Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 2002

Page 1

Environmental Science

September 2002


& Engineering Covering Canada's multi-billion doiiar environmental protection industry since 1988.

Regina to host WCWWA conference

Monitoring anaerobic digester levels France builds world's largest nanoflitratlon water treatment plant Kelowna studies water conservation

Water storage facility designers choose floating covers Ontario gets tough on polluters Remote monitoring optimizes wastewater process

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August/September 2002 Vol.15 No.4 Issued September, 2002

Microfiltration to stop seawater intrusion

Advanced automation comes to the

precast concrete pipe industry - See page 14

- See page 22

Features 7

Blue Gold - a dismal litany of global water tragedies - editorial comment - by Tom Davey



Cover Story - Waveguide solves digester level monitoring dilemma


French fry plant wastewater treated by low-




Helping laboratories understand ISO/lEC 1 17025

1WEF commends new biosolids rules for 1protecting

rate anaerobic reactor 16

1New sensors may enhance sensitivity and reduce 1 power demand

worker and public health

Nanofilters convert river flow into safe


Cleaning up historic St. John's Harbour 1

drinking water


Irrigation incentive study reduces peak demand by 26%

Ensuring Ontario's drinking 1 are safe and sustainable



Norway cancels CO^ sea injection trials


Windy City to host WEFTEC 2002

water supplies


mining industry faces new effluent regulations



Canadian firm supplies piping for Hawaiin 1 deep-sea energy project



60,000 visitors expected at Pollutec 2002


Regina to host WCWWA conference


Ontario proposes tough AMPS regs


Solving lubrication problems in wastewater treatment plants


Book review - Environmental Toxicology 1


Remote monitoring for wastewater sites


Fossil tests show 1 underestimated


Ice cream firm chooses to treat its own 64

Satellites used to monitor aquifers 1




Ratifying the Kyoto accord makes me yawn 1 - Guest comment

Why sustainable drainage is urgently 60 ' needed 1

climate change may be

Nova Scotia water reservoir uses

geosynthetic floating covers

Departments 8



Industry Update


Ad Index




Literature Reviews


Professionai Cards


Product Review


Date Pad

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002



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Editorial Comment

Blue Gold -a dismal litany of global water tragedies

Itwas Malthus who first predicted

that growing human populations would inevitably result in human kind becoming unable to feed it

self, and so invested economics with the taint: The Dismal Science. In 2002, the

The authors' expertise in collecting and assembling the incredibly diverse water resource data on Planet Earth is

highly sophisticated, painstakingly pre sented and easy to read and understand.

book Blue Gold is similarly pessimistic but outlines a litany of tainted rivers, dried out aquifers and polluted lakes, as an even bigger threat to mankind than food shortages. History, however,shows that war has remained the largest and most consist ent obstacle to providing food and wa


To|\| Y _

Now,Blue Gold shows how water short

ages, pollution and population increases are rising on a dramatic scale which in evitably will lead to political unrest. Coincidently, the book's global wa ter theme has other links to the AWWA.

In 1999, Maude Barlow addressed the OWWA/OMWA^ conference in Ottawa

on this subject. Noted for her strong, left-wing views, 1 thought she seemed an unlikely speaker for this rather con servative group of water treatment pro fessionals. 1 was wrong. She captivated her audience with her expert grasp of

Many, including me, will disagree with some of the authors' familiar nos

trums that the full burden of all global water problems can be laid at the door of multinational coiporations-although some of them certainly do leave heavy and tainted footprints. Some of the authors' entreaties read

water resources data - interwoven with

more like biblical injunctions, rather than practical ways to solve the com plex economic, political, geographic, scientific and religious problems which hinder international cooperation. In

undeniably simplistic solutions to glo

nature, on land and in freshwater and

bal water situations.

oceans, virtually every animal and fish population establishes territorial impera tives. Force and cunning take the place of cumency exchanges. Water, the au thors insist, must remain a "free" right.

Now she has

written a book with Tony Clark called: Blue Gold - The battle against corpo rate theft of the world's water. While the subtitle leaves readers in no doubt

of the authors' left-wing mindset, their book is well worth buying for its im pressive collection of water resource

data. Many of the data she presented at the Ottawa confer

ence appear in this book.

By Tom Davey, Editor

Philip (ES&E January, 2002), said that one of the main reasons oceanic pollu tion was hard to police was that, unlike land, 'nobody owns it' and of course, there is the legendary "Tragedy of the Commons" where land adjacent to vil lages in England was gradually enclosed by feudal lords, or abused by a few, to the ultimate detriment of the land.

ter for the human race.

At the AWWA Centenary meeting in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1971, keynote speaker, Robert MacNeil', a Canadian author and broadcaster, eloquently out lined the growing number of areas where water shortages resulted in conflicts. Much later, a spokesman for the World Bank predicted that the wars in this cen tury would be about water, notjust land.

"Free" water in fact can have a nega tive effect on the environment. Prince

But some "free" water, in its natural

The authors lay out some dismal sta tistics. Groundwater overpumping and aquifer depletion are now serious prob lems in the world's most intensive agri cultural areas and water is being de pleted many times faster than nature can replenish it. Mexico City depends on aq uifers for 70% of its water, yet pumping exceeds natural recharge by almost 80% every year; at the current rate of extrac tion, Saudi Arabia will run out of water

in 50 years. The cuiTent depletion of Africa's nonrecharging aquifers is estimated at 10 billion cubic metres a year; water tables are falling everywhere throughout India; the water table beneath Beijing, the Chinese capital, has dropped 37 metres over the last four decades; and land be

neath Bangkok has sunk because of the massive overpumping of underground systems. The authors warn that, instead of liv

ing on water income, we are irrevers ibly diminishing water capital. At some time in the near future, water bankruptcy will result. In addition to depleting sup plies, groundwater mining causes salt water to invade freshwater aquifers, de stroying them. In some cases, groundwater mining actually pemianently re duces the earth's capacity to store water through compaction. In 1998, Califor nia's Department of Water Resources an nounced that by 2020, if more supplies

state, is loaded with parasites, bacteria,

are not found,the state will face a short

and viruses which are lethal to humans

fall of water nearly as great as all its towns and cities together use today. The global expansion in mining and manufacturing is increasing the threat of pollution of these underground water supplies. As developing countries are undergoing rapid industrialization, heavy metals, acids and persistent orContinued overleaf

unless treated with sophisticated tech nology. It requires skilled research and applied science to make water safe for humans and not just from bacteria. In many countries, there are naturally oc curring toxins such as arsenic and mer cury which are present in some water sources.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Editorial Comment

Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor & Publisher

ganic pollutants are contaminating the aquifers which provide more than 50% of domestic supplies in most Asian


E-mail: tom@esemag.com Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director



E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager ViRGiNiA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Design & Production CAROL SHELTON E-mail: caroi@esemag.com President

The book continues with a litany of potential disasters. Over-exploitation of the planet's major river systems is threat ening other finite sources of water. The Nile in Egypt,the Ganges in South Asia, the Yellow River in China,and the Colo

rado River in the US are just some of the major rivers that are so dammed,di verted, or overtapped that little or no


E-maii: steve@esemag.com

fresh water reaches its final destination

Technical Advisory Board

for significant stretches of time. In fact,

Jim Bishop

the Colorado River is so oversubscribed

Beak international inc.

on its journey through seven US states, that there is virtually nothing left to go

Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg

out to sea.

Alan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought inc. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HiLL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfeliow

Stantec Giobai Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech Canada inc.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Anaiytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bimonthiy business publication of Environmentai Science & Engineering Pubiications inc. An ali Canadian publication, ESiSE provides authoritative editoriai coverage of Canada's munlcipai and industriai environmentai control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

Overtapping of groundwater and riv ers is exacerbating another potential cri sis - world food security. Irrigation for crop production claims 65% of all wa ter used by humans; the annual rise in population means that more water is needed every year for grain production, a highly water intensive activity. But the world's burgeoning cities and industries are demanding and taking more and more of the water earmarked for agri culture every year. Eventually,some dry

areas will not be able to serve both the

needs of farming and those of the bal looning cities, say the authors. Throughout Latin America and Asia, the growing of crops for export is claim ing more and more of the water once used by family and peasant farmers for food self-sufficiency. There are over 500 free trade zones operating in the developing world, using local water sources for the assembly lines that pro duce goods for the world's consumer elite.

The litany of polluted waterways and depleted resources presented in Blue Gold is compelling and thought-provok ing reading for all environmental pro fessionals.

Blue Gold: The Battle Against Corpo rate Theft of the World's Water

By Maude Barlow and Tony Clarke Stoddart, 280 pages, $29.95 Tormer Nova Scotian, Robert MacNell,

was a long-time anchorman on PBS (MacNeil/Lehrer Report), and has writ ten The Story of English and other titles. ^Ontario Water Works Association/

Ontario Municipal Water Association, Ottawa.

For Maude Barlow's 1999

abridged report, visit; www.esemag.com


wastewater plant operators and contractors.

later at the AWWA National Conference

yond valuation to the field of Environ mental Engineering, undoubtedly the most important industry in the world today. Congratulations. Roger Crawford,P.Eng.

Information contained in ES&E has been compiled

in New Orleans - was well deserved. I


from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

recently enjoyed reading all about it again in the June issue of ES&E. Tom, over the years you have man aged to bring wit, an occasional touch of sarcasm, and a special brand of hu mour to an industry that by its very na ture deals in fact, frequently faceless, without expression. I can recall only two other Profes sional Engineers, both of whom I had the privilege to know, who dispensed

Readers inciude consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmentai officials, water and

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward our editorial costs. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mali

Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750

Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written per mission of the publisher. Yearly rTFinBPA subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year (plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one



All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc.,


should be sent to: Environmen

tal Science & Engineering,220 industriai Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tei: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com


Dear Tom: Presentation of the AWWA 2002 Award

of Merit to you at the OWWA/OMWA Conference in London, Ontario - and

hard, cold, technical fact with such elo

quence. One was the late J. Roy Cockburn, P.Eng., Professor in Me chanical Engineering in S.P.S. at the University of Toronto. The other was the late Dr. A.E.(Albert) Berry, P.Eng.,

Dear Tom, Enjoyed your June editorial,"The ecoconvergence of chicken fat, treadmills, clothes lines and calories."

Also, congratulations on your well deserved AWWA Award of Merit.

Stan Mason,P. Eng.,Vancouver ES&E:

Re: AWWA Award of Merit to Tom

Davey. Just read about the award. Congratula tions. Richly deserved. Steve McMinn,P.Eng. URS Cole Sherman

O.C., also a Professor at S.P.S., U of T.

Dear Tom:

Remind me to tell you sometime about their particular brands of humour. ES&E,which correctly or incorrectly I have come to regard as a Daveyfamily affair, communicates information be

Congrats on your AWWA award. Also enjoyed your latest editorial,"Eco-convergence of chicken fat, treadmills..." Ron Grage, Chlorinators Inc. Stuart, Florida

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

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Cover Story

Waveguide solves digester level monitoring dilemma for Orlllla plant

Thecity of Orl l a, Ontario,lo

cated north of Toronto, has

found a reliable level measure

ment system for the two anaerobic digesters at Its wastewater treatment centre. This facility features five primary and five secondary clarlflers, as well as six aeration basins, serv

icing a flow of six million gallons a day via 21 pumping stations. The level in an anaerobic digester Is a critical measurement. If the top foam level gets too high. It can enter the gas collection pipeline and lead to costly maintenance.In extreme cases, pressure can lift the roof off the vessel. Gas may escape, harming staff and the environ

clamping seal on the top of the mount ing flange which seals the low pressure digester gases after Installation. This system was Installed and com

missioned quickly. After bolting the flange on the spool section, the valve was opened and the radar Instrument was lowered and clamped Into place. Set-up was easy, with only six para meter entries required for operation. The Mllltronlcs IQ Radar 160 Instru ment Is providing reliable level meas urement for this difficult application and the sliding waveguide configuration eliminates valve signal noise.

This sliding waveguide, using the ro tary valve between the radar unit and the digester vessel, has also eliminated the related environmental safety Issues. The Instrument can be raised. Inspected or removed at any time without releasing methane gas Into the environment. Pre viously, the plant needed permission from the Ontario Ministry of the Envi ronment to open the tank to Install or remove an Instrument because the gases In the digester tank would then be re leased Into the environment.

For more information, circle reply card No. 106


Releasing carbon dioxide and meth ane gas Into the environment requires notification paperwork and has poten tially negative effects on a community


blessed with clean lakes and rivers.

Conditions In digesters make level measurement particularly challenging. Bubblers are prone to maintenance prob lems. Traditional ultrasonic level moni

toring systems are adversely affected by sound absorption caused by the combi nation of carbon dioxide and methane

gases above the foamy level surface, a condition aggravated by the steamy en vironment.

Radar technology Is not affected by these conditions; however. If a radar

device Is simply Installed above the valve, excessive signal noise may lead to faulty signals and unreliable readings. This application required a reliable level measurement device to accommo

date the existing rotary valve used for Instrument Isolation. It also needed to

be Inspected and serviced without dis charging any digester gas Into the envi ronment.

Eldon Wallls, Chief Plant Operator for the Orlllla plant, found an effective solution with the Mllltronlcs IQ Radar 160 level measurement device, fitted

with a built-in sliding waveguide an tenna. The sliding waveguide Is a unique feature available with the Mllltronlcs

radar unit. The waveguide pipe carries the radar signal from the Instrument to the horn antenna, bypassing the spool and valve components. The pipe has a 10

Unique sliding waveguide antenna on the Miiitronics iQ Radar 160 iets chief piant operator Eldon Wallis, raise the device for instaliation or inspection without reieasing methane gas into the atmosphere. Eiivimiiiiientul Science & Engineering. September 2002

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dard No. 107(See page 25)

Food Processing Wastes

Simplot Canada goes back to the future

Simplot Canada is constructing

waste into the drains.

and primary clarification upstream of the digester. This will be the first plant of the three to burn the generated biogas, from day one, in its process boiler, dis placing natural gas. The 20 X IC^USgal (77,000 m^) di gester is designed to treat a maximum monthly flow and load of 9,900 mVd, 63,000 kg/d COD,and 18,000 kg/d sus pended solids. Assuming 90 percent COD removal, 130 x 10'Btu/d of biogas energy will be produced, or enough to raise 5,400 Ib/h (59 tonnes/d) of steam in the process boiler.

After fine-screening to remove the skins, the process wastewater is treated

ened (oxidation of sulfides) in an aera

a new french fry plant just an hour's drive west of Winnipeg, Manitoba. An important ele ment of such potato processing plants is waste treatment. Disposing of the po tato solids as a by-product for animal feed was not the usual obvious choice at this location due to a lack of cattle

feedlots in the vicinity. Energy consid erations were also important. Because of these and other factors,

Simplot decided to release the peel

The anaerobic effluent will be sweet

tion tank equipped with subsurface aera tion equipment. Sweetened effluent will be pumped through a 10 km(6 mi)force main to the city's secondary plant for polishing prior to discharge to the Assiniboine River.

ADI Systems is under contract to pro vide the anaerobic digester and aeration tank on a design-build basis. Donohue® & Associates was the process engineer ing consultant to J R Simplot of Boise, Idaho, the parent company of Simplot Canada. Financial assistance was pro vided by both local and provincial gov ernments.

Circle reply card No. 108

in a low-rate anaerobic reactor. The mud,

or silt, is removed in a separate mud clarifier. The fatty water stream is sub jected to fat removal prior to joining the main process stream en route to the anaerobic digester. This is believed to be the first time

in 20 years that a large french fry plant has chosen to anaerobically digest all the solids after screening the process stream containing peel waste. ADI proposed the same aiTangement for other potato plants 20 to 25 yeai's ago,and it currently has active proposals for the same sce nario at a couple of other potato plants. ADI Systems was the successful bid der on this project, with its proprietary EVP® digester. This is the third Simplot-owned plant to install this type of reactor; however,the other two plants both have peel segregation (animal feed)

.'V'- .

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002



• Level measurement • Volume measurement

• Pump control

• Lift station monitoring • Open channel flow



Rake control

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Digester level From basic level measurement to complete lift station monitoring and control, our technology is the reliable choice.for water distribution and wastewater plants worldwide.

Gasholder height Dry solids weighing

We offer a full range of cost-effective Milltronics ultrasonic systems featuring? low maintenance Echomax® transducers arid high performance transceivers:; with patented Sonic Intelligence® software for superior reliability. Our radar, i continuous level instruments have a unique sliding waveguide for safe, : srii reliable level measurement in digesters. Arid we're your preferred source for velocity sensors, open channel meters, pressure transmitters and a wide^ range of point level probes. Products are easy to install, and expert technical support is there when you need?it. i ■/: ;,y , Technology. Innovation. Support.


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engineering projects, with a history pre-dating the Roman Empire. Now robotic engineering has taken a futuristic leap of faith in the de sign and quality control of concrete in frastructure products. Ontario Concrete Products (OCP) has introduced its new 80,000 sq. ft. plant and claims to have the world's most advanced robotics and automation in the

precast concrete industry. "Through this technology, mass pro duction can now come with quality as surance, offering a consistency and qual

passing plant tests, products are auto matically marked.

Lifting anchors are directly cast into the concrete product for easy and safe installation at the job site. Manholes are directly cast in step rungs, while rungs are securely anchored and the manholes are watertight. Standardized prebenched monobases ensure high qual ity, lower cost solutions for standard channel configurations. The process produces durable concrete suitable for applications where products are exposed

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ity of product never before possible," said Brian Wood, President of Con Cast

Pipe, the manufacturing group behind OCP.

Engineers and other professionals on the first plant tour were impressed with the speed of production and variety of products manufactured. An automated rebar machine takes

steel rods, shapes and welds them at

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Automation ailows rebar to be shaped, welded and stacked in minutes. Environmental Science c& Engineering, September 2002


# 1-^


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Potable Water

Nanofilters convert river flow

Into safe drinking water

The world's first and largest

nanofiltration plant for treat ing river water is located in Mery-sur-Oise, north of Paris. The plant is fully automated and the CIP (clean in place) loop for cleaning the membranes runs without virtually any manual intervention. Trouble-free CIP

operation is ensured by, among other things, 30 plastic-lined magnetic drive pumps for dosing and conveying the chemicals.

Water supplies to the French public are mainly in the hands of private com panies. A large share of the market is served by Vivendi, which was founded in 1853. In the north of Paris, the Syn dicate des Eaux d'lle de France(SEDIF) supplies 39 communities (800,000 in habitants) from a plant that employs a new and very unique method of treat ing water from a river source. Located in Mery-sur-Oise, the treatment plant needed to increase production capacity. To do this, SEDIE decided to adopt a technology which had never been used before to treat river water: nanofiltration.

Nanofiltration is a membrane liquid separation technology that is positioned between reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration. While RO can remove the

smallest of solute molecules, in the

range of 0.0001 micron in diameter and smaller, nanofiltration removes mol

ecules in the 0.001 micron range. Nanofiltration is essentially a lowerpressure version of reverse osmosis

where the purity of product water is not as critical as pharmaceutical grade wa ter, or the level of dissolved solids to be

removed is less than what is typically encountered in brackish water or

seawater. As such, nanofiltration is es

pecially suited to treatment of well wa ter or water from many surface supplies like rivers or lakes.

Nanofiltration is used where the high salt rejection of reverse osmosis is not necessary. Yet nanofiltration is still ca pable of removing hardness elements such as calcium or magnesium. Like RO,nanofiltration is also capable of re moving bacteria and viruses as well as organic-related colour without generat ing undesirable chlorinated hydrocar bons and trihalomethanes (THMs). Nanofiltration is also used to remove

pesticides and other organic contami nants from surface and ground waters to help ensure the safety of public drink ing water supplies. Sometimes referred to as "membrane

nature consume little energy and are extremely efficient. Researchers are try ing to understand the processes in na

increased. Moreover, more effective

There is enormous future potential for membrane processes. Their appli cation ranges from the recovery of gaso line vapours through the treatment of

ture and convert them into industrial

processes with synthetic membranes. Industrial membranes are filigree structures which largely consist of a multi-layer polymer film with a total thickness of a human hair (approxi mately 100 pm); the actual active layer only accounts for one hundredth of this thickness.

acids and alkalis to the removal of alco

hol from beer. And the fuel cell is largely based on membrane processes. Certain branches, such as the food

industry, the pharmaceutical industry and biotechnology would no longer be feasible without membrane processes. In principle, all pressure-driven mem brane filtration processes (microfiltration - ultrafiltration - nanofiltration -


Membrane processes emulating nature


the membranes.

softening", nanofiltration is an attractive alternative to lime softening or sodium chloride zeolite softening technologies. And since nanofiltration operates on lower pressure than does RO, energy costs are lower than for a comparable RO treatment system. Water quality governs treatment technology The location for this unusual plant was chosen because the capacity of the old plant in Mery-sur-Oise had to be

treatment technology was required. Pro viding more incentive is the increasingly poor quality of the untreated water from the Oise River. The pollution of the water by organic constituents as well as pesticides from agriculture has been ris ing continuously for years. In 1998 the old treatment plant even had to be tem porarily shut down owing to the exces sively high TOC content. It was decided that a membrane process was an ideal solution for such problematic water

Project manager Arnaud Douveneau, Vivendi, is counting on a new type of membrane in the nanofiitration piant in Mery-sur-Oise.

