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Canadian The Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute is a Canadian Association of manufacturers of corrugated steel pipe and material suppliers. With production facilities and technically trained sales staff in communities throughout Canada, we work with you to create flexible and versatile solutions to meet your unique requirements. Through CSPI, we share our vast resource of knowledge and experience in order to bring to you the greatest value for today's dollar.

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Members: Fabricators: Armtec Limited, Atiantic Industries Ltd., Canada Culvert & Metal Pn FSI Culvert Inc., E.S. Hubbeli & Sons Ltd., Prairie Steel Products Ltd., Soieno Inc., SPIR-L-OK Industries, Steelcor Culvert Ltd., Twister Pipe Ltd., Westman Steel Industries. Steel Producers and Associates: Dofasco inc., Steico Inc., Noranda Inc., Sorevco.

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May 2004 Vol. 17 No.2

Issued May, 2004 fSiSf invites articies (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treat ment and other environmentai protection top

ics. if you are interested in submitting an arti cle for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. reserves the right to edit aii submissions without notice.



Beatles fans fall for the wrong John Editorial comment by Tom Davey


Tracing the history of PVC pipe usage back to the 1930s


24 New aluminum geodesic dome protects drinking water

10 Computer simulation saves time and expense in designing emissions control systems

25 A review of IBC containment

12 High-flow, low head pumps provide safe passage for Pacific

26 Pre-engineered storage buildings


14 Victoria, BC uses ultrasonic system to improve facility efficiency 16 The "greening" of a world class paper mill

20 Sustainable treatment of medical wastes using landfill gas 22 The history of health and safety legislation in Ontario

38 Research suggests conservative design of concrete box culverts


for environmental control of hazardous materials

30 Containing harsh chemical solutions in storage tanks costefficiently

32 Cover story - Boom deployment for industrial applications and general spills

40 Evaluating the implications of Ontario's Sustainable Water and Sewage Systems Act.

46 Could wastewater recycling help solve the global water shortage?


48 Treating cooling pond water helps recharge Alberta lake Environmental News


50 Reducing odours from landfill leachate lagoons 52 Bunker Hill project helps clean up 100 years of mining waste

Ad Index


54 Deep sea methane gas hydrates could contribute to global

Professional Cards




Literature Reviews



58 Cover story - Installing Atlantic Canada's first low-pressure membrane microfiltration system

60 Geophysics can reduce risks in trenchless technology projects 62 Reviewing emerging technologies in drinking water treatment 4 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

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Beatles fan fails

A caretaker recently recalled seeing two feet protruding from a bathroom

written language just as NATO, WHO and the EU became accepted into com

of John Lennon's former home in

mon usage.

Liverpool. He found they belonged to a young woman lying prostrate on the floor, hugging the toilet. She apolo gized, saying; "I just wanted to be close to John." The caretaker, obvious ly a kindly soul, lacked the heart to tell her that the toilet wasn't the original one. Still, metaphorically speaking, she actually was close to a John of sorts so perhaps her pilgrimage was fulfilled after all.

for the



But there must be something about sanitation systems that evokes bizarre behaviour. Perhaps it's in the water. Manhole cover thieves have





Years ago I worked for an

Australian newspaper group. The climate was benign, the pay good and the news room was full of witty characters. When a

toilet was stolen from a Methodist

Church in North Melbourne, our story ran under the headline; Is nothing sacred? The Australian thief was years ahead of his time. Now it appears that the Liverpool home where John Lennon was raised decades ago, still retains a powerful, if somewhat macabre hold over Beatles, devotees. Yoko Ono donated the house to the UK National Trust to become a shrine for

Beatles fans who remain passionate about the Fab Four decades after his demise.

incarceration of manhole thieves -

already on three continents at the time of writing - further exacerbate metals' shortages by building additional prison facilities?


Journal Sentinel reports that thieves have been making off with manhole

covers and sewer gratings at alarming rates.Works crews have to rush to

cover dangerous holes in roads left by the stolen manhole covers while detec

But there must be

something about sanitation systems that evokes bizarre behaviour.

tives hunt for the culprits. The Journal

Perhaps it's in the water...

Sentinel also reports that these man hole covers, weighing as much as 150

thieves have been making

because China's economic boom has


more iron and steel than any other type of building. When arrested, will the


pounds, have become desirable targets

By Tom Davey,

But back to the trenches. How does

one fence 150 lb gratings? Do fences pay in hard currency for the heists? If they are caught, will prosecutors say they have a cast iron case? When con victed, will the criminals be put behind iron bars? It is ironic that jails require

resulted in a voracious appetite for scrap metals. Ironically, this has led to underground auctions which have sent the prices to new heights. Unlikely as this story is, it is not, regrettably, an isolated case. Similar problems are reported from other places as far afield as New Jersey, the Ukraine and the UK. In Gloucester, England, at the time of writing, over 40 manhole covers were reported stolen, causing serious hazards to motorists, according to the highly respectable Guardian newspaper. These are speed bumps with a vengeance. There is the added irony that expensive cars could be reduced to scrap,just so that thieves can make a few bucks, pounds, euros or kopecs, stealing environmental infrastructure components. There may be linguistic causalities also. Reports of widespread manhole cover thefts will likely reincarnate the wrath of the politically correct high priests of etymology, who in the past, have pounced on gender-specific nomenclature. This led me to posit a new and gender neutral name for man holes, to be reincarnated as Circular Metallurgical Orifices. This new name I feel, will quickly mutate into the acronym CMO and evolve into our

off with manhole covers

and sewer gratings at alarming rates. Clearly manhole cover thefts are beyond the grasp of physical weak lings. Traditional smoke filled hang outs of gangsters, for example, are unlikely places for plannning this new type of crime. Police inquiries must take a new and broader vision. For

example, has there been a run on steroids or weight lifting equipment? Are detectives looking for suspects with broad shoulders and big biceps? Do they play heavy metal music? It may have taken brains to dream up such bizarre schemes as heisting heavy manhole covers and gratings, but I think brawn was the essential compo nent in the implementation of these crimes. The toilet incident in John Lennon's

former home was humorous, newswor thy and harmless. Thefts of manhole covers and gratings also seem funny at

first glance, but very definitely are not harmless. Both literally and metaphor ically, manhole cover thefts have opened new and dangerous vistas into underworld activities. â–

May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 7


& Engineering Editor


E-mail: tom@esemag.com (NO ATTACHMENTS PLEASE) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director


E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com

Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: carol@esemag.com Publisher

History of PVC Pipe

70 years of experience with PVC


After the reunification of East and

West Germany in 1989 and the

E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2MHiLL Ontario

Bill De Angelis, P.Eng. AWS Engineers & Pianners Corp., Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine

ADI Systems Inc., New Brunswick

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE Ft. V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Piiiiip Anaiyticai Services, British Columbia

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

By Thomas Huelsmann,European Vinyl Corporation (Deutschland) and Reinhard E. Nowack, ALPHACAN Omniplast

Today,PVC-U pipes are used in

a wide variety of applications, such as sewage, potable water, drainage and gas. In these areas plastic pipes often replace traditional materials and by 2000, the polymer consumption for pipe production had grown to about 2.5 million tonnes in Europe.

Marie Meunier

The roots of industrial PVC

John Meunier inc., Quebec

pipe production

British Coiumbia

made between the theoretical lifetime

of pipes (based on extrapolation of results from long-term hydrostatic burst pressure tests of up to 10,000 hours with the application of safety factors), with real life experience and actual test results.


Technical Advisory Board

time of 100 years for PVC pipe appli cations. This 70 years long-term expe rience permits a comparison to be

involvement of Omniplast with pipe production in Bitterfeld, it was possi ble to excavate and test PVC-U pipes from the early production years, as they were still in use in 1992/1993. A comprehensive series of tests on several of these old pipes was carried out in the 1990s against the current

norms. The results provide an excellent database to compare the data from the original pressure tests with actual results from 60 year old pipes. This is not only an interesting reflection of the history of PVC pipe production and application as well as a confirmation of the long-term per formance pre dicted 60 years ago, but it is also an impor

date back to the


Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy

1930s. The first


business publication of Environmental Science &

pipes were pro

PVC pipe de velopments.

Engineering Publications inc. An ail Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental con trol systems and drinking water treatment and distribu tion.

Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal

duced in 1934 in the BitterfeldWolfen chemi


operators and contractors.

different appli

information contained in fS&fhas been compiled from sources believed to be correct.

ES&E cannot be

responsible for the accuracy of articles or other printed matter. Although the information contained in this mag azine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to pro vide information rather than give legal or other profes sional advice.

Canadian Publications Mali Sales Second Class Mali


Product Agreement No.40065446 Registration No.7750

Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 for one year c (plus $5.25 GST). Ail advertising space orders, copy, art work,film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax; (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com



the the

Bitterfeld pipes, the report also



cations such as

potable water pipes, transpar


data from

cal industry area. These pipes

environmental officials, water and wastewater plant

contribu to

18" pipe being installed in Varennes, Quebec, in 1967.

ent food contact pipes (brewery appli cations) as well as industrial pipes (chemical laboratory and plant appli cations). The annual pipe production


from PVC pipes produced at Troisdorf in the 1930s and test


ed in the 1960s after 25 years of use. The comparison shows that the actual performance of the pipes has comfortably exceeded the performance predicted by the long-term pressure tests more than 60 years ago. The con

In parallel to the increasing produc tion volumes, the first norms for plas tic pipes were developed and products

the extrapolation of 10,000 hour pres sure testing is, in fact, very conserva

capacity reached about 550 tonnes in

clusions which can be drawn are that

were made to meet these new stan

tive and that the actual service life of


PVC-U pipes is likely to be more than double the original 50 year design life.

Although the plastics industry is a rather young materials segment, pro duction of industrial volumes of PVC

The article above is a summary of a

polymer and PVC-U pipes is now about 70 years old. This is a period very close to the predicted service life-

presentation being made in April at the 13th World Pipe Symposium in Milan, Italy.

8 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004



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Indoor/Outdoor Pollution

Computer simulation saves time and expense By Sergei Burlatsky and Richard F. Abrams,LSR Technologies Inc.

Computer simulation helped a manufacturer of an emissions

control system to overcome a challenging problem, making it possible to get the design right the first time.

LSR Technologies, Inc. produces a centrifugal particulate emission con trol device that can often allow compa nies to meet US federal and local emis

sions requirements without the cost and problems associated with using fabric filters and wet scrubbers.

In scaling up their device, LSR engineers were concerned that the extra length of the separator might cause a reverse flow condition. To

avoid the expense and lead-time involved in building and testing a pro totype, they used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to visualize the flow inside the separator. The simulation showed that simply scaling up their existing design would indeed create reverse flow, so they analyzed a num ber of alternative designs. The final design, which added a second cylinder to the main cylinder, worked well at

the larger size. The LSR Core Separator is a highperformance particulate control sys tem designed to remove both micron and submicron particles entrained in gas streams. The technology over comes the performance limitations of some cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components.

Each unit has a single inlet for the stream to be treated and two outlets,

one for the cleaned gas stream and the other containing a concentrated partic ulate recirculation stream. In opera tion, gas containing fine particulate matter is introduced through a tangen tial rectangular inlet. The particleladen gas develops a rotating flow pat tern through the main annular cham ber. Because of the centrifugal force on the rotating particles, they tend to move toward the outer wall of the

cylinder. The particles then leave the cylinder through a tangential exit on the side opposite the inlet along with a small amount of the gas, which becomes the recirculation stream. The recirculation stream is directed to a

gas flows to the separator inlet. The dust particles recirculate repeatedly through the separator until they are collected. Clean gas leaves the cylin der through the "vortex finder" annular outlets at both ends of the cylinder. The performance of the LSR Core Separator is comparable to that of more complicated and expensive tech nologies. This is because particle entrainment is reduced by the fact that the device functions only as a separa tor, avoiding the need for a change in flow direction. In addition, its smooth,

cylindrical shape helps to prevent vor tex formation.

The Core Separator is claimed to provide an unusually high price to per formance ratio with a typical 94% to 99% overall collection efficiency and a cost of less than $3 (US) per cubic metre per hour. On the other hand, cyclones have a lower cost but less requirements. Baghouses, another pri mary alternative, offers only a slightly higher efficiency than the Core Separator, but at a higher cost. As a result, over sixty Core Separator sys tems have been placed in operation

conventional collector for removal of

around the world.

the particles from the system while the

E-mail: sfburlat@sjuphil.sju.edu

Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD)

The illustrations show the detailed design Infor mation that was obtained from the CFD analysis. The flow enters through the narrow rectangular inlet and swirls around the solid central electrode

Figure 1: The geometry of the ElectroCore sep arator. Gas containing fine particuiate matter (fiy ash or dust) is introduced through a tangentiai rectangular iniet, shown in blue.

Figure 2: Velocity vectors throughout the device. The flow enters through the narrow rectangular iniet and swirls around the solid electrode before entering the smaller cylinder and moving axiaiiy toward the exit.

Figure 3: Crosssectionai view. The

before entering the smaller cylinder and moving axiaiiy toward the exit. The main gas stream flows around the electrode in the middle, and part of the flow passes Into the second chamber. The flow that enters the smaller chamber has a high particle concentration, due in part to the centrifu gal forces acting on the particles and In part to the radial electric field that results from the cylin drical anode at the core of the main cylinder and grounded cylinder walls. The passage between the two chambers is in a region where high fly ash/dust loading Is expected. The effect of swirl on the flow field turbulence Is Included in the

in-piane velocity components are dis played. The main gas


stream flows around the electrode in the

middle, and part of the flow passes into the second chamber.

The chambers are in a region where high fly ash/dust loading is expected.

Figure 4; Pressure distribution on the ElectroCore wails. Contours of static pressure on the walls of the separator show the axial pressure gradient that develops in the small er cylinder as the particie-iaden gas turns and flows towards the exit.

10 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Figure 5:The efficiency of the par ticle tracks In the device colored by pressure. These Illustrate both the swirling pattern in the main cham ber as well as the axial pressure gradient in the smaller cylinder.

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High-flow, low-head pumps

provide safe passage

for pacific salmon The pump station at the Rocky Reach Dam is being constructed to accommo date 30 horizontai fiow pumps for a combined capacity of 6,000 ff/second.

Aspart ofa plan to safely guide

juvenile salmon on their jour ney down Washington State's

the river for employment in waterrelated industries, and for transporta tion.

Columbia River to the Pacific

Ocean, a fish bypass system at the Rocky Reach Dam is being equipped with 29 ultra-low head, high-capacity submersible pumps and auxiliary equipment from ITT Industries' Flygt unit.

Described as the ultimate water

slide, the project will cost close to $160 (US) million, an investment for fish, not humans. It is Chelan County Public Utility Department's way of getting migrating, juvenile salmon safely around Rocky Reach Dam en route to the ocean, while maintaining the dam's original charter - its ability

The Columbia River Basin has his

torically produced some of the world's largest runs of salmon. Estuarine habi tats provide important nursery and rearing areas for young salmon, and adults use them as temporary holding areas during their return migration

from the ocean to upstream spawning

Environmental and legislative pres sures have increased in recent decades.

Ocean, Rocky Reach Dam was con structed in 1961, providing the region with 1347 total megawatts of electrici ty.

via a four-foot diameter tube.

Man-made "fish ladders" have long helped salmon navigate past dams dur ing their upstream migration. The downstream migration of fish in US rivers, known as "smolting", was

salmon prefer certain depths of water and velocities," says Stefan Abelin, director of Engineering at Flygt's US operation in Trambull, Connecticut.

While a great many factors have contributed to the decline of salmon

stocks in the Columbia River Basin, dams clearly have had a significant impact, including those through which fish passage is provided but at reduced levels from natural conditions. Overall

populations of the basin's salmon fish

The project will be the most expen sive fish bypass on any Columbia River dam upriver of the Tri-Cities. At

stocks are estimated at less than 10

stake is millions of dollars in electrici

icant decrease in fish numbers.

Legislation now mandates that owners and operators of hydroelectric dams either set mandatory spill periods dur ing peak migration season, which results in a major loss in power pro duction, or install devices to aid down stream fish migration. These devices, known as fish attraction systems, are used to lure and then divert juvenile salmon, steelhead and other endan gered species away from the hydro electric turbines to a transport pipe miming through the dam and then out to safety. Swimming downstream, salmon "go with the flow". That means they could be pulled into the fast-moving hydroelectric turbines at power plant dams. At the Rocky Reach Dam, the Chelan County Public Utility Department is constructing a very large "fish attractor" intended to allow the fish to bypass the turbines safely


to generate power.

ty, fish survival, and the dam's operat ing license. Beginning in the ice fields of the Canadian Rockies, the Columbia River flows for over 1,200 miles to the Pacific Ocean. It is the foiuth largest watershed in the United States, drain ing 259,000 square miles and receiv ing waters from seven states and two Canadian provinces. The Columbia River has the second largest volume flow of any river in the United States. It generates electric power, provides irrigation, and harbours deep-water ships that come and go across the Pacific. Millions of people depend on

severely affected over the years due to a lack of cost-effective hydro turbine bypass technology. This has resulted in a fish mortality rate of between five and eight percent, and with some of the bigger rivers in the US having as many as 50 dams along the path of the migrating fish, there has been a signif

percent of their historic size, despite major hatchery programs. Providing a safe passage for juve nile salmon on their run to the sea -

while at the same time allowing enough water to pass through the dam's turbines to generate electricity was a problem at the Rocky Reach Dam. Some 473 miles up the Columbia River from the Pacific

12 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004





Pumps "The fish attractor is aimed at creating

viding a combined flow rate of 175 m^

the first full-scale fish attraction proj

conditions to attract the fish toward the

ect ever undertaken. The Chelan

bypass system and away from the tur

per second. The auxiliary equipment includes 10 racks of flap gates to pre


vent reverse flow, electric controls,

In ongoing research in this field it

remote supervision, control buildings.

was found that the best results are

achieved by using pumps; however, no pump existed that would handle the high flow rate at an extremely low head, with the required efficiency rate. In 1998, ITT Flygt began devel opment work on a new horizontally installed propeller pump, which would be able to meet the required duty points. And after thousands of hours of CFD modelling and scale model testing, a new pump design was created. The pump utilizes a planetary gear reducer to match the motor speed with the propeller rpm. The fish attractor at Rocky Ridge is powered by these new low-head, high-flow Flygt pumps. The pump station is being constructed to

County Public Utility Department hopes the new bypass will let it phase out all of its spills except for a 16 per cent spill for 40 days each spring for Sockeye salmon which tend to travel too deep to use the bypass. The Public Utility Department says the slide bypass will save money because the utility will not have to spill as much water to make sure the fish can migrate past the dam. That water instead can be used to generate electricity. The public utility lost $14.2 million in power production at Rocky Reach in 2000 due to spills for all species of salmon and steelhead. Without the system. Rocky Reach would have to spill 60 to 70 percent of its average daily flow in the spring and summer, costing an estimated $934 million in power production over the 15-year financial life of the

The fish attractor at Rocky Ridge is pow ered by new low-head, high-flow Flygt pumps.

new system.

accommodate 30 horizontal flow

pumps for a combined capacity of

6,000 ftVsecond. The 90 kW propeller pumps have a flow rate of 7.0 m' per second at a head of 0.55 metres, pro

transformers, pump testing, installa tion, plus an extended pump and con trol maintenance agreement. The Rocky Reach Bypass System is

For more information contact: www.flygt.com.

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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 13


Located in Victoria, British

Colombia, the Capital Regional District (CRD), includes 13

municipalities serving a popu lation of 342,000. The District's Environmental Services division is

responsible for the remediation of sur face waters, sewer maintenance and wastewater treatment. The group man ages facilities at about 100 sites. In 2001, CRD began a major upgrade of the level measurement equipment in the pumping stations and trunk sewers. The old, existing analog instruments had limited capabilities.

They lost accuracy in converting to digital format and communicating with the remote telemetry unit(RTU). They used a proprietary format. This configuration did not offer accurate, repeatable data, and had limited scope. Peter Breen, Electronics Technolo

gist, and his team evaluated proposals from five suppliers. They looked first for accuracy, functionality and wealth of data. A distributor for Siemens

Milltronics, Thomas Mackay and Son Ltd., recommended the EnviroRanger* ultrasonic system with an accuracy of -l-/-0.25%, no analog drift or A/D con version losses, and the best price-per

The Sooke Reservoir is an integrai eiement of Victoria's Capitai Regionai District water system.

provide remote monitoring of all parameters - level, pump control func tions, pump status, and more, using Modbus protocol. It offers report by exception and data logging for trend analysis. It also features patented Sonic Intelligence* signal processing for superior reliability. CRD chose the DC-powered ver sion to allow for simplified battery back-up. EnviroRanger can operate on back-up battery power as low as 12 volts. At 10 pumping stations and 19 trunk sewers, CRD installed a total of

formance ratio.

40 units. Level data from the flumes is

EnviroRanger offers monitoring and control in one package, and has a built-in RTU. Five relays control any combination of pumps, gates and alarms. It provides accurate level mon itoring, and monitors flow in flumes, weirs and open channels. It integrates easily with SCADA, DCS or PEC to

collected continuously on a real-time basis over radio modems by the SCADA system to calculate flow. EnviroRanger offers dual point moni toring and, at the flume sites, CRD added the expandable I/O cards to monitor more discrete inputs such as floats, rain gauges, door switches, or

lighting on or off, without the expense of an additional RTU.

