Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 2003

Page 1

May 2003




The^ffect of fires on double walled abovo ground tstbks Conditions and coagulant types affect Crypto removal Halifax enacts tough new domestic pesticide ban Digester gas used to generate heat and power

bo private labs get a fair shake with Wastewater grit handling ^gslgns'&valuated Tiny insect tackle^ eutrophica^lon


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Contents — ISSN-0835-605X

April/May 2003, Vol.16 No .2 Issued May, 2003 ES&E invites articies (approx. 1000 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmentai protection topics, if you are interested in submitting an articie for consideration, piease contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmentai Science & Engineering Pubiications inc. reserves the right to edit ali submissions without notice.


Halifax takes bold steps in enacting domestic pesticide ban - Editorial comment by Tom Davey


Imaging technologies key for detecting oil seeps and contaminated soils


How conditions and coagulant type can affect Crypto removal


New clarifiers increase capacity and quality at Quebec water plant


Helping industry save money and improve environmental performance


Using earthworm behaviour to assess contaminated soil


How well is privatization working?


Do private labs get a fair shake with Reg 459?


Trenchless compared against open cut for sanitary sewer installation


Digester gas used to generate heat and power


Tiny insect to tackle eutrophication in Quebec lake


Advanced water meter technology helps smooth reading collection


Wastewater grit handling designs evaluated



This tank is green and so are the savings


Understanding how secondary containment applies to owners and lessees

38 40


Ad Index


Calendar of Events


Literature Reviews


Product Showcase




Protecting Brownfield developments using spray applied membranes

Industry Update


Cover sfory- Testing the effects of exposure fires on double

Professional Cards


walled above ground tanks 42

Portable structures for environmental management


Saskatoon firm supplies cover for sewage tanks


Preventing stormwater contamination from a truck impoundment yard


Wastewater treatment/storage tank installed in "green" convention centre


Inexpensive lining system extends life of leaking tanks

4 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003


Underwriters' Laboratories of

Canada subjects double wailed tanks to external fire.

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Halifax takes bold step in enacting domestic pesticide bans By Tom Davey,Editor

There is a certain irony in the


colour green, which in a mere

Now the Regional Municipality of

three decades has become both

Halifax, Nova Scotia, has become the first in Canada to enact a tough ban on pesticides. Hudson, Quebec, is be

a noun and an adjective for environmental activism. Canadian-

inspired Greenpeace, for example, now rivals multinational companies in its global scope and influence. Irony is further compounded by the fact that homeowners, in their quest for the perfect lawn, assault their turf with a variety of toxic substances, many of which are diametrically opposed to the green ethos. There have been many attempts to curb pesticide spraying but householders proclaim that theirs is private property and that they can do what they want on their own land.

lieved to be the first Canadian town to

pass a by-law that prohibited residents from using garden pesticides for "ornamental" reasons.

Halifax has a long tradition of im plementing environmental initiatives. It was the first city in Canada to imple ment a municipal composting system and during the last five years, all the Region's households and businesses have had to separate wet garbage from dry trash and place it in specially des

The By-law appears to have solid public support. A public opinion poll conducted by Corporate Research Associates found that about 90 per cent of those surveyed in the Region

that toxic substances, and fertilizers,

can run off private land onto public lands, and into streams and lakes. We

are dealing with some fundamental and historical human rights issues here.

sel, that this particular water now belonged to the person who captured it." According to reader Ron Shaver {ES&E November, 2002, page 8), Locke borrowed heavily from Hooker, while Jefferson essentially para phrased Locke when writing the American Declaration of Indepen dence in 1776. The Declaration is one

of the greatest modern political works known to history. A more palpable example of pub lic/private environmental rights is eutrophication in lakes and rivers. Rapid and excessive weed growth in water bodies is often exacerbated by over-fertilization of private lawns whose run-off flows into public water

use products included under Admini strative Order #23, which include: insecticidal soaps and herbicidal soaps, BT (Bacillus thuringiensis), nematodes, other biological control organisms, animal repellents, rodenticides, injected tree treatments, sticky media, borax, lime sulphur, ferric phosphate, pruning paint, pheromone traps, pyrethrum (or pyrethrin), Bordeaux mixture and other sulphur oils and diatomaceous earth.

domestic boundaries. The trouble is

that if someone catches water in a ves

for the maintenance of outdoor trees, shrubs, flowers and other ornamental plants and turf. However, property owners may still

compounds, dormant and horticultural

While this seems not to be an

unreasonable argument, the philosoph ical and moral issues go way beyond

The great English philosopher, John Locke, in his Second Treatise on Government in 1690, wrote that "although a waterfall in a forest may be considered public property and owned by no person, it is undeniable

Regional Municipality (HRM) were affected by their Pesticide By-law. The full ban restricts pesticide applications

ignated bins. The Region collects the garbage and turns some of it into gar den soil enhancer.

Polls show widespread support for the Region's strong environmental measures. Even the use of perfumed products has come under environmen tal controls. It is forbidden to wear any kind of perfumed product, including perfumed hair sprays and aftershaves, in most public buildings. The Federal Government, too, has responded with a Pest Control Products Act (PCPA) and, because of its national mandate, the Federal Act is extremely comprehensive, covering the importation, manufacture, sale and use of all pesticides, including insecti cides, herbicides and fungicides in Canada, with stiff penalties for viola tions.

Beginning April 1, 2003, all resi dential properties in the Halifax

use alternative sustainable methods, rather than pesticides. The Halifax by law applies to both residential and municipally-owned properties. A phase-in period was backed up with a strong focus on a comprehensive pub lic information/education program. Meanwhile, in Toronto,following a recommendation of the Toronto Health

Department to ban pesticides, the deputy Mayor, Case Ootes, says that the City's Health Department's pro posed pesticide ban was unenforceable and impractical. But the ethics plot thickens with the advent of the West Nile Virus threat.

Toronto City's Health Board on April 8 approved dumping larvicide pellets into storm sewers. This is a different

issue, posing an ethical dilemma wor thy of Locke's deep intellect. As such, the solution is unlikely to be found in City Hall. Halifax Region is to be commended for its bold initiative and imaginative implementation in addressing a series of controversial environmental prob lems. â–

May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 7

Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor & Publisher


E-mail: tom@esemag.ccim Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director


E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com

Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: carol@esemag.com President



E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Re: ES&E September 2002 Radium-226 monitoring for new metal mining effluent regulations At the end of 7th paragraph you write: "However, the SCC lists only two lab oratories that are certified for this

method, Saskatchewan Research Co

uncil in Saskatoon, SK and Becquerel Laboratories in Mississauga, ON." As of June 2002 we are also certi

fied with the SCC (Standards Council of Canada) for Radium-226 testing. Gary Morgan, Elliot Lake Research Field Station of Laurentian

Technical Advisory Board

University, Elliot Lake, Ontario

Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting

Re: The facts behind the Zero AOX Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

goals in pulp and paper mills I would like to congratulate Mr. Doug Christie, R Eng., a Process Engineer at Hornby Island, B.C. for his

Dr. Robert C. Landine

ADI Systems Inc. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng. Marie Meunier

John Meunier Inc. / USFilter

Environmental Science S Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

dioxin is a one word with benzo

Technical Coordinator/Technical

Department, Domtar Inc., Cornwall Mill

Re: Welding liabilities Hi Tom,

VJe acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward

In the area of water and wastewater

our editorial costs.

treatment, there are a lot of fabricated

. .. ^

Printed in Canada. No part of this pub lication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year (plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one year.



All advertising space orders, copy, art work,film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G3V6, Tei: (905)7274666, Fax;(905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag. com

enforcer. The CWB has told me it is

welding to CSA W47.2. A consultant approves the shop drawing and another contractor buys and installs the ladder in the water treatment plant owned by a municipality. Eight months laterjack of all trades at the water plant is climb ing the ladder, one of the welded rungs fails and he falls off the ladder, breaks his ankle and goes off on three months workers comp. Now the municipality is paying for buddy to be off on comp, and the taxpayer is getting screwed again. Seems hardly worth the 1015% difference between using a quali ty controlled, CSA approved fabricator and Joe Blow's welding shop. Another aspect of this, too, is that the municipality may not be getting what was specified. So, a consultant's lack of specification enforcement is totally contrary to what their client(the municipality) purchased. Best regards, Virginia Junkin

Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct, fS(SÂŁ cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in tbis magazine are intended to provide informa tion rather than give legal or other professional advice.

Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No.7750


ect which calls for certified aluminum

operators and contractors.



1. The A in AOX refers to adsorbable

1 would like, however, to attract Mr.

Christie's attention to the following

Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant

Canadian Pubiications Maii Saies

internet on

and not absorbable. 2. The accurate nomenclature for the

be achieved.

instead of benzyl in the name such as tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Regards, Khalid S. Jasim, Ph.D. Chem.

Second Giass Mail


Welding Bureau site, 1 just don't think this is always done. Even when it says right in the documents that the suc cessful fabricator shall provide proof of certification, probably only in one job out of 250 is it actually asked for. The Canadian Welding Bureau is a certifying authority; it is not an

two nomenclatures:

goals in pulp and paper mills". 1 believe that all of us in the pulp and paper industry agree with his point of view that zero AOX level in the pulp mill effluent is not realistic and cannot

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Ptiilip Analytical


the responsibility of the specifying consultant to enforce that the specifi cation is being complied with. So enough background, my concern (in addition to losing work to compa nies which are not on the same playing field as us) is this, who is responsible if there is an accident, say in the fol lowing scenario: Let's imagine an uncertified weld ing company welds a ladder on a proj

article "The facts behind the Zero AOX

Eartti Tecti Canada Inc.

certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau. Virtually every project 1 look at calls for fabricators supplying items under Section 5500 to be certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) to CSA W47.1 (for steel/stainless) and W47.2(for aluminum). Now,my com pany frequently loses work to compa nies which are not certified by the CWB. Even though it's very easy to check a company's certification status

metal items. Items like: handrailing, ladders, catwalks, structural steel, monorail beams, access hatches, lift ing davits, and bars. Whether new con struction or rehabilitation/expansion of

existing facilities, tendered projects in Canada have a specification book which lays out all of the standards applicable to that particular project. In the area of Metal Fabrications -

Section 5500 - one item of great importance is whether a company complies with CSA standards and is

8 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

ES&E welcomes comments and

suggestions from readers.

Send to: tom@esemag.com


â– h




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Site Remediation

Hyperspectral imaging technologies key for oil seep/oilimpacted soil detection and environmental baselines By Jim Ellis, Ellis GeoSpatlal

Natural oil seeps can help exploration


discover new oil reserves hidden beneath the Earth's

surface, creating wealth for companies and governments. At the same time, society's global use of hydrocarbonbased products has resulted in count less spills and leaks over the past cen tury, polluting soils, water, vegetation and air. The locations of many of these oil seeps, oil spills, and oilimpacted soils are not known. Exploration opportunities across the globe are being missed and envi ronments continue to be degraded as these oil-impacted sites go unmapped. By mapping and monitoring these areas using new imaging technologies and advanced software packages, exploration professionals can find new seeps indicative of oil accumulations at depth and environmentalists can assess a broad range of surface condi

Landsat™ image as a total infrared coiour image (healthy vegetation reddishorange) of the area mapped with airborne hyperspectral imagery in Southern California. The detected oil seeps are east of the lake.

often used to document vegetation condition and geology across oil

libraries that can be applied globally.



ronmental baselines. The pixels that

Energy and oil companies monitor their assets and develop environmental

Hyperspectral imaging sensors have sufficient spectral resolution to identify different surface materials based solely on spectral characteris tics. They record narrow wavelength bands of visible light as well as longer,

baselines to better understand the

impact of development on the environ ment.

The power of hyperspectral imagery for asset mapping Energy and oil companies are responsible for significant assets, including oil fields, refineries and tank farms, pipelines, and exploration acreage. With all ofthese assets comes the responsibility of regularly and uni formly assessing the environmental conditions across the acreage -includ ing the location and extent of oilimpacted sites. This type of monitoring can be a time-consuming process with out the appropriate imaging, mapping and analysis tools. Typically, detection of oil-impacted sites is conducted as part of an overall environmental baseline that includes

mapping of vegetation types, vegeta tion stress, soil conditions, land use/land cover, infrastructure and water conditions. Satellite and air

borne spectral imaging sensors are

near-infrared and short wave-infrared

Spectral libraries are essential for envi are used to characterize a feature of

interest need to be accurately located on a map and the image and groundspectra measurements obtained. In 1999, a cooperative research project was proposed by me, organized by Geosat and sponsored by Chevron,

light, providing vast amounts of spec tral information at the sub-pixel level. Hyperspectral sensors continuously measure the intensity of solar energy

soils. We knew that if we were suc

reflected from materials as it varies

cessful, we would be developing a new

across different wavelengths. More than 100 measurements are typically recorded for each pixel, each repre senting the material's response to a dif ferent wavelength of light. We are using NASA's experimental Hyperion hyperspectral satellite and

mapping tool that would have global application for the energy industry. The Geosat project proved that

several commercial airborne sensors to

map environmental conditions across high-value assets for the energy indus try. The unique spectral signatures that characterize pixels with different vege tation types and their levels of stress, disturbed soils, water conditions, manmade materials, and oil-impacted sur faces, are organized into spectral

10 Environmental Sdence & Engineering, May 2003

Exxon and Shell to determine the via

bility of hyperspectral technology for detecting oil seeps and oil-impacted

sophisticated airborne and ground hyperspectral sensors were capable of detecting oil seeps and oil-impacted soils. We used the sophisticated al gorithms of ENVI Software to extract the subtle hydrocarbon signature from

the airborne hyperspectral datacubes. The research project demonstrated that facility managers, engineers, environ mental scientists and geologists could use these technologies to obtain tradi tional maps and to detect oil-impacted continued overleaf...

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Site Remediation sites, subtle variations in vegetation vigour, different plant types and differ ences among disturbed and engineered soils.

Geologic mapping For exploration, we use remote sensing imagery to effectively map variations in rock type, structure, veg etation and fracture density; map more subtle variations at the smface; and

consider direct detection of oil seeps as part of the exploration tool kit. Oil accumulations trapped beneath the surface of the earth can leak, resulting in oil seeps at the surface. Detecting and accurately mapping the location, size, and pattern of oil seeps can improve subsurface modelling and pri oritize expensive seismic and drilling programs.

ENVI Software was selected to

enable this sophisticated mapping project, as the software's features are especially key for extracting informa tion from hyperspectral data at the subpixel level. Using subpixel and unmix ing algorithms, we are able to detect small amounts of hydrocarbon-based

material within a pixel. This is a criti cal capability that enables mapping of a subtle, yet very important feature, from hyperspectral data. For mapping targets that have unique and strong spectral signatures, such as the clay minerals associated with hydrothermal alteration, our ana lysts use ENVI to easily, rapidly and systematically derive some informa tion from hyperspectral images. During processing, a series of image maps are developed which reveal pix els containing a spectrally unique fea ture of interest- such as an oil-impact ed surface, vegetation type, iron or car bonate mineral. Ultimately, the image maps are converted into geographic information system (GIS) layers with attributes for helping the client identi fy specific features within an area of study. Helping exploration and the

also cause pollution and are of concern to the environmentalist. In Southern

California, as decades of production depletes the pressure within oil reser voirs buried beneath the ocean floor, natural oil seeps along the coast are leaking less and the amount of pollu tion is decreasing. Here the environ ment is improving at the same time energy companies and governments are reaping the monetary benefits of production.

Sophisticated satellite and airborne hyperspectral sensors, coupled with powerful image processing software and GIS, enable both exploration and environmental professionals to improve their understanding and map ping of high-value assets. These tech nologies are being used for detecting natural oil seeps in support of explo ration and oil-impacted surfaces for environmental applications. Once


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Finding new natural oil seeps can be very important for advancing explo ration opportunities. When these seeps are near coastal communities, they

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How conditions and

coagulant type can affect Crypto removal By Monica Emeiko,PhD.and T. Brown, University of Waterloo

Multiple water treatment strategies are critical in

the effort to effectively remove pathogens including Ciyptosporidium parvum (C. parviim) from drinking water. While traditional disinfec tion technologies incur considerable costs and have practical limitations, filtration by granular media can provide an excellent barrier when operated properly. But for filtration performance to be effective, appropriate chemical pre-treatment is vital, and efficacy suffers if that pre-treatment is sub-optimal.

It is recognised that the interaction of C. pai-vum oocysts with chemical coagulants contributes to the effectiveness of the pathogen's removal by filtration, but only limited infor mation is available regarding the charging mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested oocyst surfaces contain glycoproteins and trace amounts of fatty acids that can have ionisable groups such as carboxylates or phosphates. This means that the interactions between the surfaces of oocysts and the chemical properties of coagulants used in drinking water treatment are likely to be mechanically different and may affect subsequent treatment processes diiferently. Recent work has suggested that enmeshment in precipi tate may be the primary mechanism of oocyst removal when ferric chloride is used. In contrast, the same work suggested that the chemisorption of hydrolyzed aluminium species was an important mechanism when alum was used as a coagulant. These investigations suggest that the specific interactions between alum and the oocyst surfaces might provide benefits in oocyst removal. While some studies have demonstrated that improvements in C. parvum removal by filtration could be associated with specific coagulants, oth ers have underscored the general optimisation of chemical pre-treatment rather than specific coagulant selection. Previous studies have demonstrated comparable levels of C. parvum removal by filters treating alum-coagulated water at both warm (~20-26C) and cold (~2-3C) water tempera tures. Similar studies conducted at the same pilot plant demonstrated that oocyst-sized polystyrene microspheres were reasonable surrogates for C. parvum removal by filtra tion.

In the study described here, pilot-scale filtration studies were performed to investigate the relative impact of coagu lant type on the removal of Ciyptosporidium and oocystsized polystyrene microsphere surrogates by granular media filtration. The impacts of in-line alum, ferric chloride, and chitosan coagulation on subsequent filtration were investi gated. Materials and methods

Pilot-scale treatment plant - Two glass filter columns 50 mm in diameter were operated at a loading rate of-10.4 m/h 14 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

Monica Emeiko, PhD., is assistant professor of Environmental and Civil Engineering at the University of Waterloo in Ontario.

(-4.3 US gpm/ft*) in a constant rate, rising head mode dur ing the filter evaluations. Each of the filters contained 508 mm of anthracite over 203 mm of sand. The filters treated

dechlorinated tap water with 3.5 NTU of kaolinite-induced turbidity. The raw water was coagulated in lime and then fil tered. One filter treated alum-coagulated water at a dose of 5 mg/L alum at pH 6.9. A second filter treated ferric chlo ride-coagulated water at a dose of 3 mg/L at pH 6.9. Investigations were also conducted with chitosan-coagulated water at a dose of 1 mg/L. During the experiments,formalin-inactivated oocysts and oocyst-sized polystyrene microspheres were added to the fil ter influent to yield concentrations of-105 oocysts/L and microspheres/L respectively. The oocysts were added to the raw water and were subsequently coagulated. The addition of oocysts to the raw water did not substantially increase particle loading to the treatment system. Operational conditions The effects of alum, ferric chloride, and chitosan coagu lation on Ciyptosporidium and oocyst-size microsphere removal by filtration were investigated during three experi mental conditions; stable operation, sub-optimal coagula tion, and no coagulation. Stable operating conditions were periods of optimised treatment during which filter effluent turbidities did not exceed 0.1 NTU. Sub-optimal coagulation conditions represented a coagulant misfeed resulting in a 50 per cent reduction in applied coagulant dose. The no coagu lation experiments represented a complete coagulation failure. All of the experiments were conducted after two to four hours of stable operation after filter ripening. Cryptosporidium oocysts and oocyst-sized polystyrene continued overleaf...










