Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 2003

Page 1

March 2003

Environmental 4ft



Engineering Covering Canada's multi-billion dollar environmental protection industry since 1988


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ES&E celebrates 15 years of publishing Environmental milestones through the years Cleaning up brownfields in residential areas Upgrading Toronto's Lakeview WWTP Could Kyoto be an embryonic Godzilla When pharmaceuticals arrive at the tap Spring conference previews

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Contents ISSN-0835-605X

February/March 2003 Vol. 16 No.1

Issued March, 2003 ÂŁS&ÂŁ invites articles (approx. 1000 - 1500 words) on water, wastewater, hazardous waste treatment and other environmental

protection topics. If you are interested in submitting an article for consideration, please contact Steve Davey at steve@esemag.com. Please note that Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. reserves the right to edit


all submissions without notice.


Could Kyoto be an embryonic Godzilla - Editorial comment by Tom Davey 10

Environmental Milestones through the years


Spring conference previews


Cleaning up brownfields in residential areas


The facts behind BC's Zero AOX effluent regulation


When pharmaceuticals arrive at the tap


Treating pig farm wastes


Great Lakes clean-up progress disappoints IJC


Confused about Best Management Practice


performance? 40

Geosynthetics used to protect water reservoir dam

Ad Index



Button water pollution control plant underway




Upgrades increase capacity of Toronto's

Literature Reviews


Lakeview WWTP

Product Showcase



Canadian technology recycles waste gypsum

Environmental News



Sudbury reduces wastewater chlorine use by 32%




Research shows global air pollutants may offset

Professional Cards


each other 54 56

Culvert headwall system conquers site restraints Reprocessing plant can reduce landfill needs

4 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

Cover: This issue marks ES&E's 15th birthday! These are some of our favourite covers over

those years. Naval photo courtesy DND (1991).

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Could Kyoto be an embryonic Godzilla?

GlobalWarming is dominating

political agendas around the world with media coverage at saturation point, in inverse proportion to public and political understanding of the complex factors

America". Epidemiological conse quences of his observations were not available but there is evidence of how

deadly air pollution can be, much clos er to home.

( States' population is ten times

involved. I am not a newcomer to this debate. I first wrote about it in 1968

when Global Warming was regarded as a scientific abstraction, with public interest at the same level of public understanding as Double Jeopardy audiences. Indeed, "jeopardy" might be adjectivally appropriate for the possible self-immolation that Canada is doing to itself in the way it deals with the Kyoto Accord.

Report'68 —

that of Canada but its voracious

Air Pollution I

appetite for fossil fuels is

I unmatched on a per capita basis »« heodlnj f„,,

The ultimate synthesis?

* working on global warming emis sions, some of which may be effective yet fall outside the com plex Kyoto protocols. After all, this is a country which still has a solar powered car parked on the moon, and California, for exam ple, led the world with its stringent air pollution legislation for auto

hy Tom Oevey



Aimtepi^je ca,b,y


On an encouraging note, the really serious "hole" in the Ozone Layer is said to have shrunk by as much as 50 percent following the banning of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a remarkable turnaround

- , "Kt". Thn rioulinx Kd

—-,»v VI ujrfta tuvt

which used fossil ftiels and elec

'Ingl)' htock oui th<


trical energy lavishly. Both Germany and Japan had already industrialized at an amazing

pace, transforming economies which had been decimated by World War II, into highly sophisticated economies in some two decades.

In 1968, I wondered, in print, what would happen when large countries such as India and China inevitably industrialized. Now reality has set in. China now has about 1.2 billion people and a visit to shopping malls every where demonstrates that China is an

industrial superpower with an accom panying rise in various global warming emissions and serious air pollution. An engineer, who is a frequent visitor to China, recently described the air pollu tion in its major cities as "vastly exceeding anything we see in North

By Tom Davey, Editor

many others, the US is disin

I has formidable research forces

Editorial Comment

lion and India about 600 million.

Both were, then, undeniably Third World countries lacking the vora cious energy appetites of North America, where virtually every household had automobiles, along with a variety of appliances, all of

I anywhere. Like India, China and clined to sign Kyoto but the US

At the time I first wrote about

the Global Warming issue, China had a population of some 800 mil

India now has a population exceed ing one billion people who possess highly sophisticated technologies and a rapidly growing economy. The United States, of course, is unrivaled as the most powerful industrial com plex in the world. The United

from a definite threat to human

London reported 12,000 official deaths from the Great Smog over five decades ago. The actual death rate would have been higher had not the British Government, rather deviously, shortened the mortality reporting peri od by releasing some highly manipula tive data. The Great Smog demonstrat ed that mortality from various air pol lutants can be just as devastating as water-borne sicknesses but not as easy either to itemize or localize.

The figures in my 1968 article pos

health, including skin cancers and other diseases. But even the CFC ban

was difficult to police and a thriving black market emerged following the ban on the manufacture of harmful CFCs.

Undeniably, the serious conse

quences ofthe Ozone Hole prompted a rapid, and effective, international response with the introduction of new chlorofluorocarbon substitutes.

It is often forgotten that massive livestock operations are significant

tulated massive increases in human

producers of methane, as well as mil

populations, all of which require

lions of toimes of manure which pose

forests to be felled, ore to be mined,

serious threats to both surface and

fuel to be burned and massive increas

underground water supplies. Have these major, and quite complex, envi ronmental impacts been computed into the Kyoto protocols? Chernobyl, for example, is outside the Kyoto proto cols but its protective concrete sar cophagus (poured from helicopters by incredibly brave men hovering over a nuclear inferno) remains a threat to the European continent.

es in livestock production, as well as an exponential rise in smokestack industries - all major contributors to Global Warming. The predictions, unfortunately, were realized. China has since industrialized at a fantastic rate

while its population dwarfs that of Canada, which, ironically, has a larger land mass than China.

March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 7

Environmental Science

& Engineering

Essay emissions accounting on a global

Junk Yard Wars? Editor & Publisher


E-mail: tom@esemag.com

In global terms, our CO2 emissions rank on the same feeble scale as our

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director


E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail; carci@esemag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Stantec Consulting Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited

military capabilities. This is not a reflection on our military personnel who have always served with distinc tion on land, sea and in the air. Our military equipment is quite another story, some of which requires the same ingenuity displayed in Junk Yard Wars, simply to keep going. Yet our Federal Government has

committed to Kyoto protocols despite the fact that most Canadian provinces oppose Kyoto. Amazingly, it appears the Federal Government can sign Kyoto with an Order in Council. We have signed the first phase of what could have devastating repercussions on the Canadian economy with insignificant effects on Global Warming. This is what I feel is really absurd - a serious potential for eco

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

nomic disaster with fractional reduc

Earth Tech Canada inc.

tions in Global Warming. Supporting Kyoto I am not a heretic regarding any realistic moves leading to a reduction of CO2 emissions. In fact, I totally sup port the ideals of Kyoto. It is the modus operandi of implementation that I find disturbing. We have gotten into a fiscal quagmire of emissions trading and other complexities, literal ly bartering Canada's future by ventur ing into the unknown territory, retard ing our industrial development while paying off the environmental malfea

Dr. Robert C. Landine

ADi Systems inc. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Stanley Mason, P.Eng. Marie Meunier

John H/ieunier inc. / USFiiter

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Environmental Science &

Engineering Publications inc. An ail Canadian pubiicabon, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot be respon sible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter.

Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide informa tion rather than give legal or other professional advice.

Some of the economic theories emerg ing from the mists, are redolent of ret ribution rather than trading. Emissions trading will involve a vast and complex array of scientific variables including international law, forestry, oceanogra phy, limnology, climatology, and geol ogy, to name but a few. This incestuous inbreeding of such learned but diverse disciplines is a global voyage into the unknown with out maps or compasses. It is true that Columbus set out without proper maps, or even knowledge of longitude. While his heroic voyages are justly celebrated, it should be noted he actu

ally set out for India, never got there and in three voyages, he never set foot on North American soil.

Viking ships, however, had landed in both Greenland and Newfoundland,

being able to cross the Atlantic in open boats and form settlements simply because the climate was warmer then -

hence the name Greenland. In short, the Planet Earth is no stranger to Global Warming or Global Cooling. Where will our uncharted voyage to

Kyoto lead us? Who will be the arbiter of the complex Kyoto findings? Who can compel the Americans to comply should they decide to stay out? No one, that's who!

Implementation and policing of Kyoto is analogous to crap shooting with a pair of Rubic's Cubes as dice and a panel of croupiers all speaking different languages as they fathom the results! Who will compute and imple

I think it was Goya who said: "The sleep of reason breeds monsters." Kyoto could well turn out to be an environmental Godzilla, also an unlikely scenario, set in Japan. Godzilla was big, powerful, brainless, clumsy, damaging, potentially fright ening but ultimately and laughably unconvincing. The Kyoto Accord, also born in Japan, is a most noble ideal.

ment the results? Who is trained in

The Devil is in the details.

sance of other countries.

We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward

Planetary-scale Weather Systems Cause Smaller Ozone Hole

our editorial costs. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mail

scale? Who will enforce the decisions?

Although the msitiBPA

September 23,1999

September 23, 2002

ozone hole is

Product Agreement No.40065446


Registration No.7750

scientists are

Printed in Canada. No part of this pub lication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year , (plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for

warning that a single year's unusual pattern

one year.

does not make

Ail advertising space orders, copy, art work,film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel:(905)7274666, Fax;(905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.

a long term


8 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

Typical Ozone Hole

2002 Ozone Hole

Large ozone losses

Smaller Losses

Cold temperatures Circular around the pole

Warm temperatures Distorted and splitting





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from 1893, 1983, 2003

The year 2003 is indeed a mile

stone year. It marks Environ mental Science & Engineering Magazine's 15th birthday and 110 years of environmental journalism

in Canada. It also marks the 20th

anniversary of a historical research project I did to commemorate Water & Pollution Control Magazine's(W&PC) 90th birthday in 1983. W&PC's origins began in 1893, when The Canadian Engineer was launched as a magazine serving pro fessional engineers. The publication had several name changes over its lifespan. But even in its early days, the publication, first as a monthly and later as a weekly, had a profound interest in enviroiunental engineering. Some of the early environmental engineering giants were featured in the magazine or contributed to it.

The magazine published news on such engineering greats as Samuel and Thomas Keefer. Their biographies are well-recorded and it is worthy of note

Toronto's John Street pumping station, 1875. The site is now occupied by the SkyDome following relocation of the station, pumps and appurtenances designed by R.V Anderson Associates.

that Thomas Keefer was active in water

transportation engineering in the 1840s, railways in the 1850s, and then, in approximately 1853, was appointed chief engineer of the Montreal

fessional card in the publication. Thomas Coltrin Keefer was keenly aware of the need for engineering edu

sulting engineers. The magazine also carried articles

cation in Canada. He was instrumental

Waterworks with the task of construct

in introducing civil engineering at McGill University and became its first professor of engineering, in 1856, some 11 years before Confederation. He was a founding member and first president of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. This remarkable gen tleman died in 1915, in his 94th year. Appropriately a pumping station he designed in 1859 in Hamilton, Ontario, was designated a National Historical Monument on June 11, 1983, by the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering. Keefer's engineering masterpiece is kept in mint condition by the Hamilton Museum of Steam & Technology. Typical ofengineers ofthe day, both Keefers changed positions from employee to employer and accom plished much of their engineering work as employees. Many of these engineering works would have been carried out after approximately 1920, in whole or in part, by qualified con

what was almost certainly Canada's first significant consulting engineering company. By then, he had completed both waterworks and sewage treatment projects in 56 cities, from Halifax, N.S. to Victoria, B.C. Some of Chipman's published articles in the magazine covered such topics as London's Sewage System, Oakville Waterworks Auxiliary, and the Ontario Waterworks System. His pioneering work in environmental engineering is matched only by the devotion he gave to professional engineering associa tions. Willis Chipman undertook water and sewage projects across Canada

ing a public water supply for the city. The project was so well-executed that his services were soon at a premium for similar installations elsewhere in

the country. For some 25 years, Thomas Keefer was involved, often in a consulting capacity and sometimes as an employ ee, on waterworks projects for the cities of Toronto, St. Catharines, Hamilton, Quebec City, Ottawa, London, Halifax and Dartmouth. In 1872, he became chief engineer of the Ottawa Waterworks. Some Keefer

projects are mentioned in The Canadian Engineer, and he ran a proBy Steve Davey, Environmental Science &

Engineering Magazine

10 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

by Willis Chipman, the founder of

until he died; however, his firm did not survive its founders. But by then, other young consulting companies, sueh as E.A. James and Gore, Nasmith and Storrie, had begun to make their mark in Canadian history. E.A. James began in 1912 and, although it has had sever al name changes over the years, it remained a viable and expanding comcontinued overleaf...

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and recently became part of Earth Tech

the old type of direct acting engine."

influence. It is common for writers to use

The article also described Heine

cathedrals and other architecturally advanced buildings as the mark of a great civilization. However, it was the sewers, waterworks and

safety boilers, which supplied steam to the Worthington pumps. In my opinion, if the world suffered a cataclysmic event, which wiped out


most of what mankind has learned and

schemes of the early pioneers that did much to rid the country of typhoid, paratyphoid and even cholera, which were frequent

built, reconstruction might be simpli fied if the survivors unearthed copies of The Canadian Engineer. Since the magazine covered all the engineering disciplines for decades after it was launched in 1893, the early issues con


tain a wealth of information.




households, with a dra matic effect on infant mortalities.

The North Toronto Wastewater Treatment Plant under construction in 1934.



September 1893 issue, E.R. Boulter, a survey or, is quoted as saying: "The cleansing of house drains is a matter

requiring the serious Canada Inc.

Gore, Nasmith & Storrie began a

attention of civil authorities." He

unbroken line, practising for years as

advised them to visit all occupied dwellings on each line of the sewer with all the necessary implements and

Gore & Storrie Limited, before becom

deodorants to clean the drains. This

ing part of CH2M HILL. In the earlier days, the magazine carried specifications and drawings of British battleships as well as technical

procedure was offered in response to complaints regarding odours from

little later and it, too, has served in an

articles on the coal-fired boilers of Montreal's waterworks. There were

reports of air pollution control devices even then, with advertisements urging readers to buy "the smoke eaters". Reports of the emerging interest in

sewer lines.

During the early years from 1893 to 1903, the magazine gave extensive coverage to openings and improve ments

of water

water, by fixing the plumbing so plen ty of air is discharged into the sewers along with the sewage, and by con structing the sewers in a way that the flow is rapid and that every inch of the drain has a thorough undulation of air through it. By doing so the process of bacterial sewage purification com-


1894 issue


the technical highlights of

early issues. In those days, articles on Willis Chipman, and later the dynamic young Dr. Berry, were regular features of the publication. These men played not only a tremendous role in the discipline of civil engineering, but they also were very active in developing the profes sional associations. Willis Chipman was a founding member of the Ontario Association of Land Surveyors, the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario and the Engineering Institute of Canada. Dr. Berry, too, although younger than Willis Chipman, was instrumental in the for


To review the early issues of the magazine is to get a new appreciation of the term "Civil Engineering" because it is most apparent that the works and projects of the civil engi neer had, in truth, a profound civilizing

bacteria remove the filth from the

sewage systems. An

ozone were also carried in some of the

mation of APEO.

In a 1900 issue, for example, stories ranging from one of Count Zeppelin's early airships, to a sketch of Sir Sandford Fleming, the Canadian who invented the concept of international time zones, were published, as the world moved into the 20th century. Always concerned with sanitation, the same issue ran an article on purify ing sewage by bacteria. In it, the author claimed that it is necessary "to help the





which had been recent





Montreal Waterworks.

"The most important feature of modern inter

est is the high duty attachment which was

introduced by the Worthington Company eight years ago and enables




steam in a direct acting The late Pat Bourgeois of Quebec (L) and EC's Stan Mason (R)in Vancouver. Pat earlier had handed over the Presidential Chair of engine at a high rate of Office of FACE, now the Canadian Water & Wastewater Association. expansion with any form of flywheel engine. The principle mences immediately after the sewage is regarded by engineers as being one enters the pipes." of the greatest advances in steam prac It seems that some of the issues tice since the time of Watt ... it has faced by society in the early 20th cen been widely introduced in this conti tury are still with us today. A 1901 nent and in Europe for all kinds of story outlines one problem engineers pumping machinery and has shown a would have if the metric system were savings of from 40 to 50 percent over continued overleaf...

12 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

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Engineers, warned that systems had to be developed in Canada to cope with sludge removal since dilution was no longer a practical or safe method. Another article was written by a Toronto Water Works inspector who had been assigned to investigate an excessive use of water. He had discov

The late Dr. Albert Edward Berry is wheeled by Geoff Scott, the second Canadian President of the Water Environment Federation.

adopted. The author wrote that with the Imperial system of measurement, it was easy to compute the number of bricks a new building would require since bricks were three-quarters of a foot by one-quarter of a foot. If the same calculation was done in metric, the author claimed, it would be far too complicated.

The same year, an article by R.S. Lea, of the Canadian Society of Civil

ered, along with numerous major and minor leaks, that many people were filling up private ponds with city water and some industries were filling up their holding ponds from hydrants. In 1905,Toronto City Engineer R.H. Rust wrote an article in the magazine on using garbage for power. In 1907, Dr.

and was suited for handling the solids common to sewage treatment plants and lift stations. Mr. Denis Papin is credited with designing the first cen trifugal pump about 1703. Always involved with the industry it served, the magazine noted in 1905 that E.A. James had been appointed resident engineer for the Cold Water Section of the Toronto-Sudbury branch of the C.P.R. In 1909, when he was the town engineer for North Toronto, Mr. James wrote an article for the publica tion describing North Toronto's water supply and hypochlorite treatment. Dr. George G. Nasmith, Director of

WR Mason outlined the causes and


effects of acidic water on plumbing

Department of Toronto, and a founder of another consulting company. Gore & Storrie Limited, contributed an arti cle on the chemical principles involved in sewage disposal. He wrote: "It may now be accepted as a fact that chemi cal action is the basis of every action of sewage disposal. That this is true, the sanitary engineer has been slow to recognize, and he has struggled along for years endeavouring of empirical experiments to improve existing meth-

and the public. By 1904, electricity began to dis place steam as the main power source. The same year it was announced that

the General Electric Company had developed a direct drive electric pump which eliminated the need for belts

and gears. Additionally, technical details appeared on the Worthington Centrifugal Pump which was said to be more efficient than previous designs





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Mr. Lywood earned a B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering from Queens Universtiy in Kingston, ON and a M.B.A. from McMaster University, in Hamilton, ON. Micheai can be reached at our St. Catharines office at 905-641 -0941 ext. 245 or by email at miywood@asi-group.com. PO Box 2205,250 Martindale Road, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2R 7RB Tel 905-641-0941 Fax 905-641-1825

www.asi-group.com For more Information, circle reply card No. 161 (See page 25)

ods of sewage disposal without having any sound basis for his experiment."