Many of the sensors are mounted in narrow wet wells or flumes. Echomax*

transducers solved this problem because their narrow beam angle avoids interference from walls or

obstructions. For ranges up to eight metres (26 ft), they used Echomax XRS-5 and, for deeper wells, they chose XPS-15 transducers with a

range of 15 metres (50 ft). Because EnviroRanger has a builtin RTU, CRD avoided the cost of 19 external RTUs, saving more than $100,000. Efficiency has been improved with more complete, accurate, reliable data now available through direct digital access, with no analog outputs or ana-

log-to-digital conversions required. Contact: www.siemens-milltronics. com.

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VE0LIA Lnvironment

Pulp & Paper

The'greening'of a world class Swedish paper mill

StoraEnso Fine Paper is the

world's largest manufacturer of bleached magnefite pulp, used in papermaking. Production of pulp started in 1962 at Nymdlla, in Sweden, and actual paper manufacture

began in 1972. At present, the mill's capacity is 300,000 tonnes per year, of which 200,000 tormes is used in the integrated paper mill for the manufac ture of high quality printing paper. The remaining pulp is sold to other papermills. Two types are produced: a short fibre pulp made from beech and hirch, and a long fibre pulp made from pine and spruce. Due to increasing worldwide calls for companies to have a greater aware ness of environmental concerns, Nymolla found itself having to make changes to the way it oper

way of achieving these goals and PCI Membranes, of Hampshire, UK, was invited by its Swedish agent Aker Kvaerner to carry out trials at Nymolla. In May, 1993, trials got under way, utilising a MSR (Multi Stage Recycle) pilot plant. These trials

design. The two streams of effluent (hard wood and softwood) needed to be treated separately, allowing each stream to be processed by a membrane designed to manage the different

indicated that tubular

The trials were configured to pro duce the following data: • Pressure drop as a function of


would provide a solution. In October, 1993, a second unit(UFI5 pilot plant) was installed, and this was far better

suited to the operating conditions. This installation was a two-stage ultrafiltration plant fitted with three full size (3.66 metre) modules per stage, giving a total of 15.6 sq.m mem brane area. The earlier trials had indi-

concentration. • Retention as a function of concentra tion. • Flux as a function of concentration.

• • • • •

Effectiveness of cleaning. Power consumption. Degree of fouling. Quality of product. Probable membrane life. Three months continuous tri

als, operating 24 hours a day, were carried out on the

ated if it was to retain market

confidence, and to maintain compliance with the in

ra t;,,

creasing, and increasing ly severe, environmental legislation. Wood milling, pulpand papermaking is a notoriously difficult in dustry to operate along 'green' lines. From just the oxygen bleach stage of the pulping process at Nymolla, 300 tonnes of effluent is produced per hour (made up of 135 tormes per hour from hard The installation at Nymolla woods and 165 tonnes per Is a two-stage ultrafiltra tion plant fitted with three hour from softwoods). The full size (3.66 metre) modaverage COD of this efflu uies per stage, giving a total ent is approximately lOg/ of 15.6 sq.m membrane area. litre, meaning a total of


about 3 tormes of COD is

The plant features seven stages for

produced every hour. Targets to reduce

softwood and six for hardwood. Each soft


chemical characteristics.

wood stage contains 152 modules and each hard wood stage 120 modules.

sions: first, to achieve a 50 per cent reduction in the total mass of COD

emitted from the mill from the oxygen bleach stage and, second, to highly concentrate the remainder, generating a 50 times volumetric concentration of the effluent stream. Ultrafiltration

Ultrafiltration was seen as the best

determined that a vari

able cleaning frequency would be employed. As is common with ultrafiltra

tion plants, front end fouling was evident, meaning that earlier stages were in need of more frequent cleaning. The final design resulted in early stages being cleaned daily, and final stages being cleaned approxi mately every four days. During the early part of the trials, the hardwood effluent stream used the same membranes as the softwood

Demands from the mar

ketplace to strengthen its 'green' credentials led Nymolla to set two main goals to reduce COD emis

softwood effluent using the polyethersulphone membranes. During this period a number of different cleaning regimes were tested, and it was finally

cated the need for a 4000 Dalton(4kD) cut-off membrane, and PCI's polyethersulphone membrane was fitted. The plant could be operated in batch or continuous mode and at a stable con

centration or VCF (volumetric concen tration factor) within each stage. It was well instrumented and, although con taining a relatively small membrane area, proved itself ideally suited for the job of obtaining data for a full scale

16 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

effluent stream. However, fouling was far greater than expected, even when a high cross-flow was employed. To address this, a smaller pilot plant was taken to site, and other membranes were tested using the new plant, whilst the main plant continued to produce data on the softwood effluent stream.

A new membrane required It became clear that no standard

membranes were suitable, so a new continued overleaf...

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Pulp & Paper target was to produce a much more hydrophilic membrane that showed minimal fouling. A new membrane was developed in less than two months, and trials were able to contin ue.

Once all the necessary data had been collected on the softwood efflu

ent, the new hardwood membranes

were tested with the UF15 pilot plant. They worked exactly as anticipated. After fine tuning the cleaning regime it was determined that all hardwood

stages of the full scale plant could be operated for two days between clean ings. Problems of continuous running But the trials, while largely success ful, did not go entirely smoothly. Because of the need for long runs of four or five days non-stop, the pilot plant was required to run overnight and unattended. When operating at low concentrations, this was not a problem, but while carrying out an overnight run at the target goal of 50 VCF, and when the retentate flow was very low, the set conditions drifted, resulting in over-concentration. This eventually caused the plant to stop, and when they had cooled, the membranes were blocked solid. Even this, however, had benefits, as it demonstrated the

strength and resilience of the mem branes which could be unblocked

without damage, and the trials contin

The plant was designed and built jointly by Aker Kvaerner and PCI Membranes. Installation and commis

sioning was also carried out jointly. The final plant design was for a total of 13 stages (seven for softwood and six for hardwood). Each softwood stage contains 152 modules and each hardwood stage 120 modules, and the time schedule for the process of testing and installation covered more than two years.

The plants are designed for contin uous running. A 'carousel' cleaning system has been employed, so that any stage can be taken off line to enable it to be cleaned without interrupting the effluent processing. This was a critical requirement, as the build-up of efflu ent during the down time to clean the entire plant would have been unaccept able.

Because of the high flows involved,one of

the targets was to design a plant that could operate at low cross flow velocities in order

to keep energy consumption down.


Because of the high flows involved, one of the targets was to design a plant that could operate at low cross flow velocities in order to keep energy con sumption down. For the softwood stream, tested first, it did prove feasi ble to operate at a substantially lower cross-flow than would normally be used for this type of membrane. However, it was not possible to operate the hardwood line at the same low cross-flows.

Different requirements for hardwood and softwood lines

The higher cross-flow employed on the hardwood line, and subsequent higher pressure drop, resulted in the plant having to incorporate twin entry endcaps in order to shorten the path length through the module. This led to recycle pumps on the hardwood line of

432 m^/hr as opposed to the 164 m^/hr pumps used on the softwood line, despite the fewer number of modules in each hardwood stage.

Flexibility built in A high degree of flexibility was also required, as there is a significant variation in both the feed volume and

concentration. The plant has had to cope with CCDs in the range of 6-14 g/1, and flows of up to 50 per cent either side of the mean.

System guarantees As well as guaranteeing the capaci ty of the plant and the separation per formance of the membranes (in terms ofCOD retention), PCI/Aker Kvaerner was also required to guarantee the fol lowing: • Membrane lifetime - the membranes

guarantee has been met, with some membranes lasting over 18 months. • Cleaning chemical consumption. • Power consumption - the (estimated) absorbed power figures for the hard wood and softwood plants are 300kW and 700kW respectively. This corre

sponds to a kW per m^ permeate pro duced ratio of approximately 3.9 and 1.5 for the hardwood and softwood

respectively - based on a pump work ing efficiency of 65 per cent. Fine-tuning changes After some early problems with the softwood line capacity, some changes were made. The plant was allowed to operate at higher temperature (up to 82°C), eliminating the need for a heat exchanger before the UF plant - it was determined that the rapid cooling in the heat exchanger was causing some precipitation of extractives, leading to front end fouling of the UF plant. The pH of the softwood etfluent was also controlled to keep it above 11, again reducing fouling of the membranes. Once the plant had been in opera tion for a period of time, there was an opportunity to look at further modifi cations to membranes in order to

develop further improvements for the hardwood line. Changes in membrane chemistry produced a replacement which, although slightly more open than the original (6kD cut-off as opposed to 4kD cut-off), offered sig nificantly higher fluxes. This potential increase in capacity of the hardwood plant led Nymolla to investigate possi ble uses for the 'spare' membrane capacity. Operational for over eight years, the plant now comfortably

processes approximately 400m^/hr of effluent, producing a concentrated stream of bm^/hr, which is a concen tration factor of approximately 60 times.

In all, close to 1,000 hours of trial work was carried out, a new membrane

was developed in only two months, and two different cleaning regimes were tailored to the two feed types for

plant designed to process 300mVhr to

in both the hardwood and the softwood

the desired flow and concentration.

plants were guaranteed to perform at their specified level for a minimum of

The plant at Nymolla has now been in operation for several years and contin

fifteen months. A number of factors

ues to achieve the necessary reduction

affect lifetime, principally tempera ture, pH, resistance to bacteriological attack, chemical resistance, and oper ating pressure. Since the plants were commissioned in January 1995, the

of COD.

18 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Contact, Bjorn von Euler at ITT Fluid Technology Inc., e-mail: bvoneule@ fluids,ittind.com.

Pure - the way water should always taste. Trojan is giving municipalities a new option to keep their drinking water safe, pure, odor free and tasting good - no matter what the season. Trojan offers unique treatment solutions to eliminate the harmful microbial and chemical contaminants in drinking water. At the same time, taste and odor causing compounds can be treated with Trojan's UV solutions. It's all done in a way that helps ensure your treatment facilities comply with ever-increasing regulatory pressures. For an effective, reliable and environmentally-responsible treatment solution, the world is turning to Trojan. www.trojanuv.com


Waste Management

Sustainable treatment of medical wastes

using landfill gas By Edward McBean,Edward del Rosso, Fabiano Gondim,Rock Radovan and

Louis-Philippe Mousseau

Aful -scale demonstration project to sterilize med

ical wastes using a modified autoclave and pow ered by landfill gas has been constructed, and is now in the final commissioning stage in the Province of Catamarca, in northern Argentina. The project is being co-sponsored by the Canadian Climate Change Development Fund (CCCDF), currently managed by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), and by Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, a Canadian engineer ing firm, Hydrocalve Inc. from Kingston, Ontario, plus assistance from a number of local Argentinean partners. The project was designed with pertinent Canadian equipment imported to Argentina; the project team is cur rently transferring Canadian technology and providing institutional capacity building to the local community of San Fernando del Valle of Catamarca (Catamarca), a municipality located in northwestern Argentina. Biogases generated from the contents of a 30 m by 30 m energy cell (Photo I) and containing approximately 6,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste, are collected and piped to a boiler that generates low pressure steam. The steam is utilized for the indirect heating of medical wastes, which are contained in a modified autoclave system (see

Photo 2). Ofthe 75 ft^/min of biogases, which are gen erated by the biocell, only 15 ft^/min are diverted to the boiler, with the excess being flared Each batch of medical wastes (approxi mately 68 Kg in quantity) is sterilized

medical at a pressure of 15 Ib/in^ and a temperature of 12rC in a 60-minute cycle. For each batch, a biological indi cator is submitted to the same waste

conditions, incubated and checked by

>â&#x2013; > .if

Photo 1: Energy cell, landfill gas pipes and flare.

Photo 2: Hydroclave (left), water tank and boiler.

decreased global warming impacts. The project includes specific training for the munici pality's wastepickers, improving their working environ ment, and preventing direct contact with the medical wastes when handling wastes to separate recyclable materials. Several agencies in Argentina associat ed with the environmental and health sectors

have demonstrated a high level of interest in the project, with the local municipality currently reviewing medical waste man agement practices. Canada is also benefiting by the project since Canadian expertise is being transferred, opening new markets as well as providing a low-cost opportu nity to mitigate climate change under the Kyoto Protocol commitment, complying with the objectives of the CCCDF. Definitely the undertaking is creating a 'win-win' situation for the participants

colorimetry, certifying the effectiveness of the sterilization procedure. This application of landfill gas suc cessfully integrates the waste-to-energy project to a medical waste treatment facili ty. Prior to the project, the medical wastes were being disposed into the municipality's Photo 3: Needles and other involved. 'dump'(see Photo 3 which shows a needle medical wastes found In the lying on the landfill's surface), and hence landfill. the results include greatly reduced health Edward McBean, Vice-President (now Professor, exposure hazards to the members of the local population University of Guelph), Edward del Rosso, Senior performing noncontrolled waste scavenging activities as Engineer, Fabiano R. Gondim, Engineer, Rock Radovan, well as to other citizens of the municipality. As well, by Engineer, are with Conestoga-Rovers & Associates. Louiscombustion of the biogas generated by the refuse in the Philippe Mousseau is with CIDA. Contact: fgondim@ energy cell, releases of methane to the atmosphere are pre craworld.com. vented, and hence the project is contributing toward 20 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

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Health & Safety

The history of health and safety legislation in Ontario

Present-day health and safety legislation has taken

over a century to evolve. The first industrial legis lation, The Ontario Factories Act of 1884, was modeled after the British Factory Act of the early 1800s. This Act set up a system of inspection to ensure safety and health standards in factories, but was vague, unenforceable and biased toward production and the employer. A turning point for Ontario labour reform came in 1964 when a new provincial Industrial Safety Act was passed as an aftermath to the "Hogg's Hollow" disaster, which occurred on March 17, 1960. Five Canadian workers were killed while constructing a tunnel at Hogg's Hollow, an area near Old York Mills Road and Yonge Street in

on strike in protest. The Ham Commission Report, which was published in 1976, contained many recommendations, one of which was to increase workers' knowledge of health and safety in the workplace. Another recommendation that was incorporated into the Act was the formation of an Internal Responsibility

System (IRS), which means that the responsibility for workplace health and safety is shared among management and workers. The institution of the Joint Health and Safety

Yet another turning point occurred in 1974 when anoth er Royal Commission led by Dr. James Ham was estab lished to investigate health and safety in the uranium

Committee(JHSC), an advisory group of worker and man agement representatives at the workplace, was a key sup port mechanism in the operation of the IRS. As a result of the Ham Report, the first Occupational Health and Safety Act was passed in 1978. By the mid 1980s, job-related death and injury rates were still increasing, indicating that more changes in the legislation were needed. Bill 208 was introduced in 1988 and put into effect on January I, 1991. The purpose of this Bill was to strengthen partnerships between employers and workers and expand the responsibilities of the JHSC. One of the key requirements was that at least two members on the JHSC must be certified by completing a Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) Basic Certification

mines in Elliot Lake after the miners, who were alarmed

Training Program.


According to newspaper reports, at the time, these workers were sent down into a virtual death trap. In

response to the tragedy, the Ontario government formed a Royal Commission(McAndrew Commission)to study and modernize all worker safety regulations.

about the high incidence of lung cancer and silicosis, went

On January 1, 1998, Bill 99 came into effect, enacting

am ioQ

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22 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Health & Safety occurrence of workplace injuries and occupational dis eases." This Act reflects the expanded focus of the WSIB, formerly the Workers Compensation Board (WCB). The WSIB oversees certification training and coordinates the province's health and safety organizations and occupation al health clinics. It has programs to rehabilitate injured workers, promote early and safe return to work and to pay compensation to injured workers who cannot return to



The Occupational Health and Safety Act, with its emphasis on the Internal Responsibility System, has intro duced a revolutionary approach to legislating occupation al health and safety in Ontario. Over the past 20 years, Ontario's fatality rate has been cut in half and lost time injuries have shown a significant and ongoing decline. During the past decade, however, the costs of occupation al injuries and illness have risen substantially. Subse quently, the mandate of the WSIB is to make programs and services more effective in preventing injury and industrial disease and achieving early return to work of injured workers.


A worker keeps his hand in front of his eyes for protection from the giare of a giowing-hot electric furnace inside a foundry.

Source: The History of Health and Safety Legislation in Ontario by Maureen V. Mountjoy, O.L.S., O.L.I.R, Deputy Registrar, Association of Ontario Land Surveyors, The Ontario Land Surveyor, Winter 2004. Reprinted with per missionfrom author.

the Workplace Safety and Insurance Act and repealing the Workers Compensation Act of 1984. One of the purposes of this Act as stated in Part 1, Section 1, is "to promote health and safety in workplaces and to prevent and reduce the



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May 2004, Environmental Sdence & Engineering 23

A diverse range of case ^I

histories and new

developments are reviewed in ES&E's semi-annual look


at tanks, containment systems and spill management.

New aluminum geodesic dome protects drinking water

Engineered Storage Products of DeKalb, Il inois, has introduced the

Aquastore® Aluminum Geodesic Dome. Designed for installation primari ly on Aquastore and Tecstore® tanks and suitable for retrofitting on any tank, the dome protects drinking water safety and ensures resistance to corrosive vapours for wastewater, process water and landfill leachate applica

I Cover-All launches

Legend Building Series


The Aquastore dome is manufactured in ISO 9001 certified facilities, using proprietary variations of geodesic geometry. Features include: • Diameters range from II feet to 148 feet for a full range of municipal and industrial uses.

• Integrated aluminum structural frames are rigid and lightweight. • The struts are fabricated from high-quality aluminum (6005 A-T6)for strength and durability. • The advanced batten-bar design locks panels into place and protects the silicone or neoprene gaskets from ultraviolet rays. The dome's advanced structural

design meets exacting load require ments. All calculations and assump tions are validated using ALGOR finite element analysis. Designed for fast on-site installa tion, the dome is constructed from

standard components that allow easy assembly. Its low-maintenance service life also provides cost-effi ciencies.

Visit www.aquastore.com or email: sales@engstorage.com. ■ 24 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Cover-All Building Systems Inc. has just launched the Legend Building Series, the most efficient building design to date that costeffectively meets the current North American structural design codes. Its design is able to achieve wind and snow ratings with wider bay spacing and fewer foundation points. The variety of building widths has been increased from 9 to

13 different building widths. Customers can now be provided with a broader selection of preengineered buildings from 18' to 82' wide, to any length. Legend owners may experience efficiencies including foundation savings and rapid installations. Contact Drew Elder, e-mail: coverall@coverall.net.

Co n

A review of IBC containment solutions

Secondary chemical contain

most aggressive chem

ment basins are becoming the norm across Canada. Many

icals. General contain

users of chemicals and other

lines are to have a min

ment capacity guide

specialized liquids receive their prod

imum of 110% of the

ucts from the supplier in large portable

intended primary con

containers called Intermediate Bulk

tainer - the IBC in this

Containers(IBCs)or totes. These users now have an easy containment solu tion. The use of IBCs and other totes is

case. ACO manufac

tures a 300 imperial gallon basin for this application.

widespread across every sector. IBCs,

The steel stand fits

manufactured and filled in accordance

inside the basin and

with United Nations specifications, are

the IBC is moved on

tested and safe containers when prop erly stored.

and off by forklift

On average, an IBC contains approximately 1,100 litres (250 IG). Liquids inside may vary from lubri cants to very strong chemicals such as sulfuric acid, any of which can have

ly into the bottom of the basin but it may be required to pump the product

disastrous environmental effects if

spilt, or may harm persons in contact. The use for IBCs has evolved from

shipping containers to storage tanks for those seeking more flexibility in their capacity. The IBCs are plumbed directly from their bottom valves into pumps or machines via hoses and con veniently replaced with a full contain er when empty. This set-up is quite common, even indispensable to many

truck. The IBCs can be lowered direct

out over the containment wall. When

full, some totes can weigh in at well over 3,000 lbs. If the IBC is to be placed on any platform by a forklift truck, it should be a heavily built, well painted steel stand. Industrial environ ments are very demanding on all equipment. A steel stand should per

form better than a plastic grating or other types of platforms placed on top of the basin.

With a little initiative and respon siveness, accidental spills can now be avoided. The potential costs of clean ing up after one bad spill will far out weigh the minor one-time cost of the basin and stand.

Contact Matthieu Tanguay, e-mail; matt@acotainers.com. â&#x2013;



It may take several days, or even

weeks to empty an IBC and the risk of leaks or bad spills exists while the con tainer is attached to the equipment. Should the hose fail or be pulled off the IBC, the entire container could drain if unattended. If the product were

hazardous, could anyone shut if off anyway? More common is a simple leak, which tends to damage floors and frustrate plant maintenance personnel. All have the potential to be costly and dangerous to the surrounding area and personnel. ACO Container Systems Ltd. in Pickering, Ontario, has manufactured a series of polyethylene (PE) basins and steel stand "teams" for use with



Tanks &DotTM&

Greatarlo Engineered Storage Systems Tel:(519) 469-8169 Fax;(519)469-8157 www.greatarlo.com sales@greatarioengsys.com

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IBCs and tanks of all shapes.

