Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 2002

Page 1

Environmental c Science

May 2002


& Engineering Covering Canada's muftl-billlon dollar environmental protection Industry since 1988.


Storage Tanks & Containment - ES&E's biannual focus Edmonton installs world's largest UV water system Birth of Greenpeace reviewed at WEAO conference Biological treatment of livestock slurry Wastewater treatment by evaporation Arsenic removal from drinking water


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April/May 2002 Vol. 15 No. 2 Issued May, 2002

Uncertainties associated with historical

USTs - See page 49

p: * f''rf % A

. ;y -V- t-A /^••.

Features 7

Is washroom hygiene as important as gun control? - by Tom Davey 8 EPCOR installs world's largest UV water treatment system in Edmonton, Alberta 10 Birth of Greenpeace reviewed at


14 Wastewater treatment by evaporation

58 Safeguarding water pipeline infrastructure by non-invasive means 60 Fish farming moratorium lifted in BC 61 Drugs, hormones and other chemicals polluting our waterways

18 At Riviere des Prairies, 4,400 hp powers the


2002 WEAO conference

Cost-effective solutions offered for arsenic

removal from drinking water 22 Bringing the gift of water to the West Bank 27

ES&E's annual conference and tradeshow

attracts some 1,000 people

pump houses 21

Historical Flashback - Has chemistry become the second invisible profession?

Storage Tanks & Containment ES&E's semi-annual focus

Environment Canada handed evidence of

47 Reducing the cost of hydrocarbon spills

Montreal toxics

30 Changing the investigation and remediation of trichloroethane impacts 34 Biological treatment of livestock slurry using bacteria and fungi 36 Operational requirements of a recirculating sand filter for de-nitrification

40 Damper drive performance can help meet nitrogen oxides reduction requirements 42 Airborne contamination discharge monitoring and reporting regulation

48 Liners - a solution for leaking HPS acid tanks 49 Uncertainties associated with historical USTs

50 Is your storage tank in compliance? 52 Extreme service conditions and a tight fit challenge designers 54 Expandability was a key factor in aerobic digester tank selection 55 Domestic heating oil tanks under scrutiny

Departments 25

Ad Index




Product Review


Professional Cards


Literature Reviews


Date Pad


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Editorial Comment

Is washroom hygiene as importantas gun control?

The recent tragic shooting in

Germany makes gun control an increasingly emotive issue. Young and quite innocent peo ple have also been gunned down ran domly in Alberta, Quebec, Colorado, Scotland and Tasmania in recent years. Such massacres have increasingly be come global phenomena. These mur derous outbreaks not only occurred in different countries, but on different con

tinents. The Port Arthur slayings in Tas mania took place in a different hemi sphere. The isolation of this small Aus tralian island state had remained im

and exit without having washed their

Gerberding of the US Centers for Dis

hands. The next users, even those who have to touch now contaminated han

ease Control and Prevention (CDC). "I think if we were really compulsive about washing our hands we could drastically

dles to leave. Meanwhile, our first un

reduce our risk of colds."

have scrubbed their hands, inevitably

washed friend is in the burger line-up A 1996 study showed Americans do passing over paper money for his fast not wash their hands as often as they food. Not for nothing do they call it should, and studies have shown that peo filthy lucre. ple in other countries are not any better. When Winston Churchill spent a The American Society for Microbiology night gambling in Monte Carlo, his wife, (ASM) launched a public education Clementine went to bed early,fearful he campaign and did a second survey. "We

After Winston Churchill spent the night gambling in Monte Carlo, his wife

mune to the spread of much North American and European flora and fauna, yet the virus of senseless killings had somehow crossed the Pacific. The slay ings took place amid the ruins of what are, ironically, quite lovely stone build ings in the remains of a former British penal colony. In reality, only a few Canadians are killed by guns annually but, as the

awoke to find she was covered from

Walkerton and North Battleford drink

head to toe in French bank notes - his

ing water tragedies show us, a tiny bug like E. coli 0157:H7 or parasites like Giardia or Cryptosporidium can be deadly to humans. Apartfrom the seven

winnings. This story delights many but she was probably in more danger from the bank notes than from any of the WW

fatalities in Walkerton, over 2,000 were

made sick and some possibly had their bodies irreparably damaged by the mi crobes. Tainted drinking water, in fact, has killed or mutilated far more humans

than all of the wars of recorded history. There are many awful diseases in the Third World but tainted water can also

be lethal in advanced countries. In 1993,

400,000 people became sick,4,000 were hospitalized, and 50 deaths were attrib uted to Cryptosporidiosis from contami nated drinking water in Milwaukee. Gun control, in the public eye, equates with public safety and a few bloody scenes on TV news coverage confirm the public's fears. Yes, people do get shot, even more get stabbed, and, as we have seen recently, even hurt in fist fights, all resulting in senseless in juries or death. But a larger killer lurks virtually unnoticed - a lack of personal hygiene in toilet use. 1 have often seen people in fast food restaurants emerge from the stalls, go to the door and pull on the door handle By Tom Davey, Publisher

Clementine awoke to find herself covered

with French bank notes, his winnings. would lose heavily at the tables. She

11 air raids. Bank notes have been found

to be crawling with an assortment of le thal bacteria when analyzed. The com bination of dirty money and unclean door handles make it a macabre relay race for pathogens going from hand to hand. 1 doubt if there are any epidemiological studies available on the lethality of poor washroom hygiene. Common sense, however, makes poor washroom hygiene a prime suspect in many un solved cases of individual illnesses.

Large concentrations of humans are in volved, which, when combined with

their high mobility, provide an almost perfect environment for a range of bac teria and parasites which can be lethal to other humans. Ironically, these un questionable hazards could be mitigated by use of soap and water which are freely available in most North Ameri can washrooms.

repeated the study to see if people re ally are cleaner than they said they were," Barbara Hyde, a spokeswoman for ASM said. They were not. The ASM paid for a study to observe 7,800 people in public washrooms to see if they washed. Restrooms - in New York, Chicago,San Francisco, at Atlan ta's baseball stadium and in New Orle

ans - all had working sinks with soap and towels. "In New York," the ASM

said in a statement, "only 49% of the 2,283 people observed washed their hands after using a restroom in Grand Central and Penn stations."

Across all cities, women washed their hands more often than men. The sur

vey found 75% of women washed up after a bathroom visit, while only 58% of men did. A team at the University of Utah watched people at home and found they often failed the handwashing test, forgetting to wash their hands after han dling chicken, for example, or before

preparing a baby bottle. And this was when someone was watching. E. coli 0157:H7 is one of our most

deadly microbes as events in Walkerton

Studies show most of the viruses that

have shown. As few as 10 microbes of

cause colds are spread through physical contact - people touch their noses or

this particular strain of E. coli can cause death or serious injury to humans. Guns

mouths and then touch someone or

are a more obvious and dramatic dan

something else. Bacteria that cause diarrhea are commonly found in bath rooms. "Handwashing is cheap,it's easy to do and it works," says Dr. Julie

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

ger than E. coli, but they are infinitely less lethal. The facts about bum control

surely should have a higher political priority than gun control. â?–


Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor & Publisher


E-mail: tom@esemag.oom Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY E-mail: sandra@esemag.com Sales Director


E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mall: denlse@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER E-mall: virginia@esemag.com

EPCOR installs world's

largest UV water treatment system In Edmonton, Alberta

Whatis claimed as the stalled at the E.L. Smith Water Treat

very tough and long lasting. Once swal lowed, the microbe emerges from its shell and infects the lining of the intes tine. When this happens, some people get a disease called cryptosporidiosis.

E-mail: steve@esemag.com

ment Plant in Edmonton, Alberta.

What are the benefits of

Technical Advisory Board

EPCOR is using the Sentinel™ UV Dis infection System, developed by Calgon Carbon Corporation. This system uses

UV technology? Ultraviolet light is a highly effective method ofdisinfecting potable water and is capable of inactivating organisms such as Cryptosporidium, which are re

Publisher's Assistant

world's largest ultravio let(UV)water treatment system, is being in


E-mail: kathy@esemag.com President


Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg

intense beams of ultraviolet light to pro

Alan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought Inc. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

vide highly efficient inactivation of vi-

sistant to traditional treat

ment methods. UV is a very

CH2M HILL Canada Limited

safe method for disinfection

Dr. Howard D. Goodfeiiow

as it produces no disinfection by-products and is a cost-ef fective solution to provide anywhere from 100 to 1,000 times the current safety fac tor in drinking water. It also

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech Canada inc.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi monthly business publication ot Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ESiSEhas been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles In this magazine are intended to provide Information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward our editorial costs.

has the added benefit that it

can easily be retrofitted into existing facilities.

The $10 million UV sys tem installation is the major component of an overall up grade at the E.L. Smith Wa ter Treatment Plant.

In 1976, the E.L. Smith Water Treatment Plant was

Completed UV building.

ruses, bacteria and protozoa. EPCOR says the Sentinel system will significantly increase the company's ability to treat organisms like Cryptosporidium and Giardia - intestinal pro tozoa, which can cause serious illnesses

cation, filtration, and disinfection. The

if left untreated.

UV system is another barrier in the treat

What is Giardia? Beaver Fever is the common name

Canadian Publications Mail Sales Second Class Mali

Product Agreement No. 40065446 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written per mission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year (plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one

for a flu-like illness caused by a com mon intestinal parasite known as Gia rdia. The symptoms usually appear one to four weeks after ingesting a large amount of Giardia cysts. Giardia can be found even in otherwise pure moun


tain streams.


Ail advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmen

tal Science & Engineering,220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel; (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

built upstream of the down town core in the City of Edmonton. It has a maximum treatment capacity of 240 ML/day. •The plant uses a multiple barrier treat ment process with coagulation, clarifi

What is Cryptosporidium? Cryptosporidium is a protozoan para site even smaller than Giardia, that can

ment process.

•In 2000,the plant produced 62,811 ML of water, or approximately 63 billion litres.

EPCOR will be showcasing the new treatment facility to utility representa tives, and plans to market the Sentinel system.