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For more information, circle reply card No. 110(See page 25)

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Parasites microspheres were seeded into the raw water for one hour during each of the experiments. Filter effluent and efflu ent samples were collected at four time points, each approximately ten minutes apart, throughout the seeding period.

locations using on-line turbidimeters calibrated using dilute formazin solu tions as specified by the manufacturer. An IBR particle counter measured total particles from l-150pm at the fil ter effluent location.

Removal calculations were based on these influent and effluent concentra

tion pairs. Analytical methods a) Cryptosporidium parvuni - Stock suspensions of formalin-inactivated C. parvum were vortexed for 30 seconds, and then a small portion of the suspen

Alum,ferric chloride,and

sion was removed to enumerate the

Cryptosporidium oocysts and oocyst-sized microspheres

oocyst concentration. The stock con centration was determined by averag ing triplicate counts using a hemocytometer and light microscopy. The

chitosan coagulation generally resulted in similar removals of

entire grid (1 mm') was used for oocyst enumeration at 400x magnifi cation.

During the filtration investigations, C. parvum oocysts were measured in filter influent and effluent samples. Filter influents were analysed in 2.5 mL volumes. Filter effluents were

analysed in volumes ranging from 5 mL to 1 L, depending on the operating condition studied. Sample volumes were chosen to yield between ten and 2,000 oocysts per membrane. All of the samples were directly fil tered through 25 mm, 0.40 pm poly carbonate membranes utilising a previ ously described method and standard immunofluorescence assay. Presump tive microscopic analysis for C. parvum was performed at 400x magni fication. Recovery data from the water matrix indicated approximately 75 per cent recovery of oocysts, comparable to results reported elsewhere. b) Polystyrene microspheres - Fluoresbrite'^^ carboxylated YG fluorescentdyed, oocyst-sized polystyrene micros pheres were used as non-biological surrogate indicators for C. parvum removal. The YG dye matches the flu orescence filter settings offluorescein, similar to FITC for C. parvum. The microspheres were concentrated and enumerated concurrently with C. parvum, by the method generally described above. Recovery data from the water matrix indicated approxi mately 75 per cent recovery of micros pheres, comparable to results previous ly reported elsewhere. c) On-line parameters: turbidity and particle counts - Turbidity was moni tored at the filter influent and effluent

Results and discussion

C. pai-vum removals by filtration preceded by in-line alum, ferric chlo ride, and chitosan coagulation during stable operation, sub-optimal coagula tion, and coagulation failure were recorded and analysed. During stable (optimised) operating conditions, sim ilar levels of C. parvum removal were observed in the pilot-scale filters, regardless of coagulant type (alum, ferric chloride, or chitosan). The importance of maintaining proper coagulation was clearly demonstrated. Compared to alum and chitosan, ferric chloride may result in slightly lower C. parvum removals by filtration during sub-optimal coagulation conditions, and further analysis is necessary to determine whether the differences are

statistically significant. A possible explanation for such differences may be the different mechanisms of interac

tion between the coagulants and the oocysts. In agreement with other reports, this study demonstrated almost no oocyst removal by filtration during complete coagulation failure, regardless of coagulant type. Oocyst-sized polystyrene microsphere removals by filtration preceded by in-line alum, ferric chloride, and chitosan coagulation during stable operation, sub-optimal coagulation, and coagulation failure were also recorded and analysed, providing simi lar data to the oocyst data above; how ever there was considerably more vari ability. The overall trends regarding the impact of coagulant type and coagu lant conditions were similar between

both the oocyst and microsphere sets

16 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

of data. Microsphere removals by fil tration preceded by alum, ferric chlo ride, and chitosan were similar. Again it appeared that, compared to alum and chitosan coagulation, ferric chloride coagulation may result in slightly lower removals of microspheres by fil tration during sub-optimal coagulation conditions, and when no coagulant was present, there was little removal of microspheres by filtration. Oocyst and microsphere surface charge and compressibility may con tribute to the observed differences in

oocyst and microsphere removals by filtration. In the present study, the overall relationship between C. parvum oocyst and polystyrene microsphere removals during the range of operational conditions investigated was fairly linear. Microsphere re movals were similar to oocyst re movals, though often slightly lower, regardless of the coagulant type utilised. Conclusions

The pilot-scale results from this work indicated that:

• Alum, ferric chloride, and chitosan

coagulation generally resulted in simi lar removals of Cryptosporidium oocysts and oocyst-sized microspheres during optimised operating conditions when filter effluent turbidities were

consistently below 0.1 NTU. • Sub-optimal coagulation conditions with alum, ferric chloride, and chi tosan coagulation resulted in deterio rated Cryptosporidium and micros phere removal by filtration, relative to stable operation. Cryptosporidium removal by filtration during sub-opti mal coagulation with either alum or chitosan appeared marginally better (relative to stable operation) than that observed during ferric chloride coagu lation. •





Cryptosporidium and microsphere removal during sub-optimal coagula tion conditions (and possibly during stable operation) may be associated with the different mechanisms of

alum, ferric chloride, and chitosan

interaction with oocysts during filtra tion. Further analysis is necessary to determine if these differences are sta

tistically significant. • Oocyst-sized polystyrene micros pheres appeared to be reasonable indica tors of Ciyptosporidium removal by fil tration, regardless of coagulant type. ■

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Water Treatment








Resources in the Environment Industry (CCHREI) is now accepting applications from environmental practitioners to participate in the National Occupational Standards (NOS) survey update. The NOS will:

Identify skills and knowledge needed by environmental practitioners. Act as a benchmark for professional development activities. Identify and support clear career paths. Provide guidelines for certification/ accreditation.

Increase mobility within the Canadian environment industry.


July 30, 2003

In Partnership with:

water plant

An expansion at the Charny

Water Treatment Plant in the

city of Levis, Quebec, will increase capacity from 26,000 m3/d to a design flow of 45,000 m3/d (6.9 mgd to 7.9 mgd) upon commissioning in May 2003. USFiiter's John Meunier Products sup plied two Actifio" ballasted ciarification units and plant automation under a US$i.07 million contract with Levis, a suburb of Quebec City. These units will comprise the first step in treating raw water from the Chaudiere River.

The effluent will be further treated by three gravity-flow media filters. The Actiflo units' high treatment capacity and small footprint enabled the city to increase total plant treat ment capacity within the same space previously occupied by two sludge

1^1 Development Canada CONRDENTIAUTY

AD information given to CCHREI wDi remain completely confidential. Ybur identity aixi any Information attrfbutabia to you wDl not be released to aityorte outside CCHRS.




polymer to aggregate suspended mate rials, which are then removed by set tling. The primary difference in the Actiflo process is the addition of microsand to speed up floe formation and settling. The microsand aids devel opment of chemical fioc which is claimed to be far denser and more durable than floe in a conventional ciarifier. It also acts as ballast to

struction of costly new basins. "The Chaudiere River flows through agricuiturai areas and is among the most polluted rivers in Quebec," said Christian Scott, senior project engineer

enhance settling and thus allow shorter detention times and higher ciarifier





snow melts make the river water

extremely difficult to treat. Pilot test ing in winter and summer conditions has


The new plant treatment process must meet a provincial turbidity stan dard of 2.3 NTU, but city officials expect the process to deliver water consistently below i NTU. The project includes a process guarantee. The Actiflo process works on the same principles as conventional water treatment. Both use coagulant for

blanket clarifiers, and without con

Products. "That and highly variable quality caused by rainfalls and spring

Human Resourrtes

the variable flows from the river."





process was the best available to treat

overflow rates. That translates to a

smaller system footprint and lower capital costs. Besides ail mechanical and chemi

cal and sand feed components of the Actiflo system, John Meunier Products provided control and instrumentation and updated SCADA software for the entire plant. Upon completion, ail plant processes will be fully automat ed. ■

Visit www.cchrei.ca/NOSform

Creating Value Through Service and Innovation

Name_ E-malL Address.


lwww,ae,ca Postal Code.

Phone Number(


Municipal Environmental

Please identify your work sector:

Environmental Protection


Conservation & Preservation of Natural



Environmental Education Communications

& Research Other

Mall or Fax to: CCHREI, Suite 1450, 700 - 4th Avenue SW, Calgary, Alberta T2P 3J4 Ph: 403-233-0748 Fx: 403-269-9544


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Burnaby Lethbridge

Kelowna Reglna

Calgary Saskatoon

Edmonton Toronto


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Are All Turbidimeters Created Equal? Are Your Turbidimeters on the Same Wavelength? Different light sources may give noncomparable results.

I Distribution System


Whether you measure samples from a water source, process waters, or in the distribution system... ...trust Hach turbidimeters to provide comparable data that allows you to make process adjustments with confidence and produce the best possible water quality at an economical cost. Hach gives you assured accuracy, even at low values present in

finished water (Âą 2% of reading).

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> Broad spectrum light source from tungsten at color temperature of 2200-3000 °K. > Calibrated with formazin standards.

Now available, new, ready-to-use formazin standards for accurate calibration and periodic checks.

Distributors are located throughout Canada and the Service Centre is located in Winnipeg, MB. To find a distributor in your area contact Hach Company at (970) 669-3050 or visit www.hach.com.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 162(See page 25)

Industrial Pollution

Helping industry save money and improve environmental performance By Viive Sawler and Jennifer TIdmarsh

More and more small and medium sized manu

facturing companies are beginning to realize that Pollution Prevention (P2) planning and action pays off substantially. The Toronto Region Sustainability Program offers com panies, with fewer than 500 employees, funding assistance to have a pre-qualified consultant conduct a P2 assessment oftheir facility. This assessment can help to identify oppor tunities for reducing or eliminating toxic pollutants, haz ardous waste and smog emissions. In addition, a company undertaking this kind of work, may save money and reduce costs, eliminate the need to report to the National Pollutant Release Inventory, reduce potential liability, and preserve capital asset value and demonstrate due diligence while meeting mandatory P2 planning requirements. Capitalizing on pollution prevention opportunities has traditionally been difficult for small and medium sized companies. Common reasons cited by them for not pursu ing P2 activities include: not having the time, the money or the internal capacity to do so. The Toronto Region Sustainability Program, however, is now available to assist

Providing Muiti-Trade Services

to Canada's Buiiding and COnlSWCK Construction Trades.

- Design Build Contracting - Multi-trade Contracting - Facilities Management

Frank DeCaro, Production Manager, in the plating room of the DeCaro faciiity.

companies overcome these barriers and provide a 50% sub sidy incentive to cover the assessment costs, up to a maxi mum of $4,000. The assessments are carried out by prequalified, technical consultants who have the knowledge and expertise to identify P2 opportunities. The Program is being delivered through the Ontario Centre for Environmental Technology Advancement (OCETA), a private, not-for-profit organization, and addresses the environmental priorities of three levels of government, including Environment Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Environment, and the City of Toronto. Several companies are now taking advantage of this opportunity. With 25 assessments completed and in process, the success stories are proof that implementation of P2 options are beneficial. EcoSoft, a Toronto area con sulting firm, recently completed a P2 assessment for Informco, a graphic communication company that produces high quality offset lithographic printing, and they have identified several cost avoidance opportunities for them through implementation of P2 options. One of Informco's major sources of pollution came from isopropyl alcohol (IPA), a volatile organic compound (VOC) that not only is highly flammable but is also a sig nificant health risk. Attempts in the past to reduce or elim inate the use of IPA were unsuccessful, but, by identifying the root cause of the IPA use, the consultant was able to find

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a solution to this pollution problem. The problem was with the inconsistency of the municipal water supply quality, requiring that the pH of the water be stabilized through the use of IPA before it was used in the printing process. To solve this problem the consultant suggested Informco install a 445 litre per day reverse osmosis system to treat the municipal water, thus removing the need for IPA. With a short payback period (approximately 6 to 8 months) this low cost option has a high return on investment. The reverse

osmosis system will remove 4000 kg / 4 toimes of VOC emissions per year from the environment and will save $9,168 per year in the costs for the IPA. Along with these

Industrial Pollution significant benefits it will also reduce the risk of fire and improve the air quality in the plant.

aim to use water-based paints that would lead to a further 50% reduction,

platform for pollution prevention plan ning that will provide communities with the ability to take appropriate action leading to sustainable develop

addressed the City of Toronto's Sewer Use By-law requirements and issued

achieving approximately a $1,300 sav ings per year. The Toronto Region Sustainability Program is helping industry, govern

recommendations for the elimination

ment and industrial associations to


of copper and zinc (subject pollutants) in the flexographic film, plate and photopolymer processing. While other

meet their respective bottom lines, to reduce priority pollutants and wastes, to reduce costs, and improve overall performance. The Program is intended to evolve into a transferable program

Viive Sawler is Marketing Manager, OCETA, and Jennifer Tidmarsh, Web Marketing Coordinator, OCETA.

In addition, the P2 assessment

recommendations were not as com

plex, such as enforcing a closed con tainer policy, VOC emissions will be reduced by 14% or 1.12 tonnes, with a savings of$2,000 to $2,500 per year, at no cost to the company. Another success story involves DeCaro, a small metal plating facility



more information, contact

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in Toronto, which is committed to improving its environmental perform

ance but needed assistance in meeting the City of Toronto's Sewer Use ByLaw requirements. Three main processes were used at this plant, including degreasing, plating and painting. During the evaluation, the consultant from Cotter Associates Ltd.

identified large evaporative losses in the degreasing process, along with the use of trichloroethylene.

PortadamÂŽ enviro-friendly holding basins can be installed over irregular, unprepared land contours for most liquids.

A recommendation was made to

reduce the use of trichloroethylene by changing the tank size and installing a cooling system to minimize the evapo rative losses by 35%. Implementation of this recommendation will provide an annual savings of $1,500. Another recommendation was to use a caustic

bath for cleaning instead of the degreasers, resulting in a 50% reduc tion in use of trichloroethylene and a savings of $2,100 per year. In the longer term, by switching to non-chlo rinated, or water-based cleaners, trichloroethylene can be completely eliminated.

The plating process also offers areas for improvement through the conservation of copper, zinc and cyanide. By improving rinsing, these can be reduced by 10%, for a savings of $100 per year. These chemicals can also be conserved by installing drip trays to catch drippage between tanks. This can be returned to the tank, pro viding a savings of$30 per year. In the painting line, it was recommended to switch to high volume, low pressure spray guns that could lead to a 15% reduction in paint consumption, result ing in savings of $400 per year. Over the longer term, the company could

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For more information, circle reply card No. 113(See page 25)


Contaminated Soils

Using earthworm behaviour to assess contaminated soli By Natalie Felsthauer,


ESG International Inc.

screening tool; however, it cannot

This acute test is useful as a

detect sublethal effects of contaminat

Researchers are using earth

avoidance response test unit filled with contaminated and control soil.

ed soils.

worm behaviour as an eco nomical method to assess con taminated soils. These new test methods will assist decision-mak

The reproduction test is a 56 to 63 day test that is used to measure the

63 day), reproduction tests.

effects of chronic or long-term expo sure to contaminated soil on the repro

behaviour test method has been evalu ated with two different earthworm

ductive ability of earthworms. At the

species, five different soil types, and with organic (petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides) and inorganic (heavy met

beginning of a test, two reproductively

ers in addressing clean-up options. Working with Environment Can

mature earthworms are placed in a test unit (glass 500 mL wide-mouthed mason jar) that contains between 350

ada, researchers at ESG International

are in the final stages of the develop ment of national toxicity test methods that will be used to assess the toxicity

to 400 mL of test soil. After 28 or 35

days, the adults are removed from the test units, and their survival rate meas ured. At the end of the test, the num

of contaminated soils to terrestrial

plants, arthropods (springtails) and earthworms. Three different types of earthworm tests have been developed and include acute (lethal), behaviour (sublethal) and chronic (reproduction)

ber ofjuveniles produced,juvenile wet and dry mass, and the number of


The acute toxicity test is used to measure the acute, or short-term,

vival is assessed following 7 and 14 days of exposure to the contaminated

als) contaminants.


The soils tested

were either uncontaminated field-col

lected soils amended with a toxicant, or were site-specific contaminated soils collected from the field.

The behaviour test unit has a unique circular design, and consists of six equally-sized, pie-shaped compart

hatched and unhatched cocoons are measured. The behaviour test is used to meas

chamber (Figure 1). Each compart

ure the avoidance-response of earth

ber and adjacent compartments by two

worms to potentially contaminated soils. It is a short test, with a 72-hour duration, and has been shown to be predictive (i.e., as sensitive) of the results of the much longer-term (56 to

effects of contaminated soils on adult earthworm survival. Earthworm sur

Pie-Shaped Test Compartment

Inner Chamber Without Soil Where Worms Are

Placement of earthworms into an

Placed At Start Of Test

Wall Separating Compartments

ments that surround a central hollow ment is connected to the central cham

or three holes at the bottom of the

compartment walls. As a result, earth worms can move freely among all compartments.

At the beginning of a test, 350 mL of soil is added to each compartment. Soil treatments (i.e., soils with differ ent levels of contamination) can be assigned to compartments in a random, alternating or stratified pattern. A control treatment (soil with no con tamination) is always included. Ten earthworms are added to the test unit

one at a time in order to avoid a poten tial "clustering" effect. The compart ment entered by each worm is record ed at the beginning of the test (e.g., t = 0 hours). The test temperature is con


trolled at 20 ¹ 3° C. After 72 hours, at the end of the test, compartments are isolated by inserting metal sheets to prevent worms from moving among compartments. The distribution of the earthworms among the soil treatments Steel Base Of Test Unit

is recorded.

The experimental design of the avoidance behaviour test has been

Outer Wall Of Test Unit Holes Between


â– Wooden

Support Stand

Holes Between Inner

Chamber and Compartment

under development for the last five years, and, depending on the design, the results have been analyzed either using Chi-square distribution analysis or, more recently, by estimating a 50% avoidance effect concentration

Figure 1. Avoidance-response test unit constructed of stainless steel. 22 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

(EC50). An EC50 for avoidance is the

Contaminated Soils concentration of soil that causes an

ESG International, Inc., recently

avoidance response in 50% of the worm test population. The relationship between earth

represented Environment Canada at


the International Standards Organi sation (ISO) Meetings on Soil Quality in Olso, Norway. Researchers in Germany have also developed an earthworm avoidance-response test method that is quite different in design

worm acute, avoidance and reproduc tion test methods are currently under going scientific review and should be publicly available sometime in 2003.

worm avoidance and adverse effects on

reproduction was directly compared using the earthworm species Eisenia andrei, or compost worm, a commonly used invertebrate species for soil toxicity assessments. The contaminants assessed included the fungicide benomyl, copper sulphate, crude oil,

from the Environment Canada method. Both the Canadian and German meth

ods are scheduled by the ISO Technical Committee 190 (Soil Quality) to

become new international test meth The Environment Canada earth

Natalie Feisthauer is Manager ofthe Soil Ecotoxicity Laboratory at ESG International Inc.

Circle reply card No. 114

amines, and condensates.

The practical significance of the relationship between earth worm avoidance and reproduc

Zebra Mussel Control

tion is that the sensitive

avoidance-response test can be used as a quick and economical substitute for reproduction tests in the initial screening of contaminated site soils.

For each contaminant, the highest concentration at which E. andrei did

not display a significant avoidance response ("avoidance threshold") was compared with the EC20s or NOAECs

determined for each of the five repro ductive endpoints. EC20s are soil con centrations at which there is a 20%

reduction in the reproduction endpoint relative to the control value, and NOAECs are no-observable-adverseeffect concentrations. The results

with Chlorlnation & Declorlnation

packages from PrsMlnent

illustrate how closely related the avoid ance-response test results are to those

of the reproduction tests. It is impor tant to note that the concentrations did

not cause direct mortality to adult

Fully automated, portable and turn key systems using Hypochlorlte and Metabisulfite treatment programs.

worms in either acute or chronic tests.