In 1906, he commented on the lack

While the magazine reported and presented opinions, it also devoted a lot of space to construction announce ments, research findings and reviews. In 1905, a practical article appeared on thawing pipes using electricity, while another piece described the Gloucester sewage disposal works. An ongoing feature of each issue was a section entitled "Municipal works etc." This department gave short announce ments of new projects along with the amount of money involved and in some cases, the engineer who pro posed it. In 1905, the section announced a $125,000 water works system for Saskatoon, along with a $10,000 water works system for Aurora, Ontario, where ironically ES&E Magazine was launched eight

of proper sterilization in the Toronto Water Works System. "Now that Toronto is to have electrical energy at a reasonable price, there is no reason why one of these ozone sterilization plants should not form part of the city's water works system. It is worthwhile for the Mayor and the corporation to

decades later. In 1907, it announced that Willis Chipman had submitted a proposal for a water works and electri cal system for Estevan, Saskatchewan, at a cost of $67,000. The magazine also announced in 1906 that Miss Nora Stanton Blatch, was elected for membership to the

look into this matter," he said.

American Society of Civil Engineers.

The editorial staff of The Canadian

Engineer often took an active role in the industry it serviced. An editorial in 1905 by the editor, Samuel Groves, commented on air pollution regula tions.

"Municipalities everywhere are beginning to enforce regulations with regards to the smoke nuisance: and rightly so too, for the evidence is over whelming that the emissions of black smoke from boiler chimneys can be prevented without financial loss". Mr. Groves described the Meldrum

furnace which reduced emissions by forcing superheated steam under the airtight ashpits of the boiler.

She was believed to be the first woman

engineer. The headline on that particu lar announcement read: "One more

masculine stronghold invaded". Beginning in 1909, the magazine ran a section called the "Sanitary Review", which dealt with sewage and sewage disposal, water supply and purification. In 1912, an article in this section described a device developed by Electra Clear Water Co. of Cleveland, which purified water by passing it between electrified alu minum plates and then filtered it through crushed quartz. That year Willis Chipman wrote an article on "Progress in Canada in Biological Methods of Sewage Disposal During The Last 20 Years".

While typhoid epidemics today are almost unheard of, thousands of Canadians died of the disease until dis

infection of drinking and waste water became widespread. In February 1912, the magazine reported on a Federal Bill before the Senate, which would make it a criminal offence to deposit

any wastes from typhoid fever victims continued overleaf...

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March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 15

into or near waterways. In 1913, the magazine began to fol low the development of what was to become known as the activated sludge process. That year Professor Gilbert J. Fowler announced the results of exper iments




only 293 feet. This translates into a drop of 0.57 feet per thousand feet of pipe, which meant the aqueduct had to be constructed with extreme accuracy in order to ensure that the elevation

This increase, as well as an increased standard of living and a corresponding growth of industry, was causing water supply costs to rise. In 1927, an


Sewage Works in England. Iron salts were added to sewage inoculated with an organism found in old colliery workings and air was blown through, which produced "limpid sparkling and non-putrafactive effluent". In

gaining momentum in Canada. According to a 1919 article in the magazine, 20 percent of the population lived in cities in 1840. By 1919, this percentage had risen to 33 percent.

armouncement told that the Greater

Wirmipeg Water District wished to raise its rates from three to five cents

per thousand gallons, a 66 percent

1914, Messrs. Ardern and


Lockett reported that a process they had developed, produced "an entirely satisfactory effluent after a few hours'

In the early 1920s, the young Dr. Albert Edward Berry started to gain prominence in environmental circles. In 1928, an article by him on the value of waterworks laboratory tests was published in the magazine. In it he warned that "the operator can only be sure of the safety ofthe water his plant treats by doing sufficient laboratory

aeration". This became known as the

activated sludge process and is proba bly still the most important develop ment in sewage treatment. Messrs. Ardern and Lockett had a

large bottle full of sewage, through which air was blown for about five

tests." He added that "the more tests

weeks, resulting in the complete nitri fication of the sewage. The super

employed, the greater should be the assurance of the quality." A 1929 edi torial tragically emphasized Dr. Berry's message regarding the respon sibility for pure water after a Kingswell, Ontario, man successfully sued the municipality for the death of his wife from typhoid. Dr. Berry submitted articles to the magazine on a regular basis, ranging from sewage disposal in Canada to vegetable growth in water supplies. In 1940, the magazine, which had just changed its name to Water & Sewage, asked "who is the most widely known

natant water was decanted and an

equal amount of fresh sewage was added and air blown in, resulting in nitrification in much less time. The

The late Sid Dutton, when head of Proctor &

Redern's Wastewater Department, with George Crawford, then President of Gore & Storrie Ltd.

procedure was repeated many times, until there was enough activated sludge to inoculate fresh sewage in the proportion of one to four, or one to three, and an entirely satisfactory effluent was obtained after a few

hours' aeration. The experiment was then made in casks placed outside and air was distributed through porous tiles, and, after four hours blowing in contact with activated sludge, 90 per cent purification was effected, based on oxygen consumption and albumenoid ammonia or, after six hours, 92 percent, whilst the dissolved oxy gen absorbed by shaken effluent in five days at 65 degrees Fahr. was only 0.80 parts per 100,000 compared with two parts proposed under the British Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal report. It was during this time period that work began on the $13 million Winnipeg Aqueduct which was designed to carry 80 million gallons per day of water from Shoal Lake to the Winnipeg area, a distance of over 95 miles. The magazine gave regular coverage of the construction and of the problems encountered.

waterworks man?" It then stated: "The

answer is easy; Dr. Albert Edward Berry, Chief Engineer of the Ontario Department of Health, wins in a walk. Secretary of the Canadian section AWWA; founder and secretary of the Canadian Institute on Sewage and Dr. Kenneth Hare enjoyed an international repu tation in climate change. He ivas the first Director of the U of T's institute for Environ mental Studies.

drop was as near to the average as pos

and sewage treatment plants in

sible at all times. Saint Boniface was

Ontario; with full control of 750 milk pasteurizing plants in Ontario; head of a provincial research laboratory with ten engineers and chemists; author of numerous engineering articles; wirmer

the first municipality supplied with water from the aqueduct on March 28, 1919.


In 1917, the magazine noted that Henderson, Kentucky, became one of the first cities to incorporate a pressure type ultraviolet sterilizer which had a 3 million gallon per day capacity in its water treatment plant. By the early

between Winnipeg and Shoal Lake is

twenties, a social-economic shift was




Sanitation; director of the American Waterworks Association; Chairman of the Toronto branch E.I.C.; and in supervisory charge of all waterworks

16 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

of the first Fuller Award for meritori

ous waterworks service - Dr. Berry's name is a synonym for knowledge and authority in sanitary engineering mat ters."

continued overleaf...

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WiUWfWnti One issue that arose during the mid 1940s was whether or not to add fluo

rine to drinking water as an aid in the prevention of dental caries. Water sup plies in certain areas of the West con tained too much fluorine and as a

need for sanitary landfill started to evolve. In 1949, the magazine pub

for their removal."

lished an editorial on a need for sani

Industrial Waste Conference began in

tary landfill.


What became known as the Ontario

An article by Dr. Berry in 1956 entitled, "Canadian Practice in Sewage Works" challenged the engi neering profession to meet the require

Water supply was also a

result many people ended up with mot tled teeth. Studies, however, showed

major concern for military

that, in low concentrations, fluorine

engineers during World War II

ments of a Canadian public that was fast becoming environmentally aware. "Canada is in the midst of a major pro gram of activity in the sewage field. There is an increasing interest in this country in the prevention of stream pollution and the maintenance of the country's greatest natural resources, its water supplies. It is the engineer's responsibility to design and construct suitable sewage systems." The magazine changed its name from Canadian Municipal Utilities to

was beneficial in reducing dental

who were responsible for


Water supply was also a major con cern for military engineers during World War II who were responsible for meeting the huge water requirements of their respective armed forces. The headline on one wartime feature by Major Peter W. Rainier, officer respon sible for water supply, was "Water for Monty's Men - the exciting story ofthe indispensable part played by water supply in the triumph of the British 8th Army in North Africa." Interestingly, the late Sid Dutton, former head of Proctor and Redfern's environmental

division, was an officer in the 8th

Army. In the late 1940s, early 1950s, issues such as industrial waste and the

meeting the huge water require ments of their respective armed forces.

"The disposal of refuse in landfills is gaining the increasing favour of the municipal engineers, many of whom are being pressed by the growing con sciousness of the taxpayers in the pub lic significance of refuge disposal. Open dumping, burning dumps and other assorted methods which give rise to nuisances from odours and smoke, provide harbourage and food for rats

Water & Pollution Control in the mid

1960s to focus entirely on environmen tal issues. This was well-timed as it

coincided with the surge of public con cern about environment matters almost

four decades ago. People, who had concerned them selves mainly with the Gross National

and insects and are a source of a num

ber of health hazards - the cry of the citizenry, newspapers and engineers is

Environmental Science & Engineering Unmatched industry involvement and recognition since 1988 1989 1991 1991 1991 1992

Sandra Davey inducted into 5-S Society at Water Environment Association of Ontario (WEAO) Conference. Steve Davey eiected President of Ontario Poiiution Control Equipment Association (OPCEA). Tom Davey inducted into 5-S Society. Tom Davey awarded Environment Canada's Certificate of Honour. Tom Davey presented with Environment Canada's top award for Communications Achievement. (Previous winner was David Suzuki).


Tom Davey addresses OPCEA AGM Tom Davey wins American Water Works Association Award of Merit presented in London, Ontario and New


Penny Davey re-elected as Director of OPCEA.




ES&E wins award from American Water Works Association.


Tom Davey wins a 'Top Five' K.R. Wiison Award from the


Tom Davey - Keynote Speaker, 6th National Drinking Water Conference in Victoria, B.C. Steve Davey becomes youngest President of WEAO. Penny Davey becomes first woman President of OPCEA. Tom Davey, wins The Harvey Southam Award, premier

Tom Davey (left) with Federal

honour of Canadian Business Press and Tom's sixth CBP award.

Environment li/llnlster Luclen

1996 1997

Tom Davey, lectures at Trent University and University of Toronto. Steve Davey, appointed as a Director of the Water Environment

Bouchard in 1991.

1998 1998 2000

Steve Davey inducted into 5S Society. Tom Davey addresses Ontario Consulting Engineers annuai banquet. Tom Davey gives keynote address at the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering's Millennium Conference, London. Penny Davey elected for second term as director of Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association (OPCEA). Steve Davey wins the Bedeii Award from WEF, Steve Davey receives WEF Service Award.

Canadian Business Press.

1995 1995 1996

Sandra Davey with George Powell, CH2M HILL Canada Ltd., circa 1990.


2000 2000 2001

18 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

Penny Davey



Director Bill GIrard In 1995.

Steve Davey (left) with WEF PrsldentJoe Stowe In 2000.

Product and their ever-increasing liv ing standards, suddenly realized that much of the material progress which they enjoyed had been made at the expense of the environment. A tremen dous change took place in public atti tudes and W&PC was present at the birth of Pollution Probe during a mock

example, an editorial by Editor Tom Davey, in 1968, warned about global warming. Topics such as eutrophication, heavy metals, acid rain, and the mutagenic

funeral, called "Death of the Don

published in W&PC.The magazine also became a vigorous forum of debate on many con

River". But the new awareness caused

problems for the engineering fraterni ty. Engineering proposals, which earli er had been routinely rubber stamped by governments at all levels, now faced a barrage of questions by concerned and often irate citizens' groups before any of the projects could be imple mented. Many worthwhile projects were abandoned or delayed by this new sociological phenomenon. A larger, sometimes planetary viewpoint emerged as society realized that there were few pollution problems which operated in isolation from the rest of the ecosystems. W&PC responded to the new challenge with articles, which were written on a much

broader philosophical plane.


effects of chemicals were

tentious issues. Southam sold W&PC

to another company in the late 1980s; it was sold again shortly after ward.


Norway's Madam Brundtland, Prime Minister Brian Muironey and the Environment Minister Tom McMillan at an international confer

1988, Tom and

ence on global warming in Toronto.

Steve Davey launched Environmental Science & Engine ering Magazine. The first issue, a mere 40 pages, with 9,000 copies printed, rolled off

the presses in February 1988. The very first editorial was titled: "Why low-bid systems are bad for the Canadian envi ronment", a theme which touched a nerve in both the consulting and sup-

pliers' fraternities. The first issue also carried an article by Federal Environment Minister Tom McMillan, which echoed the magazine's stance on under-priced drinking water. He argued that price drove consumption. When water was undervalued, it would be wasted, leading to environmental continued overleaf...

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March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 19

neglect and pollution, the minister stat ed. The first issue also carried an arti

cle by Ontario Environment Minister Jim Bradley as he launched the Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) program. The objective was the virtual elimination of persistent toxic substances entering the environment. It called for strict moni

toring and testing programs and resulted in a surge of spending in the environmental industry. Unfortunately, government emphasis on the MISA program was short-lived. Many analyt ical laboratories, which had geared up for the anticipated demand for their services, went out of business or aban

million in studies, the OWMC was abandoned, without ever treating as much as a handful of waste.

In the late 1980s, ES&E carried

articles on using PCB contaminated wastes as fuel for cement kilns. The

articles stressed that the rotary kilns were a good idea because they could harness the thermal properties of the wastes while making cement; that the PCBs had a long residence time in the flame, leading to almost total destruc

tion; and that there was a saving in valuable fuel used in conventional

incineration. However, public opinion was against the use of PCB wastes as fuel and this option was abandoned. Much of Canada's PCB wastes ulti

doned the environmental market.

mately were directed to the United

One key component of the Ontario government's plan to deal with toxic


substances such as PCBs was the cre ation





Management Corporation in the early 1980s. However, OWMC became end

lessly stymied, with public opposition to the use and location of its waste

incineration facility and disposal site. Ultimately, after spending some $120

Leak detection from underground storage tanks also became an impor tant issue in the late 1980s. In the July 1991 issue of ES&E, an article by Richard Rush and Keith Metzer, of XCG Consultants, reported that there were approximately 70,000 retail gaso line storage tanks in Canada. Studies had shown that 20-25% of these were found to be or

were suspected to be leaking. "The

Knowledge Based

Solutions For the Environment

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Stormceptor designed and have sold stormwater separation equipment throughout Canada and many other countries around the world.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the out of sight, out of mind attitude towards water mains and sewer lines

resulted in gross neglect of cleaning, repairing and replacing this infrastruc ture. Unfortunately, it took the tragedy of Walkerton in 2001, where eight died and some 2000 people were made seri ously ill, to re-focus government atten

released The Walkerton Report, which

Canadian Federal

made some 93 recommendations.





In the January 2003 issue ofES&E, Vince Nazareth of R.V. Anderson

Associates Ltd. stated that "although

new and improved

most of the 93 recommendations relate

treatment process

to the treatment and distribution of





developed at an astonishing rate. Ozone, probably first



Quebec, is now used in drinking water plants in Ontario and other

parts of Canada. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection


increasingly used in both drinking 20


tude as the annual

nology for both drinking water

Ontario (519) 579-4410

oil contamination from stormwater

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to develop opportunities international ly grew". He went on to say that "international design/build/own/operate/transfer, BOOT projects as they are often called, are becoming the norm". Non-point pollution sources such as


In the 1990s,

In Canada call

10,000 in 1995 to react to the slow down in the domestic market, the need

dollars - the same

the authors.

offices across North America

The 1990s brought great change to Canada's consulting engineers. In the November 1995 issue of ES&E, George Powell, of CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited, stated that"as the con sulting industry in Ontario downsized from about 13,000 in 1990 to under

order of magni



water and wastewater treatment.

drinking water in Ontario, at least 40%

of the recommendations relate directly or indirectly to wastewater facilities and their operation." The issue of global warming, while first raised in 1968 (See page 7), again took centre stage in Canada, with the government in 2002 ratifying the Kyoto Accord. The cost/benefit debate surrounding this issue will no doubt rage for years. ES&E will continue to provide a vigorous forum where issues affecting Canada's environmental protection and drinking water industries can be debat ed and where new technologies and policies can be introduced to readers. See you in 2023. ■












John Mevnier/i/S^arcr The ACTIFLO® process achieves exceptional results in liquid-solids separation. The process uses a continuously recycled microsand to dramatically increase the settling properties of suspended solids and associated contaminants. The system's very small footprint makes it an ideal solution where space is limited. With more than 50 ACTIFLO® installations in Canada, John Meunier is a leader in the water and wastewater treatment industry. Full line of package plants also available.

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2003 Water Environment

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22 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003


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Conference Prevl^ 1

^ Pentiction to host

i BCWWA's 31'Annual

April 24-26, 2003. 2nd Canadian Organic Residuals Recycling Conference, Penticton, British Columbia. Co-sponsored by the Canadian Water & Wastewater Association, BC Water and Waste Association, Water

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June 11-12,2003. 7th Canadian Pollution Prevention Roundtable, Calgary, Alberta. Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention (C2P2) Tel: (519) 337-i 3425, 1-800-667-9790 in North America, Fax: (519) 667-9790, E-mail; sue@c2p2online.com.

April 27 - 30,2003,Penticton, BC

The British Columbia Water and Waste





conference will feature more

than 125 manufacturer, suppli er and consultant exhibits, up to 75 technical papers, a separate day of technical transfer sessions, the opera tors safety competition and a partners'



Highlights of the technical program include: • Municipal operations and management • Biosolids treatment

• Water supply and treatment • Organic residuals recycling • Wastewater collection and treatment • Cross connection control

• Analytical lab practices • Industrial waste treatment

• Emerging technologies • Small water and wastewater systems Technology transfer sessions will cover:

• Water system risk assessments re quired for the New Drinking Water Protection Act.

• On-site sewage systems manage ment toolkit and stormwater planning guidebook. Technical & Social Tours

• Penticton's Water Filtration Plant, followed by Wine Tour. • Penticton's Advanced Wastewater

Treatment Plant, followed by Com posting Site and Wine Tour. • Kettle Valley Railroad Tour and Barbecue, a 90 minute train ride to Summerland on the historic locomo

tive followed by a barbecue in scenic surroundings. For further details contact British

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Coi^Krwice Prevtew

OWWA/OMWA Joint Annual Conference New rules,new roles n


May 4-6,2003,Hamilton,Ontario

The past year has seen great

changes in the drinking water industry. Implementation of

the O'Connor recommenda

tions has brought new acts and regula tions that govern our industry. The Ontario Water Works Association and

the Ontario Municipal Water Association were given the opportuni ty to play a major role in the develop ment of these government initiatives. This conference will provide cur




Ministry staff


of the

the Safe

Drinking Water Act, Operator Training and Certification, Bill 175 (Full-Cost Recovery) and Source Water Protection, including Bill 81 (Nutrient Management Act). Minister of the asked to make the keynote address. Topics being addressed at the

• Effect of vertical seismic excitation

conference include:

• The City ofToronto-New Water and Wastewater Governance Model.

• Opportunity Bonds for Municipal Financing - Water Infrastructure. • Statutory Standard of Care: Impact

water source.

on conical tanks and development of an equivalent mechanical model. • Assessing the risk of Cryptosporidium passage through conventional drinking water treatment systems. Implementation of Primary UV

on Water Authorities and Councillors.

Disinfection at the Mannheim WTP.