Another Sentinel system has been purchased for the Canmore Water Treat ment Plant, which is operated by EPCOR,and the Rossdale Water Treat

live in the intestines of humans and ani

ment Plant in Edmonton will have a Sen

mals (hosts). Outside of the hosts the microbe is protected by a shell called

tinel system installed within two years. For more information, circle reply card No. 105

an oocyst, so it is like a seed of a plant.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002


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Conference Review

Birth of Greenpeace reviewed at 2002 WEAO Conference

Environmental profes ionals are

his heart, but it has strayed further than

used to hearing from experts and are frequently plagued by the protest groups who are of ten ill-informed but extremely media savvy. The 2002 Water Environment

he could tolerate on the issue of chlorine,

an element that is used in a wide variety of industrial, medical, and agricultural applications. In 1985, Greenpeace took up the campaign to eliminate chlorine from all industrial proces.ses, and essen tially remove it from human use, despite its enormous benefits to society. No

Association of Ontario Conference

heard the views of a man who not only had been there and done that, but could

articulate his experiences, with scientific

matter who or what was to blame for the

facts interwoven with his own fascinat

tragic deaths in Walkerton, there is no

ing history which reads like science fic tion. The truth is sometimes stranger than fiction.

Dr. Patrick Moore, formerly of Greenpeace, now of Greenspirit, took the conference along the road from the birth of Greenpeace to his own conver sion, during his long protest-filled trek to a Damascus of science and reason.

His is a fascinating story of a scientist and idealist who had sailed in a leaky boat on the first Greenpeace protest against nuclear testing in Alaska before taking on French atmospheric nuclear testing in the South Pacific. He proved to be an equal opportunity protester when he became involved in protests against Soviet Union factory whaling. Far from

doubt about the fact that a little chlorine

Dr. Patrick Moore

much we can do to improve the state of the environment.

"By the mid-1980s, Greenpeace had grown from a church basement into an organization with an income of over (US) $100 million per year, offices in 21 countries and over 100 campaigns around the world, now tackling toxic waste, acid rain, uranium mining and drift net fishing as well as the original issues. But compromise and co-opera tion between government, industry, academia and the environmental move

could have prevented this incident. But not even this will change Greenpeace's misguided policy; it is based on blind dogma, not on science or logic. Following his paper. Dr. Moore at tended a press conference where he en larged on particular environmental is sues. He said that biosolids applications in our forests might have considerable economic, as well as environmental, benefits.

Award winners

During the awards luncheon on Mon day, Robert McMillon, WFF PresidentFlect, presented the Arthur Sidney Be dell Award to Tony Ho,the William D.

ment is required to achieve sustainability.

Hatfield Award to Renwick Arbuthnot,

shore in the North Pacific, rubber boats

"It is this effort to find consensus

were pitted against Russian haipoons, and the courage and determination of the protesters was seen on international TV, with coverage in newspapers and maga

among competing interests that has oc cupied my time for the past 15 years. Not all my former colleagues see things that way," he said. "They reject con.sensus politics and sustainable develop

and the George W. Burke, Jr. Award to Steve Lumb (in abstentia). There was a moving moment when Mae Grove was honoured with a spe

zines around the world.

He reflected that as the 21 st century began, environmental thinkers were di vided along a sharp fault line. First were the doomsayers who predicted the col lapse of the global ecosystem,resulting in "an Apocalypse of Biblical propor tions". Then there are the technologi cal optimists who believe that we can feed 12 billion people and solve all our problems with science and technology. They try to debunk all environmental concerns and subscribe to growth for its

ment in favour of continued confronta

tion and ever-increasing extremism, ush ering in an era of zero-tolerance and leftwing politics. They are anti-science and technology, with all large machines seen as inherently destructive and unnatural. Science is invoked to justify positions that have nothing to do with science and unfounded opinion accepted over dem onstrated fact."

The chlorine saga He said that Greenpeace was close to

cial award from WFAO. Ms. Grove's

contributions were also recognized by 5S Society Chairman Jim Brooker, who presented her with a new shovel. She had served for many years as Secretary/ Administrator for both the American

Water Works Association, Canadian Section, and the Canadian Institute for

Pollution Control. She worked closely with the renowned Dr. A.F. Beiry. Later, both the AWWA and the CIPC

each divided into distinct entities, repContinued overleaf

own sake.

Dr. Moore said:"I do not believe that

Environmental Science & Engineering

either of these extremes makes sense.

There is a middle road based on science

Introduce your new staff to the industry!

and logic, the combination of which is

ES(&E reaches over 19,000 water, wastewater and environmental

sometimes referred to as common sense.

protection professionals across Canada.

There are real problems and there is

Photo report by Steve Davey 10

Call us at:(905)727-4666 for special rates Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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Conference Review

resenting drinking water and water pol lution disciplines. Other Canadian bod

disciplines across Canada.

ies now include the Water Environment

In addition to the wide range of tech nical and scientific papers, a special ses sion on consulting was convened. The Consultants Forum comprised Rod Holme, P.Eng., of Earth Tech Inc., George Powell, P.Eng., CH2M HILL Canada Limited, and Bill DeAngelis, P.Eng., American Water Services Canada Corp. Rod was the seventh

Association of Ontario, the British Columbia Water and Waste Association, the Western Canada Water & Waste-

water Association, RESEAU environnement, and the Atlantic Canada Water Works Association. The Water Environ

ment Federation represents wastewater treatment across North America. The Canadian Water and Wastewater Asso

ciation represents water and wastewater

Consultants' Forum

Canadian President of AWWA,and both George and Bill are Past Presidents of




generation in Flouride


WEAO. The meeting was chaired by Tom Davey, Publisher, Environmental Science & Engineering magazine. It was apparent that the issues of con sultants' tendering for projects had be come complex, costly, and in some cases, self-defeating, to the aims of ob taining engineering excellence. The low salary scales of the environmental engi neering profession were vigorously de bated. Comparisons were made be tween the per diems of environmental engineers compared to certain other pro fessionals. When it was suggested that budgets would not allow more generous treatment of engineers and analytical chemists, Tom Davey pointed out that the life cycle of environmental engineer ing projects spanned decades. As many projects vastly outlived their designers by decades, any savings by owners us-

It was apparent that the issues of

consultants' tendering for projects had become complex, costly, and in some cases, self-defeating, to the aims of

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obtaining engineering excellence. ing the Low Bid Ethos as the main crite rion was miniscule compared to the monetai'y and environmental values of engineering excellence. During some rigorous debate from the floor, it was suggested that munici palities had not got the money to pay more for engineering excellence, Tom retorted: "Look at Walkerton. In addi

tion to human suffering and death, how many millions went into legal fees and inquiries which could have been pre vented by spending a fraction of these

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater treatment by evaporation

Waterevaporation wasfirst

used by the Phoenicians,

method requires a great deal of area, is slow and is subject to the weather.

Romans and Chinese to


obtain salt from seawater.

•Very slow •Takes up a lot of space •Requires large land mass and pond liner •Odour problems

Large flats were filled with seawater and natural evaporation from the sun evapo rated the water and left behind dry salt. The first boiling water evaporators in the US are traced back to the Onondaga Indians from the Syracuse, New York area in 1654. Syracuse still has the nick name of'Salt City'. The Onondagas used iron pots to boil local brine water down to a dry salt. Without realizing it, they also discovered server corrosion and

evaporator meltdown, a problem that plagues traditional boiling water reac tors to this day. The combination of water, salt and iron just does not mix well. Boiling water evaporators have not changed much over the last 350 years. Some industrial wastewater evaporators are using boiling water tech nology and are still plagued with corro sion problems. Many applications utilizing evapora tors assume and plan for a less than oneyear life. Con-osion and meltdown are anticipated and accounted for. Efficiency Boiling water evaporation efficiency is based on some basic laws of physics: • It takes 8,092 BTUs to evaporate one gallon of water. • Natural gas has a heating value of 1,000 BTUs per cubic foot (1 Therm = 100,000 BTUs).

• Approximate cost of natural gas is $0.50 per Therm. Based on this very basic fomiula, it should cost about $.04 of fuel to evapo rate one gallon of water under ideal con


Forced AirEvapora


• No method for collecting solids, drop let carryover. • VOCs will vaporize and create air pol lution.

• Not suitable for distillation or water reuse.



force air in a counter

current to a spray of water pumped to the top

and exhaust the steam

via an exhaust pipe. This method has no way

of a column and free

falling downward. The evaporation rate is largely dependent on the water temperature and the dew point. This method is cost-effective and highly ef

Basic Boiling Water Tank Evaporators basi cally heat the water to its boiling point 212''F

tors utilize blowers to

to remove dried solids

other than baking the tank contents down to a cake, which in sulates the heat and holds it into the steel,

evaporated is preheated by another proc

causing early tank failure. Efficiency is usually 65%-75% depending on design. With the addition of a condenser, you

ess and the wastewater does not contain

can distill the water for reuse.

ficient when the waste stream to be

volatile compounds(VOCs)that would be readily transferred to the air, and thereby create air pollution. It is not rec ommended for water high in dissolved or suspended solids as they will deposit


• VOCs vaporize to atmosphere as air pollution. • Acids and salts will attack the steel.

• Cost of energy to heat the entire tank

on the internals and block the water air

of wastewater to over 212°F.

flow. This design has no method of re moving dried solids. Cost estimates depend on the temperature of the waste

• Cost of extra energy to bring high salt



• Source water should be preheated by process generating waste. • Efficiency is dependent on the relative humidity and water temperature. •Air permitting may be required. VOCs will create air pollution.

content water to a boil.

• Dissolved solids and suspended solids are periodically drained off in a slurry solution and this highly concentrated liq uid waste must be disposed of. • Cost of extra energy to overcome the insulation caused by suspended solids build-up on vessel bottom. • Risk of system running dry, resulting in meltdown.




Steam Tube with Water Exhaust Boil

Boiler Blow-Off Evaporators can evaporate large volumes (2-4 gpm) at a low cost and are effective on pretreated Traditional Wastewater

Evaporation Methods Natural Evaporation Ponds rely on the combination of solar heat and wind

to naturally evaporate water. This

By Ronald G. Fink, RGF Environmental Group

waste streams. This is no method for

collecting or removing suspended sol ids. Most of the dissolved solids are va

porized in the steam at 212°F and blown off into the atmosphere. VOCs will be vaporized and will create air pollution. Therefore, all VOCs and solids must be


removed from this system. Efficiency

• VOCs will be exhausted as air pollu tion. Continued overleaf

is 70%-85%. 14

ing Water Evaporator is basically the same concept as a Boiling Water Evapo rator. However, the hot exhaust gases are bubbled through the wastewater to improve heat transfer efficiency. VOCs will be vaporized and air pollution will result. Dissolved and suspended solids are removed periodically by draining a slurry. Efficiency is 75%-85%.

Environmental Science (6 Engineering, May 2002

Water and Wastewater

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 172(See page 25)

'OR essential elementsfor living

Evaporation 101 • Acids and salts will attack the steel, shorten vessel, and steam tube life.


• Cost of extra energy to bring high salt • Dissolved solids and suspended solids are periodically drained off in a slurry solution and this highly concentrated liq uid waste must be disposed of. • Cost of energy to bring the entire tank

Thermally Oxidized

Thermal Oxidation Chamber

content water to a boil.

