Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 2003

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X, August/September 2003 Vol.16 No. 4, Issued September, 2003 w fS(&f invites articies (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmentai protection topics, if you are interested in submitting an articie for considera tion, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Piease note that Environmentai Science & Engineering Pubiications Inc. reserves the right to edit ali submissions without notice.





The day the earth was moved - a history of the environmental movement - Editorial comment by Tom Davey


Ocean explorer Jean-Michel Cousteau to open WEFTEC 2003


Guelph celebrates a century of wastewater treatment


Evaluating disinfection by-product formation and corrosion


The operator is a linchpin in treatment facilities


Mercury showers in the high Arctic under scrutiny


Recycled concrete pipe services fuel depot


Ontario faces drinking water supply challenges


Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) removes radium, nitrates and arsenic



Cured-in-place lining rehabilitates sewer access structures

Confronting employment challenges in the emerging environmental field


CSO problem solved with raked-bar screen technology


Composting increases capacity of NB landfill



Cover story - Continuous microfiltration ensures high quality drinking water



Ad Index


Literature Reviews


Product Review


and sludge treatment




What is wrong with our air pollution strategies?

Environmental News



Vortex flow inserts eliminate manhole and pump station odours




Proper stormwater management could combat West Nile Virus

Professional Cards



A review of recent PCB regulations


PCB elimination deadline approaches


Toronto undertakes the world's largest deep lake water cooling project


Landfill remediation using geosynthetics for stabilization


Potential operating savings through controlled wastewater

4 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

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By Tom Davey,Editor

Earth Day was triumphantly pro

claimed by activists in 1970 as the "Birth ofthe Environmental Movement."

I do not believe

this to be so, but it was certainly the year students demonstrated their con cerns in mass rallies across North

America, giving the media a new focus on ecology. But even earlier, students from the University of Toronto had held a beautifully-staged mock funeral to mark The Death of the Don River, accompanied, no less, by a rendition of Chopin's Funeral March", the "mourn ers" wore funeral garb including top hats. As media events, both the Funeral and Earth Day were spectacu lar successes. For the first time, the environment became a cause celebre

with powerful political significance. The Funeral, paradoxically, marked

barrage of warnings which alarmed the general public. On the West Coast, Greenpeace emerged, beginning with a protest against atmospheric nuclear tests near

as wimps .

The unfortunate Brent Spar now began to emulate the mythical Flying Dutchman, forced to cruise the oceans

with its oil-burning tugs while facing rejection on land and sea. Ultimately it was towed to a fjord in Norway and been a theatrical event whose novelty' dismantled. It's likely the oil burned by yielded much media coverage, tugboats at sea towing such a massive Greenpeace developed a series of dar object would probably exceed the ing stunts which attracted media atten residual oil in the Brent Spar. But what tion on a global scale, eclipsing a coup for activism! Two of the most Madison Avenue's finest efforts. powerful countries in the world had When Shell attempted to sink the seen their international policies reshaped by non-elected activists. When fourteen people were ejected Students from the from Brent Spar, nine journalists were also ejected, a quite astonishing ratio. University of Toronto had held When reporting this story, I wondered in print that, if this trend persisted, a beautifully-staged mock future activists would soon bring their funeral to mark own individual journalists to cover their protests, much like today's film The Death ofthe Don River. stars have their own personal trainers.

the Aleutian Islands off Alaska. While Pollution Probe's mock funeral had

the birth of Pollution Probe which was

But even before this environmental

quickly to become a force to be reck oned with. Articulate university stu dents and professors, unburdened by the complex realities of either econom ics or environmental science, with a coterie of young reporters, quickly mutated into a new species - Eco-

redundant ocean oil storage rig, Brent Spar, Greenpeace created a world

feeding frenzy began, many significant


activists - who created a series of

Major, who had succeeded Margaret Thatcher, described company officials

1968, Philip Jones, PEng., a professor at the University of Toronto, began drawing attention to the serious prob lems of eutrophication of our lakes and rivers. I interviewed him that year when he was seeking a reduction in the Qontinued overleaf...

stunts which were then reported with a





Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, asked the British to rescind their approval to sink

the oil rig. When Shell capitulated, for mer British Prime Minister, John

environmental advances were made. In

September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 7


Environmental Science


& Engineering Editor & Publisher


E-mail: tom@esemag.com Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.ccm Sales Director


E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.ccm Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: carol@esemag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop

Stantec Consulting Ltd., Ontario

amount of phosphates put in laundry detergents, to reduce the amount enter ing our waterways. At that time, there were little or no nutrient removal facil

ities in wastewater treatment plants. He felt the problem had been com pounded when the universal use of washing machines allowed the wash ing process to be untouched by hand, permitting more powerful domestic detergent formulas to be introduced. The article was widely quoted by

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited, Ontario

Bill De Angelis, P.Eng. AWS Engineers & Pianners Corp., Ontario Dr. Robert C. Landine

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R V. Anderson Associates Limited, Ontario

Stanley Mason, P.Eng. British Columbia

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be respon

sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide informa tion rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward

MacMillan of Canada published a col lection of environmental essays in an anthology called Crisis, which includ ed my interview of Dr. Jones. I was

Federal Minister of Mines, Energy and Resources, Joe Greene. Amazingly there was not a single Canadian Minister of the Environment either

federally or provincially at that time. restricting the amount of phosphates in laundry detergents. other environmental

first Minister of the Environment. The

provinces quickly followed suit and a crop of environment ministers sprung up across Canada as the public demanded government action on pre viously ignored ecological issues. Environmental stunts had yielded more political action than environmen tal engineering. In 1969, a mercury scare emerged, ultimately unfolding in deaths and sickness in Minamata, Japan. At that time I interviewed Norvald Fimreite, a scientist from Finland who was doing a thesis on several mercury problems at the University of Western Ontario.

(plus $3.15 GST). USA $75.00(US)for

metallic mercury. With the interview ing back to Toronto breathlessly reported nent-wide Earth Day

Registration No.7750

one year.

All advertising space orders, copy, art work,film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel;(905)7274666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, Vl/eb site; www.esemag. com

real environmentalism many decades before a new environmental boutique species emerged. Prior to this phenom enon, experts on television were iden tified as being engineers, doctors or architects. After the '70s it was com

speakers who were simply identified

thousands of times more toxic than


Product Agreement No.40065446

amazingly prescient environmental engineers and scientists who practised

Environment was created, with British Columbia's Jack Davis becoming our

rates: Canada $75.00 for one year ,


Ardern, Lockett and Fowler, America's Dr. Abe Wolman, are but a few of the

monplace to hear unsubstantiated,

Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription

Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mall

such as Dr. John Snow identified cholera as a water-borne disease in the

crises were happening, alarming the public. A federal Ministry of the

While many factors were involved, it emerged that it was the methylation of mercury that was a key factor in the neurotoxicity. Methylmercury, unfor tunately, enabled humans to biological ly absorb the toxic metal which might otherwise have passed though their systems. As well, methylmercury is

our editorial costs.

Of The

1850s, with no financial or technical

Marie Meunier

John MeunlerAJSFilter, Quebec


support. His findings were dismissed by the medical elite of that day. Canada's Willis Chipman, Dr. George G. Nasmith', and Dr.Albert Berry, England's Dr. John Snow, and

Meanwhile Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Services, British Coiumbia

as "The

Environmental Movement". Pioneers

viewed several times on television.

The Canada Water Act was amended

ADt Systems Inc., New Brunswick


the media. Dr. Jones was also inter

invited to Ottawa to interview the then

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg, Manitoba

this new awareness, there were impor tant omissions in the plethora of radio and television coverage. I heard no mention of the long list of historical pioneers who had been saving lives through research and engineering a century and a half before Earth Day was triumphantly, but erroneously pro

over, I was driv

when the radio that the conti was an environ

mental revolution. While I welcomed

8 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

often inaccurate statements made by as "environmentalists". Many ex pressed genuine concern yet were often oblivious to scientific realities.

More recently, environmental groups have attracted members with learned credentials but it is both inac

curate and premature to talk of the birth of the environmental movement

in the '70s. Afterbirth would be both adjectivally and historically more accurate.

In media lists citing "Environmen tal Heroes of the Planet", in celebra tion of the new millennium, not one of the revered pioneers such as Ardern, Lockett and Fowler was cited. As envi

ronmentalists expropriated theatrical talents to further their cause, it is per haps appropriate to say that the omis sion of the real pioneers in the roll call of Environmental Heroes of the Planet is like Hamlet without the Prince. ' In World War 1, Lieutenant-Colonel Nasmith was in charge of battlefield drinking water and sanitation for both British and Canadian armies, later receiving a CMG for services to the British Army. He later became a founding partner of Gore, Nasmith and Storrie in 1919, now CH2M HILL Canada. He was at Ypres in 1915 on the occasion of the first gas attack and also helped some troops mitigate the effects of the deadly chlorine gas.


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FEEDBACK Re: June Issue Cover Story Mr. Davey, I wanted to respond to your editorial in the June 2003 issue of Environmental

Science & Engineering. Although I am now in the food industry, I write to you based on my experience as a retired Canadian Forces captain and former maintenance offieer in the army. The ongoing ship-borne helicopter fiasco (it was the EH-101, not EM101) is, as you indicated, an extreme example of a fairly sinister, bureau cratic process. Would it interest you to know that ten or so years ago, the British purchased Sea Kings for their

ples lives depend, are subjugated to lowest cost, and also to political manoeuvering. Your point is well taken - what about those systems which work in the background, and are only noticed by the public when they fail? We need to drive a culture of

quality, if we are to see any change in these attitudes, or there will sadly be more Walkertons and more crashes.

Jerry Dover, P.Eng., Canada Bread Company

Why would Canada not just update the Sea King fleet with newer airframes

Re: June Issue Cover Story I was very disappointed to read the cover story of Environmental and Science Engineering, June 2003 edi tion. The points raised concerning the evaluation of proposals based on the

and avionics? Because there is another

low bid, and the need to look at life

process at play, which is just as danger ous as Lowest Cost Compliance. We have all heard of it, it is called "Politics". We cannot buy new Sea Kings, because we cannot get them built here in Canada, where the jobs can be doled out to loyal constituen cies. If you doubt this, ask serving army maintenance people about the current Fiat Iveco light trucks that were purchased, and built in BC at a higher cost than buying Humvees right

cycle costs, are very sound. The com parison to the problems being experi

The Sea King is a fine, but complex machine that is reaching the end of its service life. To compare the mainte nance requirements of a Sea King hel icopter to that of one's family car is ludicrous. All complex aircraft, and especially helicopters, require a sub

off the shelf.


own search and rescue - but new ones.

The EH-101 was indeed a Cadillac

(or perhaps a Mercedes) and very expensive. The current helicopter which seems to best meet our mili

tary's requirements is Eurocopter's Cormorant. Cormorant is a more cost-

effective version ofthe EH-101, and so now we see political interference in the

bidding process, since King Chretien could not stand the embarrassment of

being proved wrong. The procurement process has less to do with require ments than one would think — it is pol icy for Supplies and Services Canada to award contracts based on geograph ic considerations (i.e. where support for the government is most required). Note that the current army communi cations gear is being supplied by an Ottawa company (CDC), who set up manufacturing in Calgary since it was open knowledge that the winning bid der had to be a company from a west ern province ... likewise, most helicop ters


built and

maintained in

Quebec, as were half of the new patrol frigates. Sad to say, the operational require

ments for equipment upon which peo

enced with the Canadian Forces Sea

King helicopters is misleading in the extreme.




Before making silly comparisons, it

Re: ES&E,June 2003 issue Dear Tom, The Sea King flew here and arrived at

Terrafix on Wednesday, July 16. Love your magazine...the engineering com munity seems to have this magazine on their desk more than their own maga zines. Enjoy the summer. Bruno Berlin, P.Eng., Terrafix Geosyntheties Re: Essay - Could Kyoto be an Embryonic Godzilla, ES&E, March 2003 issue

Dear Mr. Davey: I personally enjoy reading your col umn and this one was no exception. I wonder at your remark, "I totally support the ideals of Kyoto," and refer you to the article on page 69 of your March 2003 edition. That article

expresses the true nature of the beast, which is purely a political means of

finding blame for something that is a natural climate phenomenon. I also suggest you point your readers to a well researched and thought provoking book by Christopher Essex and Ross M'^Kitrich, Taken by Storm - the trou bled science, policy and politics of global warming, published by Key Porter Books.

This book is enlightening and illus trates where unaccountability can lead

would be wise to look at the mainte

us to unscientific and ill-conceived

nance requirements of other similar machines. You will obviously be sur prised. The comparison you make is akin to comparing the maintenance requirements of a sewage treatment facility to the maintenance require ments of a washing machine. Just as an aside, you might be inter

conclusions, no matter how noble the

cause."The bigger the lie and the more often it is told, the more likely it will be believed"; (I won't give the source but by a politician, ca 1935). Harlan G. Kelly, P.Eng., Chief Executive Officer, Dayton & Knight Ltd.

ested to know that the President of the

United States flies around in a Sea

King helicopter referred to as "Marine One". Marine One is the same age as the Sea Kings flown by our armed forces.

Donald E. Buchan,P.Eng. Please note last paragraph ofprevious letter - Tom Davey, Editor Dear Tom,

I liked your piece (Sea King editorial) in the June issue of ES&E very much; the application of engineering con cepts to government is a good idea and one that is very rarely attempted. John Robson, Senior Editorial Writer and Columnist, Ottawa Citizen

10 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

Re: Hyperspectral imaging technolo gies key for oil seep/oil-impacted soil detection and environmental base

lines, May 2003 issue Wow, I'm very impressed with your website and the coverage the article

obtained. Also was impressed that you sent me a letter with responses to the article. You are good! Jim Ellis, author with Linda Lidov, Ellis GeoSpatial ES&E welcomes

comments and suggestions from readers.

Send to: tom@esemag.com

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Conference Preview

Ocean explorer Jean-Michel Cousteau to open WEFTEC 2003

Jean-Michel Cousteau, explorer, environmentalist, educator, and

film producer, will be the keynote Opening General Session speaker at WEFTEC 03, which is taking place in Los Angeles, California, October 11-15, 2003. Mr. Cousteau, son of famed ocean





President of Ocean Futures Society, a

non-profit marine conservation and education organization dedicated to developing marine education pro grams. Cousteau will provide a presen tation on his current activities to con

session topics include: • Collection Systems - Management,

operations & maintenance, infrastruc ture, overflow reduction, wet weather

planning, watershed approaches, and regulations. • Membrane Technologies - Appli cation in wastewater and water reuse, innovations, enhanced performance, regulatory compliance. • Plant Operations and Treatment Innovations, technologies, processes,

and proven solutions in water and wastewater treatment.

• Regulations - CMOM/SSO Rules,

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During the five day event, experts in the field will present the latest infor mation on every critical water quality topic, with over 80 technical sessions and 25 conference workshops. Key

• Research - New process applica

Jean-Michel Cousteau

application, research, regulations, pol itics, and public perception. • Utility Management - Asset Man agement and financial planning for infrastructure, technology, regulatory compliance, and security. • Water Reuse/Recycling - Research, regulations, emerging technologies,

tions in water and wastewater treat

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Conference Preview WEFTEC is said to be the largest and most comprehensive Water Quality Exhibition in North America. In 2002, over 18,000 attendees chose WEFTEC as the event to learn the lat

est in water quality, exchange ideas, and form quality business relation ships. Over 800 exhibiting companies will be participating at the WEFTEC Exhibition. The Water Environment Federation

Winnipeg to host WCWWA's 55th

annual meeting

Western Canada Water and Wastewater Assoc

has been holding annual meetings


since 1928.

In 1941 the Annual

Federation's Technical Exhibition and

Conference consisted of5 sessions and

Conference) in an effort to bring more instant recognition in both domestic

13 technical papers, with an atten dance of 556. By 1976, the Annual Conference attendance had grown to 8,716 and featured 37 sessions and 146

technical papers. In 1994, the 67th Annual Conference and Exposition, held in Chicago, Illinois, was re-named



and international markets.

For details, contact the Water Environment Federation, 601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, VA, 22314-1994 USA, Tel; 1-800-666-0206 (U.S. and Canada), Fax: 1-703-684-2492, www.weftec.com. ■

"ccyp \ v/rite without pOkper OwPil pen?

iation's 55th Annual conference and trade-

show will be held at the Winnipeg Convention Centre, October 26-29, 2003.

The conference, which is being held





Manitoba Chapter of the Canadian Public Works Association will fea

ture two Sunday workshops; Recent Advances in Biosolids Processing, and Utilization and Microbes in

Drinking Water - Monitoring and Control Issues. Additionally, there will be tours of City of Portage la Prairie's Water and Wastewater Treatment Facilities and the Freshwater Institute. The main conference will be

split into three main themes: • A Public Works stream will focus

on transportation, municipal engi neering, emergency preparedness and asset management.

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Wastewater Treatment

TheCity ofGuelph's Wastewater Services' centennial anniver

sary celebration in early June was a resounding success. Some 70 officials attended the cere

mony at the Wastewater Treatment Plant, where the theme was the City's distinguished history in wastewater collection and treatment.

Gord Miller, Environmental Com

missioner of Ontario, praised Guelph's Wastewater Division for fulfilling its crucial role in responsible manage ment of the area's watershed, and for 100 years of environmental leadership. Wastewater Treatment Plant Profile

Domestic, institutional, commercial and industrial wastewater, generated in the City of Guelph and neighbouring community of Rockwood, is collected and directed by a distinctly separate sanitary sewer collection system for treatment at the Guelph Wastewater Treatment Plant. The average total daily wastewater flow for 2002 was 53.978 ML/day. The maximum total daily flow was 72.431 ML/day in the month of April. The current CofA rated hydraulic capacity is 64 ML/day. The facility provides complete terti ary treatment with disinfected effluent being discharged to the Speed River. Biological solids generated during treatment are stabilized by anaerobic digestion, mechanically dewatered and may be further processed in the facili ty's in-vessel composting system or applied to agricultural land. The WWTP provides preliminary screening and grit removal, primary

treatment by sedimentation, secondary treatment by conventional and extend ed activated sludge, and two-stage ter tiary treatment utilizing rotating bio logical contactors (RBC) followed by sand filtration. Sea sonal disinfection of final effluent is a

requirement and is accomplished by the addition of sodium

Official ribbon cutting. From left to right: James Etienne, Guelph's Director of Environmental Services, Gord Miller, Environmental Commissioner of Ontario, Guelph Mayor Karen Farbrldge, and Paul Emerson, CAO of the Grand River Conservation Authority. 14 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

hypochlorite and subsequently dechlorinated using sodium bisulphite prior to discharge to the receiving stream. Primary sedi mentation and sec

ondary conventional activated sludge treatment are pro

vided in three separate treatment trains, namely Plants 1, 2 and 3. Plant 4 (a component of the Stage 1 Expansion) consists of primary sedi mentation followed by secondary extended aeration activated sludge treatment.

Secondary effluent from Plants 1, 2 and 3 flows to a common pump well. This combined secondary effluent is lifted by vertical turbine pumps to the rotating biological contactors' influent distribution channel and evenly split to each of the four RBC trains. Each of

the four trains consists of eight shafts in series. The process objective of the RBCs is to provide additional biologi cal treatment for the oxidation of

ammonia (nitrification). Secondary effluent from Plant 4 is fully nitrified and is directed along with effluent from the RBC trains to a common sand filter influent channel and distributed

continued overleaf...




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Wastewater Treatment For Winter Conditions(November 1 - March 31) Non-compliance Limit

to the sand filters for additional suspended solids capture. Sodium hypochlorite is added to this common filter influent channel loca


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Concentration mq/L


vide for disinfection of the filtered effluent.




Effluent quality requirements as specified in the Certificate of Approval differ f^or sum

Suspended Solids






mer and winter conditions.

Total Pfiosphorus



The intent of the seasonal change in efflu

ent quality compliance limits is to reflect the seasonal change in the receiving stream con-

For Summer Conditions (April 1 - October 31) Non-compliance Limit

Total Oxygen Demand Suspended Solids Total Phosphorus











Gord Miller, Environmental Commissioner of

ditions. During winter, when the receiving stream liquid temperature is cold, a high quality effluent (measured in terms of CBOD5, SS, NH3-N and TP)is required. During summer,the higher river temperatures expe rienced requires more complete removal of carbonaceous BOD5 and the nitrogenous oxygen demand to reduce the total oxygen demand(TOD)in the receiving stream. This requires almost complete oxidation of ammo

Ontario, praised Guelph's record.

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16 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2003

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Drinking Water

Evaluating disinfection by-product formation and corrosion under simulated distribution systems By WJ.Bayless,R.C.Andrews, J. Eisnor and G.A.Gagnon

The formation of trihalo-

methanes (THMs) and halo-

acetic acids (HAAg) from the

Table 1: Disinfectant Residual Concentration (mg/L) Retention




No Disinf.



















use of chlorine-based disinfec

Table 2: Corrosivity of Effluent(mpy)

tants is of concern to treatment facili

ties due to the associated toxicological effects and strengthening of disinfec tion regulations. To minimize the for mation of these disinfection by-prod ucts (DBFs) treatment facilities may consider alternative disinfectants,

chlorine dioxide (primary) or chloramines (secondary). However, the impacts on distribution system water quality from switching to an alterna tive disinfectant is not clearly under stood, nor are the relationships be tween corrosion and DBF formation.

This project was undertaken to

Start-up period





Free Chlorine






Chlorine Dioxide


















Disinfectant Treatment

12 hour

6 hour

Table 3: Total Iron (mg/L)

Start-up period




Free Chlorine






Chlorine Dioxide


















Disinfectant Treatment

12 hour

6 hour Low

evaluate the formation of DBFs when

using simulated cast iron distribution system conditions and chlorine, chloramines or chlorine dioxide. As there is

observe the effect on DBF formation

THM formation was observed to be

very little information in the literature concerning the impacts of chlorine

and corrosion rates (Table 1). The corrosiveness of the water in the pipe loops was the highest when chlorine

highest in the chlorine pipe loop, aver aging 12 pg/L for a total chlorine residual of0.7 mg/L. The THM forma tion in the pipe loops being fed chlo

dioxide, chlorine and chloramines were examined to provide a compara-

The information

gathered through these experiments indicates

and monochloraniines were used as the

primary disinfectant. The pipe loop

rine dioxide and chloramines was


observed to be less then the method


demonstrated the lowest corrosion rate

detection limits over the course of the

experiment (Figure 1). This is similar to published literature which acknowcontinued overleaf...

infectants. When

the to





that DBP formation can be

hours the corro

minimized while water

sive rate of the water did not

quality can be improved by changing primary

demonstrate any observable trends;


iron levels gener ally increased with the longer


40 D)

however the total




3). The



b c




S z



total iron levels were observed to

for each of the three disinfectants.

be highest in the chlorine pipe loop, followed by the

Additionally, a "high" and "low" disin


fectant residual concentration was

and chloramines.

passed through the pipe loop to


(Table 2) when compared to other dis


tive baseline. To provide a comprehen sive approach, bench-scale tests were undertaken using both annular reactors (ARs) and cast-iron pipe loops. In the pipe loop experiments, 6 and 12 hour retention times were explored







ÂŤ Chlorine â– Monochioramine a Chlorine Dioxide



18 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

Figure 1: THM formation in cast iron pipe loops for various disinfectants.