The practical significance of the relationship between earthworm avoid ance and reproduction is that the sensi tive avoidance-response test can be used as a quick and economical substi tute for reproduction tests in the initial screening of contaminated site soils. One significant limitation with appli cation of the avoidance-response test method, however, is the fact that the relationship between earthworm avoid ance and effects on reproduction must

be empirically determined until a large enough database of different types of contaminants and soil types is suffi ciently large to minimize uncertainty.

• Chlorlnation of raw cooling water remains the most frequently practiced and proven means of zebra mussel control

• Neutralization of trace total residual chlorine (TRC) using sodium metabisulfite ensures that the aquatic environment is protected • Effective, safe and economical

From the Experts in Chemical Feed www.prom inenf-.ca For more information, circle reply card No. 115 (See page 25)



How is water privatization working? forecasts of ÂŁ2.9 billion from 2000-

2005. Investment in water and sewage services is at an all-time high. Could the public sector have invested these sums? Probably, but at what cost and with what effect on other public serv

By Richard M.Temple Vice President,International Private Water Association,

Europe,Middle East and Africa

Should Canada swim with the

tide of growing private sector participation (PSP) in water worldwide? To read


press articles one would think that public sector provision is the only answer. However, these articles choose

selectively from water projects, high lighting where possible increased prices, lack of investment, poor service and inadequate regulation. PSP has much to offer.


Quality and Service Since 1991, water industry per formance in England and Wales has steadily improved across the range of levels of service indicators. A survey conducted by the UK water regulator and WaterVoice during 2001 showed that customers are now generally satis fied with the standard of service pro vided and its value for money. The quality of drinking water in England and Wales, as assessed by the Drinking Water Inspectorate, reached record levels, with 99.86% of tests meeting

A brief

the relevant standard in 2001. Since its

review ofthe often maligned UK water privatization model, one of only a lim ited number of fully privatized water systems worldwide, reveals a very dif ferent story. Let us take each of the

peak in 1994-95, leakage has fallen by 33%, enough to supply the daily needs of 12 million people. Proper Regulation The regulator's task is never easy. Indeed balancing the needs of cus tomers in 23 million UK properties with those of private sector companies will always be challenging. In the years following privatization the pri vate sector made significant profit, and criticisms were made that prices were too high. With benefit of hind sight, we can say this may be true; although there was little way of know ing this in 1989, when costs and effi

issues in turn;

Pricing Water prices in England and Wales have increased by 20.1% in real terms since privatization in 1989. Is this a real disaster? No. This increase is pri marily a result of the massive underin vestment in the years preceding priva tization, followed thereafter by hugely increased investment requirements mandated by EU regulations and new stringent environmental legislation. The real question is whether prices would have risen higher if the system had remained in public hands? Probably yes, but we can only specu late. Has the system been run more efficiently to temper such price increases? Again, yes. Based on extensive reviews by the UK's regula tory bodies there is no doubt that the current water system in England and Wales operates more efficiently than it

ciencies were all still unknown. To a


Only by using all the tools available to us can we hope to meet the flood of demand flowing from an ever-increas ing need for development and renewal of our water delivery infrastructure.

practice is conducted through their associated office Power Biidd LLP

lesson to be learned from this is that

more acute. Around the world, millions of people live without access to clean

Annual investment for

the individual risks and find individual

stringent price controls in the 1999 five-year price review. Ultimately, the

sewage (at 1999/2000 prices) was ÂŁ1.8 billion in 1985-1990, compared with

tal standards in the UK since 1989.

contract durations mean most PSP

schemes are still in their infancy. The way forward lies in combining the skills of the public and private sec tors through public/private partner ships (PPPs)to make use of their com plementary skills to address the partic ular needs of a community. It is short sighted to champion either fully public or fully private water delivery as a panacea. What is needed is to look at the individual circumstances, assess

Richard Temple is a Partner with CMS

water and


By 2005, over ÂŁ50 billion will have been invested in improved drinking water quality and higher environmen

work. PSP advocates will talk of value

for money, transfer of risk, increased investment, efficient management, maintenance of assets, etc. However, private sector participation can also be problematic, particularly in the ab sence of strong regulation. Ultimately, any assessment of success or failure is premature; while preliminary signs overall are encouraging, 20-30 year

great extent these issues have now been tackled with the windfall tax, a one-off tax on utilities in 1997, and the

strong regulation is vital to the success of privatized water services, and that privatization itself is not the problem. In global terms, much remains to be done to address the significant needs for improved water infrastructure and the lack of capital investment and com peting priorities for government funds worldwide. With requirements in bil lions of dollars, public funds dwin dling and water and sewage systems ever ageing, the problem is becoming

did before 1989.

water or sewage services. In the face of such ovewhelming need, governments need to at least consider ways of com bining public and private sector involvement. This is particularly true for poor and rural supplies. Experience shows that public sector provision is in many cases inadequate and carmot cope with the huge capital needs of the water and sewage net

24 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

Cameron McKenna and his Canadian

About the iPWA The International Private Water Association

(iPWA), which was formed in 1999, serves as a conduit between the public and private sec tor players. IPWA is recognized as one of the few independent organizations that address es, as a central part of its mission, the poten tial expanding role of the private sector as a viable partner to governments and "parastatals" within the global water/wastewater project and service arena. For more information, please contact Kathy Shandling at 1-212-873-0920 or kshandling@nyc.rr.com.

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For more information on products and services mentioned in this issue, circle the appropriate numbers below. Please mail or fax (905) 841-7271. Your request will be forwarded to the manufacturer. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

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Iwant to receive (continue to receive) Environmental Science & Engineering magazine.

186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215

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220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253

□ Yes No □ Date:

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271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304


305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321

March 2003

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May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 25

Drinking Water

Do private labs get a fair shake with Reg 459? By Trent Gow,

Private labs have been analyzing

Executive Director, CCIL

The Canadian Council of Inde

pendent Laboratories (CCIL) is a trade organization repre senting the interests of the pri vate laboratory sector in Canada. The




focuses on the private environmental laboratory sector. Its members include all geographic regions of the country and generate over two thirds ofthe data produced by private environmental labs in both Canada and in Ontario.

Thus, CCIL is a legitimate spokesper son for the private enviromnental labo ratory community (private labs). CCIL member labs generate much of the monitoring data for Ontario's drinking water supplies. Conflicting opinions have been expressed regard ing our capability and indeed our integrity to do the work. Thus, it is important that our position in this mat ter be clearly stated.

drinking water in Ontario for many years. In fact, the private labs involved in the analysis of Walkerton water pro duced prompt and accurate data on all samples, and Justice O'Connor's report was complimentary of the pri vate lab community and the accredita tion system within which it operates. The private labs have been provid ing and will continue to provide prompt and accurate data to ensure the quality of Ontario's drinking water. Approximately 40 private lab facilities are currently carrying out drinking water analysis. Thirty municipal and provincial labs are also providing test results.

Regulation 459, hastily written in response to the Walkerton tragedy, requires testing labs to immediately notily, verbally, the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Health and the waterworks of any exceedence

of regulatory limits in microbiological or chemical parameters. (The preced

ing Ontario Drinking Water Objectives recommended notification for micro

biological parameters only). It also requires that all labs upload all drink ing water data to the MOE database. Labs did (and are doing) their best

to comply. MOH officers and water works officials are often very difficult

to reach, making notification problem atic and, indeed, often it wasn't clear

whether samples were actually sam ples subject to notification under the Regulation. In the absence of any guid ance from MOE, labs developed their own internal systems for detecting and reporting exceedences. Harshly criticized in the Walkerton Report for their lax oversight, MOE proceeded to draft and enact a Safe Drinking Water Act. Thus enabled, six MOE staff have now been recruited

and trained to inspect the private labs. In addition. Investigations and En forcement Branch (lEB) has been vig orously pursuing even the most minor infractions.


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Drinking Water For example, one member laborato ry which has accurately carried out many thousand drinking water tests and promptly made hundreds of exceedence notifications, was charged by lEB for failing to notify exceedences on two parameters of no acute health risk.

The missed notification for

which they were charged resulted from human error, a report generated but not reviewed late on a Friday afternoon. When discovered Monday morning, the notification was immediately car ried out. Considering that the MOE and MOH action for any notification of these parameters is simply to take another sample, this is hardly a major issue.

One parameter is monitored annual ly, the other quarterly. The monitoring frequency itself verifies that the chem icals do not represent an acute threat. CCIL labs have reported numerous exceedences on these parameters. Reaction from MOE and MOH staff contacted has been inconsistent but

generally displayed a lack of concern. The notification process is critical for bacteriological tests (for which it

was designed) because immediate human health impacts are possible. This does not mean that the lab took

their responsibility lightly. They, in fact, unsolicited, brought the error to the attention of MOE and discussed

fully with them their amended proce dures to prevent any such reoccurrence. This lab then faced a fine of up to $6 million dollars under the Act but

settled for substantially less. Is this justice? The potential alone of such a fine is extremely destructive to the labs. It implies serious illegality and fraud (as opposed to simple human error). Environmental labs are small businesses, the backbone of Ontario's

economy. None could survive such a fine and many are debating whether to remain in the business.

Surely there are more critical issues for the Investigations and Enforcement Branch of MOE to pursue than an iso lated error, quickly corrected, which had no human health implications. Such overreactions waste taxpayer dol lars and unfairly damage the reputation and morale of the laboratory commu nity and the hard working analysts

dedicated to the protection of Ontario's drinking water. The investigation and charges described above preceded the new MOE lab inspectors. Under even more scrutiny, will more charges, equally unrealistic, result? Despite numerous requests from CCIL, MOE has yet to provide any reference methods or qual ity objectives for the analysis of drink ing water. One wonders to what stan dards our labs will be audited. Might not some of this augmented work force be better channeled in that direction? CCIL's environmental labs have

worked closely with MOE,particularly the Laboratory Services Branch, for almost a decade. We endorse inspec tion to weed out any "bad apples" but this heavy-handed approach serves no one. Make penalties reflective of the infraction. The private lab community has worked very hard under difficult circumstances to serve and protect the people of Ontario. They deserve praise, not persecution. The Canadian Council ofIndependent Laboratories can be contacted at. Tel: 613-746-3919, Fax: 613-746-4324.

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May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 27

Trenchless Technology

Comparing Horizontal Directional Drilling versus Open Cut for the installation of a sanitary sewer By Peter Langan,P. Eng.

We have al heard the term

the size or slope or geotechnical condi tions may dictate one method over the other. But what happens in cases

"comparing apples to apples" which infers the need to compare alterna tives fairly before making a decision. This also applies when comparing

appropriate? Does the designer speci fy what they believe is the most appro priate method? Is it appropriate to limit

costs for different construction meth ods. It is often difficult to estimate

or should both methods be tendered? Can both construction methods be ten

construction costs, as the cost is not only based on materials, labour and

dered and evaluated fairly?

contractor profit; it is also driven by

of a 300 m long 250 mm diameter san itary sewer on Leslie Street, north of Eglinton Avenue, in the City of Toronto helped tackle these questions. The sewer was required for the Carrington Condominium, being developed by Monarch Construction

market conditions such as the avail

ability of experienced contractors at the time of tendering and construction. Currently there are many highly qualified contractors that perform Open Cut installation of sewers; how

ever, there are fewer contractors capa ble of Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) of sewers. Site constraints often dictate which method of sewer

installation is specified - for example.

where both construction methods are

a tender to one method of construction

Exposing existing utilities.

A recent tender for the construction


Design The design of the sewer was initial ly based on an open cut approach with PVC pipe. All trench backfill in the

Pipe being pulled back.

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28 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

For more information, circle repiy card No. 118 (See page 25)

I Trenchless Technology roadway was required by the City to be of non-shrinkable fill.

In order to consider the feasibility of HDD,the following items needed to be confirmed:

• Could the required minimum sewer slope be maintained with HDD? • Would the municipality allow this technique? • Were the geotechnical conditions appropriate? • Were there any existing utilities or municipal services that might be a problem? The open cut design of the gravity sewer had slopes ranging from 1.5% to 4%. The minimum slope that was needed to achieve the required sewer capacity was 1%. We believed it was technically feasible to maintain this minimum slope of 1% or greater throughout the bore. As with most municipal infrastruc ture, the Public Works Department of the municipality sets the standards on what is permitted. Early on in this project the City of Toronto was approached to determine if they would be receptive to the use of HDD and high density polyethylene pipe for the installation of the sewer.

HDD was

sible presence of stones and boulders might hamper progress. Utilities and municipal services along the sewer alignment were located in the plan and their depths were approximated to con

firm that there were appropriate align ments available for HDD.

After addressing these issues, it was determined that this sewer was a candi date for the HDD construction tech

nique. Tendering A tender was developed to allow contractors to bid on open cut, HDD or both methods of construction.

The comparison of the bids for the two methods of construction is usually straightforward; however, the City of Toronto requires contractors working on their roads to backfill all trenches with non-shrinkable backfill and do

temporary restoration.

A contractor

retained by the City does the perma nent restoration at a later date. Special conditions had to be included in the

•significantly reduce infiltration

Both the conventional open cut and the HDD portion of the tender con tained the typical tender items. An

• profect tfie environment(and protect yourself from regulatory exposure) by eliminating sys tem surcharging and bypassing

additional item

required the bidders to indicate the total asphalt removal area needed for

this technique at this site, provided appropriate measures were incorporat ed.

cost for permanent asphalt restoration, as provided by the City, was indicated in the contract. The permanent asphalt

Appropriate measures were devel oped and agreed upon with the City to

tender as being a factor that would be

was included that

their method of construction. The unit

considered in the evaluation of the

bids. The lower the total asphalt removal area indicated by the bidder, the lower the permanent restoration cost would be. This was to the advan

tage of the bidders using HDD and

to one pipe diameter. Vertical Control - maximum depth

cated that exceeding the total asphalt


and inflow

into rivers and lakes

• reduce sewer backup in basements • increase effective system capacity to facilitate municipal growth

restoration cost was indicated in the

cation in road with a curvilinear align ment and a horizontal deviation of up

of cover of 4.0 m with positive grade of 1% minimum (design grade) throughout. The widespread use of CCTV for sewer inspection played a role in the City agreeing to these con

much of it enters. A small Investment

can yield big dividends:

restoration costs, to arrive at a total project construction cost.

ect, as the sewer was located at the centre of a busy five-lane arterial road. The City was receptive to the use of

Horizontal Control - standard lo

and surface water out of your sanitary system. Cretex seals block clear water at the manhole chimney frame, where

tender to factor in the permanent

considered to have merits on this proj

ensure adequate control ofthe horizon tal and vertical alignment. The follow ing controls were developed for approval by the City:

Simple. By keeping ground

narrow trenches. The tender also indi

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removal area would result in a back-

charge to the contractor. This approach leveled the playing field by

Cretex Specialty Products

considering restoration costs as part of

2002 South West Avenue

the tender evaluation, to arrive at a total project construction cost.

Waukesha, W1 • 53189 (800)345-3764

To the advantage of the open cut bidders, the HDD portion of the tender


A geotechnical investigation was undertaken and comments specific to

included two additional items for a

both open cut and directional drilling were provided. The prevailing geo

detailed HDD work plan, and for exposing all utilities to confirm their

technical conditions did not eliminate


HDD as an option; however, the geo technical report cautioned that the pos-

expose utilities and municipal services continued overleaf...

HDD contractors often

Circle reply card No. 164


Trenchless Technology to help plan the bore and confirm clearances. To the advantage of the


These savings

should not be considered

HDD bidders, one manhole was elimi

as typical, as the success

nated due to the City permitting a curvilinear alignment when using

ful method and the cost


savings will vary with site-specific conditions

All of these factors were known by the contractors during the tendering

However, this

process, allowing the contractors the opportunity to make strategic deci sions prior to submitting their bids. Tender Evaluation

The tender evaluation was carefully undertaken. By knowing the prices for


market conditions.


strates that there are sav

ings that can be achieved when both construction methods are tendered. Construction Issues

the two alternatives, and the total

Set-up near busy intersection. Municipal standards are generally biased to open cut con required standards will be developed.

asphalt removal area committed to by


each bidder, the final restoration cost

municipal standards were allowed to permit the HDD method. For example, on open cut projects, the manholes are typically installed during the pipe lay

Some deviations to the

ing operation. With HDD, long lengths of pipe may be installed in the mxi.m

ground, requiring the manholes to be installed afterwards. The technique


HDD is a useful tool that is avail able for the installation of sewers and

watermains, given the correct condi tions. For this project, HDD proved to be the most economical. Comparing the average of the low three tenders, a 46% savings was achieved. The selection of the appropriate

used to install the manholes on this

method of construction is often deter

project was similar to the method used for installing a manhole on a live sewer. A dog house manhole segment

mined by site conditions; however, where site conditions permit both open

(i.e. inverted Us at sewer pipe entry/exit points) was used to install the bottom precast section over the sewer pipe. The base slab was poured after the dog house section was in place and leveled. The sewer pipe, which is continuous through the man hole, was cut longitudinally to the spring line (half way up the pipe) to

cut and HDD, consideration should be

given to tendering both alternatives. It is prudent to outline the tender evalua tion criteria to ensure there will be a

fair comparison of the two methods. Peter Langan, P. Eng. is a Senior Associate with R. K Anderson

Associates Limited in Toronto,

Ontario. plangan@RVAnderson.com.

allow access to the sewer for mainte

Tracking the bore.

could be accounted for, to determine the total project construction cost for each bid. The bid with the lowest total

project construction cost would be awarded the project(provided all of the references were favourable). After comparing apples to apples, the lowest total project construction cost was realized by the HDD method and the contract was awarded to A.Van

Egmond Construction Limited. For this project the percentage cost

savings was determined by comparing the average price of the three low bids for each construction method. A sav

ings of 40% without considering restoration, and a savings of46% when considering restoration, was achieved with HDD. We believe a significant

portion of this savings was through the reduction in the quantity of nonshrinkable fill required with the HDD

nance. Concrete benching was then poured into the manhole.

The continuous pipe through the manhole may have some hydraulic advantages. It is also possible to remove the pipe through the manhole; however, there does not appear to be any advantage in doing this. Drop structures are typically done with the same material as the mainline

pipe. For example, an open cut sani tary sewer constructed of PVC would typically use pre-manufactured PVC fittings for the drop structure. With HDPE pipe the same selection of fit tings is not readily available. On this project a PVC drop structure was used,

requiring a coupler fitting to adapt between the HDPE and the PVC pipe, prior to the drop structure. These deviations from the munici

pal standards were rather minor; how ever, as HDD increases in availability and popularity, we expect that the

30 Environmentai Science & Engineering, May 2003

Horizontal Directional

Drilling (HDD) A HDD rig Is used to advance a pilot hole from one location to another.

The position of the drill head can be accurately controlled to advance In all directions. Upon completion of the Initial pilot hole, a reamer Is pulled back while rotating to enlarge the hole to a size that will permit the Installation of the pipe. Drilling mud Is used to stabilize the hole. High density polyethylene pipe Is fused together Into long lengths and Is pulled back through the hole. The surplus drilling mud Is displaced by the pipe and Is removed. The length of sewer that can be Installed will

vary with the size of the equipment, the geotechnlcal conditions, and the diameter and wall thickness of the sewer.


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commitment to removing financing obstacles to such environmentally sound systems, Northern helped the Essex Junction facility obtain grant and rebate assistance for the project from various outside sources.

This wastewater treatment system will employ a new controls method— the first of its kind for use in a biogas cogeneration application—developed by Northern Power Systems for the project. The controls method will enable the facility to conduct peak shaving (reducing metered demand by boosting output kW during short, high

er demand times) while monitoring the power and heat requirements of the site.