Large polyethylene containment basins have become a popular safe guard. PE is the same type of plastic used for the inner receptacle (the bottle portion) of composite IBCs. It is durable, UV stabilized against sunlight for outdoor use, and resistant against


MAKES SENSE May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 25

contarnmepit &t S,^NIs

Pre-englneered storage buildings for environmental control of hazardous materials

Pre-engineered and customized

metal buildings designed for the storage, mixing, and pro cessing of hazardous wastes and process materials have been avail able since the early 1980s. Before that time, hazardous materials were gener ally housed in "stick-built" structures within existing buildings. As govern mental legislation began classifying and regulating these materials, preengineered buildings have allowed for better storage methods in well-defined and monitored areas.

Pre-engineered hazardous materials (hazmat) metal buildings offer good environmental controls. They offer wide flexibility in their deployment and use, and are available in non-flam

mable, fire-rated and explosion-rated versions. They serve specific location and use purposes. Non-flammable buildings are fabri cated entirely from steel. They offer good storage of hazardous material in remote locations away from other structures. If additional protection of adjacent structures or personnel is nec essary, fire-rated hazmat buildings offer excellent environmental, building and employee protection. Finally, explosion-rated hazmat

buildings vent dangerous overpres sures by employing explosion relief panels. Important roles Pre-engineered, customized hazmat

buildings come complete with wall, floor and sump, and ceiling systems, and are intended to be installed on a

hard, level surface capable of support ing their weight.

By Paul Graham, RE. Safety Storage Inc. Designed for safety Most hazardous material buildings require the use of Nationally Recognized Test Lab-listed Hazardous Location electrical components. Optional equipment includes interior partitions, sump separation, exhaust fans, air vents, heaters, air condition ers, and fire-suppression systems. These buildings are designed by manufacturers to meet the high-end requirements of the model safety codes. These include the model build

ing codes (NBC, ABC), fire codes (NFC, AFC), energy codes (MNEC), mechanical codes, plumbing codes (NPC), handicapped codes, and elec trical codes (CEC). Since manufactur ers use standardized designs and con struction techniques meeting the most stringent building requirements for many jurisdictions, many customers receive buildings manufactured to exceed their own local codes. Leading hazmat building manufacturers offer warranties ensuring that all local and provincial permitting licenses will be secured prior to building installation. Most pre-engineered buildings have passed building standards approved by the provinces or their designated thirdparty agencies. Provincial engineers (or their appointed agencies) review the building's features, audit and review the manufacturer's quality-con trol system for manufacturing consis tency, and confirm the proper use of listed components tested by nationally

recognized testing laboratories. Material-handling and storage features Most pre-engineered hazmat build ings offer access by forklift or hand truck. Standard buildings generally come with one 1.5-metre (60-inch) width double door, with one active

self-closing door for personnel access and exit and one inactive door for

bringing pallets or totes into the build ing. Buildings larger than 18.6 square metres (200 square feet) usually require two exits for safe egress. Most of these facilities hold single or multiple layers of palletized materi als. They also offer custom shelving to hold containers of numerous shapes and sizes. Construction considerations

Like any other building, pre-engi neered hazmat facilities must meet all

applicable federal, provincial, and/or local building codes. Many codes account for the environmental condi

tions of the community, such as meet ing minimum snow loads (typically 950 kg per square metre or 40 pounds per square foot), wind speeds (typical ly 177 km per hour or 110 miles per hour), or required seismic forces. Typically, these buildings offer allmetal sumps that easily resist earth quake stresses. Important placement considerations

A building's construction type (i.e., noncombustible or fire-rated for 2- or

4-hour fire resistance) is based on where the hazmat building is located in

relation to other buildings susceptible continued overleaf...

Options for metal hazmat buildings (from left to right) include noncombustible steel buildings, 2- or 4-hour fire-rated systems, and custom-engineered buildings. Photos: safety storage inc.

26 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004


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to fire. The temperature within the building, the materials being contained, and the intended use (storage, mixing, or dispensing) dictate the fire- or explosion-resistant require ments ofthe facility. Most model building codes(NBC,etc.) require a 50-foot setback of the hazmat building from other buildings in the event of an explosion. a)Building interiors andfinishes - A well-planned building interior can increase the functionality of the storage area. To increase available storage space, hazmat buildings can be designed with shelving systems, racks, or platforms.

From left to right: Tom Aellg - Engineered Storage Products Company, Steve Gregory - Greatario, Gien Gregory - Greatario, Jim Fairburn Greatario (Builder of the Year North America), Mike Pooie - Engineered Storage Products Company, Scott Burn - Greatario.

Versatility can be enhanced with the addition of work-tables,

recycling sinks, chemical fume hoods, and related equip

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems of Innerkip, Ontario, Is very proud to announce that Jim Fairburn recently received the Builder of the Year award for North America from Engineered Storage Products Company. Jim was nominated by 29 dealers across North America. Jim has been building glass fused to steel tanks since 1971 and has built hundreds of structures. Jim has

taken a number of other builders under his wing, who have now become foremen. In the picture above, Jim Is accepting the award from Engineered Storage Products Company from DeKalb, Illinois, during a yearly construction certification school held In Innerkip. Congratulations JIml

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Tel:(519) 469-8169, Fax:(519) 469-8157 www.greatario.com sales@greatarloengsys.com


nounssTORE' Tanks & Domes

ment, converting a storage space into an area that can also be used for dispensing and mixing. b) Security - To provide security from unauthorized access, these facilities use solid construction techniques and are equipped with lockable doors to control entry. Door locks must have interior release mechanisms or panic hardware to avoid accidental entrapment. Security nightlights and door alarms are also good investments. c) Secondary containment - Some pre-engineered hazmat buildings offer a secondary containment sump that contains any potential leakage or spillage of liquid or solid hazardous material. Many environmental regulations require the sec ondary containment capacity to equal 10% of the total amount stored and to contain 100% of the largest container stored. Some local jurisdictions may have more stringent requirements and require capacity for 20 minutes of fireprotection water plus contents of the single largest container.

Containment Manufacturing Speciaiists MANUFACTURE




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fabricates a wide range of geomembranes and specialty geosynthetlc products. To


• Polypropylene (U) • Enviro Liner®

better service our customers, we provide a

• Layflex®

large selection of stocked liner sizes

• Tantalum (TTL®) • Vapor Barriers

available from our various North American

locations. We also provide quick delivery Additional service on all custom orders.

Fabricated Products

Layfleld Is a leading supplier of floating cover systems and cover technology. We

• Floating Cover Systems • Baffle Curtains

also produce fixed and floating baffle

• Turbidity Curtains • PVC, RPE®, PP IS),

curtains and turbidity curtains.

• Hazgard® (ULC), Hypalon




Contact us at (800)840-2884 www.geomembranes.com 28 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Sump floor and wall construction should be of heavy-gauge imperme able material that is not easily dam aged, such as 12-gauge hot-rolled steel, with galvanized metal grating used for the floor. For additional pro tection, consider the use ofsump liners or coatings that prevent damage to the containment area from exposure to corrosive materials. The secondary containment sump should be easily accessible by lifting the floor decking to allow for periodic inspection and clean-up. d) Heating, ventilation, and cooling Because many chemicals are tempera ture-sensitive, heating and cooling sys

protects only the outside of the build ing from the effects of a fire inside). fi Explosion resistance - If explosive conditions are possible, the building construction method must reduce the

devastating side effects of excessive pressures from explosions. All main walls are designed to withstand high pressures, typically 2,375 kg per square metre (100 pounds per square foot). These walls contain specially designed lower-pressure safety panels

that physically disconnect from the main building wall during the explo sion, typically at 475 kg per square metre (20 pounds per square foot). Thus the force of the explosion is released through the panels in a con trolled manner. The panels are made from 18-gauge galvanealed steel and insulated with rigid foam insulation if HVAC is required. For




paulg@safetystorage.com. â&#x2013;

tems can extend the shelf life of the

hazardous materials inventory and allow economical purchases of materi als during off-peak seasons. Therefore, building insulation (either fiberglass batts or rigid foam) is a good invest ment that will reduce expenditures on annual energy consumption. Enclosed spaces should be properly ventilated, by natural or mechanical means, to reduce the concentration of

hazardous vapours and dust, with a minimum of 0.32 cubic metres of

exhaust ventilation provided per square metre of storage space (1 cubic foot per square foot). An adequate number of air intakes should be locat

ed within 30.5 cm (12 inches) of the floor (measured from the sump floor surface, not the floor decking above the sump) and the air exhaust vents should be located high on an opposite wall. Where dispensing and mixing operations occur, mechanical ventila tion systems are necessary. e) Fire protection - If storing flamma ble materials, the storage area should be equipped with an automatic fire extinguishing system. Additional fire protection can be obtained by specify ing 2- or 4-hour fire-rated wall con struction, depending on local building codes and proximity to other buildings and structures and property lines. Usually designed with a combination of metal studs and panels, plus internal layers of gypsum board, fire-rated buildings significantly reduce the effects of heat conduction and material

Legend' Series -18'-82' wide

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failure that result from intense fires.

They can have either bi-directional rat ings (the fire source can be within or outside the building and still protect the opposite side from heat effects) or unidirectional ratings (the construction

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Qdlied May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 29

contain m@nt

Containing harsh chemical solutions in storage tanks cost-efficiently

In the mid to late 70s, the main

By Joseph Schaefer

users for PVC liners were munici

palities and plating industries. Because of the one piece construc tion, and the liners being virtually maintenance free, they began to prove to the chemical industry just how durable they were. In 1972, two underground concrete storage tanks had been constructed at the City of Barrie Water Pollution

Kentain Products Ltd.

heavy gauge 40 mil (.040") flexible PVC bag type liner. The liner was installed without removing the existing lining. The PVC liner was not adhered to the tank surface and was not affect

ed by the expansion and contraction or

Control Centre. The two tanks were

small cracks left in the walls. The lin

used to contain liquid alum. The lining began to crack from the expansion and contraction of the tanks, causing the

ers were pre-fabricated at Kentain's facility in Kitchener, Ontario, and delivered to the job site in one piece. They were closed top liners with provi sions for the manway opening and the other fitting connections. Kentain also provided an installation supervisor and

tanks to leak.

In 1982, on the advice of Gore and Storrie Ltd. (now CH2M HILL), Kentain Products Ltd. proposed a

two helpers who worked in conjunc tion with the City of Barrie employees, installing both liners in two weeks. Early in 1999, after 17 years of trouble free service, discussions began between the City of Barrie and Kentain to have the existing PVC liners replaced for preventative measures. Working from the existing shop draw ings, Kentain manufactured the replacement liners in their plant and made arrangements with the City of Barrie to set up an installation date. Providing only an installation supervi sor, Kentain once again worked with the City of Barrie employees to install the new replacement liners. Because of the high standards of tank preparation completed when the tanks were origi nally lined in 1982, the installation for the two replacement liners was com pleted in one week, half the original time.

Working from technical drawings showing the inside dimensions of a tank, and additional detailed drawings showing the length, locations and diameter of all fittings, Kentain can construct a liner to fit a tank in one

piece. The PVC rolled goods used are die-electrically welded together to form a liquid and vapour tight seal. The entire inside surface of the tank is

completely protected. Also, a unique leak detection system provides early awareness should a leak ever occur.

. The bundled liner is lowered

through the manhole into the tank 2. Chemical resistant polypropylene

ropes are passed through holes in the tank top and fastened to the ribs on the top of the liner. 3. The liner is hoisted by the ropes into place.

For tanks such as FRP, Wood Stave and Steel that expand and contract from fluctuating temperatures of the solutions being stored during filling, Kentain liners are customized so they are not affected by this process. As long as the existing tanks are structurally sound, a Kentain liner can prolong the life of a leaking tank for many years. This has been proven many times over the past 28 years to be more cost-efficient than having the large cost of replacing the tank. In some cases, a section of the wall or roof housing the tank would have to be removed to install a new replacement tank.

4. The ropes are tied together to secure the liner into position.

Contact, e-mail:joseph@kentain.com 30 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Storage & Containment Product Showcase. The

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suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel:

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mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com. Web: www.greatario.com Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBFs, and increased HFC numbers. Heavy deposits lead to increased corrosion and reduce the life

time of surface coatings. NSF approved Floran products have been developed for convenient and efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and fil


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space safety issues and entry permits; pan and tilt camera system top quality coloured video is produced which will identify any corrosion or structural problems; water quality is not compromised dur ing the robotic cleaning procedure; all cleaning system components are disin fected on site using a 200ppm chlorine spray, as per AWWA C652 Sec 5; safe

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for industrial applications and general s '-V,,,r '. . - . ^ ... It ■'-vl .

j» '




' iLrfssA' -

.l, " y


Spill conditions on open water

that involve high volume dis charges from outfalls, along with the variable flow rates of

rivers, unpredictable wind, and wave actions, can create their own chal lenges for containing spills. Mix in the different viscosity and solubility prop erties of solvents, oils, and fuels and you have quickly taken the science out of boom deployment and spill recov ery.

Permanent, temporary, and sorbent booms placed at outfalls, in boat slips, creeks and ditches, etc., are put in place with the intent to stop, collect and recover a petroleum based (oil) spill. Having booms in place on a per manent or temporary basis may be viewed as due diligence. However, when the combination of unpredictable conditions exists, spills may travel beyond the perimeters of containment, allowing unwanted oil contamination ranging from a sheen, a continuous patch, blobs, or an emulsified mixture of oil and water to migrate down stream. Due diligence may now depend on your ability to anticipate actions to be taken and on your capa bility to respond. Aesthetic improvements that make outfalls, creeks and storm ditches pleasing to the eye and the public are affecting response capability and increasing corporate liabilities. Re

cently, a facility allowed man-made nests for geese to be installed along their outfall. As a result, response efforts may have to be abandoned due to the intervention of aggressive wildlife. Shorelines are being groomed

with rocks, gravel and other porous materials. This makes the installation

ity studies should include ways to: • understand the effects of undercur

rents, vortexing, and the boiling effects of surface water that may cause oil to be drawn back into suspension or remain suspended for some time, • make allowances for changing flow rates (e.g. seasonal, production),

of booms that must maintain a seal at

• realize the distance that oil can trav

the water's edge, and address the con ditions of rising and falling water lev els, a challenge. A common problem for industry is that many believe the permanent-

el before surfacing, • estimate enough time to allow oil to reach the surface of the water, • provide enough area for oil to sur face inside the containment area, • design, test or monitor the effective ness of boom selection and deploy

booms installed at the outfalls of a

plant will automatically contain all oil based spills from the facility. Another oversight appears to be that industries have not factored in the result of mod

ifications to existing processes, and how it can significantly increase cor porate liabilities and scales of impact to the environment. Many organiza tions need to upgrade their action plans, supplies, equipment and train ing to test their response capability and revisit the time-critical issues for each

location. Practical preparedness and capability assessments should be con ducted on a seasonal basis. Modifications made to the contain

ment systems, emergency response

plans, operating procedures and dedi cated resources need to be matched to

the hierarchy of an event. Practical preparedness and capabil

32 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004


• have supplies, equipment and trained personnel in place and in a state of readiness to deal with timecritical issues.

Identify location-specific response needs and develop effective prevention preparedness and response strategies that will allow responders to react in good time. Preparedness activities may include practised techniques, hardline decisions, as well as appropriate and immediate actions to be taken that can make a difference in the outcome of events. In facilities where a hardline decision cannot be made to shut down

the production at a process plant for safety reasons, an on site retention or emergency pond system may have to continued overleaf...

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Con camm#rt% mk be incorporated as part of a preventive strategy to control and recover spills.

determining how far a spill will travel

slow the high volume discharge from an outfall and keep the spill in quiet

before all the oil reaches the surface. If


the flow rate is too fast, the boom may

deployment or placement that will guarantee success when a spill is out of control. Planning, practice, knowing your equipment, and water conditions are critical. Know that working in the wrong conditions is only wasting time, resources and the energy of responders, and may not achieve the desired results. Move down stream to survey and select ideal conditions. When you think you are far enough ahead of the spill to start setting up, multiply your

A high volume discharge from an outfall can push and distort a 'uni formed U-shaped boom configuration' into an 'angled' or 'right-angle config uration'. This distorted shape is a visu al indication that the boom is not per forming to the intended design of con taining a spill. At best, booms in this position will only provide minimal containment, help to disperse the efflu ent, reduce the velocity of the dis charge, and slow the advance of the spill. This activity may improve the

hydroplane on top of the water, or set up vortexing that will cause oil to be

distance times three to allow for addi

retention time and reduce the distance

tional time to deal with the unexpected. A better approach would be to develop a preparedness strategy that dedicates time, effort and money for supplies, equipment and training to deal with each location's specific

a spill travels before coming to the sur

sonnel must move down stream and find the ideal conditions or make the


ideal conditions by activating any

Know what works and what doesn't work. There are no standards for boom

needs. Due to increased environmental

fines, these initiatives should be fully supported by top management. Booms can be used as a tool to help modify conditions, or slow, divert, and contain spills. They have been used to

drawn under the boom and escape. Similar conditions occur if a boom is

pulled or blown too quickly across the water's surface.

Booms must be placed in slow moving or stagnant water conditions to do their best job. When flow rates are too fast, responders have two choices: 'find the right conditions' or 'make the right conditions'. This means that, if the right conditions do not exist, per

Not all the contaminated spill will

downstream water controls to increase

have surfaeed inside the containment

ponding areas and slowing the flow. Slowing the flow rate may also be achieved by moving up stream and activating upstream water controls and

area, therefore, a second set or multi

ple sets of booms will be required for back up. Booms may also be used to divert a spill into manageable areas where response activities become more systematic and routine. The flow rate and retention time are

two of the most important factors in

shutting off other sources. Oil-water separation is affected by a multitude of factors such as: flow

rates, retention time, the difference in surface tensions, under-eurrents, vis-

Storage tanks that simply will not rust! Fiberglass tanks that deliver more than twice the service life of other tanks

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TpnNa cosity, specific gravity, solubility, etc. To illustrate potential retention times for oil-water separation to occur, the following information is based on the treatment of 2,000 gallon sized batch loads of oily water discharged into a 3 ft. deep horizontal open-top settling tank. After 10 to 20 minutes the major ity of the oil reached the surface, formed an oil slick and was cleaned

off. After an additional three hours, a substantial film of oil was evident and

was removed. Then, after 24 hours of

separation, there was a visible sheen present on the water. The dispersion of oil can result in a widespread, thin oil slick or sheen on the water. Time, money and effort are

• Concentrate Product - use current,

wasted on oil slicks and sheens that are

wind and mechanical means to con

Making a seal at the rocky shoreline.

not concentrated to maximize the


effectiveness of skimmers, sorbents and vacuum trucks during the clean up. Sweeps and sorbent booms may be used effectively as a mechanical means

• Recovery - use 'high air-flow vacu um systems', sorbents to minimize water content.

to concentrate oil. Use the wind and

• Monitor Conditions - anticipate changes and adjust to new circum

current as natural forces to concentrate



The most important factors for con trolling an oil spill are the flow rates and the retention time. Finding or making ideal flow rates for oil to

The force of a wind or breeze may cause booms, equipment and the oil to move out of their ideal position. Sorbent booms in calm water may be affected by a light breeze, causing the overlapped sections of the booms to separate. They may be tie-wrapped to maintain their seal. Light weight sor bent booms affected by a strong wind may move too quickly across the sur

remain on the surface of the water and

provide enough retention time and area for spills to reach the surface of the water are the most important factors in gaining control of a spill to open water. Boom selection is the next critical

factor. Permanent, temporary, or sor bent booms all have their positive and negative traits, ranging from being deployed in fixed positions for long

periods of time to immediate first response applications. The features that all booms must have is that they must be a floating barrier that main tains 'continuous freeboard' on top of the water to prevent splashover and 'draft', or a 'skirt with ballast' to pro vide stability and prevent oil from escaping underneath. Deploying booms may be a science but controlling the spill is an art.

By Cliff Holland, President of Spill Management Inc. Contact, e-mail: spillman@on.aibn.com.

face of the water, and allow the oil to

escape. Therefore, the booms may have to be pulled tight and anchored to limit their movement. This will cause

the booms to loose their flexibility and may affect their ability to ride the waves.

Effective response involves the fol lowing: • Response Objectives - Slow, divert, or contain the spill.

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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 35


Research suggests conservative design of concrete box culverts Limited, suggested that box specimens produced with, and without a new type

By Paul Smeitzer,P.Eng. and Evan Bentz,Ph.D.

of shear reinforcement failed at a load

Precast concrete box culverts

between 820 and 1000 KN. The engi neer reported that the testing did not

are primarily used to carry streams beneath roadways, as

establish the usefulness of the new

type of shear reinforcement. Testing

conduits for buried stormwater

also indicated that there was a need to

or sanitary sewers, and as access tun

investigate traditional formulae and codes calling for the level of shear reinforcement currently required in

nels under road and rail infrastructure.

