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ISSN-0835-605X May 2005 Vol. 18 No.2 issued May 2005 ES&E invites articles (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treat ment and other environmental protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit all submissions without notice.
FEATURES Kyoto - it needs science, not satire, to reduce global warming Editorial comment by Tom Davey
8 Cover story- Renewable solar hydrogen production technology harnesses landfill gas energy
14 Controlling wastewater plant HjS odours with UV light 18 High tech project defends the Riviera 20 Time to examine best management practices in pipeline management 22 Oil skimmers allow cleaner operations at transmission parts manufacturing plant
24 Preventing structural problems in wastewater stabilization ponds 30 Cape Breton water treatment plant refitted with new filter media 32 Innovative instrumentation reduces RO fouling
34 Wastewater management - it's time to start working together 36 New operators' standards to protect Canada's water
38 Understanding the accreditation of Canadian environmental laboratories 42 Satellite treatment technology helps Niagara Falls meet CSO requirement 46 Mold infestation is a serious health threat to residents and workers
48 Designing a multi-purpose pumping and storage facility 52 Implementing water quality management systems
56 Canadian covers for US wastewater
58 Evaluating the economics of secondary containment options 59 Inexpensive lining system extends life of leaking alum tank 60 Bolted stainless steel tanks a versatile choice
62 Increased penalties for corporate officers and directors
64 Simple and economical process used for stainless steel tank construction
55 Innovative system keeps Toronto cool 66 Jet mixers solve sludge storage tank settling problem
4 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
67 Is the US government ignoring leaking UST threat?
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Editorial by Tom Davey
& Engineering Editor
Kyoto - it needs science,not satire,to reduce global warming
The Kyoto Accord has devel
oped from a well-meaning
failures in its economic missions. First
refineries which feed them, and even agriculture which feeds us all. But there are many other sources, including termites, which give off an
astonishingly high rate of CO2. Even hydro electric projects have ecological downsides and indeed have their own
CO2 emissions, which amazed me when I first read the data. Wind power too, is coming under increasing criticism. The most recent complaints say wind tur bines not only kill birds but deface some
international initiative to re
sources include automobiles and the
Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: email@example.com Sales Director
the Federal government's virtually unbroken string of comedic, but tragic
duce global warming into a pseudo religion which transcends rational debate and divides viewpoints into 'good' and 'evil'. The Accord is mindful of The Lord OfThe Rings with its witches' brew of economics, interna tional politics, ecology, limnology, and oceanography - to name but a few. These are erudite, highly complex scientific disciplines in which even academics find difficulty in fully comprehending Kyoto's vast range of permutations. The Federal government has now projected a $10 billion expenditure over five years to curb greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. CO2
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (No attachments please)
Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: email@example.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
there was the Sea Kings helicopter debacle which cost half a billion in
Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: email@example.com
contract cancellations not to have heli
copters. The cost of this debacle con
tinues. Then there was the Gun Control
fiasco which went from a projected
Technical Advisory Board
$200 million to a billion dollars - and
Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario
counting. Meanwhile, most ofthe gunrelated crimes seems to be from unreg istered weapons. There was also the Human Resources debacle where a Federal Minister could not account for
another billion dollars when questioned in the House. A billion seems to be an
optimum figure which repeatedly crops up in government mismanagement. Adscam is the latest horror story emerging at the Gomery Enquiry. It appears quite astonishing sums of Federal money were poured into what seems to be quite simple tasks, like showing Canadian flags and other appurtenances exalting Canadian unity. Brain surgery this is not. Even
Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Ontario
Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine
ADI Systems Inc., Hew Brunswick Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario
Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Anaiytlcai Services, British Coiumbia Stanley Mason, P.Eng. British Coiumbia
John Meunier inc., Quebec
hardened Federal Waste Watchers* are Envlronmentai Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. An all Canadian pubiication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.
scapes. One English writer wrote in The
astonished at the veritable litany of fis cal waste, padded accounting and other dubious practices which was found at the Enquiry. One man broke down before Judge Gomery after it emerged that his billing practices indicated that
Guardian that wind turbines can be
he would have had to work ten hour
federal environmental officials, water and wastewater
compared to slashing one of Turner's famous landscape paintings. So, enough already. Global warm ing is undeniably a serious threat. But it is also one ofthe most complex envi ronmental challenges mankind faces. In the face of this veritable litany of ecological complexities, it is typical of our Federal government that, to fulfill its objectives, it chose satirist. Rick Mercer, to exhort each of us to reduce global warming by one torme. This choice of a spokesman is in itself worthy of satire. To exhort us all to save a tonne is, in my opinion, both trite and futile. Many scientists would be hard pressed to compile the various components involved in their daily activ ities and then reduce them by one tomie. On reflection, perhaps Rick was an appropriate choice when one considers
days, every single day for a year. If the Federal government can spend huge sums of money on quite simple work such as flag waving, the mind boggles at how it will compre hend, and control what is probably the
of the most scenic and treasured land
most complex multidisciplinary envi ronmental problem our civilization has ever faced. I once again refer to Malthus who first described econom
Readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ESSEhas been compiled from sources believed to be correct. fSiSf cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial mat ter. Although the Information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles In this magazine are intended to provide Infor mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Canadian Publications Mall Sales Second Class Mail
ics as The Dismal Science. With the
Product Agreement No.40065446 Registration No. 7750
mighty United States unwilling to sign Kyoto, Canada's reductions, while puny in a global perspective, could
Printed in Canada. No part of this pub 0PCE4 lication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: '
have serious economic ramifications
for us, while having, at the most, a minimum impact on global warming. * I am seriously contemplating trademarking the acronym FWW, as Federal waste of public monies has all the signs of a growth industry which shows no likelihood of abating.
Canada $75.00 (plus $5.25 GST).
All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy.S., Unit 30,Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tei: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag. com
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 7
■J ' 1
V*- Renewable ar hydrogen production •=»:-'-'
By Jamie Bakos, P.Eng.
Notwithstanding Episode 2F
Rendering of the Fleet Street Landfill Project that Is scheduled to begin In Canada In July 2005.
19 of a popular, long-run ning cartoon series (Lisa Simpson's peipetual motion machine), the first law of thermody namics is difficult to disobey. You sim ply cannot get more energy out of a system compared to the energy that you put in. Based in Saskatoon, Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation (SHEC Labs) has recently constructed and demonstrated a Dry Fuel Hydrogen Generation System that is powered primarily by sunlight-focusing mirrors. The system comprises a solar mirror array and
Why produce hydrogen? The current market for hydrogen is approximately 42 billion kg per year and growing, and is used primarily in ammonia fertilizer manufacturing, for hydrogenation in the food and bever age industry, and in petroleum refining to reduce the sulphur content of fossil fuels.
Hydrogen is also an energy carrier and is recognized by many as the fuel of the future. When hydrogen is con sumed by a fuel cell, its only signifi cant emissions are water and heat. A
clean source of hydrogen will lead to energy self-sufficiency and clean air
advanced solar concentrator and shut
and clean water.
ter system, and two thermo-catalytic
Traditional hydrogen production More than 95% of hydrogen pro duced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas, a process that liberates massive amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting methane into hydro gen since a great deal of fossil energy
reactors to convert methane, carbon
dioxide, and water into hydrogen. SHEC has designed and constructed a solar hydrogen generation system that, when utilizing sunlight, appears to deliver more energy than it receives.
or electrical power is required to oper ate the process. Hydrogen is also pro duced by electrolysis, a process that uses electricity to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen. Although elec trolysis itself can be quite efficient in converting electricity into hydrogen, the electricity used for electrolysis is often primarily generated from fossil
fuels. Therefore, traditional hydrogen
production methods result in a net increase in air pollution and are highly inefficient from an energy conversion perspective. The value proposition for solar hydrogen Solar hydrogen production provides
8 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
a net energy gain when converting methane into hydrogen since the ener gy used to drive the process is from the sun. Since SMR is not typically costeffective at small to moderate produc tion levels, SHEC's technology is par ticularly attractive for smaller and dis tributed hydrogen production. The environmental benefits of generating hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas reductions, and the reduction of smog precursors, acid gases, and mercury as a result of reduced local need for oil, coal, and natural gas. To add even greater value, the process has the ability to use a renew able source of methane and carbon
dioxide, such as biogas from municipal wastewater plants and landfill gas. Renewable methane generated from biomass results in no net increase of carbon dioxide levels in the atmos
phere when the methane is converted into hydrogen by SHEC's solar hydro gen generator.
Technology and process description The unit produces hydrogen with solar energy as the primary energy
input and has the following general chemistry: • Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are reacted to form hydrogen gas (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO): Reaction 1
CH4 >► 2H2 + 2 CO AHf = 917 kJ/mole
• The carbon monoxide is reacted
with water to produce more hydrogen and carbon dioxide: Reaction 2
CO + H2O >► H2 + CO2 AHf = 40,6 kJ/mole continued overleaf...
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Cover Story I Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane gas(CH4) are fed into a reactor heated by a solar mirror array. The intermedi ate products from Reaction 1 feed into a water gas shift reactor(WGSR),con trolled at near atmospheric pressure.
the amount of radiant energy directed
66% in the product gas stream with a
to Reaction 1. Reaction 2 is exother
98.2% mol conversion of the feed
mic and requires cooling to maintain the optimum temperature. Gas Production
SHEC's solar hydrogen generator has now operated for approximately 1,200 hours with no noticeable coking or degradation of the catalysts. Hydrogen production is near the theo retical maximum at approximately
The resulting gas stream is H2 and CO2 and is saturated with water.
Solar energy provides the driving force for the endothermic Reaction 1. A water cooled iris dilates to control
methane. The estimated maximum
hydrogen production with the unit is approximately 3,500 kg per year with minor modifications to the operating pressure and reactor configuration and an increase in the solar mirror area.
Energy Balance The system does not produce more energy than it receives. It does, howev er, produce more energy in the form of hydrogen than the energy input in the form of methane.
"loo|<> (Vt hoV m^ch it c<vn iof , rr fi
When energy is converted from one form to another, a great deal of energy is typically lost (i.e. 10 kW of methane produces approximately 3 kW of elec tricity in a reciprocating engine). With the SHEC process, there are two sources of hydrogen (methane, CH4 and water, H2O). The process of SHEC Labs uses 'free' solar energy to pro duce hydrogen from both methane and water.
In bulk terms, every i m^ of methane feed produces approximately 3.9 m3 of hydrogen in the process. Put in common energy terms at 1 bar pres sure and 25°C, 1 m^ of methane equals approximately 40 MJ of thennai ener gy and 3.9 m^ of hydrogen equals approximately 45.7 MJ of thermal energy, which is a net energy gain of
a 8 a 1..J1-K' I a a a a s'K 9 j' I
k I a s a
I I I « R a B 8 t I I i R la ■ a ■ a t a a a a I• I ■ a B a 9 ' a a a a a • I > IS a « I « a a a I a a a I a a a f: 9 ■ a a a t a a a
s s 8 a
I" » s § 4^1.1 w^t
over 14% for the demonstration unit.
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Considering the total energy (from the sun and from the methane), the overall energy balance has a less than 100% conversion efficiency and obeys the laws of thermodynamics. In fact the SHEC system is quite inefficient at present in that a great deal of the solar energy is lost in the form of heat. And since we know nothing is free, this heat
Multi-parameter analysis measurement
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loss translates into additional cost for
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10 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
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ing the chemical reactions. Cost analyses Cost analyses and models have been prepared based on the use of the various feed gases (i.e. landfill gas, natural gas, flare gas, etc.) and based on empirical data for the cost of the demonstration unit, current gas pro duction, and current size of the solar
array. The cost analyses show that the hydrogen production costs based on continued overleaf...
Bert Munro, P.Eng. promoted to Vice President & General Manager of Associated Engineering Saskatchewan
Alistair Black, P.Eng., President & CEO of Associated Engineering is pleased to announce Bert Munro's appointment as Vice President and General Manager of Associated Engineering's Saskatchewan operation. A Senior Municipal Engineer, Bert has 25 years experience specializing in water, wastewater, and infrastructure
development projects. Dedicated to promoting engineering and the consulting engineering industry, Bert actively volunteers with the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Saskatchewan,
Consulting Engineers of Saskatchewan, Western Canada Water and Waste
Association (WCWWA), Canadian "I'm very proud of the work that Associated Engineering has completed across Saskatchewan building infrastructure that supports healthier and safer lOmmunitles. I'm excited about
the opportunity to continue^
Society for Civil Engineering, and the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied
Science and Technology. Currently, Bert is President of WCWWA.
A Canadian, employee-owned and operated consulting engineering firm. Associated Engineering provides consulting engineering, project management, and asset management services in the water, environmental,
infrastructure, and transportation sectors.
For more information on Associated
Engineering, see our website at www.ae.ca
Engineering GLOBAL PERSPFCTiVE.
Cover Story I using landfill gas are lower than tradi tional hydrogen production methods that use natural gas. It is important to note that the overall cost competitive ness of hydrogen extends beyond hydrogen production to hydrogen com pression, storage, and distribution. The cost models are currently being expanded to include these elements and involve some irmovative hydrogen distribution cost savings. What's next?
The next stage of development is anticipated to be a commercial-scale demonstration at a landfill gas site in Canada using 40,000 kg per year hydrogen production modules. This one project (a small-to-medium sized landfill gas project) will prevent more
than 1.6 million tormes of carbon diox
ide equivalent (C02e) from entering the atmosphere over the next twenty years and will significantly improve local air quality and reduce smog. The next generation of solar hydro gen involves direct water splitting with only water as the primary feed
Controls system for the demonstration unit.
component. According to SHEC, six
of the ten steps needed for this process are already integrated into the
ELIMINATE H2S ADI International Inc. introduces
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Hydrogen production from renewable methane, such as biogas from
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12 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
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municipal wastewater treatment plants and landfill gas is ideally suited to SHEC's solar hydrogen production system. Their solar hydrogen generator produces hydrogen from methane and carbon dioxide feed gases in a reactor maintained at temperature by solar thermal energy (directed by mirrors). A demonstration unit indicates that
solar hydrogen generation is feasible,
and appears to be cost-competitive with traditional methods.
And yes, it does obey the laws of thermodynamics.
Jamie Bakos, P.Eng., is Manager of Environmental Services with Ingenium Group Inc. (Gijfels Associates Limited) in Toronto. Contact e-mail: jamie. firstname.lastname@example.org.
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www.totalsafetyenvironmental.com This project is funded by the Government of G May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 13
Ultraviolet light for odour control (
By Martin Hildebrand and Merle Kroeker, Nelson Environmental Inc.
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) based odours emanating
from wastewater treatment plants and lift stations
are not only a source ofconcern for operator safety, but are an extreme nuisance for homeowners or
users of near-by public facilities or property. The negative publicity and hassle caused by persistent nuisance odour complaints are costly in both time and money for cities or industries that own the odour-producing infrastructure. H2S, as well as numerous other odour-causing compounds, is generated as a result of organic material decomposition in an anaerobic enviromnent such as sewer force mains, lift sta
tions, digesters, or wastewater treatment plant headworks. The distinctive odour (rotten egg smell) of H2S gas is easily perceptible at very low levels (< 1 ppm in air). Exposure to moderate H2S levels (10-50 ppm) can cause headaches, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, coughing and breathing difficulty. Exposure to H2S levels above 50 ppm can result in severe respiratory tract and eye irritation and, in extreme cases, even death.
Direct injection of UV produced oxygen radicais into a iift station wet weil.
In addition to safety and nuisance odour concerns, the H2S can lead to the formation of sulphuric acid, which is very corrosive to all exposed steel and can lead to reduced life of concrete piping and structures. UV odour control process Various technologies and processes such as ozone genera tors, chemical oxidizers (hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, etc.) activated charcoal filters, essential oils (masking agents), and biofilters have been used in an attempt to reduce H2S levels. continued overleaf...
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Odour Control i Problems associated with these process es typically revolve around high capital or operation costs and, in some cases, limited effectiveness. Nelson Environmental Inc.'s Sol-Air
UV-based odour control system is a compact footprint process that utilizes patented multi-frequency Ultraviolet (UV) light. The technology harnesses the UV light in the UV-C and UV-V frequencies. Wavelength frequency is particularly "tuned" to produce highly radical hydroxyls, which rapidly oxi dize a wide range of airborne odour producing compounds such as ammo nia, H2S and mercaptans. Ambient air is directed through the system's UV chamber. The ultraviolet light acts as a catalyst, breaking down the ambient oxygen and water vapour molecules into O ~ and 0H~ (hydroxyl) radicals. These short-lived free rad icals go on to oxidize the more com plex molecules found in the contami nant, while the radicals themselves are used up in the process. The end result is a sequential and instantaneous gas breakdown with very little by-product, in the form of odour and elemental
traces, but mostly simple, harmless CO2, water vapour, molecular oxygen, trace ozone, elemental forms of N, S, CL, and weak mineral acids.
Because of the way that UV reacts with the water in the ambient air (to form oxygen radicals), it is not neces sary to pass the contaminated air through the unit. The hydroxyls formed by passing ambient air through the system are dispersed throughout the contaminated air, either by inject ing them into a lift sfation, or by plac ing the unit inside an odour filled room in a wastewater treatment plant. In some cases, such as a gas collection system, the contaminated air may be passed through the UV unit, but since the process relies only on moisture in the air passing through the UV lamps, the method of treatment remains the same.
For typical lift station applications, the footprint of the process requires less than one square metre of floor space. The imit can either be installed inside a building or, in most cases, the system can simply be set outside with treated air injection piping rurming to the lift station or manhole. A standard
30-amp llOV electrical service is ade quate to operate all but the largest cus tom built units. The system does not require any on-going chemical costs or disposal of contaminated odour adsorption media. Wastewater treatment plant odour control case study
A 13,000 m^/day wastewater treat ment plant in Vernon, British Columbia, experienced citizen com plaints regarding offensive odours. The headworks area and the trickling filter were identified as the sources of H2S. In 2001, eight Sol-Air UV units were installed in the City of Vemon
In this way, a relatively small unit can treat the air in a large space, since a full air exchange is not required. The UV process is easily adaptable for use in existing treatment plants or
the-shelf units were installed in the grit
lift stations. It is also ideal in the treat
room and headworks, which re-circulate
ment of odours originating in urban collection systems.
the air in each room. Four larger custom units were installed around the perime ter of the trickling filter, exhausting processed air to the atmosphere. The UV process proved to be ex tremely effective in reducing odour levels at these locations, at a fraction
ADi SYSTEMS INC
Reclamation Plant. Four modified off-
of the cost of other odour control tech
nologies considered. Offensive odours were eliminated from fhe grit room/ compressor and the trickling filter. Lift station odour control
case study An existing lift station in Kamloops, British Columbia, is locat
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ed several metres from a new condo
minium development. Sulphurous odours were escaping from the lift sfa tion into the development, prompting complaints by neighbours. The odours were so severe, that the condominium developer temporarily relocated condo owners to local hotels.
The City purchased an eight-lamp
UV odour control unit for the lift sta
tion. It was installed in an existing building, and brought the odour under control very quickly. Reduced odours were reported within minutes of turn ing on the system. Residents are back in their condominiums and odour com
plaints have ceased.
For more information: mh'oeker@ nelsonenvironmental.com.
16 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
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viding a breakwater, the barrage also contains a four-level "underground" car park, dry dock, two passenger ter minals and other commercial and
administration premises. "The barrage is anchored to terra firma using a kind of ball and socket, weighing 700 tonnes, which allows the pier to move while remaining attached," Mr. Porcu explains. "At its tip, it can move up to 15 metres later ally and around 1.30 metres up and down. The construction is also held to
For most, Monaco means glitz
assistant technical director for the san
and glamour, racing cars and casinos. But aside from its rep
utation as a destination for the
international jet set, the principality is an extremely dynamic state, with 32,000 inhabitants and a busy port which has recently been expanded. One of the world's smallest states, Monaco is installing the largest water tight container ever built. "The government under the impetus of HRH The Sovereign Prince decided to construct a new barrage in order to enlarge the Hercules Port. This will provide it with new infrastructure and protect the harbour from the strong east winds," explains Philippe Porcu,
itation division at the SDAU, Monaco's urban development service. "The sea is very deep in the harbour with extremely thick silt, making a tradi tional solution impossible, so we came up with the idea of a semi-floating bar rage along with a more traditional counter pier," he explains. The barrage weighs in at 160,000 tonnes and was delivered in August 2002. It measures a massive 352
metres long, 28 metres wide and 19 metres deep, and was constructed over three years at Algeciras in Spain and towed 1,500 kilometres to its final
position by ship, a sea voyage that took almost two weeks. In addition to pro
the sea floor by anchors. The counter pier stands firm on pillars on the other side of the port. "The port is on the same level as Monaco's purification plant; previously, water from both boats and the port couldn't be evacuated using gravity, and it was necessary to bring in trucks to pump their waste," he explains."But the barrage and harbour are equipped with pumping units that enable all wastewater from the barrier, from ships berthed there and from those permanently moored in the port to be sent for treat ment. This is very significant in temis of protecting the enviroiunent - our main goal. Previously, ships disposed of everything at sea, but now we can treat all the effluent as well as rainwater and
run-off, thanks to the hydrocarbon sepa rators we've installed," he explains. A series of underground service tunnels have also been constructed to
carry wastewater, drinking water, elec trical and telephone cables. Because they are situated below sea level, these galleries are also equipped with special
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18 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
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Environmental Protection pumps to remove any leaked water. These pumps are equipped with "skirts" to lower the evacuation level
water from moored craft.
water from cruise ships. • The stations on the counter pier and the port are regulated using FMC 200
to just 1.5 centimetres from the floor. In addition, the entire network has been equipped with a remote surveil lance system. "Now we can monitor any potential problem with the pumps, stations or separators, and deal with any situations that may arise as rapidly as possible," Mr. Porcu explains. "We can
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and are able to operate various valves remotely to optimise the functioning of the principality's whole sanitation net work, which also handles effluent from the neighbouring districts." Pierre-Louis Odouard is project manager for Somoclim, the Monacobased firm responsible for installing the pumps on the Monte Carlo port network. "This installation was a real
challenge, in terms of both setting up the operation as well as the materials used," he says. "Because the networks and stations are below sea level, we
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May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 19
Time to examine best practices In pipeline management By Brian Mergelas,Ph.D
In as et management ofwater trans
mission mains, we can draw paral lels from the experience of the oil and gas sector. In the 1970s this sector was faced with an aging, and deteriorating, infrastructure. In fact, as this sector's pipelines were depreciated over their design life, many of the older oil and gas pipelines were "worthless" on a company's balance sheet.