The wastewater treatment facility processes approximately 1.7 million US gallons of wastewater per day from the suburban Burlington communities of Essex Junction, Essex and Williston. It also runs a biogas anaero bic digester plant which produces 56,500 therms of methane gas per year. The plant flares 45% of this methane gas and burns the other 55% in a boil er to heat the digester tanks, accelerate decomposition of the solid waste, and

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Cogeneration kill off pathogens in the process biosolids. The new system will dra matically increase efficiencies by employing microturbines to burn 99.8% of the methane gas, a design that will eliminate the need to flare the

previously unused portion. The elec tricity produced will power pumps, grinders and other process equipment. Environmental Benefits and

Cost Savings The plant will realize significant environmental benefits and energy cost savings by blending the methane with natural gas, which also serves as a back-up gas source in the event of

digester maintenance or interruption of biogas supply. Modulating the mix allows the microturbines to conduct

ered heat from the turbines will be

used to heat the digester tanks and will offset 100% of the need to run a boiler

for this same purpose. The average cost per kWh produced by the system will be 2.46 cents (including annual maintenance expenses), yielding a 6.37-cent savings when compared to the current utility rate. In addition to the energy savings, peak shaving will accrue $4,500 in savings, thereby yielding a total annu

al electric utility savings of about $30,000.

Based on a national utility average of 1.3 pounds of CO2 emissions per kWh generated, the cogeneration sys tem will offset over half a million

pounds of CO2 emissions per year (the equivalent of removing approximately 42 cars from the road per year). For




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peak shaving to a greater extent than if running on methane alone, automati

cally increasing the output of the microturbines to meet the additional

electrical needs. Blending also improves the reliability of the system by stabilizing the fuel input into the turbines.

Through cogeneration, the recov-



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Environmental Management, Com pliance & Engineering Conference/ Workshops. Toronto Congress Centre, Toronto, Ontario. Tel: 1-888-254-

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May 30-31, 2003. The Competitive Edge: FCM Municipal Expo™ 2003, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Contact: Federation of Canadian Municipal ities(FCM), Tel:(613) 241-5221, Fax: (613) 241-7440, E-mail: federation @fcm.ca. June 16-17, 2003. Bumaby, BC. XPSWMM - Detailed training in the analysis and design of complex stormwater and wastewater drainage systems. Attendees will gain expertise in the use of the software for model

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A diverse range of ease histories and

new developments are reviewed in ES&E's semi-annual look at tanks and other containment structures.

This tank is green and so are the savings

In 2002,the City of London decid

ed to replace one of their welded steel tanks used for sludge storage. The existing tank had been repainted and patched numerous times but was beyond repair. The City hauls thickened waste activated sludge from five satellite pollution control plants to the Greenway Water Pollution Control Centre. At Greenway, the sludge is stored until it is dewatered and inciner ated.

The City decided to build an Aquastore"" glass-flised-to-steel bolted tank which will never require re-paint ing. During tank construction, one of the main concerns that the operational staff had was how to keep the roadway accessible for the sludge tanker trucks to drive around the plant and deposit the sludge and yet still build this tank and its ancillary works. Material was shipped to the site with only two flat bed trucks. While the shell of the tank

was stored adjacent to the site, the tank dome roof was moved into the centre

ofthe tank and built on top of the tank. The General Contractor was K & L

Construction from London, Ontario,

and the tank was manufactured by Engineered Storage Products Com pany (formerly A.O. Smith) from DeKalb, Illinois. The tank was sold

and erected by Greatario Engineered Storage Systems who also designed the staircase and mixer platforms. A spiral staircase, two mixer plat forms and a roof walkway were installed. The operational staff re quire regular access to the top of the tank in order to inspect, maintain and rotate these mixers.

cubic metres of digested sludge. However, the tank is designed to be expandable at a later date by 638 cubic metres of storage capacity. The tank is also protected by a sacrificial cathodic protection system that is installed on the inside of the tank. The coating applied to this tank is the most techno logically advanced coating and specif ically designed for northern climates. For more information, circie repiy card No. 130


concrete foundation was

also designed with a coni cal type floor in order to help the mixers move the sludge to the centre of the tank.

London, being called the "Forest City", decided to choose green as the exte rior colour of the tank, and a Canadian flag was added beneath the glass coating. The new glass-fused-tosteel tank will hold 1,640

34 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

ii The completed tank in London.

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Tanks Contamrrn

Understanding how secondary containment applies to owners and lessees By Barry Lesiuk,President D.G.I.C.(Dangerous Goods Incident Control)

The importance and clear com

prehension of secondary con

tainment makes it crucial to

recognize how it applies to the

lessee or landowner. At times, it may appear difficult to ascertain how sec

ondary containment applies to the sur face geophysical description of land for those who lease or own property. In furtherance, consideration should be

given to the consequences of pre or current land contamination, coupled with potential leaching off the lessee's or owner's property. It may also be without the knowledge of the lessee, owner or the operator of the property. Let's look at pre-contamination. A manufacturing facility may inadver

tently or intentionally experience ongoing releases, or a one time release

on a piece of property, prior to the pur chase by a new owner. (Or prior to a new tenant moving onto the property).

for a prohibited release, in accordance with Alberta's Ministry of Environ ment legislation, which states, "No person shall release or permit the

release into the environment ofa sub

As a lessee or landowner, it would be prudent to conduct a historical

stance in an amount, concentration or

investigation of any releases prior to purchasing or moving onto the proper ty. It is well understood that many

or may cause a significant adverse effect." As a result, accountability lies with

years ago, there was no requirement to conduct such evaluations. As a result, many properties have been acquired

the current owner of the property,

without appropriate pre-analyses of historical data of property use. Regardless of whether the contami

nation was caused by the pre or current owner or lessee, due diligence by these parties must ensure that the present contamination does not escape the property. If leaching were to occur on the surface or subsurface, there is even

the potential offacing criminal charges

level or at a rate ofrelease that causes

lease-holder or, in some instances, the

owner of the contaminant. A thorough

As a lessee or landowner,

it would be prudent to conduct a historical

investigation of any releases prior to purchasing or moving onto the property. investigation should be conducted by the owner or by a knowledgeable envi ronmental firm to determine any potential releases and ascertain the concentration



Secondly, if contamination breaches

the boundaries of the property, it


would be judicious for immediate action to be taken to contain the

breach, followed by appropriate reme dial action, in accordance with local, provincial and federal requirements. Surface breaches are not the only cause of release onto other properties. Consideration must be given to subsur face soil, groundwater, and atmospher ic plume releases, which are not imme diately or always visible, until it becomes evident within an adjacent property or watercourse. All of these issues can be addressed

with proper containment for immedi ate and long-term defence against con tamination releases. Stringent inves tigative research must be conducted to reach optimum containment legisla tion while maintaining economic value.

When volume is considered, there is a guideline extracted from the ERCB, 36

For more Information, circle reply card No. 132 (See page 25)


CQntalnm@nt Guide G-55 as well as the Fire Code, which clearly

describes the requirement for secondary containment. The requirement is any vessel(s) of 1,000 gallons, or more, must have sufficient secondary containment of 110% plus 10% of any aggregate amount. As a result, there are many in the industry who feel comfortable in not installing secondary containment for vessels which are under 1,000 gallons.

However, upon further investigation of provincial Environmental Statutes and Regulations, it becomes evi dent that secondary containment is required for any size of container/vessel, if "...the hazardous substance comes

directly or indirectly into contact with or contaminates any animals, plants,food or drink."

Again, the most accurate method of determining whether secondary containment is required at a site can be best described by another section of a provincial legislative act, paraphrased: "No person shall knowingly release or permit the release ofa substance into the environment in an amount, concentration or level or at a rate ofrelease that is in excess that causes or may cause a significant adverse

effect." T\\q adverse effect would obviously apply to human, environmental or property exposures. It is quite apparent that secondary containment may be required in almost all circumstances.

There are numerous forms of secondary containment

systems, ranging from drip trays for smaller containers, to secondary containment systems for drums, above ground storage tanks and large tank farms. Customization of spill

trays and secondary containment should be the norm, but unfortunately, many manufacturers cannot produce the vast multitude of moulds to accommodate the market

demands. To address these issues, site assessment firms like Interra Environmental Inc., have implemented on

going research. This has resulted in solving the vast degree of vessel complexities for secondary containment require ments. However, caution must always be exercised with systems which are not engineered to withstand static or dynamic loads in case of a release or breach of a vessel. For more information, circle reply card No. 133

Dynamic PiasUe Solutions inc.


... an innovative company providing unparaiieied soiutions to your buik storage and containment requirements




Our tanks provide intelligent and economical ctioices witfi long term, unequaied performances. Our products offer superior performance, durabil ity, ctiemicai compatibility, corrosion resistance and reduced maintenance as compared to expensive alternatives. UL listed tanks for high performance applications are available. Certified tanks by UL to ANSI / NSF 61 standard for drinking water systems. Dynamic Plastic Soiutions Inc. is committed to providing worid-ciass soiutions for unique applications.

Dynamic Plastic Soiutions inc. 850 Legion Road, Unit 17, Burlington, Ontario L7S 1T5 Tel:(905) 335-5555• Fax:(905) 333-9335 E-mail: sales@dynamicplasticsolutions.com • Website: www.dynamicplasticsolutions.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)




EMAIL: sales@alrange.con

For more Information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 25)



Protecting Brownfleld developments using spray applied membranes By Troy Shaw

Brownfields have been defined

by the United States Environ mental Protection Agency as "abandoned, idled or under

used industrial and commercial facili

ties where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination".Brown-

fields, and more importantly. Brownfield redevelopment, has become a growing market for Geosynthetic con tractors. Membranes have been used in

Brownfield developments as barriers to prevent harmful gases from entering the building; they are installed under the concrete floor slabs.

Toronto's new 51st Division Police Station receives a spray applied membrane, prior to pouring the concrete floor slab.

Sealing to penetrations: no batten bar or clamping required, attaches directly to concrete, PVC and other construction products.

In 1998, Terrafix, after thorough research of available products, part nered itself with a leading manufactur er of spray applied membranes. To date, this partnership has grown at a steady rate, and together has assisted some of the largest companies in the US with their Brownfield projects. Last fall, Terrafix's spray applied membrane was installed at Toronto

Police's new 51st Division. The project consists of the restoration of the

Consumers Gas building, located on the corner of Front and Parliament

Streets in Toronto, that dates back to 1899. Designated as a Heritage

Building, it was used for gas produc tion, and is being transformed into a state-of-the-art police station. The challenge of this project was to main tain the exterior, while completely gut ting the interior to construct new offices, holding cells, and exhibit rooms. The spray applied membrane will help prevent harmful gases from mitigating through the floor and into the building. Terrafix's spray applied membrane is a non-toxic, asphaltic-based, coldapplied, spray-on membrane. The product arrives on site in liquid form and is sprayed onto a heat burnished geotextile on site to produce a rubber ized membrane. Using a spray applied membrane eliminates the need for mechanical fasteners such as batten

bar and stainless steel clamps when attaching to penetrations or walls. Terrafix's spray applied membrane adheres to most construction materials

including PVC pipe (for plumbing and electrical penetrations) and concrete (walls, floors or columns). In addition to being used as a Brownfield mem brane, the product is also commonly used in waterproofing. In an industrial setting, coordina

38 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

tion of trades is crucial. General con

tractors, engineers, owners and other subcontractors have benefited from the

installation efficiency, reduction in crew size, and time saved. As part of a stringent Quality Control Program,Terrafix installations are subject to destructive testing for thickness assurance, and smoke test ing. During the smoke test, smoke is vented under the membrane. Ifa hole exists, or a penetration is not properly sealed, smoke will rise up, providing quick detection and location of leaking areas. Terrafix has typically provided the smoke test after installation of the

membrane only. However recent cus tomers have requested additional smoke tests, up to the point of a test being done after the reinforcement bar is installed on top of the membrane. This additional test provides all project companies with the assurance that an impermeable membrane exists before the concrete slab is poured. Circle reply card No. 136

Troy Shaw is a Project Managerfor Terrafix's Specialty Applications Division, including Spray Applied Membranes.

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Aboveground Vertical

d I

lb Oveground Honzontal Wall Tank






lanks ii Containment

Testing the effects of exposure fires on double walled

aboveground tanks By Gordana Nikolic,P.Eng.

Environmental concerns have

had a profound effect on the safety and storage of flamma ble liquids. The result of these concerns has been a trend to replace the traditional underground storage systems with aboveground storage, where the tank is readily available for inspection and any leakage from the tank would be visually detectable to prevent the stored product from being

from the primary tank, providing a continuous, leak tight interstice (space). The interstice can be vacuum monitored to ensure that both the pri mary tank and the secondary contain ment have retained their integrity. For more details on the double wall tanks, refer to the Undemriters' Laboratories

of Canada's




would result in the increased rate of

vaporization producing increased vapour pressure in the tank. When this pressure exceeds a certain limit (char acteristic of the material properties of the tank wall, wall thickness and tem

Tanks for Flammable and Combustible

perature), the tank would likely fail. The liquid released from the primary tank would boil rapidly and expand. The resulting explosion might frag ment the tank into pieces and propel them over large distances. Further, flammable liquid might ignite and form a fireball posing an additional

liquids, ULC-S601.

As a result of this trend, secondary containment for aboveground storage tanks became a requirement. One form oftanks with secondary containment is the double wall tank. In this design, a secondary containment is separated

regarding vacuum monitoring of a double wall tank is: "What if the pri mary tank has a leakfilling the inter stice with flammable liquid and the tank is exposed to the rapid heating

One discussion that has been raised


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fire?" One possibility is the vaporization of the liquid between the pri mary tank and the secondary contain ment




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While the provision of emergency venting was recognized as a move in the right direction, concerns remained with some inspection authorities that the venting might not be adequate pro tection against effects of exposure to the external fire.

However, at that time, a sufficient amount of data related to these circum

opment of pres sures sufficiently high to implode the primary tank and create a potential for massive spillage of liquid through the emergency

stances was not available, and tests

ble outcome when a tank



flammable liquid is exposed to external fire, is a phenome non

were conducted to determine if such a hazard did in fact exist. The Ontario Fire Marshal's office

provided a test site at its training col lege in Gravenhurst, Ontario. The Steel Tank Association of Canada pro vided tanks, materials handling equip ment

The worst possi Three-Man Rated Transformer and Sub-Station


result in the devel



and heat up rapidly. In theory, this

Fabricated Aboveground Horizontal

released into the environment.

Group (Ontario)

Photo 1. Small tank installed In fuel

pit, prior to fire.






Laboratories of Canada provided the technical coordination of the project, instrumentation, and personnel to con duct the tests.

Three cylindrical horizontal double wall steel tanks were provided for the tests, one 22,700 litre and two 2,250 litre tanks. The secondary contain ment ofthe 22,700 litre tank enveloped the bottom and the sides of the primary

BLEVE or Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion. The liquid in the

tank covering 300° of the primary tank

tank would absorb

surface area. The other two tanks were

energy from the surrounding fire

completely covered (360°) with the secondary containment.

All tanks

Tanks & Contalfiment were deliberately provided with less venting than required by the ULC stan dards. Each was provided with a single interstitial vent in the upper part ofone head. The larger tank was equipped with an NFS 2 Schedule 40 vent and

elbow, directing any discharge from the vent vertically upwards (the vent provided approximately two thirds of the designed venting capacity). The smaller tanks were provided with an NFS 1/4 Schedule 40 pipe vent and elbow to direct any discharge vertical ly upwards. (The area provided was approximately 11 per cent of the designed capacity). Fressure taps, communicating with the interstice, were installed on the head opposite to the vented head and on the secondary containment wall of each tank. The pressure taps were con nected through lengths of copper tub ing to monitoring gauges. Thermo couples were located in the interstice, in the vapour space of the primary tank, in the liquid space ofthe primary tank, and on the secondary contain ment wall at the top, bottom and heads. Thermocouples were cormected to data loggers.

The pressures in the interstices rose quickly (within 2 min) to a maximum level of 140 kFa on the larger tank and 50 kFa on the smaller tank. These pres sures occurred in the head opposite to the head which was venting. Recorded pressures in the wall were 85 kFa on the larger tank and 40 kFa on the smaller tanks. Temperatures recorded on the exterior of the tanks and in the interstice rose within 2 min to levels

approaching 900°C and remained at this level throughout the test. The tanks, when examined after the test, were found to be generally intact, with

slight warping noted on the exterior of both tanks. When tested, both the pri mary and secondary tanks were found to be free of leakage.(See photo 3). Internal inspection revealed that the pri mary tank in the 22,700 litre size had deformed slightly in wards but in general had retained its origi nal form.

heads tanks

containment walls had occurred. One tank of each size was filled to

approximately 50 per cent of its capac ity with water. The third tank was filled to approximately 25 per cent of its capacity with water. Each tank was installed over a pit filled with water and sufficient unleaded gasoline placed on top of the water to provide a burning period of approximately 15 minutes.(See example, photo 1). The fuel was ignited, resulting in a fire that fully enveloped the tank. Within one minute of ignition, the interstitial vent began to function with a highly visible plume accompanied by a sound comparable to that which would result from the venting of a steam boiler. (See photo 2). After approximately 15 minutes the fuel in the pit had been consumed and the fire died down.


Findings derived from analysis of the test data are as follows;

1. Significant pressures do develop on tank interstices, even when vented, under conditions of external fire expo sure.

2. The designed vent sizes calculated previously are adequate for the sizes tested provided the tanks are of a design in which the secondary contain ment wall is stitch welded circumfer-

entially to the primary tank, thus creat-

The two

open and it was noted that the primary tank

The tests involved the deliberate

provided to measure temperatures and pressures in the interstice. Obser vations subsequent to the test would determine if any damage or deforma tion of the primary tank or secondary

tank be full.

smaller tanks were cut

placing of fuel in the interstice of rep resentative tanks and exposing the tanks, partially filled with water, to full-scale external fires. Means were

place and it was evident that even rela tively small pressures acting in a compressive mode on the primary tank can result in deformation and possible spillage of contents should the primary




small bowed

inwards to a minor

degree and that some deformation of the pri mary tanks had also Photo 3. Two small tanks, outer wall removed, show taken place along the ing deformations following fire. cylindrical wall. It was evident that an external expo ing continuous interstice. sure fire very quickly vaporizes any 3. The provision of a single vent on fuel that may be in the interstice. The one head may not be adequate under pressure created by this vapour is of a all conditions, especially where there potentially destructive nature, even is a tight fit of the secondary contain with a vent provided in one of the ment head to the primary tank head. heads. The nature of the construction An ongoing challenge to of the secondary containment may be Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada seen as a major factor in this situation. (ULC) as a standards development, The secondary containment head is a testing and certification organization relatively tight fit on the primary tank in Canada, is to find environmentally head and as such presents a formidable safe and cost-effective approaches to barrier for the transmittal of vapour the development of preventative from the head along the wall to the requirements. ULC has tested prod opposite head where venting may take ucts for public safety for more than 80 place. Thus, we see pressures in the years and has a deep commitment to larger tank of 140 kFa on the head fur supporting the safety system in thest from the vent and 85 kFa on the Canada and protecting the safety of Canadian consumers. For more infor


With the smaller tank, the level of

pressure both in the head and in the wall was considerably less than the larger tank. Nevertheless, some defor mation of the primary tank did take

mation visit www.ulc.ca.

Gordana Nikolic, is a Professional Engineer with Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada.

May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 41

Tanks & Containm©nt

Portable structures for the environmental management, power generation and water treatment Industries he evolution of ISO shipping containers to high tech shelters has come a long way over the past fif teen years. It started with hydro stations using the containers to hold PCB-laden transformers or

Switchgear housing, part of the sets of four units that feed military base camps like those that will be set up for relief in the l\/liddle East. The switchgear is fed by a 2500 KVA transformer, which is in turn fed by a diesel fuel tank inside a container buiit to Class A Division Explosion Proofing.