It is critical to public safety that these structures not undergo brittle shear

box units.

failures. If the shear reinforcement in


these structures is excessive, however, it is a waste of resources and contrary to principles of sustainable develop





Professor Michael Collins, a world leader in the consideration of shear in

excessive loads are experienced, due to depth of cover or other factors, shear

concrete and as a faculty member at the University of Toronto. Prompted by the research at Centennial, Dr. Collins was approached by the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA) to propose a research project on shear steel design. In addition, after Harvey Pelligrini of Materials and Manufacturing Ontario(MMO)was contacted on this

steel reinforcement is added to the

landmark research to determine the

design. While such shear reinforce ment requires more steel, it is also dif ficult to place and can significantly increase production time and energy resources during the dry cast produc tion process. Preliminary research at Centennial Concrete Pipe (now Hanson Pipe & Products Canada, Inc.) in late 2000, wimessed by Gamsby and Mannerow

interest of the province, MMO quickly agreed to partner on the project. Rounding out the research partners


To resist bending moments caused by earth pressures and vehicle loads, precast concrete box units contain lon gitudinal and circumferential steel reinforcement near the inside face and the outside face of the box. Where







Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the OCPA, Con Cast Pipe Limited, Hanson Pipe & Products Canada, Inc., M-Con Products Inc., and

Munro Concrete Products. A

research proposal presented by Dr.

Inner Cage Outer Gage

0.500 ■0.400■0.300 ■-




inner Gage

Outer Cage RY2

RY2P (Stopped prior to shear)

AASHTO Upper Bound

RY6P (Stopped prior to shear)


MSHTO Lower Bound

RY6 inner Cage



Outer Cage RY6




d [mm] Figure 1:1: Size Effect 36 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004



Specimen placed in test frame and being prepared for experiment.

Collins was accepted in 2003 and the results released in January 2004. University of Toronto research involved 12 major experiments on actual box culverts to develop an understanding of the shear resisting mechanisms for such structures. The

crack development, reinforcement strains, and specimen deformation were compared to the results of exten sive nonlinear finite element analysis using the computer modeling tech niques developed at the University of Toronto. Discussion presented in the report called, "Shear Behaviour of Concrete Box Culverts: A Preliminary Study" by R.A. Yee, E.C. Bentz, and M.P. Collins, identifies areas of weak ness and lack of clarity in the current codes governing box culvert design. The study developed an experimen tal procedure to determine the adequa cy of the current shear design proce dures for a range of commercial box culverts. By comparing the experimen tal results to the analytical predictions from the shear strength equations in North American codes, the ability of these provisions to predict the shear behavior of the test specimens was examined.






Ultimately, the objective is to use the information to provide recommen dations to industry outlining the ade quacy of commercial box culvert designs in shear, and to more accurate-

Infrastructure ly identify where shear reinforcement is required and where it is not. The analytical and experimental results are usefiil to future box culvert studies and the precast industry, as well as to industry associations and academics involved in researching the shear behaviour of concrete structures. In addition to the observations at

Centennial, there were other reasons

for investigating the adequacy of the current shear design procedures. In 2000, the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC) was updated and became the principal culvert design guideline for Ontario, formerly under the jurisdiction of the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code (OHBDC). This change in code prompted concern by the Ontario con crete pipe industry that products of some OCPA producers would no longer appear to be adequate in shear under the revised code provisions, even though no deficiency in shear behaviour had been observed in the field.

Some uncertainty remains as to the precise load causing shear failure under ideal worst-case conditions due

to the presence of axial load as a result of the test set-up conditions. Axial

regardless of the presence of axial load. All the code shear provisions were found to underestimate the shear

eapacity ofthe culvert members. Three shear code equations from CHBDC

negative moment in the slab shifts inwards toward the mid-span at higher loads. As an elastic analysis predicts a stationary inflection point, it was found that actual post-cracking

and the AASHTO box culvert shear

moments in the sections of higher

equation were studied. Calculations were performed assuming an elastic member response. The test data eon-

shear stress were lower. This would

firmed that the point of inflection between the regions ofthe positive and


suggest that the use of elastic methods in design is somewhat conservative, and hence the code predictions should continued overleaf...

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Wastewater Samplers Residual Chlorine

Conductivity Turbidity Density pH/ORP

loads in the slab were several times

those specified by design specifica tions but were necessary to ensure a statically determinate loading scheme. Most code predictions anticipate that the presence of these additional axial loads would enhance the shear capaci ty of the sections by 10 percent or less, with the exception of the method pre sented in CHBDC The adop tion of the expression (4h-d) Mnu = Mu-Nu

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in CHBDC Clause to account

for axial load has a significant influ ence on shear strength predictions, increasing these predictions on aver age 1.5 times in this experimental pro gram. This may lead to un-conservative predictions of shear strength if axial loads are significant. In addition, stirrups, which are eommonly used in the reinforcing design of box units for shear design, were not used in any of the specimens cast for this testing. The eode shear provisions should be able to predict the behaviour of the loaded culverts in the experiments



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Infrastructure limit can be dangerous for application to specimens with larger section depths due to the size effect in shear. Curiously, the lower limit on the •VM-:

AASHTO equations of 0.25^f'^bd is 2d dv

Hs ttftfttlt tttitttlt 2400x1500x200



the same as the upper limit on the


CHBDC Clause This could

imply that CHBDC Clause Method is limited by an overly conser vative expression. The CHBDC General Method gave the most consistent predictions. Since

■ 3000x2400x250

the CHBDC General Method is known

Figure 1:2: Specimens considering ioad paths of forces.

to give accurate predictions in other applications, clearly there are factors not being considered when applying it

be slightly conservative. CHBDC code provisions predicted shear failures on average 56 percent of

tested in this study are plotted with a much larger box culvert section tested at the University of Toronto Structural

actual observed shear failures. The

Laboratories for the Toronto Transit

AASHTO Box equation was less con servative predicting shear failure on average 71 percent of actual observed

1.1. The

One possible source of error could arise from an inappropriate considera tion of the loaded length that influ

CHBDC General Method was found to

ences the critical shear section. In

Commission in Figure

however, to recognize the limitations of the AASHTO equation. Studies have shown that the shear capacity of a reinforced concrete member is subject to a size effect depending on the depth

give an accurate prediction of the fail ure load of the TTC box (Kuzmanovic 1998). Notice, however, that the empir ical AASHTO minimum limit gave a highly un-conservative prediction of strength for the TTC box. Tests on larger depth members

of the section. Shear critical sections

show that the AASHTO minimum

shear failures. Care must be taken,




Automatic Escalating Screen is minimal

Figure 1.2, the tested culvert sizes are shown to scale with the critical section at dv from the haunch and crack

extending to 2d from the haunch. When considering the load path of the applied load, it would be reasonable to assume that all of the load on the haunch side of the break would flow

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Infrastructure directly into the culvert wall. Thus, the actual load acting on the critical sec

tion at dv could be less than anticipat ed, indicating that the section would fail at higher loads. Issues such as concrete cracking strength (which has a profound influ ence on the shear strength of sections without transverse shear reinforce

ment), the superior bond characteris tics ofthe reinforcement mesh, and the previously mentioned conservatism

of concrete box culverts continue. The

most significantly, research will have a profound impact on design methodolo gy and principles used in industry and

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producing precast concrete boxes. But


associated with internal loads deter

mined from elastic analysis results, may all contribute to the overall con servatism of the predictions. Although the study represents a preliminary investigation, there is sub stantial evidence included in the study report to suggest that shear reinforeement may have little influence in the design of most culvert sections con forming to Ontario Provincial Standards Specification (OPSS) 1821 - Material Specification for Precast Concrete





whOkt monies |er??ons So SoofT


Sewers, if concrete is allowed to reach




Results also indicated that shear rein

forcement for many deeper earth cover applications may not be required to satisfy the CHBDC design load requirement. The study recommends, however, that further testing confirm any such inference, particularly for box members with lower concrete

strengths. Preliminary

investigations into

shear behaviour of concrete box cul

verts gave an indication of the design's susceptibility to shear failure in the box slab. Experimentation also clearly established the load range at which shear failure is to be expected in the slab, the reliability of analytical tech niques at predicting member internal forces, and the conservatism of both the box member design and code shear prediction methods outlined in CHBDC and AASHTO codes. These

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reflecting the conservatism of the cul vert designs. With a greater under standing of the behaviour of the cul verts in shear it would also be possible to expand the range of culvert sizes and design depths standardized in

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Investigations into shear behaviour May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 39

Water &Wastewater

A Review of the Sustainable Water and

Sewage Systems Act,2002

The Walkerton tragedy and the

By Mike Loudon

following Inquiry galvanized

the Ontario Government. It

passed legislation and regula

tions aimed at improving municipal water quality and security. In August 2000, the Province issued the Ontario


summarized in the January, 2003 issue of this magazine (Vol. 15, No. 6, pg. 16). The SWSS Act will apply to municipalities that are designated by regulation as regulated entities. If reg

Drinking Water Protection Regulation

ulations under the SWSS Act follow


the example of draft regulations under SDWA then this will include virtually





Resources Act. This required triennial reports from engineers that addressed the ability of water supply systems to meet water quality standards. In December 2002, following completion of the Walkerton Inquiry, the Ontario Govern ment passed into law two new acts related to municipal water and wastewater systems.

replacement costs and improvement Cost-recovery plans will describe how a municipality intends to pay the full cost of providing water and wastewater services. Regulations under the Act can tell a municipality which sources of revenue it is, or is not, per mitted to use for cost recovery and can impose restrictions on the use of dif ferent sources of revenue. In par ticular, regulations under the SWSS Act can "specify the maxi mum amount by which a regulat ed entity may increase the charges" for water or wastewater services, and can do so by cus tomer or class of customer.

The municipal auditor must review both the full-cost and the

cost-recovery plans and the municipality must receive the auditor's written opinion on them before it approves the plans. The approved plans and the auditor's opinion on them are then to be submitted to the Ministry.

The Sustainable Water and

Sewage Systems Act (Bill 175 SWSS Act) and the Safe Drinking Water Act (Bill 195 SDWA) will have profound impacts on the management of water and sewage systems by Ontario's municipalities.

The Act states that the Minister

The Sustainable Water and

Sewage Systems (SWSS) Act pushes the Provincial govern ment into new territory in Ontario as it directly addresses the level of investment needed

to sustain water and sewer sys tems over the long term. Many welcome

this initiative. For

years we have heard warnings

Municipalities will have the authority to recover all costs related to the delivery of water and

that insufficient investments are

wastewater services.

being made to offset the deterio ration of ageing facilities. Despite these warnings, it is often difficult to convince municipal councils to com mit the required funds. This legislation forces utilities to face this issue.

The SWSS Act sets out objectives, but regulations under the Act will be needed for the Act to be implemented. There is some unease about this as the

Province has previously received poor ratings around the regulation of the reformed property tax system and more recently with the hydro reform fiasco. Overview of the SWSS Act The main features of the Act were

"may" approve full-cost and costrecovery plans. Their form and content must meet the require ments of the Act and related regu lations. Approval of the Minister is required if proposed increases in customer charges exceed limits stipulated by regulation. Even when these plans are approved either by the municipality and/or the Minister - the municipality is still not off the hook in terms of

all municipalities operating a water or wastewater system serving the public. The most significant element of the SWSS Act is a requirement for fullcost and cost-recovery reports for both water and wastewater systems. The full-cost reports must contain an inventory of assets, a certified asset management plan prepared by a pro fessional engineer, and an "assessment of the full cost of providing the water services and the revenue obtained to

provide them"(Section 4 (5)). The Act goes on to define full costs to include source protection costs, operating costs, financing costs, renewal and

40 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

its reporting obligations. It must file periodic progress reports concerning

the implementation of its approved cost recovery plan. In addition, it must revise its full-cost and cost-recovery plans in response to changing circum stances or new regulatory require ments. As before all of these plans must be audited before municipal approval and they must be submitted to the Minister.

Other stipulations of the SWSS Act speak to matters such as financial management using dedicated reserves. Ministerial orders, time schedules for reports and the authority to make regu-

Water & Wastewater lations under the Act.

The new Municipal Act A new Municipal Act came into effect January 1, 2003. A variety of

the longer-term Provincial scrutiny approach being developed under the SWSS Act.

line on water and wastewater charges at all costs. Another welcome feature of the Act

Immediate impacts of the

is the requirement for dedicated

acts have been consolidated under this


reserve accounts for water and waste-

Act. Cost-recovery methods for water and wastewater services that were pre viously specified are now left to municipal discretion. It is understood that the objective was to reduce bureaucracy, to provide more flexibili ty to municipalities, and to generally maintain the options currently avail able. The SWSS Act appears to be going in the opposite direction by introducing more rules and the prospect of regulation. Of particular interest in the context of the SWSS Act is Ontario Regulation 244/02, which relates to Part XII, Fees and Charges, of the new Municipal Act 2001. In relation to fees or charges for the use of a sewage system or the con sumption of water (not other fees and charges) it requires they be subject to scrutiny at public hearings and be passed annually. It is not clear how this time-frame and apparent public con sultation process is compatible with

Perhaps the most profound and ben eficial impact of the SWSS Act will be that it will force all municipal water and wastewater system operators to undertake a financial management exercise involving an assessment of the full costs of operations including

water operations. This isolates water and wastewater operations financially

often hidden capital costs. Full capital costs must be elaborated through development of an asset management plan. The subsequent need for prepara tion of a corresponding cost-recovery plan will then put the onus on munici pal councils to recognize and approve rates and charges that are required to sustain water and wastewater systems. This will hopefully strengthen the hand of the operators in their annual submissions of new budgets and rates to municipal councils. Municipal councils, for their part, will be encour aged to focus on long-term financial strategies rather than the more politi cally attractive objective of holding the

and assures that water and wastewater revenues will be used for their intend

ed purposes. Many municipalities already operate in this manner. But an article in the Toronto Star on February 11,2003 provided an example how this may not always be the case. The article stated: "Toronto City Council has decided to withdraw $22 million from

a fund to fix ageing water pipes and invest it in a commercial venture to

supply air conditioning for downtown office towers." The article also noted

that "the City raised water rates by 9% this year, citing a dire need for $2 bil lion in repairs and upgrades over the next 10 years to the water system." Weighing against these beneficial impacts is the burden imposed by new reporting requirements. There are fullcost and cost-recovery reports, periodcontinued overleaf...

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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 41

Water & Wastewater ic revisions to these reports as material circumstances change, progress reports and any other reports that the Minister may require. But most water and wastewater system operators already prepare similar reports. These are the annual budgets and reports to council recommending user rates and charges, periodic financial plans describing sources of funding for cap ital investments, periodic rate studies that review user rates and charges and


matters such as customer

metering and the rate structure, and

these reports if the results are made available in the form of an annual com

periodic development charge studies.

pilation of rates, costs and other salient

Hopefully, the burden of these new reporting requirements will be mini

data. The databases of this sort that are now available from Environment Canada and from the Ontario Water

mized, for instance by co-ordinating the financial reporting requirements under this Act with those of the

Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. Municipal service providers will also derive great benefit from all of

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Works Association provide incomplete coverage and often are not available in a timely manner. How do we measure full costs?

One can argue that municipal water and wastewater operators already pre pare full-cost reports each year, i.e. their annual budgets. The annual budg et provides a realistic measure of full cost if operating and capital costs are reasonably represented. The capital items in the annual budget are based on capital and finan cial plans, which may look five to ten years into the future. The capital plan contains cost estimates for actual capi tal projects and represents a realistic assessment of upcoming capital costs especially for system expansions and upgrades. Capital plans do not, howev er, fairly represent full costs if capital planning and management procedures fail to maintain assets in a condition

that assures compliance with perform ance standards and objectives. To avoid this shortcoming, some municipalities use asset management planning to determine asset repair and replacement requirements. Such plan ning is, in fact, required by law in the US and New Zealand. In 1999 the US

Government Accounting Standards Board revised its guidelines for finan cial reporting. The updated approach, known as GASB34, provided two methods for reporting infrastructure assets. The first method is based on

historical cost minus depreciation. The second, or modified approach, uses an asset management system. This requires an asset inventory, condition assessments and estimates of the annu

al cost of maintaining assets at required condition levels. In Ontario, municipalities do not currently use depreciation accounting, and asset management of the type described is in its infancy. Much of the work on asset manage ment uses high-level, desktop methods such as unit costing and depreciation concepts. These methods can be mis leading. They do provide an estimate

of actual capital costs since they do not involve a detailed assessment of the condition of the assets. A detailed

42 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Water & Wastewater assessment requires visual inspections and reviews of operational data. For underground assets, especially the water supply transmission and distri bution system, the assessment of asset condition can be difficult and costly. Compared to capital costs, operat ing costs are generally easier to account for, but a new wrinkle intro duced by the SWSS Act promises to complicate matters. This wrinkle is source water protection. Certain source protection costs are internal to the municipal operation or are at least under the control ofthe municipal gov ernment, examples being well-head protection measures such as land use controls within the immediate vicinity of a municipal well. Much of the source protection activity, however, occurs outside of municipal boundaries and is under the jurisdiction of another agency such as a Conservation Authority. This is espe cially true of measures to prevent sur face water contamination by agricul ture. There are already examples in place of municipal water supply opera tions funding source protection meas ures, the Regional Municipality of Waterloo being a case in point. This funding is achieved through a transfer offunds to the Conservation Authority. But these are ad hoc arrangements. There are, as yet, no generally accept ed principles or procedures for allocat ing source protection costs between municipal water supply and wastewater operations on the one hand and

Commissions, are special purpose bodies with staff knowledgeable in the technical, financial, and legal aspects of rate regulation. This form of rate regulation is established in order to counteract the market power that water utilities have as natural monopolies and to thereby protect consumers, while at the same time assuring the financial sustainability of the operator. The SWSS Act seems to have the

same focus on financial sustainability

and consumer protection but in other respects its provisions do not resemble formal rate regulation. To begin with, no distinction is made between munic

ipal not-for-profit operators and pri vate-sector for-profit operators; all are subject to the Act. In most jurisdic tions, senior governments do not regu late municipal not-for-profit operators since local government has this responsibility. This provision of the continued overleaf...

Duittt presents.

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other stakeholders who either benefit

from source protection or whose activ ities pose a threat to water supplies. Are we facing rate regulation? The Act



approval of full-cost and cost-recovery reports and the imposition of limits on customer charges. Since provisions with respect to Ministerial approval are permissive in nature, using the word ing "may" rather than "shall", the Province's intent will not be clear until

regulations are issued under the Act. Formal rate regulation as practised in the United States involves an expen sive, time-consuming, bureaucratic process whereby private-sector forprofit utilities seek approval to adjust customer charges. Their proposals are scrutinized in a judicial setting involv ing detailed financial studies, expert testimony and cross-examination. The regulatory bodies, called State Utility

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Water & Wastewater SWSS Act undermines the authority and accountability of local govern

Utility Commissions in the United

ment, an issue we return to below.

States. The administrative headaches for

The primary focus of formal rate regulation is on keeping rate increases no higher than needed to recover allowable costs. In contrast to this, the apparent purpose of the SWSS Act is to assure that rate increases are high enough to fully recover costs. These are not, of course, mutually exclusive objectives but they do place a different onus on the proponent. With formal rate regulation, the proponent is chal lenged to demonstrate that reported costs, in particular, the return on investment, are defensible. The municipal proponent under the SWSS Act is challenged, in the first place, to demonstrate that all costs are fully accounted for. The primary check against over-stating costs would appear to be the provision in the Act for a onesize-fits-all limit on the proposed increase for a charge. This is not likely to be an effective means of controlling costs or protecting the consumer unless the Ministry establishes a regu latory apparatus resembling the State

municipal tax offices that accompa nied the Province's many rules related to the new property tax system make many municipal officials nervous about new regulations that enable "micro-management" from above. While one might argue that financial micro-management in the form of rate regulation is justified in light of Walkerton, it is possible for the gov ernment to go too far in its efforts to regulate water and wastewater authori ties. Significant regulatory oversight already exists by virtue of regulations under SDWA. Indeed, implementation of these regulations has necessitated the hiring of more than 50 engineers by the Ministry. Perhaps the regulatory burden cre ated by the SWSS Act should be mini mized by a feature that would limit the need for Ministerial approval. For instance, a requirement for Ministerial approval of full-cost and cost-recovery reports could be triggered only when the Ministry deems that the perform

ance of municipal water and wastewater operations is inadequate as evi denced by investigations and reporting under SDWA and the Ontario Water Resources Act.

The choice of charges for cost recovery The SWSS Act establishes the

authority to prohibit certain types of charges. What this means exactly will not be made clear until we see regula tions under the Act, but it could con ceivably mean a prohibition on the use of certain rate structures such as

declining block rates or flat rates. Since the type of rate structure chosen in a municipality reflects local circum stance, it would be unfortunate if the regulations unduly limit the permitted rate formats. For instance, there is con

siderable merit in municipal efforts to promote water efficiency in order to increase cost-effectiveness or protect source waters, but it is important to understand that there are many ways to do this and that one size does not fit

all. The regulations should, therefore, encourage the evaluation of alternative management strategies but not force


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Water & Wastewater

The SWSS Act differs from the

balancing act that constitutes good financial planning. The SWSS Act can reinforce their work in this regard by assuring that they have high quality

SDWA in a fundamental way. SDWA

information in the form of the full-eost

identifies standards of customer serv

and cost-recovery reports that have been vetted by their auditor. But it may also be a hindrance if unnecessary constraints are placed on the charges used in the cost-recovery plan; if regu

the adoption of a single strategy such as conservation-oriented rates.