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Drinking Water ledges that chlorine dioxide and chioramines do not form THMs in any significant level.

is to provide safe drinking water which includes minimiz ing the DBF formation.

The HAA formation levels followed a similar trend as was observed for THM formation. The use of chlorine as a

primary disinfectant resulted in the highest HAAg levels (Figure 2). During the experiment there were no observable trends between the corrosion rates and the DBF formation. In the

chlorine dioxide and chloramine pipe loop the amount of

JVJ. Bayless and R.C. Andrews are with the Drinking Water Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University ofToronto. J. Eisnor and G.A. Gagnon are with the Department of Civil Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax. For further information, contact: www.dwrg.ca, e-mail: graham.gagnon@dal.ca.

DBFs formed was below detection limits. For the chlorine

pipe loop, the THM and HAAg concentrations were not observed to be related to the corrosion rate (Figure 3). Similarly, no trend was observed between the total iron levels and the DBF formation in the chlorine pipe loop (Figure 4). The information gathered through these experiments indicates that DBF formation can be minimized while

water quality can be improved by changing primary disin fectants. However, this is often a significant undertaking and would only be advantageous for municipalities which are treating a difficult source water, such as one with a high THM formation potential or red water problems. Furthermore, the introduction of more stringent DBF reg ulations such as that proposed by the USEFA could force some municipalities to look towards alternative disinfec tion practices.


30 O)

-5 c o c




% X







♦ Chlorine a Chiorine Dioxide ■ Chioramines

Figure 2: HAA formation for various disinfectants.

At the current time the Ontario MOE does not have

DBF regulations that are as restrictive as their American counterparts; however the goal of water treatment facilities


40 □ O)


A 0.






10 11

ei>6— 2



Corrosion (mpy) ♦ THM nHAA

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Figure 3: DBF formation related to corrosion rate.


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Figure 4: DBF formation related to total iron con centration.



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The operator is a linchpin in treatment facilities By Jack Cronk

The Oxford Dictionary defines linchpin (also lynchpin)figura tively as an element or person vital to an organization. The ordinary meaning is a pin passed through an axle-end to keep a wheel in place. I feel that the role of the waterworks

operator is so vital to the public health of communities and to the protection of the environment that the operator could be described as the "linchpin" of the waterworks industry. The politi cians, administrators and government authorities at municipal, provincial and federal levels plan and finance the construction of waterworks facilities

for public and industrial use. The design and construction activities of professional engineering, project man agement and construction companies, equipment manufacturers and suppli ers and the various trades are equally

important. As well, there is a necessary regulatory system in place to monitor and ensure the quality of the product of almost any type of water or wastewater system, public or private.

used is to ask if the public would be accepting of a nurse who was hired and told to do the Job for some time, per haps years, before becoming aware of and receiving training (education). I think many people would prefer a nurse who was educated prior to gain ing employment. Yet, the system that

There seems to be a recognized sys tem in place for each of the above occupations to provide education and apprenticeship and ensure professional standards and conduct, performance and workmanship. Yet at the end of the day, when the ribbon has been cut and everyone has gone home, the operator (the "linchpin") is left to ensure the facility continually produces and trans ports the water or wastewater at certain

works personnel receive "training" only after gaining employment. Why? The hypothesis that 1 propose is that the present stage of development of wateiworks employment as a trade or professional occupation is a result of the interaction of political, technical

standards without fail.

and social circumstances that have

Assuming that the importance of the operator is as described above, I sometimes ponder the reasons why the education, occupational trade and employment standards for waterworks operators are not as uniformly devel oped as some other equally important occupations. The analogy that I have

synergistically created a lack of under standing and misperception about the nature of water and the technology of

exists now is such that most water

water and wastewater treatment.

Firstly, water itself, because of its ubiquitous nature, is not given suffi cient value as a natural chemical

continued overleaf...



Bob Fleeton, President of KWiK Consultants Limited, is pleased

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building a strong group provid ing services in water and wastewater treatment plan ning, process engineering and biosoiids management. She has played a leading role in ail aspects of water and wastewater treatment in the firm, and in the management of the firm. Deborah brings a broad range of experience to KMK, from projects in Canada and the U.S., as well as specialist expertise in water and wastewater treatment facility plan ning, evaluation, and optimization. Her projects, in many cases, have resulted in introduction of industry leading technologies into Ontario. Deborah is Past President of Water Environment Association of Ontario and is a Director of the Water Environment Fede ration.

The Board of Directors is delighted 800-858-1888 or 506-451-7407 www.adl.ca


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For more information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)

E5&Ecarries far more advertising than any of its Canadian competitors Environmental Science & Engineering is the largest documentary magazine in Canada,serving the nation's multi-billion dollar a year environmental protection industry since 1988.


® Why you should advertise In ES&E ES&E's expert articles are "must reading" for some 19,000 - readers responsible for the design, construction and opera-', ,tion of water treatment and distribution systems, sewerage:;; :: systems, and industrial and hazardous waste;management:: ; systems.

As a bonus, most of our issues are distributed at several;

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•Reaching key specifiers Consultants are key specifiers in environmental projects. Over 2,200 consultants receive ES&E, and vote their

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Operations resource. Nor is the normal mineral

content of and biological life support ed by natural water sources easily appreciated. This is due to our inabili ty to observe dissolved minerals or microscopic organisms with the naked eye. It is easy to be led by advertising to believe that it is necessary to pur chase bottled water rather than trust in

or be knowledgeable about tap water. It is easier to generalize about perceived contamination or pollution than to actually understand some technical or scientific facts. This is only human nature. Yet, people do have a desire to have safe and pure drinking water and to protect natural water bodies from pollution that may harm their contin ued use for recreation, fish and other

by a local authority at as low a cost as possible. In this respect water supply differs from other province-wide utili ties such as electricity, natural gas or telephone service. This has prevented the creation of a unified working trade with a common and focused skill set.

Regional distribution systems may be helping to change the picture in some respects.

Deadly waterborne illness out breaks have recently focused the pub lic, media and political attention on water treatment, but for how long and to what extent? Yes, there are and will continue to be improvements to moni

toring of water supplies and abatement of wastewater pollutants. The area that I see a need to contin

ue to upgrade and develop is the requirement and availability of educa

they must not become a perfunctory requirement, but only a part of a care fully considered and designed educa tion curriculum.

The prescription for prevention of future frightening public health tragedies caused by the failure of a waterworks system is a paradigm shift about what is required to prepare a workforce of professional tradespersons to properly fulfil the role of the "linchpin" of the waterworks industry. Jack Cronk has a diploma in Chemical Technology from Red River College and a Bachelor ofScience (Chemistry) from the Universit)' of Manitoba. He has Class III Water Treatment and Class




consumption. And rightly so! Whether a surface or ground source, water supplies are usually very local to a community. Municipally pro

needs of the technology being used to treat water and wastewater. I now pre

Operator Certification by examination through the Manitoba Water & Wastewater Association (MWWA). He is currently Presi-dent of the Western

vided water and sewer service is rela

fer to use the term education rather


tively new for many small rural com munities, if fifty years is considered a short time span. Producing and mar keting a potable product is controlled

than training because it carries a more substantial meaning. The mandatory examination and certification of oper


wildlife habitat and further human

tion to create a workforce to meet the

ating personnel are worthy processes;




ation (WCWWA). Email: jcronk@mb. sympatico.ca.

Death by drowning:IWC must address 300,000 annual cetacean death toll

Asdelegates gathered for the 55th meeting of the

International Whaling Commission (IWC), the World Wildlife Federation (WWF) has revealed new research which shows that bycatch is killing around 300,000 whales, dolphins and porpoises (cetaceans) each year - more than 800 a day. The startling new figures come from the first ever global esti mate of cetacean deaths from

fishing gear by Dr. Andrew Read



bycatch reduction a conservation priority for the IWC and encourage member governments to provide funding for research and mitigation. "This level of bycatch is significantly depleting and dis rupting many populations of whales, dolphins and porpoises which will lead to the loss of sev eral species in the next few decades if nothing is done," said Dr. Read from Duke University in the U.S., co-chair of WWF's Cetacean

Bycatch Task Force. "Where


measures are taken to reduce

Northridge, members of the

bycatch, mortality dropped significantly. This demon strates that it is possible to reduce bycatch while maintain ing viable fisheries."

IWC's Scientific Committee.

Bycatch is the single biggest threat facing cetaceans, with thousands of kilometres of nets

set in the world's oceans daily often invisible to sight and sonar and too strong for small cetaceans to break free of - that are fatal to small cetaceans. WWF is call

Based on advice from IWC's

Scientific Committee - which every year brings together the largest gathering of

ing on IWC member countries to support the cetacean

top cetacean scientists in the world - the member countries of the IWC have passed a number of resolutions

bycatch resolution, as well as a broader conservation reso

recommending actions to mitigate bycatch in previous

lution - the Berlin initiative - which would address the vari

years. Not all member nations, however, have acted on

ety of threats to cetaceans, beyond commercial whaling.

those recommendations, and cetacean populations contin ue to be threatened. Contact: mdavis@wwf. org.uk.

Both of these will be tabled in Berlin and would make 24






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September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 25

Mercury showers in high Arctic under scrutiny By Sara Elliott tion in such a pure environment may be cause for concern in more industri

alized parts of the world. While it is known, therefore, how

gaseous mercury got to the Arctic, why

There is a pol ution mystery in

the high Arctic: scientists have discovered increasing amounts of mercury in the food chain and human population in the region. Dr. Julia Lu (pictured above) is a pro fessor in the Department of Chemistry, Biology and Chemical Engineering at Ryerson University, in Toronto, and recent





Research Excellence Award. She is

one of a number of scientists working on determining why there are such curiously high levels of mercury con tamination in this otherwise pristine

are the levels in the food chain so

does in the ecosystem, it is important to establish a method that can isolate

the forms of mercury in the Arctic environment.

With an almost $125,000 research grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and funding from Canada Foundation for Innovation

(CFl), Dr. Lu acquired a mercury speciation system that can distinguish between different forms of mercury in the atmosphere. The funding also pays for graduate students to help her with

high? Dr. Lu contributed to earlier Arctic mercury research with ground breaking results. It proved that the sudden burst of sunlight, after a long polar winter, initiates reactions between the chemicals released from

sea salt and gaseous elemental mercu ry. The inorganic forms of mercury produced get deposited into the snow. The snow melts and the ecosystem is inundated with toxic mercury. Mammals and fish ingest this mercury which bioaccumulates as it moves up the levels of the food chain.

The work of Dr. Lu and colleagues revealed a new phenomenon of mercu ry deposits in polar regions and its entry into the food chain, with poten tially harmful consequences for

Dr. Lu's group is testing this mer cury speciation system to ensure it can positively identify and quantify differ ent forms of mercury. If she proves the system a success, and mercury species can be effectively isolated, research

It is important to determine the exact species of mercury being deposited into the Arctic's ecosystem. Clarifying the type of mercury will explain the rate at which the mercury will be deposited, how it is transported, what chemical reactions may take place, and how to remove mercury

humans and other forms of life. The

can start to determine the source of the

from sources of emission. What we do

research found that, after each polar

mercury in the Arctic. Different kinds of mercury have

know is that mercury affects our neu rological systems and so the mere presence of toxic mercury in our food chain is cause for alarm, given that mercury in the natural environment


sunrise, mercury is converted from a gas into a solid by sun-induced reac tion in the frigid polar atmosphere. This aerosol mercury falls to the earth's





gaseous mercury, and accumulates in the ice, snow and spring meltwater in a form that is easily taken into the food chain.

"Each spring these mercury show ers take place just as the ecosystem is coming to life, exposing the area's humans, plants, animals and fish to yet another form of insidious toxic pollu tion," Dr. Lu says. Her paper on the subject has become one of the most cited papers in the field. Before researchers can unravel the

mystery of where the mercury is com ing from, and why it acts the way it

the research.

very different traits. For example, while a few drops of methyl mercury can prove fatal, dentists use elemental mercury to fill cavities. Mercury can be emitted naturally into the atmos phere through volcanic eruptions, but it can also be the result of human activ

ities, such as emissions from coal-

burning power plants and waste incin erators.

The fact that there are no waste

incinerators or coal-burning power plants in the Arctic - and yet the mer cury levels are increasing - makes the situation there even more intriguing. After being released into the atmos phere, mercury is largely transported by wind to other parts of the world, including the Arctic. Toxic contamina-

26 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

can be converted from less toxic inor

ganic forms to extremely toxic organic forms.

Dr. Lu will continue putting her mercury speciation system through rigorous testing as her studies progress. Her research will not only increase knowledge about the situation in the Arctic, but also in the Antarctic and in urban and rural environments. Sara Elliott is a Journalism student at

Ryerson University. For more informa tion contact Ryerson University's Office of Research Services at www.lyerson.ca/ors.


Recycled concrete pipe services fuel depot was in good condition and could be removed, cleaned and rein

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mm^ structure, including treatment works, buried pipes and services, reservoirs and other storage facilities. Over recent years, we have been suffering from the consequences of this aging infrastructure, and our municipalities have been struggling to provide neces sary funds to ensure safe upkeep and proper maintenance of our water works.

Although different funding pro grams have been provided by the Province to municipalities to meet this need for infrastructure upgrades, some municipalities still cannot afford their share of the capital works costs due to their small number of residents and/or

extent and physical characteristics of the systems. It Is estimated that in some municipalities up to 30% of treated water is lost due to ieaks. Aging pipes are a major factor in this loss. A 1991 study estimat

ed that Canada will need to spend $90 billion to maintain its water system infrastructure.

By Cam Vatandoust,Ontario Ministry of the Environment

Ontario's Safe Drinking Water

Act received Royal Assent by proclamation of the Lieutenant



came into force in December, 2002. The Act includes a number of basic

areas of concern including General Requirements, Accreditation of the Operating Authority, Regulations for Municipal and non-Municipal Drinking Water Systems, Testing, Inspections, as well as Compliance and Enforcement. The Act also deals with

Offences and details procedures for Appeals. In August 2000, Ontario's Drinking Water Protection Regulation O. Reg 459/00 (DWPR) gave the former Ontario Drinking Water Objectives (now called Ontario Drinking Water Standards) the force of law. The DWPR deals with specific water parameters pertaining to the character istics and safety of municipal drinking water.

Most Ontario municipalities are currently working to upgrade their water systems to comply with the DWPR. A portion of the capital cost upgrades for these facilities is eligible for funding under SuperBuild's Ostar funding program. Sustaining our infrastructure Two main aspects that directly

relate to providing users with safe drinking water are: 1. Water supply and quality issues Although the public's perception is that we are blessed with an abundance

offreshwater, the reality is quite differ ent. Decline in the quality of water after our use causes decline in general source water quality. Some water qual ity deterioration always remains after our use, this contributes to the decline of water for other communities that

use the same source. Source pollution is caused by our household use in the form of improperly treated sewage. For instance, only 75% of Canada is serv iced by some form of communal sewage treatment system. Source con tamination is an even greater factor for the remaining 25% of the population, that are served by private wells and septic systems.

The economics of water

Traditionally, the cost of delivering safe drinking water in Ontario has been and continues to be heavily subsi dized by municipalities and eventually the Province. This means that most of

us do not pay what it actually costs to treat water and supply it to our homes. The cost of the capital works required to supply safe drinking water to residents is often too high for any single municipality to bear. The Province, therefore, has historically been providing funds through different programs for these upgrades. However, more and more municipalities are real izing that they need to change the water rate structure for their residents.

The actual cost to get water deliv ered to our homes includes:

• Capital costs to put in place the infrastructure; • Interest costs on the borrowed

money for the works(debenture costs); • Cost of safe operations as per Ministry of Environment require ments;

Other causes of deterioration of

• Cost for infrastructure maintenance

water quality in our supply include urban and agricultural runoff contain ing residues of fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals, industrial pollu tion either directly from facilities, or indirectly through leaching landfills, air pollution and other source contam

and repairs; and • Reserve costs (a portion of the water income should be put aside for future upgrades and major capital work repairs and expansion). As we work towards resolving our water challenges, we are forced to address and examine new ways of thinking including full cost recovery pricing, and conservation-oriented pricing. Conservation as part of

ination. Our treatment facilities are

also unable to treat many household chemicals that we deposit into the sys tem.

2. Treatment and Delivery Infrastruc ture issues - In 1991, it was estimated that Canada needs an investment of

$90B to maintain its aging water infra

30 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

the solution

In recent years, there have also been programs within most municipalities

Drinking Water to install water meters to determine the

actual amount of water usage. These meters are used for billing purposes, as well as determining the total volume of losses in the aging pipes due to leaks and exfiltration. We are now aware more than ever that leaks affect both the cost of water

and its delivery to the users to a great extent. In most cases, if the unaccount

ed-for water in a municipal system exceeds 10 to 15 percent, a leak detec tion program is deemed to be a costeffective option. It is estimated that in some municipalities up to 30 percent

sector represents a logical target for demand management activities. Education, the ultimate tool An important part of solving our water challenge is to educate users on how they can help their municipality defer construction of capital works by simple means such as conservation of this important resource. This means that the municipality has more time to raise funds to undertake the major cap ital works, major works can be

must consider factors including but not limited to: public information and edu cation, operator training and educa tion, promoting efficient sprinkler/irri gation methodologies, new process technologies, plant modifications and improvements, rate structures and pric ing reviews, incentives through rebates and tax credits, sanctions and fines, efficient fixtures, leak detection and repairs, water use restrictions, elimina

Studies have shown that a typical

Due to the nature of our intricate

tion of combined sewers, and regulato ry codes, standards and bylaws. Many other jurisdictions also face the same challenges as the public water systems, and this is our opportu nity to lead the way in using innovation and education to provide safe water to the public.

Canadian household can reduce its

water issues, and the complexities of our water challenge, it is quite difficult to provide a step by step map to suc cess for all water systems. However,

Cam Vatandoust, P.Eng., is a senior engineer with Ontario Ministry of the Environment in Toronto, specializing

deferred, and the funds can be used to

of the treated water is lost due to leaks

carry out infrastructure maintenance programs necessary for the operation of a successful and safe potable water

both in the municipal works and in


users' facilities.

water consumption by up to 40 percent with little change in behaviour of the occupants, by doing the same tasks more efficiently, and, therefore, using much less water. Water efficient residential technol

ogy is another important factor in reducing our use. This becomes very important because the large residential

The proposed solution

the successful solution must consider

in water and wastewater standards

public safety, environmental issues, operational factors, and the economic aspects of providing safe drinking

and infrastructure capital works. He also is an instructor for Seneca College's School of Civil Engineering Technology. E-mail: Cam. Vatandoust @ene.go\'.on.ca.

water to Ontario residents.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 124 (See page 25)

September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 31

Drinking Water Membranes

Many municipalities tap into the benefits of EDR water treatment

Noone wants to drink radium. Or




Methods like electrodialysis reversal (EDR), provide treatment options. Just ask the citizens of Washington, Iowa. In 1979, Washington was noti fied by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources that the city was in violation of the radium standard for

drinking water. Even then, radium was recognized as a carcinogen. The city evaluated a number of options for improving the water quality and removing the radium from the water. They decided on implementing the process known as EDR, a relatively new variation on the electrodialysis process which had been commercial ized by Ionics. The technology was incorporated in the 1950s. Today, there are many other exam ples of cities, towns and municipal organizations that have found EDR demineralization to be an economical, high-performance way to transform unusable water into safe drinking water. Major applications for EDR include: the purification of drinking water from brackish sources; deminer alization of water from industrial

processes; reuse of municipal effluent; and reduction of mineral concentra tions in wastewater.

A self-cleaning process EDR is a variation on the electro

dialysis process, in that it uses elec trode polarity reversal to automatically clean membrane surfaces. The electro

dialysis process uses a driving force of direct current (DC) power to transfer ionic species from the source waterfeed water through cation (positively charged ions) and anion (negatively charged ions) transfer membranes to a concentrate wastewater stream, creat

ing a more dilute stream. EDR works the same way, except that the polarity of the DC power is reversed two to four times per hour. When the polarity is reversed, the soureewater dilute and concentrate

compartments are also reversed. The alternating exposure of membrane sur faces to the product dilute and brine concentrate streams provides a selfcleaning capability that enables purifi-

Feed Filtrate

Filtrate Feed







Diagram of a hollow fibre UF membrane.

cation and recovery of up to 94% of the feed water.

There are currently a number of alternatives to the EDR technology for treating and reducing contaminants in drinking water and feed water. Probably the most well-known of these is reverse osmosis (RO). Both EDR and reverse osmosis use semipermeable membranes to filter out dissolved ions from water. But where RO uses

the application of pressure to overtake osmotic pressure and shift the water flow force water through the mem branes, EDR uses voltage potential and polarity reversal to flush out the unwanted particles to force contami nants through the membranes. An evolving technology Over the last 10 to 15 years, numer ous advances in membrane and system technology are claimed for EDR, both in terms of performance and costeffectiveness. Improved membrane technology now allows for one-step machine manufacture of ion exchange membranes, reducing costs and lower ing membrane resistivity. And new high performance spacers (placed between the membranes) allow better transport of contaminants like nitrates, speeding the process, reducing the number of membrane stacks required and shrinking costs. Major improvements to EDR sys tem design are claimed in the form of the next generation Ionics EDR 2020ÂŽ system. This new design streamlines the process flow with simpler

32 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

hydraulics and standardized compo nents, substantially lowering the capi tal and operating costs of EDR demineralization. It features the new

spacer technology, as well as a more compact design that is said to be easy to install in an array of configurations. The new generation EDR systems, with up to half as many membrane stacks, standardized components and simpler hydraulics, have demonstrated a 30% reduetion in eapital cost sav ings. Contact Ionics, Incorporated: Francine Bernitz, e-mail: fbernitz@ionics.com or Antonia von Gottberg, e-mail: avon gottberg@ionics.com.

EDR system installed in Meiviiie, Saskatchewan.


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City of Ottawa uses cured-ln-place lining to rehabilitate sanitary sewer access structures located on the Hines

and liners.

The structure is the dis

• Spray-applied polymer coatings and

charge point for a 9 km long forcemain that services the Village of Carp. City officials concluded that a long-

linings. • Cured-in-place liners. • Thermoplastic liners. • Full replacement. Information regarding construction applicability and limitations, costing, availability, requirements, experience, local knowledge and timing was obtained from suppliers and contrac tors, and the various options were care fully assessed. The City required a

term rehabilitation solu

tion was needed to pro tect these two access structures.

