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March 2005 HR

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'chronic lagoon system slope failure Retrofitting vimage

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ISSN-0835-605X

February/March 2005 Vol. 18 No.1 Issued March, 2005 fSiSf invites articies (approx, 1000 words) on water, wastewater, haz ardous waste treatment and other environmentai protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmentai Science & Engineering Publications inc. reserves the right to edit ail sub

swag

missions without notice. Visit www.esemag.com for our Privacy Policy.

FEATURES

7 The pipes, the pipes, they're still appalling! - Editorial 8 Will Ontario's Bill 124 halt new water and wastewater projects?

10 Women and girls are the biggest victims of Third World's tainted drinking water

12 Land drainage in the 14th century B.C. 14 Aerobic biofiltration used to treat liquid and gaseous effluents

16 New York Region water treatment plant will replace aging facilities 18 Fine bubble aeration evaluated for energy savings

22 Huge York-Peel feedermain spurs construction of hi-tech pressure pipe plant

24 ES&E's annual spring conference previews 28 Wastewater treatment for bitumen extraction plant in Venezuela

30 $3.6 million sewer project will allow for expansion in StrathroyCaradoc

32 Cover story - Geosynthetics solve chronic lagoon system slope failure 34 Designing quality stormwatertreatment systems 36 New process developed for treating low temperature groundwater

38 Measuring dissolved oxygen in biological reactors 40 Providing seed money funding for water delivery project in India

DEPARTIVIENTS

42 Assessing the recharge to a river-connected aquifer in Fredericton 46 UF membranes used to retrofit vintage pumping station in Sudbury

Product Review

50 Re-thinking hydraulic flow in septic tanks

Classifieds

54 New security technology aids in hazmat response

Professional Cards

58 Solar-powered circulation technology clears out blue-green algae

Industry Update

76

60 Poultry plant wastewater facility reduces costs and allows for expansion

Ad Index

77

63 Designing cost-effective stormwater runoff control solutions

Feedback

78

72 InfraGuide adds BMPs to biosolids management 4 Environmental Science & Engineering, March: 2005

65-69 71 72-76


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Editorial

The pipes,the pipes,they're st/Z/appailing

The vibrant economic heartbeat of Canada's largest city stopped suddenly late January when a water main broke in

Toronto's Bay Street, flooding an elec trical transformer station and cutting off power for hours. This could have been economically devastating but, fortuitously, the flooding happened on a Sunday when Bay Street's Masters of the Universe were absent from their

glass towers. Had the break occurred a day later, the resulting chaos might have cost millions in lost salaries, not to mention zillions in commissions

from stock market trading. Happily, Toronto had expert crews who were able to restore water sup plies before the next business day. A few days later another break occurred in West Toronto. If nothing else these main breaks focused on the immeasur

able value of well-engineered and well-maintained

water

and

sewer

infrastructure. But out of sight is to be out of mind and, in value engineering, some accountants seem out of their

minds. A recent analysis estimates that Toronto has the highest rate of water mains leakage in Ontario — approxi mately 30 leaks annually for every 100

biofilm... For example, E.coli was

trical infrastructure, may expedite

found to withstand 2400 times more

water mains corrosion. Just for once, taxpayers should welcome this increased expenditure. It will be an investment in public health as well as making water services more secure. Leakage is another serious factor which is virmally unknown to the gen eral public. If the scale and economics of water main leaks were known, the public would find it startling. But water main leakage is a serious prob lem the world over. Canada might

chlorine when attached to a surface than when it was a free cell... There

fore the importance of biofilm forma tion in distribution systems cannot be underestimated."

If only water mains' infrastructure had the visibility of potholes, which are fully and painfully in view of the public they serve. Potholes cause both discomfort and automobile damage and the citizenry is quiek to complain to their elected representatives. Yet people scream if the water rates are raised. Ironic really as Canadian water rates are arguably among the lowest in the world, and possibly the safest.Yet water treatment and distribution sys-

Infrastructure

spending in Toronto will grow from $240 million in 2004 to $540 million

Some incidents result in unscripted of an ancient water main which had

become heavily tuberculated and had placed it on the sidewalk. On seeing this pipe, a visitor asked the engineer if the local citizens were not outraged that their precious drinking water had been delivered to them through such pipelines. "Not at all," the engineer responded,"some assume it is a sewer pipe!" I thought at the time this was a clever, but hyperbolic rejoinder. Then I checked Garry Palmateer's quote in my January 2005 editorial: "Many studies show that pathogenic bacteria introduced into a water distribution

system can survive and grow in

tems are usually ignored until tragedies, such as the Walkerton fatal ities occur. The low bid approach is often the decisive factor in the selec

tion process for engineering designs and equipment purchases. Environ mental infrastructure has a lifespan of many decades and human health is completely dependent on engineering and analytical chemistry. Meanwhile Toronto is responding to the general infrastructure neglect. It is reported that water and sewer sys tem infrastructure spending in Toronto will grow from $240 million in 2004 to $540 million by 2007. Plans are to increase pipe replacement — possibly with PVC pipe — from 22 kilometres in 2004 to 80 kilometres in 2009.

By Tom Davey, Editor

countries. Millions of litres of treated

water leak below the surface every day — indeed, in some countries, as much as 50% of treated water is lost to leak

age. Worse still, potable water which was treated to high standards, often leaks into sewer systems. Not only is this a shocking financial waste, but by a cruel irony, potable water — having been expertly and expensively treated to a high degree of safety — may find its way back to the treatment plant. Here it goes once again through an expensive series of treatments to restore its former potable standards — a macabre form of recycling. This is more than a waste of treated

by 2007

kilometres of water main. humour. A crew had cut out a section

even be more fortunate than most

There are plans also to remediate water mains with cement lining, including cathodic protection. Few of the general public realize that stray electrical currents from street cars, or

low voltage currents from buried elec

water, for, ironically, such water pene tration often weakens the raw sewage, making it more difficult to treat as well as requiring treatment plants to handle higher volumes. A financial double whammy for taxpayers. Yet councils, provinces and federal institutions still select the lowest bids

in erroneous attempts to protect both public health and the public purse when selecting consultants, laborato ries and environmental equipment

suppliers. In this they often waste pub lic monies and yet, in the long term, fail miserably to protect their con stituents' health as well as the environ

ment they inhabit. The Toronto flooding could be a warning to other cities that, while our

pipes are out of sight — and therefore neglected in budgetary considerations — they must not be out of mind. This latest mains failure and flooding is a warning that maintenance and

replacement programs are vital in pro tecting health, property, and ironically, corporate and taxpayers' money. ■

March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 7


Publisher's Comment

EnvironmentalScience

& Engineering Editor

Will Ontario's Bill 124 halt new water

TOM DAVEY

E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please)

and wastewater projects?

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director

By Steve Davey

PENNY DAVEY

E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENiSE SIMPSON E-mail: denlse@esemag.com Circuiation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: vlrglnia@esemag.com Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: carol@esemag.com Publlslier

STEVE DAVEY

E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Ontario

Bill DeAngells, P.Eng. Associated Engineering, Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landlne

ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R. V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Services, British Columbia Stanley Mason, P.Eng. British Columbia Marie Meunler

Under Ontario's Bil 124,

which will take effect July 1, 2005, all Ontario projects for which a building permit is required, will need to have a 'Building Code Identification Number'(BCIN). This means all electrical, mechani cal, pluiubing, structural and architec tural drawings must be designed by per sons having specialized building code

knowledge applicable to their specific disciplines. Currently there are ten areas of practice: Housing, Small Buildings, Large Buildings, Complex Buildings, Plumbing for Housing,Plumbing for All Buildings, HVAC for Housing, Building Services, Building Structural and Onsite Sewage Treatment Systems. Designers, including professional engineers and architects, must pass exams testing their knowledge on the Ontario Building Code Act and its administrative regulations. Failure to obtain the required certification will mean denial of a building permit.

Readers include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key municipal, provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained In ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. fSiSE cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial mat ter. Although the Information contained In this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility Is assumed. Articles In this magazine are Intended to provide Infor mation rather than give legal or other professional advice. Articles being submitted for review should be e-malled to carof@esemag.com. Canadian Publications fVlall Sales

Second Class Mall

-

V

Product Agreement No. 40065446

Registration No.7750

Printed in Canada. No part of this pub OPCE4 lication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: ' Canada $75.00 (plus $5.25 GST).

the

effectiveness

of

the

other) issues, then the Professional Engineers Act needs to be reviewed and

Bill. The CEO said it had been notified

shut down the $10 billion construction

by major professional liability insurance carriers that the Ministry of Municipal Affaus & Housing(MMAH)has failed to address their long-standing concerns

industry in Ontario - including the building of water plants, schools and

with Bill 124.

The CEO advisory stated that neither Encon nor XL Professional will be able

hospitals. The highway to hell is often paved

with good intentions. One hopes the government is able to avoid the impending traffic jam that CEO warns

to sign insurance certificates as required by MMAH for designer registration

Bill 124 could cause.

under Bill 124. As a result, if MMAH

qualifications can be found on the fol lowing Web sites: www.obc.mah.

fails to address industry concerns with Bill 124, design firms will not be able to submit building permit applications after July 1, 2005. This is regardless of whether or not they have been certified as "code knowledgeable". In a recent letter to John Gerretsen,

All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc,, should be sent

Ontario's Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing, regarding Bill

to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy.S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada,

124, the CEO outlined several other

L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site; www.esemag. com

with

Professional Engineers Ontario (PEG) to deal with Building Code (or any

unavailability of liability insurance. The Consulting Engineers of Ontario(CEO) recently sent out an advisory on how insurance is being affected by the new

tion required under Bill 124, consulting engineers may also have to worry about Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

As a result the examinations do not

reflect long-established disciplines and areas of practice within the profession (e.g. electrical engineers will be com pelled to write examinations that pre dominantly feature questions on mechanical engineering). 3. There is an ever-expanding list of "niche" areas of practice where it is unclear to what extent the qualification requirements apply. 4. If there are legitimate concerns

possibly improved, not layered over by additional regulatory regimes that address only one area of practice with in the engineering profession. Notwithstanding the original intent of Bill 124 to reduce red tape, the CEO feels that Bill 124 could effectively

In addition to the extra staff certifica

John Meunler Inc., Quebec

ates greater delays in issuing building pennits than code compliance. The com mitment to increasing public involve ment in planning approvals, will likely add time to the permitting process. 2. The organization of the Building Code does not realistically reflect the practice of professional engineering.

issues it felt remain unsolved:

1. This Bill does not address the plan ning approval process that typically cre

8 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

Information on obtaining Bill 124

gov.on.ca (Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing) and www. oboa.on.ca (Ontario Building Officials Association).

Steve Davey is Publisher of Environmental Science and

Engineering Magazine.


^

How much water

have we pumped in fifty years? Enough to cover the country from coast to coast, perhaps. We look back on our first five

decades with pride. Serving the Canadian municipal, mining construction and industrial sectors

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Water Supply

Women and girls are the biggest victims of Third World's tainted drinking water

Third World women and girls

and die from tainted drinking water that year - and this decade - than from

are the biggest victims of tainted drinking water, the

all armed conflicts combined!

AGM of the Ontario Pollution

Control Equipment Association was told February 2. OPCEA members heard these and other thought-provok ing statistics along with some aston ishing benefits from inexpensive, yet appropriate, water treatment technolo gies. The data were given in a powerpoint presentation by Tony Petrucci, P. Eng., of Earth Tech Canada. Water is the most common sub

stance on Planet Earth yet only three percent is freshwater. Even with this small percentage, two thirds of Earth's freshwater is locked in glaciers and polar ice caps. Water use statistics world

wide include: household or

domestic use - eight percent; industry and energy - 23 percent; agriculture 69 percent. Only a meager one percent of glob al water supples is available for human consumption, Mr. Petrucci stressed. Using a Water for People powerpoint, he gave some shocking data on dis eases, fatalities and hardships resulting from inadequate and tainted drinking water supplies in the Third World. It was often, and erroneously assumed, that poor people could not afford, or would not pay for, treated drinking water. The reality was that drinking

9

water was often sold by vendors who, seemingly, emerged out of nowhere

pushing handcarts laden with plastic vessels to peddle water of dubious quality. Somewhat macabrely, some of

The powerpoint showed that even simple techniques such as stand-pipes, hand washing stations, arsenic filter technology and hygiene education are inexpensive, yet highly effective in curbing the lethal effects of unsanitary drinking water. Even OPCEA mem bers, long familiar with the toxic rav ages of water pollution, were clearly shocked at the extent of the suffering caused by drinking water problems in the Third World.

these water carts were nicknamed the

Water for People was created by the

'cholera wagons.' Yet this untreated water, sometimes lethal, was priced from five to fifty times more than was paid outside their settlements. The burden falls harshly on women and young girls who often spend hours each day collecting water depriving them of the opportunity of income gen erating or domestic work. When clean water becomes available with appropri ate technology, villagers don't have to pay premium rates; this results in less money spent on doubtful water and more money for food, soap and clothing, three other life saving commodities. The powerpoint included a power ful quote from Peter Voicke of the World Bank, who, in 2003, pointed out that more people were likely to suffer

American Water Works Association in

1991. Water for People-Canada was established in 1995. ■

Annual per capita water use (Cubic metres (1 cu.metre = 264.2 US gallons))

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History

Land drainage in the 14th century B.C By Ron W.Robertson

For those surveyors and engi neers interested or involved in

In some areas such as the Kephisos and Melas river outlets, where runoff

land drainage, the Lake Kopais drainage scheme may be of

freshets, extra precautions were taken.

interest. The area of concern was a

marshy lowland north of Athens. The works were constructed by the ancient Minyans of Orchomenos in the 14th century B.C. and the purpose was to secure fertile farmland similar to the

was

excessive

due

to

occasional

This additional work consisted of a 2 m thick double wall on either side of a

27 m earth filled section, giving a total An artificial 9 m wide and 9 km

long channel was dug from a point

Wawanosh areas of Ontario.

i b.

However, when the excess waters were

"'JX

&â–

''ii S""

walls inside the lake basin so that an

m with the channel between being 40

northeast of Topolia to Binia, picking up additional waters from the moat area east of Gla. They now had rushing waters funnelled into the underground

m to 60 m wide. Where the lake bank

tunnel from the east end of the charmel

The width of the dikes was 40 m to 50

was too low, another wall was erected

at Binia rurming northeasterly for a

so that this particular area had an arti

mile and a third.

The tunnel, constructed about 3300

ficial channel between two walls.

The Minyans now had, in effect, a moat completely surrounding the lake with the mouth passing its runoff waters downstream, leading to an arti ficial channel 9 km long, then through a manmade tunnel 2.2 km in length through solid rock, continuing along a natural watercourse, and finally emp tying into the Euboian Gulf which is part of the Aegean Sea.

tion is that maintenance was aban

breakup of the confederation states caused by warfare. It also cannot be determined when the system ceased to

removed, the marsh dried up, hence creating arable land. Diking was done by building stone artificial channel existed between the

juncture in time whether the deteriora tion of the drainage works was by destruction or neglect. One assump doned when central authority ceased to function, probably during the

The aim was to channel runoff

dike wall and the natural lake bank.

Topolia and the eastern side of the lake; however, their specific purpose has yet to be resolved. It cannot be determined at this

dike width of some 66 m.

Newmarket, Klondike or Lake

waters from the Melas, Kephisos and Herkyna Rivers and some lesser streams, which became swollen during the winter and caused severe flooding.

nance purposes the same as our man holes of today. Underground tunnels at irregular locations were found at Pyrgos,

years ago was quite a project. Besides being 2230 m long, it also had 16 ver tical square shafts placed at intervals between 100 m and 200 m. Depths

function.

There were attempts to repair the works from time to time as evidenced

by ancient Roman inscriptions, but the attempts failed and again the marshy plain was inundated as nature took its course.

It was not until 1889, some 3200 years after the Minyans constructed this 200 square kilometer drainage basin system, that Lake Kopais was once again operational. In this day and age, with our advanced technology, a project of this nature would be tricky and costly. Imagine how daunting it must have been so long ago.

varied between 18 m and 63 m.

Minyan workers then excavated, at an 11% grade between the shafts. How they stayed on course and maintained their slope are mysteries. The shafts were used for inspection and mainte

Article reprinted courtesy of the Association of Ontario Land Siirveyors. with permission from the author, Ron W. Robertson, OLS, CLS,

(Pre and Prolo History Penn State).

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Wastewater

Aerobic bloflltratlon to treat

liquid and gaseous effluents By Irene Hassas,Filter Innovations Inc.

Increasingly stringent

BIOSOR™

effluent regulations, limited

OPERATING PRINCIPLE

treatment

infrastructure

Combin&d trBatment ol liquid discharge stream and gases

and Odourless treated air slreBtn

widespread public con cern

have

led

to

Liquid feed

an

increase in the develop

Foul air/ Clean air Sprar

mannotd

ment of various treatment

methods.

Organic

bed V. Micro organisflti

biofiltration has achieved success in the treatment of

Uqukf percolating doi.t.»nwaird

liquid and gaseous efflu ent of farms, slaughter houses, compost and land fill leachates, and food processing industries, as

low particle size distribu tion. Hydraulic feed ofthe biofilter is done by gravity percolation. Counter-current air injection main tains oxygen contribution. The process treats organic charges, nitrogen, and pathogens effectively, and eliminates the majority of pollutants and odours con tained in domestic and

most organic wastewater Tfcaeed viater ©rftiu«nt

well as small communities and munic

ipalities. The Biosor^*"^ organic medium biofil

tration system is a slow filti^ation process using a fixed biofilm. Biofiltration on

the organic support of the system con sists of a fixed process of slow filtration with biofilm. Primarily, the biofilter is a reservoir containing a patented multi layer of organic filteration material of

effluent.

The principle behind the bio-filtration process is based on the multi-layer organic structure of media. Biosor media per forms both as a natural resin capable of treating several types of pollutants and as support for various microorganisms

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Process Products and Instrumentation - SOLUTIONS 14 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005


Wastewater biofilters installed in parallel. The sec ond set consists of two biofilters in par

takes a few hours each time. Performance Since the commencement of this

allel that polish the effluents well below the discharge limits. The open air biofil ters are solid and secure to walk on, and

project in 1999, theTSS, BOD5,ammo nia and coliform removal efficiency has been observed and the poultry effluents met the discharge limits required by the

there is no odour emission.

Volaille Giannone Inc.'s poultry slaughterhouse.

During the system operation, only the alarm system needs to be veri fied several times per week and maintenance consists of cleaning the distribution systems and verifying mechanical equipment which only

environmental authorities.

fre/ie Hassas is Environmental Manag erfor Filter Innovations Inc. Contact email: inquiries@filterinnovations.com.

capable of degrading contaminants.

These pollutants are degraded to CO2 and H2O by the microbial activity. In fact microorganisms are given the responsibility to treat the wastewater

"LooK (Vt fjov much it C(\n iof

and to transform it into water and

odourless gas. The process reduces the polluting loads by more than 95% along with the obnoxious odours. It is very simple to operate continuously for years and the treatment efficiency is not affected by load variation, even if the operation is discontinued for a period of time. Low maintenance and minimal operating attention as well as minimal requirement for biomass sludge management are con tributing factors in reducing the opera tional as well as maintenance costs.