Plastic-lined magnetic drive pumps from ITT Richter, Kempen, dose the chemi cals necessary for the CiP cleaning of

All known life forms are based on

the separation of substances with bio logical membranes. It is assumed that the membrane processes which occur in

reverse osmosis) involve the water be

ing pressed through a membrane by a transmembrane pressure difference. The membrane then ideally retains all the undesirable water constituents. Which

process is used depends on the type and

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Potable Water

size of the substances to be separated. Nanofiltration membranes generally carry an electric charge and so special separation problems can be solved, e.g. the separation of molecules of the same size but with different electric charges. Vivendi's decision to go forward with nanofiltration proved to be correct, as the project manager responsible,Amaud Douveneau notes:"Using nanofiltration, our plant in Mery-sur-Oise already sat isfies the stringent EU demands placed on the quality of drinking water - and with a much lower volume of chemicals

than in conventional plants." Equally good results could only be achieved with reverse osmosis but


nanofiltration consumes much less en

ergy and is therefore considerably lower-priced. Nevertheless, nanofiltra tion is not a cheap technology. But thanks to the use of specially developed membranes for water not containing salt, the throughput in Mery-sur-Oise is sub stantially higher than with conventional membranes. Moreover, the operators can run the plant at a lower pressure and both aspects cut running costs, as Amaud Douveneau stresses.

Cleaning the membranes A major factor for the economic suc

The Mety-sur-Oise nanofiltration plant for treating river water. were also an important reason for the system prevents damage to the pump operator to install Richter sealless even if it runs dry for several minutes pumps and in particular magnetic drive or there is a shortage of lubrication. pumps. The plant cost roughly 1 billion The plant staff needs to completely French Francs($150(US) million). empty the CIP lines for safety reasons and for this purpose the installed pumps must run dry briefly from a certain point For more information, contact: in time. Richter's "Safeglide" bearing Manfred.Kluge@fluids.ittind.se

cess of nanofiltration in water treatment,

is the continuous monitoring and clean ing of the membranes. In Mery-surOise,this takes place in a fully automatic CIP process. Each membrane is equipped with pressure, flow and con ductivity sensors. The condition of the

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membrane surfaces is therefore moni tored around the clock. The control

takes each of the eight membrane lines out of production every eight weeks and initiates the cleaning process which in volves acids, bases and detergents. Dosing out these cleaning chemicals are leak-free, plastic-lined ITT Richter magnetic drive pumps. ITT Richter spe cializes in pumps and valves as well as measuring and control equipment for corrosive and pure media. Although the initial investment costs of magnetic drive pumps are slightly higher than for conventional mechanical seal pumps, the high operational reliability of these leak-free pumps was more important to the operators. Pumps for conveying corrosive,toxic or otherwise critical media are subject to particularly stringent standards as re gards operational reliability, sealing against the atmosphere and service life -especially in the environment of drink ing water treatment. The high demands

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Water Conservation

Irrigation incentive study reduced peak-period demand 26%

In 1998, the City of Kelowna Wa

ter Utility, in British Columbia,im plemented a user-pay rate based on metered water consumption. The average residential monthly water con sumption before that was 54 cubic me tres. Since then, average residential monthly water consumption has

Education These customers received a home

water audit and an irrigation system as sessment by Water Smart staff. Particu lar attention was paid to settings on irri gation timers such as time of day, wa tering times per zone,and number of wa tering days per week. Advice was of-

dropped to 44 cubic metres, or about 19%.

While this represented a significant and welcome drop in overall water use,

The report also noted that,

a 2001 report estimated that $22 million

with a 16% reduction in

worth of infrastructure expansions would be required over the next 20 years to accommodate summer consumption. Kelowna's semi-arid climate and gen erally poor soil conditions cause sum mer demand to skyrocket- particularly in July. However, the report also noted

water use in July alone, the

that, with a 16% reduction in water use

in July alone, the cost of infrastructure would drop to just $5.8 million, due to deferred and/or eliminated expansions. So, in the summer of 2001, the City of Kelowna Water Smart Water Effi

ciency Program studied a series of in centives designed to help customers re duce water used for irrigation. Sixty participants from the Crawford Estates area(the neighborhood with the highest average water consumption), were se

cost of infrastructure would

drop to just $5.8 million, due to deferred and/or

eliminated expansions. fered on proper seasonal settings and, where necessary, timers were adjusted to deliver water in off-peak hours(early morning) and for shorter periods. These participants reduced their water consumption by 27% in July. Aeration/Ogogrow Ogogrow is made up of composted biosolids from Kelowna's wastewater

treatment facility. Each participant's

following incentives: 1. Education (home visits including water audit irrigation system assess

lawn received core aeration and a 1/2"



3. Rain sensor (to shut off automatic ir

rigation systems in the event of rain);

2000. Rain sensors

These participants had a "mini-click" type rain sensor installed on irrigation systems. Their average consumption actually went up 15% in June (a rainy month),then dropped 31% in July(a dry month).

Inspections of the rain-sensing de vices and follow-up interviews with par ticipants revealed that there was not enough heavy precipitation in June to actually trigger the sensors. However, participants were expecting the devices to work, so they did not manually shut off their systems during June rains when they normally would have. The dramatic drop in July water use is the result of customer reaction when

lected at random to receive one of the

2. Aeration/Ogogrow (core aeration and top dressing of lawn with organic mat

ent value and water-holding capacity. Participants reduced their average waterusein July 2001 by 35% over July

top dressing of Ogogrow mixed 50/50 with soil. The idea was to help custom ers achieve a green lawn without the use of high-nitrogen fertilizers and exces sive water consumption.

they received notice that their June con sumption was above average. There fore, this 31% reduction can really be attributed to education.

Automatic irrigation system upgrades Each participant received a profes sional irrigation system assessment and a list of improvements that could be made to increase the efficiency of the system. Participants were offered finan cial incentives toward the upgrades, with the option of paying for any additional upgrades themselves. Recommended system improve ments varied from home to home. In

As the soil in Crawford Estates is a

some cases it was a matter of replacing old sprinkler heads with more efficient

mix of sand and gravel, the application of Ogogrow increased the soil's nutri

changed to two zones to allow for proper

ones. In other cases, one zone was


4. System improvements(an audit of ir rigation system and minor upgrades). Each participant's summer 2001 wa ter consumption was compared to 2000 consumption levels over the same pe riod.

Study results showed that partici pants reduced their July water consump tion an average 26%.

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jut Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Participants 2001 —-Participants 2000

By Neal Klassen*, City of Kelowna Water Smart Coordinator

Participant average water use in 2001 with incentive compared to 2000 without incentive.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Water Conservation

coverage. Changes in landscaping over

time also necessitated moving sprinklers to more efficient locations. These par ticipants reduced their average water consumption by 15% in July. Was weather a factor?

Weather was not a factor during the month of July, as average 2001 tempera tures and precipitation were identical to

2000. August 2001 was a record dry month. Only 17.4 mm of precipitation fell in August 2001 compared to the 50.8 mm of precipitation that fell in August 2000. But despite the dry spell, August consumption was still well below the July peak. What's next?

The 26% average reduction in July water use is encouraging and well above the targeted 16% reduction. An ex panded study in three other areas of the city has been underway in 2002. This

year, selected customers will pay $50 toward their incentive. If 2001 results

are repeated and sustained throughout 2002, a utility-wide incentive program may be offered in 2003.

*Neal Klassen is manager ofpublic edu cation programsfor Neptune Technol

ogy Group and coordinates the City of Kelowna Water Smart program. Circle reply card No. 114 Our high strength NSF61 certified baffle

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or existing clearwells. By directing the flow along a lengthened path through the system, our curtains can enhance the efficiency of the water treatment process.

We have a full range of fixed and floating baffle curtain products and designs available. Custom sizes to fit your project

Our baffle curtains can be custom fabricated

The Instrumentation Testing Associa tion's latest performance evaluation re port presents the results of 10 online dissolved oxygen analyzers tested over a period of three months in near real time process monitoring conditions of an aerated nitrification basin utilizing three different analyzer technologies (galvanic, fluorescence and polarographic) at the Sanitary District of Decatur, Illinois. Instrumentation Testing Association

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For more information, circle reply card No. 116 (See page 25)



There's more to it than meets

the eye

How to drive down your Cost of Ownership For water supply services, driving down Cost of Ownership is about taking advantage of the benefits that a business relationship with Grundfos offers and about exposing hidden costs. Think ahead.Think Cost of Ownership. Want to know more? Call us at 905 829 9533 or visit www.grundfos.com



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What does 6fundfos mean by Cost of Ownership? Cost 6f Ownership is defined as the total sum of both the costs and benefits of having a business relationship with Crundfos. The Crundfos Cost of Ownership cycle illustrates how we can help water suppliers optimise pumping systems throughout the lifetime of the system. An important element of this is how we can help drive down costs through technical advice, customer training, service agreements, reliable logistics and mutual trust.

GRUNDPO For more information, circle reply card No. 117 (See page 25)


Microfiltration to stop seawater intrusion

In March, 2002, USFilter received a contract to pro

vide the largest microfiltration plant in the world for the Orange County Water District(OCWD) and the Orange County Sanitation District(OCSD) in Foun tain Valley, California. The $25 million Memcor® continu ous microfiltration submerged (CMF-S) system will be a crucial part of an advanced water reclamation project. Located in an arid region where water resources are pre cious, the OCWD currently purchases imported water from

The microfiltration system will allow the district to effectively manage its water resources with little or no increase in cost. the Colorado River and the State Water Project. The high costs associated with imported water, combined with an in creasing population that is expected to reach 2.8 million by 2020, drove the OCWD to consider a more reliable, cost-


effective water treatment system. The microfiltration sys tem will allow the district to effectively manage its water

USFilter's CMF-S system at the Sandhurst treatment facility

resources with little or no increase in cost. In addition, it

in Coiiban, Australia.

can employ a new water source that is completely independ ent of the imported water. High-quality, dependable water

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will be processed with half the energy that it takes to import the water. This is a big energy savings for California. In 1997, the water and sanitation districts of Orange County formed the Groundwater Replenishment(GWR)Sys tem, a joint project specifically created to purify highly treated secondary wastewater currently released into the ocean. The GWR System will process the wastewater through an intricate membrane treatment plant to be con structed on the Fountain Valley water campus, occupied by both Orange County's water district and sewer district. The treatment plant will include the CMF-S microfiltration unit, reverse osmosis system, and ultraviolet disinfection equip ment,as well as supplementary pumping,power and chemi cal facilities.

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Fredericton, St. JoliiFs, Sydney, Port Hawkesbury, Halifax, Truro, Charlottetown, Moncton, Saint John, and Salem, NH


Circle reply card No. 174 (See page 25)

USFilter's CMF-S system will purify the water to levels that surpass drinking water standards; it will then be injected into the local groundwater basin to prevent seawater intru sion. The remaining water not directly injected into the ba sin will be introduced into a groundwater aquifer through the district's Santa Ana River percolation basins, located in the cities of Anaheim and Orange. In the Fall of 2002, USFilter will begin its first stage of construction of a temporary CMF-S system that will proc ess(US)6.7-mgd. This system will be incorporated into a (US)80-mgd permanent system that will produce a total of (US)86.7-mgd of microfiltered water, enough water to fdl over 1000 Olympic size swimming pools every day. Cur rently, the OCWD employs an existing 8-mgd lime clarifi cation system that serves as pretreatment to a reverse osmo sis unit. The (US) 6.7-mgd CMF-S unit will replace this existing system. For more information, circle reply card No. 147 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002


Never worry about piping cost overruns again

Effective cost control is more about control than it is about cost.

That's why more and more engineers, contractors and municipalities are turning to Victaulic? In addition to piping solutions that install 3 to 5 times faster

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'with our comprehensive Construction Piping Services. These include total, start-to-finish, drawing, planning and material management services. In fact, we even do a Value Analysis that shows you in advance how much money you'll save — usually, a very persuasive number.

So contact Victaulic for your next piping project. Just call us at 1-800-PICK-VIC. Or visit our website: www.victaulic.com. With everything going right, all you'll have to worry about is what to do with the money you save.

iCtauliC 100% Victaulic.0% worry. Victaulic is a registered trademark of Victaulic Company. Š2001 Victaulic Company. All rights reserved.

For more information, circle reply card No. 118(See page 25)

Global Warming

Carbon dioxide sea injection triais canceiied

A last minute veto from Nor

The project was originally set up to

it offered "good potential" for reducing

run a similar test off Hawaii, but this

emissions, but that further research is

what would have been the

plan was dropped in the face of local opposition.

world's first attempt to demonstrate se questration of carbon in the oceans by

Capturing and sequestering COjfrom

needed, in particular to reduce costs. The Norwegian oil firm Statoil is al ready injecting some one million met

fossil fuel burning is being pursued as a

ric tonnes of CO^ per year into the rock

way's environment minister in late August, has stopped

injecting liquid carbon dioxide (CO^)

strata of an offshore oilfield in the North

into the Norwegian Sea. Carbon seques tration is being considered as a technique to remove the main greenhouse gas, CO,, from the atmosphere to curb glo bal warming. Norwegian Environment Minister Borge Brende stated that: "In the opin ion of the environment ministry, the use of deep sea marine areas as potential storage places for CO,must first be thor oughly discussed at the international level and clarified legally". Led by the Norwegian Institute for

Sea, but no one has yet tried sequestra tion in the oceans.

Environmental groups argue that the

project would have meant "dumping" CO,in the ocean in violation of the 1972 London dumping convention and of the 1992 Ospar convention on protection of the North Sea environment. Greenpeace and other NGOs also claim that inject ing CO, into the oceans could harm wildlife, and that the gas might return much more quickly than expected to the Greenpeace and other NGOs also claim

Water Research (Niva), a coalition in cluding American, Japanese, Canadian and Australian organizations had

that Injecting 00^ Into the oceans could

planned to inject five metric tonnes of liquid CO, at 800 metres depth off the

possible means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Last year, the European climate change program concluded that

coast of Norway.

harm wildlife.

atmosphere, undoing the object of the exercise. Also, the NGOs fear that se

questration of CO^ might prop up the fossil fuel industries and distract atten tion from efforts to move towards a low

carbon economy based on renewable energy such as solar and wind.



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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Ad Index





ADI International Inc AESAC

22 72

Maple Reinders McGraw-Hill Ryerson

AIM Waste Management American Concrete Pipe Association

51 11



American Water Services Anthrafilter

58 72

Mixing Systems MSU Mississauga

56 50

Neo Valves








ONDEO Degremont


Becquerel Labs






Plastics Pipe Institute




Canadian Waste & Recycling Expo


Can-Am Instruments


44 31

Premier Wastewater International





Procyon Consulting

Career Advancement CCOHS CH2M HILL

59 53 48

ProMinent Fluid Controls


Sanitherm Engineering


Siemens Milltronics


Con Cast Pipe County of Oxford

28 41

SIMAAir Purification




5 & 35 12 50 45

Stormceptor. Summa Engineering

6 39

Davis Controls Denso Eckel Endress+Hauser Canada

Fluldyne Gorman-Rupp

41 3

Greatarlo Grundfos Canada Hach Harnois Industries

17 20-21 33 52

Instrumentation Testing Assoc ITT Flygt

19 9

KMK Consultants


Layfield Geosyntfietics


Trimax Residuals


Troy-Ontor IS Group (Ontario) Unified Pump Techinologies

64 46 72

Urecon USFilter. Victaulic Waterra Wessuc XP Software York Fluid Controls Zenon Environmental

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September 2002

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002


Conference Preview

Windy City to host WEFTEC 2002

TheWater Environment Federation'sTechnical Ex

hibition and Conference is being held in Chicago, Illinois, September 28 to October 2, 2002. Thou sands of water quality professionals will be attend ing from around the world. WEFTEC 2002's Opening General Session will com memorate both the Federation's 75th anniversary and the 30th anniversary of the Clean Water Act(CWA). Chicago Mayor Richard Daley will welcome attendees to "The Windy City"; he will also speak about the city's progress under the CWA and the funding crisis America's cities face in trying to maintain and upgrade aging water system infrastructure. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, Christie Whitman has been invited to give the keynote ad dress, providing a national perspective on progress made since the US Clean Water Act was established. The Agen cy's future water goals will also be outlined. Workshop and session topics Topics for the various sessions and workshops will include: • Industrial Issues and Treatment Technologies • Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes • Residuals and Biosolids Management • Collection Systems • Surface Water Quality and Ecology

• Public Education/Government Affairs

• • • • •

Management of Odours and VOCs Computer Applications Small Community and Natural Treatment Systems Plant Operations and Maintenance/Lab Practices Disinfection/Innovative Technologies The Canadian Icebreaker

• Management

The Great Canadian Icebreaker will be held September 28 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel Downtown located on Wacker

• Remediation of Soils and Groundwater


For complete information visit www.weftec.org

• Water Reclamation and Reuse


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Director III Ciearwell Baffle


for use in small process connecflons.

Puls 50 uses larger antennas, and operates at a lower frequency. Puls 56HT Is a high temperature, high pressure unit.

systems are engineered to upgrade the performance of new or existing Ciearwell disinfection systems, to meet the CT requirements


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

For many years Armtec has stretched

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Conference Preview

60,000 visitors expected at Poiiutec 2002

The 18th Poiiutec tradeshow is

A unique panorama of

expected to set a new exhibi

environment solutions

tor record when it takes place in Lyon, France, November

The 90,000 m- show will feature all the environmental solutions currently


lOcm Authorities

26 - 29, 2002. Some 2,250 exhibitors

available in the fields of water, waste,

will be participating. Over 60,000 trade

recycling, air, energy,soil decontamina tion, clean technologies, analysis/meas urement/monitoring,industrial cleaning. Poiiutec will also welcome large num bers offoreign exhibitors. Ten countries have already announced they will be organizing national stands (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxemburg, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom/Scotland). Several markets will be highlighted this year, including: 1. Risk prevention and management - in 2001, France suffered 1,800 major

visitors are also expected. Poiiutec is held every year and alter nates between Paris and Lyon. The Lyon show focuses on exhibits in the field of

waste, recycling and cleaning and the needs of local authorities, whereas the

Paris show is more geared to the con cerns of industry.

industrial accidents, serious cases of

pollution or incidents with a major im pact on the environment, with the worst being the AZF explosion in Toulouse. 2. Coastal development and protec tion - this year the show will feature the tools for fighting accidental pollution, beach cleaning equipment,solutions for the management of water quality and the development of sea fronts. 3. Clean or renewable sources of en

ONTARIO CONCRETE PRODUCTS, Canada's newest concrete pipe and manhole producer introduces the

ergy - these types of energy (biomass, solar, wind, co-generation...) only con tribute 5% of France's final energy con sumption,estimated as the equivalent of 216 million tonnes of oil in 2000

world's most advanced robotics and

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automation to the precast concrete industry.

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tre, Toronto, ON. Contact: ES&E,

Tel: 1-888-254-8769, or (905) 7274666, Fax:(905) 841-7271.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Conference Preview

WCWWA 54th annual conference "2002 - What next? Ongoing Challenges" October 22-25, 2002

Regina will host the annual

conference organized by the Western Canada Water and

Wastewater Association, AWWA Western Canada Section, Westem Canada Water Environment Asso

ciation and the Municipal Service and Suppliers Association. Two workshops on October 22 will cover the legal impacts of owning wa terworks and particle counters/ turbidimeters

Field Trials of the BOD BART Sys tem for the Rapid Determination of BOD in Secondary & Tertiary Efflu



Sanitary Sewer Flow Monitoring, Data Gathering and Interpretation. Commercial Presence - Absence

Technologies for Onsite Bacti Screening.

Balancing Cost and Reliability in Water Utilities.

Achieving Filtration Credits, a Case Study. Conventional & Micromembrane

Filtration Treatment, Prince Albert National Park.

Design Features and Considerations for the Implementation of Online Real Time CT Monitoring Systems. Britannia and Lemieux Island Baf fle Curtain Installation.


North Battleford - An Unexpected Water Challenge. City of Lethbridge Wastewater Treat ment Plant Cogeneration Project. H2S Control with Ferrous Chloride.

Downtown Regina.(Photo courtesy of Tour ism Saskatchewan)

Papers scheduled to be presented during the conference include: • Commissioning and Operating an

How Testing for Meter Accuracy Can Improve the Bottom Line. Biosolids to Agricultural Land Pro gram.

Characterization of Stormwater In

put to S. Sask. River within

Ultrafiltration Membrane Surface



Plant Retrofit of Integrated Mem

• Actiflo Ballasted Floe Clarification in Western Canada.

• City of Regina Collection System Study. • Biological Nutrient Removal Pro cess Optimization - The Gold Bar Experience. • Implementation of UV Disinfection at a Large Surface Water Treatment Plant.

Get FREE newsletters

brane Filtration.

Flmira Inflow/Infiltration (FI) Total Solution.

Langdon Wastewater Treatment Plant Design-Build-Operate Chal lenges & Opportunities. Removal of Arsenite and Arsenate

Waterworks Glenmore Water Treat

• Core Area Park Stormwater Deten

ment Plant Upgrade. Preparing a Water Quality Emerg ency Response Plan. Automatic Meter Reading.


• Emerging Trends in Environmental Legislation & Regulations.


from Drinking Water Using Ferrihydrite and Granular Ferrihydrite.

• Evaluation of the Coli-Bart System. tion Project. • Modified Design Approach for Flow in Water Distribution System Stor age Reservoirs. • Infrastmcture Management Support

With timely topics on corrugated polyethylene pip

Environmental Water and Waste-

water - Saskatchewan Changes For further information contact

WCWWA at 1-877-283-2003, (403) 283-2003, e-mail: member@wcwwa.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

circle reply card No. 132 (See page 25)



Ontario MOE proposes tough AMPs regs

TheOntario Ministry ofthe En

vironment("MOE") posted a Notice of Proposal on January 16th, 2002, on the Environ

mental Bill of Rights Registry for three separate Administrative Monetary Pen alties Regulations ("AMPs Regula tions") made under the Environmental Protection Act(EPA), the Ontario Wa ter Resources Act(OWRA)and the Pes

ticides Act(PA)(collectively, the "Par ent Statutes").

