Page 1

June 2002

Environmental Science


& Engineering

â– 1:11/

Whistler hosts BCWWA annual conference The benefits and drawbacks of alternative water disinfection technologies Sludge monitoring reduces costs and improves efficiency Better weapons coming in the war against toxic mould Evaluating water supply security monitoring Cement industry studies agricultural wastes

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June/July 2002 Vol. 15 No.3 Issued June, 2002

is BC's pulp mill regulation threatened?

Sludge monitoring reauces costs and improves efficiency - See page 41

- See page 52

I MM t

Features 7

The eco-convergence of chicken fat, treadmills, clothes lines and calories - by Tom Davey

10 Cover Story - Water terrorism among ambitious range of topics presented

42 Application services for internet-based management of drinking water quality 44 Fast-paced tunneling job stops flooding in mature Toronto area

46 Ontario to adopt Canada-Wide Standard for

at BCWWA conference

emissions of dioxins and furans

14 Water infrastructure neglect costs tens of

48 Oii-focused energy policy takes toil on

millions and causes sickness and death

16 Evaluating water supply security monitoring

49 Cement industry studies agricultural wastes 50 The environment pays for the fines

18 Efficiency and security increase with precast concrete galeries


Clean water could be fatal to this fish

54 New Jamaican water project - hilly terrain presents a challenge

22 Better weapons coming in the fight against toxic mould 26 Serious health problems from toxic mould 28 Ottawa completes "baffling" water project 30

human life

The benefits and drawbacks of alternative

water disinfection technologies 34 Technology cottons on to oil spill clean-ups 36 Activated sludge yield reduction by the low sludge production process

56 North American pollution shifts from air to land

58 CFD simulation helps find cause of catastrophic failure in thermal oxidizer 60 Fueling our environmental future 61 Niagara Region evaluates software for water modeling applications 62

Pesticide review finds little risk

64 Full-cost pricing from the front line water professionals

39 An innovative way to treat acidic wastewater

Departments 25

Ad Index


Industry Update






Literature Reviews


Professional Cards


Product Review


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Editorial Comment

The eco-convergence of chicken fat, treadmills, clothes lines and calories

An unlikely blend of tread

tarian value. Treadmills are still used

indeed, my children used to use them as

mills, chicken fat, clothes

to draw water or drain rice fields in parts


lines and calories has been

of Asia.

Regulations in many condominiums and apartment buildings also forbid hanging clothes to dry on balconies. However, on a recent trip to Italy, we saw clothes lines strung up across many apartment porticos in Florence, a city whose very name is a synonym for cul

brought together in a new form of eco-convergence. Down south, a University of Georgia campus main tained a viable heating system -includ ing all its hot water-by burning 300,000 (US) gallons of chicken fat and yellow restaurant grease. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, only a retrofit of a steam boiler was required. Thomas Adams, of the university's department of biological and agricul tural engineering, says that: "In the United States, something like 11 billion pounds of waste chicken fat are pro duced a year. It's renewable, it's home grown, and fairly evenly distributed throughout America. Moreover,it bums very cleanly, with very low sulphur and absolutely no odour whatsoever." Convergence shifts from chicken fat to a report by Steven Vogel, a biology professor at Duke University, specializ ing in biophysics. Vogel, coincidently, is the German noun for bird. Dr. Vogel calculates that: "A worker doing hard physical labour all day -or a felon turn ing a treadmill - can put out some 100 watts of power. That's the output, in the form of a little light and a lot of heat from the familiar light bulb." He writes that: "We're at best only about 25 per cent efficient, so an output of 100 watts requires a minimum input of400 watts, which translates into about 350 calories

per hour. Burning a tenth of a pound of good fuel - fat - yields 350 calories, so working at 100 watts for eight hours costs less than a pound of body fat- still nearly double a human male's normal energy use." I don't know of any treadmills used in correctional institutions today, but the British used treadmills as punishment

But as machines gradually released us from hard manual labour, many pay hundreds of dollars a year to work out on treadmills and stairmasters in health

clubs to burn up fat! Health clubs even advertise "fat burner specials". Ironically, most of these machines require electri cal energy to assist in measuring the calo ries we burn. Looking at it objectively, it seems an absurd cycle of events.

ture. And, of course, clothes lines are

taboo on many condo grounds in North America. So, even in southern states blessed with abundant sunshine, electri-

As machines gradually released us from hard manual labour, many pay hundreds of dollars a year to work out on treadmills and stairmasters in health clubs to burn upfat! Our perverse waste of energy brings me to clothes lines. Buried in bylaw re strictions and covenants that house pur chasers or condominium dwellers often

miss, are clauses forbidding the use of clothes lines - an ironic twist to not in

my backyard syndrome. In these eco logically sensitive times, this particular thou-sludt-not changed my feeling of be mused cynicism to "wait a minute, this isn't right!" But some people do get re ally uptight at the sight of clothes flap ping in the breeze. There was at least one fist fight and subsequent court case because of a neighbour becoming irate over a clothes line in England. Was it the sight of female under garments flap ping in the breeze that raised testoster one levels leading to the fight? In North America, perhaps spurred on by appliance manufacturers, it be

cally powered clothes dryers tumble and rumble inside condo units while impec cably green lawns remain unblemished by the stigma of perfectly clean clothes drying in the sun. But the laws of physics are immuta ble. Fossil fuels become increasingly expensive. They pollute the air signifi cantly and are oblivious to natural bor ders. Fossil fuels are also finite. Other

sources of power such as wind, solar, and nuclear, are being re-examined with urgency and increased determination. A veritable litany of eco-commandments now urges us to recycle, reuse,compost, carpool, and transit publicly. Are we collective idiots? Wind and

solar power to dry washing is free and non-polluting. Moreover, this power comes from a real nuclear source - the

were gauche. The baby boomers de

sun. This free energy - sunshine - is eternally lost in pursuit of an architec tural ethos, incredibly backed up by the

cided that- unlike sun dried tomatoes -

force of the law.

penal colony. Some

sun dried laundry was decidedly unfash ionable. They had energy to burn and gleaming Maytags to burn it in. During a ten-year stay in a fairly af

times these tread

fluent subdivision north of Toronto, not

mills performed use ful agricultural tasks; sometimes they were used as cruel punish

a single clothes line was to be seen except our small rotary one which re Later, I learned there were bylaws which forbade all clothes lines except the ro tary ones. In Australia, rotary clothes

To summarize, using chicken fat as fuel transforms a waste disposal prob lem into a great energy opportunity. Linking treadmills to electrical power generation literally puts a new spin on the enormous forces required for every day needs. It highlights the huge amount ofelectrical energy used to perform even simple tasks; it also reveals how we so absurdly squander valuable energy re sources in Pursuit ofthe Trivial-a new

lines evolved into substantial structures;

game whose rules mean we all lose.

when Australia was a

ments with no Litili-

By Tom Davey, Editor

came a fashion decree that clothes lines

mained a solo, as well as a solar event.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002


Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor & Publisher


ES&E Publisher wins

E-mail: tom@esemag.com Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director

US award for drinking


E-mail: penny@esemag.com

water coverage

Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com

Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mail: virginia@esemag.com Publisher's Assistant


E-mail: kathy@esemag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought Inc. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfeilow

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech Canada Inc.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

Rolant^ Welker (left), OWWA Chair, and Ronald O. Schwarzwalder (right), AWWA President, present the AWWA 2002 Award of Merit to Tom Davey, Publisher, Envi

ronmental Science & Engineering magazine.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES<SÂŁ provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

The publisher of Environmen

ter Environment Federation. His other

tal Science & Engineering, Tom Davey, has been pre

honours include the Harvey Southam Award, presented at the University of

sented with the 2002 Ameri

can Water Works Association Award of Merit. The citation, approved by the

Toronto in 1965, two awards from Envi ronment Canada, a Canadian Science Writers Association award, and several

wastewater plant operators and contractors.

AWWA Board of Directors at its winter

awards from Canadian Business Press.

Information contained in ES&E has been compiled

meeting in Phoenix, Arizona, reads: Bom in England, he has worked as a For his leadership as ajournalist and journalist in England, Australia and publisher who has championed the Canada. Many of his articles have cov cause ofsafe drinking water through ered life-threatening drinking water the principles of sound science. As problems. editor and publisher of the widely AWWA,founded in March 1881, is read magazine. Environmental Sci the largest organization of water supply ence & Engineering, he has provided professionals in the world. Some 57,000 authoritative editorial coverage of members represent the drinking water Canada's municipal drinking water community,ranging from scientists, en treatment and distribution systems. gineers, environmentalists, academics, The award, presented in London, regulators, treatment plant operators, Ontario, was also recognized at the and others devoted to water supply and AWWA annual conference in New public health. Additionally, there are

Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and

from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the Information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada tvtagazine Fund, toward our editorial costs. Canadian Publications Mali Sales Second Class Mail

Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written per mission of the publisher. Yearly rmnBPA subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year (plus S3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one year.

All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmen

tal Science & Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G

3V6, Tel; (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

Orleans, June 17.

some 1,500 international members from

Senator Tom Daschle,(D) Majority Leader of the US Senate, was the previ ous winner of this honour.

This is not Tom Davey's first interna tional award. He was the first Canadian to win a J.H. Neal Award from Ameri

can Business Press in New York, and later, the first Canadian to win the Schlenz Medal from the Washington-based Wa

112 countries outside North America.

Worth noting is the fact that AWWA pre ceded Greenpeace by a century. AWWA initiated a Research Founda

tion in 1966. Since then, the Association

has funded close to (US) $200 million for drinking water research. Environmen tal Science & Engineering is proud to be honoured by this distinguished body.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002





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BCWWA - Whistler

Water terrorism among ambitious range of topics presented at BCWWA conference

Atthe opening session of the

British Columbia Water &

Waste Association confer

ence, Vicky Husband, Sierra Club of BC, focused on the need for strong drinking water legislation that protected sources, as well as water. She said there was a need for transparency, a need for groundwater legislation, a need to look at all contaminants, and a

move away from chlorine because of its damaging effect on the environment. She said that BCWWA should get a higher public profile and that its mem bers should speak out more, for exam ple, criticizing the serious downsizing of BC's Water, Land and Air Ministry's staff, as they will not be able to do an adequate job with reduced staff, and that is very serious. Also, if we are serious about water conservation, low flush or

dual flush toilets should be mandatory in all new developments, along with in centives to replace old toilets.

tions, intakes, treatment plants, infra structure, fire hydrants. These can be caused by any number of acts, includ ing physical destruction, SCADA sys tem interruptions and as an indirect re sult of contamination. They also include any other acts that could reduce the wa ter pressure in the lines to zero, thereby denying the population drinking water. As drinking water is an essential element of human life, denying it for any period of time, could cause panic and disrup

strong consideration. There are many other overt and covert security measures for utilities to consider, depending on


explosives or other energetics/combus tibles to be detonated in close enough proximity to create mass destruction. Utilities need to inventory their waste-

"In order to secure a water system against these possible threats, security has to be looked at with renewed vig our. Employee background checks

paper was a timely review of the water treatment industry's latest challenge.

intakes and dams; reservoir dams and water towers should be sealed ofl'from

11, 2001. Richard Lancaster-Brooks,

done at the reservoir and at the treatment

plant, possibly using sensitive fish spe

vandalism or terrorism.

"There are two types of sabotage, vandalism, or terrorism that need to be

considered with regard to water systems: acts that interrupt the supply of water and result in a lack of quantity and acts that contaminate the water and result in

a lack of quality," he said. Supply inteiTuptions include the de struction of, or interference with reser

voir dams, water towers, pumping sta 10

water assets and evaluate their loca

barricades should be in place to guard against physical intrusion to treatment plants; cameras may need to be placed at strategic locations, for example, near

Khafra Engineering Consultants, spoke on terrorism, sabotage, water, wastewater, security, threats and vandalism. He said that historically. North America has never had to consider potential sabo tage to its water and wastewater systems. "We have been amongst the most fortu nate continents on the planet in that we have taken safe and sustainable drink

tures or Federal facilities could allow

tions," he said. Mr. Lancaster-Brooks'

Potential water terrorism was a high ly topical subject following September

ing water for granted. Today, sabotage has to be considered not only as viable, but plausible. It is important that cities, counties, provinces and private compa nies, who own and/or operate water and wastewater systems, consider what weaknesses may exist throughout their systems, and what measures should be taken to prevent future acts of sabotage,

key is to be as prepared as possible, as sume the worst, and be ready with an active and effective response plan. "With regard to wastewater systems, proximity or access to critical buildings is the main problem. Sewers that run beneath or near airports, critical struc

should be standard; alarms, locks and

public access; old groundwater wells should be capped and cemented shut; monitoring for contaminants should be

Terrorist threats

their current state of readiness, but the

cies to test for acute contaminants or

Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP); all fire and utility vehicles should be accounted for at all times; greater use of system interconnects should be given

Leak detection

Mike Darbyshire and Colin Kristiansen presented a review of the City of Surrey's Water System Audit and Leak Detection Program, which has four phases: • Water system audit, • Zone flow measurement, • Focussed leak detection,

• Leak repair. The City of Surrey purchases its water in bulk from the Greater Vancou

ver Regional District. The GVRD has Continued overleaf

Facing page - Photo one: Safety competition, Municipal Team. Photo two: BCWWA Executive (left to right, alternating back to front): Jim Levin, Treasurer, Corporation of Delta; Terry Davies, Director, City of Vancouver; Murray McLeod, Director, Canadian Affairs, AWWA, PSi Pipeline Supply international; inder Singh, BCWWA President, Kerr Wood Leidai & Associates; Dennis Mitcheii, Director,

AWWA, Dayton & Knight; Pick Corbett, Past President, Associated Engineering; Neai Cariey Director, WEE, Cariey Environmental; Doug Doian, Director, City of Coquitiam; Kevin Ramsay, Director, CWWA,City of Vancouver; Parian Kelly Presi dent Elect, Dayton & Knight; Don Degen, Vice President, City of Keiowna; Phil Wong, Secretary, Environment Canada; Jack Bryden, WEE Trustee, Ministry of Water, Land & Air. Photo three (left to right): Brian Barnett, Conference Chair, Resort Municipality of Whistler; Rick Corbett; Del Hayiock, Executive Director, BCWWA. Photo four (left to right): Kevin Ramsay, Jim Keiiy President, WEE, and Neai Cariey. Photo five: Bernie Morris (left). Safety Competition Chair, Capital Regional District, with Winning Team, Safety Competition from Greater Vancouver Regional District. Photo six: Guest speakers (left to right): Lynn Bailey, Director, Ministry of Water, Land & Air Protection, Victoria; Rick Corbett; Vicky Husband, Environmental Chair, Sierra Club; inder Singh. Photo seven (left to right): Bernie Morris and second place winners of Safety Competition from Resort Municipality of Whistler. Photo eight: 5S Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shoveiers induction ceremony (left to right): Dave Swanson, City of Vancouver; Barry Biddie, Chair, Manufacturers, Suppliers and Consultants Committee, iPEX; Bill Hysiop, Past Presi dent, Banyan Services; Bob Jones, Past President, Greater Vancouver Regional District.

Eitvimnineiual Science <& Engineering, June 2002

BCWWA Conference Review

Photo One

Photo Two

Photo Three

Photo Four

Photo Five

Photo Six

Photo Seven

Photo Eight

BCWWA Conference Review

a series of bulk meters at various points in its trunk system. The City has about 70,000 water connections on its distri

bution system and meters all industrial, commercial and institutional customers.

With water costs expected to rise in the Greater Vancouver Regional District, a key element of any water conserva tion program is for municipalities to

agement Program. Through corporate leadership, public education, metering, rate setting and conservation measures, the City will reduce its burden on the regional water system. Biosolids, trees and turf Biosolids are increasingly in the

acceptance issues have been the primary


tal System (J.A.M.E.S) Water Pollution Control Centre, which currently services a population of approximately 160,000, with the capacity to service 240,000. The plant produces a pasteurized biosolids product which meets the Organic Matter Recycling Regulations for Class A Biosolids, produced by an aerobic prepasteurization process followed by anaerobic digestion.

Glenn Dunville, and Joe

audit their own water use and look for

Vurzinger, of the J.A.M.E.S Pollution Control Centre, Matsqui,BC,discussed

opportunities to reduce consumption. Eliminating wasteful water uses is one component of the City's Demand Man

a problem experienced by most produc ers. Limiting regulations and public

alternative uses for biosolids residuals,



hurdle for most facilities.

Using small biosolids projects as ven ues for the public and private industry to witness, may be the answer to a more widespread market. They outlined the Joint-Abbotsford Mission Environmen

In 1998,the J.A.M.E.S Pollution Con

trol Centre received approval to apply Class A biosolids to a 1.25 hectare plot at an agronomic rate of 1000 kg TKN per hectare. In 2000, a second approval was received for a four hectare plot with the same agronomic rate of 1000 kg TKN per hectare. Hybrid poplars (TXD 49177) were then planted 4.2 metres apart in a selective pattern. The trees will be pruned and will reach harvest maturity in 10 to 12 years with an approximate growth height of IS metres. Both sites are located on J.A.M.E.S Plant property


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Turf farm production in the lower mainland is a strong industry, with some producers looking for innovative meth ods to grow a healthier and stronger turf with limited costs. The J.A.M.E.S. Plant and BOS SOD Farms collaborated on a

project to apply Class A biosolids to a plot of established turf. The Plant acted as the agent for BOS SOD Farms and received the necessary approval. The loading rate was 140 kg dry weight per 100 square metres with the agronomic rate calculated at 6.90 dry kg TKN per 100 square metres. The total volume of biosolids used was 24 cubic metres at

approximately 20% solids. Pre and post application soil chem istry was performed with the data sug gesting little, if any movement of met als through to the subsoil. The plot that received biosolids was part of a larger area of the same turf that was used as

the control for comparison. Two weeks after the initial application of biosolids the visual improvement compared to the control was very evident. The biosolids Environmeiilal Science & Engineering, June 2002

BCWWA Conference Review

applied turf was a dark green with a defi nite line between applied and non-ap plied biosolids. Continued analysis of the subsoil is planned before harvesting. Turf root mass will also be analyzed and compared to the control. African viewpoint A presentation from another conti nent, Pollution control in Zimbabwe: A

case of Mazowe catchment, was given by Ms. Inviolata Vhevha, Water Qual ity Scientist, Harare, Zimbabwe. Decline in water quality due to waste disposal systems has long been recog nized in Zimbabwe. However, it was

not until 1976 that an act which recog nized this threat was passed. Even then, many fish deaths were observed in one of the big dams close to the capital city indicating that the control systems that were in place were not minimizing pol lution from waste. In 1998 a Water Act

line with the ZINWA Act. The imple mentation of the system is conducted by

(PWC),have initiated Risk Assessment

officers in each of the seven catchments

ices on First Nations communities.

with coordination from a central office.

Water treatment, storage and distribu tion systems and sewage collection, pumping and treatment plants were in spected and analyzed against a pre scribed questionnaire. Senior engineers

Advanced clarification

Francis Bordeleau,of John Meunier, discussed ACTIFLO,an advanced clari

fication process that relies on microsand ballasted flocculation and settling. Its ability to produce a highly clarified ef fluent (normally less than 1 NTU) at very high and variable solids and hy draulic loadings makes it especially suit able for combined sewer overflow treat ment.

He said the process is well recog nized, with over 150 installations world

wide, including 43 in Canada. First Nations

studies of all water and wastewater serv

conducted the assessments and inter

viewed operating staff to determine a risk profile for the community. BC represents a unique challenge for this initiative as the size, number and

complexity of the systems being ana lyzed varies as widely as the geography they are located within. Each assess ment brought new challenges, allowing the assessors to conduct comparisons between the systems being examined. ❖

Risk Assessments of First Nations

Water & Wastewater Systems was pre sented by Dennis Mitchell, UMA Engi neering Ltd. and Natahalie Lapierre,

that adequately addressed the protection of water resources was passed. The re Public Works Canada, sponsibility of waste management and National and international attention protection of water resources lies with have been focused on the water supply the Water Quality Section that is part of industry over the past few years as a re the newly formed parastal (ZINWA) sult of contamination incidents such as (sunilar to EC's crown corporations). Walkerton, Ontario, and North BattleThe major pillars of the new system ford, Saskatchewan. These experiences are the polluter pay principle and have focused on the importance of high stakeholder participation. The polluter degrees of operator skill and utility man agement practices required in the pre pay principle is being implemented us ing a statutory instrument that proposes vention of illness outbreaks. In addi a waste disposal system that recognizes tion a careful assessment of a utility's the type, quality and quantity of waste infrastructure can assist in mitigating being disposed. Stakeholders are being risks. involved at the official levels which are

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada

dictated by the drainage basins and in

(INAC) through Pubic Works Canada


Several awards were presented at the BCWWA conference:

George Fuller - Bob Jones Stanley S. Koop - Jack Bryck Victor M. Terry (operators) - James L. McQuarrie Kenneth Miller (Water For the People) - Leon Cake

Corporate Recognition - Regional Dis trict of Nanaimo

Personal Recognition - Don Degen, Kevin Ramsay, Leo Albrecht Student - Jianpeng Zhou,Ahren Britton The 55 awardees for 2002 were: Don

Fnns of Cantest, Barry Biddle ofIPFX, and Chris Johnson of Kerr Wood Leidal & Associates.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

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Water infrastructure neglect costs tens of millions and causes sickness and death

Some 400 delegates attended

the 2002 Ontario Water Works

Association/Ontario Municipal Water Association) Conven tion in London, Ontario. Ronald O. Schwarzwalder, President of the American Water Works Association,

presented the major awards. Tom Eyre received the Fuller award,and incoming Chair,Tim Lotimer, was presented with the Dr. A.E. Berry award; Dr. Berry, an environmental legend, had been a former AWWA President. ES&E editor,

Tom Davey, was presented with an AWWA Award of Merit, which was also announced at the AWWA conference in New Orleans.