Product History The technology was developed by

■ B

I

I I

ail BIB I a i

■ IB

I 11 I ■ I i i a I a I i a a a B ■ i I f I a.'B'i ■ a aaaiaiiB

I ■ B ■

a a

I

3

the Centre de Recherche Industrielle

Your partner in analysis - Liquiline M

du Quebec(CRIQ) as part of an ongo ing environmental research program for the treatment and valorization of

Multi-parameter analysis

residuals. Since the begirming of this program in 1990, the CRIQ has suc cessfully commenced 14 full-scale projects to validate this technology. Created in 1969, CRIQ is a leading source ofinnovation and expertise in the areas of manufacturing technologies, the

measurement

Total cost of ownership minimized ■ one transmitter for all parameters plug 'n' play ■ advanced diagnostics Open Communication ■ Foundation Fieldbus, FRQFIBUS, HART®, FDT/DTM

environment, industrial information and standardization.

Case Study Volaille Giannone Inc. has been

Memosens digital technology ■ increase plant up-time ■ continuous sensor diagnostic feedback ■ no field calibration required

applying Biosor to treat the effluents of its poultry slaughterhouse since July 1999. In 2003, the company expanded its operation and added two more biofilters. As a result, the treatment capacity increased from 300 m^/d to 500 mVd.

The treatment process consists of a primary flocculation treatment that reduces the BOD5 by 50% (from 1500 mg/L to 750 mg/L) and also removes most of the phosphorous. 90% of con taminants are treated by the first three

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March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 15


Drinking Water

New treatment plant will replace aging facilities By Melissa Weber

//

R

enew or Replace" is the question York Region was facing with the Aurora Weils i- 4 treat

ment facility. York Region is among a number of municipalities that are deal ing with the problem of aging infra structure and technology in their water supply system, and are facing this decision. Under the new provincial regulations for drinking water supply, the Region is currently providing upgrades to the Yonge Street Aquifer Water Supply System, which supplies water to the Ontario municipalities of Aurora, Holland Landing, Newmarket, Queensville, and Sharon. The Aurora Wells 1 - 4 are one of

the larger producing wells on the Yonge Street Aquifer and are the major water supply for the town of Aurora. They are located near the Aurora Community Centre, just west of Tannery Creek. This facility was one of the oldest operational facilities in the distribution system. Due to the lim ited space on site, and the room con straints, an expansion or upgrade to add new equipment or additional equipment (for redundancy) was not possible. The Yonge Street Aquifer Water Supply System is a confined natural underground reservoir with the water treated for iron sequestration and dis-

The contact tanks are in the heart of Aurora.

infected with chlorine before being sent to the distribution network.

A majority of the facilities in the distribution system were upgraded during 2003 and 2004, with the excep tion of the Aurora Wells 1-4 facility. As a result of space constraints in the old facility, York Region decided to replace it with a new water treat ment plant, located to the east of Tannery Creek, directly opposite the well site. The new plant features a

fully automatic operation, computer monitoring and control system, an office and a laboratory. Water pro duced

at the

well sites will

be

pumped across Tannery Creek, in the new facility, where it will receive treatment:

â&#x20AC;˘ Iron sequestration with sodium silicate.

â&#x20AC;˘ Disinfection with gaseous chlo rine. â&#x20AC;˘ Chloramination with ammonium

sulphate. The contact time will be achieved in

contact tanks, which are large diameter (16.5 m long x 3.6 m diameter) in ground concrete pressure tanks. Each tank has a volume of 330 m^, which represents 50% of the required capacity, to provide the required con tact time for disinfection. Other equip

I

ment/features included with the chlo

rine system for safety, are a chlorine scrubber and various alarms.

To provide additional safety to the water supply system, a diesel genera tor set is supplied for stand-by power, as are primary and secondary dis charge water mains and multiple redundancies. Melissa Weber is with R. V. Anderson

Associates Ltd., Toronto. Contact e-

The author at the new Aurora treatment plant. 16 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

mail: mweber@rvanderson.com


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Industrial wastewaters

Fine bubble aeration evaluated

for energy savings By Hans-Christian von Consbruch and George S.Pastoric

The Hoechst Industrial Park

Sewage Treatment Plant in Frankfurt is the second largest

industrial wastewater treatment

plant in Germany. Wastewaters from a broad variety of chemical production processes are treated in a biological treatment facility. The treatment process includes a biological high-load stage, a low-load stage and an intermediate clarifier. Bottom mounted jet aerators used for aeration had caused process problems. Acceleration of the water inside of the

jets resulted in excessive shear rates, causing a significant loss of biomass in the intermediate clarifiers. As well, high air flow rates were needed to achieve the required oxygen transfer. In addition to high power costs, these

high air flow rates made the off-gas cleaning system (compulsory in Germany) one of the most expensive

field tests. Diflusers from six manufac turers were installed on test racks in both

process steps. After examining various options, plant staff concluded that retrofitting the plant with an aeration system which treated the sludge gen tly, while reducing the air flow rate,

the high load and low load stages. The test installation provided the same con ditions for each diffuser type. Changes in pressure loss of each diffuser were monitored over a six-month period. After the test run was finished,

was necessary.

additional tests were conducted on the

Fine bubble aeration technology offers low (if any) shear rates and low

diffusers to measure the changes in efficiency and the change of the mechanical properties of the mem branes. Oxygen transfer tests and

air flow rates. However, due to chemi cals contained in the waste water, the

lifetime of the diffliser, the change in oxygen transfer efficiency, increased pressure loss over time, and the change of the mechanical characteristics have to be considered.

Pilot Testing Plant operators conducted extensive

E-Z OUT MANUFACTURING INC.

THE ORIGINAL LipOUT COUPLING FOR dBlfeR^BLE PUMPS UP TO 5 HP

material tests were conducted with new diffusers and those which had

been in operation for six months. Results

The evaluation of the Standard

Oxygen Transfer Efficiency (SOTE) test data and the physical property test data showed that the OTT System GmbH & Co. diffuser equipped with FlexSil silicone-based membranes achieved the best results. These mem branes showed the lowest increase in

pressure loss, the highest efficiency and the lowest change in efficiency over the six-month period of operation. As a result of the tests, the plant owners decided to use the OTT dif

fuser system. In the summer of 2004 ewage,stbrm water,

the OTT aeration system passed the

^ & eHfluent pump

oxygen transfer test with an SOTE of 48%. The diffusers were set at 7.1

metres (23.3 ft) submergence with a 50% density. Start up of the aeration system was done in September 2004. Data generated during the first four months of operation was used to

For concrete, steel, or fiberglass tanks Allows for removal of

pumps from above ground

No confined space entry to access pump No pull rods or hold down rods

No diaphragms New 3" Lift-Out

Lift out slide rail system designed for most vertical discharge type submersible pumps under 5 HP. Designed to provide easy service removal for most submersible

sewage,sump and grinder pumps from wet well sump applications. The system can prevent the need or risk

of a confined space entry to service pumps.

Check Valve

design the aerations system for a plant expansion scheduled for later in 2005.

OTT System GmbH of Eangenhagen, Germany, has been awarded the design and installation contract.

OTT System technology, design and engineering services are available in North America from Hydro-Logic Environmental. Hans-Christian von Consbruch is with

1635 Industrial Avenue, Port Coquitlam, BO V3C 6M9 Ph:(604)942-7994 Fax:(604)942-7954 E-mail: e-zout@telus.net

OTT System GmbH & Co. George S. Pastoric is President of Hydro-Logic Environmental. Contact e-mail: info@ hydrologic.ca.

18 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005


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CH2M HILL is one of Canada's largest multi-disciplinary engineering firms, with more than 500 employees in 12 offices across the country,including new offices in Victoria and Kamloops,British Columbia, Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, and Winnipeg, Manitoba. We are expanding the breadth and depth of our resources in Water and Wastewater engineering to ensure that we continue to provide cost-effective and ecologically sound solutions that address our clients' increasingly specialized needs.

Peter Nicol, Regional Business Group Manager in Canada,is pleased to welcome senior Water and Wastewater specialists to our offices in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, and Ontario. These professionals bring with them,a wealth of experience.

Water and Wastewater Specialists Moosa Damerchie, Senior Engineer Moosa is a senior engineer based in CH2M HILL's Toronto office, with 24 years of experience in civil engineering,including planning, design, project management,contract negotiations, publishing and marketing for major water distribution and wastewater collection systems, and related equipment in North America,South America, Africa,South East Asia, and the Middle East. Moosa has extensive

technical, managerial, and field experiences in the trenchless engineering industry, water distribution and Sanitary Sewer Evaluation Studies, including pipeline inspection, pipeline condition assessment, trenchless technology evaluation and recommendation, design and construction management.

Linda Ferguson, Process Engineer, P.Eng. Linda is a senior technical specialist in CH2M HILL's Toronto Office. She has more than 15 years

experience in wastewater treatment. Her experience includes leading multidisciplinary teams in the initial evaluation and conceptual design development phase through the design and implementation of complex retrofit projects. Linda's area of specialization is process optimization. This includes applying diagnostic techniques to identify performance limitations, process and hydraulic capacity assessments, simulation modeling, and operations assistance.

Trevor Jones, P.Eng. Trevor has 14 years of experience in wastewater/biosolids treatment projects for both municipal and industrial clients. He is based in CH2M HILL's Vancouver office. Trevor's experience includes all aspects of project engineering,from developing conceptual designs, to leading multidisciplinary designs and construction supervision, to commissioning and operating treatment facilities. A specialist in odour control, Trevor is experienced in the development of odour management strategies, design of odour containment systems, and desigir and operation of odour control processes. He has also worked with many industrial clients on pollution prevention through containment and control of waste products, as well as developing treatment systems to treat wastewater to levels that allow industries to discharge wastewater to municipal sewer systems.

Carmine Mllitano, P.Eng. Carmine Militano,P.Eng. is responsible for leading the growth of our new Winnipeg office. Carmine brings over 24 years of multi-faceted experience specializing in the management of complex multidisciplinary projects, strategic asset management and strategic planning. Carmine's diverse blend of experience as a consultairt, contractor and part owner of a mcmufacturer / supplier provides him with a unique insight into the needs of his clients.

CH2IVIHILL Responsible Solutions for a Sustainable FutureÂŽ


WMâ&#x201A;Źl

Ella Murphy, P.Eng. Ella is an associate engineer in CH2M HILL's Toronto office. She has more than 4 years of experience in drinking water treatment using membrane filtration. This experience includes testing of membrane systems on various water sources to optimize performance as pre-treatment, as post-treatment and in direct filtration modes. Ella has also worked on the development of new membrane systems(UP & NF) for point of entry residential water treatment, for the removal of particulates and pathogens and for water softening.

David Pernitsky, Ph.D., P.Eng. David is a senior process engineer in CH2M PflLL's Calgary office. He has over 10 years of consulting engineering and research experience in the areas of water supply and treatment, wastewater reclamation and reuse, and stormwater treatment. David has served as lead process engineer in many projects involving state-of-the-art technological solutions, including dissolved air flotation(DAP), ozone disinfection, granular activated carbon(GAC),ion exchange, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, and high rate granular media filtration systems.

Bob Pickett, Senior Project Manager, P.Eng. _ Bob is a Senior Project Manager in CH2M HILL's Toronto office, following over 28 years with the City of s Toronto/Metro Toronto. Bob served as the Director of Water Pollution Control for the last 12 years. He 'has taken on the role of Service Team Leader for the Utility Management Solution Team, which deals with > Asset Management,Pinancial Planning, Institutional Strengthening, Facility Information Management Systems, Facility Automation and Web based application.

Jason Sinclair, P.Eng. Jason is based in CH2M HILL's Calgary office. He has 10 years of technical and operational experience in water and wastewater treatment plants and the associated reuse/disposal of effluent and residual products. Jason has a diverse backgrormd in advanced water and wastewater treatment process design, operations, and pilot investigations. Having worked for both a major water utility and consultants, Jason has a strong rmderstanding of process selection and optimization, plant design, commissioning, and operational requirements.

Andreas Tratnlk, P.Eng. Andy is based in CH2M HILL's Toronto office. He brings 15 years of experience in the design, construction and commissioning of water and wastewater treatment facilities to his role as a Project

Manager in our Water Business Group. In addition to extensive design and construction experience, Andy specializes in SCADA /PLC control systems and he will be helping the firm develop opportunities in this area.

Paul Wobma, M.S., P.Eng. Paul is a senior water treatment specialist in CH2M HILL's Calgary office, with 20 years of experience. He has served as one of CH2M HILL's Water Technology Leaders in both Canada and the US.Paul's experience includes water supply and treatment evaluations, and process and mechanical design of

full-scale and pilot-scale water treatment plants. Paul sat on the working committee for development of water treatment Standards and Guidelines for the Province of Alberta and he has a thorough knowledge

of evolving disinfection and DBP regulations in Canada and US(USEPA). Paul recently returned to the Calgary office after several years with CH2M HILL in Deerfield Beach, Florida.

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Infrastructure

Huge York-Peel feedermain spurs construction of hi-tech pressure pipe plant By Jim Tully, Munro Concrete Products

Few know that Canadian and

Austrian engineering ingenuity was behind one of the largest watermain projects in the Greater Toronto Area(GTA). In record time, a new pressure pipe plant was constructed in Barrie, Ontario, to sup ply product to the $104-million YorkPeel Feedermain that will transport up to 381 million litres of treated water

per day from Peel Region to neigh bouring York Region. The plant is the largest pressure pipe plant producing small and large diameter

ter feedermain from the Airport Road

from The City of Toronto, Lake Simcoe (north of Toronto), and wells.

Pumping station along Castlemore

Peel draws its water from Lake Ontario

Road to the Peel-York boundary at

and treats it lakeside before it is

Highway 50, where it joins up with the

pumped to reservoirs. The $72 million design-build con tract for York Region was the first por tion of the project that was awarded.

York Region contract. Dufferin Construction Company of Oakville is overseeing the design-build

This section of the 1800 mm diameter

(72-inch) feedermain and associated road works, running 13 kilometres from the York-Peel boundary at

of the 21-kilometre transmission line

and associated road and civil engineer ing works. Consultants include Earth Tech Canada, Marshall Macklin Monaehan. URS Canada and John

Emery Geotechnical Engineering Ltd. Six 10-member

crews

precast concrete pres

worked simultaneous

sure pipe under one Immediately fol lowing the award of

ly on the project at peak construction periods, installing pipe along various sections

two separate contracts

of the two contracts.

roofin North America.

for

the

York-Peel

The feedermain

Feedennain to Dufferin

Construction Company in July 2003, engineers

design portion of the project is jointly man aged by Joe Sframeli

at

of Marshall Macklin

Munro

Concrete

Monaghan and John

Products began a fasttrack design and con struction project to meet the scheduling demands

of

Bourrie of Earth Tech

Canada. Larry Lorusso is the senior project manager from Dufferin

the

Dufferin design-build

Construction

team assembled to con struct the feedermain.

Company,a division of

SSP

of steel cylinders for lined and embedded cyllnder pressure plpe. Manufacture

Already recognized as a pioneer in fully robot ic concrete pipe production, Munro teamed with its equipment supplier, Schliisselbauer Technology GmbH & Co. KG of Gaspoltshofen, Austria, to build Canada's premier automated con crete pressure pipe plant. Since design of pressure pipe plants had not changed much over the past 30 years, Munro saw this project as a one-time opportunity to advance the technology for producing pressure pipe. To meet a sharp rise in demand for treated water in the GTA, Peel and York Region negotiated a unique arrangement to build infrastructure to provide water for York. Until the feed ermain was constructed, York's major urban areas received drinking water

St. Lawrence Cement Inc.

While

Highway 50 to the Maple Reservoir in Vaughan, is one of several projects that compromise the Water and Sewer York-Peel Agreement signed in February 2002. When the entire sys tem is complete, additional water con veyance of 40 ML per day will be delivered to York Region. The $32 million design-build con tract for the Region of Peel is the sec ond portion of the project that was awarded. This 8-kilometre section

involves the design and construction of a 2100 mm (84-inch) diameter con crete pressure pipe along Airport Road in Brampton from Queen Street to the new Airport Road Pumping Station and Reservoir and an 1800 mm diame

22 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

Dufferin's

consultants were preparing the neces sary engineering plans and reports for construction of the Peel and York con

tracts, Munro's engineers met with counterparts at Ellis Don and Schliisselbauer to design the plant around a custom-built semi-robotic

production facility. In little more than 45 days, Munro and its partners had designed the plant and decided on the equipment suppliers. By August 18, 2003, the necessary approvals had been secured and construction of the

new plant was underway. Five months later on January 23, 2004, the first pressure pipe was produced. By February 19, 2004, the plant was in full production.


Infrastructure Other With

Liquids. embedded

cylinder pressure pipe, concrete is poured on the

Na

The plant has been designed on the back of experience with the fully

der surface. Once

robotic Schlusselbauer Exact 2500

cured, the con

gravity pipe plant also located at Munro. The versatility ofthe new pres sure pipe plant can accommodate the production of smaller diameter lined cylinder pipe using the packerhead method. The plant is now capable of producing 400 mm diameter to 3000 mm diameter pressure pipe to serve a

crete pipe surface is wrapped with prestressed wire that is then coat ed with mortar.

Lined cylinder pipe has concrete poured on the

Hydrostatic testing of steei cyiinders. The 8,550 square metres (92,000 square foot) plant features a Schliisselbauer core casting station

and pipe tipper. The pipe tipper is unique as traditional pressure pipe plants use cranes to adjust the pipe from a vertical to a horizontal aspect. The Austrian firm acted as agent to

secure additional process machines that interconnect with its technology. These included a wire prestressing machine, hydrostatic testing equip ment for the steel cylinders which make the pipe water tight, spiral

welder, and equipment to form the steel cylinders. The moulds for the core casting sta tion are also Schliisselbauer products

capable of producing pipe sizes from

chamber for 12 hours.

side of the cylin

inside and out

i

pipe is rotated to a horizontal position and then wrapped with the prestressed wire. After coating with mortar, the pipe is once again placed in a curing

inside of the steel

cylinder which is then wrapped with prestressed wire directly on the surface of the steel cylinder. The wire and cylinder are then coated with mortar to protect the prestressed wire. AWWA C301 requires the freshly-

Canadian and NE/ Midwest USA mar

ketplace. In addition to the precision product

being produced from the Munro facili ty, the local economy is also getting a boost from the construction and main

tenance of the facility itself, and the many plant jobs that were created by the construction of the feedermain.

cast core to cure for 12 hours. A serial

number is stamped on the end ring of every pipe to track it through produc

Jim Tiilly, P.Eng., is with Munro Concrete

tion and installation. After curing, the

mail:Jim.tidly@inunroconcrete.com.

Products, Barrie, Ontario. Contact e-

AQUASTORE TANKS F

11

F

DEullllO E "

Recipient the Builder of the Year Award

400 mm to 3000 mm inside diameter,

with a standard length of 6,096 mm (20 feet). The large 1800 mm and 2100 mm diameter moulds are the first

moulds used in the new casting station. Hydraulically-activated mould jackets expand with the push of a button and the core collapses, so that the precast

pressure pipe casting can be lifted and moved to a curing chamber. The moulds can be reused every 6 hours,

producing 4 units of pipe in 24 hours from a single mould. The plant is designed to produce both lined and embedded cylinder pipe. Pressure pipe, 1500 mm diame

Tanks&Domes

Greatario Engineered

Storage Systems ^ Tel:(519) 469-8169 Fax:(519)469-8157 www.greatarlo.com sales@greatarloengsys.com

1 it t

ter and smaller, is lined cylinder pipe,

and pipe 1650 mm diameter and larg er is embedded. Embedded and lined

cylinder pipe is produced to specifi cation

American

Water

Works

Association (AWWA) C301 Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe,

ITS NOT A TANK UNTIl ITS BUILT...