• Assessment of an integrated bioreactor membrane system at low TOC

• Recycling water treatment process residuals: assessing risks and a regula tor's appeal process. For further information, contact the Ontario Water Works Association, Tel: (416) 252-7060, Fax: (416) 252-3908, E-mail: owwa@idirect.com, Web site:

been made with the Ministry of the Environment to provide CEUs to those who attend the product demonstra

• Integrating membrane treated filter


backwash water into conventional


mation with chlorine dioxide pretreatment.

Environment Chris Stockwell has been

rent information on the new "rules"


• Chlorite removal and bromate for

• The significance of biological activ ity on NDMA formation in wastewater treated for reuse as an indirect potable

that must be adhered to, as well as the changing "roles" of organizations with in the water industry. CEUs are avail able for the educational sessions, and this year, special arrangements have


• Modelling pathogenic contamination in a drinking water source.



plants: A bench-scale evaluation - UV

Session, will focus on the New Rules

inactivation of floc-associated MS-2

our industry faces, and includes pre



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March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 25

Conference Preview

The 11th Annual Environmental Management, Compliance and Engineering Conference Held in conjunction with the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow, May 14 & 15,2003,at the Toronto Congress Centre

For over a decade, Environmen

tal Science & Engineering Magazine has co-organized the annual Environmental Man

agement, Compliance & Engineering Conference, which is held in conjunc tion with the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow. This event is now the

largest event of its kind for Canadian environmental managers, plant person nel, policy-makers, engineers, lawyers and consultants with responsibilities for environmental affairs.

Last year, the courses attracted over 400 registrants and speakers who par ticipated in one of the most targeted and practical environmental due dili gence training opportunities ever. Environmental training is a necessi ty for any organization committed to maintaining industry standards. Such training has been identified as an essential component of the ISO 14001 guidelines for environmental manage ment. The courts continue to look for a

commitment to environmental training as an essential test of a company's "due diligence." Tragedies such as Walkerton only further reinforce how important it is for all managers and supervisors to be mindful of their envi ronmental responsibilities.

Over 40 top-notch presenters repre senting Canada's leading-edge envi ronmental trainers, lawyers, consult ants, managers, administrators, and health & safety practitioners are sched uled to participate in Environmental Management, Compliance and Eng ineering 2003. Because of this wealth of experi ence, many companies have made it an annual practice to send employees to secure environmental "due diligence" training.

ciples & Best Practices. • Dealing with Industrial Water & Wastewater.

• Environment Health & Safety Due Diligence for Managers & Supervisors • Anatomy of a Prosecution: Learning from a Mock Trial.

• Dealing with Industrial Air Emissions. • Dealing with Industrial Contami nated Land.

• Dealing with Spills and Environ

program give ample opportunity for group participation involving senior management, plant and process man agers, environmental audit teams, supervisors and health and safety com

mental Emergencies. For further information please con tact Environmental Science & Eng ineering Magazine, 220 Industrial Pkwy South, Unit #30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905) 727-4666. 1-888-254-8769 Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-mail: steve@esemag.com,

mittee members.


The breadth and relevance of the

Workshop participants also receive valuable educational materials such as


background papers, regulatory materi als, books, and more. Several courses last year offered free 500-page compli ance manuals to all registrants. 'Workshop topics include: • Environmental Regulation & Com pliance. • Dealing with Kyoto: Building a GHG Management System. • Environmental Management: Prin


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However, I and others argue that

RE: "Ontario Engineers Support Kyoto Accord" (ES&E Magazine, November 2002). I commend the Ontario Society of

Professional Engineers for supporting the Kyoto Accord. However, the com ment that engineers were the original environmentalists is inaccurate.




(persons concerned with protection of the environment) were those that applied scientific principles to the study of nature and discovered the existence of natural systems and described the factors that affect the

structure and function of these sys tems. The original environmentalists were biologists who sounded the alarm that human activities were affecting these systems and advocated for change. Some argue that the work of the biologist, Rachel Carson in the 1940s, 1950s and culminating in her book "Silent Spring" (1962) marked the beginning of modern environmentalism (advocacy for environmental pro tection).

modern environmentalism has its roots

Professional Engineers. 1 am very pleased with the success

in the works of early naturalists and

we have had on the SWDA and the

conservationists, such as John Muir (1838-1914) and the members that founded the Sierra Club in 1892, who

Sustainable Water and Sewage Systems Act. It reminds me ofsome of your writings about the demise of the professional in his/her influence on the laws of the land relating to environ ment.We have made the point to the government and to the judge that there are many cases in other Acts that require an engineer's signing off when public health and safety is involved why not for water/sewage works. Rambling here - did you know there is NO mention of Professional engineer

advocated for the establishment of

national parks in the U.S. to protect natural areas from development. Their advocacy was based in part on research by Charles Darwin (18091882), Thomas Huxley (1825-1895), Joseph Hooker (1817-1911), and a growing number of other biologists in the late nineteenth century, whose works began to piece together the interrelationships of biological sys tems, and raise the idea of human

influences on natural systems. It wasn't until after the alarm was

sounded that engineers got involved to find solutions.

Don McCabe,P. Biol. Calgary,Alberta Tom

in the OWR Act or the OWP Act!

Also pleased to see the 10,000 members in our society - must be doing things right. Keep up your good work AND your health. Always looking forward to reading ES&E. Robert Goodings, P.Eng. ES&E welcomes comments and

Re: New Issue of The Voice

suggestions from readers.

I am not sure you got this - yet - The Voice from the Ontario Society of

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March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 27

Site Remediation

A Brownfield clean-up in a residential neighbourhood By Robert Fedy,Peter Gray,Ruth Barnes and James Witmer

The Ralgreen Community is a

residential neighbourhood in Kitchener, Ontario. In the late 1940s, prior to residential development, the owner of the lands entered into an agreement with the City of Kitchener to fill in a pond to gain additional farmland. From 1948 1950, the pond was used as a munici pal waste disposal site. The site was then re-graded and put back into agri cultural production. In the late 1960s, the property was sold to a developer, who serviced it for development as the Ralgreen community, with semi detached homes and townhouses.

Evidence of environmental impacts from waste disposal activities arose shortly after construction activities began. In 1996, a number of residents of Ralgreen Crescent notified the City about concerns of excessive building settlement, seepage of liquids into basements and indoor odours. In 1997, the issues raised by the residents - and the $65-million lawsuit they filed against the City - received national media coverage as the focus of a CBC Fifth Estate episode. After a series of environmental

investigations, the City reached a mediated settlement in the lawsuit that

included an agreement to undertake an enviromnental restoration process in accordance with the Ministry of Environment's "Guideline for Use at

and the waste disposal limits. A hydrogeological assessment of the shallow groundwater system was undertaken to identify groundwater quality and movement. Homes in the area were also structurally assessed. Results for soil quality determined that several chemical compounds were present at levels above the MOE Table

Contaminated Sites in Ontario"(MOE 1997 Guideline). Under this agree ment, the City retained Frontline Enviromnental as a remediation spe cialist and purchased a total of 27 homes; most of the affected homes were situated immediately over the for mer pond. Frontline's work on the Ralgreen Restoration Program included: • Delineation of the former pond and

the waste matrix, including petroleum hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and polynuclear aro matic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A soil excavation and separation/disposal program was initiated to manage approximately 70,000 m^ of impacted



• Characterization of the types of

A Residential/Parkland Criteria within

Groundwater in the study area was



• Determination of soil and groundwater quality characteristics; and • Assessment of geological and hydrogeological environment in the study

ground surface and easterly flowing. Groundwater impacts included tetrachloroethene, petroleum hydrocarbons and PAHs. Impacted groundwater was managed during the soil excavation and replacement program. There was no evidence of affected groundwater migrating from the source area. With waste layers reaching depths of 7.9 metres below ground surface and extending beneath homes and roadway, beyond the confines of the original pond. Frontline recommended


Past studies were reviewed and

assessed for historical, geological and chemistry data. A drilling and soil sampling program was undertaken to delineate the limits of the former pond

within five

metres below

the demolition of 20 homes in order to clear the environmental work area for excavation and remediation. With site remediation activities

complete and a Record of Site Con dition submitted to the MOE, services have been re-installed for the new

dwelling units to be constructed and re-landscaped, thus revitalizing a com munity in the City of Kitchener.

Robert Fedy, F.Eng., Partner and Senior Engineer, Peter Gray, PGeo., Managing Partner and Senior Hydrogeologist, and Ruth Barnes, M.Sc., Environmental Geoscientist, are


Frontline Environmental

Management Inc. James Witmer, GET, CBCO, is ChiefBuilding Official, with the Corporation of the City of Kitchener.

28 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003


The 5th annual Ontario Environmental Tradeshow Held in conjunction with the 11th annual

Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering conference and workshops May 14-15, 2003 Toronto Congress Centre

Toronto, Ontario


Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine and Canadian Environmental Regulation & Compliance News Over 4,000 delegates ejcpected To maximize exhibitor value, the 2003 Ontario Environmental Tradeshow will be held adjacent to the aimual Toronto ISA tradeshow, also being held at the Toronto Congress Centre. Attendance at these two shows is expected to exceed 4,000. Tradeshow badges from either tradeshow will allow attendees to have admission to both shows at no extra charge.

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Denise Simpson denise@esemag.com

Guest Comment

The facts behind the"Zero AOX"goals In pulp and paper mills By Doug Christie,P. Eng., Process Engineer,Hornby Island, B.C.

Responding to the article "Pulp

Mill regulation threatened, says BC Law Association" published in the June 2002

issue of Environmental Science &

Engine-ering, I wrote complaining that it was a sad misrepresentation of the technology and the facts, and was pleased to be invited to respond. At issue is the "Zero AOX" regula tion, which was to have come into

effect in BC at the end of this year. It has been known for ten years that this goal was not possible, and would even tually have to be rescinded. Now that the inevitable is occurring, there is a chorus of complaint from environmen tal groups that the provincial govern ment - they stress Liberal government - is making a gift to industry. There has been no discussion of the feasibility or the desirability of achieving zero AOX; it is the process which is being attacked. The plain fact is that zero AOX in effluent is not possible. The only way in which a mill can meet this target is to shut down. The regulation was a political statement when it was put into place in 1992, knowing that 2003 was a long way off. The environment min ister of the day, whose expertise is in religion, admitted he had no idea how it would be accomplished, but he "had faith". This regulation was doomed the day it was proclaimed. What is AOX? Absorbable organic halides, in effect chlorinated organics

uble lignin, and reducing the X com ponent, oxidative chlorine compounds. Both of these have been done, with the result that AOX in BC mills now aver

government as only engineers and a chemist. My first thought on reading the panel report was to wonder who in the environmental groups was fit to make this judgement. My explicit request for the names and qualifications of their experts has gone unanswered.

ages 0.47 kg/t, a reduction of 93% in the last 15 years. Less than half of the remaining AOX is derived from the bleaching chemicals. The incentives to bring this about have been firstly process changes to eliminate TCDD and TCDF (tetrachloro dibenzyl dioxins and furans), and secondly the insistence of mainly the Alberta government on the absolute best technology for new mills

to be based on a snapshot of the tech nology in 1998. It lacks the perspective of those who have lived through the development of effluent regulations and bleaching technology for the last 30 years, and can distinguish between facts and advertising fluff disguised as

there in the late 1980s.

technical articles.

AOX as a goal has appealed prima rily to governments because it is a sim ple number and has a nicer ring than tetrachloro dibenzyl-p-dioxin. A implies progress and X implies sinister mystery. However both Environment Canada and the US EPA have declined to set an AOX standard on the basis

that it is not specific to any definable environmental problem. The basic arguments of the environ mental groups are that BC mills are backward in pollution prevention, that only a zero AOX regulation is holding their feet to the fire, that an attractive market for TCP pulp is being ignored and that zero AOX could be achieved

by TCP bleaching and/or full mill clo sure. They also criticise the make-up of the Review Panel appointed by the BC

Their technical information seems

The fact is that the newer mills and the recent rebuilds in BC and Alberta

represent, and to some degree define, the new world standard. The average performance of older mills is at a high standard. TCDD/P has been eliminat

ed, AOX, for what it is worth, is reduced 93%, and all mills have spill control and secondary treatment. Those who have been to court over

alleged infractions do not feel that the enforcement is lax.

Furthermore, we have in Vancouver

a large infrastructure of pulp mill expertise, operating, engineering, research and academic, and we do not need to be lectured by amateurs. As one who has been responsible for defining the process for a new mill overseas, I can say that information on

in solution. AOX is a broadband test

procedure. It is not a narrow chemical group with a definable environmental impact. Many foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals test positively for AOX. The human body generates AOX. Unbleached pulp mills produce AOX. Pristine streams contain AOX. What is the source of AOX in kraft effluent? A small amount comes from the trees themselves. Chloride



essential to life, as witness the histori cal role of salt in trade. The rest comes

from bleaching with chlorine com pounds. There are two ways to reduce AOX: reducing the O component, sol

Norske Canada s Elk Falls mill, in Campbell River, British Columbia.

30 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

Guest Comment new technologies lands on your desk from all over the world. We have

applied the new mill design to new projects all over the world, from Indonesia to Brazil. I have even seen documentation for a new standard mill

design for China, which has the same specifications. TCP (totally chlorine free) bleach ing uses oxygen, peroxide, ozone, enzymes or peracetic acid, anything but chlorine or chlorine dioxide. TCP

was heavily promoted at one time in Sweden to meet a market in Germany which proclaimed itself ready to pay more for an inferior pulp which reduced pollution somewhere else. Worldwide production of TCP pulp peaked in 1998. The one mill in North America using the TCP process is unable to sell more than 5% of its

potential production of TCP. Nearly every mill in Canada has made TCP pulp, and stands ready to make TCP pulp, but there simply is no market. In any case it turns out this does not pro

that in the interests of protecting banks who financed the project, and the mill's customers, the mill must be defendable as having the best technol ogy. A survey of world class pulp mills led us to specify ECP bleaching. AOX was not a factor in defining the process. Best Available Technology was the basis.

Trashing the pulp industry for fun and profit is an Olympic sport in BC. Whether the distorted facts are being

presented innocently or knowingly is not clear. However, they should be flagged as distortions which are haz ardous to your political judgement. Who am I? A process engineer who has been involved in mill design and upgrading on three continents.(Pour, if Australia is a continent.) My pulp bleaching experience started in the Chemical Engineering laboratory at the University of Toronto in 1953 and has continued ever since. ■

"Which one Pits best"

duce zero AOX in effluent.

The alternative technology is ECP, elemental chlorine free, where chlo rine dioxide is used, but not chlorine. It was in fact developed (largely in Canada) after TCP was first promoted, but became commercial much more

quickly. It is now the de facto world standard. There is no definable differ

ence in the environmental impact between the two processes, although there is some worry about the fate of incidental chemicals, such as chelating agents, used in TCP. Total recycle of bleach plant efflu ent is an appealing concept, but has many hazards in terms of corrosion and build-up of non-process chemi cals, such as potassium, chlorides and

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done in Canada in 1977 at Great Lakes

Paper. The technology is in abeyance while solutions are sought for the many problems encountered. A CanMet study in 1994 indicated that total recycle would increase the steam usage in a mill by 30%, substantially

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increase the SOX and NOX emissions,

increase operating cost by $50 per tonne and cost over $2 billion in capital. In the same year that the EC Zero AOX regulation was proclaimed, 1 was responsible for defining the processes for a new kraft mill in Indonesia.


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Drinking Water

When pharmaceuticals arrive at the tap

The new is ue emerging in envi ronmental science is the con

tamination of ground and sur face water bodies with phar maceutical and personal care products, or PPCPs.

When people take medications, or use personal care products such as medicated shampoo or sunscreen, a considerable amount of the biological

ly active chemical eventually enters the wastewater




through, or flowing off the body. The







diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory, at


concentrations up to 1 part per billion (Patera, 2000). Under landfills, where


water leaching downward can carry drugs along with it, far higher concen trations have been found, posing a risk to nearby sub-surface waters. In the United States, attention has also focused on animal feed lots, where ani mal wastes, contaminated with antibi otics, have led to contamination of

same holds true for veterinary medi cines and animal care products. PPCPs have been found in studies of ground

local surface waters (Kolpin et at.,



chemicals have been discovered in

Germany, and the United States, and can be expected to appear in most

water sources, including anti-cancer medications, anti-asthma medications, anti-cholesterol drugs, hypnotics, antibiotics, antiseptics, X-ray contrast




2002). Around the world, more than 60

developed areas. In Canada, surface waters near wastewater treatment plants were found contaminated with painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-seizure medications, and blood cholesterol

(Potera, 2002). The most troubling findings in the

drugs (Stevenson, 2002). Drugs found

growing body of PPCP research is that

agents, sunscreen agents, caffeine, and synthetic musk fragrance chemicals


some of these drugs are making it into fresh water systems, and are detectable at

the tap. In a study by Glen Boyd at Tulane University, for example, several PPCPs were detect

ed in local tap water samples including the pain killer naproxen, the sex hormone and





product of anti-cho lesterol drugs (Potera, 2000). Though the chemi

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detectable -scientists consider them of

concern because, by design, pharmaceu


y e a r program

to study new environmental assess ment regulations for PPCPs. And as of September 13, 2001, companies seek ing approval to import or manufacture new products regulated under Canada's Food and Drugs Act have to notify the Minister of the Environment under the New Substances Notification





Environmental Protection Act (Health Canada, 2001).

Health Canada's two-year research project is half over, and calls for con crete regulatory action are likely as advoeates of the precautionary princi ple team up with planners of the "we must act even in uncertainty" mindset. But like other low-concentration, poor

ly understood environmental contami nation issues, managing the risk of PPCPs poses several challenges, that, if not handled carefully, could ulti

mately result in less safety and less environmental quality for Canadians. Policy challenges

PPCPs pose several policy chal lenges common to managing uncer tain, low-level environmental risks. First, there is the challenge of deter

mining whether or not PPCPs actually pose a risk to plant, animal, or human health. Though unpleasant to contem

plate, all of Earth's organisms evolved and spend their lives being exposed to very low concentrations of thousands of potentially harmful chemicals, both natural and artificial. Preventing all

such exposures would be impossible, even if society had unlimited resources to throw at the problem. Thus, one

question that must be answered with PPCPs is; "Does the dose make a poi son?" On this front, expert opinion

suggests that the dosages are too low to be considered risky, but some theories suggest that even very low exposure

ticals are intended to exert their effects at

levels could ultimately cause harm,

very low concentra

(Stevenson, 2002). Second, there is the challenge of


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Drinking Water without shifting resources away from the management of older, bigger, bet ter established risks. As public health researchers at Harvard University have shown, there is a real cost to be paid when management of lower-level,

would ensure their environmentally safe disposal, but such a system would also address only a small fraction of the problem. All of these approaches would address only a portion ofthe sources of

more uncertain risk is allowed to con

PPCP contamination, but each would

sume resources that could be used to

impose significant costs, draining resources away from the health-protec tive productive economy. Which takes us to the last question: Who should pay for PPCP management? Ideally, to create the right incentives for reducing pollution, the cost of remediation should rest on the polluter, but this straightforward approach has problems. Under this principle, con sumers would be responsible for the

address higher-level, more certain risks. As researchers Tammy Tengs and John D. Graham observe, the United

States spent about S21.4 (US) billion in 1994 on 185 life-saving interven tions, averting about 57,000 deaths. But spending that same amount of money, prioritized to produce maxi mum return on investment, would have saved an additional 60,000 people {Tengs and Graham, 1996). And one cannot forget that the sin gle biggest protector of safety, health, and environmental quality is societal and individual wealth {Bloom and Canning. 2000). Resources taken out of the productive economy and shifted into the regulatory economy are not risk-neutral. Indeed, by reducing eco nomic growth, regulatory diversion of resources constitutes a risk-increasing factor that may offset the perceived benefit of regulating a low-level risk such as PPCP exposure. Third, there is the challenge of fig uring out the proper point at which the problem can best be managed. Without eliminating the use of pharmaceuticals and chemicals altogether, one cannot prevent the release of PPCPs into the environment through the diverse set of waste streams discussed above. That

means that management of PPCP con tamination and exposure has to be han dled downstream, at the point of drink ing water and wastewater treatment. But even that would only be a par tial solution as water treatment does not account for PPCPs that find their

way into surface and subsurface sources through landfill leaching, ani mal feedlots, or pet wastes, which con tain veterinary PPCPs with similar characteristics to PPCPs of human ori

gin. Water purification at the point of consumption could remove PPCPs from the tap entirely, but this would not address potential impacts of PPCPs on wildlife, or on people who periodically consume the wildlife, such as hunters or fishers.