Accountability and authority

ice that municipal operators must achieve but leaves it to local operators and decision-makers to determine how

these standards are to be met; opera tions and management are left under local control. In contrast to this, the SWSS Act imposes direct control over an aspect of management, namely financial management. Until regulations are promulgated under the Act, it is not clear what exactly this control will entail. It is clear, however, that financial manage ment cannot be the subject of precise technical standards like those used for

water quality since good financial management means more than just full-cost accounting and full-cost

The SWSS Act is such an Act and the

government of Ontario deserves full commendation for this response to the Walkerton tragedy. This article reviews key elements of the Act and discusses underlying issues that will, at the very least, eomplicate its implementation, and may in faet result in counterproductive outeomes. The risk of unintended negative impacts on municipalities will be min imized if regulations under the Act stick to the credo that small is probably better when it comes to government. This means avoiding unnecessary restrictions on municipal authority, minimising the frequency and com plexity of municipal reporting require ments and exercising restraint in estab lishing the scope for direct Provincial interference in munieipal decisions about the financial management of water and wastewater systems. â&#x2013;

lations under the SWSS Act institu

tionalise micro-management of water and wastewater operations from above; or if Ministerial dietates serve to

diminish Council's authority and its accountability to municipal con stituents. Conclusions

Full-cost accounting and full-cost recovery are admirable objeetives; this goes without saying. Developing an act of government to promote these objectives is also a worthy endeavour.


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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 45

Wastewater Recycling

The future of wastewater in a global water shortage By Ken Johnson,MCIP, P.Eng.,

Typical Municipal Water Prices Per 1000 Liters

Earth Tech Canada

The use of wastewater recycling

is now emerging on the global stage as a means of averting what some experts call a fresh water disaster in the next 25 years. Studies suggest that the projected scarcity of water will be the result of overpopulation, pollution, and global warming, which will, in turn, con tribute to an increase in evaporation. Some water experts are advocating wastewater recycling as a potential solution to water shortages. Such a system would involve re-using sink and shower water for toilets and gar dening. Recycled wastewater is also being promoted for use instead of drinking-quality water for irrigation, industrial processes, and the replenish ing of depleted groundwater aquifers. A study completed by the City of Yellowknife in 2000, and another study completed by CMHC in 2003, docu mented that Canadian expertise in wastewater recycling is leading the way on the application of the wastewater recycling technology even on a global scale. In fact northern Canada is at the forefront of both the national

scene, and the global scene.

The cost of trucked water haul in the North

is approximately 125 times greater than in Southern Canada and

other countries around

the globe!



Belgium ^ Figure 1: Typical water prices from around the world. Courtesy - Bill Fandrick, Synergy Solutions, Yellowknife, NT.


The study for the City of Yellowknife investigated the state-ofthe-art of this technology for land development. What the study discov ered is that on-site wastewater recy cling is a new technology even in the south. What the study also document ed is that only two Canadian compa nies have actually implemented this type of technology, and many of the applications have been in the













other innovative

technologies in eight communities across the Canadian North.

$40,000. The use of on-site wastewater treat

ment is not new, and in fact it has pro vided a low cost way of treating waste-

46 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Yellowknife household each month

goes to the toilet or the laundry, there

Yellowknife and other

is substantial opportunity to save money on water use by treating it, and recycling it for the same use.

larger communities in the North, the climate, bedrock, permafrost

ate expensive problems for land development. The usual way of water and sewer servicing using buried pipes adds RESIDUALS EXCESS FROM NON POTABLE a significant amount to TREATMENT WATER PROCESS (REMOVAL OR the cost. Land develop SEASONAL OUTSIDE USE) ment costs, including roads and drainage, in Figure 2: Schematic of on-site wastewater recycling system the City ofYellowknife, for a singie household. Courtesy - City of Yellowknife, NT. are over $70,000 per NON POTABLE WATER STORAGE

in on-site wastewater treatment have

allowed the use of this technology in urban houses, and expanded the use of on-site wastewater recycling. Why the interest in on-site wastewater recycling? Considering that approximately 55 percent or 10,000 litres of the water used in a typical

Within the City of

and soil conditions cre TREATMENT UNITS

lot. A comparable cost for an on-site wastewater recycling system could be

water for rural houses in the south for




decades. However, recent innovations




Northwest Territories and Nunavut.





The CMHC study reaffirmed much of the information in the earlier study, and provided a broad base of potential appli wastewater



Canada's Finland






The Yellowknife study also com pared the cost for a typical residential piped water and sewer system in the City ofYellowknife, and a wastewater recycling system over a 20 year period. It concluded that a wastewater recy

cling system could save approximately 40 percent in the overall cost. The most significant part of this cost was elimi nating the need for pipes in the ground. This study collected information from around the English speaking world on whatever wastewater treat-

Wastewater Recycling ment systems claimed to be able to recycle wastewater. Available informa tion on each system was reviewed to

Green Municipal Investment Fund to construct a wastewater recycling sys

tem to serve homes. If this pilot project

determine if the systems could poten

proves successful, Iqaluit will consider

tially provide a recycled wastewater. The number of systems was narrowed down to seven, upon which the unit processes within each system were analysed, and the information collated for the purposes of comparing each system using a numerical ranking eval

installing more of these systems, which should ultimately reduce the community's water supply operating costs by a significant amount. As well, future expansions to the water distribu


back or eliminated because of waste-

The unit processes of the on-site wastewater recycling system include a septic tank for primary treatment, a bio-filter followed by a slow sand filter for secondary treatment, and ozona-

water recycling systems, thus reducing the community's capital budget

water recycling depends in part upon governments completing changes to existing legislation and regulations. The successful implementation of the technology also depends upon commu nity acceptance of the process. This community acceptance, in fact, may be the "make or break" factor in the future

use of this technology.

tion, wastewater collection and wastewater treatment systems may be scaled

Ken Johnson is a Professional Planner and a Professional Engineer with the Water Group ofEarth Tech Canada in Edmonton. Contact,

requirements. The future success of on-site waste-

e-mail: ken.Johnson@earthtech.ca.

tion for disinfection of the water before it is reused. Of these unit


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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 47

Industrial Water Treatment

Treating cooling pond water for Wabamun Lake level mitigation project In Alberta

TransAlta,Canada's largest non-

regulated electricity generation and marketing company, oper ates three power plants in the Wabamun Lake area, west of Edmonton, Alberta. For the past 25 years, two of these plants have used water from the lake to feed their cool

ing towers. The level of the lake has decreased significantly, not only from power plant intake, but also from lack of rainfall, surface runoff, and natural evaporation. The challenge was to recharge Wabamum lake by treating nearby cooling pond water, fed by the


<0.10 NTU

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Ozone Residual

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stringent effluent water quality requirements of 0.10 NTU turbidity and no more than 1/100 mL of living zooplankton. It also had to produce 8

on a request for a clarifier package plant. John Meunier met with the client, and after evaluating their needs, offered them a complete turnkey sys

North Saskatchewan River, and return

million cubic metres of treated water

tem, which included two ActifloÂŽ

ing it to the lake.

per year.

microsand-ballasted clarifier package plants and three DusenfloÂŽ gravity fil ter package plants." The turnkey contract includes: site preparation; water supply; drainage; interior and exterior fire protection systems; pumping station and under ground piping; reservoirs; building

In 1997, TransAlta built a water

In June 2001, TransAlta awarded

treatment plant next to its 2,020megawatt Sundance power plant to mitigate TransAlta's historical and ongoing effect on the lake's water level. The treatment plant treats cool ing pond water so that it can fill the lake. Water taken from the cooling pond is replaced by water from the

John Meunier Inc. of Montreal, Quebec, a $10.7 million contract to provide a water treatment system, including a mechanical and process

North Saskatchewan River.

Subsequently, and based on input from local stakeholders, TransAlta expanded the output of water to the


"The project was a real challenge," says Gilles Filion, president and gener al manager, John Meunier Inc., "because ofthe very tight schedule and the strict process warranty. The con tract was awarded to us on June 28, 2001. The installation had to be com

lake with the construction of an addi

plete by March 20, 2002, with

tional plant. It began operating in June 2002 to ensure the company would meet its license requirements. The two treatment plants comprise the

mechanical and process testing from the end of March to the beginning of June. Actual system startup was sched




uled for the end of June 2002."

Says Filion, "TransAlta was work


Facility. The second plant had to meet

ing with our local sales representative

Schematic of the WTP

and services rooms and concrete foun

dations; walkways and stairways; elec trical supply and services; emergency lighting; and heating and ventilation. Besides the Actiflo and Dusenflo

package plants, the mechanical process equipment includes chemical dosing systems, an ozonation unit and two cooling towers. At the




Treatment Facility, the water to be treated is first chlorinated to kill zoo-

plankton, algae and bacteria. Next, the pH is adjusted using sulfuric acid. Alum coagulant is used to destabilize colour, particles and colloids before the water is fed to the Actiflo clarifiers.

The Actiflo process uses microsand


as a seed for floe formation. The


microsand provides increased surface area for floe attachment, and acts as a To the lake


ballast or weight. The resulting sandballasted floes have higher settling velocities than do floes produced in conventional clarifiers. This allows

ACTIFLCr trains

much higher clarifier overflow rates,


which translate into reduced clarifica

Sulfuric acid

tion retention time, reduced system

& Alum

Cooling pond water

footprint and reduced total cost. The Actiflo is able to produce settled water with turbidity less than 1.0 NTU.

Backwash tanks Ozone contactors

Clarified water from the Actiflo

systems is fed to the Dusenflo filters. 48 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Industrial Water Treatment the project met the schedule require ments with no delays. The water treat ment system is meeting the effluent quality requirements as requested by Alberta Environment.

Contact Jean-Francois Beaiidet who is field Service Supervisor, ACTIFLO* Processfor John Meunier Inc. E-mail: Jfbeaudet@johnmeuniercom.

remaining anthracite and sand to remove the largest sus pended solids. The water then flows through the finer sand media at the bottom of the filtration bed, where the remain ing turbidity, color and bacteria are removed. The ozonation system inactivates any remaining bacte ria, algae and zooplankton in the filtered water. Thiosulfate is used to remove chlorine and ozone in the treated water

before it is discharged to the lake. The cooling towers ensure that the treated water dis

charged to Wabamun Lake is kept at a constant tempera ture, as the discharged water must not vary more than 3°C from the lake water temperature. In addition to the mechanical process equipment, John Meunier Inc. also supplied all instrumentation and con trols, start-up and commissioning services, performance testing and a full-time, onsite technical advisor until final acceptance by the client. With commissioning completed at the end of June 2002,


Installation of the Actiflo clarifier.


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current opportunities. May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 49

Odour Control

Clean Harbours achieves odour reduction at

Ontario landfill operation By Irene Hassas, Filter innovations Inc.

Clean Harbours, one of the

largest Ontario landfill opera tors, had problems with strong odours




leachate collected in their lagoons, symptomatic of the incomplete and improper decomposition of solids. There




lagoons on the landfill site. The exist ing volume of each is five million litres. The wastewater (rain run-off from the landfill) is pumped into the lagoons as needed and this process is controlled by a pumping system. More solids are accumulated in the

first lagoon because wastewater is pumped by two inlets from landfill to Lagoon 1 and then it flows to Lagoon 2. There are four propeller type surface aerators - two in each lagoon. Each lagoon is aerated and mixed by the aer ators. The wastewater is pumped 24 hours a day into the incinerator where the water is evaporated. The incinera tor burns 100,000 litres per week ofthe lagoon's water. Each week, 45 buckets of ash from the incinerator are spread

BioStreme rejuvenates the system by incorporating the growth and gradual strengthening of facultative bacteria in the lagoon.

on the landfill and the landfill is then

branes, eyes and skin and causes nose

covered by a layer of mixed cement, water and newspaper. The run-off in the landfill only fills up substantially when the incinerator cannot keep up with rain run-offand the lagoons are full. Challenge Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile fatty acids are common odours

associated with the treatment ofindus trial wastewater. Odours become a

serious problem in the summer because of increasing temperatures. Odour issues not only cause concern with local neighbours and residents of the area but are also a potential cost issue for the facility. Treatment

Clean Harbours had originally applied hydrogen peroxide to treat the leachate for odour. It showed a limited

odour removal ability both in the lab

analysis and in the lagoons. In addition to its limited effect, hydrogen peroxide is also a hazardous product to work with. It is corrosive to mucous mem and throat irritation.

The existing biological population in a leachate consists of both aerobes

and anaerobes. They have specific nutrient and micronutrient require ments for optimal growth and repro duction, many of which may not be present in the leachate environment.

Left: Each lagoon was aerated and mixed by two propeller-type surface aerators. Right: 250 litres of BioStreme were used to shock each pond. 50 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Odour Control This can often become a rate-limiting variable in the processing of wastes, resulting in decreased operating effi ciencies, loading rates and/or undesir able by-products, such as excessive odours, scum formation, and solids.

BioStreme is a custom engineered micronutrient formulation that is used

week of new, incoming leachate and the remaining liquid in the lagoons to Although the nature of incoming materials to the lagoons was not com pletely known. Filter Innovations was able to determine the required concen tration and necessary dilution rate of BioStreme to control the odour of the

of existing biological treatment sys tems. Its proprietary formula is derived

lagoons. The process has been extremely effective in achieving odour reduction

100% all-natural sources of

Harbours landfill. According to the landfill manager, odours were com pletely removed from the first lagoon and noticeably reduced in the second one. Downstream of the lagoons, the odours are virtually non-existent.

maintain odour control.

for the enhancement and acceleration


in the leachate environment at Clean

Irene (Aranak) Hassas, M.E.S., B.Sc., is the Environmental Manager at Filter Innovations Inc.

Contact, e-mail:


amino acids, plant extracts and foodgrade nutrients, which have been blended to encourage the growth and metabolism of existing and/or intro

duced bacteria for dramatically improved treatment results and odour



The long-standing leachate envi ronment is very similar to a septic sys tem's environment, emitting various types of off gases venting from the lagoon (odours). BioStreme rejuve nates the system (as a source of nutri ent) by incorporating the growth and gradual strengthening of facultative bacteria in the lagoon. As this excess population devours the overload, the lagoon's functional operation improves until treatment can be diminished and

maintained minimally as a preventative measure. Based on the dimensions

and depths of the ponds (5,000,000 litres of leachate) a 60% reduction of odour was expected. Each lagoon was shocked to achieve 50 ppm concentration in the pond. To shock each pond,250 litres of BioStreme concentrate were used. The

concentrate was initially diluted 100:1 with water (this was later revised to approximately 20:1) and spread over the surface of each lagoon. The batch

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Application was done using a mobile water cannon with a 1,000 gal lons holding tank and spraying the mixed solution on the surface. The sur

face aerators provided accurate mix ing. According to the operator, within approximately four to five days, odours were noticeably reduced. Since the level of leachate changed

With the Accu-Tab chlorinatlon system, there are no bulky drums or cylinders to handle. And the patented Accu-Tab chlorinators and

cal hypo tablets deliver consistent and controllable chlorine dosages, day after day. That's why when it comes to making safe water safer, the easy choice is the Accu-Tab system. We've got the power.'"


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Site Remediation

Bunker Hill Project helps clean up 100 years of mining waste

After more than a century of abuse and degrada

tion, the State of Idaho and the EPA are cleaning up the Silver Valley in Idaho, long known as one of the most polluted sites in the US. The soil and water are contaminated with heavy metals including cad mium, lead, and zinc.

The clean-up will take many years to accomplish. ZMl/Portec was awarded the contract for providing new chemical processing equipment for the Bunker Hill site mine water treatment plant last year. ZMl/Portec supplied Bunker Hill with two pebble lime storage silos, two M-25 lime slakers, a pump room and a storage tank. Each silo can feed either slaker, and each slaker can feed the slurry tank. The advantage is that if one system is off-line for maintenance, the other will keep operating. This provides a high degree of redundancy to help ensure the treatment system remains operable. The new control system for the treatment plant will run both the slaking system and various plant components. The entire project was completed as part of a time-crit ical clean-up action and shipped on schedule with just a small amount of on-site wiring needed. Contact, e-mail: info@zmichemical.com. ■

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And methane production presumes the ability to identify large hydrate deposits - something scientists are only now discovering. As part of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored multi-university research team aboard the RV Atlantis last autumn, Ruppel helped explore an area off the South Carolina coast known as the Blake

Ridge. There, researchers found hydrates just above the ocean floor and filmed the formation of a hydrate clus ter from a methane bubble. Through such explorations, scientists hope to learn


about where



deposits of gas hydrates - without widespread drilling. Ruppel, along with Assistant Gas hydrate forming beneath a rock ledge above a sea floor cold seep approximately 250 miles east of Charleston, South Carolina. Photo: Carolyn Ruppel

By John Toon, Research News & Publications Office,

Georgia Institute of Technology

Ice that bums - that apparent con

tradiction describes methane gas hydrates, a solid form of methane and water normally found in sedi

most in oceanic sediments hundreds of metres below the sea floor in water

depths of more than 500 metres - or in permafrost areas. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that gas hydrates off the U.S. coast or in Alaskan permafrost could contain 300 times the amount of methane available from conventional

reserves. These hydrates exist as dis seminated deposits, chunks several

ment beneath the sea floor. Methane -

centimetres across and sometimes as

natural gas - is produced by the decomposition of organic material in

concentrated layers. But there are some daunting chal lenges in producing methane from gas hydrates. "If you could get these hydrates out of the sea floor, you'd have a concen trated form of natural gas," says Carolyn Ruppel, associate professor of geophysics in Georgia Tech's School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, and coordinator of the gas hydrate pro gram."But a key question is whether it would take more energy to extract the gas hydrates than the gas may pro

the sediment. As the methane diffuses

through the sediment, it combines with water at the low temperatures and high pressures beneath the ocean to produce an ice-like solid.

Touted as a potential energy source for a power hungry world, methane gas hydrates are really much more. Indeed, they may contribute to global warm ing, and could represent a potential threat to deep-sea petroleum produc tion.

At the Georgia Institute of Technology, an interdisciplinary group of researchers studies gas hydrates from all these angles, coordinated by the Focused Research Program on Gas Hydrates. The work includes model ing, sea floor exploration, a novel chemical sensing system for continu ous underwater monitoring, biological research and geo-technical studies with laboratory-grown hydrates in sed iments.

Methane gas hydrates exist along the continental margins worldwide.


Aside from the difficulty of deepsea operations, mining the hydrates could destabilize the ocean floor or

even trigger the runaway de-stabilization of the hydrates. The methane might be tapped by pumping heated liquid into the hydrate deposits to dis sociate and recover the gas, but this would be an energy-intensive opera tion. Another alternative would be to

drill through the hydrate layers into pools of free gas below - a potential hazard.

54 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Professor Daniel Lizarralde from the

School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, and colleagues from Rice University and Scripps Institute of Oceanography, planned to explore hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico as part of a project sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

"We will be trying to measure heat, the volume of methane coming out, and the rate that fluid is flowing from the sea floor," she explains. "This information may give us a good handle on what's going on deeper in the sedi ments and how to predict the location of the gas hydrates." Continuous chemical

monitoring underwater Boris Mizaikoff specializes in underwater optical sensing. An assis tant professor in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, he and his colleagues have developed a com pact sensing system able to continu ously measure organic compounds deep beneath the ocean surface. Known as Spectroscopy using Chemical sensors for Undersea Based

Applications (S.C.U.B.A.), the system uses a chemically modified fibre optic sensor connected to a Fourier trans

form infrared (FTIR) spectrometer operating within a cylindrical pressure vessel less than a metre long. The spe cial polymer coating on the optical fibre reversibly absorbs organic com pounds from the water. An infrared light source excites the absorbed mol ecules via the evanescent field guided outside the fibre, whose absorptions are analyzed by the FTIR. This pro

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Energy and the Environment measures of compounds present. "Rather than taking a sample, bringing it to the lab and putting it into a spectrometer, we want to bring the measurement device to the sample so we can do in situ analysis," Mizaikoff explains. "That allows us to do these measurements continuously and under fairly harsh conditions."

S.C.U.B.A. has already shown its ability to measure a range of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy through the University of Mississippi, Mizaikoff and his col leagues are developing an optical sen sor system that will allow accurate

methane measurement.

Growing and studying hydrates in the lab Scientists lack a clear understand

ing of how gas hydrates form in sedi ments - and how their formation

affects the stability of the ocean floor. Carlos Santamarina, a professor in the School of Civil and Environmental

Engineering, hopes to provide answers by growing gas hydrates in "dirty sys tems," that is, at mineral surfaces and within different types of soils. In a process he compares to medical diagnosis, Santamarina and his col leagues use electromagnetic and elas tic waves to monitor hydrate growth, studying the formation process to leam about its effects on sediment response. Instead of methane - which forms

This map, modified from one published by the U.S. Geological Survey, shows the distribution of known gas hydrate deposits. Most gas hydrates occur in marine sediments on continental margins.

hydrates in sediments very slowly they grow the icy structures from tetrahydrofuran (THE) so they can reproduce the very lengthy natural hydrate formation in shorter laboratory time. In addition, they study the forma tion of hydrate monolayers on minerals using atomic force microscopy.