Combustion Gases

And Water Vapor Hot Gases



of waste water to over 212°F.


• Cost of extra energy to overcome the

insulation caused by suspended solids build-up on vessel bottom.

• Risk of system running dry, resulting in meltdown.

Dry Chamber Flash

Dry Ash Containing







pended solids insulating heat source

• VOC will be vaporized and will create air pollution.

from the water.

• Acids and salts will attack steel vessel.

Heat Exchanger Boiling Water Evaporators heat a coil filled with a high temperature oil, which is pumped to an other coil inside a tank containing the waste. The advantage to this system is that the tank can be made of non-corro

sive polypropylene with no direct flame contact. The vapour can be distilled. Efficiency is 70%-80%. Concerns:

• VOCs will be exhausted as air pollu

• Low tube life expectancy. • Cost of extra energy to bring high salt content water to a boil.

sel of wastewater to 212°E.

• Cost of energy to heat the entire tank

• No risk of system running dry, result ing in meltdown.

of waste water to over 212°F.

• Dissolved solids and suspended solids are periodically drained off in a slurry solution and this highly concentrated liq uid waste must be disposed of. • Cost of extra energy to overcome the insulation caused by suspended solids

• Coil failure due to corrosion.

build-up on vessel bottom. • Risk of system running dry resulting

• Acids and salts will attack the steel,

in meltdown.


A new technology could change the

shortened coil life.

• Cost of extra energy to bring high salt

history of evaporators. It is a novel ap

content water to a boil.

proach: no steel vessel, no pot of boil ing water, no slurry concentrate to dis pose of, no corrosion, and no meltdown. New Technology

• Dissolved solids and suspended solids are periodically drained off in a slurry solution and this highly concentrated liq uid waste must be disposed of. • Cost to bring the entire tank of wastewater to over 212°F

Thermo Oxidizer utilizes a ceramic

chamber to flash evaporate atomized wastewater in a dry chamber. The at omized wastewater is heated in a cham

ber of hot gases to 800°F - 1,400°E re sulting in a complete flash evaporation of the water,leaving behind all the con taminants as a dry ash. All volatiles in the wastewater are burned and actually C7


Steam Tube Boiling Water Evapora tors utilize a hot tube as a heat source.

The flame is directed inside a steel tube, thereby saving the tank from flame im pingement and early failure. The tube

add BTU value. The heat source can be

oil, gas, diesel, or used oil. A second ary chamber thermally oxidizes the flu gases to eliminate any air pollution.

oil burner is utilized.

For more information, circle reply card No. 112


Evaporation. The process in which a liq uid dissipates or emits vapour, fumes or invisibie minute particles. Distillation. A process that consists of driving gas or vapour from liquids or sol ids by heating and condensing to liquid products once again. BTUs (British Thermal Unit). Amount of energy required to raise a 1 lb. mass of water 1 °F @ 1 atmosphere. VOCs (Volatile Organic Compound). Or ganic compound, which readily dissipates into the air at room temperature, i.e., ben zene, gasoline. TPS(Total Dissolved Solids), The amount of ionic matter dissolved in a fluid and can

be measured by electric current. Dis solved solids in water can be deceiving. For example: seawater contains 35,000

ppm of salt, yet it will appear crystal clear. 35,000 ppm is equivalent to 3.5% of con taminants.

Thermal Oxidation. High temperature breakdown of contaminants to carbon di oxide and water,


TSS (Total Suspended Solids). Sub stances suspended in a fluid large enough to be visible by the human eye and small

• No steel vessel to replace. • No cost associated with bringing high

The water is heated to 212°E. The va

•No cost associated with energy needed to overcome slurry solution and sus


• No cost to haul off waste oil if waste

• No steel for acids and salts to corrode.

will fail. Flowever, it is easily replace able and considerably less expensive than the tank. Efficiency is 70%-80%. pour can be distilled and reused.

• No cost associated with disposal of concentrated slurry. • No VOC air pollution wonies. • No cost ofenergy to heat an entire ves

enough to be kept in suspension by the movement of the fluid molecules.

salt content water to a boil.

Condenser. An apparatus in which gas or vapour is condensed to liquid form.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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For more information, circle repiy card No. 113(See page 25)

Wastewater Pumps

At Riviere des Prairies, 4,400 hp powers the pump houses

Overthe past20 years,exten

sive efforts have been made

to improve water sanitation in Laval, including the infu sion of almost half a billion dollars in

funding from the Quebec government through its Programme d'assainissement des eaux, initiatives by other agencies involved in rehabilitating networks, the construction of new facilities, such as

interceptors and pumping stations, or improving the operation of existing ones.

At the heart of these efforts is the

desire of operating staff to continuously improve the performance of existing sta tions.

The ultimate objective is to ensure that the quality of the water being re turned to the Des Milles-Iles and Des

Prairies rivers is good enough to pro-

By Yvan Savoie, III Flygt, Montreal

Construction of the Lapiniere water treatment plant and pumping station.

tect the wildlife habitats and ecotourism potential of these bodies of water, the quality of life of local residents, and the

capacity of treatment facilities to produce better-quality drinking water, Continued overleaf


Odour associated with wastewater and biosolids is no joke. Normally it's an unmistakable sign that sulfate reducing


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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Wastewater Pumps History of Reunification and Standardisation The City of Laval was created in 1965 after the merger of the 14 municipalities located on this island measuring 32 by 12 km,whose current population is 345,000. In the years since, in addition to operating drinking water treatment fa cilities, Laval has also constructed three wastewater treat

ment plants. The first plant with its Fabreville pumping station was built in 1984. This station used Flygt model 3305 submers

ible pumps with a pumping capacity of 78,000 mVday and a maximum lift height of 9 m; the plant utilizes a physicochemical process. The second facility at Auteuil was opened in 1993 and designed to use Archimedes screw pumps with a total pump

ing capacity of 160,000 mVday at 33 rpm and a height of 12.65 m. Four Flygt model 7050PL pumps are used in this plant's biological treatment process. La Piniere, the third wastewater treatment facility, uses a physico-chemical process; 16 275-hp model CP3312 Flygt pumps ensure that the wastewater is lifted to a velocity head of 33 m for a total capacity of 8000 L/sec. This makes La Piniere the largest lift station using sub mersible pumps in North America in terms of capacity and

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For more information, circle reply card No. 117

dynamic load. The diameter of the station is 20 m. The 2.45 m (8-ft.) feed pipes that transport wastewater from the city to the La Piniere station are located 22.7 m (75-ft.) below the level of the Des Prairies River and buried under Route 440,one of the main highways running through the city. Construction of the facility required the excava tion of 200,000 m^ of earth and the use of 30,000 m^ of concrete and 3,000 tons of reinforcing steel. Because the station was built using the caisson technique, underground water is drawn by gravity into an outfall located in the cen tral ring of the station, then pumped by the 16 pumps situ ated around the ring. The volume of this lift station is impressive; it is equiva lent to 400 7.5 m swimming pools. After lifting, the water is forced by gravity to the pretreatment block, where it is subject to fine screening and degritting. Next, the water moves to six settling tanks for removal of phosphorous and suspended solids. Before being ejected back into the river, the water passes through a disinfection block, which eliminates any viruses, bacteria, or pathogenic organisms still present, using ultra violet rays from 320 UV lamps. Next, the sludge is dried and granulated. Construction began in 1996 on this $107 million station designed to serve a population of approximately 282,000 with an average capacity of 240,000 mVday,and the facility began operating in August 1998. By processing approximately 75% of the island's total wastewater, mainly from the south end,the operation of this station has a major environmental impact, because it has finally made possible the purification of waste entering the Des Prairies River(waste entering the Des Milles-lles River is already processed at the Auteuil and Fabreville plants). Positive effects on the Des Prairies River were already evident in the fall of 1998 in temis of the quality of the water pumped at the intake to the drinking water processing facility. For more information, circle reply card No. 116


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Drinking Water

Cost-effective solutions offered for arsenic removal

from drinking water

The Culligan Good Water MachineÂŽ reverse osmosis Point-of-Use drinking v/ater system reduces Arsenic V in chiorinated water suppiies to ieveis far below the new

The new arsenic standard, an standard.

microfiltration or reverse osmosis, to

nounced In late 2001 by the

point-of-use or point-of-entry systems

United States Environmental

for household and commercial use.

Protection Agency,could cost local communities (US) $200 million annually and will reduce the maximum amount of arsenic allowed in drinking

water from 50 parts per billion to 10 parts per billion by 2006. Arsenic is a naturally occurring ele ment that enters water supplies through either natural deposition or agricultural and industrial pollution. According to the EPA,health effects related to arsenic include cardiovascular problems, diabe tes, and increased risk of various can cers. The new standard is estimated by

the EPA to impact one in 20 or about 4,000 community water systems nation wide. Nearly 97% of those are small systems serving communities of fewer than 10,000 people. Water quality associations, govern

ment agencies and water companies have been working to educate commu nities about proven and cost-effective arsenic removal methods.

Already stressed community drink ing water systems and budgets will be impacted over the next several years. So, it is even more critical to provide the affected communities with a variety of technologies and services - from wellhead arsenic removal systems, to

USFilter and Culligan have entered into an exclusive marketing agreement with GEH Wasserchemie GmbH of Ger

many, to market Granular Ferric Hy droxide (GFH''''^) media to remove ar senic (III), arsenic (V), chromium,lead and uranium. The GEH media has been

used in Europe for many years to help municipalities meet the World Health Organization standards. The media will be used in commu

nity water treatment plants and within the Culligan brand point-of-use and point-of-entry systems. Through pointof-use systems, consumers in affected

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ing water quality. These under-the-sink systems use membrane technology to reduce arsenic levels, plus other con taminants such as nitrate/nitrite, lead and

Cryptosporidium and Giardia cysts. USFilter will also provide wellhead arsenic removal systems by installing the GEH media in pressure vessels. To ensure system integrity, the company will use its nationwide service network

to provide cost-effective maintenance contracts that include water analysis, media removal, disposal and replace ment.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Circle reply card No. 119 For more information,

circle reply card No. 120

International Report

Bringing the gift of water to the West Bank

In January of 1999 I began an as

years and in extremely tight, built-up areas is a slow, tedious process. How ever, it gets very exciting when retain ing walls collapse, sewers back up and to appease the local public, the contrac tor is thrown in jail and the police are looking for the engineer, to lock him up as well. It took a special meeting with the mayor, a phone call to the police,

signment that certainly changed my outlook on life and made me aware of a part of the world I had little knowledge of. The company I work for, CH2M HILL, was asked to

help with a project to bring water to one of the most water starved areas of the

world, the Palestinian West Bank.