Additionally, one could envision a system in which all unused PPCPs were returned to pharmacies, which

added costs of downstream

populations, a phenomenon that clear ly puts those populations at greater risk from a broad range of adverse health consequences. Individuals who are highly risk-averse might choose to limit water intake to only purified sources, but this addresses only a small part of the overall policy challenge. Policymakers are likely to be pres sured to act to somehow ensure that PPCPs do not cause environmental

harm, or pose a hazard to the health of even sensitive individuals in the popu lation.

But in circumstances such as these,

where risks are poorly defined and interventions likely to be costly and only marginally effective, policymak


ers would do well to consider the work

water remediation, and the costs allo cated according to use, perhaps col lected as a fee attached to drugs and personal care products. But this is problematic in terms of ability to pay,

of policy analyst Aaron Wildavsky, who showed that such high-uncertainty/low-level risk situations lend them

and fundamental ethics.

The basic ethic of the "polluter pays" principle presumes that the pol luter has a meaningful ability to change his or her behavior in response to the incentives, which is unlikely in the case of many medicines. Shifting the fee up the ladder of production to the producers of PPCPs wouldn't real ly circumvent this dilemma, as such costs will ultimately be passed onto the already cost-burdened pharmaceutical user as well, or, in the case of insured pharmaceuticals, onto the general tax payer.

The costs of additional drinking water or wastewater purification would ultimately be paid by consumers, but this diffuse cost recovery would not give incentives to some of the larger PPCP releasers (landfills and feedlots) to institute technological controls that might prevent the entry of PPCPs into the environment.

selves to watchfulness and research,

but not interceptive action {Wildavsky. 1991). They should pay particular attention to the work of Harvard's

Tammy Tengs and John Graham, who point out that prioritization is key to maximizing public safety {Tengs and Graham, 1996). And they should study the work of toxicologist Bruce Ames and others who point out that truly, it's the dose that makes the poison {Ames and Gold, 1998). Scrutiny of the work of these well-respected students of health, safety, and environmental qual ity would suggest that at present, the best response to the PPCP situation, as with many other environmental prob lems, is to watch and wait until one can see the whites of its eyes.

By Kenneth Green


PPCPs are a newly-discovered form of pollution that poses several difficult challenges to policymakers, but one is paramount: while the risk is known to be low-level and is still highly uncer

Kenneth Green, D. Env. (keng(g fraserinstitute.ca) is Chief Scientist

tain, remedies have known drawbacks

and Director of the Centre for Studies

that can easily make the public, or subpopulations, less well off. Such draw backs include the potential for divert ing resources from more certain risks of higher magnitudes, or for redueing after-tax income of the general popula tion, or already-cash-strapped sub-

in Risk, Regulation and Environment

34 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

at The Eraser Institute. He most recent

ly wrote Global Warming: Under standing the Debate. This article first appeared in Fraser Forum (www. fraserinstitute.ca) and is reprinted here with permission.

New Waste Technology

French catalytic converter technology treats pig slurry

Reducing the envi ronmental

these three stripping reac


tors is sent to the oxidation

sance produced by intensive pig farm ing with a new physico-

reactor using the same principle as a catalytic con

chemical rather than bio

is converted into steam and

verter. There the ammonia

logical process was the objective of three French companies that formed a partnership to solve the Compact units can be fixed or mobiie and are adaptable to problem. The Smelox process, farmers' requirements, and reduce the need to transport which has been evaluated

slurry to a minimum.

by the French agricultural research organization Cemagref and validated by the Loire-Bretagne Water Authority, makes it possible to elimi nate up to 95% of ammoniacal nitro gen, to eliminate pathogenic bacteria and to discharge a gas completely puri fied from ammonia, methane, and oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. This new physico-chemical process for treating pig slurry does not damage the ozone layer and can be used anywhere. The raw slurry from various farm buildings is sent to a slurry tank where it is homogenized before undergoing phase separation in a centrifuge. A solid fraction is obtained with 70% to

80% phosphorus and 20% nitrogen. The slurry is continuously intro duced into the first reactor along with a small quantity of Smelox catalyst in

solution. This catalyst ensures oxida tion of the volatile and malodorous

sulphurated compounds, such as mercaptans, into heavier non-volatile com pounds that remain in the liquid. The first reactor provides the prin cipal denitrification of the slurry to be treated. The second reactor, by increas ing the overall efficiency of the deni trification, enables a reduction of the system's electricity consumption. The third reactor provides the finishing. Gas in contact with the liquid is at a temperature of around 572°F. Pathogens from the raw slurry held for around twenty minutes at 194°F are eliminated. As this gas no longer con

nitrogen gas. It is possible to easily modify the reduction of nitrogen from 70% to 95% by adjusting the gas flow rate and the temperature. Heat exchangers are used for both the liquid and the gas to recover the maximum amount of heat generated in the system and there fore minimize electricity consumption. Compact units can be fixed or mobile and are adaptable to farmers' requirements, and reduce the need to transport slurry to a minimum. It is also no longer necessary to build large treatment plants in the countryside. The process is the subject of an IFF patent, with the Smelox being a trade mark.

An initial mobile unit for process ing 5,297 cubic feet of slurry per day was






Belgium at the end of August, 2002. Two other deliveries were planned for

tains ammonia, full denitrification of

the end of 2002.

the slurry takes place. Gas containing ammonia from

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Water Pollution

UC disappointed in slow Great Lakes clean-up progress

Herb Gray and Dennis Schornack, the Canadian and

U.S. Chairs of the Inter

national Joint Commission, have expressed their disappointment

with the slow progress in cleaning up

Biermial Report to the two govern ments, the International Joint Com

mission highlights three critical issues our two nations must address in order

to restore this world-class ecosystem: cleaning up sediment contaminated

the Great Lakes in an editorial for the

with toxic substances, preventing fur

IJC's Biennial Report.

ther introductions of alien invasive

"In 1972 Canada and the United

States signed the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and pledged to restore the Great Lakes ecosystem to physical, chemical, and biological

species, and improving the monitoring and reporting of ecosystem health,

health and maintain this shared but

especially through the use of under standable ecological "indicators." "Toxic substances, ranging from pesticides to heavy metals to PCBs,

threatened environmental treasure for

that contaminate the Great Lakes

future generations. This Agreement demonstrates that two neighbouring nations could make a visionary com mitment. Progress has been made;

ecosystem, threaten human health, particularly that of children exposed in

the womb to chemicals ingested by their mothers through contaminated

however, we believe that achievement


of the needed restoration has been

"In a special 1987 amendment, or protocol, to the Agreement, the two nations agreed to attack the problem of highly polluted locations in a struc

slow and that too many challenges remain.

"In our just-released Eleventh

tured manner. Forty-three Areas of Concern were designated, with the understanding that each country would develop Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) to clean up and restore these areas to health. But progress has been slow, hampered by woefully inade quate funding, a lack of leadership for RAP implementation, and in many cases, the sheer size of the problem the Areas of Concern contain millions of cubic meters of contaminated sedi ment.

"We have often seen decades pass

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For more information, circle reply card No. 125 (See page 25)

Water Pollution before remedial action is taken, even

while research showing subtle but per sistent human health injuries from eat ing contaminated fish, as well as impacts on fish, wildlife, and the ecosystem continue. Fifteen years of experience has proven that the current regulatory focus and funding is inade quate, and that the governments need to do far more.

and they are only one of 160 nonindigenous species now inhabiting the

"Fishability," it becomes clear that while the Great Lakes remain a good source of treatable drinking water,

system. A real risk remains that the

next alien species entering the Lakes could cause even greater damage. "The




some areas remain unsafe for swim


responded by developing regulations and procedures surrounding ballast water discharge from ships entering the ecosystem through the St. Lawrence River, because ballast water

is the primary source of the threat. But risks remain because the majority of ships entering the Great Lakes system can legally claim "no hallast on board," but still harbour alien species in virtu ally empty ballast tanks, or in the biofilms contaminating hulls or anchor



"Alien invasive species, transferred, usually unwittingly from foreign ecosystems, have shown they can thrive in the Great Lakes, unhindered by any natural controls, such as preda tors they might confront in native ecosystems. Exploding zebra mussel populations, for instance, have caused millions of dollars of damage to water structures and great ecological harm.

"In light of the high risk, we believe our two national governments must urgently take more aggressive steps to prevent future alien species introduc tions, including new rules and pro grams to assure that "no ballast on board" ships do not contaminate our waters.

"Finally, using measures of "Drinkability," "Swimability," and

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Stormwater Management

Confused about Best Management Practice performance?

For years hydrologists have been

tackling the challenge of using

flows measured in one catch

BMPs, a frame of reference must be

developed, a frame of reference that effectively normalizes the data. A

ment to estimate flows in

another. Similar challenges exist for stormwater quality treatment designers when using historical monitoring data to estimate future pollutant loads and per

of the pollutant measured during the test because a similar name might exist for a different pollutant or test proce dure. For example, sediment removal efficiency is highly dependent on sediment size. High removal efficiencies can occur at a test site dominated by coarse sediment. If these results

formance of stormwater best

are used to size a unit on a site

management practices (BMPs). Unfortunately, measured per formance (the efficiency of pol lutant removal) cannot be easily compared between different monitoring sites or used to size future systems.

with very fine sediment the design will fail because the same level of performance will not be achieved. Other



such as the method of calculating performance and the meteorolog


ical conditions under which the

effectiveness of BMPs are often

monitoring data. To obtain approval in many jurisdictions,

performance data were collected. Before using performance data or sizing methods based on these performance data to design

structural BMPs must achieve

future BMPs, the conditions

sediment removal efficiency tar gets of 80% or more for sensitive sites (see references). When monitoring data are reviewed and

under which the measurements



made from a limited review of

were made must be examined to

determine if they are relevant and similar to the design site. Designers should be aware of dis

results show removal efficiencies

were less than 80%, designers and reviewers often incorrectly

similarities between test sites and

design sites and use some method for normalizing the variations,

conclude that the BMP is not

capable of achieving the efficiency tar

number of factors that need to be nor

such as a calibrated and validated com


malized and considered when using test data to estimate future perform

puter model.

other factors that contribute to the

ance include:

measured efficiency. These factors can increase or decrease perceived per

Design - compare the expected per formance to the measured perform ance. How well was the measured per formance predicted?

References Calgary, City of, Stormwater Management c& Design Manual, Draft 2000, p 4-14, 2000. MDE, Maryland Department of Environment, Maryland Stormwater Design Manual Volumes I & II, September 1998 Review Draft, pi.13,

Consideration must be given to


One factor that is most

often ignored is the designed removal efficiency. If the BMP was designed to achieve an efficiency of 70%, a measured efficiency of less than 80% can still support the conclusion that the BMP is very effective. Conversely, in some instances where minimal effort

has been expended to obtain data of only poor quality, positive conclusions are erroneously drawn. For example, grab samples taken upstream and

Site and Land Use - consider the

land use at the test site compared to the design site. The performance of a unit tested in a public works yard or con struction site will differ from a shop ping mall parking lot, just as the hydrology and runoff coefficients/ characteristics will differ.

BMPs. To use field data as a tool for

Configuration - consider variations caused by hydraulic structures, flow confrols, upstream storage or pre-treatment, use of bypasses (internal or external), and the use of oil absorbents in the test unit. The design unit must have the same configuration as the test unit to have similar performance. Monitoring Protocol and Test

assessing the effectiveness of future

Procedures- understand the definition

downstream of a BMP at one instant in

time do not support the conclusion that the unit is effective over the long term. Inappropriate conclusions have led to confusion regarding the effective ness of both traditional and proprietary

38 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003


MA DER Massachusetts Department

of Environmental Protection, and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management, Stormwater Manage ment, Volume One: Stormwater Policy Handbook, pl-4, 1997. ON MOEE, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Stormwater Management Practices Planning and Design Manual, pp 171-176, 1994.

By Todd Neff,P.Eng., Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Oil Spills

Russian roulette in the Gulf of Finland

The World Wildlife Fund, has

expressed its deep concern at the presenee of the Greek

the Prestige disaster," said Anita

building of a new oil harbour in


Vysotsk, Russia. WWF is calling on the countries around the Baltic Sea to jointly pro pose that the Baltic Sea - or at least the most sensitive parts of it, such as the



expert. "However, this will not save the Gulf of Finland, where most of the oil traffic comes from Russia, a non-EU

tanker Stemnitsa in the current

ly frozen Gulf of Finland. The ship is unsuitable for travelling in pack ice, and is carrying 110,000 tons of crude

country. Furthermore, there is no inter


According to Finnish maritime authorities, experienced with ice con ditions, the Semnistsa, which has left the Russian harbour of Primorsk, was a

huge environmental hazard, since it was not properly equipped for current conditions. In February 2003, the

national standardized ice classifica

Gulf of Finland - receive the status of

tion, giving Russia a benefit." The Baltic Sea is a globally unique, sensitive, ecosystem, with a mixture of species found in oceans and freshwa-

Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). PSSAs are areas which due to their ecological, economic, cultural or scientific significance and their vul

ters. The routes of the oil tankers in the

nerability to international shipping activity, need special protection. If applied to the Baltic Sea, such a status - and the special international regula

of packed and solid ice, the thickness

Gulf of Finland cross seal breeding areas, and nesting and resting areas of migratory birds. In these areas, the sea is normally covered by ice 100 days per year. Waves can spread under the

of which was between 0.3 and 0.5

ice, lift and lower it, and cause serious


damage. Statistically, winter is the most dangerous time for oil shipping. Despite these rough conditions, the amount of oil transported in the Baltic Sea has doubled over the last six years, to reach about 40 million tons per year. It is expected to increase up to 160 million tons by 2010 as a result of the

whole of the Gulf of Finland was full

So far, the Russian government has ignored Finnish government's appeals to prevent the Stemnitsa from leaving Russia with oil as cargo. "WWF welcomes the tougher regu lations on shipping recently proposed by the EU Commission in the wake of

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building more oil ports and thus con tributing to the increase of oil shipping in the Baltic Sea, it should show

responsibility in promoting maritime safety in the region," added Anita Makinen.





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Innovative teaming of geosynthetics offers long-term protection to Mud Lake Dam face By John Heap,Samuel Randolph and Patricia Stelter

Mud Lake Dam in

Gardnerville, Nevada, is

situated at the base of the

picturesque Sierra Nevada range. It was originally built more than 100 years ago as an earthen dam for an irrigation reservoir, using horsedrawn scrapers and steam shovels. When it no longer met the safety stan dards of the Dam Safety agency of the State of Nevada, rehabilitation was deemed necessary.


A cost-effective alternative to the traditional reinforced-concrete face

dam was proposed by Colorado Lining International. The proposed geosynthetic solution incorporated an imper vious geomembrane with geotextile

protective layers and a concrete-filled geocell armour cover. The geosynthetic solution was cho-

sen for three reasons. First - to save

cost. The client saved between (US) $600,000-5700,000 over conventional reinforced-concrete methods. Second,

it provided a waterproof protection to the dam face; the client has a system that will conserve more water and will

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function for a long, long time. The third reason was constructability. Custom-made geomembrane panels were precut and welded offsite, signif icantly reducing construction time, as well as limiting exposure to natural degradation elements and eliminating the need for special construction equipment. Because the dam is locat ed about two miles from the active

Genoa Fault, design consideration was given to potential seismic activity. Geomembranes have been used

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since the mid-1940s in a variety of applications. With increased aware ness of pollution control and the need to use and protect potable water resources, the industry has evolved into a sophisticated field of applica tions. With the aging infrastructure of dams and impoundments worldwide, design engineers are looking for costeffective solutions to build and repair new and existing impoundments. The adaptability of the Geoweb® system provided geomembrane protec tion and also contributed to the ease of

installation. The Geoweb® (geocell) slope protection system with integral tendons and ATRA® clips was sped-

Geosynthetics fied as the geomembrane protection system. The tendons allowed the geocell sections to be anchored at the crest

of the slope, secured to a deadman anchor system and suspended over the geomembrane. When anchoring with traditional stakes is not possible, as in this case, integral tendons and load transfer clips allow the geocell system to be sus pended over the geomembrane without jeopardizing its integrity. The installation of the geosynthetic components was performed in layers. Layer 1: A 16-oz. non-woven geotextile under-layer was first installed over the entire 2h:lv dam face.


of 4.6 - 91.4 m (15 ft X 300 ft) were pulled in place from the top ofthe dam and heat-welded together. Despite high winds slowing con struction, the entire face was covered and ballasted at the top and bottom with sandbags in one ten-hour work shift. This geotextile layer allows

drainage along the face and provides protection to the geomembrane, adding puncture resistance and sup porting strength across the face of the

Layer 2: Next, a 45-mil reinforced polypropylene geomembrane was placed. Custom panels were fabricat ed to size with staggered panels to account for length differential along

man anchor was placed in the crest anchor trench. The pre-assembled geo cell sections were positioned on the slope according to the correlating slope length. The tendon ends on the up-slope end of each section were

the face of the dam. A total of 8,360

secured to the deadman anchor. Once

m^ (90,000 sq. ft.) of material was deployed and tested in a 12-hour work day. By utilizing deployment equip

secured, the trench was filled with con crete. The geocell sections were then


ment on the crest and toe of the dam

face, materials were placed quickly and efficiently. Layer 3: The third layer was a 16oz. non-woven geotextile layer installed as a protective layer between the geomembrane and the cellular con finement system cover. Separate crews prefabricated geo cell panels to specified lengths up to 34.7 m (114 ft) using assembly beds constructed for threading and securing

After installation of the 75 mm (3inch) depth geocell layer, concrete was placed in the geocell layer to protect the membrane/fabric layer over the

tendons and load-transfer ATRAÂŽ

Mud Lake Dam.

restraint clips. With the bulk of the labour expended in this safer setting, the installation time of the pre-assembled sections was significantly less than the contractor's expectations. Layer 4: Next, a steel pipe dead-

Analytical instrumentation



expanded down the slope to their prop er length and secured at the toe.