Steel Cylinder Type, for Water and March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 23


Conference Previews

ES&E's annual spring conference previews include a one-day workshop organized by the Professional Wastewater Operators. Plant operations staff will have an opportunity to demonstrate

Deerhurst Resort

Water Environment Association of Ontario

Deerhurst Resort,Huntsvllle April 17-19,2005 The 33nd annual WEAO conference

will feature a two day technical pro gram that will focus on; collection sys tems and stormwater management, odour control, new technologies and research, utility/information manage ment, preliminary and primary treat ment, advanced treatment, biosolids management, watershed management and small community issues. The symposium is scheduled to

their skill and knowledge by compet ing in the annual Operations Challenge on Tuesday, April 18. Teams from across Ontario compete in this compe tition, with the wirmers representing Ontario in a North American competi tion held each fall in the US.

There will also be a special session for New Professionals who have been

working for less than ten years in the wastewater treatment field.

The symposium will also include a

British Columbia Water and Waste Association

Pentlcton,BC

April 16-20,2005 David Granirer, humourist and motiva

tional speaker will open the 33rd Annual BCWWA conference and exhi

bition. Over 100 technical papers are scheduled on the following topics: • Drinking water supply • Drinking water treatment • Drinking water distribution • Small drinking water systems • Drinking water disinfection • Drinking water system manage

100-booth tradeshow, organized by the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment

• Water conservation

Association.

• Water sustainability

For further information please con

ment

• Cross coimection control

tact: Julie Vincent, WEAO Executive Administrator, P.O. Box 176 Milton,

• Wastewater collection

Ontario, L9T 4N9 (416) 410-6933, fax:(416)410-1626,e-mail: weao@weao

• Wastewater management and reuse • Small wastewater systems • Decentralized wastewater systems

.org, www.weao.org.

• Wastewater treatment

12 VOLT SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS

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now capable of providing up to 120 feet of lift and offering many features and advantages over other stainless steel models...

r

not affected by turbidity easily disassembled for decontamination includes I replacement motor module

suitable for "low flow" sampling Groundwater Monitoring Equipment & Supplies (Canada) Waterra Pumps Limited • waterra@idirect.com • tel: 905.238.5242 (USA) Waterra USA Inc. * waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366

waterra

pumps • filters • tubing • www.waterra.com • baiiers • water level sensors 24 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005


Conference Previews • Organic residuals processing and recycling • Stormwater management • Flood management • Drought management • Project management

604-433-4389, Fax 604-433-9859, www.bcwwa.org.

This conference aims to continue to be

the forum for exchange of the latest technical, legislative and public aware ness issues related to the organic resid uals and biosolids management fields in Canada.

• Municipal operations and man

Check www.wcwea.net for confer

agement

ence details and registration informa

• Asset management • Security issues • Emerging technologies • Operations • Analytical technologies • Service delivery, governance and funding • Water for People projects and pro grammes

There will also be four technical

transfer sessions on: groundwater protection regulation, wastewater effluent, sewerage system regulation and demand management strategies. The event will feature a 130 booth

tradeshow and a two day Operator Challenge. Technical tours include the Summerland Trout Hatchery and the Summerland Wastewater Treatment

tion.

Ontario Water Works Association and the Ontario Calgary's Bow River

Municipal Water Association

3rd Canadian Organic

Ottawa,Ontario

Residuals & Biosolids

Mays-11,2005

Management Conference Calgary,Alberta

Gordon Miller, Ontario's Environment

Commissioner is the opening keynote speaker at the annual OWWA/OWMA

June 1 -4,2005

conference. Ontario's Chief Medical

This will be the 3rd Canadian special ty conference to bring together produc ers, managers, practitioners and regu

and Prime Minister Paul Martin have

Officer of Health, Dr. Sheela Basrur

been invited to address the closing ple nary session. Key technical program sessions include: Distribution, Small Systems, Treatment & Water Quality Manage ment, Water Efficiency, Treatment, continued overleaf...

lators from across Canada to discuss

issues related to the production, man agement, utilization and/or disposal of organic residuals including municipal wastewater treatment biosolids, animal

Plant.

For details contact BCWWA, Tel:

manures and pulp and paper sludges.

KRDHNE

OPTIFLUX sets new standards in

flow measurement technology With just one signal converter and the widest range of flow sensors, the new OPTIFLUX line handles oil applications for the water and wastewater, chemical, pulp and paper, and pharmaceutical industries. All OPTIFLUX models feature 3 X 100% diagnostics, providing unparalleled measurement and instrument accuracy.

Find out how we can set a new standard in your plant.

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Concord, ON

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Saskatoon,SK

506-548-9704

905-738-2355

807-346-8992

204-774-5552

306-477-7711

e-mail: metcon@metconeng.com

SALES & ENGINEERING

LIMITED

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March 2005, EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 25


Conference Previews The 13th Annual Canadian Environmental Conference &

Tradeshow(CANECT 2005) Toronto,Ontario

May 11-12,2005 Last year, more than 2,000 delegates visited the Canadian Environmental Conference & Tradeshow. With more

Compliance for Supervisors and Managers • Environmental Management Sysems: Troubleshooting the New ISO I400I

• Environmental Inspections and Investigations (Featuring a 'Mock' Investigation) • Environmental Health and Safety Due Diligence for Supervisors and Managers

Ottawa, home of Parliament

than 40 presenters and a 100 booth tradeshow, CANECT 2005 offers Canadian environmental managers, consultants, lawyers and others with

• Industrial Solid Waste and Waste

Source Water Protection, Youth Educa

responsibilities for EH&S compliance the opportunity to update skills and knowledge in the areas of environmen tal regulation, management and com pliance. Workshop topics include: • "You Spill, You Pay" What You

• Dealing With Spills and Environ

tion. The event will also include a 100booth tradeshow.

Three tours have been set up for those who wish to learn more infor

mally. The City of Ottawa will provide a tour of the Britannia Water Treatment

Plant, the National Research Council will provide a tour of the Institute for Research in Construction, and a limit ed number of tickets are available for the War Museum of Canada.

For further information please con

Diversion • Industrial Contaminated Land

mental Emergencies. Co-founded by Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine in

Must Know About Bill 133! • New Waste Diversion and Product

Stewardship Initiatives • Canada's Latest Response to

tact the OWWA Section Office at

Kyoto • New Legislation to Protect Water

(416) 252-7060 or via e-mail to owwa.admin @bellnet.ca.

• Environmental Regulation and

Toronto Congreis

Centre

and Water Resources

ELIMINATE H2S ADI International Inc. introduces

PERFORMANCE PROVEN ROTARY DRUM THICKENER

a new adsorption process for the reduction of hydrogen sulfide from gas and air streams. sulfa-bind™ • Handle H^S concentrations up to 30,000 ppm • Reduction in 60 seconds or less contact time

• Multiple regenerations without chemicals or backwashing

• Can adsorb nearly half its weight in H^S • Completely non-combustible, non-hazardous

800-858-1888

The Hycor® Thicklech'" Rotary Drum Thickener (RDT) is a sludge-thickening system that is setting new standards for volume reduction.The ThickTech commonly reduces sludges by 90% with a 98% capture rate. The system is quite compact and requires less floor space than other thickeners. It is economical to operate with low horsepower and water consumption. The ThickTech increases digester capacity, reduces hauling costs and can be used as a pre-thickener to increase capacity or other dewatering equipment. Parkson Canada

www.adi.ca

9045 C6te-de-Liesse Suite 201

A BlkB'' Tel: 506-451-7407 Fax: 506-459-3954 Email: elw@adi.ca 1133 Regent St., Suite 300 Fredericton, NB, Canada E3B 3Z2 26 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

PARKSON CORPORATION

www.parkson.com

DorvafQC H9P2M9 Tel.: 514-636-8712 Fax: 514-636-9718

AN AXEL JOHNSON INC.COMrANV

canada@parkson.CDm


Conference Previews 1992, the Canadian Environmental Conference and Tradeshow attracts:

• Environmental managers and co

Exhibitor List - 2005 CANECT List ofexhibitors as ofMarch 6,

Environment Canada

Loraday Environmental

2005:

Environmental Analytical Sys.

Nelson Environmental Inc.

• Plant managers, hazardous materi als supervisors and engineers

ACG Technology Ltd.

EnviroTest Laboratories

NSE RC

Activation Laboratories Ltd.

Fielding Chemical Technologies

OACETT

• Environmental auditors and con

Acute Environmental & Safety

ordinators

sultants

• Government officers and policy makers

• Professional engineers • Environmental lawyers • Dangerous materials shippers and supervisors • Spills and emergency response teams

• Workplace environmental res ponse teams

• Workplace environmental and health and safety committee mem bers

• Municipal officials and officers. For further information contact

Environmental Science & Engineer ing Magazine, Tel: (905) 727-4666, Toll free in North America: 1-888-

254-8769, Fax: (905) 841-7271, email: virginia@esemag.com, or visit

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Performance Fluid Equipment

ADI International

FieldWorker Products

AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

Filter Innovations

AirSep Corporation

Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers

Pine Environmental Products

Albarrie Canada Ltd.

Franz Environmental

ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd.

Altech Technology Systems Inc. Ashtead Technology Rentals Avoca-Tec Energy Management

Purifies ES

Baker Tanks

Geneq Inc. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Green Turtle Technologies

Benson Chemicals

Grundfos Canada

C3 Environmental

H2Flovv Equipment Inc. Hanson Pipe & Products

Caduceon Environmental

Canada, Inc.

Laboratories Canadian Council for Human Resources in the

Harbour Remediation & Transfer Inc.

Inc.

Rain for Rent

Regenesis Rice Engineering & Operating Ltd.

Sonic Soil Sampling Southwest Binding Systems Ltd.

Spill Management State of Illinois

Cancoppas

Industrial Scientific Corporation ITT Fiygt Ivey International

CCOHS

John Meunier

Chemline Plastics

Jurassic Activated Carbon Inc.

Claessen Pumps Con Cast Pipe Concept Controls Inc.

Kaescr Compressors Kengro Corporation

Wainbee

Kentain Products Ltd.

Winergy Power Systems Canada

Environment Can-Am Instruments

Demesa

Lakes Environmental Software

EcoLog information Resources Group

Layfield Geosynthetics &

Elemental Controls

Levitt-Safety Ltd.

Industrial Fabrics

Team-1 Emergency Services Terrafix Geosynthetics Total Safety Canada Inc. Victaulic Company of Canada Vogelsang Waterra

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Case History

Wastewater treatment for bitumen extraction in Venezuela By Andrew Hutton, Napier-Reid Ltd.

Two facilities for the extraction of natural bitumen located in the

Jose

Oil

and

Petro

chemical complex, north of Anzoagetui State in the Orinoco delta region of Venezuela will share a wastewater treatment plant designed and supplied by Napier-Reid of Markham, Ontario. Natural bitumen is extracted and

converted by a proprietary process into an industrial fuel similar to bunker fuel

used in power generation plants. The fuel production process is a license of Intevep, the research and development subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A.(PDEVESA). The wastewaters are composed of oily wastewater, hydrocarbons, propri etary and contaminated rainwater from

Napier-Reid was selected in an invited tender process in conjunction with its Colombian engineering repre sentative. Napier-Reid is responsible for the overall process design, equip ment selection, supply, start-up and operator training. Construction is underway and the plant is due to start operating this summer.

The Venezuelan government man dates effluent standards covering marine discharges. The plant is fully automated and controlled by PLC. The Dissolved Air Flotation Cell is located in a hazardous

area requiring all equipment in this area to be explosion-proof. The biolog ical plant is in a non-hazardous area. All process equipment was subject to rigorous adherence to specification and independent inspection.

Andrew Hutton is Vice President, NapierReid Ltd., e-mail info@napier-reid.com

Influent

Effluent

Flowrate (Low season) (High season)

25.0 US gpd 146.2 US gpd

COD

951 mg/1

350 mg/1

BOD

463 mg/1

<30 mg/1

TSS

132 mg/1

<30 mg/1

O&G

466 mg/1

<20 mg/1

PH

6-8

6-9

Total Nitrogen

63 mg/1

<40 mg/1

10 different streams.

The process train consists of flow balancing, pH control, chemical condi tioning with coagulants, flocculants. Dissolved Air Flotation, biological treatment using Sequencing Batch Reactors with a Belt Filter Press for

surplus sludge dewatering. The final effluent is discharged to the ocean. PH control is required as the off-specifica tion tanks can spike at 12.0.

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28 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005


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Infrastructure

Ultra-Rib pipe deflects deep burial loads

To some contractors and

municipal engineers sewer pipe deflection can be a bad word. In fact, Ultra-RibÂŽ per

forms well as a result of its natural deflection characteristics. Instead of

.1

cracking under the loads common in deep burial sewer applications, the pipe deflects slightly, shifting the load to the surrounding bedding and redis tributing it to absorb the weight, form ing a stable and leak-proof system for decades without the need for mainte

nance and repair. A project in the Township of Strathroy-Caradoc, outside London, Ontario, illustrates a municipality's trust in Ultra-Rib. To support a boom in commercial and residential growth, the township needed trunk services to an industrial area during the recon struction of a major street. The town ship awarded the $3.6 million contract to Blue-Con Inc. for the 525mm sani

t

w

Ultra-Rib pipe being instaiied.

tary sewer. Joe Haasen of Blue-Con chose

Ultra-Rib for its cost-effectiveness,

his confidence in its ability to deflect the weight of the 32 feet burial depths, and for its strength, high flow rates and tight joints. The township's Environmental Services Manager, Tony Slabon, said this pipe allowed installation at rela

tively flat grades to service the large area, while still maintaining self-

cleaning velocities. The light weight of the pipe allowed it to be safely han dled in the confined space of the trench box. The longer laying lengths resulted in fewer joints, helping to keep the project on budget. Three years later, in 2004, a video inspection revealed that the system was performing exactly as designed.

Contact e-mail: natwhi@ipexinc.com.

ytiDiM. ^ Interior inspection of three-year old 32 ft deep application.

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Cover Story

Geosynthetic solution applied for chronic slope failure at water treatment lagoon system

Consulting engineers for the

City of Dallas were asked to develop a solution to chronic sliding failures on the outer slopes of the City's Eastside Water Treatment Lagoon system. The Dallas Water Utilities facility consists of five water retention lagoons enclosed with in a large perimeter levee. Identifying the Problem The individual lagoons are lined with geomembrane and the tops of all levees are capped with paved access roads. The 3H:1 V exterior slopes were constructed of highly expansive clay soils with a PI (Plasticity Index) rang ing from 21 to 75. Because of the nature of expansive soils, the exposed levee embankment slope suffered from severe soil shrinkage and result

ing surface cracking during the dry summer months. During the rainy sea son, water flowed into these deep cracks causing saturation and instabil ity of underlying soils. By maintaining proper soil mois ture, the sliding failures, which were triggered by the drying-cracking-raining-saturation cycle, could be elimi nated by controlling soil moisture fluc

A geotechnical engineering firm was retained to evaluate the problem soils and develop alternative solutions to the sliding issues. After considering a wide range of approaches, a compos ite geosynthetic solution was devel oped. It included two layers of 28oz. nonwoven geotextile, a 40-mil imper meable HDPE geomembrane liner, the

tuations with a liner cover.

GeowebÂŽ (geocell) cellular confine

Since the lagoon side of the levee embankment was protected by the liner and the top by the paved road, it was determined that only the outer exposed embankment surface needed protection. An impermeable geomem brane cover could provide a barrier, preventing the drying-saturation cycle which was causing the instabilities

ment system with integral tendons and restraint clips, and aggregate infill within the geocell to stabilize and pro tect the geomembrane. Evaluating the Solution The engineered composite geosyn thetic solution has a flexibility that

within the levee.

conforms to surface deformations in

the embankment soil while resisting down-slope sliding at the various inter faces without the use of penetrating ground anchors. The protected geomembrane layer forms a permanent impermeable barrier that prevents infiltration of water into the embank

ment soils. The aggregate-infilled geo cell slope cover prevents major surface erosion and creates a permeable pro tective layer that allows rain water to

flow through the stabilized aggregate and drain off naturally over the geomembrane without penetrating down to the problematic soil layer. Anchored internal high-strength tendons and load transfer clips within the cellular structure create a suspend ed protective cover over the geomem brane, maintaining the liner's integrity

4

by preventing puncture and natural degradation. Installing the Geosynthetic Components

The installation began by stripping the slopes of vegetative cover and fin ish grading. An anchor trench for the geosynthetic layers was excavated along the outside perimeter of the access road at the top ofthe slope. The geomembrane, sandwiched between the protective cushion of two geotex tile fabrics, was then installed.

With the composite protective liner system in place, a 4-inch diameter,

High-strength tendons, tied to a PVC pipe, aiiow the GeowebÂŽ sections to be suspended over the containment lagoon's outside embankment. 32 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

schedule 40 PVC pipe was placed in the trench at the top ofthe slope for the dead man anchor system. High-


Cover Story During the various stages of design and construction, the Geoweb system representative. Soil Stabilization Products Co.(SSPCo), provided tech nical support to four consulting engi neering firms involved in the project: Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc., Intersol Engineering Inc., Lockwood, Andrews & Newnam Inc., and Terra Mar Inc.

-IX

Results

With the GeowebÂŽ sections secured by integrai tendons over an impermeabie geomembrane, workers distribute aggregate infiil in the ceils. strength tendons were secured to the pipe and threaded through the 4-inch deep geocell sections, then secured

ment of the geocells system was per formed by subcontractor Colorado Lining International, Inc. The last step in the construction process was infilling the cells with crushed stone to provide the final cover for the protected slope. The con tractor developed a conveyor system to expedite the infilling process. Over

through the use of ATRAÂŽ restraint clips. The large cell size (18.7 in x 20.0 in), allowed installers to work effi ciently on the 3H:IV slope, expanding, orienting, and then securing the geo cell sections in place. Installation of the geotextile fabric, flexible geomembrane liner and place

The geocell system was uniquely suited to this application - restraining sliding forces of the protective stone without staking through the liner sys tem. The perforated geocells allow heavy water flows accumulating above the liner to move quickly down-slope without migration of the stone infill. This composite geosynthetics slope protection system gave the City of Dallas Water Utilities a long-term, low maintenance solution for this challeng ing problem. Photographs courtesy of Colorado Lining International, Inc.

1,500,000 ft^ of geosynthetic materials

Contact: Patricia Stelter, e-mail:

were installed on this project.

patricia.stelter@alcoa.com.

flQfIT Laboratories Service Beyond Analysis The ability to provide analyses for all environmental applications is the result of combining specialized areas of expertise in inorganic water services, inorganic soil services, trace organic services, toxicology and microbiological services.

r' y

These services are utilized by a diverse group of clients including consultants, petroleum companies, recyclers, waste management companies, manufacturers, engineers, governments and a host

AGAT Laboratories

has the proven ability to provide high quality data for all environmental

of others from various sectors of

applications

industry.

www.agatlabs.conn Toll-free 1 800 856 626 Calgary

Misslssauga Toll-free 1 800 856 626T:

Ottawa,Edmonton,GrandPral r ie,Red Deer ,Fort St . John March 2005, EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 33


Stormwater Management

Providing economical stormwater quality solutions By Penh Tov,Stormceptor Group of Companies

Hydrologists often design for

quantity treatment where large infrequent design flows are considered for the pur pose of flood protection and drainage. As a result, the Rational Method is adopted for conveyance designs.