The Walkerton tragedy was very much in evidence at the conference.

AWIVA President, Ronald O. Schwarzwalder (left), with Tim Lotimer, incoming OkVl/l/A chair, after the opening session.

drinking water was clearly a factor in

James Van Loon,Sussex Circle Inc.,said

with the physical effects for the rest of

that it had brought unprecedented atten tion to the issues facing water services

their lives, not to mention the psycho

North Battleford, Saskatchewan,for in

logical impacts. There was substantial economic injury, as the financial cost di rectly borne by Walkerton households

stance. So, while it is important to se lect and protect the best source you can find, it is even more important that op

beaten as of the turn of the century. Walkerton, and eerily, a year later, he

was almost seven million dollars.

erators understand their source, and the

stressed. North Battleford, Saskatch

term care, will be over $2.5 million dol lars, and the total cost of the crisis, in

provision, problems that many of the public thought we had completely

ewan, again focussed the spotlight of public attention on drinking water. It was gratifying, he said, to see that pub lic and professional interest in prevent ing the kinds of problems that led to the Walkerton tragedy is not waning, but is, in fact, growing. "This fact is well-known: there was

a tragedy in Walkerton. Seven people died as a direct result, thousands more

became ill, and some will be dealing

Photo report by Tom Davey

"Health care costs, including long

cluding responses such as having the water system fixed,costs incurred by the health unit, the costs associated with the

Inquiry, and all the lawyers, is estimated to be over $64 million dollars. "There have been numerous other ex

amples of poor source water conditions leading to widespread illness, in Canada and abroad. In fact, it just about goes without saying that a serious drinking water outbreak must result from poor source water quality. A poor source of

ways in which it may be threatened. They need to know when to pay close attention to source quality, what to look for, and what to do about it.

"It is astonishing to see, as an exam ple, the statistics concerning the relation ship between heavy rainfall and drink ing water outbreaks. According to one study, over 50% of waterborne disease outbreaks occurred after very hard rainfalls in the 90% percentile, and al most 70% were preceded by rainfalls in the 80% percentile. So when it rains, operators must pay close attention to their systems," he stressed. â?&#x2013;

Left to right: Speaker James Van Loon, Sussex Circle; Brian Jobb, Eaglebrook, Incoming OWWA 2nd Vice Chair, Ronald O. Schwarzwalder, AV\I\NA President, Pat Lachmaniuk, AWVJA Section Director; Tom Eyre, Fuller award winner. 14

Environmeiilal Science & Engineering, June 2002

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Infrastructure Security

Evaluating water security monitoring INTERNET I MODBUS














fully demonstrated and evaluated a real-time moni

toring platform designed to help water utilities protect against crimi nal contamination of drinking water sys tems. The platform, which was de ployed in two Utah cities hosting recent major sports competitions, gives water managers the ability to continuously monitor for sudden changes in water chemistry anywhere within their water distribution network. The Colorado-based Hach worked

with the Salt Lake City and Park City, Utah, water utilities in designing and de ploying new platforms for monitoring throughout the two municipalities' dis tribution networks.

Since September 11, federal and local governments have been reassess ing the safety of America's drinking wa ter supply systems, with an eye toward identifying security weaknesses in the systems. The most glaring vulnerabil ity experts have identified is the post-





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lowing local water officials to monitor for potential contamination of the dis tribution network on an around-theclock basis.

The communications abilities of the

the water to homes and businesses.

The challenge was to design and de ploy state-of-the-art water testing tech nologies which can detect water quality changes that might indicate contami nants introduced anywhere along the unprotected segments of the system. Hach and the municipal officials put in place more than a dozen continuous monitoring platforms that, for the first time ever, had the ability to measure multiple parameters of water and trans mit the data for remote retrieval. The

platforms were placed at confidential locations throughout the distribution networks in Salt Lake City and Park City. The testing equipment was then connected, directly or via unbroken cel lular telephone data transfer with builtin redundancy features, to SCADA sys tems. This data was monitored on an

ongoing basis through the Internet, al-

units were designed in partnership with Wireless Systems Inc. of Evergreen, Colorado. That company's "Data Door" is a wireless Modbus Interface specifi cally designed to communicate with re mote process instruments, and operates by enabling the transfer of Cellular Dig ital Packet Data (CDPD) that is avail able in most metropolitan areas in North America. Besides being capable of con necting platforms in easy-to-reach loca tions, the technology can also enable water managers to monitor remote wells and tanks and other hard-to-reach loca

tions within a water distribution system. "The monitoring devices, in effect, phoned home," said Terry Engelhardt, Hach's senior drinking water specialist. "The ability to use this recent advance in cellular telephone technology en hanced the entire project tremendously, because, without a way to constantly monitor the data from the instruments

AWWA announces availability of water security resources The American Water Works Association

has released its list of products and serv ices to help water utilities manage the safety and security of their utilities and infrastructure, and has offered free semi

nars,sponsored by the US Environmen tal Protection Agency (EPA). "Now, more than ever, the security of our water utilities is imperative. AWWA can provide counsel and the tools that will help utility managers and personnel assess, plan, and respond if and when security is threatened," stated AWWA Executive Director, Jack

Hoffbur. The EPA-sponsored seminars address terrorism and security in the water industry. AWWA has also produced a series of videos, books,and manuals that provide 16

on the platform in real-time, the ap proach would have been difficult to im plement in a cost-effective manner."

water utilities with the guidance they need to protect a community's water supply. Technical information on waterborne pathogens and emergency plan ning for water utility management help utility managers improve microbial wa ter quality and ward off both natural dis asters and human-caused incidents.

Critical infrastructure and storage tank safety and security videos enable per sonnel to detect deliberate acts of ag gression and areas of potential vulner ability while protecting the water sup ply from unwanted intrusion. Water utility managers and person nel can learn more about these security and preparedness resources on the AWWA website at: www.awwa.org/ secureresources.html.

Where SCADA connections were

possible, the system provided online monitoring with alarm capabilities di rectly into the main control centre. Hach's findings from the tests are being provided to select water utility in dustry leaders. Their work with the cit ies hosting the major sporting events, combined with an independent assess ment by a renowned water security ex pert, will be shared with other experts in the field as well as with experts from the Sandia National Laboratories, who

visited the project sites to study the plat forms. Sandia is a multi-program engi neering and science laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Depart ment of Energy.

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infrastructure Security

Efficiency and security increase with precast concrete gaieries

The idea of enclosing utilities

in underground chambers, or gaieries is not a new idea. Many buildings and structures

have been built with concrete block and

poured concrete gaieries so that access and maintenance of utilities are more ef

ficient. What is new is the use of precast concrete box units for housing convey ance pipes, telecommunications cables, heating and air conditioning conduits, and electrical seiwices. The environment around these services can be controlled


to extend service life, and services can

be more easily protected from potential intruders with various security devices built into the design of the gaieries. With precast concrete gaieries, efficiency has been extended to both yard use and con



Major urban areas are taking a hard look at the economic value of gaieries. In the province of Quebec, a study by INRS-Urbanisation, Culture & Societe,

and the Centre for Expertise and Re

Installation begins on 31 metre long precast concrete galerie. Concrete Pipe Association is also con sidering research in this area. These structures are of interest to municipali ties with densely developed cores where

search on Infrastructures in Urban Ar

maintenance of buried infrastructure is

eas(CBRIU)is being carried out on the use of buried concrete gaieries for hous ing utilities. In Ontario, the Ontario

costly, and often disruptive to the pub

By Scott Kirby, C.E.T., Hanson Pipe & Products Canada Inc.

lic and businesses.

An undisclosed (for security reasons) private enterprise recently installed a buried concrete galerie using precast concrete box units, more commonly used for box culverts. The main pur

pose of the structure was for housing a piping system used for pumping glycol to a series of air-conditioning units. The buried galerie was considered an option because the air conditioning system for the building was to be located approxi mately 31 metres (102 feet) from the condenser units. Between the building and condenser units was a parking lot and shipping area. The piping system was proposed for below grade to have direct access to the

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Infrastructure Security condenser units with minimum impact on the daily functions of the building and yard operations. Had the original pro posal of installing the piping in an over head carrier frame been approved, the visual impact of the support frame would have detracted from the architec

ture of the building, piping would have been less secure, and the supports for the frame would have impacted the use of the parking and shipping area. The consulting engineering firm, Morrison Hershfield Limited,and engi neering staff at Hanson Pipe & Products Canada Inc., worked to finalize a design for the 31 metre-long "design-build" structure that included the use of stand

ard size (3,000 mm x 1,800 mm) box

units. The galerie was designed to On tario Highway Bridge Design Code (OHBDC) live load specifications be cause of the truckload conditions of the

shipping area, and 0 to 600 mm cover requirement, depending on site grading. Various glycol pipe openings were required in sections of the galerie, and watertightjoints were necessary. A gal vanized steel pipe riser tower was mounted on the top of the galerie at one end, and both ends were sealed with

precast concrete bulkheads that were cast into each end unit by the producer. The structure was to be installed on a

slight slope for internal drainage to a sump pump in the event of a spill.

Glycol piping within finished galerie.

of placement of the order. The box units were installed on a "mud slab" base that included sub-drain

tion to construction traffic.

piping that drained to the sump pump. Sand bedding was placed over the mud slab for leveling the box units as they

Jim Stadelman, of Cityscape, noted that by using precast concrete box units, costs were easily predetermined and in

were installed. Because certain units

stallation time reduced.

were delivered with openings on top. they had to be installed with lifting points located on the sides of the units,

Buried galeries using precast con crete box units are now an option for servicing buildings, or groups of build ings in urban centres, or for servicing high security installations. Galeries are being considered seri ously by municipalities for reducing the impact of preventative and emergency

instead of the roof slab.

Once the installation contractor had

Six units were installed on the first

been retained by Cityscape Contracting Limited (general contractor), the com

day, but further installation was delayed to permit other servicing to be com pleted near the galerie. Two days later, the remaining nine units were installed, allowing installation of the condenser unit pad and glycol piping system. A waterproofing membrane was applied to the outside surface of each box unit upon installation, and butyl tape installed prior to delivery to ensure that the joint treat ment of every unit was applied properly

pletion date for the entire project was moved ahead to the first week of July 2001 to meet the client's business plan. Subsequently, the installation of the

precast concrete box units for the galerie became critical as it had to be completed before piping and other essential works could be installed. Cityscape required delivery of the box units within 10 days

to restrict leakage. The galerie was backfilled immediately to limit disrup

maintenance on buried infrastructure on

local economies. And now, the private sector has revived the use of an old tech

nology with precast concrete products for enhancing the value and security of its capital assets. For more information, circle reply card No. 111



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Toxic Mould

Better weapons coming in the fight against toxic mouid kinds of building materials," said Kenneth Coffey, founderowner ofTechClean Industries, Ltd.,Farmingdale, New York, which specializes in the abatement of toxic mould. Fungi of the genera AspergilUis, Alternaha and Stachybotrys are the most widely recognized as presenting serious health risks, but many other species produce poisons, called mycotoxins, which in higher concentrations can cause any thing from a minor hay fever-like sneezing to serious and even life-threatening illnesses.

When moisture is trapped behind waiipaper, the resuit can be pervasive mould growth, which often becomes quite ex tensive before the problem is recognized.

Experts are warning that children,schools,and in

surers may be at greatest risk from toxic mould.

When certain moulds and fungi get a foothold in a residence or public building, the result can be illness or even death for susceptible individuals. Little no ticed until recently, this'new'environmental menace is now seen as a hazard potentially comparable to asbestos in the 1980s and '90s, with costs - for medical bills, remediation,

and damages - ultimately running into the billions. That was the central message from experts at an all-day multidisciplinary seminar. Toxic Mould Litigation, Investi gation and Control, hosted recently by environmental con sultants BEM Systems, Inc., Chatham, New Jersey. The good news is that recent advances in environmental science and medicine are already starting to bring the so-called 'Mould Monster' under control.

"Public awareness of toxic moulds has been driven

mainly by anecdotal evidence and sensational press cover age," Mark Nardolillo, BEM president, told an audience of professionals from the environmental,insurance, real estate, law, and homebuilding fields. "The time has come now for trained experts from the scientific, medical, engineering, le gal, and public health communities to take a leading voice in

"Health impacts from moulds can include chronic and acute infections, visual and cognitive problems, and, occa sionally, cancers," said Dr. John Santilli, M.D., chief of the Division of Allergy & Immunology at St. Vincent's Medical Center, Bridgeport, Connecticut. Unfortunately for the suf ferers, the onset of symptoms may be gradual and insidious, and physicians are generally slow to realize that mould expo sures may be at the root of a patient's condition. "Elementary schools are some of the worst places," Dr. Santilli noted,"but so are older residential, office, and com

mercial buildings, and even hospitals. In schools, you have children tracking in water onto carpeted areas, which are never properly cleaned or dried, and the effect is a building full of Petri dishes, for growing moulds. If we had to do

just one thing, I would start by taking all the carpets out of the elementary schools. Children don't have OSHA or NIOSH to protect them." Improved technologies may simplify future mould detection and control

New technologies are helping. For example,the remote-

sensing technology that enabled NASA to detect the former pre.sence of water on Mars is being used now to reveal the past history of buildings affected by Aspergillus and other moulds. New and promising fungi-fighting tools are also

being developed in Europe,particularly Scandinavia, where scientists are uncovering some of the obscure pathways in volved in the development of mould-related illnesses. Among the recently introduced technologies are an inContinued overleaf

this discussion, so we as a society can make informed decis ions based on objective, unbiased data." No US state or federal standards exist for permissible

exposure to mould spores or airborne toxins, noted seminar chair Brian Ruffe, head of BEM's Indoor Air Quality group. "It is almost impossible to set a workable threshold for mould, such as 1,000 spores per cubic centimetre, because the amount of exposure that causes illness can vary tremen dously, depending on geographic location, time of year, hu midity,specific organisms present, and the individual's sen sitivity to airborne toxins and allergens." Specialists like Ruffe, therefore, have to establish their own baseline for

analysis in each case, by sampling the outside environment as well as the air in the affected premises. "Moulds are found everywhere because they specialize in decomposing -in other words,eating-every type of organic material, including sheetrock,insulation, carpeting,and many 22

Condensation and/or leakage in a plumbing chase can re main undetected until mouid grows ail the way through the waiiboard. Such chronicaiiy damp conditions may particuiariy favour growth of the more toxic moulds such as Stachybotrys and Fusarium, which require a steady supply of saturated growth media. Photos -Aerotech Laboratories, Inc. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

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Toxic Mould

novative nitrogen-extraction technology and the use of sili con epoxy coatings,originally designed as protection against the zebra mussel,that are too slick for the fungi to take root. TechClean has been getting excellent results with a fumiga tion process that uses slow-release organic peroxide in a propylene glycol base - essentially the same mixture used in stage 'smoke'. The treatment destroys bacteria and fungi and their harmful products by oxidizing their cellular protein, and the premises can be reoccupied safely after 24 hours. "As with any public health issue, there is also danger in overreacting," Coffey said. "It's getting like the Wild West out there, with clean-up companies shooting chemicals all over the place," he warned. "Before getting into a full-blown remediation program, it is important to have a good study done first, and have a good plan in place." BEM's Ruffe urged building owners, managers, or resi dents with mould problems to carefully check the creden tials of anyone purporting to be a 'mould expert,' including resumes, education, experience with similar assignments, and references.

"The environmental laboratory that tests mould samples should likewise be certified," said Tom Allen, Operations Director at Aerotech Laboratories, Phoenix, Arizona, an

industry leader in indoor air quality testing. "The data never lie - but they also don't tell you 'the whole truth and nothing but the truth'," he noted, "and you need the whole truth when your data may be the basis of a remediation plan or litigation." To effectively control their liability exposure, building owners and managers will need to familiarize themselves



with sampling and test methods, and understand their strengths and limitations. In many cases, though, simple 'low-tech' solutions - including the building owner's and occupants' sense of smell - may still be the best front-line defense against mould infestation, the experts agreed. Mark Diamond,a New York attorney specializing in lAQ issues, advised building owners and managers to designate a 'point person' to be responsible for maintenance, as the best way to protect tenants and avoid potential liability. "Do regular walkthroughs of potentially affected buildings and projects," he urged, "and talk informally with the occu pants about odours or other possible signs of trouble. And keep records." "Insurance companies are fearful that mould claims will become the next great source of mass tort claims," said Anthony Bartell, a partner and insurance law specialist in the law firm of McCarter & English, LLR Building own ers, occupants and others seeking insurance coverage should be prepared for a fight, he suggested. "Insurers may be expected to vigorously fight mould claims, most likely re lying on pollution and 'business risk' exclusions and a hand ful of related defences. Additionally, insurers will soon be gin inserting 'mould/fungi exclusions, in new policies," he added. To some extent owners can protect themselves by collecting and maintaining all existing policies. Most im portant, he added, is to put the insurer on notice immedi ately as to any potential claim. "There is a huge downside risk to not giving timely notice." The state and federal environmental agencies may soon begin setting exposure standards. Dr. Santilli believes. "Cau sality has been the big issue," he said. "Until recently, doc tors and pediatricians in the field had little to go on but their own experience. Now we are finally getting long-term clini cal and statistical data, and I think we are getting near the breakthrough we need." He cited as evidence a recent sur vey article in a leading immunology journal, whose cita tions included more than a hundred studies and sources. "I

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think we will start to see the first state and federal air qual ity standards for moulds within two to three years at the most."

In Canada, the widely used booklet Fungal Contamina tion in Public Buildings: A Guide to Recognition and Man agement, published by Health Canada and partly based on work by the New York City Department of Health, offers general guidelines for investigators. It suggests, for exam

ple, that sampling results of up to 150 CEU/m'(colonyforming units per cubic metre) may be acceptable if the mix ture of species is reflective of the outdoor air spores, but calls for further investigation if sampling indicates persist ent presence of toxigenic fungi such as Stachybotrys atra, Aspergillus, Penicillium, or Fusarium. But the guidance offered is generally of the common-sense variety, since in truth, as the authors note, the existing scientific data are "limited and imperfect." "There is going to be a long debate about what exactly constitutes a mould problem," said BEM's Brian Ruffe,"but that may be less of a concern than it seems. If the science and methodologies are correct, we can almost always deter mine if there is a valid association between environmental


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conditions and risk to health. Guidelines might help, but experience shows we can interpret a situation very effec tively without them."

For more information, circle reply card No. 116 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Ad Index CO



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Company ITT Flygt


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Reader Service No. 105

Acres & Associated


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KSB Pumps Layfield Geosynthetios MSU Mississauga

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EMSL Analytical Inc



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Toxic Mould

Serious health problems from toxic mould

During the past decade, moulds have emerged as an important, and previously

from mould exposure include headache, fatigue,cough,shortness of breath, con gestion, fever, nausea, and eye, ear and

overlooked, environmental

throat irritation.

Certain moulds can be extremely toxic. The most toxigenic include Stachybotrys, Aspergillus and Penicii lium. These moulds have been respon sible for the closure of schools, day care centres, hospitals and numerous build ings in both Canada and the United States. Due to their toxicity, even small numbers of these moulds require thor ough investigation and remediation.

health hazard. It is now a well-known fact that moulds can and do cause seri

ous health problems in humans. To pro tect our health and maintain our quality of life, we must ensure that our indoor

air quality is generally free of these com mon and highly mobile contaminants. Moulds are microscopic organisms that belong to the phylum mycophyta (fungi). They are closely related to mildews, mushrooms and puffballs. Moulds lack chlorophyll and are, there fore, heterotrophic. They often look like black soot, but their colours can vary from green to brown or even pink. They can exist in either a teirestrial or aquatic environment and they survive both in doors and out.

Moulds are one of the fungi respon sible for the conversion of complex or ganic matter into basic nutrients. This conversion is an absolutely critical and beneficial function of moulds. Some

moulds aid in the production offood for man and, in the case of specific moulds such as Peniciilium, antibiotics are de rived.

All moulds require both a source of nutrients and humidity to survive and flourish. Generally, nutrients are not a limiting factor and, when moisture is high, mould will grow on carpets, fur niture, dry wall, insulation, ceiling tiles, etc. Sources of moisture that can sup port growth include leaky roofs, plumb ing leaks, sewer back-ups, a build-up of condensation, etc., or just high humid ity (e.g. a shower). Virtually all moulds produce spores that are easily dispersed in the environ ment. A single spore can establish a

By Barb Bayer*

Because of the vast number of

Aspergillus spores

colony of moulds and this colony can produce millions of spores. It is only when a large number of mould spores are produced and bioaccumulate that a health problem typically occurs. In general, it is the very young, the elderly, and immune-compromised in dividuals who are most at risk. It is also

important to note that sensitivity to mould varies dramatically from indi vidual to individual. The mould con centration that causes a severe reaction

by one person may be readily tolerated by another. Mould can often be hidden from view and cannot be seen or smelt. As a con

sequence, individuals may experience health effects without ever knowing the cause. It is imperative that investiga tors diligently search for mould in walls, in attics and crawl spaces or anywhere a damp environment may exist. Mould exposure from homes or workplaces can cause a variety ofsymp toms ranging from minor allergic reac tions to extremely severe, life threaten ing disease. Documented health effects

moulds in the environment, and the large potential health risk, it is critical to con firm and identify the type of mould present. The use of an accredited labo ratory for this purpose helps to ensure that a proper course of corrective action is followed based on the moulds identi

fied. Accreditation agencies include the Standards Council of Canada(SCC)and

the American Industrial Hygiene Asso ciation (AIHA).