Consequently, the decision was made to try and extend the life of these lines. This led to new management practices, which required operators to demonstrate that they were managing the risk of operating these lines beyond their design life. In principle, opera tional risk incorporates both the conse quence and the probability of failure. Risk management means acting to
technological and economic factors. Proven technologies exist that allow pipeline distress to be accurately iden tified and quantified. The data provid ed by condition assessment inspections
reduce either or both. Consequence of
allow informed decisions to be made
failure is difficult to control and is
that help dictate what levels, and types, of maintenance are performed on each individual pipe in pipelines. In combi nation with continued preventative maintenance, this minimizes opera tional risk while maximizing the effec tiveness of budgetary allocations. The best practice in the conditionbased asset management of water trans mission pipelines can be understood to include: determining the actual condi tion of the pipeline by using an appro priate condition assessment technology, then using this information to make informed decisions while continuing to conduct preventative maintenance by periodically inspecting pipelines.
largely related to where the pipe is. Even though the majority of fail ures in the oil and gas sector can be attributed to third party damage, an increased understanding of failure modes has determined that knowledge
of the physical condition of a pipeline is critical. Consequently, condition assessment has become an integral
component of any risk management strategy, especially in high conse quence areas. Today, the water and wastewater sector is in a similar posi tion to where the oil and gas sector was in the 1970s. In 2003, Infrastructure Canada estimated that the cost to reha
bilitate Canada's municipal infrastruc ture stood at $57 billion.
Many operators use condition-based asset management to make informed decisions. Adoption of this manage ment approach is being driven by both
Di: Brian Mergelas of the Pressure Pipe Inspection Company is cofounder of the Canadian Pipeline Management Alliance. E-mail: Mergelas@ppic.com.
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20 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
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CH2M HILL is one of Canada's largest multi-disciplinary engineering firms, with more than 540 employees in 12 offices across the country. We are expanding the breadth and depth of our resources in Water, Wastewater, Water Resources and Management Consulting to ensure that we continue to provide cost-effective and ecologically sound solutions that address our clients' increasingly specialized needs. Peter G. Nicol, Senior Vice President, is pleased to announce the following promotions to the Water Business Leadership Team.
Laurie Boyce, IVI.A. The Regional Business Development and Technology Manager monitors our clients' needs and manages our response to these needs to allow for appropriate applications of the firm's financial and technical resources. Laurie has a demonstrated passion and aptitude for business procurement and has a sincere appreciation for the specialized nature of expertise offered by CH2M HILL. Laurie Boyce is a Senior Project Manager/Environmental Planner with more than 15 years of experience in environmental consulting. She has managed some of CH2M HILL's largest multidisciplinary assessment projects.
Dave Taylor, P.Eng. The Regional Technology Manager ensures that staff have the tools, training, and resources necessary to ensure supremacy in each of the firm's service sectors of Water, Wastewater, Water Resources, and Management Consulting. Client service success is achieved through a triangulated and coordinated effort of business development, technology, and service sectors.
Dave Taylor is a senior project manager and technical reviewer with more than 30 years of experience. David has worked on a variety of projects in the municipal, electronics, power generation, and petrochemical fields.
Peter Burrowes, P.Eng. Peter Burrowes has provided invaluable input for the past five years as the Regional Technology Manager. CH2M HILL is pleased to announce that Peter will continue to support the Leadership Team in an advisory role. Peter Burrowes has 29 years of experience in Residuals and Biosolids Management, Odour Control, Air Quality Management, Biogas Utilization and Energy Management, and Solid Waste Management. Peter is the Global Technology Leader for Air Quality and Safety Management.
Ken Mains, P.Eng. The Quality Manager and Chief Engineer for CH2M HILL Canada's Water Business is responsible for establishing and confirming rigorous Quality Control procedures and documentation on all Canadian water projects, while stimulating and motivating staff to embrace quality practices. This new role has been created to ensure our commitment to Quality Assurance and Quality Control through all project phases. For over 25 years. Ken Mains has worked for CH2M HILL in the field of drinking water treatment and water supply and has led design teams on the process selection and detailing of plants. Cost-priority design/build assignments have honed his value-engineering skills, however Ken's forte lies in developing innovative solutions.
Rayna Volden, P.Eng. The Communications Manager utilizes communication skills to facilitate external and internal communications as well as to increase staff and client awareness of programs and initiatives. Rayna will also coordinate communications
to highlight the individual successes of our teams and staff as we strive for continued client service excellence. Rayna Volden has more than 10 years of consulting experience with CH2M HILL in the fields of water resources and environmental engineering.
CH2MHiLL Responsible Solutions for a Sustainable Futuref
Oil skimmers allow cleaner operations for transmission parts manufacturing plant
Metaldyne Corp., a Michigan-based manufactur
could not be salvaged without first removing the water. The
er of driveline and transmission products, has discovered that oil skimming can improve the company's already smooth-running manufac turing processes. Metaldyne's Driveline and Transmission Group operates Hatebur AMP 30, AMP 50 and AMP 70 fully automated, horizontal hot-forming machines at their Royal Oak, Michigan facility. These machines produce high quality, near net components. From bar stock to precision forgings,
lead to machine damage if reused to lubricate equipment. Thorough skimming would allow the reusing of this oil, which saves money and benefits the environment. By skim ming the oil from the water, the company might also be able to improve their manufacturing process by creating a cleaner system. Why oil skimmers? Metaldyne investigated a variety of oil skimming sys
the Hatebur machines can produce up to 120 parts per
tems and discovered the Model 6V oil skimmer from Oil
minute. Hot-rolled bars enter at one end of the machine, which heats, feeds, cuts off, forms and pierces forgings along the conveyor in a single pass. As part of the forging process, Metaldyne uses water to wash the ends of the hot-rolled bars and to cool the dyes. Meanwhile, oil is used to lubricate the forging equipment. Throughout the process, excess water and oil are collected in a pit below the Hatebur machines. Why skim? Ideally, Metaldyne wanted to be able to reuse the water
Skimmers, Inc., of Cleveland, Ohio. Their flexible floating collector tube is made of durable polyethylene, which attracts oil, not water, ensuring continuous, maintenancefree operation. The closed-loop tube snakes over and around debris to
and salvage the oil, while improving its manufacturing process as a whole. The company recognized that the oil
collect more oil.
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22 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
water would diminish the effectiveness of the oil and could
reach contaminants in the water. Oil adheres to the outside
of the tube as it is slowly drawn across the surface of the water and into the oil skimmer. The tube is continuously
drawn up into the oil skimmer and through the scrapers that remove the oil. Then,the tube returns to the water surface to
The Model 6V oil recovery system works unattended 24/7, removing as much as 100 US gallons of waste oil per hour which it decants into a drum — so efficiently that the recovered oil is virtually water-free. Metaldyne selected nine oil skimmers for their facilities, which they incorporated along with a specially designed mounting system, at the base of its Hatebur machines for sim ple oil recovery. The oil skimmers were both compact and easy to hook up, providing straightforward installations. The company improved its operations and practically eliminated downtime with the Model 6V oil skimmers, which do not experience clogging and parts maintenance problems because the collector tube works around any debris that may be floating on the surface of the water. Virtually any in-plant oil contamination problem can be controlled, so Metaldyne can easily remove the excess oil from the cooling water. Improved manufacturing process with lasting results For manufacturers who recycle the water used in the cooling process, it is critical to remove all of the oil before reusing the water. If the oil is not completely removed, con taminants in the water could shorten the life of the tool.
The Model 6V oil skimmers are engineered to have an
operational life of at least 15 to 20 years. External parts, which come in contact with the grit-laden oil, are made of high abrasion-resistant ceramic that also resists corrosion.
The collection tube is not only durable, but is also capable of withstanding temperatures up to 200° F. Other internal components, such as gears and bearings are made of highstrength steel and bronze. The gearing is engineered to elim inate major strain when in use, requiring minimal power. Contact: www.oilskim.com.
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Geotechnics of waste stabilization pondsan important piece of the wastewater treatment puzzle By Francisco Silva-Tulla and Raul Flores-Berrones
From environmental, economic,
political, and social perspec tives, wastewater treatment rep resents one ofthe most pressing issues facing municipalities and indus try today. Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) provide one of the simplest, lowest cost, and most efficient waste-
water treatment technologies available. Although particularly suited to warm climates, WSPs exist worldwide. The predominant technology used to treat wastewater in small Canadian towns,
waters and groundwater. • Scour: Removal of soil particles from the soil-water interface by current or wave-induced shear forces possibly in combination with hydraulic gradient
will damage the lagoon side of the
in soil volume; may be caused by frostor swelling-susceptible soils, especial ly during excavation. • Cracking: Cracks may be transverse (perpendicular to the embankment axis) or longitudinal (parallel to the embank ment axis), external or internal, shallow, or deep. They appear due to differential settlement or soil shrinkage. Many of these mechanisms or fail
ure modes are interrelated and should
forces or because of rainfall run-off above the water line.
• Erosion: Precipitation may cause local concentrated erosion on the dry side of the embankment. Wave erosion
be anticipated and analyzed during geotechnical investigations. Piping and overtopping are of particular concern because they are responsible for most serious incidents and failures reported
WSP systems make up one third of all wastewater treatment plants in the U.S. and 54% of the existing wastewater treatment facilities in Mexico.
Our experiences with WSP suggest that geotechnical engineering can cor rect many problems that prevent these cleverly designed systems from achieving their full potential. This arti cle presents a geotechnical 'checklist'
for preventing problems related to water leakage, geological faults, and slope failures during excavation and construction as well as uncontrolled settlement after construction. We also
provide guidelines to identify prob lematic soils (expansive, collapsible, dispersive, or highly compressible) with suggestions for their stabilization or improvement.
• Heave: Deformation due to increase
in the literature.
Figure 1. Area susceptible to initia tion of pipeline.
b) Instability • Geological fault: When a pond is constructed over an active geological fault not discovered during design, the embankment and liner system may be disrupted due to fault opening. • Slides: Slip circles and deep sliding are frequent failure modes. Local shear failure parallel to the slope is possible
Site investigation Site investigation involves deter mining the nature and behavior of all aspects of a construction site and its environment that could significantly
influence or be influenced by a project. Some of the most important aspects to be considered are:
• Groundwater effects: seepage, pumping, infiltration, and percolation. • Environmental considerations: lea-
chate contamination, health and safety issues on surrounding properties, and
either within the soil mass or at the
Geotechnical deficiencies or
soil-revetment interface. Local bearing failure may also be present. Many fac
• Excavation: short- and long-term stability, groundwater drawdown and possible damage to top clay layer. • Ground improvement: barrier sys tem and compaction. • Placement offill: slope stability, set
tors can cause slides and local failures:
Geotechnical deficiencies or poten tial failure mechanisms in WSP sys
rapid drawdown, pre-existing slip planes within soil foundation, lenses
tems can be classified in three cate
and bands of weaker material, embankment crest overloading, inade quate slope design, etc. • Liquefaction: Complete loss of grainto-grain contact because of an increase in pore water pressure or shock load ing of a loosely compacted granular soil. Consequent loss of effective stress
gories; flow-induced, instability, and deformation.
a) Flow-induced deficiency or failure • Overtopping: Water flowing over the embankment crest causes a washout or total destruction of the structure.
• Piping: Seepage through the soil leads to transport of soil particles by internal erosion until a pipe forms (Figure 1). • Leaks: Water leaks may occur through the pond bottom and embank ment. They cause escape of water and diffusion of contaminants into surface
results in a nearly zero shear strength and the soil behaving as a liquid.
tlements, or heave.
The soil stratigraphy should be determined precisely, including soil composition, layer thickness, soil inhomogeneity in horizontal exten sion, and water table location. It is also important to discover sand lenses, weak layers, and other relevant minor geological features. Investigation is
not limited to the construction area: it
• Settlement: Deformation due to
should also cover widespread geologi cal risks such as landslide, regional subsidence, and mining activity, continued overleaf...
reduction in soil volume; may be caused by consolidation, compression, and shrinkage.
24 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
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Wastewater among others. In seismically active regions, earthquakes may cause severe damage to embankments, barrier sys tems, and other WSP systems facili ties. It is important to consider the
ponds provide one of the simplest,lowest cost, and most efficient wastewater treatment
technologies available. seismicity of the site in the design. Reconnaissance investigation is the first phase of site characterization. Borehole drilling and sampling are necessary for more detailed subsurface investigations. Soil samples should be tested in the laboratory to determine their physical, hydraulic, and mechan ical properties. Several compatibility tests should be carried out to analyze
found in nonsaturated residual soil
Oedometer testing can identify these
deposits of fine material that contain clay minerals of the montmorillonite or illite type, are very sensitive to changes in humidity. Water adsorption in the active clay minerals causes them to expand when decompressed in the presence of water; they also shrink considerably when subjected to drying.
Highly compressible clays of vol canic or organic origin may cause seri ous damage to barrier systems and embankments in WSP systems. One of the most notable examples of com pressible clays is Mexico City clay, with a water content as high as 350%
If the embankment is constructed of or
founded on expansive soils, evapora tion, rainfall, temporal humidity varia tion, and change in water level of a pond may cause soil swelling and shrinkage; consequently, differential
These soils, usually high in adsorbed sodium, disperse or deflocculate easily and rapidly in water of low salt content. The higher the per centage of sodium cation, the higher the susceptibility to dispersion. Such clays generally have high shrink-swell potential, low resistance to erosion, and low permeability in an intact state. Dispersive clay soils are identified by running a pinhole test, the Crum test, or the SCS dispersion test. Chemical tests are also frequently used to deter mine exchangeable sodium percent age, sodium adsorption ratio, percent
settlements and embankment fissures
might occur. The shear strength of expansive soils also changes with vari ations in humidity, and a stability prob lem may arise in embankments. Visual inspection and determination of physi cal and mechanical properties can identify expansive soils. Oedometer testing can determine volume change under flooding.
the effect of some contaminants, salts, or temperature changes on the
mechanical or index properties of the soil that forms the pond systems. Severe changes in the permeability and Atterberg limits in compacted clays under KCl solutions, for instance, have been observed. In situ tests of subsurface soils
often provide better information at lower cost than sampling and laborato ry testing. The field permeability and standard penetration tests are the most frequently used in situ tests. By meas uring the drawdown in piezometers at certain distances from a pumped well, the field permeability test determines the permeability of pervious layers below the water table. Various types of borehole permeability tests made by pumping water either into or out of the boring are also used to determine the coefficient of permeability. On the other hand, the standard penetration test allows correlations of the number
of blows with shear strength and other soil parameters. Problem soils
Many so-called 'problem' soils cause major damage to structures and embankments, and cannot be easily identified using routine soil testing procedures. Expansive soils are widely distrib uted in Mexico. These soils, frequently
This WSP system in Coiumbia treats wastewater from about 10,000 residents up to removai ieveis of 80% for BOD and TSS.
Collapsible soils are fine sediments transported and deposited by wind. They range from sand dunes to loess deposits whose particles are predomi nantly of silt size with a certain amount of fine sand and aggregated clay particles. Although oflow density, the naturally collapsible soils have a fairly high strength because of the clay binder, frequently calcium carbonate. However, they are easily eroded when flooded or rained on. Soil structure
collapse causes large settlements.
26 Environmentai Sdence & Engineering, May 2005
sodium, and total dissolved salts.
Dispersive soils are problematic for embankment stability, causing piping and rainfall erosion on slopes and channels.
A simple way to improve a problem soil site is to remove the problem soils and replace them with higher quality materials. Removal and replacement is most common for organic deposits and highly compressible soils, but has also been used for collapsible and expancontinued overleaf...
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Wastewater sive soils, for which treatment often consists of mixing soils of high swelling potential (collapsibility) with those of low swelling potential. The use of chemical additives is
another effective technique to improve problem soils. If special equipment is used, chemical stabilization can involve mixing and compaction of near-surface soils as well as deep soils. Chemical substances such as lime and Portland cement can be used alone or
in combination to reduce the swelling and dispersion potentials of soils. Collapsible soils might be improved by pre-saturation and pre-loading proce dures. Various other soil improvement techniques are also available and can be used if their cost is justifiable. These problematic soils are described in detail, together with meth ods to identify and treat them to improve their mechanical behavior in geotechnical publications; see for instance Van
Impe W.E. (1989), Soil Improvement Techniques and Their Evolution, Balkema, and Schaefer, V R. (1997), Ground Improvement, Ground Rein forcement, and Ground Treatment Developments 1987-1997, Geotechnical Special Publication NÂ° 69 ASCE. Design features
Apart from site investigations and geotechnical analysis (water flow, chemical diffusion, stability, and set tlement studies), a number of provi sions should be considered to avoid or minimize deleterious effects from dif ferent environment actions. Conclusions
Soil mechanics play an important role in assuring the success of WSP systems. Overtopping and other geotechnical-related damages may cause excessive repair costs and serious pub lic alarm about security and safety. Efforts directed at identifying potential geotechnical problems before they materialize will generally result in lower overall project costs. Since the most important parameter for the correct function of these water
treatment systems is the permeability of the liners and the in situ soils, spe cial supervision and permeability tests must be part of both design and con struction.
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We recommend integrating the geotechnical investigation, analysis, and design from the beginning of proj ect planning through construction and first operation stages. The geotechni cal engineer's inspection is important during excavation in order to identify new geological features and verify the accuracy of design assumptions; quali fy control during embankment com paction must also be carried out, and design specifications met; the first fill ing is one of the most critical condi tions, partly because piping or high pore pressures could develop for the first time; and, finally, frequent inspec tion is necessary during operations but more detailed inspections are required after extreme events such as heavy rainfall, rapid drawdown and earth quakes. Francisco Silva-Tulla is Senior Vice-
Responsible Solutions for a Sustainable Future'
President ofICF Consulting, Lexington, Mass. F-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org. Raul Flores-Berrones is a Research
Engineer with the Mexican Institute of Water Technology. F-mail: rflores@ tlaloc.imta.mx.
28 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
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Greensand filter media gives high quality water By Harold Aronovitch, Hungerford & Terry
Cape Breton Regional Muniei-
oxidize the iron and manganese in the
minating the run was a drop off in flowrate due to the high pressure drop
pality (CBRM) located in Sydney, Nova Scotia, has four
feed water so that it would be filtered out in the media.
across the filter bed. After backwash-
10-foot diameter 18.5 foot
Soluble manganese would be oxi dized by the manganese oxide coating
ing, there was no sign of damage to the media, and the pressure drop at the
on the GreensandPlus. The free chlo
start of the next run was consistent with that of a clean bed.
straight shell horizontal manganese greensand filters to treat 1.8 million Imperial gallons per day. The water source is a well containing iron and manganese. The design water analysis has 0.2 mg/L iron and 0.35 mg/L manganese. The filters are designed to use the catalytic oxidation process with chlorine added prior to the filters, followed by a reaction
rine in the feed water would then oxi
dize the coating, which had temporari ly been reduced. The limiting factor of
During the pilot testing, the water treated by the pilot plant consistently averaged less than 0.01 mg/L manganese and less than 0.01 mg/L iron. The effluent
tank to allow added con
averaged between 1.5 and 1.8 mg/L as determined by the chlorine feed to the full-scale plant and required for the distribu tion system.
tact time for the chlorine.
Over a five-year period of operation, the length of
Because of the com
termined that the reduced
pact size of the pilot plant, a full 40% expan sion of the bed during backwash was not possi
run length was caused by
ble. Backwash flowrate
run between backwashes
was gradually getting shorter. Investigation de
a breakdown of the man
was limited to 9 to 10
ganese greensand media. After testing, it was deter
gpm/square foot in lieu of the normal 12 gpm/ square foot. No air scour
mined that the low silica
The Cape Breton Regional Municipality in Sydney, Nova Scotia, is testing a new fiiter media, GreensandPius.
level in the raw water con tributed to the breakdown of the media. A feed of sodium aluminate
was instituted to help alleviate this problem. Sodium aluminate was fed at a rate of 0.2 mg/L (as Al), and this managed to stabilize the media and enable the CBRM to handle the high summer demand.
New media, GreensandPlusâ„˘, was
obtained from the Inversand Company. This is more rugged than manganese greensand, but has identical operating characteristics, and does not require sodium aluminate to prevent break down. A pilot plant was sent to CBRM for operation using the same feed as the full-scale units. After chlorine
addition and reaction time, a 3.1 gpm flow was sent to a Hungerford & Terry, Inc. pilot plant. This plant measured 91/2" ID with a 0.5 square foot surface area. The filter bed consisted of 18" of 0.6 - 0.8 mm effective size anthracite and 18" of GreensandPlus. After con
ditioning with potassium perman ganate, the pilot plant was ready for operation. The chlorine feed served to
the pilot plant was pressure drop across the bed. Feed
CBRM was limited in pressure and
flow since it was fed to the pilot plant through a garden hose. The pilot plant operated at flow rates between 4.4 to 6.2 gpm/square foot, and run lengths between backwashes of 120 to 200 hours were experienced. Influent manganese was 0.3 to 0.33 mg/L while
capability was provided with the pilot plant. However, it is being considered for the full-scale plant due to the extremely long filter runs between backwashes that can be achieved with GreensandPlus.
