage, sump and grinder pumps from wet pit applica tions. The system can prevent the need or risk of a confined space entry to service pumps. Pumps are removed from above sump for inspection and


completes its i product portfolio



ECO CANADA Environmental Careers Organization L'Organisation pour ies carrieres en environnement

ECO Canada Conference 2005:

Opportunities, Strategies, Growth November,2005 Toronto, Ontario The ECO Canada Conference 2005 is a new national conference that will iden

tify emerging areas of business within the environmental sector and demon

strate the importance of a skilled envi



wastewater applications with the

— optical oxygen sensor Oxymax W C0S61, the fluorescent

method for oxygen measurement. Sensor predictive maintenance warns when mainte nance is required and can be calibrated direct ly in the medium. With no electrolyte to han

dle, no polarization time, no poisoning by HjS,the measuring point is easy and mainte

ronmental workforce. Tel: 403-233-

nance free. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-

service. Tel: 604-942-7994, Fax: 604942-7954, E-mail: e-zout@telus.net.

0748, Fax: 403-269-9544, E-mail: info@eco.ca, Web: www.eco.ca.

9444, E-mail: info@ca.endress.com, Web:

E-Z Out Manufacturing Inc.

ECO Canada

Endress+Hauser Canada



Pumping systems

Leak detection studies

Myers optimizes system efficiencies


Flowmetrix field



Vortex Mixing System can be

with complete engi

undertake various


neering services, providing cost-effec

approaches toward the development of proper leak

solids storage




immediate cost sav


ings when planning a pump station. Myers collection system design service provides a comprehensive analysis and design of the complete network, ensur ing the system operates at peak effi ciencies under various running condi tions. Software programs provide the engineering tools to properly design the ideal station, including the number of pumps, type of control and lift system.

gies. Working to gether with 'key' personnel to

Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901, E-mail: epsl@telus.net. EE Myers




understand the network enables

Flowmetrix to deliver today's best man agement practices reducing your nonrevenue water in the most cost-effec




suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the

tive manner. Tel: Western office 416-

Water Environment Federation. Tel:

779-1531, Eastern office 613-398-

519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157, Email: sales@greatarioengsys.com. Web: www.greatario.com.

0296, E-mail: service@flowmetrix.ca. Web: www.flowmetrix.ca Flowmetrix Technical Services

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems


Hach increases lab efficiency Hach Compa ny's new DR 5000 Spectrophotometer and TNT



reagents for streamlined laboratory analysis provide automatic method de tection and reagent blanking that are said to increase productivity and reduce er rors. Coupled with the new Hach TNT Plus reagent vials, the DR 5000 Spectrophotometer automatically recognizes the text method, determines the reagent blank and yields 10-fold measurement and averaging. Tel: 970-663-1377, Fax: 970-962-6710, E-mail: sstephens@ hach.com, Web: www.hach.com.

Hach Company

Wind monitoring station Designed for a broad range of wind monitor ing applications, from wind power site evalua tion to crop spray deci sions and


tion, the HOBO® Wind Monitoring Station accepts up to four wind

speed and direction sen sors, making it ideal for wind profiling at multi ple heights, and reports average wind speeds, wind gusts, and wind

Inland Aquatics is involved with both aquatic weed harvesting and dredging operations. Dredging works are available for storm pond maintenance, river, lake, marina works and those jobs that start on

direction. Other features

land and move into the water.

include plug-and-play operation, bat tery-powered operation and wireless

Tel: 905-852-0204,

data retrieval. Web: www.hoskin.ca. Hoskin Scientific Ltd.

78 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

E-mail: inland.aquatics@gmail.com, www.inlandaquatics.ca Inland Aquatics


ll CllHff"

Pressure pipe system

Slim line submersible pumps

Eliminate sewer odour The Vortex Flow Insert eliminates

ITT Flygt has released a

sewer odour and controls corrosion




using a high-tech, low-maintenance design that has no moving parts. The

pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new






nates the need

for high-main TerraBrute™' is the first AWWA C900


PVC pressure pipe system specifically


engineered for Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) and other trenchless applications. Now you can standardize on PVC throughout your potable water and sewer infrastructure, whether you're using open-cut or trenchless methods. Tel: 905-403-0264, Fax: 905-

scrubbers and





60Hz models, which can

handle up to 55 1/s and pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between 300 and 500 mm in diam

eter, with 3" and 4" hoses. They are

manhole seals

made from cast aluminum and have an

outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC 60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514-

403-1124, E-mail: marketing@ipexinc. com, Web: www.ipexinc.com.

but also costly chemical injection systems. Appli cations include drop manholes or pumping stations with odorous dis charges. Tel: 905-403-0264, Fax: 905403-1124, E-mail: marketing(S)ipexinc. com. Web: www.ipexinc.com.