Project sponsorship was provided by USAID and by the water authority for which the company was providing serv ice, the Palestinian Water Authority. I was chosen to lead the design engi neering efforts. In total, I spent 11 months in the West Bank in 1999, and

have gone back each year since,for two to three weeks, to provide assistance on the project. The water crisis that exists in the West Bank will only be solved when there is a meaningful peace and the just sharing of a vital resource is agreed to. The Arab poet Bmile Habiby beautifully and succinctly states the West Bank water problem is "like desert camels of thirst dying, while on the backs water bearing." Background Winter in Palestine can be quite raw, and sitting in a stone and concrete build ing off the main street in Ramallah heated only by a small bottled-gas heater - made me wonder what I had taken on.

There was a potable water supply that worked and was of good quality, so I never suffered from the Aztec Two Step. Unfortunately, the water would be shut off at times; a cistern or roof storage was the solution in this case. Once and a

while in the winter months, I took a

bone-chilling cold shower. Electricity would fail frequently, making computer and telephone com munication frustrating unless you had a

and about three weeks in Hotel Bethle Road to Ramallah

well-charged lap top and a cell phone. E-mail was available, but, at times, un

reliable. In January, a cold front moved in leaving a coating of snow, which beautified the sepia-coloured landscape and made me homesick. It vanished the

next day. Despite the adversities in the Ramallah office, we established a satis

factory computer system networked to North America with the typical cadre of servers, printers and plotters. We had GIS, CAD and E-mail, but what we

sadly lacked was mapping - crucially needed when you are setting up regional water systems in such extreme topogra phy. The Palestinian Authority can only get its survey infomiation from Israel and the continuous conflict makes this

a major challenge. It is next to impossi ble to fly over the area like we can do in Canada at will. I eventually got accu rate aerial photography with contours for all first contract alignments, helping to expedite the work. With the increased conflict, this is now very difficult to do. Staff are well educated and eager to learn, and despite constant turmoil and stress in their lives, they are great to work with. My wife Heather came over to see me twice and stayed for about two months. We had the privilege of an in vitation to visit Palestinian and Israeli

^fl, ^ -

homes to witness how they live. They are wonderful people - very family ori ented and gracious hosts. The design work started with a fasttracked transportation project that im proved the City of Bethlehem's infra

hem for some 30 citizens impacted to get things straightened out. The main purpose of my stay in the West Bank was to work with a multi

national team of engineers to bring vi tally needed water to the Palestinian people ofthe West Bank. We completed the design of four major projects in the Bethlehem, Hebron, and Nablus area

and are currently constructing the Beth lehem project. In total USAID is spend ing over US $360 million in the West Bank and Gaza and is by far the largest donor country. To appreciate the technical issues of the project, you need to appreciate the unique features of the West Bank. It is landlocked, bounded by Jordan on the east and Israel on the other three sides.

Its area is approximately 5,500 sq. km, about 120 km long and 45 km wide about the same size as Prince Edward

Island (PEI). The population is esti mated at about two million people, with annual growth rates estimated at over 5%. The gross domestic product is CDN

$5 billion. Compare this to PEI's 140,000 people and GNP of $3.34 bil lion. Truly a dilemma when one thinks of sustainability. The topography in the West Bank is highly varied, with a ridge or spine at elevation 400 to 1,200 m above sea

level,running in a north-south direction parallel to the Mediteiranean coast from Jenin to Hebron,falling off sharply east of the Jordan Valley rift where the Dead

structure in time for the millennium and

Ramallah checkpoint

By George Powell, Sr. VP, CH2M HILL Canada Limited 22

the visit ofPope John and Hillary Clinton. Manger Square and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, was the major area of infrastructure improvement and was part of the fast-tracked project. Reconstruction of water, sewers and

roads in areas dating back thousands of

Topography near BanI Nalm well sites.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

International Report flowing into the West Bank mostly use less; therefore, groundwater is a pre cious resource and supplies most of the

Sea lies at elevation 400 m below sea

level, the lowest place on earth. The to pography slopes more gradually to the

West Bank water. Groundwater

west to the Mediterranean Sea. The

spine is the anticline between the East ern aquifer and the Western aquifer, the major groundwater source in the region. Precipitation is highly varied from year to year and oecurs in the winter months. The situation is aggravated by the intensity of the rainfall, which in the areas around Jerusalem may be 50 events per year and in the arid areas per haps five. The higher elevations along the spine receive as much as 700 mm and the areas to the east toward the Jor dan Rift receive as little as 150 mm.

Unfortunately, there are wet and dry years and currently the area is suffering through one of the driest periods in memory. Of the total precipitation, a large amount of the precipitation is lost through evapotranspiration,estimated to be about 68%;22% percolates down into the groundwater and about 10% runs off. To capture or harvest the runoff is diffi cult because of the intensity of both the runoff and evaporation; we believe 10 to 20% of the runoff can be recovered. Whether it is economical is debatable.

If we look at domestic water con

sumption in Israel, it is reported at 210 litres per capita, while in the West Bank it is about 60 litres per capita. The World Health Organization's minimum recom mended domestic water consumption is 100 litres per capita; Ontario's present average is 360 litres per capita. With the USAID efforts water sup ply to the area will be increased. We project consumption in the West Bank could increase to 150 litres per capita, still well below their "Israeli cousins".

In the West Bank water is supply-lim ited. If we are successful in increasing the supply, it will be used - 80% of the area needs irrigation to be productive. The population in the West Bank is growing at 5% to 6% per year. One could argue that this continued high rate of growth is not sustainable. Surface Water The Sea of Galilee as we know it in

the Bible, or Lake Kinneret, or Tiberias as it is referred to in Israel, is a freshwa

One of our first assignments was to determine the specific yield or capacity of the Eastern Aquifer which had been

previously estimated at 172 million mV year and was the figure used in the Israel/Palestinian Oslo II Accord to es tablish what could be made available to

Well drilling rig. tiful area. The lake level is regulated at 209 -214 m below sea level. It is the

Bank are the Eastern, the North Eastern

so-called source of the Jordan River and

all water intake in Israel. The lake is at

and the Western aquifers. Our study will determine if the groundwater capacities are overstated. The estimated yields of these aquifers as per the Oslo II Agree

its all-time low.

ment are shown in Table 1.

Lake-water quality is also of concern and salinity is increasing because of the high demand for water brought on by drought. Discharge to the Jordan River normally consists of a saline discharge, and lagoon wastewater effluent, rarely lake water. Only during high lake lev els is there discharge of lake water. The saline discharge is from a trench run ning along the west bank of the lake that intercepts the saline springs. With the recent drought, salinity in the lake has increased dramatically. The treated sew age effluent is from the agricultural com

If we look at the Eastern Aquifer which lies almost entirely under the West Bank, it comprises an upper unconfined aquifer, comprised of Karstic limestone running from surface down some 370 metres where it sits atop a far less permeable chalk and chert layer. This layer acts as a hairier and below it lies a lower confined aquifer, comprised of Karstic limestone,extend ing from about 400 metres below sur

is the major Israeli surface water sup ply representing about 30% of the over

whatever runs off from the Jordan and

Yarmuk river watersheds. The Dead Sea

unfortunate fate.

has no outlet except through evapora

Other Water Supply Options Desalination is a potential solution, but the area's economy could not at present support this technology. Wastewater treatment is needed to protect the aquifers and wastewater reuse is a po tential supply, but expensive. The pro ject is being proposed to the governate of Hebron and we are pre.sently involved in the preparation of a design-build con tract that hopefully will lead to large-

munities around the southern end of the

lake and is of poor quality. It is, during this recent dry period, shocking to ob serve. The River Jordan is not "chilly and cold", it is grossly polluted. The Dead Sea is the receptor of

tion. Its level has declined over 12 me

tres in the last 100 years and during the recent drought declined at a rate of al most 2 metres per year. Salinity in the Dead Sea is over 250,000 mg/1, almost 10 times higher than seawater. This high concentration makes the surface water Table 1


Potential Yield per Oslo II Agreement Million cubic metres/year

is the "Bread Basket of Israel"; intense

and highly sophisticated irrigation sys tems drawing water from the lake have transformed the desert into a truly beau-

face to about 800 metres where it sits

atop igneous rock. Precipitation finds its way down through the Karstic limestone and frac tures in the limestone. While the aqui fers are said to be separated, we feel they are connected in some places. The up per aquifer is being depleted, and at the growth rates presently experienced, I fear the lower aquifer will share this

ter lake located north and outside of the

West Bank. It's hardly as big as Lake Couchiching in Ontario and has the same lovely greenish-blue colour. Around it

the West Bank. Our study involved ex tensive modelling and analysis that in cluded additional monitoring and test wells to better understand what was go ing on many metres below the surface. The three major aquifers in the West




145 362


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

scale water reuse in the Judean desert to the east of Hebron.

Water Quality Water quality is now being monitored more intensively, and while at present it Continued overleaf 23

International Report is of good quality in the lower aquifer,

drilled well.

upper-aquifer nitrates and metals are de grading the groundwater and will even

tually degrade the lower aquifer. Un

Submersible pumps were selected as the deep well supply pumps, designed to lift the water to balancing tanks or

less Palestine accelerates its treatment

reservoirs at each ofthe well sites, where

of its wastewaters, which for the most

the water is disinfected using chlorine and is pumped to regional reservoirs

part flow into the Wadis untreated and find their way down into the groundwater, the degradation will continue. Based on the hydrological investiga tions done for USAID,we hegan the de velopment of a major bulk water sup ply program, which included the devel opment of 27 wells, 14 production wells and 13 monitoring wells. The expected capacities of the production wells are 200 to 250 mVh. They are drilled to depths as much as 810 metres below grade. Due to the extreme depths of the wells, drilling them requires oil-type rigs much larger than used in Canada. Drill ing a well is subject to the possibility of a dry hole and drilling tools being lost orjammed in the drill holes. The holes

near Bethlehem and Hebron.