The results of the pilot plant indi cated that the GreensandPlus filter
media could treat the water at the Cape Breton Regional Municipality filter plant in Sydney, Nova Scotia, without
iron varied between 0.045 and 0.09
breakdown due to the low silica level
mg/L. With seven runs complete, an average loading of 1,200 grains/square
in the water. It could also be operated to higher pressure drops and longer fil
foot of filter area was obtained.
ter runs without any detrimental
Manganese greensand is expected to have a capacity of between 500 to 700 grains/square foot of filter area. The normal pressure drop end point
effects. It also demonstrated that while
for the full-scale plant and the pilot plant was 10 psi. In an attempt to extend the run, the plant was operated to a 334 hour run with a pressure drop of 17.9 psi at the end of the run. The pilot plant was still producing good quality water with less than 0.005 mg/L manganese and 0.001 mg/L iron in the effluent. The only reason for ter
30 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
being operated for longer periods of time to higher pressure drops, it could still produce extremely high quality water.
dent/Technical Director ofHungerford & Terry, Clayton, N.J He is a graduate of the University of Toronto with a degree in Chemical Engineering. Contact: www.inversand.com.
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Innovative instrumentation reduces RO fouling By Robert L Bryant, Chemtrac Systems,Inc.
One problem with some
reverse osmosis (RO) units is chemical cleaning and membrane replacement costs due to fouling, scaling, and chemical attack. In many cases these
problems can be traced back to inade quately designed or improperly oper ated pretreatment equipment. Inade quate design may occur due to an incomplete analysis of raw water source, changing raw water quality not anticipated in the initial design, or expansion of final product water capacity without pretreatment equip
ment addition. The list could be more
exhaustive, but these are common
Figure 1. The boiler feedwater treatment system.
More frequently, downstream equip ment problems are caused by opera tional practices. This is not necessarily a reflection of operating personnel capability. It is generally a result of insufficient tools for equipment moni toring and control, or "inadequate" training/understanding of unit process es, and how each affects the next one downstream.
Process monitoring and control methods Jar tests and turbidimeters have
been the traditional instruments for
vides continuous monitoring and
monitoring and controlling pretreat ment processes. In recent years, the streaming current monitor(SCM)and particle counters have replaced these methods. These instruments provide continuous, precise, and sensitive measurement, and true process opti mization capability. Periodic jar tests give a ball park idea of what coagu lant dosages should be, but are some what "subjective" to the operator's visual interpretation. The SCM pro-
automatic control. Turbidimeters have
Started Polymer Trial At 2 ppm, Immediately Reduced Counts Over 50%|
To 0.2 ppm (Polymer Fed
Polymer Constantly Fed (0.4 ppm).
also been used to monitor filter per formance, but lack the sensitivity of
particle counters/ monitors. Silt den sity index (SDI) has been the standard test to predict membrane fouling. However, it is not a continuous meas urement and is not always helpful in troubleshooting and improving up stream processes.
A case history
A large electric generating plant installed a reverse osmosis system to reduce demineralizer loading and min imize regenerations. Feedwater pres sure buildup and frequent membrane cleaning have been a persistent prob lem since commissioning. The boiler feedwater treatment system is shown in Figure 1. Water source is a river with an intermediate settling basin that min imizes large turbidity swings to the treatment process. Primary coagulant was alum, but was later changed to a
meters are used to monitor clarifier
and filter effluents. SDI tests were per formed for a time after the RO installa
tion, but were eventually discontinued, as there was no correlation to cleaning frequency. -Multimedia Effluent
- Cartridge Effluent (IVO Feedwater)
Figure 2. Results of SCM trial to optimize polymer feed. 32 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
installed to get "baseline" equipment performance. The objective was to improve removal of submicron partic-
Instrumentation BE >THINK> INNOVATE >
ulate in the multimedia filters by feed ing a small amount of polymer filter aid. Although the counters/monitors used do not detect particles in the submicron range, it is well known that col loids are absorbed on filter media that
is properly conditioned with a filter aid, or submicron particles are coagu lated to a size that are trapped in the media. An SCM was used to optimize polymer feed to ensure that the absolute minimum was being used, and would not carry through to the RO. Polymer fouling can be a problem if overfed.
The results are shown in Figure 2. Without polymer feed, particle counts in the multimedia effluent were over
120 counts/ml. With polymer, counts dropped to less than 20/ml, with many periods less than 5/ml. Polymer dose was 0.4 ppm. An immediate improve ment was seen in the RO operation. Cleaning frequency went from once per week to once per month. Feedwater pressure buildup was less than 2.0 PSIG after 30 days. Currently, the plant is monitoring
three of the multimedia filters with
particle monitors, and the combined effluent with a particle counter. Polymer addition is being automati cally controlled with a streaming cur rent monitor using filter influent flow and streaming current in a combined algorithm. Conclusion
The return on investment of using sensitive and reliable control instru
mentation in a reverse osmosis pretreatment system can be substantial. Savings in chemicals, filter replace ments, membrane cleaning/replace ment, and demineralizer efficiency can be easily documented. In the power generation industry, the major benefit is always boiler efficiency and reliability.
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May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 33
Wastewater management- it Is time to start working together By Duncan Ellison,Canadian Water and Wastewater Association
Inrecent years,a concerted approach
to ensuring drinking water safety in Canada was begun - it is called "Source to Tap" and was developed by the Federal, Provincial, Territorial Drinking Water Committee based on discussions and developments within the World Health Organization's water program. Information on it can be found at the Canadian Council of
The Canadian Water and Waste-
water Association (CWWA) applauds these efforts and initiatives, although it is concerned that the initiatives are not
consistent and can he seen as political responses to public concerns rather than necessarily well-thought out, riskbased management improvement approaches that are taking a truly inte grated comprehensive approach.
though there may be no environmental effects determined. There is much pub licity being given to the prevention of pollution(CCME has a whole program on this), but no real effort made to inte grate the policy structures, programs and legislation that affect the genera tion of pollutants by industry and com merce and their deposits in municipal sewers. Some efforts are being made to improve treatment options, and some efforts are being made to address the quality of the ultimate
Ministers of the Environment(CCME) Website: www.ccme.ca/sourcetotap/. It speaks to integrating policies Roles and Responsibilities and programs governing the Knowiedse sharing management of our drinking water sup plies from water Wastewater & Collection Treatment Environmental Pollutant Sources Systems Discharges sources through
releases in the form of wastewater effluents and biosolids.
CWWA has long urged the integra tion of these pro grams and the provision of
treatment, distri bution to deliv
Wastewater Management Plans
ery at the tap. A similar approach was being under taken by a num
Verification of Environmental Discharge Quality
ber of stakehold
A Directory of Contaminant
ers (some of them the same)through the
The best management of pollutants and wastewaters passing through municipal
International Water Association - this is
wastewater systems to the environment
the water or the Point-of-Use or Point-
of-Entry devices that may treat the water entering the building and beyond the water utility's control.
CWWA with the
support of Environ ment Canada based on
National Pollutant Release
called the Bonn Charter for
Safe Drinking Water (www. iwahq.org). We are beginning to see some con certed efforts across the country. The Walkerton tragedy contributed a major spur for action in Ontario and other provinces. We are seeing for example the emergence of nutrient management programs and well-head protection programs (to protect water sources), increased training and certi fication requirements for operators and increased monitoring require ments (to improve treatment and dis tribution quality) and financial sustainability legislation and infrastruc ture subsidy programs (to modernize technology or rehabilitate/replace infrastructure). Nothing seems to be being done to consider the tap itself and the plumbing systems delivering
Wastewater management schematic (adapted from the Bonn Drinking Water Charter).
Unfortunately, in most jurisdic tions, the responsible policy and pro gram managers are still in separate agencies and cross-agency integration is not taking place. Although there are weaknesses in the drinking water efforts being made, in contrast, there is an almost complete lack of attention to reviewing and improving the program and policies affecting wastewater management. What we do see are increased efforts in
the traditional approach, e.g., measure qualities at the end of the effluent pipe and prosecute when a deleterious sub stance has been found (i.e., deposited in a receiving body of water) even
34 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Inventory reports. A perform ance-based oil, fat and grease interceptor has been under develop ment by CSA for a number of years but is failing to make progress because agreement carmot be reached amongst the stakeholders on the testing proto cols and the grease removal quality to be achieved. Development of other pre-treatment devices that might be inserted in discharge lines to sewers is a long way off. Model by-laws for sewer use still set out concentration
limits for pollutants and contaminants, but these are not integrated with detec tion and monitoring devices. There is no clear knowledge of what pollutants can be removed successfully at munic ipal treatment plants. And, we have data collecting systems that are not apparently linked to risks, nor to man agement programs.
Added to this, municipalities have inadequate legislative powers and resources to tackle the misuse of sew-
Wastewater ers. This misuse is by industry, com
Water to reflect a wastewater model,
merce and institutions as well as
illustrates the need and possibilities for integrating efforts across the range from the source of pollutants, through the collection system and treatment system and to the discharge to the
householders who still find the toilet
as the most convenient place to dump leftover household
pharmaceuticals. What is the solution to this? It is not
simply using the provisions of Subsection 36(3) of the Fisheries Act or the provincial territorial counterpart legislation to fine and punish munici palities and their employees. Municipalities are regarded as the first line of enforcement yet they are mistak enly viewed as the last polluter. They should be regarded as the first line of defence against pollution as, although they are the vector through which pollu tants generated by others are passed, they are closest to the generators ofpol lution. The powers and strengths of the provincial and territorial governments and the federal government should be swung around and channeled through municipally-based programs to truly catch pollution at its source. The schematic, adapted from the IWA's Bonn Charter for Safe Drinking
haps as inspectors appointed under provincial legislation. Clearly research is needed to determine how best to
detect and monitor the quality of dis charges to the sewer system, and to determine how to remove contami
environment as effluents or biosolids.
nants which are not removed by pre-
Municipalities are regarded as the
framework needs to be renegotiated to better share powers and responsibili ties, including having the original polluter(s) pay fines levied against munic ipalities for the discharge of deleteri
treatment devices. The legislative
first line of enforcement
yet they are mistakenly viewed as the last polluter. These should include a realistic
effort to reduce pollutants at source, hopefully through cleaner technolo gies, but, where necessary, by effective performance checked pre-treatment
ous substances that can be attributed to them. CWWA hosted the First National Canadian Wastewater Forum in Ottawa
from April 3 to 5, 2005, with the inten tion of begirming the task of identify ing all the elements, policies, legisla tion, and programs that apply to this wastewater model from pollutant source to discharge to the environment.
devices to remove them from streams
being discharged into the municipal sewerage systems. Municipalities need
additional powers to address this, per
Duncan Ellison is Executive Director
ofthe CWWA. Contact e-mail: email@example.com.
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May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 35
New operators'standards to protect Canada's water
The Federal-Provincial-Ter ito
rial Committee on Drinking Water
Council of Ministers of the
Environment's Water Quality Task Group are working to protect Canada's water supply. These two groups have
recommended a multi-faceted ap proach to the problem, including a call for qualified operators in water and wastewater treatment systems.
To help establish safeguards for Canada's water supply, the Canadian Council of Ministers ofthe Environment
(CCME), the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA), and other Canadian water and wastewater
bodies supported ECO Canada (former ly known as CCHREI)in the documen tation of national occupational standards for water/wastewater operators. The Water and Wastewater National
Occupational Standards are a series of competency statements that define the knowledge and skills required for water and wastewater operators. They are categorized into four functional areas: water treatment, water distribu
tion, wastewater treatment, and wastewater collection. These statements will
assist operators by providing them with The National Standards
are a series of competency statements that define the
knowledge and skills required for water and wastewater
more clearly defined standards and a benchmarking tool that will make it easier for them to perform their jobs. From coast to coast, the industry
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its support for the process and to con firm the methodology that will be used to complete the next phase of the proj ect which is occupational analysis. During the meeting, there was a clear buy-in from every region of the coun try to continue with the project. The occupational analysis phase (to he completed in December 2005) will identify and document the competen cies required at each level so that oper ators can he properly certified. This could provide the foundation for con sistent, relevant training, and has the potential to he used as a national certi
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36 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Pure, safe water
fication standard. It can also increase
the transferahiiity of skills between provinces and territories. In order to determine which compe tencies are required and at what level, ECO Canada is asking water and wastewater operators to get involved. Those interested in contributing, please contact EGG Canada at (403) 233-0748 or firstname.lastname@example.org. â–
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Accreditation of Canadian environmental laboratories and its technical capability.
By Allan Maynard, CCIL
Laboratory results form the cor
nerstone of environmental pro grams. Whether for contami nated site clean-up, drinking water assessments, discharge monitor ing, occupational health, and others, all of these kinds of programs ulti mately rely on data generated by a qualified laboratory. Companies, regu latory agencies, legal firms and other stakeholders must be confident in
these results and one of the key com ponents in obtaining this confidence is the official recognition or accredita tion of the laboratory in question. It is, therefore, important that the accredita tion process be properly understood. Accreditation is defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as "the proce dure by which an authoritative body
gives formal recognition that a body or person is competent to carry out spe cific tasks." For laboratories, it is the
formal recognition of a laboratory to carry out specific identified tests. The accreditation covers a laboratory's overall quality management system,
Accreditation in Canada is based on
an international standard (ISO/IEC 17025). This standard is specific to testing and calibration laboratories. ISO has many other accreditation and certification programs such as the gen erally familiar ISO 9000 which per tains to an overall management sys
managed. This is a rigorous process and for larger laboratories can involve three to five assessors auditing over a three to five day period. After the site assessment (audit), a laboratory must respond satisfactorily and within a specified time-frame to any corrective actions identified by the assessment team. Once this process is complete the laboratory is granted accreditation. Agencies offering accreditation to Canadian laboratories
Over the past 10 years in Canada (with the exception of Quebec), the
tem. The 17025 standard is similar in
accreditation of environmental labora
principal but offers a more technical
tories has been managed in partnership by CAEAL (Canadian Association of Environmental Laboratories) and the see (Standards eouncil of eanada). eAEAL operated the FT program and
and standardization dimension that is
unique to the laboratory sector. Laboratory accreditation involves the following components; • A proficiency testing (FT) program in which the laboratory must perform satisfactorily on samples that have been made in reference laboratories
and are submitted by an accredited FT provider. A laboratory should, to the extent possible, analyze FT samples for every test under which it is accred ited. Unfortunately, FT samples are not available for all parameters, although laboratories must display due diligence in attempting to source the appropriate materials. FT samples are submitted and then analyzed on a regular basis (usually twice per year). • An on-site assessment, in which qual ified assessors review all aspects of a laboratory's operation from basic man agement of samples that are submitted, right through to how the laboratory is
carried out the site assessments. After
this, on recommendations from eAEAL, the See granted accredita tion through FALeAN (Frogram for the Accreditation of Laboratories in
eanada). The See also annually assesses eAEAL's FT program. As of January, 2005, eAEAL and the see each offer their own full accreditation service rather than work
in a partnership. There were some changes in ISO/IEe documentation pertaining to the official recognition of accreditation bodies that precipitated this change. Thus eAEAL and See will each accredit environmental labo ratories
eAEAL will continue to operate its continued overleaf...
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Environmental Testing PT program and SCC will continue to
organizations that ensure a general
audit CAEAL with respect to its PT pro gram. SCC will not operate a PT program
standardization of measurement sci
because it is a PT assessor in Canada.
SCC will, however, recommend a list of approved PT providers to those laborato ries that use SCC for accreditation.
In Quebec, environmental laborato ries are accredited by MENV (the Quebec Ministry of the Environment) and this organization also provides the PT program. This program is also operated to the ISO 17025 standard and is comparable to the CAEAL/SCC program. The PT program mainly employs real environmental samples as opposed to the synthetic samples used by most other providers. It is possible that other accredita tion bodies (i.e. from the USA or Europe) will offer accreditation servic es in Canada and this should be accept able to regulators, as long as these
ence, which, of course, is a necessity for global commerce. Specifically, they recognize signatories as interna tional accreditation bodies.
These organizations assess SCC and CAEAL, and other laboratory assessment agencies, and this, in turn, provides the laboratory assessments that are carried out in Canada, with the required international recognition. How do users assess the
ISO/lEC accreditation must in turn be
fully recognized within the interna tional standards community. For accreditation bodies to have this inter
national accreditation they must be signatories to Mutual Recognition Agreements of international agencies such as the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC), the Asia-Pacific Laboratory Cooper ation (APLAC) and/or the InterAmerica Accreditation Cooperation (lAAC). These are the international
documents in Canada.
Summary As of 2005, there will be at least tation of Canadian environmental lab
reviewing the resulting data require ISO/lEC 17025 accreditation. It is,
with few exceptions, essential. Those organizations needing to use a professional laboratory need to be assured that:
• That the accreditation is current and
three organizations providing accredi
accreditation bodies have international
accreditation of a laboratory?
requirements ofthe appropriate regula tory bodies. Currently, not all provin cial regulators have formally endorsed 17025 (or CAEAL or SCC for that matter) as approved accreditors. In fact, the need for laboratory accredita tion is absent from many regulatory
It is clear that most users of envi
• The laboratory is accredited accord ing to ISO/IEC Standard 17025.
ISO/IEC Standard 17025.
performance is acceptable. It is also important that laboratory
in good standing. • That the laboratory has, to the degree possible, carried out proficiency test ing for all of the tests that are being purchased. The accreditation bodies list the accredited laboratories on their web
sites along with a list of tests(methods and parameters) each of these labora tories are accredited for (commonly referred to as the "Scope of Accreditation"). The list includes those tests that have been reviewed by the assessment team and, if PT samples are available, it means the laboratory's
oratories: CAEAL (www.caeal.ca), SCC (www.scc.ca) and MENV Other organizations from the USA or Europe may also come forward in the future. In terms of regulations in Canada, CCIL (the Canada Council of Independent Laboratories) recom mends that regulatory documents sim ply refer to ISO/IEC 17025 rather than name specific accreditation bodies or programs. It is vitally important that: • Laboratories — private and public — are free to make the most logical choice for their accreditation.
• That all stakeholders (lab users, regu lators, legal agencies, data reviewers) assist in preventing any need for dual accreditation. This is a waste of
resources and does nothing to ensm"e better laboratory data. Allan Maynard is Executive Director
of CCIL, the Canadian Council of Independent Laboratories. E-mail: email@example.com.
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40 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Canadian Environmental Conference and Trade Show tZ5.l
May 11-12, 2005
SERVICE United Stntes ofAmerica
OFFICE OF TRADE AND 1N\ ESTMENT
Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity Slate of Illinois - United Slates of America
The state of Illinois and the US Commercial Service are pleased that the following companies are exhibiting with us at the Canadian Environmental Conference and Trade Show. All of these firms are Interested In expanding their sales in Canada. You are encouraged to visit representatives of these firms in Exhibit Booths 108-117.
Arbortech Corporation Johnsburg, IL - www.arbortech.com
Established In 1981, the company produces equipment to recycle aqueous cleaning solutions. The product, known as the Washer Washer(WW), can be used to recycle cleaning solutions used In a variety of applications including those common to pressure sprayers, electro/soaks, part washers, pre-paint, prepowder coat, pre-plating, and spent floor wash solutions.
Leading developer, manufacturer and Integrator of energy savings technologies and building automation systems. The company currently markets the EnergySaver and the Global Commander energy conservation technologies as well as Its Independent development of scalable, negative power systems under the trade name Virtual "Megawatt Power Plan".
Sparks Technology, Inc. St. Charles, IL - www,soarkstech.com
Cascade Waterworks Manufacturing
Sparks Technology, Inc. (STI) provides activated carbon
Yorkville, IL - www.cascademfa.com
and other molecular filtration media for numerous
The company Is a manufacturer of a full line of the highest performing water and sewer pipeline accessories Including casing spacers, saddles, tapping sleeves, repair clamps, couplings, surge tanks and pipe
applications across a wide spectrum of industries. STI's product line Includes Wrap'n Cure which encases hazardous material like asbestos, Polysorb Cure and Clean Streams for liquid filtration, as well as the BPS Lite Carbon Air Filter for air filtration.
Surplus Management, Inc.
Effective Energy Associates, LLC
Rockford, IL - www,watersurolus.com
Custom design/build services in the manufacture of RipSyst'^'*^, mercury retort and distillation process. The company's products remove and recover mercury from contaminated florescent lamps, batteries, thermometers, thermostats, relays, sludge, soils and chemical packages. Recovered mercury is recycled Into articles of commerce, while decontaminated Items may be safely landfllled.
Electric City Corporation Elk Grove, IL- www,elccorp.com
Watersurplus.com is the world's fastest growing buyer and reseller of surplus and refurbished water and wastewater equipment and components. The company can supply entire high purity water plants, process and filtration vessels, controls and Instrumentation as well as consumables such as resin and membranes.
Yeomans Chicago Corporation Aurora, IL - www,vccpump.com Manufacturer of the Yeomans Pump, Chicago Pump Company and Morris Pumps brands of pumps and related equipment for both municipal and industrial wastewater, sewage, sludge and light slurry applications.
