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March 2004


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iBiosolids - science,

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jTrends and challenges in Sewer Use By-Laws fMulti-stage water filtration for smallsystems



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ISSN-0835-605X March 2004 Vol. 17 No.1

issued March, 2004 fS(SÂŁ invites articles (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treat

ment and other environmental protection top ics. if you are interested in submitting an arti cle for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. reserves the right to edit all submissions without notice.



Now let's drink to the real Aqua Sommeliers - Editorial comment by Tom Davey Cover story - Revolutionary boat lift wheel turns on tourists


Membrane filtration process instalied in Newfoundland community


Advanced filtration system at Lake Louise WWTP is a Canadian first


Lift station control project integrates existing components with new systems


Automated curing chamber simpiicity ensures high quaiity concrete pipe


Spring conference previews- WEAO, OWWA/OMWA, BCWWA, GANECT 2004


Natural groundwater flow exploited for contaminated site cleanup


Contaminating oil in water okay - as long as it's not poilution


Science, risk, pubiic perception, and precaution all part of biosoiids


management 32

The facts behind the Waste Diversion Act and Waste Diversion Ontario

Feedback Ad Index

7,56 25

Responsibie infrastructure planning through three dimensional hydrodynamic modeling Multi-stage filtration chosen for small community system

Industry Update Literature Reviews



Reviewing trends and significant environmental challenges in Sewer Use By-Laws





Water treatment plants are vital to Baghdad's restoration Why does mould grow in homes and buildings?

Product Showcase


Professional Cards



Landfill gas utililized from a Vancouver landfill


EPA sued for failing to account for "lost" mercury



4 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004


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Now let's drink to the real


The mid 1970s saw environmen

tal groups evolve across the country. These were new phe nomena which became a force

that shook political complacency to the core. Andy Brandt, then Environment Minister in the Ontario Conservative

Government, had repeatedly come under fire for his government's envi ronmental record. He decided to invite

his worst critics to comment, criticize and advise him about their various

concerns regarding environmental tox ins and drinking water. To this end, he invited 20 people to meet, and create, a Drinking Water Advisory Board. I was among those invited to the inaugural meeting. After a brief welcome, the Minister gave the group carte blanche to debate, criticize and advise his Ministry on all, and any, environmental issues. The protesters should have been ecstatic; they had breached the legislative walls and could now confront the "enemy" with in its own territory. Two senior civil servants were pres ent but their mandate was only to answer any scientific questions which might emerge; they were not to become involved in any debates or defences of government policies. After a brief welcoming address, the Minister left the meeting with a single guideline: "Voice any and all of your concerns and my Ministry will listen." Environmental activists now had a

blank sheet upon which to air their grievances, which, as it turned out, were many. A brief lull followed the Minister's departure, then the conspir acy theories started. "Why have they invited us?" asked one member plain tively, before unleashing a veritable deluge of suspicion worthy of Oliver

Stone. The Periodic Table ofElements was invoked like some exhortation to

pagan gods, as protesters emoted a ver itable litany of outrage and hostility. Despite the fact that the Minister had only invited the 'aristocracy' of the protest movements, deep suspicion of his intentions emerged. Heated discus sions on 'toxics' - now transformed

from an adjective to a revered noun broke out. Oddly enough, there were little or no concerns expressed about pathogens in drinking water, such as E.Coli 0157, or lethal parasites such as Giardia or Cryptospiridiuin. "Toxic" really was a four letter word to them.

Sir... Your

H2O is


When I raised concerns that these

parasites and pathogens might be more lethal than the minute levels of the tox

ins under discussion, there was little

response. Concerns focused only on chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, benzene, and organochlorines in drinking water. Some of these chemicals are unde

niably dangerous, but are usually found in minute traces obtainable only by the most sophisticated analytical equipment. Even when found in parts per quadrillion"', a figure so small as to be incomprehensible to lay persons, the spectre of any of the dreaded chemicals seemed to arouse anger and fear in some ofthe environmental puri tans. No one seemed aware of the wis

dom of Paracelcus, the iconoclastic physician of the Middle Ages, who once noted that: "All things are poison, there are none which are not. The dif

ronmental concerns to be heard at the

very zenith of the MOE and clearly much more effective than carrying placards on the steps of Queen's Park", I stressed.

In this day and age, it is surprising to recall that one outraged activist smoked throughout the meeting as she, ironically, as well as metaphorically, vented her concerns, punctuated by tobacco smoke. The irony that tobacco smoke, now perhaps the most regulat ed carcinogen of our era, was being involuntarily imbibed by activists at a meeting devoted to environmental purity, seemed lost on this meeting. The cigarette smoke lingered long after the deep suspicions of the MOE

ference between a poison and a reme dy lies in the dosage." I pointed out that the Minister had

After the group progressed over several months, some of us became

invited his most vocal critics to the

friends and often shared our views

group. "There is not a single member at this meeting, including myself, who has not seriously criticized govern ment environmental policies in the recent past. Surely this is evidence of good faith on the part of the Minister? Here is a tangible opportunity for envi-

socially outside the MOE sponsored meetings. Some friendships continued long after the group mutated into an Advisory Group whose members were paid to propound their viewpoints. But after the initial conspiracy theories had been dissolved, by the application of a

had subsided.


By Tom Davey, Editor

* In the range of one second per 30 million years.


sense, the


Advisory Group did make many valu able suggestions, which impacted on MOE policies. continued...

March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 7

Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor


The Aqua Sommeliers Cometh At the time of these meetings, it

E-mail: tom@esemag.com (No attachments please) Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director


E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denlse@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: carol@esemag.com Publisher



E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Ontario

Bill De Angeiis, P.Eng. AWS Engineers & Planners Corp., Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine

ADI Systems inc.. New Brunswick Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario

cost Toronto householders about 60

cents for a cubic metre of purified water. Thanks in part to a plethora of alarmist stories, sales of bottled water rose to unprecedented heights with the ubiquitous 200 ml plastic water bottles practically mandatory at aerobics classes, sporting and other events. Householders who were horrified at

paying 60 cents for 1,000 litres of high quality drinking water had no com punction at paying two or three dollars for 200 millilitres in plastic bottles. But even this is low-end stuff by today's standards. Enter the water sommelier. Bottled water has apparently acquired the cachet and snob appeal enjoyed by fine wines, mutating into a new line of aqua sommelier waters at as much as $15 a bottle. According to an article in the National Post, one of the first sommeliers, who plies his trade (sorry, practises his profession) in a plush New York hotel, is said to emit a bemused chuckle when he

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Services, British Columbia Stanley Mason, P.Eng. British Columbia Marie Meunier

John Meunier inc., Quebec

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. An ail Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental con trol systems and drinking water treatment and distribu tion.

Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental ofticials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors.

information contained in ES&Ehas been compiled from sources believed to be correct.

recalls the dark days when he too once drank tap water. With apparent horror he notes that tap water "can be recy cled as many as seven times before it flushes out of your faucet". Demon drink has been replaced by designer drink.

Perhaps when our sommelier grows up he might learn of the hydrological cycle. Water has been recycled count less millions of times since the first

land mass emerged on Planet Earth to evolve into the present seven conti

nents, leaching salts over the eons to form today's oceans. "Recycled seven times", indeed! Every tree takes in water with its roots after rainfalls

which is later transpired by its leaves to the atmosphere. This is recycling, pure and simple, which has been going on from countless billions of trees over

countless millions of years. Meanwhile, few homeowners are aware of the incredible value of having treated water delivered, winter and summer, inside their houses with unmatched reliability. No other serv ice, not telephones, electrical services, cable or satellite television, can match the reliability of our municipal water supplies. No, our water utilities are not per fect. There have been sporadic out bursts of tainted water in Canadian cities. But while auto recalls are com

monplace - and every year airplanes crash due to mechanical failures - our

water faucets keep flowing with a safe ty and reliability unmatched by any other industry. At approximately ten cents a litre, it is probably the best municipal bargain in Canada, if not in the world.

Those who suspect me of hyper bole, should cheek on the water prices per cubic metre in such advanced countries as England, Japan and Germany, to name but three, then per haps, raise their glasses In gratitude to The Invisible Profession, our environ mental engineers, chemists, and opera tors, the true aqua sommeliers of drinking water. I


ES&E cannot be

responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editori al matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to pro vide information rather than give legal or other profes sional advice.

Dear Tom, I have just read the January issue of Environmental Science & Engineering

and, as usual, found it very interesting. I was one of Phil Jones's Grad stu

Canadian Publications Mail Sales

dents when he designed the Penetang

Second Class Mali

PCP and was asked to review some of

Product Agreement No.40065446

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $75.00 for one year Canadisn Buair (plus $5.25 GST).


Ail advertising space orders, copy, art work,film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax; (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag. com

the design drawings that Phil contract ed out to Urban Engineering

anaerobic digestion of sludge but I would guess that the wastewater would have been treated by an activated sludge process. Best regards, Orlando Martini

For more letters see page 56

Consultants of Etobicoke. From mem

ory (going back to 1965 or 66), the process employed was not "extended aeration" as your January issue states

ES&E welcomes comments

but "contact stabilization". Was the

and suggestions

design changed prior to construction?

from readers.

The same article mentions that the

OWRC proposed an anaerobic pro cess. I doubt that this was the case. The

OWRC proposal may have included 8 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Send to:



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utionary wheel turns on tourists mwTvn.'aw

m By Alan Symes, LPS Special Correspondent

(». "



The Falkirk Wheel in Stirlingshire, Scotland, is turning out to be one of Britain's most spectacular tourist attractions and has won a string of awards for its innovative design, engineering and environmental features. Linking two Scottish canals with water levels 35 metres apart, it is a dramatic solution to an age-old problem of transferring boats between levels that traditionally required a flight of 11 locks. Photo: British Waterways.

The Falkirk Wheel combines

innovative engineering with elegance, and, as the world's first rotating boat lift, is now a modern icon of progress. Linking two

Scottish canals with water levels 35

metres apart, it is an ingenious solution to an age-old problem of transferring boats between levels that traditionally required a flight of 11 locks. The Falkirk Wheel is the centre

piece of the £84.5 million Millennium Link, the UK's largest canal restoration project, re-establishing the waterway link from east coast to west coast by reconnecting and regenerating the Forth & Clyde and Union canals. Since its formal opening by Queen Elizabeth in May 2002, the project has attracted a string of prestigious awards, including the Brunei Medal 2002 granted by the Institution of Civil Engineers; the UK's Structural Steel Design Award; Best Practice in Re generation, an accolade from the British Urban Regeneration Associa tion, and Awards for Planning

Achievement granted by the Royal Town Planning Institute. The enterprise was backed by a funding partnership between seven local authorities; the Scottish Enter prise Network; the European Develop ment Fund, and the project manager, British Waterways, which runs UK canals. A major contribution of £32 million came from the Millennium

Commission, with an additional £19

million support from Scottish Enterprise and £2.4 million from the private sector. Although five years of planning and design work went into the initial tender stage for its construction, the Falkirk Wheel's visually exciting shape and novel conception actually stemmed from three weeks of demanding brainstorming sessions involving a 20strong multi-disciplinary team of engi neers and architects soon after the con

tractor had been chosen. Participants were reported to have been told to attend the meetings with "only a blank piece of paper and clear heads".

10 Environmental Sdence & Engineering, March 2004

The original design concept on which earlier tenders were based was

that of a 19th century style Ferris wheel which, upon closer examination, was discarded. British Waterways' desire for alternatives, while still

favouring a wheel of some kind, was taken up and a dramatic solution reached. The




described by the UK's New Civil Engineer magazine as,"a genuine rare example of design integration between architects, steelwork designers and engineers of several disciplines - civil structural and mechanical." The Falkirk Wheel is 30 metres

long and its height, identical to its width, is the equivalent of eight stacked


buses. The

Wheel, which stands in a 100 metre wide circular basin with moorings for over 20 boats, can lift 600 tonnes (300

tonnes at each end)- the approximate weight of 100 adult African elephants. It covers 45 hectares, the bulk of which

occupies the site of an abandoned continued overleaf...

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Cover Story open-cast mine. The project involved major landscaping and the removal of 300,000 tonnes of soil. A 1,000-strong

through a 145 metre tunnel underneath the historic Antonine Wall. Passengers get another chance to repeat the expe

construction team carried out the work

rience as the boat embarks on the

using huge quantities of materials including 7,000 cubic metres of con

return journey to the Visitor Centre

crete, 1,000 tonnes of reinforced steel, 1,200 tonnes of prefabricated steel and

One of the Wheel's clever engineer ing features is a row of five differing size cogs hidden behind the arm near est the aqueduct. These ensure that the Wheel is perfectly balanced as its axle turns, powered by 10 seven kilowatt geared motors located around it. As the wheel rotates, two small cogs on each arm turn against a stationary larger cog fixed to the aqueduct pier behind the axle. These small cogs also connect with two outer cogs, the same diameter

35,000 square metres of canal lining. Designed to last for well over a cen tury, the Wheel can carry eight or more boats at a time and a single trip takes about 15 minutes. Visitors to the proj ect can enjoy what is described as a unique canal experience. The journey starts with passengers boarding a spe cially constructed boat at the Visitor Centre before heading out towards the magnificent Wheel itself. The boat then glides effortlessly into one of the water-filled caissons where the doors

High water: A close-up view behind The Falkirk Wheel, showing a boat in its caisson. Also visible is part of the

innovative interconnecting cog design which ensures that the gondo las holding the boats on opposite sides of the wheel remain horizontal. Photo: British Waterways.

close to form a watertight seal. As visitors enjoy unhindered views of the Orchil Hills in the distance, the Falkirk Wheel starts to rotate, and in


as the central one and located in each

arm's gondola support hole. Outer cogs, and the gondolas rigidly fixed to them, always rotate at the same speed as the turning wheel - effectively keeping the gondolas horizontal.

one smooth seven-minute movement

the vessel rises to the top of the Wheel where it continues its journey along a newly constructed aqueduct and

Contact, Web site: www.thefalkirk wheel.CO.Ilk or E-mail:

info@the falkirkwheel.co.uk.


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VE0LIA Environ merit

Drinking Water

Membrane filtration process installed in Newfoundland community

When the Conne River

The Fyne Process offers several advantages to the community. No

Canadian projects, which involved smaller water volumes. These projects included plants installed at First Nation communities at Chapel Island, Nova Scotia, and at Middle River, British Columbia. The spiral mem branes were thought to be more eco nomical for handling the high water

The Conne River Micmac Band has

chemicals are added to the water prior

volumes at Corme River.

an on-reserve population of approxi mately 700 people and is located on

to chlorination and there is no residual

The Fyne process is based on a par ticular process known as nanofiltra tion. Surface water is prefiltered to remove suspended solids down to 10 microns. This pre-filtered raw water, which still contains large quantities of organic compounds, is then passed, under high pressure, through a series

Micmac Band sought to ensure the availability of safe drinking water with a new filtration system, studies showed that organic materials from surface water had to be removed prior to chlorination.

the south east shore of Newfoundland. The Reserve is 560 km from St. John's and 180 km from the nearest services

centre, Grand Falls. "The Band currently get their drink ing water from a surface source locat ed in the Southwest Pond watershed,"

meet future needs, which might include the construction of a fish pro cessing operation. With this and other possibilities in mind, the plant was built to allow for easy expansion to 1.6 MLD.

chemical sludge to dispose of. Savings on chemical purchases and sewagedisposal costs quickly outweigh the marginally higher system price. In addition, the process membranes pro vide a physical barrier that holds back water-borne pathogens, microbes and viruses, as well as reducing undesir

explains Eric Humphries of Design Management Group Ltd. (DMG), the

able levels of iron and other metals,

Band's engineering consultant. The consultant selected a process plant which uses proprietary mem brane filtration technology from ITT Sanitaire's PCI Membrane Systems Unit. Known as the "Fyne" process, the filtration plant could produce 1.3 million litres/day (MLD) of clean drinking water and would be immedi ately effective in providing safe, high-


which may also be found in surface With DMG's help, a multiple-fac tor-comparison analysis was used to evaluate the suitability and economy of different methods of water treatment

and the PCI system was one of two approaches that were piloted. The Conne River facility, the largest of its kind so far, will be the first Fyne process installation to use spiral

quality potable water to Conne River

nanofiltration membranes rather than

residents. It includes provisions to

the tubular membranes used at earlier

of membrane modules. A fraction of

the feed water passes through the membrane, which holds back the dis infection by-product precursors, along with iron and other undesirable metals,

and water-borne oocysts, bacteria and viruses. These undesirable components are automatically flushed from the sys tem with unused feed water (merely raw water in a more concentrated

form) and returned to the river with no chemicals added to it.

The clean water that has passed through the membrane (the filtrate) can then be safely chlorinated and delivered to the potable water distribu tion system. After treatment, it is effec tively colourless and has very low dis infection by-product levels. The Fyne plant operates automati cally, with very little supervision. In fact, the system can be monitored con tinuously and remotely through an out side telephone line. Minimal routine maintenance includes bi-weekly clean ing of the spiral membranes using pre filtered feed water and detergent (sim ilar to common household laundry soap). No other chemicals are used, so there are no storage or disposal issues. After cleaning, membrane wash water is stored on site and metered back into the river in accordance with strict envi ronmental standards.

The Fyne process is based on nanofiltration, which allows inorganic ions to pass through the membrane with the filtrate. The organic compounds that cause the high colour content and disinfection by-products, are held back and retained in a small proportion of the raw water known as the concentrate or reject. 14 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

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create anoxic, anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic zones in series, part of the BNR process. The existing jet aeration system was modified to use the original jet pumps, for mixing only, in the first anoxic and anaerobic zones. New submersible propeller mixers were installed in the second anoxic zone. A de-nitrification recy cle system was provided using submersible pumps installed in the aerobic zones to pump back to the second anoxic zones. New fine bubble aeration was installed in the aerat ed zones.

The original alum storage and metering system will con tinue to be used to trim the BNR process to achieve the required removal of phosphorous, if and when required.

Tel.: 514-636-8712 Fax: 514-636-9718


16 Environmentai Science & Engineering, March 2004

Contact: Associated Engineering at mahl@ae.ca.

Remote Monitoring

Lift station control in La Rochelle

The District of La Rochelle is a

scenic port located on the west


of France between Bordeaux and Nantes. It con sists of 18 associated communities

with a total population of 140,000. In May 2001, local government began a major upgrade of its aging water treatment system, renewing the local measurement devices, control equipment and automation system, and

extending remote monitoring of the 116 pumping stations. A special challenge of the project was to integrate some of the existing level measurement solutions such as

hydrostatic pressure sensors with new ultrasonic level measurement systems, lift pump control monitoring and data acquisition. This major project involved numer ous companies and contracts, includ ing EAO as panel builder and installer, and DIGIMAT for the automation. For

level measurement equipment, pump station monitoring and control equip

ment, La Rochelle chose Milltronics EnviroRanger®, a state-of-the-art ultra sonic system from Siemens.