The well-pump discharges are eightinch, schedule 80, threaded pipe and each section has straps welded around the couplings to prevent them from unthreading on possible pump reversal. Check valves are provided every 150 metres along the discharge to further prevent the possibility of back flow. Losing a pump at these depths is disas trous and has happened; retrieval re quires lifting at least 50 tons. The pump motors are about 600 horsepower, with 3,000-volt motors. To provide flexibil ity in capacity, variable-speed frequency drives are provided. The wells are located in remote ar

one of the major operating headaches of such a facility. The sites are manned 24 hours a day. To pump,or in certain cases re-pump, the water to the regional reservoirs, pres sures up to 40 atmospheres can be ex perienced (588 psig) and during surge will reach higher pressures. We used a transient analysis programme developed at the University of Toronto to under stand surge implications. The supply pumps from the balancing reservoirs to the regional reservoirs are multi-stage, horizontal-turbine pumps;either hydropneumatic tanks or surge-relief valves handle surge in the transmission lines. The real difficulty is working in an area that is in a state of constant conflict

which provides a level offrustration and depression that is extremely hard to deal with. To get the work done under these conditions and meet the tough schedules imposed is the real challenge. While our neighbours to the south are

eas and 1200kw prime-rated generators provide power supply. The diesel fuel

often criticized for their initiatives in the

ing at these depths is a high risk venture

consumption for one well is over 8 mV day (1,930 Igpd). USAID is negotiat ing the eventual supply of electric power

efforts to bring water to a group of peo ple in desperate need and hope their ef forts don't go unnoticed. The Camel

and costs run about US$ 1 million per

to these remote well sites to eliminate

does not have to die in the desert. ❖

start out at 36 inches in diameter and

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Ad Index



Reader Service No.




Company HETEK Solutions

ADI International



ITT Flygt

American Water Services








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John Meunier/USFilter




KMK Consultants




MacViro Consultants





Metcon Sales & Engineering






MS Filter Inc



MSU Misslssauga






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Career Advancement



ON DEO Degremont












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Procyon Consulting



Ccn Cast Pipe



Can-Am Instruments


CPPA, a division of the

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Sanitherm Engineering






104 142



Siemens Milltronics

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Davis Controls Dense

24 20

121 118

Summit Structures


Trimax Residuals



Diverse Plastic Tanks



Unified Pump Technologies



DIE Industries






Engineered Storage Products EnvirOzone Technologies

53 58

145 124

USFilter, Wallace & Tiernan USFilter, Wallace & Tiernan

18 41

114 159


15 64 11





168 290-294








28-29 52

135 143

ESG International GESCAN

Gorman-Rupp Greatario

Grundfos Canada Harnois Industries

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XP Software York Fluid Controls

27 63

134 253

ZCL Composites





Zenon Environmental

FOR QUICK RESPONSE, FAX BACK TO (905)841-7271 FREE Information Service for Readers





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305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321

May 2002 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338


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Contaminated Sites

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Environment Canada handed evidence of Montreal toxics

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Technoparc is a 30 million square foot site about 15 minutes from downtown Montreal, near Dorval Airport.

TechnoparcSaint-Laurent,near Dorval Airport, is leaching

toxic chemicals into the St.

Lawrence River, including PCBs in concentrations that exceed gov ernment guidelines by more than 8.5 million times, according to a private, nonprofit investigative organization. The findings are part of a report pre sented in April 2002,to members of En vironment Canada's police force, which is concluding an 18 month investigation into toxic discharges from the Techno parc near Montreal's Victoria Street Bridge. The investigation was con ducted by the Environmental Bureau of Investigation (EBI) at the request of Societe pour Vaincre la Pollution(SVP). "We've investigated the site, identified the contaminants and their sources, and confirmed that the hazardous substances

coming from the site are hamiful to fish and other aquatic biota," says EBI execu tive director and lawyer Mark Mattson. Technoparc is a 30 million square foot site about 15 minutes from down

town Montreal, near Dorval Airport, where about 5,000 people work in re search for aerospace, telecommunica tions, pharmaceutical, and biotechnol ogy companies. It was built over the past five years on the site of a former waste dump on the shore of the St. Law rence River.

Mattson and SVP Executive Direc

tor Daniel Green have expressed their concerns to government officials in the

past - most recently after discovering a 400-metre long toxic slick running down the St. Lawrence River in January. "Leachate from the Technoparc site is one of the most significant sources of PCBs and other toxic chemicals such as

PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocar bons) in the St. Lawrence," says Daniel Green. "Today's report gives Environ ment Canada the grounds it needs to launch a Fisheries Act investigation." Green's claim is supported by an ex pert paper prepared by biologist David Dillenbeck and included in the report.

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"Remedial measures must be taken to

protect and upgrade the water quality of the St. Lawrence River," Dillenbeck concludes.

Federal laws, such as the Canada

Fisheries Act prohibit the discharge of toxic levels of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PAHs into waterways like the St. Lawrence River. PCB con tamination of the St. Lawrence River has

negatively affected beluga whale populations and has made eating fish from the river a public health risk. Societe pour Vaincre la Pollution has been actively protecting the St. Law rence River for more than 30 years. EBI began monitoring the Technoparc site in the fall of 2000.

The call for an investigation into con tamination from the Technoparc site is supported by other noted environmen tal groups such as Save the River and Lake Ontario Keeper. â?–

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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Drinking Water/Site Remediation

1,4-dioxane - a little known compound Changing the investigation and remediation of TCA impacts

Have you heard of 1,4-diox

ane? Possibly not. Until re cently, we weren't familiar with it either.

This coin-

pound was recently brought to our at tention at the approval stage for a groundwater pump-and-treat system addressing 1,1,1trichloroethane (TCA) im

pacts in groundwater. The Ontario Ministry of the En vironment(MOE)requested

The US EPA classifies 1,4-dioxane

water plume may involve considerably

as a probable human carcinogen based upon evidence of carcinogenicity in ex perimental animals.

more effort and resources than the host

1,4-dioxane can enter the subsurface

and potentially impact drinking water

TCA plume. Regulatory Guidelines and Remediation Targets In Ontario, there is no current drink

ing water guideline estab lished for 1,4-dioxane, and

the MOE has not adopted a target from another juris diction. Ontario does have

an established Provincial

undertaken to investigate for

Water Quality Objective (PWQO)of 20 pg/L for 1,4-

1,4-dioxane due to the his

dioxane in surface water

toric use of TCA on the site.


that additional site work be

In the past few years, 1,4-

There are no other juris

dioxane has been the focus

dictions in Canada known to

of much attention in the

have a drinking water guide

United States, but until re

line for 1,4-dioxane, includ

cently has received rela tively little attention by regu latory agencies and environ

ing the Canadian Council of

mental consultants across

dictions such as the State of

Canada. This article pro

California have established

Ministers of the Environ

ment(CCME). Other juris

drinking water action levels tion that the authors have Source zone removal and extraction well for TCA and 1,4- as low as 3 pg/L, while the compiled about 1,4-dioxane, dioxane remediation. State of Michigan has set 85 in addition to a 1,4-dioxane case study. aquifers when its host solvent, TCA, is pg/L for a drinking water standard. Documentation regarding 1,4-diox released through spills, leaks or histori Laboratory Analysis ane environmental investigations and cal disposal practices. Unlike TCA, for 1,4-Dioxane remediation is limited; however, a Draft however, 1,4-dioxane readily leaches to It is only within the past few years White Paper on Solvent Stabilizers (the groundwater, is not expected to adsorb that improvements to analytical meth White Paper), including 1,4-dioxane, significantly to soil particles, and is dif ods at the commercial level have made has been prepared by the Water Supply ficult to biodegrade. Due to these prop it possible to reliably detect 1,4-diox Division of the Santa Clara Valley erties, a 1,4-dioxane plume typically ane. Also, 1,4-dioxane is not included Water District in San Jose, California proceeds ahead of the chlorinated sol in the typical analytical scan for chlo and available for review at: www.scv vent plume, and will tend to impact an rinated solvents. So, historically this wd.dst.ca.us/wtrqual/Lustop/Solvent aquifer system to a much larger extent. compound was rarely investigated dur Stabilizers.pdf. Site data presented in the White Paper ing site assessments and remediation 1,4-Dloxane use and properties reveals that a 1,4-dioxane plume can activities. According to the United States En measure twice the length of the host sol Due to the poor purging efficiency vironmental Protection Agency (US vent plume, and impact an area up to of 1,4-dioxane, conventional purge and EPA), in 1985, approximately ninety six times greater. trap methods employed by the commer percent of 1,4-dioxane produced in the Laboratory column studies, pre cial laboratories produced detection lim US was used as a stabilizer for chlorin sented in the White Paper, have also its about 100 times greater than for the ated solvents such as TCA. Solvent sta shown that 1,4-dioxane can rapidly dif more volatile organic compounds bilizers are used to enhance the func fuse through low permeability soils, (VOCs). It is now possible to obtain tional life of solvents by limiting nega such as silts and clays. An inference lower detection limits using other tech tive reactions that degrade solvent prop made from one such study is that landfill niques (i.e. liquid-liquid extraction or erties. Reportedly, 1,4-dioxane has been leachate containing 1,4-dioxane may methane chemical ionization). included with TCA in mixtures at 2 to 8 pass through a one-metre thick clay Commercial laboratories now seem percent by volume. landfill liner in approximately five years to be analyzing for 1,4-dioxane by purge to impact the underlying groundwater and trap gas chromatography/mass specBy D. Grant Walsom, and in excess of drinking water standards. trometry in Selected Ion Mode using Bruce Tunnicliffe, Based upon these properties, defin modified US EPA Method 8260B. XCG Consultants Ltd. ing and capturing a 1.4-dioxane ground- Method detection limits cun ently range vides some useful informa


EnvironineiUai Science & Engineering, May 2002

Drinking Water/Site Remediation from 5|ig/L to 100|ig/L (increased ana lytical costs for the lower detection limit). Currently, analysis of a typical groundwater sample may not pose any difficulties; however, analysis for 1,4dioxane in a more complex matrix (i.e. landfill leachate) may still prove diffi cult due to interference.