The City of Ottawa retained R.V Anderson

By Gerald Bauer,REng.and Phil Reeve,REng.

The City of Ottawa is a major

Associates Limited, in

cost-effective solution able to with



stand the corrosive environment at the

Richards & Associates

structure that would last at least 20

Limited, to study the problem and

years. The Poly-Triplex® cured-inplace liner was recommended as it pro vided the best long-term rehabilitation option due to the structure size, loca tion, geotechnical conditions, and the


determine a cost-effective solution.

The consulting team collected field data on the extent of concrete deterio

urban community of 785,000 people, covering an area of 276,000 hectares. The City has experienced rapid growth over the last decade, requiring sewers to be extend ed further from the trunk sewer system and pollution control plant. The local topography also requires a number of pumping stations and forcemains to

ration and levels of hydrogen sulfide in the system. Collecting and under standing all relevant data was critical to determining a cost-effective solu

service the suburban communities.

a 1600 mm by 1750 mm chamber, 9.5 m deep, built in 1977. A short chim ney, 762 mm in diameter, provides

Due to the length offorcemains, deten tion times and configuration of the main sewers, turbulence is created at forcemain discharges, resulting in ele vated levels of hydrogen sulfide in some sewers.

tion. Both access structures are located in residential areas and are constructed

of pre-cast concrete with varying

access to the chamber.

depth of the structure, a safety landing Road structure is a 1520 mm diameter

the structure. The second structure is

withstand the corrosive environment at the structure that would last

at least 20 years.

is located in the chamber. The Hines

chamber, 6.1 m deep, built in 1980. A short chimney, 762 mm in diameter, provides access to the chamber.

Stittsville Trunk Sewer in Stittsville, just downstream of a forcemain dis charge. A significant amount of turbu lence is created due to a 6 m drop into

effective solution able to

Due to the

This has resulted in

The first structure is located on the

The City required a cost-

dimensions. The Stittsville structime is

accelerated deterioration of concrete access structures at two forcemain dis

charges, due to biogenic corrosion (i.e. H2S).

• Spray-applied cementitious coatings

Road Trunk in Kanata.

The assessment identified various

solutions, including: • Specialty products (patching and plugging compounds, chimney seals, lid seals, etc.). • Pressure grouting. • Structural replacement.

34 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

corrosive environment. The PolyTriplex cured-in-place liner provided an impenetrable membrane to the hydrogen sulfide. The project also included replacement of ladders and landing systems in 316 stainless steel with fibre reinforced plastic grating panels. Both access structures were lined

without disrupting the sewage flow in

Infrastructure Rehabilitation


Opposite left: Installing the one piece Poly-Triplex cured-in-piace liner. Top left: The 1600 by 1750 mm Stittsvllle Trunk Chamber after lining. Top right: the 1520 mm diameter Mines Road Chamber after lining.

the system, which minimized inconvenience to the area res idents and reduced costs. The work was accomplished by constructing a platform over the pipe invert in the access structure. This "trenchless" solution avoided large-scale, expensive, deep excavations in established residential neighbourhoods. The installation for each site took one to two days of preparatory work, one to two days of liner installation and one to two days of site clean-up. The Poly-Triplex liner installation used low pressure steam for curing the resin but this could be replaced with hot water.

It is estimated that the lining of the two access struc tures saved the City about $50,000.00 as compared to full replacement. This was the first time that a cured-in-place lining was used to rehabilitate access structures in the Province of Ontario. The work was completed by Supertec Wastewater Services Ltd., of Montana. Gerald Bauer is an Associate with R. V Anderson

Associates Limited. Phil Reeve is Senior Project Manager with J.L. Richards & Associates Limited. For more infor mation, contact: gbauer@rvanderson.com.


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pumps ® filters • tubing • www.waterra.com ® bailers • water level sensors For more information, circle reply card No. 126 (See page 25)

September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 35

Environmental Employment

Confronting challenges in emerging environmental employment By Jim Gllchrist B.E.S., Career Advancement Employment Services Inc.(CAES)

Competition is a fact of every

day business life - so is change. Members of the envi ronmental industry will be confronting a number of competitive challenges in coming years as a result of both industry and societal change. Despite an ongoing supply of entrylevel employees, companies should expect much greater competition in the attraction and retention of the fewer

available experienced environmental practitioners. And, with growing demand for quality environmental products and services placing increased pressure on this segment of the labour force, how these organiza tions respond to this challenge will very much shape their future success. Growth in environmental demand

In 2000, the Canadian Government estimated the number of Canadian

environmental companies as being close to 6,000, employing 220,000 workers and contributing 2.2% to Canada's Gross Domestic Product. It also estimated that the number of envi

ronmental companies was growing at a rate of 20% per year. Despite some current industry con solidation, increasing demand for goods and services relating to water resources, air quality, industrial envi ronmental management, clean energy and biotechnology (to name a few) should further translate into increases in both the number of environmental

organizations as well as internal staffing numbers. Fueled by increasing environmental compliance require ments, demand for environmental

services and products will go farther than simply increased activity or units sold. The bar has been raised on the

quality of these goods and services. For those organizations that truly embrace quality in whatever they pro vide to their clientele, the future should look very bright.

Changing demographic The increasing dilemma that these

organizations are facing, however, is the ever tightening availability of suit able environmental talent to properly address not only the increased demand for environmental products and servic es, but also to ensure the higher levels of quality that their clients will require. Many of us are aware of the book Boom Bust & Echo written by David Foot, in which he discusses the possi ble impacts as the baby boomer popu lation retires from the workforce. Of

great concern regarding this exodus is the potential labour shortage across all industries, with particular concern for the loss of experienced, talented persormel. And, while Foot states that the major crunch will occur around 2012, when the first of this group reach age 65, we are actually witnessing some impact now, as those who can afford retirement are increasingly opting out and internal successors are found to be

lacking. This accelerated retirement process will continue to gain momen tum up to 2012, and then of course show even more notable impact in the following years until the boomer pop ulation is exhausted.

The environmental industry is not exempt from this phenomenon, and many organizations are beginning to identify and contend with succession issues now. As Foot stated, "... the management of a business that fails to pay attention to demographics for five years may wake up to find itself in a different business than it thought that it was in - or not in business at all". New recruitment and

retention strategies So how should environmental com

panies respond to these challenges? The most strategic organizations will counter these issues by having the most talented managers and employees on staff; their reputation, distinctiveness, marketability and profitability, all will depend on it. Therefore, the competition to attract and retain these individuals - at all levels - will be

increasingly fierce. The successful competitors will embrace comprehensive human resource management strategies, which involve planning for, creating

36 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

and maintaining an attractive employ ment environment. They will define an appropriate culture, provide challeng ing work, increase staff development opportunities and present competitive remuneration packages. They will rec ognize the need for a balanced labour force, with an appropriate distribution of senior, intermediate and junior per sonnel and they will create internal mobility and succession opportunities to foster long-term employee commit ment. Thus, they will build organiza tions that talented people will be inter ested in joining and staying in. However, ifyou build it - they might come. Competition for talent will necessitate a re-evaluation of current

recruitment and selection techniques to ensure that the best are attracted to

these leading companies. Traditional methods of attraction (newspaper advertisements, web postings, word of mouth, etc.), will become even less effective and reliable in this contract

ing talent market. Rather than rely on luck or settling for the best of the bunch of the active

job seekers, leading companies will shift to a more "passive candidate" focused strategic recruitment process at least to fill senior and intermediate

positions. This process must begin with a clear and realistic definition of

the talent desired, and then be support ed by a more proactive research based recruitment approach, utilizing corpo rate intelligence to identify the best suited candidates. While the active job seekers will not be totally neglected, these companies will ensure the identi fication of "the best" by casting the widest net possible, thereby including the more elusive, and often rewarding, passive candidate who would be over looked by the traditional attraction techniques. The upcoming years will provide some interesting challenges to mem bers of the environmental community; the strategically pro-active organiza tions will be well suited to meet them head on.

For more information, contact e-mail: info@careeradvancement.on.ca.

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rs n

IS ss I • s

not very attractive." The Ohio EPA's anti-degradation policy put a strain on the City's ability to add new development. Lima had to offset any new, additional flows to the sewer system with an equal amount of "credits" for improving water quality. The Copa CSO screens substantially improved the water quality of the CSO discharge to the Ottawa River. In seeking to control floatables and solids discharging from CSOs, Lima Utilities' professionals hired the engi neering and construction firm of Montgomery Watson Harza(MWH)of


Cincinnati, Ohio, to consult on the

project. Through MWH, Lima officials learned of technology relatively new to the US,

CSO problem

i.e. horizontal raked-bar screens.

Copa, Ltd., is the

solved with raked-bar

British firm that devel

oped the horizontal raked-bar screen. It has been used in Britain for

10 years. Copa screens


are marketed in the US

by CDS Technologies, Inc. Copa's mechanical rakedbar screen technology is aptly


The city of Lima, Ohio, has

grappled with combined sewer

overflow issues for more than

three decades. Now, Lima has

improved its Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) problems and opened the door for economic development. In 2002, Lima installed horizontal

raked-bar screens on to five large CSO control structures located along the Ottawa River. The retrofit project has

named. Each screen is made of 4-

flow control system. The CSO control structures, which are underground pre-cast concrete, are each approximately 20 feet wide, 40 feet long and as much as 30 feet deep. They are connected by pipes ranging in size from 96 to 108 inches in dia meter. Two of the structures have

sluice gates on the interceptor pipe that control the flow in the sewer.

trash and debris that used to litter the

During heavy rain events, the inter ceptor and control structures are used for inline storage until the wastewater treatment plant can process the added

river, they received valuable "flow

flow. In cases where the sewer volume

credits" from Ohio EPA that can be

exceeds the inline storage capacity, the excess flow is released through CSO gates in the CSO structures into the river. To date, these released CSO flows discharge to the Ottawa River without receiving any treatment or screening. "We have a river walk that is fairly new," explained David Schnipke, envi ronmental compliance manager for Lima's Utilities Department. "When we had overflow events you would get a lot of things that come out of the sewer up along the river bank. That's

been more successful than was antici

pated. Not only has Lima removed the

used for future development upstream. Lima, a city of 40,000, has some 226 miles of sewers. About 130 miles

are combined storm and sanitary sew ers. In the mid-1970s, the city made its

first serious attempt at solving the CSO problem by installing a large sewer interceptor pipeline and five CSO control structures along the Ottawa River. The combined storm and

sewer flow in the interceptor and the five CSO control structures are con

trolled by a sophisticated real-time

38 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

mm stainless steel bars positioned 4 mm apart. The screens are mounted horizontally along a weir wall in a basin or holding tank. As the wastewater level rises, it comes in contact with the screen. Very little hydraulic head is lost, up to a maximum of 4

inches at a flow rate of approximately 8 CPS per foot of screen (.24 cubic metres per second). As the wastewater flow gets deeper and rises through the screen, floatables

such as cups, cigarette butts, and wrap pers are trapped below. The flow, along with screened solids, continues on to the treatment plant where the debris is removed. The overflow, now minus the screened solids and floating debris, spills over the weir and is diverted into a canal or other waterway. To prevent the screens from being blocked by the accumulation of debris, the bars are continually raked back and

forth by TIVAR combs powered by hydraulic cylinders. TIVAR is a selflubricating material that creates little friction with the bars. The combs, which are activated only during storm events, make a complete cycle through the bars every nine seconds. The accu-

Wastewater Treatment mulated debris is pulled by the combs to an area where it rejoins the flow to the treatment plant. There is growing interest in the Copa technology. About 40 screens have been installed in the US, with an


To prevent the screens from being blocked by the accumu lation of debris,the bars are


j imiiJiaLl

continually raked back and


forth byllVAR combs. average of about three to four screens per site. The Lima project required 15 screens.

Easy maintenance is one of the main benefits of the new system.

Basically the screens are self-cleaning. They are washed with a high-pressure hose periodically so that they can be examined more carefully, but they require very little attention. May, 2003, was an excellent oppor tunity to test Lima's new CSO treat ment system. Northwest Ohio was

of rainfall over four weeks, enough to max out the city's combined sewers.

screen system worked beautifully. For more information contact Gus Willis at e-mail: gwillis@cdstech.com

By all accounts the new raked-bar

or Tel: 410-620-0933.

drenched with more than seven inches


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The business of

preserving nature through composting By W.D.Elder, Cover-All Building Systems Inc.

Exterior views of buiidings and compost at the Crane

Crane Mountain Landfill is



located in the Fundy Region of New Brunswick. It employs 33 people and offers a recycling depot and community-composting program that is equipped with advanced environmental protection technology. "The landfill is limited in its capac ity, so waste is lessened by a reducing, re-using and recycling program," says Chris




Supervisor. "It's a 600 acre, $42 mil lion dollar investment that is owned

and operated by the Fundy Region Solid Waste Commission. Our recy cling and composting program is a totally voluntary program that serves 125,000 people in seven different municipalities." The recycling and composting process is contained in four Cover-All TITAN fabric-covered buildings that cover 50,400 square feet of working

Landfill in


area. The buildings are positioned on a four-foot thick by five-foot high push wall foundation which provides a good clear span working environment for the machine operators and nearly 50 feet of height to operate the 26 foot tall elevated conveyor system. During construction of the con crete, trenches were moulded into the floor to create positive aeration upwards from the floor for very dense product. Each building has protective equipment, respirators, air exchange systems and special bio-filters to pro tect workers and control odour; Crane

Mountain is located just 2.3 kilometres from a high density residential area. "This is a very acidic process and an extremely harsh environment. The polyethylene fabric of the Cover-All buildings is not affected by the corro sive environment and the steel tube

framing requires minimal mainte nance. These buildings are the right buildings for this industry," says Chris Harned. "Just to give you an idea as to how


Two more Cover-All buildings that are each 80 feet wide are used for

Compost Halls. Machine operators move and mix carbon amendments

ment is: in our first

into the organic product to control C-N ratios (carbon to nitrogen). Once a stockpile is mixed, an operator forms the stockpile into a compost windrow. Quality Control personnel monitor temperature, moisture and oxygen lev els within each of the eight 14 by 60 foot compost windrows. Each windrow is allowed 35 to 40 days to process before it is moved to the sec ond Compost Hall. In the second Compost Hall, the organic materials are allowed to process for another 35 to 40 days and are continually monitored. To hydrate




Hair is housed in a

40 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

A payloader loads the organic materi als into an in-feed hopper and trans ports the materials through a sorting line that allows sorters to hand-pick contaminants. A 'high power electro magnet' is also utilized to further remove contaminants prior to the organic materials hitting the shredder. A conveyor transports the sorted organics to 'Compost Halls' to allow the 70-day thermophilic process to kill pathogenic organisms and for vector

corrosive this environ

year of operation we had to replace the fire extinguishers and the interior lights because they literally rotted out; they looked like they were 30 years

Sorting line and shredder.

floor where large contaminants are pulled out during a preliminary search.

120 foot wide by 60 foot long building. The organic materials are dropped on the


Chloriuation••• the organic material, a 3500-gaIIon reservoir of potable water is utilized to control the moisture.

After the 40-day process is com pleted in the second Compost Hall, the organic material is placed outside for an additional five months to complete the mesophilic stage. At this point, the composting product has no smell and does not attract seagulls to the site. Once the mesophilic process is com pleted the compost product is then sift ed though a 512-Screener to remove any final contaminants and oversized particles; anything that is over half inch in size is sent to the landfill. The final result is 4000 metric tons of

Grade A compost product that is ready for sale.

The fourth Cover-All building (80 by 180 feet in size) is used as a plastics warehouse. Plastics are a saleable item

but they have to be protected from lengthy UV exposure otherwise they begin to degrade and the plastics aren't

landfills, now we can replace much needed topsoil that's been stripped from the land with rich organic com post," says Harned."We make a great

effort to educate people on the impor tance of waste management. We bus kids in from 52 different schools to

tour them through our facility; we also

have an interpretive area that provides a miniaturized overview of the entire process.

"We are currently diverting 30% waste from the landfill; we hope to hit

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50% diversion in the near future.

Garbage that goes into the landfill should be as a minimal as possible; it's the way of the future," says Harned. The industrial, commercial and in stitutional (ICI) clientele has also be gun to take notice of the operation. Current tipping fees to dump organics into the compost plant are $50 per met ric ton, as opposed to $110 per metric ton for garbage that goes to the land fill.

worth as much.

"Most people don't realize that this is a very valuable resource. For years organic materials were buried in the

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Cover Story

Continuous mkrofiltration-submerged system ensures high-quality drinking water

The commissioning of a 10.5 mil ion US gallons-per-day(MGD)continu

ous microfiltration-submcrgcd (CMF-S) system from USFiltcr Memcor Products is ensuring a safe drink ing water supply for residents in the West London, England, area. Started up in February 2003, the system is installed at Chertsey Water Treatment Works (WTW), operated by Three Valleys Water. CMF-S technology, combined with downstream ozonation and carbon filtration, acts as a barrier to bacteria and protozoa,

including cryptosporidium, in the groundwater wells at the WTW. The system is also designed to treat water from the River Thames for short periods, should groundwater sources be unavailable.

Three Valleys Water awarded the contract to USFilter's sister company, Veolia Water Partnership, and Black & Veatch Contracting Limited, to design and supply the membrane filtration system follow ing several months of successful CMF-S system pilot test ing.

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A pilot Study was conducted on two water sources, Abbeymead well water and the River Thames, which are susceptible to cryptosporidium contamination. Testing of the Memcor CMF-S system demonstrated the capability of the membranes to treat both the groundwater and surface water sources. The testing on the Abbeymead well water included oxidization upstream of the CMF-S system to pre cipitate iron, allowing the reduction of iron as well as tur bidity and suspended solids. Subsequent pilot testing on the River Thames, where turbidity ranges between 20 and 50 NTU, with spikes up to 100 NTU, showed that the sys tem was able to consistently produce product water with turbidities less than 0.2 NTU, and provide an effective physical barrier to ayptosporidium. The CMF-S system at Chertsey WTW consists of six membrane filtration cells, with each cell containing 192 PVDF membrane modules and "rack inserts" to increase

system recovery and minimize waste disposal. Five of the six cells will be used to filter the incoming water, with the sixth cell operating as a backup while one ofthe other cells is being backwashed or cleaned. The system's product water is sent at a constant flow to downstream ozone con

tact tanks, and then to the carbon filters. A programmable logic controller(PLC) allows the operator to interface eas ily with each cell by using the graphical user interface. To ensure that the microfiltration membrane is providing an effective barrier between feed water and product water, the CMF-S system includes a built-in, automated, pressure decay test, which is easy for the plant operator to monitor. Three Valleys Water, a Veolia Water company, is the UK's largest water-only supply company, serving three mil lion customers with more than 200 million gallons of highquality water every day in an area north and west of London.

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Energy Conservation

Deep lake water cooling - a matter of degrees By Tom Davey,Environmental Science & Engineering


Water to City

While Torontonians sweated

Oty of Toronto Waters WastewaterServices

Chilled Water to Enwave & Customer Loop

Enwave District Coahng System

Enwave Customer


out electrical blackouts and loss of air condition

ing, a press tour took place on a pleasure craft sailing from the Toronto waterfront. The boat trip gave a unique view of an impressive engi neering scheme which will, ultimately, use extremely cold Lake Ontario water to cool buildings in the huge office blocks in downtown Toronto and bring



Water Intakes

13.3'C 4 4'C


Building Loop

IQ atyleop EnwanelMp

111 atywalw EmvavpWiter

Q CuOoracrWatar

water to Toronto's Island Filtration

Plant for treatment to potable stan dards. As our boat tour got underway,


H/X" Keaf Exihangtr

the airwaves were full of horror stories

from Ontarians complaining about the loss of air conditioning - this in stark contrast to the cooling breezes on our boat trip. The final sections of pipes for

Toronto's Deep Lake Water Cooling (DLWC) began to be placed deep into the chilly waters of Lake Ontario in August, 2003. The final pipe is one of three high density polyethylene pipes

One source of

into the lake and reach a depth of 83

Water and Wastewater Services divi

metres below the lake surface.

sion and Enwave. At the time of writ

water...two uses

By using the naturally occurring cold water from Lake Ontario,

from the Province of Ontario or the

that will extend five kilometres out

• 4''C water is drawn through three new intake pipes, treated at the Isiand Filtration Plant and directed

through an existing cross-harbour tunnel to the John Street Pumping Station (JSPS). • Prior to entering the drinking water supply, the water is sent through heat exchangers and energy is transferred between the City and Enwave systems. • Water enters the City side of the heat exchangers at 4.4''C and leaves at 12.5°C, with S-fC trans ferred to the water on Enwave's

side of the heat exchanger. • Physical separation between Enwave's system and the City's system is maintained via heat exchangers that are designed to

facilitate the transfer of energy, not water.

• One source of water provides cold ness for Enwave's system and drinking water for the City.

Enwave's Deep Lake Water Cooling project will provide an alternative source of air conditioning for down town office buildings in Toronto. In exchange for providing new raw water intake pipes to Toronto's Island Filtration Plant, Enwave will be per mitted to transfer the cold temperature from the City water to its chilled water system. This process will not have any negative impact on the potable water quality because there will always be physical separation between the City's potable water and Enwave's cooling loop. The Deep Lake Water Cooling project will produce enough cooling to service over 1,800,000 square metres of office space or approximately 100 Toronto office towers.

"This will be the largest lake water cooling service in the world, and the first of its kind in Canada," said Dennis Fotinos, Enwave President and CEO.

There are two stages to the Deep Lake Water Cooling project. The first stage, called the marine component, was expected to be completed by the end of August 2003 with the installa tion of the remaining pipes. The land

44 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

construction stage will continue until the spring of 2004. When complete, Enwave will activate Deep Lake Water Cooling. The DLWC project is an excellent example of public private partnership with the City of Toronto's

ing, it had not received funding either Federal government. Established over 20 years ago, Enwave is one of North America's

largest district energy systems. Anchored by three modernized steam plants, a 20 kilometre distribution net work supplies over 130 buildings in the downtown Toronto core with reli

able, cost-effective heating. In 1997, with the opening of its Simcoe Street Cooling Plant at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Enwave introduced district cooling to Toronto.

Originally established as Toronto District Heating Corporation (TDHC) in 1982, Enwave underwent a legisla tive restructuring in 1999 and is deemed to be incorporated under the Ontario Business Corporation's Act. Enwave's shareholders are BPC Penco

Corporation, a wholly owned sub sidiary of the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System and the City of Toronto. Deep Lake Water Cooling is an environmentally-friendly, reliable, cost-effective, long-term method of replacing CFC-based chillers. continued overleaf...