New 5100 and 5150

Surfactant Enhanced

slurry pumps

Bloremediation (SEB®)

ITT Flygt has launched its next gen eration of slurry pumps. They are designed specifically

695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web:

www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt



JWC offers wide range of pump station grinders The latest version of the

Ex-situ bioremediation

to handle the most

abrasive slurries, in a wide spectrum of tough industrial envi ronments. The pumps

(SEB) uses patented Ivey-soF mix

have the latest ITT

tures to desorb contaminants from

Flygt technology incorporated, ensur ing high efficiency, reliability and a long

soils increasing their bioavailability.

Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation

As a result, the duration for TPH, PAH be

Channel Monster® Extreme

Duty - XD. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-




Web: www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt

Ivey International Inc.

Arsenic removal

Macrollte media

Kinetico Canada tive media for ar

Systems to treat individual

dwellings, small and medium sized

communal sys

Ultrasorb-T or Ultrasorb-F media.

Tel: 800-432-1166,

E-mail: cws(gkinetico.com.

Chopper pumps Landia chopper pumps solve the tough est problems when pumping difficultto-handle liquids with high solid con tents. Chop and reduce solids particle size while pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate clogging problems and prevent costly


co's Ultrasorb-A,

833-8858, E-mail:jwce@Jwce.com, Web: wwwjwce.com JWC Environmental

has three adsorp-

tems, For infor mation on Kineti-

Channel Monster® grinding and screening system is a product suited for extreme heavy loading applications such as large wastewater pump stations. JWC also has a large selection of pump sta tion grinders, well suited for the smallest applications, using the Channel Monster® CMD-1205, all the way up to the largest using the new

reduced by as much as 20 to 40% or more. Tel: 800-246-2744, E-mail: budivey@island.net. Web: www.sptt. net.


working life. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605,


o Q.

Kinetico's Macrollte media is now

available for upgrading filter perform ance or increasing flow of existing pressure and gravity filter systems. The media is permanently installed, has the best warranties in the industry and is suitable for all applications. Tel: 519927-9500, E-mail: cws@kinetico.com.


Web: www.kinetico.com.

Kinetico Canada Inc.

Kinetico Canada Inc.

break downs. Landia

chopper pumps are operating in: raw


ro CO

unscreened effluents,

food industry efflu ents, paper mills, slurries and sludges, and much more. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901, E-mail: epsl@telus.net. Landia

O n


September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 79


Multi-stage filter for small drinking water applications

New Pipe Rao version 3

Moving-bed bio-reactor

now available

Parkson's Geo-Reactor'" is an attached

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result is


DO,increased The MS Filter is a solution to a small


system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no membranes to replace, and yet treat ment performance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced popula

of the mixed

tions up to 2,000. Tel: 905-853-0164, Fax: 905-853-8807,E-mail: elew@msfilter. com, Web: www.msfilter.com.

Pipe Pac version 3, has arrived. For more information or to obtain a copy of the Pipe Pac version 3, contact the OCPA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905, E-mail: paul.smeltzer@ ocpa.com. Web: www.ocpa.com. Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

MS Filter Inc.

Package Water and

liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer


BOD reduction and nitrification can

easily be accomplished. Tel: 514-6368712, Fax: 514-636-9718, E-mail:

canada@parkson.com. Web: www. parkson.com. Parkson

Grit chamber

Wastewater Plants


The Smith & Loveless

Complete chemical treatment package

PISTA* Grit Chamber

maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies



wide range of daily flows because of its

We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment


worldwide. The

Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377,

exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete parti cles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in down stream basins, channels, weirs and pip ing. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173, E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com. Web:

SPD Sales Limited could offer you a complete chemical treatment package for remote sites housed in an insulated /

heated fiberglass building, including metering pumps, tanks, analyzers and data storage systems ready for field in stallation. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905-



293-9774, E-mail: sales@spdsales. com. Web: www.spdsales.com.

Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.