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Energy and the Environment Hydrate deposits in sea floor sedi ments may form "lenses," like water forms ice layers in the soil during the winter months in northern states. In

spring, if the ice melts faster than the water can dissipate, the soil becomes unstable and can cause extensive dam

age to highways. "If methane hydrates form these lenses under the sea floor

if even a portion of the methane released from hydrates gets out of the oceans and into the atmosphere, it could exacerbate global warming and lead to a synergy between destruction of hydrates, release of methane and cli mate change." As an alternative source ofenergy, a hazard to conventional energy produc

tion and a global warming concern, "burning ice" is indeed a contradic tion.

Contact Carolyn Ruppel, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute ofTechnology, email: cdr@piedmont.eas.gatech.edu.

and become destabilized for whatever

reason - petroleum production or cli matic change - we could have massive

landslides on the sea floor," he says. A concern for drilling, climate change While the value of gas hydrates as a future energy source remains uncer

tain, the hazards they pose to produc tion of conventional energy are clear. Oil companies are running out of reserves in shallow waters, forcing them to operate in areas where they may drill through hydrate formations. While they may eventually be able to produce energy from these hydrates, the more immediate concern is the

potential hazards that gas hydrates may pose for oil drilling. "If you are drilling into the gas hydrate, you have to worry that the hydrate could suddenly dissociate, leading to collapse of the sediment supporting the drill stem," Ruppel



produce still bigger problems. Major sea floor slides can cause tsunamis,

large oceanic waves that bring cata strophic damage to low-lying coastal areas. Beyond energy interests, methane gas hydrates may also play a role in global warming. Even slight warming could free significant amounts of methane, a potent green house gas. "You'd have to warm the deep ocean waters by just a few degrees," Ruppel notes. "There is a time delay built into the system, so it would take quite a while for the sediments to heat up. But


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Water Treatment

Installing Atlantic Canada's first

low-pressure membrane


Left: Hollow fibre microporous membranes, approximately 0.5 mm In diame ter, are at the heart of the CMF-S system. Right: Artist's rendering of a largescale Memcor CMF-S unit, which Is similar to the one that will be installed at

By C. Russell Davis

St. John's.

St.John's, Newfoundland,is one of the oldest cities in North America.




Northeast Avalon Peninsula, the St. John's Urban Region is home to almost 200,000 people. Three regional water treatment

plants (WTPs) serve the population: Bay Bulls Big Pond, Petty Harbour Long Pond and Windsor Lake. The regional authority owns, operates and maintains Bay Bulls; the city. Petty Harbour and Windsor Lake. The city is also responsible for various pumping stations, meter chambers and pressurereducing valves throughout the distri bution system.

A boil water advisory, issued in August 2001, helped spur the city to investigate ways of better treating its surface water. St. John's previously used conventional screening, chlorination and pH adjustment as the sole means of treating water at both Windsor Lake and Petty Harbour, and was unable to meet proposed regulato ry treatment requirements. The city consulted Newfoundland Design Associates Ltd. and its special ist process consultant, CH2M HILL, of Toronto. The consultants recom

mended a four-month pilot study at the larger of the two plants, Windsor Lake, which provides approximately 60,000

of St. John's residents with fresh drink

ing water. At the study's conclusion, the city decided to design and build a 70megalitre per day (MLD) Memcor" continuous microfiltration submerged (CMF-S) system from USFilter. The plant is expected to be complete in fall 2005. Once operational, Windsor Lake will be the first WTP in Atlantic

Canada to install a low-pressure mem brane system. The CMF-S will ensure total compliance with provincial and national water treatment regulatory requirements. The city of St. John's follows Provincial Standards for Bacteriologi cal Quality of Drinking Water as well as Federal Guidelines for Canadian

Drinking Water Quality. St. John's reg ularly collects samples, which are test ed for total coliform and fecallE.coli at

the Public Health Laboratory. Although similar to USFilter's proven CMF technology, the Memcor CMF-S system differs slightly in design in that it uses a vacuum design, resulting in a smaller system footprint, lower capital investment and annual operating cost savings. Hollow fibre microporous mem branes, approximately 0.5mm in diam eter, are at the heart of the CMF-S sys tem. These bundled membranes form

A view of the chlorination plant that is currently treating St. jonn's arinxing water. The 70-MLD membrane plant will be built where the photographer Is standing. 58 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

filter modules connected by a patented interlocking mechanism that reduces external plumbing requirements. During normal operation, the feed passes from the outside of the mem brane into the centre, exiting as fil trate. Suspended solids, colloidal parti-

cles, fecal bacteria and enteric viruses, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidiiim,

heavy metal particulates and their hydroxides, algal blooms, and yeast cells collect on the outside surface of the hollow fibre.

^ www.neovalves.com^


Fifty years in this business have taught us that valves are critical to the reliability of your project and the


The main treatment units at St.

John's will include both primary and backwash recovery CMF-S units, along with corrosion control and final disinfection. The backwash recovery units will increase the overall plant recovery to 99.6 percent, reducing the

The CMF-S system is equipped with features designed to simplify plant operation and maintain mem brane integrity, including a service access platform, an advanced mem brane integrity test system and an onsite, operator-friendly module repair system and procedure.

It's not a risk we're prepared to take either; with your reputation, or ours! When you say specify NEO, you can be certain you are specifying quality valves without compromise. Regardless of the application, call us for immediate, expert attention to your valve requirements; support you should expect ...and definitely deserve. H/e're ready for your business.

FOR YOUR BUSINESS Offering a complete line

wastewater volume to less than 0.5 MLD.

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C. Russell Davis is technical sales

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Website: www.neovalves.com

ES&Ecarries far more advertising than any of its Canadian competitors Here's WHY!!

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EnvironmentalScience & Engineering is the largest documentary magazine in Canada,serving the nation's multi-billion dollar a year environmental protection industry since 1988. Why you should advertise in ES&E ES&E's expert articles are "must reading" for some 19,000

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Engineering May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 59

Trenchless Technology

Geophysics can r

reduce risks in trenchless

j 1

■ . - r -r : >fA\"


Associated Mining Consultants


1070 1


- MMfjyMM Compeieni Bediodi Surfac*(Sotvnc nitfrMllen)

Figure 1 - Combined radar and seismic mapping of depth to bedrock aiong a pipeiine route.

features, and abandoned mine workings. Risks posed by unfavourable geo logic conditions may be minimized with carefully planned geotechnical investigations. Studies have recently included geophysical surveying meth ods to specify optimal test hole posi tioning, to interpolate geologic condi tions between existing test holes, and to assess engineering properties of soils and underlying rock. Several geo

Brian D. dagger B.A.

,„PoND Solutions LemTec

resources for the Firm.

dagger Hims Limited provides specialty environmental con sulting engineering and geoscience services. We have a staff of 60 and maintain offices in Newmarket, St. Catharines, Windsor, Peterborough, Collingwood, and a U.S. subsidiary in Michigan.


Environmentol Con.sulling Engineers

60 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

physical techniques, including ground penetrating radar, seismic refraction (both land and marine) and electrical resistivity/conductivity, have been used to assess the different physical properties of the subsurface material, and to map stratigraphy between the entry and exit points of the directionally drilled installations. Surveys conducted in the Edmonton and Calgary areas illustrate


The Directors of dagger Hims Limited are pleased to announce the opening of our branch office in Collingwood to better serve clients within the Georgian Triangle and central areas of Ontario. Andrew Hims, one of the founding Directors of the Firm, has relocated from Newmarket to manage the Collingwood office. Brian dagger has joined us to focus on management of the main office in Newmarket and human




- kitotpivliMJBalhyintlryOroundPtnvtrslingRsdw)



I0» p

' kiWfprttvd B«di^ SuriK*(Orewnd Ptnttnhni Rad«r)

Andrew G. Hlms



I I I I I I g I


150 St. Paul Street, Suite 101



Collingwood, ON L9Y 3P2



These features include boulders, cob bles and sand seams, swelling clays, extensive aquifers, infilled collapse


1 u 1

Ltd.(AMCL)is an affiliate of the Associated Engineering group of companies. AMCL's geophysical staff conduct geophysical investigations as part of horizontal directional drill programs. Environ mental concerns have prompted the use of directional drilling technology as a trenchless method of crossing watercourses along proposed utility corridors. Several types of subsurface features, if not identified prior to initi ating pipeline design, may affect the success of directional drilling projects.

: ;


Treatment Processes are an effective and

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posed pipeline crossing of the Bow River in Calgary. The ground penetrating radar delineated the depth to weathered bedrock. The bedrock consisted of eiectricaiiy conductive shales and sandstones ofthe Paskapoo Formation, which were overlain by eiectricaiiy resistive gravels. The large contrast in physical properties enabled detection using the ground penetrating radar survey. The seismic refraction survey delineated the depth to competent bedrock based on contrasts in density between the competent bedrock and over lying material. The combination of these boundaries proved useful in the design of a horizontal directional drill program. Figure 2 represents the results of a marine seismic survey in the North Saskatchewan River in Edmonton. The survey successfully mapped the depth to competent bedrock. When combined with the results of a marine ground penetrating radar survey and seismic refraction surveys on land, suffi cient information for design of a horizontal directional drill



-10.6m 5933940

d-llm 5933920




|-11.5m -12m

|-12.5m 5933860

i-13m -13.5m -5933860

|-14m 5933040




|-14.Sm Depth to Bedrock from River Level

as at tv1ay31,2002


Figure 2 Mapping

program was provided.

with seismic

The two examples show that geophysical surveys can reduce risk in the planning and design of directional drill pro grams. However, geophysical surveys rely on mappahie con


trasts in physical properties to he successful. These contrasts


334240 334260 334280 334300 334320 334340


Proposed Crossing Centerllne Survey Line

the advantages of using complementary geophysical methods in conjunction with optimally placed drill holes. Figure 1 presents the combined results of a ground penetrating radar and seismic refraction survey at a pro


do not always exist. It is imperative that the local geology he reviewed prior to conducting the surveys to ensure that the optimum approach is undertaken. The experience of the geophysicists in performing these types of surveys also plays a role in reducing the risk. Contact Jim Henderson at hendersonj@amcl.ca.

UV Disinfection. This high-qualiiy system is compact

Pr MInent's UV system produces no undesirable substances^ leaving

c o c

the disinfected water

and extremely reliable Special applications include: Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide/Chlorite and Ozone destruction with accurate selection

with no change in

Q. 11

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of emmision wavelength Electronic Ballast - Resulting in longer lifetime of lamp (up to MOOOhrs of life) and 10 to 20% higher UVC yield

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AB: Capitol H20 Systems, www.capitolh2o.com SK/MB/ON: Metcon Soles & Eng. Ltd., www.metconeng.com QC; ChemAction Inc., www.chemactlon.com

NB/PEI/NS/NFLD: Sansom Equipment Ltd.. www.sansom.ca

Y/ w yy u 'p / _^u_

JH j jj

H y . 5 SI


May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 61

Drinking Water

Reviewing some emerging technologies in drinking water treatment By Simon Breese, Earth Tech Canada Inc.

Over the last several years, outbreaks


The process is particularly suitable for use as a pre-treatment technology for membrane filtration, since general ly excellent performance can be

of water-borne

disease, and growing con cerns over the security of water supplies have contributed to an increased public awareness of drinking water issues. Against this background of increased scrutiny, new treatment technologies are continually under development in order to enhance the quality and ensure the safety of our drinking water. A brief overview of some of the more promising alterna tive treatment technologies include:

Bio Diesel produced on site by purifying and blending used food and/or motor oils into diesel

designed for surface loading rates in the 8-12 m/hr range. Newer generation DAP systems have been developed which are capable of ultra-high surface loading rates (up to 40 m/hr, and oper ating in a turbulent flow regime), thereby providing for many of the ben efits of DAP (excellent removal of low density particles and highly concen trated sludge product), while signifi cantly reducing overall footprint (and potentially cost) of the clarification

Turbulent Flow Dissolved Air Flotation

(AquaDAF® or DAFRapide®) Dissolved Air Flotation (DAP) has been used for clarification of drinking water for over 40 years, primarily for clarification of impounded low turbid ity waters, and for source waters high in colour or algae. These "convention al" DAP systems were typically Stormwater Treatment Center Withdrawal

Coriolus Pipe

Secondary Storm Pipe



Trapped Foatab es



achieved without the use of flocculant

aid polymers which may exacerbate membrane fouling. DAP is also being increasingly used for the clarification of filter backwash wastewater.

Ballasted Sedimentation (Actiflo®)

This technique employs the use of micro-sand as a "ballast" for the

enhancement of natural settling rates of floe. Using polymers to promote the aggregation of floe particles with the micro-sand, design loading rates up to 40 m/hr have been successfully achieved, resulting in a very compact footprint. Once the sludge has settled in the clarifier, the micro-sand is recovered using a cyclone, for re-introduction into the clarifier.

Generally, the process is ideally suited to water sources which are

Sediment Sump

prone to high turbidity spikes, or which carry a naturally high silt load. Ballasted sedimentation has also been

• Lower fuel cost by 10% • Now available in Canada

• Replaces lubricity lost from low sulphur fuels • Makes biodiesel lower cost than

regular diesel • Environmentally friendly Litre for litre, the Wotec System purities used oils and blends them into diesel fuel

at a rate of 1-10% thereby increasing vis cosity, lubricity, MPG and BTU output, extending overall engine life. Meets California emissions standards and engine fuel specs.

Servicestat Ltd.

The V2B1 system provides removal of sediment, debris, and oil using

filter backwash wastewaters.

overflow weir clarification. Seven

Membrane Filtration

model sizes are available to treat

The use oflow pressure microfiltration (MP) and ultrafiltration (UP) membranes have now beeome widely accepted in the industry as a means to provide effective removal of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (some systems achieve at least 4-log removal) and viruses (2 to 4-log removal). Mem branes are now being applied in more innovative ways:

impervious areas from 0.1 to 4.0 ha. The V2B1 is manufactured locally using standard PVC pipe and stan dard precast concrete manholes. Internal pipe hydraulics, treatment efficiency, and sediment pumpout interval based on Environment 21

Technical Analysis. Chamber price includes site-specific Technical Analysis and Autocad Drawing. Tel: 585-762-8314 or 800-809-2801,

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increasingly used for the treatment of

Request for expression of Interest for audit services for sewage and water works.

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62 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Environment 21, LLC


Drinking Water • In an enhanced coagulation mode, wherein coagulant is dosed upstream of the membranes for reduction of total

organic carbon and disinfection by products, or for colour removal. • With clarification or other pretreatment systems upstream, to reduce membrane fouling, and extend mem brane life.

• Tubular UF membranes are being used for the treatment of highly coloured source waters without the

need for chemical addition (the Fyne Process"). Ultraviolet or Chlorine Dioxide Disinfection

The use of ultraviolet(UV)irradia tion has rapidly become the industry standard technique for the cost-effec tive





Cryptosporidium, with several large installations presently on-line or under design across Canada. Chlorine dioxide has experienced a resurgence in recent years, primarily due to its known efficacy for the inac tivation of Cryptosporidium, but also due to the known ability to provide effective disinfection while at the same

time producing a stable residual, and reducing the risk of disinfection by product formation. On-Site Generation of Sodium

Hypochlorite Although chlorination remains in use at the vast majority of treatment plants for the provision of a chlorine or chloramine residual, a growing num ber of water purveyors have consid ered alternatives to the use of gas chlo rination such as sodium hypochlorite, primarily due to the safety concerns posed by the transport and storage of gaseous or liquid chlorine in and around the community. Significant developments have been made in recent years in systems providing on-site generation of sodium hypochlorite, using the electrolysis of a solution of common salt. Some very large systems are now on-line in North America which greatly reduce safety

hypochlorite solutions. Pulsed-UV Irradiation

Pulsed UV irradiation (sometimes in combination with hydrogen perox ide) has been found to be useful for the control of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), an emerging contaminant believed to be produced within water treatment plants using coagulant aid

polymers or chloramination for sec ondary disinfection. The presence of peroxide is known to reduce the possibility of re-forma tion of NDMA due to the recombina

tion of NDMA photolysis products upon chlorination. These innovative treatment process es and technologies will, in the future, provide all Canadians with increased water quality and additional security. There is, as a result, a growing need to study their potential applications more closely in order to ensure optimal

concerns, since common salt is the raw

water treatment solutions.

material for the process, and because the resulting hypochlorite solution is relatively weak (0.8% as chlorine), and less prone to off-gassing problems

Simon Breeze, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., is Section Leader, Water Quality &

common with 12-15% bulk sodium

Treatment, Earth Tech Canada.



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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 63

Environmental NEWS Midland fined for

non-compliance of Ontario Water Resources Act The Town of Midland, Ontario, has been fined $7,000 - exclusive of a vic tim fine surcharge - after pleading

guilty to two counts of non-compli ance with a regulation made under the Ontario




(OWRA). The Town has approximately 36,000 permanent residents located on the southern shore of Georgian Bay. It is authorized, through a certificate of approval issued by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE), to operate a communal water system that consists of 14 water wells and five pumping stations. The court heard that in November

2002, an inspection of the drinking water system by MOE staff found that on numerous occasions the Town had

not collected and analysed water sam ples as required under environmental laws.

Failing to perform the required col lection and analysis of drinking water

samples in accordance with Schedule 2 of Ontario Regulation 459 is a viola tion of Section 107(1) of the OWRA. The Town of Midland pleaded guilty to failing to sample and analyse weekly for microbiological parameters at Well #9 on three occasions, between December 16, 2001 and June 29,2002,

and on two occasions at its Sunnyside Pump Station, between January 13, 2002 and January 26, 2003, and was fined $3,500 for each of these two offences, for a total of $7,000.

sists of induced gas flotation, walnut shell filtration, warm lime softening and accompanying rake drive, post softening filtration, and primary and polishing weak acid cations. USFilter's system helps Suncor sep arate the oil and water during the bitu men extraction process. Using SAGD technology, Suncor injects steam into the uppermost of two horizontally stacked pipes to heat the oil zone and lower the viscosity of the heavy crude oil, or "bitumen." Gravity then causes the heated bitumen to flow into the

Water plant comes on-line for oil sands SAGD

operation USPilter is the first equipment suppli er to provide an entire water treatment plant(WTP)for a steam-assisted grav ity drainage (SAGD) operation in the oil sands of Alberta, Canada. Suncor Energy Inc.'s WTP at the Firebag Stage One SAGD site, north east of Fort McMurray, Alberta, recently came on-line - almost three years after initial construction began. The US $4.5 million WTP system con-

lower pipe, where it is extracted. Bitumen is separated from water and, using USFilter's system, the latter is retreated and then recycled back into the steam generator. Once fully operational in 2005, Firebag Stage One is projected to pro duce 35,000 bbl of bitumen per day and have the ability to recycle large quantities of water. Contact: www.usfilter.com.

Everglades National park to use membrane


Announcement Charles Tatham P.Eng., President of C.C.Tatham & Associates Ltd., is pleased to announce that Ian A. R. Parkinson, P.Eng. has joined the firm as Senior Environmental Project Engineer. Mr. Parkinson will lead the environmental engineering group and be responsible for the design of environmental Infrastruc ture including water and wastewater treatment plants and pumping stations, for both the municipal and Industrial sec tors. With more than 17 years of experience in the design, Ian A.R.Parkinson, manufacturing, and construction of potable water treatment B.Eng.,P.Eng. plants and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, Mr. Parkinson has recognized expertise in virtually every aspect ranging from very small systems through to 1,000 ML/d facilities. He thus has extensive experience in provid ing design concepts, technical narratives and layouts for bid proposals, hydraulic design, process design, and process mechanical selection. In particular, Mr. Parkinson has spear headed new approaches and innovative solutions including a water pump motor reject heat system for water plant heating, and the use of treated effluent water as a heat source for building air conditioning. A mechanical engineering graduate from Lakehead University at Thunder Bay, Ontario, Mr. Parkinson joined C.C. Tatham & Associates Ltd. from a specialist position with a well respected multi-national consulting engineering firm. C.C.Tatham & Associates Ltd. is a full-service environmental, water resources, municipal, and structural engineering consulting engineering firm practicing throughout Southern and Central Ontario through offices in Collingwood, Bracebridge and Orillia.


Collingwood Tel:(705) 444-2565

Orillia Tel:(705} 325-1753

E-mail: lnfo@cctatham.com

64 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

Bracebridge Tel:(705) 645-7756 Web: wvwv.cctatham.com

Everglades National Park, a sanctuary for 21 threatened and endangered species and a crucial water recharge area for South Florida, has selected membrane bioreactor treatment tech

nology to treat wastewater at two park facilities. Two FastPac™ Immersed

Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) pack aged plants from USFilter will be installed for the park's Pine Island area located in Dade County and Flamingo Bay area located in Monroe County. With the park's existing operating facilities outdated and unable to meet

future regulatory guidelines, the new plants will be a part of the park's effort to find a long-term solution for wastewater treatment.