What exactly is an AMP? An administrative monetary penalty

under the EPA, the OWRA or the PA;

gence, mitigation or mistake of fact ar

• is a director or officer of a corporation that engages in an activity that may re sult in the discharge of a contaminant into the natural environment contrary to


the EPA, the OWRA or the PA, or the

regulations, and fails to take all reason able care to prevent the corporation from causing or permitting the unlawful dis charge; to pay an administratative penalty in the amount set out in the notice for each day or part of a day on which the contraven tion or failure occurred or continues.

("AMP") is an enforcement tool that

There is a two-year limitation period

gives the Ministry of Environment the authority to impose monetary penalties on anyone who contravenes certain sec

on the issuance of an AMP and a $5000

tions of the EPA,the OWRA and the PA.

The penalties are not registered as "con victions" on an individual or company's record, but, as will be discussed, the

MOE does keep a record of previous AMP contraventions and penalty amounts. AMPs are different than Part

I tickets under the Provincial Ojfences Act.

The MOE's rationale for AMPs is

that it will be a more administratively efficient way to deal with certain types of environmental contraventions. Who is Affected?

Any person or company that was pre viously engaged in activities or a course of business governed by the EPA, the OWRA and/or the PA will be subject to the provisions in the AMPs Regulations if the regulations are made effective. For

per diem cap for an AMP issued for any one failure or contravention.

A person who receives an AMP no tice from the Director can request a hear ing of the matter before the Environmen tal Review Tribunal (the "ERT"). This is discussed in greater detail below.

If an AMP amount is not paid by the due date, the Director can (1) file the notice with the registrar of the Ontario Court (General Division) for enforce ment by the court; (2) suspend any li

cence or permit issued to the person until the AMP is paid; and (3)refuse to issue any licence or permit to the person until the AMP is paid. How Does It Work?

There are two types ofAMPs that can be issued by the Director: Advance Notice AMPs, and those where no ad

vance notice is provided. Advance no tice is always required except if (1)the the contraventions listed in the AMPs notice applies only to one contravention; Regulations, the MOE has the option of (2) the notice applies only to one day or imposing an AMP or using an order or part of a day; and (3) the base penalty other instrument as was the case prior for the contravention does not exceed to AMPs. The present schedule of pro $3,000. posed fines lists amounts from $1,500 In all other cases, the Director must to $4,000 per contravention, per day. provide an Advance Notice which, These amounts do not yet reflect the among other things, describes the $5,000 cap but may be subject to future contravention(s) and the day(s)on which increases. What You Need to Know

The MOE Director is empowered to

issue an AMP requiring any person who: • contravenes certain provisions of the EPA, OWRA or PA or the regulations; • fails to comply with certain terms or conditions of a licence, permit or ap proval made under the EPA,the OWRA or the PA;

• fails to comply with an order, notice, direction, requirement or report made 30

the contravention occuired or continued;

says that the Director proposes to issue an AMP with respect to the contravention(s); gives the base penalty and shows any increases to the base pen alty as a result of previous violations and outlines the payment requirements, op tions for reduction and/or the proposal of a consent order.

For Advance Notice AMPs, alleged violators can request a reduction in the penalty(up to 50%)based on a due dili

If a person is successful in convinc ing the Director of any of these argu ments, it is not a defence but can reduce

the penalty amount. Whether a person receives advance notice or not they can propose a consent order and, if it meets the requirements, compliance with the consent order automatically results in a 50% reduction in the amount of the AMP

penalty. There are two other notable aspects of AMPs: First, for advance notice

AMPs,previous violations will be taken into account in calculating the penalty. A "previous violation" includes convic tions (by a court) for offences and pre vious AMPs imposed under the EPA,the OWRA or the PA. Second, a person to whom an AMP is issued may request a hearing before the Environmental Re view Tribunal.

A person can request a hearing within 15 days after the AMP notice is served and until the disposition of the matter, the requirement to pay the AMP is stayed. The ERT can confirm, rescind or amend the AMP notice or vary the AMP amount if it considers the penalty amount to be unreasonable.

It should be noted that at this stage the AMPs Regulations are a proposal of the MOE only. The MOE has received comments from stakeholders who would

be affected by the Regulations in the event they are made but it is impossible to predict whether the AMPs Regula tions will stand as they are presently drafted, be revised and, perhaps again circulated for further comment, or not

put into effect at all.

NOTE: This docmnent provides an overview ofthe proposed Admin istrative Monetary Penalties Regu lations only. For a more in-depth analysis, the Regu lations, the EPA,

I "W „ ^





be con-




I Pills document I does not constitute legal advice.

By Kristi N. Sebaij, Power Budd LLP

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002






Baha Abuinaga



Everything from fluid mechanics and soil classification, to pipeline, plant and pump design and materials selectian

and Ian Mckelvie


criteria for wear resistance.


The first section covers the hydraulics of slurry flows and includes information on the principles of classifying soils, mixing with water, design of pipelines from coarse to very fine slurries, as Newtonian and Non-Newtonian flows. In a very innovative approach, the mathematics of flow of slurry in open channels, drop boxes and cascades is presented. The reader is guided through those complex flows hy numerous solved problems in SI and [JSCS units. A second section is devoted to the equipment used to moke and pump slurries, and contains data on rock crushing, milling, and grinding, separation, classification, filtering, and thickening. 0-07-137508-2•800 Pages•450 lllus.•Hardcover•S197.95

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Richard Trzupek

In a world where waste incinerators ore not on option and landfills ore nf over capacity, cities are hard pressed to find a solution to the problem of what to do with their solid waste. Within the covers of this handbook, you'll find an integrated approach to the planning, design, and management of economical and environmenfally responsible solid wasfe disposal system. In this book, 20 industry and government experts provide you with the tools to design a solid woste monogement system capable of disposing of waste in a cost-efficient and environmentally responsible manner. Focusing on the six primary functions of an integrated system-source reduction, toxicity reduction, recycling and reuse, composting, waste-to-energy combustion, and land filling-they explore each technology and examines its problems, costs, and legal and social ramifications.

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handbook^' All the techniques you need in a single source! This book exploins the various monitoring techniques and how to implement and carry out a monitoring program for air, water, and soil. Shows you how to get professional answers with the best testing and analysis methods in use today. Covers such topics as: Data sampling and anolysis. Statistics, Sampling design. Scale reduction (PCA) Monitoring program design and logistics. Chemical monitoring, In-situ measurements. Trace metals. Nutrients, Non metal species. Organic matter. Organic carbon. Biological monitoring, and Ecotoxicologicol monitoring.

MANAGEMENT, 2/e Frank Kreith and George Tchobanoglous

Provides a straightforward, easy-to-read, non-legal explanation of the regulatory and technical concepts of air quality compliance, explaining how to effectively manage and Permitting air compliance at a facility. The majority of the hook is Manual devoted to a wide general applicability, and the technical and analytical approaches which are needed in preparing the information required in permit applications. Useful topics include: Fundamental 1990 and previous Clean Air Act concepts. Permitting, Compliance Checklists and risk assessment methodologies.

Larry Mays




.Air Quality Compliance


Frank Burden, Dletfried Donnert, Thad Godish

The first book to offer all-inclusive, wide-specfrum coverage of urban water infrastructure systems. This state-of-the art resource draws upon the accumulated wisdom of 0 carefully chosen team of internationally recognized experts selected for their extensive experience in the essential aspects of water supply systems. Complete with informative case studies, this book will prove to be an invaluable resource for consulting engineers, public works engineers and administrators, municipal engineers, and water managers worldwide involved with urban water systems.



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SYSTEMS Water/Wastewater

Treatment Applications James B. Rlshel

A desktop sourcebook for those who deal with pumps and pumping systems on a doily basis—covers design, application, and pumped water systems. James B. Rishel (Cincinnati, OH) has been involved in the design and operation of pumping systems since 1960. He is the author of McGraw-Hill's HVAC Pump Handbook.


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Plant Maintenance

The facts behind lubrication probiems in wastewater treatment plants roper maintenance of the equipment in wastewater dis posal is becoming more im portant and increasingly com plex. There have been many new tech nical developments(some mandated by


the EPA, OSHA and the USDA/FDA)

and a great deal of new, modem equip ment put into use. The impact of federal legislation dealing with water quality and pollution has had a major effect on wastewater engineering. There is a much greater emphasis on the reuse of wastewater and land treatment systems. Tertiary and advanced treatment systems are be coming standards rather than Utopian ideas. All of this


blood of any mechanical system, but even more so of the wastewater disposal systems. The lubricant, oil or grease, is constantly harassed, diluted or destroyed by water, sand,dirt, dust, acids,caustics, cold, heat and the dynamics of the chemical processes involved. One of the most important consid erations in these present times is that a judicious selection of quality lubricants can reduce energy consumption, as well as reduce lubricant cost and prolong equipment life. A carefully selected lu bricant can pay for itself many times over, especially when compared to the lowest priced lubricants available on the

dwarfed by the value of the equipment that it is protecting. Solutions to many of the toughest maintenance problems faced by wastewater treatment plants have been developed by Lubrication Engineers and have been proven in thousands of plants around the world.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 134 By Chris Barnes, P.Eng., MBA Lubrication Engineers



Open gears rusting and corroding

A very tacky open gear lubricant was applied by caulking gun.


Running hot, tripping off and needing frequent oil changes

A low friction oil with high oxidation stability was put into service.

Blower temperatures reduced by 10 to 25°F, and oil drain

An extremely water-resistant and wear

to 2 years. Bearing failures eliminated, and grease consumption reduced

and sophistica


better knowl

edge and good practice in the field of mainte nance and lu-



Pillow block bearings require lots of grease and frequent bearing replacement Overheating and sludge forming in the oil coolers

b r i c a t i o n.

More complex machinery and

interval extended from 3 months

reducing grease called was installed.

from 4-5 tubes per day to 1 and a half tubes per day.

Compressors were cleaned and flushed and filled with an oil formulated



to combat acid hydrolysis and reduce

High Electrical Energy Consumption

Energy saving compressor oils were

Chains rusting and corroding causing poor operation and

A penetrating wire rope fluid was used to penetrate into the pins and bushings

put into service.


Electricity savings of $500 to $5000 per year achieved with only $200 investment in oil.


lubricants and

their applica

Temperature dropped by 15°F, and sludging was eliminated.


processes re

quire better knowledge of

Water and caustics were sealed out and lube intervals extended to once a month.

more highly trained people and also much




tion demands

of Canada

market for the cost of the lubricant is

Existing chains were freed up and the rusting stopped.

of the chains.

downtime Filter Press

Lack of

knowledge in either area can Filter Press

Hydraulic oil foaming and causing pump

A non-foaming, paraffinic (compatible with hoses and seals), oxidation resistant hydraulic oil was put into

Foaming ceased, operation smoothed out and leaks

cavitation, hoses and seals leaking.


stopped. Oil life was dramatically increased.

Greased bearings contaminated by

A very tacky, water-resistant grease was pumped into the bearings.

Grease staying in the bearings, sealing out water and

The units were filled with a wear

Reducers cooled off and are

reducing gear oil.

now lasting 17 months vs 2 months before the change.

create prob lems, but espe cially in the knowledge of application. It


still costs four


Gear oil emulsified


with water, frequent

The gearboxes were changed out to a gear oil that rapidly separates from

gearbox without changing the

oil changes needed


oil, no more emulsion.

Chains rubbing and wearing metal pads

Pads were coated with a layer of very tacky open gear lubricant by means of


or five times as

much to apply


Bar Screen

the lubricant as

water and oxidizing. High wear and overheating caused freguent failure.

it does to buy the lubricant. Lubrica

tion, of course, is


prolonging bearing life.

Water is drained out of the

Wear on the pads has been

a caulking gun. Grinder/ Comminutor



Hydraulic drive system foaming and emulsifying with water High wear and

A non-foaming hydraulic oil with rapid

Foaming and water

water separation was used.

emulsification were eliminated,

A very tacky grease that resists pound

oil drain interval doubled Wear rate and failures

premature failure

out was aoDlied.

dramaticallv reduced

Above is a briefsummary of the most frequent problems found in wastewater treatment plants and how they are solved. 32

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Maximize your disinfection strategy %

> The challenge You need to maximize disinfection process efficiency and meet new regulations.

> The Hach solution With the total solution from Hach, your disinfection control strategy includes an established

baseline and ready determination of source or influent variations. You meet disinfection by-product and conforms limits while controlling chemical and operating costs - from start to finish.

Total Organic Carbon (TOC)

determine incoming organic material to guide coagulation or clarification.


optimized filtration improves disinfection effectiveness.


control chlorine, ammonia, ozone, or chlorine dioxide

dosing and residual at any point of the disinfection process; on-line analyzers and/or any of several laboratory platforms meet your monitoring needs.


Total trihalomethanes

streamlined THM Plus'" test for in-house assessment

of disinfection by-product levels. Total coliforms/£co//

> Disinfection control

simultaneous results in 24 hours with USEPA-

approved m-ColiBlue24® Broth.

solution checklist Laboratory/On-site TOC Reagent Sets: 0-20; 15-150; and 100-700 mg/L Compact COO/TOC Reactor Monchlor-P" Monochloramine Reagents

DR/4000 UV-VIS Spectrophotometer system

For more about Hach's solution for disinfection control, contact your local distributor. To find a distributor in your area visit www.hach.comm or call 1.910.669.3050.


Model 2100AN Laboratory Turbidimeter m-ColiBlue24® Broth

sensiOfT" Portable and Benchtop Meters and Electrodes for pH. DO, and conductivity On-line

1950plus On-line TOC Analyzer astroTOC" UV On-line TOC Analyzer AutoCAT 9000

CL17 Chlorine Analyzer Model 9187 Chlorine Dioxide Analyzer Model 9185 Ozone Analyzer APA 6000™ Monochloramine Analyzer


1720D Low Range Turbidimeter

For more information on how

Hach can help you minimize the risk of waterborne disease, contact your local distributor or Hach Company in the USA, Telephone:(970) 669-3050, Fax:(970) 461-3939, E-mail: intl@hach.com.

For more information, circle reply card No. 150

(See page 25)


Remote monitoring for wastewater sites Optimize and understand your treatment process site location, who can investigate re

Waterloo Bloflltere Treatment Process Schematic

Wastewater Treatment System with Surface Discharge

motely by computer before visiting the site, saving much time. Remote moni toring also provides off-site preventive maintenance. By downloading and viewing daily summaries, problems such as stuck rotating valves or ineffi cient pump cycles can be isolated and fixed, generally before they become a


Rotating Valve Alum Dosing Pumps(D) Waterloo Blofllter PE Treatment

Units (E)

Effluent Filter(B) (C)

jt Septic Tanks(A)

problem. Optimizing treatment 1. Pump Frequency Too High - In May 2001,one system had frequent low-level

Dosing Pumps

alarms in the pump chamber, and event listings of the pump on-times were in vestigated to determine activity through out the day. Figure 2 shows the pumps

UV Disinfection

Unlt(F) Professional

To Pond"

Operator Remote Monitoring

(G) Not To Scale


were active only 50% of the time (green is on, white is off) because the timer had been set for short cycles at too high of a


Figure 1. Process schematic of a 30rrf/day Waterloo Biofiltei^ wastewater treatment system with surface discharge to irrigation ponds.

A remote monitoring system

frequency. The water level in the surge pump chamber remained low because the pumps would discharge the effluent

Remote monitoring allows for immedi ate detection of problems off-site and is

as soon as it came in, almost on a de

(RMS) for a number of wastewater treatment sites

easier and faster than on-site trouble

not utilized. If this situation were to

could be an invaluable tool


continue, ammonium levels in the efflu

in optimizing the treatment process and in complying with Ministry of Environ ment surface water discharge criteria for organics, solids, ammonium, phospho rus, and pathogens. It was developed for Waterloo Biofilter Systems. The ClubLink golf courses of Blue Springs, Rattlesnake Point, King's Rid ing and Rocky Crest use the Waterloo Biofilter septic tank and absorbent trickle filter system to treat highly vari able flows of high-strength wastewater from the clubhouses and resort buildings for reuse in irrigation. Figure 1 is a

The RMS consists of SiteWatch-de-

signed software and hardware connected to mechanical equipment, to record pump-on times and cycles for all pumps, rotating valve cycles,flow meters, tem peratures, UV light intensity, and indi

mand basis, and the surge capacity was

ent would rise.

The timer cycles were changed to spread the dosing evenly throughout the day, allowing more effective use of the surge chamber. 2. Rotating Valve Stuck - Three sets of

vidual alarms. Certain alarms are auto

Biofilters at Rattlesnake Point Golf

matically paged to the operator with the

Course are dosed using a mechanical

Table 1. Daily pressure switch dosing cycies through rotating valve. Date

Dose Cycies

Dose Cycies

Dose Cycies


Unit 1

Unit 2


Oct. 20




Oct. 21




Oct. 22

NA 76 36

NA 53


Oct. 23



23 29

183 157

183 157

183 183

183 183





schematic diagram of a 30 mVday peak system and includes:(a)two-day capac ity septic tanks,(b)effluent fdters,(c)a surge pump tank,(d) aluminum sulfate addition, (e) six Waterloo Biofdter PE tanks,(f) Trojan 3000 UV disinfection, (g) SiteWatch RMS,and (h) operations

Oct. 24 Oct. 25 Oct. 26 Oct. 27


Oct. 28


Oct. 29

184 172


Valve stuck


Treatment and compliance may be compromised if one of these compo nents does not function properly, and so it is important to pre-empt problems.

By Ignatius lp\ E. Craig JowetF and Scott Kirby^ 34

Oct. 30


Oct. 31 Nov. 01


173 157



Nov. 02

163 163

168 172


Nov. 03 Nov. 04 Nov. 05





183 144

165 196

Valve Recovery after Cleaning

190 Normal

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002


Blue Springs Dosing Pump Timer Enable ON / OFF June 4,2001 :Q = 22.6 m31 day

Rattlesnake Point Golf Course 1999

Total Nitrogen Mass In Effluent 1.2




^ 0.8



P OFF I 1200 AM

6:00 AM

12:00 PM

6:00 PM

12:00 AM









3-day Avg Flow (m3/day)


Figure 2. Dosing pump activity on June 4, 2001.

Figure 3. Predicting Total Nitrogen (IN) mass in effluent.

rotating valve, and the rotations are recorded using pres sure switches on the force mains. Table 1 shows the cy cling of the valve being normal for October 20-21 with all cycles equal, but abnormal for October 23-28, with unequal cycles. After the valve was cleaned, the valve regained nor mal cycling. If the valve had remained stuck, ammonium levels would have eventually exceeded compliance. Understanding the treatment 1. Peaking Factors Too Low - In June 2001, the ammonia at Rattlesnake began to rise and threaten to fall out of com pliance(above 2.0 mg/L). The records of the daily summa ries were investigated to determine what might be the cause. The median flows in the peak season May to September

ing factors calculated (Table 2). The average annual flow of the new facility was back-calculated using this peaking factor, and predicts an average annual flow of 20,400 L/ day. This represents 0.48 kg/day of TN released into the environment, or 175.7 kg per year. These figures can sub sequently form a basis for hydrogeologic calculations in ap plications for approval. ^Waterloo BiofiiterSystems inc. ^CiubLink Corporation

For more information, circle reply card No. 136

were 31 mVd in 1999 and 33 mVd in 2000(a peaking factor of-1.9), but jumped substantially to 44 mVd in 2001 (a peaking factor of only 1.4), due to the commercial success

Your One-Stop Source for

of the golf course. The hydraulic and mass loading were much greater than the design loads and caused the ammo

Controls and Instruments

nia levels to rise.

Put your trust In Davis Controls to deliver packaged solutions designed to reduce loss and save energy In water cycle of all water treatment and wastewater processing operations.

With the mass loadings to justify the system upgrade, more filter medium was added, and effluent ammonia fell

to <0.5 mg/L, well within compliance. 2. Calculating Nitrogen Loading Ratesfor Reasonable Use Policy - A number of effluent samples froin Rattlesnake were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN = TKN + NO,-N -t-

You need a dedicated business partner with know-how, experience and product offering to he with you from abstraction to purification to supply.

NOj-N), and the mass of TN (kg/day) calculated using a three-day average flow due to re-circulation and extensive mixing in the plant. Figure 3 shows a very good coirelation between TN mass loading and average flow, indicating simply that the effluent quality is consistent. Using recorded data, the peaking factors were determined for a three-year period, and this data used to predict the nitrogen loading at

Depend on Davis Controls.

Davis ControlsTel: 905-829-2000 Fax: 905-829-2630 www.daviscontrols.com

the new facility. The two highest consecutive days of flow at Rattlesnake were averaged to determine the peak flow, and annual peakTable 2. Determining peaking factors.


Flow (mYday) Year


2-day average peak

Peaking Factor

1999 2000













Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Flowmeters up to 160

Analytical Meters


EVITA'''OXY' Dissolved Oxygen

MAGFLO^ electromagnetic

meters and EVITA* 'INSITU'

VLT' Drives up to 600HP (SOOkW) Regulating the Pumps, Blowers or Compressors generating process flow and pressure and tor precise

sonic flowmeters for any pipe dimension up to 160". Precise

Nutrient meters ensure optimum process control. • Increased plant capacity

and reliabie measurement.

• Cleaner effluent

chemical dosing meeting actual system requirements;

Simple to install and easy to operate.

• Less sludge production

« Improves plant productivity

• Dramatically reduced energy

• Reduces chemical consumption • Offers substantial savings

tlowmeler and SONOFLO' ultra


For more information, circle reply card No. 137 (See page 25)





The USFilters DuoTherm"

is a liquid phase



odor control method that



stops stink at its source hy bio chemically elimi nating its cause -

dissolved hydrogen sulfide. BIOXIDE-AQ™ efiFectively eliminates the sulfate reducing hacteria (SRB's)-often found in wastewater

and biosolids-that produce hydrogen sulfide and, as a bonus, enhances normal biological processes. Plus, BIOXIDE-AQ™ is one of the safest means of controlling hydrogen sul




digestion: a solution responsive to the envi ronmental


fide since it contains no hazardous substances

tion process.

as defined by EPA's CERCLA list and is exempt from Federal D.O.T. placarding requirements.