State of Illinois Canada Office
US Commercial Service
1 Eva Road
480 University Avenue
Telephone: (416) 695-9888 Facsimile:(416) 695-9891
Telephone:(416) 595-5412 Facsimile:(416) 595-5419
Satellite treatment technology helps Niagara Falls to meet Ontario's F-5-5 CSO requirement By Geoff Burn,Derek Blakemore,David Watt and Peter Baker
Ontario's Niagara Fal s is famous as a tourist destina tion to view one of the "Seven
Modern World" and with the construc tion of a world class casino and sever
al new highrises and first class hotels, the downtown tourist district is experi encing rapid growth and revitalization. Besides tourism, the city also has a
with all the flows converging at the Central Pump Station, which conveys wastewater to the local treatment plant. Combined sewer overflows (CSO) associated with the Central Pump Station represent a significant portion of the city-wide annual volume, with peak instantaneous flows as high as 8,000 L/s. Historically, raw sewage overflows occur during moderate-to-
The downtown development is being serviced by infrastructure with
significant rainfall events, with approximately 30 overflow events annually to the Niagara River. The Niagara River is one of ten Areas of Concern as designated by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
some sections installed at the turn of
between Canada and the United States.
the 20th century; much of this provides combined drainage for sanitary wastewater and stormwater. There is a sys tem of four pumping stations that col
Reduction of CSOs into the Niagara
diverse economic base that includes
manufacturing, professional services, construction, transportation, sport and recreation, and entertainment.
lect the flows from the downtown core
River has been identified as one of the
projects to improve its water quality. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), through the
application of Procedure F-5-5, will require the City of Niagara Falls and the Regional Municipality of Niagara to meet the following criteria for com bined sewer systems: • Capture and treat all dry-weather flow plus 90% ofthe wet-weather flow volume for an average year, during the 7-month wet-weather period com mencing within 15 days of April 1. • 30% BODj removal for the 7-month wet-weather period. • 50% Total Suspended Solids (TSS) removal for the 7-month wet-weather
period. • TSS
exceed 90 mg/L for more than 50% of the time for an average year. The City of Niagara Falls and the Regional Municipality of Niagara embarked on a project that will result in one of the first CSO abatement facilities in Ontario to meet the Proce dure F-5-5 criteria.
A Municipal Class Environmental Assessment established that the pre ferred solution was to implement a system-wide CSO control project that includes a new Central Pump Station (CPS)and a CSO High Rate Treatment Facility (HRTF). This will provide
The Mueller 2360 series of Resilient
greater than 90% volumetric control of wet-weather flow so that only flows in
Wlueilef Canada I Resilient Wedge Gate Valves
Wedge Valves meet or exceed current
AWWA C509 standards, in addition
to being ULC/UL listed and FM approved.
Refinements such as long polymer covered wedge guides not only stabilize the wedge but reduce internal wear,and ease operation.
Every Mueller 2360 series valve is RATED at 250 psi and tested at 500 psi.
excess of the combined capacity of CPS and HRTF will bypass the new pumping and treatment facilities.
The preliminary design phase included an evaluation component to select the preferred high rate CSO treatment process. After reviewing a comprehensive list of treatment options, four technologies were evalu ated in detail: Vortex Separation, High Rate Screening/Filtration, High Rate Sedimentation, and Retention Treat ment Basins. Conceptual designs were developed for each alternative in order to allow comparative evaluation with respect to effectiveness to achieve the required MOE F-5-5 treatment levels,
facility sizing or footprint, reliability,
An ISO 9000 Certified Manufacturer
complexity of operations and ability to be upgraded or expanded. The comparative evaluation of the continued overleaf...
42 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
to land Does Independent field-testing verify the manufacturer's claims?
asking these tough questions will give you the knowledge to make the right dedsion
All manufacturers make performance claims. Few give you the facts that are necessary for decision making. StormceptorÂŽ provides Inde pendent field data collected by third parties and an ongoing field-testing program.
What size of particles
How does the
does the system remove? Some systems are undersized to remove only large
system remove oil? Some systems cannot remove oil without the
particles (3000+mlcrons). The Stormceptoi^ System can be designed to meet your project objective, whether It be large or small particle removal.When comparing systems, ensure that
addition of absorbents. The absorbents must
you are using the same partlcle-size criterion.
be removed Immediately after a spill to pre vent the oil from leaking back Into the water. Most systems do not protect captured oil from high velocities - scouring will result.
for answers to more questions call 1 800 585-4801 or visit us at www.stormceptor.com
Wastewater five technologies considered is sum marized in Table 1. Based on perform ance, coupled with relative costs and footprint considerations, High Rate Screening/Filtration, Retention Treat ment Basins and Storage are not suited to this HRTF Project. The two tech nologies that appear most suitable are Vortex Separation and High Rate Sedimentation. Both processes are rel atively low in cost and have small foot prints. The former is less complex to operate but may not meet the 90 mg/L TSS limit without future enhance
ments. The latter is more complex to operate, but is able to meet the 90 mg/L TSS limit. When considering these competing factors, Vortex Separation is the pre
ferred technology for the following reasons. First, it is the least complicat ed technology and likely to be among the lowest in overall costs. Secondly, it is amenable to enhancements with either chemical addition and/or filtra
tion, should the need arise.
High-Rate Sedimentation is also likely to be cost-competitive and will not require future enhancement. However, when taking into account the complexity of its operation, and the need for chemical deliveries, storage and feed operations, the technology is less attractive than Vortex Separation. Since each vortex technology is slightly different it was decided that the vortex equipment should be pre selected. Request for quotation docu ments were prepared for the vortex equipment for the Central HRTF. Two suppliers were invited to prepare sub-
mittals for this equipment. The submittals were evaluated on both quality fac tors and cost factors. The quality fac tors include compliance with the tech nical specifications and the quality of references. Based on an evaluation of
the submittals, John Meunier, Inc.'s FluidSepÂŽ was the preferred vortex technology for the Central HRTF. A value engineering team consist ing of industry experts further scruti nized the recommended treatment
option. Vortex treatment technology was ultimately recommended and accepted by the City and the Region due to the favourable life cycle cost and ease of operation. The preliminary design proceeded based on the use oftwo 13-metre diam
eter vortex units, each to treat a design flow of 1,000 L/s and a peak flow of 2,000 L/s. A second value engineering session confirmed the proposed pre liminary design, and led to several enhancements to the project, which resulted in additional cost savings. Currently in the detailed design stage there are a number of interest ing features that have been incorpo rated into the project. Under normal dry weather conditions the flow will pass directly through to the Central Pump Station where the sewage will be pumped to the Stanley Avenue Wastewater Treatment Plant. During a CSO event, as the incoming flow exceeds the capacity of the CPS then the excess flow will begin to pass up through two mechanically cleaned COPA horizontal storm screens with
6-mm openings. These screens are
each designed for 4,000 L/s and used for control of floatables in the wet
weather flow prior to entering into the high rate vortex treatment system. As long as the COPA screens are operating there will be no bypassing of the HRTF. The treated overflow
from the Central HRTF and any bypass flows will be discharged to the Niagara River. While the vortex units have been
designed for a peak flow of 4,000 L/s, hydraulically the vortex system can pass 8,000 L/s, but at a reduced treat ment level. The 100 L/s underflow from each vortex unit is collected in a
separate wet well and submersible grit pumps transport the slurry to the CPS. The capacity ofthe CPS was increased to account for this underflow.
The detailed design is nearing com pletion and there is a plan to call ten ders in the summer of 2005. It is esti mated that construction will be com
pleted in fall of 2006. Associated Engineering lead the preliminary and detailed design of the Central Pump Station and CSO HRT facility. Other consultants contributing to the project include Brown & Caldwell, XCG Consultants, Acres International and Questor Veritas. Geoff Burn, P.Eng., is Manager Civil Infrastructure Systems Group, Derek Blakemore, P.Eng., is Detailed Design Lead with Associated Engineering, David Watt, GET, is with the City of Niagara Falls and Peter Baker, P. Eng. is with the Regional Municipality of Niagara. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Table 1 - Summary of Comparative Evaluation Technology
Ability to Meet
Ability to Upgrade
HR Screening/ High
44 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Investing in water and sanitation produces substantial economic gains Investments in water can be an engine for accelerated eco nomic growth, sustainable development, improved health and reduced poverty. Those are the main messages of a report just released by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
Women in devel
oping countries often spend hours daily fetching water.
For example, the report finds that poor countries with access to improved water and sanitation servic es have enjoyed an annual average growth of 3.7% of GDP, while those without adequate investment saw their GDP grow at just 0.1% annually. The report, entitled "Making Water a Part of Economic Development; The Economic Benefits of Improved Water Management and Services", shows how investments in the water
sector can generate economic benefits that considerably outweigh costs and contribute to human development. The report was developed jointly by SIWI and the World Health Organization on behalf of the Governments of Norway and Sweden.
The report, along with a companion fact sheet entitled "Driving Development by Investing in Water and
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Particuiates. Biota. Liquid Industrial Waste
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Sanitation," is available on-line at www.siwi.org.
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May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 45
Indoor Air Quality
Mold infestation is a serious health threat to residents and workers By Phillip Fry
Many property owners,land
lords, employers, and rela
tives of mold victims in
Canada, the USA, and worldwide often question or minimize the proven and serious health threat arising from exposure to elevated lev els of indoor mold infestation.
All molds have the potential to cause health effects. They can produce allergens that can trigger reactions or even asthma attacks in people allergic to mold. Others are known to produce
recurring colds, chronic coughing, coughing up with blood, dandruff problems (chronic) that do not go away despite use of anti-dandruff shampoos, dermatitis, skin rashes, diarrhea, and/or eye and vision prob lems, fatigue (chronic, excessive, or continued) and/or general malaise, flu symptoms (chronic), sudden hair loss, headaches, hemorrhagic pneumonitis.
potent toxins and/or irritants, accord ing to the US Environmental Protection Agency(EPA). A number of commonly found species are, in fact,
fits, sore throat, tremors (shaking), verbal dysfunction (trouble in speak ing), vertigo (feelings of dizziness, lightheadedness, faintness and un steadiness), and vomiting. Health Studies
"Where is the proof?" ask skeptical sellers of homes with mold, landlords, employers, and unaflfected relatives of
victims. There is actually abundant
toxic mold, a description applied to any mold that produces mycotoxins in its spores. Stachybotiys (black mold), Aspergillus, and Penicillium are three of the most dangerous and commonly found indoor toxic molds.
Mycotoxins are cytotoxic, meaning they have the eapacity to pass through the human cellular wall and disrupt certain cellular processes, potentially causing serious health damage to workers and customers. Studies on ani mals and cell cultures in labs have found toxic effects from various
microbial agents, raising concerns about whether these same agents growing in buildings can cause illness in people, according to the 2004 mold health report from the Institute of Medicine (U.S. Government's National Academy of Sciences). Health Symptoms
Fungi can cause health problems to both humans and animals by several different biological mechanisms: infections, allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, irritant reactions, or toxic
reactions, according to a 2004 University of Connecticut Health Center article.
If exposed to elevated levels of indoor mold, some residents and workers can experience one or more
of the most common health symp toms: allergies, asthma, bleeding lungs, breathing difficulties, cancer, central nervous system problems,
Huge mold growth in a rental apartment. The landlord refused to take care of this serious health threat. The walls will need to be removed and discarded.
hives, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, irritability, itching (of the nose, mouth, eyes, throat, skin or any other area), kidney failure, learning diffi culties or mental dysfunction or per sonality changes, memory loss or
evidence about the serious impact of mycotoxins and mold exposure in human disease. Medical studies in
both the military and agricultural envi ronments have discovered that signifi cant health problems can readily arise
memory difficulties. Other symptoms could include open skin sores and lacerations, peripheral nervous system effects, red
from the inhalation of elevated levels
ness ofthe sclera (whites of your eyes),
at the cellular level provide supporting evidence for direct toxicity of fungal
runny nose (rhinitis) or thick, green slime coming out of nose (from sinus cavities), seizures, sinus congestion, sinus problems, and chronic sinusitis,
skin redness, sleep disorders, sneezing
46 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
of fungal spores and toxins by soldiers and farmers.
Laboratory studies in animals and
spores and mycotoxins in mammalian lungs (University of Connecticut Health Center report in 2004). As to asthma, a health study by the Finnish
Indoor Air Quality Institute of Occupational Health links adult-onset asthma to workplace mold exposure.
The Finnish workplace study esti mated the percentage of adult-onset asthma attributable to workplace mold exposure to be 35% (Reported in Environmental Health Perspectives, May, 2002). A European Community respiratory health survey in 2002 reported that asthma patients experi ence more significant symptoms after they become sensitized to molds such as Alternaria and Cladosporium species, and to dust mites. Scientific evidence links mold and
other factors related to damp condi tions in homes and buildings to asthma symptoms in some people with the chronic asthma, as well as to coughing, wheezing, and upper respiratory tract symptoms in otherwise healthy people, stated the Institute of Medicine report. "In addition, the wetness may cause chemicals and particles to be released from building materials. A rare ailment known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis
mold-sensitive residents and employ ees, as well as others who may ulti mately be harmed from time-cumula tive mold exposure.
experiencing one or more possible health symptoms. For more information about coping with health problems from mold,
Homes and workplaces should be carefully and thoroughly inspected and mold tested if there are:(1) significant amounts of visible mold; (2) serious water leaks, flooding problems, or high indoor humidity; and (3) resi dents, employees, or business cus tomers (such as hotel guests) report
please visit www.moldinspector.com, www.certifiedmoldinspectors.com or www.mold.ph.
Phillip Fry is a certified Mold Inspector and Remediator, and author of the book Mold Health Guide. Email: email@example.com.
Inc.(TPEI) Is a Canadian waste management and environmental remediation
company. TPEI operates across Canada offering a full line of on-site services
to private, public, and crown corporations. TPEI fias built a national reputation of
also was associated with indoor mold
exposure in susceptible people," reported the Institute of Medicine.
quality, service and safe, cost effective solutions.
"Recent studies have confirmed
what scientists have suspected for years; that asthma is an immune sys tem reaction to dust, pollution and other allergens (e.g., airborne mold spores) in the environment, which trig ger spasms and tightening of the air ways of some people who also have a genetic predisposition," reported Newsweek,"Waiting to Inhale," March
TPEI is committed to
coupled with safety and compliance.
Tel; (905) 823-7965 Fax:(905) 823-7932 www.trlphaseenvironmental.com
14, 2005. Conclusions
"Any person at risk from mold should not be in an area that is likely to be contaminated. If you or your family members have health problems after exposure to mold, contact your doctor or other health care provider," advises
• Asbestos and mold removal
• Demolition and
the Centers for Disease Control. Residents and workers often differ
significantly (from co-residents and co-workers) in their sensitivity and reaction to exposure. Even the smell of
• PCB cleanup, and disposal
mold can make some residents and workers sick.
Thus, if one or a few residents, employees, or customers experience one or more possible health symptoms, the property owner, landlord or employer should still inspect and mold test the residential or work premises for the health protection of both the
• Site cleanup and remediation
• Underground storage tank removal
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 47
Designing a multi-purpose pumping and storage facility
TheAirport Road Reservoir and
Pumping Station project was designed to supply enough water storage and pumping capacity to serve both the Regional Municipality of Peel and the Regional Municipality of York's future water demand needs. These huge Ontario regions both have rapidly increasing populations. The pumping station was proposed to pump to three separate pressure dis tricts, Peel 4E, Peel 5E, and York. The facility was designed to provide ade quate and safe drinking water to both municipalities' residents, in a costeffective and timely manner. The client's objective was to design a reser voir and pumping station that could meet the supply needs for the receiving
s, A Bme h
Finished main pump room.
water systems for projected flows in the year 2011 (Phase I), but also have the capability of upgrading the capaci ty to meet the ultimate design flows projected for the year 2036 (Phase II). The client also had more specific objectives for the design of the pump ing station itself. A hydraulic transient analysis was conducted on the entire water system,from the incoming water supply to the outgoing discharge pres sure zones. This analysis looked into potential hydraulic transient issues, proposed surge control schematics, and proposed pump and valve opera tion. The pumping station included a surge protection system to minimize the impacts of potentially destructive forces due to high and low pressures in the discharge pipes. Emergency power was also included in the design to ensure the pumping station could con tinue to supply water in the event of power failures. MacViro's solution to the storage and pumping capacity needed to meet the future demands was to design a 52.5 megalitre reservoir footprint to supply the pumping station with an uninterrupted water supply. The reser voir was designed to meet the Phase II flows of 633 ML/d, but was only con structed to meet the design flows for Phase I of 316 ML/d. This resulted in the construction of two out of the three
reservoir cells totaling 35 ML. The pumping station was designed Installation of piping and equipment in the main pump room.
in a similar fashion to meet the pump ing requirements for Phase II, but only
48 Environmentai Science & Engineering, May 2005
constructed to meet the design flow for Phase I. The pumping station design is essentially thi^ee separate pumping sta tions housed under the same roof. This
design costs much less than building three separate stations, since many components required to run a pumping station can be used by all three sys tems. There are three sets of pumps individually sized to meet the demands of the three individual pumping zones. All of the pumps share a common reservoir, suction is through two sepa rate 1800 mm suction headers, and dis
charge is through three individual dis charge headers (1800 mm, 1500 mm, and 900 mm). Matching the pump motor drive efficiencies and large hydraulic head variations required variable frequency drives (VFD) to be installed. Pump selection and operation will be based on obtaining the best efficiencies and having gradual changes in flow to match the demand for York and Peel
4E. The Owner's recognition of the operational flexibility advantages for this approach resulted in the addition of a VFD for Peel 5E.
The pumping system is protected from high surge pressures, due to power failure, in two ways. Lower pressure Peel systems (4E and 5E) are protected from high surge pressures by using four surge anticipating valves, two on each system. The York system, which has significantly higher surge pressures, is protected by using two 225m3 surge tanks. These tanks act as
Water Supply an air cushion to dissipate high water pressures and minimize downsurge effects in the pipelines. Two 1825 KW diesel generators provide emergency power to the sta tion in case of a power failure. The generators supply power to all essen tial equipment needed to run the pumping station. The generators were sized to provide power to run only two pumps on each pumping system. Two chemical disinfection systems were designed to disinfect the water both coming into the reservoir and leaving the pumping station. A chlo rine injection system with 16,000 L of storage for Phase I was designed to deliver chlorine, in the form of sodium
hypochlorite, to the inlet of the reser voir and the discharge of the Peel 4E, Peel 5E, and York systems. An ammo nia injection system with 16,000 L of storage for Phase I was designed to deliver ammonia to the York system only. This provides chlorine and ammonia in the York system, which combine to form chloramines for maintenance of a chloramine residual
in the distribution system. The station's design allows for future expansion and installation of equipment to meet the Phase II design flows. Connection points and extra
September 2003, there was a need to pour concrete foundations and erect building walls before the winter
room were included to allow for the
months would slow construction. It
additional pumps, valves, piping, gen erators, chemical storage, and reser voir storage required for Phase II. The communities that are being supplied by the Airport Road Pumping Station are rapidly growing, as are
was decided to completely erect the pumping station walls before installing any equipment. Since much of the equipment was too large to fit through the pumping station service bay doors, and maneuver in place, the hydraulic crane allowed the equipment to be dropped into the pumping station through the roof opening. In order to design an efficient and safe pumping station, a hydraulic tran sient analysis was used to model the proposed pumping station's operation. The transient analysis was used to ensure that potential hydraulic tran sient issues pertaining to the environ ment, public health and safety, infra structure risk management, energy efficiency and optimal pumping oper
their water demands. Corrmrunities to
the north, in both municipalities, rely heavily on well water. As the popula tion grows, these wells will not be able to keep up with the demand. The Airport Road Pumping Station will start to supply communities that were originally on well water. This will allow the Yonge St. aquifer and the Oak Ridges Moraine watershed abstractions to be reduced. Technical excellence and
The use of an 800 torme hydraulic crane, one of three in Canada, to drop equipment into the buildings saved
months of inactive building time. Since
ation were identified and addressed. These issues included:
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pumps • filters • tubing • www.waterra.com • bailers • water level sensors May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 49
Water Supply • Sub-atmospheric pressure upon pump shut-down can induce groundwater intrusion and air entrainment
resulting in public health and safety issues.
• Pipe or pump break can occur due to
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the high transient pressure upon vacu um/air pockets collapsing or flow reversal back to the Airport Road Pumping Station. • The magnitude, frequency and dura tion of the pressure spikes may cause pipe material fatigue and loose anchors, resulting in an infrastructure risk management concern. Other objectives of the hydraulic transient analysis were to develop a surge control scheme that would pro tect the pumping station and the dis charge feedermains from the high and low pressures induced by the emer gency pump shut-down and start-up. It also outlined pump and valve opera tion procedures to provide efficient operation, while minimizing pressure surges related to starting and stopping equipment. With regards to the low water level and suction conditions, the design of the reservoir was unique. It was designed to allow the reservoir to he drained down to almost entirely empty. The recessed suction lines allow the
Special Guest Speaker The Hoaourable David Capias
reservoir low water level to he set at
Thitfsday May 26th, 2005
the reservoir floor elevation. A typical reservoir would only allow the water level to drop to a few metres above the
7:15 -9:00 am
floor level before adverse conditions
Room 71^ Metro Convention Centre (255 From Street West)
For more infonnitiaN
or to roglstar, vtsit
Ontario KmirDametrt Indoriiy Asaockttan
around the suction lines would occur.
Since the Airport Road Reservoir can he lowered to essentially empty it takes advantage of the entire reservoir capacity. Level of complexity One of the most important obsta
cles to he overcome was the time con
straint on the entire project. A reser voir and pumping station of this size would typically require three years to plan, design, and construct. The timeframe from the initial planning stages to final construction of the Airport Road Reservoir and Pumping Station was a mere one and a half years. Much of the design of the pumping station took place while construction of the reservoir and pumping building was in progress. An initial design was imple mented and the construction started.