Smith & Loveless

SPD Sales

E-mail: saneng@samtherm.com. Web:

Asbestos and mold abatement|

Specialist training

Tri-Phase Environmental Inc.'s retnediHffiOVERY


Command. Other services also include

Emergency Response Equipment, and Supplies Assessments using video. To leant more: Tel: 905-578-9666, Fax: 905578-6644, Email: spillman@on.aibn.com Website: www.spillmanagement.ca

Spill Management Inc.



have defined stormwater treatment excellence for over a decade and have

• Decontamination

an unsurpassed 15,000 installations


worldwide. To learn more: Tel: 800-

Tel: 905-823-7965, Fax: 905-823-7932,

565-4801, E-mail: info@stormceptor. com. Web: www.stormceptor.com. Stormceptor® Group

E-mail: sales@pcbdisposal.com. Web: www.pcbdisposal.com.

Stormceptor® Systems

Spill Management offers On-Site SiteSpecific, All-risk and All-hazard Response Training for chemical spills using workshops with hands-on training, classroom instruction, Emergency Response Planning and Incident


used to help clients develop the most appro priate and costeffective remedial action plan; securing permits, ensuring site specific Health and Safety compliance, and providing expert remediation. Services include: • Asbestos removal/encapsulation of mechanical insulation systems, sprayed fireproofing and architectural finishes. • Supply and install insulation/finishes.

Stormceptor is the North American leader of engineered stormwater oil and sediment treatment systems. Rigorously tested, Stortiiceptor Systems effectively remove pollutants and ensure compliance. With a patent ed internal bypass, Stormceptor Systems treat all rainfall events and prevent scouring. Stormceptor Systetns

80 Environmental 5 <? c ' 4. Engineering, September 2005



Tri-Phase Environmental Inc.



Digital communication

Hatch safety net The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When


closed, the net system allows people to move freely around con fined space open ing without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limit

Aiima's 2-wire digital communication keeps the customer in control. Communication protocols such as Modhus, DeviceNet and Profibus are very complex and have been developed by the best computer communication minds in the industry. They allow the exchange of information between devices in the field, e.g. actuators, sen sors and controls, as required for the automation of controlled processes. Tel: 705-721-8247, Fax: 705-721-5851, E-mail: troy-ontor@troy-ontor.ca. Troy-Ontor Inc.

ed maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening to facilitate full access to the confined space. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901, E-mail: epsl@telus.net.

Showcase 5* o a

Join pipe to 144" Depend-0Lok: the new


standard for

joining pipe to 144". En

gineered for restrained and




strained sys tems,


pend-O-Lok allows angular deflection and pipeline thermal expansion/con traction while maintaining seal integri ty. Specify in systems to 600 PSl for strength, reliability and ease of mainte


nance. Tel: 905-884-7444, E-mail:

viccanada@victaulic.com. Web: www.





U.S.F. Fabrication

i/) Controlling contaminated groundwater

Portable actuators

Membrane Bioreactor(MBR) ZENON's ZeeWeed®

MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater treatment. The proven system replaces con

Waterloo Barrier is a

low permeability cut off wall for ground-

The New Waterra Pow-

water containment and iiimu



erLift-3 is a

It is a new

design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints

powerful portable actu


ator with the

that can be sealed after the sheets have been driven into the

ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/ patent pending status in several countries. Canadian

Metal Rolling Mills assisted in devel oping the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-856-0759, E-mail: info@ waterloo-barrier.com,



durability of the


Power Pump2's mechanism

and the light weight of the Hydrolift-ll's motor, gear and con trol. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-2385704, E-mail: waterra@idirect.com Web: www.waterra.com.

waterloo-barrier.com. Waterloo Barrier Inc.

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treat ment plants. This ultrafil-

Green Turtle^'^ Group Green Turtle pro vides business, insti tutions and industry with



ventional filtration and combines clar

ification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expanded in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hundreds of installations, ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MGD.Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: info@zenon.com. Web:zenon.com.


O a c n

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Waterra Pumps

Small drinking water systems


Water chloramination process control with Chemscan 2150


Chloramination of water

is performed to produce a


I more stable disinfectant

cost-efficient waste-


water treatment solu

tions that ensure reg ulatory compliance, including Proceptor™ oil and grease separators, and PHIX™ Neutralization Systems. A leader throughout North

tration system

America, Green Turtle''''^' is committed

is cost-effec

to dynamic research and development,

tive, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistent ly producing high quality water. Tel:

and works with our clients to deliver

905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: info@2enon.com, Web: www.