PCB-filled drums waiting to be destroyed. Since then, the containerized shelter has developed into a most durable and cost-effective structure for a multitude of purposes. The ISO container is essentially a very solid steel box, built to exacting standards to meet the rigours of interna tional transport. These 20' and 40' units are easily trans formed into versatile housings for industrial applications, all the while retaining the portability and strength that their original design provided. When Alrange Container Services (ACS) first started, the extent of the modifications being performed to contain ers was the odd spill tray, some vents, and some painting here and there. These units were primarily used to store PCBs or spent paints. In 1999 things changed for ACS; the company secured a contract to construct over 100 housings into portable gen erator rooms for, among others, the Canadian Department of National Defence. This particular project included building sets of four 20' containers into different integral parts of one system. There was a Sound Attenuated Genset Room, a Switch-gear Room which fed the camps or buildings, and a unit built to Class 1, Division 1 (National Electric Code) standards that housed a Diesel Fuel Tank. There was also an accompa

Effective Solutions for Potable Water, Wastewater, Leachate Storage and Industrial Storage.

nying site shop for the installation and maintenance of these sets.

ACS has since built many more units for a number of different industrial sec

Experience does matter...

Our construction crews ^

tors: wastewater treatment, water purifi cation, industrial fluid management, hazmat storage, hazmat transportation, emergency spill response, generator housing, kiosks, site offices, portable shelters, communications shelters, and much more.

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The company has focused on three major industrial sectors; water treat ment, power generation and hazmat storage. It has developed and constantly improved its construction techniques by working closely with its longstanding customers.

J Aquastore® Glass Tanks

y Temcor® Aluminum Covers y JetMix™ Vortex Mixing System

ACS is currently working in con junction with Nor Environmental to provide the US and Canada with quick deploy Biohazard-Shelters which can respond to a chemical or biological dis aster site and deal with decontamination

of individuals or support quarantine sit

Phone 519-469-8169 Fax 519-469-8157

www.greatario.com •sales@greatarioengsys.com 42

For more information, circle repiy card No. 138 (See page 25)

uations. For more information, circie repiy card No. 139

Tanks ii

The Village of Spencer Sewage

Treatment Plant manages the sewage for a population of 1,800 people, plus the sludge from a few large industries in sur rounding areas. The Wisconsin com munity required a building to cover two sewage tanks to prevent freezing problems. The two tanks hold 165,000 (US) gallons each, enough storage space to last 180 days. The Wisconsin winters continually freeze the sludge and hinder the growth of the bacteria that is needed to process the sewage sludge into fertilizer for agricultural

Saskatoon firm supplies Cover-All system for Wisconsin sewage treatment plant steel and fabric is not going to rot and any condensation problems are elimi

tanks were still in use. The foundation

nated with the natural ventilation cre

ated by the six inch centre ridge vent. The fabric cover provides a natural drying effect in the interior when the

wall of the storage tanks. A crane was used to lift the galvanized steel trusses into position. A zoom boom was used to install the cross purlins and the fab

sun hits the fabric."

ric cover. Installation of the Arch

anchors were drilled into the concrete

building took five days.


Installation of the building was done over the sewage tanks while the

For more information, circle reply card No. 165


The Village of Spencer decided that covering the two outdoor tanks would be a worthwhile investment to produce a consistent ag-fertilizer product and to




issues. It decided to purchase a 55 by 62 foot Cover-All Arch building. "The building creates a solar effect and keeps the heat in during the win ter," says Gerald Marden, Waste Water Treatment Plant Operator. "Our aera tion process to keep bacteria alive works at full capacity everyday of the year now; we no longer have freezing problems." "We looked at pole barns but the moisture and condensation might have rotted the wood and created algae growth on the walls. We would have also had an ongoing maintenance issue to prevent the ventilation system from freezing up," says Marden. "With the Cover-All building, the galvanized

Interior of Cover-All Arch building In the Village of Spencer.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 140 (See page 25)

May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 43

Tanks as Contp'rnm@nt

MTO truck

impoundment yard protect ed by the Stormceptor System By Bob Tumour, Stormceptor/ Hanson Pipe & Products Canada,Inc.


Installation of 1.524 m (5 foot) high riser section mounted with a fibregiass insert.

ver the past five years, truck safety has improved signifi cantly in Ontario yet the vol


ume of truck traffic contin

ues to grow. Instrumental in the

province's safety program is the Commercial Vehicle Impoundment Program initiated in early 1998.

Storage tanks that simply will not rust! Fiberglass tanks that deliver more than twice the service hfe of other tanks &

Waste water, septic & sewage holding tank systems are maintenance-

Domestic fuei oii (w)

free with a unique two chamber design that provides better separation and less carry-over of scum and sludge.

storage tanks virtually eliminate the risk of environmental contamination

Underground storage tanks Corrosion free internally and externally, ZCL tanks provide you with continuous protection against leaks due to corrosion. Ideal for safe storage of all fuel types, water and most hazardous liquids.

due to corrosion leaks. Also

safely stores diesel fuei for emergency stand by generators.

inspection station and works yard.

Oil/Water separator tanks provide high performance solutions for reducing oil and fuel In run-off


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Canada's #1 Selling Fiberglass Tanks 44



Ideal for bulk fuel plants, truck

Circle reply card No. 141

Ontario is the first jurisdiction in North America to introduce impound ment for seriously unsafe trucks, buses and trailers. The challenge to the Ministry of Transportation Ontario (MTO)is to locate impoundment yards in close proximity to major highways, and within a reasonable towing dis tance of the inspection location they serve. The yards must be sites that can be easily accessed and upgraded to accommodate large vehicles and cargos that may cause environmental damage, if not contained. Not only are unsafe vehicles impounded, but any leaks from such transports must be contained on site as well. This is where the Stormceptor oil/sediment removal systems are now playing a vital role in preventing pollu tants from entering storm sewers and ultimately rivers and lakes. The new impoundment yard at the Northwest corner of Kennedy Road and Highway 401 in Toronto is located on the same site as an existing MTO

that comply to environmental regulations and meet new changes in guidelines for 100% secondary containment.

MTO has an agreement with the Ministry of the Environment (MOB) through a Certificate of Approval not ing that it can use the Stormceptor sys tem in its patrol yards. MTO environ mental planners and design engineers make every effort to ensure that oil and other contaminants in urban runoff are

significantly reduced. Vehicles detained at the Kennedy

Tanks ^

contmlnmmnt Road yard are parked on a concrete

pad within a fenced facility. Runoff from the pad and service roads is con veyed to a single Stormceptor unit designed to accommodate a 0.535 ha drainage area characterized by 88.8%

imperviousness for a total contributing impervious area of 0.475 ha. Consulting engineers at Philips Engineering Ltd. in Burlington sized the required Stormceptor unit based on the current MOB Sizing Guideline of

15 mVimpervious ha (for Level 1 treat ment, or approximately 80% suspend ed solids removal). They calculated that the unit would require a holding

capacity of 7.3 m'. Stormceptor model STC 1500, or equivalent, was recom mended which has a 7,525 litre total

consisted of six standard 1800 mm (72 inch) diameter precast concrete prod ucts including a 0.305 m high base slab, a 0.610 m (2 foot) riser, 1.219 m

(4 foot) high riser, 1.524 m (5 foot) high riser section mounted with a fibreglass insert, 0.914 m (3 foot) high riser, and a 0.305 m flat cap. When placed in position, the unit stood 4.87 m high. Once excavation had been

completely assembled and ready for backfilling and connections to the storm sewer.

Toronto's surface water quality is now offered further protection from potential spills or leaks from a facility designed to make our highways safer.

completed in late 2002, the unit was

For more information, circle reply card No. 142

■jaiaw Geosynthetic Solutions

holding capacity, and a bypass flow rate of 18 L/s. Philips engineers are experienced in designing stormwater quality facilities with many oil/sedi ment removal systems. Although


' CONTROL BMPS • Erosion Control Blankets • Wire backetl silt fence

• Floating turbidity curtains • Catch basin filters & protection

Not only are unsafe vehicles impounded, but any leaks from such transports

• Silt dikes/coffer dams

• Dewatering bags/tubes

I GEOMEMBRANE LINERS • Liners and covers for soil remediation

must be contained on site. impartial toward using any commer cially available brand of product. Philips has used the Stormceptor sys tem on complex sites with very little room for installing oil/sediment removal structures. The system easily meets MOB guidelines for sizing.

Layfield Geosynthetics and

• Prefabricated panels for easy

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gram, simulated an 80% annual total

suspended solids removal efficiency for the specified impervious drainage area.

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covers, custom tarps

For more information, contact us.

Dufferin Construction was awarded

the contract to upgrade the site to accommodate the vehicle impound ment yard, which included installation of the unit and construction of the associated 300 mm diameter storm

sewer. On November 7, 2002, the con tractor took delivery of the unit from

the Cambridge plant of Hanson Pipe & Products Canada, Inc. The shipment

Canada Customer Service (800) 840-2884

U.S. Customer Service (800)796-6868

IS LAYFIELD www.geomembranes.com For more information, circle reply card No. 143 (See page 25)


Tanks § Co nta i n m @nt

Wastewater treatment/storage tank installed at first"green"convention center in the US

Highland Tank, of Stoystown, Pennsylvania, recently completed fabrication and delivery of a 50,000-gallon (US) wastewater treatment/storage tank for installation at Pittsburgh's new David L.

Lawrence Convention Center.

The new wastewater treatment/storage tank was designed to intercept the convention center's sanitary wastewater and treat the large quantities of solids that might interfere with the proper drainage and treatment of municipal wastewater. Compliance with the city's sewer pretreatment regula tions was an important design issue. One of the primary causes of sanitary sewer overflows is the clogging of the sanitary sewers and pump stations by solids or viscous material. The US EPA now requires that municipal sani tary sewer authorities implement pretreatment programs to control solids or materials which will or may cause an obstruction to the flow in a wastewater collection system, or otherwise interfere with the normal operation of the

treatment programs.

In operation, the 50,000-gallon wastewater treatment/storage tank receives wastewater from the con

wastewater treatment system.

vention center's facilities (water fountains, bathrooms, air

There are more than 1,500 publicly owned treatment works in the US that are required to implement local pre-

conditioning, etc). Heavy solids are separated and collect ed in the bottom of the tank by means of an advanced switchback baffling system. The switchback baffling sys tem greatly enhances the residence time and produces lam inar flow conditions in the tank to aid in the separation process. Grinder pumps then pump the wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. Since this sewer is always pressurized, the pumps were required in order to pump the sanitary sewage from that site into the pressurized sewer. The pumps were also required to break down the sewage waste, paper towels, garbage, rubber goods, plastic bags, fabrics, etc. to very small pieces to prevent clogging of the

Remove Hydrogen Sulfide from Biogas and Air Streams ADI International Inc. announces

a newly patented adsorption process for reducing hydrogen sulfide. The SULFA-BIND®

sewer system.

process uses an Iron-impregnated

The convention center will have 330,000 square feet of exhibition space. The facility is the first "green" conven tion center in the United States, using features such as nat ural ventilation, natural day lighting, recycled building materials, and water conservation and energy efficiency. As protected steel tanks are 100% recyclable, this large

medium, in fixed-bed scrubbers, to

obtain over 99.9% removal of H2S. With a one-minute contact time,

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"green building". The 12 foot diameter by 60 foot long protected steel tank has all the benefits of steel - strength, flexibility, dura bility, and compatibility - plus it carries a 30-year warran ty against corrosion because of its high-tech external and internal corrosion protection systems. Factory applied rugged polyurethane exterior coatings and NSF approved interior coatings were applied under modern plant-con trolled conditions and thermally cured to assure long-last ing performance. Pre-engineered access ways, switchback baffling, grinder pump systems, and other components were preci sion designed, fabricated, and fitted. For more information, circle reply card No. 145


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Tanks & Cointatnm<

Inexpensive lining system extends life of leaking tank

In 2001, during a routine tank

forced plastic tank (FRP) used to con tain liquid alum. A meeting was held

inspection, the staff at Aylmer, treatment

with members of council from the

plant noticed some fine cracks in

Ontario, wastewater

Township of Malahide, Wayne Simpson, project coordinator with the

the exterior of the fibreglass-rein-

Environmental Consulting Services

Ontario Clean Water Agency and Kentain Products Ltd. to solve the

leaking FRP tank problems. This is a vital part of the Aylmer wastewater treatment plant's operation. An inspec tion of the tank was completed prior to the meeting and the conclusion was that the tank was still structurally sound.

Replacing the tank was considered

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but, in addition to the cost of a new

tank, the Township would have had to allow for opening a section of the building which housed the tank to remove the existing tank and move the new one in. Another option considered was removing the existing tank and constructing a new tank inside the building. But this also proved to be quite costly. On the recommendation of Wayne

Our professional services include: •Environmental Audits and Site Assessments

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Simpson, a decision was made to have Kentain Products supply a closed top, heavy gauge flexible PVC liner. The company provided specialized techni cians to take exact inside dimensions

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Environmental NEWS

Chloriaation••• C02 emissions and global climate effects to be reviewed at A&WMA Conference

The controversial topic of CO2

emissions, their possible effect on global warming, and vari ous technical approaches to limiting atmospheric concentrations of so-called greenhouse gases, will be subjects at the 2003 Critical Review session at the Annual Conference of

the Air & Waste Management Association, June 22-26, 2003, in San Diego, California.

Entitled "Separation and Capture of CO2 from Large Stationary Sources and Sequestration in Geological Formations - Coalbeds and Saline

Aquifers," the Critical Review will be presented on June 25. In addition, throughout the four-day conference, more than a dozen papers and panel discussions will build on these major themes. Conference



delve into a range of related issues from removal of CO2from flue lines to cross-border air pollution issues and



environmental quality in Latin America. The 2003 Critical Review can be

expected to take a top-to-bottom look at global warming, including a description of greenhouse gases and their linkage to rising average temper atures and climate change. Anthro pogenic CO2 emissions sources will be listed, along with estimates of the amount of CO2 stored via terrestrial sequestration in the United States.

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Invasive Species

Canadian lakes are to be res

cued by a tiny insect the size

of a sesame seed. It has six

legs and is a dedicated vege tarian. This tiny beetle called the mil foil weevil has recently proven it is capable of handling an invasive weed. Eurasian Watermilfoil (EWM), one of the most invasive and notorious exotic

plant species in North America, is engaged in a highly aggressive infesta tion on fresh bodies of water. The plant is responsible for serious impair ment of swimming and boaling, habitat loss and native species decline in lakes across



although the exotic version must taste much better, because the weevils go after EWM. The weevils also reproduce quickly and can breed three to five generations of hungry larvae per sum



The US Army Corps of Engineers has listed EWM as a major threat for domestic lakes.


thrives in a wide range of water conditions, spreads very quickly and is capable of choking out native plant species that are essential for fish habitat and overall lake health. Since its accidental introduction to the

U.S. in the 1930s from the aquarium trade, the situation had become increasingly desperate.

In 1998, a group of biologists, led by Dr. Sallie Sheldon at Middlebury College in Vermont, theorized that the naturally occurring milfoil weevil would have a taste for the exotic vari

ety of milfoil. Marty Hilovsky, presi dent of EnviroScience, Inc., in Stow, Ohio, realized the potential for this innovative idea, and soon thereafter acquired the sole rights to market it. "Essentially what we've done is to take advantage of a highly effective preda tor-prey relationship," he said. While in the larval stage, the wee vils are voracious eaters and quickly dispose of the plant's long stems—ulti mately this stops the plant from nour ishing its branches and spreading. The weevils have a built-in appetite for a naturally occurring variety of milfoil -

The process was evenmally named MiddFoil®. Biocontrol strategies for controlling invasive exotic species are becoming a more commonplace solution, despite the fact they often take a longer period of time to solve the problem. Previous strategies for eradicating milfoil have all proven to have side effects and/or they are sim ply ineffective as a long-term solution. Herbicides only provide 1-2 years of relief at most and are potentially harm ful to native plants and animal species. Mechanical harvesters can bring shortterm relief, but ultimately help the mil foil spread—^broken milfoil fragments easily flourish and form new colonies. The introduction of exotic grass carp, an early attempt at biocontrol, did not work. Grass carp are not EWM specif ic. In fact, they often wipe out native aquatic plants before targeting EWM, and this is very harmful to the habitat needs for native fish, insects and vari ous invertebrates.

"We now have more than five years documented




MiddFoil process," stated Hilovsky. "The data are very favorable - milfoil weevils are the only proven long-term

50 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

of MiddFoil, is that it uses a native

insect to control an exotic species. Although each lake responds some what differently, Hilovsky stated that the Lac Cayamant, Quebec project, scheduled this summer, "will be the



solution that is currently available," he added. Perhaps the most unique aspect

first MiddFoil project in Canada, although there are numerous success ful projects in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. We believe that this insect is very well adapted to more northern cli mates, so the relatively long, cold win ters shouldn't be any problem for our weevils," he said. "Lac Cayamant also has exactly the right shoreline charac teristics that should make for a good MiddFoil project." Because each lake is different, each

strategy is different.

Each body of

water will have different levels of

infestation, so a customized solution is created for each project. The strategy usually involves the calculated deployment of tens of thou sands of weevils into targeted areas in

each lake. This process repeats itself for several years, with each application typically becoming smaller as the EWM beds are eliminated. And fur

ther proving the beauty of this biocon trol strategy, the weevil population nat urally adjusts to its food source so there is no concern about an overpopu lation of the tiny insects after the EWM is gone. For more information, contact www.enviroscienceinc.com. ■

Twelve charges laid over Walkerton tragedy

Charges of public endanger-

ment, breach of trust and for gery have been laid against a former manager and a fore man implicated in the Walkerton, Ontario, water contamination tragedy that occurred in 2000.

The former manager of the water works, Stan Koebel faces four counts

of public endangerment and one count each of making a false document, using a false document and breach of trust. His brother Frank, a foreman at

the utility, faces two charges of public endangerment plus a single count each on the other charges. The forgery charges have a poten tial sentence of 10 years in jail for each. If convicted of all counts and

sentenced to the maximum penalties, Stan could face 33 years in prison, while Frank could face 29 years. The two are expected to appear in court in Walkerton on June 10 and are not

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May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 51


Advanced water meter technology helps smooth reading collection By Darlene Street and Edward Bertolo

The City selected Neptune's radio frequency solution to achieve the following advantages: • Non-invasive data collection with no requirement to access the customer's home or property; • Increased meter reading accuracy resulting in increased revenue as well as a dramatic reduction in estimated bills


and administrative adjustments for estimates; • Addresses costly "hard-to-read" meters; • Improves meter reader safety;

• Implementing RF technology creates operational effi ciencies that economically justify moving to monthly reading;

• Minimizing the reading time shortens the billing cycle to maximize cash flow;

Neptune's Project Manager, David Oner, installs a T-10 meter with R900 module in Brandon.

Water utilities across North America are facing

the challenges of how to use technology to increase customer service and operational effi ciency, and of how to increase revenue without increasing rates or taxes. The City of Brandon in Manitoba, is playing a leading role in the water utility industry by con fronting these challenges through the use of advanced water meter technology. The City selected Canadian-based Neptune Technology

Group to upgrade its current water meter system from the old style direct read meters that are manually read to new encoder meters with radio frequency (RF) technology that are read with a mobile automatic meter reading(AMR)sys tem. The project involved replacement of old meters and

upgrade of newer meters to absolute encoder technology, while equipping 100% of water services with an R900 radio frequency meter interface unit(MIU). Creating the "Right Mix"

The City of Brandon's choices in technology and project implementation combine three key elements that are prov ing to be successftil; • Neptune's Automatic Reading and Billing (ARB) Water Revenue System; • Accurate,"lead-free" (Enviro-Brass'" II) water meters to maximize revenue; and • Turnkey project management and system implementa tion.