Analysis can be performed on bulk samples, swabs and/or air samples for viable or living moulds. Air-O-Cell cas settes and tape samples can be analyzed for non viable or dead organisms. Health Canada has published guidelines to assist with the inteipretation of mould analyses and individual provinces such as Manitoba have recently developed their own provincial Mould Guidelines. There is no doubt that concern over

exposure to moulds in our homes,in our schools and in our workplace will broaden as our understanding of the short-term and long-term health risks increases.

'Manager of the Limnology and Air Serv ices Division of EnviroTest Laboratories

in Winnipeg, Manitoba For more information,

circle reply card No. 142

% ,

Mould on air strip 26

Stachybotrys atra Eiivironmenlai Science & Engineering, June 2002

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Drinking Water

Ottawa completes "baffling" water project


;r, ...

TheCity ofOttawa recently completed a project to Figure 1. Access to clearwell.

increase the treatment efficiency of its two main water purification plants by installing clearwell baffling systems. Designed by CH2M HILL Canada, and installed by Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., with Louis Bray Construction Ltd., the baffles increase the chlorine contact time in the clearwell by forcing the water along a longer flow path through the system, thus reducing short circuiting and flow "dead zones". The curtains, manu factured by Layfield, were constructed of potable grade, re-

By Mark Simpson, Layfield Group Ltd.


Figure 2. Installation of curtain to ceiling of clearwell.

inforced membrane material that is flexible enough to fit inside a small 900 mm x 900 mm access hatch when folded.

Once inside, the curtains were anchored to the floor and

ceiling of the clearwell using 316 grade stainless steel. A custom designed,rope reinforced curtain edge detail allowed Layfield to achieve enhanced curtain-anchor connection strengths.

The project involved the use of over 5,000 square metres of curtain material, 5.7m in height, and took approx imately 35 days to install inside four separate clearwell chambers.

For more information, circle reply card No. 143

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

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Drinking Water Disinfection

The benefits and drawbacks of alternative

water disinfection technologies

Chlorination is the most popu

lar means of water disinfec tion in North America. Two thirds of all communities

which treat their water use some form

of chlorination, with the majority of these having a population of less than 3,000 people. In comparison to any other form of disinfection, chlorine is ten times more popular. With the introduction of new regu lations, the remaining communities

source of superior quality. If this is not feasible, or does not prevent the forma tion of the by-products to the extent re quired, then it would be appropriate to

borrieol) and geosmin in the source water. These compounds commonly cause the earthy and musty taste in water and are not removed by chlorina tion or filtering by conventional means.

look at the alternatives to chlorination

Filtration, with activated carbon, is an

method would be to find an alternate

other solution for this taste and

odour problem; however the long evity and effectiveness of the sys tem can be greatly affected by other water parameters.

Ozone can prevent the initial for mation ofTHMs when used as a pri mary disinfectant, replacing chlo rination. This practice is not as sim ple as substituting for chlorination by just adding an ozone generation system. Often eduction based mix ing systems, air-handling equip

that do not chlorinate will, in most

cases, only add to the overall per centage when they are regulated to disinfect. Alternative disinfection tech

nologies are again attracting some interest for practical applications where chlorination is not providing the desired disinfecting effects or where disinfection by-products are

ment, and residual ozone destruct

equipment must be employed to make the system work. When con sidering ozone, consideration must be given to the tank where the con tact will take place. This tank must be a closed vessel to prevent the es cape of undissolved ozone from the process. Ozone dissolves at a 10:1

a concern. Alternative disinfection

technologies can also improve the aesthetic quality of the water through eliminating taste and odour problems,and enhance the perform ance of disinfection in the distribu

tion system. Interestingly enough, when cor relating the rate of THM (trihalo-

ratio of the initial concentration in

the gas phase to the liquid phase un der ideal conditions. It is possible methane) occurrence above the to dissolve more ozone when a pres The ProMinent OZVa Ozone Generation System maximum prescribed amount of 100 surized system is used; however, has a capacity of 5 to 720 grams of ozone per ppb (parts per billion), the majority hour. once the pressure is removed,the gas of areas to have these concerns are and liquid separate again allowing municipal systems servicing populations that can be easily implemented to help for additional off-gassing to occur. This of 3,000 people or fewer, with the only supplement existing chlorination or re gas from the process will contain enough method of water treatment being chlo place it completely. ozone to be toxic and must be processed rination. The source water in many of Ozone through an ozone destruct system. these areas is surface water and chlo One of the most powerful disinfect Ozone,as with all oxidants, produces rine alone does not produce the by-prod ants that can be applied to water treat Disinfection By-Products (DBF) that uct problems, which also require precur ment is ozone. The use of ozone as a must be accounted for in a similar fash sors in the form of organic materials. primary source of disinfection has been ion to the THM and HAAs (Haloacetic When looking at systems with prob applied for many years, successfully re Acid) produced by chlorine. Depending lems of disinfection by-products,first of moving many of the same waterborne on the source water and the precursor all, the precursors microbiological contaminants as chlo concentration, ozone can produce that are present in the rine. Due to the higher strength of bromate, aldehydes and ketones. Brosource water should ozone,typical contact times and concen mate is regulated to 0.01 ppm, and is a be treated through trations required are much lower than function of many water parameters in coagulation and set those for chlorine. Ozone also has the cluding the level of bromide and the pH tling, or some form capability of inactivating Giardia and of the water, although there is no direct of filtration by some Cryptosporidium at reasonable contact conelation that will allow for the prede means.


termination of the DBPFP (Disinfection

times and concentrations.

Many of the current studies being

By Walter Schajnoha, P.Eng.,

done on ozone are a result of taste and

ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd.

odour problems associated with algal blooms producing MIB (2-methyliso-


By-product Formation Potential) of the water. Typically, pilot testing of a smal ler ozone system and subsequent analyContinued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

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I/O and DH+.

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Drinking Water Disinfection sis of the finished product water for bromate should be completed prior to full implementation of an ozone system. Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is another potential replacement for chlorination,especially where THM problems are persistent. Chlorine dioxide must, like ozone, be generated on site and applied immedi ately after generation to the treatment process to limit by-products of the natu ral degradation of the chemical. Chlo rine dioxide degrades through reduction to chlorite and chlorate. Some studies

have correlated the ratio of degradation to 70% chlorite and 30% chlorate, al

though most actual applications demon strate almost all chlorine dioxide being reduced to chlorite alone.

Chlorine dioxide can be produced by using a number of controlled chemical reactions involving source products of sodium chlorite, hydrochloric acid, and,

A Cost Effective

Solution for Enhancing Ciearwell Efficiency

in some cases, additional chlorine. If

THM formation is an issue, it is impor tant to realize that reactions that require additional chlorine to enhance the reac

tion may also contribute to the THM for mation potential of the water as excess chlorine will pass through the reaction.


Chlorine dioxide does not substitute

itself during oxidation of organic mate Our high strength NSF61 certified baffle

rial and as a result does not for THM or

curtains provide a cost effective solution to increasing contact time inside new

HAA. This is an important factor as many systems that have a high chlorine demand as a result of high organic load ing can benefitfrom the addition of chlo rine dioxide for THM prevention. Chlo rine dioxide in drinking water applica tions is typically fed at low concentra tions,0.5 to 1.5 ppm,so by-product for mation is usually not an issue. Addi

or existing clearwells. By directing the

flow along a lengthened path through the system, our curtains can enhance

the efficiency of the water treatment process.

tion of chlorine dioxide is similar to the

We have a full range of fixed and floating

addition of chlorine; no additional con

baffle curtain products and designs available.

tact or mixing equipment is required and Full in-house design support

the technology, as a result, is easily im plemented into systems already using



Our baffle curtains can be

Chlorine dioxide is used by munici palities for THM reduction, and taste and odour control. Typically, taste and

Custom sizes to fit your project

Our baffle curtains can be custom fabricated

to meet your specific project requirements,and we offer full in-house design and installation

anchored to concrete by using industry standard mechanical anchorage methods or attached to steel cable using our proprietary EC 102 cable

services to assist you with your project. For more information, visit our web site or

connection hardware

contact us today!

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uuww.geomembranes.com 32

For more information, oircie repiy card No. 120 (See page 25)

odour concerns occur in water that has

a high DBPFP and the technology can be used to eliminate both problems. Ultraviolet Disinfection

One technology attracting a lot of attention lately is Ultraviolet Disinfec tion. This technology uses a specific wavelength of light to alter the DNA of bacteria and viruses, making it impos sible for them to replicate. Initial stud ies on UV had indicated that only high doses would result in adequate removal

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Drinking Water Disinfection efficiencies for protozoans. New meth odologies that assess the effect of UV on the protozoans have indicated that true inactivation occurs with doses that

make the technology practical for appli cation to drinking water treatment. The more popular forms of UV tech nology apply a mercury vapour bulb that will transmit the required frequency of ultraviolet light for germicidal effective ness. Systems are desciibed as being Low Pressure, Low Pressure High Out put and Medium Pressure. The descrip tion refers to the vapour pressure of the mercury in the lamp itself and not the applied system water pressure. Low pressure systems have an advan tage for small systems as the majority

been guaranteed through independent testing. This testing provides a stand ard for manufacturers to abide by when selecting equipment for applications where disinfection is required. Dose recommendations are being formulated based on studies correlating dose of UV radiation to removal efficiency of micro biological contaminants. UV,as mentioned,can be feasible for

the removal of many of the microbio logical problems that exist in water. UV disinfection does not provide residual disinfection in the water distribution network so additional chlorination will

be required prior to the water leaving the treatment plant. This implies a multi-barrier treatment technology that

Recent consumer concerns and their perception of

the drinking water treatment industry, have created an additional level of prudence that must be upheld by engineers and operators alike. of the power supplied to the lamp is emitted at the germicidal wavelength. The bulbs also perform at much lower operating temperatures so scaling is not as rapid as with hotter medium pressure bulbs. The main drawback is that the

bulbs can accommodate only low power sources; as a result, many bulbs must be used to handle larger flows. The medium pressure bulbs can han dle a lot more power, so one medium pressure bulb can be used to treat high flows of water. The medium pressure bulb emits many wavelengths resulting in a lower input power to germicidal power ratio than the low pressure bulbs. These bulbs also operate at much higher temperatures,(800°C) and typically re quire automatic cleaning devices as scal ing occurs very quickly at these tem peratures.

Many guidelines are being estab

can enhance the effectiveness of UV

alone as it is typically not as effective against viral removal as traditional chlo

When you're a monster, you'll eat anything.


Consideration must be given to the quality of the water entering the UV system. Turbidity and the transmission

JWC's Muffin Monster grinder prevents clogging, reduces maintenance costs

of UV in the water should be assessed to determine whether or not UV is the

and protects valu able downstream

best available technology. Transmission greatly affects the overall flow capacity of the UV disinfection system. Slight decreases in the transmission rating can result in large decreases in the maximum flow capacity of the generator when re quired to provide a certain minimum

equipment. It's the very best way to solve tough solids problems and keep your entire system flowing freely.

dose of radiation.

Don't let solids

Because of the risks associated with

make a meal out

microbiological contamination and the relative risk with disinfection by-pro ducts, it is important to have a finely tuned water treatment process that can

of your valuable equipment. Get a solids reduction

lished for the use of UV disinfection

accommodate these. Recent consumer

solution with

systems. The guidelines are expected to provide for reactor certification by the manufacturers of the equipment and a specific dose for the required removal efficiency of microbiological contami

concerns and their perception of the drinking water treatment industry, have created an additional level of prudence that must be upheld by engineers and operators alike. Alternatives must be

some teeth.


considered, that will result in a better

Reactor validation is an important consideration. This will allow the user to realize the limitations of the technol

ogy based on water quality and flow through the reactor by demonstrating that a certain dose of UV radiation has

quality product both from an aesthetic and a health-related perspective, as well as a better overall product from the per spective of the consumer. For more information, ciroie repiy card No. 121

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Contact us today for complete information.

Environmental 290 Paularino Avenue

Costa Mesa OA 92626, USA engineered Tel: 800-331-2277 www.jwce.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 122

Oil Spills

Technology cottons on to oil spill clean-ups

Exxon Valdez has become a

synonym for a massive oil spill but it also triggered the idea of a remediation process to mop up spills. The goal was to de velop an absorbent that was both biode gradable and suitable for incineration. Many natural substances were tested, including sugar cane, corn cobs, peat

will not leach contaminants as it encap sulates oil instead of water. Ammonium

sulphate, an effective delayed-reaction nitrogen source, renders the absorbed hydrocarbon less flammable.

moss and cotton.

The end result was a chemically modified plant fibre that contains all the ingredients (10 parts nitrogen, one part phosphorus and sulphur) to encourage biodegradation of hydrocarbons by in digenous bacteria. The resulting bacte ria are safe for humans and animals and

environmentally benign. Petrophyllic bacteria multiply when activated by air and moisture, and utilize hydrocarbons as a food source. With optimal condi tions of 30% moisture, degradation of 40% per month can be expected. Critical to the effectiveness of Oil

Gator,is its encapsulating feature. Faced with a rainstorm or flood, the sorbent

Now approved by the US EPA's Superfund Innovative Technologies and Evaluation program, Oil Gator is pro moted by the US Department of Agri culture's Alternative Agricultural Re search and Commercialization Corpo ration. The cotton-based raw material is

readily available in Mississippi, re nowned for the quality of its cotton. While peat or clay require mining and stripping, cotton is an easily obtained

renewable material. The product can be incinerated (with 7,000 BTU, resulting in less than 3% ash) and it is 100% bio degradable. Acid Gator''''^' is a customized version

of Oil Gator, specifically designed to allow safer handling and begin neutrali zation of most acid spills quickly and efficiently. A combination of vapour suppression and absorption allows for safer handling and disposal of acids. Acid Gator, which is approximately 15% soda ash, by weight,combined with an effective cellulose base, allows par tial neutralization of acids without splat tering. Once contained and neutralized, the mixture (acid -i- Acid Gator) can be

removed for disposal. The nature of the encapsulated acid is the decisive factor in determining disposal method. Users must always dispose of saturated Acid Gator in compliance with the appropri ate governmental regulations for the particular acids absorbed. For more information, circle reply card No. 123

WATER AND WASTEWATER SOLUTIONS Innovative. Practical. Sustainable. Professionals responsible for water treatment and supply, wastewater, and water resources face complex problems In a global community that's becoming Increasingly environmentally conscious. CH2M HILL Canada Limited has built its 80-year reputation as a water Industry leader by working with our clients to solve problems and exceed expectations. We've pioneered many of the technologies used to manage the availability, quality, and control of water-our most Important natural resource. Millions of Canadians are now served by water treatment facilities and supply Infrastructure designed or upgraded by our company. Sustainable development Is a concept we Incorporate Into all of our water resource management projects to ensure that water resources aren't compromised. Designed by CH2M HILL, Loyalist Township's new, fully automated Fairfield Water Treatment Plant combines ultraflltratlon and post-membrane



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activated carbon filters. These treatment


technologies produce drinking water that far surpasses current drinking water regulations, while reducing seasonal taste and odour events.





(416)499-9000 (519)579-3500 (403) 237-9300 (705) 722-8800 (905) 684-7425




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For more Information, circle reply card No. 124 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Stormwater Management

Application of concrete pipes for underground stormwater detention storage n a recent commercial develop ment in Vaughan, Ontario, con crete pipe was used to help satisfy the stormwater management objectives for the development by pro viding underground (in-pipe) storage to attenuate post-development runoff rates to the City's standard target release rate of 180 L/s/ha for storm events ranging up to the 1:100 year return period.


ing lot surface storage (13%) and un derground,or in-pipe, storage(64%). A conceptual design of the detention sys tem is provided in Figure 1. The final design helped to reduce overall project costs by balancing the cost of retaining walls with that of increased pipe sizes. Furthermore,the final appearance of the

its of the design. Additionally, the City endorsed the use of concrete pipe for this application over other materials.

site is more attractive in that it blends in

flooding on the surface.

In addition to the financial and aes thetic benefits that accrued as a result

of the final design, the use of the under ground concrete pipes for storage also minimizes the amount of "nuisance"


ifi.i nn

The 1.4 ha site, located at

the southeast comer of Highway #7 and Woodstream Boulevard,is to be occupied by Shoppers Drug Mart and a Tim Hortons/Wendy's combination. It falls signifi cantly in a northeasterly di









1R0 nn TOP OF GftATE =161.95m -

ifii fin

1R1 so




rection and is constrained

topographically on the north, south and west property lim its, especially due to the ac cess points to Highway #7




inn .fin




CAPACI7Y = 7tl.1m"

\ \

^ 160.00

1S0ma OtiWETeR





and Woodstream Boulevard.


ifin .fin



isq nn

This condition does not eas

ily lend itself to surface stor age in a flat parking lot which is generally the pre ferred method of dealing







with stormwater detention.



23ton01AMETE<t /

Several alternative de

IS? fin T-

HOTTOSCA16 S signs were analyzed with respect to functionality, aes thetics and, most impor Figure 1. Conceptual design and operation of stormwater detention storage system. The site servicing contractor for this tantly, cost. As the proposed buildings well with the surrounding topography and has mild parking lot slopes. Also, project was Torcon Construction of are to have flat roofs, then rooftop stor Woodbridge, Ontario, who completed the buildings on the site will be set suf age was a common element of each al the installation of the underground stor ternative and, therefore, did not factor ficiently high which results in good vis ibility for passing traffic. age tanks in three days. Material quan into the decision-making process. In ad tities for the construction of the storm dition to rooftop storage, providing sur As can be seen in the figure, the un derground storage system was divided water holding tanks consisted of 55m face storage alone resulted in a gener ally unpleasant combination of steep into two separate storage zones, based 750mm, 115m - 900mm and 90m slopes and retaining walls (ranging up on topography. This enabled the upper 1,500mm reinforced concrete pipe. All to two metres in height). This scenario lengths of the storm sewer system to be the concrete pipes supplied to this installed at shallower depths,thus reduc project were complete with Super Seal was poor from an aesthetic and market ing construction costs. The division of self-lubricating gaskets. ing point of view for the users, who ob The reinforced concrete pipe and viously want to maximize the exposure the zones was accomplished with a 150 to the passing traffic on Highway #7. mm diameter orifice tube in addition to maintenance holes were supplied by Also,the cost of the retaining walls was the 250 mm diameter orifice tube at the Hanson Pipe & Products Canada Inc. downstream end of the site. Normally, (formerly Centennial Concrete Pipe & very high. the City of Vaughan requires that only a Products Inc.). The final design employed a combi nation of rooftop storage (23%), park- single control in the storm sewer sys

By Fabian Papa\ Harold Kroecker^ and Brian Steele^

tem be installed at the most downstream

point in the system; however. City staff accepted the proposal, given the site spe cific conditions and the technical mer-

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

^Valdor Engineering Inc., ^Hanson Pipe & Products Canada Inc. For more information,

circle reply card No. 125 35

Pulp & Paper Industry

Activated sludge yield reduction by the low sludge production process

Afive-month laboratory-scale study wasconducted

to evaluate the feasibility of the low sludge pro duction (LSP)process to treat effluent(of about 800 mg/L total COD) from the Eraser Papers (Nexfor) bleached hardwood Kraft pulp mill, located in Thurso, Quebec. The cost for dewatering and disposing of mixed sludges (consisting of mainly fibrous material from primary treat

ment and biological solids from secondary treatment)is typi cally one of the most significant elements for effluent treat ment (Kenny et ai, 2001). Sludge dewatering costs can increase at a given mill as the ratio of biological solids in the mixed sludge increases, i.e. as good fibre is better-re tained in the pulp and paper mill, and as incremental pro

Table 1 Periods of lab-scale experimentation Period



Experimental notes

(h) Startup 1



First start-up




Settler slow mixing added. Reference period




Wall growth problems




Addition of 4 mm plastic pearls into bacterial stage; poor settling of predatory biomass




Shorter HRTb

duction increases result in more effluent BOD^ load and

Startup 2



Second start-up

biological sludge production.




Stainless steel beaker for

bacterial reactor resulting in wall growth problems

One emerging technology alternative to address this is sue is the low sludge production (LSP) process.

The LSP process requires that a low hydraulic retention time bacterial stage without sludge recirculation be installed, favoring growth on rapidly biodegradable organic matter, typically located upstream of an activated sludge (or biofiltration) process which then acts as a predatory stage. This concept was first proposed and tested on pulp and pa per waste waters at the laboratory and pilot-scales with sludge production varying between 0.0Ig and 0.23g TSS/g COD removed depending on the wastewater treated and process operating conditions (Lee and Welander, 1996). Using a membrane bioreactor for biomass retention instead of an

Bacterial staga

Activated sludge/ predatory stage


(Sy^ râ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Final effluent




Glass beaker for bacterial reactor

Notes: HRTb:(hydraulic retention of the bacterial stage); na: (not applicable). Day 1 was September 1, 2000.

given to the potential for bulking sludge, higher nutrient discharge and higher aeration needs. Materials and methods

Primary effluent from the Eraser Papers (Nexfor) bleached hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Thurso was deliv ered every two weeks to Ecole Polytechnique, kept at 4°C in a cold room. Eorty litre subsamples were transferred as needed into a slowly mixed tank kept in a refrigerator for pumping(about 17 L/d)into the bioreactor set-up illustrated in Figure 1. Urea and polyphosphates, similar to the fullscale plant, were added as N and P sources respectively, but in excess to ensure that they would not be limiting for the laboratory-scale experiments. Acid addition (0.5N HCl) ensured that the predatory stage pH would not exceed 8.0. A sludge recycle ratio of about 100% was used. The differ ent periods of experimentation (starting September 1,2000) are summarized in Table 1.

Figure 1. Set-up of the lab-scale LSP unit. The influent was fed directly to the predatory stage to reflect activated sludge treatment conditions.