877-966-9444, E-mail: info@greenturtle tech.com. Web: www.greenturtletech.

zenon. com.


ZENON Environmental Inc.

Green Turtle^^' Group

innovative wastewater solutions to meet their needs. To learn more: Tel:

compared to free chlorine.

I Chloramine


iA rD


shown to reduce the for mation of THM and other disinfec

tion by-products by as much as 80%, while reducing taste and odor prob lems. A single ChemScan® Analyzer can detect monochloramine, ammo nia and/or free chlorine from multi

< n

rD \A

ple sample points in the process. Tel: 905-569-6246, Fax: 905-569-6244, E-mail: controls@cancoppas.com. Web. www.cancoppas.com Cancoppas

September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 81


01 I/)


^Environmental News jJoint research on rubber

struction operations are essentially the

asphalt concrete

same for both types. The reduced thickness and longer life ofrubber asphalt concrete allows it to become economically competitive





launched an innovative research proj

to conventional materials in some

ect with several key partners to exam ine the potential of crumb rubber asphalt concrete on Saskatchewan's highways.

cases. Its use also provides a market opportunity for recycled rubber pro duced in Saskatchewan.

The research project is the result of

Highways and Transportation Maynard Sonntag said; "Safe and effi cient transportation drives economic development and is a top priority for the people and industry of Saskatchewan." The project is located on Highway 11, from the south junction of Highway 2 to Chamberlain, for a total of approx imately 20 kilometres. The rubber asphalt, which is produced using crumb rubber manufactured from recycled

collaboration between Saskatchewan

Highways and Transportation, the University of Regina, the Saskatchewan Scrap Tire Corporation, the City of Regina, the National Research Council and the Prairie Rubber Corporation.

tion in northwestern BC. The court ruled that the board must ensure that

pest management plans will not lead to unreasonable adverse impacts on the environment. The decision also sets an

important precedent for the province's new de-regulated approach to pesticide use. The decision marks the end of a

two-year legal battle between the Ministry of Forests and EDRF (Environment Dispute Resolution Fund) client, the Granby Wilderness Society.

Summa celebrates 25th with

charity golf event

For more information visit the web

site at: www.highways.gov.sk.ca

Plans to spray grizzly forage with pesticides put on hold

scrap tires, will be used in the north bound and southbound driving lanes,

with conventional asphalt for the pass ing lanes and shoulders. Rubber asphalt concrete offers sev eral benefits, including lower traffic noise, reduced pavement thickness, and longer pavement life versus con ventional asphalt concrete. Road con

A July 2005 decision of the BC Supreme Court ordered the provincial Environmental Appeal Board(BAB)to reconsider the Ministry of Forests' plans to use pesticides on plants relied on by an endangered grizzly popula-

nthrafilter FILTER MEDI^ ^ i-. i


20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax:(519)751-0617 E-mail: swiidey@anthrafiiter.net • Web: www.anthrafiiter.net


High Pressure Water Jetting lina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services




TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning


The Best Screen In The World Is A Baycor Screen

82 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

576 Elgin St., Unit D Brantford, Ontario Tel: (519)751-7787 Fax:(519) 751-7712 info@baycorfibre.com www.baycorfibre.com


Summa Engineering Limited located in Mississauga, Ontario, celebrated its 25th anniversary, July 29, with a creative combination of fellowship and golf. Some 140 golfers played at the renowned Hockley Valley resort. Golfers paid $125 per person, with the resort charging Summa a low rate; the difference was donated to the Heart

and Stroke Foundation. Additionally leading consulting and equipment com panies each sponsored a hole with pro ceeds also going to the Foundation. Later some 235 people attended din ner. At the banquet, founding partners Frank Cosentino and Fernando Chua

traced the origin oftheir company which

had begun in a basement apartment a quarter century ago. Frank later announced that Summa had topped up the contribution to the Heart and Stroke

Sludge Thickening

Foundation resulting in a S10,000 dona tion from golfing activities. The Foundation also provided prizes for



Fine Screening and

^ Environmental NewSj BC power plant proposals terminated When BC Hydro announced on June 17th that it was abandoning plans to meet Vancouver Island's electricity needs through a natural gas power

plant at Duke Point in Nanaimo, envi ronmental groups and concerned citi zens let out a collective sigh of relief. The Duke Point Power Plant proposal was the last vestige of a strategy which originally called for the now-cancelled Georgia Straight Crossing gas pipeline and up to three gas-fired generation plants on the Island.