Aysix Model A6-IIG-3150 Portable Suspended Solids Analyzer operates on the single gap, light absorption principle using an infrared emitter to

dam face.

In total, 8,360 m^ (90,000 sq. ft.) of liner material and more than 100 sec

tions or 5,574 m^ (60,000 sq. ft.) of geocell material, plus over 382 cubic metres (500 cubic yards) of concrete, was used to protect the dam face at

John Heap is with Colorado International; Samuel Randolph with Soil




Patricia Stelter with Presto Products



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March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 41


Sutton water pollution control plant underway

The design-build team at AWS

Engineers & Planners awarded Kenaidan Contracting Ltd., of Mississauga, with the civil

contract for the Sutton Water Pollution Control Plant in Ontario.

Sutton is located just south of Lake Simcoe in The Region of York, one of the fastest growing regions in Canada. Since the existing plant was at capaci ty with some operating limitations on the quality of effluent it could produce, it was necessary to construct an entire ly new WPCP using current technolo gies with better treatment capabilities. The Sutton WPCP is designed for a rated capacity of 3.4 MLd (0.9 MOD)

for a population of 7,500 people. The plant is designed to accommodate expansion for a population of 16,500 people. Kenaidan's contract began in May of 2002. The scope of work includes the excavation of5,000m^(6,500 cubic

Sequencing batch reactor(SBR) No. 2.

yards) of earth, 5,700m2 (61,300 square feet) offormwork, and 2,100m3

(2,700 cubic yards) of concrete includ ing the erection of a control building

(45m X 10m) to accommodate the plant's operating equipment. Kenaidan crews self-performed the concrete divisions of the work.

Every project has its particular challenge, and, at Sutton, the challenge was building a concrete structure on a narrow strip of land located between a huge pond to the south and a swamp to the north. Not only were the soil con ditions unsuitable for a well point sys tem but also the entire concrete struc

ture of tanks and chambers was below

the elevation of the pond surface. To do the excavation it was neces



sary to install a perimeter weeper sys tem with five pumping wells and, once down to founding grade, another weeper was required under the base slab to keep the water from welling up. As happens in construction, this activity took place during the wettest June and July we have seen in a long time. Kenaidan's site supervisor Fred Ogden was like a modern day Hans Christian Anderson character, holding back the water while getting the stmcture built, backfilled and enclosed before winter.

The project is now well underway with completion scheduled for June of 2003.


For more information, circle reply card No. 131 (See page 25)


Hydroxyl Systems awarded contract for Lakeview WWTP


Aerial view of the Lakeview WWTP site.

Hydroxyl Systems will retrofit the activated sludge aeration basin dur ing the first stage of the Lakeview WWTP IFAS upgrade project.

The Region ofPeel,Ontario,has awarded a contract to Hydro xyl Systems Inc. for the supply of key equipment for the first phase of a major project at the 103

MGD Lakeview Wastewater Treatment

Plant. The overall project will upgrade the capacity of the plant to 118 MGD and enhance treatment performance.

Start-up of this project is scheduled for June 2003. Following a period of operation of the Hydroxyl-F^RAS process at Lakeview, the Regional Municipality of Peel intends to pro ceed with a full-scale hybrid retrofit of the entire wastewater treatment plant. The full-scale implementation of F^RAS technology at Lakeview would make it the largest facility utilizing the

suspended plastic biofilm carrier employed in Hydroxyl's unique

hybrid fluidized fixed-film and sus pended growth treatment process in


the world.




Activated Sludge (F'RAS) process. Hydroxyl Systems will also design and supply related equipment for the implementation of the technology at Lakeview WWTP.

KMK Consultants Limited is pro viding engineering and project man agement services for the project. For more information,

circle reply card No.132

The contract award was the result of

a competitive bid process, preceded by a comprehensive evaluation of various secondary treatment technologies. The evaluation determined that an upgrade utilizing a hybrid approach offluidized


fixed-film carriers and conventional


activated sludge technology, generally


referred to as IFAS, was ideal for the expansion of the Lakeview WWTP.

This approach enables the municipal wastewater treatment plant to signifi cantly upgrade treatment performance and capacity with minimal downtime or physical modifications to the exist ing plant. The project entails the supply of Hydroxyl-Pac media, a proprietary


Manual Gears

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Solid Waste

B.C.company is a world leader in gypsum waste recycling technology

Recycling waste gypsum wall-

board can cut manufacturing input costs by reducing the need for more expensive vir gin gypsum in new wallboard. But can waste gypsum really be recycled? A Canadian company says yes. New West Gypsum Recycling Inc. (NWGR) of Vancouver, British Columbia, has built a thriving business recycling gypsum wallboard waste and providing this to manufacturers. It is then combined with virgin gypsum to make new wallboard containing up to 25 percent recycled content — with no loss in quality. The company's process and technology is proprietary and an economic and value-added component of the gypsum wallboard industry. Having established three plants in the U.S. and Canada and having processed 1.7 million tonnes of waste gypsum wallboard over the past 17

years, the company's technical prowess and longevity in the marketplace is starting to catch the eye of manufactur ers, governments and environmental groups.

"We've had more inquiries about our technology from governmental groups and environmental interests worldwide in the last twelve months

than ever before," notes Tony McCamley, president of NWGR. The company was founded in 1985 after a regional government authority in British






"Moisture content was a big chal lenge, which we solved with our patented grinding technology. The equipment has been designed to han dle high-moisture-content scrap. Moisture content and removing the impurities from the end products(gyp sum and paper) are the main sticking points in recycling gypsum," adds McCamley. The GVRD,charged with providing services such as garbage disposal, water and sewer for the cities and

Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) - banned the placement of gypsum

towns surrounding Vancouver, was

waste in its landfills.

its landfills. It was also trying to con tend with the leachate and hydrogen sulphide gas created when gypsum wallboard met with groundwater and moisture in the disposal sites. Studies were commissioned, and the findings became the catalyst for banning the dumping of gypsum waste into land

McCamley cites rapidly rising drywall waste disposal "tipping" fees and landfill issues as key drivers of the trend.

"While the price of drywall contin ues to decline, the total cost of drywall products to society - including the cost of disposing of the waste properly - continues to rise dra matically, especially in compari son to alternative wall systems," says McCamley. "Plus, there just isn't room in the landfills, and the


health concerns from leachate are

becoming more public, all issues that are potential problems for the global gypsum industry." A technically complex process The foundation of the NWGR

process is being able to process wet gypsum waste. Most wallboard scraps are not bone dry, having either come off the 'wet' end ofthe manufacturing process, been stored outside or left out to face the elements after the con

struction or renovation project has been completed. The critical factor in recycling is to reduce the moisture content, so that the recy cled gypsum will meet the requirements of wallboard manu facturers.

Once separated from the gypsum, the paper backing can be recycled by paper manufacturers into a wide variety of paper products.

To develop a process that would he reliable under many conditions, McCamley realized he needed a new technology and process. The result was innova tive machinery modified specifi cally for the processing of waste

44 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

having a problem with limited space in


Once the ban was in place, McCamley and employees at NWGR

developed a process that pulverizes the gypsum core and removes nearly all the backing paper, leaving recycled granulated gypsum ready for use. But that was only one part of the solution. The recycled material still had to be accepted by manufacturers and incor porated back into the drywall manu facturing process. To test the recycled product, Vancouver gypsum board plant execu tives initiated a pilot program to deter mine the effects of mixing recycled and virgin gypsum, with NWGR sup plying the recycled material. They found that the NWGR product and process provided an efficient means of handling both plant production and market waste. The recycled product became an immediate, readily avail able source of raw material for use in

the manufacture of new drywall prod ucts. With the success of the pilot pro gram, NWGR received contracts to recycle tens of thousands of tons of scrap wallboard back to a number of manufacturers each year. Their quality concerns were addressed as well. "Our wallboard

plant has been producing all gypsum

Solid Waste products with over 22 percent recycled

experimented with a variety of recy cling methods before developing a process that eventually created a prod

manufacturer at a price below that of virgin gjqjsum. The two major limiting factors affecting the economics of setting up a recycling system in a particular city or region are the per-tonne fees currently charged to take drywall scrap from a job site and the cost of transporting the waste gypsum to the recycling plant

uct that met the standards of local

versus the local landfill. Success

paper manufacturers. Recycling in major metropolitan areas: the Vancouver example The NWGR process is most effi cient in larger metropolitan areas where there are consistently large vol umes of gypsum wallboard waste and

depends on the recycling costs being

gypsum without detrimental effects on quality," noted Andreas Wicht of man ufacturer BPB Westroc, of Vancouver. Recycling of the wallboard paper pre sented another challenge. NWGR

where one or more wallboard manu

facturers are located within easy truck ing distance to receive the recycled product. NWGR's Vancouver-area recycling facility is located in the industrial sec tion of New Westminster (near the geographic centre of the 1.8 million people living in the Greater Vancouver area). This plant accepts waste materi al from as far away as 250 miles(about four hours' driving time) and operates 16 hours a day, six days a week. An estimated sixty trucks and semi-trail ers carrying construction scraps and manufacturer's waste arrive each day, and the plant processes approximately 70,000 tormes of gypsum wallboard

competitive. NWGR portable recycling unit NWGR analyses have found that developing large "fixed plant" systems such as Vancouver's is not likely to be cost-effective in smaller areas. To

process the volumes of gypsum waste found in broader-based urban areas

and at manufacturing plants, NWGR has developed a self-contained portable unit that can be transported

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waste every year.


The New West Gypsum recycling process Inbound wet and dry loads of waste product are dumped on the NWGR plant's tipping floor, and hand-cleaned of metal, plastic and other debris. The raw material gypsum waste is loaded into a large feed hopper and fed onto a conveyor belt, where an electro magnet removes ferrous metal frag

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The material is then conveyed to an enclosed processing area to separate the paper liner from the gypsum core. The paper is further processed prior to recycling for use in a wide variety of applications. Once a load has been fully processed and turned into its residual component parts of granulated recy cled gypsum and paper fibre, the sepa rate products are then transported to wallboard manufacturers and papermakers to be incorporated back into new products, completing the cycle. The recycled gypsum is sold to the

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For more Information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)


Solid Waste


processing speed, almost any accumu lated gypsum waste and/or any gyp sum waste stream could be recycled. After cleaning up the waste at one site,

gypsum used in the wallboard market is potentially available to be recycled. Based on the annual production esti

the unit can then be rotated to other

be equivalent to a range of 4 to 5 mil lion tonnes available to be recycled each year in the US alone.

facilities to repeat the process. The recycling potential: the US example It is estimated that the United States

Wheel loaders break up the drywall waste before it is processed.

Warehouse full of recycled gypsum.

and set up at any site. This product is most usefol at multi-material recycling facilities and wallboard manufacturing plants. The portable unit can process up to 25 tonnes of waste per hour. At this

produces 30 million tormes of drywall annually. According to NWGR's analy sis, 3 to 5 percent of the gypsum used in the wallboard manufacturing process emerges as waste at the wallboard plant. In construction and reno vation, when drywall is cut and placed into position, a further 10 to 12 percent ends up as scrap. This is not an insignificant amount. In house con struction, the industry rule of thumb is that wallboard scrap will equal one pound per square foot of floor area — or about one ton for the average house. Multiplying that figure by the number of houses built each year indicates the magnitude of scrap available just in the new home construction market.

Combining the above information, an estimated 13 to 17 percent of the

mate of 30 million tonnes, this would

Given that NWGR has found that

new drywall can incorporate more than 25 percent recycled gypsum, and that the total projected waste is approxi

mately 17 percent at best, it is obvious that all recyclable gypsum could be incorporated easily into the manufac ture of new wallboard. Conclusion

Of course, a certain amount of

waste gypsum will always be found outside the geographic range of the recycling plants and the lower disposal tipping fees found in some jurisdic tions may render recycling uneconom ical. Overall, however, based on NWGR's experience in the Vancouver, Seattle and Toronto markets, there is

tremendous potential for recycling gypsum in large metropolitan centres in both Europe and the US. Circle reply card No.135

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• Up-to-date, practical guidance on a fuU range of environmental issues • A highly illustrated format with hundreds of detailed drawings and photographs

• Critical material on sanitation

management and engineering used by today's leaders in the field

Practical applications of sanitary science and engineering theories and principles • Coverage of environmental control in urban, suburban, and rural settings

©WILEY Nowyouloiow. wiley.com

46 Environmental Sdence & Engineering, March 2003

For more information, circie reply card No. 136 (See page 25)

Climate Change

Ancient logbooks provide new insight on climate change

The five-hundred year old log

books of long-dead arctic explorers are helping to reveal the impact of climate change

on arctic sea ice, the World Wildlife Fund and the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) announced on February 21.

Entries from the explorers' log books, which record where they encountered sea ice, as well as the weather they sailed through and even the whales they caught, have been used to produce historical sea-ice charts. These now form part of a series of 6,000 charts which run from the mid1500s up to the present day and will allow scientists to improve understand ing of climate variability and changes in north-west Europe and the Arctic over the last five hundred years. Changes in sea ice impact many species such as polar bears and seals, which hunt and breed on the ice. "Much has been made in recent

years of the connection between glob al warming and sea ice extent," said Lynn Rosentrater, WWF's Internat ional Arctic Programme climate change scientist. "But, prior to the development of satellites, few direct

observations of sea ice were made in

any systematic manner. This new dataset will make it easier to identify the impacts of climate change in the Arctic." Studies have shown that the extent

northeast sea route to China. The expe dition was the first of the delightfully named Mystery and Company of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Regions, Dominions, Islands, and Places Unknown to find

of sea ice, an indicator of climate vari

new trade routes with the rich Orient.

ability and change, has decreased in the Arctic Ocean in the past 30 years in line with global warming trends. Existing analysis of the new charts shows that this is a trend which goes back at least 150 years. The new

It was also the last. Although second-

archive will allow scientists to investi

gate variations in ice extent as far back as the 16th Century. The Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) Historical Ice Chart Archive - created by NPI and the Noi-wegian Meteorological Institute, and pub lished with funding from WWF - pro vide some of the oldest records of cli

mate change observations in existence, covering an area from Greenland in the west to Novaya Zemlya in the east from as early as 1553 to 2002. The earliest records used in the

archive come from Sir Hugh Willoughby, an Englishman with no nautical experience whatsoever, who set sail from London in 1553 to find a

in-command Richard Chancellor sur vived to establish new trade deals with

Russia, Willoughby's ship became trapped in sea ice near Murmansk and he and his crew perished. "This archive is one of the longest directly-observed records of any cli mate variable in existence, and repre sents the culmination of 15 years of work, initiated by renowned Nor wegian sea-ice scientist, Torgny Vinje," said Chad Dick, Director of the International Arctic Climate System Study Project Office at NPI. "But we are also indebted to the captains and sailors who braved the Arctic condi

tions hundreds of years ago and who kept such careful note of their observa tions. Because of their efforts, scien tists will be able to assess the current

retreat of sea ice in the light of varia tions over several centuries."

Contact: jwoolford@wwf.no.

Marie Meunier and Robert Landine newest members of ES&E's

technical advisory board Marie Meunier - graduated from the University of Montreal with a degree in Biological Sciences (1978) and from Laval University with a Masters degree in Biological Sciences (1982). Marie has been with John

Meunier since 1984, first as the Instrumentation Division

Manager, then as General Sales Manager (1996Marie Meunier 2000) and now as Marketing and Business Development Manager.

She has been President of AQTE (1991-92), the Quebec Waters Waste Water Association (now RESEAU environnement), member of the board of CWWA (1995-97) and WEE director (1998-2001).

Dr. Robert C. Landine - received

his Bachelor's Degree in Civil Engineering and his Master's Degree in Sanitary Engineering from the University of Saskatch ewan, Saskatoon, Canada, in 1960 and 1962, respectively. He went on to study in England under an Athlone Fellowship and received the Diploma of the Imperial College of Science and Technology In London in Public Health Engineering. After a

few years in the working world, he Dr. Robert C. Landine returned to obtain his Doctorate in Environmental Engineering at the University of Saskatchewan in 1970. Dr. Landine has been actively involved with anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters for over twenty years and has seen his group design and/or build approximately a hundred anaerobic reactors.

March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 47

Automated Disinfection

Automation of disinfection process using ORP reduces chlorine by 32% By Max Rao,P.Eng., Indachem lnc.&

Christine Thibeauit,

City of Greater Sudbury

The City of Greater Sudbury, with a population of 155,000,

is located 390 kilometres north

of Toronto. At 3,627 square kilometres including water bodies, it is the largest municipality in Ontario. The main Sudbury Wastewater Treatment Plant is an 80,000 mVday high rate activated sludge facility, serving a community of over 85,000 residents and over 4,600 local busi nesses. A future plant expansion will see the plant capacity increase to 102,375 mVday. Chlorination is the final stage of the treatment train before the effluent is

discharged into Junction Creek, which is immediately upstream of Kelly Lake. In order to achieve an E-Coli

discharge limit set in the facility's Certificate of Approval, year-round chlorination is required. Manual con trol of chlorine feed to the contact

chamber produced good results with respect to E-Coli discharge compli ance.

However, it was hypothesized that chlorine was being overfed to ensure compliance since the manual chlorine feed adjustments could not keep up with the frequent changes in demand associated with a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The City Plants Engineer and staff at the Sudbury facility decided to investigate methods to automate chlorine feed to the con

tact chamber to get better control of the disinfection process. Using a gas chlorinator, chlorine gas is fed from tonne cylinders into a wetwell directly upstream of the con tact chamber.

Two 2150 m^ contact

chambers provide an average and min imum detention time of60 and 15 min

utes, respectively. In order to ensure disinfection to the required level, his toric measurements have shown that

maintaining a total chlorine residual between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L at the outlet of the contact chamber, prior to dis-

Operator accesses the control system at the Sudbury Wastewater Treatment Plant(below). charge to Kelly Lake was adequate. Effluent samples were taken three times per week for total chlorine analy sis. Depending on the results meas ured, the output from the chlorinator was either increased, or decreased, to bring the chlorine residual number to within the acceptable range. Since manual adjustments were only per formed a few times per week, adjust ments were not able to account for

changes in oxidant demand that con tinually occured throughout the day. In order to ensure proper disinfection during peak demand, chlorine was overfed. This resulted in proper disin fection but high chlorine residuals dis charging into the receiving water body during periods of low demand. Flow Pacing The first attempt to automate the chlorination process was with flow pacing. A 4-20 mA signal from the plant flow meter was used to pace the output from the gas chlorinator to the effluent flow through the contact chamber. It was quickly determined that automatic chlorination control by flow pacing was inadequate and often resulted in chlorine overfeed and

underfeed. Although hydraulic loads can increase significantly, coliform

48 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

levels do not increase proportionately. Conversely, low plant flows do not necessarily reflect low coliform levels. Amperometric Chlorine Analyzer An amperometric analyzer was installed to automatically measure the total chlorine residual in the effluent

exiting the contact chamber and adjust the chlorinator output to maintain a residual setpoint. Operators found that the sensing electrode fouled very quickly, which resulted in inaccurate residual readings, and required fre quent cleaning. Furthermore, the ana lyzers required a steady supply of reagents to function properly and were dependent on proper calibration proce dures being followed. Operators at the Sudbury facility found that the amper ometric analyzer was too maintenance

Automated Disinfection intensive to automate their disinfection process.