ARB Water Revenue System All 12,000 water meters were equipped with a Neptune R900 MIU, essential for a mobile meter reading solution. 52 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

• Significantly enhances levels of customer service; • Eliminates the manual entry of meter reading data into the City's billing system. Neptune's mobile radio frequency system is giving the City of Brandon the opportunity to economize on the per son-hours required to collect and to process meter-reading information. With the City's previous method, meter readers were required to enter the home to record the reading. When access to the home was not possible, homeowners were required to manually read the meter and mail the informa tion to the City. This method resulted in a high number of reading errors and estimated bills (approximately 45% were actual readings collected by City personnel and the remain der were a result of customer phone calls, mailings, or esti mates).

City staff used to read the meters on a quarterly basis, requiring 960 hours to complete the entire population. With the conversion to RF technology and to Neptune's RoadMAPS mobile data collector, the City is able to read the entire meter population in less than 10 hours. As a result, the City can easily transition to monthly readings.

The first pass with Neptune's mobile data collector yielded a read success rate of 99.5%.

These efficiencies have a dramatic impact on maximiz ing cash flow through reduced estimates and reading errors while ensuring timely revenue retrieval. Accurate, Lead-Free Water Meters

In addition to the operational and customer service ben efits gained from implementing RF technology, the Brandon project also included replacing old, inaccurate meters. Installing new, accurate meters results in increased revenue for the City. The same principle applies to any utility: If water meters are inaccurate - the utility is losing revenue. The water meter is the "cash register" for water usage. With this in mind, the City of Brandon selected

Neptune's T-10 water meters to replace its aging meters. The new meters are time proven for accuracy and dependability, meeting or exceeding the latest performance and accuracy requirements of the AWWA. As a result, the City can max imize revenue in an equitable manner without raising rates

ACLAE or taxes.

Help assure safe drinking water in Canada

The meters are manufactured with

EnviroBrass II, a no-lead brass alloy with the strength, corrosion resistance, and casting characteristics of tradition al alloys. Turnkey Project Management and System Implementation Solid project management is as crit ical to the program's success as the technology chosen. It is the corner stone of successful implementation and system longevity. Brandon select ed Neptune Technology Group's Canadian Service Division to provide a turnkey solution for project manage ment and system implementation. The project began in April 2002 and was completed ahead of schedule in October 2002. Neptune's project man ager oversees all aspects of the project including product supply and installa tion, customer service, administration, and data management. Circle reply card No. 167

Darlene Street is Product Manager,

We need motivated experts to assess laboratory conformance to CAEAL

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Help accredit drinking water laboratories. Submit your resume to Ms. Jennifer Clark (jclark@caeal.ca) by August 8, 2003.

Sendee Solutions and Edward Bertolo

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is Product Manager, Water & Systems for Neptune Technology Group.

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UP TO 50 FOOT lift! Waterra introduces two new

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pumps • filters • tubing • www.waterra.com • bailers • water level sensors For more Information, circle reply card No. 152 (See page 25)

May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 53


WEF Past President moves audience

with sombre global water data

Atthe recent Water Environment Association of

Ontario Conference in Toronto, the past president of the Water Environment Federation, Jim Clark, P.E., presented some profound global water sta tistics, noting that this year marks the 75th anniversary of WEF.

As the nature of the water quality business is changing, so must WEF position itself to be responsive to these changes. In the public education area, WEF's critically acclaimed CD-ROM, called Aqua Venturer, which high lights the crucial role of water and wastewater profession als in the development of civilization, is now available on line. This project is funded entirely by private donations. Since the September 11 attacks on America, both the Bush administration and US Congress have taken steps to coordinate and promote more security of the nation's infrastructure, including the creation of a new Department of Homeland Security to organize government efforts to protect against terrorism on US soil. WEF, along with the USEPA,has just completed a series of one-day wastewater security training sessions across the United States. The sessions were targeted at utility managers who need to conduct vulnerability assessments of their plants and rec ommend measures to protect the facility from potential physical and biological attacks. The EPA has recently agreed to provide additional funding to continue this successful program, which will include eight 2-day hands-on training sessions, two webbased training sessions, and ten "train the trainer" ses sions. These sessions will continue through July 2003. Because these sessions are funded by USEPA grants, the sessions are all held in the US. However, the training materials are available to WEF member associations locat ed outside of the US.

Bringing water problems into perspective, Mr. Clark

WEF President Jim Clark (centre) with George Powell (CH2M HILL), a WEAO Past-President and his wife Heather Powell.

posited: "If the entire volume of this room represented all of the water on earth, and we remove the water that is salt water in the oceans, the volume would shrink to the front of the podium. If we next remove the fresh water that is inaccessible, such as that tied up in glaciers and ice caps, and deep in the ground, the volume shrinks to what is in this pitcher. This is all of the fresh water we have to sus tain us - less than three-one thousandths of one percent of the Earth's water."

There are 1.3 billion people without access to clean drinking water; 2.6 billion people are without access to sanitation; and one-half of the world's hospital beds are occupied by people suffering from water-borne diseases. Nearly 2 billion cubic metres of water are used globally each day. Each North American uses, on average, 650 litres of that water. The largest single household use is flushing the toilet, which uses eight to twenty-five litres per


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54 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

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WEAO Toronto CONFERENCE flush. Brushing teeth takes about eight litres; taking a shower consumes 100 to 200; dishwashers use 45 to 75

litres per load. It takes four litres of water to process one pound of hamburger, 40 litres to process a chicken, and 40,000 litres to make a new car, on average. Meanwhile, in some parts of the world, the single most important task is walking several miles to collect the daily ration of water and returning it safely to the family. Mr. Clark continued,"not too long ago I spoke with a friend who returned recently from working in Nicaragua. He told me about a discussion he had with the Minister of

Education, who was hopeful that my friend could help with their population explosion. My friend replied that he did not understand, as he was there to work on the water systems. He was then told that it is was the responsibility of young girls to gather the water, which takes most of the

day, and as a result they are unable to attend school. Being uneducated, they end up having many babies. Often times we do not think about other important impacts our profes sion has on seemingly unrelated aspects ofthe global village.

"When things go well in our industry, you are invisible. You do yourjobs so well that you are not even noticed. 1 have yet to see a newspaper headline that reads "Sewage Plant Ran Well Today." "Despite this record, environmental professionals are often painted as polluters, and we need to change that perception. Be proud of what you do," he told the audience. "You are the ultimate environmentalists, treating a waste product so it can be safely returned to the environment, while recovering valu able resources. It has been estimated that during a 30-year career, the average WWTP operator in North America will treat over 2 billion cubic metres of wastewater and remove

over 500 million kilos of pollutants. "We as water professionals touch the lives of millions of human beings every day. There is no other profession that has such an impact on public health. But we can always do bet ter. By participating in professional training and advancing the level of knowledge of our industry, you are helping make the world a safer place to live. I applaud you for your efforts," he concluded. â–

Environmental Commissioner seeks

cooperation from environmental professionals

The Environmental Commis

sioner of Ontario, Gord Miller,

told the 2003 WEAO Confer ence that he was not a member

ofthe government but an Officer ofthe Legislature, appointed by a vote of all the MPPs, who specifically oversees the decision-making of 12 government ministries as those decisions relate to the environment. He stressed there

were no political or vested interests... "1 speak for the trees", he emphasized. In the past, the situation wasn't per fect, he said, but there had been ongo ing continuous improvements includ ing: regular capital funding with inde pendent priority-setting mechanisms; lots of operator training and tech trans fer between professionals and regula tors; a bureaucracy which had exten sive expertise, did research and showed leadership. Now, regulators are in a reactive mode - Reg 459/00, Reg 505/01, SDWA 2002; capital funding is not as long-term and focused; there is little or no training and limited technical trans fer; there is much less expertise within the bureaucracy...little leadership. Using the disposal of biosolids as an example, the Commissioner said the entire program had been misinter preted and misrepresented by the media. The QA/QC for the program is faltering and the Ministry of the Environment





resources to inspect and supervise the activity. Advocacy groups see the problems and sense the Ministry's weakness and intervene. The public is panicking, resulting in fear, anger and

al to promote life cycle responsibility

conflict. He said decisions are made

needs a strong, cred ible, technically competent voice to inform government decision-making. Its

which are not based on technical

analyses and scientific principles, and without training, the technical compe tence of people within the system declines.

and full cost acc



water environment

Gord Miller

virtual namesake, the WEAO could

The water environment is under

provide leadership in this area to the

increasing stress from climate change, especially drought, and this is com pounding growth in demand for water use with cumulative impacts on aquat ic systems. This is not sustainable in

benefit of the environment and future

terms of what's best for the environ

ment and the industry. It is not sustain able in the sense of Agenda 21 and the quest to achieve sustainable develop ment for the world. Clearly there is a need to seek another path.

generations. For








Ontario, contact www.eco.on.ca. For information on WEAO, contact www.weao.org. â–

Commissioner Miller said that the Water Environment Association of Ontario's role to re-establish credibili

ty should be to: step into the role vacated by the ministry; show the value of sound technical analysis; advocate for QC/QA and EMS; sup port and encourage operator training and technical transfer; engage the pol icy process as the WEAO; reach out to the public with information and assis tance.

He urged environmental profession-

56 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

Incoming WEAO President, Tony PetruccI, Earth Tech Canada Inc. and outgoing WEAO President, Deborah Ross, KMK Consultants Ltd.

River Clean-up

UK volunteers rid rivers of rubbish

The Thames River is now reck oned to be the cleanest metro

politan estuary in Europe, thanks to some 5,000 volun

teers, many of them business people. One of the main agents for cleanli ness is Thames21 which is a partner ship with ENCAMS (the organisation behind the Keep Britain Tidy cam paign), the Port of London authority, the Environment Agency, British Waterways London, Thames Water, and the Corporation of London. Thames21 has improved the clean liness of the London river by 20 per cent over the past three years. It is now said to support 119 species of fish and 350 species of invertebrate - a rich diversity that the volunteers aim to conserve and protect. Thames21 mobilises an army of volunteers through its Adopt-a-River scheme, not only clearing litter but also carrying out other enhancements, including reed planting, river restora

tion and habitat creation.

Even law-breakers on probation are recruited to complement the work. Another partnership formed with the Countryside Agency has led to the appointment of a project officer to coordinate physical improvements to the Thames path in conjunction with local authorities. The Thames path, which runs for 290 kilometres (about 180 miles) from the source of the river

Photo: Annette Price

in rural Gloucestershire to the Thames

Barrier below Woolwich, is one of the

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May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 57

Wastewater grit handling - some second stage grit washing and dewatering considerations By William Fiores,

ciency, but also can significantly

Smith & Loveiess Inc.

reduce odours and maintenance costs.

Agrit removal and disposal

Grit Handling After grit has been separated from the flow in the vortex grit chamber, the collected grit slurry, usually stored in a "hopper" below the chamber basin, must go through a grit washing and dewatering process to remove excess organics and water. These steps essen tially separate the collected grit slurry into basic components of water, organ ics and grit. Organics and water are

process is often implemented as an important treatment step to protect downstream process equipment. When designing a vortex grit removal system and/or selecting equipment, there are impor tant considerations beyond just select ing the grit chamber. Although the grit chamber is the centerpiece unit and key selection in any grit removal scheme, other important aspects include the selection of grit handling equipment, arranging the grit piping, and selecting components for the sec ond-stage grit washing and dewatering phase. Grit washing and dewatering are particularly important processes because of the volume of grit that today's flat-bottomed vortex grit chambers remove from large wastewater streams. In particular, there are three important reasons to wash and dewater grit: odour reduction, im proved grit removal efficiency and ease of grit disposal. Very high odour levels can be pro duced from disposed grit when removed from raw sewage because of organic material still attached to grit slurry. Generally, the highest level of organic separation from the grit begins in a grit chamber using a flat bottom design and special propeller blades. However, in any grit chamber a per centage of organics will remain with the grit, which necessitates a "secondstage" grit washing and dewatering phase. Making intelligent decisions about how to handle removed grit not only can further enhance system effi

returned to the wastewater stream

while the grit is dewatered for hauling and disposal. There are only two automatic ways to physically remove the grit slurry from a vortex grit chamber's storage hopper. In the initial development of circular, vortex grit chambers in the 1970s and 1980s, it was by airlift. Although airlifts are still available, an efficient method of transfer is now by the use of a grit pump. Improvements

Screw conveyor.

58 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

in pumping technology made available pumps designed exclusively for pump ing grit. Grit pumps have generally replaced airlifts for several reasons. Airlifts,

which release air into a vertical pipe and raise grit out of the storage hopper and through a horizontal pipe to the dewatering equipment, have a greater tendency to plug. Plugging is due to the low pressure exerted by the airlift, which doesn't convey the grit slurry as powerfully as the grit pump. As a result, settling grit accumulates more rapidly in the horizontal pipeline and, as time passes, plugging occurs. Additionally, the limited pressure from airlifts also eliminates the selec

tion of grit washing equipment and requires larger dewatering mecha nisms. Of most significance, a grit concentrator or cyclone, the mecha nism used for washing grit, cannot be utilized with airlifts, which require a higher head that can only be provided

Wastewater by grit pumps. Some systems that uti lize airlifts discharge to the dewatering screw conveyor grit slurries containing organics which results in odour prob lems.

Airlift design may require more routine maintenance because of its

extra moving parts. For example, blower lubrication can be a daily task compared to grit pump lubrication, which is usually just twice a year. Blowers have belts and shieves, which require periodic replacement, while

superior grit pumps only need an annu al inspection for a possible seal replacement. Performance costs are also greatly reduced with grit pumps because an airlift's blowers typically have to run consistently to move the flow to the conveyor while the grit pump may only need to run 30 minutes every four hours (depending on the grit load). As a result, the long-term operating and manpower costs associated with airlifts generally outweigh the smaller differ ences in initial equipment cost. Grit pumps employed in these applications are centrifugal, and the superior ones

feature a Ni-hard construction, easier maintenance considerations and mini

mal wearing parts. They can be remote-mounted using gravity flow (flooded-suction) or be top-mounted on the grit chamber using vacuum priming. Top-mounted grit pump design is the latest trend being implemented in eastern and western Canada and else

where. It offers unique advantages including self-draining capability, which minimizes the potential for fur ther clogging. Much like in the airlift, the suction pipe is a vertical rise from the storage hopper where the grit can flow back into the storage hopper. Remote-mounted pumps require addi tional suction piping where grit mate rial can accumulate and increase the

potential for plugging. In addition, top-mounted grit pumps minimize space and construction cost because they do not require additional dry wells; instead they simply reside on top of the grit chamber. Grit System Piping

potential for grit plugging, it does not necessarily eliminate it altogether. Grit plugging can be a real problem if the piping scheme from the grit chamber to the dewatering equipment is not laid out correctly. In addition to the recom mendation of mounting the grit pump on top of the grit chamber, the follow ing are further suggestions for proper grit piping design; 1. Discharge grit piping should be kept to a minimum (less than 6 m). The shortest distance between two points is a straight line. By doing this, one can eliminate unnecessary elbows. Elbows in the piping scheme are havens for settling grit, which leads to plugging. The bottom line is that for every addi tional metre of piping, there is an increased potential for grit plugging. 2. The isolation valve on the discharge side of the pump should be a pinch valve which is preferred because it will seal even if grit is present within the valve. The pinch valve should be locat ed in the vertical position to eliminate accumulation of grit within the valve.

While the successful selection of a

Check valves should never be used in

grit pump over airlifts can reduce the

any grit pumping line. Not only do


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& Resj^

The Hycor® ThickTech'" Rotary Drum Thickener (RDT) is a sludge-thickening system that is setting new standards for volume reduction.The ThickTech commonly reduces sludges by 90% with a 98% capture rate. The system is quite compact and

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Wastewater they provide the opportunity for plug ging, they very rarely work properly because of the presence of grit. The grit pump should also pump for a suf ficient length of time to clear the line entirely of grit before shut off of each cycle. 3. If a remote-mounted, flooded suc

tion grit pump is used, the pump suc tion line should be as short as possible, preferably less than 3 metres long. The ideal situation is a short, straight suc tion run directly into the side of the bottom of the grit storage chamber with an eccentric plug valve to isolate the pump. A slight incline up from the pump to the storage chamber is recom mended to prevent air entrapment from occurring. The grit storage hopper should be pumped out completely every cycle. This prevents grit from accumulating within the suction line. A flushing connection should also be incorporated into the grit pump suction line to allow for water flushing, should plugging occur. Elbows should not be used in the suction line; however, when

absolutely necessary, sanitary tees with a clean out should be chosen. The

Conveyor emptying grit.

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Grit in cart.

eccentric plug valve located in the pump suction line should be turned so that the rubber face seals against the flow from the grit chamber. If it is not turned in this direction, grit will pack around the movable plug on the back side and prevent it from turning. Often two grit pumps are specified in order to provide 100 percent back up. Normally when this occurs, the pumps are tied in together. This is not recommended because it only provides additional elbows and piping - in other words, places for grit to plug the line. A better solution is storing a spare


rotating assembly for complete back up. Be sure to select grit pumps that easily facilitate changing rotating assemblies by simply lifting them off the pump. Grit Washing After the flow has moved through the grit chamber, the accumulated grit, organics and water are pumped to a second-stage grit washing system, which includes a grit concentrator and screw conveyor. The grit concentrator (also called a grit "cyclone") separates the lighter organics and excess water from the grit, while the screw convey-

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Wastewater or further dewaters the grit and carries it to disposal. Because no grit chamber is 100 per cent efficient, a small percentage of organics will be trapped with the grit. The modern second-stage concentra tor, located on the grit discharge line, is an important inclusion because it is designed for ultimate separation of the malodorous organics. Inside its cylin drical shape, the grit concentrator causes a vortex movement much like

the circular grit chamber. Likewise, this vortex action further separates the grit from organics. As a rule of thumb,

top-mounted grit pumps provide the pumping head and capacity necessary for optimizing the vortex efficiency of the concentrator.

Approximately six percent of the separated grit continues to the screw conveyor for further processing and the remaining 94 percent volume over flows back to the head of the grit chamber. The purpose of limiting it to six percent of the flow is that the grit is concentrated and washed from organ ics. The result is clean grit with a sandy texture, free from the organics

that can become a smelly nuisance.

The small six percent flow also allows superior dewatering efficiency in the next unit process operation. Superior grit concentrators employ heavy-duty, Ni-Hard iron thick con struction, which increases life to ten times that of steel or stainless steel. Ni-

Hard is stronger due to the nickel/alloy components incorporated in the mate rial, thus Ni-Hard has a hardness (BHN 550+) level higher than steel and stainless steel. Thick, solid-cast construction at the base also helps to prevent the concentrated grit from wearing down the bottom. Other units may utilize liners for additional protec tion, but these liners are wearing parts that will require periodic replacement and increase operating cost and main tenance.

An additional key to look for in selecting grit concentrators is orifice sizing. Inferior units can clog more fre quently because of small orifices, which can range in measurement from 2.5 cm - 7 cm in diameter. A very large orifice, with a minimum diame ter of 8 cm, is recommended to suit

ably reduce and even prevent potential clogging. Grit Dewatering Following grit washing, the concen trated grit stream then discharges into the final dewatering device, the screw conveyor (also called "screw classifi er"). It's important to understand that most screw conveyors have been developed for other industries - like food and fertilizer - and only a few in the

wastewater market have been

uniquely designed for dewatering grit from wastewater streams. The standard

screw conveyor is basically a steel trough with an inclined screw. It oper

ates on the settling principle, allowing the grit to settle in the trough while the rotating screw conveys (or lifts) the settled grit out of the trough for dis posal as the grit-free overflow fills an outlet weir trough and returns to the grit chamber. While heavier grit settles to the bot tom, the problem sometimes encoun tered in generic screw conveyor designs concerns the retention of fine grit particles (10pm or 150 mesh and smaller). Finer grit is often suspended


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For more information, circle reply card No. 172

(See page 25)


Wastewater because of turbulence from the enter

ing flow. As a result, the fine grit does not always settle and is recycled to the grit chamber, lowering the overall removal efficiency of the grit removal system.