Final design details were attended to during construction. This reservoir and pumping station are complex compared to other more typical pumping stations. The com plexity is due to the fact that one pumping station must pump to three separate systems. The station was sim plified by housing ail three systems in the same building and allowing them to share common resources (chemi cals, emergency power, water supply) hut they must he independently con trolled by separate interfaces. Control sequences and programming for three separate pumping systems were pro vided. They ail use common resources. Hydraulic transient analyses were complex to perform due to the unique design of the pumping station and the three discharge pressure zones. Under normal circumstances, the transient
analysis would he simple and straight forward, using just one discharge and one pressure zone. The Airport Road
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Water Supply Pumping Station analysis needed to take into consideration three pressure zones consisting of over 19 pumping stations and reservoirs, and all of the interconnecting piping. The inlet structure of the reservoir is
a very unique design. The incoming water supply conditions posed a design problem, since the Airport Road Reservoir was at the same elevation as
the incoming water line. Water needed to be pumped to a high point and allowed to flow by gravity to the reservoir. If the reservoir water level was very low, the incoming water line could possibly run dry, due to gravity empty ing the pipeline. This condition would pose a water quality issue, and "repriming" of the pipeline would be needed. To avoid this potential prob lem, the reservoir inlet structure was designed to keep the incoming pipeline flooded and pressurized to maintain water quality. The 16 metre high inlet structure provides 16 metres of head inside of the incoming pipeline. The height of the inlet structure water level can be regulated through three electri
a a at
cally operated weir gates. The level of redundancy for the suc tion headers requested by the client added to the complexity of the facility. The client wanted to have the ability to continue pumping even if a suction header had to be taken out of service.
For this reason, two suction headers
were designed to take water from alter nating reservoir cells. Conclusion
The new facility will achieve sustainability of our natural resources by reducing the demand for water on the natural aquifers and water tables, and by reducing the number of households that rely on groundwater. The pumping station and reservoir were strategically located in an area that would not pose any negative impacts on agriculture, hydrology, landforms, soils, or fish eries. An
Report for the York/Peel feedermain and an Environmental Study Report for the Northeast Brampton Water Supply were conducted to ensure that environmental principles were fol
The emergency power system has been equipped with load monitoring and peak shaving capabilities to become a Provincial Smart Energy plant. The Airport Road Pumping Station can monitor power consump tion levels on the power grid and start the diesel generators to reduce the power consumption of the pumping station during high demand periods. The current diesel generators are also capable of bi/fuel power generation using natural gas. This capability for use of the generator with natural gas will also allow for reduced air emis sions.
For more information, contact Jeff Radley, e-mail:email@example.com.
The 600 QS combines the compact 600R multiporometer water qualify sonde with the rugged, reliable 650 MDS display/data logger into one easy-to-use handheld measurement unit. Equipped with YSI's patended Rapid Pulse dissolved oxygen sensor, there is no need to circulate or manually stir to provide stable and accurate DO readings. Other parameters include temperature, conductivity, salinity, GRP, and depth.
Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen pH GRP
The 600 QS can be ordered with various coble
lengths making it suitable for taking spot measurements or doing vertical profiling. For product and pricing information or rental rates please contact; Your Canadian YSI Service Centre
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minimize environmental impacts, based on the findings of the two reports. Feedermains leaving the pumping station were mainly con structed on road right-of-ways and through existing pipeline corridors to avoid any environmentally sensitive
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lowed. The location was chosen to
oskin Scientific Limited j^KhvW.hoskin.CQ
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 51
New drinking water quality management system at two primary water supply systems in Ontario By Andrea Notarianni and Brigitte Roth,WESA
As a result of the Walkerton inquiry, a series of recom
mendations for Ontario drink
ing water systems was released. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has undertaken steps to satisfy these requirements, including a proposed new licensing regime for municipalities, and a new Drinking Water Quality Management System (DWQMS), which will be incorporated into legislation. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, all municipalities that own municipal residential drinking water systems may eventually be required to have a Municipal Drinking Water License. Two mandatory components of the license will be:
1. To have an 'Operational Plan' for each of their systems. 2. To ensure that each of their sys tems are being operated by an accred ited operating authority. The requirements for the Opera tional Plan will be described in the
new DWQMS. Accreditation of the operating authority, required in com ponent #2, will be based on the suc cessful audit of the operating authority against these requirements. With such importance placed on a new DWQMS, the MOE has been working with a core team that includes stakeholders from various consumer
groups, government and non-govern
ment agencies. From the collaboration of the Core Team, a working draft of a Drinking Water Quality Management System was developed. As part of the development stage, a DWQMS pilot program was initiated in 2004, where a handful of volunteer
municipalities, representing a wide range of drinking water systems, began implementing the requirements from the working draft ofthe DWQMS.The purpose of this pilot program was to assess how easily the system might be implemented, how auditable the sys tem would be, and to provide case study examples for municipalities to use as reference, in the implementation of their own DWQMS. The City of London, as a represen tative of two joint boards that own two primary water supply systems, was amongst the volunteer municipalities. WESA, a Canadian environmental, health and safety consulting firm, was
contracted in late 2004 by the City of London to assist in the implementation of the new DWQMS into the two water supply systems. Although well advanced, the implementation is still ongoing. Two Drinking Water Quality Management Systems are being imple mented under the 'City of London' pilot project: one for the Lake Eluron Primary Water Supply System (LHPWSS), and one for the Elgin Area
Primary Water Supply System (EAPWSS). Both systems supply water to the City of London, as well as many other communities in the area. Because numerous communities
share the primary water supply sys tems, two joint boards exist, the Lake Huron Joint Board of Management and the Elgin Area Joint Board of Management, to own and oversee each respective primary water supply sys tem. The membership for each joint board includes representatives from each community served, and also an administration member, served by the City of London. While the joint board owns each primary water supply system, each is operated under contract by an inde pendent operating authority. Currently, the contract for operating authority for both sites is with American Water
Services. Sharing the same administra tive arm of the joint boards and having the same operating authority in both systems has proven to be a benefit in this double implementation. With the new proposed licensing regime, a municipality that owns and operates any part of a drinking water system will have to meet the DWQMS requirements for each part of the drink ing water system, a task quite daunting on its own. However, if the municipali ty contracts the operation of the system to an operating authority, both the oper-
Elgin Area Primary Water Supply System. 52 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Lake Huron Primary Water Supply System.
Drinking Water ating authority and the municipality will have DWQMS requirements. This will be the case for both water systems supplying the City of London and sur rounding municipalities. With the joint boards structure, integrated management from the oper ating authority, and a well-planned system, it is possible to implement one DWQMS into the primary water sup ply system that both the owner and the operating authority are involved with, and that one DWQMS can satisfy the licensing requirements of both the owner and operating authority. This is one of the first significant facts from this pilot project. It must be stressed, however, that the system must be a joint implementation, and as men tioned before, well-planned. The water treatment facility for the Elgin Area Primary Water Supply System, located on Lake Erie, near the village of Port Stanley, Ontario, has a treatment capacity of 90 million litres per day. The EAPWSS supplies water
London. The Elgin Area Primary Water Supply System has an Environmental Management System (EMS) registered to IS014001;1996. The current daily production for this facility is 53 million litres per day. The facility employs ten full-time staff, supplemented by local contractors for specific or specialized maintenance tasks. The DWQMS being implement
to the communities of Southwold, St. Thomas, Central Elgin, Aylmer,
Malahide, Bayham and the City of
ed at the EAPWSS covers the treat
14001:1996. The current daily produc tion for this facility is 157 million litres per day. The facility employs ten full-time staff, supplemented by local contractors for specific or specialized maintenance tasks. The DWQMS
being implemented at the LHPWSS covers the treatment and transmission
of drinking water from the intake of raw lake water to the delivery of treat ed water to the Arva reservoir.
ment and transmission of drinking
A management system must have
water from the intake of raw lake water
strong ownership, but also be useable, practical, and easily adopted by the users of the system. To achieve this bal
to the delivery of treated water to the St. Thomas terminal reservoir.
The water treatment facility for the Lake Huron Primary Water Supply System is located near Grand Bend, Ontario, on Lake Huron. The plant has a current treatment capacity of 340 million litres per day and services a population of approximately 325,000 people. The LHPWSS supplies water to the communities of London, Lambton Shores, North Middlesex, South Huron, Bluewater, Middlesex Centre, and Lucan-Biddulph. The LHPWSS
Management System registered to ISO
ance in the DWQMS,while having two
major interested 'organizations'to work with, 'senior management'is defined in the system as a tiered structure. For management review of each system, the District Director of the operating authority and the Administrative Representative from the joint boards together review the system as required. They make deci sions and recommendations, and then
forward this to each respective joint board of management for final continued overleaf...
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Drinking Water i approval. Not only does this keep both
the operating authority and the owner 'IIIf completely involved in the DWQMS,but it also facilitates improved cooperation and accountability. Since both systems have registered ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems in place, there was considerable discussion about integration of the new DWQMS with the existing EMS. Integration proved to be one of the key challenges in the pilot project. The advantages of integration may include:
what documents were required under the DWQMS, EMS documents were revised to include new content, where possible. If the revised procedure was too lengthy, it was split into coherent smaller proce dures. If an entirely new procedure was created, it still adopted the same header and format, and used the same document numbering system. Similar to the potential for loose inter pretation of 'environmental aspects' in the ISO 14001 standard, the assessment
of critical control points in the DWQMS is crucial. Defining and using an effec tive and thorough method of assessing • Less repetition (such as training, recordkeeping, emergency preparedness). critical control points was another signif icant learning experience from the pilot • Streamlined systems. project, which will be shared with the • Potential of combined audits for less Pumps at the Lake Huron plant. other municipalities. A similar approach disruption. to an 'aspects assessment' was used, The disadvantages may include: • One single large system that could prove onerous to man where the system is broken down into operational pieces, age and audit. and assessed for risk. In the working draft of the DWQMS, • Opens up both systems for auditing. a critieal control point(CCP)is defined as: "a step or point • If one system isn't working effectively, both suffer. in a drinking water system at which control can be applied It was decided to integrate the systems. Since there was by the operating authority and is essential to prevent or eliminate a drinking water health hazard or reduce it to an a small number of employees, re-introducing employees to acceptable level." a new quality/environmental system was not anticipated to The system owners and users felt that a numerical rating be confusing. The EMS appeared to be functioning effec system for CCPs, rather than a qualitative one, would be tively, and was well adopted by employees. After assessing better adopted by the users. Each process within the system was broken down into basic flow schematics, thus creating a learning tool that is useful for all users on its own. From Halfempty or halffull? there, each stage in the flow schematic was evaluated by a Find out from anywhere! cross-functional team for potential health risk - document ing what could go wrong, what the resulting health risks eould be, and ranking these. It was imperative at this point Re^ to clarify that this evaluation was performed on the assump Unity tion that any controls that may already be in place were NOT present, so that a true evaluation of risk could be Transparent Ready. Access your reached. It is based on these CCPs that control procedures system data from anywhere with for the system are formed, and it is therefore a pivotal step a secure Web browser. Get real in implementation that must be performed thoroughly. time data. Improve efficiency. Reduce downtime and costs. However, without proper guidance, it would be easy to become overwhelmed in detail at this stage, and lose sight Unity Studio is a tool that of the overall implementation goals. lets you graphically design your entire process based Implementation resource requirements and time-frame on real-world functionality. are other topics of concern from the pilot project that will be • Less additional documentation.
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communicated back to the MOE and the core team.
Add links to documentation
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54 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Implementation of the requirements from this working draft of a DWQMS could be an arduous task for smaller munici palities with already limited resources, and to simplify the process, it is anticipated that all of the documents, outlines, guidelines and experiences from this pilot project may be packaged into a 'tool kit' for future users. In the end, it is hoped that the observations, challenges, and concerns communicated from the pilot project will help strengthen the effectiveness of the resulting legislation, and, hopefully, further protect the public. Andrea Notarianni, P.Eng., CEA, is a Senior Associate with IVESA. Brigitte Roth, EES, is an EMS Specialist with WESA. Contact e-mail: andi@cogeco. ca. Web site: www.wesa.ca.
Corrosion Control Water / Waste Water
system keeps Toronto cool
Water is passed through a heat exchanger at a temperature of 4.7 degrees Celsius and exits at a tempera ture of 12.5 degrees Celsius, traveling through the city's municipal water dis tribution system. Return water enters the exchanger at a temperature of 13.1 degrees Celsius and, by adding more cold, fresh lake water, the temperature is brought down to 5.0 degrees Celsius. From here, it is pumped through 1200 mm diameter pipes to an underground facility in the downtown core. From this underground chamber, it will be further chilled to 3.3 degrees Celsius and distributed to office and
residential towers for air-conditioning circuits.
Corrosion protection tape products must withstand such cold temperatures and still be flexible enough to be applied to metal pipes and fittings while in operation. The tape must also show all the attributes of petrolatum tapes and provide long-term corrosion protection and sealing. Products Protected valve assembly ready for
By using cold water from Lake
selected for this massive and innova
tive project were Denso LT tape, Paste and Mastic.
Ontario, Toronto's Deep Lake Water Cooling Project is capa ble of cooling 20 million square feet of office space (100 high rise towers). The project, which began operating late last year, is expected to
The application involved assem bling 1200 mm flanged joints, which connected two steel pipe sections com plete with a valve assembly. The sec tions were built on their ends, off site. When assembled they stood about eight feet tall. The application of
reduce annual carbon dioxide emis
Denso Paste went around the nut and
sions by 40,000 tons and energy use by up to 75% less than conventional elec tric chillers.(An article on this project appeared in ES&E's September 2003 issue. Visit www.esemag.com)
bolt assemblies and the pipe sections along with a large amount of Profiling Mastic to fill the many voids. Irregular configurations on this section high lighted the tape's conformability. Once completed, the concrete lined assemblies, now weighing several tons, had to be moved by crane onto a truck and then transported to the job site 60 km away. Once on site, the assemblies
There is an additional benefit to this
project. Spent water from the cooling phase is passed through a cold-energy transfer loop back into one of the city's filtration plants to produce cooler potable drinking water. Initially, cold water is drawn through three parallel, 600 mm HOPE intake pipes from a depth of 85 metres, 5.6 kilometres south of the city, out in Lake Ontario. These pipes are buried where water depth does not exceed 10 metres, in order to protect them from damage from large wave and current loads, as
drilling machine. The tunnel runs from Lake Ontario, where the large diameter water pipes were then connected with the assemblies to the piping that runs underneath the city. Once the large diameter piping was protected and
well as marine traffic and anchors.
connected, the small diameter feeder
Where water depth is greater than 10 metres, the pipe is laid on the lake bottom. Screens are provided at the intake to prevent fish and other organ isms from entering.
pipes and valves that connect to vari ous office buildings were protected with the Denso Petrolatum System.
Without KSB, No One Would Set Foot in Here With KSB, rivers, lakes and seas
can keep their natural balance. Our tried and tested pumps and mixers help clean up in munici pal and industrial waste water disposal and treatment systems. They also transport clean water to where it is needed. You can draw
on over 100 years of fluid flow
expertise. As a reliable and effi cient systems supplier and service partner, we'll put your projects on a sound footing. KSB Pumps Inc. â€˘ MIsslssauga, Ontario E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel. (905) 568-9200 â€˘ www.ksb.ca The Amarex-KRT sub
mersible motor pump for all kinds of waste water.
were lowered about 80 ft below the
road surface down to a tunnel, which had been bored using a huge vertical
Contact: email@example.com. May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 55
A diverse range of case histories and new developments is reviewed in ES&E's semi-annual look at tanks,
containment systems and spill management.
Canadian covers for U.S. wastewater treatment
The Village of Bartlet , Il inois, handles wastewater for 26,000
people residing in three differ ent counties, 40 miles outside
Chicago. Their treatment plant is con sidered a medium to large size treat ment facility. The Village purchased four steel-framed polyethylene mem brane covered structures to cover the
aerobic digesters at their wastewater treatment plant from Saskatchewanbased Cover-All Building Systems. The four Cover-All Legend build ings are 62 ft.by 62 ft. in dimension and each covers two sludge tanks. "One of the problems we had in the past was controlling the temperature during the winter as well as containing odors," says Wastewater Supervisor Ron Johnson."Since we have had the Cover-
All buildings we've been able to hold the heat in during the winter so the bac teria can do their job and we no longer have odor complaints from nearby resi dential areas. The aerobic digesters take in sludge from two parts of our facility.
White covers provide natural lighting without windows.
One part is the waste activated sludge from the activated sludge system, and the other is the primary sludge from the primary clarifiers. The basic operation ofthe clarifiers is to stabilize the organ ic matter in the sludge. From here we take it to a sludge press and put it onto farm fields."
Cover-All buildings were chosen because of their performance in moist and corrosive environments. The gal vanized steel-frame system is clad with a triple-coated anti-corrosion bar rier along with a Gatorshield coating. Cover-All buildings have clear-span widths ranging from 18 ft. to 160 ft., to any length and are pre-engineered in accordance with the structural require ments of all four model building codes in the United States. The polyolefin characteristic of the DuraWeave mem
56 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
brane is not biodegradable, is inert to corrosive and ammonia gases, and is backed by a 15 year pro-rata warranty. Each of the buildings was designed with a side access so it could be
opened up to lower a hoist down with in the tank, clean the digesters or install equipment. Another benefit with this installa
tion is the translucent quality of the fabric membrane."We don't need any lighting in the buildings, nor do we
require the installation of explosion proof fixtures or personnel needing to change light bulbs. The white cover provides natural light inside the build
ing, even on gray and overcast days," says Johnson. Contact Drew Elder, e-mail:
HAi^i A recovery UNIT
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Modify Response Conditions Select Ideal Response Supplies Control Discharges Prepare Spills for Recovery Reduce Disposal Costs
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firstname.lastname@example.org Ph: 905-578-9666 Fax; 905-578-6644
Tanka con C3in m ÂŤ#it
Secondary containment dilemma
Gone are the days when one
could buy an inexpensive storage tank, set it up or bury it, then forget about it. Now,seemingly endless new guide lines regarding liquid containment require some serious decisions con cerning the selection, operation and maintenance of suitable "environmen
tally responsible" storage methods. Companies need to be prudent in considering initial capital expense vs. long-term operational cost in deciding on the type of tank installation: above or below-grade; heated or unheated; metal or non-metal; and secondary containment (such as earthen dykes, enclosure rings, or double wall vs. dual-containment). Choosing the right combination will translate into sub
stantial cost savings and reduced cor porate liability exposure. Traditionally, except for buried tank installations, earthen dykes or enclo sure rings (steel or concrete), in com bination with plastic liners covered by
a layer of sand, were common choices for secondary containment of abovegrade single wall tanks. Spill containment for below-grade tanks usually involved the installation of buried plastic liners, complete with liquid collection monitoring devices,
or double wall designs with either vac
uum or pressure sensing units monitor ing the interstitial wall space. However, associated with these tra ditional installation methods are cer
tain inherent secondary containment problems. To combat these problems, TankSafe Inc. (Calgary, AB) devel
oped the concept of an "environmen tally responsible" above-grade, dualcontainment tank (heated or unheated).
This novel design, for which
Fiberglass ^Brage tanks...
TankSafe obtained both Canadian and
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U.S. patent rights, safeguards against overflow and leakage problems; pre vents soil, groundwater and product contamination; reduces liability expo
sure and reclamation costs; saves on
ZCL Waste Water, Septic & Sewage Holding Tank Systems
heating requirements; and allows for unhindered year-round tank installa
the reliable, long-term solution to increasingly stringent regulations.
Watertight & structurally sound, ZCL tanks are constructed from
lightweight maintenance-tree tiberglassthat simply will never rust,
ZCL Oil/Water Separator Tanks provide high performance solutions for reducing oil and fuel in run-off water streams. No moving parts and only minimal maintenance is required thanks to corrosion free internal and external components.
Ideal for bulk fuel plants, truck stops, repair shops and parking lots.
tion and relocation at minimal expense. Also, fabricated as a split tank, the
design can easily incorporate multiple product storage, such as new and used lube oil at compressor stations. TankSafe's dual-containment de
sign, however, provides a minimum 110% secondary contaiiunent capacity (compared to primary tank volume) and may be fitted with an internal overflow device on the primary tank. This extra spare volume not only allows for considerable accidental
Corrosion free internally and externally, ail ZCL tanks provide continuous protection
Ideal for safe storage ofall fuel types, water, COMPOSITES INC.
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spillage and overflow containment, but also primary tank mechanical protec tion, additional insulating value and
greater uniform heat distribution (for heated tanks).
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Contact: www.tanksafe.com. 58 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Contalnmetnt & SjdMs
Inexpensive lining system extends life of leaking tank
In 2001,during a routine tank inspection,the staf at the
Aylmer, Ontario, wastewater treatment plant noticed some fine leaking cracks in the exterior ofthe FRP tank used to contain liquid alum. An inspection of the tank was completed and the conclusion was that the tank was still structurally sound. Replacement was considered but, in addition to the cost of a new tank, the Township had to allow for opening a sec tion of the building to remove the existing tank and move the new one in. Another option considered was removing the existing tank and constructing a new tank inside the building. This also proved to be quite costly. A decision was made to have Kentain Products Ltd. supply a closed top, heavy gauge flexible PVC liner. Kentain provided special
completed in just two days. The entire inside surface of the tank, fittings and manway were lined so that the FRP tank would no longer come in contact with liquid or fumes. The PVC lining was not adhered to the tank surface and wasn't affected by the expansion and contraction or small cracks left in the walls. Because of the closed top, one piece con struction and excellent chemical resistance, the liner is vir
ized technicians to take exact inside dimensions of the tank.
tually maintenance free.