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The revolutionary Cannibal™ Solids Reduction Process eliminates biosolids wasting and high handling and disposal costs in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. The Cannibal Process cycles mixed liquor through a patented sidestream bioreactor, alternating aerobic and non-aerobic environments. Integral to the process is our patented solids separation module and the SmartCannibal"' Control System. These controls, which encode our unique process knowledge, regulate aeration and mixing at the optimum rate and time for solids destruction. The Cannibal Process has been success lonventionol Plant

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For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)

VE0LIA Envirbnment

Energy Conservation Significant statistics include: • DLWC uses 90% less electricity than conventional air condi tioning and 75% less energy overall. • It reduces carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, smog, acid rain, greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). • DLWC cuts the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide emissions by 40,000 tons per year - the equivalent of taking 5,000 cars off the road.

• Sulphur dioxide emissions will be reduced by 176 tons each year. Sulphur dioxide combines in the atmosphere to make sul phuric acid, which kills aquatic life in Lake Ontario. The ecology of the lake will not be affected, as the DLWC system will be used for the City's potable water supply and will make its way to consumers for cleaner drinking water. The system will save 75-90% of electricity that would have been generated by a coal-fired power station. Contact: Enwave District Energy, Tel: (416) 392-6838, Fax: (416) 363-6052. ■


Two of the three HOPE 1,500 mm pipe intakes will

ultimately total 15,592 metres comprising 897 fused joints. Concrete anchor blocks will total 2,837 com prising 7,271 m^ of concrete.

Photo Tom Oavey

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46 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

For more information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 25)

Geotextile Liners

Landfill remediation using geosynthetics for stabilization By Bill Allison,P.Eng.,and Bruno Herlin,P.Eng.

During the summers of 2001

and 2002, the City of Hamilton and its engineers, Dillon Consulting Ltd., ten dered a construction project to cover, collect leachate, and stabilize slopes on an old landfill site, which had been

constructed adjacent to a creek. The challenge involved designing a veneer slope with geosynthetic products at slopes of 35 degrees while maintaining a natural landscape along the creek. Numerous geosynthetic products such as a geosynthetic clay liner, geomembranes, geogrids, textiles, and erosion

Photo 1. Installation of the geosynthetic day iiner over the existing iandfiii, 2001. View of the rainwater channei.

control blankets, were used to collect

leachates, stabilize the slope along the existing creek, and to restrict the pene tration of rainfall into the landfill to

reduce further infiltration into the sys tem. Used together, the geosynthetic products gave the owner and engineer a safe and economical solution to a contaminated site.

The Red Hill Creek is a 68 km^(26 mi^) watershed located on the southern shore of Lake Ontario. On the west

side of the creek within the city of Hamilton are the former Rennie Street

and Brampton Street landfill sites. These old city "dumps" were created when approximately 1.4 million m^

Photo 2. Instaiiation of the pipe coiiection system aiong with the lining system, which included the use of a 60 mil HOPE, GCL, drainage net.

(1.8 million yd^) of waste was dis

creek through the removal/plugging of

face water into the landfill and to min

posed into a 1-km (0.6-mi)-long sec tion of the floodplain of the creek. Leachate was being expressed as seeps along the west bank of the creek

buried utilities,

imize generation of leachate that could flow to the creek. During the summer of 2001, the hired contractor installed the GCL over a regraded landfill sur

• Construction of a low-permeability cover of the Rennie Street landfill to





from the landfills. In addition, the


face that directed surface water to a

encroachment of the Red Hill Creek by the landfills had created very steep valley slopes. The valley encroach

• Re-alignment of Red Hill Creek away from the landfill sites in a stable natural-channel design, permitting

ment had also caused enhanced rates

construction of a horizontal leachate

of erosion adjacent to the landfills that were leading to undermining of the banks and potential failure of the land fill slopes into the creek. The City of Hamilton retained Dillon to assist them in undertaking and implementing a strategy to control erosion and manage leachate for the sites. The strategy that was developed included the following: • Stopping the flow of leachate to the

collection system at the toe of the land fills, and

collection system away from the creek. A sand layer for gas venting was placed under the GCL. The GCL was covered with an adequate thickness of cover soil, including a non-woven geo

• Stabilization and lining of the land fill slopes to prevent slope failure and direct leachate to the collector system. Project concept and material selection

A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected to cover the top of the Rennie Street landfill in order to

restrict any further infiltration of sur

textile in the constructed rainwater

channel as a separator between the cover soil and the installed riprap. Discussions are underway with a local community liaison committee to identify potential end uses for the site. With this cover design, engineering and environmental limitations on the

end use are only related to excavation continued overleaf...

September 2003, Environmentai Sdence & Engineering 47

Geotextile Liners the creek and re-aligning the creek approximately 5 to 15 m (16 to 50 ft.) away from the landfill, in a natural channel design. Once the creek had been realigned, the construction of the horizontal collection system was start ed by installing a lining wall between the creek and the collection pipe (Photo 2). Once the horizontal collection sys tem was constructed, the slope 1.5 H: IV along the landfill was sealed by installing a system of drainage net, GCL and a structural geogrid for the soil cover veneer stability. This engi neered solution using Tensar geogrids can support the soil cover on steep slopes, reducing the strain placed on the underlying lining system and ensuring the long-term stability of the Photo 3. Construction of the slope along the landfill Included the use of drainage net to collect the contaminants, a GCL, and a geogrld wrap system

landfill. The GCL contained leachate

within the landfill and the drainage net

to ensure slope stabilization.

directed the leachate into the collection


and building construction. The main component of the work is being carried out along the slope adja cent to the creek and in the creek itself.

One of the most significant challenges

of the project was to design a collec tion system against the creek and along a slope of 35° without exposing any existing waste. This was achieved by first excavating a wider floodplain for

Since the owner had chosen the

vegetated surface option, a wrap face system was designed to ensure surficial stability and erosion control. The system was constructed in a wrapping


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Providing professional services in: Wafer Wbsfewofer Process

Dr. McKay has over 30 years experience in the area of atmospheric science and 'illUi management. Prior to joining Canadian ORTECH Environmental, Dr. McKay held a number of executive positions in the Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada and has served on boards and task forces with the World Meteorological Organization, the International Energy Agency, the International Joint Commission, and the Commission for Environmental Co-operation. Dr. McKay received a B.Sc. in Physics and Mathematics and a Ph.D. in Micrometeoroiogy from the University of Gueiph and a M.Sc. in Meteorology and a MBA from the University of Toronto.

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Geotextile Liners technique, which included an initial lift of 600-mm stone wrapped in a combination of geogrids and nonwoven fabrics installed over the slope biaxial grid. A second lift of selected topsoil wrapped in a geogrid and ero sion blanket was installed over the ini

tial stone lift. This process was contin ued in lifts along the length and width of the slope for a total coverage of

approximately 30,000 m^ (35,880 yd^). The entire sealing system was


completed by hydroseeding the slope with a mixture of native grasses and wild flowers and then covered with erosion control blankets.

Tensar Earth Technologies engi neered the complete system, along with the slope stability. The project engineers undertook peer review. Terrafix Geosynthetics Inc. supplied contractor assistance and supervision during the entire length of the project. The project will continue later in 2003 with a final phase, which will include the continuation of the slope and horizontal leachate collection sys tem along the creek to the final limit of the landfill. Final plans of the project

Photo 4. New creek and stabilized slope with vegetation growth in progress over the erosion blanket and geogrid system. are to return the area to its natural

environment and this process has already begun with the growth of veg

slopes of the landfills, while providing the owners with a natural setting with minimal signs of synthetic products.

etation over the erosion blanket and the

geogrid system (Photo 4). The combination of geosynthetics provided the project engineers with a system to collect the leachate from the existing landfills and secure the steep

Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc.

Bill Allison is a Project Engineer and Partner with Dillon Consulting Ltd. Bruno Merlin is a Project Engineer with Terrafix Geosynthetics Inc. Email: bherlin@terrafixgeo.com.


& Rest Burnside has been helping clients find cost effective and innovative solutions to their environmental needs for more

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Potential operating savings through controlled wastewater and sludge treatment By Franz Winter,Endress+Hauser

time allows continuous measurement

In recent years, wastewater treat

of the


content. The "Sum

Absorption Coefficient" (SAC) is gaining increasing acceptance in this respect since it is easy to use. Nowadays it is possible to measure the SAC using sensor technology. Automated Sludge Discharge Volumes of sludge in the mechani cal treatment stage are subject to wide

ment plant operators' efforts have increasingly been aimed at devis ing economically efficient process es in wastewater and sludge treatment besides actually eliminating pollutants. Target figures for eliminating carbon and reducing nutrients such as phos phorus and nitrogen play an important role in this since they are a major fac tor in the eutrophication of our waters. There is also a financial aspect linked with sewage treatment, sludge biosolids treatment and disposal, to be

fluctuations. This is attributable to

taken into consideration. Use of mod

fluctuations in solid matter volumes.

ern instrumentation and control sys tems in various stages of the wastewater treatment plant processes sup ports, or rather permits in many cases, controlled wastewater and sludge treat

This is the first point where it is possible to prevent the undesirable


Inlet Load Measurements Measurements in the wastewater

treatment inlet make it possible to determine the load carried and to track

the load development, i.e. the capacity. The organic load is of special interest. Recognising shock loading in good

waste-water composition, weather

conditions, seasons and the daily rhythm of dischargers in the catchment area. Normally, primary sludge drawoff, according to a given time pattern, will not be capable of handling varying

entrainment of water into the down

stream sludge treatment process. Sludge which is too thin causes increased costs in heating digestion tanks, in the sludge dewatering process, and reduces the hydraulic capacity of the sludge treatment. The start of sludge discharge, i.e. opening the sludge draw-off gate valves, can take place as before within

a time pattern based on a daily load

Controls discharge of primary sludge to biosolid stages

curve or using sludge level measuring equipment which works on ultrasonic principles. The fact that there are now four-channel systems for measuring sludge levels is proving to be a benefit in respect of capital investment requirements. The use of continuously operating instruments determining suspended solids content is aimed instead at end

ing sludge draw-off in good time. Suspended solid sensors are installed directly in the sludge dis charge pipe in order to reduce mainte nance effort, increase operational safe ty and obtain representative measure ments. In a typical cycle the solids content increases to approximately 5% dry mass(DM)after the discharge gate is opened, then declines to approxi mately 2% DM over a period of about five minutes, before sudden water inrush occurs. The limit value for sus

pended solid content is set according to this characteristic curve to halt

sludge draw-off at about 1 - 2% DM. Suspending the sensors directly in the sludge hopper has not proved suc cessful. The risk of sludge depositing on the hopper walls is too great. The sensor would then signal a high sludge

Benefits: insures that the concentration

of primary siudge is not "too thin", carrying unnecessary water to the siudge treatment stage. CUM 750


increases the hydrauiic capacity of a thickener. increases the gas yieid in a digester.

Decreases heating energy used in a digester. LIQUISYS 8 81-03

CUA461 CUS 41


Primary sludge discharge.

50 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

Decreases pump energy usage. Reduces the amount of polymers used in the dewatering process.

Instrumentation wastewaterireturn sludge). The return activated sludge ratio is controlled by

Benefits: STAMOSENS CNM 750 D5-03 □enitrification Basin

the solids measurement in the activat

Internal recycling of ttie sludge is adapted to the

ed sludge basin. As a result of the larger basin vol umes, the reaction time is correspond ingly high, so that step controls have proved correct.

denitrification's capacity (load). CNS 70

Optimizes the degradation of nitrogen (more reduction of nitrate - less nitrogen in outlet).


Insures the fulfillment of the

discharge permit.

Automated Waste Activated

Sludge Discharge There are two possible measuring parameters for the sedimentation process stage in the secondary clarifi er: measurement of the sludge profile,

Avoids floating sludge in secondary clarifier (no "wild" denitrification).

Internal Recycling Sludge

Control of circulated sludge.

level although the water would have already been drawn off due to tun nelling. Biological Nitrogen Elimination by

solved oxygen to metabolise; this is introduced by a blower. Overriding control according to ammonium con


stage can lead to significant energy savings. Furthermore, the efficiency of the denitrification stage is increased in

return activated sludge pipe, a) Sludge level concentration measure ment (profile): Waste activated sludge draw-off is controlled by continuous measurement of the sludge level using a

that, under controlled conditions, less

minimum/maximum contact for the

free oxygen is introduced into the tank.

sludge level. The operator can obtain a wealth of additional information by installing an optical measuring system where a sus pended solid sensor tracks the separa

In recent years it has become impossible to imagine not using online measuring technology for optimum operation and for transparency. This is particularly relevant since approxi mately 65% of the entire energy requirement for a sewage treatment plant is used during the biological stage of the process. Approximately 80% of this is used in denitrification.

Various methods are used, the most

frequent being upstream denitrifica tion.

Therefore the water flows first

into a biomass culture in anoxic condi tions. The nitrate content at the outlet of this denitrification tank is measured

by immersion sensors using the UV absorption principle. This nitrate con tent measurement also directly con trols the quantity of recirculated sludge, i.e. the nitrate return from the downstream nitrification tank. If there

is a low level of nitrate, the quantity of recirculated sludge is increased, or vice versa. For example, if the nitrate content of 2 mg/1 in the denitrification discharge is exceeded, the denitrifica tion stage is overloaded. In this case, the recirculated sludge is either reduced or carbon dosing may be acti

and solids content measurement in the

tent at the exit from the nitrification

In this cascade control of the ammoni

um and oxygen concentration, the ammonium analyser controls the oxy gen flow within the 0.5 mg/1 to 2.0 mg/1 range. The oxygen control operating at this level limits the air supply intensity, since oxygenation becomes uneco nomical at values over 2 mg/1. If the ammonium is not completely oxidised at this value, there is an overload or wastewater pollution load. Suspended solids measurement in the activated sludge basin serves to ensure the biomass necessary for decomposition of the organic matter. The quantity of return activated sludge from the secondary clarification stage is set by the return sludge ratio. A ratio of I:I is normal (incoming

tion zone. This determines the sedi

mentation behaviour by traversing a probe up and down the depth of the basin and by assigning the suspended solid content measured by the sensor to the sensor position. The resulting

depth/concentration profile provides information on sedimentation behav

iour, sludge quality and, in the broad est sense of the term, on the sludge age.

The deposition of extremely fine suspended matter, caused by anaerobic processes, and undesired denitrifica tion, can also be detected in good time. continued overleaf... STAMOLYS

Controls transformation of ammonia to nitrate



vated in order to "feed" the nitrate

organisms, thereby increasing its per formance/activity. If, instead, the nitrate content falls below 0.5 mg/1,

Optimizes the aeration COS 31 CYA611 □245

process. Microfilter D2-13

this indicates that the denitrification

stage still has decomposition capacity and the recirculated sludge can be increased accordingly. The microbiological decomposition of organically linked nitrogen to nitrate occurs during the aerobic stage - nitri fication. The microorganisms involved in the nitrification stage require dis

® Decreases energy

consumption (blowers).

® Prevents exceeding of limit values.

Nitrification Basin Blower

Control of required dissolved oxygen. September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 51

Instrumentation polymers are Benefits: UQUISYS S CYH 101 D2-03



- Controls the blomass

population, which saves energy by limiting excess air

cus 4i D2'^3







reaction time. An exces «' Insures that the proper amount of biomass is present for efficient organic pollution removal.



Flocculant dosing caus es a direct change in the optical characteristics of the sludge, which are also dependent on the sive change in the opti cal quality of the sludge will lead to measuring errors.

S' Reduces the need for

laboratory analysis of process. » Provides "real time" information.

Return activated sludge(RAS)

« Allows the operator to adjust the process based on changing plant loading conditions.


Just as in the preliminary settled sludge draw-off process, the suspend ed solids of the return activated sludge can be used as a control parameter. The photometric sensor is normally installed using a ball valve assembly which allows the operator to fit and remove the sensor for maintenance

purposes without interrupting the process. The signal from the continu ous suspended solid measuring system is evaluated against a minimum limit in order to stop discharge of waste acti vated sludge in good time.



solids content, is re ward"

Optimized Sludge Dewatering The digested sludge still contains approximately 95% water. In order to burn the sludge, or to enable it to be stored at a disposal site, additional water must be extracted from it in

thickeners, belt filter presses, screen belt presses and centrifuges. Solids content, turbidity, pH, flow and hydro static pressure, as well as differential speed when decanters are used, are the control parameters required. When the suspended solid sensor is installed it is especially important to ensure that measurements are taken before the



back, i.e. regulation, is possible by using turbidity sensors in the centrifligate/filtrate. The foam and air bubbles must be extracted from the centrifu-

gate in a de-aeration vessel in order to obtain representative measured values. Flocculants (polymers) are used to destabilise the charge equilibrium in the sludge/water mixture and thereby to promote the coagulation of microflocs. The reaction of polymers with the sludge to be dewatered depends on several factors, e.g. pH value, temperature, particle size, and the water retention capability of the sludge. Polymers change the charge


Benefits: Detects a sludge overflow UQUISYS S


product of flow and ferred to as "Feed for

Control of suspended solids.

b) In-line suspended solid measure

Flocculant dosing according to the incom ing dry mass weight,


earlier than an effluent

turbidity monitor.

D3-02 cue 101 D3-01

© Automates the discharge of waste activated sludge(WAS) based on the sludge blanket level. ® Insures that a low concentration

sludge is not pumped to the biosolids stage. CUA 461 CUS 41 D3-02

Control of return/waste activity sludge. 52 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

® Insures that there is always enough biomass to meet the changing demands of the plant.

Instrumentation balance in the suspension and thus per mit the suspended solids to coagulate. Measuring the charge on the surface of the suspended solid is an obvious way of determining effectiveness. Stream ing current monitors are used to meas ure the charge. The control target (set point) is located close to the isoelectrical point. The principle of the economic opti mum applies here. In other words, overdosing of polymers must be avoid

Benefits: © Optimize the de-watering Flocculant LIQUiSYSS

® Allows a control strategy based on 'dry mass' I I

(flow X suspended solids) concentration, not only flow.

{UQlflSYSSl G1-02

© Provides more efficient

polymer addition, thereby reducing costs.

ed on the one hand, since the motto

"the more the better" does not apply here; it is rather the case that too much flocculant makes the dewatering result worse. On the other hand, it is appro priate to consider whether a centrifugate lightly loaded with solids should not be accepted if this means that poly mer consumption can be significantly reduced and thereby great cost savings can be achieved over the year. Summary If one starts with the guiding princi ple of avoiding causes instead of rem edying them, it is impossible to do without online measuring systems as described above.

process and solids retention.

Saves energy producing PROMAG G1-01

CUS41 <32-04

CUA4ei CUS41 G1-02

sludge with a higher solids content.


Control of return/waste activity sludge. The continuous measurement of

level, pressure, flow, oxygen, pH, solids content, sludge profile, sludge level, SAC, ammonium, nitrate and phosphate parameters has become standard equipment in a sewage treat ment plant. They are a suitable means not only for finding out more about the consti

tution ofthe sludge and wastewater but also about the process stages and, thus, to reduce operating costs through reg ulation and control, and, at the same time,to increase operational reliability.

For more information contact Jean Rivers, Endress+Hauser Canada. E-


YSI Environmental

YSI Water

Quality Meters The 600 QS combines the compact 600R multiparometer water quality sonde with the rugged, reliable 650 MOS display/data logger into one easy-to-use handheld measurement unit. Equipped with YSl's patended Rapid Pulse dissolved oxygen sensor, there is no need to circulate or monuolly stir to provide stable and accurate DO readings. Other parameters include temperature, conductivity, salinity, ORP, and depth.


Conductivity Dissolved Oxygen pH ORP

Depth Resistivity

The 600 QS can be ordered with various coble

Specific Conductance

ntific Limited «h©skin«ca For more information, circie repiy card No. 140 (See page 25)

lengths making it suitable for taking spot measurements or doing vertical profiling. For product and pricing information or rental rates please contact: Your Canadian YSI Service Centre Vancouver






September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 53

Air Pollution

What is wrong with our air pollution strategies? ample evidence that the combustion products released mostly from tailpipe emissions are the major sources of

ByTahirR.Khan, Ph.D.Vice



A few major findings are quoted here:

While we have not done a

bad job in taking stock of air pollution problems in the past 50 years, imple-

mentaton of remedial measures has

been dismal. Both public and private agencies have continually been gener ating data on local, regional and inter regional levels that has produced

1. The first major episode that demon strated the injurious health effects of air pollution was the Great London Fog in England in 1952, which result ed in 4,000 deaths. 2. It is well documented that tailpipe emissions consisting of nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic com pounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and some other chemical com pounds in relatively smaller propor tions including unburned fuel, sulphur oxides, hydrochloric acid, etc., are released from the combustion of fossil

Stormwater Treatment Center Withdrawal

Corioius Pipe Tangential

Secondary Storm Pipe (Optional)


Trapped Floatables

Sediment Sump

fuels such as gasoline and diesel oil. These pollutants, when released to atmosphere, interact with each other in the presence of light and generate smog.

According to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment(MOE)Air Quality in Ontario, 2000 Report, 63% NOx, 30% VOCs (includes emissions from road vehicles and other transporta tion), and 39% PM (includes emis sions from road vehicles, other trans portation, and area wide fuel combus

Precaster Detail Drawings in AutoCad format are prepared by

tion such as off-road motors, and space heaters) are released from tailpipes and similar combustion processes. 3. The problem is further aggravated by ozone, produced when NOx react with VOCs in the presence of sunlight at elevated temperatures. The smog that appears as brownish-yellow or grayish-white haze in summertime is thus a mixture of ground-level ozone, particulate matter and other airborne compounds; the major components are the former two. The problem appears to be spreading, much to the alarm of the general public. 4. Smog is costly both economically and in the way it impacts on human

Enviromnent 21.

health. It has been well understood for

Environment 21, LLC

decades that exposure to high levels of smog can aggravate a wide range of respiratory diseases. Studies have

The V2B1 system provides removal of sediment, debris, and oil using overflow weir clarification. Seven model sizes are available to treat

impervious areas from 0.1 to 4.0 ha. The V2B1 is manufactured locally using standard PVC pipe and stan dard precast concrete manholes. Internal pipe hydraulics, treatment efficiency, and sediment storage analyses are based on Environment 21 technology and provided as sitespecific Technical Reports.

Circle reply card No. 153

54 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003


shown increases in hospital admissions for respiratory incidences when levels of ozone elevate at ground level during smog periods. 5. There is compelling evidence that people with asthma, respiratory or car diac diseases are more sensitive to

inhalable and respiratory particles components of smog. Numerous national and internation

al studies have been carried out during the last five decades, in which injuries inflicted upon public health and wel fare have been highlighted. For instance, a study. Air Pollution Burden ofIllness in Toronto, published in May 2000, showed that air pollution had caused 1,000 premature deaths, and 5,500 hospital visits were linked to heart or lung diseases. A recent U.N. study discovered an

inter-regional smog episode and received extensive coverage. A two-

mile thick cloud of smog shrouding southern Asian skies was threatening the lives of millions of people in the region and could have had adverse effects much farther afield.