Operational challenges with the lab-scale unit included preventing sludge accumulation in the settler, a condition met by adding a slow speed (1 rpm) sidewall wiper. Wall growth of higher organisms in the bacterial stage needed to be prevented, a concern that is not expected to be signifi cant at full scale due to the much lower wall surface to vol

ume ratio. The addition of about fifteen 4 mm plastic beads

activated sludge process for the predatory stage, Ghyoot and Verstraete (2000) reduced the sludge production even fur ther by another 20% to 30%. A critical review of the poten tial of this process for the pulp and paper industry (Stuart et ai, 1999) highlighted the potential benefits of such a proc ess while indicating that proper consideration should be

viding a hydraulic water break for the influent line. All tubing and the bacterial stage glass beaker (stainless steel

By Yves Comeau\ Britta Petersen\ Paul Stuart^, Michel Perrier^ Sylvie Grafts Claude Asselin^

tested less than one week due to excessive wall growth) was changed and cleaned every two weeks. Grab sampling was used for the influent, the bacterial


per litre efficiently prevented the development of slimy and threadlike sludge filaments. Backtlow contamination of the refrigerated influent res ervoir by the bacterial stage biomass was prevented by pro

stage effluent(mixed liquor), and the predatory stage mixed Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Pulp & Paper Industry Table 2. Main experimental results avg + std) Parameter







The first LSP modes of operation, LSPl to LSP4, gave comparable results to those obtained during the LSP5 pe riod for which an intermediate (3 h) bacterial HRTb was

Influent COD total



771 ±101

GOD filtered


756 + 142

632 ±75

BODj total


398 ±40

325 ±56



51 ±18

58 ±52




(Incl. urea)

mg N/L




mg N/L

0.10 ±0.08

0.27 ±0.22


used. Results are summarized in Table 2.

The raw mill effluent used for the experiments was about 800 mg/L total COD and 700 mg/L filtered COD,and hav ing a typical total COD to BOD ratio of over two. Account ing for the uncertainty in the measured data, the final efflu ent quality from the conventional activated sludge process was about the same as for the LSP process. Across the bacterial stage, the total COD remained es sentially unchanged; however, filtered COD was removed

by about 50% indicating that organic material was adsorbing onto the biomass but that very little was metabolized.

TP (Incl. polyphosph.)

mg P/L




mg P/L


0.27 ±0.22

Significantly more nutrient was added for the LSP oper ating mode than during the reference activated sludge oper ating mode. Considering the higher nutrient addition and lower sludge yield with the LSP process, one might expect

30 ±1

significantly more nutrient concentration would have been

Bacterial stage Temperature




mg Oj/L

COD total


COD filtered













300 ±57 224 ± 96

process at the mill.

763 ±297


Predatory stage Recycle ratio (Qr/Qi)






30 ±1

30 ±1

7.7 ±0.1

7.7 ±0.1

Settling quality, as measured by sludge volume index (SVI), was apparently improved for the LSP operating mode Continued overleaf


mg O2/L





1660 ±280

870 ±320






311 ±170


Final effluent COD total


239 ±76


COD filtered


190 ±35

174 ±29

BODj total


7.4 ±0.6




23 ±14



measured in the treated effluent. This was the case for ni

trogen nutrient, especially nitrate, but surprisingly was not the case for phosphorus nutrient. Nutrient control will be a critical parameter for the full-scale installation, and is to be investigated in the next (pilot-scale) investigation of the


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mg N/L


6.1 ±3.0


mg N/L

0.30 ±0.33

0.53 ±0.75

mg N/L

12.3 ±3.9

22.3 ±6.1


mg P/L

6.0 ±1.5

4.9 ±1.3


mg P/L


4.1 ±0.7

Davis Controls' Tel: 905-829-2000 Fax: 905-829-2630 www.davlscontrols.com

liquor. The final effluent was a composite sample. Filtra tion was done using standard 0.45 |J.m filters. Sludge age calculations account for both waste and effluent solids.

Flowmeters up to 160

Analytical Meters

The sludge age was calculated by taking into account all the biomass in the reactors and settler, and the wasted plus effluent solids loss. The observed sludge yield was calcu lated as the suspended solids produced by the process(wasted and lost in effluent) divided by the total COD removed. Analytical determinations were done according to APHA,


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Simple to install and easy to

• Less sludge production • Dramatically reduced energy

• improves plant productivity • Reduces chemical consumption • Offers substantial savings



AWWA,WEF (1998). Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

For more information, circle reply card No. 126 (See page 25)

Pulp & Paper Industry

expected that the sludge yield could be further reduced with

Table 3 Calculated process performance Parameter







Sludge age





Removal COD total





BODj total





Sludge yield

gss/ gCOD



0.13± 0.05

process optimization. Conclusion

The lab-scale feasibility testing of the LSP process gave

promising results with about 50% sludge yield reduction while maintaining a well-settling sludge.

The implications of reduced sludge yield for improve ments in sludge dewatering final dryness and especially re ductions in polymer usage in sludge dewatering are signifi cant.

It was found that correct sizing of the bacterial stage was

in comparison with the reference activated sludge mode of operation, an observation contrary to those of previous stud ies related to the LSP process (Lee and Welander, 1996). Process performance data for the full-scale treatment plant, the corresponding laboratory 'reference period', and tbe laboratory 'LSP period' are summarized in Table 3. For both laboratory operating conditions, very good COD

(about 70%) and BODj removal efficiencies (over 95%) were obtained, which were comparable to those of the fullscale plant.

The key difference between the two operating conditions was in the sludge yield, which was about 50% lower for the LSP process compared to the reference activated sludge process. The observed yield of 0.13 kg biosolids produced per kg COD removed is significantly greater than in other laboratory units (Lee and Welander, 1996) and in a fullscale system operated in Norway (Stuart et ciL, 1999). It is

not obvious a priori and was critical for good operation of the LSP process. Further mill-based testing at the pilot scale is necessary to explore nutrient control prior to considering implementation of the process at the full-scale. Acknowledgements The technical assistance of Denis Bouchard and Marcel Dugai

of Ecole Poiytechnique, and of the plant operators at the Thurso mill is acknowledged. The authors also thank Jon Sointio of New Technologies (Queensbury, NY) and Thomas Welander of ANOX Technologies(Lund,Sweden)for their fechnical advice. This project was funded by Nexfor Technologies, References available upon request.

'Department of civil, geological and mining engineering, Ecole Poiytechnique, Montreal, QC.

-Department ofchemical engineering, Ecole Poiytechnique, Montreal, QC.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 127 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Wastewater Treatment

An innovative way to treat acidic wastewater pH levels are controlled by natural and safe media

Industrial wastewater with a low pH is acidic waste-

water, a common problem for many industries. In creasingly stringent environmental regulations require that pH, among other contaminants, be controlled to certain levels before they are discharged to a natural body of water or municipal sewer system. Unlike contaminants that can be surcharged, such as Biochemical Oxygen De mand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), or solvent extractable matter of animal or vegetable origin (grease and oil), pH cannot be surcharged, and,therefore, must be treated before it is released.

The ranges in acceptable pH discharge levels are usually from 5.5 to 10.5, but the actual levels are given in each re gion or city sewer discharge by-law. For example, the Region of Peel, Ontario, by-law for discharges to sanitary sewers gives the pH limit range as 5.5 to 9.5. Any corpora tion that is found to have pH discharge levels below 5.5 or

above 9.5 can be charged $50,000 for the first offence, and $100,000 for any subsequent conviction. The treatment of acidic wastewater has traditionally been done with multiple large collection tanks, mixers, injectors, pH controllers, and the addition of one of many caustic chemicals. This traditional system, though effective, has many problems associated with its use, including size of equipment,large footprint,complicated PLC configurations, maintenance issues, probe calibration, employee time, and the need for and storage of hazardous caustic chemicals. A new technology has been developed to treat acidic wastewater that combats the problems associated with cur rent treatment systems. Known as PHIX, it is designed to treat acidic wastewater in process and/or prior to discharge into a water body or municipal sewer system. The pH is effectively and efficiently adjusted to within by-law limits, or specific levels if required, resulting in by-law compliant sewer discharges. The PHIX System is unique in many ways, including its flow-through design, small footprint, low maintenance, no requirement of control devices, and its environmentally friendly, self-regulating PHIX Media. The system has been designed to allow better control over the effluent pH,and to Neutralizing Media Consumption In Sulphuric Acid

The PHIX acidic wastewater treatment system as set up at the Green Turtle Technologies R&D facilities. do so with the use of an all-natural and safe media that elimi

nates the need for special storage or handling required by traditional caustic chemicals.

The operation of the PHIX System and Media is unique and innovative. They have been designed to work together as a flow-through system where the wastewater enters through an inlet connection at the bottom of the specially designed vertical cone-shaped reactor column. Upon en tering the column, the wastewater makes contact with the PHIX Media, creating a fluidized bed. When the wastewater reaches the top of the reactor column, its pH has been ad justed to within the required range or value, and it is ready to be discharged. This media has been designed to have a higher neutraliz ing capacity compared to traditional caustic chemicals, with out the inherent problems. Some of the traditional chemi cals now used include soda ash, lime, and caustic soda, all

= 2000.000

1600.000 OPHIX Media

very effective, but they are also considered hazardous chemi cals and require special storage and handling. As a point of reference the following is a chart that compares consump tion levels, or efficiency of the traditional caustic medias to

Caustic Sods

â&#x2013;ĄSoda Aah â&#x2013;Ą Lima

ÂŁ 1000.000






By Paul Chappie, Green Turtle Technologies Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

PHIX Media.

This technology represents the next generation of wastewater treatment solutions. Companies that have never had the ability to safely and effectively treat acidic wastewater flows can now do so simply and with confidence. For com panies currently treating acidic wastewater with traditional technologies, PHIX makes retrofitting inexpensive, show ing payoff periods of less then two years based on lower operating costs.

For more information, circle reply card No. 128 39

.etters and E-mails

Dear Tom, Loved your article on Washroom Hygiene and the article on Dr. Patrick Moore, ex-of Greenpeace. Patrick is a wonderful intellect, whom I have had the

pleasure of working with many times over the past. His mantra - focus on real problems, not phantom problems is something that ES&E has been doing in a practical way for quite some time. Congrats, Veso Sobot, IPEX Dear Sir, Re: ES&E, March 2002 Issut,"Successful use ofozone for drinking water treatment in Windsor, Ontario" Further to the above article, the author states that "ozone is

superior to other disinfectants for the inactivation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and, in fact, for the latter patho gen, no other disinfectant can be used at dosages and con tact times typically practised in water plants..." We have the highest respect for both your magazine and certainly the author of this article. Dr. Saad Jasim, but need to point out that although this statement in general is true for chlorine and chloramines, it is not particularly accurate

is shown that under certain conditions, chlorine dioxide can

be less expensive than ozone for the same log inactivation. Chlorine dioxide is "in the toolbox".

Gerald Cowley, Marketing Director, Sterling Pulp Chemicals, Toronto Dear Tom, Re: ES&E, May 2002 Issue, Biith of Greenpeace reviewed at 2002 WEAO Conference" I was pleased to see your report on Patrick Moore's presen

tation on the merits of the application of science and con sensus building to the solution of environmental issues, rather than the confrontational approaches of Greenpeace like organizations and some companies with Victorian men talities. I was lucky enough to have breakfast with Patrick just before a similar presentation for a pulp and paper in dustry conference, and found him fascinating. His approach is having some success in the pulp and paper industry's organochlorine issues, and helped persuade the Provinces of BC and Ontario to reconsider the "zero AOX

by 2002 rule". Have a look at: www.aoxpanel.ca if you are

as far as chlorine dioxide is concerned. Chlorine dioxide is


very effective in inactivating Giardia, albeit not as rapid as ozone, and it can be used in most water plants for inactivat ing Cryptosporidium, contrary to the author's statement. We refer you to the EPA guidance manual Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants (EPA 815-R-99-014), section 4, and particularly, figure 4-5 for inactivation of Giardia and figures 4-7 and 4-8 for Cryptosporidium. See also the paper by Dean Gregory(WQTC San Diego 1998) where it

Pity the general media give so little coverage to Patrick, and other consensus building efforts. They paid none to the results of our AOX panel report, but gave the enviro groups some time to kick at it before it was even published. I enjoy your magazine, even though its focus is not on the pulp and paper field where I work. Neil McCubbin,P.Eng., Quebec Congratulations, Tom! I still receive correspondence from AWWA, and was de lighted to see in a recent mailing that you have been named to receive the AWWA Award of Merit at the annual confer

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N.B. Steven Bonk, P.Eng., was the 6th Canadian President of the AWWA which began in 1871. Dear Tom, Re: AWWA Award

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air stripping towers, membrane technology and more.

Your outspoken words in print and in presentations on wa ter subjects, the environment and all other issues related to environmental engineering, make you stand out as some thing special in our industry. Congratulations are indeed merited. Bob Goodings, Past Chair, Ontario Society of Professional Engineers Dear Tom,

Congratulations on your latest award from your peers for your outstanding journalism in defence of the environment in general and our drinking water in particular. What a magnificent record of accomplishment you have built up. Mike Walker, Director, Executive Director, The Eraser Institute, Vancouver

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Dear Steve, The 10th Canadian National Conference and 1st Policy Forum on Drinking Water in Halifax, Nova Scotia, was a great success. There was a record breaking number in at tendance -just over 350 delegates in all.

Your contribution meant a great deal to us. CWWA hopes that we can count again on your support in sponsoring fu ture events.

Ronald Patterson, CWWA President

For more information, circie repiy card No. 129 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002


'Down Under'sludge monitoring reduces costs and improves efficiency

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Brisbane Water in Brisbane, Austraiia, reduced maintenance costs and improved efficiency by using the InterRanger DPS 300 to monitor siudge ievels.

Monitoring sludge levels in

clarifiers is an important part of any efficient opera

tion of wastewater treat

ment plants, but accurate measurement has traditionally been a challenge. In

keeps sludge levels at their optimum levels in the final settling tanks. In November 2000, they installed InterRangers on the two thickened waste activated sludge tanks to monitor level and communicate the information to a

Combined Culvert and Pond Analyzer

Brisbane, Australia, Brisbane Water

Siemens PEG. The PEC then controls

sought a better solution for its Gibson Island wastewater treatment plant. The plant used infra-red optical sensors to detect sludge levels in each of its six fi nal settling tanks and two thickening tanks. Three sensors were needed per tank for a range of measurement points. Sensors were expensive at(AU)$2,500 each and needed replacing every 12 months. Plant management wanted a more reliable, cost-effective approach. In 1998, the plant installed a Milltronics InterRanger DPS 300 inter face detection system on a trial basis on one of its final settling tanks. The sys tem uses ultrasonic technology with

the sludge pumps based on sludge level, balance tank level and belt press opera tion. These are all used in concert to dry and treat the sludge before removal. The plant's rotating-bridge clarifier design made it difficult to connect the 4-20mA signal into the SCADA system. Brisbane Water used radio telemetry, a very cost-effective solution as all eight

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mounted just below the liquid surface. The sensor does not contact the sludge, and can be submerged for extended pe riods of time without fouling or mainte

duced maintenance costs by thousands of dollars in the first year.

checking of sludge levels, freeing op

nance. It never interferes with the rakes

erators' time for other tasks. If a final

in the bottom of the clarifier.

settling tank must be taken offline for maintenance, operators can easily deter mine which tanks have capacity to han dle the diverted flows. By checking sludge levels in the final settling tanks each morning, operators can inform the sludge-removal contractor how many trailers will be required for sludge re moval that day. Circle reply card No. 130

After a successful trial, Brisbane

Water installed InterRangers on each of the five remaining settling tanks, feed ing the signal to the SCADA system for easy monitoring. When sludge levels reach a certain height, InterRanger au tomatically increases pump speeds, moving more sludge to the contact tank where it is mixed with influent. This


transmitters can communicate with a

single receiver. Benefits

"Using InterRanger DPS 300 sys tems on all the sludge settling tanks made level monitoring easy and im proved efficiency," said Michael Benfer,

It eliminated the need for manual

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Urban Stormwater Design and Analysis Design and analyze drainage systems using up to 7 retum pericxls with the Rational formula Predict an accurate HGL and analyze inlets using HEC-12, rating curve or max. capture

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Water Quality Reporting

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t^favort«< yjjHaofy| 1^- wt jQ -• 1^

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Sampling and testing ofdrinking water haslong been nisos i News I .Ahool Us | Privacy Policy j Tctmj of Scnicc I Jobs j FAQ t Info

the final step in ensuring the quality of drinking water supplied to a community. Despite sometimesexcellent source water quality, and despite the technologies employed to treat water, there are many risks that make it prudent for purveyors and public health officials to ensure that water is safe to consume at the point of use. As just one of the many levels in the integrated multibarrier approach to drinking water safety, sampling is a means to an end. The results from each and every test must be screened against applicable standards and appropriate actions taken, if the test of due diligence is to hold. It is not acceptable merely to compile stacks of paper reports; the meaning of incoming test results must be continually as sessed.

In the wake of recent drinking water tragedies, the regu latory environment in Canada has been tightened up in some jurisdictions to impose minimum sampling and reporting schedules on waterworks. These enshrine what were previ ously water quality guidelines as enforceable water quality standards, and strive to improve the accuracy and timeli ness of drinking water information. In addition, many or ganizations with responsibility for delivering water and/or ensuring its safety, are adopting more rigorous sampling and reporting programs,even where regulations may not strictly apply. There is a growing recognition that sampling pro grams may be a key factor in due diligence for a wide range of organizations that own, operate, or oversee drinking wa ter supply systems. The impact of stepped-up sampling programs(more sam ples, more parameters, more often) and new sampling programs on purveyors and agencies can be significant. The in dustry norm for laboratory reporting is paper-based, and measurements taken by water system operators are most often recorded on paper log sheets. A lot of staff time is required to receive, screen,

organize, and archive this information. For example, some very small municipalities in Ontario are considering hiring an additional staff member simply to manage water quality data as a result of O. Reg. 459/00. An additional outcome of the increased generation of drinking water information is an increased need to report on it. For example, in Ontario, purveyors must produce a quarterly report that summarizes all testing done during the period. In the US, purveyors must produce consumer con fidence reports that similarly summarize a year's worth of testing, and identify any violations of drinking water stand ards. The efforts to compile these reports can be signifi cant, and generally require that every lab test report and a great number of operational logs be entered into word proc essors, spreadsheets, or database software so that summary analysis and report preparation can be done. The general trends in regulatory requirements and best practice for water systems include: • More operational testing for performance monitoring (i.e. chlorine residual and turbidity at entry points to the distri bution system); • More treated water quality testing (i.e. microbiological and chlorine residual testing in the distribution system); • Well-defined adverse result notification protocols, which requires immediate screening of all test results; • More reporting to regulators and the public; • Requirements to archive information, typically for five years or more; and, • Improved responsiveness to stakeholders and the public through reporting and access to information requests. To make this happen without unduly taxing the time of water professionals, electronic data management systems are becoming a necessity.

Information management systems for drinking water The need for water quality information management sys tems is not only an outcome of stepped up regulations, the regulations are, in part, a response to a demonstrated defi ciency in information management. The Walkerton trag edy itself was partially influenced by poor data manage ment and the inability of those who needed information to get it. While the lead-up causes of the Walkerton contamina-




1 Vancouver



\: \

2 Vicloria District Office



3 Nanaimo

4 Campbell River












I Vancouver



5 Prince Rupert






8 MerrlH 9 Kelowna


10 Kamloops








II Salmon Arm

« '

. ....9,^ I

Cet^ ■»


By Christopher Baisley, P.Eng.,

12 Williams Lake



13 Prince George District Office

WaterTrax Inc., Vancouver 42

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Water Quality Reporting tion were many, it is worth noting that even after laboratory tests revealed that E. coli 0157:H7 was present in the water system, health officials and the Ontario Ministry of Environment had no access to this information and conse

quently were not able to formulate the best response. It is likely that the 'boil

on-hand for access-to-information pur poses; and, • Making reporting faster and easier. Such systems would require central data repositories with simple wide-area access tools that could be accessed by a wide range of potential users and data sources. These needs are well aligned

water' order would have been issued

with the inherent characteristics of the

three or even four days earlier if better information management systems had been in place. A recent well-publicized incident in British Columbia exposed similar infor mation management problems. In this case, water testing conducted on the small community of Burton's water sys tem revealed the presence of fecal coliforms, but the positive test results were held up for 11 days in a health of ficial's inbox before they were screened and the community notified of the con


Internet Application Service Provid ers(ASPs)offer a wide range of on-line services, includina drinking water infor

mation management applications that can assist water purveyors and regula tory/supervisory agencies meet opera tional, monitoring, due diligence and regulatory requirements. Since appli cation services can be implemented very quickly, and at lower cost and risk than traditionally procured information sys tems, they can play an important role in improving the management of drinking water data and protection ofpublic health. For more information, circle reply card No. 161

cowti we pjoOkt



Positive test results were held

up for 11 days in a health official's inbox before they were screened and the community notified of the contamination.