Using non-contacting ultrasonic technology and patented Sonic Intelligence® echo-processing tech niques, EnviroRanger monitors and controls liquid levels in wells and/or liquid flow in flumes, weirs, or open channels. Five relays can be used to


Signals are processed from level meas urement devices to monitor and control

levels In wells as well as flow In flumes, weirs, or open channels.

control any combination of alarms or pumps. Advanced pump control fea tures save energy and cut maintenance requirements. The system monitors lift

are gradually being replaced by ultra sonic transducers because they are easy to install and require virtually no

stations and collects data such as state

Using built-in telemetry interface (RS232 Modbus port), data is trans

of operation, number of pump starts, pump run time, and pump efficiency. At each La Rochelle station, an

EnviroRanger controller processes sig nals received from level measurement

devices. In some wells, new Echomax® XRS-5 ultrasonic transducers were

installed to measure level. In other sta

tions, existing pressure sensors were connected directly to the analog input on the EnviroRanger. Pressure sensors



mitted via landline to the control room at the District head office. Remote

telemetry units have various communi cations capabilities including remote alarming via voice server, pager moni toring, mobile text message, duty hours personnel management, and other functions. Contact: www.siemens-milltronics.com.


ph • ORP • Temperaiurfi • Conductivity • Diesolved Oxygen • Suspended Solids • Turbidity • Colour • loxlclty


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March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 17



curing chamber simplicity ensures high quality concrete pipe By Jim Bartley,C.E.T.

There are no workers moving products into position with

forklifts and cranes. The area is

clean, and a robot periodically moves quietly, high overhead, trans porting reinforced concrete pipe to and from curing chambers. The controlled environment for producing concrete pipe is almost dreamlike, as machines seem to be running themselves. Only when you focus on the control centre will you see the panels of the fully automated plant and two technologists. This is Schlusselbauer's definition of

simplicity, as ultra-modern machines tirelessly produce one high-quality concrete pipe after another in its Exact 2500 plant at Munro Concrete Products Ltd. in Barrie, Ontario. Covered curing chambers are arrayed in a series of rectangular cells with a standard dimension of4750 mm

X 1160 mm x 2900 mm high. At the

plant, there are 14 cells covering a floor space of approximately 700

l!ll' ; liK* 11

Fourteen cells, covering a floor space of approximately 700 square metres, accommodate pipe, ranging in size from 300 mm to 1500 mm diameter.

ing of the cured products starts as soon as the curing cycle is completed for that product run. The rubber-sealed chambers cannot be opened prema turely allowing uncured pipe to be removed. The system is pre-pro grammed to ensure that chambers are opened at the exact time when pipe is cured to specification. Schlusselbauer curing chambers are designed to account for heat transfer to the concrete pipe and the required humidity. Heat and moisture balance over the curing time is so precise that floor dampness is negligible. The gal vanized structures of the chambers

the walls and roof of the chambers ensures efficient heat transfer to the

will not turn on. The software is called

and up to eight 1500 mm diameter. The operators, who know which cells are occupied along with the data associat ed with the curing process, monitor the content of each chamber. The monitors

the water heater.

designed to accommodate pipes rang ing in size from 300 mm diameter to 1500 mm diameter. They can hold up to twenty-four 300 mm diameter pipe

depict the cells that are empty and those with closed lids. Curing is criti cal to the strength, impermeability and finish of the precast product. The curing system allows the plant to run in a closed loop. Moisture cur ing starts immediately after a chamber is filled with product, and depalletiz-

The urethane foam sandwiched

between the galvanized sheet steel of

resist corrosion that may result from the curing process. Curing cycles programmed into the software and control system assume that the ambient temperature in the kiln is 21 degrees C. If the temperature is more than 21 degrees C, the curing cycle is running but the water heater Collector. When the lids are placed on a cell, a signal is sent to the Product Management System so that it knows the curing cycle has started and that it should start the curing cycle timer. The Munro system has been modified to intercept this signal and send it to the Collector program so that it starts the curing cycle and, if necessary, starts

square metres. The chambers are

ty in the kiln near the end of the curing cycle. Since the cement has hydrated and the concrete is cured, a high rela tive humidity is not required. At the start of the cycle Munro has at least 85% relative humidity and at the end it is reduced to 55%. By controlling the humidity within each chamber, the plant infrastructure is not subject to corrosion as a result of the post treat ment process. Approximately 100 litres of water are used in a six to eighthour curing cycle in each cell.

Once the chambers are sealed, tem

perature is gradually increased by the Project Management System software to about 63 degrees C at the end of the cycle, thereby efficiently curing the product and evaporating most of the

product and not the surrounding ambi ent air of the plant. Since they have a low mass, the panels exhibit a favor able thermal efficiency. Controlled transfer and retention of heat in the

curing chambers throughout the curing process ensures that the specified hydration of each product is achieved. Schlusselbauer's curing chambers are not pressurized and have little to no maintenance. The only moving parts are rollers in a side door to each cham

ber. In winter conditions, maintenance personnel do not have to remove ice

buildup on the system, or clean up drip water. Since the chambers are insulat

ed well and sealed, they do not lose energy and heat the plant unnecessarily. The product has been produced without the touch of human hands, and each piece is identical to the last in design and quality. The concrete has set, and the product is ready for use in a variety of applications.

available moisture. Munro reduces the relative humidi

18 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Contact: Jim Bartlev, 705-458-1700.

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WEAO annual conference to be held in London

The 33nd annual conference of the Water Environment Associ

Aprll 18-20,2004

ation of Ontario will feature a


two day technical program that focuses on such topics as: utility man agement, including sewer use by-laws and enforcement, alternative delivery, finance and partnering; watershed management; information manage ment; collection systems and stormwater management; preliminary and primary treatment; biological treat ment; advanced treatment; biosolids management; odour control; new tech nologies and research; operations; small community issues; septage dis posal. The symposium is scheduled to include a one-day workshop organized by the Professional Wastewater Op erators. Operations staff will learn how recent and upcoming regulatory changes will affect wastewater plants. Steve



and issues in developing countries. Plant operations staff will have an opportunity to demonstrate their skill and knowledge by competing in the annual Operations Challenge on Tuesday, April 20. There will also be a special session for New Professionals who have been

working for less than seven years in the wastewater treatment field. This ses

sion will highlight contributions made by new professionals and provide an opportunity to discuss issues affecting those new to the field.

Delegates can tour London's Greenway Water Pollution Control Plant.

er. His organization is an international non-profit development organization whose mission is to assist people in developing nations gain access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation.


Mr. Werner will be able to share with

Director for Water For People, will open the conference as keynote speak-

attendees his and Water For People's solutions to water-related problems

The symposium also includes a 115-booth tradeshow, organized by the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association. Included in the guest pro gram will be a tour ofLabatt Breweries of Canada, and a visit to a historic vil lage in London. For further information contact:

WEAO,P.O. Box 176, Milton, Ontario, L9T 4N9, Tel: (416) 410-6933, Fax

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20 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004


Whistler to host BCWWA's 32nd annual conference and exhibition

The British Columbia Water & Waste


Technical transfer sessions include:

May 1-5,2004


conference will feature more

Whistler,British Columbia

than 115 manufacturer, suppli er and consultant exhibits, 70 technical papers, a separate day of technical transfer sessions, the operators' safety competition, and a partners' program. Highlights of the technical program include: • Drinking water treatment • Small water systems

and future

• Drinking Water Act and Regulation • Liquid waste management planning workshop • Showcase of Canada/BC

infrastructure projects • Rating British Columbia's infrastructure Technical & Social Tours

• Whistler wastewater treatment plant • Whistler Blackcomb snowmaking

• Wastewater treatment

• Biosolids organic residuals • Drinking water disinfection • Analytical labs


Advanced wastewater treatment

• Decentralized water

• Water management and CEPA P2

Infrastructure management Wastewater collection and manage ment


• Water for the world

Drinking water supply Stormwater management/emerging technologies

• Cross connection control

Odour control

• Water sustainability • Drinking water distribution

summo product division


• Shining the light on drinking water: UV disinfection - past, present

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• Water for People Walkathon For further details contact: British

Columbia Water & Waste Association, Suite 221, 8678 Greenall Avenue, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5J 3M4, Tel: (604) 433-4389, Fax: (604) 433-

9859, E-mail: bcwwa@bcwwa.org. Web site: www.bcwwa.org. ■

Off gassing problems with Hypo ??? Alldos Primus 208 Plus3 degassing dosing head with auto matic degassing solves the fundamental problem of low vol ume hypochiorite pumping. The dosing head is available up to a capacity of 6.2 l/h. The system also incorporates a device for calibration while in operation.

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that actually works!II ATI's new Series At 5/66 Residual Sulfite Monitor is the perfect answer to process monitoring and con trol. Since even a small sulfite residual indicates complete chlorine removal, continuous measurement and control of excess sulfite results In significant savings in chemical costs while assuring a zero chlo rine discharge. Residual Sulfite is measured using a unique vapour phase analytical system. Sulfite in the sample is transferred to the vapour space above a reactor system where the measurement is made. The result is that the sensor never comes in contact with the sample.

wastewater treatment industry capable of utilizing up to four different measurement sensors at one time. Designed for the need of dissolved oxygen and mixed liquor total suspended solids sensors in the same bio logical reactor, the Series 8000 Water Process Analyzer line will provide Operator convenience, responsible process man agement and economical pricing for the instrumentation and sensors required.

Process Products and Instrumontation -SOIUTWHS March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 21


The 6th Annual Canadian Environmental

Conference &Tradeshow(CANECT 2004) Incorporating the Environmental Management,Compliance and Engineering Conference and the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow

The 6th Annual Canadian

May 12-13,2004

Environmental Conference &


Tradeshow (CANECT 2004) is co-organized by Environmental Science & Engineering magazine (ES&E) and Canadian Environmental Regulation cS: Compliance News. CANECT 2004 will again be colocated




• Workplace env. response teams • Workplace env. and health and safety committee members • Municipal officials and officers. Since 1992, the organizers of CANECT have put on a highly suc cessful




Environmental Management, Compli ance & Engineering that has been the


Instrumentation, Systems and Auto mation (ISA) Tradeshow. Combined, these two shows are expected to attract

foremost event for Canadian environ

over 250 exhibitors and 4,000 dele

and consultants with responsibilities for environmental affairs. Over 40 pre senters representing Canada's leadingedge environmental trainers, lawyers, consultants, managers, administrators, and health & safety practitioners are scheduled to participate.

gates. With five concurrent work shops, CANECT 2004 offers an edu cational opportunity for: • Env. managers/coordinators • Plant managers, hazardous materials supervisors and engineers • Env. auditors and consultants

mental managers, plant personnel, government policy-makers, lawyers

Professional engineers Environmental lawyers Dangerous materials supervisors Spills and emergency response teams


Day 1: May 12, 2004 • Environmental Regulation & Compliance • Dealing with Industrial Air Pollution

Are You In Compliance? Keeping on top of safety and environmental legislation is your job. Make it easier with Canadian enviroOSH Legislation plus Standards. Save valuable time accessing the complete text of all legislation, regulations and codes of practice from your desktop. You'll have access to the full text of

any CSA and CGSB standards refer enced by the legislation and a free monthly update highlights changes. For a free trial period of Canadian enviroOSH Legislation plus Standards, call CCOHS at(905) 570-8094, 1 -800-668-4284 or visit www.ccohs.ca


• Enviromnental Management: Establishing a Cost-effective EMS • Dealing with Industrial Waste • Environmental Health & Safety Due Diligence for Managers and Supervisors Day 2: May 13, 2004 • Insider's Guide to Investigations and Inspections • Dealing with Industrial Water and Wastewater

• Environmental Management: Establishing a Cost-Effective EMS (part 2) • Dealing with Industrial Contami nated Land

• Dealing with Spills and Environ mental Emergencies For further details please contact Steve Davey, Environmental Science & Engineering, 30-220 Industrial Parkway South, Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905) 727-4666, 1-888-2548769, Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-mail: steve@esemag.com. Visit www.esemag. com to download the conference pro gram and/or a free tradeshow admis sion ticket. ■

22 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004


OWWA/OMWA annual conference to

focus on protecting water resources drinking water industry - one-third from the municipal sector alone - oper ators, politicians and managers. Consultants, First Nations and regula tors were also heavily represented.

May 9-12,2004

Niagara Falls,Ontario

For further details, contact the

s O r* 1 e^'3]_r

Ontario Water Works Association, a Section of AWWA, 45-23rd Street, Toronto, Ontario, M8V 3M6, Tel: (416) 252-7060, Fax: (416) 252-3908,

E-mail: owwa(@idirect.com, Web site: www. owwa.ca. ■


Thejoint annual conference and tradeshow of the Ontario Water Works Association



Ontario Municipal Water Association will be held May 9- 12, 2004, in Niagara Falls, Ontario and will feature some 80 exhibitors and



DissolveaOxygen Total Suspended Solids Interface Level Analyzers Filter Backwash Monitors

Wastewater Samplers Residual Chlorine

two days of technical sessions. Session topics include: • University research forum

Conductivity Turbidity Density

• Treatment


• Water quality • Distribution

• Management • Young professionals • Water efficiency •


A tour has been arranged to the Sir Adam Beck Generating Station as well as a day of golfing at Legends on the Niagara Ussher's Creek Course. The Companions' program includes tours of such attractions as Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, and local

Trust Aysix to provide comprehensive solutions for all your analytical instrumentation requirements. Drawing on a wide spectrum of technologies, Aysix Technologies - quality instrumentation products that meet your specific requirements.


According to event organizers last year's conference was attended by almost 900 participants. The tradeshow attracted senior staff from the

TW^SiX technologies

GLOBE 2004 March 31 - April 2,2004 Vancouver,BC,Canada Hosting nearly 2000 conference del egates from around the world, GLOBE 2004 will address global business and environment chal

lenges. Contact: Michael Ross at michael.ross@globe.ca, Tel: (604) 775-8028, www.globe2004.com. ■

Call your local representative: Cancoppas Limited


Ontario, Manitoba,Saskatchewan,Alberta Cascadia Instrumentation Inc. (604)466-9807 ■ British Columbia

DCH Process Dynamics (613)226-4413• Eastern Ontario IMC Coppas Quebec Ltee. (450)424-1370-Quebec QIP Maritimes (506)635-1931 New Brunswick,Nova Scotia Prince Edwaid Island,Newfoundland

At the forefront of technology www.ayslx.com • info@aysix.com March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 23

Site Remediation

Go with the flow to clean up land

Ateam of engineers and aca

demics is piloting an innova tive but simple process that exploits the natural flow of groundwater to clean up contaminated

filled usually with gravel and a reagent, positioned within the flow of groundwater. Keller favours the former for its


The most common approach to con taminated land remediation in the

United Kingdom is "dig and dump" removing potentially hazardous mate rial to

gates containing a reactive material. Continuous PREs consist of trenches,

a controlled

landfill site.

Equally well-established is the practice of isolating a pollutant source by enclosing it in impermeable slurry walls, made from a mix of clay and grout, with a com pacted clay capping layer. Although the containment option is arguably more sus tainable than removing con

greater versatility. "The gates are usu ally prefabricated steel boxes encapsu lated within an impermeable trench

constructed in the ground," says Keller engineer Dr. Denis Greene. "This allows for removal or exchange of the reactive material within the gate."

to funnel or intersect the contamina

tion plume is far less than that required to enclose a pollutant. The company readily admits that the use of PREs is technically chal lenging, from the conceptual design of treatment through to site installation. With this in mind, it is working closely with scientists at Queen's University Eelfast to identify pollutants that can be treated using PRE technology, and to match them to the most appropriate neutralizing reagents. "High-quality site charac terization is especially impor tant for implementing a PRE correctly," says Dr. Greene. "It is essential to determine the

spread and concentrations of contaminants in the ground-

taminated material, it can be perceived as a "toxic time-

water and to establish the local

geology and hydrogeology (pattern of groundwater flow^" It is normally necessary to carry out a trial to confirm the degradation of the contamina


UK-based contractor

geotechnical Keller


Engineering is one of a hand ful of European firms develop ing a technique that promises to provide an inexpensive, safe and highly effective way of cleaning potentially hazardous ground contamination. The process involves plac ing a permeable reactive barri er (PRE) in the flow path of contaminated groundwater.

tion and the calculated half-life - the time needed to half the contamination concentration and the volume of reactive

material required. Typical design may be based on 10 to 30 years of treatment before the source has

attenuated. Keller's experience so far suggests that because this is a passive system, operat ing costs and maintenance are relatively low.

The PRE is so called because it contains reactive materials that immobilize and/or neutral

ize the pollutants as they pass through it. The type of materi als used depends on the nature of the contaminant.


A UK-based geotechnical contractor is developing a way of cleaning potentially hazardous ground contamination. The process involves placing a per



Agency (EA) recently pro duced new guidelines on the use of PREs, and the technique

"A key difference between now falls within its remit to "promote and encourage the PREs and other in situ groundmeable reactive barrier in the flow path of contam water remediation techniques," effective use of sustainable inated groundwater. according to Keller's business remediation technologies". Such is the EA's enthusiasm for development director Martyn Keller's first PRE contract at Singleton, "is that the contamination PREs that it is even relaxing the licens moves through the treatment zone." Monkstown in Northern Ireland cost ing requirements for operators wanting With most other techniques it is the the client £750,000, about £250,000 to implement a PRE scheme. less than conventional dig and dump. other way round, which makes it diffi For these reasons, the approach A more recent project at Portadown looks set to become widely adopted in cult to ensure that all the contamina cost £500,000, saving the client an the UK and beyond. tion has come into contact with the treatment reagent.

The process can be achieved by one of two approaches. With the funnel and gate technique, impermeable walls direct contaminated groundwater to

estimated £1.6 million. Costs are also favourable when

compared with a perimeter slurry wall and capping system, Keller says, because the length of barrier required

24 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004


Dr. Alan




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March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 25


Contaminating oil in water is okay as long as it's not pollution

Top: An on-line hydrocar bon monitoring unit instaiied on an oil platform in Indonesia. Left: A

benchtop unit to which users can bring a sampie.

By Greg Reeves

Industrial oil spil s routinely make

the news, but oil leaks from cars are far more routine and never make the news. What is it that

defines oil contamination as a pollu tant versus an acceptable by-product of our standard of living? A little history may help. Petrol eum based oils are a natural resource

thanks to the evolution of the planet. Millions of years ago, plant and fish life decayed onto the ocean floor. As they decomposed they became covered with sediment and the natural decay process was eventually halted due to a lack of oxygen. This hydrogen and car bon mixture endured millions more

years of temperature fluctuations and pressures within Earth's crust and eventually formed as a thick goo we know as crude. The crude migrated throughout Earth's crust and eventual ly found itself into pockets. Some of these reserves are conveniently located near Earth's surface where they are readily tapped and used as a valuable energy source.

Under the right conditions, this nat ural resource will continue its decom

position and return to the eco-system as harmless by-products. If these con ditions are monitored and controlled,

contaminating oils are not an environ mental hindrance and, therefore, by

definition, not a pollutant. However, if the conditions are not right, oils can choke the process that is responsible for oil degradation. The result can be damaging to our environment and oil becomes labeled as a pollutant. Defining oil types and their accept able contamination levels in waste-

water is not an easy task. Crude, in its natural form, is made up of thousands of compound variations. Once the crude is refined, the chemical structure changes which adds even more to the list. Often, these new man-made com pounds do not break down as easily into the eco-system as their former structure as crude.