Envirex Products

262.547.0141 phone 262.547.4120fax

Davis Products


800.345.3982 phone 941.351.4756fax


solids disposal facing many municipalities. In effect, it gives munici palities the convenience of Class A biosolids with the least possible inconvenience in terms of capital costs and operations. This is accomplished by fully utilizing the traditional digestion equipment and incorporating it into the new pasteuriza

Circle reply card

Circle reply card No. 179


No. 176




Using innovative design features and imaginative process engineering, Zimpro Products pro

The J-Vap® sysrem

provides dewatering and



biosolids or residuals

duces fluid bed furnaces

in a simple, onestep operation. J-Vap®

that are clean, cost-effec


tive, and in compliance with sludge management requirements. Our furnaces can be coupled with state-of-the-art waste heat recovery, so that thermal energy from sludge can be beneficially reused. You get maximum sludge volume reduction while reducing rhe expense of hauling or other disposal options. Zimpro Products 800.826.1476 phone 715.355.3219^ Circle reply card www.usfilter.com

No. 177


Dewarering Systems has combined conven tional filter press technology and a unique drying system in one unit. Any level of dryness can be achieved by simply extending the drying time. The solids are subjected to a

low temperature, gentle drying process that is extremely energy efficient and produces over 95% dry solids that can meet Class A sludge requirements. The J-Vap® system is manufac tured in all sizes to accommodate almost any

dewatering and drying need. Laboratory and on-site tesring available. Dewarering Systems

800.245.3006 phone 616.772.4516/«

Circle reply card No. 180




The IPS composting system turns sewage

The most technically

sludge, leaves, yard

advanced and costeffective odor control

waste, brush, food and wood wastes into

high quality compost for agricultural and horticultural use in

about 3 weeks. This EPA approved technology produces high quality compost meeting the EPA 503 regulatory requirements for Process to Further Reduce Pathogens and vector attraction requirements. Systems are fully automated, controlhng temperature and mixing operations, collecting data, and generating

reports. Unique enclosed design is environmen tally sound and virtually odor free. Thirty facilities, with capacities from 16 to 280 tons per day, are operating worldwide.

scrubber system available, the LO/PRO® system is a patented, multi-stage, multi-chemistry wet scrubber system that can be configured to remove hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and

organic odors. Each sysrem is factory preassembled and mechanically tested prior to shipment. Performance is guaranteed, with removal efficiencies in excess of 99.0% and

air flow rates up to 24,500 cfm. The compact design occupies a fraction of the space required by conventional packed tower sys tems, with better chemical utilization and lower installation and maintenance costs.

IPS Products

RJ Environmental Products

800.547.1202 phone 508.347.7049fax

858.486.8500 phone


Circle reply card No. 178



Circle reply card




USFilter cuts down your biosolids concerns with compre hensive hiosolids management including solutions, systems integration and service. From dewatering to odor control to composting, we offer the treatment technologies you need.

Our experienced engineers will design and supply an integrated biosolids management solution tailored to your process Learn more at our website,

requirements, with maximum effectiveness and minimum

www.usfilter.com cost. For more information, check the web at www.usfilter.com, call 1.800.387.3635 or e-mail biosolids@usfilter.com.

.Vivendi Environnement company

For more information, circle repiy card No. 138(See page 25)

Industrial Wastewater

Ice cream firm treats its own wastewater First Ontario dairy with its own wastewater piant

Chapman's Ice Cream is believed to be the first dairy operation in Ontario with its

own wastewater treatment

plant. The firm selected a state-of-tbe art Fluidyne ISAM'''^ (Integrated Surge Anoxic Mix) anaerobic/aerobic batch reactor, so that the continuously expanding operation would not overwhelm the existing municipal lagoon system capability. Founded in 1973 by David and Penny Chapman, the firm is believed to be the largest independent manufacturer of ice cream and water ice products in Canada. Chapman's, with production more than doubling within the last five years, is located in Markdale, Ontario, a commu

nity about two hours north of Toronto. It is the largest employer in the area by far. During the selection process. Chapman personnel and their consult ing engineers found many advantages in the Fluidyne ISAM when compared with conventional Sequencing Batch Reactor(SBR), upflow sludge blanket filtration (USBF) and trickling filter systems. Lowered capital and installed costs, reduced operating and mainte nance expense, minimal sludge produc tion with 80% less sludge compared to other activated sludge processes, builtin redundancy with a 100% in-place spare aerator, and the ability to better handle peak flows and loadings, topped

the list of reasons for selecting Table 1 - Chapman's Ice Cream the Fluidyne ISAM. Typical Performance Data A The system does not wash out solids at peak flows. Un 1535 mg/l Influent BOD (mg/l) like continuous flow processes Effluent BOD (mg/l) 10 mg/l and discharge, there is no flow 417 mg/l Influent TSS (mg/l) entering the reactor during ef 10 mg/l Effluent TSS (mg/l) fluent discharge. This promotes the high effluent quality at all flow rates. The system incorporates a Fluidyne control panel. The control strategy provides great process flexibil surge/anoxic mix tank to assure opti ity as aeration/mixing are automatically mum control of the process and to pro vide both rapid and complete waste- adjusted to meet incoming loadings, a feature which also reduces power re water treatment. This surge tank pro vides flow and nutrient equalization and quirements significantly. While it was treatment at a full 10;1 range of flows not a requirement in the Chapman se lection process, the ISAM has Califor and loadings. The built in sludge reduction system's nia Title 22 approval, authorizing nonanaerobic compartment significantly residential use of the effluent for irriga tion purposes. reduces total sludge production, han The system treats a design flow of dling and disposal. On average, each 132,000 gallons(500m')per day of high week the ISAM treats 350,000 gallons strength wastewater generated in the of wastewater while generating only production of ice cream. BOD,and TSS 1,760 gallons of sludge. design influent/effluent parameters for The system uses jet aeration to pro vide oxygen to the system. Jets are ideal the installation were specified as 1,300/ for industrial wastewater as they provide 200 and 600/200 mg/L respectively. Chapman's wanted the plant to meet a high oxygen transfer and have signifi cantly higher alpha values compared to higher, more environmentally friendly fine bubble diffusers. Furthermore,jet BOD,/TSS effluent standard of 50mg/l for discharge to the city sewer system. aerators have large solids handling ca pabilities and can be serviced without Actual BOD,ranged from 1,210 to 1,860 entering or draining the tank as they and suspended solids from 143 to 417. have a built in self-cleaning mechanism. The process is automatically control led through an Allen-Bradley PLC in the

At startup, the influent BOD, regis

tered 1,330. Effluent BOD immediately dropped to below 200, and consistently falls under 10. Numbers for effluent

suspended solids proved equally impres sive dropping to single digits within a few brief weeks. According to Jerry Schwartz, plant operator, "we sample every week and the effluent is consist ently far better than the standards pre scribed for us."

Charlie Rheaume, Chapman's Vicepresident, adds: "We actually gave the municipality back 40% of the total ca pacity of their treatment plant and, es pecially, the BOD. Before our new sys tem came on stream, the local munici

pal lagoon was up to 80% of capacity. With our anticipated growth,the system would soon have been overwhelmed.

Founded in 1973 by David and Penny Chapman, the firm is believed to be the largest independent manufacturer of ice cream and water ice products in Canada. 38

We've been recognized by our industry and by the Ontario Minister of Environ ment for our ecological stewardship. Since the Chicago World Wide Food and

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Industrial Wastewater

Dairy Expo, we've hosted a stream of foreign visitors from Australia, Russia and many other countries. They were all favorably impressed."

At startup, the influent

BODj registered 1,330. Effluent BOD immediately dropped to below 200, and consistently falls under 10. Numbers for effluent

suspended solids proved equally impressive dropping to single digits within a few brief weeks. In the first five months of operation. Chapman's processed 360 batches, or approximately 7,920,000 gallons (SO.OOOm'). Heaviest flows come Tues day-Friday; during summer months,the average is 20-25 batches each week, but

fh ^


On average, each week the ISAM treats 350,000 gallons of wastewater while gen erating only 1,760 gallons of sludge.

this drops to 16-20 weekly fall to spring. Fluidyne provided process design and supplied all related treatment, processing and flow controls for the siteconstructed tanks. Chapman's served as their own prime contractor with respon

sibility for final installation of the sys tem; D.J. Peach & Associates, Ltd., pro vided consulting engineering on the project. For more information, circle reply card No. 139

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Enviroiviieiilal Science c6 Engineering, September 2002

For more information, circle reply card No. 140 (See page 25)


Potable Water Storage

Nova Scotia town chooses geosynthetic floating covers

TheTown ofMiddleton in Nova

Scotia recently completed a project to provide a new cover system for their existing 1,000,000-gallon potable water storage


The SGE Group in Halifax reviewed various options for covering the reser voir including rigid roof structures, pitched timber roofs and flexible float

ing synthetic covers.After determining that a 45 mil reinforced polypropylene flexible floating cover system was the best choice for this project, Layfield Environmental Systems was awarded a contract to manufacture and install a 45

mil reinforced polypropylene floating cover system.

The design of the cover system was particularly challenging because rain water trapped on the cover needed to be channeled to a dewatering pump sys tem. The floating cover system also needed to function at various operating levels depending on the elevation of the

Cover under construction

water in the reservoir.

Requisite performance properties for the floating cover membrane included: cold temperature flexibility, NSF 61 cer tification, UV resistance, and suitable

tensile strength. The polypropylene floating cover supplied by Layfield met all of these rigorous requirements. The floating cover system was based on a defined sump design and included stra tegically placed attached foam floats, sand filled ballast tubes, four air vents,

Completed cover filled with water.

one access hatch and mechanical an

chorage around the perimeter of the cover.

The project took approximately six days to complete. Municipalities across North America

are increasingly using geosynthetic floating covers to help prevent evapo ration, reduce contamination, reduce treatment costs and to improve overall water quality. For more Information,

circle reply card No. 141 By Brian Fraser, Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd. Rain water sump. 40

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Industry Update COUNTY OF OXFORD

WERF Releases Nutrient Credit Trading Program Market Analysis A report, Nitrogen Credit Trading in Maryland: A Market Analysis for Establishing a Statewide Framework (stock #97IRM5E) is now available from the Water Environment

Research Foundation. It explores whether a market for ni trogen credits can assist publicly owned treatment plants in Maryland in achieving cost-effective nitrogen loads. The study strongly indicates that trading options may provide opportunities to achieve environmental objectives at substantially lower costs, and possibly faster than ap proaches that ask (or force) all POTWs to achieve equally lower nitrogen concentrations.

This project highlights general considerations for any one interested in trading, including a market analysis and a recommendation to use the Chesapeake Bay Program's Nutrient Trading Principles and Guidelines(2001)as a model of process and policy. The report concludes that point-point trading should not be overlooked as a potentially important strategy - nonpoint source credits will not always be less expensive than point source credits. It also proposes to add best management practices credits for stormwater-related projects and restoration on undeveloped land. The report shows trading options at three geographic scales in Maryland and explains how various factors would strengthen or weaken a credit market, expanding or dimin ishing opportunities for greater cost-effectiveness. The re searchers present previously unavailable information and analyses that are critical to regional watershed management strategies. Contact www.werf.org.


WaterAVastewater Engineer The County of Oxford requires a permanent full-time Water/ Wastewater Engineer in the Public Works,Water/Wastewater De partment. Under the direction of the Manager of Water and Wastewater Services, organizes and directs the planning, design and construction of the County water and wastewater systems.

Minimum Qualifications: Civil Engineering Degree and mem

bership in the Professional Engineers of Ontario; three years of related engineering experience; knowledge of current engineer ing design standards, Class Environmental Assessment Procedures and construction practices relating to water and wastewater, work ing knowledge of current regulations and legislation as applied to water and wastewater; and a valid driver's licence and a reliable vehicle with insurance.

Resumes to be forwarded by October 18,2002 at 4:00 p.m. to: County of Oxford, Human Resources Office, P.O. Box 397, 415 Hunter St., WOODSTOCK ON N4S 7Y3 Fax #(519)537-3024 E-mail address: hr@countv.oxford.on.ca Web Site: www.countv.oxford.on.ca

Receipt of personal information is acknowledged and will be re tained for 6 months in confidence, but only those selected for interviews will be contacted personally.

Fluidyne's ISAM'"- The Innovative SBR Maximizing performance while minimizing sludge production We knew we had something special over 20 years ago when we pioneered SBR technology in North America. Now Fluidyne brings SBR technology into the next millennium. The innovative

Fluidyne Integrated SurgeAnoxic Mix (ISAM ™) system provides the following advantages over conventional and continuous flow SBR

systems. ■ Reduces tank size by 20-25% ■ Reduces sludge production by 65% or more compared to other activated sludge processes ■ Reduces energy requirements ■ Includes automatic scum

skimming ■ Eliminates influent control valves

■ Improves SBR performance at high flows For more information on the ISAM™ and other Fluidyne products: 2816 West First Street ■ Cedar Falls, Iowa 50613

(319) 266-9967 Fax:(319)277-6034 email: fluidyne@cfu.net www.fluidynecorp.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002



For more information, circle reply card No. 184 (See page 25)


Environmental Analyses

Understanding requirements of ISO/IEC 17025

ISO/IEC 17025 is a standard that

sets out the specific requirements to be met by laboratories wish ing to achieve the production of competent results as a matter of course. These requirements were developed by groups of laboratory experts from

sessors will often encounter situations


where they are forced to defend particu lar requirements to a laboratory seeking accreditation and, while they understand

At the same time, a laboratory's blind adherence to each of the requirements of the standard, while better than no sys tem at all, is not an approach which instills confidence in

ability to produce competent results. Nor is it the best ap proach to use in acquiring rec ognition of such competence.

around the world over the

course of 30 years. From the first, laboratory competence has been the paramount con

"Finally, ISO 9000:2000 is now well-known and respected


around the world as a standard

In today's world, recogni tion of such competence gen erally requires that laboratories which have implemented the requirements of the standard

which today aims at allowing conforming organisations to implement a "model for excel lence." While some may see this aim as a very ambitious one for any organisation, the standard effectively breaks

obtain accreditation. Accredi tation involves assessment


and, like all audit-associated activities, assessment of technical

competence requires trained assessors to deliver these assessments. Asses

sors must be fully cognisant of each of the requirements in the standard. During the course of their work,as

down the elements which an

the specific requirement under discus sion, they may not be able to clearly ar ticulate why such a requirement exists, in the first place. That is to say - they may not be able to identify the princi ples which underlie the stated require

organisation can readily achieve in their implementation of such a model. One of the great strengths of ISO 9000:2000 is its clear basis on principles which can be easily articulated and understood. Those who live and work in the world

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Envimninental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Environmental Analyses

Model with Confidence!

of laboratories also adhere to specific as being subjective, or known by experts principles, but these have not been ar in that field of testing to be mainly sub ticulated in one collection. Such prin jective. ciples vi'ould provide a clearly under Impartiality of conduct stood basis for the requirements of the The pursuit of competent results standard which most directly impacts through the use of generally accepted laboratory operations. scientific approaches is the primary and The objective of this article is to pro oveiTiding influence on the work of per vide a listing of the principles behind sons executing tests - all other influences ISO/IEC 17025. These can be used by should be considered secondary and not laboratories to better appreciate indi permitted to take precedence. vidual requirements of the standard. The Traceability of measurement article can also be used by assessors, in The results produced, within the understanding how or why a specific scope of work of the laboratory, must requirement can help(or perhaps hinder) be based on a recognised system of a laboratory to implement the processes measurement that derives from ac required for the recognition of their com cepted, known quantities(SI system)or petence.

other intrinsic or well-characterised de

From study of the standard and its impact on laboratory operations over the course of the last nine years, the follow ing principles are considered to be the main forces behind all of the require

vices or quantities. The chain ofcomparison of measure ment between these accepted, known quantities or intrinsic devices or quanti ties, and the device providing objective

ments of ISO/IEC 17025:

results, must be unbroken for the trans fer of measurement characteristics, in

• Capacity • Exercise of Responsibility

measurement chain.

Repeatability of test The test which produced the objec tive results, will produce the same re sults, within accepted deviations during subsequent testing, and within the con straints of using the same procedures, equipment and persons used during a previous execution of the test. Transparency of process The processes existent within the laboratory producing the objective re sults, should be open to internal and ex ternal scmtiny,so that factors which may adversely affect the laboratory's pursuit of objective results based on scientific method, can be readily identified and mitigated.

have the resources {people with the re quired skills and knowledge, the envi ronment with the required facilities and equipment, the quality control, and the procedures) in order to undertake the work and produce competent results. Exercise of responsibility Persons in the organisation should have the authority to execute specific functions within the overall scope of work - and the organisation can demon strate accountability for the results of the work.

Scientific method

Work earned out by the organisation must be based on accepted scientific ap proaches, preferably consensus-based, and any deviations from accepted sci entific approaches must be substantiated in a manner considered generally accept able by experts in that field. Objectivity of results Results produced within the scope of work of the organisation, must be mainly based on measurable or derived quanti ties.

Subjective test results should be pro duced only by persons deemed qualified

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Model dual drainage and other complex systems of both open and closed conduits Use Rational, SCS, SWMM Runoff and many other hydrology metfiods Design/analyze separate/combined systems Handle flow reversals and looped systems Directly import GIS and other database data Simulate, pumps, orifices, weirs regulators multiple outfalls and real time control

cluding uncertainty,for the whole of the

• • • • •

Environmental laboratories must




• Scientific Method

Objectivity of Results Impartiality of Conduct Traceability of Measurement Repeatabili ty of Test Transparency of Process Capacity



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These eight principles may not cover every aspect of every requirement in the standard, but they are broad enough to allow persons working in laboratories to appreciate the reasons behind most of the individual requirements. They may also allow assessors to use their professionaljudgement in assessing the conformance of a laboratory to each of the requirements within the standard. For more Information,

circle reply card No. 145 By J.E.J.(Ned)Gravel, P.Eng., Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories

Urban Stormwater Design and Analysis Design and analyze drainage systems using up to 7 return periods with the Rational formula Predict an accurate HGL and analyze inlets using HEC-12, rating curve or max. capture

Include inlet bypasses and surface flow XP Software 9-75 First Street

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to do so and such results should be noted

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

circle reply card No. 144 (See page 25)

Biosolids Management

WEF commends new biosolids rules for

protecting worker and public health


pleased that this

tion (WEF) has commended

diverse commit

the National Academies' Na

tee of experts


has confirmed



(NRC) on the completion of its 18month study,Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices, and supports its conclusion that there is no



health and water

documented scientific evidence that

quality profes sionals already know. Today we

EPA's 1993 Part 503 rule has failed to

call on EPA to

protect public health. Instead, the new report calls for additional scientific re search to reduce persistent uncertainty about potential for adverse human health effects from exposure to land-applied biosolids and provides recommenda

act promptly to respond to the recommenda

tions outlined by the NRC. Lead

ership by EPA at Farmers and others who work with Class B biosolids should benefit from the new NIOSH Guidance

tions to the U.S. Environmental Protec

the federal level,

tion Agency (EPA) to update and strengthen the scientific credibility of

together with

biosolids standards and ensure their con

for state regulatory programs, will help to maintain public confidence in biosolids recycling as a safe and envi ronmentally-friendly practice."

sistent implementation. According to WEF Deputy Executive Director, Dr. Albert Gray, "WEF is

greater support The NRC established its recommen

dations based upon the need to update the scientific basis of the Part 503 rule. These recommendations ensure that the

chemical and pathogen standards are supported by current scientific data and risk-assessment methods, demonstrate effective enforcement of the rule, and


validate the effectiveness of biosolids

management practices. The report's rec ommendations include the use of im

proved risk-assessment methods to bet

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Heavy Civil (Design/Buiid) Marketing Professional Qualifications: P.Eng. Degree with focus on Civil and Environmental Design and Engi neering and formal training in water and wastewater treatment processes is required. A minimum of 5 years experience in civil construction, process mechanical and electrical installations are essential benchmarks that you have already achieved. The position:The ideal candidate will be a goai-oriented innovator, with an appreciation for Design/Buiid/P3 project delivery and who has a proven ability to work on project devel opment teams. You will also have a proven track record in building lasting relationships with clients and consultants coupled with an in-depth knowledge of construction costing and systems. An understanding of contracts and contract law as well as the ability to write client focused proposals will round out your experience base. Occasional travel will be required as you manage opportunities across Canada,

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This study was requested by the EPA to evaluate the Part 503 rule to ensure

the protection of public health and as sure the public of the safety of regulated biosolids land application. With the rec ognition of NRC's recommendations by the EPA, Gray concludes that, "the re port reassures the public that the Part 503 rule has been, and is, protective of public health and we would expect that further study will reinforce confidence in the safety of land applied biosolids". To obtain additional information on

biosolids please visit www.wef.org to view the Guide to Understanding Biosolids, a publication developed by WEFandAMSA.

Only applicants selected for an interview wiii be contacted 44

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Biosolids Management WEF lauds new NIOSH biosolids

guidance Earlier the Water Environment Fed eration had welcomed the action of the

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to rescind Hazard ID No. 10(Workers Exposed to Class B Biosolids During and After Field Application) and replace it with guidance that better reflects the precau tions that biosolids workers should be

taking. According to Dr. Gray,"WEF is pleased that NIOSH was open to the

ily mischaracterized as a call for the pro hibition of all Class B biosolids. Finally, WEF and others noted that the recom

mended practices in the report were al ready routinely administered at the vast majority of publicly owned treatment works.