Recent reviews of industry practice have consistently recommended that the handling of water quality information be improved. The Walkerton Inquiry in Ontario, the North Battleford Water In

quiry in Saskatchewan, and the Drink ing Water Review Panel in British Co lumbia, have all made recommendations

for streamlined information manage ment, with the objective of improving access to information so that public health can be better protected. With the need for drinking water in formation systems established, what would such systems do? They would facilitate the new regulatory and best practice environment by; • Reducing the transcription and keyboarding of information from disparate systems and paper reports; • Reducing or eliminating the transfer of information on paper; • Making information available on de mand to all those with a legitimate need; • Leveraging the benefits of computer technology to screen incoming data and automatically alert on adverse results; • Organizing and consolidating data from multiple sources; • Safely archiving data and keeping it Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Reliability is important but it doesn't have to be expensive, Endress+Hauser's Waterpilot hydrostatic rope probe is absolutely watertight and reliable while providing continuous level measure ment in wells, water storage tanks and sewage treatment plants at a very cost-effective price. Ask us. 1-800-668-3199. www.ca.endress.com

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Stormwater Management

Fast-paced tunneling job stops flooding In mature Toronto area

A chronic flooding problem for residents along

Chilton Road in East York, Toronto, has been corrected with a 1,200 mm diameter reinforced

concrete storm sewer, installed by the jacking method. The new sewer is one of many ongoing projects by the City ofToronto to reduce surface and basement flood ing in various neighbourhoods of the city. Residents in some old neighbourhoods in the Borough of East York have en dured periodic flooding for decades.

The City ofToronto has been phasing in corrective meas ures for several years to mitigate the flooding. Historically, during wet weather conditions, stormwater was discharged along with sanitary sewage into combined sewers. Many of these old combined sewers were constructed over eighty years ago, and now have insufficient capacity to convey flows. Water that once was absorbed in open fields is now carried from rooftops of buildings then overland by paved surfaces. The combined stormwater and sewage causes flooding and overcharging of Toronto's wastewater treat ment plants. In some instances, the combined stormwater and wastewater flows directly into Lake Ontario causing beach closures and increased levels of pollution.

By Frank Mazza, Munro Concrete Products Ltd.

Access Handles

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Access Hatcties

Mature neighbourhood requiredjacking pit.

In East York, part of the solution to flooding is construc tion of trunk storm sewers to collect flows from local storm

Lifting Hooks

sewers and discharge effluent to East York's existing Leaside Liquid Level Regulator Holders

trunk storm sewer. The Chilton Road trunk storm sewer is

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part of Toronto's CSO management strategy. Chilton Road services an environmentally sensitive, and mature residential neighborhood. Installation of the trunk sewer by open cut method would have been extremely dis ruptive to the daily routines of the residents, and to the built

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activity that would cause traffic delays and road closures. The decision was taken by the City's Works and Emergency Technical Services Division to install the sewer by jacking reinforced concrete pipe below the road allowance. Alsi Contracting Ltd., of Maple, Ontario, was awarded the contract to install 440 metres of 1,200 mm diameterjack ing pipe. Because of the concerns of the residents, they were given only ninety working days to complete this project. To meet the tight construction schedule, Alsi de cided to tunnel from two locations, using two tunneling sub contractors.

The jacking operation was complicated because of an existing sanitary sewer located three to four metres above the crown of the new storm sewer, and silty soil that re sulted in wet jacking conditions. The soil in the area is saturated below three to five metres, to a depth of 6.5 me tres. The invert of the new trunk sewer is at 9 metres.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 162

(See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Stormwater Management Munro Concrete Products of Barrie, supplied the 1,200 mm diameter (100 D)jacking pipe. All pipes were manu factured with Swift Lift lifting devices and steel bands around the bells. Every 6th pipe was manufactured with 2inch diameter grout holes at 10 o'clock and at 2 o'clock po sitions on the barrel. These grout holes were required to feed bentonite around the barrel to lubricate the pipe as it was being jacked. The two tunneling contractors were Peran Tunnelling Ltd. and Jimmy Mack. Jimmy Mack was assigned two pushes

S.H NO.30-3

that started from a shaft at O'Connor Drive and Chilton Road,

running north for 129 metres and south for 129 metres. Peran was assigned a section that began at a shaft at Donlands Avenue and Chilton Road, pushing south for 182 metres. This construction technique, supervised by Lou Di San^a of Alsi, was quickly initiated despite encountering poor soil conditions when sinking one of the access shafts to install the jacking equipment. As the pipe was being jacked through the silty soil, water was pumped back to the shafts, along with the spoil, and removed. The two subcontractors managed to install an average of four pipes per day. The line and grade of the trunk sewer was guided by laser instrumentation, and a City survey crew checked the accuracy of the pushes every sec ond day. The City took responsibility for the geodetic con trol and line of the sewer.

With the new stormwater trunk sewer running the length of Chilton Road,residents now have the flooding relief they have been seeking for many years. For more information, circle reply card No. 164









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Ontario and Federal Air Quality

Ontario to adopt Canada-Wide Standard for emissions of dioxins and furans

Ontario hassigned the CanadaWide Standard (CWS) for

emissions of dioxins and furans from waste incinera

tors and also proposes adopting a CWS for iron and steel industries for these substances. The standard sets out emis

sion limits and implementation dead lines for these facilities and will apply as policy to applicants seeking Certifi cates of Approval. Application plans for existing facilities will be developed over

also endorsed the CWS for benzene

(Phase 2), building on Phase 1 activities by proposing a further6 kilotonne reduc tion for facilities addressed in Phase 1.

It also proposes minimizing emissions by application of best available pollution prevention and control techniques. On October 24, 2001, Ontario an

time. The CWS sets emission limits for

nounced a system of emission caps for the electricity sector and its plans to ex pand the system to major industrial emit ters such as the pulp and paper sector, cement and concrete, iron and steel, pe

modified electric arc

troleum refineries, chemicals and non-

furnaces of 100 pg

iron smelters. Caps for fossil fuel plants

ITEQ/m^. Existing

will reduce NO^ and SO,emissions by

furnaces will be lim

53% and 25% respectively. It is unclear if such reductions will be applied to other industry sectors at present. These caps will go hand-in-hand with an emission reduction trading system

ited to 150 pg ITEQ/ m^ by 2006, falling to 100 pg ITEQ/m' by 2010. Ontario has

By Franco Di-Giovanni, Ph.D., AirZOne Inc.

wherein emission credits can be claimed

by organizations and sold to others to offset excess emissions. Ontario busi

nesses will also be able to purchase cred its produced by emitters from suiTounding US states. Ontario intends to add other pollutants, primarily greenhouse gases, to the list of tradeable credits. Other Emission Reduction Plans

The Province will review regulations governing sulphur in fuel oil and coal with a view to expanding the areas of application (currently confined to To ronto) and reducing the allowable sul phur levels in these fuels. Also, propos als will be developed to accelerate im plementation of codes of practice to re duce volatile organic compound(VOC) emissions, as developed under the Ca nadian Council of Ministers of the En

vironment(CCME). Industry Actions for VOCs The Canadian Chemical Producers'

Association (CCPA) has renewed the Memorandum of Understanding on re ducing emissions of VOCs. Under the renewed Memorandum, Ontario and






For more information, circle reply card No. 165 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Ontario and Federal Air Quality Of particular note are efforts of

Alberta, as well as some NGOs have been

invited to participate. Ontario CCPA members are expected to achieve a 61% reduction in VOC emissions by 2002. Climate Change Activities The Province has released a report on "Air Quality and Climate Change" describing the co-benefits to climate change derived from air quality initia tives that also happen to impact emis sions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, the Province is now starting to track emissions of greenhouse gases through the recently enacted Regulation 127/01, "Emissions Monitoring and Reporting" (see previous Air Quality report in ES&E, January 2002 edition). Such gathering of emissions data will allow the Province to foitnulate possible plans to reduce GHG emissions. Many businesses in Ontario have registered with the Voluntary Challenge and Regis try(VCR),an initiative aimed at compil ing GHG emissions and voluntary reduc tion efforts since 1995. Among noted companies involved in this initiative are

McNeil Consumer Healthcare, a manu

facturer of pharmaceutical products in Guelph, Ontario. They have recently started a multi-phase project called Map ping Our Ecological Footprint - the Questfor Neutrality and Beyond. Cen tral to this project is the concept of off setting or reducing overall consumption

a) a phase out of old technology dry cleaning machines by 2002; b) the use of cleaning machines which consume less toxic solvent by 2002; c) a stewardship provision for solvent suppliers to collect contaminated waste and waste water from dry cleaners; and d) an option for dry cleaners to manage and treat their own contaminated waste.

On November 28, 2001, Federal Environment Minister David Anderson

announced the expansion of substances reported to the National Pollutant Re lease Inventory (NPRI) to add criteria air contaminants(CAC)for 2002 includ

by,for example, planting sufficient trees to offset their CO,emissions. This pro gram is aimed at going beyond compli ance to effectively neutralize all envi ronmental effects caused by the facility. Earlier,on August 28,2001, the Fed eral government announced proposed regulations to reduce the emissions of tetrachloroethylene (PERC) from dry cleaning operations, calling for:

Ontario Power Generation, Nortel Net

works, Noranda Inc., The Stelco Group, Sunoco, London Life Insurance Co. and General Motors of Canada Ltd.

Employees are easy to find

ing nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, particulate matter < 10 microns and < 2.5 microns and sulphur oxides. On December 19, the Federal gov ernment announced proposed new regu lations to reduce sulphur content in diesel fuel by 95%, or a reduction to 15 parts per million(ppm)from the present limit of 500 ppm. This will also allow advanced emission control technologies to be used in vehicles. The new limit

will come into effect June 1, 2006, for

producers and importers. Circle reply card No. 173

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For more Information, circle reply card No. 167 (See page 25)

Oil and Gas

Oil-focused energy policy takes toll on human health

Amid highly charged energy policies being debated

in the US Congress, a new report, published by

the Center for Health and the Global Environ

ment at Harvard Medical School, captures the

full spectrum of human health and environmental damages associated with our dependence on oil. Oil: A Lifecycle Analysis of Its Health and Environmental Impacts, is the first report to catalogue the dangers to people and ecosys tems from exploration, drilling, extraction, transport, refin ing and combustion. The report's release follows the defeat by Congress in March,of a measure to increase fuel efficiency in cars, and in the midst of a heated fight over drilling for new oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

According to the report, our dependence on oil is causing a full spectrum of health and environmental damages.

"Up to now, policy makers have largely ignored the full spectrum of harm to human health and environmental dam age posed by our continued over-dependence on fossil fu

ers in the oil and gas extraction processes are higher than

els like oil," said co-editor, Dr. Paul Epstein, of Harvard

deaths for workers from all other US industries combined.

Medical School's Center for Health and the Global Envi

Oil well workers risk injury and chronic disease from expo sure to chemicals such as cadmium, arsenic, cyanide, lead

ronment. "We present these findings with the strong hope that public health and safety will be studied further in order to understand the true costs of our use of oil."

Threats posed at each stage of the oil lifecycle include: Extraction. Occupationally-related fatalities among work-

and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Oil "Transport. Many leaks and spills occur in developing nations where pipeline and oil rig safety regulations are in adequately enforced, posing particularly high threats to lo cal environments and human communities.


Refining. Refinery workers' health is threatened through accidents and from cancer (leukemia), associated with ex

posure to petroleum by-products such as benzene. Again,

The Hycor® ROMAG Stormwater Screen is a fine bar screen designed specifically for combined sewer, sanitary sewer overflows and storm sewer outfalls. It is available in various

configurations, and can hancile flows from 219 to 4381+ L/s (5 to 100+ MGD.) The solids and floatables retained by the ROMAG are diverted to the wastewater treatment plant to eliminate solids handling at the screen site. The ROMAG is self-activating, self-cleaning, flexible, safe, automatic and energy efficient. It is an economical method of handling stormwater, and is ideal for remote locations. Parkson Canada 9045 C6te-de-Liesse Suite 201


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these threats are even greater in developing nations and poor communities where labour, safety, emissions standards, and environmental laws are lacking or weakly enforced. Combustion. Chemical and particulate air pollution are related to heart and lung disease (chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma), and premature death. Acid rain leaches lead, copper and aluminum into drinking water and climate change caused by excess carbon dioxide levels in the at mosphere is associated with more extreme weather events and the spread of infectious diseases. The report also describes various harmful impacts of the oil lifecycle on animals and ecosystems. Its authors hope their initial findings will also encourage Congress and the White House to take a new direction in energy policy. Contact: www.med.harvard.edu/chge/

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Agricultural Wastes

Cement industry studies agri-wastes pletion by the fall of 2002. Green Municipal Enabling Fund The FCM has been the national voice

of municipal governments since 1901. FCM membership includes Canada's largest cities, small urban communities, rural municipalities, and the 19 major provincial and territorial municipal as sociations. The Green Municipal Ena

bling Fund is a five-year, $25 million

The Cement Association of

Agriculture is a significant market for the cement and concrete industry in Canada.

Canada (CAC) is to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate a promising new integrated agricultural waste management solution.

The study will gauge the adaptability of European technology to North Ameri can agriculture standards. In Europe,the Integrated Waste Management Solution has proven to be economically viable as well as environmentally efficient. The study is made possible by fund ing from the Federation of Canadian Municipalities'(PCM)Green Municipal Enabling Fund(GMEF)and will be con ducted in partnership with Outlook Pork Ltd. and the County of Lethbridge, in

ing of manure, and reduce emission of methane and nitrous oxide in the form

of greenhouse gases. It incorporates wastewater treatment, and aerobic and

anaerobic digester systems. The system separates the waste into anaerobic ma terial, and liquids and solids. Treatment produces saf^e, clean and profitable re sources, including energy and fertilizer. The feasibility study is slated for com

fund that provides grants for energy au dits and feasibility studies. Its basic ob jective is to implement innovative tech nology and management approaches in municipal operations. To be approved,a proposal must demonstrate high levels of innovation, performance improvement and replication potential. Agriculture is a significant and stra tegic market for the cement and concrete industry in Canada, accounting for 4% of annual cement output. Concrete ac counts for more than 17%($76 million) of the total construction spending in curred on building products in the indus trial market.

Circle reply card No. 146

Effective Solutions for Potable Water, Wastewater,

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"Livestock waste management is an environmental issue that could have a

significant impact on the primary live lihood and economy of our municipal ity. With the support of the FCM in this initiative, the County of Lethbridge can participate in finding a lasting solution for managing both livestock and munici pal waste," says David Oseen,Reeve for the County of Lethbridge. Outlook Pork Ltd. President, Peter

Klok said that his company had been proactive in the search for new ways to manage livestock waste for some years. "We are strongly encouraged that this

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The environment pays for the fines temporally and spatially. Its quality and quantity can change rapidly and vary significantly, both during events and be tween consecutive events. Because of

these extremes, it can be difficult to manage.

In terms of managing quantity, the objective of reducing property and en

Many people fail to recog nize the fact that stormwater runoff is a resource

because it contributes to

local water bodies. Not only do these water bodies provide habitat for plants and animals, and recreational opportu nities for local residents, but they also

support our economy and the infrastruc ture of our society by supplying flows for water supply and dilution for sew age plant effluents. If stormwater is so valuable, why do we mismanage it like so many other resources? Stormwater is highly variable, both

vironmental damage is well defined, al though recent studies have demonstrated the need to focus on the hydrological aspects of quantity management to maintain baseflow and stream morphol ogy. Managing quality is equally,if not more challenging - many different de sign constraints exist. In areas where nutrients are prevalent and damaging to downstream water bod ies, their concentrations and loads may constrain local stormwater management designs. However, many parts of the world still utilize total suspended solids (TSS) as the suiTogate design constraint for all stormwater quality pollutants(TSS can refer to sediment as well as other par ticles including metals). Like water quality, TSS is a highly

variable pollutant that can be comprised of materials with different properties: •Different chemical properties-organic and inorganic materials, and • Different physical properties - parti cle sizes or particle size distributions (BSD), and material density. The PSD is a critical parameter in the design of any treatment facility. Proc ess engineers have long recognized that before proceeding with the design of many water treatment processes (e.g. water treatment plants, primary wastewater treatment facilities, raw water in

takes, etc.), they must specify the mini mum particle size that must be removed. For many of these projects, site-specific information about the quality of the water source and its PSD is available; this

is rarely the case for designers of munici pal stormwater treatment systems. In the absence of PSD information,

regulatory guidelines have been estab lished for designers to provide equality

By Todd Neff, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., Stormceptor Group

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between different developers and to pro vide adequate protection for the envi

Table 1: Design Particle Size Distribution for Stormwater Treatment Particle Size

ronment. The PSD in Table 1 is recom

mended by the United States Environ mental Protection Agency'(US EPA) and the Ontario Ministry of the Envi ronment- (MOE) for designing urban stormwater treatment facilities.

400 to 4,000

This PSD contains a significant por tion of fine material (diameter < 130 (j.m). Stormwater facilities must be de signed to remove these fine particles as well as the coarse particles to provide effective treatment. On a per unit mass basis, fine particles contribute the great est proportion of toxicants to the envi ronment. This is due to the particle hav ing a greater surface area to which toxi cants can adsorb, and also because of the

large contribution of fine particles from atmospheric deposition and vehicle wear. Numerous researchers have observed

high concentrations of toxicants in fine sediment in various field studies. In

Australia, Ball et al. (1988)', observed that most pollutants were found adsorbed to particles less than 70 pm in diameter. In an earlier study, Bradford (1977)', found that fine materials ac counted for only 6% of the total mass

Particle Type



Ontario MOE^

(% by Mass)

(% by Mass)


Medium Silt/Coarse Silt



20 to 60

Coarse Silt/Fine Sand



60 to 130

Fine Sand



130 to 400

Medium Sand



Coarse Sand/Fine Gravel



of solids, but over 60% of the trace met

als. Sartor and Boyd (1972)-\ found over 50% of the metals were adsorbed to par ticles less than 43 pm. Of the total solids collected, the fines

comprised only 5.9% by mass, but ac counted for approximately 30% of the nutrients, 75% of pesticides, and 50% of heavy metals. The results from these studies sug gest that stormwater treatment facilities must capture fine sediments to effec tively reduce toxicants in runoff. Some treatment methods that are currently in use are not capable of removing fine materials.

If we are going to treat stonnwater and the water bodies to which they contrib ute as a valuable resource, it is impera tive that engineers evaluate the ability of



'United States Environmental Protection

Agency, 1983. Results of the nationwide ur ban runoff program. Water Planning Division, US Environmental Protection Agency. ''Ontario Ministry of the Energy and Environ ment, 1994. Stormwater Management Prac tices, Planning and Design Manual. ''Ball, J.E., R. Jenks and D. Aubourg, 1998. An assessment of the availability of pollutant constituents on road surfaces. Sci of the Tot

Env 209 (1988):243-254. ■•Bradford, W.L., 1977. Urban stormwater

pollutant loadings: a statistical summary through 1972. J. of Water Pollut Control Fed 1977, 49:613-633, "Sartor, J.D. and G.B. Boyd, 1972. Water

pollution aspects of street surface contami nants. Report No. EPA-R2-72/081, US EPA.

For more information,

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R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited



treatment devices and/or design treatment facilities to remove fine particles.


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Pulp & Paper

Pulp mill regulation threatened, says BC Law Association

British Columbia's pulp mills regulations need to be streng

thened, not weakened, West Coast Environmental Law's

Acting Executive Director, Chris Rolfe, told a public session held by the BC gov ernment's Scientific Advisory Panel on the pulp mill regulation. The panel has issued its report on the regulation. As expected, it recommends against mov ing to a zero discharge standard for chlo rinated substances in BC.

Under current regulations,the stand ard was set to move to a zero AOX

standard(AOX is a measure of chlorin ated compounds in pulp mill effluent) later this year. Depending on how gov ernment reacts to the report, improve ments in pulp mill pollution could grind to a halt in BC.

The Advisory Panel noted that pulp mill pollution declined significantly af ter regulatory standards were set in the early nineties. According to the report, "the AOX annual average discharge rate from BC pulp mills was less than 0.5 kg Air Dried Tonnes (Adt) in 2000, com

pared to an AOX average of approxi mately 6.5/Adt in 1988." But the panel went on to conclude that there was "lit tle evidence available at this time to in

The Advisory Panel noted that pulp mill pollution declined significantly after regula tory standards were set In the early nineties. Photo - Tom Davey

"that pulp mill standards need to be strengthened, not weakened. We need to come up with regulations that man date world class pollution prevention standards and push mills towards closed loop processes. "The AOX report, along with others released by the government, raised se rious questions about the use of so-called 'scientific' advisory panels," said Rolfe.

won't be released until the government makes its decision. And when the sci

ence is clearly against their objectives, the government simply makes the deci sion they want. That is what happened with the fish farm expansion." Rolfe told the panel that because the report does not address the full range of concerns about pulp mill pollution. West Coast Environmental Law could not ac

dicate that further reduction [...] beyond that already achieved would result in any

"In this case, narrow terms of reference

cept its conclusion that the regulatory

led to what looks like a predetermined

standard should remain at the current

demonstrable environmental benefit."

conclusion. The zero AOX standard was

In his presentation on the report, Rolfe took the process to task for setting restric tive terms ofreference,failing to consider whether uncertainty around the environ mental impacts of AOX warranted pre cautionary action, and tacitly dismissing both goals of reducing the use of toxic substances and encouraging closed loop pulp mill processes. According to Rolfe, the narrow terms of reference meant that many issues were not addressed. The panel could not deal with problems such as the Port Mellon mill being one of Canada's larg

adopted because it would encourage mills to move toward closed loop sys tems, and because there are good rea sons for trying to eliminate organic chlo rine substances from the workplace and from the environment. But the panel felt those issues went beyond its terms of

level. "We are disappointed," Rolfe told the panel, "that the panel did not dis cuss the feasibility of closed loop proc esses,the advantages of toxic use reduc tion, or whether the precautionary prin ciple warranted elimination of chlorine from the bleach plant."

est sources of dioxin. To its credit, the

ommended that the government main

According to Rolfe, "there is also a need to ensure panels are balanced. This panel was made up oftwo engineers and a chemist. With no disrespect to the in dividuals on the panel, there was a need for a broader range of scientists - biolo gists and toxicologists in particular. And

tain the zero AOX standard while it en

panel did go beyond its terms of refer

there's a need to ensure that scientists

ence in one area. It found evidence that

threat to the marine environment, and

represent both environmentalists' con cerns and industry concerns. "In other cases,the government con

noted that a number of BC mills are not

trols the release of the so-called 'inde

following worldwide pollution preven tion practices. "This just goes to show," said Rolfe,

pendent advisory panel's report'. That's the case with the panel looking at the Offshore Oil Moratorium, whose report

black liquor pollution from mills is a


West Coast Environmental Law rec


gages in a comprehensive review of the pulp mill regulation-a review that takes into account all public concerns - and deals with air emissions, dioxin pollu tion, workplace health,closed loop proc esses, AOX and black liquor. Rolfe concluded: "West Coast is

proud of the dramatic improvement in pulp mill pollution in the last decade that would not have happened without us - but we cannot stop here." The report is available from the BC Ministry of Water,Land and Air Protec tion's web site at: www.aoxpanel.ca.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Site Remediation

Clean water could be fatal to this fish

The US Office of Naval Research (ONR)is studying

tolerates this environment. Ironically, mummichogs often die when transferred

how a small fish can thrive

to cleaner water. The ONR believes the

amid chronic pollution in a shallow, marshy area of Virginia's

mummichog may have adapted to the chronic pollution. The site of civilian and military ship building, shoreside commerce, and as sociated manufacturing and processing.