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^www.hoskin.ca 26 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

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Instrumentation There are many groups worldwide

The solvents are not identical and

offer additional alternative correlation

that contribute valuable research and

will draw out different hydrocarbons.

techniques to monitor for oil in water contamination. For example, one such technique is fluorescence, which tar gets the aromatic hydrocarbons in a sample flow to give a relative reading of total oil. This technique does not require solvent extraction and can be

data toward the oil contamination

As a result, the definition of a contam

debate. The USEPA (www.epa.gov/

inating oil has changed. Industry is responsible for monitoring their waste-

waterscience), American Petroleum Institute (api-ec.api.org note: no www) and the International Association of

Oil and Gas Producers, (www.ogp. org.uk) are three such organizations that offer valuable data on this topic. Rather than attempt to define a pol luting oil by its chemical strucmre, regulatory authorities tend to tag oil types by their character. Solvent extraction is one such approach to defining an oil's character. By adding a solvent to a water sample, certain types

water contamination levels based on

this definition and certain regulated procedures. The solvent extraction method of

measurement is to dry and weigh the oil sample through a lengthy gravimet ric procedure. Since the gravimetric procedure is not practical for field use, regulatory authorities do allow corre lation techniques. Gas Chromatographs (GCs) and Infrared Absorption (IR)instruments are the typical accept

of oil molecules will attract to the sol

able correlation methods. While these

vent when shaken. When left to stand,

instruments offer a faster response, they still do not offer a simple and cost-effective approach to routine field

the solvent separates from the water, bringing these oils with it. For many years, this procedure was defined by

measurements and for continuous on

define contaminating oils. The Montreal Protocol (1992) phased out the production of Freon for this type of

line monitoring. Industry tends to be diligent and environmentally responsible with regards to oil in water contamination, whether or not it is for economic, legal

use and the new USEPA Method 1664

or ethical reasons. To

uses hexane as the extraction solvent.

demand, instrument manufacturers

USEPA Method 418.1

which used

Freon as the extraction solvent to

meet this

used on-line.

These types of instruments do not replace required laboratory reporting requirements. They are designed to support industrial efforts by offering a cost-effective, easily maintained in strument for routine or on-line use.

Efforts to define and support envi ronmental oil in water interests are

ongoing. We are surrounded by oil leakage in our daily routine and have become complacent to it. Occasionally a catastrophic oil spill highlights the fact that, as a natural resource, oil quickly becomes a pollutant when mis managed or altered by man.

Greg Reeves is President ofArjay Engineering Ltd. Contact, e-mail: greeves@arjayeng.com.


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March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 27


Science,risk, public perception,and precaution By Hans Sanderson, Ph.D,

University of Guelph

The public perception of sci

ence, and thus the role of sci

ence in governing society risk acceptance, is a dynamic inter play that changes proportionally with the expansion of the information-soci ety, involving the public's general edu cational level, access to information,

and speed of organization, for exam ple, through the Internet. This process has, together with expanding econom ic markets, paved the way for the Pre cautionary Principle/Approach (PP/A). This article will take us on a scientific

journey that has led to this dynamic situation with respect to environmental risks.

The Chinese technological develop ment was centuries ahead of the

European when Marco Polo made his way to China in 1271. The Chinese philosophy of science and technologi cal iimovation was based on associa tion rather than causation. Association

is the interrelationship between phe nomena, determined on a purely

empirical basis, without interpretation ofthe relationship expressed as natural laws. The Chinese used "trial and

error", rather than modeling causality and investigation of natural laws. The European scientific develop ment relies on causation, with its ori gins in Greek culture (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc.). What was outstanding, was that, besides the development of technology, interpretation of nature occurred, and the concept of ontology was born, that allows exploration of


scientific laws. Sir Isaac Newton made




Suppose you could save more than $2,000 a year at each flow monitor ing site throughout your system? Suppose you could eliminate fouled

a giant leap forward in this process in contribution to classical physics, chemistry, and biology. With this

approach European science and tech nology rapidly surpassed the Chinese. The Newtonian physics were subse quently interpreted in deterministic terms prompted by Aguste Comte in

sensors and lost data? And suppose you could ovoid the risks and expense of confined space entry? Uncertainty and Ignorance

You con, using the FLO-DAR'" flowmeter. Operating above the flow, FLO-DAR reads flow velocity and depth, and can be easily maintained and removed from street level. FLO-DAR also eliminates fouling and simplifies personnel and equipment requirements. That means safer, easier, more dependable and less costly monitoring.

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Figure 1

28 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Biosolids Ignorance



following decades of work. In using scientific theories ad hoc, Kuhn points out that we construct paradigms and these change as science progresses or the societal requirements to the para digm change. The Swiss psychologist Piaget's theories of social and radical

reality is not accessible to human knowledge, and that knowledge is always very context dependent. The core behind this philosophy springs from the dialectics in our brain-structure (left and right) and lan guage which is typically constructed around dialectic concepts (whiteblack, hot-cold, on-off, etc.) and the lack of ability, conceptionally, to grasp continued overleaf...

constructivism surfaced in the 1970s.

His theories, which mainly govern the social sciences, state that all knowl edge is a human construction, that

Figure 2


the late 1800s and refined by the Vienna school after World War I, a time when fascism also surfaced in

Europe. According to the deterministic and positivistic philosophy, Nature can "talk", and we just need to record the data; there is ultimately right and wrong. Figure 1, shows the assumed

which ope Pits best?'

clear border between what is known and what is not.

However, these deterministic ide ologies were dismantled by Sir Karl Popper in the 1930s, with his falsifica tion theory, which states that to be con sidered science, there has to be a for mulated, falsifiable hypothesis - noth ing is ever 100% right. Moreover, Bohr, together with Heisenberg, for mulated Quantum Mechanics in the 1920s, which showed that basic physics, the centre of deterministic success, developed beyond Newtonian physics, in which the stochastic ele

predictability. This resulted in basic questions relating to inadequacy and

Matching pieces to find the best fit is a challenging and time-consuming process. In flow measurement you can easily achieve the best fit with PROline Promag electromagnetic flow meters, including the new Promag 10 for use in potable water, wastewater and sewage sludge applications.

scientific adherence to determinism

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ments overshadow the deterministic

being put to rest nearly a century ago. Figure 2, shows the contemporary view that knowledge fades through uncertainty into ignorance. In 1962,Thomas S. Kuhn published his book "The Structure Of Scientific

Revolutions", and the bottom line is that Popper is too idealistic in his demands to falsification. We use

imperfect theories ad hoc all the time, as long as they perform their role in society to satisfaction -in other words, it is a poor craftsman who blames his

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Moreover, the reality is that scien tists tend to care for their theories and

the time and effort they put into their work, so they do not rejoice over falsi fication of their theories and concepts



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March 2004, EnvironmentaiScience & Engineering 29

Biosolids all the intermediates between. Their

in Canada since 2003. The conclusion

conclusion is that all knowledge, more

for both is that PP/A is a legitimate part of decision-making and should be implemented via the existing risk assessment and risk management para digm. The rules for PP/A have to be intelligible and transparent. The background for PP/A is to increase public trust in the risk man agement process and the politicians. Public participation is important to increase trust, and to inform decisionmakers relating to publically accept

or less, is the construction we have adapted to our societal needs and development.

The German sociologist, Ulrich Beck, diagnosed the post-modern era we live in as a Risk Society. Beck sum marized the threats of individually uncontrollable severe environmental

risks, public knowledge of scientific uncertainty, the information society, and social constructivism. Beck's con

clusion was that science is disqualified from solving environmental risks, because it is science which has driven

the technological development that creates environmental risks. Science is

part of the problem - not the solution. On top of this development is rapid expansion of international trade and political conglomeration that may intentionally, or not intentionally, pro duce barriers to trade, through imple mentation of the Precautionary Princi ple/Approach. The Precautionary Principle/ Approach has been implemented in the European Union(EU)since 2000, and

to risk acceptability. Decisions based on PP/A have to be least trade restric

tive, more cost-effective, and propor tional to the severity of the risk. In Canada, PP/A should be applied when there is:

unrealistic wishes for action. With

a) need for a decision; b) risk of serious or irreversible harm; c) lack of scientific certainty. The party that markets the activity under revision must produce data to mitigate risk (reversed burden of proof). It is realized that in key tenets for governing society and risk accept ability, economy and science, ethics are systematically removed from these realms, and that sustainability is often not economically viable in the shortterm analysis, as environmental exter nalities are rarely internalized in cost/price analyses. So, politicians and decision-makers need a tool for implementation and fast tracking of sustainable and ethical decision-making, to optimize resource

PP/A, decisions are made adaptive, so when more and better knowledge is available, decisions may be changed, either relaxed or the opposite relating

ence and policy-making - and restore public trust - thus PP/A. Key aspects in the PP/A process are ambiguity and

able risks and effects. It is realized that

the public, given the adequate informa tion on the pros and cons associated with an activity or technology, have a much better perception of risks than previously assumed by the decisionmakers and specialists in risk assess ment and management. It is when the information is asymmetrical and inad equate on pros and cons, that the pub lic reacts with fear, risk aversion, and

allocation between environmental sci



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Biosolids denial associated with scientific uncer

tainty and severity of risks; these can only be addressed successfully through a democratic process and consensus. Notable is the regulation of biosolids, which have been subjected to changes due to PP/A implementa tion. In Switzerland, a total ban has been laid on the application of biosolids from meat processing plants and slaughterhouses, due to concerns of spreading BSE and Mad Cow Disease. As of 2006, all biosolids in

entific certainty relating to the human and wildlife effects it may have through mimicking estrogen. This trig gered the use of PP/A in Denmark. These cases raise questions regard ing the Canadian regulation of biosolids. Do biosolids fulfill the three

main tenets for invocation, as men

tioned above, in Canada? If yes, which actions should be taken? A significant conclusion is that public perception and regulatory demands in addressing environmental risks change at a much

Switzerland will have to be incinerated

faster rate than science and most scien

at an extra cost of some 40 million

tists realize. This change shapes envi ronmental science today and for the

Canadian dollars per year. In Denmark, a voluntary phase out of Nonylphenol (a non-ionic surfac tant) by the soap and detergent indus try by 2000, allowed 75% of all biosolids to be applied to Danish farm land. Nonylphenol is an endocrine dis rupting compound (estrogen-mimick ing) present in biosolids, and had been found to resist degradation when not exposed to oxygen. Swiss studies showed that a build-up could occur in soils treated with biosolids. Nonyl

phenol is unwanted due to lack of sci


A general comment could be that we accept that human and environmen tal health are interlinked, yet we accept different levels of proof and causality for actions. In human health issues, we rightly tend to be very proactive and

health issues are, typically, to identify a cause, whereas in environmental

issues the requirements, typically, are determining the cause, before actions are taken.

It would seem logical to apply more coherent demands to causality between the two, levelling the requirements to environmental health issues closer to human health concerns. This should be

done instead of focussing on searching for the cause of unwanted adverse

effects, when appropriate, and when they are clearly interconnected, or eth ical and ecosystem functions require this from us. We should perhaps focus more on multiple causes and use weight of evidence in our decisionmaking. Dedicated to my friend and mentor Poui Harremoes.

act on concerns relating to symptoms; whereas, when relating to environmen

Adaptedfrom a presentation given at the Water Environment Association of Ontario Biosolids Seminar, February,

tal health issues, we are more reactive

2004. Hans Sanderson is with the

and tend to require strong evidence before we act. The requirements to causality (cause and effect) in human

Centrefor Toxicology at the University of Giielph. Contact, e-mail: hsander@uoguelph.ca.

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The facts behind the Waste Diversion Act

The mandate ofWaste Diversion

Ontario (WDO) is to develop, implement and operate waste diversion programs. WDO was created as a permanent, non-govemment corporation by the Waste Diversion Act, 2002 (Bill 90), when it received Royal Assent on June 27,


A partnership made up of industry, municipal, non-governmental repre sentatives and the Ministry of the Environment, WDO is operated by a

board of directors whose membership consists of:

• Three voting members from Corporations Supporting Recycling (CSR); • Four voting members appointed by the Association of Municipalities of Ontario; • One voting member from the Brewers of Ontario;

• One voting member, appointed jointly by the Canadian Consumer Proco Series 240/242

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Specialty Product Association (for merly Canadian Manufacturers of Chemical Specialties Association) and the Canadian Paint and Coatings Association;

• One voting member from the Canadian Newspaper Association; • One voting member from the Liquor Control Board of Ontario; • One voting member from the Retail Coxmcil of Canada; and

• Three members appointed by the Minister - one non-voting public ser vant, and two not employed in the pub lic service, one of whom is a voting member.

Board members, including the chair, receive no remuneration for their

participation. An operating agreement between





Environment and WDO provides the authority to revise the structure of the board where appropriate, for example, to add board members when new pro grams are developed. The Waste Diversion Act provides the legislative framework under which all participants in the process must operate. The Act details the set-up, responsibilities and reporting require ments of WDO, and ministry enforce ment provisions and penalties for noncompliance. The Waste Diversion Act allows the

ing method, based on fees paid by des ignated industry stewards. An industry funding organization (IFO), set up for each program, helps WDO with this part of the process. After the Minister designates a waste material, the Minister can for mally request WDO to develop a diver sion program for that waste. WDO then establishes a new IFO, or works with an existing IFO,to jointly develop the program. Each program proposal will include rules for industry fees to be charged, estimated costs for the pro gram, waste diversion targets and implementation details. As part of the development process, WDO must con sult the public, and anyone that might be affected by a program. The Minister must approve a waste diversion program proposal made by WDO before the program can be implemented. Once the Minister informs WDO that a program is approved, it must be implemented by WDO and the IFO.

Minister of the Environment to make

regulations designating materials for which programs may be required. For each waste diversion program, WDO must create a sustainable fund

This article was based on information from a MOE Fact Sheet 2003. Contact: www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/land/wda/ references/factsheet.htm.


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Responsible infrastructure planning through three dimensional hydrodynamic modeling By Dr.Ray Dewey and Norm Muggins

The Golden Horseshoe of Ontario is the fastest growing region along the Great Lakes, so millions of people depend on Lake Ontario for drinking water. These same people populate the lands that generate stormwater runoff and treated municipal and industrial wastewater effluent that discharge to the lake. Offshore water treatment plant intakes and outfalls operate in parallel to service the water supply and wastewater and stormwater demands of a

growing population. Fortunately, the ability to monitor and analyze the impacts of potential

which allowed many different people to apply them and learn from them. They could be calibrated and verified from limited data and would provide

Professional engineering software three-dimensional models for practical application outside of the academic forum alone are now available. These

some valuable results. On the other

models provide highly accurate three-

hand, three-dimensional models, which offered a more in-depth exami

dimensional simulations of water bod

nation of the impacts, were limited to

the Great Lakes as they can simulate the complex thermal structure of a lake during stratification. Besides the stan dard ability to predict the movement of water and pollutant transport, they now have sophisticated add-on modules to deal with polluted sediments, nuisance growth of algae, eutrophication and nutrient dynamics. In addition they have the added benefit of nesting. Why nesting? In order to provide

academic research or very specific studies and mostly remained out of the hands of the private sector. The models have been used to study bacteria contamination of beaches,

effluent plume delineation and circula tion changes due to shoreline modifi cations,just to name a few. One of the major problems in implementing both the two-and three-dimensional models

ies. These models are ideal for work on

is the required boundary data to estab

accurate simulations of the thermal

lish the flow field and the ambient

structure and complex dynamics, it is necessary to model the entire lake.

interference between intakes and out

conditions. Two-dimensional models

falls has improved. Environmental engineers are now required to be more reliable in their predictions of future conditions. Some of the questions that

could be run with one or several time

This has several additional benefits.

series along each open border, the time series data consisting of recording cur rent meter data. Optionally the models could be just applied as wind driven which required even less data. In their evolution these products performed to the limits of their application.

One is that the initial conditions are

have been raised are: • What is not known about the inter

action among the various sources and sinks?

easy to set. The water temperature in lakes in Ontario drops during the win ter and, after the ice break-up, the tem perature is almost isothermal over the depth of the water. There may be some cooler surface water just after the ice

• Have the locations been properly identified?

Toronto Waterfront Model

• Is there sufficient separation between

Number of Hours TP above 0.02 mg/L

outfalls and intakes to avoid cross con

Existing Conditions

tamination? • How can we be certain that we are not

creating future environmental night mares because of a lack of ability in predicting potential interactions? Hydrodynamic and water quality models have been applied to predict water quality behaviour under external influences in the Great Lakes regions for many years. They have been devel oped, improved and applied to specific projects to determine water quality impacts due to shoreline alterations, new or expanded discharges, or to determine the cause of degraded water quality. Until recently the most common

25 Year Plan with Deflector Arm

Grid Scale Contour Levels

o ieoo.




4 km 11200.

models were based on the two-dimen

sional equations of fluid motion and mass transport. The models were easi er to use and there were several ver sions available for selection. Some

models were in the public domain.

Cumulative build-up of Total Phosphorus (TP) above the Provincial Water Quality Objective (PWQO) of 0.02 mg/L, showing number of hours over the PWQO out of 4,330 hours along the Toronto waterfront. Picture courtesy of Modelling Surface Water Limited - Waterfront Modelling Report for WWFMMP, with per mission of City of Toronto WES.

34 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

melts, but as the sun warms the sur face, isothermal conditions are


formed. Thus one can set the vertical

structure quite simply. Imagine trying to set the temperature of the lake in June or July when the water column has a complex temperature gradient. Many temperature profiles would be needed to establish the pattern across an open offshore water boundary. Effluent plume delineation Once the model has been properly calibrated and verified it can be

applied to determine the spatial and temporal extent of the discharge plume. Effluent discharges in the Great Lakes have very complex plumes due to the currents' changing speed as well as direction.

Generally the plume will go in a particular direction, mainly parallel-toshore and then suddenly reverse direc tion due to changes in the wind pat

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terns. After a while the currents will

reverse and then the plume will change direction. The alternating directions mean the plumes can impinge upon the shoreline during the current swing as continued overleaf...


reating Value through Service and Innovation Environmental, Infrastructure,

and Transportation Solutions Alistair Black, President and CEO of Associated Engineering, is pleased to announce the following staff appointments.


I Fr


Ian Wright, P.Eng., has been appointed as Vice President, Water Treatment. Ian will lead our

Rick Corbett, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., will continue to manage and direct our activities in the

initiatives in the water treatment sector. Ian has

environmental sector as Vice President,

27 years of experience specializing in water treatment plant planning, design, construction, and operation. He has participated in many state-of-the-art and award-winning facilities. In recognition of his expertise, Ian serves on several industry committees establishing standards and guidelines for water treatment, including Chair of AVWVA's \Afeter Treatment Facility Design and Construction Committee.

Environmental Engineering. Rick leads our initiatives In the water, wastewater, and solid waste management sectors. Rick is well known in the environmental industry for his active role in industry associations. He is past president of BCVWVA and currently acts as

Herb Kuehne, P.Eng., MBA has been appointed Vice President, Civil Infrastructure. Herb will lead our initiatives in municipal and industrial infrastructure, including stormwater management, water resources, asset management, and infrastructure rehabilitation. Herb has 28 years of experience in Infrastructure planning, design and construction. A recognized leader in the field. Herb's projects have received industry awards of excellence at the annual Consulting Engineers of Alberta

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March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 35

Infrastructure well as remain stationary as the veloc ity drops to zero and then speeds up again in the opposite direction. Snapshots of these events will show a

typical teardrop shape of the plume. However, integrating the plume over

explored. Indeed, if a new wastewater treatment plant discharge was pro posed, the impact from the discharge could be modelled before any con struction could occru".