Given the undisputed scientific evi dence ofsmog,common sense dictates that the next step must be to control the sources that generate or contribute to smog - the tailpipe emissions. Simply put, we must substantially reduce tailpipe emissions. Our society, how ever, is heavily dependent upon trans portation driven by internal combus tion engines. So we cannot put a sud den stop to the use of existing trans portation systems that generate

Air Pollution tailpipe emissions. However, it is a fact that we have the technology and knowledge that would cut tailpipe emissions and provide an alternative

transportation system if we want to do it.

Governments have not completely ignored the problem and not taken any action; they have, but the course they have taken is too meagre. The most astonishing thing I con tinue to witness is that public work shops, smog summits, conferences, citizen forums have been organized on an annual basis. And in these gather ings the governments, so-called clean air activists, community groups and researchers, both private and public, keep on painting the age-old gloomy picture of adverse health effects, pour ing out more and more statistics on smog-related deaths and hospital admissions. But no serious thought has been given to alternative transport sys tems that would curb tailpipe emis sions. Rarely, have I found an effective and decisive discussion on alternative

transportation. The MOE initiatives in Ontario

Smog Plan, Steering Committee Report, January, 1998 are listed below; the comments are mine; 1. A Smog Accord developed and sup ported by governments, businesses, and community representatives reiter

tion through cooperative activities. 5. Implementation of a management policy to ensure that progress is being made to improve Ontario air quality. Report Card After the passage of 50 years, we still are struggling with good inten tions - but no real work has been done to curb emissions.

Air quality in southern Ontario has consistently been deteriorating as the highest number ever of smog alerts was issued during the summer of2002. What good is an advisory when there is no mass transit from my resi

1. Preparing a blueprint to install Mass Transit Systems (MTS) on selected roads and highways in phases. 2. Diverting a portion of the road/high way construction budget to the devel opment of mass transit systems. 3. Laying the foundation of the first phase. 4. Building residential and commercial areas right along the MTS track, instead of clusters which are miles


A Call to Government Agencies A few air quality summits, a proud news release from a municipal coun

dential area and I have to reach the

cilor that he rode his bike to the sum

office at 8:00 a.m. in downtown

mit, a few photographs of federal and provincial ministers riding bicycles on busy downtown streets, are just win dow dressing which does not put a dent in air pollution and smog problems.

Toronto; what I do, is crank my car engine and sit in the traffic jam, pollut ing the air with a thousand others. Granted, a dismal fraction of us might sweat on a bicycle and cough our lungs out, but it is not going to make a dent in the air quality. When we look at the Ontario air

quality as given in Air Quality in Ontario 2000 Report we observe: • Approximately 10% reduction has taken place in NOx concentration lev els between 1980 and 2000. • The trend in VOC emissions shows

that, in 1991, 800 kilotonnes were released and, in 2000, 670 kilotonnes, a decrease of approximately 16%. • The trend in particulate matter

The first and foremost issue here is

tailpipe emissions and unless we give a practical alternative to private automo bile users, smog levels will grow no matter how many times the minister rides a bike on downtown streets. ■

Water quality monitoring The Six-CENSE® is

a 6-in-l multiparameter in-line sensor that



Chlorine (free chlo rine), Chloramines

ates that:

reduction indicates approximately

• Smog is a serious and continuing problem affecting Ontario, and acknowledges that we have the


• There is practically no difference in

(combined chlorine) or Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Conductivity, Oxi

resources to take decisive action to cut

ozone concentration levels between


smog - Goodfor the MOE! • The partners recognize NOx, VOCs and particulates are major contributors to smog - hardly earth shaking news. • The pollutants originate from

1991 and 2000.

Temperature. This electrochemical technology sits on a robust ceramic chip. Six-CENSE is the only multiparameter sensor designed for direct insertion into pressurized water

sources both in Ontario and the U.S.

• Reducing smog can improve health and the quality of the environment - a banal statement ofthe obvious. • The partners expressed the intent by 2015 for a 75% reduction in the num

ber of times the 80 ppb 1-hour ozone criterion is exceeded as compared to that between 1990 and 1994 - by then

MOE will see the end ofseveral thou sand lives!

2. Reduction of the total NOx and

VOC emissions by 2015. 3. Reduction of particulate matter

through better understanding of these pollutants - keep on understanding! 4. Reduction of transboundary pollu

18% reduction between 1991 and

Action Plan

The agencies responsible for the well-being of the public must take notice of their record to date and begin putting together a strategic action plan that must be put into gear right away no declarations, no preparednesses, no pouring out statistics of deaths, illness es, and hospital admissions. These agencies must realize that as long as they keep on building new highways, allow more SUVs, build gaps between residences and business, smog will continue killing people and the environment. A completely new direction based on mass transit sys tems must be planned and built. This, of course, is a tall order, but if governments are serious about protect ing human lives and the planet, they can make a start. This can be done by:



mains from 2" to 36" in diameter,

making it ideally suited to fulfill the requirements of water utilities to monitor the water quality throughout their distribution system. The unit is easy to install, simple to calibrate, and is designed for durability and minimum operator maintenance. Monitoring Applications Include: Finished Water, Source Water, Wastewater, Final Effluent. Visit us at www.enviro-analytical.com. Environmental Analytical Systems Circle reply card No. 154

September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 55

Ecosystem Protection

More than 1000 international government and

industry specialists involved in dam construc tion gathered in June, in Montreal, for the con gress of the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), where the World Wildlife Fund is calling on ICOLD members to implement the guidelines of the World Commission on Dams(WCD)to ensure that the environmental damage caused by dams is reduced. Dams are amongst the most destructive developments affecting freshwater ecosystems, threatening wildlife and people. Large dams also have displaced between 40 to 80 million people globally. There are already 45,000 large dams (more than 15 metres in height) and ICOLD has called for a doubling of this number. Such a dam building


on Dams (WCD) released a report suggesting that many dams have caused unacceptable and often unnecessary

ance and carrying out comprehensive needs and options assessments. ICOLD, which represents the majority of governments and companies involved in dam planning and construction, has so far refused to endorse the findings of the WCD, instead denouncing the WCD report as unbal anced, even though one of the WCD Commissioners, Dr. Jan Weltrop, is ICOLD's honorary president. "Dams have caused widespread environmental damage. By demonstrating how to build better dams in the right locations, the WCD has shown a way forward," said Dr. Ute Collier, WWF's Dams Initiative Leader. "It is high time that ICOLD takes action to change its practices in line with

social and enviromnental costs. The WCD made recom

the WCD's recommendations".

mendations for a new approach to decision-making on dams, stressing in particular the need to gain public accept-

One ofthe key themes discussed at the ICOLD congress is the financing of hydropower dams. WWF warned ICOLD members that many financial institutions, in par ticular commercial banks, are becoming increasingly cau tious about financing potentially controversial dam proj ects. WWF believes that if dam projects followed the WCD guidelines, this would not only reduce environmental and social costs, but also lower the financial and reputational risks for potential lenders. WWF is advising financial insti tutions to screen dam projects according to WCD guide lines which should ensure that projects have won public

bonanza would have disastrous socio-economic and envi

ronmental consequences. In Canada, large dams have impacted significant por tions of many watersheds. WWF-Canada's recently released study. The Nature Audit (which measured Canada's efforts to conserve biodiversity),found that dams are having significant consequences for biodiversity in some parts of Canada. Two of the largest dams are in Quebec (La Grande Riviere and the Manicouagan River). In November 2000, the independent World Commission


acceptance and are viable.

Contact: Dr. Ute Collier, e-mail: ucollier(@ wwf.org.uk, or Sheree Bond, WWF-Canada, e-mail: slbond@ wwfcanada. org. ■

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circle reply card No. 167 (See page 25)

May 12,13 2004 Toronto Congress Centre,650 Dixon Rd., Toronto

Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine & Canadian Environmental Regulation & Compliance News , this con ference Is the largest event of Its kind In Canada. For more informa tion on the conference visit www.esemag.com Main topics covered will Include; regulation and compliance, ISO principles and best practices, the Kyoto Protocol and air emissions, Industrial wastewater, environmental health and safety issues, due diligence, contaminated land Issues, spills and emergency response. If you are Interested in presenting a paper related to these top ics, please fax or email a 100-200 word abstract to Lawrence Earl, Program Coordinator, by October 31 2003. Fax: (416) 920-0620, Email: tgate@ldlrect.com.


Water Quality Technology



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A comprehensive program with more than 30 technicai sessions, comprised of more than 180 presentations representing the work of more than 500 experts in the water quality field.

8 speciai-topic sessions on the timely Issues of regulatory updates, unregulated contaminant monitoring, treatment of CCL organics, aesthetics of corrosion and leaching, distribution system water quality modeling, decentralized treatment approaches, and source water quality.

2 eariy-bird sessions on Wednesday morning on the regulatory impacts of Atrazine and molecular technology challenges.

9 in-depth and interactive workshops on the basics of microbiology, initial distribution system evaluation, impact of disinfection practices on the distribution system, validating UV disinfection system for drinking water applications, reclaimed water, pilot plant operations, treatment alternatives for taste and odor control, laboratory design.

advances, discuss their

latest research projects, and share pertinent information.The workshops, technical sessions, poster session, exhibits, and facility tours are designed to keep you up-to-date and allow for maximum networking with your colleagues.

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Odour Control

Vortex flow inserts for odour and corrosion control

-— D.i-op Structure

Accelerated Flow si

Vortex Form

Richard St-Aubin,P.Eng., IPEX Inc.

The Vortex Flow Insert (VFI) is a special y engi

Top Cut Influent Line

Vortex Channel

neered drop structure that uses the kinetic energy of failing wastewater to eliminate odour discharges from municipal manholes and pumping stations. While vortexes have been used for many years to sup press turbulence and minimize air injection in large man hole drop structures, a recent innovation by noted hydraulics expert Dr. Eugene Natarius not only allows the VFI to suppress turbulence, but to actually oxidize hydro gen sulphide (H2S) and other odorous substances in wastewater. This has the effect of actually improving wastewater quality by dramatically increasing the concentration of dis solved oxygen in the flow. As a result, the VFI has been patented, and has been awarded a special Technical

Innovation Award from the American Public Works Association.

Vortex Flow Inserts are successfully operating in over 20 locations in the United States, and have also been installed in Australia.

Flow Exit Vortex Shaft Base

The most recent installation in

Canada was in Sarnia, Ontario, where the VFI drastically reduced H2S generation in a drop manhole near the Plank Road Pumping Station. How the VFI works

Incoming sewage is accelerated to supercritical flow conditions in the upper vortex form that has an increased slope. As the flow is accelerated, it flows around a swirl of

decreasing radius, thus generating a centrifugal force. The sewage flow proceeds to a much smaller diameter

drop pipe, where it continues to spin and drop at the same time. This creates a whirlpool effect, forming an air core down the centre of the drop pipe. This whirlpool or vortex effect creates a slightly lower pressure in the air core, creating a down draft that draws odorous gases down to the bottom of the manhole. The

H2S and other gases are entrained back into the sewage in the specially designed energy dissipating pool. Because ofthe vigorous aeration and mixing that occurs

Effluent Line

in the energy dissipating pool, the dissolved oxygen con tent of the sewage is drastically increased, thus oxidizing the HjS gas.

In order for the VFI to be effective, a drop depth of at least one metre is required; however, a drop ofthree metres or more is considered optimal. The VFI will perform in drops of well over 30 metres, and can be specially engi neered to handle greater distances. They have been suc cessfully installed both in drop manholes and in pumping station wet wells. While the main applications for VFIs are for control of odour and gas generation, they have also been used as energy dissipaters for such applications as turbine outlets.

The advantage of this approach for controlling odours at sewer drops is that it requires no active maintenance.

These vortex units are designed to be self-cleansing and they will work effectively at flows between 10% and 110% of their rated

capacity. This allows a vortex unit to han dle the widely varying flows that are char acteristic of many sanitary sewers. Current liquid phase odour control methods include injection of various

chemicals such as ferrous sulphate or hydrogen peroxide into the sewage flow. While the VFI typically has a lower capi tal cost than most chemical injection sys tems, the real savings come when consid ering the annual chemical costs. Based

on a flow of I million (US) gallons per 58 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

Odour Control day (44 L/s), with a concentration of 5 ppm dissolved sul phide, annual chemical costs could range between $30,000 and $40,000 annually. In addition, some commonly used chemicals (such as iron salts) often require double contain ment tanks and piping systems. The vortex flow will perform well in virtually any area where falling wastewater creates an odour or corrosion con cern. When installing a vortex unit in a wet well, it is important to recognize that the vortex unit forces air into the flow, and, therefore, should be located a reasonable dis tance from pumps in order to prevent air bubbles from

Perhaps the most important statistic is that, to date, no new odour complaints have been received from area resi dents.

Scientific papers describing the VFI in greater detail are available from the author, Richard St-Aiibin, e-mail: ricsta @ipexinc.com.


being injected into the pipeline. In areas where the total drop may be less than adequate


for complete odour attenuation, the VFI can work in tan dem with traditional chemical injection to reduce chemical

MS Filter Inc. supplies package drinking water treatment plants for small communities in Canada and the United States. Due to sales growth, we require a VICE PRESIDENT to manage the development of existing products and grow the company into new products and markets.


The performance of one of the first Vortex Flow Inserts, which was installed in the Minneapolis/St-Paul area in 1998, was documented at WEFTEC in 2000. This paper

The VICE PRESIDENT will take responsibility for all aspects of our Multi-Stage Filter product including quality, cost engineering, research and manufacturing. The VICE PRESIDENT will also have project responsibility with a team of designers, project managers and service technologists. The VICE PRESIDENT will be part of a team evaluating new technologies and markets to grow the company. The ideal candidate is a Professional Engineer in civil, chemical or environmental engineering with 10-20 years of experience in the engineering of water technologies.

described the installation of a VFI at a manhole that had

been a persistent odour problem for many years in a Minneapolis neighborhood. In addition to the odour prob lem, the upstream 750mm concrete pipe required rehabili tation both in 1989 by sliplining, and in 1996 with cured in place pipe. The manhole was located downstream of a dis charge point of an 8.1 km sewage forcemain, with an aver age daily flow of 12,500 m3/day, and a drop of 4.5 metres. A chemical injection system was installed in 1997 to miti gate the odour and corrosion concerns, consisting of chem ical pumps as well as an underground 19,000 L chemical storage tank. While the system was effective at controlling hydrogen sulfide induced odour and corrosion, chemical costs averaged up to $5,700(US) per month.

MS Filter Inc. offers a competitive salary and benefits, along with an employee profit sharing program and an opportunity for professional achievement in a rapidly growing company.

Please send replies to: MS Filter Inc.

A VFI was installed in November 1997, and concentra

17665 Leslie St., Suite 47, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 3E3 Fax:(905) 853-8807

tions of dissolved HjS in the wastewater were measured in two phases - one with only the chemieal injection system operating, and the other with only the VFI operating. In all cases the VFI performed at least as well as chemical injec tion, and in some cases was even more elTective at reducing HjS concentrations.

rabernethy@msfilter.com For more information, circle reply card No. 145(See page 25)



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September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 59

Public Health

Stormwater management could combat West Nile Virus By R.Dale Downey,P.Eng.,Gumming Cockburn Limited

Can stormwater management

ponds be designed to combat the proliferation of the West Nile Virus? The answer is yes, with a little help from Mother Nature. There is a public perception that stormwater management ponds pro vide abundant habitat for the propaga tion of mosquitoes. Current research suggests these facilities can and do provide suitable habitat; however, there is little evidence to support them as significant breeding grounds for mos quitoes. Recent




Canada and the United States conclude that constructed wetlands and

stormwater management ponds actual ly pose a low risk in spreading the West Nile Virus since the mosquito species that are found in wetlands and stormwater management ponds tend not to be the variety that carry the West

Canada and the US to manage the spread of the virus to humans and ani mals.

The focus of this article is to report on the type of measures being imple mented by water resource engineers and municipalities in the design, operThe larvicide

Methoprene, administered

in peiiet form when the

mosquito is in the iarvae

stage of deveiopment, has proven highiy effective.

urban communities. Birds serve as the

host for the virus. The mosquito first acquires the infection by feeding on an infected bird and the virus is then

transmitted when the female mosquito bites a person or animal. There is no evidence to support the view that the virus can be spread naturally from one person to another or from birds and mammals to a person. Which mosquito species actually transmit the West Nile Virus to people and animals? Scientists don't know for

sure; however, many believe that the virus is primarily associated with Culex mosquitoes. They are common ly known as the northern house mos quito, are widespread and have a flight range of less than one kilometre. This means that if you are bitten by one of these mosquitoes, then it likely hatched nearby. Water that is stagnant for more than three to five days, high in organics, within areas of dense veg etation, and free of predators, is a very attractive habitat to the female mosqui toes and well-known as a high risk site, particularly from May to September when the mosquito larvae are hatched. We are all well aware that the adult

mosquitoes are most active just after sunset.

There is also uncertainty on how

Nile Virus.

Ofthe 74 known species of mosqui

the virus survives our cold winters.

toes in Canada,the West Nile Virus has

Some scientists believe it could be car

been detected in 10 species. Not all species are found in all parts of Canada (57 species are found in Ontario) though field tests suggest that less than 1% of mosquitoes are likely to be

management ponds to help mitigate the spread of the West Nile Virus with

infected with the West Nile Virus.

in our communities.

ried inside migrating birds or remain dormant in hibernating mosquitoes. On May 13, 2003, Ontario Premier Ernie Eves announced new provincial standards for larviciding as part of the government's $20 Million commit

ation and maintenance of stormwater

Further evidence states that if an

Current research demonstrates that

infected mosquito bites you, then you have a 0.3% chance of developing mild symptoms. These low percentages may appear insignificant but substantial efforts are presently underway within

only female mosquitoes can spread the virus and the most important action we can take to control mosquito popula tions is to eliminate or treat the highrisk mosquito breeding sites within our

ment to combat the West Nile Virus. The



dictions within the United States such

as Illinois, New Jersey and New York.

Water Resources,Water, Wastewater & Solid Waste


• Burnaby • Kelowna • Calgary • Edmonton • Regina • Saskatoon • Toronto • St. Catharines

• Lethbrldge

60 Environmental Sdence & Engineering,September 2003


multi-tasked action plan was devel oped from recent experiences ofjuris



For more Information, circle reply card No. 147 (See page 25)

Public Health The provincial action plan will provide funding to support all costs of purchas ing larvicide for use in municipalities in Ontario. In response to this initia tive, Ontario municipalities have

Methoprene is the larvicide of choice in many municipalities in Ontario. It comes in slow-release pel

version of the Design Manual. There are two traditional types of stormwater management ponds: Detention Pond (dry) and Retention Pond (wet). Recent advances in stormwater management have created a combination facility, known as a Hybrid Pond (combined wet and dry plus wetland). A detention (dry) pond is designed to capture stormwater dis charged from the storm sewer and release it at a controlled discharge to a designated outlet over a minimum of

let-like formulations and is adminis

24 hours. It is often referred to as an

tered when the mosquito is in the lar vae stage of development. It has been approved by both the provincial and federal governments and is considered

extended detention pond. Most of the time the pond is dry. Its primary func

assessed the risk within their commu

nities and approved by-law amend ments and new regulations to eliminate or treat mosquito larvae production areas,

safe for humans and the environment.

Stormwater management ponds represent the final stage of a tradition al three-stage stormwater management treatment train designed to control and treat the stormwater runoff draining from urban developments. These ponds are an end-of-pipe solution, which means they are located at the end or outlet of the stormwater collec

tion network. The most visible portion of the stormwater collection system are catchbasins, which intercept the water on our roads and deposit it into the underground storm sewer pipes. The ponds are designed to: capture the excess stormwater to prevent flooding downstream; detain and slow the rate of discharge to help reduce

tion is flood control and erosion con

trol. They were very common in the 1980s; however, many municipalities now discourage their use. A retention (wet) pond is the same as above except it contains a perma nent pool of water and its primary function is water quality treatment, erosion control and flood control. As

the name implies the pond always con tains a pool of water. This pool assists in the removal of pollutants normally associated





A hybrid pond consists of a wet pond element, an extended detention component and a wetland element con nected in series. It provides enhanced water quality treatment capabilities. Most municipalities desire this type of pond design and sometimes add acces sories such as fountains to enhance its

performance and augment the concen tration of dissolved oxygen for a healthy fish habitat. Stormwater management ponds have proven to be a valuable tool to abate some of the water quality pollu tants and hydrologic side effects nor mally associated with the creation of our modern urban communities. A fur

ther refinement in the design of these facilities can help to control the spread of the West Nile Virus by eliminating the high-risk mosquito-breeding habi

tat. The following design features have been or are in the process of being adopted by Gumming Cockburn Limited in the design of stormwater management facilities in Ontario: • Gravity flow of water throughout the facility. Pumps and potential pump

Effective Solutions for Potable Wiiter, Wastewater, Leachate Storage and Industrial Storage.

stream channel erosion and habitat

degradation; and to capture and hold sediment and other pollutants that are washed from the streets and driveways

ExDerience does matter;.. Ou r construction crews

hal/e been building quality

and into the storm sewers. Recent


advances in the design of these facili ties have also enhanced their aesthetics

and property value within the commu nity. Most new draft plans of develop ment for residential, commercial and industrial communities in


include a stormwater management pond. Many municipalities have devel oped guidelines on the proper design, operation and maintenance and moni toring of stormwater ponds; however, many of these guidelines are adopted from the Stormwater Management Planning and Design Manual pub lished by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and updated in March 2003. Mosquito abatement measures within the stormwater management ponds are not addressed in the current

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Public Health mosquitoes. Adult female mosquitoes can enter an opening as small as 1.5 mm (1/16"). Allowances must be made to permit easy access for dewatering if the need arises. • Fully submerge the inlet and outlet pipes within the discharge control structure to reduce the available sur

face area of water for mosquitoes to lay eggs. • Dry detention facilities must com pletely drain all standing water within 72 hours. • Small diameter flow control ori

Stormwater management ponds have proven to be a valuable tool to abate some pollutant and hydrologic problems. They can be refined to help control the spread of the M/esf Nile Virus by eliminating the high risk mosquito breed ing habitat.

Photo courtesy Corm Construction Sewer & Watermain Ltd.

failure are avoided. The hydraulic grade line is examined to ensure an adequate downward slope from the storm sewer outlet to the point of dis charge from the pond. • Constant supply of fresh water to the permanent pool in the wet or hybrid ponds. This supply is from a natural groundwater discharge and /or a relatively large contributing drainage area. Most large drainage basins have a constant dry-weather flow discharge

Encasing the riprap or concrete chute blocks within a sloped bed of concrete will diminish the risk of standing

fices can become clogged and block age will delay the drawdown time. Consider an emergency flow release. • Encourage permanent pools with a water quality that will support the indigenous surface feeding fish, which feed on mosquito larvae. Introducing non-native fish or wildlife to control

• Avoid using barriers or diversions that hold standing water. • Upgrade stormwater management ponds. In the 1980s and early 1990s, many SWM ponds were designed for flood control only (extended detention or dry ponds). Many facilities are

mosquitoes in ponds is not very effec tive and may tlu-eaten native species. • Control the growth and density of emergent and pond-edge vegetation within the shorelines or safety shelves along the perimeter of permanent pools so the mosquito predators are not inhibited or excluded from pond edges. This will enable the indigenous fish to swim between plant bases.


being retrofitted to improve perform

These areas must be accessible for

from the storm sewers.