The MBR package plant for Pine Island will be designed to treat an aver age of 25,000 gallons of wastewater per day (gpd) and the Flamingo facili ty designed to treat 90,000 gpd. Both facilities are designed to reduce total phosphorous in the plant effluent to 0.1 mg/1 or less. The plant design will also ensure an effective, efficient, and reliable wastewater treatment system that meets all federal, state, and local operational and effluent standards. Contact: www.usfilter.com.

Environmental NEWS "We have the opportunity to capture significant environmental and eco

Wind energy industry disappointed with federal budget

nomic benefits from Canada's massive

The Canadian Wind Energy Association is disappointed with the new federal budget's failure to expand support to Canada's wind energy industry. Not increasing the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI) program represents a lost opportunity for Canada. It sends a negative signal at a time when provincial governments

wind energy resource," said Hornung. "Increasing wind energy capacity to 4,000 MW would generate $6 billion in investment and create 42,000 jobyears of employment - making the expansion a cost-effective investment for the federal government." Wind energy is clean and renewable and is the fastest growing source of

electricity worldwide, with an average growth rate of 32% over the past five years. Canada's installed wind energy capacity of 327 MW provides enough power for 115,000 Canadian house holds. The WPPI, announced in 2001, provides one cent per kilowatt-hour for wind energy production for the first 10 years of the wind power facility. The program is expected to reach the original 1,000 MW target by 2006. Contact: www.canwea.ca.

are pursuing initiatives to facilitate wind energy development and wind

turbine manufacturers are looking for investment opportunities in North

I Mueller Canada I


"Provincial governments are now thinking in much bigger terms than the federal government, and will be mak ing decisions in the next 12 months on whether or not to proceed with new initiatives," said Robert Hornung,

The Mueller 2360 series of Resilient


Wedge Valves meet or exceed current

of the



Energy Association. "It is critical that the federal government commit this

spring to partner with provincial gov ernments by allocating a portion of the $1.5

billion in



Resilient Wedge Gate Valves Durable, Reliable...

AWWA C509 standards,in addition

to being ULC/UL listed and FM approved.

eral government to expand the WPPI

Refinements such as long polymer covered wedge guides not only stabilize the wedge but reduce internal

program target to 4,000 MW because

wear,and ease operation.

change fiinds or funds from the sale of Petro-Canada to support wind energy." CanWEA has been urging the fed

of the strong interest expressed by the wind energy industry and the comple mentary initiatives being pursued at the provincial level. In addition, a 4,000 MW target would produce a market large enough to support domes tic manufacturing of wind turbines and

Every Mueller 2360 series valve is RATED at 250 psi and tested at 500 psi. www.muellercanada.com

components, allowing further econom

ic benefits of wind energy develop

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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 65

Product and Service Showcase HOPE pipe in-service report The American Concrete Pipe Association has released a report on the condition of HDPE pipe in-service in six states in the US. The report reviews the performance associated with large diameter

ecoSep below grade oil/water separators

Magmeters tailored to water & wastewater


HDPE culvert and cross drains. The 64

psgs report includes tables, graphs and 45 full-colour photographs. For a copy of the report, contact

" â&#x20AC;&#x201D;'

the ACPA Resource

Cost-effective and safe, this highly efficient below grade oil/water separa tor provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs.

Centre, 800-290-2272. Nonmember


cost: $18.00(U.S.) ps&h. Tel: 972-5067216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-mail: info@concrete-pipe.org. Web: www. conerete-pipe.org American Concrete Pipe Association

ecoSep...the clear choice for clean

New 5100 and 5150

slurry pumps ITT




has next

generation of slurry pumps. They are designed specifical ly to handle the most abrasive slur

ries, in a wide spec trum of tough industrial environ

ments. The pumps have the latest ITT

Flygt technology incorporated, ensuring high efficiency, reliability and a long working life. Tel: 514-695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605,

Web: www.ittflygt.ca ITT Flygt

Water level sensors






water. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519-

763-1982, E-mail: sales@concastpipe. com. Web: www.concastpipe.com Con Cast Pipe





60Hz models, which can handle up to 55 1/s and

pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

300 and 500 mm in diam

eter, with 3" and 4" hoses. They are made from cast aluminium and have an

outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC 60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web: www.ittflygt.ca ITT Flygt

Series Stormceptor system



Stormceptor system


ploys the same operating principles as the

user the best features available, includ

238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704, email:

waterra@idirect.com, web: www.waterra. com

Waterra Pumps Ltd.

Multi-stage filter for small systems

pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new

larger catch ment areas, the

ing auto shut-off and sensitivity adjust ment, at an affordable price. Tel: 905-

Endress+Hauser Canada

Slim line submersible pumps

Developed for

advanced products utilizing the most recent electronic technology. These sensors have been designed to offer the


ures liquids with a mini mum conductivity of 50 pS/cm and is intended for use in potable water, wastewater and sewage sludge applications. It is ideal for simple measuring tasks, e.g. current output for displaying flow, pulse output for driving an external totalizer, or as status output. Guaranteed high degree of reliability and measured value stability and opti mum process control based on an accu racy of + 0.5. Tel: 800-668-3199, Fax: 905-681-9444, E-mail: info@ca. endress.com. Web: www.ca.endress. com

ITT Flygt has released a

the treatment of

Waterra's WS Water Level Sensors are


Endress-i-Hauser meas





Stormceptor systems. The system receives flow from a single inlet pipe and splits it into two distinct streams, which are treated in two separate treat ment chambers before recombining into a single outlet pipe. It effectively

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no membranes to replace, and yet treat ment performance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced popula tions of less than 1,500. Tel: 905-8530164, Fax: 905-853-8807, E-mail: elew@msfilter.com, Web: www.msfilter. com

MS Filter Inc.

Inlet StormceptorÂŽ system The Inlet Stormceptor System employs the same principles of oper ation as the well-known

In-line Interceptors. Developed to treat run offfrom an area of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherit ed the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from stormwater run-off

remains trapped within the storage chamber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500

doubles the treatment area of the inline

units installed in North America. Tel:

system. Tel: 800-565-4801, Fax: 416960-5637, E-mail: info@stormceptor. com, Web: www.stormceptor. com Stormceptor Canada Inc.

800-565-4801, Fax: 416-960-5637,

66 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

E-mail: info@stormceptor.com. Web: www.stonnceptor. com

Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Product and Service Showcase Reducing hydrogen sulfide from gas and air streams

Noise control panels

ADI International has announced



adsorption process for the reduction of hydro gen sulfide from gas



and air streams. With

MEDIA G2®,the com

pany's patented iron-

Comstock Canada Ltd.

Eckoustic" Functional Panels (EFPs)

media, up to 99.99% of H2S is

has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc

removed. With a one minute contact

tion services to the Canadian water

time, concentrations as high as 30,000 ppm have been reduced to below I ppm. MEDIA G2 is capable of multi ple regenerations without chemicals or backwashing. Tel: 506-451-7407, Fax: 506-459-3954, E-mail: elw@adi.ca.

and wastewater sectors for almost 100

years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Tel: 905335-3333, Fax: 905-335-0304, E-mail: info@comstockcanada.com, Web: www.

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eckel@eckel.ca. Web: www.eckel.ca

ADI International

Comstock Canada Ltd.

Eckel Industries, Inc.




Escalator® Fine screen

563-3574, Fax: 613-543-4173, E-mail:

New submersible mixer

The HYDROVEX* SET is designed to clean the sediments, grit and debris out

A new mixer for use in

gives continuous fine screen

of CSO/SSO/Stormwater


is now


tanks. Of considerably lower capital



and maintenance cost than other meth

Pumps. The new Amaprop mixer fea


r •'?,

Sediment flusher

provide a more comfortable acoustic environment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EFPs promote safety and help improve pro ductivity. EFPs can quickly add sound adsorption to compressor rooms, blow er rooms and pump rooms. Tel: 800-


ing for channel type applica tions with very few moving parts below the water level. Perforated stainless steel screen panels are carried on heavy-duty chains and incorporate holes of 1/4 inch (6mm)diameter, giv ing fine screening in any direction. The screen panels are specially formed to create steps, which remove larger solids, and increase the effective

screening area. Tel: 905-944-2819, Fax: 905-474-1334, E-mail: ontario@ johnmeunier.com, Web: www.john meunier.com John Meunier Inc.


ods, the HYDROVEX SFT is designed to tip automatically with no external energy. The total

wastewater treatment






instantly in the chamber, creating a powerful high velocity wave which will flush away the sediments and debris to a sump at the end of the tank.

designed propeller that will move large vol ume flows forward in a powerful axial jet stream using very little energy. Although it is very light, the glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin propeller is absolutely unbreakable. Propeller diameters ranging from 1200 to 2500 mm cover all fields of applications. Tel:

Tel: 905-944-2819, Fax: 905-474-1334,

905-568-9200, Fax: 905-568-3740, E-

E-mail: ontario@johnmeunier.com. Web: www.johnmeunier.com

mail: cramage@ksbcanada.com. Web:

John Meunier Inc.

KSB Pumps Canada

water content of the HYDROVEX SFT is released

World's largest R/S Gate Valve Neo

Valves Seguro

Resilient Valve

Seal has

Gate been

designed with sewage applications in mind forcemains, pumping

to have and to hold 'till

death parts your parts!


Movlng-bed blo-reactor Parkson's Geo-Reactor'" is an attached

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result


stations and treatment


Only Canadian Welding Bureau certi

plants. The Seguro Valve has a resilient

DO, increased

fied fabricators weld to CSA standards

seal that ensures a 100% bidirectional


W47.1 for steel and stainless steels and W47.2 for aluminum. Assure the

bubble-tight seal, according to Neo Valves. Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in

of the mixed

liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the

your welded products are manufac tured by a Canadian Welding Bureau

the bonnet area. It is available in sizes

tank. Geo-Reactors offer efficient

up to 60", with 100% full bore design

BOD reduction and nitrification can

certified fabricator. Tel: 800-268-5336,

and hundreds of installations in Canada

Fax: 888-220-2213, E-mail: msumiss

since 1972. Tel: 905-624-9090, Fax:

integrity of the products you specify, use and maintain. Make sure that all


@bellnet.ca. Web: www.msiunississauga.

905-624-8020, E-mail: valves@neo


valves.com. Web: www.neovalves.com

easily be accomplished. Tel: 514-6368712, Fax: 514-636-9718, E-mail: canada@parkson.com. Web: www. parkson.com

MSU Mississauga Ltd.

Neo Valves


May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 67

Product and Service Showcase Package water and wastewater plants

Remote flow verification


ProMinent's range of new Sigma motor-driv en metering pumps keep you informed with unparalleled flow

Bachelor's Degree in Site Remediation

Seneca Toronto National


verification technolo








Environmental Site Remediation. Included

gy: manual, analog, We supply Package Water and Sewage

519-836-5692, Fax: 519-836-5226, E-

Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377,

mail: sales@prominent.ca, Web: www. prominent.ca

E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com. Web:

in this full-time pro gram are field camps, paid co-op placements, and an integrat ed curriculum to prepare individuals to meet the growing demand for highlyskilled practitioners in the remediation industry. Seats available for September. Ask about bursary and scholarship opportunities. Tel: 800-572-0712/416491-5050 Ext. 2521, E-mail: iesr.tech nology@senecac.on.ca. Web: www.



ProMinent Fluid Controls

Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.

Seneca College

contact and batch con

trol; displays flow rate and totalized pump output in litres or gallons; accu mulative stroke counter and stroke

length percentage; 20-1000 litres/hr with wide turn down ratio; 4-20 mA output, programmable timer, access code programming, flow monitoring, diaphragm failure monitoring. Tel:

Level measurement guide



worldwide. The

Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to cormect to municipal sewer systems.

Membrane Bioreactor(MBR)

Small drinking water systems

Siemens Milltronics le

ZENON's ZeeWeed®

vel measuivment instru

MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater treatment. The proven system replaces con

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treat ment plants.

ments are installed in

industrial process appli cations worldwide. You

can rely on our instru ments for high performance, cost-effec tive measurement of continuous level, point level, and interface in a wide range of applications, such as water and wastewater, chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, mining, cement, aggregates, and bulk solids. Designed and built for ease of use, simple instal lation, low cost of ownership and relia bility in the harshest conditions. Tel: 705-740-7552, Fax: 705-745-0414, Email: support.smpi@siemens.com,Web:

ventional filtration and combines clar

ification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expanded in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hundreds of installations, ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal

and industrial applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MGD.Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, E-

This ultrafil-

tration system is cost-effec

tive, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistent ly producing high quality water. Tel: 905-465-3030, Fax: 905-465-3050, Email: info@zenon.com, Web: www.


mail: info@zenon.com. Web: zenon.com

zenon. com

Siemens Milltronics

ZENON Environmental Inc.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Colorlmetrlc nutrient sensor

Prevent asphalt cracking

Danfoss Analytical intro duces the world's first on-line colorimetric nutrient sensor

able to measure ammonium, nitrate or orthophosphate. The three sensors look alike

and share the same widely approved colorimetric measuring prin ciple. The EVITA" INSITU Nutrient Sensor is placed in the wastewater at the point where the concentration must be known. No external factors influence

the measurements, as is the case with conventional analyzers where filters,

pumps, long pipes or sedimentation equipment can cause significant meas uring errors. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630, E-mail: bsmith@davis

Water quality treatment

If you were planning to rout and seal your asphalt joints after they fail, think about

The Stormceptor® is a patented water quality treatment

the added costs of

repairing what you've already done. Denso

drain systems. Stormceptor removes free oil and suspend

structure for storm

.:ii re-instatement tape is

ed solids from storm-

a polymer modified bituminous strip that is cold applied and designed to seal the joints between asphalt, concrete and steel, the first time. Re-instatement tape

water, preventing spills and non-point source pollution from entering down stream lakes and rivers. Hanson Pipe &

seals around catch basins, manholes,

Products Canada, Inc. is the exclusive

utility cuts and next to concrete curbs prior to paving. Do it right the first time

manufacturer of the precast concrete Stormceptor System in Ontario. Tel:

with Denso Road Products. Tel: 416-

888-888-3222, Fax: 519-621-8233, E-

291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898, E-mail:

mail: scott.kirby@hansonamerica.com. Web: www.hansonpipeandproducts.com

blarr@densona.com. Web: www.densona.

controls.com. Web: www.daviscontrols.com


Davis Controls

Denso North America Inc.

68 Environmental Science & Engineering,May 2004

Hanson Pipe & Products Canada

Product and Service Showcise Monitoring instruments

Air pollution control technology

Net Safety's combustible gas, toxic gas, flame and smoke detection equipment

The AroBIOS™ Bioscrubber

System effective ly removes odors

is accurate and reliable. Gas

detection devices employ a full range of technologies, including Infrared (IR), cat alytic bead, electromechanical and solid state sensors and these analog and smart digital sensors are complemented by multiple versions of microprocessor based transmitters and controllers. The

flame detectors meet the most rigorous requirements for fire detectors and use the latest in Ultraviolet, Infrared, UV/IR and Triple IR technologies. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-2630, Email: bsmith@daviscontrols.com, Web:

and gaseous con taminants such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and other reduced sulfur com pounds without the use of expensive chemicals or costly incineration meth ods. AroBIOS provides:

Portable dissolved oxygen analyzer The Aysix Portable Dissolved


Analyzer uses the lat est



technology to provide reliable DO measure

ments every time. The built in data logging with real time clock and data download

• Lowest Gas Retention Times

capability ensures detailed records. The

• Easy access, low profile design • Non-degradeable AroPAC™ biomedia • Easy to install, factory pre-assembly


with mixed flow exhauster

• No expensive chemical costs • Environmentally safe by-products Tel: 989-725-8184, Web: www.dualldiv.





Duall Division, Met-Pro Corp.


Brownfleld remediation services

Digital Metering uses a unique technology that allows a precise measurement

with no calcula

HMM biochemical technology is inno


and requires no special storage. This eliminates the need for daily calibra tions before use and it is not affected by exposure to sunlight. Tel: 905-5696246, Fax: 905-569-6244, Web:

Davis Controls Ltd.

Digital dosing


membranes, fill solutions or cartridges

Flumes for open channel flow measurement applications

vative and cost effective for treatment of


hydrocarbons in soil, sludge, tank bot toms, drilling mud, and in groundwater. HMM supplies proprietary bioproducts consisting of biosurfactants, enzymes,

are available from


macro/micro nutrients, and bacteria to

flumes, integral stilling wells, end adapters and fit

1" to 96" sizes

with optional fea tures: short section

tion nor any guesswork. What you see is what you get. It provides a reliable measurement on the easy to read digital display. With the system, users have more con trol over water quality, which is a criti cal factor in many applications. Water Treatment Chemical and System Specialists will have an increased con

augment your above grade or below sur face remediation system. Complete technical support services, bioproducts, and/or complete turnkey fixed price performance based site remediation solutions are available. HMM also pro vides offsite fixed facility soil treatment

60" sizes and in four configurations: Permanent Flume, Invert Flume, Exit Pipe Flume and Quick Insert Flume.

services in eastern and central Ontario.

End bulkheads facilitate installation in

trol over the additives administered.

Tel: 905-829-1749, Fax: 905-829-5859,

large diameter pipes. Tel: 512-388-

Tel: 905-829-9533, Fax: 905-829-

E-mail: dericm@hmmenvirotech.com. Web:

9270, Fax: 512-388-9272, E-mail:

9512, E-mail: alelarge@grundfos.com. Web: www.grundfos.com

www.hmmenvirotech.com Hobbs*MilIer*lVIaat Inc.

info@renaissance-instrument.com, Web: www.yestech.com/renaissance


Environmental Technology Systems

Renaissance Instruments,Inc.

Oil/water interface sensor

tings for bubbler system tubes. Palmer Bowlus flumes are available from 4" to

Specialist training

Grit chamber The Smith & Loveless PISTA' Grit Chamber

maintains the highest proven grit removal efficiencies



wide range of daily

Practical Hands-on

Progressive Formats

flows because of its

Interface and Water Level tapes are still the lightest and most portable on the market today. Tel: 905-238-5242, Fax: 905-238-5704, email: waterra@idirect.

exclusive forced vortex design. It removes grit and other discrete parti cles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumulation in down stream basins, channels, weirs and pip ing. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equipment. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are available. Tel: 913888-5201, Fax: 913-888-2173, E-mail: answers@smithandloveless.com. Web:

com. Web: www.waterra.com Waterra Pumps Ltd.

www.smithandloveless.com Smith & Loveless

The Waterra HS-1 Oil/Water Interface Sensor is now even more sensitive. The

HS-1 probe uses unique ultrasonic technology that makes it very robust and easy to clean. A new electrode con figuration now makes the probe even more

accurate. Waterra


•Test & Verify Chemical Properties •Seiect Ideai Response Supplies •Modify Response Conditions •Prepare Spills for Recovery •Reduce Disposal Costs

1-5 Day Courses Tel: 905-578-9666 Fax: 905-578-6644

Web: spillmanagement.ca E-mail: spillman@on.aibn.com Spill Management Inc.

May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 69 ^

Rrociuct and Service Showcase Cyst-free drinking water Absolute



Monitor helps ensure complete

Eliminate limescale deposits



tridges meet or exceed the three-log (99.9%) removal requirements described





Foundation Standard 53 for cyst sized particles. For this reason, POLYPLEAT



The new U.L. Listed ScaleBlaster elim

tridges are ideal to con trol cryptosporidium, giardia cysts and other harmful microorgan isms to help ensure cyst-free drinking

Since even a small sulfite residual indi

cates complete chlorine removal, con tinuous measurement and control of


excess sulfite results in significant sav ings in chemical costs while assuring a zero chlorine discharge. ATI's new

ideal as final filters


cartridges are for municipal water filtration without pre-filtration required. Tel: 905-820-4700,Fax:905-8204015, E-mail: sales@service-filtration.com.






Sulfite sulfite

inates formation of limescale deposits in water pipes, faucets, cooling towers, boilers, injection molding, heating ele ments and more, without the need of water softening equipment, salts, chemicals or maintenance. Existing scale is removed and never forms

again. The product is non-invasive and adds nothing to the water. Tel: 727562-5186, Fax: 727-562-5187, E-mail:

Web: www.service-filtration.com

using a unique vapor phase analytical system. Tel: 905-678-2882, Fax: 905293-9774, E-mail: sales@ spdsales.com

Service Filtration

SPD Sales

ClearWater Enviro Technologies

Hazardous waste treatment New hazardous waste treatment

and recycling facility from FLR and ConTech!

Treatment of fluorescent lamps, PCBs, mercury and other dangerous goods.