Minto wastewater system receives funding for upgrade The Village of Minto will receive $2,634,494 under the Canada-New Brunsvdck Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund for the upgrade ofthe municipality's wastewater infrastructure. The announce

ment was made Aug. 30 by Premier Bernard Lord; Andy Scott, Member of Parliament for Fredericton and Regional

remaining $33 million will come from local governments whose projects win support from the fund. To date, two proj

and Minto Mayor Gary DiPaolo. Thanks to this fund agreement, every 33 cents that a participating municipality invests in an infrastruc ture project becomes a $1 investment for that community." The project involves the replace ment of the existing mechanical sewage treatment plant with an aerated lagoon system including ultraviolet

ects have been announced in New Brunswick under the Canada-New

Brunswick Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund agreement, for total funding of $12,588,064. In New Brunswick, ACOA is


responsible for the implementation of the program federally, while the Department of the Environment and

Municipal Rural Infrasti-ucture Fund agreement, signed on Dec. 3, 2004, will

Local Government, in conjunction with the Regional Development Corp.,

invest $99 million in communities across

are responsible for the provincial juris

New Brunswick over five years. The gov


ernments of Canada and New Brunswick

For more information visit www.gnb.ca and www.infrasfructure.gc.ca. continued overleaf...

disinfection. The


are each investing $33 million. The


• 15 Day Start-Up for Fuel Oil, Diesel Fuel and Heavy Oils • 16 Foot Self Contained Heated Trailers • 20 GPM Oil/Water

Separator •Activated Carbon Vessels • Sludge Chamber • Overflow Protection • Heavy Duty Air Compressor • 24/7 Tech Support • Set Up and System Training • Remediation Pumps are Optional. Fortress Environmental Corp. (416) 809-3261

Minister for New Brunswick,on behalfof

Joseph McGuire, Minister of the Atlantic Canada Oppoifunities Agency (ACOA); Announcement

Saint-Gobain PAM


Advanced Ductile Iron Manhole

Cover, Grate & Frame Technology -1/2 the weight of cast iron, yet 3 to 4 times as strong! one-man operable

"Anti-Surge/Anti-Shock!' 10-year \warranty

UV Pure Technologies

Air ReleaseA/acuum Break Valves


Appoints New Ontario

for Sewage & Water

water-tight and lockable

and Quebec Business


Development Managers

762 Upper James St., Suite 250 Hamilton, Ontario L9C 3A2 Fax: 905-777-8678

Phone: 905-777-9494



UV Pure Technologies is pleased to wel come its two new Business Development Managers, Daryl Mawhinney (pictured on right) and Mr. Roger Chalifour (on left) for Ontario and Quebec respectively. Mr. Chalifour is a seasoned sales specialist

with deep experience in commercial and industrial sales across Eastern Canada.

Mr. Mawhinney is a 19 year veteran ofthe water treatment technology market in Ontario. UV Pure Technologies Inc. develops and manufactures technological ly advanced ultraviolet purification sys tems for drinking water and wastewater. Hallett™ UV systems are NSF/ANSl 55 Class A certified. Patented Crossfire

Technology™ is self-cleaning, smart, fail-safe and virtually maintenance free. Each has intelligent, remote monitoring capability. Over three thousand of the company's systems are installed in North America, Australasia and Eastern Europe.


Package Water / Wastewater

Since 1950


Treatment Plants

10-2 Alden Road

Markham, Ontario L3R 2S1 Tel: 905-475-1545• Fax: 905-475-2021


Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal Complete Services

""^^^Trimax Resiiiuak an American Water Services'company

800-465-21 15 www.trimaxenv.com | www.americanwaterservices.com


September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 83

Turn-Key Environmental Engineering:


Hydrogen Fuel Generation


Waste Water Management & Technology Systems

...Turning Experience Into Profit

Lucy Casacia, B.Sc. Metallurgy

^ Environmental Newsj Bennett authorized to

accept Nova Scotia soil Bennett

Air Pollution & Dust Control

President & C.E.O.




authorization to accept about 1,500

tonnes of hydrocarbon contaminated

Phone; 416.301.4958 or 905.464.2586

Technology Commercialization

www.adventisoapitai.com • E-mail: info@adventiscapitai.com

soil from the former Domtar site locat

ed in Sydney, Nova Scotia. The con taminated soil is coming from the clean up ofa previous storage tank that


Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning Sr engineering





(705)726-3371 (613) 966-4243 (705)445-3451



Cieating eaialify Solutions Together

contained coal tar material from the former Domtar site located on the

Coke Ovens site in Sydney, Nova Scotia.