The liner was designed and pre-fabricated in one piece at their facility in Kitchener, Ontario. Working in conjunction with the Ontario Clean Water Agency, Kentain provided an installation supervisor and two helpers to assist with the installation. With no need to
the tank is providing extra security, by becoming the sec ondary containment. A leak detection system assures early awareness should a problem ever occur.
sand blast and minimal down time, the installation was
Contact email: email@example.com.
The liner has now become the main containment while
Containment Manufacturing Speciaiists MANUFACTURE
Layfield is a vertically integrated, ISO 9002
certified company which manufactures and
fabricates a wide range of geomembranes
• Polypropylene (U)
and specialty geosynthetic products. To
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better service our customers, we provide a
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• Tantalum |TTL®) • Vapor Barriers
available from our various North American
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Layfield is a leading supplier of floating
• Floating Cover Systems • Baffle Curtains
cover systems and cover technology. We
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• Turbidity Curtains • PVC, RPE®, PP (8), • Hazgard® (ULC), Hypalon
ISLAYFIELD SftlUBiEGB . SEAsTiE
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Tanks ContÂťtnmÂŽnt m
Bolted stainless steel tanks are versatile
From left to right: 400,000 gallon water reservoir, leachate storage and containment tank, waste treatment with alu minum dome and decant lines, and bio tower - trickling filter tank with a fiat stainiess root.
Bolted stainles ste l storage tanks have been around
for some fifteen years and are fast becoming the
most viable solution to storage needs. Welded stainless tanks have been around for many, many years, primarily in the milk and food processing industry. The bolted stainless tank is generally made of 304, 304L, 316, or 316L stainless, and in some applications 317 or duplex stainless is used. These tanks meet the ASTM, AWWA and, when needed, the API specifications.
Railroad Track Spill Containment
Bolted stainless tanks are environmentally neutral for they are not shiny but a dull grey, which is very attractive in most settings. The stainless material comes in plates and sheets which may differ a little in color at first but within a couple of months the unpolished stainless passivates and becomes a dull grey. These tanks may cost a little more than the painted mild steel or factory-coated tanks, but have a very positive impact on the environment through the area of expandabil-
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60 Environmentai Sdence & Engineering, May 2005
ity and are nearly maintenance free(no need
cleanup or concerns about contamina tion due to surface failures). Most bolt ed stainless tanks are designed to
expand their size for a nominal fee by adding plates to the bottom and mak ing the unit taller. Another area, and probably the most important to every one, is the residual value, if the tank is no longer needed. Unlike the factorycoated, field-coated or concrete tanks, stainless has a high residual value in the recycling chain because it does not lose value and requires little, if any,
stormwater storage and management and waste treatment plants. Bolted stainless tanks are becoming very pop ular in the groundwater cleanup area, from collecting leachate from landfills to industidal site groundwater remediations.
They are used extensively in wastewater plants because of their durability in storage, processing and clarifying of the harsh products and vary in size from very small to very large. Examples of
types of tanks are sludge storage, clarifiers, waste treatment, digester tanks, bio towers (trickling filter tanks) and more. They are and have been used for odour control, air pollution control and for their environmental appearances. These tanks have also been designed and used for methane generators.
Contact Earl W. Wildenberg, American Structures, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Safety Storage®, Inc.
intervention from federal or local
agencies for cleanup. Bolted stainless tanks are very easy to relocate or ship new via common carrier because they are shipped on pallets with hardware boxed separate ly. These tanks are accepted universal ly and are growing in popularity. They are very popular in water treatment from pre-treatment to potable water storage. These water tanks can be used in conjunction with composite water towers, reservoirs, standpipes or pretreatment tanks. They are also used in
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Special Guest Speaker The Honourable David Caplan
These stracmres offer multiple-tiered storage and convenient access for simplified material handling and containment. Standard models provide storage from 4 to 36 pallets of materials
Custom-designed structures offer a costeffective way to isolate a hazardous
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www.safetystorage.com infoigsafetystorage.com Certain approvals are not available on all models.
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 61
The proposed Ontario Bil 133
honest and reasonable belief in a mis
puts new power into the
taken set of facts that, if true, would
Ontario Environmental Pro
have rendered the contravention an innocent act. Minimum fines for cor
tection Act (EPA) and the Ontario Water Resources Act(OWRA)
as corporate officers and directors can be held responsible for spills and releases into the environment. Bill 133
will place the onus on directors and officers of corporations to prove and ensure that all reasonable care or
responsible care has been taken to pro tect the environment. The engineering of new processes, planning, designing a new facility or expansion, will all have to provide protection for the envi ronment through effective prevention, preparedness, and response strategies. At this time Ontario Bill 133 is tar
geted at the companies regulated under the Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) regulation. The new environmental penalty system will allow Ministry ofthe Environment officials to immediately issue environ mental penalties against corporations and individuals who are in violation of
the EPA and OWRA. A requirement that a person pay the environmental
penalty applies, even if the person took all reasonable steps to prevent the con travention and even if, at the time of the contravention, the person had an
porations and individuals will rise and jail terms of up to five years will be imposed. This system is designed to reach the personnel with the highest level of responsibility, authority and accountability. Whether a company is regulated by MISA or not. Bill 133 should be a
acceptable to the Ministry. Officers and directors who are not on environmental issues
should be brought up to speed as quickly as possible.They need to know what techniques, procedures, supplies and equipment are 'tried and true' and work well, what is not working, and what is new and could improve their response capability. Get started
Officers and directors can don per
wake-up call for all corporations and
sonal protective equipment such as
individuals. If Bill 133 is expanded to cover all corporate officers and direc tors, environmental penalties could be levied against violators ofenvironmen tal regulations, orders, permits and certificates of approval. The writing is on the wall concerning plant environ mental initiatives and companies that have no structured programs in place. Officers and directors looking to
work boots, hard hats and safety glass es, and then conduct a walk through of their facilities. Managers, supervisors and key personnel should be on hand to answer questions and to provide
improve their legal position should consider implementing an ISO 14000 Environmental Management System (EMS). The ISO 14000 standard can be used as a guideline for developing a location/site-specific EMS program. In Schedule 1 of "A Framework for Ontario's
Program" there is a list of generally accepted EMS standards that are
62 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
detailed information about what is
required to respond effectively. Use a Quickcheck-system as a guide to assess the preparedness and response capability. Rate risks and hazards and determine training criteria, response supplies and equipment requirements. As a minimum, a Quickcheck-system should be user-friendly and score the concerns and opinions of individuals ranging from corporate directors, offi cers, to managers, workers and visi tors. A simple rating system may be created by using a scale of 1- 5, with 1 being of minimal concern and 5 being
Tanks Co,nCjai a severe condition.
The broad-based approach can cover a wide variety of areas ranging from a warehouse to the storage of lab oratory chemicals. Subject matter should include: response risk factors, impact to people, property, the environ ment and business. This process is to be treated as an act of responsible care. When spills get out of control, the multiplication factor does not increase by 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. It increases by 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64. The leap from 32 to 64 can be challenging for response personnel, commu nication systems and emergency response plans.
control of a specific spill. 6. Store response equipment in a des ignated area, including self-contained breathing apparatus, pumps, booms, hoses, etc. Specialized equipment to help meet Ontario Bill 133 could
emergency services. Then test your capability with real-time exercises. Common Response Risk Factors (RRF)to consider for your emergency plan would include:
a) Response equipment such as InViro-Drum, a diesel powered industri
ity, special hazards, health hazards. • Stored quantities: lab size, high risk, drums/totes, bulk.
al vacuum system capable of vacuum
ing solids, sludges and debris, and of lifting oil from water. As a first
decrease the response safety. They can be referred to as danger escalators and include location, housekeeping, temperature and/or pressure of product. When you use the Quickcheck-system, the accumu
• Chemical hazards: fire risk, reactiv
lated score will determine the
Considerations for response capability 1. Establish a Preparedness and Response Capability Assessment Qimcfuicf rating system to identify high-risk areas. The Quickcheck-system should determine impacts and scales of impact to people, prop erty, the environment and busi ness. (The Quickcheck process for response tool it can be deployed on site officers and directors will be presented to the water's edge for clean-up, placed at the May 11 & 12, 2005 CANECT on response boats to provide shoreline Conference, see www.esemag.com.) clean-up from the water side, and the This common sense approach will unit can be flown into remote areas guide the experienced as well as the eliminating environmental damage novice through a process to identify caused by the movement of heavy gaps, focus on areas of concern, and equipment(www.invirodrum.com). identify areas that require further study. b)An electric truck such as TanTum 2. Product specific training should that can operate in winter conditions include testing and evaluating chemi and has a speed of up to 40 km/h. It is cals in spill situations as this may be equipped with lights, heater and 110 necessary to determine the possibility Volt charging system. The truck can be of runaway reactions and to check that made up as a designated first response contaminants have been cleaned up, etc. unit (www.tantum.ca). 3. Select personal protective equipment 7. Internal resources should be maxi (PPE) to meet worst-case scenarios. mized to provide response capability Duponf'''^ has a new suit for chemi during an initial response phase.
Response Risk Factor and poten tial impacts to a corporation. Impacts to business will include loss of production, key personnel, income, and clientele as well as the burden offines and the cost to
recover. Impacts to people can include health issues, loss ofjobs, upset to neighbours, and the com munity. Based on the calculated scores, officers and directors will be able to
identify the severity of the potential impacts. At this stage, personnel and respon ders will start to see the driving factors for response skills. Knowing the 'what', 'when', 'why', 'where' and 'how'of responding to a spill on a sitespecific and product-specific basis requires skill, knowledge, experience, practice and site-specific training. They need to know how to modify the conditions of spills and releases. This can be as simple as shutting off the source, directing a spill to a more man ageable area or covering it over with sorbent material.
cal and flash fire that is manufactured
8. External resources such as contrac
with Tychem* ThermoPro (www.personalprotection.dupont.com/en). 4. Select spill response supplies for each application. Many spill kits do not contain supplies that will provide adequate capability to slow, divert or contain spills. Polyethylene sheeting is a diversified response item. Sections of blanket material can be ripped into 18 inch square pads but 18 inch square pads cannot be joined to make a long
tors should be viewed as support serv ices and not initial responders. They
Be prepared Bill 133 is similar to a marching band; it has a strong beat and its music
should be able to take the time and
can be heard off in the distance. The
gather appropriate supplies and equip ment to do the job. They may get caught in traffic, which will reduce their capability as an initial responder. Contingency and emergency plans Ensure that emergency response plans and procedures are site-specific. Copying plans does not produce a reli able system. Plans and procedures should be practised and tested to ensure that the plan's activation, com munication and termination proce dures are workable. Be sure the plan accommodates outside agencies and
songs may be the melodies of the future but whether you like the music or not, you are at the parade. It is time to take a realistic look inside your operations and see what aspects need changing, what impacts could create an adverse effect on your company. Don't wait until the band is on your doorstep. Do the plans, the budget, and fill in the gaps now!
increased response capability. 5. Locate response supplies/kits in areas where they will be required. Determine if the quantity of supplies and equipment is sufficient to maintain
Contact CliffHolland, Spill Management Inc., e-mail: spillman@ on.aibn.com.
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 63
Stainless steel tanks can be erected on-site
The VK method-patent pend
ing - allows for quick, safe, efficient and cost-effective
on-site construction of circu
lar stainless steel storage tanks, for potable water and wastewater treat ment applications, and toxic storage wastewater reservoirs, silos and diverse applications. The erection process is simple and efficient according to VK Tanks & Silos Inc., Surrey, British Columbia. It allows stainless steel coils to be
shipped directly from the steel mill to job sites without intermediary manu facturing. These coils are then picked up by a decoiler and fed into a bend ing machine for on-site fabrication, often by two person crews. Stainless steel coil is subsequently bent on the top and bottom longitudi nal edges. The bends reduce bulging and dramatically increase the strength of the structure. This allows for the use of thinner steel than some other
Tank being assembled.
processes and provides significant cost and material sav ings, says the supplier, VK Tanks & Silos Inc. These bends form tracks which ride on a series of rollers mounted on
vertical posts, and the steel structures are gradually pushed upward in a helical path while being welded. Double flanged joints facilitate welding and produce a high degree Canadian Environmental
Certification Approvals Board
ofjoint stiffness. Tank roofs and other appurtenances can be added at
ground level so the amount of time spent working at heights may provide safer working conditions. Because the roof and/or wind girder are installed shortly after construc tion starts, the top of the tank shell is never unsupported, minimizing the chance of folding or cave-in due to wind. Building tanks with the roofs on and welding from the inside can provide protection from adverse weather conditions. Once the design height is achieved, the bottom edge of the tank shells are trimmed to fit foundations and struc
tures may be lowered to the ground by reversing the direc
The Competitive Advantage Certification for environmental
businesses and practitioners
tion of the drive motor.
The conventional method offabricating a storage tank or silo is to weld shop-formed steel plates together. This requires on site cranes as well as the erection of both inner and outer scaffolding. The VK system eliminates some of the costs of conventional tank construction such as the
Enhances professional credibility and recognition for environmental expertise.
Find out more at
expense of preparing individual shell plates and shipping and handling large numbers of pieces. These tanks can be erected inside buildings or in con fined spaces. All equipment is portable and can be easily transported by roadway or airlifted into remote areas. The VK system may require fewer personnel and shorter con struction times. This method can also be used to reline
existing leaky tanks with stainless steel liners.
www.cecab.org/ese Contact Stuart Coles, e-mail: email@example.com. 64 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
ACO Container Systems www.acotainers.com
AGO Container Systems AGO Container Systems Is a leading North American manufacturer of quality rotatlonally moulded products. All AGO tanks are available In a wide
range of sizes. AGO Container Systems
OPEN TOP TANKS
can also custom-design and manufacture a tank system engineered to meet your specific needs.
Visit us on the web at: AGO Container Systems Ltd.,
794 McKay Road, Pickering, Ontario, 11W 2Y4
Browse our comprehensive on-line product catalogue, and download a PDF copy for easy reference.
■ Telephone: (905) 683-8222 ■ Fax: (905) 683-2969 ■ Toll Free: 1-800-542-9942 ■ Toll Free Fax: 1-800-542-4722
Access product drawings In PDF-format, or get the complete ACO Container Systems PDF library compressed in a single ZIP file. Contact our Sales Specialists by telephone, or by e-mail at: custserv(a)acotainers.com
Jet mixers solve sludge storage tank settling problem design sludge concentration is 4%.
During construction, the jet mixers were installed and the tanks were filled with sludge. The tanks were put into
operation after the sludge had settled for 3 months. The jet mixers were flushed with water and the system started up
with no plugging or solid settling issues. Mixing Systems, Inc. solved the settling issues by installing a single jet mixer/aerator near the bottom cone section of the tank. This directs the mixing plumes along the tank floor where the solids settled. One screw pump
provides the mixing energy for the jet mixer/aerator. One positive displacement blower provides the air for oxidation of the volatile solids in the digester. The pump is run on a continual basis to provide mixing in the digester. One 125 HP air blower can deliver air flow to each tank. The plant has a bank offour air blowers, which includes one stand-by blower.
As a result of efficient mixing, there are no odours such as hydrogen sulfide and methane. The new system also has no in-basin moving parts and easily handles fluctuating liq wastewater treatment piant were fitted with jet mixers uid conditions. According to Mixing Systems, Inc. the jet for mixing and aeration of the three sludge storage mixers are designed to pass greater than 2-inch spherical
Three sludge storage tanks at Camp Creek, Georgia, tanks. The 70 ft. diameter aerobic digesters are
designed to digest primary and secondary sludge. The tanks have a 26 ft. average side water depth with a 10 ft. deep cone For additional information, contact e-mail: in the centre. Liquid level varies from 6 ft. to 26 ft. and the firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.mixing.com.
AQUASTORE TANKS F
Builder of the Year Award
UV based odor control Eliminate odor and odor com
plaints from lift stations, manholes and sewage treatment plants with Nelson
Storage Systems Tel:(519) 469-8169 Fax;(519)469-8157 www.greatario.com email@example.com
UV odor control system. The System's versatile equipment uti lizes an enhanced Ultraviolet(UV) light to form active oxidizers from moisture in ambient air. These oxi
dizers quickly react with a wide range of compounds such as ammonias, petrochemicals, and compounds containing sulfur such as H2S and mercaptans. Tel: 204949-7500, Fax: 204-237-0660, E-
mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.nelsonenvironmental.com. Nelson Environmental Inc
66 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Tanks Co n ca mm e nt
Is the US government Ignoring leaking UST threat?
Leaking underground storage
said Grant Cope, Toxics Expert with
The federal government has $2.4
tanks (USTs) are a growing
the Sierra Club. "These sites include
threat to public health, accord ing to a report recently released by the Sierra Club. The report states that the US federal government's refusal to accept its responsibility to fund the cleanups is making the prob lem worse and is undermining the principle of"polluter pays". As an example of this, the Sierra
toxics like benzene, toluene and heavy metals that can quickly pollute groundwater, threaten public health, burden taxpayers with cleanup costs and hurt
billion in surplus cleanup funds, but is proposing to use only three percent of this surplus. US taxpayers pay a 1/10th ofone cent federal fee on gasoline sales that goes into a federal fund dedicated to paying for cleanups at UST sites.
Representatives vote on the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which would pre vent communities from recovering cleanup costs from the manufacturers ofthe gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE has con taminated local water supplies in more than 1,800 communities in 29 states, according to the Sierra Club report.
"More than 100 million people drink groundwater in states where thousands of underground storage tanks are leaking and need cleanups,"
real estate values."
The report shows that fifty percent of the US gets its drinking water from groundwater sources. The US has a backlog of 130,000 needed cleanups at leaking USTs, and discovers 9,000 new leaks each year. A pin-prick sized hole in one fuel tank can leak 400 gal lons of contamination a day, and one gallon of gasoline can pollute one mil lion gallons of groundwater. "The US government's budget request will not begin to cover even a small fraction of the sites," said Cope. "We have proven technologies to pre vent contamination and surplus money to clean up sites, but the current administration is failing to safeguard vulnerable communities."
State UST programs, which are largely taxpayer funded, are billions of dollars in deficit. Many states with the biggest deficits also have the biggest backlog in cleanups. Florida leads the nation in needed cleanups with 17,544. California has the sec ond highest number with 15,049, and a deficit of more than $1 billion.
Michigan has the third highest num ber with 9,039, and an internally reported deficit of $1.7 billion. Tennessee, with 1,221 needed clean ups, has internally reported a $95 million deficit.
For more information, visit www. sierraclub.org/toxics/Leaking_ USTs.
BAKER TANKS. YOUR LIQUID CONTAINMENT RENTAL RESOURCE. Have liquids that need to be temporarily stored, filtered, cleaned or moved around? Need to contain solids at the plant or jobsite? If so, Baker Tanks has you covered. We'll RENT you the solution, deliver it, set it up, take it down and take it away. Baker Tanks. Equipment, expertise, and service. That's why we're number one.
For every situation there's a Baker solution. T800-BAKER-12 / www.bakertanks.com
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 67
Chemical tank cleaning
Tank surfaces in contact with water will
ZCL coalescing separators provide substantially higher design flows than gravity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MFak® design removes oil droplets as small as 20
Mixing System can be
solids storage where
suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 limovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel:
519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157, Email: email@example.com, Web: www.greatario.com.
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems
accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBFs, and increased HFC
numbers. Heavy deposits lead to
microns! Effluent oil concentrations
increased corrosion and reduce the life
are reduced to as low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/water separators are manufactured with premium-grade
time of surface coatings. NSF approved
Floran products have been developed for convenient and efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and fil ter surfaces. Tel: 800-387-7503, Web: www.cleartech.ca. CIcarTcch Industries
Floating silt curtain
Water systems and services
Tel: 905-677-2700 Fax: 905-677-2432
E-mail: Ontario© corrpro.ca Web: www.corrpro.ca. Corrpro Canada
during every fill and draft cycle. Whether Stay ahead of the regulators with Layfield's Floating Silt Curtain (FSC). It is designed to contain soil fines and other harmful particulates from enter ing aquatic environments during stream, river and shoreline construc tion. Layfield's FSC is: modular, in stock and custom sizes, cost-effective, light weight and easy to install. Tel: 604-448-2710, Fax: 604-275-7867, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.geomembranes.com. Lavfield Ceosynthetlcs
Hazmat storage buildings
Diverse Elastic Tanks offer a full range of product designs, including closed or
bilitation project, the Fermovial™
system provides sig nificant water quality improvements by eliminating stagnation, stratification, short-circuiting and winter ice. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520, Email: email@example.com. Web: www.metconeng.com.
Metcon Sales & Engineering
Which provides the best spill protection? The light weight Spill-
tical tanks in flat or cone
30" x 60" and
styles, hori zontal tanks, containment tanks and a complete line of "UN" approved intermediate bulk containers (IBCs). They distribute the Snyder Industries line of tanks which have many advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the widest selection of sizes up to 22,000 gallons. Tel: 905-607-5189, Fax: 905-607-9835, E-mail: tanks@ plastictanks.ca. Web: www.plastictanks. Diverse Plastic Tanks
installed in a new tank or a tank reha
open top ver
6" deep. This low profile pan allows for easy access to coimect
Tank mixing solution
levels of the tank
:air Global Asseu & infrastri
Corrpro provides complete turnkey systems and maintenance services for the cathodic protection of water stor age tanks, treatment clarifiers, distri bution and transmission piping in compliance with AWWA and NACE
maintenance. Tel: 800-661-8265, Fax: 780-466-6126, Web: www.zcl.com. ZCL Composites Inc.