Treatability of 1,4-Dioxane Due to 1,4-dioxane's relatively low volatility, air-stripping technologies are unable to remove 1,4-dioxane to levels

suitable for discharge. Additionally, 1,4dioxane's low adsorptive capacity also precludes the use of granular activated carbon (GAG). Therefore, a previously designed treatment system utilizing an air-stripper and/or GAG to remove TGA impacts in groundwater will not be ad equate for treatment of 1,4-dioxane. At this time, the most effective com

mercially available treatment technol ogy used to treat 1,4-dioxane to levels suitable for discharge (e.g. meeting the 20|lg/L PWQO)is advanced oxidation, typically employing ultraviolet lights. Unfortunately,advanced oxidation proc esses(AOPs)are not effective for TGA treatment, and thus, a more complex treatment system including an air-strip

per and/or GAG used in conjunction with an AGP system is required to

and the environment, regulatory agen

ensure that both TGA and 1,4-dioxane

cies, particularly in the United States and now starting in Ganada, have begun to

are effectively removed from the waste

focus on it. As far as the authors are


Based on this design premise, the capital cost for a conventional pumpand-treat system with an air stripper

aware, the approach that Ganadian en vironmental regulatory bodies will take is still not clear, and a groundwater clean-up guideline value has not yet

could increase three fold with the addi

been determined in Ganada.

tion of an AGP system. Projected an nual operating and maintenance costs may increase two fold, due to the addi tional analytical costs incurred in rou tine monitoring, as well as the cost for electricity to operate the ultraviolet lights of the AGP system. Summary

Do not be alarmed if you are required to check for the presence of solvent sta bilizers the next time you have to deal with a chlorinated solvent spill or leak. There is a growing body of information and experience with 1,4-dioxane remediation, and the following case study is one recent example of how it

1,4-dioxane, the solvent stabilizer

typically associated with TGA (also called methyl chloroform), has recently been attracting much attention, in part due to its classification as a probable carcinogen. During site assessment ac tivities, the former analytical method used for analysis of water impacted with chlorinated solvents did not include

1,4-dioxane, and this compound went largely unnoticed. Now that 1,4-dioxane has been shown to be a threat to human health



was dealt with.

Gase Study Initiated by a property transaction, XGG Gonsultants was contracted to

complete a subsurface investigation of an industrial site in south-western Gn-

tario. Drilling and test pitting activities revealed the presence ofTGA-impacted soil and groundwater. The groundwater plume extended over approximately one-third of the site, including portions of the perched aquifer beneath the onContiniied overleaf


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Drinking Water/Site Remediation

Now that 1,4-dioxane has been shown to be a threat to human health and the environment,

from the initial 1,4-dioxane concentra

regulatory agencies, particularly in the

tion. The pump-and-treat system was redesigned to include an advanced oxi dation process and an air-stripper at sub stantially higher capital costs. The capital costs of the system in

United States and now starting in Canada, have begun to focus on it. site commercial warehouse building. TCA was detected at concentrations up to 480,000 jJ-g/L in groundwater at sus pected source zone locations, and up to 25,000 P-g/L outside the suspected source zones.

XCG designed a pump-and-treat sys tem including an air-stripper to address the groundwater TCA impacts. The soil impacts, or "hot spots", were excavated and disposed of at a licensed off-site location. During the application stages for a Certificate of Approval(C of A)to address the groundwater impacts, the MOE responded in a letter stating that "new information has been brought to

Bench testing showed that 1,4-diox ane concentrations of 1,000 pg/L could be reduced to less than 5 pg/L using an advanced oxidation process with ultra violet lights, but that aeration (i.e airstripping) alone produced no decrease

creased from an estimated $100,000 to an estimated $300,000 with the addition

the Ministry's attention that needs to be addressed" and requested undertaking analysis of groundwater for 1,4-dioxane. 1,4-dioxane was detected in groundwater at the site at concentrations up to 10,000 pg/L, with an average of ap proximately 1,000 pg/L across the plume. The MOE indicated that "there is no Ontario Drinking Water Standard (ODWS) for this compound" but sug gested that otherjurisdictions had stand ards as low as 5 pg/L. A review and screening of potential remediation tech nologies, and treatability testing of the most promising approach was under taken.

of the advanced oxidation process. The newly designed system is expected to be commissioned and operational dur ing the summer of 2002. For more information, circle reply card No. 137





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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002


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Farming Waste Treatment

Biological treatment of livestock slurry using bacteria and fungi The treatment of the slurry with Azofac aerobic bacteria also makes it

possible, by reducing ammonia emis sions, to maintain the concentration of

nitrogen absorbed by the slurry, thus improving its fertilizing value. A trial conducted by AGPM (General Associa tion of Corn Producers) with duck breeders was very conclusive: treatment

of the sluiTy made it possible to increase the yield of corn by 19%, saving 50% of the mineral fertilizer usually used in cultivation.

Animal welfare also improved "The use of this process to treat sluiTy has advantages not only for the environ ment and the quality of people's lives,

- • -V

but also for animal welfare," adds Julien

Euralis Environnement slurry treatment system and filter beds (pilot unit In a hog

French livestock specialists are

farm located In the southwest of France).

using bacteria and, more re cently, filamentous fungi to treat pig and poultry slurry. This technology offers several advan tages: a large reduction in odour, an im provement in the fertilizing value of the slurry, and a reduced risk of pollution. Until recent years, livestock slurry in France was stored on farms without any particular treatment, then used as ferti lizer on arable land. The concentration

oflivestock, over-fertilization in certain

regions and changes in regulations led hog and poultry producers to become

Azofac. "Aerobic bacteria that are in

troduced into the slurry combat the anaerobic bacteria that usually develop in slurry pits," explains Colette Senan, researcher and co-director of Hygefac. "However, it is anaerobic bacteria that

are, in general, responsible for the emis sion of gases having unpleasant odours,

in particular, ammonia(NH,)and hydro gen sulphide (H,S)." The potential of this technology has been confirmed by France's National Test Laboratory (LNE), in accordance with techniques from the American NIOSH institute. Analyses performed

Castaing of AGPM, which also carried out tests on pig slurry in the pits beneath the animals. "By reducing the emission of gases, in particular ammonia,the use of bacteria led to an improvement in breeding performance (Mean Daily Gain and Index of Consumption) by 1.5%."

Pollution-removing fungi While French biologists have been working on pollution control using bac teria for almost 15 years, the idea of combining fungi to achieve the same results is much more recent. Those be

hind it are Euralis,a cooperative offarm ers and breeders in the Pau region of southwest France, and the team of Pro fessor Jean Villard, director of the Plant

Biology Laboratory at the Faculty of

more concerned with the environment.

They began to look for ways of reduc ing the smell of the slurry and to limit the harmful effects on water quality. Various biological processes were ex plored and French laboratories have now succeeded in developing natural proc esses to treat slurry. Reducing odours from slurry The Hygefac laboratories in Paris succeeded between 1994 and 1996 in

isolating aerobic bacteria which, when incorporated in hog, poultry, or cattle slumy,reduce odour while improving the material's fertilizing value. The bacte ria consisted of almost eighty different strains that live in symbiosis, and are now marketed under the product name

By Blandine Cailliez 34

While French biologists have been working on pollution control using bacteria for almost 15 years, the idea of combining fungi to achieve the same results is much more recent. by the LNE have shown evidence of re ductions in ammonia of80% and hydro gen sulphide of 90%. These results earned recognition for the technique from the French Ministry of the Envi ronment, with the result that the mini

mum distance from dwellings necessary for spreading treated slurry was reduced from 339 feet to 165 feet when this proc ess was utilized.

Pharmacy at Paris V University. After two years of research. Profes sor Villard and his team succeeded in

isolating four species of natural filamen tous fungi(not genetically modified)for their ability to "digest" slurry: two lower fungi (Mucor and Rhizopus) and two higher fungi (Aspergillus and Fusarium). These four species act in synergy. "The advantage of fungi is their high

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Farming Waste Treatment had lost 80% ol" its pollutants. Its in stallation costs around (US) $4.50 for 35 cubic feet processed, whereas more complex systems may reach three times that amount. The process has just ob tained European Eureka approval. The system of slurry treatment de veloped by Euralis consists of two phases: slurry is first treated with anaer obic bacteria and then with fungi in an

digester, the fungi absorb these nitrites, which they expel into the air in the form of atmospheric nitrogen (N,). Sulphur, the second source of odour in slurry, is complexed in the residual biomass. The fungi also consume a large part of the phosphorus and potash contained in the waste and trap heavy metals, particularly lead, mercury, and cadmium. The re duction in Chemical Oxygen Demand aerobic environment. In the first bio- (COD),nitrogen, phosphorus and potas digestion tank, the bacteria convert the sium makes it possible to use the efflu nitrogenated material in the slurry into ent after treatment as irrigation water. nitrites (NO,). In the second bioCircle reply card No. 152



John Meunier/USFilter is pleased to introduce Tarmo Sepp as our new Spare Parts Representative for the region of Ontario. Tarmo brings many years of experience with him in water and wastewater treatment equipment sales and serv ice. He will be responsible for parts, sales and service for all John Meunier/USFilter products. Please feel free to con tact Tarmo with any inquiries.

Aerobic phase of the Euralis slurry treat ment system. Photo - Euraiis

richness in enzymes," explains Villard. "After treatment in the biodigester, the

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residual biomass is much smaller than with bacteria." Pilot tests conducted since 1998 on farms have shown that the manure after

treatment was completely odourless and

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Wastewater Treatment

Operational requirements of a recirculating sand filter followed by subsurface flow constructed wetland

De-nitrification and disinfection ofthe final ef lu

ent can become a requirement for on-site wastewater treatment and disposal systems un der certain conditions. A number of packaged treatment units are available to meet these requirements. However,a combination of Recirculating Sand Filter(RSF)

Infloertt fr^m focility, Max. Wastewater Strength B0t>s400 mg/t TSS=200 mg/1 NH3-N560 mg/1 Primary Soptic Tonk(V=3Q)


from primary

-t-tti—Reelrcuiotjon Tank(Vs|Q) Duplex effluent

Acnncd 40)lrÂŤdjclWAia BOO


and constructed subsurface flow wetland can be a cost-

effective alternative in certain applications. This article at tempts to determine theoretic operational requirements of an RSF, designed using Orenco Systems Inc. guidelines, when followed by a constructed subsurface flow wetland for de-nitrification and fairly reasonable disinfection. A re moval of 99%(2 log) of total coliform was reported in the literature (Ref. 1, pp. 602). Area of application The area of application is an on-site system daily wastewater flow of 10,000 1/d to 200,000 1/d. Typical domestic waste strength is defined as follows:


300 - 400 mg/1


180-200 mg/1


40 - 50 mg/1

FOG 20 - 30 mg/1 Process technology 1) Pre-treatment of influent wastewater in a septic tank of sufficient volume to maintain proper detention time for BOD reduction. Typically, properly sized septic tanks with efflu

ent filters provide effluent with BOD^ in the range of 130

pump pockage

spiitter boll vaJve

"Srovity effluent from ftSF





Inlet structure in subsurface wetland

(usually 2)


1 v. Outlet structure

To finol disposol

sumed to be disinfection in addition to total nitrogen reduc tion. Process technology can be a cost-effective technol ogy when compared to other available packaged systems. Preliminary Design Calculation 40,000 a) Design flow (assumed) 1/d

Influent BOD,(assumed), mg/ 300 Influent TSS(assumed), mg/1


Influent NH3-N(assumed), mg/1 50

mg/1 - 140 mg/1. 2) Aerobic treatment: A Recirculating Sand Filter (RSF)

b) Primary treatment: Septic Tank volume, L(3Q) 120000 2 - 60000 L tank in series (Ontario Code Requirement)

system for BOD^/TSS reduction and conversion of NH^-N to NO3-N. The hydraulic loading rate to the RSF must be

Effluent BOD,(with effluent bio-tube filter), mg/1

checked against the organic loading rate. Typically for do mestic strength wastewater a hydraulic rate (Lr) of 200 1/ m-.d is satisfactory. The recommended organic loading rate (Lorg )to an RSF is from 0.01 to 0.04 kg/m^.d (Ref. 1). 3)Anoxic treatment for de-nitrification. A constructed sub

Orenco Biotube''^ effluent filter(s) at outlet. 130-140

Effluent TSS (with effluent bio-tube filter), mg/1 40-50

c) Aerobic Treatment(Recirculating Sand Filter): Hydraulic Loading rate (first assumption), l/m-.d 200

surface flow wetland will be evaluated for de-nitrification.