The soil is acceptable for process ing during commissioning of the Belledune facility and is well below the acceptance criteria stipulated in the draft Approval to Operate for Bennett. Bennett Environmental has been

working for several months to obtain sufficient quantities of contaminated soil in order to complete commission ing and conduct testing on stack emis

R.V.Anderson Associates Limited environment • infrastructure

tel 416 497 8600 web www.rvandersQn.com


toronto welland Ottawa sudbury london moncton fredericton charlottetown bombay

American Concrete Pipe Association appoints

engineering ■ operations ■ management

new President


Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Collingwood




Web: www.cctatham.com

Email: inTO@cctatham.com

CLEARVIEW Geophysics Inc.

Get a dear view of: • UST's, buried metal, debris & fiil

Matt Childs, PE,has been appointed

• Fermer excavations & structures

President of the American Concrete

"Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations"

• Leachate piumes

Tel: 905.458.1883

• Voids and fractures

Pipe Association. He has been with ACPA for five years, most recently

Fax: 905.792.1884


E-mail: clearview@geophyslcs.ca Web: www.geophyslcs.ca

• Pipes and utilities

CONTAMINATED REAL ESTATE We specialize in purchasing contaminated residential, industrial and commercial properties in Ontario. Work out options are avail able where the clean-up costs exceed the value of the property. Complete Environmental Solutions, 123 Briggs Avenue, Richmond Hill, Ont. L4B 1X6

Tel (416)809-9987

Fax (905) 764-9219

84 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

serving as Director of Engineering Services. While in that position, he completed programs for various ACPA committees by serving as a staff liaison to the Technical, Manufacturing Quality and Goverranent Relations Committees. Also, he has been

involved in helping develop marketing material for the Association, and in planning many ACPA training courses. Mr Childs is replacing John Duffy who recently retired. For more infonnation e-mail info@concrete-pipe.org


New equipment to enhance

2,000 Staff Over 60 Offices 1.800.265.6102 www.CRAworld.com

B.C's air quality monitoring

Comprehensive Services. Responsiveness. Excellence!

New monitoring equipment will help improve air quality in Prince George, says Environment Minister Barry Penner. Located on the roof of the

Meeting and exceeding your Municipal/industrial Water and Wastewater needs for almost three decades. The tradition continues... Worldwide Engineering, Environmental, Construction, and IT Services

Environment Ministry's regional office, the new equipment will identify potential sources of large and small particulate matter, which will help the provincial government and its partners to continue to develop the Prince George Airshed Management Plan.



(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

Competent and Complete Services

Four other stations around Prince

George also contribute to air quality monitoring in the airshed. In addition to about $35,000 invest ed in the new equipment, B.C. has invested over $100,000 in research in



Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction, Municipal & Industrial

Tel:(506) 684-5821, Fax:(506) 684-1915, Tei:(705)235-5531, www.girouxinc.com


• Water & Wastewater Systems . Process Optimization . Stormwater Management • Environment Planning • Value Engineering • Project Financing & Procurement .Intelligent Water Systems(IWS)

the Prince George airshed, including a study on small particulate and dust.

This study is expected to be completed by 2007. For more information visit



625 Cochrane Drive,Suite 500 Markham,Ontario,L3R 9R9 1:905-943-0500 F:905-943-0400

www.delcan.net ISO 9001/2000

First jail sentence under


Canadian Environmental Protection Act

Jeffrey Dressier pleaded guilty to two charges under the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste Regulations made pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. He received a sen

tence of 30 days on each count, to be

served concurrently. The charges were related to actions taken by Mr. Dressier while employed by Battery Broker Environmental














107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108



Etobicoke, Ontario. Judge Lacavera heard that on December 18, 2003, and on March 19,

2004, while working for Battery Broker


Gartner Lee Limited

environmental strategies & solutions

Environmental Services Inc., Mr.