As in the HID #10,the new guidance focuses on potential risks from close occupational exposure to Class B biosolids. It stresses that those working

gum on the job and should wash their hands thoroughly upon leaving the work site and remove clothing and footwear that could transport Class B biosolids off-site. The goal is to avoid possible ingestion or exposure through cuts, scratches, eyes, etc. to possible Class B biosolids pathogens.

To view the new NIOSH Guidance, visit

with Class B biosolids should avoid eat


ing, drinking, smoking, and chewing


discussion of our concerns about the in

evitable misunderstanding and misrep resentation of its earlier Hazard ID #10

and used input from the water quality profession to prepare the revised docu ment".

In March 2002, NIOSH extended an

invitation to WEF to officially comment on NIOSH's draft guidance entitled Controlling Potential Risks To Workers Exposed to Class B Biosolids. The new guidance was written in response to criti cism surrounding some misinformation stated in the August 2000 release of Haz ard ID No. 10(HID #10). In response. Dr. Gray requested that NIOSH retract HID #10 and replace it with new guid


which one Pits best?

ance that reflects the need to follow

common safe work procedures and use of personal protective equipment widely available to the wastewater profession. On June 12,2002, NIOSH officially re placed HID #10 with the new guidance, which is a more refined, accurate, and useful document for those who work

closely with Class B biosolids. Since its release in August 2000,the HID #10 had been criticized by water quality and biosolids experts as alarm ist and poorly researched. While the guidance recommended the use of stand

ard personal hygiene practices and per sonal protective equipment to prevent potential health problems in workers handling Class B biosolids, WEF and other organizations found fault with as pects of HID #10 because it implied widespread potential health effects and failure within the wastewater profession

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based on the observance of only one biosolids land application and storage site. The site used did not comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Class B requirements and workers were clearly not following good personal hy

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The organizations were also con cerned that the guidance could be eas Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002


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For more information, circie reply card No. 146 (See page 25)


Wastewater Treatment

Historic St. John's harbour undergoes phased approach in ciean-up project

TheSt.John's Harbour in New

foundland is known for its

natural beauty and its rich na val history due to its strategic location and the depths of its waters. But as the City of St. John's continues to grow, the harbour is in need of special environmental attention.

Approximately 120 million litres of raw sewage and stormwater runoff en ter the harbour on a daily basis. This inflow contributes an annual loading of some 3,700 tons of BOD,4,200 tons of

solids and 200 tons of phosphorus to the harbour. The once pristine water is also polluted with bacteria, pathogens and heavy metals. The St. John's Harbour clean-up project is being implemented through a phased approach for wastewater treat ment for the St. John's region. New foundland Design Associates, in asso ciation with CH2M HILL Canada, are

the engineering consultants for this am bitious project. John Barry, P.Eng., is the City of St. John's project manager. As the first step of its multi-phase wastewater treatment system, the City of St. John's built the Southside Road

pumping station in 1999 which is equipped with three CP 3501 Flygt sub-

The historic Cabot Tower overiooks St. John's Harbour. Photo courtesy, Tourism St, John's

Proven, Effective Fall Protection We can be trusted in a variety of situations, meeting and exceeding safety requirements while giving you peace of mind.

Waterford River where the outfall was

wells, bins, chimneys, communication towers, dams, elevated water tanks,

high signs, hydro transmission towers, interior or exterior building ladders, light support poles, refineries, scaffolds, silos, stacks, water and sewage pumping stations, wind generators

For more information, circle reply card No. 148



1-905-659-0598 www.towersafetygroup.com 46

1,200 1/s of wastewater from the Wa-

terford Valley sewershed to a diffused interim outfall which is strategically placed in the middle of the harbour. This phase has dramatically improved the water quality at the mouth of the previously located. Ultimately the Flygt pumps, com bined with the second phase of the pumping station will provide low lift pumping to the new primary treatment plant.

antennas, below street access ladder

Please call or visit our website:

mersible pumps. The pumps convey

For more information, circle reply card No. 149 (See page 25)

By Jim Aylward, P.Eng., Newfoundland Design Associates Limited and

Robert Squires, ill Flygt Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

ujMfN-f® «*'*** W00«®'1»\ coW




loto®*® ow®®'

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Drinking Water

Ontario drinking water - towards a safe sustainabie future

OWWA/GMWA would prefer

to see a single Provincial source of responsibility for drinking water, preferably a Water Branch within the Ministry of the Environment (MOB). The Water

The Ontario Water Works

Association(OWWA)- a Section of the American

are more than 127 AWWA Standards on

tablishment of a Professional Interest

topics ranging from water treatment, to connections, to disinfecting, to equip

Advisory Forum (PIAF) to assist with water policy review, development and analysis. The PIAF would not only guide the development of a management framework to implement the recommen

and the Ontario Municipal

tions:(1) drinking water,(2) water pol lution control/source water protection, and (3) water conservation.

in Part II of the Walkerton

Inquiry. Part II focused on the future of drinking water safety in Ontario. Key recommendations from their submission follow.

formance. All stakeholders in the drink

The Water Branch would encourage the implementation of best management practices(BMPs),including continuous quality improvement programs, by wa ter utilities in the Province. Today,there

Branch itself would consist of three sec

(OMWA)jointly participated, with standing,

acceptance level of performance and that water utilities be encouraged to always strive to go beyond the base level of per

ing water system,from professional as sociations to consumer groups, should have the opportunity to participate in and be formally consulted on the develop ment of proposed legislative and regu latory reforms. The framework that guides change must not only be trans parent, but also be well communicated so that it is seen to be that way. OWWA/OMWA encourage the es

Water Works Association -

Water Association

standards be considered as the minimal

ment installation. OWWA/OMWAcan

guide and assist with the implementa tion of industry standards and best man agement practices. OWWA/OMWA recommend that

Provincial water quality regulations and

dations of the Walkerton Commission

of Inquiry, but also ensure a process of continuous quality improvement in wa-

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We've pioneered many of the technologies used to manage the availability, quality, and control of water-our most Important natural resource. Millions of Canadians are now served by water treatment facilities and supply Infrastructure designed or upgraded by our company. Sustainable development Is a concept we Incorporate Into all of our water resource management projects to ensure that water resources aren't compromised. Designed by CH2M HILL, Loyalist Township's new, fully automated Fairiield Water Treatment Plant combines ultrafiltration and post-membrane



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For more information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Drinking Water ter system operations. As the lead agency, the MOE would, on a regular and continuing basis, con sult with and receive recommendations

from the PIAF. The membership of the PIAF would include senior-level repre sentatives from public health and envi ronment agencies, water utilities, and non-government stakeholders with an interest in drinking water issues (e.g. environmental associations and groups, research scientists, professional engi neers, etc.).

ticular need to help small system pro viders that may face disproportionately high costs to comply with all necessary upgrades. OWWA/OMWA recommend a pro gram of loans to assist with transitional costs. A one-time special loans program, rather than grants, is preferred as loans ensure accountability for repaying the cost of any system improvements. OWWA/OMWA do not support sys tem-wide subsidies, but do recognize that full-cost pricing could create finan

cial hardship for some individual house holders. Accordingly, it may be neces sary for the Province- not the individual municipality -to determine the need for assistance and provide that assistance to individual households.

Financing OWWA/OMWA recommend that

each water provider develop a long-term financial plan for the maintenance, up grade and replacement of infrastructure. Fundamental to the success oflong-term

planning is a record of accurate, up-to-

OWWA/OMWA are concerned that

ongoing Provincial initiatives relating to drinking water are in four ministries as



• Drinking Water Regulations - Min istry of Environment • Bill 81, Nutrient Management Act Ministry of Agriculture, Food & Rural

Peace of Mind?


•Bill 155,Sustainable Water and Sew

age Systems Act, 2001 - Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Housing • Project Financial Assistance(Super Build)- Ministry of Finance Cost Recovery and Financing The OWWA/OMWA believe that the

Sfery^tosfiY if nofe

costs of sourcing, treating and deliver ing safe drinking water should be in


cluded in the cost to the end user. The cost of water service should be recov


ered by water user fees and charges, and not recovered through property taxes. However,it is important to point out OWWA/OMWA do not recommend that

the water rate alone represents the re covery of all water costs. Municipali ties and other water service providers should continue to use development charges,local improvement charges,and special assessments that reflect cost re covery on a benefits received basis. OWWA/OMWA have responded to the Provincial Government's proposed Bill 155,the Sustainable Water and Sew

age Systems Act, 2001, and fully sup port the concept of the Bill and have pro vided a number ofsuggestions for its im

provement,including having the respon sibility for the Bill in the same ministry as all other drinking water issues. Subsidies

OWWA/OMWA do not support sub sidies to offset the true costs of provid

ing water service. However, it may be necessary to implement a one-time as sistance program to help those munici palities that face significant expenditures as a result of recommendations that the

ProMlnent offers the entire pH effluent discipline from initial analysis to final equipment installation, ^ When assigning a single source supplier the respon sibility of design, fabrication and installation of your plant's effluent system, you are ensuring that the best possible result is utilised to accomplish neutralization. The resulting chemical injection and mixing/storage system will optimize the performance and economic evaluation of the project. For informafion on effective pH effluent control: Phone 519-836-5692, Fax 519-836-5226 or

visit us on the web at www.prominenf.ca

Commission of Inquiry present to the Province. It is recognized there is a parEnvironmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

For more information, circle reply card No. 152 (See page 25)


Drinking Water date information on the physical assets of each individual water system.

results and require improvements when

to undertake corrective action.


and where necessary.

The choice of specific financial tools is a matter of public policy and must be

OWWA/OMWA recommend that the

Provincial government encourage wa

reviewed at the local level in order to

OWWA/OMWA recommend that all

applicants for an operator's license com plete an MOE approved training course with a specific curriculum. The deliv ery of the training could include a com

water cost recovery. The local water

ter utilities to join an accreditation pro gram to ensure a process of continuous improvement in the Province. The ac

service providers are most in touch with

creditation model developed by the

bination of classroom courses, corre

their customers, the issues facing the

American Water Works Association

spondence courses, internet and home

adopt the most appropriate approach to

community, patterns of usage,economic (AWWA),is appropriate.


matters, etc. OWWA/OMWA recom

For operators presently certified, and particularly for the grandfathered opera

AWWA Standards and Manuals

mend that funding tools currently avail able to water service providers should

could be referenced as a group of publi cations covering 116 products and pro cedures that have wide acceptance in the water supply business. Throughout the world, they are the most used and re spected drinking water standards. The OWWA/OMWA suggest that the

not be reduced.

To ensure the public is protected, the Province should consider a revolving

loan fund that would speed up bringing non-viable systems into compliance. Fi nally, the Province should mandate that all water system providers budget suffi

Government of Ontario work with them to establish an International Water Treat

cient funds on an annual basis for infra Accreditation

ment Alliance (IWTA) program in On tario. IWTA is the necessary first step in facilitating continuous improvement,

Accreditation covers all aspects of the water and wastewater utility busi ness, and verifies that certain standards

tation. OWWA/OMWA recommend that a

of best practice are being used to deliver high quality service. The results of regu

third party do the accrediting, advise the utility of the results, including any defi

lar accreditation should be shared with

ciencies identified, and then follow up to ensure the utility fulfils its obligations

structure replacement.

the community who will evaluate the

Access Handles

Vent Pipes

peer review, benchmarking,and accredi

tors, OWWA/OMWA recommend that

a gap analysis be conducted to determine what training is required. Cuirent re

quirements of 40 hours of professional development per year and 36 hours of continuing education in each three-year

period will address the need for manda tory training in the long term, but ini tially, there may be a need for specific training for existing operators. Once the needs for training are de termined, the Ontario Government should form an alliance with

stakeholders to develop and deliver the required training programs. Source Protection

OWWA/OMWA steadfastly believe there should be a focus on source water

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Drinking Water protection measures that will prevent drinking water problems from develop ing in the first place. Statutory authority on a Provincewide basis is required to ensure appro priate development of source protection plans. Policy guidelines are not strong enough; there must be statutory and regulatory obligations. The essential components of a wa tershed source protection plan are: • Inventory and characterization of the water source.

• Inventory of all point and non-point sources of water pollution. • Identification of the nature and qual ity of pollutants discharged. • Development of goals and strategies for remediation, monitoring, and evalu ation. The OWWA/OMWA believe that

protection of source water is a continu ous process that requires a long-term commitment and is essential in an over

all program of drinking water protection. Any industrial, commercial, agricul tural, or other land use development that is going to harm source waters within a watershed should be regulated under Provincial law to minimize or com

pletely avoid such harm. Provincial legislation authorizing source water protection plans should override inconsistent land use planning decisions. Provincial regulations and standards should prevent and overrule any competition between municipalities who might seek development activity at the expense of source water protection. More than two decades ago, the In ternational Joint Commission(IJC)rec ognized the threat posed by non-point sources, particularly agriculture, on the


Due to an expansion of services AIM'S Environmental

Contracting and General Contracting division based in Grimsby, Ontario requires a:



source waters of the Great Lakes Basin. OWWA/OMWA recommend that ma

nure management by farmers needs to be regulated like other waste manage ment industries, i.e., a system of permits and certificate of approval from MOE. All farms should be required to de velop Water Protection Plans that incor porate approvals for activities such as manure storage, and spreading, nutrient management, and tile drain outlets. At a minimum,farms above a certain size

to oversee water treatment centres and to secure new contracts. The ideal candidate

will have solid knowledge of waste/water treatment systems, Ontario certification for

operations and sales/marketing experience. E-mail resumes in confidence to:

and those vulnerable to source water

contamination, should have hydrogeological investigations. Issue papers authored by OWWA/ OMWA can befound at www.owwa.ca.

Bert Hofland Human Resources



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Radium-226 monitoring for new metai mining effiuent regulations

The MMER (Metal Min

Radium-226 requirements

ing Effluent Regula tions) were published in

and methods

Radioactivity in effluent is monitored in the form of radium-226, a daughter

the Canada Gazette,Part II this

past June and will be fully in force De cember 6th, 2002. These new regula tions(which replace MMLER)now ap ply to all metal mines in Canada,includ ing pre-1977 mines. The intent is to monitor the effluent released by mines for parameters that have a potential negative environmental impact. There is still debate amongst various groups about what should or should not be included and what limits are accept able; however, after six years of exten sive consultation the regulation has been set. Along with establishing an Envi ronmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program as set out by Environment Canada, testing for individual para meters must occur at specified intervals. Suspended Solids, acute lethality test The parameters tested include the radio ing, and the deleterious substances ar active isotope radium-226, pH, Total senic, copper, lead, zinc, and nickel.

of uranium. Authorized limits for ra dium-226 have been set as 0.37

Becquerels (Bq)/L for the maximum monthly mean concentration,0.74Bq/L for the maximum concentration in a

composite sample and 1.1 IBq/L for the maximum concentration in a grab sam ple. According to the regulation, sam pling for radium-226(on unfiltered and undiluted effluent) must occur weekly, at least initially. Section 13.2 states that "...the owner or operator of a mine,other than an uranium mine, may reduce the frequency of testing for Radium-226 ...to not less than once in each calendar

quarter if that substance's concentration in the effluent is less than 0.037Bq/L in ten consecutive tests".

Therefore, after a comprehensive ten-


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For more information, circie repiy card No. 161 (See page 25)


www.harnois.com Environmental Science c&: Engineering, September 2002

Regulations week screening period,effluent samples need only be analyzed quarterly if the level of radium-226 continues to fall be

low 10% of the monthly mean concen tration value.

Although many environmental labo ratories can provide metals analysis,few can fulfill the radium-226 requirements set out in the regulations. The guidance document published by Environment Canada for the sampling and analysis of metal mining effluents states that labo ratories must demonstrate clearly their ability to work within a performancebased system. That is, results will be accepted only from a laboratory that is ISO 17025 (formerly ISO Guide 25) accredited by the Standards Council of Canada(SCC)for the determination of radium-226 in liquid samples. There are generally three techniques

of samples per week and the ensuing analysis logjam could delay results and force mines to continue weekly sam pling long past the minimum ten weeks. The economical approach Mine operators will want to reduce their Radium-226 sampling to quarterly. In order to do this, mines need approval from the governing agencies after com pletion of the mandatory ten consecu tive week screening period. Because there is little time remaining before the

mended that monitoring programs start as early as possible to avoid additional weekly testing while waiting for ap proval. For more information,

circle reply card No. 164

By Blake Barber & Steven Simpson, Becquerel Laboratories

December enforcement, it is recom

to determine radium-226. Gamma

spectrometry, the simplest and least ex pensive, cannot practically achieve the minimum 0.0IBq/L detection limit. Al though radon emanation, a second method, does achieve the necessary de tection limit, the analysis time is too long for this project. The best technique is

vt\ comp//.

co-precipitation with barium sulfate fol lowed by alpha-spectrometry. This can

Although many environmental laboratories

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can provide metals analysis, few can fulfill the radium-226 requirements set out in the regulations.

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provide the regulatory detection limit within an acceptable time frame. How ever, the SCC lists only two laborato

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analyses is expected to be unusually high, and delays are likely if all the

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mines decide to wait until the regula

clientservices@ccohs.ca or www.ccohs.ca

tions are enforced in December. This

scenario would result in many hundreds

CCOHS Canada's National Resource for Workplace Health & Safety Information

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

For more information, circle reply card No. 162 (See page 25)


Alternative Energy

Aquaculture and energy-generation benefit from pipeline deep under the sea

A Canadian company supplied the piping for an

application to pump ashore 38° F seawater from deep below the surface for use in aquaculture and energy-generation in Hawaii. The 9,000-foot long,cold water pipeline was successfully deployed last Oc tober by the contractor, Healy Tibbitts Builders,Inc. of Hono lulu. KWH Pipe of Mississauga, Ontario, a member of the Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI), produced the pipe. Makai Ocean Engineering, consultants to the Natural En ergy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA), near Keahole Point on the western-most point of the Big Island of Hawaii, chose about 10,000 feet of HOPE pipe in 55inch and 63-inch diameters. NELHA operates the Hawaii Ocean Science and Technology Park that provides the re sources, support, and facilities for many innovative oceanrelated businesses.

As the world's tropical oceans are a huge collector of heat energy, NELHA engineers are taking advantage of a process that uses that energy for various scientific and prac tical endeavours. That process is called Ocean Thermal En ergy Conversion (OTEC). NELHA has hosted a series of OTEC experiments since its founding in 1974. OTEC utilizes the difference in temperature between warm surface seawater and cold deep seawater to produce


Installers make a flange connection in the 55-Inch diameter HOPE pipe in Kawalhae Harbor. The pipe was painted white to keep it cool and provide better visibility when fioating at sea. Photo; Tom Daniel

energy. The cold deep seawater can also be used to aircondition buildings, desalinate water, grow lobsters and fish, produce algae and shellfish, grow cold-climate fruit and vegetables and much more. To do that, NELHA must get the cold water from deep in the ocean to the surface. Tom Daniel, one of the project scientists with NELHA explained that the pipe is filled with air, which supports it and its anchors during towing to the site where it is flooded for sinking. The intrinsic buoyancy of the HOPE pipe al lows designs using pendant-weighted buoyant sections to avoid rough areas on the bottom of the ocean. The pipe was fused into nine sections, each approximately 1,000 feet in length on shore at Kawaihae Harbor on the northwest corner of the Big Island. In a three day assembly and deployment operation, the flanged sections were joined into one 9,000-foot long pipe segment, towed 27 miles to the site and deployed using a controlled submergence proc ess.

The Hycor® ThickTech'" Rotary Drum Thickener (RDT) is a sludge-thickening system that is setting new standards for volume reduction.The ThickTech commonly reduces sludges by 90% with a 98% capture rate. The system is quite compact and requires less floor space than other thickeners. It is economical to operate with low horsepower and water consumption.

A separate warm water intake structure was also installed near the 80-foot-deep end of one shore-crossing tunnel, and spool pieces connect that structure and the offshore HDPE pipe to the two tunnels constructed earlier. The tunnels ex tend about 500 feet onshore to the pump station which is now under construction. The system was expected to begin pumping ashore deep cold (38°F)and surface (76°F - 81°F) seawater by the end of July 2002. Daniel says OTEC has tremendous potential for large-scale energy generation in

The ThickTech increases digester capacity, reduces hauling costs

the future.

and can be used as a pre-thickener to increase capacity of other dewatering equipment.

There is growing interest in smaller diameter suction pipe lines for bringing ashore deep seawater for aquaculture and cooling applications, like the one at Keahole Point. The only existing example outside of NELHA is Cornell Uni versity's Lake Source Cooling Project, which cools the Uni versity campus by pumping cold water from 250 feet deep in Cayuga Lake through a two mile long, 63-inch HDPE pipeline, also designed by Makai Ocean Engineering. For more information,

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circle reply card No. 165 54

Circle reply card No. 163 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002


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The design/build process for water and wastewater infrastructure construction

The Design Build Institute of America describes

Design Build (DB) as a process, in which archi tectural/engineering and construction services are awarded under a single contract, thereby combin ing the vital roles of designer and constructor. Typically DB is a partnership between a professional engineering con sultant (designer of the works), and a contractor (construc tor of the works). DB continues to remain a popular method of delivering

capital works projects in Canada. The advantages of this process make it an attractive option for owners. Scheduling For works which must be constructed under precise time constraints, the DB process can substantially reduce the amount of time needed to complete preliminary engineer ing, design, and construction phases of the project, thereby

reducing the length of time from contract award to commis sioning of the works. Intricate and Challenging Works

Complex works that are to be constructed in uncertain and demanding site conditions, can take great advantage of the DB process. Compared to a conventional contractor, a Design Builder is given much more freedom to modify its design to fit unforeseen site conditions and meet other



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project-specific demands. Risk Transfer

The DB process transfers the risk associated with the de sign and functionality of the works from the Owner to the Design Builder. Although this may appear to be advanta geous to the Owner, it will undoubtedly result in unfavour ably high tender cost submissions. The Design Builder must include in its total contract price, the cost of potential risks associated with these uncertain conditions.