Elizabeth River.

So polluted is the site, that if the river bed is disturbed, oil bubbles up to form slicks on the water's surface. Incred

ibly, the river supports a thriving popu lation of a minnow-like fish known

as the mummichog. Often used as bait to catch larger fish, it is now teaching scientists about the effects of environmental con

taminants on ecosystems, and how long-term exposure to contaminants can affect populations offish or other organ isms. "We need to understand this better

before we even begin to think of how it might impact a clean-up," explained Dr. Linda Chrisey, ONR's program manager on the study. Normal fish taken from clean sites nearby cannot survive expo sure in the laboratory to the polluted conditions, but the resident mummichog

Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)

the Elizabeth River flowing into the Chesapeake Bay has been an industrial ized area for 300 years. At the research site, river sediments are contaminated

by creosote, pentachlorophenol and other chemicals used by a wood treat ment plant that operated nearby for most of the previous century. Creosote con tains some of the carcinogens found in

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cigarette smoke. Now designated as a US Superfund site, the clean-up of the region is ongo ing. Scientists want to know how the local mummichog has been able to adapt to the contamination. "How do they do it?" asked Dr. Chrisey. "These fish have apparently become acclimated to the contaminants, perhaps through altered expression of certain genes, and their progeny apparently inherit the ability to tolerate these condiJ tions, too. There's some very in; teresting science going on here." She is supporting Richard Di Giulio at Duke University to de termine which pollutants are causing which responses in the fish. Dr. Di Giulio says that the selective pressures on these fish are so great that their genomes have changed, and these changes seem to have been inherited by their offspring. The trade-off may be


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For more information, circle reply card No. 153 (See page 25)

Potable Water

Hilly terrain presents a chalienge for new Jamaican water project

Jamaica is the third largest island

in the Caribbean, being 144 miles long and 49 miles wide. Major

industries are based on tourism, jSHf

agriculture and Bauxite mining. While


Jamaica is famous for its music, beauti

ful beaehes,jungle and clear waterfalls, it is also very hilly and mountainous, which makes infrastructure develop ment such as water supply systems difficult.

In Jamaica, ITT Industries' Goulds

Pumps Vertical Turbine unit has sup plied both the pumps and expertise to bring running water for the first time to two communities. The project will ulti mately supply potable water for more than 29,000 persons in 13 communities; they will, however, be charged for the supplies. Prior to the implementation of this water project, the main supplies of

Jamaican Prime Minister, J.P. Patterson, inspects one of the pumps as it is inaugurated.

water for the communities in eastern

and the nearby Flanders Pond, a source subsequently abandoned. Since then,

deposited in a catchment tank. From there it was gravity-fed to a pumping

Westmoreland were a well at Withorn

water had to be trucked into the area and

station which distributed it into small

pipelines. This method of supply, how ever, was woefully inadequate and very expensive. In addition, water trucks often brought expensive water directly

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Vice President The successful candidate will bring extensive experience as a senior manager In an environmental affairs group from within a Canadian natural resources based company. You understand the environmental challenges that face our clients as well as having a solid business background. Drawing upon your Industry expe rience, you will be responsible for Identifying and developing opportunities for new services and Initiatives and aggressively growing our client base within our Industry consulting group. You are a leader that provides direction in a style that motivates staff, develops Individual strengths and encourages team participa tion. You have a proven track record of leading new Initiatives and achieving results. Strong skills in communication and goal setting along with a sensitivity to Individual and team dynamics will contribute to your success In this position. We provide an environment that Is professional, challenging, and rewarding. We enjoy our work and it shows. Further Information about ESG International Is available on our web site: www.esg.net. Please forward resumes In confidence

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to residents.

With full funding from the Jamaican government, the National Water Com mission of Jamaica began construction of the Darliston Water Supply System in 1998 as a major effort to improve the water supply in the parish and to betterserve communities such as Whithorn and Darliston.

Higher pressure needed for hilly terrain The products specified by the design engineering firm, Carib Engineei-ing, were to be all vertical turbines because

it was necessary to boost water oversteep hills and small mountains. The only practical pumps for this job were vertical turbines that produced more pressure than horizontal pumps, accord ing to Abe Hernandez of Goulds' Texas Turbine Pump Division. The engineer ing firm needed to specify a pump that took into account the total cost of own

ership. Because of the high cost of gen erating power on an island nation where most energy must be transported to the island, the energy efficiencies of the vertical turbine pumps were highly val ued by the Jamaican National Water Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Potable Water

to pay. Those at the lower rungs of the economic ladder will be entitled to run

ning water through monthly water ra tion cards. Water usage to all homeown ers and commercial users will be deter

mined through water meters, which will be installed with financing from the gov ernment. The overall plan is to charge enough from users in the area to main tain the system well into the future. According to a World Health Organi zation Study and UNICEF,the percent age of the rural population in Jamaica that has access to clean, potable water today is 59%. This contrasts with 81% in urban settings on the island. The Ja maican government has stated their sup port for a program that would supply There were many topographical chal lenges In this part of rural Jamaica that the turbine pumps had to overcome. Commission.

The system was fully remote control led, with no operators needed at each station. With computer monitoring, the system can sense the levels at each sta tion. When the water falls below a cer

tain level, the pumps turn on automati cally. The four pumps at each station are on 100% standby, with two differ ent pumps working each new cycle. This procedure will help extend the working life cycle of the pumps,and the soft start motors will help keep mainte

and Three Rivers to provide a more integrated water supply system. The project will serve an estimated 29,000 people. As a basis of comparison, only 800 people in the area were receiving water when the project started. In addition to the Darliston Water

Supply Scheme, several major water supply and wastewater projects are cur rently being undertaken in Jamaica. Taken together, these projects will rep

resent an expenditure of in excess of $5 billion.

J.R Patterson, the Prime Minister of

Jamaica, explained the value of water, saying: "While we vigorously pursue our ambitions with regards to universal water coverage,I urge citizens to under

universal access to water for all Jamai

stand that neither Jamaica's nor the

cans by 2005. The next phase of the Darliston Water Supply Scheme will involve the laying of distribution lines to other communities. The system will then join up with other systems at Whitehouse

world's supply of water is unlimited. Water is a precious commodity and most times we do not fully recognize its im portance until we are in short supply." For more information,

circle reply card No. 155

Paris has an artificial Whitewater river


nance costs down.

The water scheme will be self-sup-

porting with a payment system based on the ability of the individual consumer ESG



^ .


A "water stadium"in the north

west corner of the greater Paris area, is getting wet and

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 175

wild with a Whitewater sla lom course. The new stadium uses wa

ter diverted from the Cergy-Neuville ar tificial lake used for sailing and swim ming to create a 250 metre-long river. Four propeller-driven PLS 7121, 300 kW Flygt pumps lift up to 16 cubic metres of water per second to the top of the course, allowing gravity to push it through the winding course at speeds up to five metres per second. The speed

of the water can be controlled by the pumps, allowing for high-speed kayaking or slower-paced canoeing and rafting. Flygt was selected for the job based on its pumping expertise for Whitewater courses, most notably showcased at the recent Olympics in Sydney, Australia, and Barcelona, Spain. As in Sydney, Flygt France worked in partnership with engineers from EDF, who developed a system of moveable plastic obstacles that allow the river to take on different


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002


Environmental Trends

North American pollution shifts from air to land

Factories, electric utilities,


hazardous waste management

facilities and coal mines in the

United States and Canada gen erated almost 3.4 million metric tonnes

of toxic chemical waste in 1999,accord

ing to the annual report from the Com mission for Environmental Cooperation

t '.'i

of North America. The wastes included

269,000 tonnes of chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects or other re

productive problems. The report Taking Stock, is based on reports submitted to the national pollut ant release and transfer registers of Canada and the US by industry, and in cludes data on 210 chemical substances.

This year,the study also presents the first five-year analysis of pollution releases and management. The five year trend shows a slight overall change in the total of toxic chemicals generated,but big changes in how those pollutants are handled. The

Acres &



North American manufacturing sector's 25% (153,000 tonnes) reduction in re leases to air was offset by a 25%(33,000 tonnes) increase in on site releases to land and a 35%(58,000 tonnes)increase in off site releases, mostly to landfills.

Releases to lakes, rivers and streams

also increased during this period by 26% (24,000 tonnes). Out ofthe air, into the water and land emerges as a major trend from our fiveyear analysis," said Commission for

Acres & Associated Environmental Limited (A&A) is a multi-disciplinary consulting engineering firm which provides a full range of environmental and management services from our offices in Toronto and Niagara Falls. A&A is supported by a combined staff of more than 1,000 from its affili ated companies-Acres International Limited and Associated Engineer ing Group. Bill Chisholm, President of Acres & Associated Environmental Lim

ited (A&A) is pleased to announce the following key staff members who have recently joined our operations in the Toronto office. Stephen N. O'Brien, P.Eng., Manager - Water Division

Steve will be responsible for managing the Water Division. He holds undergraduate degrees in Environmental Science and Water Resources Engineering from the Universities of Toronto and

Guelph, respectively. In his 12 years in the consulting field, Steve has had extensive engineering design and project management experience on water and wastewater projects for mostly munici pal sector clients in Ontario. Steve has managed multi-disciplinary project teams from the environ mental assessment process through design, plant start-up and final commissioning. He has also participated in the planning and design of some large international water projects. Steve will work closely with Mike Hribljan, Vice President and Dennis Mutti, who will now assume the position of Senior Water Process Engineer. Wayne MoPhee, P.Eng.

Wayne will expand on A&A's existing expertise in Site Remediation and Brownfield Redevelop ment. He has 12 years experience in designing processes for the remediation of contaminated sites including the development of technologies for the cost-effective in-situ treatment of chlorin ated solvents, coal tar, wood-treating chemicals, explosives, and heavy metals. Wayne has a Masters Degree in Chemical Engineering and is completing his MBA. He has worked on numer ous Brownfield Redevelopment projects as project manager and peer reviewer where he has provided both technical and business risk management expertise.

The addition of Steve and Wayne is another step in A&A's ongoing growth strategy and will allow us to further reinforce the level of service that we provide to our clients. 56

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Environmental Trends

Environmental Cooperation (CEC)ex

North America's progress in reducing toxic releases

ecutive director Janine Eerretti. "North

America's progress in reducing toxic

to air must continue but it also must be matched

releases to air must continue but it also

by reductions in water and land releases.

must be matched by reductions in water and land releases."

The CEC is an international organi zation created by Canada, Mexico and

•Total releases for 1999 include 269,000

dian facilities were 1.7 times the US

tonnes of chemicals known to cause can

the United States under the North

average but this was down to 1.5 in 1999. Average amounts of chemicals sent to recycling by Canadian facilities in 1999 were 1.4 times the US average.

of the North American Eree Trade

cer, birth defects or other reproductive problems. • Release of all cancer causing chemi cals fell by just 3% between 1995 and 1999, compared to a 6% decrease for

creased in 1999 from the previous year.

Agreement(NAETA). The CEC report signals a general

all chemicals.

Just 4% of all waste transfers in the US

• More than 13,000 tonnes of ozone de

decrease in on site releases - chemicals

pleting chemicals were released from

went outside the country, and most of these were sent for recycling in Canada.

put into the air, water or otherwise dis posed of inside a facility's fence - and a corresponding increase in amounts of chemicals transferred for disposal. Eerretti said that the growing shipment

Canadian and US industrial facilities in

American Agreement on Environmen tal Cooperation. The Agreement com plements the environmental provisions

of toxic substances off site could indi cate a desire to send wastes to locations

1999. Between 1991 and 1999, releases

The US sent 31,000 tonnes to sites in Canada, most of which went to Ontario

of these substances in the US were re

and Quebec, and 27,000 tonnes to sites

duced by over 90%. • Electrical utilities report the largest releases - over 450,000 tonnes- of any North American industry.

in Mexico.

that are better equipped to manage them. Or,she said, it could signal that most companies are still reluctant to prevent

• More than a million tonnes of chemi

pollution at its source instead of man

•The difference in average releases and transfers per facility between Canada and the United States is narrowing. In

aging pollutants after they are already produced. Among other findings in the report:

Cross border chemical traffic de

cals were sent for recycling in North America in 1999.

1995,releases and transfers from Cana

Taking Stock is produced by the CEC from data collected by the national gov ernments of Canada and the United

States. Reporting of data for Mexico is not yet mandatory,though legislation to collect this data was passed in Mexico late last year, and 117 Mexican facili ties reported their chemical releases vol untarily. The full report is available at: www.cec.org/takingstock.

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Hazardous Materials Treatment

CFD simulation helps find cause of catastrophic failure in thermal oxidizer

Engineers at theIdaho National

of the plenum and the openings to the heat exchanger tubes were modeled us ing Fluent's preprocessor, GAMBIT. After the geometry was created, the pre processor generated an unstructured analysis mesh. The non-uniform mesh

which had a higher void fraction than the spherical material."

tive flameless thermal oxidizer(RFTO),

was constructed to account for differ

used for the destruction of hazardous

ences in the size of the components be ing analyzed. Lor example, a very fine

and failure of the wall in the first tube, feed flow short-circuited to the exhaust,

Engineering and Environmen tal Laboratory (INEEL) used computational fluid dynamics (CED) analysis to determine the cause of a catastrophic failure in a recupera

compounds. When the unit's feed tubes melted, resulting in system failure,

Since the tubes were thin-walled,

melting and tube failure occurred very quickly at the combustion front, then spread to the other tubes. With melting

a preferential flow path developed, and flow in the remaining tubes de

it was unclear whether the cause

creased, with the end result of dam

was a design flaw or operator er ror. Physical examination of the unit could not conclusively resolve the issue, so INEEL engineers were

age to the remaining tubes. "The CED analysis was consistent with the physical evidence," says Foust. "From the CED simulation, we

asked to recreate the failure sce

were able to determine the cause:

nario as a computer simulation. Working from data in the opera tion logs, they analyzed the last run of the oxidizer using CFD. The re sults clearly showed why the tubes melted. "The design of this particu

uneven airflow through the plenum

lar model was such that there were

caused the flow rate into one tube

to be too low. When propane lev els were above the LEE range on stait-up, and the packing was in a hot soak condition, the oxidation front established in the tube, the

Ex haust

recirculation eddies in the inlet ple num," explains Mike Rynearson, a Principal Engineer at INEEL.

tube overheated and the wall failed.

"These eddies caused below normal

countered no operational problems. The two units, which remain in op eration, were of a similar design to that ofthe failed unit, except 20feed

The INEEL operated three RETO units, two of which had en

air flow into one of the feed tubes.

That, combined with higher than normal propane levels at start-up and the hot soak bed condition,

tubes were used instead of 12. The

caused the oxidation front to move

20 tube units did not suffer from the

recirculation eddy problem to the

into the low flow tube, causing it to overheat and fail. Once it melted,

Recuperative thermal oxidizer cross section.

the others quickly followed." The recuperative flameless thermal oxidizer under investigation was used to remediate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contamination in the vadose zone. The second time the heat ex

changer tubes melted,INEEL performed a detailed failure analysis to determine the root cause of the failure, because it was unclear whether the tube failures

mesh was created around small, critical

Thus, variations in feed flow to the tubes

areas (such as the tubes) and was pro gressively coarsened to regions where the components were larger(such as the plenum). Thomas Eoust,Advisory Engineer at INEEL,ran multiple CFD analyses fol lowing various start-up scenarios rep resented in the operator logs. When Eoust ran the CFD analysis with propane at 60 percent of EEL and the oxidizer bed in a hot soak condition to approxi mate start-up conditions, the results

were less pronounced and below design specification flow in the tubes was not

were caused by operating problems, design problems, or a combination of both. It was not feasible to study the failure on a physical model due to cost

showed that oxidation front established

and instrumentation limitations. INEEL

in the low flow tubes. "The oxidation

used CED analysis instead to simulate the operation of the unit. To begin the analysis, the geometry

front established itself in the low flow

By Thomas D. Foust, Michael Rynearson, Ryan D. McMurtrey, and Lisa Harvego* 58

same extent as the 12 tube model.

tube at the transition between the spheres and the saddles indicated by the distinct change in temperature at that location," Foust explains. "That made sense be cause there was a drop off in velocity at that spot as air moved into the region containing the saddle-shaped material.

encountered. These units were shut down after the second failure of the 12-

tube unit. "The CED analysis deter mined that the cause was not operator error, but rather the result of a critical

design flaw in the 12 tube unit inlet ple num," says Rynearson. Following modification to the oper ating procedure to eliminate system re starts from a hot soak condition, the 20

tube units were restarted and are oper ating to date. In addition to answering the question of why the 12 tube oxidizer failed, CED analysis allowed INEEL engineers to propose simple design changes that would prevent the problem from hap pening in the future. *idaho National Engineering and Envi ronmental Laboratory

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

'caf/. Reserve your booth space today!!


The 5th annual

Ontario Environmental Tradeshow Held in conjunction with the 11th annual

Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering conference and workshops May 14-15, 2003 Toronto Congress Centre

Toronto, Ontario

Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine and Canadian Environmental Regulation & Compliance News New location will increase tradeshow attendance The 2003 Ontario Environmental Tradeshow will be held in the Toronto Congress Centre(TCC), which opened in 1995 and offers state-of-the-art amenities and classic decor. Its strategic location near Pearson International airport, several major highways and hotels, offers exceptional accessibility and convenience,ideal for maximizing tradeshow attendance.


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Global Warming

Fuelling our environmental future Intelligent control systems for fuel cells and natural gas vehicles

In major cities, where smog warn

ings and air quality control are be coming a way of life, environmen tally conscious consumers are searching for alternative ways to power their vehicles. Natural gas, Canada's most plentiful resource, has emerged as

Hi i]


a better fuel choice for our vehicles, as it

substantially reduces harmful greenhouse emissions. With the emergence of natu ral gas vehicles and fuel cells showing promise over the long term, North America may soon see major changes in the way energy is made and consumed. A research project co-funded by Precam Incorporated, Natural Resources Canada, the Climate Change Action Fund,and NGV Development Fund,and headed by a team of researchers at the Saskatchewan Research Council, has

developed a number of intelligent con trol system products for fuel cell and natural gas vehicles. By applying artificial intelligence to the system components - namely gas regulators, valves and fittings,instmmentation and storage tanks - researchers have created enabling technologies to solve the technical problems associated with converting vehicles to use gaseous fuels. They have developed ground breaking products in three areas; intelli gent fuel control systems, electronic gas regulators and diagnostic systems for

ES&E staff drove a dual fuel Volvo to visit Biosphere 2In Arizona. storage tanks. The purpose of this project was to develop intelligent control systems that would train fuel cells and internal com

bustion engines for optimum perform ance. For fuel cells, hydrogen pressure control was provided by an electronic regulator, resulting in improved accu racy and the capability to adjust the setpoint pressure on-line. For engines cali brated for gasoline, the neural network was used to train the control system to run on natural gas permitting a low-cost

adaptation. For both hydrogen and natural gas, pattern recognition and an expert system were used in an on-board diagnostic sys tem to identify flaws in high-pressure storage tanks. The system is designed to shut down and inform the operator be fore a fault becomes a hazard. Over the

long term, it would make it unnecessary to over-build storage tanks, reducing the cost of materials like carbon fibre.

Contact Mike Sulatisky at: sulatisky @src.sk.ca.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 170 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Stormwater Management

Niagara Region evaluates software for water modeling applications

Water and wastewater




infrastructures in Canada

currently require up grades expected to cost $50 billion, with an estimated $90 bil

ScaienVtewicl DewnKmn

SMtionNa. OwrmiUngiri



I DowTttUttinBK

lion in additional investments antici


HertwnUOKitftionla rteiw 'â&#x20AC;˘

pated during the next 20 years (accord ing to the National Round Table on the Environment and Economy). Yet with subsidies expected to cover only a por tion of the cost, regional municipalities


I ^



themselves must determine the most

fiscally and environmentally responsi ble means to address their water-resource issues.