• Aerate the pond with a fountain, where possible, to increase the concen tration of dissolved oxygen and dimin ish stagnation. • Avoid using loose riprap or con crete formed depressions that encour age standing water. Riprap is often

designed for flood control, water qual

periodic maintenance and inspection. • Maintain a depth in excess of 1.2 m within the permanent pools to help prohibit the growth of invasive emer gent vegetation such as cattails. Emergent vegetation provides mosqui to larvae with shelter from predators and increases nutrient availability. The pond edges below the water surface are to be as steep and uniform as possible to discourage dense plant growth,

used at the outlet of storm sewers to

help dissipate the energy in the water.





ity treatment, erosion conti'ol, habitat

protection and include a well-planned planting strategy ofindigenous vegeta tion. In many cases, this native vegeta tion helps absorb the stagnant water. • Seal the flow control structures

from stagnant water (held longer than three days)to prevent the entry of adult


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which would become a favourable

habitat for mosquitoes. • An impermeable liner may be used in areas where vegetation is not desired. • An all-weather access road is rec

ommended along at least one side of the pond that is less than 7 m wide and as close to the shoreline as possible. If space permits, ponds with a shorelineto-shoreline distance greater than 7 m generally require access on both sides. Dale Downey is Director, Water Resources, Municipalities and Land Development,for Gumming Cockburn Limited ofRichmond Hill, Ontario. Email: ddowney@cclconsultants.com.

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PCB Management

A review of recent PCB regulations

that the proposed amend

the most expensive PCB management activity that PCB owners will under take. This is why many companies have put off doing anything with their transformers for as long as possible. The argument being: if there s nothing wrong with the transformer, don't mess

ments to the

with it.

By Eric A.H.Smith,Ph.D., PCB Disposal Inc.

ManyPCB owners are aware Chlorobi-

phenyls and PCB Storage Regulations will soon be coming into effect. The key amendments include: • Phase-out of most high-level (>500 ppm) PCBs in-service by the













• Phase-out of all PCBs in storage by the end of2009 and allow in-serv ice PCBs to be transferred to storage for only one year or less. • Phase-out of most high-level and














low-level PCBs from sensitive loca

OR 26800

tions within three years of the com ing into force ofthe proposed regula Decontamination of all out-of-serv-

ice liquids containing PCBs to less than 2 ppm PCBs. • Allowance that a liquid that con tains at least 2 mg/kg of PCBs may only be reused for topping up a liquid in equipment that contains at least 2 mg/kg of PCBs if the mixing does not change the concentration of PCBs in the liquid in the equipment. • Exemption from phase-out provi sions for light ballasts, pole-top trans formers, electrical and communication

perc process is up to each PCB owner. The success of the procedure depends largely on the size, internal construction and load of the trans

former. Interestingly, Canadian fed eral regulations announced August 13, 2003, are aiming at a 65% reduc tion in usage of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (perc). In March 2003, regulations came into effect requiring dry-clean ers to reduce perc use and emissions by 70 per cent by 2005. It remains to be seen whether perc will continue to tion.

In order to get extra mileage out of their PCB transformers, some PCB owners have tried to "reclassify" their askarel transformers to non-PCB sta

tus using the perchloroethylene (perc) process. In short, the askarel is replaced with perc as a dielectric and a distillation unit is attached to the trans

former to accelerate the leaching ofthe PCBs from the transformer core com

ponents. Once the PCB levels are maintained below 50 ppm,the unit can be retrofilled with silicone, or some

cables, pipelines, and specialized types of electrical equipment at electrical production or distribution facilities. • Labelling of all PCB equipment over 50 ppm PCBs, other than a light

This process has had some success but, in many instances, serious prob lems were encountered, including the following:

ballast in use.

• PCBs were sometimes found to

• Reporting to Environment Canada on all PCBs over 50 ppm, other than light ballast in use. Despite the fact that PCBs were banned from use in 1977, there are hundreds of PCB transformers, thou sands of PCB capacitors and tens of

continue to leach from the core when

thousands of PCB ballasts still in serv ice across Canada. This article will

perc even after ten years of on-line leaching and the decision was made to replace both 10 MVA transformers. • Some transformers, previously reclassified using the perc process, had to be replaced within 1-2 years due to premature "electrical failure".

be used in transformer reclassifica-

tions. •

reclassified to non-PCB status with

The decision to use or not use the


end of 2007.

• Phase-out of most low-level (50500 ppm)PCBs in-service by the end

• Some transformers could not be

other suitable dielectric.

distillation units were removed, requir ing a reconnection of the distillation unit one or more times to drive the

PCB level down to below 50 ppm again. • Removal of perc following reduc tion of PCB levels to below 50 ppm and replacing it with silicone led to

examine one of most active areas of

contamination of the silicone with

PCB management, namely, "askarel transformer replacement". Except for large remediation proj ects, replacing askarel transformers is

PCBs. This necessitated retrofilling with new silicone and disposal of the PCB-contaminated silicone, both of

which are expensive.

64 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

Regardless, many companies have correctly concluded that from an occu pational health & safety perspective, perc is significantly more hazardous than PCBs. Consequently, they are choosing to replace their askarel units with new transformers.

PCB owners who are planning replacement of askarel transformers are using it as an opportunity to: • install a larger KVA unit • change from liquid to "dry type" • relocate a substation within a build

ing • increase or decrease redundancy • move indoor substations to outdoors

• upgrade to new technology equip ment.

Justification for replacing PCB equipment During budget discussions, when asked by management for "justifica tion to replace PCB transformers", the Top Ten reasons given by electricians and engineers are as follows: 1. Liability in the event ofan incident For companies that have no coverage for PCB spills and fires, management typically views this as an unacceptable

situation and moves quickly to replace PCB equipment. 2. Bad publicity ifthere's an incident continued overleaf...

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PCB Management There has always been a mountain of bad publicity associated with a PCB spill or fire as seen previously with St.Basile-le-Grand, Smithville, Kenora and Binghamton, New York. The last thing anyone wants is to have their name linked to PCBs.

3. PCB legislation - When the revised PCB regs come into effect, everyone will have to comply sooner or later. 4. Environmentally friendly - Many more corporations than ever before have become increasingly aware of the importance of being environmentally diligent and consequently are develop ing and implementing better waste management practices; this is especial ly important to stockholders and new investors.

5. Claim of being "PCBfree" - Those PCB generators who have disposed of their PCB wastes may inform various interest groups like tenants, unions, shareholders, the municipality, etc., that they are PCB free, getting as much mileage as possible out of good public

Removal of PCB transformers for disposal.


will have to replace several transform ers are beginning the process now to avoid disappointment with the long

6. Insurance rate reductions - Some

PCB owners have found that they can

negotiate better premiums from their insurance companies if they get rid of

potential delays that could occur if orders for replacement equipment are

their PCBs.

left to the last minute.

7. Lead time for replacement equip ment - PCB owners who know they

8. Maintaining good relations with unions - Companies who have union ized employees have found that PCBs may be a focus of disputes about the work enviromnent. Employees have

US Court upholds federal arsenic-in-tap-water rule against state and industry lawsuit

In the face of a vigorous challenge from the State of Nebraska and

several water systems represented by a conservative advocacy group, a panel of the US Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit unanimously upheld the




Agency's controversial 2001 arsenic in drinking water rule, and ruled that the US Safe Drinldng Water Act is consti tutional.

Erik Olson, a senior attorney with NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council) argued the case before the court for NRDC, which had intervened on behalf ofEPA to defend the law and the arsenic rule. This was the third

time Nebraska politicians have unsuc cessfully challenged the constitutional ity of the Safe Drinking Water Act in court. "State officials, siding with industry, keep insisting that it's okay for the people of Nebraska to drink water containing more arsenic than in the rest of the country," Olson added.

"It's three strikes, and they're out." Nebraska Attorney General, Jon Bruning, argued the case personally for the state, the industry-funded Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI),

that authority to the federal EPA). The arsenic rule has a long and controversial history. A 50 parts per billion (ppb) arsenic standard was first adopted by the US Public Health

and a few water utilities. The court

Service (USPHS) in 1942. Although

rejected CEI and Nebraska's con tentions that the arsenic rule and Safe Drinking Water Act are unconstitution al. The court held that Congress has the power under the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution to regulate poi

USPHS recommended that the stan

dard be dropped to 10 ppb in 1962, it was not until Congress ordered EPA three separate times to update the rule, and after NRDC sued EPA in

2000, that the agency proposed the

sonous chemicals like arsenic in water

standard. The Clinton administration

systems that sell water across state

finalized it at 10 ppb in January, 2001. A furor erupted after the Bush administration suspended the rule in March, 2001. After public outcry, an NRDC lawsuit, and a National Academy of Sciences report (issued in September, 2001)finding that EPA had substantially underestimated arsenic's cancer risks, the Bush

lines. Thus, the court rejected Nebraska's "facial" challenge to the constitutionality of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

In addition, the court ruled that the

Safe Drinking Water Act is consistent with the Constitution's 10th Amend

ment, which restricts federal govern ment regulation of states, because the law does not compel states to regulate arsenic in tap water (they may cede

66 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

administration reversed course and

allowed the new 10 ppb standard to stand. â–

PCB Management despite all efforts, residual dioxins and furans rendered the building uninhab itable. Such a catastrophic event could banlcrupt almost anyone. It is notewor thy that in at least three well-docu mented PCB incidents, third party claims eclipsed one billion dollars. Labelling PCB transformers and capacitors For the past several years Environ ment Canada (EC) has attempted to maintain an up-to-date database of"in-


service" askarel transformers and PCB

PCS wipe test underway. been known to refuse to work or have

filed grievances for not being told that PCBs were in their workplace. 9. Spread out costs over a suitable time-frame - PCB owners who have large projects are preparing plans for gradually replacing equipment as budgetary constraints permit as

opposed to having to deal with large expenditures in a tighter time-frame as deadlines get closer. 10. Avoid bankruptcy in the event ofa catastrophic event - The best-known PCB "office building" fire was in Binghamton, N.Y. where the clean-up

"power factor correction" capacitors. Up to now, the labelling of equipment by an owner with the EC-issued "OR" stickers was voluntary but this will become mandatory with the passing of the revised regulations. This require ment should go a long way to improv ing the accuracy of the database. At the request of EC,PCB contrac tors are notifying EC of the PCB trans formers and capacitors that are removed from service by their cus tomers. This will enable EC to get a better handle on how much PCB

equipment still remains in service and

costs exceeded $30 million and,

continued overleaf...

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September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 67

PCB Management how close they are to meeting their goals for the ultimate removal of all PCBs from service in Canada.

their site meets the minimum require ments for residual PCBs on surfaces and in soil in and around the areas

Historical sites

where PCBs were handled and stored.

Often in the past, before Swan Hills, Alberta, was open to PCB imports, owners stored PCB equip ment on their site. The MOE assigned a PCB site number and required the generator to register their PCB wastes. From that point on, an owner was in

Any rooms, substations or contain ers previously used for storage of PCBs must be wipe-tested for PCB residues. When floors or storage con tainers appear to be clean on visual inspection, wipe samples are taken without pre-cleaning. The PCB residues must be < 10 ug/100 cm sq or

the database and would remain there

until they got rid of their PCBs. PCB owners who have disposed of their PCBs are undertaking to have

the area will have to be decontaminat

their site listed as "historical" with the

staining or leakage occurred from drums, cables, potheads or transform ers, the container or storage room floor is decontaminated using a thorough solvent wash before confirmatory

MOE. In order to obtain the MOE let

ter acknowledging that a site has been removed from the "active" PCB list, owners must prove to the MOE that

ed and re-tested. In those instances where noticeable

AWI Specialists

wipe samples are taken. Where shipping containers are involved for storing PCB wastes out side, as opposed to inside of a build ing, samples of soil are taken from around the perimeter of the container and are submitted to the lab for direct

PCB analysis on each separate sample. In addition, based on site character istics, a modified leachate test is per formed on a composite of all soil sam ples taken to target other chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, PAHs, pesticides, etc., as the situation may dictate.

It must be kept in mind that even the most rigorous sampling and analy sis exercises cannot give the whole site a clean bill of health. It is not uncom

mon to find companies that are not aware that they still have PCBs in light ballasts, underground storage tanks, potheads, cables, compressors, electro magnets, rectifiers, circuit breakers,

in Water Filtration

switches, arrestors, etc.


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de-listed, the PCBs will have to be transported off site to a licenced

receiving facility within 30 days to avoid having to re-register the site and go through the whole "decoimnissioning" process again. In these cases concerning PCBs, ignorance is not bliss. Before breaking out the champagne and celebrating your "freedom" from PCBs, it would be advisable to conduct a comprehen sive survey, preferably by a PCB spe cialist. Dr.





esmith@pcbdisposalmc. com. For more information, circle reply card No. 166(See page 25)


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PCB Management PCB Electrical Equipment2008 & 2014 Phase Out

PCB elimination deadline


2014 Deadline for<500 ppm In-seivlce





Environment Canada is final y preparing

Dec.31/2007 Deadline

to publish the Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) phase-out Regulations in the Canada Gazette Part I in the Summer/Fall 2003, and in Canada Gazette Part II shortly thereafter. In light of the approaching deadline of December 31, 2007 (08 Deadline), the favoured disposal option for PCB electrical equipment currently and for the future is recycling/final disposal. The driving force behind Environment Canada's initia tive appears to be two-fold: continued public disdain or fear of the chlorine compound, and Canada's commit ments to international agreements for the elimination of

lor m ost >50 0 P C Bs in-service

PCB P h«se Out Reguiations


toxic substances.

Efforts to eliminate PCBs have a long history, dating back to the late 1970s when PCB production was discon tinued. As a consequence of its toxic designation, PCBcontaminated equipment no longer in use became an immediate storage issue. In the early years of the ban, there were no recycling disposal options, and long-term







gElectrical Equipm ent-FederalO atab,a,Sie,2;0.Q3::

storage became the preferred solution. Long-term unsupervised storage, however, created serious environmental risks and increased public unease. Much of the PCB equipment was haphazardly stored in inadequate containers or open areas. Security in many instances was minimal. Many of the sites were located in remote areas with no monitoring or leak detection. Many institutions had no procedures for handling the material. Many of these makeshift storage areas were in close prox imity to drinking water and food sources. continued overleaf...



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^^^S6480, 1905-428-6481, 800-S September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 69

PCB Management Public awareness of the problem also increased. The mere mention of PCBs immediately raised public red flags. The acronym often transformed the most bland newspaper stories into toxic epics of grand proportions. Environmental groups stepped up the hype and jumped into the foray upon any smell of PCB media exposure to garner public support and funding. High visibility PCB incidents, such as the PCB fire located at St. Basil Le Grande and tainted groundwater at Smithville, have added to the public notoriety of PCBs. Canadian regulators' initial reaction to this public unease and the mounting PCB storage issue was to initiate a national sampling protocol in an attempt to locate PCBs throughout Canada. The PCB inventory was found to be

and contamination continued.

In 1994, Canada took a position on PCBs as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was ratified, which has led to the current proposed PCB disposal amendments. Concurrent with NAFTA, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) was formed because of concerns that imple mentation of free trade might result in adverse impacts on human health and the environment in the three countries.

An outgrowth of the NAAEC was the North American Commission on Enviroimrental Cooperation (NACEC) based in Montreal. It is partially comprised of cabinetlevel or equivalent representatives from the various NAFTA countries.

widespread. Electrical equipment in every community was found to have measurable levels of PCBs, including electrical transformers, capacitors, light ballasts, pipeline,

The NACEC developed North American Regional Action Plans (NARAP) on specific toxic chemicals to manage chemicals of mutual concern. As a result, Canada made commitments, along with its NAFTA counterparts,

underground cable; and the list goes on. The critical issue became that, since the late 1970s, it was left up to the owners to dispose of PCB-contaminated equipment on their own accord, if at all. Disposal options were scarce in the 1980s, especially for equipment with high concentrations of PCBs. Under existing Canadian law, decommissioned PCB electrical equipment could be stored indefinitely, increasing the risk of leaks and dis charges into the environment. Out of service contaminat ed equipment placed in storage continued to grow. Efforts to solvent flush highly contaminated transformers on-line did little to stop the leaching from porous paper and wood


the United States and Mexico, to the: (i) virtual elimination of PCBs in the environment, and (ii) environmentally sound management of existing PCBs throughout their life cycle. Indeed, the goal of the PCB NARAP is to eliminate all non-dispersive PCB uses by 2008. The present phase-out regulations by Enviromnent Canada have adopted this

deadline. Environment Canada is under pressure to ful fill the commitments of NARAP, and to deliver on similar international Agreements to eliminate specific Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Accordingly, in 2001, the



PUBLIC WORKS EXPO December 3-4, 2003 International Centre • Toronto, Ontario, Conada OVER 250 EXHIBITING COMPANIES PRESENTING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES RELATING TO: •Utilities

• Poiiution Control

• Water/Waste Water

• Hazardous Waste

• Infrastructure

And more!





Visit: www.cpwe.ca E-mail: cpwe@usa.messefrankfurt.com orleebaker@exposition.com SPONSORED BY: OPWA - Tfte Ontario Public Works Association

Cfiapter of APWA/CPWA

MEGA - The Municipal Equipmenf & Operations Association (Ontario) AORS - Association of Ontario Road Supervisors For more information,

70 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

circle reply card No. 160(See page 25)

PCB Management Ontario Ministry of the Environment made an unexpected announcement that it was getting tough on PCBs with an accelerated provincial phase-out date of its own. The motion has since been shelved, apparently in deference to the proposed Federal regulations. Summarized highlights of Environment Canada's Proposed Chlorobiphenyl and Storage of PCB Material Regulations include: • Phase-out of most high-level (>500 ppm) PCBs inservice by the end of 2007(08 deadline). • Phase-out of most low-level (50-500 ppm) PCBs inservice by the end of 2014. • Phase-out of all PCBs in storage by the end of 2009; inservice PCBs to be transferred to storage for only one year or less.

• Phase-out of most high-level and low-level PCBs from sensitive locations within three years of the effective date of the proposed regulations. • Decontamination of all out-of-service liquids contain ing PCBs to less than 2 ppm PCBs. Previously, liquids and solids up to 50 ppm could be reused recycled or disposed in a landfill.

• Liquids that contain at least 2 mg/kg ofPCBs may only be reused for topping up a liquid in equipment, which contains at least 2 mg/kg of PCBs if the mixing does not change the concentration of PCBs in the liquid. • Exemption from phase-out provisions for light ballasts, pole-top transformers, electrical and communication cables, pipelines, and specialized types of electrical equip ment at electrical production or distribution facilities. • Labeling of all PCB equipment over 50 ppm PCBs, other than a light ballast in use. • Reporting to Environment Canada on all PCBs over 50 ppm, other than a light ballast in use. • It would be an offense to release any PCB material liquids with over 2 ppm PCB, substances (solids) with over 50 ppm PCB,or 10 grams ofPCBs - into the environ ment. Currently, the Regulations state that it is an offense to release more than 1 gram per day of PCBs to the envi ronment.

The realization of these commitments can only be ful

filled if the private sector provides legitimate disposal options with site service, transportation and disposal capacity to accommodate the volume in the next four years. Equally important, PCB owners must also educate themselves on the liabilities attached to disposal and on disposal options, which are legitimate and environmental ly positive. Over the years, recycling has become the preferred option for sectors that acknowledge the dual environmen tal benefits, as well as disposing of their hazardous waste in a safe and secure manner. PCB-contaminated electri

cal equipment can be recycled for metals recovery instead of being wholly incinerated. An established private company in Kirkland Lake, Ontario, called Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc. (TCI) pro vides a recycling/final disposal alternative for any level of PCB-contaminated equipment. In line with Canadian recycling goals, TCI dismantles equipment, segregates metals, washes and returns clean metals for smelting. The ratio of recovered metal is usually >94% of the weight in electrical transformers. All of this is accomplished

indoors, without any discharge or adverse effect on the environment.

The much reduced, porous, non-recyclable PCB mate rials such as paper, wood and oils are sent to a licensed incinerator for final disposal. It is equally important that all waste and cleaned metals are carefully tracked through licensed, fully insured carriers and properly manifested. Metals washing, processing and final disposal of PCB residuals are supported by Certificates of Recycling and Destruction so that the "cradle to grave" loop is satisfied with documented support. In the last thirteen years, some sectors have taken their own initiative to eliminate PCB material and contaminat

ed electrical equipment from their sites. Those owners with PCB equipment remaining are realizing that the 08 deadline is becoming more of a reality, and have begun meaningful "disposal cost planning". Budgeted and planned, a phase-out over three or four years lessens the disposal cost burden, especially for sectors that have cycli cal revenue markets.

The 08 deadline appears inevitable. Good planning practices and research into sound disposal options will ease the decision-making process. Re-cycling is a viable, cost-effective option, which is economical as well as good for the environment.

For more information contact: Peter Demeter, Trans-Cycle Industries, (877)647-9997.

MIND YOUR OWN BUSINESS! Your focus should be running your business

Our focus is to find and assist you in selecting the most talented people to help you run it successfully "'Increasing sour conipetitiseness through strength in human resources" Slanaueniei

Engineering Technical


\sMiiance •


Markcliii!:. Sales


Professional Recruitment and Placement Scn ices for the F^nvironmental Industrv


Career Advancement

Employment Services Inc.

Phone:(905)681-8240 Etnail: infOiO careeradvancemcnt.on.ca Web: >v\t w.careeradvanccment.on.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 161 (See page 25)


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666 Engineering Guide now available!

The CON/SPAN Engineering Guide


is a valuable tool with all the nec

engineering guide

essary information to consider the CON/SPAN System for many dif ferent design applications. Filled with numerous figures and charts, the Engineering Guide provides a reference of design parameters, standard detail illustrations, and limited design methodologies.

reactors of diffuser modules and

outlet measurement of oxygen, ammonium phosphate and nitrate

Available in binder or CD Rom for mat.

to monitor and document treat


ment quality. Depend on 3,.^from

Circle reply card No. 200

pumping systems Our tried-and-tested products find use in the fields of municipal and industrial wastewater transporta tion and domestic drainage, and can be reliably integrated into pumped drainage systems. Mixing, tank cleaning, the transportation of sludges and surface drainage all constitute further aspects of KSB's

ipal and industrial sectors for over 30 years. • U.I.P® factory insulated piping systems • Thermocable® heat-trace cable and related accessories • Portafoam® Paks

• Engineering and computer design assistance

• District heating and cooling systems • LOGSTOR pre-insulated flexible pipe (in coils)


Visit www.urecon.com

Circle reply card No. 202 Controlling contaminated groundwater


It is a

The Rd aUe Solut on

Do you need to ensure high quali ty, reduce operating costs and comply with environmental regula tions? This is an easy-to-read resource for operators of water

new design of steel sheet piling featuring joints that can be sealed

distribution, wastewater treatment

after the sheets have been driven

and related industries about level

into the ground. The product was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo and has patent/patent pending status in

results. Siemens Milltronics instru

several countries. Canadian Metal

ments set the standard for level


measurement with innovative tech

Waterloo Barrier Inc.