The Owner's Agent In most design build contracts, the Owner enters into a contract with a Project Manager(FM). The role of the PM is quite critical in delivering the works. Although, the PM represents the Owner, nonetheless, it has a delicate respon sibility to ensure that both the Owner and the Design Builder meet their contractual obligations. The PM must be both professional and fair. The PM's

primary role is to interpret the contract agreement to the best of its ability, and therefore, must also be impartial in its dealings regarding all contractual matters. The Design Build er's role is to design and construct the works, and the Own er's responsibility is to compensate the Design Builder in accordance with the contract terms and conditions.

The PM is responsible for delivering the project on time, and on budget, in each project phase including: • issuing Expressions of Interest(EOI)for the contract; •evaluating EOI submissions, and short listing a pre-determined number of DB teams based on a pre-determined set of evaluation criteria;

•issuing the Request for Proposal(REP)to these DB teams; • evaluating DBs' proposal submissions; • making recommendations to the Owner on contract award; • awarding the contract on behalf of the Owner; • executing the contract agreement between the Owner and the Design Build team; and • putting in place all procedures necessary to ensure deliv ery of a successful contract on time and on budget, includ ing contract administration, site inspections, quality control, etc.


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Although DB seems an ideal method to deliver capital works projects, it poses its own unique set of challenges and disadvantages. Project Control The Owner may be unenthusiastic about giving up con trol of the project especially during the detailed design phase. This legitimate concern can be resolved by writing these specific requirements in the REP document. This ensures that the Owner maintains control over some of the design aspects.

Higher Contract Price No Owner likes the extra risk associated with the un

known parts of the project(e.g. site conditions, soil quality, etc.) The Owner, therefore, would ideally like to transfer all unknown risks to the Design Builder. Often, DB con tracts include clauses such as: "All costs associated with

By Cam Vatandoust, P.Eng.* Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Design/Build dewatering are to be included in the Design Builder's total contract price." The DB team, in return, is forced to build in a "safety factor" into its contract price, in case unfavour able site conditions are encountered. This increases overall

contract price. Approvals Another important aspect of the DB contract is securing the necessary approvals to ensure on time completion of the project. This stage often proves to be the most critical as pect of any contract. In today's "environmentally sensitive" world, these approvals may vary from necessary comple tion of a Class EA Process,to obtaining approvals from vari ous Federal Agencies,such as Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Transportation Agency, and/or other numerous Provincial Ministries and Agencies. Actually, obtaining the green light to proceed with the project can often make the difference between a project on time and budget, and one which is late and has gone way over budget. Therefore, due to the sensitive nature of these approvals, all project stakeholders including the Owner,DB team, and the PM must work together to remedy any sensi

rate total cost for the works, the PM can request a "Total Cost" for the works. The "Total Cost" includes the Con

struction costs, as well as the Operational costs over the life of the works (e.g. 20 years). The Operational costs include such items as routine maintenance, energy and replacement parts. This not only gives the Owner a more accurate cost for the whole project, but also, causes the Design Builder to search for the most economical long-term solution, adding value to the works. In order to determine this "Total Cost", the PM should pre-set values for all con stants needed to calculate this in the RFP (e.g. cost of elec tricity per kWh,and unit cost of labour in dollars per manhour). This "Total Cost" should be used to compare all DB submissions.

A good PM is one who executes the contract fairly and without bias. This is the most critical way to ensure project success. Although many remain skeptical of aids such as conducting Partnering Workshops among all stakeholders, there is much value in bringing together different people with diverse agendas to achieve a common goal, a quality project on time and on budget.

tive situations, to ensure that the desired outcome is obtained.

Evaluation of the Proposals and Award Arguably, one of the most important parts of the PM's role on any DB project is evaluating the DB team submis sions, and making a recommendation on contract award to the Owner. This phase is extremely critical. In order for the evaluation process to be impartial, and without bias, all pro posal submissions must be evaluated against a pre-set evalu ation criterion. The Owner and the PM,prior to tender clos ing, must agree upon the evaluation criterion, so that poten tial post-tender uncertainties are minimized. A very common method of evaluating the DB submis sions is to divide the evaluation score into two parts: •Technical and design features; and •Total contract price.

*Cam Vatandoust, P.Eng., is a senior evaluations engineer with Ontario Ministry of the Environment in To ronto, specializing in water and sew age infrastructure. He is also an in structor at Ryerson University's Con tinuing Education division.

Protecting water quality isn't a choice. It's the law.

However, since the DB teams are free to choose their

own design, a good option for the PM is to hold confidential interviews with each finalist, and accept all the various de signs. This means that the PM's evaluation team may re quest the DB to modify its design to adhere to certain pref erences and/or requirements posed by the Owner. Once the Owner and the PM have deemed all the designs acceptable, then, the PM can obtain quotations from each team based on the requested modifications. The PM, then, is free to award to the lowest bidder without any conflict with respect to the diversity of the submitted designs. Also, in order to ensure that the Owner receives an accu-


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Guest Comment

Ratifying the Kyoto accord makes me yawn

People are delighted, cynical, hoiTified and otherwise startled

that Jean Chretien suddenly said Canada will ratify the Kyoto Accord on global warming. Some predict the salvation of Mother Earth;

the 1990 level of 601 megatonnes. These emissions have grown enor mously since 1990, so reaching the Kyoto target would require unprec edented, long-term efficiency gains, or

others the demolition of brother Alberta.

I say chill out, folks. Nothing will hap

These emissions have


I don't dispute that implementing Kyoto would be economically disas trous. Nor do I dispute that it would hit Alberta hardest(though not by as much as people think, given the misery it would cause everywhere) and might provoke a fatal crisis in Canadian fed eralism. I do dispute that implementing it would work, but leave that for another

day. The point is, Kyoto won't have any effects, economic or political, until you

find a way to try to implement it. So what exactly is it that the government proposes to do? I know it wants to reduce Canada's

emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to 565 megatonnes, six per cent below

grown enormously since 1990, so reaching the Kyoto target would require unprecedented, long-term efficiency gains, or roughly a one-third drop in living

mits that, if you have any brains, are tradable,so the relentless quest for prof its ensures maximum GDP output per unit of GHG output. But what, techni cally as well as legally, would such per mits convey permission to do? Emit a certain weight of GHGs each year? How do you know how much someone is emitting? How do we know what Cana da's emissions were in 1990,or are now?

We don't. This newspaper alone {Ottawa

Citizen) has given figures of 682, 726, 694 and 705 megatonnes in stories over the past three years, while economist William Watson implied this spring it's now 768.

Such imprecision is a waming. Theo retically you'd need point-source meas urements because unlike, say, sulphur standards. dioxide, the main GHGs are also pro duced naturally, in quantities that dwarf human output.Think someone measured roughly a one-third drop in living stand the output offumes from every factory, ards. How does it plan to force one or gas lawnmower and forest fire in the other of these outcomes(or a mix of Canada? Hoo hah. They made wildly heroic assumptions. Also wildly inac the two)? The standard answer is emission per curate.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Guest Comment

right to send 100 tonnes of GHGs up your smokestack per year just gives the dishonest businessman an edge on his rivals without reducing global warming. What about a proxy system of sell-

We now know that hydro power, os tensibly GHG-free, generates lots of methane from rotting vegetation trapped by dams and that methane is a far worse greenhouse baddie than carbon dioxide.

but the system wouldn't know the dif ference. Worse, major sources like dams and cows don't burn fuel, nor do the

garbage dumps that may account for half the methane we emit. So we need seven

proxies for this, eight for that, and a par tridge in a pear tree. In the end, you'd get an immensely costly rearrangement of our economic life to comply with paper requirements that are a pitifully poor proxy for the problem we're try ing to solve. Trae, some other regula tory schemes work equally badly, but the cost here would be so high the public

How much worse? Environmental re

porter Greg Easterbrook says about 30 times; the Globe & Mail two years ago quoted the New Scientist that it's 20 times. But even if you could monitor and reduce methane from dams,if you don't know whether it's cost-efficient to trade

off one kilo of it against 30, or just 20, kilos of CO,, you'll close lots of fossilfuel power plants and build hydro ones at huge cost but possibly no reduction

would revolt.

or even an increase in GHGs.

If you're asking the public to risk a huge drop in living standards, you have to be more precise. But you just can't put hundreds of millions of monitors around the country to track all the CO,,


Rotting vegetation trapped underwater by hydro dams produces large quanti ties of methane gas.

The government has made its sup porters happy, and itself smug, by pa rading its noble intentions. But it will never even try to implement the treaty. Alberta won't separate, the economy won't tank. Nothing will happen. There's no "how" there.

CH^ and other bugbears. Imagine the energy cost of manufacturing, placing and servicing a monitor on every bar becue,chimney and car. And what about factory-farmed cattle, a major source of methane? Do you monitor them? And how? What's more, if everyone knows you can't monitor emissions, selling the

ing permits to bum a certain amount of fuel, using the conventional heroic as sumptions about how many kilos of vari ous GHGs you get by buming a litre of gas, propane and so on? Such a system would lead clever entrepreneurs to

John Robson is Senior Editorial Writer

economize on litres of fuel consumed,

and Columnist at the Ottawa Citizen.

not emissions per litre offuel consumed,

Copyright the Ottawa Citizen.

By John Robson, Ottawa Citizen

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For more information, circle reply card No. 160 (See page 25)

Flood Control

Why sustainable drainage is urgently needed Serious floods are Increasing around the globe

The day the Pope left Toronto in August,an inten

storms. It collects stormwater from roofs and drives in a

sive storm caused serious flooding in Toronto.

prefabricated storage facility. A simple control unit regu

Since then we have seen massive floods in Eu

lates the inflow and outflow of water so that run-off is re

rope, China, Russia and other countries. Lis Stedman,EPS special correspondent, UK,writes that draining urban areas so that run-off mimics nature instead of providing shock floods is becoming a pressing issue given the increasing frequency of storms throughout the world. But this is a complex issue. Sustainable urban drainage sys tems - or SUDs for short - can potentially provide a solution for a key climate change effect such as flooding caused by increased rainfall. As SUDs mimic nature in enabling wa ter to sink into the ground rather than running off imperme able surfaces into rivers or drains, they are seen as a way of ameliorating an otherwise intractable problem. In the United Kingdom, the government has provided

leased into the traditional drainage system at a controlled rate.

AquaCell is also intended to aid stormwater control - this consists of 1.0m by 0.5m by 0.4m modules made from re cycled polypropylene, in a matrix framework that gives a void to solid ratio of 95 to five per cent. The units clip together in layers to provide a robust infiltration basin that can be wrapped with a permeable geotextile to permit con trolled release of water or an impermeable geomembrane so that it becomes a sealed storage unit. For more information contact CIRIA at www.ciria.org.uk, or Wavin Plastics at www.wavin.co.uk

impetus in the form of the publication Development and Flood Risks which provides planning guidance that backs the use of SUDs. The government's recent periodic report TN3,on climate change, also suggests that SUDs should be given greater consideration. The water industry in England and Wales is keen to get the issues resolved at the outset, in case the government is

obliged to step in to say who will clean up pollution. The Water Framework Directive adds another dimension to the

complicated picture of responsibility but the water industry is at pains to stress that it views SUDs positively, while stress ing that implementation must be thought through carefully. With SUDs very much a live issue, UK companies are coming up with innovative solutions that are leading the world in providing sustainable drainage solutions. The Con struction Industry Research Association (CIRIA)is a major player in research into SUDs. CIRlA's new SUDs website (www.ciria.org.uk/suds) runs through the different types of SUDs available and gives advice on their use. There is also a glossary of terms and case studies. One example is Wessex Water's headquarters in Bath, westem England,that uses permeable paving in the car parks, porous blocks that filter through to soakaways and perme able grass paviors through which run-off filters into pipes and a storage tank. A swale runs down the western edge of the site and this also drains to the main storage tank. Water from the tank is pumped back to soakaways at the top of the site and also feeds an ornamental water feature. Roof run-off and treated

grey water are stored in three intermediate tanks and this water is used to flush toilets. CIRIA is providing specific technical guidance in its research project 637 called Source Control Using Constructed Pervious Surfaces - Hydraulic and Structure Performance.

Some manufacturers are producing systems to help house builders who need to reduce run-off so that they can build on sensitive plots of land. Wavin Plastics has introduced a new stormwater system,Garastor, to complement its awardwinning AquaCell stormwater control system. From a con cept developed by Bryant Homes, Garastor uses the space under garages as a storage area for excess water during 60

AquaCell system being installed beneath the surface of what will become a carpark in a housing development. Photo: Wavin Plastics

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Book Review

Environmental Toxicology-a new textbook Jf Environmental Toxicology is a mJ comprehensive introductory M ' textbook designed for under-

fessor Wright has published more than 100 journal articles, primarily on the physiology of ionic regulation and the

M ^ graduate and graduate stu dents of this subject. Its authors are David A. Wright and Pamela Welboum. The text is arranged in four tiers and covers most aspects of environmental toxicology, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Early chapters deal with basic and advanced concepts, meth ods, and approaches for environmental toxicology. The next tier ofchapters dis cusses the environmental toxicology of individual substances or groups of sub stances. The third tier of chapters ad dresses complex issues that incorporate and integrate many of the concepts, ap proaches, and substances covered in the first two tiers. The fourth part includes chapters on risk assessment, rehabilita tion, and regulatory toxicology. A final chapter discusses areas of study for cur rent and future emphasis. Throughout the book concise case studies from Europe, the United King dom, and North America illustrate the

indigenous species. He holds a D.Sc. degree from the University of Newcas tle upon Tyne. Pamela Welboum is a professor at Queen's University, previously a profes sor at Trent University, and former di rector of the Institute for Environmen

tal Studies and a professor at the Uni versity of Toronto. She was the first woman to be appointed Director of the Institute. Professor Welboum has pub

Environmental toxicology

DbvhI A. VVrioht(nd PaniolA Wolbojin

lished more than 150 articles in scien

uptake, toxicology, and physiology of trace metals in aquatic organisms. In recent years, he has developed an inter est in the dispersion and control of non-

tific joumals including Nature, Environ mental Science and Technology, the Canadian Journal of Eisheries and Aquatic Sciences, and Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and has con tributed to ten scholarly books on as pects of the environmental toxicology of inorganic substances. Environmental Toxicology, April 2002. Authors: David A. Wright and Pamela Welboum. Hardback(Order No. 0-521-58151-6)US $150.00;Paperback (Order No.0-521-58860-X)US $55.00. Call Cambridge University Press at: (212)924-3900, extSlO.

issues. Each chapter has a comprehen sive list of references and further read


ing, as well as student exercises that are designed to reinforce the subject matter. Environmental Toxicology is primarily

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Please visit www.caeal.ca/t_intro.html for more information.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

For more information, circie reply card No. 168 (See page 25)


Air Pollution

Fossil tests now show that computers have underestimated climate change

Conclusions about global

warming and how to re spond to it are largely based upon predictions from com puter models. Scientists at the Open University in the United Kingdom and

elsewhere - who have used data from

at least, the predictions which some ad visors to the United States government and others regard as exaggerated and unfounded may in fact represent con siderable underestimates of the amount

of global warming which will be caused

by excessive CO^ emissions today.

fossils to check computer simulations of temperatures in the late cretaceous pe

The late cretaceous period was one

riod (65 - 100 million years ago)- have Data from fossil leaves shows that the

best computer models available substan tially underestimate the warming that

had on the climate then would be very valuable as an aid to predicting what effects increased CO,emissions caused

lower than they in fact were, as a consequence of the greenhouse effect.

tres of continents, as a result ofincreased

carbon dioxide(CO^)in the atmosphere causing a "greenhouse" effect. They imply that, for large areas of the world

in which atmospheric CO^ concentra

BBC World Service

Obviously, being able to discover what effects high CO, concentrations

in the centres of continents would be much

can be caused in inland areas in the cen

By John Newell,

below it.

Fossil leaf data shows that in greenhouse eras the models predicted that the winter temperatures

found that the models are unreliable.

former science editor,

of a greenhouse effect caused by CO,in the atmosphere trapping the sun's heat

tions were high, as a consequence of in creased volcanic emissions. Earth ap pears to have been much warmer than at present, probably as a consequence

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For more Information, circle reply card No. 169 (See page 25)

For more Information, circle reply card No. 170 (See page 25)

Air Pollution

of continents during previous warm pe riods. Similar to tree rings, the shapes of fossil leaves are strongly related to the mean annual temperature when the plant grew. But the problem has been finding good, well-preserved assem blages of such leaves. An international team led by Profes sor Robert Spicer, of the Open Univer sity, with Professor Paul Valdes, of Reading University, both in southern England - with colleagues in Russia, Sweden and the Czech Republic - lo

Surface Air Temperature (in C)

Dec 18


cated such a site, in the Vilui basin in

Central Russia, at the centre of the large Eurasian landmass.

In 1999, a major international expe msmm

dition visited the area and collected fos

sil leaves and other geological evidence of climate change. The leaves from the Vilui basin, along with some existing museum collections, were analysed us ing the Climate Leaf Multivariate Pro gramme(CLAMP,for short). The analysis yielded a picture of a warm and wet continental interior dur

ing the late cretaceous period. The cli mate in what is now central Russia was

mild, with winter temperatures hardly falling below freezing. The average tem perature in the coldest winter month was about 5.1° Celsius. These results were

compared with the climate at the same period in the same area as predicted by the Hadley Centre Climate Model, the most advanced climate prediction model. This predicts that the winter tem peratures in the Vilui basin in the late

A global view of Surface Air Temperatures nental interiors, conditions much more

extreme than the geological data (from fossil leaves)suggests. This must be un derstood before we can have full confi

dence in future global warming predic tions for regional climates," said Profes sor Spicer and the other authors of the research report. The models that have been used to


cretaceous time would have been well below zero - about minus 20 to minus

12° C.

The same kind of disagreement is found when the predictions from other computer models are compared with the results from leaf analysis. It is also found when the same kind of compari son is made between computer model predictions and fossil leaf data in pre dicting the climate in the interiors of all continents during other periods when the atmosphere was rich in CO, - often called greenhouse worlds. The big differences between the pre dictions from computer models and the results from fossil leaf analysis are only

are broadly in agreement. "A strong characteristic of all paleoclimatic (ancient climate) models is that for greenhouse worlds such as the mid-cretaceous they predict cold conti-

For more information, contact e-

mail: r.a.spicer@open.ac.uk

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found in the interiors of continents, not in coastal areas where models and data

predict climate change and global warm ing in today's global greenhouse may have underestimated the greenhouse ef fect. This likely underestimate should be taken into account in today's interna tional decision-making, as well as act ing as a driving force for more research.

Tel: (416) 661-6020 Fax: (416) 661-6787 Mont. Tel: (514) 333-9600 Fax: (514) 333-0330 Van. Tel: (604) 421-4010 Fax: (604) 420-9457 Tor.



Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

For more information, circle reply card No. 171 (See page 25)


Groundwater Monitoring

Satellites can peer underground to monitor aquifer levels

Satellite data wil soon enable

researchers to measure changes in groundwater levels. The new technique, using National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellites, may prove vital for the management of water resources for agriculture, other human water needs and wildlife. Many of the world's aqui fer levels are now monitored with

ground-based wells, a labour and equip ment intensive approach that offers in complete coverage.

The new technique may prove vital for the management of water resources for agriculture, other human water needs and wildlife.

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to monitor groundwater. The GRACE mission, launched in

The replenishment of underground aquifers-groundwater recharge-is also difficult to monitor using the groundbased approach. With the satellite in formation, all large underground water

March 2002, will map variations in the Earth's gravity field. These gravitational variations come from measurements of

changes in the distribution of the Earth's mass, which includes all water storage

sources can be measured with reason

sources, such as oceans, lakes, rivers,

able accuracy, providing important data that can help address worldwide water shortages, and perhaps locate new aq

ice, soil water and aquifers. Initial


Famiglietti and Rodell are the only hydrologists to work on the GRACE project. They have developed a math ematical model to isolate groundwater information from overall water storage

University of California at Irvine hydrologist James Famiglietti,and Mat thew Rodell of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, will be using data from

GRACE data will be available later this year.

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 172 (See page 25)

global view of changes in water stor age," Famiglietti said. "Many regions of the world are experiencing a water crisis that is better attributed to manage ment policies than to scarcity of water. Any new and objective method for monitoring the availability of water re sources will be valuable for assessing future development and sustainability." For more information on GRACE:

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data. Their findings appear in the June 10 issue of the Journal ofHydrology. "It has been nearly impossible in the past to accurately measure the changes in underground water storage," said Famiglietti. "GRACE presents a break through not only as a means to measure these changes, but provides researchers with a way to understand how and why these changes take place, which has sig nificant implications for water resources management." Famiglietti noted that it will not be possible to measure the absolute mass of groundwater storage, only the changes in mass either from year to year

www.csr.utexas.edu/grace/ or essp.gsfc. nasa.gov/grace/

Environmental Science

Engineering, September 2002

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Peristaltic chemical and

sludge pumps



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hot or cold water distribution, come complete with bonded poiyurethane foam and polyethylene jacket. Sup plied in coils, these flexible systems allow reduction in number of joints and elbows. Complete selection of brass compression fittings available. Visit our web site for more informa tion: www.urecon.com.


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Solving monitoring and control applications

Danfoss analytical meters

Arjay Engineering Ltd. manufactures


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Pre-engineered pump and monitoring packages

industrial wastewater

Metcon offers a variety of pre-engineered,fabricated metering and con trol packages, as well as design and fabrication of custom systems. Pack aged panels are corrosion resistant, pre-engineered, pre-packaged,com pletely self-contained packages with chemical metering pumps, all neces sary piping, appurtenances and fit tings assembled and tested. Premounted packages are a cost-effec tive way of ensuring reliable systems. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Membrane technology for ZENON's ZenoGemÂŽ bioreactor

system can retrofit any existing wastewater treatment facility, im mediately Increasing capacity by up to four times. The system In corporates Immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass retention, resulting In a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge. ZENON Environmental inc.