Research also indicated that chlo rine residual measurement is not a

good predictor of disinfection. Measuring residual only tells how much chlorine is left at a given point in

mately 100 feet from the chlorine injection point, measures the ORP (oxidant demand) of the effluent. The unique probe design, which comes with a two year warranty, incorporates a 99.999% pure platinum sensing elec trode and a porous Teflon liquid junc

time. Chlorine residual is not a meas


ure of the work value of the chlorine or

system to effectively operate in a

a measure of the chlorine demand, which is continually changing. Controlling with residual measure ment can, therefore, result in variable E-Coli levels discharging to the envi

wastewater environment and measure


High Resolution Redox(HRR) Research by Danish virologist Dr. Ebba Lund (^"Oxidation Inactivation of Poliovirus Copenhagen, 1963) indicated

These features allow the HRR

1 mV ORP changes, which is required

for accurate control.

The Strantrol 890 combines plant flow and oxidative requirements to match chlorine feed rate to the chang ing oxidant demand in the system and to maintain a predetermined ORP setpoint (mV). The SloLogic control algorithm used by the Strantrol 890 was developed to mimic the actions of an operator. Utilizing the flow signal continued overleaf...

Remove Hydrogen Sulfide from Biogas and Air Streams

a direct link between the disinfection

rate of poliovirus and the oxidation reduction potential (ORP). She found that a given ORP held for a period of time would produce a repeatable inac

a newly patented adsorption process for reducing hydrogen

tivation curve. Lund's work led to the

sulfide. The SULFA-BIND®

development of Lund's Law of Oxidative Disinfection; The log decrease in microorganism activity is proportional to the ORP maintained,

process uses an iron-impregnated

times the contact time.

Plant management decided to inves tigate the use of ORP as the control basis for the disinfection process. ORP (also referred to as redox) is a measurement of the electromotive

force (emf) generated when an oxidant is present in an aqueous solution. Measurable in millivolts (mV), the strength of this force is directly pro portional to the oxidative strength of the treated system. The higher the concentration of the oxidant, the high er the voltage. Conversely, the higher the concentration of the reductant (i.e. E-Coli, organic material, etc.), the lower the voltage. A redox sensing instrument, which detects this voltage,

ADI International Inc. announces

medium, in fixed-bed scrubbers, to

obtain over 99.9% removal of H2S. With a one-minute contact time, concentrations as high as 30,000 ppm can be reduced to below 1 ppm. SULFA-BIND® is capable of multiple regenerations without chemicals or backwashing. Hydrogen sulfide is reduced to elemental sulfur and

water. Ideal for biogas treatment before co-generation, and for contaminated air streams for odour control.

can be used to monitor the chlorine

demand. The ORP of the Sudbury WWTP's effluent, at any given time, is a direct measurement of the current

oxidant demand of the system. A Strantrol® Model 890 High Resolution Redox (HRR) controller, manufactured by USFilter/Stranco from Bradley, Illinois, was installed by Indachem Inc. at the Sudbury WWTP as part of a trial to determine if the unit could effectively automate the disin fection process. A heavy-duty sub mersible electrode assembly, installed within the contact chamber approxi

ADI internatipnal inc. 1133 Regent Street, Fredencton, NB Canada E3B 3Z2 Tel: 506-451-7407

Email: elw@adi:ca • Web site: www.adi.ca For more information, circle reply card No. 138 (See page 25)


Automated Disinfection to calculate changes in lag time between the chemical injection point and the sensor location, the controller looks at deviations from ORP setpoint at a 10:2:1 time ratio. For example, if

and then executes the change on the 10

the lag time is 10 minutes, the con

cal samples were taken for E-Coli analysis. At the same time, total chlo

contact chamber,the

rine residual of the final effluent exit

amount of chlorine fed

By automating

minute interval. Results

Upon the initial installation of the

chlorine feed to the

demonstration unit, daily bacteriologi

troller looks at the deviation from set-

point during the whole 10 minutes, during the last two minutes, and during the last one minute. Then the SloLogic

ing the contact chamber was measured using a colorimetric handheld analyz

processor averages the verdict of all


These two measurements were

three factors, determines how much to

used to optimize the ORP setpoint of

change output and in which direction.

the HRR controller to ensure discharge

High quality instruments for groundwater and surface water applications

and ultimately discharged to Kelly

Lake was significantly reduced.

SOLINST manufactures high

quality instruments for groundwater and surface water applications. The full range

compliance and to minimize chlorine

includes: water level and water


quality datalogging equip

samplers, drive-point piezometers, and multilevel systems that allow detailed 3-D groundwater monitoring. New this year are the data transfer Leveloader, Mini 122

The setpoint, determined to be 425 my was entered into the Strantrol unit, which controlled the output from the gas chlorinator to maintain the setpoint or the oxidative strength within the


contact chamber. Furthermore, mini

ment, water level and interface meters, various groundwater



the flexible




Pump. E-mail:

instruments@solinst.com. Web: http://www.solinst.com. Solinst Canada Ltd.

mum and maximum dosage setpoints where established and inputted into the

Circle reply card No. 140

Strantrol 890 to maintain chlorine feed


during process upsets. Maintenance of the system simply involved weekly cleaning of the submersible ORP probe. By automating chlorine feed to the

industrial Corftroi Valves

14 ^ i .n


Flow Measurement




contact chamber using the Strantrol 890 FIRR unit, the amount of chlorine

fed and ultimately discharged to Kelly Lake was significantly reduced. During the three and a half month trial period (May 15 to August 31, 2002), 4040 kg less chlorine was used com pared to the same period in 2001, a 32% decrease, adjusted for flow. Furthermore, the average chlorine residual measured over the same peri od was reduced from 0.82 mg/L to


i/r %

0.44 mg/L while in compliance with E-Coli discharge limits under the Certificate of Approval during the entire trial period under automated control; this proved that controlling

"Pilot Operated dohtro|pj^je|i ^

oxidant feed to meet demand can elim inate the need to overfeed chlorine.

fOf fluid hfliitilins^needs ''.' -2^

Phone: 905-563-4963 Fax; 905-563-4040 E-mail: cla-valcanada@cla-val. Website: www.oia-vai.com

••TTm r~

Ill T

The Sudbury Wastewater Treatment Plant purchased the Strantrol 890 HRR controller with the automatic probe wash option in September 2002. Plant management estimates that chlorine savings alone will help pay for it in approximately 13 months. Circle reply card No. 147


For more Information, circle reply card No. 139 (See page 25)

Invasive Species

Greater selenium threat accompanies exotic bivalve species

Biological invasions of estuar

column and thus shifted the communi

ies have become an increasing problem worldwide and are known to change community structure and function. For example, beginning in the mid-1980s, an invad ing species of the bivalve Potomocorbula amurensis became the

predominant benthic macroinvertebrate in San Francisco Bay. One conse quence of this has been the essential elimination by this voracious feeder of the standing stock of phytoplankton from the water column of Suisun Bay, in northern San Francisco Bay. A paper in Aquatic Toxicology shows another apparent result of the invasion: an increase in selenium con

centrations in the biota of the bay. Bivalves are frequently particularly prone to bioaccumulate selenium in their tissues. It is possible that P. amurensis may have a greater bioaccumulation ability than other bivalves, because it is an unusually voracious filter feeder and utilizes a variety of food sources. However, say the study's authors, direct comparison with other bivalve species in the Bay was difficult because P. amurensis has essentially displaced them all. However, they note that, whether or not it bioaccumulates selenium to a

greater extent than other bivalve species, the fact that P. amurensis has decimated the food web of the water

ty structure toward benthic organisms can in itself "enhance adverse effects

of selenium in the system, by expand ing the availability of a contaminated food supply." The highest concentrations of sele nium in P amurensis, say the study's authors, "exceed values that other studies have shown reduce growth or cause reproductive damage when ingested in experiments by birds and fish." Indeed, they exceed values at which "a high frequency of adverse effects is found" by two-fold. Earlier studies showed selenium concentra

tions in the livers of surf scoters (a species of diving duck) seven to four teen times higher than those from ducks at a reference site. Similar high levels were found in other benthivores, such as sturgeon and Dungeness crab. Predators that fed from the water col

umn, such as striped bass, appeared to have lower concentrations than the

When you're a monster, you'll eat anything.

benthivores. The authors conclude "that the invasion of the non-native bivalve P.

JWC's Muffin Monster grinder prevents clogging, reduces

amurensis has resulted in increased

bioavailability of a potent environmen tal toxin to certain benthivores in San

Francisco Bay. Changes in contami nant cycling and potential effects are yet another reason to be concerned by the threat of invasive speeies in our estuarine ecosystems."

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Circle reply card No. 164


ratory caused the isoprene emissions from the leaf cells to decrease.


finding was duplicated by Columbia scientists in Biosphere 2's agriforestry area. In the study, scientists demon


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Researchers at Columbia

University's Lament Doherty Earth Observatory and the University of Colorado at Boulder have found, ironically, that

two pollutants - carbon dioxide and

hydrocarbons emitted from agricultur

Planted in 1998, the stands have

grown under elevated CO2 conditions

Emission in an Agriforest Ecosystem, conducted at Columbia's Biosphere 2 Laboratory, located outside of Tucson, AZ., appears in the January 16, 2003, issue oiNATURE Magazine. The study was published online January 5.

what in mitigating air quality prob lems. The study. Increased CO2

In an attempt to isolate leaf cells and chloroplasts - small bodies located inside plant cells that contain chloro phyll - CU-Boulder scientists discov

Uncouples Growth from Isoprene

ered that increases in CO2 in the labo

al forest trees - offset each other some

strated that growth of an intact Eastern Cottonwood plantation under increased COj (800 and 1200 parts per million) reduced ecosystem isoprene production by 21% and 41% respec tively. Biosphere 2's agriforest is a halfacre space that has been divided into three separate chambers for a multiyear study of Eastern Cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) response to three levels of CO2 (400, 800 and 1200 ppm).

since 1999.

Believed by scientists to be a major factor in global warming, increase lev els of carbon dioxide, one of several

greenhouse gases, has been shown to reduce "agriforest" emissions of

hydrocarbons, such as isoprene that contribute to ground-based ozone pol lution, said Todd Rosenstiel, CU-

Boulder, co-chief author of the study.


USFilter/Stranco has been devejopinj and Riarketing irino- '^ vative, engineered products desianed to maximize cbemi-'

cal utilization for the municipal wat^and wastewater- treat

ment industry for niTore than SOirears. Call Indachern today; to discuss your specific chemical feed application ancMo find out how we can improve your plant process. -




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STRANTROL ORP chlorination/dechlorination controllers . WATER CHAMP Chemical induction units for


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Indachem Inc. 1040 Martin Grove Road, Unit 3 Toronto, Ontario, Canada MOtV 4W4 Phone: (416) 743-3751 Fax: (416) 743-2038 52 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003


For more information, circle reply card No. 142 (See page 25)

Biosphere 2 Commercial agriforests made up of trees including poplars, Eucalyptus and Acacia emit high levels of isoprene, a highly reactive chemical species believed to contribute heavily to ground-based ozone, Rosenstiel said. Ozone maintains its chemical struc ture whether it occurs miles above the

earth or at ground level, and can be "good" or "bad," depending on its loca tion in the atmosphere. "Good" ozone occurs naturally in the stratosphere, forming a layer that protects life on earth from the sun's harmful rays. In the lower atmosphere, ground-level ozone is considered "bad."

When inhaling ozone, the gas trav els throughout the respiratory tract, damaging the bronchioles and alveoli in the lungs, air sacs that are important for gas exchange. Repeated ozone exposure can inflame lung tissues and cause respiratory infections, according

mercial agriforest species emit high levels of isoprene, proliferation of agriforest plantations has significant

ty inside the Biosphere 2 Lab, suggests it may be possible to genetically engi neer environmentally friendly poplar trees by lessening their isoprene out

potential to increase regional ozone pollution and enhance the lifetime of methane, an important determinant of global climate." "As agriforests replace natural forests, the potential for producing hydrocarbons like isoprene will


Biosphere 2 is a 3.1 acre, glassenclosed, research laboratory and the world's largest controlled environment facility for terrestrial and marine plant growth, and experimental climate change science. Columbia University has managed the campus and research laboratory since January 1996.

increase. The news here is that we have discovered a situation in which elevat

ed CO2 concentrations work in a posi tive way to reduce pollution that is caused by iso prene. In the pres ence of sunlight and nitrogen oxide pollution from

to the US Environmental Protection

Agency Website. While some may view this finding as environmentally positive, Rosenstiel is more cautious. "The effects of CO2 are unpredictable. The bigger picture is the rapidly growing amount of these agriforests worldwide emitting hydro carbons like isoprene in much larger volumes, since we still do not know enough about the basic chemistry and biochemistry of isoprene to predict what may happen in the future," Rosenstiel said. "One thing we have shown is that 'tweaking' environmental conditions where such trees grow through changes in water consump tion, temperature and soil conditions may have significant effects on iso prene emissions." Writing in NATURE Magazine, the researchers note, "As almost all com





industrial process es, isoprene reacts in a way that enhances the pro


duction of ozone



can cause serious

respiratory prob lems in people." An



500 million tons of

isoprene are emit ted




atmosphere year.


each The


Southeast U.S. has

• rapid, clean installation • long service life

large amounts of forest


• superior hydraulic performance


tributing to the iso prene emissions. The Boulder

• minimal chemical diffusion • excellent QA/QC

P.O. Box 385, Rockwood, ON Canada NOB 2K0






Tel:(519) 856-1352 Fax:(519) 856-0759 www.waterloo-barrier.com

researchers' activi For more information, circle reply card No. 144

Ashtead Technology Rentals offers the broadest range of Environmental Monitoring Instruments:


■ Indoor Air Quality


■ Confined Space Entry • Toxic Gas Monitoring


■ Industrial Hygiene

-Ambient Air

• Hazardous Waste

• Water Quality & Mucti Morelll





Visit Ashtead at the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow


May 14-15th at the Toronto Congress Centre

For more information, circle reply card No. 143(See page 25) S3

Culvert Engineering

Culvert headwall


conquers site constraints at

Uranium City

Highway No. 962 services the

remote northern community of Uranium City in the

extreme Northwest corner of

Saskatchewan. Uranium City is north of Lake Athabasca, 30 miles south of the North West Territories border. The

city was developed and named as a result of a significant uranium deposit that was first explored in 1946. At one point, the highway crosses the Fredette River. The wood bridge deck and abutments that had been in

service some 40 years were in serious distress. The North abutment was slid

ing to the south and the deck required complete replacement. Ground access

Both the steel arch and the headwall components were light in weight compared to alternative solutions. struction equipment, such as pile driv ers, would need to remain on site for twelve months. This requirement made that option prohibitively expensive. The Saskatoon branch of Armtec

Construction Products was approached regarding an alternative solution. The company's Jim McGeary was invited to visit the site, along with Department of Highways personnel to discuss pos sible corrugated steel pipe solutions. Due to environmental and hydraulic concerns, a full periphery corrugated steel structure was ruled out.

Following a comprehensive site meeting, it was determined that a sin gle radius arch manufactured from structural plate corrugated steel pipe seated on footings would be a viable solution. Existing three-foot square concrete pilasters that capped wooden piles would serve as the footings. A Geoweb® retaining wall rein forced with T C Mirafi uni-axial poly ester geogrids would be employed for the headwalls.

Project nearing completion.

to Uranium City is limited and very expensive, as there are no permanent roads linking the city with the rest of Canada. Ice roads are available during winter, or materials may be hauled via barge in the early summer. A number of replacement options were considered for the bridge. A con ventional girder-on-abutment bridge would have required that heavy con

Tenders were called requesting the supply and installation of a 5180 mm span structural plate arch, mounted to the existing pilasters, and associated retaining walls. Normally a supplier, Armtec chose to bid the project as a contractor. The scope included: • Demolition, detours, temporary crossing and environmental protection. • Supply and assembly of the arch. • Supply and installation of the retain ing walls. • Backfilling and compaction of the

54 Environmental Sdence & Engineering, March 2003

arch and retaining walls. • Supply and installation of the guardrail system. The





Armtec in December, 2000. All con

struction materials were shipped to site via the winter ice road. Demolition of

the existing bridge started the follow ing June. The project was completed in early August, 2001. The success of this project was due to a number of factors. Two of those

factors stood out in particular. Both the steel arch and the headwall compo nents were light in weight compared to alternative solutions. The arch was

shipped as a series of nested plates, while the cellular Geoweb® fascia

material was shipped in a collapsed and folded form on pallets. The geogrid was provided in roll form. The compact shipping volume, and the rel atively low weight of the primary bridge and wall components, translat ed into significant savings in the cost of freight. Both the corrugated steel arch and the geocell/geogrid retaining walls were constructed using simple con struction techniques. This feature allowed local labour, inexperienced with these products, to complete the project on time and under budget with out the use of large, expensive and spe cialised construction equipment. Circle reply card No. 162

By Jim McGeary and Doug Lowry,Armtec Limited

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666

â– ffectw


flexible systems

Pre-insulated Flexible Pipe

PS2100 pressure sensor for water level & temperature The New Greenspan PS2100 sen sor provides a highly accurate,

Systems Rex-Flex, Copper-Flex and Steel-

Flex pre-lnsulated pipe systems for hot or cold water distribution, come complete with bonded


polyurethane foam and polyethyl ene jacket. Supplied In colls, these flexible systems allow reduction in number of joints and elbows. Complete selection of brass com pression fittings available. Visit our

advanced groundwater probe of its ature and a free software demo.

Visit us at wwAV.envlro-analytical.com. Environmental Analytical Systems Circle reply card No. 201

Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 200

Danfoss analytical meters

Danfoss EVITA In situ analytical

Pre-Englnesrad Pump and Monitoring Packages

control resulting In Increased plant capacity, cleaner effluent, less sludge production and dramatically reduced energy consumption. Include:

design and fabrication of custom systems. Packaged panels are cor rosion resistant, pre-englneered,


measurement in sewage system,


pre-packaged, completely selfcontained packages with chemical metering pumps, all necessary pip ing, appurtenances and fittings

oxygen profile measurement in the reactors of diffuser modules and

outlet measurement of oxygen, ammonium phosphate and nitrate

assembled and tested. Pre-mount-

ed packages are a cost-effective way of ensuring reliable systems. Metcon Sales & Engineering

to monitor and document treat

ment quality. Controls

Pre-engineered pump and monitoring packages

Metcon offers a variety of pre-engi neered, fabricated metering and control packages, as well as

meters ensure optimum process



kind. Call 1-800-427-8591 for liter

web site for more Information:



ance, the PS2100 Is the most




groundwater monitoring require ments. Utilising ceramic technolo gy for stability and advanced elec tronics and calibration for perform

Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 202

Circle reply card No. 203

Now available!