The

Stormceptor®

System

is

designed for quality treatment. Histori cal rainfall data is examined to deter mine the characteristics of storms that

represent the majority of the events that occur over the long term. These events tend to be frequently occurring small storms.

This design philosophy is similar to that presented in the general guidance document for Urban Runojf Quality Management prepared by WEF and

ASCE.' By analyzing historical rain fall records, general trends indicate that frequently occurring storms tend to be small storms that constitute the

majority of runoff volume over the

long term. To illustrate, runoff from a 2.5 acre (1 ha), 100% impervious site is plotted using historical rainfall data for various areas in the state of Ohio

(Figure 1). Figure 1 also demonstrates that a large percentage of runoff volume (almost 90% in this example) is con tributed by small storms that yield low runoff rates (<1.5 cfs or 42 L/s). By designing stormwater quality treat ment systems to treat most frequently occurring flows, a high level of treat ment and an economically feasible solution is achieved. Treating higher runoff rates does not necessarily yield a significant increase in removal effi ciency and, therefore, does not provide an optimum cost-effective solution. The most cost-effective design for stormwater quality treatment can be determined using data found at the "knee of the curve" in Figure 1. Internal Bypass Achieves Quality

be higher. When the remainder of the storm gives way to higher flows, the patented internal bypass enables the system to treat up to its maximum flow rate and to bypass the remainder of the runoff volume.

By capturing frequently occurring events and bypassing infrequent excess flows, a high level of treatment is achieved without the risk of scouring previously captured materials. Scour ing generally occurs when flows or velocities entering a device are high enough to re-suspend settled sediment. The Stormceptor System prevents scouring by controlling flows in the lower chamber and internally bypass ing excess flows. It is the only propri etary stormwater Best Management Practice with an in-line bypass capabil ity. It effectively allows excess flows to bypass the lower chamber without the added cost of installing upstream and downstream off-line bypass structures.

Stormwater Treatment 1 Water Environment Federation and American

Society of Civil Engineers(1998) Urban Runoff Quality Management. WEF Manual of Practice No. 23, ASCE Manual and Report on Engineering Practice No. 87, USA.

For infrequently occurring higher flows, the Stormceptor System treats the "first flush" portion of a large storm when pollution loading tends to

Penh Tov is Stormwater Specialist with Stormceptor Group ofCompanies. For further details, e-mail: mmckenzie@ monteco.ca.

100 -

^'

Treating Large Design Storms is ■!

:

;

I

NOT Economical for Water

Quality Treatment Design

- - - —-- - 1 -

I

Majonty of the runoff consists of small

■ -)4- - Chllo Meldahl (1984-97)

stoims.

S

-

-

Therefore, most cost-effective solution is

>11

.2

- GermantDwn (1984-97)

—— Greenville (1984-971

;

Oxford (1984-97)

located at the "knee of the curve".

40

^

"S "3

Sformcreptor iwuld also capture the "first flush" of larger, infrequently ocar ring events. 20

Treating Infrequent High Flows Equals Inefficient Design

10

0

~1—I—I

1—I—I—I—I

_• o

.♦ o

o

1—I—I—I—I

1—I—I—I—I

1—I—I—I—r—I—I—I—I—I

_;

1—I—I—I—I——I—I—I—r-

_•

o

o

Rainfall Runoff Rate (cfs)

Figure 1— Cumulative frequency plot of runoff volume i/s. flow rate 34 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

^

hT"

r^

C'^

^ao

w

o

c-f

o

p"-

r'«-

r«-

r--

CT'

co


Roadside Assistance It's no wonder Stormceptor® is Ontario's best selling engineered storm water treatment structure. Every Stormceptor® Hanson sells comes with their unique Quality Assurance Program that not only provides a thorough post construction inspection but also a complete Minotaur Service Program which covers Hanson Stormceptor® installations for up to two years at no additional cost.This ensures that after installation,the Stormceptor® is serviced and maintained to the highest standards so it will perform flawlessly,capturing oil and suspended solids which prevents non-point source pollution from entering downstream into our lakes and rivers. This means you can rest a little easier knowing you have the best protection against potentially costly repairs and environmental mishaps.

The Hanson Stormceptor® with the exclusive Quality Assurance Program.

Buried but not forgotten.

Specializing In the Monitoring & Servicing of Stormceptor Units

inoldur Tel: +1 888 646 6828

Stormceptor

www.minotaurltd.com

HANSON PIPE & PRODUCTS CANADA INC. C

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'"Hanson

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CAMBRIDGE: Head Office

OTTAWA:

WHITBY:

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Bio-membrane filtration

An effective alternative process for treating low temperature groundwater By Dan Hogan and Hans Peterson

Associated Engineering and

WateResearch Corp. of Saskatoon have developed, piloted and implemented a new, full-scale water treatment process based on biological purifica tion, integrated with reverse osmosis membranes. The Yellow Quill First

um, and high total dissolved solids (TDS) levels. Yellow Quill decided to proceed with piloting treatment processes which could treat the source water to drinking water quality. Conventional technologies, such as manganese greensand filtration, were ineffective. While some other tech

Nation bio-membrane water treatment

nologies, such as ozonation, were

plant in Saskatchewan is the first of its

promising, the floe generated by

kind in Canada.

ozonation resulted in short filter runs.

Yellow Quill is a native community of approximately 600 people in eastern Saskatchewan. Due to its poor surface

The biological filtration was attractive; however, the low temperature of the

well water, only 6°C, would impact

The bio-membrane process has a number of advantages. No chemicals are used for the biological process, which takes advantage of naturally occurring microorganisms to remove contaminants from the water. A small

amount of chemicals is required for the membrane process. The process accommodates long filter runs before backwashing is required and uses 1520 times less water compared to man ganese greensand filtration. The bio logical material can withstand large variations in pressure. The process delivers high quality water, which allows the membranes to run 24 hours

per day, 7 days a week without mem brane "relaxation" and

membrane

cleaning. Higher membrane recoveries are also possible using this process. Thus, treatment can be relatively inex pensive as the filtration material will last for more than 10 years and there is no need for coagulation or pre-oxida-

n

tion chemicals.

Commissioned in the Fall of 2003, the plant meets both current and future Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. Operation ofthe bio-membrane treatment process is stable and robust. The success of bio-membrane filtra

tion in treating this low temperature groundwater bodes well for applying biological treatment to poor quality groundwater sources elsewhere. Cur

rently, Associated Engineering and

The Yellow Quill First Nation blo-membrane water treatment plant In Saskatchewan is the first of Its kind in Canada.

WateResearch Corp. are applying this process technology at a water treatment plant retrofit for the Pasqua First Nation in Saskatchewan.

water source and ineffective water

treatment process, a boil-water adviso ry was established in 1995. A search for better quality source waters found good quality water 100 kilometres from the community. The potential for local groundwater to supply the com munity was positive; however, although the quantity of groundwater supply was sufficient, quality was extremely poor. Despite concerns with iron, manganese, arsenic, dissolved organic carbon, manganese, ammoni-

The Consulting Engineers of Saskatchewan recently presented the project team with Awards of Excellence for technology irmovation

treatment efficiency. However, the integrated biological reverse osmosis treatment system offered promise for removing iron, arsenic, biologically available carbon, and transforming

and infrastructure for their work on the

ammonium to nitrate.

Yellow Quill plant.

Pilot testing showed that, despite low temperatures, the biological activ ity in the filters was very high. The biologically stable water produced generated low biological and low organic fouling of the membranes in the final treatment of the water.

36 EnvironmentalScience & Engineering, March 2005

Dan Hogan, P.Eng. is a Senior Civil Engineer with Associated Engineering. Contact e-mail: Hogan@ae.ca. Hans

Peterson, Ph.D. is President of WateResearch. Contact e-mail:

hanspeterson@sasktel.net.


Odour Control

Using sludge pellets to suppress sewage smells

New York City needs 1,400 tons

phide and mercaptan odors, and

of carbon for odour control at

Professor Bandosz wants the DEP to

its sewage treatment plants, the equivalent of 14 railcars. Now, a chemist at The City College of New York (CCNY) has developed a method to produce some of that carbon from the sewage sludge itself. According to Teresa J. Bandosz, CCNY Professor of Chemistry, adsor bent pellets produced from sewage sludge are two to three times more effective at removing hydrogen sul phide than carbon particles derived from coconut shells, the best source of virgin carbon used for this purpose. In addition, the pellets convert the gas to pure sulphide, making disposal of the byproducts safer and easier. Professor Bandosz, a native of Poland, has been working on sewage odor control for the New York City Department of Environmental Protec tion under a grant since 1996. She has already persuaded the city to use "vir gin" carbon, i.e. carbon not impregnat ed with caustic substances that generate heat and can self-ignite. Caustics embedded in carbon were responsible for a major fire at the Coney Island sewage treatment facility two years ago. Absorbent agents derived from sewage sludge are even better than vir gin carbon at removing hydrogen sul-

use them, as well. The absorption agents are derived from fertilizer pellets produced from the sludge at a factory in the Bronx. Pellets are heated to 950

degrees Centigrade (1,732 degrees Fahrenheit) to convert the precursors into efficient desulphurization catalysts.

She has applied to patent the process. The sludge-derived materials and virgin carbon are complementary, and Professor Bandosz envisions the city using layers of both in its sewage treat ment plants. The later, she explains, is superior for removing volatile organic compounds from the air. Contact e-mail: esimon@ccny.cuny.edu

"Risk

nothing" RON HALLETT, UV PURE FOUNDER

Odour abatement

systems keep air clean As part of a long-term plant expan sion, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Utilities in North Carolina is installing six car bon adsorbers from USFilter RJ Environmental Products at the McDowell Creek Wastewater Treat

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Hallett 13 and 30 GPM UV systems are NSF/ANSI 55 Class A certified. Thousands of Hallett systems in homes,schools, public facilities,commercial and Industrial applications and small municipalities ensure Pure, safe water. Always. Coming soon,the Hallett 150 GPM verified system for larger commercial, industrial and municipal applications..,all self-cleaning and smart,fail-safe and virtually maintenance free. Hallett systems are now available in North America,Australia, New Zealand and Eastern Europe.

systems will treat a combined air flow rate of 64,050 cfm. The McDowell Creek installation is scheduled to come online in Fall 2006. For more

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March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 37


Instrumentation

Measuring dissolved oxygen in biological reactors

Almost al dissolved oxygen

2. Galvanic (no membrane). The

analysers are calibrated using

electrodes of this sensor are exposed to

air as the reference. At 25°C, the saturation value of oxygen in water is 8.4 ppm. However, oxygen concentrations in a biological reactor (aerobic and anaerobic zones) normal ly range from 2.0 ppm down to zero. Very few manufacturers recommend checking the zero point, even though the measurement range is much closer to zero than the air calibration point.

the wastewater, which is used as the electrolyte. The sensor is calibrated in oxygen saturated water. As water has

There are four basic sensor technolo

gies available today, and their low range measurement capabilities are as follows: 1. Galvanic (membrane). The anode and cathode are immersed in an

electrolyte, into which oxygen perme ates through a membrane. The galvanic sensor converts oxygen into a voltage (via a sacrificial anode) that is propor tional to the amount of dissolved oxy gen. Therefore, the sensor has an absolute zero. Zero D.O.= Zero output.

different pH and conductivity values to that of wastewater, there can be no cer tainty that the measurement, especially below 2 ppm, is accurate. 3. Polarographic (membrane). This is sometimes called amperomet-

fluorescing material, which produces light at a different wavelength. The presence of oxygen slows or reduces the amount of fluorescent light pro duced. As light is constantly produced in a bandwidth rather than an absolute

immersed in an electrolyte, into which oxygen permeates through a mem

wavelength, there is no absolute zero. However, as the measurement is fre quency (rate of change) based, there is no drift as long as the signal strength is reasonable. However, the detector sees any light (sunlight, area lighting, etc.) as a change in oxygen concentration, so it must be calibrated and operated in an

brane. It differs dramatically from a

almost black box environment. It must

galvanic sensor in that the anode has to be polarized, after which a current

be submersed into a reactor, sometimes cannot normally be used in effluent channels, and in some cases the sensor is irreparably damaged by sunlight. Development History The Clark Cell principle for the measurement of dissolved oxygen, both galvanic and polarographic was developed in the 1960s. Over the years

ric. The

anode

and

cathode

are

flows in the sensor. So at 0 ppm D.O., the sensor has an output which is offset by the parent analyser. As the sensor ages, its zero offset changes. 4. Optical (Fluorescent). This is sometimes called Luminescent. A cer

tain wavelength light is focused onto a

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38 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

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Instrumentation major advancements were made, such as the use of pure electrodes rather than plated ones, and electrochemically cleaned membranes. The optical measurement technique

The report can be found at www.instrument.org Operation in Biological Reactors There are many myths associated with accurate, reliable on line D.O.

has also been available for several

measurement. So much so that there

decades. But there is a major problem in that the fluorophore is soluble in water.

are some who flatly refuse to use any thing but timers for control. Others have tried OR? to control D.O., and

So the material needs to be bonded to

another material, which impedes or stops the degradation of the fluorescing material. Only the Ruthenium (fluorophorej/Silicon (bond) matrix does this, and this sensor is patented and licensed to one manufacturer.

Third Party Verification While there have been numerous tests and evaluations carried out in the

wastewater industry since the 1980s, the only independent, scientific evalu ation of all sensor technologies was performed in 2002/2003. The Instrument Testing Authority carried out testing of 10 D.O. analysers

some have used nutrient monitors.

Some have simply given up and set blowers to fixed settings. A primary requirement in these reactors is biological nutrient removal. A common methodology is to control D.O. at below 0.5 ppm so that nitrifica tion and denitrification occur simulta

neously. This requires D.O. analysers to reliably and accurately measure under 0.5 ppm. Modern reactors are commonly designed with two zones, aerobic and anaerobic. This somewhat reduces the

reliance on D.O. analysis, as nitrifica

in Decatur, Illinois over a three month

tion and denitrification are bound to

period. The comprehensively document ed report makes no recommendations or draws conclusions, it simply reports on the performance of the technologies.

occur. However, without D.O. control, the process is inefficient, and the delay in using nutrient results for control is similarly inefficient. Using timers or

■■■■■■■■

and/or chemical costs. Conclusion

A reliable dissolved oxygen analy sis system costs approximately 0.1% of a biological reactor project cost, so there is no valid reason for not pur chasing D.O. instrumentation for the reactor, and certainly not the cheapest available instrumentation. It is well

publicized that approximately 60% of a plant's operational cost is due to blower electricity consumption, so a reliable D.O. monitoring/control sys tem is quickly paid for in electrical savings alone. The selection of such a D.O. system needs to be made based on accuracy, long-term reliability and maintainabil ity. There are systems available that are proven to operate accurately and reliably for 12 months or more with no maintenance whatsoever. Selecting the right dissolved oxygen analyzer is paramount in improving treatment and lowering costs. For further information, please email sales@spdsales.com.

m m m

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March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 39


Drinking Water irJTKNATlONAL

Underwriters International competence. At the world's no. 1 trade fair for waste disposal and the environment.

Laboratories provides seed funding for water delivery design project

Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) and the

Institute of Design (ID) at Illinois Institute of Technology have announced that UL will provide

a $25,000 grant to support ID's efforts to design simple, cost-effective ways to transport and distribute drinking water in Mumbai, India.

Welcome to the world of the decision-makers. In 2005, the leading international trade fair IFAT will again be an event of superlatives: 170,000 m^ of exhibition area with over 2,000 exhibitors from more than 40 countries. Market and innovation

leaders as well as global players and specialists inform you on the subjects:• Water • Sewage • Refuse • Recycling • Services • Street cleaning • Winter services. Detailed information is available to you in the Internet at www.ifat.de.

14th International Trade Fair for

Water - Sewage - Refuse - Recycling

The initiative is part of ID's Design for the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) project, which aims to create new products and services that improve daily life and generate sustain able economic growth in the developing world's impover ished cities. UL's grant will enable Design for BoP staff to travel to India to conduct on-site research and develop new water-delivery concepts. One concept already under development is "Mobile H2O," a door-to-door water-delivery service facilitated by wireless technology. Service vendors on mopeds or other locally suitable transportation would deliver clean water directly to the homes of residents, who would pay electron ically with smart-cards issued by a banking partner. Currently residents must wait for hours in queues and sometimes travel long distances for access to water. The BoP project is led by Institute of Design faculty and advised by Sam Pitroda, an entrepreneur and former minis ter for technology development for the Indian government. The program began in the summer of 2003 with an inten sive period of on-the-ground research in India that revealed the problems of life in poor settlements, such as access to clean water. Additionally, it examined existing infrastruc ture such as local businesses including laundry, electronics repair and mobile vending, in support of the Mobile HjO concept. Designing new products and services that leverage existing business models and solve quality-of-life problems is the project's main goal. According to Patrick Whimey, Steelcase/Robert C. Pew Professor and Director of the Institute of Design and the

project's lead investigator, the Design for the BoP project offers a new approach both for companies seeking to enter emerging markets and agencies seeking to spur develop

IFAT

Munich

ment. "The project's unique ability is to understand the activities of people's daily lives and then create new inno

25-29. April

2005

www.ifat.de

vations — products, services, communications or systems — that improve their quality oflife, as well as generate eco nomic value," said Whitney. "This approach helps us look beyond traditional solutions to urban slums, like charity and development aid, and identify sustainable, self-support ing opportunities for improving life and creating wealth."

Contact Information: Canada Unlimited Inc. • Brigitte Mertens Tel. (416) 237-9939 • email: bmertens@canada-unlimited.com

© Lufthansa official carrier to IFAT 40 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

For more information contact www.id.iit.edu/profile/ gallery/design_for_BoP.


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Aquifer Recharge

Geophysical assessment of the recharge to a river-connected aquifer By Jean-Christophe Nadeau,Karl E. Butler and Russell Parrott

The City of Fredericton, New

Brunswick, extracts its water

supply from a semi-confined

aquifer within the glaciofluvial sediments of the Saint John River

Valley. The coarse-grained sediments that make up the aquifer are confined between an overlying clay/silt aquitard and an impermeable till blanket that overlies fractured bedrock. The aquifer is recharged by surface water through "windows" in the discontinuous clay cap, and by regional groundwater from bedrock through areas where the till blanket is missing. Previous hydrogeological and geochemical investigations (e.g. Thomas, 1994) have indicated that the major contribution to recharge at the city's main well field is drawn directly from a window beneath the riverbed. As the

water demand increases, a better

understanding of the recharge and flow paths through this complex hydrogeological system has become essential in order to safely manage land-use and assess the impact of nat ural riverbank filtration on the quality of water entering the well field. This

ranging from a metre or less in the region below the esker ridge to 40 m in other areas. Localized deposits of sand and gravel have been encountered beneath the till in some areas. The till

tured sandstone and shale is overlain

is in turn covered by glaciofluvial sands and gravels of the Fredericton aquifer which include an esker-like formation that is tapped by the munic ipal well field. The aquifer is overlain by a clay/silt unit of glaciolacustrine (and possibly marine) origin. The aquitard is up to 40 m thick but thins over the flanks and top of the buried esker ridge as shown in Figure 1. Erosion of the clay/silt aquitard has revealed the top of the esker in some areas, allow ing a direct recharge of the aquifer by rainfall, snowmelt, surface runoff

by glacial till of variable thickness.

and/or riverbed infiltration. Areas

article discusses the successful and

novel geophysical approach taken to

delineate the river bottom recharge zone using a combination of acoustic

reflection profiling and electromag netic surveys. From a hydrogeological perspec tive, the river valley sediments at Fredericton can be divided into the six units shown in the cross-section of

Figure 1. Bedrock consisting of frac

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42 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005


Aquifer Recharge 1-89

98-2

88-10-P1 ^ 10-65 9-65 8-65 7-65 6 65 5.05

11-65

12-65

4.65 3-65 ~

< -30 5 -50

vertical exaggeration: 3 x 100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

Distance along the Riverbank[m]

Fluvial sand with some gravel ^ Lodgment till Lacustrine silt / clay | Buried sand and gravel Outwash sand and gravel | Shale and sandstone bedrock Figure 1. Interpreted geological cross-section running along the south shore of the Saint John River and crossing obliquely over the burled esker-IIke ridge at the edge of the city's main well field (see Figure 4(b)). where the sand and gravel unit pro trude through the clay/silt aquitard are called "windows". The uppermost sediments in the river valley consist of up to several metres of fluvial sands and gravels deposited by the St. John River.