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Product and Service Showcase Concrete Pipe Handbook

Reducing hydrogen sulflde from gas and air streams

Dissolved air flotation system

ADI Intemational Inc. announces a new ad

The latest edition of the Concrete Pipe Handbook,a comprehensive coiiection of theories, formulas and aids for designing concrete pipe systems, is available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. Now in its fifth printing, the handbook has been updated to include information on Standard Installation using Indirect De sign. American Concrete Pipe Assoc. Circle reply card No. 208

Measurement solutions

ONDEO Degremont presents a new



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G2® is capable of multiple regenerations without chemicals or backwashing. ADI can provide complete systems to meet any size need. ADI International

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Versatile level monitor

Amperometric chlorine analyzer

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Do you need to ensure high qual ity, reduce operating costs and comply with envi ronmental regula

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Engineering Guide

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The FX-lOOOp can read from low PPB ranges to as high as 50 PPM without di lution (higher ranges with dilution varimeter panel). It is unaffected by high turbidity or extremely high and low pH swings. The EX-lOOOp uses ordinary food grade,5% distilled white vinegar as a pH buffer, which is non-toxic, non-haz ardous, cheap and available at any gro cery store. Cancoppas Limited

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For many years,Armtec has stretched your design dollar with its range of soil steel structures including Multi-Plate and Su per-Span. Keeping pace with the need to provide economical bridge solutions, Armtec offers Bridge-Plate structures for larger installations. Bridge-Plate has the deepest and strongest corrugation in the market today,enabling long span soil steel structures to be designed and built more economically than ever before. Armtec Circle reply card No. 215

Armtec is a leader in twin-wall HDPE

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Product and Service Showcase MAGFLO® magnetic flow

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Lubrication Engineers have solved the toughest lubrication problems at wastewater treatment plants worldwide. Elimi nation of foaming and water emulsification in comminutors, grinders, clarifier gearboxes, filter press hydraulics and lightning mixers. Significant reduction in operating temperatures and electricity consumption, in aeration blowers, influ ent pumps, speed reducers and air com pressors. Lubrication Engineers

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The MAGFLO® Magnetic Flow Meter from Danfoss is easy to install, easy to commission, easy to service, highly de pendable; it offers simplicity that saves you money for years to come. The MAGFLO® 3100 comes with either Neo-

For more than 30 years Danfoss has dem onstrated leadership in water manage ment with a host of measurable benefits. For wastewater treatment the VLT®

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Environmental services


Stantec provides value-added professional services

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Series Stormceptor system

Introducing the N-Pumps!

environments such as water/sea water, acids and alkalis. It can be used alone or

in combination with other topcoats for long-term protection of structural steel, and more. Denso North America

coupled with cus

ceptor System em-

tomer demands

ploys the same prin ciples of operation as


mn-off from an area

of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water run-off remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are cun-ently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 223


field trials have

the well-known In

line Interceptors. Developed to treat

industrial water treatment, water distri

Years of research

The Inlet Storm-


trial wastewater treatment, wastewater

collection and pumping, municipal and

Developed for the treatment of larger catchment areas, the new Series Storm

ceptor system employs the same operat ing principles as the well-known Inline and Inlet Stonnceptor systems. The sys tem receives flow from a single inlet pipe and splits it into two distinct streams, which are treated in two separate treatment chambers before recombining into a sin gle outlet pipe. It effectively doubles the treatment area of the inline system. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 224

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

produced a revo lutionary new pump design that combines high ef ficiency with Flygt's clog-free performance. The N-Pump series feature a radical new hydraulic end design which ensures efficient, clog-free, and troublefree pumping over extended periods. The result is improved operational economy due to less downtime,dramatically reduc ing the total life cost of the installation. ITTFlygt Circle reply card No. 225 67

Product and Service Showcase Biological removal of iron and

Submersible pumping/mixing

manganese We have


making submers ible pumps since 1948, when we introduced


world's first sub

ONDEO Degremont offers an ecological and economical solution for removing iron and manganese from groundwater. The Ferazuf'^ Mangazur''''^ system uses the natural microorganisms already present in water to oxidize Fe and Mn. The innovativeness and performance of the system has been recognized by the 2001 Technological Innovation Award of the Ministere des Ajfaires Municipales, QC. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 226

mersible designed for pumping con taminated water.

Over the years,

Mo Graw II

ible pumping/mixing equipment and fluid handling technology. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 227

McGraw-Hill is a leading publisher of Environmental and Civil Engineering books and products. Our authors are in ternational experts and provide critical insights on environmental issues, devel opments and trends. Browse our new online catalogue for product information at: www.McGrawHill.ca/tpm. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Circle reply card No. 228

Filter underdrains

Digital communication

our name has come to stand for efficient,

versatile products of the highest quality and we have remained at the forefront of

development. Our designs, patents, and technical innovations have made us the

world's leading manufacturer ofsubmers


^Itss to have and to hold 'till

death parts your parts! Only Canadian Welding Bureau certified

Parkson has introduced a new underdrain

design for traveling bridge filters. The SmartCelE'^ system eliminates most of

Auma's 2-wire digital communication keeps the customer in control. Commu nication protocols such as Modbus, DeviceNet and Profibus are very com plex and have been developed by the best computer communication minds in the industry. They allow the exchange of

fabricators weld to CSA standards W47.1

the field labour associated with the in

for steel and stainless steels and W47.2

stallation of the filter underdrain. Indi

for aluminum. Assure the integrity of the products you specify, use and maintain. Make sure that all your welded products are manufactured by a Canadian Weld

vidual cell modules are completely shop assembled, including the installation of porous plates. The system eliminates many of the difficulties inherent in field assembly of the traditional underdrain. Parkson Corporation

e.g. actuators, sensors and controls, as required for the automation of control led processes. Troy-Ontor Inc.

Circle reply card No. 229

Circle reply card No. 230

Circle reply card No. 231


Toshiba magnetic flowmeter technology

Dissolved oxygen

ing Bureau certified fabricator. MSU Mississauga Ltd.

For wastewater and .

sistance to slurry noise via patented noise suppressor cir cuit; extremely sta ble zero via patented

drinking water treat ment, Liquisys M dis solved oxygen trans

mitter and sensor pro- ,

multi divided sam HHT HART com

HEC-RAS allows water level results read back into our 12D model. A water level

surface is automatically created and ready for presentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software Circle reply card No. 232 68


Features include: re

pling technique; Create a HEC-RAS model directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and cre ate inundation maps from the results. Complete integration between 12D and

information between devices in the field,

munications; wide

range power supply; 80-265 Vac; multi

functional converter; digital input con trol; large wiring terminals; empty pipe alarm; coated circuit boards for high re liability; surface mount circuit boards provide resistance to vibration. These and many other features have a 5 year war ranty. Cancoppas Limited

Circle reply card No. 233

vides a simple and safe ' system which is modu lar in design and can be adapted to a wide range of customer needs. The system consists of transmit ter either in field housing or panel mounted,and a sensor. Optional air clean ing systems are also available. Features include: calibration and display in mg/1, ppb or % saturation; measuring signal check for plausibility and stability. Com munication is via HART,or Profibus PA and DP. Endress -i- Hauser

Circle reply card No. 234

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Product and Service Showcase Waterloo Biofliter®

Layfleid and Grit Industries Align Layfield Geosynthetics & Industrial Fab rics Ltd. and Grit Industries have an nounced a strate

Waterloo Biofilters are efficient, modu lar trickling filters for residential and communal sewage wastewaters, and landfill leachate. Patented, lightweight, synthetic filter media optimize physical properties for microbial attachment and water retention. The self-contained

modular design for communal use is now available in 20,000L/d and 40,000L/d ISO shipping container units - ready to

plug in on-site. They have long-term ro bustness,low maintenance,remote moni toring, and small space requirements. Waterloo Biofilter Systems

Enclosures Summit™ Structures is the ultimate

building solution for construction or en vironmental projects requiring a rapidly deployed, relocatable, and affordable en-

gic alliance that will provide the

ment for building applications in cluding; biosolids processing/odor

Canadian oil &

gas sectors with new solutions for economical secondaiy containment. This new alliance will see

Layfield market Grit Industries' unique G 55 modular interlocking steel contain ment system.The Grit product will be offered alongside Layfield's extensive geomembrane (liners) product line. Layfield also offers installations and tech nical support for the G 55 Containment System. Layfield Geosynthetics Circle reply card No. 236

control, soil excavation/remediation, site reclamation/containment, materials stor

age/separation, wastewater/water treat ment and winter construction enclosure.

Full installation, design-build/project management services are available for our buildings, both pre-engineered or custom ized, in 30' - 260' widths and any length. Summit Structures

Circle reply card No. 235

EMSL Analytical Inc. EMSL now has 21

closure. Maintain a controlled environ

Circle reply card No. 237

Conditions Investigations of HDPE Pipe In-Service Report


The American Concrete

nationwide loca

tions in the US and in the last three

years has seen a major expansion into Microbiologi cal Analyses. Staff

Pipe Association : (ACPA) has released a report on the condition of HDPE pipe in-serv: ice in six states in the

EPCOR's extensive operational experi ence with water and wastewater provides

of the laboratories

U.S. The report, pre pared by Wiss, Janney,

in New York City

Elstner Associates,Inc., Northbrook,111.,

and Westmont in

reviews the performance associated with large diameter HDPE culvert and cross drains. The 64 page report includes ta bles, graphs and 45 full-colour photo graphs. For a copy of the report, contact

Some products and services include: UV Disinfection, Remote Monitoring and Response, Capital Planning, Infrastruc ture Assessment/Repair, and Water Laboratory Services.

the ACPA Resource Centre, 800-2902272. Nonmember cost: $18.00 (U.S.) ps&h. American Concrete Pipe Asso


clude Mycologists and Microbiologists with PhDs. Mold

testing includes tape samples, bulk samples, agar plate samples and analysis of air cassettes. EMSL Analytical Inc. Circle reply card No. 238

customers with solutions that minimize

costs and optimize system performance.

Visit www.epcor.ca to learn more.

Circle reply card No. 240


Circle reply card No. 239

Artificial Neural Network

Certified manufacturers of

HDPE corrugated pipe and resin Input


Artificial Neurons

EPCOR's Artificial Neural Network

(ANN)software program is a form of ar tificial intelligence that simulates the hu man brain's aptitude for problem solving. Traditional tools are too simplistic to yield the accurate,fast results needed for water

treatment. ANN allows operators to react quickly to changing conditions while at the same time minimizing costs and optimizing water treatment plant perform ance. Please visit www.epcor.ca to learn more about ANN and other EPCOR prod ucts and services. EPCOR

Circle reply card No. 241

Check out www.cppa-info.org for the growing list of manufacturers of corru gated high density polyethylene(HDPE) pipe and/or resin that have successfully had their products certified via a thirdparty testing program initiated by the Plastics Pipe Institute(PPI). The PPI pipe certification program tests for the mate rial, dimensional, and physical perform ance properties as specified in AASHTO

Memcor® mlcroflltratlon A new brochure fo cuses on the benefits of



microfiltration sys tems, a very efficient water treatment proc

ess. The systems eas ily exceed drinking water quality standards. A chlorine toler ant membrane is now available as an op tion. The Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF)membrane can be applied to pre-

M294/MP7 for 12-inch

oxidized feeds,filtration offeeds contain

to 60-inch pipe. PPI is the major trade associa tion representing all segments of the plastic pipe industry. Plastics (fieo Pipe Institute Circle reply card No. 242

ing high iron or manganese, or a ferricbased coagulated feed. Memcor® con

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

tinuous microfiltration skid mounted and

submerged systems have been successful in over 700 installations around the world. USEilter

Circle reply card No. 243 69

Product and Service Showcase Media for arsenic removal

The GFH system from


General Filter Prod

ucts is an adsorption process capable of removing arsenic and other heavy metals from raw water supplies. The process uti lizes a ferric-based, non-regenerative me dia to absorb arsenic, selenium, antimony, chromium and other heavy metals from drinking water. Like other adsorption processes, the water is simply passed through the media to remove the contami nants. Once the media has depleted its adsorption capacity it is removed from the vessel and additional media is installed.

A new brochure has recently been pub lished discussing the GFH systems fea tures and benefits. USFilter


New literature dis

Designed for fall-through protection and for control of confined space entry, the new Safe-Hatch is a very versatile ac cess cover. Used for new or retrofit pumping stations, the Safe-Hatch provides op timum security for working personnel, trouble-free service and easy installation. The rugged aluminum secondary safety grate is rated to withstand a live load of 14.36 kpa (300 psf) and is locked sepa rate from the main

door, allowing lim ited



safety for mainte nance personnel. When opened, it creates a physical barrier to further pro tect workers. FFT Flygt

Circle reply card No. 244

Circle reply card No. 245

Extensive filter parts supply

Site monitoring over cellphone

USFilter has

Total biosolids management

ITT Flygt launches the

brought to gether ad

in the biosolids

market, from thickening and di gestion through dewatering, dry ing, composting, incineration, and biosolids handling and odour control as a fully integrated system. Countless mu nicipalities use USFilter technologies to produce Class A and Class B biosolids,

which meet the "part 503 rule" of the U.S. EPA Code of Federal Regulations. USFilter

Circle reply card No. 246

Stainless flange adapter Victaulic now offers stainless

steel flange adapters to di rectly incorpo

vanced tech

nologies in the

cusses USFilter's

solutions, systems integration capa bility and service



treatment industry. USFilter is al.so the premier supplier of the high-quality ba sic components for rehabilitation of grav ity filters and other systems. Filtration components include monolithic and block style underdrains, washtroughs and launders, in-bed air wash grid systems, surface washers, standard and custom

controls, a wide range of filter media and other components. USFilter can provide filter evaluations and on-site technical di rection and labour. Both materials and la

bour are guaranteed. USFilter Circle reply card No. 247

Oil Gator

ProTalk Cv2 combines alarm reporting and cellphone operation into one com pact package. Count on getting quick and reliable alarm status reports. Site moni toring features include: analog inputs; digital inputs; totalizers; timers. Site con trols include: emergency shutdown; pumps; lights; and heaters.


flange compo nents with ANSI Class 150 bolt hole pat terns into grooved stainless steel piping systems. Style 441 flange adapter features integral end tabs to speed assembly and Grade CF8M (316 equivalent) stainless construction to resist corrosion. Adapter is offered in 2", 2-1/2", 3",4" and 6" sizes

for working pressures ranging from 125 PSI (865 kPa) to 275 PSI (1896 kPa). Both Grade E and Grade T gaskets are available. Victaulic Company of Canada

Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 248

Circle reply card No. 249

Reduce sludge up to 90-i-%

Flow management

HETEK Solutions Inc. is a leader in me

Oil Gator is an "All Natural" biocatalyst. It will bioremediate hydrocarbon con tamination problems quickly and cost ef ficiently. It is simply mixed into the con taminated soil and left to break down the

hydrocarbon. Cleanup usually takes about 120 days. Oil Gator was recently used to clean up a 1,500,000 litre crude oil spill. For before and after pictures and the consultant's report contact oilgator@vip.net. Gator International. Circle reply card No. 250 70

The Enhanced Solids Reduction (ESR)

process features a novel aeration/condi tioning device that aggressively modifies the waste in such a way that it develops a coefficient of decay significantly higher than conventional systems. This in creased efficiency permits a small-foot print plant that costs less to install and operate, uses no chemicals, eliminates odours and is very quiet. PWI Inc. Circle reply card No. 251

ter verification programs with more than 20 years of practical experience. We are able to supply all of the necessary equip ment and expertise required to prove a meter to applicable standards and at com petitive prices. HETEK provides you with a single point responsibility, saving you the time and money of "shopping around" and then coordinating efforts of multiple suppliers and installation con tractors. HETEK

Circle reply card No. 252

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Product and Service Showcase Environmental service

T Series™ solids handling pumps

New pump doubles impeller and wearplate life Gorman-Rupp


Canada Ltd., has in

troduced the Super T Series''^' of self-

priming centrifugal pumps. Based on the T Series solids-han

Because Gorman-Rupp T Series™ pumps HETEK Solutions Inc. is a leading pro vider of environmental investigative and remedial .services in Canada. We have

formed strategic alliances that fully en able the company to provide enhanced services in the areas of AirAVaste Ap provals and Compliance Reviews. Regu latory changes are constant as all gov ernments are mandated to improve the quality of our ecosystem. HETEK Circle reply card No. 253


Circle reply card No. 254

dling trash pumps, the new Super T Se ries is said to double impeller and wearplate life to decrease downtime and keep the pump operating at maximum ef ficiency. External shimless wearplate ad justment for easy maintenance of the clearance between the impeller and wearplate results in the dramatic increase in impeller and wearplate life of the Su per T Series pump. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 255

Upgrade to the most

Collaborative internet

advanced free chlorine


are self-priming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only the suction line down in the liquid. Service or maintenance can be perfonued quickly and simply with common hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and never any need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp

sensor on the market today CIMPLICITY

Plant Edition pro vides HMl and SCADA function

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and .scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 256

Small drinking water systems

ality and estab


lishes a founda tion for collabora tive internet man

ufacturing. True client/server ar

sensor technology, the innovative new CLE3.1 Sensor, www.prominent.ca

chitecture and open-system design offer fast, easy integration with the ability to grow from a single computer node to a plant-wide monitoring and control system providing real-time information from the factory floor to all levels of the enterprise.

ProMinent Fluid Controls

Gescan Texcau

For direct continuous free chlorine measurement in surface water without

the need for buffers or reagents, upgrade to ProMinent's most advanced chlorine

Circle reply card No. 257

Circle reply card No. 258

Jet aeration, jet mixing, SBR systems

Quick panei operator interface auHSKfANeL /

Zenon's new Modular Drinking Water (MOW) system has been specifically designed to overcome the challenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on the patented ZeeWeed® membrane tech nology incorporated in large treatment plants. This ultrafiltration system is costeffective, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistently producing high quality water. Zenon Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 259

Manufactured by Mixing Systems, Inc., jets are both versatile and effective. Sys tems are custom-designed to satisfy var ied process demands and tank sizes. Mixing and oxygen transfer are inde pendently controlled. Energy efficient, low maintenance, no in-basin moving parts, with liquid depths from 15 to 60 feet. Mixing Systems, Inc. Circle reply card No. 260

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

These slim-profile touchscreen graphical operator interfaces provide a practical, cost-effective alternative to a variety of discrete devices. Several screen tech

nologies and sizes are available and pro vide bold, clear displays in colour or monochrome. Each unit communicates

with over 40 major PLCs and PEG net works, including Allen-Bradley Remote 1/0 and DH-I-. Gescan Texcan

Circle reply card No. 261 71

Industry Update He was also recognized for his work on several international fast-track

projects, including the Puerto Rico In frastructure Financing Authority's Sys tem-wide Study, and USAID West Bank Water Resources program 2 and Beth lehem 2000 Project.


Established in 1987 by the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, the Albert E. Berry Medal pays tribute to Dr.Albert E. Berry (1894-1984), an outstanding civil engineer and one of Canada's en vironmental engineering pioneers.




TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

George Powell receives Albert E. Berry Medal, 2002 Recognized for his 40+ years of out standing engineering service and dedi cation to the profession, the public, cli ents and peers, George Powell, CH2M

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 122 CANADA'S NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SITE ASSESSORS

National Registry of Site Assessors Tk-aining & Certification Certified Environmental Site Assessor(C.E.S.A.)

HILL Canada's Senior Vice President,

has been awarded the Albert E. Berry Medal for engineering expertise in wa ter infrastructure design, and planning and design services. George has worked on some of the largest and most innovative water and wastewater treatment facilities in

Canada, including Toronto's main wastewater plant, Ashbridges Bay, and the City of Calgary's Clenmore Dam Pumping Station.

Associated Environmental


Site Assessors of Canada Inc.

Visit: www.aesac.ca E-Maii: info@aesac.ca Call Toll Free: 1-877-512-3722 for information

For more information, circle reply card No. 123

Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal Complete Services

Your Guide to

^^^^Tfimax Residuals


Learn how to access knowledge and investment opportunities that wfli once reservedfor only the wealthy

an American Water Services"company

800-465-21 IS www.trlmaxenv.com | www.americanwaterservices.com

and well connected

For more information, circle reply card No. 124

High Return Investing-Both Domestic and

Environmental Sampling Supplies - Check out our price guarantee!


Inertial Pumping Systems

Tax Reduction Strategies Early Retirement, collapse the time from 15-20 years to 5-9 years



• Actuators

Standard Molded

Call: 905-886-3425 E-Mail: Iouis.sima@sympatico.ca


For more information, circle reply card No. 120

• Footvaives (all sizes)

• Submersible pumps • Weil caps

We Ship Anywhere! Call toll free 1.877.212.1602

unified pump

(local) 1.905.855.0964




For more information, circle reply card No, 125



• Biosoilds Management



Media & Coal Ltd.


TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617


For more information, circle reply card No. 121 72

• WaterAA^astewater Facility Clean out Services • Digester/Lagoon Clean out Specialists • High-pressure Water Blasting • Mobile Screening/Dewatering Units • Spills Response


• Biosolids Land Application • Public Relations & Nutrient Management Planning • Turnkey Facility Management • Third Party Compliance & Auditing • Comprehensive Technical Assistance

® www.wessuc.com

fi 519-752-0S40

For more information, circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Industry Update

Largest Actiflo plant in


Canada used as dual





USFilter's John Meunier Products re

Environmental Consultants www.aandaenv.com/

cently secured a $3.4 million project

Soil, Groundwater & Air Studies,Investigations

with the Regional Municipality of Halton, Ontario, for treating raw water and backwash wastewater at the

Burlington Water Purification Plant. It was decided to increase the plant's ca pacity to 236 ML/day, due to steady population growth in Halton Region. With a total hydraulic capacity of 450,000 mVday, three 100 ML/day Actiflo® ballasted floe clarifiers will be

installed upstream of new ozone contac tors and the existing gravity dual media


ENVIRONMENTAL Assessment Association

Burlington -f St. Catharines -f Woodstock -f North Bay > KIrkland Lake >• TImmlns -f Thunder Bay-f Winnipeg Dr. George Duncan, President (705)567 4996 Fax:(705) 568 8368

water resources planning

Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

water supply, transmission and treatment ivastewater collection and treatment

electrical engineering, instrumentation and controls

Acres &



municipal infrastructure services solid waste and hazardous materials management

geo-environmental investigations and site n'mediation environmental assessments and planning

Environmental Limited

filters. In addition,two ACP-600 Actiflo

package plant clarifiers will treat plant

525-21 Four Seasons Place, Toronto, Ontario M9B 6J8•Tel(416)622-9502•Fax(416)622-6249 4342 Queen Street, Niagara Falls, Ontario L2E 6W1•Tel(905)374-4470•Fax(905)374-8365

residuals. The installation is scheduled

for completion in March 2004. The Burlington Water Purification Plant is the first water purification plant

Heed Another Lab

Choice in Ontario?

in Ontario to use a combination of two

• •

Contaminated Sites

and Drinking Water Packages

Actiflo processes-one for clarification of raw water, and the other for second ary treatment of combined filter back wash water and primary sludge. When completed, the installation will also be the largest Actiflo plant in Canada. Con

Organic and Inorganic Analyses


- Full Service Facilities

accredited to

- Flexible Electronic Reporting

IS0/IEC17025 for

specific tests

AGAT Laboratories Ltd.




5623 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9. P-905.501.9998 F-905.501.0589

tact: E-mail: zielinskin@usfilter.com

New York leaky pipes As New York was just getting over the trauma of September 11, it has had to swelter through the worst drought in recent memory. In May 2002, Mayor Michael Bloomberg introduced drought regulations forbidding waiters setting down glasses of water in restaurants unless diners requested them. The city's drought emergency also prompted a ban on most car-washing and street-wash ing. Reservoirs, normally more than




(705)726-3371 (613)966-4243 (705)445-3451







CreaOng Quality Solutions Jbgetber

The ALTECH Group

90% full, were down to 60% and below

in May. Thousands of rivers and wells across the country have run dry. However, something much more mundane is also to blame. A report from the Environmental Protection Agency, appropriately "leaked" to the press, said the gap between actual and required spending on America's vast network of pipes, pumps,sewage works and res


Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning & engineering

www.altech-group.com Environmental and OHS professionals providing consulting, scientific and engineering services. • EMS & ISO 14000 capability • Phase I & n investigations and remediation • Technology development and implementation PRODUCTIVITY


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I R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

ervoirs, was in the tens of billions of

dollars zone. If no action is taken by 2019,the gap will be $650 billion, a fig

fVater, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

ure that an EPA official described as

For employment and project development opportunities

"staggering". Experts estimate that in New York's case, by the time water reaches the city from 300 miles upstate -as more than a

visit our web site; www.rvanderson.com

Toronto(416)497-8600 E-mail: Toronto@RVAnderson.com Welland Ottawa Sudbury London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay,India

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002


Industry Update Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering

Creating Value Through Service and Innovation

billion US gallons does every day - a third as much has already been lost, largely through leaks in the pipes that bring it from reservoirs in the Catskill mountains.

Government of Canada British Columbia



Telephone: 604.293.141 1


in wind energy


The Wind Power Production Incentive



Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Coliingwood




Tel.(705) 325-17S3


EMail; info@cctatham.com

Web; www.cctatham.com



PHONE I(418) 837-1444 PAX •(418)837-7723


tive for the installation of 1,000 mega watts of new wind energy capacity over the next five years. This is equivalent to the amount of power needed by ap with continued momentum, WPPI will


|eel Deichenet, Vice-president

(WPPI), a $260-miilion initiative to de velop wind energy, was launched in May by the Government of Canada. This program will help increase the amount of wind energy available across the country by 500 percent. Through WPPi, the Government of Canada will provide a financial incen

proximately 250,000 average Canadian houses. When fully implemented, and

(Since 1985)


invests $260-mill[on


cut Canada's greenhouse gas emissions by more than three megatonnes annu ally by 2010. Contact: www.nrcan.gc.ca/redi.

E«Mail I ctamexgqc.airo.com

Web lite t vAAMw.clamex.qc.co

New training programs mean safer weiis, safer


water for Ontario


The Ontario government has partnered


with four organizations to train well con tractors and educate private well own

(New)- Geo Tube dewatering

Competent and Complete Services

ers on well construction, maintenance

Lagoons, Digesters, Ponds, Lakes, Marinas, Waste Reduction,


Municipal & Industrial Tel:(506)684-5821, Fax:(506)684-1915, Tel:(705)235-5531, www.girouxinc.com

and safety. The funding includes: $750,000 for

Sir Sandford Fleming College to de velop ieading-edg« cumcuium for well contractors and technicians; and


Toronto • Ottawa London • Hamilton


Vancouver • Victoria

Specializing in;

• Drainage Planning

• IVafer & Wnslewater Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

Corporate Office: 133 Wynford Drive

• Industrial Treatment

• Environmental Impact

Toronto, Ontario M3C JKf

• Stormwater Management

• Environmental Planning

$940,000 for Green Communities, in partnership with the Ontario Ground Water Association and the Association

of Professional Ceoscientists of Ontario,

to lead an i8-month community-based education program for private well own ers.

Tel: (416) 441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

These initiatives are consistent with Commissioner Dennis O'Connor's rec





GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 65 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4IVI 4T5

Tel: (705) 733-0111, Fax: (705) 721-0138 E-mail: iws@iws.oa. Web site: www.iws.ca

ommendation 86 in Paft Two: Report of the Walkerton Inquiry, which suggests that the province provide owners of pri vate systems with information on weiis and their protection. Other steps include: provincial fund ing to safeguard rural water quality through the Healthy Futures for Ontario Agriculture program, and information on the care and maintenance of private weiis.


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Industry Update Also, the province is providing $200,000 to the Centre for Research and Technology(CRESTech)to develop in

novative approaches to improve and extend the life of water wells, and to

evaluate the state of the province's water well infrastructure and make rec

ommendations for improvement. In early April,2002, the govemment proposed tougher standards for well con struction and mandatory training for







EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPATprogram


107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108


GAP EnviroMlcrobia! Services Inc.^

well contractors and technicians which

were posted to the Environmental Reg istry for public comment.

Are concrete pipe plants safe and healthy places?

Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting P\


* Cryptosporidium & Giardia * Microorganism Identification * Rapid E.coll recreational water

* Microbial Training * Consulting Services

* Respirometry

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Telephone: 519-681-0571 Fax: 519-681-7150




John Duffy

10.5 to 7.3, and the lost-time incidence

rate has decreased by approximately one-half over that same period.




"For professional services in environmental training, due diligence, health and safety, and compliance auditing, give me a call."

The American Concrete Pipe Associa tion recently completed its 2001 Sum mary of Injury Statistics and Trends and reports that the concrete pipe industry continues as one of the safest working environments among comparable heavy industries. The report verifies that the industry has continued to decrease its incidence rates from 1996 through 2001. Total incidence rate has decreased from





Lou Locatelli, Principal, Tel:(905) 477-8400 ext. 206 Email: llocatelli@gartnerlee.com Website: www.gartnerlee.com

Geomatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists.and Environmental Scientists ' Indusfriol Water/Wastewoter Treofment

■ Woste Minimizafion/Wostewofer Reuse/Recycle ■ Treatment System Upgrade/Optimization

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■ Treatment System Design and Consfrucfion

Waterloo, Ontario N2L 6C7

■ ISO J4000 - Environmento/ Manogemenf Systems

Tel:(519)886•7500 Fax:(519)886•7419


The Association measures the effec

tiveness of the safety programs instituted by the industry by analyzing the safety performance of the industry over the last several years, and by comparing the safety records of the concrete pipe in dustry against those of similar industries. As growth in the concrete pipe in dustry has occurred, so has the need for increased safety. Common injuries in industry include slips, trips, falls, dust in the eyes, vehicular injuries, back in juries, and injuries to the fingers, hands

Experts in Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers 210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tei: (519)624-7223 Fax:(519)624-7224 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1G5 Tei: (905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031

and feet.

E-maii: info@hydromantis.ooni Web: wwv/.hydromantis.com

J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

John J. Duffy, AGFA president, says

Consulting Engineers, Architects & Planners

that the American and Canadian con

crete pipe industries have moved very quickly over the past 20 years to em brace new product design technology, production processes, quality assurance programs and healthy workplaces. Contact: info@concrete-pipe.org

Water & Wastewater Treatment I Environmental Assessment & Planning Solid Waste Management I Stormwater Management I Watermain & Sewer Rehabilitation

Providing a wide range of Environmental Services Ottawa 613-728-3571

Kingston 613-544-1424

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

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Sudbury 705-522-8174 Timmins 705-360-1899


Industry Update Call for Abstracts

• Design and supervision of groundvvater exploration programs • New municipal well design

Lotowater ltd. Hydrogeological Consultants and

The Water Environment Association of

• Assessment of groundwater/surface water interaction

Groundvvater Supply Specialists

Ontario's 2003 Annual Technical Sym posium will be held at the Toronto

• Groundwater protection •Artificial recharge • Hydrogeology studies and groundwater impact assessments • Landfill monitoring and impact assessment • Well maintenance, rehabilitation, performance improvement

12 Years and Still Flowing

Westin Harbour Castle Hotel, March 30

-April 1,2003. WEAO is looking for papers on the following topics; utility management, including sewer use bylaws and enforce ment, alternative delivery, finance and partnering; watershed management; in formation management; collection sys tems and stormwater management; pre liminary and primary treatment; biologi

• Well construction


P.O. Box 451, Paris, Ontario N3L 3T5

• Video inspection services


326 Grand River St. North

• Performance testing of wells and pumps

Paris, Ontario N3L 4A5


(519) 442-2086, Fax:(519) 442-7242

E-mail: lwater@lotowater.com, Web site: www.iotowater.com

Engineering & Environmental Science



cal treatment; advanced treatment;

biosolids management; odour control; new technologies and research; opera tions; small community issues; septage disposal.

MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905) 475-5994 E-Mail: reoeption@maoviro.com Web site: www.macviro.com

The abstract submission deadline is


October 1, 2002. Details: WEAO, Tel: (905) 947-


1300, email: weao@weao.org


New federal regulations to reduce mine pollutants


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

New environmental regulations have been announced that will significantly reduce pollution entering waterways

Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055 E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca


from metal mines across Canada. The


m Analytics Inc


9331 - 48th Street

• National Comprehensive Environmental Testing Services • MaxxLINK - Internet accessible sample tracking and report viewing

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Fax (905)890-0370



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• Air Monitoring Services

ONTARIO 5540 McAdam Road

Edmonton, AB T6B 2R4

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• Rush Analysis

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new requirements of the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER), which will be fully in force on December 6, 2002, are among the most comprehen sive and stringent national standards for mining effluents in the world and pro vide opportunities for further advances in Canadian environmental expertise in the mining sector. New MMERs impose limits on re leases of cyanide, metals, and suspended solids, and prohibit the discharge of ef fluent that is acutely lethal to fish. The Regulations also require metal mines to conduct Environmental Effects Monitor

ing programs to identify and adverse ANALYTICAL

effects to their effluent on fish,fish habi tat, and the use of fisheries resources.


5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z1N9 vgeldart@philipmc.com • 1-800-263-9040 ext. 275 • Fax:(905)890-8575 i

Valerie Geldart

[National Accounts Manager



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Promulgated under the Federal Fish cries Act, the new MMERs replace the 1977 Metal Mining Liquid Effluent Regulations and repeal the 1979 Alice Arm Tailings Deposit Regulations. The new MMERs apply to the ap proximately one hundred metal mines operating in seven provinces and three territories in Canada. These regulations were developed through extensive con sultations with the mining industry, en vironmental organizations, First Na tions, and provincial and territorial gov ernments.


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002

Industry Update

Large ZeeWeed orders

Offices across North America

for Zenon

stantec.com Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia

The Eraser Valley Regional District has chosen ZENON Environmental to sup


ply its ZeeWeed® membrane technology as an expansion to the existing conven tional drinking water plant. The $5 mil

Knowledge Based

lion extension will supply drinking wa ter to the City of Abbotsford and the

For the Environment


in Canada Call: (519) 579-4410 (204) 489-5900 (306) 757-3581 (780) 917-7000 (604) 597-0422

Arizona • Nevada • California • Utah • Colorado • Virginia North Carolina • South Carolina • Georgia •Tennessee

Community of Mission,just outside of Vancouver, British Columbia. Cur

"A leader\n providing innovative

rently, water from nearby Norrish Creek is only receiving chlorine treatment. The company has also been awarded a contract for two ZeeWeed drinking water plants in the communities of Hamlet of Smith and Canyon Creek,Al berta, valued in excess of $1 million. One of the plants will be replacing an existing conventional water treatment facility, while the other is an upgrade to the existing plant.

automation solutions to our customers." We offer a complete range of products & services in the areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MWII/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V1J2

Tel: (905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444

Summa Enterprises, Place Grilii, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350, Kirkland, QC H9H 5B9 Tel:(514) 591-5748, Fax;(514) 455-3587


ZENON has also won a wastewater

equipment order from Traverse City and five other neighbouring townships in Michigan. Council approved the move


Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management• Environmental Assessment


Site Assessment & Remediation •SCADA


to membranes for a number of reasons. One of them is the ease with which the

plant can be retrofitted to increase ca pacity without incurring additional ma jor facility expansion. Treated sewage will be discharged into nearby Boardman Lake, which then flows

through to Lake Michigan. This plant will be the largest munici pal membrane sewage treatment plant

TEL:(905)668-9363• WHITBY•Fax;(905)668-0221 E-mail: tsh@tsh.ca


Web site: www.tsh.ca

umo Ontario

Environmental Engineering Water & Wastewater Engineering

Manitoba Saskatctiewan

in North America.

Site Assessment & Remediation

Alberta Britisfi Columbia

Contact: www.zenonenv.com


Northern Territories

Hydrogeology Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Urban Drainage

& Internationaiiy



Visit our website at www.umagrouD.com

v-T/ The name for exoelience. worldwide

Providing totai Engineering, Environmentai


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Toll free: 1-877-987-3211

Environmental Consulting Ecotoxicity Testing Environmental Technologies iHr,

Toronto > Sudbury • Thunder Bay • Winnipeg •Saskatoon • Minneapolis• Africa


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Vancouver (604)681-7277 Kitchener (519)741-5774 Toronto area (905) 829-8880 Kingston (613)542-5888 www.xcg.commail@xcg.com

Phone (519) 836-6050 Web www.esg.net GUELPH TIMMINS TORONTO OTTAWA

liWih w.TV.T I'l 170o.0orn

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002


' industrial/f/lunicipal Wastewater Management ' Watershed and Stormwater Management ' Drinking Water Quality and Treatment ' Hydrogeology Investigation /Modelling ' Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing ' Remediation and Decommissioning 'Environmental Management Systems


Industry Update U of T hosted North Date Pad

American Conference of Environmental

September 26, 2002. Plant Management


Issues, Water Environment Association of

Some 200 environmental engineering professors, graduate students and prac titioners from across North America

were at the University of Toronto Au gust 10-14 for a conference organized by the Engineering Faculty's Division of Environmental Engineering, and pro fessors in Civil and Chemical Engineer ing. Held only every three years, the conference is a joint meeting of the As sociation of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors(AEESP)and the

American Academy of Environmental Engineers (AAEE). The conference theme was Integrated Environmental Teaching, Research and Practice; Link ing Engineering and Science to Address Complex Problems. Professor Phil Byer, Chair of the Di vision of Environmental Engineering, was the Conference Chair. Each ses

sion began with a keynote address by a world-renowned expert: Prof. Richard Luthy of Stanford, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen of Berkeley, Jerald Schnoor of Univer sity of Iowa, and Bryan Karney, Uni versity of Toronto. David Phillips, who is Senior Climatologist with Environment Canada,gave an entertaining dinner talk in which he told a largely U.S. audience about the

fascination that Ca nadians have about weather and the need to be con cerned


changes in extreme __ weather events.

Dr. Benedek

The next day.

Dr. Andrew Benedek, founder, Chair man and CEO ofZENON Environmen

tal Inc., shared his valuable and success

ful experiences of moving from research to the business world.

Contact: byer@ecf.utoronto.ca.

Important facts about chlorination Some people ask: wouldn't it be more simple to completely eliminate the risk of cancer from chlorinated water by eliminating the use of chlorine in drink ing water? Eliminating the use of disinfection methods in drinking water would lead to serious epidemics of infectious dis78

Ontario specialty seminar. Contact: Tel: (905) 947-1300, E-mail: weao@weao.org. October 15-18,2002. ITEPEC ASIA 2002. International Technology for Environmen tal protection in China Exhibition and Con ference. E-mail: info@hfcanada.com,

www.itpec.com. October 18, 2002. Canadian Association on Water Quality, 18th Eastern Regional Symposium on Water Quality Research. Montreal, QC. Contact: www.cawq.ca October 22-25, 2002. Western Canada

quebecois sur la gestion des matieres residuelles. Saint-Hyacinthe, QC. Contact: Tel: (514)270-7110, E-mail: mfhuot@reseau-environnement.com.

November 15-16, 2002. CWWA Annual General Meeting & Federal Accountability and Strategy Workshop. Ottawa, ON. Con tact: Tel:(613)747-0524, www.cwwa.ca. November 20-22, 2002. Saskatchewan Water & Wastewater Association annual con

ference and trade show. Saskatoon, SK.

Conference. Regina, SK. Contact:

Contact Fax: (306) 664-0027, E-mail: krecsy.swwa@sasktel.net. November 21, 2002. Plant Monitoring seminar, hosted by WEAO,held at the CNE grounds,Toronto. Contact: Wes Trimble,E-


mail: wtriiuble@ch2m.com.

Water and Wastewater Association annual

October 23-25,2002. The Rubber Associa tion of Canada. Rubber Recycling. Montreal, QC. Contact: Tel:(905) 814-1714, E-mail: helen@rubberassociation.ca, www.rubberassociation.ca.

October 23-25, 2002. The Pulp and Paper Technical Association TECH 2002- Improv ing energy efficiency in the pulp & paper industry, Edmonton,AB.Contact: Tel:(514) 392-6966, E-mail: jroy@paptac.ca. November 4-5, 2002. Le 3e Colloque

May 14-15, 2003. Environmental Management, Compliance & Engi neering 2003 ConferenceAVorkshops and the Ontario Environmental

Tradeshow. Toronto Congress Cen tre, Toronto, ON. Contact: ES&E, Tel: 1-888-254-8769, or (905) 7274666, Fax:(905)841-7271.

eases. In the 19th century, major out

Lake Erie.

breaks of waterborne diseases were

A MemcorÂŽ CME (Continuous Microfiltration) system will provide six million gallons of water per day to over

common in Canada, the United States

and other developing nations. Beginning in the early years of the 20th century, the advent of chlorinated drinking wa ter virtually eliminated typhoid fever,

10,000 residents. The new South Chatham-Kent Water Treatment Plant will service the area of south Chatham-

cholera and other waterborne diseases,

Kent including the communities of

representing one of the great achieve ments of public health. The dangers were typically demon strated in 1991 after a decision by Peru vian officials abandoned drinking wa

Blenheim and Erie Beach.

ter chlorination because of concerns over the health effects of THMs. The

result was a cholera epidemic and the death of more than 3,500 people. This tragedy shows that complex epidemiological events cannot be solved by simplistic answers. Excerpted from Health Canada's factsheet on chlorination

Microfiltration plant to treat

In May 2000, Chatham-Kent devel oped a master plan specifically to ad dress future water and wastewater serv

icing issues in the region. Part of the plan was to focus on two of the region's existing conventional water treatment plants that draw water from Lake Erie. In order to consolidate operations and provide for future water requirements the plants needed to be upgraded or re placed. The CMP technology incorporates a patented air/liquid backwash to remove inorganic or organic contaminants greater than 0.2 microns and prevents them from entering the hollow fibre

Lake Erie water

membranes that form the CME barrier.

After extensive evaluations on mem

The direct-flow (outside-in) filtration through the PVDF oxidant resistant membrane fibres provides an efficient

brane systems, the Municipality of Chatham-Kent Public Utilities Commis

sion in Ontario awarded USFilter a $1.7

use of membrane area and assures the

million contract to provide the first microfiltration plant to treat water from

removal of contaminants from the raw water source.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2002


Concrete pipe meets standards. What about HOPE? Before you believe all the clucking about HDPE conduit, compare the specifications and see for yourself. In Ontario, concrete pipe has a recognized industry-wide third party certification program; HDPE does not. A product

conforming to standards does not mean it's third party certified. So, on your next project, don't stick your neck out... specify concrete pipe.

For more information, visit our web site and e-mail us for your copy of "JUST THE FACTS" Concrete Pipe vs. HDPE Ontario

o 0 C P A

Concrete Pipe Association The choice of a lifetime

5045 South Service Road, First Floor, Burlington, Ont. L7L 5Y7 (905)631-9696 Fax:(905)631-1905 www.ocpa.com

For more information, circie repiy card No. 127(See page 25)






SS-: : Grease retrtov^



Very fast(20 to 120 m/h Small footprints (50% smaller than conventional systems)

Unaffected by flow rate or solids loading variations High sludge concentration •

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For more information, circle reply card No. 128(See page 25)

Our pilot units are available for on-site testing