Circulation and thermal impacts

have provided the best method so far. However, under stratified conditions and variable water currents, the esti mates can be too severe and generate difficult and challenging treatment

requirements in wastewater treatment plants. Now one can apply a well cali

several days or months will show the real extent of the plume. It is the long-

heat balance component are necessary

brated model to real time conditions

term continuous simulation that allows

for the simulation of the thermal

and determine what effluent ammonia

the visualisation of the impact of the plume on the water quality of the area.

levels can achieve the Provincial Water

Three-dimensional models with a

well-calibrated 3-D model one can

impacts on the receiving water body. In the past modellers have had to use "typical summer or winter conditions" to show the impact of a cooling water discharge. This is a hazy and inferior method compared to continuous simu lations involving real dynamic changes occurring over several seasons. Also the vertical changes in the water col umn can be determined, rather than inferred from "typical" conditions or

simulate the behaviour over several

from the use of two-dimensional mod

previous seasons to determine the water quality at any number of pro posed sites and depths. In addition, if other water discharges are nearby such as wastewater treatment plant outfalls, stream and river outlets, hydroelectric cooling water discharges, etc., their


Determination of water

intake location

New water intakes pose a problem, as there is usually no data on the water

quality at the depths proposed. In the past small sample lines have been installed at great cost to monitor the quality over short time periods. With a

impact on the water quality could be

Effluent ammonia limits for C of A

Establishing effluent ammonia lim its in lakes has been difficult in the

past. Initial dilution estimates from a diffuser model such as CORMIX,cou pled with ambient water quality data and "best guesses" of water currents,

Quality Objective (PWQO) without requiring any mixing zones. The model has the ability to handle ammonia interactions with the envi ronment to account for assimilations

and decay. Several iterations can be performed to fine-tune the effluent ammonia levels to even provide monthly levels through the transition periods of spring and fall when limits change from warm weather conditions to cold weather. We have even per formed simulations over several years of different meteorological conditions to ensure that any particular year was not an "easy" scenario. Typically 20 years of data are used to characterize the ambient "conditions"; in our case we examined five different years to

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36 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

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Infrastructure cover most typical conditions. Stormwater management Stormwater discharges have been the major focus of work with this model for the City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Master Monitoring Plan (WWFMMP). The models allow the determination of the impact of the stormwater on the water quality of the reeeiving water body. Beach closures have been problematic and these mod

three-dimensional modelling and the need to predict effluent potential behaviour compliant with MOE and community standards, the two-dimen sional model is at best an acceptable screening device available to the engi

neer and owner at project conception. Contact Norm Muggins, CH2M HILL Canada at(416) 499-0090, ext. 364 or Ray Dewey, Modelling Surface Water Limited, (on leave from CH2M HILL Canada) at (416) 757-1749.

Industrial Coittrol Valves

els have identified the causes and then the effectiveness of the remediation

actions. When the model is properly calibrated it can accurately predict the temperature changes and water currents. Nuisance growth algae One of the water quality problems that results from

5$^ Flow Measurement

wastewater dis

charges are the nutrients in the effluent that cause nuisance growth of attached algae. With the eutrophication module one can simulate the dynamics of nutrients in the water body and observe the impacts of nutrient enrich


\ j


ment and remediation measures.

Long-term cumulative impacts Continuous simulations over sever

al seasons allow one to study the impacts of the discharges on the accu mulation of waste products and the

'ir-Hf f

Pilot Operated Comrtt for fluid hanniin

effectiveness of remediation efforts.

Two-dimensional hydraulic models serve as an acceptable screening tool and have been relied upon until recent ly to predict the challenges to wastewater treatment plant outfalls and water supply plant intakes. With the advancement of reasonably available


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IVIarch 2004, EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 37


Multi-stage filtration for By Robert Abernethy,P.Eng

Clean and healthy water has always been considered a basic human right for citizens in developed countries but there

isolated communities typical of north ern Canada. Technicians, spare parts, and treatment chemicals all need to be

flown in to many northern communi

have been some notable outbreaks of

ties. Unit costs for commodities such

water-borne diseases in several small

as power, labour or treatment chemi cals are many times higher than in

Canadian communities in recent years. These have sharply focused the atten tion of community leaders on the oth erwise mundane topic of water treat ment. One positive outcome has been the realization by community leaders of their responsibilities in the delivery of water, including the protection of source waters, the provision of ade quate water treatment, and the delivery and monitoring of safe water by trained water professionals. Meeting these responsibilities has been challenging for many communi ties. The challenge for small communi ties is compounded for several reasons, mostly related to the problem of economies

of scale



southern communities. Isolated north ern communities have the double-

edged sword of higher costs and small er resource bases.

Small communities often do not have the

power or the resources to protect watersheds and

frequently rely on poor water sources.

not have the power or the resources to protect watersheds and frequently rely on poor water sources. Small commu nities usually do not have local engi neering resources to design or manage their water systems and must rely on outside expertise. Local operators often have multiple community responsibilities and may not have the time or training to operate complex water treatment plants. Finally, the on going cost to operate a water system can be crippling to a small community. While the monitoring and reporting requirements for a community of 1,000 are not much different from a

community of 1,000,000, the financial bases of the two communities are vast

ly different and therefore the per capi ta charges for water will also be vastly different.

All of these problems escalate for

should be avoided. Slow sand filtration


resources. Small communities often do

ing and sophistication of the operator. In many small communities, operators have obtained only the bare minimum level of training and experience. Finally, operators cannot baby-sit their water treatment plant, since they often have numerous other responsibilities in the community, such as grading roads, maintaining parks, cleaning the ice at hockey rinks, etc. Such treatment systems should minimize on-going operating costs. While construction and capital costs are often paid for by senior levels of government, it is the local community that must pay operations costs and therefore operating costs should be the paramount criteria in selecting a treat ment technology. Technologies that use large amounts of power, chemicals, labour or proprietary spare parts

For all of these reasons, small com

munities are structurally different than large communities and unique solu tions to water treatment are required. It is not satisfactory to simply downscale the water treatment technologies used in large communities to smaller sizes. The requirements are different and therefore the technology selection criteria are different.

The treatment technology must be simple to operate. Operators do not have an in-house engineering staff to turn to when there is a chemical, elec trical or mechanical upset. A passive treatment system (a system that does not require changes to the process to react to changing raw water condi tions) is often preferred over dynamic systems. The level of complexity of instrumentation, controls and/or chem istry of the treatment chemicals in the plant should reflect the level of train

38 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

These issues are not new or unique to Canada. Agencies such as the United States Environmental Protect

ion Agency (USEPA), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environmental Pro

gram (UNEP) have all recognized the special problems associated with water treatment for



Each of these agencies has recom mended slow sandfiltration as a "Best Available Technology" for small com munities, based on the technology's simplicity, low costs and high efficien cy for removing water-borne pathogens without the use of pre-treatment chem icals. Over 200 slow sand filters are

installed across North America, mostly for small and mid-sized communities. Conventional slow sand filter

However, conventional slow sand filtration has several disadvantages

that have limited its application in recent years. Limitations of conven-

Water Treatment tional slow sand filters include poor removal efficiencies for organics such as algae, colour and naturally occurring organic matter, which may lead to downstream disinfection by-product formation, as well as the operational problems involved with cleaning the surface of a slow sand filter. CONVENTIONAL SLOW SAND FILTER

Raw Water Quality Parameter










10 mg/L

6 mg/L < 20 mg/L


Water Level over sand y Overflow





Treatment technology criteria Wright-Pierce Engineering of Topsham, Maine, were engaged by the town to select a treatment technology. Several criteria were considered in selecting the best tech nology, including: • The technology had to meet the USEPA Surface Water Treatment Rule and Enhanced Surface Water Treatment

Multi-stage filtration The Multi-Stage Filter has been designed to provide all of the benefits of slow sand filtration but with enhance

Rule for filtration of giardia, viruses, and cryptosporidium (based on turbidity), and needed to meet the Disinfection By-Product Rule for limitations of TOC, THMs and HAAs, and ozonation by-products. • Routine delivery of chemicals was difficult due to the remote location and transportation restrictions on State

ments to overcome the limitations of conventional slow


sand filtration. Enhancements include pre-ozonation, roughing filtration and a non-destructive filter cleaning technique. Granular activated carbon or limestone steps can also be added if required for unique waters. The benefits of multi-stage filtration include: • 33% to 66% TOC removal, and a corresponding decrease in disinfection by-products formation potential.

• Electricity is generated locally by diesel generators at a high cost. The water treatment technology had to minimize power consumption. • Operational simplicity was essential. Local operators have other municipal responsibilities and lower certification lev

• Colour removal.

• Increased turbidity removal efficiency. • Longer filter runs(2-6 month filter runs typical). • Increased disinfection by ozonation. • Improvements in taste and odour. • Iron and manganese removal.

• No manual filter scraping and no sand replacement costs.


• The technology needed to be cost competitive. • A simple corrosion control method was required due to the low alkalinity of the water. Three treatment options were considered and pilot test ed, including, a) conventional slow sand filtration, b) UF membrane filtration, and c) multi-stage filtration. Conventional slow sand filtration was pilot tested in 1998 and was observed to meet all of the filtration require ments of the Surface Water Treatment Rule. However, the


O '
















North Haven, Maine The Town of North Haven is an island community, approximately 20 kilometres off the coast of Maine. The

island has approximately 350 permanent residents, but the population increases to over 2000 during the summer. The peak day water demand is 950 m^/day. The island has one fresh water source with generally good raw water quality.

TOC removal efficiency was not sufficient to meet the TOC removal requirements of the Disinfection By-Product Rule. Furthermore, since no package plant option exists for a conventional slow sand filter, this option would involve the construction of concrete tanks which would be very costly due to the transportation requirements of concrete. Ultrafiltration membrane technology was pilot tested in 1999 and was also demonstrated to be effective at removing colour and TOC and meeting the SWTR. However, this technology was ultimately not selected due to concerns about membrane fouling due to the high organic load and concerns about the long-term expense of system mainte nance. Additionally, the local operators would need to upgrade their operating certification in order to operate a membrane plant. The Multi-Stage Filtration process was piloted in 2000 and was found to be effective for reducing TOC and colour as well as satisfying all of the other selection criteria. Finally, the package design of the Multi-Stage Filter was attractive for transportation and construction on the island. Plant design The following design parameters for the Multi-Stage Filter were used based on the pilot test results: continued overleaf... March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 39

Water Treatment

Ave. Day

of a roughing fil ter, slow sand fil ter, and limestone



contactor. The lime



stone contactor was



filled with crushed

Transfer Efficiency



limestone and is

Effective O3 Dose (mg/L) O3 Contact Time (min) O3 Production (g/hr) Roughing Filter Rate (m/hr)



used to raise the





pH and add alka linity that provides





Design Parameters Parameter

Flow Rate (m^/day) O3 Demand (mg/L) Applied O3 Dose (mg/L)

Slow Sand Rate (m/hr) Limestone Rate (m/hr)

Peak Day

corrosion control

and 0.4 m/hr. Several large European slow sand filtration plants that practise pretreatment, such as in London and Zurich, have filtration rates as high as

in a simple, pas 5.35 sive design. Water flows by gravity through the entire filter and no chemi cals are added to the process. The ozone system consists of mod ular ozone generators, venturi injec tors, two ozone contactors (3.2m H x 0.36m diameter), and appropriate

0.6 m/hr to 0.8 m/hr. A conservative

instrumentation and controls. The

filtration rate of 0.29 m/hr was chosen

ozone generators create ozone by the corona discharge method using dried


The normal design flow rate for slow sand filters is between 0.1 m/hr

for the North Haven design. Construction ofthe plant took place

Multi-stage filter pilot plant.




air. The ozone and air mixture is drawn

MS Filter Inc. of Newmarket, Ontario, and installed, each with a flow capaci

into the water line using a venturi injection system so that the ozone delivery line is always under vacuum as a fail-safe against ozone leaks.

tactor using a mass transfer multiplier and a perforated plenum. Ozone mix ing is assisted by packing the column with 2" plastic saddles.

ty of 238 m^/day. Each tank consisted

Ozone is distributed in the ozone con-

The filter tanks and media were set

in the winter of 2003. Four Multi

stage Filter tanks were purchased from


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40 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Water Treatment under cold water and low flow condi

tions, but were already meeting turbid ity treatment requirements (<1 NTU) during start-up of the rest of the plant. The plant was commissioned in June of 2003 and was producing the following water quality:


Raw Water

months. Filter cleaning takes less than

one hour per filter and the filters can be placed back on line after several hours. No other maintenance ofthe fil

Water Quaiity

ters is required.


The total cost of the entire water


Modular ozone generators.

plant capacity. Sludge production is minimal(<10 kg/year) since no chem ical coagulants are added to the process. The length of the filter runs (time between filter cleanings) is 2-3


1 - 5 NTU

<0.2 NTU





8.8 - 9.6 mg/L 5.8 - 7.3 mg/L 24% - 34%

treatment facility, including the pack age plant, filtration and administration building, design, and administration, was $US 2,216,747.00. These costs

were likely 25% - 40% higher than normal due to the unusual costs related

Unlike slow sand filters, Multi

Multi-stage filters.

in place prior to construction ofthe fil ter building, allowing water to flow to the filters during construction by a temporary water line. The filters took approximately one month to ripen

to building a facility on a remote access island. Annual costs directly related to the Multi-Stage Filter

stage Filters have a non-destructive cleaning technique, which means that the surface is not scraped and sand is not replaced. The roughing filter is

(power, labour, building heat, annualized replacement costs) are < $US

backwashed to waste and the slow

flow rates).

sand filter is surface washed using a modified wet-harrow process. Wastewater is sent out to a holding pond where it evaporates. Annual wastewater production is less than 0.1% of

Robert Abernethy is President of MS Filter. Contact, e-mail: rabernethy@ msfdter.com.


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March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 41

Reviewing trends and significant environmental

changes in Sewer Use By-laws By David Ctunas, Clunas Environmental Consulting

Sewer Use By-laws have been

used to protect sewer systems and receiving sewage treatment plants for almost 45 years in Ontario. The first model sewer use by law for Ontario was developed in 1963 with subsequent revisions in 1978, 1988 and 1999.

The model sewer use by-law was provided by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) as the basis for local sewer use by-laws to be enact ed voluntarily by municipalities. All the revised models were completed in full consultation with groups such as the Municipal Engineers Association (MEA), industry representatives, and the Municipal Enforcement Sewer Use Group (MESUG); the MISA program (Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement) and through the Environmental Bill of Rights (EBR) process.

Over the last 40 years, Ontario municipalities have passed local sewer use by-laws based on the most recent version of the model available at the

time. Municipalities had the option to use the model or modify the document if they thought a different approach was best for their municipality. Few, if any municipalities chose to enact a sewer use by-law with modifications specific to their needs and dischargers despite their knowledge of the option to modify the MOE's model. In the past decade, there have been significant trends and events that have both changed and challenged industry,

municipal and provincial governments as well as public perception. These included pollution prevention; changes at MOE - downsizing, cuts in funding programs, a move to a policy and enforcement focus; the Walkerton tragedy; ISO 14000; successful lobby ing by environmental groups directed towards the Federal Government and

the City of Toronto; the transfer of water and sewage plants to municipal ities; the West Nile virus; the linking of water and sewage systems between different municipalities; and an increase in the laying of charges against municipalities by the MOE. Regrettably municipalities (except for one) have not modified their sewer use by-laws to cope more effectively with or benefit from the trends which

have occurred in the past decade. The 1999 revision of the model by-law pro vided municipalities with a definitionbased structure and a modular format

allowing for simplified customization. The 1999 version also eliminated cer

tain items causing confusion such as 'hidden' exemptions for conditions. The first municipality to incorpo rate pollution prevention (P2) into their by-law was the City ofToronto in July 2000. Toronto was under pressure to shut down its sewage sludge inciner ator and start up a biosolids pelletization plant with assurances that biosolids quality could be achieved. An example of the Toronto P2 program is the requirement for dentists to com plete a P2 plan and install an amalgam

42 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

separator, thus ensuring one source of mercury was controlled. Municipali ties are monitoring the success of the Toronto P2 program prior to consider ing the adoption of a similiar program. The modular format of the 1999 model

assisted Toronto in the incorporation of P2 into its new sewer use by-law. The downsizing of the MOE dra matically changed how the model is provided to municipalities. The 1999 version was put on the EBR for com ment but the MOE did not release a final version due to a new focus on

policy - not programs. At the same time, the MOE imple mented a SWAT team with a corre

sponding focus on enforcement. This change in approach at the MOE result ed in the suspension of providing a model by-law except for the previous ly approved 1988 version. For the time being, municipalities are now 'on their own' with respect to updating their local sewer use by-laws until the MOE reopens discussion on the topic. Many industrial sites are now ISO 14000 certified. To become certified

an industry must be in compliance or show a definite trend to full compli ance with all acts, regulations and by laws (including sewer use by-laws). Municipalities have not fully uti lized an industrial site's ISO 14000

certification to ensure they take sewer use by-law compliance seriously. Municipalities could create a win-win situation by promoting and encourag ing industrial sites to become ISO

Regulations 14000 certified. The influence and success of envi

ronmental groups is changing. Lobbying by the World Wildlife Fund had a significant impact on the new Toronto by-law. The inclusion of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates (suspected hormone disruptors) as both a limited contaminant and a

contaminant prompting a P2 plan was a result of the lobbying. Another result was the option for environmental groups to focus their efforts for the control or elimination of contaminants

at the local sewer use by-law level in municipalities. The transfer of water and sewage treatment plants to municipal owner ship/operation has required municipal ities to act with greater diligence with respect to their plants. The model by law is intended to protect the sewage collection system, pumping stations and the receiving sewage treatment plants. Municipalities have not fully utilized their sewer use by-laws to pro

The recent spread of the West Nile virus into Canada has presented a chal

lenge to municipalities and govern ments. One control option has been to spray storm sewer catch basins with insecticides. The interesting link to sewer use by-laws is that the discharge of any pesticide to stormwater is pro hibited in every by-law in Ontario. The by-laws should be reviewed to ensure that pesticide addition to stormwater that has the approval of the MOE and Health Officials is clearly listed as an exemption in sewer use by-laws. Sewer systems and drinking water supplies are becoming increasingly linked in municipalities, especially in the Greater Toronto Area. An example is the existing and 'under construction' sewer system connections between York, Peel and Durham Regions. Industrial discharges from these three Regions should be addressed by simi lar by-laws and enforcement activities to ensure that all industrial dischargers have a 'level playing field'.

tect their infrastructure and to show

An increase in the number of

'due diligence' in the operation of their

charges laid against non-compliant municipalities by the MOE calls for

sewage systems.

MS Filter Inc. Appointments

increased 'due diligence' actions by municipalities. The updating and effective use of sewer use by-laws by municipalities can assist them in demonstrating 'due diligence'. Municipalities have no choice but to ensure that their sewage systems and treatment plants are better protected, that they exercise 'due diligence' actions, that they are better prepared for challenges from environmental groups and, in some cases, municipali ties could assist in creating a more level playing field for many industrial dischargers. To achieve these goals, municipali ties have the option of updating and enforcing their local sewer use by-laws to address the many significant devel opments that have occurred in the last decade. David Chinas was the author and tech

nical contact at the MOEfor the 1999 version ofthe model sewer use by-law, supervised a sewer use by-law pro gram in a Regional Municipality. Contact:E-mail david.clunas@rogers. com.


Ernie Seivadura!