Also available!

An in-depth analysis of drainage pipe performance and design comparisons of concrete pipe vs FIDPE. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Call for your copy now! Visit us at

If you liked Just the Facts Concrete Pipe vs HOPE - you'll love




Concrete Pipe vs CSP. The techni cal data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Ontario Concrete Pipe



Ontario Concrete Pipe

Circle reply card No. 205


Circle reply card No. 204

Submersible pumps & mixers ITT Flygt's new 36 page brochure states that they are the world's largest manufacturer of sub mersible pumps and mixers. Extensive research In fluid dynam ics and over 50 years experience

Pumps and mixers


with submersibles,

enable ITT

Flygt to provide customers with designs for pumping and mixing applications, an extensive range of products, and software programs to help customers with design and systems engineering. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 206

Consulting Engineers

of Ontario

CEO Directory 2003 Ontario's most comprehensive guide to consulting engineers will be available for purchase in April 2003. The Consulting Engineers of Ontario's 2003 Directory will pro vide detailed corporate profile information and selection criteria

for the CEO membership, which

offers a wide range of engineering services. The Directory will also include geographic locations, con tact Information and fields of special izations for all our members. $80+GST. Visit our Web site at: www.ceo.on.ca.

Consulting Engineers of Ontario Circle reply card No. 207

March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 55

Garbage Disposal

Processor can reduce landfill needs

Atechnology that of ers a solu

tion to the United Kingdom's

problem of garbage disposal and landfill needs has been

developed by Davies Brothers (Waste) Limited of Bridgend, Wales. The prototype reprocessing plant the first of its kind in the UK and

Europe - uses no chemicals, only a high temperature (160 degrees Cel sius) and water turned to steam to ster ilise all household rubbish fed into it

before the process ingeniously sepa rates the rubbish into its constituent

parts for recycling - ferrous metal, alu minum cans, kitchen waste, appropri ate plastics, paper, etc. The paper, cardboard and putrescible waste are broken down into ster ilised fibres which can then be baled

up for recycling or used as power-gen erating fuel, or made into insulation boards for the building industry. The metals come out polished, stripped of labels or coating and are removed with


I Jeff Davies, Managing Director of the company, is pictured during a demonstration of the new thermal

conversion plant which its engi neers and designers have devel oped and built. Photo: Mike Pattison

magnets; the aluminum is removed by an electric eddy current separator.

The development is appropriate for

i Robert E. Marttila

B.Sc., M.A.SC., P.Eng.

local authorities which have to choose

new methods of disposing of garbage since UK government legislation requires the reduction of waste for landfill. In three years, councils have to compost or recycle 25 per cent of rubbish, a figure which rises to 30 per

J. Stephen Ash B.Sc., P.Eng.

The Directors of Jagger Hims Limited are pleased to announce the acquisition of Site Investigation Services Limited in Peterborough, Ontario. Our new branch man ager is Steve Ash. Bob Marttila, a designated consulting geotechnical engineer and a former principal of Site Investigation Services will provide continuity through the transition period. The acquisition will strengthen the geotechnical component of our earth science expertise, including soil laboratory testing services, as well as enhance and expand our service to clients in the area. 815 High Street, Unit #9, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 8J9

1-866-818-8366 • www.jaggerhims.com

Hims TED Environmental Consulting Engineers

cent by 2010. Essentially the equipment is a fully automated giant washing machine which can process 100,000 tonnes of

general rubbish per year and takes merely 90 minutes to treat each load. The steam is also continually recycled. The 40-tonne self-contained sys tem, which requires no chimney, can be built to any size and specification and complies with all the projected UK government and European directives. For further information, contact, e-

mail: jeff.davies@dbwaste.com. 56

For more Information, circle reply card No. 146 (See page 25)

Product and Service Showcase New pipe design manual

New DO measurement

HOPE pipe in-service report The





Association (ACPA) has released a

report on the condition of HDPE pipe in-service in six states in the U.S. The

report, prepared by Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates,

The 13th edition of the Concrete Pipe Design Manual for engineers who select the type, size and strength requirements of concrete pipe, is now



Inc., Northbrook, IE., reviews the perTT


with large diameter "

HDPE culvert and

Pipe Association. The 536-page design manual has been updated to provide the most current technical data and design aids needed to assist engineers in


cross drains. The 64


Circle reply card No. 208

product for DO measurement! HachLDO measures dissolved oxygen using a luminescent measurement tech nique. This technique does not con sume the oxygen and requires no elec trodes or electrolyte! This eliminates

formance associated

available from the American Concrete

preparing efficient and cost-effective drainage solutions for sanitary sewer, storm drain and culvert applications.

Hach Company has developed a new


page report includes tables, graphs and 45 full-colour photographs. For a copy of the report, contact the ACPA Resource Centre, 800-290-2272. Nonmember

frequent calibrations, according to Hach. Due to the non-consumptive nature of this technology, cleaning fre

cost: $18.00 (U.S.) ps&h. American Concrete Pipe Association Circle reply card No. 209

tional technologies. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 210

Engineering services


quencies are greatly reduced over tradi

Design/Build Wastewater Treatment Systems

Circle reply card No. 211

Circle reply card No. 212

On-site biological anaerobic and aero bic wastewater treatment systems for industrial processors with highstrength wastes. Technologies range from low-rate to ultra-high-rate anaero bic and include the proprietary ADlSBR along with conventional aerobic treatment. Pilot studies are performed when treatability is uncertain. Every treatment train is custom-designed according to your needs. More infor mation can be found at www.adisystems.ca. ADI Systems Circle reply card No. 213

Get the most from your quality management system

Parkson Geo-Reactor™

Remove arsenic, chromium

Providing the complete spectrum of services needed to plan, design and

Association of Ontario

Land Surveyors

construct water and wastewater infra

structure including: Traditional engi neering, design and construction, design/build, SCADA/real time con


trol, and structured wetlands/recre

ational water quality. American Water Services

and uranium from

water supplies ADI International's

Management Systems

Learn more by down-loading our

Parkson's Geo-Reactor"' is an attached


growth, moving-bed bio-reactor.




www.bsiamericas.com/getthemost • What is ISO 14001? • ISO 14001: An Environment for Excellence • What is ISO 9001:2000? •



adsorption process removes heavy met als from groundwater to low ppb con



Health & Safety • Public & On-site Training catalogue. BSI Management Systems Canada employs over 70 full-time assessors operating from 15 cities across Canada and serves more than 2,600 clients. BSI Management Systems Circle reply card No. 214


patented media supports biological growth, and its random movement aer ates the wastewater in unique ways. The net result is increased DO, increased contact time of the mixed

liquor with the biology, thinner and more active biofilm, and improved mixing in the tank. Geo-Reactors offer efficient BOD reduction and nitrifica

tion can easily be accomplished. Parkson

Circle reply card No. 215


available from




50 gpm to 10,000 gpm.

MEDIA G2™ is certified to

NSF Standard 61 and performance ver ified by ETV Canada. Full-scale arsenic removal plants are operating in Canada, United States, Japan and New Zealand. Ask about our free testing on your water. ADI International Inc. Circle reply card No. 216

March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 57

Product and Service Showcase Chemical tank cleaning

MAGFLOÂŽ magnetic flow

Pipeline rehabilitation coating



Tank surfaces m contact with water will

accumulate organic and inorganic deposits over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBFs, and increased HFC numbers. Heavy deposits lead to increased corrosion and reduce the life

time of surface coatings. NSF approved Floran products have been developed for convenient & efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and fil ter surfaces. ClearTech Industries

Circle reply card No. 217

Frotal 7125 is used as a rehabilitation

The MAGFLO* Magnetic Flow Meter from Danfoss is easy to install, easy to commission, easy to service, highly dependable; it offers simplicity that saves you money for years to come. The MAGFLO* 3100 comes with

either Neoprene or EFDM linings and AISI 316 Ti electrodes. User-friendly operator interface and SENSORFROM technology. Davis Controls Limited Circle reply card No. 218

used for new construction where colder

temperatures exist and preheating or post heating is not practical or feasible. Denso North America Inc.

Circle reply card No. 219

Advanced Biological

Plastic back

Wastewater Treatment

pressure/relief valves

Noise control panels


'"1 Chemline's plastic SB

Ecofluid USBF is the ideal solution

solid Series

Back Fressure/Relief

for your Class A

Valves are an excel

Reclaimed Water

lent choice for chem

requirements and retrofitting exist ing ing treatment plants to increase capaci ty and improve the level of treatment to Eckoustic* Functional Fanels (EFFs) meet increasingly stringent regulatory provide a more comfortable acoustic requirements. USBF is the result of environment. By reducing noise levels, over forty years of R&D, testing and thereby lessening worker fatigue, EFFs practical experience and provides an promote safety and help improve pro efficient, highly affordable wastewater ductivity. EFFs can quickly add sound treatment plant with low maintenance adsorption to compressor rooms, blow and operating costs with no inherent er rooms and pump rooms. capacity limits. Ecofluid USBF Eckel Industries, Inc. Circle reply card No. 220

coating for existing low temperature inservice operating pipelines, station pip ing, girth welds, tie-ins, push rack (laybarge applications), abrasion resistant coating for boring applications, repairs to FEE, fittings and fabrication. Can be

ical dosing lines 3/8" to 4". They offer reliable opening and adjustable relief pressures of 3 to 150 psi. All-plastic construction (FVC, FF or FVDF True Union bodies) offers high chemical resistance at reasonable costs. They offer high flow rates, requiring less than 5 psi overpressure to fully open. Optional pressure gauges are available. Chemline Plastics Limited

Circle reply card No. 221

Circle reply card No. 222

Self-priming pumps



Packaged sewage pumping system

Because Gorman-Rupp centrifugal pumps are self-priming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only the suc tion line down in

the liquid.


vice or mainte

Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Fackaged Submersible Fumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass enclosure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for maintenance or service. Compact, economical design reduces site space requirements by eliminating the need for a separate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 223

nance can be per formed quickly and simply with common


tools and without

having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and no need for service per sonnel to enter the sump. GormanRupp Circle reply card No. 224

58 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Intermittent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expen sive tank cleanout and scheduled main

tenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multiple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 225

Product and Service Showcase Small drinking water systems

ZENON's new Modular Drinking Water(MOW)system has been specif ically designed to overcome the chal lenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane technology incorporated in large treatment plants. This ultrafiltration system is cost-effective, easy-touse, and requires only minimal super vision, while consistently producing high quality water. ZENON Environmental Inc.

EnvlroRanger ERS 500

For all your storage needs

advanced level controller Using non-contact ing ultrasonic tech nology and patent ed echo-processing techniques, the EnviroRanger ERS 500 accurately monitors and controls

The MegaDome is a versatile, cost-

liquid levels up to 15m (50 ft) and/or liquid flow in flumes, weirs, or open channels. Five relays can be utilized to control any combination of gates, alarms, or pumps. Advanced pump con trol features increase your return on investment by reducing energy con sumption costs, reducing maintenance costs, and minimizing on-site manual

efficient structure that adapts to the expanding storage needs of your grow ing business. Harnois' versatile struc tures are pre-engineered to meet local

building codes and are designed with high side walls for maximum storage capacity and accessibility. • Corrosion resistant

• PowerShield™ tough • Door options

intervention.www.siernens-milltronics.com Siemens Mllltronics

Harnois Industries Inc.

Circle reply card No. 226

Circle reply card No. 227

Circle reply card No. 228

Portable Suspended Solids Analyzer

Escalator® Fine screen

HYDROVEX® SFT sediment flusher

The HYDROVEX' SFT is designed to clean the sediments, grit and debris out

The Aysix Model A5-1IG3150 Portable Suspended Solids Analyzer uses

of CSO/SSO/Stormwater


advanced electronics and


optics to provide a multirange analyzer for solids

siderable lower

level measurement in aqueous solu tions. The built in data logging and data download capability make record keep ing simple, eliminating loss of data. The sensor operates on the single gap, light absorption principle to determine the concentration of suspended solids. The sensor design focuses on the abili ty to easily understand the MESS(1000 to 5000 mg/1) and the RAS (7000 to 20,000 mg/1) streams. Cancoppas


maintenance cost than other

water level. Perforated stainless steel


screen panels are carried on heavy-duty chains and incorporate holes of 1/4 inch (6mm) diameter, giving fine screening in any direction. The screen panels are specially formed to create steps, which remove larger solids, and increase the effective screening area.

SFT is designed to tip automatically with no external energy. The total

John Meunier/USFilter

of the tank. John Meunier/USFilter

Circle reply card No. 230

Multi-stage filter for small systems

Remote flow verification

ProMinent's range of new Sigma motor-driven metering pumps keep you informed with un paralleled flow verifica tion technology: • manual, analog, contact and batch filQM* iSEBIFS I


tions of less than 1,500. MS Filter Inc.

Circle reply card No. 232


water eontent of the HYDROVEX*

SFT is released instantly in the cham ber, creating a powerful high velocity wave which will flush away the sedi ments and debris to a sump at the end

Circle reply card No. 231

Compact Water Supply Pu


The Grundfos MQ is a compact pump and pressure-boosting unit specially designed for home water supply. It is a reliable and very easy-to-operate unit that can be


system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no membranes to replace, and yet treat ment performance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced popula


The Escalator" gives continuous fine screening for channel type applications with very few moving parts below the

Circle reply card No. 229

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

Of con

• displays flow rate and totalized pump output in litres or gallons • accumulative stroke counter and

stroke length percentage • 20-1000 litres/hr with wide turn down ratio

• 4-20 mA output, programmable timer, aceess code programming, flow monitoring, diaphragm failure moni toring. Visit: www.prominent.ca. ProMinent Circle reply card No. 233

fitted almost anywhere. The pump is self-priming, which means that it is capable of drawing water from a well depth of down to 8m. As the MQ has a built-in pressure tank, you do not need to worry about a space-consuming tank. The MQ pump is also ideal for boosting pressure from elevated or subterrain water storage tanks or from the water mains, www.grundfos.com. Grundfos

Circle reply card No. 234 IT

March 2003, EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 59

oduct and Service Showcase Package Water and

Measurement solutions

Wastewater Plants

Do you need to ensure high quali ty, reduce operat ing costs and comply with env ironmental regu

Adapted to Your Needs


This is

an easy-to-read resource for oper ators of water dis

We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment Plants worldwide.


Package Wastewater Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree oftreatment. It is econom ical, easy to install and operate, reli able, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 235

tribution, wastewater treatment and related industries about level measure

ment instruments and applications, as well as installation tips and techniques for best results.

70 # ■ ■



created for environ

mental applications. It is suitable for use

with slightly aggres sive liquids such as water contaminated

^ with hydrogen car bons. in sampling and remedial pump

ing applications. SQE-NE pumps offer the following features: dry-running protection, high efficiency pump and motor, wear resistance, protection against upthrust, soft start, over voltage and under voltage protection and, elec tronic control and communication.

gy and strong technical support.

www.grundfos.com. Grundfos

Siemens Milltronics

Circle reply card No. 236

Circle reply card No. 237

Environmental services

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Stantec provides value-added professional services and

technologies in the

five principal market segments of environ ment, buildings, in dustrial, transportation and urban land, from over 40 locations principally in North America. Environmental engi neering services include municipal and

International Water Supply

The SQE-NE is a submersible pump

instruments set the standard for level measurement with innovative technolo

IWS 1933

Siemens Milltronics

SQE-NE environmental pump

industrial wastewater treatment, waste-

The Inlet Stormceptor

System employs the same principles of operation as the wellknown In-line Inter

ceptors. Developed to treat run-off from an

area of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the inter

nal by-pass function, ensuring that all sedi run-offremains trapped within the stor age chamber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 238

water collection and pumping, munici pal and industrial water treatment, water distribution, pumping and stor age and general municipal engineering. A full range of environmental manage ment services is also provided. Stantec Consulting Ltd. Circle reply card No. 239

Series Stormceptor system

Interactive communications

Digital communication

Serving the Groundwater Industry Across Canada www.iws.ca

ment and oil removed from stormwater

Circle reply card No. 240


Developed for the treatment of larger catchment areas, the new Series Stormceptor system employs the same operating principles as the well-known Inline and Inlet Stormceptor systems. The system receives flow from a single inlet pipe and splits it into two distinct streams, which are treated in two sepa rate treatment chambers before recom-

bining into a single outlet pipe. It effectively doubles the treatment area of the inline system. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 241

m RACO Manufacturing announces their new

CATALYST Interactive Com

munications System, which combines data and event logging, alarm notifica tion, and status checking into a single package. CATALYST features allow real time, 2-way communications via phone, fax, cell, or pager; remote pro gramming and upgrades, monitoring of up to 256 points, and PLC interface. Summa Engineering Circle reply card No. 242

60 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

Auma's 2-wire digital communication keeps the customer in control. Communication protocols such as Modbus, DeviceNet and Profibus are very complex and have been developed by the best computer communication minds in the industry. They allow the exchange of information between devices in the field, e.g. actuators, sen sors and controls, as required for the automation of controlled processes. Troy-Ontor Inc. Circle reply card No. 243

Product and Service Showcase Waterloo Biofilter®

Visual MODFLOW Pro 3.1 New version! Visual MODFLOW Pro 3.1 is the

proven standard for professional 3D groundwater flow and

transport modeling using MODFLOW2000, MODPATH,

Waterloo Biofilters are efficient, modu

lar trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained

modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to plug in on-site. They have long-term robustness, low maintenance, remote monitoring, and small space requirements. Waterloo Biofilter Systems Circle reply card No. 244

MT3DMS and RT3D. Visual MOD-

FLOW Pro 3.1 now supports the advanced groundwater flow modeling capabilities of MODFLOW-SURFACT. This powerful numeric engine has been developed specifically to address many of the limitations of the standard USGS

MODFLOW codes and to bring groundwater modeling to a higher level of sophistication. Waterloo Hydrogeologic, Inc. Circle reply card No. 245

New catalog • New website

Prosonic Flow

Ashtead Technology Rentals has just printed a new Catalog of its rental instruments


HS-1 Oil/Water Interface Sensor The Waterra HS-1 Oil/Water Interface Sensor is now even more sensitive.