Organic loading rate, kg/m^d

The theoretical hydraulic detention time and influent or ganic carbon concentration required for de-nitrification will be determined. These theoretical values will be checked

organic loading is within the acceptable range no need to lower the hydraulic loading rate or, for 0.6m of filter depth, organic loading rate in kg

0.026 - 0.028 < 0.04

against the effluent organic carbon concentration of the RSF


0.043 - 0.047

effluent (measured as BOD,) to verify that the concentra

RSF Dimensions

tion is sufficient for de-nitrification. Should the organic

The area of the Recirculating Sand Filter is calculated by dividing the design flow by the design hydraulic loading rate. In this example, with a design flow of 40,000 1/d and design hydraulic loading rate of 2001/m-.d, a 200 m- RSF will be required. Normal operational and effluent charac

carbon concentration of the RSF effluent be insufficient for

de-nitrification, we examine whether an operational change at the RSF can sufficiently increase the concentration to al low de-nitrification within the wetland.

Specifically, the recirculation/dilution

teristics of an RSF are as follows:

ratio is varied to determine if sufficient

RR (recirculation ratio)

4.T - 5:1

organic carbon can be made available. 4) Finally, dimensions of all treatment units and cost analysis will be made for a system with a flow of 40,000 1/d. The advantage of the above process is as-

Effluent BOD,, mg/1


By Omar Faruk, M.Sc., P.Eng., P.E., Sand Filtration Inc., Kitchener, Ont 36

Effluent TSS, mg/1


Effluent NO3-N, mg/1


The effluent from the RSF is high in nitrate but low in or

ganic carbon measured as BOD,. Therefore, additional or ganic carbon is required if RSF treated effluent is to un dergo further treatment for de-nitrification. In this case sub surface flow wetland following the RSF is used for deEnvironmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Wastewater Treatment

RSF: BOD reduction

Recirculation Ratio(RR) 1





1 St cycle:

Influent BOD,(to sand filter), mg/1 Effluent BOD,, mg/1 Influent BOD,(CO),mg/1 Recycled flow BOD,(Or),mg/1 BOD,after dilution 01, mg/1

CO 01

140 42 140






140 42












49.96 49.96








2nd cycle:

Influent BOD,to sand filter 01, mg/1 Recycled Effluent BOD,, Or, mg/1


3rd cycle:

BOD,after dilution 02, mg/1 Influent BOD,to sand filter 02, mg/1 Recyled Effluent BOD,, Or, mg/1 4th cycle:

BOD,after dilution 03, mg/1 Influent BOD,to sand filter 03, mg/1 Recycled Effluent BOD,, Or, mg/1







5th cycle:

BOD,after dilution 04, mg/1 Influent BOD,to sand filter 04, mg/1 Recycled Effluent BOD,, Or, mg/1 nitrification where decomposed plant root material (cattail, bulrushes etc.) may be a source of additional carbon. How ever, this potential source of carbon has been not been ac counted for in the calculations which is based on normal

RSF effluent quality with effluent NO^-N of 30 mg/1 for a

30.7 30.7 9.2

ent wastewater strength of 50 to 60 mg/1 of NH,, we would expect a nitrate nitrogen production of40 to 45 mg/1 consid

ering part of NH,-N that will be used for bio-cell production. However,for the puipose of the example a conservative Continued overleaf

number of recirculation ratio. BOD reduction in RSF

BOD reduction in the RSF has been modeled by first order kinetic rate expression represented by the equation (Ref. 1): Cl/CO = e""' where,

C1 and CO are the RSF effluent and influent BOD^ re spectively k is the adsorption rate coefficient t is the travel time of wastewater through the RSF For the purpose of this calculation, we shall conserva tively estimate that at each cycle about 70% of the influent BOD., is converted to energy and bio-mass. Thus,for a in


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Nitrification in the RSF(NO,-N production) Nitrification in the RSF is assumed to follow the attached

growth process. The efficiency of nitrification will depend on organic loading because the bacterial film is dominated by heterotropic bacteria at high organic loading. With low organic loading rate, which in our example is approximately

0.047 kg BOD,/mM, we conservatively estimate a 70% to 80% nitrification efficiency assuming satisfactory DO and alkalinity level in the wastewater. For attached growth fil ters (trickling filters with rock medium), about 85% to 95% nitrification efficiency at organic loading rates between 0.048

- 0.096 kg/m'.d(3 -6 lb. BOD,/10'-.ft-^-d) has been reported (Ref. 2, pp. 706). Nitrification is expressed in the literature by the follow ing equation:

NH.,-1-1.7310,-1- 1.962HCO,-—> 0.038C5H7N02 -i- O.962NO3 -i-1.077H,O -h 1.769H,C03 From the above equation, for 1 mg of ammonia N,0.962 mg of nitrate nitrogen is produced. Therefore, with an influEnvironmental Science cfe Engineering, May 2002


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Wastewater Treatment

NO^-N production has been used. Typically reported con

The theoretical organic carbon concentration required for

centration of NO,-N is 30 mg/1 in RSF effluent treating do mestic waste. The organic carbon requirement for de-nitri-

de-nitrification measured as COD is 122.0 mg/1.

fication is therefore based on the RSF effluent NO,-N con

wastewater, the BOD., concentration required for de-nitrification is 36.6 mg/1.

Assuming a BOD^/COD ratio of 0.3 for RSF treated

centration of 30 mg/1. Theoretical Organic Carbon Concentration Required for De-nitrification in constructed


subsurface flow wetland

Typical design parameters for subsurface flow con structed wetland as suggested in the literature deals with BOD (TSS) loading rates and detention time. Suggested BOD loading rate is less than 0.011 kg/m-.d while deten tion time for BOD removal is three to four days. For total nitrogen removal, detention time, however, will exceed six to seven days. Since BOD removal is not a concern here as we are dealing with nitrified effluent, detention time for denitrification will govern the sizing of the wetland. In case of nitrified effluent, detention time is suggested to be two to four days which gives an area of approximately 533 m- of subsurface flow wetland (2 - cells each 0.6m depth). Organic Carbon requirement for wetland Forde-nitrification, organic cmbon requirements expressed in terms of COD can be expressed as follows (Ref. 1): COD = 4.05(NO,-N) -(- 2.34(NO,-N)-i- 1.43DO Where,

NO,-N, mg/1 NO,-N, mg/1 (assumed) DO, mg/1 (assumed)

30(typical of RSF effluent) negligible 0.5


COD, mg/1 required

122.0 approx.

It appears that a constructed subsurface flow wetland is capable of producing de-nitrified effluent using RSF treated effluent. However, recycling/dilution ratio for the RSF is suggested between 1:1 -2:1 to ensure sufficient organic car bon for de-nitrification. Decaying plant roots may also pro vide some additional carbon for de-nitrification and some

phosphorus attenuation can also be expected due to plant uptake. It is assumed that by carefully selecting media for constructed wetland (such as limestone), phosphorus removal may also be achieved. Cost Analysis Overall cost of the project depends on the degree of treat ment required. Assuming tertiary type of final effluent qual

ity with NO,|-N less than 10 mg/1, the treatment system as suggested will include cost for primary treatment,recirculating sand filter system and constructed subsurface flow wetland. Overall project cost for such a system for design flow of40,000 1/d will be approximately $140,000.00 or $3.50 per treated litre excluding cost of engineering design and taxes. Suggested literature review 1. Small & Decentralized Wastewater Management System - Crites, Tchobanoglous, McGraw Hill Series in Water Resources & Environ mental Engineering. 2. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal & Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy (1992).

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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Employment Opportunities for Municipal Infrastructure Design and Field Inspection MacViro Consultants Inc. is a growing company seeking the following additional staff for Its business units:

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design staff

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Relevant experience requirement for the Specialist position should include a minimum of ten (10)to fifteen (15) years, together with a professional designation. Candidates for the design and field staff positions should have two (2) 4- years of experience. The ability to provide quality technical project input is paramount, while the additional skills of client management and/or business development will be considered distinct advantages.

MacViro Consultants Inc. is a progressive company, providing above average employment conditions. Interested candidates should send their resumes to the Human Resources

Manager at the above address.



Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002


Cover Story

Damper drive performance can help meet nitrogen oxides reduction requirements

Repeatable and accurate posi

tioning of dampers improves thermal efficiency of fur naces, helping to lower nitro

gen oxides(NOj^)emissions as much as 80% and increasing profit margins by 2-8% through fuel savings. Thermal

NOjj results from the thermal fixation of molecular nitrogen and oxygen pre

sent in the combustion air. NO^ emis sions increase rapidly at peak flame tem peratures exceeding 1,540°C (2,800°F) and with the increasing duration oftime that reactants remain within the area of

peak flame. Because of recent, more stringent government regulations, petroleum re fineries throughout Canada and the US are now forced to examine every aspect oftheir process-heating operations in or der to reduce cumulative


from their plants. While aging furnace burners are already rapidly being re

placed with newer low NO^ burners, attention is now being directed toward the furnace and heater stack damper drives.