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March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 43

I rM

By Ghassan Ghali,R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

As reconstruction of Iraq begins, water treatment

will be one of the most important projects. All water treatment plants in Iraq are on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and their tributaries. The city of Baghdad was built in 763 A.D., in the central part of Iraq on the Tigris River, and it is now 30 x 30 km in area with a population of more than 5 million. All water treatment plants in Baghdad draw their water

from the Tigris River and the city is now served by several water treatment plants built during the 20th century. During the 1970s a 455 MLD (100 MGD) water treatment plant and transmission pipelines were built to serve the Rasafa (East Bank of Baghdad). During the 1980s two water treat ment plants of 110 MLD (25 MGD) each were built in

Karkh (the west bank of Baghdad) in addition to a large scale development in the water supply system. The large scale development in water services started in 1980. The Baghdad Water Authority hired Binnie and Partners (British consultants) to prepare for a 1365 MLD (300 MGD)Karkh Water Supply Scheme and an integrated

study for the development of water supply in Baghdad. Work started on both projects immediately. The integrated study also included a 1820 MLD(400 MGD)Rasafa Water Supply Scheme, similar to the scheme in Karkh, and a large number of ground storage tanks to meet the increasing demand. Tunnels across the Tigris River connect both schemes into one system. In late 1980, the Karkh Water Supply scheme was awarded to a design-build consortium ofthe Iraqi state con struction company and Continental Construction Ltd (India) with W.S. Atkins(UK)for construction design and project coordination; Paterson Candy International Ltd. for treatment process and related mechanical, electrical, con trol and telemetry works; Hawker Siddeley Power Engineering for stand-by power generation and power dis tribution; W. H. Allen for the pumping stations; and Kubota (Japan) for the supply of the ductile iron pipes. The total cost of the scheme was 1.4 million (US). Construction started in May 1981 and was commissioned in stages from July 1985 until 1990. The Karkh Water Supply Scheme comprises a river intake with a low lift pumping station on the Tigris River

incorporating vertical wet well pumps of 9500 mVhr and 2300 mVhr, and three I km long raw water pipes 1.8 m in diameter with open top surge concrete towers. The intake and the treatment works are located 40 km to the north of

Baghdad City to avoid the increasing levels of salinity due to the discharges from irrigation drains. The treatment works are arranged in three identical streams, each with a capacity of 100 MGD (455 MLD). Each stream comprises eight horizontal flow pre-settlement tanks to remove the majority of suspended solids that reaches up to 30,000 mg/L; they are equipped with chain and flight scrapers followed by six PCI Centrifloc circular

clarifiers, each being 52 m in diameter and 12 m deep with mechanical vertical flocculators and center-drive scraper. Clarified water passes to the filter block of 20 filters in each stream. The filters are 15 m x 12 m PCI K-type rapid gravity filters and the media is 0.85-1.7 mm sand for a fil-

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Simply a Better Solution 44 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Water Treatment

water passes to the three treated water reservoirs, each with a capacity of 30 ML.The treated water pumping station

the Rasafa across the Tigris River to cover the delay in construction of the 1820 MLD (400 MGD) Rasafa Water Supply Scheme that was scheduled to

draws from the three reservoirs and

be constructed in the late 1980s and to

tration rate of 7.9 m/hr. The filtered

pumps it to the transmission pipeline using eight vertical dry well split case pumps with 2,300 kW motors each

delivering 50 MGD (228 MLD). The chemical house contains the

alum, polyelectrolyte and lime storage, preparation and dosing system. A sep arate building is used for the storage and dosing of chlorine. The total power needed for the treatment plant is 32 MW and the standby power generating capacity is 16 MW provided by two 8 MW gas turbines. The administration building houses the offices, laboratory,

2.3 m and 2.1 m diameter ductile iron

pipes each 40 km long. The pipe line is buried, with the majority of piping installed by the open cut method to depths ranging from 4 to 14 metres. Railway and highway crossings were constructed using the thrust boring method without interrupting the serv

763 A.D.,in the central

part of Iraq on the Tigris

tainerized water treatment units of

50m^/hr to 200 m^/hr capacity and con

River and it is now

sumables such as chlorine and alum.

Currently, there are 250 large water treatment plants in Iraq that require rehabilitation or upgrading, and a large number of

30 X 30 km in area with a

population of more than 5 million.

new water treat

be eommissioned in 1992. Wars and


budget shortage delayed the construc tion of the Rasafa Water Supply

need to be built

to respond to the



Both sides of Baghdad are in need of more treated water. Baghdad Water Authority is now willing to move for ward with the development of the

water quality.


ML in capacity with four other reser voirs with a total storage capacity of

jLU U tf

530 ML connected to the main reser

voir by 65 km of transfer pipelines including a river crossing to transfer 455 MLD (100 MGD) to the Rasafa. Each reservoir site is equipped with a distribution pumping station, stand by generators and re-chlorination facili ties. The project also included 200 km of main distribution network of ductile

iron pipes ranging between 350 mm

CI 11

Piles (No.)

Concrete (m^) Reinforcement(Ton) Pipelines(m)


Contact Ghassan Ghali at e-mail:


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3,200,000 1,375,000 43,000 496,000 81,000 352,000

The 1365 MLD (300 MGD)Karkh Water Supply Scheme served the peo ple of Karkh with 910 MLD (200 MGD) of drinking water and 455 MLD (100 MGD) was transferred to


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planning and engineering of the proj During the Oil for Food Program (1996 - 2003), work on water treat ment plants and water supply systems in Iraq was limited to the import of spare parts, equipment to replace old equipment in existing plants, con

The city of Baghdad was built in

The Karkh North Reservoir is 215


issued an invitation to international consultants to submit their bids for the ect.

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March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 45

Indoor Air Quality

Why does mould grow in homes and buildings?


oulds and fungi are found in nature and are necessary for the breakdown of leaves, wood

I and other plant debris. These micro-organisms I can enter a building directly or by their spores

being carried in by the air. In a home or building, moulds and fungi are usually found growing on wood, drywall (plaster/gypsum/Sheetrock®), upholstery, fabric, wall paper, drapery, ceiling tiles, and carpeting. In this article, the term mould will be used to mean any of mould, mildew, yeasts, and fungi. The key factor is moisture, because moulds and fungi need it to grow. As a result, moulds and fungi are most often found in basements, kitchens and bathrooms. In

modern buildings, moisture is present as the result of: flooding, leaks in the roof or plumbing, sealed buildings that do not allow excess moisture to escape, sources such as cooking facilities, showers, etc., or excess humidity.

In addition, many of these moulds make "mycotoxins".

Mycotoxins are metabolites or by-products from the moulds that have been identified as being toxic to humans. These toxins can slowly wear down the immune system and can lead to allergic or respiratory problems. In general, the most commonly reported symptoms include: runny nose or nasal congestion, eye irritation, cough or congestion, aggravation of asthma, fatigue, headaches, and difficulty concentrating. Moulds can also exacerbate the symptoms of allergies including wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath as well as nasal congestion and eye irritation. People who are immuno-suppressed, or recovering from surgery are usual ly more susceptible to health problems from moulds. What can I do to prevent mould contamination? Moulds can grow almost everywhere and on any sub stance providing moisture is present. Thus, the best method of prevention is to reduce the amount of moisture. Keep the relative humidity between 30% and 50%. To accomplish this goal, prevention measures include:

What are some types of mould? While it is interesting be able to identify what type of mould may be growing in the building, it is not necessary to identify the type(s) present. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that all moulds

• Vent showers and other moisture generating sources directly to the outside.

should be treated the same in terms of health risk and

• Control humidity with air conditioners and/or dehumid-

removal. Some of the more common types of mould found in buildings include: Stachybotrys chartanim (also known as Stachybotrys atra), Aspergilliis sp., Penicilliitm sp., Fusahum sp., Trichoderma sp., Memnoniella sp., Cladosporiim sp., Alternaria sp. How do moulds contribute to health problems? The presence of mould does not always mean that health problems will occur. However, for some people the inhalation of the mould, fragments of the moulds, or spores can lead to health problems or make certain health conditions worse.


• Use exhaust fans when cooking, dishwashing, or laun dering (especially in the food service or laundry areas) or when cleaning large areas. • Insulate cold surfaces to prevent condensation on piping, windows, exterior walls, roofs and floors where possible.

• Keep the building and the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)systems in good repair. • Clean up any floods or spills immediately (within 24-48 hours).

• For floors and carpets, remove spots or stains immediate-

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46 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Indoor Air Quality ly. Reduce the amount of water used

when cleaning carpets as much as pos sible.

• Do not install carpet around foun tains, sinks, bathtubs/showers


directly on top of concrete floors that are prone to leaks or frequent conden sation.

It is important to remember, when using air conditioners and dehumidifiers, to keep them in good condition. Empty any water collectors regularly

ture levels exist that would promote the growth of mould. How should I clean up the mould?

In general, once mould has been discovered, it is recommended that porous materials such as dry wall, ceil ing tiles, fabric or carpet be thrown out and replaced rather than cleaned when ever possible. Non-porous materials such as

metal, glass, hard plastic and semiporous materials such as wood and concrete can be cleaned and reused (if structurally sound). Adapted from information provided by Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), 135 Hunter St., Hamilton, Ontario, L8N

IMS; 1-800-263-8466 (toll-free in Canada): Wehtite: www.ccoh.s.ca.

so this water does not contribute to the

moisture problem! If you use humidi fiers, ensure that they are cleaned reg ularly. What should I look for during an inspection? A visual inspection is the most reli able method of identifying mould problems. The most common signs of water damage will be discolouration and staining. Moulds will most often appear as dark spots, stains or patches. If you find a suspicious spot, you can do a check to see if it is mould or fungi by dabbing the spot with a small


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amount of chlorine bleach. If the

quality, service and safe,

colour changes or disappears, the stain is "likely organic and probably mould" (Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1999). While conducting the inspection, be sure to look at, in, or under the follow ing places; ceiling tiles, walls includ ing wallpaper, and condition of drywall(Sheetrock® [USG], gypsum wall board), floors, window sills, insula tion, carpet, furniture (condition of fabric, upholstery, etc.), if possible, look behind duct work and walls (a mirror will help), condition of any cardboard or paper present. Also look for "standing water" - puddles of water around and under sinks, tubs, drip pans

cost effective solutions. TPEI Is committed to

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• Asbestos and mold removal

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Surface sampling can be done by scraping or swiping suspected spots if needed for medical evaluation but this

should be done by a trained profes sional. Air monitoring is also possible,

• Site cleanup and remediation

but it is not considered routine (New York City Department of Health, 2000).

Monitoring devices are available which can measure the moisture level

• Underground %ii^


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of drywall, wood, etc. These devices will help indicate whether or not mois March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 47

Energy from Waste

Landfill gas collection and utilization in a Vancouver landfill By J. Paul Henderson,Tracy Kyle, and Chris E. Underwood

The Vancouver Landfill is

approximately 20 kilometres south of the City of Vancouver. It is a munici pal solid waste(MSW) landfill and is

place). In September 1999 Vancouver and Delta reached an agreement that, among other things, provides an oper ating framework for the Landfill until 2037. The conclusion of this Agree ment has allowed the City to proceed

with long-term plarming and capital improvements including expansions to the site's LFG control system.

owned and operated by the City

owned and operated by the City. The Landfill has operated since 1966, and in 2003 received 450,000

of Vancouver and is located in

tonnes of MSW. The Landfill serves

Environment, Lands and Parks, under

the southwest corner of Burns

over 900,000 residents and associated

an Operational Certificate (OC), regu lates the operation of the Landfill. The OC includes provisions for controlling and recovering LFG at the Vancouver

Bog in Delta, British Columbia. An active landfill gas (LFG) collection and control system has been operated at the Landfill since 1991 to prevent odours and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Since September 2003, a beneficial use system owned by Maxim Power Corporation has been operating at the Landfill. The company pipes LFG to CanAgro Greenhouses, and at the greenhouse bums the gas, generating 5.55 MW of electricity for sale to B.C. Hydro and 100,000 GJ/year of heat for sale to CanAgro. The Vancouver Landfill is located

businesses from a catchment area

including the cities of Vancouver, Delta, Richmond, White Rock, the University of B.C. Endowment Lands,

and a portion of Surrey. The Landfill is part of the Greater Vancouver Regional District's (GVRD) disposal system, consisting of two landfills and a waste to energy facility that collectively serve 2,000,000 people. The Landfill is considered a long-

term disposal facility under the 1995 GVRD Solid Waste Management Plan with a remaining capacity of approxi mately 18,000,000 tonnes (approxi mately 12 million tonnes currently in

The Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection (MOWLAP), formerly


The City of Vancouver has operated an active landfill gas(LFG) collection and flare system at the Vancouver Landfill since 1991. The original sys

tem covered approximately 84 hectares of the site and included 190 vertical

collection wells, plus a blower/flare system. The system was installed for odour control. Landfill gas is also used to heat and provide hot water for the Landfill's administration building. Most ofthe 1991 system has now been decommissioned.

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been filled since 1990. The 2000 sys tem expansion includes; • 156 vertical high density polyethyl ene(HDPE) wells (225 mm bore with 100 mm diameter perforated well cas ings; • Over 10,000 metres of buried HDPE piping in sizes ranging from 150 mm to 450 mm;

• A replacement blower/flare system (skid mounted), consisting of 2 multi stage centrifugal blowers (1,500 stan dard scfm each), 2 refractory-lined steel enclosed-type flares (1,500 scfm each); and • An automated alarm, shut-off and

monitoring system for LFG flow rates, flare operating temperatures and LFG CH4 and O2 content. The 2000 gas system expansion commenced operating in February 2001, generating approximately 2,000 scfm of LFG. By January 2004, the 2000 expansion area was generating approximately 1,300 scfm of LFG. Site characteristics


Vancouver: 604-872-7894 Montreal: 514-735-5267 Burlington: 905-333-5510

48 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

In 2000, the system was expanded over an additional 58 hectares that had

The natural topography of the Landfill site is relatively flat, and the water table is generally within 1 metre of the ground level. The total area of

Energy from Waste the property is approximately 635 hectares and the footprint of the

Vancouver Landfill Gas Collection and Beneficial Use

landfill is 225 hectares. Disposal of MSW at the site has proceeded from west to east. The Landfill's

Design and Operations Plan (Sperling Hansen, 2000) includes filling the existing footprint to a total height of 39 metres over the

Vancouver Landfill

200 vertical wells

toizontal y/eJI

remaining site life of 40 years. The Landfill is underlain by compressible peat, up to 6 metres thick, which, in turn, is underlain by flood plain deposits of silty-


clay and sand. The combined thickness of the compressed peat and silty-clay layer is a minimum of 4 metres thick. The peat and silty-clay layers provide a leachate migration barrier that is approxi mately twice as effective as the minimum requirements of the BC Landfill Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste(MOWLAP, 1993) for

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Energy from Waste The Landfill is constructed by installing compacted lifts of MSW over a 3 metre thick mattress of prima rily wood construction and demolition (C&D)material. The C&D mattress is installed on top of the peat to provide a working surface for heavy equipment

diameter) within Phase 1; • 50 vertical wells, 75 mm diameter casing, 225 mm borehole, in Phase 1 and in an area of the Landfill filled

originally in the 1980s and recently recontoured to promote drainage. A horizontal gas collection system

and act as a conduit for leachate to

was installed in Phase 1 to allow the

perimeter leachate collection ditches. Leachate is pumped to a local munici pal sewage treatment plant. Refuse is deposited in 5 metre thick

collection of LFG in this area prior to closure ofPhase 1. Early gas collection minimizes odours, reduces greenhouse gas emissions and provides more LFG

lifts. The active landfill area is the

for beneficial use. Golder Associates

most eastern landfill phase, Phase 1 in Figure 1. Phase 1 will be filled to a maximum height of approximately 35 metres by 2005 or 2006. The remain ing landfill phases; 3, and then 2 to 9,

Ltd. provided professional services for design and installation of the system. The horizontal gas collection later

will be filled over the rest of the

Landfill's operating life. 2003 landfill gas system expansion In May 2001, Vancouver City Council approved the next phase of the LFG system expansion at an estimated cost of $1,750,000. This phase involves:

• 10 horizontal gas collection wells, each 200 metres long and 150 mm

als were installed within a 2 metre

thick layer of woodwaste C&D materi al installed on top of the third layer of MSW. Approximately three more lifts of MSW will be installed on top of the C&D material prior to achieving the full landfill height in this phase of approximately 35 metres. The C&D material will act as a gas collection layer improving the flow of gas to the horizontal pipe network, and improv ing drainage within the landfill.

Improving drainage within the landfill will reduce the potential for flooding of the gas collection laterals. Due to the low hydraulic conductivity of com pacted MSW, flooding of horizontal gas collection pipes could cause sys tem failure.

Gas system construction occurred over the summer of2003, and gas from the horizontal laterals will come on line as additional MSW is filled over

top of the C&D material. By the end of January 2004, 3 of the 10 lateral wells were operating. The gas flow from these lines equals approximately 900 scfm, of a total approximately 2,300 scfm for the entire system. Future gas collection potential Given that the Landfill is expected to operate for up to an additional 40 years, LFG will be generated long into the future. Maximum LFG generation is expected to occur at the time of clo sure of the Landfill in approximately 2040 and is expected to equal up to 6,000 scfm (Conestoga Rovers and Associates, 1999). Increased gas col lection will occur incrementally as

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50 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Energy from Waste each phase of the Landfill is complet

to meet 10% of increased demand for

ed and closed.

electricity through a variety of new green energy sources through 2010 (B.C. Hydro, 2003). Maxim has a con tract with B.C. Hydro to install a 4th engine at the facility and will be pro ducing a total of 7.4 MW of electricity by the end of 2004.

Landfill gas beneficial use In January 2001, the City issued a request for proposals (RFP) for LFG beneficial use. The RFP outlined the

City's desire to find a partner that would finance, design, build and oper ate a beneficial use facility. The City received a total of 5 proposals for the project with utilization concepts including; drying sea urchin shells for fertilizer, upgrading the gas to pipeline quality for delivery to a local natural gas line, heating greenhouses, direct use in a cement kiln, and cogeneration at a neighboring greenhouse. Maxim Power Corporation (Maxim) provided the cogeneration proposal which was rated highest, and therefore City staff began negotiations. Their proposal involved: • An investment of approximately $10,000,000 by Maxim. • Construction of compressors and condensate removal systems at the Landfill blower/flare station. • Construction of a 2.5 kilometre

pipeline from the Landfill to CanAgro's greenhouses south of the

Environmental benefits

Vancouver's goals in collecting and combusting landfill gas include odour reduction, landfill gas emission reduc tions, and energy recovery. Landfills are potentially a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions because methane has a greenhouse gas poten tial of 21

times carbon


dioxide is zero.

As a reference, an automobile pro

duces approximately 5 tonnes/year of CO2 equivalents. Therefore, the net greenhouse gas emission reduction associated with LFG collection and beneficial





Landfill is equal to the emissions of approximately 45,000 automobiles. The amount of energy available from the project is equal to approxi mately 500,000 GJ/year or the energy requirements of 3,000 to 4,000 house holds.