Rotating Biological Contactors

RBC Treatment plants are simple vide excellent effluent results for a

wide range of influents. P.J. HANNAH manufactures treat

ment plants for single family homes to 4.5m (15') diameter rotors. Celebrating our 30th year of business, we can manufacture a






requirements, www.pjhannah.com. Visit us at WEFTEG booth 4670.

P.J. Hannah Equipment Sales Corp. Circle reply card No. 206

72 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2003


nology and strong technical sup port. Siemens Milltronics Circle reply card No. 205

Circle reply card No. 204

to operate, economical and pro


applications, as well as installation tips and techniques for best

Rolling Mills assisted in the devel opment of the product



Measurement solutions

Waterloo Barrier is a low perme ability cutoff wall for groundwater

Rotating Blologlcat Contactors


includes a free CD to help you select the right system for your requirements. ksb@ksbcanada. com. KSB Pumps Circle reply card No. 203



Davis Controls Ltd.

New brochure on wastewater

Urecon has been supplying preinsuiated pipe to the HVAC, munic

containment and control.


Circle reply card No. 201

Urecon pre-insulated pipe tiATED.PtEE;^

Danfoss analytical meters Danfoss EViTA in situ analytical meters ensure optimum process control, resulting in increased plant capacity, cleaner effluent, less sludge production and dramatical ly reduced energy consumption. Applications include: nutrient measurement in sewage system, oxygen profile measurement in the

Pumps and mixers

Submersible pumps & mixers ITT Flygt's new 36 page brochure states that they are the world's largest manufacturer of sub mersible pumps and mixers. Extensive research in fluid dynam ics and over 50 years experience with submersibies,

enable ITT

Fiygt to provide customers with designs for pumping and mixing applications, an extensive range of products, and software programs to help customers with design and systems engineering. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 207

Product and Service Showcase j Concrete Pipe Handbook

Updated concrete pipe software

Water quality treatment The Stormceptor* is a patented water quality treatment structure


storm drain sys tems. Stormceptor removes free oil

The latest edition of the Concrete Pipe Handbook, a comprehensive collection of theories, formulas and aids for

designing concrete pipe systems, is available from the American Concrete

Pipe Association. Now in its fifth printing, the handbook has been updat ed to include information on Standard

Installation using Indirect Design, American Concrete Pipe Association Circle reply card No. 208

The American Concrete Pipe Association has updated its popular concrete pipe detention system design software to incorporate metric units. Called "DASH", the program includes design tools for hydraulics, volume cal culation and storm water/sanitary sewer design, plus ACPA's PipePac software. Cost: $45.00(non-members), plus shipping and handling. To order, call (800) 290-ACPA (2272.) American Concrete Pipe Association Circle reply card No. 209

water, preventing spills and nonpoint source pol lution from entering downstream lakes and rivers. Hanson Pipe & Products Canada, Inc. is the exclusive manufac turer of the precast concrete Stormceptor System in Ontario. Hanson Pipe & Products Canada

Dissolved oxygen systems

Prevent asphalt cracking



concentration of dis



solved oxygen in a wastewater


tion services to the Canadian water

plant is necessary to keep micro-organisms alive and allow breakdown of organic waste. An opti mal level of dissolved oxygen in the process helps ensure optimum biologi cal activity will continue to take place. Using a Danfoss EVITA* OXY system

and wastewater sectors for almost 100

to control aeration will offer these ben

years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs.

efits. Maintaining a proper concentra tion of dissolved oxygen can reduce

Comstock Canada Ltd.

has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc

Comstock Canada Ltd.

plant energy costs by as much as 50%. Proper control increases plant capacity and process efficiency. Davis Controls Ltd.



solids from storm-

Circle reply Card No. 210

If you were plan ning to rout and seal your asphalt Joints after they fail, think about



costs of repairing what you've already done.


with Denso Road Products. Denso North America Inc.

Circle reply card No. 211

Circle reply card No. 212

Circle reply card No. 213

Solids handling pumps

New pump doubles impeller and wearplate life


Because Gorman-

Rupp T Series^^' pumps are selfpriming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only the



down in the liquid. Service or maintenance can be per formed quickly and simply with com mon hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and never any need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 214


instatement tape is a polymer modified bituminous strip that is cold applied and designed to seal the joints between asphalt, concrete and steel, the first time. Re-instatement tape seals around catch basins, manholes, utility cuts and next to concrete curbs prior to paving. Do it right the first time

Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd., has intro duced the Super T Series'''" of self-prim ing centrifugal pumps. Based on the T Series

solids-handling trash pumps, the new Super T Series is said to double impeller and wearplate life to decrease downtime and keep the pump operating at maxi mum efficiency. External shimless wearplate adjustment for easy mainte nance of the clearance between the

impeller and wearplate results in the dramatic increase in impeller and wearplate life of the Super T Series pump. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 215

The JetMix 'Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expen sive tank cleanout and scheduled main

tenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the 'Water Environment Federation.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 216

September 2003, EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 73

roduct and Service Showcase Double containment

New 5100 and 5150

and leak detection

slurry pumps

IPEX double containment systems include: Guardian PVC and CPVC sys tems, the Encase''"''' polypropylene sys tem, CustomOuard'''''' FRP and metal systems and Centra-Guard"'''^ leak detection. At the heart of this patented system is its electrofusion fitting and heavy-gauge resistance wire molded into the socket. The result: reduction of

installation time, the ability to hydro and re-do (if necessary) any carrier welds

ACTIFLO® package plants

ITT Elygt has launched its next gen eration of slurry pumps. They are designed specifically

The Actiflo" package plants are designed to treat a wide range of appli cations: drinking water, industrial

to handle the most

abrasive slurries, in a

process water, primary and tertiary

wide spectrum of tough industrial envi ronments. The pumps have the latest ITT

Elygt technology incorporated, ensuring high efficiency, reliability and a long working life, according to the company. Visit www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Elygt

before enclosure and

high quality bubbletight joints available.

waste treatment. By efficiently remov ing turbidity, color, suspended solids, metals,TOG,taste and odor, the process ensures that the water it produces is of the highest quality. Though the systems are very compact, they offer compara ble performances to systems built on a larger scale. Comes complete with all the necessary monitoring equipment. John Meunier/USFIlter


Circle reply card No. 217

Circle reply card No. 218

Circle reply card No. 219

Sediment flusher

Omega-paKT blowers

Moving-bed bio-reactor


The HYDROVEX" SET is designed to clean the sediments, grit and debris out of CSO/SSO/Stormwater

and maintenance cost than other meth

wave which will sediments


debris to a sump at the end of the tank. John Meunier/USFIlter

Circle reply card No. 220

Package water and wastewater plants


ance are some of the innovative features

tanks. Of considerably lower capital

flush away the


maximum perform


ods, the HYDROVEX SET is designed to tip automatically with no external energy. The total water content of the HYDROVEX SET is released instantly in the chamber, creating a powerful high velocity

Reliability, effectiveness




Omega-paKT blow ers. They are engineered to deliver optimum operating efficiency and a lifetime of trouble-fi'ee performance. Erom piston ring seals and cylindrical roller bearings to one-piece rotors, our blowers provide a combination of rugged dependability and lower noise levels. Our equipment features an industry-leading 24-month warranty plus 24-hour emergency part replace

Parkson's Geo-Reactor™ is an attached

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result is increased DO, increased contact time of the mixed

liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer efficient BOD reduction and nitrifica

ment guarantee.

tion can easily be accomplished.

Kaeser Compressors Circle reply card No. 221


Inlet Stormceptor® system

Circle reply card No. 222

Series Stormceptor system

The Inlet Stormceptor System employs the same principles of operation as the well-

Adapted to Your Needs

known In-line Inter

ceptors. Developed to treat run-off from an


We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment Plants worldwide.


Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low eost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 223

area of up to 0.30 ha, thc lulct Stoi'mccptor has inherited the inter-


nal by-pass function, ensuring that all sedi

ment and oil removed from stormwater

run-off remains trapped within the stor age chamber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 224

74 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

Developed for the treatment of larger catchment areas, the



Stormceptor system employs the same operating principles as the well-known Inline and Inlet Stormceptor systems. The system receives flow from a single inlet pipe and splits it into two distinct streams, which are treated in two sepa rate treatment chambers before recom-

bining into a single outlet pipe. It effectively doubles the treatment area of the inline system. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 225

Product and Service Showcase


New pump solves old problem Plus3 system dosing pump for gassing chemi cals




hypochlorite is capable of dosing amounts from 0.3 1/h up to 5.2 1/h. In connection with the Etron Profi electronics with stroke fre

Small drinking water systems

Oil/Water interface sensor The Waterra HS-1 Oil/Water Interface Sensor is now even more sensitive.

The HS-1 probe uses unique ultrason ic technology that makes it very robust and easy to clean. A new electrode configuration now makes the probe even more accu

quency control, it is possible to reduce the dosing flow down to approx. 0.05

1/h while retaining accuracy. Accurate dosing of very small capacities with a new double diaphragm system. Reliable dosing of gassing chemicals with automatic deaeration via a prim ing chamber. Precise dosing of concen trated liquids due to accurate calibra tion while in operation.



O i 1/ W a t e r Interface and Water


tapes are still the lightest and most portable on the market today. Waterra

Summa Products Division

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 226

Circle reply card No. 227

Membrane Bioreactor(MBR)

Remove arsenic, chromium

ZENON's ZeeWeed®

and uranium from

MBR produces terti ary quality effluent and simplifies waste-

water supplies

water treatment. The





from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MGD.


Circle reply card No. 228





available from

50 gpm to 10,000 gpm. MEDIA G2^^' is certified to

NSF Standard 61 and performance ver ified by ETV Canada. Full-scale arsenic removal plants are operating in Canada, United States, Japan and New Zealand. Ask about our free testing on your water. ADI International Inc.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 230

The best keeps getting better

A bridge for all reasons

For many years, Armtec has stretched your design dollar with its range of soil

Armtec is a leader in twin-wall HDPE

steel structures including Multi-Plate and Super-Span. Keeping pace with the need to provide economical bridge solutions, Armtec offers Bridge-Plate structures for larger installations. Bridge-Plate has the deepest and strongest corrugation in the market

today, enabling long span soil steel structures to be designed and built more economically than ever before. Armtec

Circle reply card No. 232

These flexible PlDs can detect more

than 250 toxic gases including VOCs, ammonia, benzene, chlorinated H/C

and WMD gases. They can be used for first response, leaks and spills, indus trial solvents and chemicals and con

fined-space entry applications, www. can-am.net.

Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 229

pipe systems through the BOSS prod uct line. BOSS products are used in gravity storm sewers and culverts. Armtec is moving to full CSA certifica tion for the complete BOSS product


the upgradeable FID

adsorption process removes heavy met als from groundwater to low ppb con


places conventional filtration and combines clarification, aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expand ed in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs. Proven in hundreds of installations, ZeeWeed MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes

line. Armtec

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treatment plants. This ultrafiltration system is cost-effective, easy-touse, and requires only minimal super vision, while consistently producing high quality water.

Circle reply card No. 233

Circle reply card No. 231

«ProMinent's range of Remote flow verification

Sigma motor-driven metering pumps keeps you informed with un paralleled flow verification technology: • Manual, analog, contact and batch control

• LCD display of flow rate and total ized pump output in litres or gallons • Accumulative stroke counter and

stroke length percentage • 20-1000 litres/hr with wide turn down ratio

• 4-20 mA output, programmable timer, access code programming, flow mon itoring, diaphragm failure monitoring.

Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 234

September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 75

Product and Service Showcase ecoSep below grade oil/water separators

Ohmart Vega Vegapuls radar level sensor

Ohmart/Vega services offers a complete line of Radar Level Gauges. Puls 40 is a high fre quency radar for use in small process connec tions. Puls 50 uses larg er antermas, and oper ates at a lower frequency. Puls 56HT is a high temperature, high pressure unit. Puls 81 is a 4-wire device designed for the most difficult process condition. This family of gauges proves the abili ty to make the best use of radar tech nology, with optimal solutions for their level and specialty measurement appli SdsSSSjUBBa

to have and to hold 'till

death parts your parts! Only Canadian Welding Bureau certi fied fabricators weld to CSA standards W47.1 for steel and stainless steels and W47.2 for aluminum.

Assure the

integrity of the products you specify, use and maintain. Make sure that all

your welded products are manufac tured by a Canadian Welding Bureau


certified fabricator.

Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 235

MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 236

• I'

Cost-effective and safe, this highly efficient below grade oil/water separa tor provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs. Check






ecoSep...the clear choice for clean water. Con Cast Pipe Circle reply card No. 237


Chemical tank cleaning

Digital communication

Drive solutions for water and wastewater


Tank surfaces in contact with water will

accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBPs, and increased HPC

Auma's 2-wire digital communication keeps the customer in control. Communication protocols such as

Circle reply card No. 238

Modbus, DeviceNet and Profibus are very complex and have been developed by the best computer communication minds in the industry. They allow the exchange of information between devices in the field, e.g. actuators, sen sors and controls, as required for the automation of controlled processes. Troy-Ontor Inc. Circle reply card No. 239

Vinyl process piping systems

Centrifugal pumps


Heavy deposits lead to

increased corrosion and reduce the life

time of surface coatings. NSF approved Floran products have been developed for convenient and efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and fil ter surfaces. ClearTech Industries

XirtecTM 140 (PVC) and Corzan^M (CPVC) are complete high-perform ance systems of pipe, fittings, flanges, strainers

Hayward Gordon Limited, a Canadian



valves designed to meet the tem

perature, sure




requirements of piping systems used in chemical processes and other industrial applications. As well as lowering mate rial costs, Xirtec 140 and Corzan pipe significantly reduces labour and trans portation costs because it is light, and easily handled, stored, cut and joined. Available in Schedule 40 and Schedule

80, IPS. Pipe and fittings are also avail able in cast iron sizes. IPEX

Circle reply card No. 241

For wastewater treatment the

VLT® drives ensure reduced energy consumption, improved throughput and a reduction in chemical usage. For

water supply systems, the drives reduce water leakages, bursts and maintenance costs.

Davis Controis Limited

Circle reply card No. 240

Level measurement guide Siemens level


measurement in

struments are installed in


industrial process appli

ufacturer, has been appointed the excluT , sive Canadian distribfor


Pumps. Bombas Esco manufaetures Gresco

self-priming, non-clog, centrifugal pumps and quality replacement parts to fit Gorman Rupp® pumps. The addi tion of Gresco pumps will create a syn ergy with Hayward Gordon's existing solids handling pumps, the XCS screw centrifugal. Torus recessed impeller, ChopX chopper and the Borger rotary lobe pump. Hayward Gordon Circle reply card No. 242

76 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003


% pump and mixer man-

- utor


For more than 30 years Danfoss has demonstrated leadership in water man agement with a host of measurable ben

cations worldwide. You

can rely on our instru ments for high perform ance, cost-effective measurement of

continuous level, point level, and inter face in a wide range of applications, such as water and wastewater, chemi cal, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, mining, cement, aggregates, and bulk solids. These instruments are designed and built for ease of use, simple instal lation, low cost of ownership and relia bility in the harshest conditions. www.siemens-milltronics.com. Siemens Milltronics

Circle reply card No. 243

Product and Service Showcasi Solids reduction process

Vertical loop reactor process

USFilter Envirex Products has intro

The Vertical Loop Reactor (VLR) process is a design based upon looped

duced the CannibaF" Solids Reduction

Process. This process will significant ly reduce or

reactors in series that allow DO stratifi


cation. As such, it is suited for simulta neous nitrification/denitrification; bio



MemcorÂŽ microfiltration


The CMF system provides a separa-


process that

provides solute




barrier for

the amount


of sludge produced by

stormwater treatment. The VLR is



taminants larger than the membrane pore size. CMF is a pressure system where the raw water is forced through

sludge wastewater treatment systems,

tank, and


the membrane fibers. Clean water

as well as the costs associated with

similar to an

sludge wasting, dewatering and removal. This patented technology, which has been proven in multiple facilities of various sizes and applica tions, can be utilized for new plant designs or retrofitted to existing facili

oxidation ditch

conventional oxidation ditch, www.

passes through a membrane surface that rejects all particles larger than .2 microns, including Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The system mem branes are automatically tested by a patented in situ integrity test system. A patented air backwash system is used

ties. www.usfilter.com.


to clean the membrane fibers.

USFilter Envirex Products

USFilter Envirex Products


installed in a

that has been

flipped on its side. The construction cost of a VLR

basin is less than that of a comparable

Circle reply card No. 244

Circle reply card No. 245

Self-contained treatment plant

False bottom underdrain

AERALATER" is a 3 in 1 treatment


process offering a completely self-con tained treatment plant that combines

lithic concrete false bottom

aeration, detention and filtration in a

single unitized package to provide eco nomical and dependable performance in treating groundwater supplies. Preengineered units range from 70 to 600 gpm. Multiple and custom units are available. The system has been proven espe cially effective in iron


underdrains use ABS plastic media retaining nozzles with horizontal slot openings, carefully sized for the required media.

removing carbon diox ide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, radon, and volatile organic compounds such as TCE, PCE,THM and chloroform. USFilter


and manganese removal. __ is




Circle reply card No. 247

Circle reply card No. 248

Flexible geomembranes

Septage receiving system


meet the strength and flexibility per formance of PVC

geomembranes, but offer much better low temperature performance. Both TTL membrane for mulations passed the ASTM D1790 low temperature impact test at -80C. The tensile and tear properties of TTL 1 and TTL5 meet the PVC Geomembrane

Institute's PVC specification PGI 1197 (which has been updated to PGI 1103). The TTL liners are an excellent choice for water and water based effluent con

tainment projects where PVC may have been considered as a possible geomem brane material.

Layfield Geosynthetics Circle reply card No. 250

Circle reply card No. 246

Aerated filtration system Aesthetically designed with a small footprint, the Biological Aerated

Filtration system delivers superior per formance as single state BNR, second ary or tertiary nitrifi cation, and/or deni-

Underdrains minimize headloss and

the V-shaped slots in the nozzles pre vent plugging. The open plenum design gives the underdrain minimal headloss and provides even backwash distribu tion, allowing inspection access to the area below the underdrain. Comprising an integral system of piers, pans and inserts to assure proper location of all nozzles, PVC pier forms are furnished with properly sized and located notch es to interlock the pan forms.


removal of all con


to base of bed or the media itself. In the

latter case, the filter can simultaneous

ly nitrify and denitrify. Capable of eliminating all biodegradable pollu tants: carbon pollution, suspended solids, ammonia and nitrates.

USFilter Kruger Products Circle reply card No. 249

Online analysis

The Honey Monster' Septage Receiving System is winner of the

t r _


Water Environment Federation's 2003

Innovative Technology Award in the Solids Handling/Disposal category. The system allows a cleaner method of handling septage truck waste and can empty an entire truck in 5 to 15 min utes. It is available with an optional metering and billing con trol system that controls

access, moni tors septage

flow and pro vides accurate billing information to septage haulers and the plant.


remote operation. Biostyr* process consists of upflow filtration through submerged and floating fine granular media called Biostyrene. Air is injected



Robust analyzers in compact stainless steel or fibre-glass reinforced plastic housings for moni-

} toring and automation of sewage treatment plants and


processes. StamoLys CA registers environmentally relevant parameters such as ammonium, nitrite, phosphate, silicate, hydrazine, water hardness and metals such as iron, aluminium, chrome, copper and manganese. The variable analytical component enables the implementation of many other parameters. Endress+Hauser Canada

JWC Environmental

Circle reply card No. 251

Circle reply card No. 252

September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 77

Environmental NEWS

Winnipeg's wastewater collection and treatment

systems evaluated The Manitoba government has received the final report on the Clean Environment Commission's review of

the City of Winnipeg's wastewater sys tems.

Recommendations in the report include:

• Instituting a public notification sys tem for future sewage overflows that impact the Red River; • Accelerating actions to reduce the flow of nutrients to Lake Winnipeg; • Issuing interim licences for wastewater treatment plants in Winnipeg with ongoing reviews; and • Establishing effluent limits for treat ment plants in accordance with Manitoba's Water Quality Standards, Objectives and Guidelines. Immediately following last year's incident at the North Winnipeg Water Pollution Control Centre, the province

Commission to hold public hearings

John Meunier Products

and make recommendations on the

receives contract for

City of Winnipeg's wastewater collec tion and treatment systems; • Reviewing events at the north-end sewage treatment facility that led to the spill; • Working with city officials to co ordinate daily water quality tests on the Red River to monitor aquatic and fish ery impacts; and • Increasing the frequency of water quality monitoring for beaches on the southern portions of Lake Winnipeg for a time immediately following the

Chinese wastewater plant USFilter




received a $6.6 million (US) contract

to provide equipment, processes and services to the Xinxiang Wastewater

Treatment Company Ltd. in Xinxiang, Henan Province, China. The China National Machinery Import & Export

Corporation purchased the equipment and services for the Xinxiang Wastewater Treatment Plant, which

establish a procedure for determining separation distances which will facili

has an average flow of 150,000 mVd. John Meunier Products will provide technology for the inlet and outlet pumping stations, headworks, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, clarification, sludge pumping and dewatering, and instrumentation and controls. Services to be provided include design engineering, design liaison meetings in China and Canada, and supervision and training. Commissioning and training is

took action in several areas such as:

tate a harmonious co-existence of uses


• Asking the Clean Environment

in agricultural zones.

Contact: pdecubellis(^johnmeunier.


New guidelines for agricultural odours Quebec's Ministry of the Environment has published Guidelines respecting odours caused by manure from agri cultural activities. The purpose is to







water testing labs


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Stricter standards for


Effective October 1,2003, Ontario will be the first province in Canada to make licensing for drinking water testing mandatory. The Drinking Water

Testing Services Regulation, created

Waste Water Treatment

under the Safe Drinking Water Act,

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became law on June 16, 2003.

For more information, circle reply card No. 253(See page 25)

BAY COR FIBRE TECH Inc. - Max performance/easy optinnizable fine screening - Sludge thickening: typ. WAS 0.5-1 to 6-8%+ & more Brantford, Ontario - Master difficult municipal/food/industrial tasks Tel: (519)751-7787 - Flexible control strategies; totally enclosed units Fax:(519)751-7712 - Largest capacity/unit models/most std. features info@baycorfibre.com - Proven & reliable; permanent value in treatment www.baycorfibre.com The BEST FINE SCREEN in the WORLD!