Environmental Science,Economics,

Dressier oversaw the export of more than 37,800 kilograms of waste batter ies for recycling to the United States. There were no permits in place authorizing the exports. In addition, he failed to ensure that copies of the rele

Planning & Engineering Solutions www.gartnerlee.com British Columbia I Alberta I Yukon I Northwest Territories I Ontario I Quebec

vant waste manifests were forwarded to

Environment Canada, as required. It was his responsibility to do so on behalf of the company. Charges were laid on February 25, 2005, after a year-long investigation by

•Design of WaterAVastewater/Air Treatment Systems•Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies • Environmental Management Systems(ISO 14000) > Utility Minimization Audits (Energy, Water, WasfesJ • Remedial Designs/Remedial

Environment Canada. The next Court

Actions •Phase l/ll Environmental Site Assessments•Soil/Groundwater





Geomatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists

Contaminant Remediations•Litigation Assistance yvww.geomatrixicom

Environmental Services Inc. and its

President was scheduled for September

Tel:(519)886•7500 Fax:(519)886•7419

Unit G, 420 Weber St. North, Waterioo, Ontario N2L 4E7

13, 2005, in St. Catharines, Ontario. continued overleaf... September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 85

Environmental NewSj

Giffels An Ingenium Group Company

ADI receives National


Composting Award

• DRINKING WATER Treatment and Supply • WASTEWATER Collection and Treatment



Contact Stephen O'Brien or Peter Olios for more information | 416 675 5950|giffels-com TORONTO I OTTAWA | KINGSTON ! WINDSOR I WATERLOO

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis,Inc. CJQQ

Consulting Engineers

The Composting Council of Canada has presented its Award of Merit to the staff of ADI International (PEI) Inc. in recognition of ADI's significant achievement and support of compost ing across Canada. Susan Antler, Executive Director of the Composting Council of Canada presented the award to ADI staff located at the Brookfieid, PEI composting facility, which ADI


210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tei: (519)624-7223 Fax:(519)624-7224 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1G5 Tei: (905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031

E-mail: info@hydromantis.com Web: www.hydromantis.com




"Through the efforts of dedicated ADI staff, as well as home and business owners, the province of PEI has achieved a waste diversion rate of over

64% - one of the most significant suc cesses in North America," said Ms.



Bio-Environmental Specialists since 1977 67 Watson Rd., Unit #1 LAB Division

• Environmental Microbiology • Biotreatment Optimization • Fungi, Bacteria & Algae ID • Contract R&D, UV Efficacy


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• Site investigations • Aquatic Spiii Surveys

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The Central Composting Facility also won the Benefit to Society Award presented by Consulting Engineers of New Brunswick. The Benefit to Society Award acknowledges engineering design projects that have a positive effect on communities in which they are located. The technology was designed specifically for the Central Composting Facility to meet the province's strict environmental regula tions, and furthers the realization of the

GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 70 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

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province's environmental objectives.

Victaulic provides emergency repair in record time

E-mali: iws@iws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca

Providing a wide range of Environmental Services

major break in their 36" HDPE line,


they called Victaulic Depend-O-Lok


Water & Wastewater Treatment I Environmental Assessment & Planning Solid Waste Management I Stormwater Management I Watermain & Sewer Rehabilitation

).L. Richards & Associates Limited

When Canadian Electrolytic Zinc Limited, a zinc processing facility in Vaiieyfieid, Quebec, experienced a






613 728-3571

613 544-1424

705 522-8174

705 360-1899

Inc. for help. Located next to the St.Lawrence River, CEZinc suffered a

critical rupture on the line leading to the pumping station that could have forced a shutdown of the entire plant. With the possibility of a plant shut

down costing nearly SI million a day, Expertise for the new world of Water and

Wastewater Management Providing Professional Services Since 1959

KMK Consultants


Offices in;

Brampton ♦ Pickering ♦ Kitchener ♦ Windsor ♦ Cobalt Telephone: 905-459-4780 internet Site: www.kmk.ca

86 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2005

E-maii: kmk@kmk.ca

time was of the essence. Victaulic

Depend-O-Loc custom designed, pro duced and delivered a 36" x 16" ExE

Type 2 coupling in under 56 hours,

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Environmental Newsj pling was created in two separate pieces to allow easy installation with out having to remove the existing pipe. Victaulic hand-delivered the cou

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Engineering & Climate/weather conditions

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Environmental Science


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and compared the data to historical

weather patterns, say that they are the result of the rare convergence of cli matic and weather phenomena. The



simultaneous occurrence of all current

weather activity may not have taken place in the last 50 to 100 years or longer, they say. Dr. Jayantha Obeysekera, Director of the Hydrologic and Environmental Systems Modeling Department at the