This article is based on a paper origi

Collecting and burning LFG signifi cantly reduces greenhouse gas emis

nally presented and subsequently pub lished in the proceedings for SK4NA s

sions due to the conversion of methane

27th Annual Landfill Gas Symposium,

to carbon dioxide. International proto cols specify that carbon dioxide gener ated by landfills or through the com

March 2004. San Antonio, Texas.

bustion of LFG does not need to be

counted as a greenhouse gas emission because the carbon dioxide previously stored in the plant or animal was from atmospheric sources (EPA, 2002). Therefore, the net increase in carbon

J. Paul Henderson, P.Eng., Tracy

Kyle. P.Eng. and Chris E. Underwood. P.Eng. worked in the Tran.sfer & Landfill Operations Branch. Cit}> of Vancouver Engineering Services, at the time they contributed to this paper. Contact, e-mail: paul_henderson@. city Vancouver,be.ca.


• Construction of a power station, including 5.55 MW of generating capacity using three Cat 3532 genera tors (reciprocating engines). • Use ofthe hot water from the engines to provide 100,000 GJ per year of heat to CanAgro's greenhouses. In January 2003, Maxim and Vancouver signed an agreement regarding the project. The agreement has a 20-year term and Vancouver will receive approximately $400,000 per


year in revenues from the project. Vancouver's revenues will be used to

offset the cost of operating the LFG collection system.


Maxim cut the ribbon for the facili

ty on September 10, 2003. By November 2003, the system was oper ating at full capacity of 2,000 scfm at 50% methane. Any LFG that is not uti lized by Maxim will continue to be flared until they install additional elec trical generating capacity. CanAgro is also expected to install a new boiler system that will be able to directly

«wastewater ent


combust residual LFG.

Maxim is selling electricity from the project to B.C. Hydro as "green power". B.C. Hydro is paying a premi um for the power as part ofits initiative March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 51

Environmental NEWS

Public Perception? 1. doctors

2. lawyers

3. engineers

The Goal of the

Ontario Society of Professional

Engineers: engineers

2. doctors 3. lawyers

EPA sued for failing to account for"lost" mercury

Anew US Environmental Pro-

teetion Agency rule does nothing to curb chlorine plants' use of toxic mercury, fails to protect public health, and vio lates the Clean Air Act, according to legal action filed by two national con servation groups on February 17, 2004. The groups, NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council) and the Sierra Club, charge that the rule does not address "lost" mercury pollution from the plants and eliminates previ ous pollution control requirements. Earthjustice, which is representing the two groups, filed the suit on February 17, in the Court of Appeals for D.C. Circuit. In a separate legal action, NRDC petitioned EPA to reconsider the rule and



guaranteeing reduc

tions in the plants' toxic mercury emis Ontario has about 24,000 doctors,


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Only nine chlo rine plants in the

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States still




Re-engineering the future of our profession.

reductions. Further, EPA made those

housekeeping requirements optional. The plants can opt out of them if they choose to measure their mercury emis sions.

"The amount of mercury that these plants are "losing" dwarfs the estimat ed 48 tons of mercury emitted by coalfired power plants, and it's all disap pearing from nine outdated factories," said Jim Pew, the Earthjustice attorney representing the groups in the case. EPA argues that measuring mercury emissions is not fea

has publicly acknowledged that

sible for chlorine

it cannot account

for the mercury each plant must replace

cury process. These plants buy tons of every mercury each year to replace mercury that evaporates from the giant vats they use to make chlorine. Each plant has more than 50 of these mercury vats (called "cells" in the industry) measuring approximately 50 feet long by more than 5 feet wide, each holding some 8,000 pounds of mercury. In 2002, the nine plants purchased 130 tons of mer cury destined for the cells. In 2000, the

facilities added far more mercury to their cells than they reported released, resulting in 65 tons of unaccounted for mercury in that year alone. By con trast, coal-fired power plants emit about 48 tons of mercury into the air

The EPA has publicly acknowl edged that it cannot account for the mercury each plant must replace every year. The agency concluded in its December rule that "the fate of all the

mercury consumed at mercury cell ehlor-alkali plants remains somewhat

52 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

The new EPA rule does not set

emission standards for evaporated mercury. Instead, it establishes certain "housekeeping" requirements that the agency claims will reduce emissions, without specifying a goal for these


every year. ONTAR IO

of an enigma."


plants because the evaporating mercu ry escapes through open doors and vents in the ceiling, not through a smokestack. But an



established in 1975

specified that chlo rine plants could measure their emis sions by routing evaporated mercury to smokestacks, and required them to keep their mercury emissions below 2,300 grams per day. The new EPA rule eliminates this requirement, allowing the plants to emit unlimited amounts of mercury. Given that the average chlorine plant loses more than 17,000 grams of mercury every day, the groups believe that EPA's decision to revoke the pollution cap is irrespon sible.

The groups also maintain there is no reason for these plants to continue consuming mercury to produce chlo rine. Nearly 90 percent of the chlorine produced today is made with mercuryfree technology. Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that, like lead, especially threatens the brains and nervous systems of fetuses and young children. â&#x2013;

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Environmental NEWS

Trent University's Dr.Donald Mackay appointed to the Order of Canada

Dr.Donald Mackay, professor

emeritus at Trent University, has received Canada's high est




achievement in his appointment to the Order of Canada.

As one of Canada's leading scien tists, he has greatly contributed to the quality and stewardship of the global environment. Recognized internation ally for his models describing the behaviour and effects of oil spills, he later developed an innovative system to predict the fate and effects of chem icals in the environment. The 'Mackay Models," as they are known, are used as the basis of regulatory and environ mental policy decisions around the world. In 2001, he was the first

Canadian recipient of the prestigious Honda Prize for his work on eco-tech-

nology. Also in 2001, Mackay was the recipient of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Award of Excellence and was one of three finalists for the 2001

Gerhard Herzberg Canada Gold Medal for Science and Engineering. After 28 years as a member of the faculty of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at the University of Toronto, Professor Mackay came to Trent in 1995. Professor Mackay retired as a full-time faculty member in Environmental and Resource Studies

and Chemistry in July, 2002, but con tinues his research as director of the

Canadian Environmental Modelling Centre(CEMC)at Trent. The objective of the CEMC is to

contribute to improved management of chemicals in our environment locally, regionally, nationally and globally by acquiring and analyzing information on chemical properties which influ ence their fate in the environment, and developing, proving and distributing computer-based mass balance models which describe and predict the fate and effects of these chemicals in the envi ronment.

These models essentially predict where chemicals will go throughout

the environment, how long they will persist and how humans and other species become exposed to them. This understanding can provide a sound foundation for managing or regulating chemicals, and in some cases banning them completely. Dr. Mackay has been a contributor to Environmental Science & Engineering magazine, and editor, Tom Davey, has lectured at one ofhis university cours es. Contact: www.trentu.ca/cemc.

USFilter provides entire water plant for oil sands SAGD Operation

USFilter is the first equipment sup lier to provide an entire water

treatment plant (WTP) for a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operation in the oil sands of Alberta. Suncor Energy's WTP at the Firebag Stage One SAGD site, northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta, recently came online - almost three years after initial construction began. The $4.5 million(US)WTP system consists of induced gas flotation, walnut shell filtration, warm lime softening and accompany ing rake drive, post softening filtration, and polishing weak acid cations. The project presented a series of challenges for USFilter and engineering firm Bantrel of Calgary, Alberta, including environmental and cost con cerns, remote location and temperature fluctuations. Using SAGD technology, Suncor injects steam into the uppermost of two horizontally stacked pipes to heat the oil zone and lower the viscosity of the heavy crude oil, or "bitumen." Gravity then causes the heated bitumen to flow into the lower pipe, where it is extracted. Bitumen is separated from water and, using USFilter's system, the latter is retreated and then recycled back into the steam generator. Once fully operational in 2005,Firebag Stage One is projected to produce 35,000 bbl of bitumen per day and have the ability to recycle large quanti ties of water.

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54 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Environmental NEWS

Ro-Flo® Rotary Vane Gas Compressors

Landfill waste-to-energy project to power paper plant

Digester Gas Reeireulation & Boosting Fuel Gas Boosting for Cogeneration Landfill Gas Recovery

A new grouping of Intersan, Gaz Metro and Cascades was announced in

A full complement of Ro-Flo rotary sliding vane type gas compressors is available to suit your specific digester gas handling needs. Offered in single or two-stage config urations, these compres sors are uniquely designed to provide extended oper ating life while handling a variety of dirty, corrosive gas mixtures. For convenience, the Ro-Flo compressor can be factory equipped with a full complement of accessories to provide you with a completely self-contained package.

Quebec recently which will allow landfill gas to power Cascades' fine paper plant in Saint-Jerome. Through a process implemented by Intersan, a subsidiary of Canadian Waste Services, landfill gas will be recovered on-site. Gaz Metro, Quebec's leading natural gas distribu tor, will provide the distribution of the gas, through underground pipelines linking Intersan's Sainte-Sophie waste disposal site to Cascades' manufactur ing plant located some 13 kilometres away. Conditional on the approval of the Regie de I'energie du Quebec, the initiative should allow Cascades to

meet a large part of its Saint-Jerome plant energy requirements for the next 10 years.




Nova Scotia suspends land application of

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FEEDBACK Re: Full price costing is vital to restore and maintain our infrastruc

ture, ES&E January, 2004 Ifully support the concepts of full cost pricing and universal metering for water services. We have used full cost

pricing for over a decade and have always had universal metering. With full cost pricing we have been able to address our infrastructure issues, fund ed on a 50/50 equity/debt basis without the need for government grants. The only point where I disagree with the writer is on setting up "dedi cated reserve funds in order to build up the funds needed to deal with ongoing maintenance, repair and the eventual replacement of their water and sewage infrastructure". Firstly, ongoing main

municipalities face is the need for investment now, not at some time in the future when sufficient funds have been accumulated in a reserve fund.

By using a utility pricing methodology (full cost pricing), sufficient funds will be generated to ensure perpetuation of the infrastructure.

Unfortunately, because many muni cipalities have years of "deferred maintenance" to catch up on, borrow ing in addition to revenue generation will be necessary to bring infrastruc ture up to standard. Jack Hull, General Manager, Capital Regional District, Water Department, Victoria, BC Re: ES&E January 2004 issue

annual operating budget, not reserves. By having a systematic maintenance management program, repairs will be

Dear Tom,

ings. Secondly, the problem most

name now eludes me.

However, beforeIread your editori al,Ihad to go to page 52. What a beau tiful photo! Ibet the home owner won dered what the hell he was drinking. Hope they shut off and serviced the

fire-hydrant after flushing. Do any of your editorials get in front of the eyes of the "uncredentialed"? They should.I think feedback is a good measure of how writing strikes its mark.

Take care and healthy 2004. Stan Mason, P.Eng., Vancouver, BC

tenance should be funded from the

reduced with commensurate cost sav

University of British Columbia. The first year was taught by the Dean of Engineering (Dean Finlayson), the sec ond year by an arts professor whose

Enjoyed your "Write stuff" editorial. As Irecall, we were required to take a course in English writing in both first and second year engineering at the

56 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

Yes, Stan, some have been published in The Globe & Mail, The Toronto Sun,

The Toronto Star, and in your own backyard. Eraser Forum. Regards, Tom Davey, Editor

Environmental NEWS Britain's record on environment rated below

components into a single overall meas ure of'environmental sustainability'." The score would also have been

Bangladesh The best countries in a 2002 environ

mental sustainability index were judged to be Finland, Norway, Sweden and Canada. Austria, Iceland, Costa Rica and Switzerland were also in the

top ten, while Botswana also scored very highly. Britain placed below Bangladesh and Papua New Guinea in the index which covers water quality, air pollution, greenhouse gasses and nuclear-reactor safety. The UK was ranked below many developing coun tries.

Experts from around the world found the UK had a notably bad record on greenhouse gas reductions, reduc ing waste and consumption, and drainage of water sources for domestic use. Factors studied included child

death rates, threats to birds and animal life, the erosion of forests, and fertility rates. The size of fish catches were

studied along with each country's record on pollution control, natural resource management and environ mental regulations. After economic positions were fac tored in, Britain came out worse than every other European country except Belgium. The UK was judged, along with India and Belgium, to be "well positioned on economic grounds" but in a poor position to sustain environ

affected by the fact that the UK imports wood from Sumatra in Indonesia where tropical rainforest is disappearing fast. The UK could also have been seriously impacted in the report by its radioactive waste. "We have one of the largest stockpiles of plutonium: 50 tons and rising. It's a phenomenal amount," said one envi ronmental expert. Environmentalists and

energy companies endorse linking profits to conservation A coalition of enviroiunentalists and

energy companies has released its report. Making Eveiyone a Winner, which calls on the Ontario Energy Board to link the profits of Ontario's electric utilities (e.g., London Hydro, Toronto Hydro) to their success at reducing their customers' bills by mak ing them more energy efficient.

mental conditions for the future. It


stresses", 115th on "environmental


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believe this index is profoundly flawed and therefore potentially misleading, said Environment Minister, Elliot

The report can be downloaded by visiting www.pollutionprobe.org.

resulted In sludge thickening and dewaterlng centrifuge technology that virtually pays for Itself. Because of our Improved performance, many municipalities have reaped the benefit of superior technolo gies available exclusively from Westfalia

systems", and 110th on "global stew ardship". The findings came from a group of

the UK's environmental standing.

25, 2003, could reduce consumers' bills by $1.8 billion or more.

An unmatched commitment to R&D has

Egypt, Malawi and Senegal. But the UK performed particularly badly in specific areas, coming 140th out of 142 on "reducing environmental

reduce global warming and improve

gy conservation budget, announced by Energy Minister Duncan on November

ill for Itself

Burma, Morocco,

blow to Britain's Prime Minister, Tony Blair, who has stressed the need to

tric utilities' $225 million initial ener

Not Just Better Technology, But Technology That Pays

placed in the bottom half of the 142 rankings on a par with Mexico, Cameroon

Making Eveiyone a Winner is a joint report of Pollution Probe, the Green Energy Coalition (David Suzuki Foundation, Energy Action Council of Toronto, Greenpeace Canada, Sierra Club of Canada), Collingwood Utility Services, Electric City, Hamilton Utilities Corporation and Oakville Hydro. According to the report, linking the utilities' profits to their success at pro moting conservation will create lower electricity bills, reduced risks of black outs and brownouts, reduced air pollu tion from coal-fired power plants, and higher profits for Ontario's electric utilities, which can be passed on to their shareholders, the Government of Ontario and Ontario's municipalities, to help finance public services. The report estimates that the elec

• Positive scroll drive for minlmun energy consumption • Deep pond for maximum clarification

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Morley. "It is an aggregated indicator which aims to weigh together many March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 57

Environmental NEWS

New drinking water safety act for Manitoba

The drinking water supply for

Manitobans will be better pro tected by regulations under the Drinking Water Safety Act, according to Water Stewardship Minister Steve Ashton.

Ashton noted that, since the estab

lishment of the Drinking Water

• stronger livestock regulations and monitoring, • new regulations for construction of on-site waste systems, • enhanced training programs for operators of water and wastewater systems,

of new initiatives to protect water qual

• a new Water Strategy, • a new Lake Winnipeg Action Plan, • establishment of the Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board, and

ity including:

• increased research into the sources of

Advisory Committee in June of 2000, the province has undertaken a number

• establishment of the Office of

occasional high levels of E.coli on

Drinking Water, • hiring of 12 new drinking water officers,


Proclamation ofthe act provides the legislative authority to support initia

tives already undertaken to protect water quality including establishing the Office of Drinking Water, desig nating drinking water officers and out lining their powers, identifying the powers of the medical officer of health, establishing an appeal proeess, providing a framework for reporting violations and establishing fines under the act. The act also provides the ability to regulate semi-public water systems, which were not regulated previously. The minister noted that public health officials were consulted in the

development of the regulations. Chemical and physical water quali ty standards will be phased in for pub lic water systems. The regulations will be finalized in the spring. ■


AHK Internship Program (Connecting/\boriginal(jraduates and jCnvironmental jCmploqers

Employers and /\bonginal graduates can be approved for $S,000 in wage subsidies for positions tbat bave an environmental focus. Ifyc jou are an empiouer or post-secondar_y graduate, apply early as funding is allocatecf on a first come first served basis.

u d~o find out more or to apply, visit www.beabr.com or pbone Patricia ffolosimo-gndreeff at(4-05)

www.beahr.com P)uilcling ]C,nvironmental Aboriginal Mum 58 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004


Whistler to host BCWWA's 32nd annual conference & exhibition May 1-5,2004,Whistler,BC



The British Columbia Water and

High Pressure Water Jetting lino Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

Waste Association's annual confer

Waste Water Treatment

ence will feature more than 115

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manufacturer, supplier and consult ant exhibits, 70 technical papers, a separate day of technical transfer sessions, the operators, safety com petition. and a partners program. For




BCWWA, Suite 221-8678 Greenall Avenue, Burnaby, BC V5J 3M4,Tel: 604-433-4389 Fax 604-433-9859, bcwwa@bcwwa.org, www.bcwwa.org.




TEL: (905) 619-3009 FAX: (905) 619-3638

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March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 59


oduct and Service Showcase Membrane biological reactor

Reducing hydrogen sulflde from gas and air streams

New to ADI Systems

Health, safety and environmental legislation

ADI International has

Inc.'s line of industri

Canadian EnviroOSH



Legislation Plus Stan dards-access complete





systems is its ADIMBR (membrane biological reactor). This technology is

health, safety and envi ronmental legislation! Find referenced

MEDIA G2®,the com

based on the Kubota

standards from the Canadian Standards

pany's patented iron-

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adsorption process for the reduction of hydro gen sulfide from gas and air streams. With




media, up to 99.99% of H2S is

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time, concentrations as high as 30,000 ppm have been reduced to below I ppm. MEDIA G2 is capable of multi ple regenerations without chemicals or backwashing. Tel: 506-451-7407, Fax: 506-459-3954, E-mail: elw@adi.ca,

solids retention times than




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Corrosion protection

Drive solutions for water and wastewater

Comstock Comstock Canada Ltd.

has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc tion services to the Canadian water and wastewater sectors for almost 100

years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Tel: 905-

For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben efits. For wastewater treatment the

VLT® drives ensure reduced energy consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance

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costs. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-

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Comstock Canada Ltd.

Davis Controls Limited



Vortex Mixing System can be used



Slim line submersible pumps two



60Hz models, which can


important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation. Tel:

519-469-8169, Fax: 519-469-8157, E-

mail: sales@greatarioengsys.com. Web: www.greatario.com. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems ——

Denso North America Inc.

Modular cover systems


solids storage solids

com, Web: www.densona.com.

ITT Flygt has released a further

pumps, for use in active dewatering. The new


Denso Bitumen Mastic is a high build single component, cold applied liquid bituminous coating that is used to pro vide economical corrosion protection on buried pipes, valves, flanges and underground storage tanks. Denso Bitumen Mastic is self-priming, VOC compliant and can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Tel: 416-291-3435, Fax: 416-291-0898, E-mail: bIair@densona.

handle up to 55 I/s and pump up to heads of 70 metres, can operate in pipes ranging between 300 and 500 mm in diam

eter, with 3" and 4" hoses. They are made from cast aluminium and have an

outer casing of stainless steel. The multi-vane impellers are made from hardened high-chrome cast iron (HRC 60) in order to withstand tough and abrasive operating conditions. Tel: 514695-0100, Fax: 514-695-6605, Web: www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt

60 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

LemTec''^" Modular Cover Systems are an effective way to improve pond or tank performance. Durable, insulated double geomembrane casings control algae and odor, as well as retain water temperature. Available in any size, shape or configuration (with or without gas collection options), they install eas ily with a small crew and no heavy equipment. Tel: 612-253-2002, Fax: 612-253-2003, E-mail: techsales@ Iemna.com, www.lemnatechnologies. com.