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The new regulation requires private, municipal or provincial laboratories to fulfill certain needs before they can conduct drinking water testing on sam ples collected from any water system in the province, including private wells. In addition, for the first time in

Ontario's history, laboratories will be subject to random visits by ministry inspectors.

For more information, circle reply card No. 254(See page 25)



floating fixed-film


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78 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

. '




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Environmental NEWS Eramosa wins Excellence

in Engineering Award Eramosa Engineering Inc. of Guelph, Ontario, was the first winner of the C.E (Bill) Kong Award for outstanding performance in the provision of engi neering services to Halton Region. Halton Region established the award at the retirement of long-time staff mem ber Bill Kong, REng.


The award is based on nominations from Halton staff. A number of factors

contributed to Eramosa Engineering's success, including delivery of projects on time, and on budget, delivering services to required technical stan dards, support of a positive partnership approach with Halton staff groups, handling small and large projects with consistent effort and enthusiasm.

Eramosa Engineering has worked on several high-profile projects in Halton, including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) sys tems for South Halton Water, North District Water, Mid Halton Wastewater and


Wastewater Treatment

Presentation of the Excellence In Engineering Award from left to right: Bill Kong, Halton Region (retired); Patrick Murphy, Halton Region Commissioner of Planning & Public Works; Tim Sutherns, President, Eramosa Engineering; and Bruce Kitchen, Director, Engineering Services, Halton Region (retired).

$250 million to make the change in the US.

Health Canada is not yet sure how much this change will cost in Canada.

Before it goes ahead, the department plans to consult with provincial gov ernments, who will be responsible for enforcing the new guidelines.

Plants, and the WA. Bill Johnson

Biosolids Management facility (win ner of a Consulting Engineers of Ontario Award of Merit), as well as the development of Halton SCADA Design Standards, a control system upgrade at the 16 Mile Creek Pump Station, and an upgrade at the Kelso Wells Pumping Station.

Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal Complete Services

Residuals an American Water Services^company

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Feds consider lower arsenic limit for

drinking water Health Canada is reviewing the accept able limit for arsenic in drinking water, but officials don't yet know how much the change will cost. The current max

For more information, circie reply card No. 257 {See page 25)

PIERALISI Dewatering Centrifuges 30,000+ installed worldwide! cost-effective, energy-efficient, quiet 10 year bowl warranty; from 5 usgpm up! also Screw Conveyors & Polymer Mixing Systems

imum guideline is 25 parts per billion; the level could fall to 10 parts per bil lion or lower. (One part per billion is like a drop of water in an Olympic-size swimming pool.) Ottawa said it wants to change the

guideline since the technology to filter more arsenic out of drinking water has improved. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, consuming 50

parts per billion or more of arsenic over a lifetime may increase the risk of

getting cancer. It is reducing the limit from 50 parts per billion to 10 parts

per billion by 2006. It will cost about


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For more information, circle reply card No. 258(See page 25)

Wilfley Weber,Inc. Denver, CO

YY /

Phone: 303-770-2664 Fax: 303-889-7305

Web: www.wilfleyweber.com E-mail: vviIfleyweb@aol.com

Wilfley Weber provides high quality diffused aeration systems for municipal and industrial applications. Fine bubble, coarse bubble & static tube systems. Fine bubble diffusers with 10+ years life expectancy in municipal wastewater. Systems designed for high efficiency resulting in lower operational costs. For more information, circie reply card No. 259(See page 25)

September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 79

Environmental NEWS

Dramatic reductions of air and water pollution from pulp and paper industry A decade of progress in reducing water and air pollution from Canada's pulp and paper sector was highlighted on June 6,2003, by Environment Minister David Anderson, in Gatineau, Quebec.


"Regulations put in place in 1992 to reduce pollution, and voluntary actions from the pulp and paper industry have brought about significant reductions in water pollution and carbon dioxide



environivientaL SERVICES INC.

emissions while allowing the industry to remain competitive," said Minister Anderson during a visit to the Papier Masson Mill in Gatineau.

Over the last ten years the pulp and paper industry worked closely with the federal government, environmental non-governmental organizations, the provinces and other key stakeholders to ensure compliance with regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and the Fisheries Act.

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Soil, Groundwater & Air Studies ,Investigations

The industry has also implemented voluntary process and technological changes. All these measures allowed them to achieve the following results:

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- reduced releases into water of chlori

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sions (CO2), a key greenhouse gas, by 26% from 1990 levels;

- reduced the use of products contain

ing the toxic substance nonylphenol and its ethoxylates(NPE) by 99.8%; - led to a 94% reduction in Biochem

ical Oxygen Demand (BOD) dis charges and a 70% decrease in dis charges of total suspended solids (TSS).

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited


• decreased its carbon dioxide emis

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Bombay, Indiay


The Pulp and Paper Effluents Regulations also require all mills to conduct Environmental Effects Moni

toring (EEM) studies to determine the impact of their effluents on receiving waters. The documented improve ments in water quality around mills were confirmed by environmental effects monitoring. The EEM program is amongst the most comprehensive programs conducted in the world and will help provide a better understand ing of the effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on fish and fish halritat.

The EEM program has also shown Specialists in a comprehensive range of

that there are still localized effects on

Environmental and Municipal Engineering


Collingwood Tel. {70S)444-2555 EMail; lnfo@cctatham.com




Tel.(705) 325-1753

populations at some sites.

Environment Canada will continue to

monitor water around pulp and paper

Web: www.cctatham.com

mills and conduct research on the

effects of effluents on the fish popula tions in receiving waters. The pulp and

Environmental Science & Engineering Introduce your new staff to the industry! ES&E reaches over 19,000 water, wastewater and environmental

protection professionals across Canada.

paper industry has agreed to work with the government on these new studies. In 2002, the Canadian forest prod ucts sector had sales of $56 billion,

accounting for 6% of Canada's Gross Domestic Product. The sector con

tributed $34 billion to Canada's bal

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ance of trade and provided direct and indirect employment to one million Canadians.

80 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

Environmental NEWS Environment sector leads

development of Canada's

for any use and also to persons who sell tetrachloroethylene to dry-clean ers, and to dry-cleaning facilities. The

tetrachloroethylene quantities sepa rately, under two related federal regu

occupational standards

possible with the Solvent Degreasing

lations, to Environment Canada. Tetrachloroethylene has been detected in some groundwater sources

The Canadian Council for Human

Regulations. Persons with a diverse commercial market will thereby avoid the inconvenience of reporting their

of drinking water, and these regula tions will provide for source protection of these drinking water supplies.

first water and wastewater

Resources in the Environment Industry (CCHREI) is currently developing Canada's first national occupational

provisions are harmonized as much as

standards for water and wastewater

operators. Funded by Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), CCHREI will begin focus testing next month with operators to ensure the skills and knowledge state ments accurately reflect those that are required by water and wastewater operators.

In the wake of the tragedies in Walkerton, North Battleford and other similar incidents, the need to ensure the skills and knowledge of water and wastewater operators has never been more critical.




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Toronto • Ottawa


London • Hamilton


Vancouver • Victoria

The implementation of the water and wastewater standards is expected to facilitate reciprocity between provinces, aid in recruitment and the development of curricula, and support self-evaluation and assessment for pro fessional development opportunities. In addition, facility managers and all


Canadians can be assured that the



treatment, collection, and distribution

V y


facilities across the country are staffed by qualified and competent personnel. CCHREI




groups throughout September in Toronto (8th), Halifax (10th), Calgary (15th), and Vancouver (16th). These discussions will provide valuable feed back on the necessary competencies for performance in four areas: water treatment, water distribution, wastewater treatment, and wastewater col

Specialiiing in;

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• Water & Wastewater Systems

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Source Detection

Indoor Air Quality Services

attained by requiring newer, more effi cient dry-cleaning machines; by mini mizing spills of tetracholorethylene, and by managing the collection and disposal of residues and wastewater. The reporting provisions in these Regulations apply to persons who import or recycle tetrachloroethylene

Cryptosporidium & Giardia Microscopic Particulate Analysis Disinfection Efficacy Testing

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tetrachloroethylene regs

announced. These reductions will be

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September 2003, Environmental Sdence & Engineering 81

Environmental NEWS

Alberta announces its newest mercury collection program The government of Alberta's new col lection program should help keep mer cury from entering the environment by removing mercury switches from vehi cles as they are recycled at Alberta scrap yards. "Switch Out", a national, award-

winning program dedicated to the safe removal and storage of mercury switches, will work through its Alberta partners to remove approximately 40 kilograms of mercury - or about 8,000 switches - from Alberta's waste stream

this year.

Geamatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists • Design of Waterf/Jastewater/Air Treatment Systems • Remedial Investigations and Feasibiiity Studies • Environmental IVIanagement Systems (ISO 14000) 'Utility Minimization Audits (Energy, Water, Wastes)• Remedial Designs/Remedial Actions •Phase l/ll Environmental Site Assessments • Soil/Groundwater

Contaminant Remedlatlons • Litigation Assistance www.geomatrix.com

Tel:(519)886•7500 Fax:(519)886•7419

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Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis,Inc. djOQ

Consulting Engineers

210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tei:(519)624-7223 Fax:(519)624-7224 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1G5 Tei:(905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031


E-mail: lnfo@hydromantis.oom Web: www.hydromantis.com




GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 70 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

Tel:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705) 721-0138 E-maii: iws@iws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca




of the


provinces, along with Ontario, to adopt this program. Included in the joint provincial/national program is Alberta Environment, which provided $15,000 in funding over the first year. Other Alberta partners include the Alberta Automotive Recyclers & Dismantlers Association, MAXUS Technology Inc. and the Recycling Council of Alberta. National partners include Environment Canada, the Canadian Association of Recycling Industries and the Canadian Steel Producers Association. For more information about the

program, visit www.switchout.ca

Planning for ammonia, chloramines and chlorinated effluents The Canadian Water and Wastewater

Association (CWWA) is opposing Environment Canada's proposal that owners of municipal wastewater col lection systems or municipal treatment systems discharging more than 5,000 mVday and meeting any one of three other criteria should develop and

implement pollution prevention and pollution control plans. CWWA is opposing this initiative on both jurisdictional and technical grounds. Jurisdictional because these effluents are already regulated or regulatable under provincial and territorial statutory instruments and the Environment Canada notice sets up a direct legally enforceable federal ini tiative that will cause some confusion

and cost burdens to those meeting the

J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

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Kingston 613-544-1424 ( Visit Our Website at www.jirichards.ca ) Jimmins 705-360-1899 Expertise for the new world of Water and Wastewater Management

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Providing Professional Services Since 1959

criteria. Technical because there are

many individual components of the notice that require rethinking and rewording. For example, one of the inclusion criteria is if the discharge contains more than 0.02 mg/L of total residual chlorine at any time in the designated monitoring period. CWWA's Effluent Committee members point out that this wording implies continuous monitor ing and non-repeating spike events can trigger a five-year planning and imple mentation requirement of significant impact. CWWA had asked that the com

Offices in: Brampton ♦ Pickering ♦ Kitchener ♦ Cobalt Telephone: 905-459-4780 Internet Site: www.kmk.ca

82 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003

E-mail: kmk@kmk.ca

ment period be extended for a further period of 60 days (beyond August 5) on the grounds that the owners of the


Environmental NEWS systems (municipal councils) were in summer recess (as was Parliament)

and there was little opportunity for the operating staff to brief their system owners.

CWWA has also sent messages to more than 700 municipalities alerting them to these concerns and seeking their input and assistance in challeng ing the notice. CWWA does not challenge the need to manage ammonia and chloramines

and chlorinated effluent discharges, but believes that Environment Canada, working with and through the provinces and territories, could

achieve its goals without setting up a requirement that does not truly reflect specific site considerations, and would not set up a system of reporting similar things to different levels of govern

tral Alberta.

Municipalities and facilities includ ed in the review will be advised on the

specific details and timing of the

ble solutions for areas that may need upgrading to ensure their operations are sustainable at a high level. A copy

assessments of their facilities in the next few weeks.

of the draft Water for Life: Alberta's

This first phase of the review is expected to cost $750,000 and be com

Strategy for Sustainability is available at www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca.

Emissions Inventory - Air Modeling - Risk ► CALPUFF View - Advanced Puff Dispersion Model ► ISC-AERMOD View - Air Dispersion Model ► IRAP-h View - Human Health Risk Assessment

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Hydrogeoloyical Consultants and Ground\vater Supply Specialists

Contact: www.cwwa.ca.

• Design and supervision of groundwater exploration programs • New municipal well design • Assessment of groundwater/surface water interaction • Groundwater protection

ZENON announces new

executive positions

pleted by the end of December 2003. The second phase will identify possi

12 Years and Still Flowing

Diana Mourato has been named Vice


P.O. Box 451, Paris, Ontario N3L 3T5

President of International Sales for


326 Grand River St. North

ZENON Environmental Inc.


(519) 442-2086, Fax: (519) 442-7242

• Artificial recharge • Hydrogeology studies and groundwater Impact assessments • Landfill monitoring and impact assessment • Well maintenance, rehabilitation, performance improvement • Well construction

• Video inspection services

• Performance testing of wells and pumps

Paris, Ontario N3L4A5

E-mall: lwater@lotowater.com. Web site: www.lotowater.com

Prior to her new position, Dr. Mourato was the company's Vice President, Municipal Systems Inc.,

Engineering &

where she and her team are credited

with establishing ZENON as a key player in the membrane market. ZENON also announced that Steve Watzeck has assumed a new role as


Environmental Science


MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax: (905) 475-5994 E-Mail: r0ception@macviro.com

Vice President of Municipal Systems Inc. Prior to this, Mr. Watzeck was

Web site: www.macviro.com

Director, North America, Municipal Systems Inc., responsible for all municipal sales activities. Contact: M. Stadnyckyj,(905) 465-3030



Monaghan Alberta commissions a


review of its water

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

treatment facilities A comprehensive review of Alberta's

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water treatment facilities is aimed at

ensuring that the potential costs of any solutions can be more accurately iden tified in the provincial water strategy. The contracts were awarded to an

Associated Engineering/Golder Associates/ATAP Infrastructure Manage ment Ltd. consortium to conduct the

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September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 83

Environmental NEWS

Lab partnership to enhance safety of Ontario's drinking water The Standards Council (SCO) and

water for all Ontarians.

Canadian Association for Environ

The Walkerton tragedy called into question the safety of Ontario's drink ing water. The provincial government established a public inquiry, headed by Ontario appeal court Justice Dennis O'Connor. The inquiry's report made

mental Analytical Laboratories (CAEAL) have entered into an agree ment with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to build a more robust

system to protect the safety of drinking


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several proposals calling for standardsrelated improvements, including mandatory accreditation for water test ing laboratories. More than 350 Canadian labs are

accredited by the SCO's Program for Accreditation



Canada (PALCAN). In partnership with CAEAL,the SCO has established a rigorous program for the accredita tion of environmental testing laborato ries. In fact, on the topic of the SCO/ CAEAL program. Justice O'Connor stated that he "was impressed by the thoroughness of the verification process and the capacity to identify areas for improvement at individual laboratories."


The agreement, which was signed July 25, 2003, formalizes the relation ship between the three parties regard ing the delivery of laboratory accredi tation services in Ontario - part of the new Safe Drinking Water Act. The Act, passed in December 2002, makes accreditation mandatory in order for labs to receive licensing. The





Environmental Analytical Laboratories is a not-for-profit association of public

SARAFINCHIN Consulting Eng


Since 1984 Specialists in Earth Engineering and Environmental Sciences Geotechnicai, GeoEnvironmentai, Hydrogeoiogy, Modeiiing, Construction QA 238 Galaxy Blvd., Toronto, Canada M9W 5R8 T 416-674-1770 F 416-674-1997 www.saraflnchin.com

and private sector laboratories. A prin cipal objective of the association is to promote and maintain a high level of assurance in analytical test data. To this end, CAEAL manages proficiency testing and site assessment programs that are tailored to meet the specific needs of environmental testing labora tories. The Standards Council of Canada is

a Crown corporation that promotes efficient and effective voluntary stan

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Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Norttiam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V 1J2 • Tel: (905) 678-3388, Fax: (905) 678-0444 E-mail: postmaster@summaeng.CGm • Website: www.summa0ng.eom

84 Environmental Science & Engineering,September 2003



of the


Standard System. Contact: rwiison@caeai.ca, mpantusa(@scc.ca.

Manitoba takes steps to protect Lake Winnipeg An initiative to save Lake Winnipeg from increasing phosphorus and nitro gen levels moved ahead recently with the appointment of members to the Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board. The first task of the new board will

Environmental NEWS be to establish its operating rules and prioritize a variety of issues affecting the health of Lake Winnipeg including shoreline erosion. The board will also

be starting on implementation of a riparian protection action plan which will help address concerns of tillage and grazing by livestock on lands adja

tle storage room left, the company spread approximately 700,000 litres of

the Environment to receive the waste.

Gay Lea Foods Co-operative Limited pleaded guilty to one charge

biosolids - including milk residue, detergents and rinse water - on a near by field between August 25 and September 6, 2001. The field was not approved by the Ontario Ministry of

under section 40 of the Environmental

Protection Act for depositing waste upon land that was not approved as a waste disposal site.

cent to streams and rivers. Manitoba Conservation Minister Steve Ashton said that the establish


ment of the board was a key commit ment under the Lake Winnipeg Action

• Water Supply

plan announced earlier this year which included establishing a soil-testing awareness program and introducing new sewage and septic field regula tions that outline standards for place ment of new systems in the proximity of waterways. Lake Winnipeg provides a 24,000-

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Gay Lea Foods fined for Illegal waste deposit Gay Lea Foods Co-operative Limited has been fined $40,000 - plus victim fine surcharge - after pleading guilty to depositing wastewater treatment sludge on an unapproved site. The company operates a dairy food pro cessing plant in Teeswater, Ontario. Waste biosolids resulting from the operation of the company's on-site wastewater treatment plant are gener ally trucked to a storage facility before they are applied on land. The Court heard that, with very lit



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September 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 85

Environmental NEWS

No more free delivery

"Asset management is good business

Canadian legislators may pass increas ingly stricter laws to keep our drinking water safe. But it is quite another thing

practice and one of the founding blocks of a progressive utility's strate gic thinking", he stressed. Contact: www.ch2mhillcanada.com.

for them to actu

ally deliver water that is cleaner and safer



Mainly this is because many Canadian


delivery systems are aging. In Toronto alone, George Powell many miles of watermains are more than 80 years old, some made of cast iron, and now near-

ing the end of their expected life cycle, having served the communities well. At a recent conference of Fede

ration of Canadian Municipalities (PCM) in Winnipeg, George Powell, P.Eng., emphasized the urgency of the matter before 2,000 municipal and elected officials and private-sector par ticipants. He said, "The public outcry in the aftermath of Walkerton, in Ontario, and North Battleford, Saskatchewan, has forced legislators to pass some of the most stringent water quality legislation in the world. Now we need to make sure we can imple ment the legislation." A senior vice president at CH2M HILL Canada, he talked to delegates about Bill 175 - the new Ontario legis lation. He said the bill was designed to move municipalities toward account ing practices that show the annual depreciation of capital assets, while establishing a dedicated fund for the eventual replacement of those assets. The Bill, when implemented, would help municipalities to achieve sustain able full-cost recovery of their water and wastewater services.

"Simply put," he stressed, "there is

no free water delivery. In coming decades, the average large Canadian utility will have to spend about three

the west

The wildfires raging in western Canada have forced thousands from

their homes, hundreds of square kilo metres of forest have burnt to the

ground, and the hot, dry conditions are only expected to continue. The University of Western Ontario is









indicated the need to clean up this site because of concerns about the possible spread of West Nile virus. There are eight other tire sites with

illegal tire stockpiles that the Ministry

Geography and Political Science. He was Assistant Deputy Minister (19942000) with the Meteorological Service

up of the Otterwood site should the owners of the site not comply with the

of Environment Canada.

"As the climate warms, we expect

of the Environment has ordered to million that will be used in the clean

order. It will determine further action

on the other eight sites as it moves for

to see more frequent occurrences of the hot, dry conditions that establish the risk of wildfires," says McBean.

recovery through orders to recover

"These risks are converted into haz

costs from the owners of sites cleaned

ardous fires by natural events, such as lightning, and also by human acts,

up by the province.

either deliberate or careless."

"Responding to hazards such as

ward and new information becomes available. The MOE will seek cost


wildfires needs to be a combination of

October 12-15,2003. WEFTEC.03,

prevention activities, such as making

76th annual technical and educa tional conference of the Water

our communities less vulnerable;

warning systems; and quick response teams, which are common to most nat ural hazards. We also need to have

thought out our response in advance how to fight the fire, how and when to evacuate people, where to move them,

Environment Federation, Los Angeles, California. For event details contact: Tel: 800-666-0206,

E-mail: confinfo@wef.org. Web site: www.weftec.org. October 15-17, 2003. Pointe-

etc. Being prepared needs to be part of every community's function," he says. Established by Canada's property and casualty insurers in 1999, the ICLR is internationally recognized for leadership in multi-disciplinary disas ter prevention research, and findings are used to help the public better

and its Energy Cost Saving com mittee are holding an Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Green House Gases course as part of the TECH program. Contact: clato@paptac.ca.

understand natural disasters and iden

tify simple steps to better protect our

estimated gap between what is spent

homes and families.

Contact: www.iclr.org.

foreseeable future is about $4-billion as S14-billion nationwide."


Township to expeditiously remove all tires from the site. The ministry esti mates that there are about 350,000 used tires on this site, making it the largest illegal tire stockpile in the province. Local health authorities have

clean up. The ministry has set aside SI

times as much revenue on asset

in Ontario alone, and perhaps as much

province. The ministry has also issued an order against the owners of the

Catastrophic Loss Reduction (ICLR). Gordon McBean is ICLR Policy Chair and a professor in the Departments of

replacement as it does now. In fact, the now and what will be required in the

blitz of other used tire sites in the


Wildfires rage on in


addition, the ministry's Environmental SWAT Team is beginning an inspection

Ontario taking strong action to reduce illegal

Mr. Powell said Bill 175 is designed to serve as the catalyst to close the gap in Ontario, driving cities to reinvest in civic infrastructure and to manage

Ontarios's MOE has ordered the own ers of nine used tire sites to remove

municipal assets for the benefit of all.

illegally stored tires from their sites. In

tire stockpiles

86 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2003

Claire, Quebec. The Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada


27-28, 2003. XP-

SWMM, Montreal, Quebec. Detailed training in the analysis and design of complex stormwater and wastewater drainage systems. Attendees present at this workshop will gain expertise in the use of software for modelling various types of open and closed conduit systems, www.xpsoftware.com.


r y oil/water separator features these

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