Geophysical Data Acquisition Single-channel acoustic reflection

equipment was deployed from the University of New Brunswick's 13-m research vessel Mary O, operating in water as shallow as 1.5 m. Special emphasis was placed on investigation of the region opposite the Wilmot well field (see Figure 4(b)) where lines were spaced as closely as 20 to 40 m apart. Depth penetration seemed to be

1

dependent on river bottom type but in many areas the 1KB Seistec sub-bot tom profiling system with its boomer source generated excellent high resolu tion records, showing reflections from multiple subsurface interfaces at depths as great as 40 m. Geonics EM31 and EM34 terrain

continued overleaf...

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Aquifer Recharge conductivity meters were operated along lines spaced 30 to 50 m apart on the river and as closely as 10 to 30 m on land. For riverine surveying, the 3.66 m long EM31 instrument was set

EM31 survey was carried out at the end of August, when the water level is

in the bottom of a non-conductive

at is lowest.

canoe and paddled along the river

Survey Results and Interpretation Figure 3(b) shows acoustic sub-bot tom profile W1_C1040 that runs subparallel to the river's edge, 100 - 200 m offshore as shown in Figure 4(b). Profiles of bathymetry-corrected apparent conductivity obtained from

while the larger, deeper penetrating EM34 instrument was deployed using an outboard-motor-powered canoe to carry the receiver, and a towed inflat able dingy for the transmitter as shown in Figure 2(Butler et ah, 2004). Both instruments were operated in vertical dipole mode, thereby provid ing depths of exploration of approxi mately 1.5 times the coil separation (McNeill, 1980), or 6, 15 and 30 m for the EM31-V, EM34-V10 and EM34-

V20 respectively. In order to diminish the effect of the water layer on appar ent conductivity measurements, the

Outboard

M

_

Motor

\ DGPS

o-?\v\v I ^ \ ^ N

Datalogger Receiver

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

EM34

Datalogger

the EM31 and EM34 instruments are

superimposed above the acoustic data. The eastern half of the line, where it was expected that aquitard material would be present, exhibits high appar ent conductivities as well as excellent

Figure 2. Set-up of the EM34 ter rain conductivity survey showing

7441400-

a)

Transmitter in raft

the receiver coil and console, the

DGPS system used for naviga

&

s

tion, and the hand held field com

5p

puter used to log both conductiv ity and position data. 7440900-

reflectivity extending to depths as great as 21 - 22 m. The deeper promi nent reflector is identified as the con

tact between the clay/silt aquitard and underlying sand/gravel aquifer. There was no evidence of a reflection from till or bedrock that would have been b)

7441400-

expected at or prior to a two-way time of about 60 ms (i.e. 50 - 60 m depth) in this area. Cultural Noise

(Metallic Cables)

744091

tnterpreted ''j Cross-Section

The deterioration of the acoustic

signal observed in the low conductivi ty esker-like sediments may arise from (1) the dispersive character of the rough and discontinuous high-angle reflectors commonly found in glaciofluvial sediments, and (2) absorption of the signal by the coarse grained matrix. There is, however, one

region of shallow reflectivity in the 74404002486500

2487000

western half of the seismic section

2487500

below positions 140 to 280 m. This shallow reflectivity coincides with the occurrence of a clay/silt pod incised

Easting - NAD83 MB Stereographic[m]

10

12

14

16

18

20mS/m

Figure 4. (a) EM31-V bathymetry-corrected apparent conductivity contour map aiong with interpreted windows delineated in black.

Boreholes are marked by blue and yellow dots depending if they con firmed or not the presence of the clay/silt aquitard. (b) EM34-V10 bathymetry-corrected apparent conductivity contour map along with production wells marked as red triangles. The sub-bottom acoustic profile W1_C1040 and the interpreted cross-section are highlighted by white and orange lines respectively. 44 EnvironmentalSdence& Engineering, March 2005

into the esker ridge, as suggested by the higher apparent conductivity and later confirmed by drilling. In the central part of the section, the prominent reflectors are draped on the flanks of a low reflectivity zone corresponding to the esker ridge. This interpretation is supported by bore holes as well as by results from the

riverine EM surveys. The apparent


Aquifer Recharge 20-j

a) s

15-

Clay Pod

E 10-

Conductive Clay/Silt Aquitard Deposit

C.-C

a. a

Window

<-u s o

5-

HM31-V

u

I-M34-V10 EM34-V20 0-

400

500

Position |m}

b) . River Bottom 5

Inner Clay.' i ,0 s

.«*

'f .''i^p^'

9

20 H

15 —

River Bottom

Ititerpreted Bottom"

25 1

20

. of the Clay/Silt Aquitard

30 •

Figure 3. a) EM31-V, EM34-V10 and EM34-V20 bathymetry-corrected apparent conductivity profiies. b) Acoustic refiection profiie W1JC1040 dispiayed with a verticai exaggeration of approximateiy 12 times. conductivity profiles show an abrupt drop in apparent conductivity directly above the area where the aquitard reflectors terminate. Consequently, it

is possible to delineate windows in the clay/silt cover by following these steep drops in apparent conductivity. Figure 4 shows maps of bathyme-

try-corrected apparent conductivity derived from the lines of data collected with the EMS 1-V and EM34-V10 Continued on page 57...

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March 2005, Environmental Sdence & Engineering 45


Drinking Water

UF membranes retrofit vintage pumping station in Sudbury By Paul Graham,Toby Brodkorb,and Scott Lenhardt

The City of Greater Sudbury has become a thriving commu nity centrally located in

Northeastern

Ontario. Well

known for its nickel mining industry it is also a centre for governance, med ical referral, education, retail and

many service industries - a community that is committed to diversification

and sustainability.

J

The former Regional Municipality of Sudbury has won several interna tional, national, and provincial awards for its successful environmental initia

tives. In 1992, the City was honored by the United Nations for the Sudbury Regional Land Reclamation Program, which led to the planting of over eight million new trees in the local area.

Greater Sudbury is also a leader in local action planning to promote the reduction of greenhouse gases. Black water blues

Though Greater Sudbury's water had always met provincial water quali ty standards, the City's long history of providing an unfiltered water supply had resulted in an accumulation of

manganese and other substances, such as iron, in parts of the City's water dis tribution system. This led to seasonal problems with water discolouration and, on some days, residents com plained about a black tinge in the water caused by the manganese. New provincial drinking water stan dards also made filtration of all City surface water supplies a necessity. The Ontario Drinking Water Standards,

The second stage of membrane treatment incorporates reinforced, hollow fibre membranes that are ideal to treat the reject water from the first stage. This two-stage design enables the plant to operate at 99 per cent efficiency.

introduced in 2000, created a legally enforceable standard, to guarantee

cally acceptable. Aesthetic parameters established by the legislation control

water that is safe, palatable, and pro tective of public health. Not only would potable water need to be free of disease-causing organisms and danger ous concentrations of toxic chemicals, but it would also have to be aestheti

Typical Treated Water Results Raw Water

Certificate of

Treated Water

Approval Requirements

Turbidity (NTU) Color(TCU)

0.5-1.5 <5

<5.0

<5.0

Manganese (mg/L)

0.05-1.0

<0.05

<0.03

Giardia

N/A

> 4 log removal

> 4 log removal

Cryptosporidium

N/A

> 2 log removal

> 4 log removal

< 1.0

46 EnvironmentalSdence& Engineering, March 2005

<0.1

the taste, smell, and colour of the water.

Working with consultants, CH2M HILL, the City studied several options for improving water quality. One option was the possibility of upgrading its David Street Water Treatment Plant.

Located minutes from the City's down town core, the plant has long provided the community with high quality water from Ramsey Lake. The site was ideal due to its proximity to both the water source and the customers, but posed some significant challenges because of its limited size. It would be difficult to

convert the plant to a full water treat ment plant using conventional technol ogy. As a result, water managers quick ly began to consider retrofitting the existing plant with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology because of its


Drinking Water flexibility of design, compact foot print, and high quality water produc tion capabilities. Working within a small footprint After prudent evaluation and pilot testing, the City of Greater Sudbury selected ZENON ZeeWeed® immersed

hollow fibre UF technology for the David Street site. It was ideal for this

plant for three main reasons: • The location near housing and parkland made it impossible to signifi cantly expand the footprint. UF mem brane technology allowed the City to construct a full water treatment plant on the existing site. • By retrofitting the David Street Plant, the City was able to save signif icant capital costs. Distribution of

makes the plant one of North America's most sophisticated in terms of water utilization.

At the start of the process, raw water is sampled and then treated with sodium hypochlorite. Four vertical tur bine pumps lift water from the lake

into inline strainers where it passes though a 0.5 mm screen, on its way to the first filtration stage. If the raw water manganese levels exceed 0.2 mg/L, sodium permanganate may be

added instead of sodium hypochlorite. In the first filtration stage, the water passes through four process trains, each with four cassettes, of ZeeWeed

1000 membranes, ZENON's unsup ported hollow fibre membranes that are specifically designed to treat water with low concentrations of suspended solids. With a nominal pore size of 0.02 microns, the membranes create a physical barrier to suspended particles continued overleaf...

With Double the Flow, You Control the CSO

treated water is also more cost-effec

tive since the plant is located in the heart of the City. This minimizes pumping costs since customers are in such close proximity. • The innovative siphon design of the plant further minimized construc tion and ongoing operational costs. Since gravity is used to draw water through the hollow fibre membranes, the plant does not require permeate pumps, which saves the cost of the pumps and associated equipment such as valves and variable frequency drives. Moreover, the ongoing expense of maintaining and operating the pumps is also eliminated. The City has concentrated on energy effi ciency for years and is very proud of the efficient design. Two-stage gravity assisted process delivers 99% efficiency The City of Greater Sudbury is con strained by limitations on the amount of water it can draw from Ramsey Lake. The water taking permits allow 27,300 m^/day (7.2 MGD)on a month ly average basis and 40,000 m^/day (10.5 MGD) in any 24-hour period. This limit is set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to protect the shoreline and aquatic life of the lake. Recreational activity and aesthet ic concerns also play a part in the plant's water taking restrictions and it

To Plant

Screened Overflow When it rains the Storm Monster"'' pours it on to keep your combined system in compliance! Overflow wastewater passes through perforated panels with 6mm openings, while solids, floatables, condoms and trash are screened out and discharged Into the downstream flow headed to the treatment plant. Overflow passes through the top, bottom and front of the screen at twice the rate of a single entry storm screen, then over a weir to be blended, re-routed or stored. View our Monster Separation Systems™ at: jwce.com/headworks

was desirable to minimize the water

lost in the process operations. Therefore, the 40,000 mVday (10.5 MGD)David Street WTP incorporates a two-stage UF membrane design that enables the plant to produce final treat ed water equal to approximately 99 per cent of the pumped raw water. This

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March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 47


Drinking Water and pathogens in the raw water, and pro duce permeate that consistently meets the Ontario Drinking Water

David Street

QSudtffiy

Water Treatment Plant Processes

Standards.

Filtered water, or permeate, flows by gravity siphon into the surge/backpulse

'I

tank that is located

below the primary membrane tank. The

difference in height between the tanks cre

ates the hydraulic gra dient

needed

siphon the through the

MoandNsgeFsKl

to

water mem

brane fibres and into

the surge/backpulse

CH2IVIHIU.

tank, which also acts as a chlorine contact

tank. Gravity flow is also used to transport backwash water, used during periodic membrane cleaning, into a reject tank. Transfer pumps direct water from the reject tank up to the secondary

membranes for further treatment. Two

process trains, each with four cassettes of reinforced, vertically-oriented ZeeWeed 500 membranes, are used at this stage. With a nominal pore size of 0.04 microns, the reinforced structure is

ideal for the higher solids concentra tions of the reject water. Permeate from the second stage flows to the surge/backpulse tank by gravity siphon, while reject water is discharged by gravity into the City's sanitation system.

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Drinking Water All three levels of government -

The final plant water is treated by chlorination and fluoridation. A corro

The final plant water is treated by chlorination

sion inhibitor is also added. The water

is then pumped into the distribution system after passing through UV dis

municipal, provincial, and federal came together to provide funding for the retrofit of the David Street WTP.

Each tier contributed one third of the

and fluoridation.

infection units. Automation offers efficiencies

Virtually every operational and maintenance process in the new David Street WTP is automatically con trolled. Only one operator is on site during the day shift, while overnight the plant is remotely monitored from

A corrosion inhibitor is also added.The

water is then pumped into the distribution

system after passing through UV

the water works control room at the

Wanapitei Water Treatment Plant. Membranes are regularly cleaned

by forcing permeate water back through them to dislodge any adhering particles. Aeration is used to scour debris from the fibres and provides mixing within the process tank to maintain solids in suspension. If mem brane fouling has reduced permeabili ty below specified performance levels, chemical cleaning can be performed

nesses can be assured that the invest

ments in clean, safe drinking water

disinfection units.

will support the needs of this growing city for years to come.

operating flux is increased in the oth Paul Graham, P.Eng., is Manager of

ers to compensate.

Membrane integrity is directly monitored by automatic pressure hold tests. It is also indirectly monitored by equipment that tracks turbidity and

in situ to restore the membranes back

particle count levels. In the unlikely

to optimum permeability levels. During this process, one train can be

case that levels of either rise, an alarm

taken off line for cleaning, while the

cost, with Greater Sudbury covering its share out of the capital budget and a special reserve fund for large projects. Today, the David Street WTP pro vides about 40 per cent of Greater Sudbury's daily water needs, typically producing about 18 MGD (68,100 m^/day) of potable water. As the City continues to grow, residents and busi

notifies the operator who then takes appropriate action.

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Experts in Chem-Feed and Water Treatment March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 49


Domestic Wastewater

Re-thinking hydraulic flow in septic tanks By Richard Lay,Max Weiss, Kris Pataky,Craig Jowett

Theexisting CSA Standard B66 on septic tank construction

requires a continuous airspace above the water level specifi cally for "floating scum storage", and perhaps for "upwelling surge storage" to decrease velocities through the out let pipe (Baumann 1978). But what does this airspace really do and is it

ically excluded air to promote fermen tation. From the mid-1900s onward,

standard septic tank design comprised a box tank with openings in the end walls, a flat lid, and an airspace from inlet to outlet.

In his classic 1984 book, The Septic Tank, Winneberger questions the use of the airspace, concluding it "might

even a good thing? The first septic tank in the mid1800s(Mouras tank) had its inlet in the

suggests that the "configuration of

roof and no continuous airspace. It ran

simple construction convenience", and

into difficulties from accumulated fer

"most authorities

mentation gas pockets forcing sus pended solids through the outlet. Venting ofthese gases allowed the tank

improved septic-tank designs, but reg ulations pre-design tanks as they are",

to operate properly. Other designs in the early 1900s used long tank configurations with no

airspace,just venting, and these specif

not serve a useful function". He also

septic tanks has long been dictated by would

welcome

Figure

1a. Standard 4500 L

Ontario CSA Tank B with 2:1 com

partments and central openings in partition, before pump dosing.

and "unfortunately, minimum stan dards become maximum practice." Can we extend Winneberger's sightline further, look at the standard septic tank, and suggest ways to improve its

80 years of quality,service and competitive pricing. Standatd Featunss: Stainless Steel Hardware, Hinaes &

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Figure lb. Ontario Tank B during 5% and 10% volume dosing, showing upwelling into airspace, and the resulting visible "untreat ed sewage" plume formed direct ly between partition and outlet.

(Epoxy, •TamperResistant

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& Safety Grate Features Retrofit Design

intended function of (a) separating solids from sewage, and (b)optimizing fermentation and hydrolysis reactions? Forming Scum and Sludge "Floating scum storage" sounds reasonable, but we would be better off

with less scum and more sludge. Again Winneberger; "it is a common miscon ception that...lighter solids...rise to surface and form a layer of scum". Rather, scum is related to amount of

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Access Doors • Hatches • Floor Doors 50 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

gases evolved, because sludge particles are carried up by gas bubbles, only to sink again when released. However, with an airspace present, vegetative moulds take hold and accel erate the trapping of rising sludge, matting them together into a "tough.


Domestic Wastewater floating mass". In comparison to sludge, this leathery scum is more dif ficult to pump out. Also it is denser than water, and can overturn and sink,

causing re-suspension and out-flow of sludge. Removing the airspace from the tank will result in relatively more sludge and less crusty scum. Capturing Scum and Sludge The CSA B66 standard specifies a deeper tank (typically 1200 mm) and allows a short distance (1200 mm) between the inlet and outlet. Is this

good design in a septic tank? Entrained sludge particles settle out (up and down) along the flow path, and are captured when they reach the floor or upper scum layer of the tank. The hor izontal distance required for settling out increases with smaller particle size, and with greater depth. A longer, shallower tank therefore captures more sludge, and finer sludge, than a short er, deeper, box tank. Short Circuiting vs. Laminar Flow Patterns

Differential flow velocities, causing unwanted higher-velocity plumes, increase in tanks with shorter, wider,

Figure 2a (left). Prototype 4500 L Tank D with no airspace between ris ers and 1:1 sections, before pump dosing.

Figure 2b (right). Prototype Tank D during 10% volume dosing (450 L), with "untreated sewage" contained near inlet, and only "old," treated sewage exiting tank. Parabolic discs depict relative flow velocities over cross-section of tank, and movement of water from disc A to disc B during 10% dosing. Tank B: 4500 L Ontario CSA tank,

partition with 2:1 compartments (Figure la). Tank C: 4500 L prototype sub merged tank, partition with 2:1 sec tions, and

Tank D: 4500 L prototype sub merged tank, partition with 1:1 sec tions (Figure 2a). The prototype design has the inlet and outlet up in the 450 mm risers and

a long shallow, narrow submerged tank, with no airspace above the water level, between the risers. Light expanded clay aggregate (leca) was used as a surrogate for sludge particles (60% float; 40% sink), added to the inlet during pump dosing at a rate of 3.75 L/s (60 gpm). Volumes of ~5% and ~10% of the effective capacity of the tank (i.e., 90 and 180 L, 225 and continued overleaf...

or deeper aspects (e.g., Figure 1), espe cially in those with 'point source' inlets and outlets like a septic tank. Higher-velocity plumes allow untreat ed sewage to short-circuit directly to the outlet. To optimize separation of

Industrial CorfUol Valves

solids and to maximize retention time

without short-circuiting, the tank design should encourage a well-devel oped, laminar flow regime. The 'mix ing zone', with eddy currents and pres

Flow Measurement

sure differentials characteristic of the

inlet area, should be dampened as early as possible in the pathway of the sewage.