Lemna Technologies

Product and Service Showc Moving-bed bio-reactor

Package water and wastewater plants

Parkson's Geo-Reactor™ is an attached

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result

to have and to hold 'till


death parts your parts!


We supply Package Water and Sewage

DO, increased

Only Canadian Welding Bureau certi








5#' v.'Lt'j

fied fabricators weld to CSA standards W47.1 for steel and stainless steels and W47.2 for aluminum. Assure the

integrity of the products you specify, use and maintain. Make sure that all

your welded products are manufac tured hy a Canadian Welding Bureau certified fabricator. E-mail: msumiss@ msumississauga.com, Web: www.msu mississauga.com, MSU Mississauga Ltd.

Level measurement guide

Package Wastewater Plant concept is a liquor with low cost, odourless plant, achieving a the biology, thinner and more active high degree of treatment. It is econom biofilm, and improved mixing in the ical, easy to install and operate, reli tank, Geo-Reactors offer efficient n able, fulfills regulatory requirements BOD reduction and nitrification can and is ideal for any location unable to easily be accomplished, Tel: 514-636connect to municipal sewer systems, wh 8712, Fax: 514-636-9718, E-mail: Tel: 604-986-9168, Fax: 604-986-5377, canada@parkson,com. Web: www, i E-mail: saneng@sanitherm,com. Web: parkson.com, www.sanitherm,com, Parkson Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. of the mixed

Digital communication

Hazardous waste treatment New hazardous waste treatment

Siemens Milltronics le vel measurement instru

and recycling facility from

ments are installed in

FLR and ConTech!

industrial process appli

Treatment of fluorescent lamps, PCBs, mercury and other dangerous goods. Complete lamp recycling pro

cations worldwide. You

can rely on our instru ments for high performance, cost-effec tive measurement of continuous level,

point level, and interface in a wide range of applications, such as water and wastewater, chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, mining, cement, aggregates, and bulk solids. Designed and built for ease of use, simple instal lation, low cost of ownership and relia bility in the harshest conditions, Tel: 705-740-7552, Fax: 705-745-0414, E-

mail: support,smpi@siemens,com. Web: www.siemens-milltronics.com, Siemens Milltronics

Auma's 2-wire digital communication keeps the customer in control. Communication protocols such as Modbus, DeviceNet and Profibus are very complex and have been developed by the best computer communication minds in the industry. They allow the exchange of information between devices in the field, e,g, actuators, sen sors and controls, as required for the automation of controlled processes, Tel: 705-721-8247, Fax: 705-721-5851, E-mail: troy-ontor@troy-ontor,ca, Troy-Ontor Inc.

grams, treatment of PCB-contaminated electrical

equipment and mercury


taining materials. Transfer/treatment of other general hazardous waste. Contact FLR at 1-800-324-9018 or ConTech at

1-800-324-8997/519-740-1333, Fax: 519-

740-2320, E-mail: martin@contech,ca. Web: www.contech.ca. Con Tech - PCB Containment


Membrane Bioreactor(MBR)

Small drinking water systems

Sediment flusher

ZENON's ZeeWeed®

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal

The HYDROVEX" SET is designed to clean the sediments, grit and debris out

lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based

tanks. Of considerably lower capital

on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treat ment plants.

ods, the HYDROVEX SET is designed to tip automatically with no external energy. The total

MBR produces tertiary quality effluent and simplifies wastewater treatment. The proven system replaces con ventional filtration and combines clar

ification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expanded in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hundreds of installations,

of CSO/SSO/Stormwater


and maintenance cost than other meth

water content of the HYDROVEX

This ultrafil-

SFT is released

tration system

instantly in the chamber, creating a powerful high velocity wave which will flush away the sediments and debris to a sump at the end of the tank,

is cost-effec

tive, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistent ly producing high quality water. Tel:

ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MGD,Tel:

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mail: info@zenon,com. Web: www,

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mail: info@zenon,com. Web:zenon.com,

zenon, com,

ZENON Environmental Inc.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

John Meunier Inc.

March 2004, EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 61

Product and Service Showcase Noise control panels

Pine Environmental Services

Escalator® Fine screen


The Escalator"

f '';

gives continu-

oys fine screen

Eckoustic" Functional Panels (EPFs)

provide a more comfortable acoustic environment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EPFs promote safety and help improve pro ductivity. EPFs can quickly add sound adsorption to compressor rooms, blow er rooms and pump rooms. Tel; 800563-3574, Pax: 613-543-4173, E-mail: eckel@eckel.ca, Web: www.eckel.ca. Eckel Industries, Inc.

Remote flow verification

ing for channel type applica tions with very few moving parts below the water level. Perforated stainless steel screen panels are carried on heavy-duty chains and incorporate holes of 1/4 inch (6mm) diameter, giv

ing fine screening in any direction. The screen panels are specially formed to create steps, which remove larger

mulative stroke counter and stroke

length percentage; 20-1000 litres/hr with wide turn down ratio; 4-20 mA

output, programmable timer, access code programming, flow monitoring, diaphragm failure monitoring. Tel:


sectors that it now has seven offices in North America.

industry/municipal offices requiring instrumentation or

consultants and

supplies for air and/or water projects can expect exceptional service and low rental and purchase rates. Call for pric ing information or to order your updat ed rental catalogue. Call toll free: 866-


Pine Environmental Services Inc.

John Meunier Inc.

World's largest R/S Gate Valve Neo

Electromagnetic flowmeter


The AquaFrobe electromagnetic

Valves Scguro




insertion flow-

designed with sewage applications in mind forcemains, pumping

designed for survey applica

stations and treatment




plants. The Seguro Valve has a resilient seal that ensures a 100% bidirectional

bubble-tight seal, aceording to Neo Valves. Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in the bonnet area. It is available in sizes

up to 60", with 100% full bore design and hundreds of installations in Canada

since 1972. Tel: 905-624-9090, Pax:

mail: sales@prominent.ca. Web: www. prominent.ca.

905-624-8020, E-mail: valves@neo

ProMlnent Fluid Controls

Neo Valves

meter has been

New Pipe Pac version 3


now available


Concrete Pipe

I_ _ pH sensor from pH sensor makes on-site calibration unnecessary


O C P A 1 The choice of a lifetime


With the adoption of Standard Installations bedding specifications by the Canadian Highway Bridge Design code (CHBDC) in May of 2002, the value of this proven bedding specifica tion can no longer be questioned. For

Tel: 905-631-9696, Pax: 905-631-

1905, E-mail: mark.sabine@ocpa.com. Web: www.ocpa.com. Ontario Concrete Pipe Association


Metcon Sales & Engineering

R i R


more information on how Standard


leakage moni toring and net work analysis, but is equally useful in permanent locations where cost or space limitations preclude the use of closed pipe meters. AquaFrobe is avail able in a battery operated version with data trending. Tel: 905-738-2355, Pax: 905-738-5520, E-mail: metcon@metcon eng.com, Web: www.metconeng.com.

valves.com. Web: www.neovalves.com.

Standard installations

Installations can compliment and cost effectively enhance your current bed ding specification, contact the OCFA.



canada@pine-environmental.com. Web: www.pine-environmental.com.

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sionals from all

688-0388, Pax: 905-795-0002, E-mail:

verification technolo

trol; displays flow rate and totalized pump output in litres or gallons; accu


Pax: 905-474-1334, E-mail: ontario@ johnmeunier.com. Web: www.john

gy: manual, analog, contact and batch con


solids, and increase the effective screening area. Tel: 905-944-2819,

FroMinent's range of new Sigma motor-driv en metering pumps keep you informed with un-paralleled flow



inform environ


MemoSens, the new

Endress-i-Hauser dig

itally stores produclion and calibration

li I

data and documents


current sensor prop-

erties such as serial number and date of

manufacture. The traceability of all important data for technical production Pipe Fac version 3, has arrived. For more information or to obtain a copy of the Fipe Fac version 3, contact the OCFA today. Tel: 905-631-9696, Fax: 905-631-1905, E-mail: mark.sabine@ ocpa.com. Web: www.ocpa.com. Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

62 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

is ensured.

Field calibration is no

longer necessary because the sensor can be pre-calibrated in the laboratory. Tel: 800-668-3199, Pax: 905-681-

9444, E-mail: info@ca.endress.com. Web: www.ca.endress.com. Endress+Hauser Canada

Product and Service Showcase Urecon pre-insulated pipe '&■

.j. Urecon has been sup plying pre-insulated

Monitor media expansion





• U.I.P.® factory insulated piping systems • Thermocable® heat-trace cable and


The Aysix EPA 2000 is



the first underwater ultrasonic monitor

pipe to the HVAC, municipal and industrial sectors

Raked bar screens

during filter backwash

offers Raked Bar Screens

designed for screendischarges to any receiving

designed to continu ously monitor media expansion during filter backwash. The local backlit LCD provides a continu ous readout of media expansion in

waters. The screen,

which is continually raked by a hydrauli-

Inches or Centimeters and as a Percent

cally driven cleaning mechanism,

• Portafoam® Paks

of media depth. Media depth and

• Engineering and computer design

media loss are also conveniently dis played for 1-4 filters. The system sup

allows water to pass through to over flow while retaining the screenings

related accessories


within the flow. Suitable for most CSO

ports filter backwash optimization,

applications, the CDS Raked Bar Screen is an efficient, reliable and costeffective solution. Tel: 888/535-7559,

Tel: 905-257-3797, Fax: 905-257-9723, E-mail: c.vreugde@ui-econ.com. Web:

automatic backwash control, and helps prevent media loss. Tel: 1-800-5696246, Fax: 905-569-6244, E-mail: controls@cancoppas.com. Web: www.




Cancoppas Limited

• District heating and cooling systems • LOGSTOR pre-insulated flexible pipe (in coils)

Media filtration system The


E-mail: cds@cdstech.com. Web: www. cdstech. com.

CDS Technologies


NEW Service Partnership Programs

DO meters


Filtration System is a best management practice for storm

Hach Canada announces its new annu

al, all-inclusive service contracts to suit the needs of every

facility: Self-Service Partnership, Field Service Partnership,

water treatment that uses media-filled car

tridges to target proj ect-specific pollu tants such as heavy metals, oils, greas es and a finer gradation of suspended solids. This scalable system can be

The new Portable Hach EDO'''" and

and Factory Service Partnership. Save time and money, pre vent budget short falls, and feel confi

888/535-7559, E-mail: cds@cdstech.

HQ20 Dissolved Oxygen Meters apply a unique luminescence technology that improves accuracy and reduces mainte nance, compared to traditional DO sys tems that rely on fragile membranes and deteriorating electrodes. Tel: 970669-3050, E-mail: canada@hach.com.

665-7635, E-mail: canada@hach.com.

com, Web: www.cdstech.com.

Web: www.hach.com.

Web: www.hach.com.

CDS Technologies

Hach Company

Hach Company

used in combination with standard CDS units to form a treatment train. As

with all CDS products, this system is fully supported by professional engi neers in locations nationwide. Tel:

Product recovery/pollution control

Solid dual rod sensors Gems

New submersible mixer A new mixer for use in

MlR-800 Series



dent that your instruments are properly maintained and providing your opera tions with the best possible analytical and process control results. Tel: 800-


wastewater treatment


wave guides to





bottom. This is beneficial

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when controlling expen sive fluids, where unde tected inventory beneath common sensors represents costly




reach within 1" of a tank




timing control, the Smart Timer II. Tel:

distance to the surface of the tank con

designed propeller that will move large vol ume flows forward in a powerful axial jet stream using very little energy. Although it is very light, the glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin propeller is absolutely unbreakable. Propeller diameters ranging from 1200 to 2500 mm cover all fields of applications. Tel:

630-775-0707, Fax: 630-875-3212,

tents. Tel: 905-829-2000, Fax: 905-829-

905-568-9200, Fax: 905-568-3740, E-

E-mail: flex-kleen@met-pro.com. Web:

2630, E-mail: info@daviscontrols.com.

mail: cramage@ksbcanada.com, Web:


Web: www.daviscontrols.com.


Flex-Kleen Division, Met-Pro Corp.

Davis Controls

KSB Pumps Canada

Flex-Kleen, a leading supplier of dust collectors for product recovery/pollu tion control, now offers new initiatives such as remote monitoring, alarming and control systems; on-site baghouse field services: lease-to-own programs; and the latest advance in dust collector

waste. Sensors are available with rods

of 24" to 72" and may be trimmed to required length during installation. Detector sensors use Micropower Impulse Radar(MIR), or Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), to measure the

March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 63

Service Showcase IPEX launches new website

Sewer odor and corrosion

PVC pressure pipe system

control system The new Vortex Flow Insert eliminates sewer odor and controls corrosion

using a high-tech, low-maintenance design that has no moving parts. The de vice not only

IPEX is setting another industry prece dent to reach its customers in a faster

need for high-

and more efficient way. Just click on www.ipexinc.com and discover the


new and interactive IPEX website.



bio-filters, air

Users can perform in-depth searches



across all IPEX business on this new

manhole seals but also costly chemical injection systems. Applications include drop manholes or pumping station with odorous discharges. Tel: 866-4739462, E-mail: joarav@ipexinc.com, Web: www.ipexinc.com.

website. Just click on municipal, elec trical, industrial, mechanical, plumbing

and radiant heating markets for addi tional information. Tel: 866-473-9462,


and sewer infrastructure, whether you

are using open-cut or trenchless meth ods. Tel: 866-473-9462, E-mail: joarav @ipexinc.com. Web: www.ipexinc.

E-mail: joarav@ipexinc.com. Web: www.ipexinc.com.




The best keeps getting better

A bridge for all reasons

TerraBrute'"'^^ is the first AWWA C900

PVC pressure pipe system specifically engineered for Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) and other trenchless applications. Now you can standardize on PVC throughout your potable water

Degree in Site Remediation

For many years, Armtec has stretched your design dollar with its range of soil steel structures including Multi-Plate and Super-Span. Keeping pace with the

Seneca College in Toronto offers a National award-

winning degree in

need to pro


vide econom

Site Remediation. Included in this



full-time program are field camps, paid co-op placements, and an integrat

solutions, Armtec offers



ed curriculum to prepare individuals to meet the growing demand for highlyskilled practitioners in the remediation industry. Seats available for September. Ask about bursary and scholarship opportunities. Tel: 800-572-0712/416-

structures for

Armtec is a leader in twin-wall HDPE

larger installations. Bridge-Plate has the deepest and strongest corrugation in the market today, enabling long span soil steel structures to be designed and built more economically than ever before.

pipe systems through the BOSS prod uct line. BOSS products are used in gravity storm sewers and culverts. Armtec is moving to full CSA certifica tion for the complete BOSS product

Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-822-1160,

line. Tel: 519-822-0210, Fax: 519-8221160, E-mail: sales@armtec.com, Web:

491-5050 Ext. 2521, E-mail: iesr.tech

E-mail: sales@armtec.com. Web: www. armtec.com.





Seneca College

Asbestos and mold abatement

Advanced secondary treatment systems Highland Oil/Water Separators equipped with the ASTS are

used in applications where



quality discharge reg ulations are mandat ed. The heart of the

system is activated clay which effectively removes organic contamination and impurities from wastewater by physical adsorption. This convenient, compact, modular system is specially designed for industrial wastewater treatment applications. Tel: 905-

Tri-Phase Environmental Inc.'s remedi al service is

used to help clients develop the most appro priate and costeffective remedial action plan; securing

permits, ensuring site specific Health and Safety compliance, and providing expert remediation. Services include: • Asbestos removal/encapsulation of mechanical insulation systems, sprayed fireproofing and architectural finishes. • Supply and install insulation/finishes. • Decontamination





amplification. Tel: 905-823-7965, Fax: 905-823-7932, E-mail: sales@pcbdisposal.com. Web: www.pcbdisposal.com.

Can-Am Instruments

Tri-Phase Environmental Inc.

829-0030, Fax: 905-829-4701, E-mail:

can-am@can-am.net. Web: www.can-

64 Environmemai Science & Engineering, March 2004

nology@senecac.on.ca. Web: www.

Inlet Stormceptor® system The Inlet Stormceptor System employs the same principles of oper ation as the well-known

In-line Interceptors. Developed to treat run off from an area of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherit ed the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from stormwater run-off

remains trapped within the storage chamber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed in North America. Tel:

800-565-4801, Fax: 416-960-5637,

E-mail: info@stormceptor.com. Web: www.stormceptor. com.

Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Environmental NEWS AMEC awarded

remediation project for the Hamilton Port Authority AMEC, an international engineering services firm, has been awarded a con tract for engineering design services for the Hamilton Harbour Randle Reef

Sediment Remediation Project for the Hamilton Port Authority. The Randle Reef area, adjacent to Piers 15 and 16 in Hamilton Harbour,

had been identified as a priority site


Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning &' engineering BARRIE





(705)726-3371 (613) 966-4243 (705)445-3451


Ciealing Quality Solutions Togethei


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited environment • infrastructure

for remedial action under the Canada-

Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, signed in 1994. Studies confirmed in situ con

tainment, removal and placement of

tel 416 497 8600 web www.rvanderson.com

toronto welland Ottawa sudbury london moncton frederlcton charlottetown bombay

engineering ■ operations ■ management

the contaminated sediments into an

Engineered Containment Facility as the preferred remediation approach.

The project is estimated to cost $31



The company will evaluate the var


ious methods of remediation barriers

Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

to best fit the conceptual design plan put forward by the Project Advisory

Group. It included representatives from the Bay Area Restoration Council, Cities of Hamilton and Burlington, Stelco Inc. and Local Union 1005, the Hamilton Conser vation Authority, Hamilton Port Authority, Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, environ

mental groups and community associ ations.




Tel.(705) 645-7756

Tel.(705) 325-1753

Tel.(705)444.2585 EPteil: lnfo@cctatham.com

Web: www.cctatham.com

Clunas Environmental Consulting updating of municipal sewer use bylaws compliance with regulations/ sewer use bylaws sampling

spill management plans ISO 14000

• policy and program development • hauled sewage programs

stormwater assessment

• Industrial wastewater

pollution prevention plans NPRI submissions

assessment • MOECofAs

Ontario Clean Water

Agency fined $50,000 for

15 Robert St., Weston, ON M9N 2J6 •Tel:(416)414-7656• Fax:(416) 245-1986 • E-mail: david.clunas@rogers,com

OCA failures The Ontario Clean Water Agency

(OCWA) has been fined a total of $50,000, plus a 25-percent victim fine surcharge, after pleading guilty to two counts offailing to comply with a con dition of its certificate of approval. The Court heard that the OCWA

operates a sewage treatment plant located in Palmerston, Ontario. A




(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Giroux

Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,

Municipal & Industrial Tel:(506) 684-5821, Fax:(506)684-1915, Tel:(705) 235-5531, www.girouxinc.com

Ministry of the Environment inspec tion conducted on October 16, 2001,

revealed that the plant was discharging total ammonium nitrogen in exceedance of the level permitted by its certificate of approval. An investiga tion revealed that the exceedance con tinued in 2002.

The agency was fined $20,000 for the 2001 offence and $30,000 for the



Cufiimin?} Cocknuri-.

Consulting Engineering • Planning • Environmental Approvals • Municipal Infrastructure • Land Development • Community Planning

• Structural & Marine

' Renewable Energy

• Transportation

' Water Power

• Water Resources


Toll Free:


2002 offence.