Complete lamp recycling

ft n


Pine Environmental Services

Electromagnetic flowmeter

inform environ

The AquaProbe electromagnetic


insertion flow-





sionals from all

meter has been


designed for survey applica




has seven


offices in North

grams, treatment


of PCB-contaminated electrical

consultants and

equipment and

supplies for air and/or water projects can expect exceptional service and low rental and purchase rates. Call for pric ing information or to order your updat


clrwaterl@aol.com, Web: scaleblaster. com


industry/municipal offices requiring instrumentation or


taining materials. Transfer/treatment of other general hazardous waste. Contact FLR at 1-800-324-9018 or ConTech at

1-800-324-8997/519-740-1333, Fax: 519-

740-2320, E-mail: martin@contech.ca. Web: www.contech.ca

ed rental catalogue. Call toll free: 866688-0388, Fax: 905-795-0002, E-mail:

canada@pine-environmental.com. Web: www.pine-environmental.com



leakage moni toring and net work analysis, but is equally useful in permanent locations where cost or space limitations preclude the use of closed pipe meters. AquaProbe is avail able in a battery operated version with data trending. Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520, E-mail: metcon@metcon eng.com, Web: www.metconeng.com

Con Tech - PCB Containment

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Pine Environmental Services Inc.


Media filtration system

Sewer odor and corrosion


control system



Filtration System is a best management practice for storm water treatment that uses media-filled car

tridges to target proj ect-specific pollu tants such as heavy metals, oils, greas es and a finer gradation of suspended solids. This scalable system can be

Urecon pre-insulated pipe Urecon has been sup-

^ plying

The new Vortex Flow Insert eliminates

using a high-tech, low-maintenance design that has no moving parts. The de vice not only eliminates


need for high-


pipe to the HVAC, municipal and industrial

sewer odor and controls corrosion




• U.l.P.® factory insulated piping systems • Thermocable® heat-trace cable and


related accessories • Portafoam® Paks

used in combination with standard

bio-filters, air

• Engineering and computer design

CDS units to form a treatment train. As


with all CDS products, this system is fully supported by professional engi neers in locations nationwide. Tel:

888/535-7559, E-mail: cds@cdstech. com. Web: www.cdstech.com

CDS Technologies





manhole seals but also costly chemical injection systems. Applications include drop manholes or pumping station with odorous discharges. Tel: 866-4739462, E-mail: joarav@ipexinc.com, Web: www.ipexinc.com

• District heating and cooling systems • LOGSTOR pre-insulated flexible pipe (in coils) Tel: 905-257-3797, Fax: 905-257-9723, E-mail: c.vreugde@urecon.com. Web:



70 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666 New pipe design manual The 13th edition of the Concrete Pipe Design Manual for engineers who select the type, size and strength requirements of concrete pipe, is now

Engineering Guide now avaiiable!

The CON/SPAN Engineering Guide is a valuable tool with all the necessary information

available from the American Concrete

Pipe Association. The updated manu al provides the most current technical data and design aids needed to assist engineers in preparing efficient and cost-effective drainage solutions for sanitary sewer, storm drain and cul vert applications. Tel: 972-506-7216, Fax: 972-506-7682, E-mail: info@concrete-pipe.org. Web: www. concretepipe.org

engineering guide




CON/SPAN System for many different design applications. Filled with numerous figures and charts, the Engineering Guide provides a refer ence of design parameters, standard detail illustrations, and limited design methodologies. Avaiiable in binder or CD Rom format. Tel: 800-668-7473, Fax: 519-763-1982, E-mail: salesÂŽ concastpipe.com, Web: www.concast pipe.com



GSP standards and practices The CSP industry has, through the Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute, devel oped product standards and recom mended design and installation prac tices to insure proper selection and economical design in CSP. Please tell us of your interest and we will be pleased to send technical information. Tel: 519-650-8080, Fax: 519-6508081, E-mail: info@cspi.ca, Web: www.cspi.ca Corrugated Steel Pipe Institute

Controlling contaminated groundwater Waterloo Barrier is a low permeability cutoff wall for groundwater contain ment and control. It is a new design of steel sheet piling featuring joints that


can be sealed after the sheets have


been driven into the ground and was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo. It has patent/ patent pending status in several coun tries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills assisted in developing the product. Tel: 519-856-1352, Fax: 519-8560759, E-mail: info@waterloo-barrier. com. Web: www.waterloo-barrier.com Waterloo Barrier Inc.

Environmental NEWS

2004 brings good news for blosolids recycling

The Water Environment Federation (WEF) supports biosolids recycling, the prac tice of treating, processing, and recycling organic wastewater byprod uct into fertilizer and other usable

products, and applauds the recent actions of the

US Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA) in support of the practice. The




Partnership (NBP) is expecting suc cess this year with its pilot-tested enviromnental management system (EMS) for the biosolids program. EMS verifi cation signifies that an agency sup ports excellence in biosolids manage ment, exceeds regulatory compliance obligations, and provides meaningful opportunities for public participation. To date, two agencies have achieved independent, third-party verification and a total of seventeen new agencies are expected to undergo audits in 2004.

Recently, several court decisions over local regulation of land-applied biosolids have been in favour of the

practice. In November 2003, a Federal Court ruled to reject anti-biosolids ordinances in Appomattox County, Virginia, capping a string of legal vic tories for Virginia farmers seeking to end the County's illegal ban on biosolids.

On 10-7-03 a petition from the Center for Food Safety called for EPA to place an emergency moratorium on the land-application of biosolids. WEF was part of a Municipal Coa lition that submitted a response letter to EPA on 10-23-03 urging the Agency to deny the Center's petition. On 1222-03, the EPA responded to the Center with a 22-page document out lining its findings - that the assertions made by the Center for Food Safety concerning the hazards of land-applied biosolids were not substantiated.

In related actions, on 12-31-03 EPA

published in the Federal Register its final action plan responding to the National Research Council's recom

mendations from its July 2002 report on the land application of biosolids. The plan included 14 specific projects to enhance the Agency's ongoing research and outreach activities and

presents the results of its review of existing biosolids regulations to identi fy additional pollutants for potential future regulations. The Agency also issued a proposed rule on 12-10-03 to revise the current compost designation to include compost made from biosolids and announced on 10-17-03

its final decision not to regulate dioxins in land-applied biosolids. After five years of study, including outside peer review, EPA determined that dioxins

from this source do not pose a signifi cant risk to human health or the envi ronment.

May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 71

Environmental NEWS


Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning & engineering BARRIE






(705)726-3371 (613)966-4243 (705)445-3451



Ontario Environment Minister Leona

Czeating GLualify Solutions Tbgether


St.Clair River spill spurs Ontario to get tough on industrial polluters Dombrowsky has vowed to get tough with polluters after a recent chemical spill into the St. Clair River. "Tap water in communities along the St. Clair River remained safe to

R.V.Anderson Associates Limited

drink because effective warning sys

tems prevented contamination from entering municipal water supplies,"

environment • infrastructure

tel 416 497 8600 web www.rvanderson.com

toronto welland Ottawa sudbury london moncton fredericton charlottetown bombay

engineering ■ operations ■ management


Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Coliingwood



Tel.(705) 645-7756


Tel.(705)444.2565 EMail: lnfo@cctatham.com

Web: www.cctatham.com

she said. "But, the real issue here is

preventing spills from happening in the first place. It is unacceptable for the safety of a community's water sup ply to be under the threat of contami nation," Ms. Dombrowsky said. The spill - containing methyl ethyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone occurred on February 1 at the Imperial Oil refinery in Sarnia. Ministry offi cials continue their investigation into

what occurred at Imperial Oil. In addi tion, the province's Environmental SWAT team was deployed to Sarnia to begin an inspection sweep ofindustries in the area.

Membrane bioreactor

Clunas Environmental Consulting updating of municipai sewer use bylaws compliance with regulations/ sewer use bylaws sampling

• spill management plans • ISO 14000

• policy and program development • hauled sewage programs

• stormwater assessment

• industrial wastewater

• pollution prevention plans • NPRi submissions

assessment • MOECofAs

15 Robert St., Weston, ON M9N 2J6 •Tel:(416) 414-7656 • Fax:(416) 245-1986• E-maii: david,clunas@rogers.com




(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Glroux

Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,

Municipal & Industrial Tel:(506) 684-5821, Fax:(506) 684-1915, Tel:(705) 235-5531, www.girouxlnc.com

treats wastewater on

world's largest cruise ship The French company, Orelis, a Rhodia subsidiary and specialist in membrane filtration technologies, has installed a very compact treatment plant onboard the Queen Mary 2, the world's largest cruise ship, which set sail on its maid en voyage on January 12, 2004. This plant will treat 39,000 frVday of wastewater and discharge perfectly clean water back into the sea all thanks

to Orelis' PLEIADE^ external loop membrane bioreactor technology. The

system can be compared in size to the wastewater treatment plant for a town of 8,000 inhabitants. This technology enables the ship to operate in waters

protected by extremely stringent wastewater discharge regulations. As a proven technology applied to



Consulting Engineering • Planning • Environmental Approvals ' Municipal Infrastructure ' Land Development ' Community Planning

• Structural & Marine

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Renewable Energy ' Water Power

Toll Free:

72 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

effluent treatment, the


This modular, ultra-compact system

is particularly suitable for tight space constraints such as ships' lower decks

• Water Resources



PLEIADE ultra-filtration process has been used successfully for over 25 years in Japan for recycling building


and bilges.

Environmental NEWS It is also simple and easy to use. The "external" loop-mounted mem branes can be inspected visually. Both installation and maintenance activities

are facilitated by easy access, similar to that of a simple pump or a marine motor. In addition, full automation of

treatment and membrane cleaning pro vides ongoing and uninterrupted oper ation throughout the entire voyage, including stopovers. This technology is also available for warships, inhabited oil platforms, or any other type of floating vessel oper ating in protected waters and requiring high quality wastewater treatment prior to offshore discharge. It can be adapted to retrofit older vessels.

Toronto * Ottawa


London • Hamilton


Vancouver • Victoria

Specializing in;

• Drainage Planning

• Water & Wastewater Systems

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• Environmental Planning

• Stormwater Kanagement


Corporate Office: 133 Wynford Drive





y y


y y y




EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPATprogram


107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108


Contact: www.orelis.com.

City of Calgary awards contract to upgrade water



(/nrp) EnviroMicrobial Services a division of Conestoga-Rovers & Associates

treatment facilities The City of Calgary Waterworks has

• Drinking Water Contamination

selected John Meunier Inc. to provide equipment to upgrade its two water

• Indoor Air Quality Services

Cryptosporidium & Giardia Microscopic Particulate Analysis Disinfection Efficacy Testing

Source Detection

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario N6E 1P5

treatment facilities in a contract valued

Telephone: {519) 681 -0571 • Fax: (519) 681-7150

at $17 million.

The City of Calgary is upgrading the Bearspaw Water Treatment Plant and the Glenmore Water Treatment

Plant. John Meunier Inc. will supply six Actiflo® clarifiers for each facility which will raise the capacity to 550


Gartner Lee Limited

environmental strategies & solutions

Environmental Science, Economics,

Planning & Engineering Solutions

MLD each. The new Actiflo clarifiers will be


installed for the pretreatment phase of each plant.

British Columbia I Alberta I Yukon I Northwest Territories I Ontario I Quebec

The Bearspaw plant draws water from the Bow River, and the Glenmore plant draws water from the Elbow

river. Because of the high turbidity of river water during times of spring runoff, the City was sometimes forced to reduce capacity at the Bearspaw and Glenmore plants to preserve drinking water quality. The rivers have recorded

Geomattrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists. and Environmental Scientists

• Design of Water/Wastewater/Air Treatment Systems • Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies • Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000} ' Utility Minimization Audits (Energy, Water, IVasfesJ • Remedial Designs/Remedial Actions • Phase l/ll Environmental Site Assessments • Soil/Groundwater

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turbidities of more then 1000 NTU

(nephelometric turbidity units) during spring runoff, which caused temporary overload for the existing pretreatment


Tel: (519) 886 • 7500 Fox: (519) 886 • 7419

Unit G, 420 Weber St. North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 4E7

sedimentation basins and filters. The

Experts In Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

water treatment plants will now be able to produce drinking water of high

Hydromantis, Inc.

quality, meeting and exceeding the regulations for Drinking Water Quality. The upgrade will be carried out in two phases. Work is scheduled to begin at Bearspaw in May 2004, and at Glenmore in 2005.


Consulting Engineers

210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S tG5 Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

E-mail: lnfo@hydromantis.com Web: www.hydromantl8.com

May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 73

Environmental NEWS


Petro-Canada fined for

waste oil discharge

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Petro-Canada has been fined $37,000,

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Resources Act (OWRA). In 1997, the Ministry of the Environment issued to Petro-Canada a

certificate of approval for a sewage INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD.





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J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

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works at its bulk fuel depot in

Peterborough. The Court heard that the installed sewage works contained an oil interceptor that was significantly smaller than the one approved by the Ministry of the Environment. The Court also heard that in August 2000,

waste oil discharged from the oil inter ceptor into a nearby ditch which flows to Byersville Creek and to Otonabee River and that the discharge was

caused by the installation of the improperly sized interceptor.

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Tests show wet sand and wave action are source of E. coli at some beaches

Research conducted by Manitoba Water Stewardship shows wave action is responsible for occasionally dispers ing E. coli living in wet sand to bathing water, resulting in periodic high E. coli readings along popular Lake Winnipeg beaches this past summer.

An important component of their plan will be the development of a clean beaches program that will be designed to educate the public on activities that contribute to instances of E. coli on

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beaches such as littering, other activi ties that attract birds such as gulls, and the practice of grooming beaches. The program will also reinforce how taking appropriate precautions when visiting beaches can reduce the possibility of becoming sick. DNA "fingerprinting" commis sioned by the department has revealed that the majority of the bacteria along the beaches is from animals, with gulls



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74 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

as the single largest identifiable con tributor. The E. coli then makes its way into beach water from the sand by the

up-rush and backwash of water into the beach area.

The significant new finding has also recently been established at sever al Lake Michigan beaches and is con trary to the long-held but unproven assumption that the occasional high E.

Environmental NEWS coli counts at Lake Winnipeg beaches must be due to large local or regional sources.

Research in Manitoba and the State

of Michigan shows that E. coli sur vives and possibly reproduces in layers of wet sand just below beach surfaces. Wave action drives water up onto the

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beaches and releases E. coli back into the water. Marshall

When people go to the beach they often enjoy a picnic lunch, snacks or other food. The improper disposal of this food waste attracts gulls and other



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birds that in turn contribute to the high levels of E. coli in sand.

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Lake Winnipeg generally has no significant E. coli concentrations. The warnings issued this past summer were the first in 10 years and were localized

E-mail: mmm@mmm,ca



Major Lake Winnipeg beaches have been routinely monitored for bacteria since the early 1980s. If Manitoba's recreational water quality objective level of 200 E. coli per 100 ml of water is exceeded in repeated measurements, beaches are posted by order of a med ical oificer of health.




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Second effluent discharge from Schneider Foods


prompts Investigation Ontario Ministry of the Environment officials have launched an investiga tion of Schneider Foods following a second discharge of effluent into the Thames River near St. Marys. Both

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discharges originated from a sewage treatment plant at a facility operated by the company. On March 16, Schneider Foods reported that its sewage treat ment plant was discharging effluent that may not have met standards in its ministry approval because of a process

SARAFINCHIN Consulting Engineers

upset. It is estimated that a maximum of

Since 1984 Specialists in Earth Engineering and Environmental Sciences

1,350 cubic metres of cloudy brown

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effluent was released. However, there

are no municipal drinking water treat ment plants with intakes drawing from the Thames River, and there are no

anticipated human health impacts due to the first discharge. The second discharge occurred at the Schneider Foods plant on March 19, 2004. Ministry officials have met

with the company and have confirmed that the sewage treatment plant will not resume discharging until effluent can meet the ministry standard.

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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 75

Environmental NEWS

Second North Battleford drinking water suit settled The Saskatchewan government and the City of North Battleford have reached an




approximately 100 claimants who were seeking compensation as a result of the North Battleford water contami nation incident. The total value of the

compensation package is approximate ly $425,000, which includes compen sation for pain and suffering, lost income, out-of-pocket expenses and legal fees. Compensation payments to

the City of North Battleford will share equally in the settlement. In August 2003, the Province and the City settled with about 700 other people, who also became ill due to the

individuals will be based on the extent

North Battleford drinking water con

of damages suffered. The Province and

tamination incident.

Decline of species warning by scientists

A 47 Year

HEI Tradition ofExcellence in Engineering

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The diversity of butterflies, birds and plants is in decline in the UK, say sci entists whose research supports the argument that mass extinction threat ens life on Earth.












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A botanist at the Natural History Museum, Sandra Knapp, says that

and well-studied biodiversity, is the Call us to

strengthen your team!

"canary in the coal mine for the rest of the globe".

Jeremy Thomas of the Natural Environment Research Council, who





28% of plant species and 54% of bird species also declined in areas studied over long periods. The finding comes from government-funded scientists using data painstakingly amassed over the past 40 years by 20,000 skilled nat

Britain, by virtue of its well-known

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Science Editor of The Guardian,

Tim Radford, writes that a study in the US journal Science reports that about 70% of all butterfly species in Britain have shown signs of decline. About

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led the study of butterfly populations, warns that, "this adds enormous

strength to the hypothesis that the world is approaching its sixth major extinction event. The others appear to have been cosmic events, either from

outer space coming in or some major perturbation - volcanoes, whatever within the Earth. So they are believed to be physical events. "You could say this latest one is an organic event: that one form of life has become so dominant on Earth that

through its over-exploitation and its wastes, it eats, destroys, or poisons the

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Fossil records show a pattern of continuous evolution and extinction

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uralists now think that extinction rates

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are at least 100 times greater than the natural "background" rate, because of pollution, habitat destruction, hunting, agriculture, global warming and popu lation growth.


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May 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 77

Environmental NEWS

Two eoologists receive 2004 Stockholm Water Prize The 2004 Stockholm Water Prize has been awarded to

Professors Sven Erik Jorgensen, Denmark, and William J. Mitsch, USA.

The Nominating Committee wrote: Professors Sven Erik Jorgensen and William J. Mitsch are awarded the Stockholm Water Prize 2004 for their pioneering development and global dissemination ofecological models oflakes and wet lands, widely applied as effective tools in sustainable water Jargensen

resource management.

Professor Jorgensen, 69, is a professor of environmental chemistry at the Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Copenhagen. Professor Mitsch, 56, is a professor of natural resources and environmental science and director of the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park at The Ohio State University in Columbus. Their theo retical and applied work on lake and wetland ecosystems, management of lake and wetland water quality, and lake, river and wetland conservation, restoration and usage has been acknowledged and implemented in both developing and developed countries. His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden will pres ent the Prize in Stockholm on Thursday, August 19, 2004.

The Laureates will share the US $150,000 Prize sum.

William J

Contact: siwi.org.


Nova Scotia towns receive

Infrastructure funding The Nova Scotia towns of Quispamsis and Hampton will receive CanadaNew Brunswick Infrastructure Pro

gram investments totaling more than $7.3 million.

The $6.2 million Quispamsis proj ect involves decommissioning of the Matthews Cove Wastewater Treatment

Facility, construction of two sewage lift stations, 1,600 m. (5,250 ft.) of forcemain and 2,680 m. (8,793 ft.) of gravity sewer lines, and the expansion of the Longwood Wastewater Treat ment Facility. In Hampton, the $1.1 million proj ect involves the extension of the

municipal sewer system to Fairmont Subdivision and involves the installa

tion of a gravity sewer, a wastewater pumping station and a forcemain. Also, work will include the decommis

sioning of the existing trickle filter wastewater system in Fairmont Subdivision.

Peel's waste program shows results The Region of Peel's 2003 year-end waste tonnage report indicates the Three Bag Standard program is having a positive effect, as recycling and organics volumes continue to rise.

Petrochemical companies ordered to Improve envi ronmental performance The





"The waste diversion initiatives and program enhancements we have imple mented over the last few years are steadily moving the Region toward its 70 per cent waste diversion goal", says Maja Prentice, Chair of the Public Works committee for this Ontario region. Summary of tonnages collected in 2003:

Chemicals (Canada) Limited, SCU Nitrogen Inc. and Cabot Canada Ltd. to take a variety of actions to comply The ministry's actions result from an inspection sweep of the Sarnia area by




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While the tonnage of garbage collected in 2003 increased by 2.3 per cent over 2002, it was still well below the actual housing growth rate of3.4 per cent, for the same time period.

Saskatchewan and steel company renew environmental agreement Saskatchewan Environment Minister, David Forbes, and steel manufacturer IPSCO Saskatchewan President, Peter MacPhail, have renewed an environ mental agreement designed to foster co-operation between the province and

IPSCO on a broad range of environ mental issues, including regulatory compliance, environmental manage ment and protection, and pollution pre

vention. A key element of the partner ship is a joint working committee that meets regularly and encourages free and open discussion on topics related to environmental management. It pro vides a forum where mutual environ mental issues can be addressed in a

timely and responsible manner. A five-year agreement, which was first signed in 1998, expired last year.

78 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2004

received Provincial Officer Orders fol

lowing recent inspections. The orders detail what action they must take in order to come into compliance, for example, creating spill contingency plans, amending or obtaining certifi cates of approval for air emissions and registering wastes generated. All three companies have been referred to the ministry's Investigations and Enforce ment Branch for investigation to deter mine if charges are warranted. Erratum Water Treatment plants are vital to Baghdad's restoration. Page 44, ES&E, March 2004 - The total cost of the scheme was $1.4 billion (US), not $1.4 million (US) as shown in the article.

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