A tank design with longer, narrower, or shallower aspects (e.g.. Figure 2) limits the mixing zone to the inlet area, and allows a well-developed, laminar flow regime to develop along the path way well before the tank outlet. Only 'old' water that has completed the fer mentation process, and that has settled out entrained sludge particles, will exit the tank. Untreated sewage, or 'new' water, will not circumvent the old water by way of higher-velocity plumes. Comparative Hydraulic Flow Testing Hydraulic tests were carried out on four different tanks:

Tank A; 1800 L Alberta CSA tank,

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no partition, single compartment. March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 51


Domestic Wastewater

5%

AB CSA Single

ON CSA 2:1

Prototype

Prototype

Tank A

Tank B

2:1 Tank C

1:1 TankD

n

10%

Table 1. Relative amounts of leca solids ("untreated sewage") passing directly through the tanks. 450 L for the 1800 and 4500 L tanks

respectively) were added, and the

effluent was screened for particles.

10% of tank volume) allow escape of much 'untreated sewage'. While the partition wall of Ontario

1200 mm between inlet and outlet.

Tank B kept much of the floating leca away from the outlet, a distinctly visi ble, higher-velocity plume developed

Even doses of 90 L and 180 L(5% &

across the short, 790-mm second com-

The small Alberta Tank A fared the

worst with no partition wall and only

partment (Figure lb). This plume emanated from the two partition open ings and coalesced into a single plume directed to the outlet baffle, and sub stantial 'untreated sewage' escaped (Table 1). For both tanks, the effect of dou bling the pumped volume from 5% to 10%, was to produce more than twice the amount of 'untreated sewage' short-circuiting through the tank (Table 1). Prototype Tanks C and D passed no solids through at all, even after flush ing with additional water, presumably due to laminar 'plug' flow keeping 'new' water near the inlet, and allow

ing only 'old' water out. Longer term, stress tests were carried out on proto type Tank C, including continuous pumping, with only minute traces of solids passing through. Instead ofthe single-tube tanks test

ed, the preferred configuration for sep tic tank design is shown in Figure 3,

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with a 'double-back' design to ease installation in restricted space while maintaining the same hydraulic flow. Conclusions

When the goal is to capture sludge particles and retain sewage in the sep tic tank long enough for thorough fer mentation, a longer, shallower config uration with no airspace over most of the tank length appears to be prefer able to the short, deep, box tank design now prescribed in CSA B66. Sewage volumes pumped to a standard septic

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52 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

Poison, Montana; Kris Pataky, engi neering student, and Craig Jowett, Ph.D., PEng., are with Waterloo Biofilter Systems, Rockwood, ON. Contact e-mail; rlay@enermodal.com.


Ontario to allow water

power development The

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waterpower sites for development. The province has a target of 1350 MW of new renewable energy by 2007 and 2700 MW by 2010. The waterpower industry estimates that it could satisfy at least one-half of these targets. In November 2004, the Ministry of Natural Resources initiated a call for "expressions of interest" for new waterpower devel opment on provincial Crown land. "This initial response is a very good first step", added Paul Norris, President of the Ontario Waterpower Assocation. "The government clear ly recognizes the strategic impor tance ofclean Ontario waterpower to the province's renewable energy and environmental objectives. Develop ment on Crown land must proceed expeditiously in order to meet our targets." For further details contact Paul

Norris at Tel:(705)743-1500.

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March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 53


Security

New security technology aids in hazmat response

View Systems Ine. now of ers

2004, View Systems Inc. entered into an exclusive cooperative research and development agreement to commer

recounting details from memory. Many times the scene commander

response training at Dugway Proving Grounds. Reviewing after-action reports from these team members led Dugway officials to engage in devel opment discussions with the Idaho National Engineering and Environ mental Laboratory (INEEL). These discussions exposed the need for better performing video products for the WMD GST, so INEEL developed a

needs real time data on the nature of

new system.

over.

the emergency from the inside. Entry teams can go into target areas and try

Initially known as HAZMAT Gam, the new system was an instant hit with WMD GST evaluators and profession al municipal HAZMAT teams. This wireless system was now able to pro duce clear, steady, and reliable video. Now the first responders could have a rugged, high performance system to help accomplish missions. Once the technology of a govern

Many systems use a single receiv ing antenna for their products. This means there is only one antenna loca tion to receive a strong signal. The VFR uses a triple antennae array and true diversity receiver to receive sig

the Visual First Responder (VFR), which can send live, wireless video in a clear, steady and reliable fashion. There is a need for quick, accurate information in an emergency. It just isn't reliable to have an observer

to describe the volumes of informa

tion via audio, but is that enough? If they cannot stay inside very long, they must rely on their memory of an entire scene to relay information. This is not an easy thing to accomplish with accuracy.

Several years ago, the National Guard's new Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams (WMD GST) were receiving chemical

cialize the HAZMAT Gam. View

Systems is now the sole manufactur er of the system and continues its development. The system's new name became the Visual First Responder (VFR), now offered to professional and municipal responders the world

nals, so there are three antennae loca

tions to receive a strong signal. This type of receiver is a better choice for systems where the transmitter is in

ment lab is mature, it can be offered

motion relative to the receiver. The

to the commercial world through the technology transfer programs. In

VFR is a hand carried device most of

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54 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005


Security diversity receiver. By using a true diversity receiver, the VFR can choose the best one of these three signals at any time, even if there is a change in signal strengths. For example, if a sig nal is bouncing off a wall into one antenna, coming through a storage room

through walls and other structures. The VFR also has a 2.4 GHz portion to the system. This portion of the system is

set uses 2.4GHz, which avoids inter

fering with the camera's original 900 MHz transmission.

Use of system After a target area is identified, the triple antennae array is removed from its rugged case and placed as near to the hot zone as possible, while still being kept uncontaminated. A long life battery powers it. The monitoring station is

called the extension link. Once the

original signal is picked up at the triple

for another antenna and

reflecting off furniture into a third antenna, the VFR

can

determine

which signal is best even though the signals may change because the per son carrying it moves to another spot. Antenna one may have the best signal one second and then antenna three might have a better signal just a couple of feet away. Another advantage is the frequency choice. Some systems rely only

connected to the anten

nae array so the scene commanders can observe

the video being sent back to them. When a first

responder team enters the hot zone or target area, the handheld unit (cam era) is powered on. As the team approaches the target, the clear steady video is sent out in all

on 2.4 GHz, VFR uses both 900MHz and 2.4GHz. 900MHz

has a longer wavelength than 2.4GHz and is a better choice for transmitting

antennae receiver, it can be re-transmitted further down range by using another transmit and receive set. This

directions by the omni directional antennae. The video signal will penetrate some structures and continued overleaf...

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bounce off others, and active devices like the fields created hy electric motors may even block some of the signal. Many of the high power900MHz signals are being received hy the triple antennae array. The diversity receiver will evaluate the signals that arrive from the antennae. Then it will

pass on that video stream which is the most steady and clean to the monitor.

If there is a need for greater distance to he covered due to an extended hot

or warm zone, the extension link can

Need to dig up property-related environmental information?

he employed. This practice of having a re-transmit or relay in the middle of the system is very useful. This allows for the system to he very flexible when there are ohstacies like buildings or tank farms in the area. Also, a prime factor to first responders is wind direction. The VFR's "jointed" style of transmission path can he used to keep command per sonnel up-wind when other systems cannot.

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Battery time is very important and the handheld unit will stay powered on for almost four hours continuously. The recharge time on a battery pack (a spare is included) is only 35 minutes. The VFR is rugged and can he decon taminated hy immersing it in a bucket of decontamination fluid or bleach

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sionally built diver's light housing. It has a large handle for ease of use hy operators in large gloves. It is also a lightweight system, which can he a factor in reduction of fatigue. It is avaiiahie with law enforcement

grade video encryption, which pre vents news teams from hi-jacking video that is shot with the VFR.

Imagine how had it would he to have scenes of mass casualty or the inside structure of a sensitive government or commercial facility broadcast to friends, families and /or enemies. The

VFR also comes with a full range of accessories from recorders to mobile

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For further information, contact djohansen@viewsystems.com.


Aquifer Recharge

Recharging a river-connected aquifer (continued from page 45) instruments. The apparent conductivity

ed by the Canadian Water Network,

measurements have been corrected for

Member of the Network of Centres of

water depth effects using a simple pro cedure described in Butler et al.(2004) that is appropriate for low conductivity

Excellence of Canada, as well as the City of Fredericton, and the New Brunswick Department of Environ

freshwater environments.

ment and Local Government.

The most striking features on the two maps are the oblong, low conduc tivity zones heading off under the river in a north-westerly to westerly direction. These are interpreted as aquitard windows, where low conduc tivity aquifer sands penetrate through the overlying clay/silt layer. In the region to the north of the windows, apparent conductivities measured by the EM31 are significantly lower than those measured by the deeper pene trating EM34.

Jean-Christophe Nadeau is currently finishing his M.Sc. in Geophysics under the supervision of Karl E.

Butler, Associate Professor in the Department of Geology and Director of the Geological Engineering Program at the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB. Russell

Parrott is a marine geophysicist with the Geological Survey of Canada (Atlantic) in Dartmouth, NS. Contact email: jcnadeau@caramail.com or kbutler@unb.ca

We conclude that the thickness of

electrically resistive fluvial sands cover ing the clay/silt aquitard is greater there than in other areas where the EM31 and

EM34 readings are both high. We note finally, that the areas of highest EM31 apparent conductivity in Figure 4(a) (i.e. the regions east of the window and between the western part of the window and the southern shore) are also the areas where we obtained the best seis

mic records. The presence of a relative ly thin fluvial sand blanket covering the clay/silt layer in those areas is proposed as a geologic model that could explain

30

100 y

both of those observations.

Summary The combination of riverine seis

mic and EM methods has proven high ly effective for investigation of the Fredericton aquifer system underlying the Saint John River. Apparent conduc tivity maps, derived from riverine EM surveys were used to extend the aquitard window boundary out under the river and provide a complete plan view of the inferred recharge area. Single channel acoustic profiling, using a receiver specially suited for shallow water operation imaged the stratigraphy of the clay/silt aquitard surrounding the window including its termination against the esker ridge. For purposes of application to the present hydrogeological study, the two data sets are highly complementary and will help facilitate 3D modelling of groundwater flow paths and the aquifer's hydraulic connection to the

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Water Resources

Solar-powered circulation technology clears out blue-green algae By Ed Sullivan

Annual onslaughts of blue-

green algae (cyanobacteria) blooms continue to plague

fresh water lakes and reser

voirs. In the past, copper sulphate has been the chemical of choice for treat

ing blue-green algae. However, as the algae become increasingly resistant to copper sulphate, continuously larger doses are required for effective con trol. Furthermore, impacts on zooplankton and other life forms have led to increasingly stringent permitting requirements for its use. A non-toxic solution arrives

Due to all the problems associated with stagnant water and chemical treatments, the principle of forced cir culation of lakes and reservoirs has

gained increasing interest in recent years. "If you can create sufficient cir culation, blue-green algae problems and other unwanted water conditions

can be avoided or even corrected," says Joel Bleth, president of Pump

The Palmdale (California) Water District had been using up to 3,000 ibs of cop per suiphate powder per week to control algae growth In Its 4,130 acre-ft lake until It put in a SoiarBee unit.

system for use in lakes and reservoirs.

because it prevents blue-green algae

Powered by solar modules, this system features an adjustable down-hose sus pended from an anchored flotation unit. A single unit can draw up to 10,000 (US) gallons of water per minute and spreads it gently across the

takeover."

surface for continuous aeration 24-

Systems, Inc. (PSl), Dickinson, North Dakota. "Sufficient circulation will minimize or eliminate the need for

chemical

and

carbon

treatments

To provide reliable and flexible

forced circulation, PSI developed SolarBeeâ&#x201E;˘, a floating self-contained

hours per day.

The system's mixing action pre vents the takeover of blue-green

Surface aeration increases

Near laminar flow reaches

dramatically as the surface is renewed at flows up to

up to 50 acres or more per machine.

10,000 gpm depending on the model installed.

Horizontal

Primary flow

Larger Aerobic Zone

Both horizontal and vertical

circulation patterns are Vertical

Mixing

created for improved distribution of oxygen, algae, bacteria, and nutrients.

Horizontal Mixing

algae and promotes a good crop of diatoms ("good algae") and zooplankton. Instead of constantly sink ing to the bottom and being blocked from the sunlight, they continuously glide up and down in the mixing cur rents. At the same time, continuous

circulation prevents the blue-greens from blocking the sunlight below the water surface.

When used to control blue-green algae growth, units are positioned at problem locations, with the unit's down-hose suspended to just above the thermocline. The water intake, from the relatively warm epilimniun layer, is pumped up the down-hose and spread across the water surface, providing beneficial turbulence and aeration. The resulting circulation of the epilimnium prevents the bluegreen algae from staying at the top of the layer, so that diatoms are able to out-compete the blue-green algae. Units may be installed throughout the year as long as ice has not formed on the lake or reservoir. Case studies

ttve Zone Slurry

Mechanism of operation of the SolarBee system. 58 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

At Palmdale Lake in the high desert country of southern California, the Palmdale Water District had been


Water Resources using 2,000 to 3,000 lbs. of copper sul phate powder per week from March to September to control algae growth in

ing the reservoir, scraping out the sed iment and hauling it away - a process

its 4,130 acre-ft. of water.

of dollars - or finding a less expensive approach. The SolarBee system was suggested.

that would cost hundreds of thousands

the clean-up has eliminated the nutri ents in the sediment, it also helped get rid of the blue-green algae problem at the same time."

"Besides being expensive, we want ed to avoid using excess copper," says Greg Dluzak, Palmdale Water District Production and Control Superin tendent."So we were very pleased that a year after installing seven of these

and close to the bottom where it pulls large volumes of water and spreads

The Englewood Water District is also considering the installation of these units in potable water storage tanks. "With large storage tanks of treated water you may have turnover problems," Coatman explains."We use

SolarBee circulation units we had

them across the surface. Since the

chloramine treatment and if the water

greatly reduced the amount of copper that we were using." "We also saw considerably more dissolved oxygen that was much more evenly dispersed throughout the lake," Dluzak says. "The water temperature was much more even, and we weren't getting our usual spring or fall

water from the bottom (hypolimnion) layer is colder and denser than the top layer, it aerates for a relatively short distance (depending on temperature differential), and then sinks to the bot tom again. This newly aerated water oxygenates the nutrients in the sedi ment, helping to break it up and allevi

turnover. The lake also looks much

ate anoxic bottom water conditions.

sits in the tanks too long, nitrification will occur, which could cause taste and odor problems. So, by installing a water circulation unit, the turnover paddles in the enclosed tank (the solar unit is mounted outside) keep that water moving. This type of system is also much cheaper than trying to put in baffle units, pipe extensions or various

clearer than it did before, which makes it much easier to see the fish, too" Another problem that often results

The 10,000 (US) GPM SolarBee unit was positioned in the area of the sediment buildup. "It's reduced sedi ment in our reservoir probably by 75 percent," Coatman says. "It has broken

from blue-green algae blooms is filter clogging at treatment plants. At the Palmdale plant this problem occurred almost continuously throughout the year. "Since installing these new circu lation units we have only experienced two or three weeks of excessive clog ging of our filters during the algae growing season, per year," Dluzak says. "We're planning on upgrading

To reduce sediment, the unit's down-hose is set below the thermocline

it down and distributed it out. Because

our units to the new V12 model with

Ed Sullivan is a writer on technology based in Hermosa Beach, California, Contact e-mail: solarbee@solarhee.com.

Not Just Better Technology, But Technology That Pays

the larger battery and solar panels, which will operate 24 hours per day as compared to the current units (without batteries) that only run during daylight hours, so we're hoping that the filter clogging will virtually disappear.

for Itself An unmatched commitment to R&D has

resulted in sludge thickening and dewatering centrifuge technology that virtually pays for itself. Because of our Improved

Since we have to use treated water to

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performance, many municipalities have reaped the benefit of superior technolo

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blue-green algae control. For years copper sulphate had been applied typi cally once or twice a week. Another primary reason for installing the units was concern about the buildup of very dense sedimenta tion over a 50-year period. "Over the years there were attempts to clean the reservoir out with various types of dredges and an aerator, but these couldn't keep up with the sedimenta tion," explains Don Coalman, Water Production Superintendent at Englewood Water District. Englewood

other remedies to the nitrification

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Water District faced a choice of drain

March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 59


Wastewater

New poultry plant wastewater facility reduces costs and allows for future expansion

The facility to be discussed

processes, seasons, cooks, and flash-freezes poultry for the

food industry and was trying to increase their production. Their pre vious wastewater system was limited in its ability to meet the discharge requirements to the local Publicly Owned Treatment Works(POTW) and was required to meet these more strin gent limits as a condition of their expansion. To expand production, the facility was looking at a tremendous capital improvement cost to increase the size of their wastewater pretreatment plant to handle the expected higher flows and loadings. The facility had problems with lev els

of

Total

Dissolved

formance, high chemical costs, among planning to levy surcharges for EC/TDS due to their noncompliance with their US EPA regulated discharge permit. Prior Operations On the average, the facility treated 180,000 USgpd, operating IOV2 hours per day, five to six days per week. Wastewater from the various poultryprocessing operations flows to a com mon sump and is then pumped through a rotary screen (to remove the large

ic flocculants. The

wastewater is

mixed/flocculated in the DAE flocmbes with dissolved air addition and

Old Chemistry

Floccin-J

% Decrease

BOD

1,200 mg/L

250 mg/L

79%

TSS

500 mg/L

120 mg/L

76%

EC

1,700 umho/cm

1,300 umho/cm

24%

1,400 mg/L

950 mg/L

32%

Solids

(TDS)/Electroconductivity (EC), wet sludge that was expensive to dispose of, poor coagulation/flocculation con trol, carry-over of floe into their efflu ent, throughput limitations due to the poor coagulation/flocculation per

solids) and flows to a 180,000 gallon Equalization Tank (EQ Tank). The wastewater is pumped from the bottom ofthe EQ Tank at 275-300 gpm to their Dissolved Air Flotation(DAP)system. The wastewater was pH adjusted (in line) with caustic or acid to meet the near neutral setpoint of 7-8 pH. After pH adjustment, an aluminum based inorganic/organic coagulant was added, followed by cationic and anion-

others. In addition, the POTW was

TDS

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Wastewater monthly chemical cost was $18,000 and the sludge haul off cost was $60,000. In addition, there was an impending surcharge from the POTW for BOD,TSS, and EC.

The Trial using Floccin-J The addition of the Floccin-J prod uct required some small changes in the system's operation. In order to feed product into a pressurized line, the Floccin Feeder system was modified: the auger of a standard feeder was set

to deliver product into a second "slur ry tank."(Makeup water for the slurry tank was taken right from the wastewater line exiting the EQ tank.) After mixing, the slurry was pumped straight into the OAF feed line

upstream of the flocculation tubes. The resultant effluent quality was greatly improved, as shown in Table 1. The DAF cake was more consistent, much drier, less shear sensitive, and more

continued overleaf...

UPGRADE YOUR WWTP TO MEET NEW BNR

REQUIRMENTS FOR PENNIES

Floccin feeder with supersack.