A solution to this problem is speci fying a grit screw conveyor that has a flow dissipation zone where the under flow of the concentrator is introduced.

This allows the flow/grit to enter the screw conveyor without disturbing the already settled grit in the hopper area of the conveyor. Flow dissipation directs the incoming flow down along a baffle and up into a parallel plate sec tion. The fine grit contacts with the plates and slides down to the screw while the water is forced upward into a trough to be sent back to the grit cham ber. These plates improve the retention of fine grit by utilizing the entire sur face area of the hopper. Essentially, the parallel plates capture the discrete grit particles. The plates are spaced so that while fine grit is retained, the organics are not trapped, and trash is not built up. The result is increased settling and retention of fine grit so that the dewa-

tering operation is achieved with a higher level of efficiency. Properly sizing the screw conveyor is an another important consideration in selecting this equipment. An under sized conveyor will allow for too high an overflow rate and lots of grit being

dewatering phase. Grit handling com ponents (pumps, concentrators and screw conveyors) have evolved over the past few decades resulting in key differences in designs and capability. Yet, many complete grit removal sys tems have been installed without prop

lost or carried over into the overflow

er consideration of the nuances that

trough. Selecting a screw conveyor with a full-length outlet weir trough will significantly minimize the over flow rate and the carryover of fine grit back to the grit chamber. For increased dewatering capability,

characterize grit handling. As a result, component equipment is often com piled from difftrent manufacturers based simply on initial equipment cost without understanding the long-term

it is recommended to use 23 or 25 cm

(9" or 14") screws (depending on pump size) with a slow revolution per minute (9 RPM). A slower rate of rev olution facilitates greater accumula tion of grit for disposal. The screw conveyor then better facilitates han dling and disposal because a smaller volume of grit settles. As vortex grit removal system tech nology advances with time, it has become increasingly important to understand more than just the dynam ics of grit chamber operation, but also the second-stage grit washing and

effects of how well these components may actually work in concert. Today, with maintenance costs ris ing and budgets being squeezed, prop er design and equipment selection become even more critical. The latest market trend demonstrates that more

engineers and end-users are paying closer attention to the particulars in the important second-stage grit washing and dewatering process. William Flares is an Engineering Manager with Smith & Loveless' International Division.

Circle reply card No. 180





Because waste water

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Communications Conferences

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Education and Training Science and Technology Sections

storage & Contamment Product Show Custom shipping containers

Alrange custom modifies shipping containers to house industrial equip ment. We have modified these solid

steel boxes to house equipment for water purification, wastewater treat ment, chemical storage, haz-mat stor age and much more. We have fitted containers with spill containment, fire suppression, alarms, access ramps, full electrical systems, ventilation and cli mate control.

Containment basin rentals

Interested in saving money?

Portadam® temporary containment basins to 12 feet deep can be installed on concrete, bedrock or sediment, uneven or inclined. Civil preparation

Using your free Lifecycle Cost Analysis Program,just enter your tank size, relevant financial information and your projected maintenance schedule. The program will calculate the cost of an Aquastore® tank over its expected service life and compare it side-by-side

not normally required and area left undisturbed. Liners with custom con

nections and pumps for most fluids. Site consultation, turnkey installation,

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to other alternatives. Order your free copy of the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Program today! www.aquastore.com. Engineered Storage Products Company Circle reply Card No. 202

Mobile refuelling

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Alrange Container Services. Circle reply Card No. 200

Underground double wall jacketed tanks





CONTAINMENT "Tank wltMn t itofc

Superior corrosion protection and sec ondary containment; inner tank can be compartmentalized; total compatibility with petroleum fuels, as well as a wide range of chemicals; sand, pea gravel or crushed stone may be used for backfill; globally recognized third-party approv als; flat and dished end caps. DTE Industries Limited

When fuels are required in small quan tities, to fill construction machinery on various sites, truck-mounted tanks with hold-down straps and internal baffles to avoid dangerous load shifts are pro vided in warning red enamel. Special venting device, fill cap and labels are included. Capacities are 454-4540 litres (100-1000 gallons). Also avail

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• Many sizes available with molded in drains, "IMFO™ " integrally molded flanged outlet. • Wide range of sizes available in upright, conical bottom and horizontal tanks. Open or closed top design are available in most styles.

version for added safety margin.

• UL certified tanks are also available.

D'l'E Industries Limited

Dynamic Plastic Solutions Inc. Circle reply Card No. 206

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Corrosion resistant tanks and vessels


Oil/water separators

Armourplastics®, ther moplastic lined FRP armoured

tanks and

vessels resist corrosion

over a broad range of temperatures and are suited to both the most severe chemical serv

ices and for high purity applications where it is necessary to keep the process fluid totally free of contaminants. Lining choices include PVC, CPVC, P.P., PVDF, ECTFE, FEP PFA and TEFZEL.

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expen

ZCL coalescing separators provide substantially higher design flows than gravity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MPak® design removes oil droplets as small as 20

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Our 10 page product brochure details fabrication techniques, material selec tion, material properties and dimension

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are reduced to as low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/water separators are manufactured with premium-grade fibreglass reinforced plastic. They have no moving parts and require min

al information.

Environment Federation.

imal maintenance.

Fabricated Plastics Limited

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 208

ZCL Composites Inc. Circle reply Card No. 209

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Effluent oil concentrations

May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 65

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666 Self teach environmental

awareness training program

nviroVisfon Environmental Awareness at Work


Envirovision is a "self-teach" man

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• Thermocable® heat-trace cable and related accessories • Portafoam® Paks

• Engineering and computer design

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icates of Training Included.

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Hach's new 2003 Product for

Measurement solutions

Analysis Catalog Hach Company's new catalog

Do you need to ensure high quali ty, reduce operating costs and comply with environmental regula tions? This Is an easy-to-read resource for operators of water distribution, wastewater treatment

Includes GLI on-line electrochemi




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OptlQuant SVI™ Sludge Volume Analyzer and the AutoCAT™ 9000 Automatic Chlorine TItrator. Easy to use 'quick reference guides' make finding your solution easier. New process flow diagrams give you the tools to understand your process. Order a copy now at www.hach.com/pfa or call 1-800-

and related Industries about level measurement



applications, as well as Installation tips and techniques for best results. Siemens Mllltronlcs Instru ments set the standard for level measurement with Innovative tech

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227-4224 or 970-669-3050.

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An In-depth analysis of drainage pipe performance and design comparisons of concrete pipe vs HOPE. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Call for your copy now! Visit us at


Urecon pre-insulated pipe Urecon has been supplying preInsulated pipe to the HVAC, munic ipal and Industrial sectors for over 30 years. • U.I.P® factory Insulated piping systems


Controlling contaminated groundwater Waterloo Barrier Is a low perme ability cutoff wall for groundwater containment and control.

It Is a

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several countries. Canadian Metal


Rolling Mills assisted In the devel opment of the product VVaterloo Barrier Inc.

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CATALOGUE " 2003/0h

inertiai punqung iysums

water leveltapei

New Waterra products catalogue now available Waterra's product line has grown considerably to Include pumps, fil ters, water level and hydrocarbon detection equipment, bailers and other accessories. To view these

products and for more Information, contact Waterra to obtain the new

2003/04 edition of the Waterra

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66 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

New brochure on wastewater

pumping systems Our tried-and-tested products find use In the fields of municipal and Industrial waste water transporta tion and domestic drainage, and can be reliably Integrated Into pumped drainage systems. Mixing, tank cleaning, the transportation of sludges and surface drainage all constitute further aspects of KSB's service.




includes a free CD to help you select the right system for your requirements. ksb@ksbcanada. com. KSB Pumps Circle repiy card No. 253

Product 3nd Sorwic© Showcssf-. The best keeps getting better

Armtec is a leader in twin-wall HDPE

pipe systems through the BOSS prod uct line. BOSS products are used in gravity storm sewers and culverts. Armtec is moving to full CSA certifica tion for the complete BOSS product line. Armtec

Engineering services

A bridge for all reasons

For many years, Armtec has stretched your design dollar with its range of soil steel structures including Multi-Plate and Super-Span. Keeping pace with the need to provide economical bridge solutions, Armtec offers Bridge-Plate structures for larger installations. Bridge-Plate has the deepest and strongest corrugation in the market today, enabling long span soil steel structures to be designed and built more economically than ever before.

Providing the complete spectrum of services needed to plan, design and construct water and wastewater infra

structure including: Traditional engi neering, design and construction, design/build, SCADA/real time con trol, and structured wetlands/recre ational water quality. American Water Services


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Pneumatic pumps

DPD kit for calibrating chlorine analysers

Pulsar HypoPump® Pulsafeeder, A Unit of IDEX Corporation, introduces the Pulsar

HypoPump® that is explicitly designed to meter the full range of concentrations of sodi

can be achieved for 75 mm models.

as free and total chlorine.

um hypochlorite and its vapors associated with heat and degradation of composition. It features a patented design that allows pressurized process fluid to cyclically flush liquid through the pump's discharge check system while maintaining high performance and chemical dosing accuracy. For fur ther information please visit us on the web at www.pulsa.com.

Canadian Pipe Suppiy Circle reply Card No. 240

EndressH-Hauser Canada


Polder pneumatic pumps are designed to economically and efficiently recover fluids from wells where low flow con

ditions are encountered. The pumps are made of stainless steel and thermoplas tic components which are easily serv iced in the field. The recovery rate can be controlled by a timer and solenoid valve. Recovery rates up to 18 L/min

New 5100 and 5150

This new battery powered DPD meter from Endress-M-lauser, CCM182, can be easily brought right to the field instrument for calibration. It converts

the colour change to a digital readout in a range of0.05-6 mg/L, which can then be input into the online measurement for a calibration. It can also be used to

measure pH and Cyanuric acid as well

Circle reply Card No. 241

Circle reply Card No. 242

Regal Gas Chlorinator

Vortex flow path and flat bottom grit chamber

slurry pumps The Regal Gas ITT





Chlorinator is


a direct cylin der mounted,

generation of slurry pumps. They are designed specifical ly to handle the most abrasive slurries, in a wide spectrum of tough industrial

the unit with


vacuum creat



system which

in chlo

rine gas is drawn through The Smith & Loveless' PISTA® Grit Chamber utilizes true forced vortex

pumps have the lat est ITT Flygt tech nology incorporated, ensuring high effi ciency, reliability and a long working life, according to the company. Visit www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt

ed by the flow of water through the ejector. If the vacuum line breaks or is damaged,the gas shuts off automatical ly. The systems feature reusable filters that remove impurities, while permit ting flow rates up to 500 Ibs./day. Chlorinators Incorporated

Circle reply Card No. 243

Circle reply Card No. 244

action to maintain the high grit removal efficiencies on the market over a wide

range of daily flows. Its exclusive flat bottom chamber floor design distin guishes it from all other circular cham ber systems, which feature sloped bot tom floor designs. Smith & Loveless

Circle reply Card No. 245

May 2003, EnvironmentalScience & Engineerlrig 67

roduct and Service Showcase Internal drop structure The new internal drop is an industry friendly alternative to the physi

Multi-Functionai Cascade Controller

» Danfos Analytical intro Three Sensors - One

Measuring Principle

A powerful, cost effective solution for the cascade

duces the world's first on-line

colorimetric nutrient sensor

challenges the external drop construction,

control of parallel blow ers and pumps. Danfoss has responded to the spe

installation and mainte

cific needs of the water

The three sensors look alike

supply, irrigation and wastewater markets by offering a builtin function cascade controller option for the VLT» 8000 AQUA drive. The con troller provides accurate flow, pressure and level control that makes your multi ple pump or blower systems work more efficiently. It also minimizes energy consumption compared to the tradition al across the line on/off cycling of pumps and blowers and valve throttling.

and share the same widely approved colorimetric measuring prin ciple. The EVITA® INSITU Nutrient Sensor is placed in the wastewater at the point where the concentration must be




nance present. For your future work,insist on the internal drop structure to ensure a safe and eco

nomical drop connec tion solution. See your local precast concrete producer today for more

able to measure ammonium,

nitrate or orthophosphate.

known. No external factors influence

Circle reply Card No. 210

Circle reply Card No. 211

the measurements, as is the case with conventional analyzers where filters, pumps, long pipes or sedimentation equipment can cause significant meas uring errors. Maintenance on the trans mitter is extremely low. Davis Controls Circle reply Card No. 212

Remove arsenic, chromium

Floating silt curtain

Parkson Geo-Reactor"

details or contact the OCPA for further information.

Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Davis Controls

and uranium from

Layfield's floating silt

water suppiies ADI International's




adsorption process removes heavy met als from groundwater to low ppb con centrations.



available from

50 gpm to 10,000 gpm. MEDIA G2™ is certified to

NSF Standard 61 and performance ver ified by ETV Canada. Full-scale arsenic removal plants are operating in Canada, United States, Japan and New Zealand. Ask about our free testing on your water. ADI International Inc. Circle reply card No. 213


designed to aid in pre venting sus pended sedi ment from entering the water body during shoreline construction. The unique design allows water to flow through the curtain while containing the sediment within the work area. The

Parkson's Geo-Reactor™ is an attached

growth, moving-bed bio-reactor. Its patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result is increased DO,

curtains are re-useable, UV stable, and stocked in 50-foot long modular sec tions to suit a variety of applications. Please contact your local Layfield Technical Sales Representative for

efficient BOD reduction and nitrifica

more details.

tion can easily be accomplished.

Layfield Geosynthetics Circle reply card No. 214


increased contact time of the mixed

liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer

Circle reply card No. 215


Escalator® Fine screen

ACTIFLO® Package Plants

Remote flow verification

ProMinent's range of new Sigma motor-driven


metering pumps keep you informed with un-

j' paralleled flow verifica" tion technology: • manual, analog, contact and batch

screen panels are carried on heavy-duty chains and incorporate holes of 1/4 inch (6mm) diameter, giving fine screening in any direction. The screen panels are specially formed to create steps, which remove larger solids, and increase the effective screening area.

The Actiflo'® package plants are designed to treat a wide range of appli cations: drinking water, industrial process water, primary and tertiary waste treatment. By efficiently remov ing turbidity, color, suspended solids, metals,TOG,taste and odor, the process ensures that the water it produces is of the highest quality. Though the systems are very compact, they offer compara ble performances to systems built on a larger scale. Comes complete with all the necessary monitoring equipment.

John Meunier/USFilter

John Meunier/USFilter

ProMinent Fluid Controls

The Escalator'^ gives continuous fine screening for channel type applications with very few moving parts below the water level. Perforated stainless steel

Circle reply card No. 216

68 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

Circle reply Card No. 217


• displays flow rate and totalized pump output in litres or gallons • accumulative stroke counter and

stroke length percentage • 20-1000 litres/hr with wide turn down ratio

• 4-20 mA output, programmable timer, access code programming, flow monitoring, diaphragm failure moni toring. Visit: www.prominent.ca. Circle reply card No. 218

Product and Service Showcase i Level measurement guide

Package Water and Wastewater Plants


Sequencing batch reactor

Siemens Milltronics level

Adapted to Your Needs



ments are installed in hundreds of thousands of

industrial process appli~=—

We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment Plants worldwide.


Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 219

cations worldwide. You

can rely on our instruments for high performance, cost-effective measure ment of continuous level, point level, and interface in a wide range of applica tions, such as water and wastewater, chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceuti cal, mining, cement, aggregates, and bulk solids. These instruments are

The ADI-SBR proprietary sequencing batch reactor system offers flexibility and convenience. All treatment opera tions are carried out in one vessel, and operator-adjustable controls easily allow process changes to be made, as required. ADI's unique air seal

designed and built for ease of use, sim

decanter mechanism is included in the

ple installation, low cost of ownership and reliability in the harshest condi

design which offers simpler construc tion and fewer mechanical parts than

tions. www.siemens-milltronics.com.

traditional decanters.

Siemens Milltronics

ADI Systems Inc. Circle reply Card No. 221

Circle reply Card No. 220

HS-1 Oil/Water Interface

Environmental Preparedness



Asbestos Trakker Version 2.4 The Trakker is a stateof-the-art

The Waterra HS-1 OilAVater Interface


management software program that can be

Sensor is now even more sensitive.

The HS-1 probe uses unique ultrason ic technology that makes it very robust and easy to clean. A new electrode configuration now makes the probe




the facility manager, construction department and health and safety officials through your local net work server system. The Trakker sys tem is extremely user-friendly; compat ible with all Windows-based programs;

Circle reply card No. 222

• review issues by group, • supplement reports, • excellent planning tool. Senior consultant, Cliff Holland has over 20 years of hands-on experience at responding to and training for large and small volume spills. Spill Management Inc. Circle reply card No. 223

room's survey results in seconds; mul tiple buildings or wings can be includ ed in one program; has a link-up fea ture that will allow other department managers to view the Trakker survey findings; and more. T. Harris Environmental Management Circle reply card No. 224

Small drinking water systems

SARS - infectious disease

even more accu



O i 1/ Wa te r Interface Water

and Level

tapes are still the lightest and most portable on the market today. Waterra


• location-specific observations, • recommendations for action.

has a search function that can retrieve a

Portable Tanker Access Ladder

control, hazardous materials removal



ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 225


access ladder offers a

mental Contractors

flexible and economical

^ 3re the experts in the

alternative to high cost fall protection systems.

removal of asbestos,

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MDW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treatment plants. This ultrafiltration system is cost-effective, easy-touse, and requires only minimal super vision, while consistently producing high quality water.


Restoration Environ



fungus, SARS-infection disease control, lead paint, lead dust and heavy metals, UFFl, plant clean ing, demolition, restoration, fires and water damages, wet abrasive sandblast ing, air monitoring testing, surveys, assessments, audits and consulting, bird/bat/rodent feces removal - histo-

/ m

While working heights


between nine and four-

1 lltlL


other working heights can be specified. The unit can be configured for either fall restraint (with a guard rail) or for con fined space entry and attendant fall protection. While one man can easily move and position the system, an optional highway package also allows


it to be towed between locations.

Restoration Environmental Contractors

TS Group (Ontario) Circle reply Card No. 227

Circle reply Card No. 226

May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 69

foduct and Service Showcase Dissolved oxygen analyzer A high specification dis solved oxygen analyzer offering advanced fUnc-

U"Xii _ i tionality, simple opera-


^ ^ lion, and reliability in


harsh environments.

• Unique oxygen sensors • Sensor life indicator

• Comprehensive diagnostics facility with in-built software protection ensures security and confidence in operation. • Salinity and atmospheric pressure correction capability as a standard • Water-Wash option prevents fouling of the oxygen sensor. • IP66/NEMA4X - reliable operation in demanding environments. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply Card No. 228

Membrane Bioreactor(MBR)

«ProMinent's range of

Ohmart Vega Vegapuls

Remote flow verification

Sigma motor-driven metering pumps keeps you informed with un paralleled flow verifi cation technology: • Manual, analog, contact and batch control

• LCD display of flow rate and total ized pump output in litres or gallons • Accumulative stroke counter and

stroke length percentage • 20-1000 litres/hr with wide turn down ratio

• 4-20 mA output, programmable timer, access code programming, flow mon itoring, diaphragm failure monitoring.

radar level sensor

Ohmart/Vega services offers a complete line of Radar Level Gauges. Puls 40 is a high fre quency radar for use in small process connec tions. Puls 50 uses larg er antennas, and oper ates at a lower frequency. Puls 56HT is a high temperature, high pressure unit. Puls 81 is a 4-wire device designed for the most difficult process condition. This family of gauges proves the abili ty to make the best use of radar tech nology, with optimal solutions for their level and specialty measurement appli



Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply Card No. 229

Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply Card No. 230

Cofferdam rentals to 12 ft

Pine Environmental Services

ZENON's ZeeWeed®


MBR produces terti ary quality effluent and simplifies waste-

inform environ




sionals from all

water treatment. The







places conventional



has seven

offices in North

filtration and combines clarification,


aeration and sludge digestion into one, simpler and smaller process step. The modular system can be easily expand ed in a "just in time" manner to match surrounding community growth, reducing front-end development costs.

consultants and

Proven in hundreds of installations,

ZeeWeed® MBR is ideal for municipal and industrial applications of all sizes from < 10,000 GPD to > 10 MOD.



industry/municipal offices requiring instrumentation or


supplies for air and/or water projects can expect exceptional service and low rental and purchase rates. Call for pric ing information or to order your updat ed rental catalogue. Call toll free at (866) 688-0388, e-mail : products© pine-enviro.com or visit www.pine-

RMS Enviro Solv Inc.