FermoviaF" Universal Fluid Mixing (UFM)systems have the unique ability to thoroughly mix the water from dif ferent regions and
fibreglass reinforced plastic. They have no moving parts and require minimal
Safety Storage, Inc. has been the indus try leader designing high quality, costeffective Hazmat storage buildings, meeting the latest compliance codes for the handling, use and containment of
hoses to either tanker truck manifolds
learn about Safety Storage! Tel: 800-
or fixed tank piping manifolds. With 40 gallons of capacity, it can capture most hose drainback liquids and prevent contamination or extensive clean up of concrete loading pads. It stores in a tipped over position to prevent collect ing rainwater yet retains any pan liquid
344-6539, Fax: 831-637-7405, E-mail:
residue in front reservoir. Tel: 434-975-
firstname.lastname@example.org. Web; www. safetystorage.com. Safety Storage,Inc.
2872/800-220-2466, Fax: 434-9752972, Website: www.transenvsys.com. Trans Environmental Systems,Inc.
hazardous materials, hazardous wastes, and other chemicals. Contact us to
68 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
& SILOS Inc
For further information:
VK Tanks & Silos Inc
2428 King George Hwy # 102
V4P 1H5 SURREY(BC)-Canada
TEL:1 604 5419423
FAX: 1 604 5419470
ocluct and Service Showcase Reducing hydrogen sulfide from gas and air streams
gen sulfide from biogas and air streams using our
BIND'^" adsorp tion process. 99.98% removal on
tions up to 30,000 ppm. Capacity of 0.5 grams of sulfur per gram of media. Tel: 506-451-7407, Fax: 506459-3954, E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.adi.ca. ADI International
Widely used interactive software for selecting the right material for buried infrastructure systems. Determine the real cost of materials you specify over the design life of the project through three independent programs. Tel: 972506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Web: www. concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association
Drive solutions for water
Your budget fits in a box! Armtec box culverts are ideal for low-profile, open-bottom stream crossings and wa terways. With the unique advantages offered by corrugated steel and deep corrugations, Armtec box culverts pro vide for low profile structures at a very economical installed cost. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160, Email: email@example.com. Web: www. armtec.com
Circular Tank Dust Collectors
and wastewater Flex-Kleen CT Series
Comstock An EMCOR Company
Comstock Canada Ltd.
tion services to the Canadian water
For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben
and wastewater sectors for almost 100
efits. For wastewater treatment the
has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc
years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Tel: 905335-3333, Fax: 905-335-0304, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www. comstockcanada.com. Comstock Canada Ltd.
VLT* drives ensure reduced energy
consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance costs. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905829-2630, E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com, Web: www.daviscontrols.com. Davis Controls Limited
Dissolved oxygen probe
dust collectors - espe cially effective for dust problems in drying, grinding and convey ing systems - are de signed to operate in process systems environments with minimum maintenance. Designed for two levels of pressure capability of 40" to 100" WG. or 17" Fig. (pressure or vacuum), individual units handle from 50 to 50,000 cfm. Collectors for high pressure (over 15 psig) or for extremely low vacuum requirements are also avail able. Tel: 800-621-0734, Fax: 630-8753212, E-mail: flex-kleen@met-pro. com, Web: www.flex-kleen.com. Flex-Kleen Division, Met-Pro Corp.
Slim line submersible pumps
New 5100 and 5150
ITT Flygt has released a The
solved oxy gen probe is a revolution
ary break through in the measure
pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new 60Hz models, which can handle up to 55 1/s and pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between
ment of DO. Hach LDO
300 and 500 mm in diam
has no mem
made from cast aluminum and have an
brane to clean or replace, no elec trolyte solutions to replenish, does not require frequent calibration, uses no anodes, cathodes or electrolyte solu tions. Tel: 800-227-4224, Fax: 970-
669-2932, E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.hach.com.
eter, with 3" and 4" hoses. They are outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC 60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web: www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt
70 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
generation of slurry pumps. They are designed specifical ly to handle the most abrasive slur
ries, in a wide spec trum of tough industrial environ
ments. The pumps have the latest ITT
Flygt technology incorporated, ensuring high efficiency, reliability and a long working life. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web: www.ittflygt.ca.
Product and Service Showcase I Multi-stage filter for small drinking water applications
Parkson's Geo-Reactor™ is an attached
growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways.
The net result is
DO, increased The MS Filter is a solution to a small
system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no membranes to replace, and yet treat ment performance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced popula tions up to 2,000. Tel: 905-853-0164, Fax: 905-853-8807,E-mail: elew@msfilter. com. Web: www.msfilter.com.
of the mixed
MS Filter Inc.
Package Water and Wastewater Plants
liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the
With the Accu-Tab chlorination sys tem, there are no bulky drums or cylin ders to handle. And the patented AccuTab chlorinators and cal hypo tablets deliver consistent and controllable
firstname.lastname@example.org, Web: www. parkson.com.
chlorine dosages, day after day. That's why when it comes to making safe water safer, the easy choice is the Accu-Tab system. We've got the power.™ Tel: 800-245-2974, Web: www.ppgaccu-tab.com.
tank. Geo-Reactors offer efficient BOD reduction and nitrification can
easily be accomplished. Tel: 514-6368712, Fax: 514-636-9718, E-mail:
UV water purification
UV Pure Technologies' Hallett™ systems are an evolutionary leap in UV water purification.
The Smith & Loveless PISTA' Grit Chamber
maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies
Hallett 13 and 30 GPM
wide range of daily
UV systems are NSF /
flows because of its
Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems.
exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete parti cles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in down stream basins, channels, weirs and pip ing. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-
Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377,
888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173, E-mail:
E-mail: email@example.com. Web:
We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment
ANSI 55 Class A certi fied. Patented Crossfire
Technology™ is selfcleaning and smart, fail-safe and virtually maintenance free. Each
has intelligent, remote monitoring capability. Coming soon: the Hallett 150 GPM verified system, also with Crossfire Technology. Find out everything. Tel: 888-407-9997, Web: www.puresafe
Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.
Smith «& Loveless
UV Pure Technologies
Capsule type filters Waterra cur
rently offers two Inline Dis
posable 0.45 Micron Filters — the NEW Medium Tur
bidity FMT-45 and the high turbidity FHT45. Waterra's FHT-45 offers
the user the most surface area (700 square cm) available in capsule type filters today. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704, E-mail: waterra@idirect. com. Web: www.waterra.com. Waterra Pumps
Small drinking water systems
ZENON's Zee Weed®
ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology
MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater treahnent. The proven system replaces con ventional filtration and combines clar
ification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expanded in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs.
incorporated in large treat-
Proven in hundreds of installations,
tive, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistent ly producing high quality water. Tel:
ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes
K — iiHBi
ment plants. This ultrafil-
tration system is cost-effec
from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MGD.Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.Web:zenon.com.
ZENON Environmental Inc.
ZENON Environmental Inc.
905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, E-
mail: email@example.com. Web: www.
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 71
roduct and Service Showcase Phoenix Underdrain System
Waterloo Biofilters® are efficient, mod
ular trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and
• Optimizes vertical and horizontal pressure filters • Low profile, filtered water pick-up lateral orifice is < 25 mm
water retention. The self-contained
• Manufactured from corrosionresistant stainless steel
• Custom hydraulic distribution • Guaranteed uniform air scour distribution
Tel: 403-255-7377, Fax: 403-255-
3129, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. Tel: 519-8560757, Fax: 519-856-0759, E-mail: wbs@ waterloo-biofilter.com, Web: www.
Armtec has heen a leader m the culvert
and drainage business for almost 100 years. Today, Armtec has even more to offer. Our wide variety of materials available include: corrugated steel pipe and spiral rib pipe in galvanized, aluminized and polymer laminated finishes, high density polyethylene BOSS pipe manufactured to CSA specifications, and a range of storm water detention systems. Tel; 519-822-0210, Fax: 519822-1160, E-mail: email@example.com,
Waterloo Biofilter Systems
Controlling contaminated groundwater
Engineering guide available The CON/SPAN Engineering Guide is a
Waterloo Barrier is a
valuable tool with all the necessary
Smoothwall Pipe by Ideal Pipe is standards compli
low permeability cut off wall for ground-
information to consider the CON/SPAN
water containment and control. It is a new
cations. Filled with
CSA, OPSS and ASTM. Its unique integral seamless bell construction has
- design of steel sheet piling, featuring joints
a smooth interior for use in storm sewer
the sheets have been driven into the
and engineered projects requiring leakresistant joints. It carries high flows in smaller pipes, resists abrasion and per forms well in shifting or freezing soils. For ideal results above ground, it's Ideal Pipe underground. Tel: 519-473-
ground, and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/ patent pending
2669, 800-265-7098, Fax: 519-641-
2524, E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org, Web: www.idealpipe.ca Ideal Pipe
that can be sealed after
System for many different design appli numerous figures and
Engineering Guide provides a refer ence of design parameters, stan
dard detail illustra
status in several countries. Canadian
tions, and limited design methodolo
Metal Rolling Mills assisted in devel oping the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax; 519-856-0759, E-mail: info@ waterloo-barrier.com, Web: www.
format. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519763-1982, E-mail: sales@ concastpipe. com. Web: www.concastpipe.com.
gies. Available in binder or CD Rom
waterloo-barrier.com. Waterloo Barrier Inc.
Asphalt joint sealing
ecoSep below grade oil/water separators
Prevent asphalt cracking 'iy If you were planning to rout and seal your asphalt joints after they fail, think about
the added costs of
repairing what you've already done. Denso
Densoband is a polymer modified bitu men strip that has heen widely utilized
M re-instatement tape is
in the road maintenance and construc
Cost-effective and safe, this highly efficient below grade oil/water separa tor provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs. Check
ecoSep...the clear choice for clean water. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519-
763-1982, E-mail: sales@concastpipe. com. Web: www.concastpipe.com. Con Cast Pipe
tion industry for over 30 years. It is used to form a flexible, waterproof seal between new hot asphalt and existing asphalt, concrete or steel. The sealed joint is unaffected by extremes in tem perature and stays in place to prevent water, road salt and pollutants from penetrating and cracking the asphalt.
a polymer modified bituminous strip that is cold applied and designed to seal the joints between asphalt, concrete and
Tel:416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898, E-mail: email@example.com, Web:
291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Web: www.densona.
Denso North America
Denso North America
72 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
steel, the first time. Re-instatement tape seals around catch basins, manholes, utility cuts and next to concrete curbs
prior to paving. Do it right the first time with Denso Road Products. Tel: 416-
Product and Service Showcase Digital pH measurement
INDUSTRIES,INC.(TCI) "Total turn key service"
TCI provides full PCB disposal services including: Disposal of all PCB wastes includ ing: transformers, capacitors, light ballasts and lead shielded cable
On site draining Oil storage and draining Site remediation and decontamination
Fully funded closure bond PCB analysis(CAEAL proficiency tested) Full transportation services www.transcycle.ca Trans-Cycle Industries
"Today's Environmental Solutions For A Better Tomorrow"
M create ease of mainte
Memosens and Liquiline
nance with pre-calibrated Guaranteed Site Remediation
electrodes and no field
calibration, simply plug 'n' play. The inductive connection between cable and electrode creates an
inherently waterproof, quick connection com pletely eliminating previ ous problems of standard analog pH. Liquiline is a modular two-wire trans mitter designed for the most demand ing of processes and is completely open for communication in all major proto cols. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-6819444, E-mail: email@example.com.
• LNAPL Remediation
(soil & water) • DNAPL(TCE, PCE, DCE...) Remediation
• Heavy Metals Remediation 1-800-246-2744
CANECT 2005 Toronto Visit us at Booth #222
Web: www.ca.endress.com. Endress+Hauser Canada
Surfactant Enhanced HEIGHTENED PROJECT COMMUNICATION
Hobo weather station .
7 ■" '^5 Weather Station reEx-situ
and direction, solar radiation, barometric i. pressure, soil mois ture, soil temperature, etc.
• Design issues between consultants • Scheduling issues with clients Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation
• Notification of pending queries • Summary reports of all queries
• Smart sensors - just plug in and begin logging. • No calibration or complex wiring required. • Runs for one year on 4 AA batteries. • 15 chamiels can log over 500,000
www.tims3.com| firstname.lastname@example.org 1 800 567 8918 | Ingenium Group Inc.
Tel: 604-872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281, E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.
EIFI issues with contractors
(SEB) uses patented Ivey-soP mix tures to desorb contaminants from
soils increasing their bioavailability. As a result, the duration for TPH,PAH and
• Online repository for ail queries • Customized communication models
reduced by as much as 20 to 40% or more. Tel: 800-246-2744, E-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.sptt. net.
cords temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed
hoskin.ca. Hoskin Scientific
Ivey International Inc.
IBStormceptor" Stormceptor® Systems Stormceptor is the North American leader of engineered stormwater oil and sediment treatment systems. Rigorously tested, Stormceptor Systems effectively remove pollutants and ensure compliance. With a patent ed internal bypass, Stormceptor Systems treat all rainfall events and prevent scouring. Stormceptor Systems
Water level logger
Green Turtle™ Group Green Turtle pro vides business, insti tutions and industry with
cost-efficient wastewater treatment solu
tions that ensure reg ulatory compliance, including Proceptor''''^ oil and grease separators, and PHIX''''^ Neutralization Systems. A leader throughout North America, Green Turtle''''*^ is committed to dynamic research and development,
have defined stormwater treatment
and works with our clients to deliver
excellence for over a decade and have
innovative wastewater solutions to meet their needs. To learn more: Tel:
an unsurpassed 15,000 installations worldwide. To learn more: Tel: 800-
565-4801, E-mail: info@stormceptor. com. Web: www.stormceptor.com. Stormceptor® Group
The HOBO Water Level Logger is a high-accuracy, pressure-based water level recording device that combines research-grade accuracy and durability. It provides 0.1% of full-scale accuracy with a 30' measurement range and bet ter than 0.01' resolution. Unlike tradi
tional water level loggers, this water level logger operates as a stand-alone unit. This simplifies deployment and maintenance. A second HOBO water
level logger can be used for barometric compensation when required. Tel: 604872-7894, Fax: 604-872-0281, E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www. hoskin.ca.
Green Turtle^" Group
877-966-9444, E-mail: mfo@greenturtle tech.com. Web: www.greenturtletech.
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 73
Product and Service Showcase Septage receiving system The Honey MonsteH'^ septage receiv ing system now comes standarti with a compaction zone which provides significant dewatering of dis charged solids and increases dry solids content up to 40%. A pH and conductivity sensing loop has also been added to the digital tracking and billing system, called MonsterTrack, and will
shut the system off should discharge fall outside the acceptable range. The system can unload a honey truck in 5 to 15 minutes at a flow rate of 136 m^/h. Tel: 800-331-2277, Fax: 949-8338858, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web:
Metering dosing package
.I'T DosingpaQ digital dosf_
ing metering packages consist of DME and
DMS pump systems designed to offer an accurate and dependable metering package with the standard Grundfos
digital dosing pump components. Applications include: water treatment systems; swimming pools, car wash
systems; food and beverage, and pro cessing industries. Easy to install and set up, DosingpaQ is the turnkey solu tion for your metering needs. Tel: 905-
829-9533, Fax: 905-829-9512, E-mail: alelarge@grundfos. com. Web: www. grundfos.com.
Portable battery powered pump Viking introduces the SANDPIPER" PortaPump' battery-powered pump by Warren Rupp. This portable power house is perfect for all your onsite dewatering needs such as ditches, manholes, and caissons.
Non-clog wastewater pumps
The all-new Grundfos
Solid dual rod sensors Gems
Sensors feature solid state
SANDPIPER' Non-Clog Wastewater Pumps are fitted with swing check valves and easy access clean-outs. The pumps are designed specifically for slurry and solids-laden materials. Flap valves allow passage of suspend ed, pipe sized solids and stringy mate rial. Constructed of cast iron with a
durable epoxy coating inside and out. Tel: 888-845-7867, Fax: 905-542-
8920, E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.vikingpumpcanada.com. Viking Pump of Canada
Design of underground detention systems for stormwater management
wave guides to reach within 1" of a tank bottom; espe cially beneficial when con trolling expensive fluids, where undetected inventory beneath common sensors represents costly
manage the quality ofstorm water runoff it is essential to control the
waste. Available with rods of24" to 72"
12-volt truck or
they may be trimmed to required length during installation. Detector' sensors use Micropower Impulse Radar(MIR), or Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR),
CD includes a
tery and comes with 30 feet of
cord and power switch. Optional carrying case available. Tel: 888-8457867, Fax: 905-542-8920, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Web: www. vikingpumpcanada.com. Viking Pump of Canada
to measure the distance to the surface
of the tank contents and output a 420mA signal proportional to liquid level. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905829-2630, E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com. Web: www.daviscontrols.com. Davis Controls Limited
video outlining the economic and envi ronmental advantages of underground detention systems. Comprehensive design software takes the designer from preliminary site hydrology to detailed system layout. Tel: 866-2952416, Fax: 519-650-8081
email@example.com Web: www.cspi.ca. Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute
les tuyaux de tdle ondulee
ECO CANADA Environmentai Careers Organization L'Organisation pour les carrieres en environnement
Plusieurs publications techniques et des etudes de cas sont maintenant
disponibles sur notre site Internet. On vous invite a nous visiter! Tel: 866-
295-2416, Telecopieur: 519-650-8081, Couriel: firstname.lastname@example.org, Site Internet: www. cspi.ca.
Institut pour les tuyaux de tole ondulee
Transparent Ready''''"' is a new offering of web-enabled power distribution, motor control and automation equip
New name for an organization that continues to strengthen Canada's environmental expertise
ment that features an embedded web
server. Power and control system infor mation is instantly available to author ized users via any PC on the network, even across the Internet, using just a browser. Tel: 416-752-8020, Fax: 416752-8944, E-mail: louise.jones@ca. schneider-electric.com. Web: www.
9544, E-mail: email@example.com. Web:
schneider-electric.com. Schneider Electric
Eco Canada (formerly CCHREl)
74 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
CCHREl (the Canadian Council for Human Resources in the Environment
Industry) is pleased to announce its new, simpler name - ECO Canada (the Environmental Careers Organization). Tel: 403-233-0748, Fax: 403-269www.eco.ca.
Product and Service Showca Bachelor's Degree in
Leak detection studies
ECO CANADA Environmental Careers Organization L'Organisatlon pour les carrieres en environnement
approaches toward the development of proper leak
gies. Working to gether with 'key' personnel to
Are You a Water or Wastewater
in this full-time pro gram are field camps,
Standards for Water and Wastewater
tive manner. Tel: Western office 416-
Operators. Tel: 403-233-0748, Fax: 403-269-9544, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
779-1531, Eastern office 613-3980296, E-mail: email@example.com.
paid co-op placements, and an integrat ed curriculum to prepare individuals to meet the growing demand for highlyskilled practitioners in the remediation industry. Seats available for September. Ask about bursary and scholarship opportunities. Tel: 800-572-0712/416491-5050 Ext. 2521, E-mail: iesr. firstname.lastname@example.org. Web: www.
Eco Canada (formerly CCHREI)
Flowmetrix Technical Services
To participate in the national occupa tional analysis survey please go to www.eco.ca/wastewater and sign up today! Your partieipation will help us improve the National Occupational
Flowmetrix to deliver today's best man agement practices reducing your nonrevenue water in the most cost-effec
Pressure pipe system
Eliminate sewer odour
Concrete pipe design manual
The Vortex Flow Insert eliminates sewer odour and controls corrosion
using a high-tech, low-maintenance design that has no moving parts. The device
only eliminates the need
for high-main TerraBrute'^'^ is the first AWWA C900
PVC pressure pipe system specifically engineered for Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) and other trenchless applications. Now you can standardize on PVC throughout your potable water and sewer infrastructure, whether you're using open-cut or trenchless
Version 1.4 is now available. A tool for
engineers who are responsible for selecting the type, size and strength requirements of pipe for the design and specification of precast concrete pipe for sanitary sewer, drainage and culvert applications. Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-mail: email@example.com, Web: www.concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association
methods. Tel: 866-473-9462, Fax: 905403-1124, E-mail: marketing(gipexinc. com, Web: www. ipexinc.com.
but also costly chemical injection systems. Appli cations include drop manholes or pumping stations with odorous dis charges. Tel: 866-473-9462, Fax: 905403-1124, E-mail: marketing@ipexinc. com. Web: www.ipexinc.com.
closure system The
Amiad produces a com plete line of manual and automatic self-cleaning
System is today's
requirements of remov ing particles as small as 3 micron and single fil ter capacities up to 17,600 gpm. They are ideal for particle re
strophic releases during bulk transfer of chemicals. It is the only sys tem on the market with the flexibility to accommodate a wide range of dome sizes (from 20-ton bullet tanks to 90ton railcars), along with the versatility to close virtually any plug-type or balltype angle valve within seconds. Tel:
The Concrete Pipe Design Manual-
The New Palmer DigiCALL correlator is a PC based fully digital correlator designed to suit users who prefer to use their laptop PC as an interface to pin point leaks. It brings enhanced per formance for the most difficult leaks
mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web:
surface water, cooling water recirculation, secondary effluent and washwater for water reuse, and any applica tion requiring particle removal for downstream equipment. Tel: 905-7382355, Fax: 905-738-5520, E-mail: email@example.com. Web: www.
hetek.com. Web: www.hetek.com.