NOT DOLLARS/GALLON the float solids rise to the surface. The

solids are skimmed off and pumped to an 8,000 gallon holding tank and the treated liquid effluent flows to the city's wastewater facility. The effluent water quality from the facility to the city averaged a flow of 200,000 USgal/day, a BOD of 1,200 mg/L and a TSS of 500 mg/L, Prior Process

The process used five chemicals: caustic, acid, coagulant, cationic flocculant, and an anionic flocculant. The

operator spent several hours each day transporting, blending, mixing, and adjusting the feed rates of these differ

No upsets resulting from solids washout Increase capacity in existing tanks Less expensive than other BNR options Operator friendly - stable system performance No redworms Proven and documented Over 400 installations in 44 countries

Achieve Nitrification even at 5°C / 41°F

ent chemicals. The treatment process

required tight pH control for effective coagulation/flocculation, but this is very difficult to maintain due to the various products they process inside the plant. When the pH is out of the 78 range, the effluent water quality decreases and the resulting sludge is difficult to handle due to its wet and

slimy nature. The sludge was being hauled off at

an expense of $15,000 per week. The facility attempted to dewater the sludge, but the chemistry in use did not

AnoxKaldnes

allow release of the water entrained in

the sludge. Prior Chemical Usage Rates In an average month the processor

used eight drums each of caustic and acid; 3,300 gals of coagulant, and 2,000 lbs each of the cationic and anionic flocculants. The average

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March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 61


Wastewater easily dewatered than with the previ ous chemistry. The pH swings from 4.7 to 10.8 and the Floccin-J works very well even with these pH swings. With the increased solids content, sludge

Old Chemistry

Usage Rate

$/Day

Acid

25 gal/day

$68

Caustic

15 gal/day

$45

Coagulant

55 gal/day

$350

Cationic Flocculant

100 lbs/day

$150

Anionic Flocculant

100 lbs/day

$120

Sludge Disposal

3 loads/day @ $900/load

$2,700

BOD*

1,200 mg/L = 2,002 lbs/day

$378

TSS*

500 mg/L = 834 lbs/day

$193

Flow*

200,000 gpd = 268 ccf

$159

disposal costs were reduced from $900

per load to $600 per load. Trial Results

The goals for the trial were: • To optimize the treatment process and allow increased production with out capital outlay. • To simplify the wastewater treat ment process, reducing the operators' workload and dangerous chemical exposure.

$4,163

• To reduce the EC/TDS in the

effluent and avoid/minimize proposed surcharges from the city. • To increase the solids-content of

Floccin Chemistry

Usage Rate

$/Day

Carbon Dioxide

250 lbs/day

$10

Floccin-G

1,600 lbs/day

$1,360

Sludge Disposal

2 loads/day @ $600/load

$1,200

the sludge and reduce sludge disposal costs.

• Reduce the overall treatment

BOD*

350 mg/L = 291 lbs/day

$55

The trial was successful in meeting all of these objectives.

TSS*

100 mg/L = 83.4 lbs/day

$20

Benefits

Flow*

100,000 gpd = 268 ccf

$80

costs.

The use of Floccin-J reduced the

$2,725

number of on-site chemicals from 5 to

2. Floccin-J works in a wide range of pH values (4.7 to 10.8) and is much easier to control; the operator simply adjusts one speed-control dial instead of several chemical feed pumps. The cost of using the traditional chemistry was $4,163/day as compared to $2,725/day with Floccin-J. Soon after the trial, the facility started up a batter frying line that increased the BOD by 30% (part of the plant expan sion). Integrated Engineers reformulat-

Net Savings

$l,438/day

* Surcharges based on the city surcharge program. Flow at $0.595/ccf, $0.189/lb BOD, S0.232/lb. TSS

Table 2 — Cost comparison ed a special product(Floccin-G)for the facility and reduced the usage rate to 25% lower than Floccin-J. An addition

al cost savings was in the operation of the EQ tank and the use ofcarbon diox

ide instead of acid to control the pH

(also reduced the EC/TDS levels). Another area of savings was from the conservation of water in the plant processes reducing the water consump tion 50% (200,000 gpd reduced to 100,000 gpd). The facility is also bene fiting from the reduction in Insurance and Workman's Compensation premi ums due to the elimination of the haz ardous chemicals. Conclusion

Floccin-J has simplified the system, allowing the poultry processor to run a more consistent process, obtain better quality effluent and sludge - with less operator intervention. The daily chem ical/sludge hauling costs have been reduced by 34%. Best of all, the processor is free to move forward with increased production without the expense of expanding the wastewater treatment plant, buy additional capaci ty units from the POTW, and has reduced costs with lower surcharges. J

DAF with drier sludge. 62 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

For more information, e-mail: sales@ wecleanwater com.


Stormwater

Cost-effective stormwater runoff control By Stephen P. Hides,Hydro International

The natural ability ofthe ground

to control water is compro mised by the construction of buildings, roads and parking lots on previously undeveloped green areas. The problems associated with

uncontrolled stormwater runoff are

becoming more apparent with increas ing urbanization and changing weather patterns. In many towns and cities around the world the frequency of stormwater flooding, and the costs of consequential damage associated with urban flooding are rising rapidly. Conventional solutions to stormwa

ter flooding have typically relied on increasing the conveyance capacity of the collection system. Large diameter relief sewers and tunnels are construct

ed to cope with increased peak flows, which transfer excess flows further

down the watershed, where it is hoped that sufficient hydraulic capacity exists. Finding a point in the drainage system with sufficient hydraulic

capacity is a challenge. In most urban drainage networks there will always be a hydraulic bottleneck, a point in the system where the amount of flow entering the system exceeds the hydraulic capacity of the sewer. Conventional approaches to solving flooding problems that rely on increas ing capacity often transfer, rather than solve, the problem downstream, are very expensive to install, are disruptive and are not sustainable.

In order to prevent flooding prob lems from becoming worse, more and more municipal planning and permit ting departments are requiring devel opers to minimize the impact of stormwater runoff on the environment

by controlling flows and removing pol lutants on site. Planning, permitting and environmental regulations are becoming more stringent. Controlling, storing and treating stormwater runoff from new develop ments can add significantly to project

ZENON Environmental inc., is pleased to announce that Scott Lenhardt, P.Eng. has been promoted to Product Manager and that Victoria Faivo, P.Eng. has joined ZENON as the new Regional Manager for Ontario, Quebec, Atlantic Canada, and Michigan. Scott has spent over 13 years in the water and wastewater business, has played a key role in building ZENON's sales in the Municipal sector to record high levels over the last six years. He will now apply this knowledge and client perspective to the product development activities of our Corporate Technology division. Victoria joins the Municipal Division sales force with seven years of experience in the industry and a Civil and Environmental Engineering degree from The University of Western Ontario. She has held positions as a Sales Engineer and Regional Manager and recently returned to Canada after spending two years in Sydney, Australia with a ieading manu facturer's representative firm, in her new role, Victoria will work with Municipal Reps to provide strong leadership for con tinued sales growth in municipal water and wastewater treat ment systems while maintaining the high level of service and expertise that ZENON customers have come to expect.

costs. New and more cost-effective

solutions are needed to meet regulato ry requirements. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) offer a means of meeting the regulatory requirements without adding to project costs. SuDS are designed to protect or enhance water quality and the environ ment by dealing with stormwater runoff close to where it falls as rain

(source control approach) thereby pro tecting water resources from the impacts of excess flow and the associ ated pollutants. Hydro International, a company with over 25 years of experience in the field of stormwater management, is a proponent of SuDS.Through hydraulic research and development programs the company has designed a range of innovative devices that can be used to

help meet permit requirements without incurring significant costs. Technologies, such as the Reg-UContinued overleaf...

® BurnsIde Burnside has been helping clients find cost effective and innovative solutions to their environmental needs for more

than 30 years. • Water Supply and Treatment • Groundwater, Wastewater and Stormwater

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ZENON is a world leader in immersed UP membrane technolo

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info@zenon.com

March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 63


Stormwater Flo® vortex valve, have been designed with this goal in mind. This valve is a self activating flow control device that can be installed in either a manhole or catchbasin to restrict site runoff to the

predevelopment rate. It operates by harnessing the energy inherent in the flow field and avoiding the need for moving parts or power. No moving parts mean rquire little or no mainte nance.

The design of the valve is simple, consisting of an intake, a volute and an outlet. Flow is directed tangentially into a volute to form a vortex. High peripheral velocities induce an airfilled core with a resulting back pres sure that reduces the discharge. By using the vortex to control the flow, clear openings are up to 600% larger than

conventional

flow

control

devices, such as sharp edged orifice plates. The larger opening size has two major benefits. Firstly, the larger openings mean the vortex valves are less prone to blockage from the trash and debris often found in urban runoff.

Secondly, the larger openings allow consulting engineers to consider new approaches when designing drainage

Installing a 22 inch Type C Reg-U-Fio vortex vaive into the controi structure at Eastern Maii Office Park, South Portiand, Maine.

systems. For example, installing the valves at points higher up in the drainage network can lead to a reduc tion in the size and cost of downstream

Class H Insulation For Continuous Duty and V.F.D. Applications I Continuous duty and Variable Frequency drive (VFD) rated Insulation system rated to 1802 C (3562 F) Designed to operate over a wide frequency range or speed Special coated, voltage spike resistant, inverter duty motor Exceptional, high performance capabilities F.E. MYERS COMPANY

Myers

Division of Pentair Canada, inc. 269 Trillium Drive • Kitchener, Ontario N2G 4W5

Pentair Pump Group

lei. 519-748-5470 Fax 519-748-2553

^3 engineered pump systems ltd. BRITISH COLUMBIA

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1635 industrial Avenue

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Port Coquitlam, BO V3C 6M9 Ph;(604) 552-7900 Fax:(604) 552-7901

Ph:(780) 439-7800 Fax:(780) 439-7840

Toll Free: (800)668-4533 • Email: epsl@telus.net

pipe work - inlet or source control. Reg-U-Flo vortex valves have a unique S-shaped head/discharge curve, which has been devised from extensive

computational fluid dynamic modeling (CFD) and both laboratory and field testing. The head discharge curve com prises two distinct phases. As the head increases, a transition takes place from the free flow (lower portion of the curve) to vortex controlled flow (upper portion of curve). This unique charac teristic can reduce on site storage vol ume requirements by up to 30%, low ering overall project costs by as much as 50%.

There are currently over 14,000 of these vortex valves in operation around the world, controlling a wide range of flow from 0.15 cfs (4 1/s) to 425 cfs (11,900 1/s). An example of the effective use of the Reg-U-Flo vortex valves can be seen at an office park in South Portland, Maine. The office park con sists of three separate one-story build ings totaling 93,000 sq ft, surrounded by paved parking for 424 cars(an addi tional 183,000 sq ft)for a total of 6.3 acres of impervious surface out of the 10 acre site. The stormwater permit required that post development runoff should not exceed predevelopment runoff rates. The post-development runoff rate was calculated to be 45 cfs

Continued on page 71... 64 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005


Product and Service Showcase Dissolved oxygen probe

Rental equipment Instrument

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J March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 65


Product and Service Showcase Reducing hydrogen sulflde from gas and air streams

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66 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

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|y detection devices employ a H,. full range of technologies, ÂŤ% to

The Concrete Pipe Design Manual'' Version 1.4 is now available. A tool for

engineers who are responsible for selecting the type, size and strength requirements of pipe for the design and specification of precast concrete pipe for sanitary sewer, drainage and culvert applications. Tel; 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-mail: khunter@concretepipe.org. Web: www.concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association

Widely used interactive software for selecting the right material for buried infrastructure systems. Determine the real cost of materials you specify over the design life of the project through three independent programs. Tel: 972506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-mail:

khunter@concrete-pipe.org, Web: www. concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association

Slim line submersible pumps

New 5100 and 5150

further

two

slim

line

ITT

pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new

Flygt

launched

its

eter, with 3" and 4" hoses. They are made from cast aluminum and have an

outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC

Davis Controls Ltd.

has

JetMix

Vortex Mixing System can be used

in

bio-

solids storage where

solids

suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix

system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption;

most abrasive slur

300 and 500 mm in diam

www.daviscontrols.com.

next

generation of slurry pumps. They are designed specifical ly to handle the

60Hz models, which can handle up to 55 1/s and pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between

based transmitters and controllers. The

flame detectors meet the most rigorous requirements for fire detectors and use the latest in Ultraviolet, Infrared, UV/IR and Triple IR technologies. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630, Email: info@daviscontrols.com. Web:

JotlUlilTISiBI

slurry pumps

ITT Flygt has released a

including Infrared (IR), cat alytic bead, electromechanical and solid state sensors and these analog and smart digital sensors are complemented by multiple versions of microprocessor

ries, in a wide spec trum of tough industrial environ

ments. The pumps have the latest ITT

Flygt technology incorporated, ensuring high efficiency, reliability and a long working life. Tel:

expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel:

60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514-

514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605,

695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web:

Web: www.ittflygt.ca.

www.greatario.com.

ITT Flygt

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt

The original E-Z Out Lift Out Coupling Our Patented lift out slide rail system is designed for most vertical discharge type submersible pumps under ler 5 H.P., with 1-1/4", 2" and 3" NPT discharge nozzles or 2-1/2" or 3" horizontal discharge. Our popular lift out check valve option is now available for 3" discharge pumps. Designed to provide easy service access for most submersible sewage, sump and grinder pumps from wet pit applica tions. The system can prevent the need or risk of a confined space entry to service pumps. Pumps are removed from above sump for inspection and

f

service. Tel: 604-942-7994, Fax: 604942-7954, E-mail: e-zout@telus.net. E-Z Out Manufacturing Inc.

519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157, E-

mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com. Web:

Pumping systems

Chopper pumps

Myers optimizes system efficiencies with complete engi neering services, providing cost-effec tive solutions and immediate cost sav

ings when planning a pump station. Myers collection system design service provides a comprehensive analysis and design of the complete network, ensur ing the system operates at peak effi ciencies under various running condi tions. Software programs provide the engineering tools to properly design the ideal station, including the number of pumps, type of control and lift system. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901, E-mail: epsl@telus.net. EE Myers

Landia chopper pumps solve the tough est problems when pumping difficultto-handle liquids with high solid con tents. Chop and reduce solids particle size while pumping with our special knife system. Eliminate clogging problems and prevent costly break downs. Landia

chopper pumps are operating in: raw unscreened effluents, food industry efflu ents, paper mills, slurries and sludges, and much more. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax: 604-552-7901, E-mail: epsl@telus.net. Landia

March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 67


roduct and Service Showcase Multi-stage filter for small drinking water applications

Moving-bed bio-reactor

Package Water and

Parkson's Geo-Reactof" is an attached

Wastewater Plants

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways.

r" n

result

ft

increased DO, increased

We supply Package Water and Sewage

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

contact

Treatment

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no membranes to replace, and yet treat ment performance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced popula tions up to 2,000. Tel: 905-853-0164, Fax: 905-853-8807,E-mail: elew@msfilter.

of the mixed

time

liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer

efficient

BOD reduction and nitrification can

com. Web: www.msfilter.com.

easily be accomplished. Tel: 514-6368712, Fax: 514-636-9718, E-mail: canada@parkson.com. Web: www. parkson.com.

MS Filter Inc.

Parkson

PISTA* Grit Chamber

rj maintains the highest proven grit removal over

E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com. Web: www.sanitherm.com.

Digital communication

ation as the well-known

In-line Interceptors. Developed to treat run offfrom an area of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherit ed the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and

a

wide range of daily flows because of its

exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete parti cles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in down stream basins, channels, weirs and pip ing. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit

Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377,

The Inlet Stormceptor System employs the same principles of oper

The Smith & Loveless

efficiencies

worldwide. The

Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Grit chamber

Plants

Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems.

oil removed from stormwater run-off

remains trapped within the storage chamber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500

Auma's 2-wire digital communication keeps the customer in control. Communication protocols such as Modbus, DeviceNet and Profibus are

very complex and have been developed by the best computer communication minds in the industry. They allow the

www.smithandloveless.com.

www.stormceptor. com.

Smith & Loveless

Stormceptor Canada Inc.

exchange of information between devices in the field, e.g. actuators, sen sors and controls, as required for the automation of controlled processes. Tel: 705-721-8247, Fax: 705-721-5851, E-mail: troy-ontor@troy-ontor.ca. Troy-Ontor Inc.

Membrane Bloreactor (MBR)

Small drinking water systems

ZENON's ZeeWeed®

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif

pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913-

P f

units installed in North America. Tel:

888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173, E-mail:

answers@smithandloveless.com. Web:

Hatch safety net

800-565-4801, Fax: 416-960-5637, y

.

E-mail: info@stormceptor.com. Web:

The lightweight Hatch Safety Net is designed to be permanently installed and easily retractable in floor and roof openings where the risk of fall through is present. When closed, the

MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater treatment. The proven system replaces con

net

system allows people to move freely around con fined space open ing without fear of falling into the opening. It also allows visibility of inspections and accessibility for limit ed maintenance and float adjustments. When entry/exit is required, the net can be easily unhooked on all but one side of the opening to facilitate full access to the confined space. Tel: 604-552-7900, Fax:604-552-7901, E-mail: epsl@telus.net. U.S.F. Fabrication

ventional filtration and combines clar

ification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expanded in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs.

ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treat ment plants. This ultrafil-

tration system is cost-effec

ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MGD.Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, E-

tive, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistent ly producing high quality water. Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: info@zenon.com. Web: www.

mail: info@zenon.com. Web:zenon.com.

zenon. com.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Proven in hundreds of installations,

68 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005


-St.

Product and Service Showcase New CECAB Web site

Wastewater system

Flow meters

JWC Environmental's

Accusonic flow

irijBpk Bandscreen Monster™ *j 3^" screens wastewater and

meters utilize

_

removes problem solids

the multiple parallel path

to provide complete pro

transit

tection for membrane

flow measure

treatment plants (MBRs). The unique inside-out flow pattern captures solids on the inside loop of the Bandscreen to prevent the bypass of solids, and the rotating perforated panels with 2mm openings lift tons of unwanted solids out of the channel to prevent them from clogging sensitive MBR systems. Tel: 949-833-3888, Fax: 949833-8858, E-mail: jwce@jwce.com.

time

In February, the Canadian Environ mental Certification Approvals Board

ment technique to achieve up to

(CECAB) launched a new and im proved website. It offers environmen

±0.5% accura

tal certifications through three desig nations: CCEP (Canadian Certified Environmental Practitioner), CEPIT (Canadian Environmental Practitionerin-Training) and various environmen tal auditing certifications. E-mail:

info@cecab.org. Web: www.cecab.org.

cy. The systems can be config ured to measure both open channel and full pipe flow. Accusonic applications include water, wastewater, hydro elec tric. Tel: Western office 416-779-1531, Eastern office 613-398-0296, E-mail: service@flowmetrix.ca, Web: www.

Web: www.JWCE.com.

Canadian Environmental Certification

flowmetrix.ca.