The Regional Municipality of Niagara sought a software application that would enable engineers in the Re gion to manage sewer flows and over flow predictions. Working with MacViro Consultants and CH2M HILL

Canada, engineering consulting firms, the Region reviewed several watermodeling applications for their breadth of functionality, cost-effectiveness, and ease of use before selecting XP Soft ware's XP-SWMM2000 (Storm Water Management Model). The Region's civil engineers will now model dry weather and wet weather sew age flows within urban catchments and investigate various treatment processes, giving decision-makers a better under standing of the sanitary sewer system and allowing them to reduce sewage treatment costs. Features of the XP-

SWMM2000 include dynamic and real time control, with the ability to adjust control parameters during system simu lations modeling. Engineers in the Regional Municipal ity of Niagara will be able to use the sys tem immediately because the applica tion enables users to customize output and input parameters. More than a dozen engineers will be trained by XP to take full advantage ofthe application's dynamic and real-time features. Addi tionally, engineers will be shown the ap plication's flexible options for easily pre senting system performance outcomes


dangered the health and welfare of citi zens by illegally discharging untreated wastewater from the collection and

transmission system. In 1995, the Miami-Dade Water and

Sewer Department negotiated a Consent Decree settlement with the EPA to in

stall and maintain a computerized col lection and transmission system that would reduce the incidence of these il

legal discharges and predict flow and pressures in conduits, wastewater over flows and in-line storage capacity. Yet developing and implementing such a system posed a significant chal lenge due to the complexity and size of the largest collection and transmission system in Florida (329,000 retail cus tomers; a relatively flat 400 square mile service area; 1,500 pipes of force main; 2,500 miles of gravity sewer; 900 de partment pumps, repumps and booster stations; and wastewater flows from an

additional 900 private pump stations). Developing a customized and integrated approach The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer

Department strove to implement a vari ety of new technologies in the form of a "Virtual Dynamic Computer Model" that could predict potential sanitary sewer overflows resulting from peak

enabled engineers to model both pres sure and gravity systems, as well as in corporate data from a variety of exter nal sources. Additionally, it was cus tomized to meet the Department's spe cific needs, including improved stabil ity for pumps, enhanced graphical out put capabilities, special conduit features to include minor pump losses, and sev eral output and simulation parameters for a variety of model requirements. To complete its Virtual Dynamic Computer Model, the Department inte grated XP-SWMM2000 with CIS tech nology (to develop flow projections based on customer data), GPS technol ogy (to determine the elevation of all water and sewer structures within 2 to 3

cm), WSI's NEXRad Weather for Windows and Virtual Rain Gauge (to continuously measure actual rainfall amounts throughout the County), and a variety of databases. Reaping the benefits Implementing XP-SWMM2000 and the Virtual Dynamic Computer Model, has made a significant impact on the

economy and health of Dade County. Estimates indicate that the Model has been used to eliminate more than

$20,000,000 in construction projects

that the wastewater infrastructure of

ing software chosen by the Department needed to be able to simultaneously model gravity and manifold systems. The Department decided upon XP

now deemed unnecessary. Additionally, the Model has eliminated sewer system overflows and significantly contributed to improved water quality throughout the County. For more information,

Metropolitan Dade County,Florida, en-

Software's XP-SWMM2000, which

circle reply card No. 158

to non-technical audiences.

A challenge from the US EPA The United States Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA) had alleged

flow conditions. In addition, the model

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002



EPA reviews health risks of pesticides

TheUS Environmental Protec

tion Agency (EPA) says its comprehensive review of the cumulative risks of organophosphate pesticides found that all but two of the 30 compounds studied are safe.

The EPA released its revised assess

ment of organophosphate pesticides on June 13, nearing completion of its re view of more than a thousand organo phosphate pesticide food tolerances also known as legal residue limits. The agency said almost all the pesticides are expected to meet the highest, most rig orous federal safety standards. "Preliminary results from this scien tific assessment provide good news for American consumers," said Stephen Johnson, EPA's assistant administrator for the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances. "After years of

effort to develop the scientific method ologies to conduct this sort of sophisti cated risk assessment, the conclusions

strongly support a high level of confi

dence in the safety of the food supply." Results on two chemi

cals, however,could lead to new restrictions on

their use, or even a com

plete ban. Dichlorvos, or DDVP, used in fly paper and other pest strips, and dimethoate, an agricul tural pesticide sprayed on a variety of produce, were both linked to health

problems including head aches, nausea, neurologi cal disorders and even death.

The review of organophosphates was ordered as part of a legal settlement with the Natural Resources Defense Council

(NRDC). Release of the results was delayed three times by legal action by the pesticide industry. The most recent

appeal by the industry was denied and the EPA released the report later the same day. In the last several years, EPA has

taken a variety of regulatory actions on the organophosphate pesticides, ranging from lowering application rates to com plete cancellation of specific uses, to help meet the requirements of the Food Quality Protection Act(EQPA)of 1996. The agency says these actions have reduced the risks of pesticide use. The EPA is still working to evaluate certain food and residential uses of individual

organophosphates,including DDVP and dimethoate.

But NRDC says the EPA review still failed to account for all pesticide threats

Reflective vinyl roofs

to children. The EPA said its review

can save energy Scientists have found that reflective surfaces on top of buildings can play a critical role in cutting energy consumption inside them. Recent studies show that temperatures are significantly lower in areas with more vegetation and light-coloured, reflective surfaces than in urban "heat islands" caused by acres of dark, asphalt parking lots and black roofs. In fact, scientists have found that the air in "urban heat islands" can be as much as six to eight degrees hotter than in surrounding areas. One result is new incentives to increase the use of light-coloured, reflec tive roofs in urban areas. The State of California is the first to offer cash

rebates for companies to replace dark roofing surfaces with highly reflective surfaces, such as single-ply vinyl roofing membranes. The incentives, of fered through the California Energy Commission(CEC)Cool Roof Retrofit Program, apply to low-slope roofs on non-residential or multi-family build ings that are mechanically cooled in the summer. The program offers finan cial incentives to replace dark roofs reflecting less than 30% of sunlight with non-metallic "cool roofs" reflecting at least 65%.

Greg Zoll, senior superintendent at the University of California, Los An geles, is taking advantage of the incentive program to cover a dark built-up roof on the Young Research Libraiy with a white vinyl membrane. The incentive itself will save the University about $8,000 on the project- money that Zoll says will be invested in improving the R-value of the building's


considered pesticide use and exposure in food, drinking water and residential spraying, and accounted for variability in potential exposures based on age,and seasonal and geographic factors. Recently, the Mount Sinai School of Medicine's Center for Children's Health

and the Environment, began running a series of ads in the New York Times

warning of the health effects that toxic chemicals, including pesticides, can have on children. The ads charge that exposure to pesticides can alter the re productive systems of wildlife and hu mans, cause learning disabilities and increase the risk of certain cancers.

At a recent press briefing, Philip Landrigan, director of the Center for Children's Health and the Environment, said the United States has "not done a

good job of testing [new] chemicals to determine if they cause toxic effects in



Additional studies by the Florida Solar Energy Center and the US Envi ronmental Protection Agency (EPA), confirm that reflective roofs made of polyvinyl chloride(PVC or vinyl) membranes or other single-ply materials can reduce utility costs of air-conditioning by as much as 50%. Contact: www.vinylbydesign.com.

For information on the EPA's pesti cide review: www.epa.gov/pesticides/ cumulative. For information on the

NRDC's campaign against toxic pesti cides: www.nrdc.org/health/pesticides/ default.asp.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Water Supply Management

Full-cost pricing recommended by front line water professionals

A single Ministry responsible

for all water policy in On tario was one of the major recommendations included

in a joint report released by the Ontario Water Works Association(OWWA)and the Ontario Municipal Water Associa tion(OMWA). "We want to make sure

there is no opportunity for any slippage between ministries in the delivery of safe drinking water," says OMWA past presi

tions governing non-point sources of water pollution, such as agriculture. "Our members were devastated at

what happened in Walkerton and we are committed to ensuring that any changes necessary in the Ontario drinking water system are made without delay," said Rod Holme,the

In addition, the report recommends that the Province conduct a thorough review of training programs for plant operators, managers and officials re sponsible for the deliveiy of safe drinking water. Thereport, which summarizes the extensive research, the sub missions and the more than

seventh Canadian to be


American Water Works As

made by the two Associa

dent, Max Christie.

sociation president. He has

tions to the Walkerton In

The report, Ontario Drinking Water - Toward a Safe, Sustainable Future, also recommends a comprehensive, pro active source water protection program. "Safe drinking water begins at the

quiry, is available on the web at: www.owwa.ca. Editorial Advisory Board Rod Holme The OWWA is the voice since the magazine began in of water professionals in Ontario. Mem early 1988. OWWA/OMWA endorse a speedy bership includes research scientists, en implementation of full-cost pricing as a gineers, consultants, water plant opera step toward ensuring that utilities have tors and managers, and equipment manufacturers. The OMWA represents the resources to construct, maintain and replace the infrastructure as needed. It elected and appointed officials, and is estimated that full-cost pricing could management representatives from more add up to $1 per day to homeowners' than 150 public drinking water authori

source and we believe there should be a

prime focus on preventing drinking wa ter problems from developing in the first place," stated Rod Holme, chair of the OWWA/OMWA Special Committee on Walkeilon. The report recommends that particular attention be given to regula


been a member of ES&E's

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For more information, circle reply card No. 174 (See page 25)


Water Environment Federation'' Preserving &linlxaicing the Global WitterEnvironment



The Water Quality Event r

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September 28 - October 2, 2002

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&Eat(905)727-4666. Safely clean and inspect


water tanks

flexible systems

Pre-lnsulated Flexible Pipe Systems Pex-Flex, Copper-Flex and SteelFlex pre-lnsulated pipe systems for

The Weda Water VR-600 uses a

remote-operated, submersible vehi cle to clean and Inspect the bottoms of reservoirs without draining them or using divers. Using brushes and a powerful submersible pump, the VR-600's underwater cleaning unit

hot or cold water distribution, come

complete with bonded polyurethane foam and polyethylene jacket. Sup plied in coils, these flexible systems allow reduction in number of joints and elbows. Complete selection of brass compression fittings available.

removes sediment and can dis

charge the waste to an approved location, such as a sanitary sewer, lagoon, or truck.

Visit our web site for more Informa tion: www.urecon.com.

York Fluid Controls Ltd.

Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 200

Circle reply card No. 201

Solving monitoring and control applications

Danfoss analytical meters

Arjay Engineering Ltd. manufactures capacitance level Instrumentation, ppm oil/water monitors and detection equipment for combustible and toxic gas. Arjay instruments are highly respected for their 30 years of re search and design expertise In solv ing monitoring and control applica


Danfoss EVITAINSITU analytical me ters ensure optimum process control resulting in Increased plant capacity, cleaner effluent, less sludge produc tion and dramatically reduced energy consumption. Applications include: nutrient measurement in sewage sys tem, oxygen profile measurement In the reactors of diffuser modules and

tions In Canada. Please visit our web site: www.davlscontrols.com. Davis Controls Ltd.

outlet measurement of oxygen, am monium phosphate and nitrate to

Circle reply card No. 202


monitor and document treatment


Depend on


Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 203

Now available!

Also available!

An in-depth analysis of drainage pipe performance and design comparisons of concrete pipe vs

If you liked Just the Facts Concrete Pipe vs HOPE - you'll love the next installment...

Concrete Pipe vs CSP. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Ontario Concrete Pipe

FIDPE. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying

your next project. Call for your copy now! Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

Circle reply card No. 204



Circle reply card No. 205

Low speed sludge grinder

Engineering Guide now

and conditioner


A new brochure is available describ

The CON/SPAN Engineering Guide

ing the low speed sludge grinder and conditioner by seepex. Inc. In this grinder, solids reduction is effected by a low speed, revolving cutter head with four tungsten carbide knives. As

Is a valuable tool with all the neces

each cutter head knife passes over a shear plate hole, any solid pass

ing through the hole Is cut. Various shear plates with differing sizes, shapes and numbers of holes are

engineeting guide

sary information to consider the CON/SPAN System for many differ ent design applications. Filled with numerous figures and charts,the En gineering Guide provides a reference of design parameters, standard de tail illustrations, and limited design methodologies. Available in binder or CD Rom format.



Performance Fluid Equipment Inc. Circle reply card No. 206

Circle reply card No. 207

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002


Product and Service Showcase The Sm.Oil Inter

Since their intro duction

Pump anything that will pour

Economical interface meter

Water level meters

face Meter made


by Heron Instru

years ago. Heron Instruments Dipper-T Water Level Meters

ments meets the


earned a reputa tion for being sturdy and accu rate. Many thouâ&#x2013; sands of these in struments are in service worldwide. Heron



high-quality, low-


cost instrument

for measuring the oil/water inter

face in monitoring wells and storage tanks. This is an essential tool for envi

ronmentalists and companies involved in spill control and groundwater clean-up.

Instruments Inc. state that they have con centrated on quality, reliability and accu racy. This policy allows them to give a five-year warranty on the Dipper-T Water

lengths. The Sm.Oil is certified intrinsi cally safe and has a 24 month warranty.

Level Meters. Heron Instruments

Heron Instruments

The Sm.Oil is available in 60 ft. or 20 m

Circle reply card No. 208

Circle reply card No. 209

Resilient wedge gate valve

Measuring, cleaning and calibration system for pH/ORP

The Mueller



AII-FIo pump features include a wide range of pump types and sizes; patented lube-free air system; will not .stall at slow speeds; 100% tested prior to shipment; self-priming; non-electrical; runs dry without damage; infinitely variable flow rate; intermittent operation on continu ous duty; pumps fluids which contain particles; and much more. Performance Fluid Equipment Inc. Circle reply card No. 210

Moving bed reactor


Wedge Gate Valve is a symmetrical design with refine ments to enhance

reliability and serv ice life. Special features protect critical areas of the

valve from damage, wear and corrosion.

The iron wedge is

completely rubber-encapsulated, without thin spots or voids. There are no uncoated or weak places for corrosion to start or for rubber to begin to peel away. Mueller Canada

Circle reply card No. 211

Denso Protal ST Epoxy

Specially designed for use in sewage treatment, the TopCal S delivers reliable measuring results with minimal mainte nance requirements and electrode wear. TopCal S comes with fixed and user-de finable programs, permitting optimal sys tem adaptation to the process. Compre hensive safety and early detection func tions guarantee a high degree of reliablity.

The Kaldnes Moving Bed'^' process is based on the biofdm principle and utilizes the advantages of activated sludge and previous biofilm systems. The process is feasible for all types of industrial and municipal wastewater, and is used for both organic and nitrogen removal. Flexibility makes it a solution for new plants and upgrading old plants. The process can be delivered as a pure biofilm facility, as pretreatment, or combined with activated

sludge. Kaldnes North America

Endress+Hauser Canada

Circle reply card No. 212

Circle reply card No. 213

Cellular voice reporting

Enfianced Mini Monster available

ST Epoxy is a two component, fast dry ing, surface tolerant liquid epoxy coat ing for application directly onto wire brushed rusty steel. ST Epoxy's penetra tion and adhesive properties ensure pro tection against a wide variety of exposed

JWC's Mini Monster has been re-designed to meet the demands for a low-cost, light duty two-shafted grinder and is designed to meet higher demands, providing greater perfomiance and longer life. The new seal assembly uses a cartridge similar to the

in combination with other topcoats for long-term protection of structural steel,

Cv2 combines alarm reporting and cellphone operation into one compact package. Features include; operates on all AMPS cellular systems; 3W trans ceiver for 'fringe' coverage areas; eight alarm inputs, analog or digital; alarm groupings; emergency telephone use; and security codes for tamper-proof opera

allowed the unit to be optionally equipped with a 3 HP (2.2kW) motor, providing added force in grinding tough objects.

and more. Denso North America

tion. Can-Am Instruments

JWC Environmental

environments such as water/sea water, acids and alkalis. It can be used alone or

Circle reply card No. 214 66

Circle reply card No. 215

one used in the Muffin MonsterÂŽ. It has

Circle reply card No. 216 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Product and Service Showcase Collaborative internet

Protect your machines and

Quick panel operator





Plant Edition pro vides HMl and

SCADA function


ality and estab


lishes a founda tion for collabora tive internet man

ufacturing. True client/server ar

chitecture and open-system design offer fast, ea.sy integration with the ability to grow from a single computer node to a plant-wide monitoring and control system providing real-time information from the factory Poor to all levels of the enterprise.

By using the electrical motor as a .sensor, the M20 provides a solution that is sim ple to install and reliable in operation. The need for mechanical safety devices, external transmitters and cabling is elimi nated. thereby minimizing installation and maintenance cost, according to the

Gescan Texcan

manufacturer, Gescan Texcan

These slim-profile touchscreen graphical operator interfaces provide a practical, cost-effective alternative to a variety of discrete devices. Several screen tech

nologies and sizes are available and pro vide bold, clear displays in colour or monochrome. Each unit communicates

with over 40 major PLCs and PLC net works, including Allen-Bradley Remote I/O and DH-I-. Gescan Texcan

Circle reply card No. 217

Circle reply card No. 218

Circle reply card No. 219

Environmental services

Dissolved Air FlotatorÂŽ units

Amperometric chlorine analyzer

Stantec provides value-added pro fessional services

and technologies in the five princi pal market seg-



Stantec ments of environ ment, buildings, industrial, transportation and urban land, from over 40 locations principally in Noith America. Environmental engineer ing services include municipal and indus trial wastewater treatment, wastewater

collection and pumping, municipal and industrial water treatment, water distri

bution. pumping and storage and general tnunicipal engineering. A full range of environmental services is also provided. Stantec Consulting Ltd. Circle reply card No. 220

Specify a DAP clarifier or thickener mechanism that combines a Job-tested design with the economy of pre-engineered components. Drawn from a halfcentury ofcustom flotator experience, the cotnponent design meets the require ments of any application. EIMCO Process Equipment Company Circle reply card No. 221

The FX-lOOOp can read from low PPB ranges to as high as 50 PPM without di lution (higher ranges with dilution varimeter panel). It is unaffected by high turbidity or extremely high and low pH swings. The FX-lOOOp uses ordinary food grade,5% distilled white vinegar as a pH buffer, which is non-toxic, non-haz ardous, cheap and available at any gro cery store. Cancoppas Limited Circle reply card No. 222

Problem solving lubes

Oil, Grease & Solids


to have and to hold 'till

death parts your parts! Only Canadian Welding Bureau certified fabricators weld to CSA standards W47.1 for steel and stainless steels and W47.2

for aluminum. Assure the integrity of the products you specify, use and maintain. Make sure that all your welded products are manufactured by a Canadian Weld ing Bureau certified fabricator. MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 223

Lubrication Engineers have solved the toughest lubrication problems at wastewater treatment plants worldwide. Elimi nation of foaming and water emulsification in comminutors. grinders, clarifier gearboxes, filter press hydraulics and lightning mixers. Significant reduction in operating temperatures and electricity consumption, in aeration blowers, innuent pumps, speed reducers and air com pressors. Lubrication Engineers of Canada Limited

Eiwironmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Circle reply card No. 224

Proceptor" Engineered to meet discharge regulations 30 - year warranty Easy to service Toll Free: 1-877-966-9444

www.proceptor.com Proceptor

Circle reply card No. 225 67

Product and Service Showcase Solids/corrosive liquids pumps

Self-priming pumps


Because Gorman-

Rupp centrifugal pumps are selfpriming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only the suction line

Gorman-Rupp T Series'"''^ pumps are de signed for economical, trouble-free op eration in handling solids-laden liquids and slurries. Pumps feature a large volute design which allows them to reprime automatically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with liquid and a completely dry suction line. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 226

maintenance can oe performed quickly and simply with common hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and no need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp

New metering pump has

New pipe design manuai

down in the liq uid. Service or

Water Environment Federation.

Circle reply card No. 227

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 228

New concrete pipe detention systems software

2-week timer

The 13th edition of the Concrete Pipe Design Manual for engineers who select the type, size and strength requirements of concrete pipe, is now available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. The 536-page design manual has been updated to provide the most current tech nical data and design aids needed to as sist engineers in preparing efficient and cost-effective drainage solutions for sani tary sewer, storm drain and culvert ap plications. AGFA

detention system design using concrete pipe. Called "DASH-Detention and Sewer Hydraulics", the program provides the tools needed for the hydraulic design of concrete pipe detention systems, storm drainage, and sanitary sewers. It also in cludes ACPA's popular PipePac 2000. American Concrete Pipe Assoc.

Circle reply card No. 229

Circle reply card No. 230

Circle reply card No. 231

Package potable water

Biological removal of iron and

Packaged ozone plants



The new Gamma/L Metering Pump from ProMinent- an integrated timer not only stops and starts the pump, but the oper ating mode can be switched for a pre-set time period and one or both of the relay's outputs can be programmed to switch on and enable other external devices to be switched on as well. This can all be done

with one integrated timer. ProMinent Fluid Controls

The PulsapakÂŽ is a package potable water treatment plant designed for both munici pal and industrial applications. It com

bines two Degremont technologies; the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, and a sand

and anthracite dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak produces clean water equal in quality to that produced by large instal lations. ONDEO Degremont

Circle reply card No. 232 68

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the

ONDEO Degremont offers an ecological and economical solution for removing iron and manganese from groundwater. The Ferazur''''^ Mangazur'"system uses the natural microorganisms already present in water to oxidize Fe and Mn. The innovativeness and performance of the system has been recognized by the 2001 Technological Innovation Award of the Ministere des Affaires Municipales, QC. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 233

The American Concrete Pipe Association has released new interactive software of

To meet the increasing demand for eco nomical,easy to install and operate ozone

plants, Ozonia has developed a range of standard,skid-mounted systems designed

around the revolutionary OZATÂŽ Ozone Generators, which include Ozonia's pat ented non-glass dielectric assembly. Each packaged system includes all the components needed to safely generate and deliver a specified quantity of ozone with reliability and confidence. Ozonia North America

Circle reply card No. 234

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Product and Service Showcase Filter presses

Introducing the N-Pumps!