Metcon Sales & Engineering
Metcon Sales & Engineering
905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520, E-
situations such as plastic or larger diameter pipelines. Tel: 519-659-1144, Fax: 519-453-2182, E-mail: sales@
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 75
Environmental NEWS Peel Council endorses waste collection and
disposal contract Peel Regional Council in Ontario has authorized staff to execute an agree ment with Waste Management of Canada Corporation (WMCC) for waste collection and disposal services. Under the agreement, WMCC will provide collection services for munici pal solid waste, recyclables, yard waste and organics in the cities of Brampton and Mississauga. The contract is scheduled to commence April 1, 2006, for 10 years. In addition, the agree ment provides for 20 years of waste landfill disposal services commencing July 1, 2007. Regional Council awarded the com bined waste collection and disposal
The five-year contract with Wilson Logistics Inc. and Republic Services Inc. to haul and dispose ofthe Region's residual municipal solid waste in Michigan, U.S. expires in June 2007. Republic Services disposes the waste at Carleton Farms Landfill in Wayne County, Michigan. Currently, any of
have its new wastewater treatment
plant in operation by November 30,
Peel's waste that cannot be accommo
2005, or face a $25,000 fine for every subsequent month that the plant is not in operation. The City was charged for sewage spills that occurred on January 16,
dated at the Algonquin Power Energy from Waste Facility and the Caledon Sanitary Landfill Site is shipped to Michigan.
February 14 and June 14,2003, and for effluent samples obtained during a July 29, 2003 search and seizure at the treatment plant that were found to be deleterious to fish.
North Battleford fined Professor hails national
$80,000 for sewage spills
proposal provides the Region with continuity in its collection services, short-term disposal capacity in the
The City of North Battleford Saskatchewan pleaded guilty and was assessed a penalty of $80,000 in Provincial Court for violating the fed eral Fisheries Act, following an Environment Canada investigation into sewage spills at the North Battleford wastewater treatment plant in 2003.
event of a border closure preventing transfer of waste to Michigan and the
Penalties include a $10,000 fine, an additional $20,000 to reimburse
opportunity to secure long-term Ontario-based landfill capacity.
to the case, and $50,000 to be paid to
contract to WMCC on the basis their
the Environmental Damages Fund. The court also ordered the City to
Environment Canada for costs related
strategy for invasive species York University biology professor, Norman Yan, is applauding the Federal government's recent announcement of $85 million in new funds to develop a national strategy on invasive species. "This major financial commitment shows that the study of invasive species is finally getting the attention it deserves at the highest levels," Yan says. "We have known for years about
STEP UP YOUR PROTECTION
The Hycor® Monoscreen™ Automatic Escalating Screen is designed for fine screening with
I Service Beyond Analysis
Available with openings of 0.5 to 5 mm (0.020" to 0.200") for clean water flows from 4.4 to
1752 L/S (0.1 to 40 MGD), the
V Friendly, professional & / "dedicated staff • Preddbeled-botties
Monoscreen has rows of self-
cleaning bars in an escalating staircase configuration with increasing pitch step. It operates intermittently, and forms a unique pre-coat mat to capture solids even smaller than the screen openings.
NA Sample pick-up
AEIectronIo reporting and
(^ata transfer • Customized packages
This particular feature means fcthe Monoscreen will typically
trap 40% more solids than similar screens. Your pumps and downstream equipment and processes will be well protected.
• View and download results with webEARTH
Parkson Canada 9045 Cote-de-Liesse Suite 201
Dorval, QC H9P 2M9
Toll-free 1 800-661-7174 Calgary Toll-free 1 800-856-6261 Mississauga
Fax: 514-636-9718 AN AXEL JOHNSON INC. COMPANY
76 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
nton,Grand Prairie,Red Deer,Fort St. John
Environmental NEWS how pollution, habitat alteration and resource harvesting affect ecosystems, and we have policies, systems and agencies to address these issues. It is only recently that the introduction of invasive species has been identified as the fourth major impact humans can
Great Lakes and are now spreading inland, where their proliferation has begun to cause biological problems in Ontario's surface waters. Yan's ground breaking study of the water flea's impact on Harp Lake, a tiny lake in central Ontario, is getting international
have on the environment."
acclaim in scientific circles and is one
While only a small proportion of these invasive species is likely to be causing damage to the eco-system, a significant number are threatening our surface waters, forests and farms. Canadians might be surprised to hear that the financial impact of invasive species on our economy has been esti mated as high as $18 to $30 billion per
of many studies which have spurred the Federal government to make its crucial promise to address invasive species in its budget. Contact e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yan's special focus, the spiny water flea, is only one of over 1,400 identified non-indigenous species that have
Canada's lands and waters - often
through ballast-transfer from ocean going freighters since the St. Lawrence Seaway was built in 1959. Countless numbers of these micro
scopic fleas have recently invaded the
O.W.R.C. (and later, MOB) servicing and treatment plant projects for these same towns and villages in the 1970s and '80s. Many of these plants are now undergoing second generation expan sions, again with JLR assistance. There are JLR plants and/or plant expansions in Barry's Bay, Cobden, Renfrew, Eganville, Merrickville, Winchester, Rockland, Alfred, Casselman, Plantagenet, Pembroke, Petawawa, Sudbury, Timmins, Hawkesbury and Kingston.
JLR celebrates 50th Year It was February 1955 when three young engineers from Queen's, Les Richards, Noel Kirby and Art Fee,
Need to hire qualified and experienced staff? ES&E reaches over
19,000 water, wastewater and environmental
launched J.L. Richards & Associates Limited from a small office on Gilmour Street in Ottawa.
Throughout the late 1950s and '6Gs, JLR undertook designs and study reports on water supply and sewage collection systems for many of the small towns and villages in Eastern
Call us at:
(905) 727-4666 for special rates
This laid the groundwork for
FIEX-KLEEN HAS A SOLUTIO
TO YOUR DUSlPROBLEM • Process Dust Control
• Product Recovery • Air Pollution Control
• Engineered Designs • Systems Design and • Turn-key Baghouse Field Services
Types of Systems: • Bin Vent Filters • Welded Modules
• High Pressure Units • High Vacuum Units Pleated Fdters
Collector Upgrades, Rebuilds and Conversions
3 Flex-Kleen Canada^ Inc Your Single Source for Clean Air 39(huM Drive,UnJf 2, Barrie, Ontario L4N 815(AH
^ On-sile Baghouse
May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 77
nthrafilter FILTER MEDI^
Hydro-Logic to distribute German fine-bubble membrane tube diffuser
• ANTHRACITE • QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL • CARBON • GARNET ILMENITE • REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 20 Sharp Road, Brantford, Ontario N3T 5L8 • Tel: (519) 751-1080 • Fax:(519) 751-0617 E-mail: email@example.com • Web: www.anthrafilter.net
Hydro-Logic Environmental, a suppli er of wastewater and process equip ment since 1994, has been appointed exclusive North American distributor
for the advanced OTT System GmbH high-efficiency, fine-bubble mem
77 ORCHARD ROAD
brane tube diffuser line.
OTT System GmbH, of Langenhagen, Germany is a major supplier of diffusers to the European market. For further information visit www.hydroiogic.ca
High Pressure Water Jetting :lna Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment
Sponge Jet Cleaning I 576 Elgin St., Unit D
BAYCOR FIBRE TECH INC.
I Brantford, Ontario
■Tel: (519) 751-7787 Fax: (519) 751-7712 info(gbaycorfibre.com www.baycorfibre. com
The Best Screen In The World Is A
Fine Screening and Sludge Thickening
Partnership for transformer and oil services puts new focus on recycling
PCB Containment Technology (Kitchener) Inc. and sister company Fluorescent Lamp Recyciers (FLR) Technologies Inc. have acquired AF White Ltd.
AF White provides industry and utilities with new quality, recycled transformer oil as well as associated
site services. ConTech and FLR recy cle and treat PCB contaminated oil and
O^ctopus floating fine
equipment, fluorescent lamps, as well
as mercury and other hazardous waste.
The new expanded company will pro vide for the treatment and recycling of
Air ReleaseA/acuum Break Valves
for ideal cold
for Sewage & Water
HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL 762 Upper James St., Suite 250 Hamilton, Ontario L9C 3A2 Fax: 905-777-8678
Package Since 1950
NAPIER-REID LTD. 10-2 Alden Road
Markham, Ontario L3R 2S1 Tel: 905-475-1545 • Fax: 905-475-2021 www.napier-reid.com
Water / Wastewater Treatment Plants
Digester Cleaning,Dewatering, Dredging, Disposal Complete Services
an American Water Services'company
800-465-21 [5 www.trlmaxenv.com I www.amerlcanwaterservlces.com
78 Environmentai Science & Engineering, May 2005
all transformer oils as well as the obso lete transformers themselves. AF White will continue to work out
of their recycling/treatment facility in Brantford, Ontario, while ConTech and
FLR continue to operate out of their treatment/transfer facility in Ayr, Ontario. For further information visit www.contech.ca
Infrastructure security guidelines issued to water utilities Drinking water and wastewater utili
ties working to incorporate enhanced security measures into facility design and operation can now benefit from three new interim voluntary security guidance documents that were funded by a grant from the U.S. Environ mental Protection Agency (EPA). The interim voluntary guidance documents provide drinking water, wastewater and stormwater utilities
with practical assistance for imple menting improved security measures in new and existing facilities of all
Turn-Key Environmental Engineering:
H*ACDN/iErsj-ris sizes, addressing risks from manageri al, operational, construction and design perspectives. The water sector industry will benefit from these docu ments by gaining insight into utilities' present and future needs, which will help to mitigate risks associated with
'Hydrogen Fuel Generation
Technologies ...Turning Experience Into Profit
» Waste Water Management & Technology Systems
Lucy Casacia, B.Sc. Metallurgy • Air Pollution & Dust Control
President & C.E.O.
Systems Phone: 416.301.4958 or 905.464.2586
www.adventiscapitai.com • E-maii: info@adventiscapita!.com
• Technology Commercialization
intentional attacks and natural disasters.
The interim voluntary guidelines were developed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA), the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and American Society of Civil Engineers(ASCE). "Interim Voluntary Security Guidance for Water Utilities"
(developed by AWWA), "Interim Voluntary Security Guidance for Wastewater Utilities" (developed by WEF) and "Interim Voluntary Guidelines for Designing an Online Contaminant Monitoring System" (developed by ASCE) are available on each organization's website as follows: www.awwa.org, www.wef.org and www.asce.org.
Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning Sr engineering BARRIE
(705)726-3371 (613) 966-4243 (705)445-3451
inley CONSULTING ENGINEERS PLANNERS
Creating Quality Solutions Together
R.V.Anderson Associates Limited environment • Infrastructure
tel 416 497 8600 web www.rvanderson.com
toronto welland Ottawa sudbury london moncton fredericton charlottetown bombay
Dofasco fined for oil spill Dofasco Inc. has been fined $60,000, plus a victim fine surcharge, for a January 2000 oil spill. The incident occurred when a significant amount of wash oil spilled from a company by product mill storm sewer outfall, even tually discharging into Hamilton Harbour. The spill resulted in the deaths of more than 100 ducks, birds
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Tiny Township fined for failure to sample for nitrate The Corporation of the Township of Tiny in Ontario has been fined a total of $21,500, plus victim fine sur charges. It owns and operates 19 com munal drinking water systems servic ing approximately 10,000 residents in Simcoe County. On April 4, 2005, the Corporation pleaded guilty to five counts of failing to sample for nitrate at five separate water distribution systems, contrary to Section 7 of Regulation 459/00 made under the OWRA.
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two separate instances, notification of a change of business address. • Disposing of hauled sewage at an unauthorized site.
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80 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
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12 water specialists to improve protection The government of British Columbia is investing $1.2 million to hire 12 additional water specialists to focus on groundwater and surface water protec
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Fund (HCTF) will use $6.5 million of the $7.8 million budget to manage and support its ongoing conservation efforts by providing additional funding to community groups who undertake conservation projects. The Province has committed in its
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Environmental NEWS Leaders in
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remediation of contaminated sites on Crown land.
• $5 million to increase the capacity
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• $16 million to increase the number
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Brunswick continue to show improve ments throughout the Province.
The Report on Air Quality Monitoring Results for 2003 found that:
• Acid rain: trends continued down ward.
• Auditing of third party monitoring
sites: more sites were audited than in
2002, and compliance was generally good.
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• SO2 levels in Saint John increased in comparison to 2002. Some notably high SO2 levels were recorded at the new Paper Mill Pond site. These SO2 episodes were the subject of an official Environment and Local Government
investigation resulting in the Irving Refinery paying an administrative penalty for exceeding the SO2 limits for Saint John County. • Volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in Saint John were also up in 2003 compared with 2002. The results in this report show that the average compliance rate for regu lated air emissions throughout the province in 2003 was greater than 99 per cent, with only a few sites having compliance rates of less than 95 per cent.
This report is available at www.gnb. ca/0009/0355/00i5/index-e.asp.
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82 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
New regulations introduced by the government of Nova Scotia will
Environmental NEWS require a 25 per cent reduction of sul phur dioxide by the end of 2005, and a
further 25 per cent reduction by the end of2010. Reductions are from 2001 levels.
tronic materials, public information and awareness programs and electron ics recycling-related research. This fee is part of Alberta's new electronics recycling program, the first
weather tower on Midwood Avenue by June 15, 2005, and maintain a tempo rary air quality monitor until the per manent one is in place. More information is available at:
The reductions will be achieved
of its kind in Canada. Since the pro gram was launched last October, Albertans have been dropping off unwanted televisions and computers to
through a lower cap on emissions for Nova Scotia Power Inc., emission reduction plans for other large emit ters, and by reducing the sulphur con tent of heavy fuel oil used in the Province.
"These regulations mean we'll have about 36,000 fewer tonnes of sulphur dioxide emitted each year," said Environment and Labour Minister
Kerry Morash "That's comparable to Nova Scotia Power shutting down one of its five generating stations." In addition, the power company will have a new limit on mercury emis sions. By 2009, it will also reduce its nitrogen oxide emissions by 20 per
Albertans to pay environmental fee on
over 75 collection locations across the
electronics Beginning February 1, 2005, electron ics retailers are required to collect an
In 2004, an estimated 190,000 tele visions and 90,000 desktop computers
environmental fee when new televi
- which contain hazardous materials
sions or computers (and related equip ment) are purchased in Alberta. The fee will cover the cost of collection, transportation and recycling of elec
such as lead and mercury - were dis carded from Alberta households. For
"A leader in providing innovative automation solutions to our customers." We offer a complete range of products & services in the areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Chemical Packages • Programmable Logic Controllers • HMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service
cent from 2000 levels. For further
information go to www.gov.ns.ca/enla.
Irving Oil ordered to
Summa Engineering Limited
reduce emissions in
6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V1J2 • Tel:(905)678-3388, Fax:(905)678-0444 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • Website: www.summaeng.com
New Brunswick Irving Oil Ltd. is being ordered to limit emissions from its sulphur block to a level that should significantly reduce
A 47 Year
exceedances south of the Saint John,
New Brunswick refinery. The sulphur block is one of the major sources of sulphur dioxide emis sions in the refinery and is considered to be the main contributor to recent exceedances.
Tradition of Excellence in Engineering
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announced an amendment to that
effect to Irving Oil's Approval to Operate for its Saint John refinery.
"To date, reductions in emissions from the sulphur block have not been
• Hazardous Site Clean-up & Remediation • Decommissioning and Demolition
sufficient to resolve the exceedances at
the Paper Mill Pond ambient monitor ing site," Fowlie said. "Therefore, Irving Oil must provide the department with details related to equipment to be installed to alleviate exceedances at the Paper Mill Pond, and provide a plan by May 31, 2005, stating how they propose to reduce
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emissions to the levels stated in their
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May 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 83
Environmental NEWS environmental practices. In 2004, the OETC certified four courses offered
by Siemens Milltronics; Dual Pump Pumping Applications, Open Channel Flow Measurement Principles, Water
of the University of New Brunswick in Saint John and $5,000 to be paid to the Government of Canada's Environmental
and Wastewater Plant Level Control, and Data Communications. The courses are offered at the
Siemens Milltronics Learning Center located in Peterborough, Ontario. For additional information, visit www. siemens.com/processinstrumentation.
New OETC approved training for water and wastewater operators
Irving Pulp and Paper fined for untreated
Siemens Milltronics has launched
training courses to help water/wastewater operators meet their yearly train ing requirements and, simultaneously, develop their instrumentation expert ise with water/wastewater applications
Following investigation by Environment Canada's Enforcement Officers, Irving Pulp and Paper pleaded guilty in New Brunswick provincial court for a viola tion that occurred on December 3, 2002 when the company deposited untreated paper mill effluent into Little River in Saint John during a test of a back-up
and level measurement control.
Operator courses and licensing are regulated for the Ministry of the Environment by the Ontario Environmental Training Consortium (OETC) which ensures that operators
The penalty of $30,000 includes a
take courses which are relevant to their
$2,500 fine to be paid to the court,
work and which are certified to be
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compliant with current legislation and
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84 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
substances in wastewater effluent The Federal government has an nounced two measures aimed at reduc
ing ammonia and chlorine coming from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The two instruments, pollution pre vention planning for chlorine and a guideline for ammonia, are the first components of a long-term strategy for municipal wastewater effluent to ensure that the release of wastewater
effluents does not pose unacceptable risks to human and ecosystem health and fishery resources across Canada. In November 2003, federal, provin cial
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municipal wastewater effluent. The Federal government's principal tool to implement this strategy will be a regu lation under the Fisheries Act. This
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In 2001, ammonia and chlorine in wastewater effluent were determined to
be toxic and harmful to a wide variety of fish, and other aquatic life. Environment Canada has consulted extensively to determine the best possible instrument to reduce these substances in wastewater
effluents. The pollution prevention plan ning requirements aim to achieve and maintain a concentration of total resid
ual chlorine that is not acutely toxic in the effluent released to surface water by December 2009. The objective of the guideline for ammonia dissolved in water is to achieve and maintain a con centration of ammonia in the effluent
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New MBR plant installed at remote BC drilling camp In August 2004, Sanitherm Engineering completed the installation ofa 14 m^/d submerged Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) plant at Meager Creek Hot Springs, which is a 20-25 minute helicopter ride from Pemberton, BC. The plant treats all of the domestic wastewater from a geothermal exploration facility drilling camp. Design concerns with the project included: • Remote location with transportation difficulties - 5,000 ft elevation. • High-strength camp waste. • Very cold environment. • Limited maintenance availability. • Very strict effluent quality requirements.
Over the past two years, Sanitherm has supplied 30 MBR plants, many of which were also in remote locations. Tests show that these MBR plants produce effluent less than 5/5 mg/1 BOD5/TSS, 5 mg/1 NH3-N. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
requires special cleaning to preserve
treat process wastewater from the future Seymour-Capilano filtration plant. The treated effluent (up to 9.6 million litres per day) will be dis charged into Burrard Inlet, in accor dance with the stringent requirements of the discharge permit issued by
this artifact. Latimat will be utilized in
Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
modules of various sizes in order to
contain the contaminants for proper
The Seymour-Capilano filtration plant will be located in North Vancouver
disposal by JSC." said Douglas
and will draw water from the Seymour
Latimer, inventor. The Latimat is a US and Foreign
and Capilano reservoirs. It will be com pleted in 2007 and will supply drinking water(up to 1.8 billion litres per day) to
Stantec awarded Toronto's
Houston, Texas, will attract millions of
people from all over the world to view the Saturn V Rocket. Having sat out
Stantec Consulting, with Earth Tech Canada, has been chosen to participate in the design and construction services for the Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant
upgrades. This capital project is esti mated at $150 million. Ashbridges Bay TP, rated at 815 MLD,is currently the largest secondary wastewater treat ment plant in Canada. The overall objective is to provide odour control measures to meet the
objective of less than one odour unit at or beyond the plant's property limit and adjacent to the M and T sewage pumping stations. As part of the proj ect, a major upgrade of the coarse bub ble aeration system and the grit and screening facility in the D building will be carried out. Stantec and Earth Tech will be
researching a number of advanced technologies for the aeration system upgrade, including coarse and fine air and moving bed technologies. The project, which was initiated in January 2005, will be completed within a seven to eight year window. Contact Mark Jackson,(519) 585-7315. Latimat wins contract to clean Saturn V rocket Latimat, Inc. has won a contract to
power wash, clean and contain for proper disposal, the effluents of the Saturn V Rocket. Work on the project began in March 2005 and was expect ed to last 3-4 weeks. "We are thrilled to have been cho sen for this historic event. This muse
um at Johnson Space Centre in
side in the elements for almost 30
years, the accumulation of airborne contaminants adhered to the rocket
patented portable wash pad device uti lized by the US Military, as well as Home Depot tool rental stores. JLR celebrates 50th Year It was February 1955 when three
young engineers from Queen's, Les Richards, Noel Kirby and Art Fee,
homes, businesses and industries in the Greater Vancouver area.
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ZENON to supply world's largest membrane
launched J.L. Richards & Associates Limited from
Gilmour Street in Ottawa.
Throughout the late 1950s and '60s, JLR undertook designs and study reports on water supply and sewage collection systems for many of the small towns and villages in Eastern Ontario.
This laid the groundwork for O.W.R.C. (and later, MOE) servicing and treatment plant projects for these same towns and villages in the 1970s and '80s. Many of these plants are now undergoing second generation expan sions, again with JLR assistance. Actlflo clarifiers to treat
bioreactor ZENON Environmental Inc. has been
selected to supply King County in the State of Washington with what it claims is the largest membrane biore actor in the world. The ZeeWeed MBR
(membrane bioreactor) will treat an average day flow of approximately 144,000 cubic metres of municipal sewage per day, with peak flows up to 204,000 cubic metres, serving over 100,000 households. In addition, the company received an order for a sec ond smaller plant, which results in a total order value of $30 million.
Design of the greenfield plants is currently underway, with construction expected to begin in 2006 and comple
process wastewater at new plant in Vancouver
tion scheduled for 2010 for the larger
The Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) has selected John Meunier to supply three clarifiers to
smaller Carnation plant. For more information, visit: www.
86 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2005
Brightwater plant and 2007 for the
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