JWC Environmental

Approvals Board

Flowmetrix Technical Services

Drainage products

Box culverts

Wastewater treatment system

I Armtec has been a leader in the culvert

Your budget fits in a box! Armtec box culverts are ideal for low-profile, open-bottom stream crossings and wa terways. With the unique advantages offered by corrugated steel and deep corrugations, Armtec box culverts pro vide for low profile structures at a very economical installed cost. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160, Email: sales@armtec.com, Web: www.

and drainage business for almost 100 years. Today, Armtec has even more to offer. Our wide variety of materials available include: corrugated steel pipe and spiral rib pipe in galvanized, aluminized and polymer laminated finishes,

high density polyethylene BOSS pipe manufactured to CSA specifications,

HYBAS™ wastewater treatment sys tem — Upgrade your activated sludge system within the existing tankage to maintain nitrification at higher flow rates or to increase a plant to meet new nitrification requirements. Proven and

and a range of storm water detention systems. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519822-1160, E-mail: sales@armtec.com.

270-3898, Fax: 401-270-3908, Web:

armtec.com

Web: www.armtec.com

www.anoxkaldnes.com.

Armtec

Armtec

AnoxKaldnes Inc.

Headworks equipment

Anaerobic digestion equipment

—-■■■m' ■ liirttinWan

Olympus Technologies

Headworks, Inc.

Inc. manufactures

manufactures

digester covers, mixers and heating equipment. To insure the highest

ing equipment for

have automatic stabilization, automatic

lubrication, precision bearing cartridge, and vibration suppression. Tel: 416-5274396, Fax: 905-567-8590. E-mail:

info@vectorprocess.com. Web: www. vectorprocess.com.

Vector Process Equipment

Drive solutions for water and wastewater

advanced screen the

water

wastewater

quality standards, (jesigns, fabricates, OTI and

controls the quality of all the equipment in its own facilities with its own employ ees. The EZup digester cover designs are stronger, longer lasting, and easier to install. Its heavy-duty sludge mixers

documented. We have well over 400 in stallations in 44 countries. Tel: 401-

and treat

ment industry. Headworks prod uct

line

includes:

mechanical

bar

screens, dual flow screens, perforated screens, spiral screens, septic receiving systems and compacting units, Headworks' features include the patent ed auto-reverse feature, which makes obstruction removal quick and easy. Tel: 416-527-4396, Fax: 905-567-8590.

E-mail: info@vectorprocess.com. Web: www.vectorprocess.com.

Vector Process Equipment

For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben efits. For wastewater treatment the

VET" drives ensure reduced energy consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance costs. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905829-2630, E-mail: info@daviscontrols. com. Web: www.daviscontrols.com. Davis Controls Limited

March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 69


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Stormwater Continuedfrom page 64 CORP.

77 ORCHARD ROAD

AJAX, ONTARIO L1S6K9

(1260 1/s) almost double the predevelopment rate of 23 cfs (644 1/s). Accordingly, onsite detention was

required to maintain the hydrological equilibrium. Several options were con sidered by the consulting engineer for meeting the permit discharge require ments, ranging from sub surface dis charge to on site detention ponds and underground storage tanks. The option that was selected as the most cost-effective final design solu tion, consisted of a piped collection system oversized to provide under ground storage of excess stormwater for the 1 in 10 year storm, in conjunc tion with a single Reg-U-Flo vortex

TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting lino Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning

BAYCOR FIBRE TECH INC.|

°

'Tel: (519) 751-7787 Fax:(519) 751-7712 info@baycorflbre.com www.baycorfibre.com

The Best Screen In The World Is A

Fine Screening and

Baycor Screen

Sludge Thickening

Specialists

valve to control the maximum rate of

discharge to the receiving stream. The difference in storm volumes for the 1

in 10 and 1 in 25 year storms would be stored as surface storage on portions of the parking areas. This option proved to be the most cost-effective and

allowed the most efficient use of space

O^ctopus floating fine bubble systems

VENT-O-MAT

Bio^Bloc

fine bubble fixed-film

"Anti-SurgelAnti-Shock"

bio-reactors

10-year warranty Air Release/Vacuum Break Valves

for ideal cold

for Sewage & Water

nitrlfication+

HYDRO-LOGIC ENVIRONMENTAL

for this site.

762 Upper James St., Suite 250 Hamilton, Ontario L9C 3A2

A 22 inch(560mm)Type C Reg-UFlo vortex valve was installed in a con

Fax: 905-777-8678

Phone: 905-777-9494

info@hydrologic.Ga

www.hydrologic.ca

FBC

trol chamber to restrict the flow offsite

to the predevelopment runoff rate. Forty-eight inch (1200 mm) diameter storage pipe was used to create suffi cient storage to contain a 1:10 year storm event underground. The cost of upsizing the pipe drainage system to create additional storage capacity was minimal, while

the

conventional

drainage system design would have required 24-36 inch diameter pipe sim ply to convey peak flows.

INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD.

iws

MONTREAL

BARRIE

SASKATOON

WELL AND PUMP MAINTENANCE 1-800-461-9636

After Hours Emergency Pager:(705)734-3277 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,

Tel:(705)733-0111, Fax:(705)721-0138 E-mail: iws@4ws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca

Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

The site contractor estimated that

the installed cost of the pipe storage system with parking lot ponding was approximately 4% less than installing a conventional pipe collection system with the detention basin. By eliminat ing the detention basin the owner

Package Since 1950

Water / Wastewater

NAPIER-REID LTD. 10-2 Alden Road

Treatment Plants

reduced maintenance on the site and

Markham, Ontario L3R 2S1

avoided the need for an unsightly secu rity fence as well as the unsightliness of windblown trash that inevitably col

Tel: 905-475-1545 • Fax: 905-475-2021

lects in and around detention basins.

Importantly, by eliminating the large detention basin that was original ly planned for the site, more land sur face was made available for an addi

tional building.

www.napier-reid.com

Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal Complete Services

^^^^.Trimax Residuals an American Water Services'company

Stephen Hides is President of Hydro International. Contact e-mail: gmerill @hil-tech.com

800-465-21 15 www.trimaxenv.com j www.americanwaterservices.com

March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 71


Areas of expertise:

VEfvjnris

• Environmental

Capit:al Inc.

• Industrial & Manufacturing

...Turning txperience Into Profit

• Steel Manufacturing

Lucy Casacia, B.Sc. Metallurgy

«■ Commercialization

President & C.E.O.

www.adventiscapital.com • E-mail: info@adventiscapitaLcom

Four decades of excellence in Infrastructure planning Er engineering BELLEVILLE

Fadng the challenges In

•• Advanced Technology

Phone: 416.301.4958 or 905.464.2586

BARRIE

Blosolids

COLLINGWOOD

OTTAWA

(705) 726-3371 (613) 966-4243 (705) 445-3451

Ainley

i

CONSULTING ENGINEERS PLANNERS

Creating Quality Solutions Together

(613) 822-1052

the maze

» Entrepreneurial

of blosolids programs By Vince Nazareth, R.V.Anderson Associates

Biosolids management pro grams

can

vary

greatly

between the larger municipali ties in Southern Ontario and

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

the smaller, more remote communities in the Prairies and Eastern Canada.

environment • infrastructure

tel 416 497 8600 web www.rvanderson.com

toronto welland Ottawa sudbury london moncton fredericton charlottetown bombay

This variation is not just limited to size but includes diversity in community character, technologies that are

employed, end uses, and the regula engineering • operations ■ management

tions that are in effect in any given

jurisdiction. But in spite of the maze of

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. CONSULTING ENGINEERS - SITE PLANNERS - LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS

Specialists In a compretienslve range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Colllngwood

Bracebridge

Orillia

Tel. (rOS| 444-2!e! EMail: lnfo@cctatham.com

Tel. (705) 645.7756

Tel. (705) 325-1753

Web: www.cctatham.com

CLEARVIEW

Get a clear view of:

Geophysics Inc.

' UST's, buried metal, debris & fill

issues that affect municipal biosolids programs, there are some common chaiienges - one of the most prevalent is dealing with public concern. One of the approaches used to

improve program quality, and to a degree, the level of acceptance by the public, is through the use of best prac tices.

The

National

Guide

to

Sustainable Municipal Infrastructure: Innovations

and

Best

Practices

(InfraGuide) is a project funded by Infrastructure Canada and implement ed by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) in partnership with the National Research Council

' Former excavations & structures

(NRG). It provides a road map to the

"Specialists in non-intrusive ground investigations"

' Leachate plumes

best available solutions for addressing

Tel: 905.458.1883 Fax: 905.792.1884

' Voids and fractures

' Stratigraphy

E-mail: clearview@geophysics.ca Web: www.geophysics.ca

Consolidated

' Pipes and utilities

30 YEARS DREDGING HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGES HIGH VOLUME PUMPING-HDPE PIPE

(New) - Geo Tube dewatering

Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Giroux

Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,

Municipal & Industrial Tel: (506) 684-5821, Fax: (506) 684-1915, Tel: (705) 235-5531, www.glrouxlnc.com 72 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

infrastructure issues. It is also the

focal point for a Canada-wide net work of practitioners, researchers and municipal governments focused on infrastructure operations and mainte nance.

With the decay that is apparent in our municipal infrastructure, the InfraGuide project contributes to cur rent practice and the demands for infrastructure renewal in Canada's

municipalities. By providing a net work of knowledgeable practitioners and documentation of best practices, the InfraGuide is designed to con-


Biosolids • • • • • • •

tribute to the enhancement of munici

pal infrastructure management across the country. With the current level of activity in the area of biosolids management, municipalities will be pleased to know

DELCAIM WATER

Water & Wastewater Systems Process Optimization Stormwater Management Environment Pianning Vaiue Engineering Project Financing & Procurement Inteiiigent Water Systems(IWS)

rMTEUlGENT SOLUnoNS

133 Wynford Drive Toronto, ON M3C1K1 T: 416-441-4111 F: 416-441-4131 www.deican.com

ISO 9001/2000

>IWS

that the InfraGuide has undertaken the

preparation of a number of best prac tices in the area of biosolids manage ment.

The first BP (best practice), entitled Biosolids Management Programs, is an overview of biosolids management from controlling quality of incoming wastewater through sewer use controls,

V

FUNG!& BACTERIA ID & ENUMERATION

V

TOTAL SPORE COUNTS(AIR-O-CELL, BURKARD, ALLERGENCO)

V V

INDOOR ALLERGEN TESTING SEWAGE CONTAMINATION IN BUILDINGS

V

MATERIALS, PARTICLE & DUST CHARACTERIZATION

V V V

FULL PARTICLE IDENTIFICATION & SIZING DUST MITES / MOTH SCALES & ARTHROPOD FRAGMENTS ASBESTOS / LEAD / METALS / SILICA / CHEMISTRY

to the final end-use of the biosolids

product. The BP includes a compari son of regulations in North America and presents an outline of the key ele ments that may be considered part of a biosolids management program. While recognizing that biosolids management varies depending on size, regulations, public perception, social, economic and political factors, the BP identifies 13 elements of biosolids

management including: • regulatory framework, • source control, • solids stabilization, • thickening, • dewatering, • storage,

• transportation, • beneficial use/disposal, • odour control, • contingency planning, • quality management, • program delivery options, and, • public participation. The document is a useful primer for those who have a program that they are considering changing or for those who are yet to develop a formal biosolids management program.

The Working Group in charge ofthe development of the biosolids-related BPs also reviewed the results of a

Canada-wide survey to determine which ofthe program elements needed to be covered in more detail. From the

responses received and the experiences ofthe Working Group members, it was apparent that the safety and sustainability of biosolids programs were being questioned, and the group decid ed to develop two more BPs to improve public acceptance. With 60% of municipalities report ing that they have no biosolids com munication strategy, and recognizing continued overleaf...

EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPATprogram

www.emsl.com

107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108

1-800-220-3675

www.gapenviromic.com

GAP EnviroMicrobial Services a division of Conestoga-Rovers & Associates

Drinking Water Contamination

Cryptosporidium & Giardia Microscopic Particuiate Analysis Disinfection Efficacy Testing

Source Detection

Indoor Air Quality Services

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario N6E 1P5

Telephone:(519) 681 -0571 • Fax:(519)681 -7150

a

Gartner Lee LimitecJ

environmental strategies & solutions

Environmental Science,Economics,

Planning & Engineering Solutions www.gartnerlee.com British Columbia

1

Alberta I Yukon I Northwest Territories I Ontario I Quebec

Geamatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists

• Design of WaterA/Vastewater/Air Treatment Systems•Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies • Environmental Management Systems(ISO 14000) < Utility Minimization Audits (Energy, Water, Wastes)• Remedial Designs/Remedial Actions •Phase l/ll Environmental Site Assessments • Soil/Groundwater

Contaminant Remediations• Litigation Assistance www.geomatriXiCom

Tel:(519)886•7500 Fax:(519)886•7419

Unit G, 420 Weber St, North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 4E7

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers 210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tel: (519)624-7223 Fax:(519)624-7224 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1G6 Tel: (906)622-0012 Fax:(906)622-0031

E-mail: info@hydromantis.oom

Web: www.hydromantis.com

March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 73


Biosolids

lNT€GRnT€D CXPLORBTIONS Inc. Bio-Environmental Specialists since 1977 67 Watson Rd., Unit #1 Box 1385, Guelph,

TEC Division

LAB Division

• Environmental Microbiology • Biotreatment Optimization • Fungi, Bacteria & Algae ID • Contract R&D, UV Efficacy

• Bioremediation

Ontario, N1H 6N8

• Air & Water Biofilters

Tel:(519) 822-2608 Fax:(519) 822-3076

• Site Investigations • Aquatic Spill Surveys

E-mail: ieinc@istar.ca

Providing a wide range of Environmentai Services

J.L.Richards L ENGINEERS• ARCHITECTS ■ PLANNERS

Water & Wastewater Treatment I Environmental Assessments Planning Solid Waste Management I Stormwater Management i Watermain & Sewer Rehabilitation

J.L. Richards & Associates Limited Ottawa

Kingston

613 728-3571

613 544-1424

www.jirichards.ca Sudbury Timmins

705 522-8174

705 360-1899

Expertise for the new world of Water and Wastewater Management

the importance of building a relation ship with the public, the Working Group developed a BP for Communi cation and Public Consultation for

Biosolids Management. The BP deals with developing a good relationship with the public by focussing on: • public awareness - through an on going dialogue with the public, • media relations - working with reporters, editors, publishers and producers, • public consultation - a framework for stakeholder participation in development and implementation of a program or project. The communications BP contains

advice on conducting a situation analy sis, how to identify and engage stake holders, forming an advisory commit tee, choosing communication tools, issues management and maintaining media relations.

Providing Professional Services Since 1959

KMK

The document recognizes trust.

Offices in:

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74 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

achieve your plan • Check - Check that

you are doing what you said you were doing • Review - Review to

see if what you are doing is achieving your plan.


Biosolids quality of information, courteous communications, commitment, and fairness, as foundations for successful

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March 2005, Environmental Science & Engineering 75


Environmental NEWS \

ZENON to acquire two German companies

complement to our ongoing research in technology and product develop

ZENON Environmental has agreed unconditionally to acquire all the

Chairman and CEO of ZENON."The

ment,"

said

Andrew

Benedek,

value proposition for us is cost reduc tion in our current operations as well as the capacity to expand into new product lines. For more information

shares of each of Dresden-based

Alpha Plan GmbH and Saxonia BioTec GmbH. Scheduled to close at

year-end 2005, the purchase price will collectively be a maximum of EUR

visit www.zenon.com.

10,000,000.

Companies partner to develop automated water safety sensor units

Alpha Plan produces membraneprocessing equipment. Saxonia BioTec specializes in the develop ment of hollow fibres and the produc tion of disposable cartridges and sys tem assembly for filtration and bioprocessing. "We see these acquisitions as a

Sandia National Laboratories, CH2M HILL and Tenix Investments Pty. Ltd. recently announced a multi-year, multi-million dollar partnership to develop an unattended water safety

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76 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2005

nitrates, and ammonia. Initial commercial units and wider

deployment are anticipated from late 2005 to mid 2007. The analyzer will respond rapidly to chemicals, biologi cal agents, and biotoxins; provide a low level of false alarms; and can be deployed as part of an integrated water and/or wastewater monitoring and management system. For

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system that offers the unique capabil ity of detecting currently unmonitored biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that could threaten water supplies.

drinking water facility infractions

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adverse water quality test results, the corporation was fined $6,000; and • Failing to ensure that the respon sibility for the overall operation of the facility was placed with a certified operator, contrary to Section 107(1) of the OWRA, the corporation was fined $8,000.


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Environmental NEWS \

AnoxKaldnes appoints

ers and included a plan to sign up addi

NS government increases

new chairman/CEO Jack Gardiner was recently named

tional retailers as collection sites. CPPI

water and wastewater

Chairman/CEO of AnoxKaldnes North

American

Operations

located

in

Providence, RI. AnoxKaldnes is the

inventor/supplier of the patented Moving Bed™ Biofilm Reactor (MBBR)and HYBAS™ systems for the biological treatment of both industrial and municipal wastewater. Mr. Gardiner was founder of Gardiner Environmental

Company, Inc., where he invented and manufactured the patented Water Champ vacuum chemical induction mixing process. For more information visit www.anoxkaldnes.com.

program expands The province of British Columbia now has 125 more collection sites where

motorists can drop off used oil, oil fil ters and containers, bringing the total to more than 500. The products are sent from these facilities for recycling. The B.C. Used Oil Management Association(BCUOMA),a non-profit, industry-led organization, has set up a network of collectors to pick up used oil materials from more than 4,000 commercial generators and more than 500 collection sites.

The program began an aggressive expansion in 2003 after the Canadian Products

For more information about British

Columbia's used oil program and a complete list of collection sites, visit www.usedoilrecycling.com. Phase I of environmental

clean-up at former military site completed Newfoundland's Environment and Conservation Minister Tom Osborne

EC's used oil collection

Petroleum

formed BCUOMA to oversee the pro gram. In the first nine months of 2004, the program collected more than 33 million litres of used oil, 3.6 million oil filters and 763,000 kilograms of plastic oil containers.

Institute

approached government with ways to improve the existing oil-return pro gram. CPPI's proposal recommended the program be expanded to include collection of oil filters and oil contain

recently announced that phase I of the environmental clean-up at the former military site in St. Anthony has been completed. The remediation work involved the

funding Nova Scotia Environment and Local Government Minister Brenda Fowlie

recently announced that her depart ment's capital budget for 2005-2006 will be $1,756 million, which repre sents an increase of 21 per cent over the last fiscal year's budget. The department has designated $500,000 of the capital budget for the Clean Water Program, which provides funds to communities for water and

wastewater systems, water supplies and sanitary surveys. $600,000 has been designated to improving provin cial wastewater treatment facilities.

The department has also designated $656,000 to assist local services dis tricts in the purchase of emergency equipment and maintenance of fire halls and recreational facilities.

excavation and shipment of PCB-contaminated soil and debris from one of

Letters to the editor

the two landfills at the site to licensed

Hi Tom -

disposal facilities outside of the province. With the completion of this aspect of the clean-up attention will now focus on developing a work plan to address the remaining PCB contami

I was reading Chris Hansen's article on uranium removal in the September

nants in the second landfill at the for

mer military site, as well as the contam inated soil containing hydrocarbons. Matrix

Environmental

of

Dartmouth, Nova Scotia was awarded the contract for phase I of the environ mental clean-up in St. Anthony in autumn 2004. The clean-up was com pleted in late December 2004. The contract was valued at $788,583.

2004 edition and he noted that the

guideline value is 20 mg/L. That should be 0.020 mg/L or 20 ug/L. Judy MacDonald, P. Eng. Supervisor, Drinking Water Management Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour Water and Wastewater Branch

Dear Mr. Davey, This is to express my gratitude and appreciation for publishing my article "Wastewater Treatment in Armenia" in

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