Flo-Get system launched

Years of research

coupled with cus tomer demands



field trials have

Circle reply card No. 235

produced a revo lutionary new pump design that combines high ef ficiency with Flygt's clog-free performance. The N-Pump series feature a radical new hydraulic end design which ensures efficient, clog-free, and troublefree pumping over extended periods. The result is improved operational economy due to less downtime,dramatically reduc ing the total life cost of the installation. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 236

Signal converter

MAGFLO® magnetic flow

Parkson/Lanco understands tough dewateringjobs and has designed durabil ity and reliability into all its manual,semi automatic and automatic filter presses. Plates and filter cloth can be changed to meet new demands. With the optional expansion piece, additional filter plates can be easily added. Filter presses are avail able in plate sizes ranging from 320-1500

mm with capacities from 0.1-300 ft' per unit and filter cake thicknesses of 3/4-2"

(20-50 mm). Parkson


Flo-Get is an original Flygt system, which is used for the simultaneous aera

tion and mixing of all types of liquids. Thousands of in-stallations in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, liq uid manure, fish farming in all types of

equalization tanks prove the reliability and efficiency of the system. The sys tem is based on coupling one or more Flygt submersible pumps to one or more ejectors. ITT Flygt

Circle reply card No. 237

Package Water and Wastewater Plants

Adapted to Your Needs

The EVITA® USC 7000 Signal Converter from Danfoss is the world's first HART®

multi-drop dissolved oxygen metering system. 'The USC 7000 is a top of the range converter that is able to communi cate with up to 15 transmitters on the

The MAGFLO® Magnetic Flow Meter from Danfoss is easy to install, easy to commission, easy to service, highly de pendable; it offers simplicity that saves you money for years to come. The MAGFLO® 3100 comes with either Neo-

extremely cost-effective for applications with multiple oxygen transmitters.

prene or EPDM linings and AISI 316 Ti electrodes. User-friendly operator inter face and SENSORPROM technology.

Davis Controls Limited

Davis Controls Limited

same 2-wire HART bus. This solution is

Circle reply card No. 238

Circle reply card No. 239

Water quality monitoring panel

Video inspection camera

We supply Package Water and Sewage Treatment Plants worldwide. The Pack

age Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treat ment. It is economical,easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory re quirements and is ideal for any location unable to connect to municipal sewer sys tems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 240

Drive solutions for water and wastewater

USFilter's Wallace & Tiernan Prod

ucts, has introduced a new chlorine re

sidual/turbidity monitoring and control panel. The design and technol ogy offers precise and reliable chlo

rine control while accurately monitoring turbidity levels. The system comes com plete with a recorder to trend critical pa rameters and the panel-mount design al lows for easy installation. USFilter, Wallace & Tiernan Circle reply card No. 241

The SnakeEye™ video inspection cam era is designed for maintenance work where you cannot"see" with conventional methods. The waterproof camera is 1" in diameter and has its own built-in light source. The colour viewing display can be hand held or mounted on a telescoping wand. An articulating head holds the tiny camera allowing the viewer to angle the head 360° to see above,below and around

objects. Canadian Safety Equipment Circle reply card No. 242 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

For more than 30 years Danfoss has dem onstrated leadership in water manage ment with a host of measurable benefits.

For wastewater treatment the VLT®

drives ensure reduced energy consump tion, improved throughput and a reduc tion in chemical usage. For water sup ply systems,the drives reduce water leak ages, bursts and maintenance costs. Davis Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 243 69

Product and Service Showcase Small drinking water systems

Water data management

Immersed ultrafiltration membranes The ZeeWeed® 500 series of im mersed ultrafiltra tion membranes is

the only mem Zenon's new Modular Drinking Water (MDW) system has been specifically designed to overcome the challenges faced by small communities of 50 to 5,000 people. The system is based on

the patented ZeeWeed® membrane tech nology incorporated in large treatment plants. This ultrafiltration system is costeffective, easy-to-use, and requires only minimal supervision, while consistently producing high quality water. Zenon Environmental Inc.

brane in the in

dustry engineered with a reinforced hollow fiber. The

rugged fibers, combined with an open module design, allow operation in high levels of suspended solids. The mem brane simplifies conventional processes and provides a long membrane life, even under the harshest operating conditions. ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 245

cure and centralized database. Receive

laboratory test results electronically. Screen data against standards. Receive alerts on water conditions. Prepare re ports with a 'click'. Learn more at: www.watertrax.com. WaterTrax Inc.

Circle reply card No. 244


WaterTrax provides online services for managing water data. Consolidate op erational and water quality data in a se

Circle reply card No. 246

Culvert and pond analyzer

Urban stormwater

design and analysis

Create a HEC-RAS model directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and cre ate inundation maps from the results. Complete integration between 12D and

surface is automatically created and ready for presentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software Circle reply card No. 247

XP-Culvert2000 is the only eombined culvert and pond analyzer to use the full unsteady flow equations in conjunction with the US-FHWA inlet rating curves. This new powerful package provides a fast and easy to use tool to accurately design and analyze all culvert, bridge wa terway, detention basin and spillway projects. XP Software Circle reply card No. 248

Sequencing batch reactor

Inlet Stormceptor® system

HEC-RAS allows water level results read back into our 12D model. A water level

XP-Rat2000 iLses an advanced interface

for the design and analysis of complex hydraulic systems. Accounting for all of the losses generates an optimized design and set of accurate hydraulic results in the system. XP-Rat2000 uses a dual drainage approach and can import ex isting data from various sources. XP Software

Circle reply card No. 249

Series Stormceptor system

The Inlet Storm

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as the well-known In

line Interceptors. Developed to treat The ADI-SBR proprietary sequencing batch reactor system offers flexibility and convenience. All treatment operations are carried out in one vessel, and opera tor-adjustable controls easily allow proc ess changes to be made, as required. ADI's unique air seal decanter mecha nism is included in the design which of fers simpler construction and fewer me chanical parts than traditional decanters. ADI Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 250 70

run-off from an area

of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water run-off remains trapped within the storage chamber,even dtiring peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 251

Developed for the treatment of larger catchment areas, the new Series Storm

ceptor system employs the same operat ing principles as the well-known Inline and Inlet Stormceptor systems. The sys tem receives flow from a single inlet pipe and splits it into two distinct streams, which are treated in two separate treatment chambers before recombining into a sin gle outlet pipe. It effectively doubles the treatment area of the inline system. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 252

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Industry Update

$2.7 million invested in

green fuel research The Government of Canada is support ing the new research by logen Corpora tion to help turn plant fibre into an en vironmentally friendly fuel for vehicles. The $2.7 million investment will focus

on the enzymes that break down the fi bre and seek to make the process 10 times faster. Ottawa-based logen Cor poration, a leading enzyme developer and innovator in the bioethanol field, will match the Government of Canada

funding, bringing the total to $5.4 mil lion.

Unlike conventional fuel ethanol, a

high-octane alcohol produced from the fermentation of sugar derived from the starch in grains such as corn and wheat, "bioethanol" is made from the fermen

tation of sugars derived from the plant fibre in renewable feedstocks such as

wood and agricultural residues. En zymes make the process possible. Com pared to gasoline, ethanol made from plant fibre releases 70% lower carbon dioxide emissions. Ethanol-blended

gasoline is currently offered at many retail gas pumps. Government of Canada funding for this agreement comes from Natural Re sources Canada, Agriculture and AgriEood Canada's Canadian Adaptation and Rural Development(CARD)fund and the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) component of the Climate Change Action Eund. Contact: Jeff Passmore, logen Cor poration,Tel:(613)733-9830,ext. 3385.

New action plan to deliver safer drinking water A comprehensive $16-million action plan to strengthen drinking water pro tection in BC has been announced by

Farms,forks and drinking water Are people getting sicker from food today than they were 50 years ago? What may be different are the pathogens. Advances in food processing and environmental engineering in the developed world have minimized threats such as cholera and botulism. New hazards, however, have emerged with imported foods and changes in the scale of food production. The decline in home cooking is also a factor. Among the bacteria that can make one sick are: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 was first identified as a cause of disease in 1982.

This pathogen produces a powerful toxin that causes bloody diarrhea and occa sionally kidney failure. Infections are most common through eating undercooked ground beef but can be caused by contaminated drinking water. Campylobacter jejuni is common in poultry flocks and has become the leading cause of bacterial food-borne disease in the US. Exposure to a small number of microbes can cause illness, but most infected persons recover within a week. Salmonella enteritidis. Almost any food tainted by infected animal feces will carry Salmonella bacteria. Especially high-risk caniers are chicken and eggs. Infec tions have leveled off, but an emerging strain shows high rates of drug resistance. Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria is found in many foods,including soft cheeses and processed meats like hot dogs. It is able to survive refrigeration. Pregnant women, babies, and people with weakened immune systems are most susceptible. Shigella sonnei. Irrigation water fouled by sewage or manure transfers Sliigella to food. The bacteria cause a highly infectious disease that is spread by physi cal contact. Children in day-care centres are the most vulnerable. a drinking water advisory committee to provide expert technical advice on regu lations and standards. Changes will be sensitive to the unique needs of small water systems with fewer than 15 con nections. Although small water systems represent the majority of water systems in BC, they only serve 2% of the popu

ploys over 650 scientists, technicians and support staff in a network of labo ratory locations across the country.


one step closer to reality after Huron Wind signed a contract with Vestas to

The direct cost of the action plan is

health authorities.

The government will establish a groundwater advisory board, as well as

Vestas selected to build wind turbines Ontario's first commercial wind farm is

$16 million annually, which will be

build, install and commission its wind

funded on a cost-recovery basis. Longer-term costs of future infrastruc ture needs will be identified through the source-to-tap assessments, and cost-re covery options will be developed. The

turbines on the shores of Lake Huron

government has already begun $109 million in cost-shared, water-related in

frastructure projects, with further pro jects under consideration.

Maxxam Analytics and Entech merge

Health Services Minister Colin Hansen.

The Drinking Water Action Plan is based on eight key principles for safe drinking water, which focus on prevent ing contamination, and identifying po tential risks and appropriate water-qual ity improvements. The plan establishes clear accountability for safe drinking water under the leadership of the Min ister of Health Services, and provides the provincial health officer with a new mandate and responsibility for drinking water. Drinking water protection offic ers will be established in all regional

Contact: www.maxxam.ca.

Maxxam Analytics Inc. and Entech En vironmental Services Limited, have

merged to form the new Maxxam Air Services Group. "The merger of Maxxam and Entech provides the combined Air Services Group with the resources to become North America's leading provider of field and laboratory services in the air quality and emissions market," said John Jackson,Past President of Entech Envi

ronmental Services and now Manager of the new Air Services Group for Maxxam.

Maxxam Analytics currently em

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

near Tiveiton, Ontario.

Vestas will soon begin construction of a wind farm that will consist of five wind turbines. Each turbine has a maxi

mum capacity of 1.8 MW of electricity and the wind farm will produce enough energy to meet the average annual elec tricity needs of about 3,000 Ontario homes.

The next phase of the 9 MW project will involve finalizing the design and building the equipment in preparation for the start of site work in September. The site work will consist of building foundations and running electrical ca bles underground. All wind turbine units are scheduled to be operational by the end of 2002.

Huron Wind is a 50:50 Limited Part

nership between Ontario Power Genera tion and British Energy (Canada) Ltd. Under this agreement, the two partners will jointly develop the wind farm and will share its output. The wind farm will be located on land adjacent to the Bruce Power Visitors' Centre. 71

Industry Update

Report released on Georgia Basin - Puget Sound A report on six ecosystem indicators in the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound,British Columbia, was recently released at the Georgia Basin Ecosystem Initiative's Annual Public Meeting and Workshop. The Georgia Basin-Puget Sound is an ecosystem that covers the Canadian-US

those containing critical fioodplain and across the region in 1996. The levels near shore habitats, are relatively under- are associated with past industrial pracrepresented. tices and to some degree, long-range •Persistent Organic Pollutants - The in- atmospheric transport, dicator reports the levels of PCBs, Contact: wlapwww.gov.be.ca/cppl/ dioxins and furans in harbour seals



•Population - The projected 32% popu lation increase forecast by 2020 will re quire continued application of growth management strategies, resource stew ardship and other policies to mitigate increasing stress on the regional ecosys tem.



border and shares similar economic, geographic and population pressures.

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•Species at Risk - A substantial number of species are at risk, including 34% of the freshwater fish in the Georgia Ba sin. The report reinforces the need for continued monitoring,conservation and protection partnerships, and public awareness.

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Industry Update

Survey rated Zenon number

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Michael Jantzi Research Associates

was hired to independently score the ranking of Canada's 300 largest publicly listed companies, using a six step scor ing system. The categories scored in clude community, employee relations/ diversity, environment, product safety and business practices, international, and profitability. According to Corporate Knights, the share performance of the most socially responsible companies outperformed that of the general market. The com pound five-year return of the Best 50 Corporate Citizens to December 31, 2001, was 21.9%, compared to the av erage Canadian equity mutual fund per formance of 6.7% for the same period. Chosen as one of Canada's Top 100 Employers for the second consecutive year, the Zenon group of companies op

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New technology helps clean up hazardous waste

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was to receive $830,000 from the De


partment of Defense to field test a new technology for cleaning up hazardous wastes. Environmental hydroiogist Tho mas Roving, assistant professor of geosciences at URI, and colleagues from the University of Arizona, the Colorado College of Mines, and the University of Texas-San Antonio, developed an inno



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ing a product called cyciodextrin. "Cyciodextrln is a type of sugar made from corn starch," said Roving. "It's better than other technologies for clean ing up hazardous materials because it's non-toxic and leaving it underground for a period of time causes no harm." Due to the chemical structure of

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quantities of cyciodextrin solution into contaminated soil and groundwater. After allowing the material to move through the earth and attract the con taminants, the cyciodextrin will be pumped out of the ground and recycled. Recause of the relative high cost of cyciodextrin, using it just once would make the process uneconomical. Rut Roving and colleagues from the URi Chemical Engineering Department have developed a method of stripping off the contaminants from the cyciodextrin so

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Industry Update Defense Department's Environmental Security Technology Certification pro gram will allow Boving to prove the benefits and advantages of his technol ogy for aquifer cleanup. A military installation in Virginia has been selected as the field demonstration











site for Boving's technology demonstra tion. Beginning in May, his team will conduct preliminary testing of the soils and groundwater at the test site and pre pare the field study. The actual field test

EMSL Analytical, Inc. participate.'i in theAIHA EMPATprogram


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GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.

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Creative sentencing for failing to report sewage



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ber 2000. The release, which occurred

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because of an electrical failure at another

station, was not reported to Alberta En vironment for three days. While samples taken following the release showed no environmental impact

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release The City of Edmonton was fined $200,000 in provincial court after plead ing guilty to a charge under Alberta's

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In addition to physical upgrades to the alarm system and an overhaul of the pump system,the City of Edmonton has instituted additional training since the release to ensure staff react appropriately


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to prevent similar releases in the future and ensure appropriate reporting is

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J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

In addition to a $5,000 fine and an

order requiring the City to pay a further $5,000 to cover the costs of Alberta Environment's investigation into the matter, a creative sentencing order in the amount of$190,000 was granted to fund

a leading-edge university study to de termine potential alternate uses for the city's wastewater.

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U of T hosting major environmental conference The University of Toronto is organiz ing and hosting the 2002 Education and Research Conference of the Association

of Environmental Engineering and Sci ence Professors(AEESP)and American Association of Environmental Engineers (AAEE). This will be held on the St. George Campus, August 10-14. The theme of the 2002 conference is

Engineering & Environmental Science



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Integrated Environmental Teaching, Research and Practice: Linking Engi neering and Science to Address Com plex Problems. There will also be work shops on Saturday, August 10 and Sun day, August 11, and technical tours on Wednesday, August 14. Over 200 professors and eminent practitioners from across North America are expected to attend. Detailed information, including the program, are given on the conference web site at: www.ecf.utoronto.ca/apsc/ enveng/enviro.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002

Industry Update better environmental practices. Indus try has come a long way now, but home owners are responsible for the majority of the pollution." Since 1990, habitat for fish and wild life has increased by 18%. Public ac cess to the shoreline has increased dra

matically from less than 5% of the total area to more than 20%. However,toxic

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Three air pollutants to be declared toxic

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substance hot spots, both organic and inorganic, are still present in the har

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Industry Update

Major environmental groups applaud Bill C-10 to protect Canadian waters The Canada National Marine Conserva

Date Pad July 10-12, 2002. Defending the Integrity of Groundwater/Understanding the Impacts of Natural and Manmade Disasters, A Con

tion Areas Act is a crucial and welcome

ference on Water Security, Washington, DC. step forward in protecting Canadian Sponsored by National Ground Water Asso waters,say World Wildlife Fund (WWF) ciation. Contact Tel: (614) 898-7791, Web Canada and Canadian Parks and Wilder site: www.ngwa.org/education.

ness Society(CPAWS). "The passage by Parliament of Bill C-10, paves the way for establishing a network of Marine Con servation Areas (MCAs)," said Joshua Laughren, WWF-Canada's Director of Marine Conservation. "Now the realjob is for Parks Canada to put this legisla tion to work by creating MCAs,starting in Western Lake Superior and Gwaii Haanas, on Haida Gwaii (Queen Char lotte Islands)." While Canada is said to have the

longest coastline in the world, Canadian waters are showing clear signs of stress. Fish stocks in parts of Atlantic and Pa cific Canada have collapsed;some wild

August 11-13, 2002. 2002 Education and Research Conference of the Association of

Environmental Engineering and Science Pro fessors(AEESP)and American Association of Environmental Engineers (AAEE). Hosted by the U ofT,on the St. George Cam pus. Contact: www.ecf.utoronto.ca/apsc/ enveng/enviro.

September 21-24, 2002. Atlantic Canada Water Works Association Annual Confer

ence, Fredericton, NB. The theme is Basic

Training, and will include sessions on ba sics of chlorination, finance, operations and maintenance. Contact Clara Shea,Tel:(902)

September 25-27, 2002. Midwest Branch of the Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada (PAPTAC), 56th Annual Meet ing, Thunder Bay, ON. Contact Tel: (807) 475-2558,E-mail: chatterjeea@bowater.com. September 26, 2002. Plant Management seminar, hosted by WEAO,held at the CNE grounds, Toronto. Contact: Ian Mcllwham, E-mail: imcilwham@rogers.com. November 20-22, 2002. Saskatchewan Water & Wastewater Association annual con

ference and trade show. Saskatoon, SK.

Contact Fax: (306) 664-0027, E-mail: krecsy.swwa@sasktel.net. November 21, 2002. Plant Monitoring seminar, hosted by WEAO,held at the CNE grounds,Toronto. Contact: Wes Trimble,Email: wtrimble@ch2m.cora.

life in the Arctic and Great Lakes show

nual conference of the Northwest Biosolids

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high levels of toxicity and have birth defects; habitat is being destroyed through activities like dredging and in dustrial development. "B ill C-10 has a number of strengths, which led CPAWS to recommend pas sage by Parliament," said Stephen

Management Association, Harrison Hot Springs, BC. Contact Tel:(604)451-6117.

Tradeshow. Toronto Congress Cen

Hazell, CPAWS' Executive Director.

"These strengths include the prohibi tions on hydrocarbon and mineral de velopment in marine conservation areas and the requirement that they include zones that fully protect special features or sensitive elements of ecosystems." An important aspect of the Bill is its focus on protecting healthy marine eco systems by working cooperatively with communities.

Waste-to-energy process reaches revenue-


September 22-24, 2002. Biofest 2002, an

September 22-27, 2002. 7th International Conference on Ceosynthetics, Nice, France. Contact E-mail: ips-conseil@wanadoo.fr, web site: www.7icg-nice2002.com.

tre, Toronto, ON. Contact: ES&E, Tel; 1-888-254-8769, or (905) 7274666, Fax:(905)841-7271.

Biomasse's Waste-to-Energy Process uses the waste sludge and wood residues from pulp and paper mills to create steam energy in an effective and envi ronmentally-friendly manner. The steam that is generated by burning the waste sludge and wood residues is used to produce heat and/or electrical energy and is sold at a price that is very com petitive with the price ofsteam produced by burning fossil fuels in paper mills.

ing Mapping and Evaluation Method.^ to Help Resource Managers Lead

puipose of this project is to develop a method that uses remote sensing and ancillary GIS (Global Information Sys tems)information to accurately map all wetland types in the Great Lakes-St.

Sault Ste. Marie to the Quebec border

solid waste, an increase in total effi

and south to the edge of the Canadian Shield. This forest type represents 20% ofthe managed Crown forest in Ontario. The methodology will be developed using wetlands throughout the District Municipality of Muskoka. The mapping and evaluation technology will be made available to the forestry industry, gov

ciency of existing steam facilities, as well as the elimination of methane emis

a contract to sell $5 million of steam to

reduction of the global emission rates of gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. Contact: www.biomasseint.com.

ernment, and other users when com

$150,000 research grant to

plete. This technology is expected to

map wetland areas in

allow for more accurate identification of wetland boundaries that will facili

District of Muskoka

President of Biomasse International Inc.

Ducks Unlimited Canada has been

"We have now moved from the devel

awarded a $150,000 research grant over two years,from the Living Legacy Trust, to complete a project entitled Develop

opment stage to a revenue-producing


The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence For

est region is found south of the Boreal Forest in North Eastern Ontario from

sions associated with landfill and the


Lawrence Forest.

Benefits for the client include the reduc

Biomasse International Inc. has signed

event for us," said Benoit Dufresne,

Wetland Conservation in Ontario. The

tion by more than 90% of the amount of

generating stage J. Ford Inc.,a Quebec-based specialized pulp and paper producer. J. Ford will purchase steam produced by Biomasse's innovative Waste-to-Energy Process over the next five years. "This is our first completed contract and represents an extremely important

and the Ontario Environmental

tate better "site-level" planning before forest operations are undertaken, and will also enhance municipal land use planning. Contact; www.livinglegacytrust.org.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2002



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Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 2002  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 2002  

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