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South Florida Water Management District, said: "We are experiencing an uncommon event. South Florida cli

mate varies in cycles, some that form patterns with long return frequencies. This certainly is an event of a magni tude that normally occurs once every 50 to 100 years. The concurrence of these weather/climate factors, which is

our current situation, is a rarity. Though seasonal climatic forecasts may have significant uncertainties, water managers need to take actions in advance when climatic outlooks indi

cate a risk of extremely wet condi

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tions." A monster hurricane like Katrina-

and the fact that Florida was hit by four large hurricanes last summer - are but the most extreme manifestations of the

unusual weather patterns we are expe riencing, the scientists say. Other evi dence: A rare warm phase in the North Atlantic; record rainfall; historic record water levels in lakes; predic tions of much higher than normal rain fall; extremely warm ocean currents and, of course, unusually high predic tions of hurricane activity. For a full copy of this report, log on to www.sfwmd.gov continued overleaf...

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The proposed Red Chris Copper-Gold Mine project in BC has received envi ronmental approval following a com prehensive review by British Columbia's Environmental Assessment Office.

Located 450 ion north of Smithers

and i 8 km southeast of fskut, the Red

Chris Mine project involves the con struction and operation of an open-pit mine, including storage areas, waste dumps, an access road, a power line to the site, a worker camp and a water supply. Capital cost is approximately $228 million, and the project will provide approximately 250 full-time jobs dur ing its 25-year operation. Construction is scheduled to begin in spring 2006. continued overleaf...



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September 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 89

^Environmental NewsjWater filtration systems donated to Katrina relief effort

ZENON Environmental and Maytag are donating water filtration systems to aid in relief efforts in affected areas in

Mississippi and Louisiana. ZENON has already sent 40 of its Homespring central water filtration systems to Louisiana and Maytag, its distributor in North America, has agreed to match these donations.

deployed in easily accessible public locations, the 80 units provided are capable of providing clean, safe drink ing water to approximately 600,000 people. ITT offers funds and

equipment to Katrina relief efforts

ITT Industries has pledged $250,000.00 (US)to the Red Cross to fund immedi ate hurricane relief. It also made avail

Six public schools and several churches in Hancock and Harrison Counties have been identified as initial

sites for the filtration system. Several disaster relief housing centers in the New Orleans area are also being con sidered.

The central water filtration systems will help prevent further spread of bac teria-borne and parasitic diseases, which constitute a major health prob lem for survivors and rescue teams at the moment.

Each Maytag-Homespring filtration system can potentially produce up to 5,000 gallons of water per day. When

able fluid technology equipment for delivery to Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama, including dewatering pumps and reverse osmosis systems which could




relief efforts.

Additionally, the company sent night vision equipment and personnel to assist in round-the-clock search and rescue efforts in the affected areas.

The company has installed more than 70 large pumps in New Orleans over the years as part ofthe city's flood control system. Together, these pumps are capable of pumping up to 2 billion US gallons an hour. To supplement these in the hurricane's aftermath, the

company has prepared a fleet of more than 100 large submersible pumps, routinely rented for dewatering proj ects, on standby to help remove the flood

waters from



Developed just prior to the "Great Midwest Flood of 1993," these enginedriven pumps can each remove 20,000 gallons of water per minute. Additionally, the company has pre

pared chlorination and UV disinfec tion equipment to help provide potable water to victims of Hurricane Katrina.

This equipment can provide up to 250,000 gallons of water per day. Chlorinators Inc. celebrates

30 years in business Chlorinators Incorporated, manufac turer of the REGAL gas chlorinator, celebrates 30 years in business in October 2005.

Founded in 1975 by Jim and Diane Haskett to service the swimming pool industry, the company has grown over the years to provide water and wastewater disinfection to various industries .


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s *


©2005 Hach Company

Your job is too critical to put your trust in anything less than the gold standard.Thafs why the Hach Digital Sensor Family, with the set00™ or set000™ multi-parameter controllers, offers a total solution for all your water analysis

needs. Along with our full range of plug-and-piay sensors, including luminescent dissolved oxygen, pH,turbidity and suspended solids, nitrate and many more, Hach has the most reliable, accurate and cost-effective process measurement solution you can use to ensure your next plant inspection mns smoothly. And we'll support you and give personalized service every step of the way. To find out more about our products and Canadian distributors call 970-669-3050, email intl@hach.com or visit www.hach.com.

Be Right"