Portadam® temporary cofferdams can be installed on concrete, bedrock or sediment, uneven or inclined. Civil

preparation not normally required and area left undisturbed. Site consultation, turnkey installation, 24/7 service.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Pine Environmental Services Inc.

Circle reply Card No. 232

Circle reply Card No. 231

Circle reply Card No. 233

Prevent asphalt cracking


If you were plan ning to rout and seal your asphalt joints after they fail, think




- the upgradeable PID


costs of repairing what you've already done.

Comstock Canada Ltd.

has been providing general contractor, multi-trade and design/build construc tion services to the Canadian water and wastewater sectors for almost 100

years. Located in most major centres across Canada, Comstock will provide the solution to your needs. Comstock Canada Ltd.



instatement tape is a polymer modified bituminous strip that is cold applied and designed to seal the joints between asphalt, concrete and steel, the first time. Re-instatement tape seals around catch basins, manholes, utility cuts and next to concrete curbs prior to paving. Do it right the first time

These flexible PIDs can detect more

than 250 toxic gases including VOCs, ammonia, benzene, chlorinated H/C and WMD gases. They can be used for first response, leaks and spills, indus trial solvents and chemicals and con

fined-space entry applications, www.

with Denso Road Products.


Denso North America Inc.

Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply Card No. 234 70 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

Circle reply Card No. 235

Circle reply Card No. 236

Environmental NEWS

PPI publishes report on design life of 100 years for corrugated HDPE pipe

long-term properties produce different results than those performed in the

The Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) in Washington, D.C., has published a technical report (TR-43) supporting a 100-year plus lifecycle of properly installed corrugated HDPE pipe. "Design Service Life of Corrugated

HDPE Pipe"(TR-43)and all other PPI printed material is available for down load at www.plasticpipe.org and click

HDPE Pipe" analyzes current corru gated pipe specifications and materi als, as well as its long-term properties.

Since the 1950s, when Europe and North America began using plastic pipes for various water, sewer and eventually drainage uses, engineers speculated on the pipe's expected life cycle. The PPI document determines

the longevity of drainage pipes by measuring the mechanical strength of pipe material when forces act on it, the stress to the pipe, loading time and temperature. Additionally, research

incorporated long-term properties, such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, chemical resistance and


"Design Service Life of Corrugated

ing on the Publications link. Copies also can be obtained by calling 202462-9607, ext. 11.

New approvals program for NB municipal water systems As part of the new Municipal Drinking

monitoring and reporting requirements

Water Program, 92 certificates of approval will come into effect for municipal water treatment and water

are met.

distribution facilities in 66 municipali ties across the province of New Brunswick. Effective immediately, all municipally owned and operated water systems will now be required to abide by the conditions set out in their cer tificate of approval to operate, such as ensuring that operators of water sys tems are trained and certified, and that

The certificates of approval, which are developed with the collaboration of the Department of Health and Wellness, range in term from one year

to a maximum offive years, depending on classification. The approvals set standards that require all water treat ment plants, distribution facilities and system operators to adopt operating

practices that ensure safe (irinking water.

abrasion resistance.

The PPI report suggests that the current industry-norm standards for the AASHTO M 294 specification could slightly increase the minimum

resin density from 0.945 gms/cc to



0.948 gms/cc. This information was found through testing for the relax

High Pressure Water Jetting :ina

ation curves in seven different diame

Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

ters of pipe from four manufacturers.

Waste Water Treatment

The curves were then extrapolated to

Sponge Jet Cleaning

100 years and it was found that the curves were consistent in shape and

slope from 50 to 100 years. "Prior to this report, many of the previous studies included resins used

in the 1980s that are not used by the industry today," stated PPI Marketing Manager Michael Ball. "This report demonstrates that the latest studies on

the effects of pipe materials and the









Media & Coal Ltd.

For more Information, circle reply card No. 129


TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

For more Information, circle reply card No. 123(See page 25)

BAY COR FIBRE TECH Inc. - Max performance/easy optimizobie fine screening 576 Elgin St., Unit D

- Sludge thickening: fyp. WAS 0.5-1 to 6-8%+ & more - Master difficult municipal/food/industrial tasks Tel: (519)751-7787 - Flexible control strategies; totally enclosed units Fax:(519) 751-7712 - Largest capacity/unit models/most std. features infoigbaycorfibre.com - Proven & reliable; permanent value in treatment www.baycorfibre.com The BEST FINE SCREEN in the WORLD! Brantford, Ontario

For more information, circle reply card No. 124(See page 25) 0=ctopus floating fine bubble systems


Bio=Bloc fine bubble


10-year warranty


Air Release/Vacuum Break Valves

for ideal cold

for Sewage & Water




TEL;(519)751-1080 FAX;(519) 751-0617



nth rafliter




762 Upper James St., Suite 250 Hamilton, Ontario L9C 3A2 Fax: 905-777-8678

Phone: 905-777-9494




For more information, circle reply card No. 125(See page 25)

May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 71

Environmental NEWS

Canadian company to build world's largest ZeeWeed® plant

Infrastructure program directs more than $2.5

The island of Singapore has started its

effort to become self-reliant for their

Saint John will receive a $2,550,000 investment to upgrade the city's water infrastructure. The new project is made possible through the Infrastructure Canada-New Brunswick partnership. The project in Saint John calls for the construction of two standpipes and the demolition of an old existing standpipe. This project will help improve water quality, storage and delivery in the city's water system. This announcement brings the total announced projects to 52, for a total

water supplies. They will upgrade the

investment of close to $85.6 million so

Chestnut Avenue Waterworks to dou


ble the existing drinking water plant's capacity. Construction of the new water treatment plant is expected to be complete by the end of 2003. The new plant will be the largest

In New Brunswick, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency is responsible for the implementation of

million to Saint John

conversion to membrane-based water filtration. Zenon® Environmental Inc.

will supply its ZeeWeed® membranes to a new 72 million gallon per day (273,000 cubic metres per day) drink ing water plant, which will be one of the world's largest membrane-based water treatment plants. Singapore's Public Utilities Board is in the midst of a major expansion of the nation's water resources, in an

ZeeWeed installation to date with an

order value of approximately $10 mil lion to Zenon.

the Canada-New Brunswick Infra

structure Program, while the Department of Environment and Local Government, in conjunction with the Regional Development Corporation,

From left: Andy Savoy, MP for Tobique-Mactaquac, NB Premier Bernard Lord, and Shirley McAlary, Mayor of Saint John, announced the investment.

are the provincial jurisdictions respon sible for the implementation of the agreement. Each of the three levels of government will contribute one third of the eligible costs of the project.

Edmonton partners create international centre of excellence in waste

management Edmonton Alberta has become North

Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal

America's hub for research in solid

Complete Services

the incorporation of the Edmonton Waste Management Centre of

^^^Tfifflax Residuals an American Water Services"company

800-465-21 IS www.trimaxenv.com|www.amerlcanwaterservlces.com For more information, circle reply card No. 126(See page 25)

PIERALISI Dewatering Centrifuges 30,000+ installed worldwide! cost-effective, energy-efficient, quiet 10 year bowl warranty; from 5 usgpm up! also Screw Conveyors & Polymer Mixing Systems

Vanderbeken Enterprises Ltd. 15525 Cliff Avenue, White Rock B.C. V4B 1V8 toll free: 1-877-DRY-CAKE

fax: 604-535-2283



waste and wastewater treatment with

Excellence. Partners in the venture include the

City of Edmonton, the University of Alberta, the Alberta Research Council, AMEC,Olds College and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. The Centre's purpose is to advance research and technology and share waste management knowledge that will improve the sustainability of urban areas throughout the world. Several research projects focusing on composting and advanced technology to improve wastewater effluent are already underway. "Edmonton's modern facilities and

our combined expertise make this one For more information, circle reply card No. 127(See page 25)

Wilfley Weber,Inc. Denver, CO Phone: 303-770-2664


Fax; 303-889-7305

Web: www.wilfleyweber.coni E-mail: wilfIeyweb@aol.com

Wilfley Weber provides high quality diffused aeration systems for municipal and industrial applications. Fine bubble, coarse bubble & static tube systems. Fine bubble diffusers with 10+ years life expectancy in municipal wastewater. Systems designed for high efficiency resulting in lower operational costs. For more information, circle reply card No. 128(See page 25)

72 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

of the world's most innovative environ ments for sustainable urban waste

management," said Dr. Leonard, a University of Alberta professor sec onded to the Centre for three years. "I see tremendous opportunity to attract research and also to transfer that research to the real world where waste

management is a growing issue." Construction will begin this year on two research facilities that will aug-

Environmental NEWS ment existing partner facilities- a $4.4 million solid waste facility at the Edmonton Waste Management Centre, and a $4 million facility for wastewater treatment technologies at the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant. Both are

The report demonstrates that sci ence is a key input in developing the most effective strategies to reduce air borne particles. These strategies will

tion, as well as prevailing weather con ditions, topography and seasonal vari ations. Management plans will have to be tailored specifically to each region,

have to take into consideration both

and actions that are effective in one

local and distant sources of air pollu

area may not be applicable to another.

funded through the Infrastructure Canada-Alberta Program. Contact: Dr. Leonard, Tel:(780) 496-6872.






North American

scientists complete study of reduction of airborne

particles Forty-two air quality scientists from

Environmental Consultants www.aandaenv.coni/

SoU, Groundwater & Air Studies ,Investigations Burlington -f St. Catharines -f Woodstock -f North Bay Kirkiand Lake ♦ Timmins -f Thunder Bay -f Winnipeg Dr. George Duncan, President (705) 567 4996 Fax:(705)568 8368

Canada, the U.S. and Mexico have

completed a three-year review of the current state of knowledge on airborne particles, a major component of smog in North America. The report provides a comprehensive overview of the situ ation across the continent, identifies


Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning 8f engineering


problem areas and provides guidance for effective action to reduce this health concern.

The report, Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers, was pro duced to provide science-based guid ance for governments and other agen cies working to reduce air pollution throughout North America. The study concludes with a summary of current knowledge for nine key regions in North America, including smog-prone areas such as Los Angeles, Mexico City, the U.S. East Coast, the lower Eraser Valley of Southern British Columbia, and the Windsor to Quebec City corridor. These descriptions pro vide a template for communicating science to air quality managers. The report was coordinated by a three-country agency of government, university and industry representa tives, known as "NARSTO" - the

North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone and Aerosols. Reducing airborne particles (also known as "particulate matter" or "PM") is a complex task, since they have a wide variety of sources, and can be formed under many different condi tions. Some particles, such as from forest fires, are natural in origin. However, most of the finer airborne particles, which are the greatest health concern, originate from the burning of fossil fuels in motor vehicles, homes and industry.




(705) 726-3371 (613) 966-4243 (705)445-3451





Cieallng QuaUty Solutions Togetiier

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited environment

engineering^N operations management


E-mail: toronto@rvanderson.com

Toronto: 416.497.8600


Fax: 416.497.0342








Bombay, India

Environmental Science & Engineering Introduce your new staff to the industry! ES&E reaches over 19,000 water, wastewater and environmental protection professionals across Canada.

Call us at:(905) 727-4666 for special rates


Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Collingwood Tel.(705)444-2565 EMail: info(Scctatham.com

Orlllla Tel.(705) 325-1753

Bracebridge Tel.(705) 645-7756 Web: www.cctatham.com

May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 73

Environmental NEWS Tourists in Scotland are fans of wind farms

Harnessing the wind for energy instead of using fossil fuels - has obvi ous benefits. But some people have been seriously concerned about mod

ern windmills spoiling the beauty of the landscape. However, according to a recent opinion poll, nine out of 10 tourists visiting some of Scotland's top beauty spots say the presence of wind farms makes no difference to the enjoyment


(SInfe 198S)


A wind farm producing eco-friendly electricity at a beauty spot in Argyll,


Scotland. Photo: Scottish Power.




PHONE t (418) 837-1444 |eel Deicheliet, Vice-president

PAX •(418) 837-7723

E-Mail I clomexOqc.airacom

Web lite t www.clamex.qc.c6




(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

Competent and Complete Services Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds,

of their holiday, and twice as many people would return to an area because of the presence of a wind farm than would stay away. Rob Forrest, Scottish Renewables Forum's chief executive, said: "Scotland has the potential to become the wind energy capital of Europe, for we have the best wind resources, and can use these resources to benefit the

economy, the environment and now tourism."

Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,


Municipal & Industrial Tel:(506)684-5821, Fax:(506)684-1915, Tel:(705) 235-5531, www.girouxinc.com

Toronto• Ottawa


London• Hamilton


Ontario drinking water testing labs to be licensed The Ontario government is proposing to make it mandatory that all laborato ries that test drinking water be licensed. (See ES&E's editorial com ment, November, 2002.)

Specializing in;

• Drainage Planning

• Water & Wasfewaler Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

133 Wynford Drive


• Environmental Impact

Toronto, Ontario M3C IKt



"Licensing of laboratories will ensure that there are strict standards in place for those who test Ontario's drinking

Corporate Office:

• Industrial Treatment

• Stormwater Management

• Environmental Planning


"This is a first for Ontario and a


Canada," Chris




water. In addition, laboratories will be V












EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPATprogram


107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108


GAP. EnviroMicrobial Services a division of Conestoga-Rovers & Associates

Drinking Water Contamination Source Detection

Indoor Air Quality Services

Cryptosporidium & Giardia Microscopic Particulate Analysis Disinfection Efficacy Testing

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario N6E 1P5 Telephone:(519)681 -0571 • Fax:(519)681 -7150 74 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2003

subject to random visits by Ministry of Environment inspectors for the first time in Ontario's history." The proposed Drinking Water Testing Services Regulation, along with Part VII of the Safe Drinking Water Act 2002, will require mandato ry licensing (with a five-year renewal) of ail private, municipal and provincial laboratories that test drinking water. It proposes conditions for subcontract ing, handling and labeling of samples, and protocols for accepting drinking water samples. It is proposed that the requirement for licensing will take effect October 1, 2003. The proposed regulation will only allow drinking water testing to be conducted at out-ofprovince labs that meet the equivalent requirements.

Environmental NEWS Licensing and inspection of labora tories were recommended by Com

endocrine disrupting chemicals in

missioner O'Connor in his Walkerton

• continue the development and sup port of stewardship tools, including a variety of best management practices, community actions, and other

inquiry report and mandated by the recently enacted Safe Drinking Water Act.

Canadian journalist wins first prize in international competition Douglas J. Alexander, a London-based Canadian journalist, was awarded first prize in the Third World Water Forum Journalists' Competition on March 17, 2003. The World Water Forum took

place in Kyoto, Japan, March 16-23. One of more than 200 contestants, Mr. Alexander won this prestigious award for his article "JustAdd Water", which appeared in the February 2002 issue of Geographical magazine, pub lished by the London-based Royal Geographical Society. He carried out research for this article in Egypt, as part of a Gemini Journalism Award granted by Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC). This award also enabled him to undertake an internship with

wastewaters and other sources;


resources to support sustainable land, aquatic and resource use practices; and • implement innovative approaches to make ecosystem data and information, including indicators, more accessible over the Internet.

Gartner Lee

Specialists in Ecological Sciences, Geosciences, Environmental Planning & Engineering For more information call 905.477.8400 or visit www.gartnerlee.com British Columbia | Alberta |Yukon | Northwest Territories | Ontario|Quebec

Geamat:rix Consultants Engineers, Geologists.and Environmental Scientists

• Design of Water/Wastewater/Air Treatment Systems • Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies • Environmental Management Systems(ISO 14000) > Utility Minimization Audits (Energy, Water, Wastes)• Remedial Designs/Remedial Actions •Phase l/ll Environmental Site Assessments • Soll/Groundwater

Contaminant Remediations• Litigation Assistance www.geomatrix.com

Tel:(519)886•7500 Fax:(519)886.7419

Unit G, 420 Weber St, North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 4E7

Experts In Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Gemini News Service in London in


1999. The feature focuses on Egypt's water problems and efforts to solve them through massive irrigation and privatization. Feds contribute

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clean air, clean water, habitat and

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Environmental NEWS

New drinking water management division

water management division in the Ministry of the Environment.

created within the MOE

responsibility for program and opera tional activities relating to the protec tion and provision of safe drinking

This new division will have lead

As another step in its commitment to implement all of the recommendations of the Walkerton Inquiry, the Ontario government has created a new drinking

water in Ontario.

An Assistant Deputy Minister, who

will also serve as the Chief Water

Inspector, will be head of this division. Both its creation, as well as the cre ation of a Chief Water Inspector,

respond to several recommendations included in the second report of the Walkerton Inquiry led by Commis sioner Dennis O'Connor.

The ministry will work over the

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"This is an important step for Canada," said Joshua Laughren, WWF-Canada's Director of Marine

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The World Wildlife Fund Canada sup ported the announcement, March 7, 2003, by the Honourable Robert Thibauit, Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, establishing Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents as the first Marine Protected Area(MPA) under Canada's Oceans Act.


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Environmental NEWS


Trucking company


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Vanroboys Trucking Ltd., Vanroboys Enterprises Limited, Steven Vanroboys and Michael McDonald have been

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McDonald took a double load of waste

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February 6, 2003, the defendants entered guilty pleas.

Legislation backs Alberta's plan to reduce



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May 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 77

Environmental NEWS

British Columbia pulp mill ordered to fund fish and wildlife projects Western Pulp Ltd. has been ordered to pay a total of$80,000 towards fish and wildlife projects on Vancouver Island

conducted two investigations in 2002. In February, the company was found to

after it released chlorine into the envi

ronment from its Port Alice mill; in July, investigators caught the company bypassing its treatment system in vio lation of its permit. Crown counsel asked that in lieu of a fine, the compa ny be required to contribute to the province's Habitat Conservation Trust Fund. The court ordered Western Pulp to contribute $50,000 for the chlorine

have released chlorine into the envi

ronment and bypassed the treatment system at its Port Alice pulp mill. Company officials pleaded guilty Jan. 8 in Port Hardy provincial court to two counts under the provincial Waste Management Act of introducing busi ness waste into the environment. Two

other similar charges were dismissed. Western Pulp was charged after the province's conservation officer service

release charge, and $30,000 for bypassing its treatment system.

Forestry industry

vigorously embarks on new policies The Forest Products Association of

Canada has outlined its agenda for industry renewal. Building on the strength of its new mandate, the forest industry will actively position itself as Canadian industry's natural leader in sustainability, innovation, competitive ness and public accountability. As the first trade association to

require third party forest certification as a condition for membership, FPAC is setting new standards for sustainable resource management in Canadian industry. Moreover, the association is recommending tax and regulatory reforms that will accelerate the adop tion of technologies enabling greater reductions in greenhouse gases, and other environmental benefits.

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In recognition of this achievement, the Globe Foundation, with partners in media, civil society and government, awarded FPAC and its 30 members its

Globe Industry Award for Environ mental Performance.

FPAC, however, is quick to add that this is only a beginning. Indeed, FPAC members are not only setting new stan dards for resource management, but also in the use of high technology recy cling applications. Already 54 percent of the energy used by the forest indus try is generated by the use of recycled biomass such as bark and woodchips. "Our member organizations have invested over 30 billion dollars into

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As more customers at home and

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