March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 65

Environmental NEWS Toronto • Ottawa


London • Hamilton


Vancouver • Victoria

Specializing in;

• Drainage Planning

• Water S Wastewaler Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

• Industrial Treatment

• Environmental Impact

Toronto, Onfario M3C JKt

• Stormwater Management

• Environmental Planning

Fax: (416) 441-4131


Corporate Office; 133 Wynford Drive Teh (416) 441-4111




•J •J


Federal government commits $1.5 million to Great Lakes cleanup David Anderson, Federal Minister of the Environment, recently announced

funding of $ 1.5 million from the Great Lakes Sustainability Fund, to support 47 restoration projects in the Great Lakes Basin. The fund provides finan cial support to projects that improve

the ecosystem health of Areas of

Concern around the Great Lakes,

which have been identified as being environmentally degraded pursuant to







the Canada-US Great Lakes Water


Quality Agreement. Great Lakes Sustainability Fund

EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPATprogram 107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108





EnviroMicrobial Services a division of Conestoga-Rovers & Associates

• Drinking Water Contamination Source Detection • indoor Air Quality Services

• Ciyptosporidium & Giardia • Microscopic Particuiate Analysis • Disinfection Efficacy Testing

projects, involving partnership with local government and community groups, focus on a range of restoration activities. These include improved practices in the treatment of wastewater by-products, restoration of habi tat for fish and wildlife, and preventing agricultural run-off from flowing into waterways that empty into the Great Lakes.

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario N6E 1P5 Telephone: (519) 681-0571 • Fax: (519) 681 -7150


AWWA to develop security guidance for designing water facilities The American Water Works Associ

Gartner Lee Limited

ation in Denver, Colorado has begun work on a security guidance document and related training materials to assist

environmental strategies & solutions

Environmental Science, Economics,

Planning & Engineering Solutions www.gartneriee.com British Columbia


Alberta I Yukon I Northwest Territories I Ontario I Quebec

Geomatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists

• Design of Water/Wastewater/Air Treatnnent Systems • Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies • Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000} ' Utility Minimization Audits (Energy, Water, M/aslesJ • Remediai Designs/Remediai Actions • Phase l/ll Environmental Site Assessments • Soil/Groundwater

Contaminant Remediations • Litigation Assistance www.geomatrix.com

Tel: (519) 886 • 7500

Fax: (519) 886 • 7419

Unit G, 420 Weber St. North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 4E7

in the design and construction of new drinking water systems and the improvement of existing ones. The US Environmental Protection Agency is providing funds to support the project. The guidelines and training will incorporate updated security measures resulting from the US Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Prepared ness and Response Act of2002, which required all drinking water utilities serving a population of greater than 3,300 persons to conduct vulnerability assessments. The materials will ad dress risks associated with both inten tional attacks and natural disasters.

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis, Inc. [_K_ha

210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224

66 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

access, alarms and surveillance, com

puters and hardening of structures. Associated training materials will include an eight-hour modular training program and a web-based reference

Consulting Engineers

1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1G5 Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

The guidance will cover a wide range of potential security improve ments, including perimeter and facility

E-mail: infoi@hydromantls.com Web: www.hydromantis.com


Contact: www.awwa.org.

Environmental NEWS

EMS receives approval to accept additional waste classes at Sudbury Environmental Management Solutions (EMS) received approval from the Ontario Ministry of Environment to increase its acceptable waste classes of

lNT€GRnT€D CxPLORRTIONS Inc. Bio-Environmental Specialists since 1977 67 Watson Rd., Unit #1 LAB Division

TEC Division

• Environmental Microbiology • Biotreatment Optimization • Fungi, Bacteria & Algae ID • Contract R&D, UV Efficacy

• Bioremedlation

Ontario, N1H 6N8

• Air & Water Biofilters

Tel; (519) 822-2608 Fax:(519) 822-3076

Box 1385, Guelph,

• Site Investigations • Aquatic Spill Surveys

E-mail; ieinc@istar.ca

contaminated soils at their Ontario

Soil Treatment Facility in Sudbury, at the Falconbridge Mine Tailings site. J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

The 2.5 hectare waste treatment

facility, which is used to bioremediate soils, was originally approved to treat only soils contaminated by light fuels (waste class 221). Recent approval

Water & Wastewater Treatment I Environmental Assessment & Planning Solid Waste Management I Stormwater Management I Watermain & Sewer Rehabilitation

from the MOB allows EMS to increase

Providing a wide range of Environmental Services

its acceptable waste classes to include heavy fuels (waste class 222) and oily wastes (waste classes 251 at 254). Once the soils are treated, they are reused as part of Falconbridge's decommissioning plans for revegetation of their mine tailings, a great

Consulting Engineers, Architects & Planners

, , Kingston 613-544-1424 ( Visit Our Website at www.jlrlchards.ca )

Ottawa 613-728-3571

Sudbury 705-522-8174

rimmins 705-360-1899

Expertise for the new world of Water and Wastewater Management

win/win scenario.

Providing Professional Services Since 1959

KMK Region of Peel invests in advanced drinking water

Consultants Limited

Offices in:

Brampton ♦ Pickering ♦ Kitchener ♦ Windsor ♦ Cobalt Telephone: 905-459-4780 Internet Site: www.kmk.ca

E-mail: kmk@kmk.ca


The Region of Peel recently approved $11.8 million dollars to purchase hol low-fibre



(UF) equipment for the Lakeview Water Treatment Plant. The award rep resents what will be the largest UF membrane installation for drinking water treatment in the world, according to the Region. The membrane equipment, being supplied by Zenon Environmental, will be incorporated in an upcoming expansion to the Lakeview Water Treatment Plant. The expansion will utilize ozone and biologically activated carbon (BAG) to pre-treat lake water prior to membrane ultrafiltration. Ozone/BAC is very effective for reducing turbidity and taste and odour, while improving membrane perform ance.

Emissions Inventory - Air Modeling - Risk ► CALPUFF View - Advanced Puff Dispersion Model ► ISC-AERMOD View - Air Dispersion Model ► [RAP-h View - Human Health Risk Assessment

► Emissions View - Air Emissions Inventory



www.weblakes.com | lnfo@weblakes.com | (519)746-5995



Technical Services Inc.

Geosciencc Consultanis Ltds.

Engineers and Hydrogeologlsts

MOE Licensed Well Contractors and Well Technicians O.Rea 170/03 & 903 Comoliance Facilitators

Well and pumps: testing, suppiy & servicing Colour video and specialized well logging (519) 442-2086 - lwater@lotowater.com

Permits to Take Water

Groundwater exploration and development Groundwater protection and management (519) 442-1749 - lwater@lotowater.com

1-800-923-6923 « 92 Scott Ave., Paris, ON N3L 3R1 » Fax: (519) 442-7242

As part of a research consortium. Peel is studying the effects of algae on Lake Ontario-based water and has

learned a lot about algae's impact on taste and odour, enough to know that the best defense is a good offense. The general contract for construc tion of the plant expansion is to be ten dered in late 2004 following comple tion of design. The plant expansion


Engineering & Environmental Science MacVIro Consultants inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax: (905) 475-5994 E-Mail: reception@macviro.com Web site: www.macviro.com

will be commissioned in 2006.

March 2004, Environmental Sdence & Engineering 67

Environmental NEWS Marshall

Municipalities select



USFiiter as best water and


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone; 905-882-1100

FAX: 905-882-0055

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca


wastewater treatment company USFiiter has been named the top water and wastewater treatment company in North America, based on an extensive

survey of municipal customers by the research organization, Frost &

M a )<Va m


Sullivan. Frost & Sullivan carried out exten

I yt i c s I n c

EDMONTON 9331 -48th Street

National Comprehensive Environmental Testing Services


5540 McAdam Road

(780)468-3500 Fax (780)466-3332

Mississauga, ON L4Z1P1 (905)890-2555 Fax (90S) 890-0370

CALGARY . 2021 -41 Avenue N.E.

9420 Cote de Liesse

Ultra Trace Contaminant Analysis by HRMS

Calgary. AB T2E 6P2 (403) 291-3077 Fax (403) 291-9468

(514)636-6218 Fax (514)631-9814

Rush Analysis

Toll Free: WEST(800)386-7247

MaxxLINK - Internet accessible sample tracking and report viewing Air Quality Monitoring Services

Edmonton, AB T6B 2R4

QUfeBEC Lachine, QC H8T 1A1

EAST(800) 563-6266

RESTORATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRACTORS 1-800-894-4924 ASBESTOS • LEAD • ABATEMENT • DEMOLITION • FOB'S • MOULD www.environmentalhazarcls.com • www.toxicmold.ca E-mail: rec@restorationenvironmental.com

SARAFINCHIN Consulting Eng


sive primary research through surveys of a large group of the water and wastewater treatment facilities that are

the end-users in this market. The ques tionnaire was designed specific to drinking water and wastewater treat

ment markets and posed insightful questions on purchasing criteria that the customers take into consideration

in choosing a supplier. It asked the respondents to rate six specific criteria that were used to measure the perform ance of the suppliers: customer serv ice, price, product quality, reliability, technological skills, and delivery time. The data was also backed through secondary research and interviews with environmental engineering and consulting companies that assist the utilities in making purchasing deci sions.

Dorr-Oliver Eimco UK Since 1984 Specialists in Earth Engineering and Environmental Sciences Geotechnicai, GeoEnvironmentai, Hydrogeoiogy, Geosciences, Construction QA 238 Galaxy Blvd., Toronto, Canada M9W 5R8 T 416-674-1770 F 416-674-1997 www.sarafinchin.com


"A leader in providing innovative automation solutions to our customers. We offer a complete range of products & services in the areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Chemical Packages • Programmable Logic Controllers • HMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service

secures Russian order Dorr-Oliver Eimco UK Ltd., a sub

sidiary of the Canadian based compa ny GL&V,has been awarded a contract to supply all the sedimentation equip ment to SWTP, a special purpose con sortium established to Build, Own and Operate the South West Sewage Treat

ment Plant in St. Petersburg, Russia. The South West Sewage Treatment Project is a full wastewater treatment plant with sludge dewatering executed by a consortium formed by Skanska,

Summa Engineering Limited

YIT and NCC. Dorr-Oliver Eimco UK

6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga. ON L4V1J2 • Tel:(905)678-3388, Fax:(905)678-0444 E-mail: info@summaeng.com • Website: www.summaeng.com

will provide: four 54m diameter peripheral drive clarifiers for the pri

A 47 Year

EKEHa Tradition ofExcellence ROSEMOUNT ijrIVUp

CORNWALL (513-933-5602

OnAWA 613-749-9685

in Engineering

KINGSTON 613-634-7373

68 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

FERGUS 519-843-2552

BERMUDA 441-292-9192

mary settlement tanks, eight 54m diameter peripheral drive suction clar ifiers for the secondary settlement tanks and four 18m diameter Bridge Mounted Centre drive picket fence mechanisms for the sludge thickeners. This order totals over $4 million and

includes supervision on-site during the installation. The delivery is scheduled for the second and third quarters of 2004.

Environmental NEWS

Ontario approves historic plan to charge industry for recycling In a precedent-setting move, Ontario's new Minister of the Environment has

approved a controversial plan that will require packaged goods makers to ante up for 50% the local government bill for curbside recycling, which will trig ger weight-based packaging fees by spring of 2004. The plan, which was submitted in February 2003, was delayed because of complaints from industry over the cost and complexity of the plan, and because of elections for a new govern ment in October. Approval of the plan is a victory for local governments, which stand to take in $3 million per month from industry payments. Quebec has legislation in place, and is set to copy Ontario as soon as the regulation is settled. The new Liberal government has

environmental incidents

Effective April 1, 2004, municipalities and industry will have another legal option for reporting environmental incidences, such as releases and spills, to Alberta Environment through the Internet Incident Reporting System.

• Water Supply

• Environmental Assessment engineers

Quebec firm charged with importing hazardous wastes without a permit Chem-Tech Environnement Inc. has

pleaded guilty to charges of having contravened paragraph 185 (I)b)i) of

• System Optimization

I ^Canada's Top^X I

Providing totai Engineering, Environmentai and Information Technology solutions to clients for over 46 years.

^ Employers Emnloupr^

TollftBe: 1-877-987-3211 Toronto « Sudbury » Thunder Bay > Winnipeg •Saskatoon » Minneapolis « Africa

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Call us to

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Contaminant Fate & Transport Model Review & Litigation Support Advanced Modeling Applications

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Vancouver (604)681-7277 Kitchener (519) 741 -5774 Toronto area (905) 829-8880 Kingston (613) 542-5888 www.xcg.commail@xcg.com

• Industrial / Municipal Wastewater Management • Watershed and Stormwater Management • Drinking Water Quality and Treatment

• Hydrogeology Investigation / Modelling • Environmental Site Assessment / Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmentai Management Systems

Tackling municipal/industrial

ion Act, 1999. Environment Canada,

The Provincial Court in Sorel, Quebec ordered the company to pay a fine of $3,500, plus fees.


Tel:(905)668-9363•Toll Free: 1-800-668-1983•Fax:(905)668-0221 •E-Mail:tsh.@tsh.ca• www.tsh.ca

the Canadian Environmental Protect

Quebec Region, filed charges after the company imported hazardous wastes from liquid toxic pesticides, without holding the required permit, from April to June, 2001.


• Site Assessment & Remediation

Whitby•Barrie • Bracebridge• Cobourg • Kingston • Kitchener-Waterloo•Ottawa • Sault Ste. Marie • St. Catharines

rial suitable for blue box from the cur

ation of Canada has formed a new

• Wastewater

• Solid Waste

mit a plan to expand recovery of mate

coalition to fight the law. The coalition charges that there is no cap on what local governments will consider their costs, and that the way the law has been interpreted, some packaging sup pliers will have their profits wiped out. Once the WDO board approves new fees, manufacturers selling more than $2 million in Ontario will have 90 days to submit reports on 19 materials and pay their fees. Contact: www.raymond.com.

access to critical incident details.


asked Waste Diversion Ontario to sub

rent 45 per cent to 60 per cent by 2008. While the plan has been supported by certain beverage companies and a few retailers, the Packaging Associ

Alberta Environment currently requires verbal and written reports within 7 days following any incident that could impact the environment. The Internet Incident Reporting System allows registered regulated parties to submit immediate reports electronical ly, giving investigators immediate

Albertans can e-report

consul !

Odour & VOC issues is all we do.

Our experts operate an In-house 8 person olfactometry lab and specialize In: • Assessments - odour sampling, odour panel evaluations, dispersion modelling & impact analysis • Community Odour Surveys • Liaison with Communities & Regulatory Agencies ' Development of Odour impact Mitigation Strategies • Technology Selection, Applications & Pilot Trials • Design & Implementation of Odour Abatement Systems • System Performance & Compliance Tests

3425 Semenyk Court, Suite 200, Misslssauga, Ontario, L5C 4P9 Tel: (905) 277-1110 • Fax:(905)277-1112 • www.zorix.on.ca

March 2004, Environmental Science & Engineering 69

Environmental NEWS

Alberta review of drinking water facilities focuses on

long-term solutions The Government of Alberta has com

pleted an inventory of the source qual ity, quantity and protection available for over 530 drinking water facilities in the province. The inventory completes the first phase of a comprehensive review of the facilities, which gathered informa


tion on the state of source water, treat ment facilities and facility operations.

The second phase - which began in March 2004 - involves analyzing the data to develop potential long-term strategies and recommendations for how provincial drinking water treat ment facilities can continue to meet or exceed Alberta's current and future

drinking water standards. The second phase assessment will also help the province in its decision-making related

BC's Water, Land and Air Protection Minister, Joyce Murray, Randy Gossen, Vice President, Safety, Environment and Social Responsibility, Nexen Inc. and David Boulter, Project Manager, Nexen Remediation Project tour Nexen's cleaned-up site in Squamish.

to infrastructure investments in these facilities.

Last November, as a result of the

The drinking water facility assess ment, which is a key action under Alberta's Water for Life strategy goal of safe, secure drinking water supplies, is expected to be complete by fall, 2004.

BC government lauds Squamish site clean-up The BC government recently recog nized Nexen Inc. for its outstanding clean-up of an old bleaching products plant site on the Squamish waterfront.

$1-billion BC Rail Investment Partner

ship, the province approved an agreement-in-principle with the District of Squamish and Nexen to transfer 71 acres of the cleaned-up site to the dis trict. The site is owned by BC Rail and operated under long-term lease by Nexen and its predecessors. The old plant site is 18 hectares. Prospective plans include developing a fidl-service marina, a passenger ferry terminal, cruise berths and a working waterfront involving light industrial

manufacturing and transportation. Nexen, one of Canada's largest oil and gas companies, spent more than $40 million and carried out a massive

four-year campaign. More than 1,700 rail cars of contaminated soil and

biosolids, a large amount of it haz ardous waste, were shipped to secure storage in Alberta. The chlor-alkali plant produced bleaching products for the pulp and paper industry using a mercury-cell process. It was permanently closed in 1991.


Centrifugal and Regenerative Blowers/Exhausters • • • • • •

Dependable, quiet, trouble free High efficiency design Heavy duty cast iron housings Easy installation Maintenance free operation Clean, dry, oil-free air/gas at variable flow rates

DEmmn" PENCON EQUIPMENT COMPANY 109 Thomas Street, 2nd Floor, Oakville, Ontario, L6J 3A7 70 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2004

• Volumes to 50,000 GFM • Both air & gas

Tel:(905) 845-1727 Fax:(905) 845-1792




The benefit of bedding material in a concrete pipe installation has been underestimated for far too long. Current OPS specifications do not reflect the recent research by the National Research Council ofCanada(NRC)on the real impact ofbedding. Data is now available from the three-year study that supports 20 years of research on the engineered value of Standard Installations. Recent recognition of Standard Installations by the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code should ease the mind of any design engineer. It's the most direct route to project success. Standard Installations (Concrete Pipe Bedding Specifications) put the designer back in the driver's seat. Consider these benefits;

o O o o o o

Increased range ofbedding materials optimize native soil use Specified compaction requirements ofvarious embedment material Measured relationship between bedding quality and pipe strength Accurate understanding ofthe benefit ofcurrent bedding practices Various bedding alternatives that economize design Improved site control

Standard Installations are not about changing current bedding practices, but more about sound, efficient and accountable concrete pipe installations. Standard Installations also maintain the historical confidence that comes from using concrete pipe. To take a test drive and learn more about Standard Installations or to obtain your free copy ofPipePac design software, please contact the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association.


o O C P A

Concrete Pipe Association The choice of a lifetime

5045 South Service Road, First Floor, Burlington, Out. L7L 5Y7 (905)631-9696 Fax:(905)631-1905 www.ocpa.com








2004 Hacli Company

The latest technology for measuring dissolved oxygen is also the easiest to maintain. The Hach LOG® Dissolved Oxygen Probe uses luminescent technology, which means Infrequent calibration and allows for a reduced cleaning frequency

and full-scale response times in less than 30 seconds. And access to our knowledgeable and superior technical support makes things even easier. Now you can enjoy a faster, easier and more reliable performance with HACH'

your Hach LOG® probe.

LDOi Distifbutors are located throughout Canada,and the Service Centre is located in Winnipeg, MB. Please contact Hach at 1-970-699-3050 ext ^23 or visit www.hach.com.

Be R/ghr

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 2004  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 2004  

Profile for esemag