The HS-1 probe uses unique ultrason ic technology that makes it very robust and easy to clean. A new electrode configuration now makes the probe even more accu



O i 1/W a te r Interface Water

and Level

tapes are still the lightest and most portable on the market today. Waterra

Circle reply card No. 246

fThe Smith & Loveles PISTA® Grit Chamber


ultrasonic clamp on

PISTA* Grit Chamber

maintains the highest proven grit removal effi


ll flowmeter, Prosonic


Flow, is now available as a portable,

ciencies over a wide



range of daily flows

' device with built-in data logger. It's small, light and comes in a soft carrying case. Suitable for most pipe materials with nominal diameters from 1/2"-160". Application

because of its exclusive forced vortex

applications. No matter what you need to test, sam

ple, monitor or analyze, Ashtead Technology can rent you the right instrument. The new catalog has prod uct descriptions and specifications for all instruments in the rental inventory. Formerly Response Rentals, Ashtead Technology has added dozens of new instruments to its product line. Ashtead also launched a new website with a

complete on-line library of product specifications, www.ashtead-technology.com. Ashtead Technology Circle reply card No. 247

Shhh! Quiet Pac pump working



design. It removes grit and other dis crete particles, separates organics and inorganics, and reduces grit accumula tion in downstream basins, channels,

on a graphic user interface and down loaded for later processing. Applications include consumption, demand analysis and test measure ments such as verification of perma nently installed measuring devices.

weirs and piping. This results in reduced wear on mechanical equip ment. Minimum space is required for installation, and it boasts low overall installation, operation and maintenance costs. Complete grit pumping, dewatering and washing components are avail

Endress + Hauser Canada

able. Smith & Loveless

and measured value data can be shown

Circle reply card No. 248

Circle reply card No. 249

Cofferdam rentals to 12 feet

Separate oil and water emulsions Infinitex tures

Stop noise complaints and secure pumps overnight. Only Godwin DriPrime® Orange centrifugal pumps auto

prime to 28 feet dry static, can truly run dry continuously and will re-prime on demand, unattended. And rent or pur

chase from 2,500-pump rental fleet with 24/7 service commitment you can

trust. Pre-bid, engineering, on-site supervision, emergency mobilization. One call to Team RMS does it. www.rmsenviro.com RMS Enviro Soiv Inc.

Circle reply card No. 250

Portadam® temporary cofferdam, diversion and containment systems, with 25 years experience, have proven to be reliable, cost-effective, installa

tion and environmentally friendly vs. sheet piling, water inflatable dams and earthen berms. Turnkey installations on concrete, bedrock or sediment, uneven or inclined. No civil prepara tion required. Area left undisturbed when complete, www.rmsenviro.com RMS Enviro Soiv Inc.



systems for small shops as well as the giants in industry. Oily wastewater is drawn from the pro cessing tank and fed to the strainer for

removal of large solid particles. From there, the stainless steel pump trans ports the wastewater under pressure to the prefilter and spiral membranes. Here the clean water is separated for discharge or reuse while the oily wastewater is re-circulated to the processing tank, www.can-am.net. Can-Am Instruments

Circie reply card No. 251

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March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 61

Environmental NEWS

Paper mill company fined $30,000 for failing to comply with water regulations

Protection Act.

Interlake Acquisition Corporation Ltd.

Three of these charges relate to the failure to report test results to the Ministry of the Environment indicat ing that process effluents from the plant had been acutely lethal to rain

has been fined $30,000 after pleading

bow trout.

guilty to six charges of failing to com ply with Ontario's Municipal and

paper sector. Interlake operates a fine paper mill located in St. Catharines. The company was fined $5,000 for

Two other charges related to the failure to control the quality of the company's process effluent to avoid such acute lethality. The final count related to the failure to file a quarterly report on effluent quality within the prescribed time.

each of six counts under Regulation 760/93, made under the Environmental

February 21, 2000 and May 28, 2001.

Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) Regulation for the pulp and

These offences occurred between

Township and chief operator fined for water quality reporting offence The Ontario Township of SmithEnnismore-Lakefield, and chief opera

tor Christopher Norman, have been fined a total of $8,100, after pleading

guilty to failing to meet a reporting requirement of Ontario's Drinking Water Protection Regulation 459/00. The Court heard that the Township failed to notify the Ministry of the Environment and the Medical Officer

of Health of test results indicating low chlorine residual levels in the water

treatment and distribution system for the former Village of Lakefield. This contravention








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The Township of Smith-EnnismoreLakefield was fined $8,000, while Norman received a $100 fine.

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have identified a group of microorgan

toxic pesticide, endosulfan. Detoxify ing pesticides through biological means is receiving attention as an alternative to existing methods, such as incineration and landfill, which are not

sufficient for large, contaminated sites. Endosulfan, classified as an organochlorine - the same family as DDT - is registered for use as a pesti cide on crops. Its residues have been found in the atmosphere, soils, sedi ments, surface and ground waters, and

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62 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

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Environmental NEWS found in at least 38 states, and is rated

by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a Category 1 pesticide with "extremely high acute toxicity." The results of this work suggest these novel strains of microorganisms are a valuable source of endosulfan

degrading enzymes and may be used

Process turns

wastewater into H2 fuel Penn State environmental engineers have shown that wastewater from a

confectioner, apple processor, and potato chip maker can produce hydro gen gas worth (US)$80,000 a year, or more.

for the detoxification of endosulfan in

contaminated soils, wastedumps, water bodies, industrial effluents and unused or expired stockpiles of the pesticide. BC animal waste firm fined for odours An Okanagan animal waste processor

In addition to hydrogen, which can be used as a fuel and industrial feed

stock, methane, the main component

of natural gas, can be generated from the wastewaters. The researchers estimate that over

10 billion BTUs of energy from methane could be produced every year

has been ordered to pay a total of $46,000 after pleading guilty to a pol lution-related charge stemming from its operation near Armstrong, BC. McLeods By-Products was fined $1,000, and ordered to pay $39,000 to

which intensified the odours. The

company was charged in July 2002 after an investigation into its opera tions by the Conservation Officer Service.

bacteria except those that produce spores that contain bacteria that can produce hydrogen once they are intro duced into the wastewater. The biosolids left over from fer

mentation are said to be only onefourth to one-fifth the volume left by typical aerobic treatment processes.

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of dead animals into proteins and oils

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soil and then heat treated to kill all

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and $6,000 as a victim services levy. The company renders the carcasses

from the operation escalated when McLeods began processing chickens,

In the tests, the researchers added hydrogen producing bacteria to sam ples of wastewater from the Pennsylvania food processors. The bacteria were obtained from ordinary

Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal

the Habitat Conservation Trust Fund,

that are mixed with grain and used as animal feed. Neighbours' complaints to the Ministry of Water, Land and Air

at a single one ofthese food processing plants.



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City of Dawson sentenced for sewage discharge Recently, the City of Dawson pleaded guilty to charges of depositing a dele

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terious substance into the Yukon River in contravention of the Federal

Fisheries Act. The city was fined $5,000 and ordered to construct and have a fully operational secondary sewage treatment plant by September 1,2004.

The city can be fined an additional $5,000 for each month that it fails to meet this timeline.

The charges follow an investigation by Environment Canada, Pacific and Yukon Region. Environment Canada enforcement personnel collected sam ples during an inspection ofthe City of Dawson's municipal discharge on August 16, 2000.

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Wilfley Weber provides high quality diffused aeration systems for municipal and industrial applications. Fine bubble, coarse bubble & static tube systems. Fine bubble diffusers with 10+ years life expectancy in municipal wastewater. Systems designed for high efficiency resulting in lower operational costs. For more information, circle reply card No. 156(See page 25) March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 63

Environmental NEWS BC expands its oil

ronment and create jobs, according to

recycling program

the Water, Land and Air Protection Minister Joyce Murray. Product stew

British Columbia's lubricating oil recycling program is being expanded to include used oil filters and empty oil containers, which will protect the envi

ardship programs allow products to be collected and recycled at the end of their lifecycle. In B.C. they include programs for paint, scrap tires, lead-




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Testing for radionuclides continues in NS




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Dr. Robert Strung, medical officer of health for the Capital Health District, said the drinking water at these schools does not present an immediate health risk. "It's important to remember that these are preliminary



results and that there is no health risk

operations management

from continuing to drink the water from these sources during the period of the investigation," said Dr. Strung.

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"There is no immediate health risk to


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people." Nova Scotia school boards have







64 EnvironmentalSdence & Engineering, March 2003


Bombay, India

been providing bottled water to the affected schools since the testing began in the spring of 2002.

Environmental NEWS

Environmental charges laid against the City of Edmonton The City ofEdmonton faces nine envi

ronmental charges stemming from the release of polychlorinated biphenyls

tivity to pesticides. The World Wildlife Fund had also

pressed for mechanisms to favour reg istration of lower-risk products, recog nition of wildlife's special sensitivities, and to require full disclosure of pesti

cide ingredients and hazards. Although Royal Assent has been given, Health Canada indicates it is unlikely to come into force for another

year, until they develop certain Regulations.

(PCB)at Commonwealth Stadium dur

ing the 2001 lAAF World Champion

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Great Lakes bill funds






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sediment clean-up In November, 2002, the US Congress passed legislation to fund the clean-up of contaminated sediments in parts


of the Great Lakes and in Lake

(Since 198S)

Champlain on the New York-Vermont

border. The Great Lakes Legacy Act of


2002(HR 1070)provides US$250 mil lion for fiscal years 2004 to 2008 for

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the monitoring, remediation and pre


vention of sediment contamination in the Great Lakes. The bill authorizes

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$50 million a year for the next five years for the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA) to carry out qualified projects for monitoring, pre vention and clean-up of sediment con tamination. In addition, the bill pro vides money that can promote local




(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

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Royal Assent Amendments to Canada's pesticides law - which had not been updated in some 33 years - are now in place. The new





includes many new provisions includ ing requirements for re-evaluation, better access to information, a require ment for pesticide registrants to report on any adverse effects, and some


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recognition of children's special sensi March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 65

Environmental NEWS The WWF and

tion and advance environmental goals

NorskeCanada partner to support global forest

for the responsible production of



NorskeCanada has pledged an ini tial $350,000 over three years, primari

The World Wildlife Federation and

ly to support expanded WWF activities

NorskeCanada have formed a partner ship to improve global forest conserva

in B.C. These focus on; protecting ter restrial and marine ecosystems of

global significance; improving forest management practices on the land scapes surrounding protected areas; and developing a flagship "valuechain" of paper products produced with high standards of environmental and forestry practices, from forest to manufacturer to retailer to consumer.


In the agreement, both partners commit to updating WWF's inter national report entitled "The Forest



Industry in the 21st Century," which



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est conservation objectives through






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efficient use of wood fibre in making

paper. NorskeCanada is a leader in the

EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPAT program


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development of lightweight papers, which require significantly less fibre in their manufacture.

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66 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

ADI-SBR technology In September 2002, the Foshan Hua Feng Paper Co. in Foshan, Guandong Province, signed a contract with ADl Systems Inc. for an ADI-SBR (sequen cing batch reactor system). This recy cle paper mill has an existing primary treatment system but required a sec ondary treatment system to meet the following final effluent limits:


100 mg/1 30 mg/1 60 mg/1




Hua Feng Paper undertook a detailed review of secondary treatment alternatives and ultimately chose the ADI-SBR for this important project. The choice was based upon the demonstrated performance character istics and the flexibility inherent with SBR technology to adapt the system to suit changing operating conditions. ADl Systems will supply process design, detailed design of SBR inter nals, operator training, start-up, com missioning, and equipment. The equipment supply includes four ADl Model ASD decanters, a jet aeration system, instrumention, and a complete PLC system for control and monitor

ing. The Changsa Design Institute will undertake detailed design, and local contractors will build the plant.

210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tel: (519)624-7223 Fax:(519)624-7224 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1G5 Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031

Chinese mill chooses

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The design wastewater characteris tics(SBR influent) were as follows:

Environmental NEWS Flow



= 650 mg/1 = 220 mg/1 = 100 mg/1




10 000 m3/d


The complete wastewater treatment system includes screening, equaliza tion, dissolved air flotation, nutrient addition, and an ADI-SBR system comprised oftwo 5000 m^ reactors and centrifugal blowers to supply air to the jet aeration system. Construction should be completed in the third quarter of 2003, with com missioning immediately thereafter.

A CD version ofthe PPI's corrugat ed high-density polyethylene pipe Design Manual is scheduled to be released in early 2003. The manual is organized into eight chapters and will cover the uses, struc tural design and integrity, installation.

and durability of corrugated HDPE pipe. Also included will be informa tion on storm water flow conveyances, soil issues and other pertinent field information.

To order, contact LaShawn Smith at 1-888-314-6774, ext. 17.

J.L, Richards & Associates Limited

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DND selects ZENON membrane bioreactor ZENON Environmental Inc. has been

Expertise for the new world of Water and

chosen to design, develop and manu

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facture a relocatable wastewater treat

ment plant (WWTP) for Canada's Department of National Defence. This will complement the DND's existing line of mobile water treatment prod ucts manufactured by ZENON.



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12 Years and Still Flowing Mail:

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PPI publishes HDPE report and Corrugated Pipe Design Manual The first known use of polyethylene

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MacViro Consultants inc. 90 Allstate Parkway,Suite 600, Markham,Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905) 475-5994 E-Mail: receptlon@nnacvlro.com

and sewer applications was written

Web site: www.macviro.com

nearly 30 years ago.

The Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) has published a comprehensive fact sheet written in question-and-answer format. The report offers technical information about water applications for HDPE

pipe and does not leave out the tough questions. This report and all other PPI print ed material is available for download at

www.plasticpipe.org and clicking on

Marshall Macklin


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, MIsslssauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhili, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055 E-mali: mmm@mmm.ca


the Publications link.

March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 67

Environmental NEWS

Wood dust, beryllium added to air pollution cancer list The National Institute of Environ

mental Health Sciences (NIEHS), an agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services, has pub


lished its biennial Report on Carcinogens. The report is a way for the government to help keep the public informed about substances or exposure circumstances "known" or "reasonably anticipated" to cause human cancers. The newest report lists broad-spectrum ultraviolet radiation as a known cause.


m Analytics Inc


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Also added was wood dust created in

cutting and shaping wood, nickel com pounds, and beryllium and its com pounds. Beryllium is not new to the list, but was previously listed as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." The report says that workers are exposed via inhalation of beryllium dust or skin contact with products con taining beryllium. Workers with the highest potential for exposure include beryllium miners, beryllium alloy makers, ceramics workers, missile technicians, nuclear reactor workers, jewelers, and electric and electronic equipment workers. Nickel compounds are used in industrial applications as catalysts and in batteries, pigments, and ceramics. NIEHS lists nickel compounds as "known" human carcinogens based on studies of workers showing excessive numbers of deaths from lung and nasal cancers.

Wood dust is particularly prevalent in sawmills, furniture-making, and cabinet-making. Among other substances added to the list are IQ, which is a compound formed during direct cooking with high heat, 2,2-bis, a flame-retardant chemical used to make some polyester resins, and vinyl fluoride.


Book Review According to Tim O'Riordan, Associate Director, Centre for Social


and Economic Research on the Global



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68 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2003

Environment, University of East Anglia, UK, The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Centwy is "the most authoritative summary of the evolving role of the precautionary principle in science policy and sustain able development that I have seen in print." The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century presents 14 detailed accounts of occupational, public and environmental hazards, such as as

bestos, PCBs, the damage to the ozone layer, the collapse of fish stocks, radi ation and "mad cow" disease. Each

written by experts in the relevant field, they focus on the use, neglect and pos sible misuse of a precautionary approach to the hazard in question, and address crucial questions. Published by Earthscan. E-mail: orders(@lbsltd.co.uk or order on-line at www.earthscan.co.uk.





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Surveyors has launched a new Web site at www.aols.org. An ad carried in the 2003 Directory issue had the

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incorrect URL and E-mail coordi

nates. The general mailbox is admin@aols.org. Cato scholar denounces

Web site: www.tsh.ca

umcr Ontario

Danish "secret inquisition"

Manitoba Saskatchewan

of scientist Patrick J. Michaels, Cato senior fellow in environmental studies, issued a statement regarding the conclusion reached by the Danish Committee on Scientific Dishonesty that Professor

Bjorn Lomborg's book. The Skeptical Environmentalist, displays "scientific dishonesty". They concluded that he was guilty of "scientific dishonesty" for portray ing many important issues, especially global warming, as largely exaggerated. Patrick Michaels said that, "in


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doing so, the Danish Research Agency, an Orwellian creation containing not one expert in climate science, cited not one specific mistake or dishonest statement made by Lomborg. Nor did they allow Lomborg any self-defense. That is because, on the subject of glob al warming, which is the longest and most important chapter in the book, he made no mistakes.

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ture, they would have found that the lead article in the prestigious journal

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► Advanced Modeling Applications

Climate Research came to conclusions

very similar to Lomborg: When cli mate projections are tempered with reality, the amount of expected warm ing in the next century falls to the low end of projections made by the UN. "Rather, they object to the fact that Lomborg's arguments demonstrate the futility of the Kyoto Protocol on glob al warming, which is enormously expensive and yet will have no demon

Modeling &


3425 Semenyk Court, Suite 200, Mississauga, Ontario, L5G 4P9 Tel: (905) 277-1110* Fax:(905)277-1112 • www.zorix.on.ca March 2003, Environmental Science & Engineering 69

Environmental NEWS

University of Toronto at

Mississauga will be demonstration site for solid oxide fuel cell

Ontario Power Generation and

Siemens Westinghouse have




University of Toronto at Mississauga (UTM) will be the loca tion for the first pre-commercial demonstration of the world's largest solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The unit will be incorporated into the existing physical plant at UTM in the fall of 2003, following extensive


testing at Kinectrics Inc., the key engi neering and system integrator on the project. According to Tapan Bose, Director of the Hydrogen Research Institute at the University of Quebec at Trois Rivieres and President of the Canadian

Hydrogen Association, this will mark the first time anywhere that this lead ing-edge R&D technology will be test ed on a commercial platform.

Help assure safe drinking water in Canada

Ufe need motivated experts to assess laboratory conformance to CABAL


ISO/lEC 17025 in a world-class

accreditation program Do you: • Have a degree or diploma with at least five years environmental laboratory experience? • Possess credentials in laboratory management, quality practices, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, toxicology, radiochemistry, microbiology, air analysis or asbestos analysis? • Possess good organization, communication and interpersonal skills? Are you willing to volunteer your time to: • Conduct 2 visits per year for 3 years? • Attend a Lead Auditor/Lead Assessor training course? • Attend CABAL assessor training? NOTE:CAEAL funds all assessor travel and training.

Help accredit drinking water laboratories. Submit your resume to Ms. Jennifer Clark (jclark@caeal.ca) by April 9, 2003.

Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories (Inc.) Suite 300, 265 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario KIS 2EI Phone:(613) 233-5300 Fax:(613)233-5501 http://www.caeal.ca

Advantages of this technology include high rates of energy efficiency and vir tually no emissions. The unit is capable of producing about 8 per cent ofthe campus'current electricity needs as well as hot water; this is the equivalent of meeting the electricity and hot water needs on an annual basis for more than 200 house holds.

The successful operation of the power plant on a commercial platform at UTM would represent an important step toward commercial readiness of this fuel cell technology. When com mercially proven, such a fuel cell sys tem could be located directly where the energy is consumed, such as small industrial sites, universities, hospitals, or even small neighbourhoods. Siemens Westinghouse is develop ing manufacturing processes and is building a plant near Pittsburgh to house its fuel cells business. The com

pany plans to come to market as early as 2006 with the unit that will be test ed at UTM.

In 2000, Ontario Power Generation, a commercial company wholly owned by the Province of Ontario, partnered with the Government of Canada, the U.S. Department of Energy, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, and Kinectrics Inc. to develop the world's largest atmospheric solid oxide com bined heat and power fuel cell system. Government of Canada funding for the prototype was provided through the Climate Change Action Fund/Tech nology Early Action Measures, Natural Resources Canada, and the National Research Council.

Contact: Melanie Forbrick, (407) 736-6718.


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