Changing the final damper control elements to more reliable and accurate

damper drives greatly improves the combustion of air and flue gases and reduces tramp air from entering fur naces. The resulting efficiency, depend

ing on the type of low NO^ burner se lected and on how "tight" the furnace is for leaks, can lower emissions as much as 55-80% when used in combination

with other low


In 1998, the US Environmental Pro

tection Agency established national emis sion standards for Hazardous Air Pollut

ants from Petroleum Refinery Vents, which cover catalytic cracker, catalytic reformer and sulphur plants. Some ar eas of the US have until 2008 to meet

emissions targets, but the EPA has al ready teamed up with the US Depart ment of Justice to force multi-million dollar emission-reduction deals with

major oil producers throughout the US. A Canadian damper control success story For some consolation, US refineries

can consider the plight of Canadian pet rochemical operators, where air quality regulations are even more stringent. Ontario is committed to reducing N0„ 40

With TYPE K, the damper drive arrives pre-engineered and assembied so it can be baited into the ground and hooked up to existing air suppiy iines, electric instru ment connections, and then the linkage. TYPE K handles ail the engineering and assembly-work at their facility, which simplifies field labour and field supervision.

emissions by 50% as of 2006, accord ing to Ian McLellan, a mechanical engi neer for SNC-Lavalin Group. McLellan has worked with dampers since 1973. "Some 90% of the drives in North

America will need to be replaced be cause none of the old systems were de signed with precise control in mind," he says. "Now we're talking about frac tions of a percent control, so you can't use the old stuff." Currently working on projects at oil refineries in Ontario, McLellan explains why damper control became an important element at one site. "Plant management did an upgrade on a large furnace, but the furnace was never able to demonstrate a stable O, level, partly because they didn't have good repeatability control over the fur nace air," he said. "Yet we couldn't

manually fool around with the original system because it was controlled by some "old unreliable" actuators. They're large and they have a bit of play in them. Repeatability was probably on the or der of 1.5%, hardly enough to qualify for precise control." "The other problem was that all three traditional actuators were jamming when the towers would heat up. The refractory was falling out, hitting the damper and stopping it. The old armconnected pneumatic actuators couldn't

stand up to this. The damper shaft ac tuator arms were actually bending." The chief stationaiy engineer at the plant was already familiar with the 'TYPE K damper drives and asked McLellan to specify them for this project. Installation at this plant posed a par ticularly difficult challenge, as a special coupling was required. The damper drive had to attach to a duct that got up to 1,500°F. A special drive coupling was needed that would reach out into the existing damper cou pling and not unduly end load the damper shaft as it expanded from the heat. The manufacturer's engineers de signed a customized bracket and cou pling that would allow for significant axial shaft expansion. They came up with a sliding coupling utilizing a square key-way and a heat sink. This allows the shaft to expand sideways about one inch on each side as the air stream heats

and cools. Pillow block bearings were also installed to maintain support while still permitting the sliding action inside the shaft coupling. This also helped pre vent the refractory from getting in the works and jamming the damper blade. Installation of the first two damper drives was completed by the middle of December 2001. McLellan and his staff

immediately noticed an improvement in

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

i^Procyon Consulting Inc.

Cover Story damper control. "With the TYPE K damper drives, the stability of emission reductions improved tremendously," reports McLellan. "Before, the process used to wander around a lot. Essentially, we run at approximately 7% excess air, so plus or minus 1.5% meant you could swing from 5.5 to 8.5%. But now, repeatability is on the order of 0.1 to 0.25% - a big im provement. I also expect the TYPE K to perform well for a long time, as it has a lot of robust features. Eor instance, it has an energized seal with stainless steel backing fingers and a lowfriction coated interior, so there will be very low wear on the actuator. Additionally, air pressure is applied to both sides of the vane,so there is no backlash. The positioner basically holds the damper at desired set point without drifting." Improved damper drive performance is significant for refineries The successes realized at some plants across North America mean that other refineries can meet their emission targets by improving their damper drive elements. More important,the retrofitting of other control strategies doesn't necessar ily have to be a financial drain on petrochemical operations.

With NOj^ reduction deadlines drawing ever closer, opera tors of refineries and petrochemical plants can derive some benefit from their efforts to reduce emissions. The installation

of modem damper control can actually improve product qual ity and safety levels, while lowering maintenance expenses and on-site man hours,even for those plants located outside ofnonattainment zones. This type of "payback" casts the whole is sue of emissions reduction into a much better light. For more information, circle reply card No. 157

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

For more information, circie repiy card No. 159


Air Pollution

Airborne contamination discharge monitoring and reporting regulation - technical issues

OntarioRegulation 127/01 be

came law on May 1, 2001. The first annual reports are due on June 1, 2002. The

regulatory requirements include moni toring, record keeping and reporting on industrial, commercial and institutional air emissions ofsome 358 airborne con

taminants. In addition to mandatory an nual monitoring and reporting, some sectors may also have to fde reports for quarterly and smog season emissions. This regulation has important conse quences for companies emitting reportable quantities of air contaminants. Reports will be available to the public, and eventually may be posted on pollutionwatch.org. Companies should en sure that reports are accurate and con sistent with other mandatory and volun tary information filings with federal and provincial environmental authorities. The data and calculations required to comply with this regulation are gen erally consistent with the MOE's re quirements for an emissions inventory (ESDM). Where To Find The Regulation O. Reg. 127/01 consists of a regula tion plus several guidance documents that are incorporated by reference: •a "Step-by-Step" manual for detemiining who must report, what to report, how to calculate air emissions, and proce dures for record keeping and reporting;

Usually, Toronto's CN Tower and skyline are clearly visible from this vantage point on the Oak Ridges Moraine some 30 kilometres north. However, during smog advisories, visibility can be cut to less than three kilometres, so that only a vague outline of Richmond Hill's church steeples can be seen. ES&E photo

other industrial companies(Class C)had to begin monitoring on January 1,2002, with their first annual report due June 30, 2003.

The Step-by-Step manual sets out specific screening criteria regulating which companies and institutions are required to comply. These are described below.

lation methods may yield different re sults depending on the applicability of the selected emission factors. In order

to achieve accuracy and consistency with existing certificates and filings it is essential to account for these factors and ensure that all calculations are con

sistent, reasonable and justifiable. Ongoing costs of monitoring and re porting, potential for action by regula tors and consequences of adverse pub licity should also be weighed against the costs of pollution prevention methods such as new emissions reduction equip ment or process changes.

Business Planning, Pollution Prevention Planning Timely and Companies and municipalities re • guidelines for continuous emission quired to monitor and report should con monitoring systems(GEMS). sider the following: The regulation and guidance docu • the costs of monitoring and reporting, ments are available for download from particularly in the introductory year, Airborne Contaminants and www.willmsshier.com/compliance, may be significant; you should look at Screening Criteria and from the MOE website: www.ene. the potential costs of complying with The 358 reportable substances are gov.on.ca. these requirements in your business classified into three tables, with differ planning process; Who Must Monitor and Report ent thresholds. These tables are pub Monitoring and reporting was phased • the filings under this regulation will lished in the "Step-by-Step" manual. in by commercial or industrial sector. provide regulators with additional infor They include: Table 2A- 11 Criteria Sectors' classifications are set out in ta mation that may reflect on your com Air Contaminants and Greenhouse bles in the Step-by-Step manual. Most pliance with air legislation or your cer Gases; Table 2B - 79 Ontario MFC emission-intensive industrial companies tificates of approval; and (Manufactured,Processed or Otherwise and electric power generators (Class A • disclosure to the public and publicity Used) Contaminants; Table 2C - 268 and Class B) were required to begin resulting from pollutionwatch.org may National Pollutant Release Inventory monitoring in May of2001, with the first draw attention to your facility's emis (NPRl) Substances (this list is derived (transitional) annual report due June 1, sions. from the NPRl 2001 reporting year). 2002. Commercial sectors and most At this time it may be prudent to re There is a significant overlap in sub view various methods of calculating stances and annual reporting require By Doug Petrie and emissions to ensure using the most ac ments with the federal NPRl. To reduce Mark Vanderheyden curate. Different estimation and calcu the reporting burden, the MOE and En42

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 2002

Air Pollution

vironment Canada have set up a pilot project to provide electronic reporting

• particulate matter (PM), including

PM|p (diameter less than or equal to 10


software. The software is intended to

micrometres), and PM,.(diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres). Quarterly Reporting and Emissions

The following "screening criteria" identify facilities required to report

allow repoiting facilities to enter emis sions data once, and generate two dif ferent reports to meet the requirements of the provincial regulation and the NPRI program. Environment Canada plans to increase the scope of the NPRI- more substances to report and up to 7,000 facilities re quired to report. This process has already started. For the 2002 reporting year NPRI will require monitoring and reporting of

Monitoring - SO^ and NO^ Emissions monitoring and quarterly reporting are required from facilities where a discharge unit's name plate ca pacity exceeds 73 megawatts of energy input, and its annual emissions exceed

20 tonnes of SO, or 14 tonnes of NO^^.

Environment Canada plans to

criteria air contaminants.

increase the scope of the NPRI

The joint technical assistance centre for Ontario facilities can be reached by telephone at: (416) 739-4707, or by Email at: npri_onair@ec.gc.ca. Criteria Air Contaminants - Smog Season Reporting In addition to annual reporting, O.Reg. 127/01 requires reporting of Cri teria Air Contaminant emissions during smog season. The listed Criteria Air

- more substances to report and up to 7,000 facilities

required to report.

• sulphur dioxide (SO,); • volatile organic compounds (VOCs);

Screening Criteria Unfortunately,for Class A and Class B facilities, the MOE phased in report ing for 2001 in May. Therefore in the transitional 2001 year, the criteria be low must be adjusted using the transi tional calculations set out in the regula tion. 2001 criteria are roughly two-thirds

• carbon monoxide (CO); and

of the annual thresholds.

Contaminants are:

• oxides of nitrogen (NOj^);

Employees are easy to find

Table 2A - CAC and Greenhouse

emissions of contaminants in Table 2A.

A facility will be required to comply if it can reasonably be expected to: • use coal, refuse, wood or waste oil as

a fuel at any time during the year; • have, at any time during the year, a name plate capacity of greater than three million BTU per hour; • use 3,000 kg or more of solvents dur ing the year; • use 3,000 kg or more of coating mate rials during the year; • use 3,000 kg or more of printing ink during the year; or • use 5,000 kg or more of welding rods or welding wires during the year. If any of the screening criteria are sat isfied, the owner and operator of the fa cility must calculate Table 2A air emis sions during a calendar year. Reports must name the eleven contaminants in this

group. Ifemissions exceed Table 2A thres holds, the facility must report emission quantities. If the emissions do not exceed the thresholds,facilities must specify for Continued overleaf

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Air Pollution

each contaminant the MOE assigned code indicating either that "the emission is below the reporting threshold or that there is no emission reportable." Table 2B - Ontario MPO Contaminants

A facility that would be required to report substances listed in Table 2B is one that can reasonably be expected to: • employ or engage persons who will together work a total of 20,000 hours or more during the year; and • manufacture, process, or otherwise use at any time during the year, a substance listed in Table 2B in an amount equal to or greater than the coiTesponding thresh old amount for the contaminant.

The owner and operator of a facility meeting both of these criteria must monitor and report quantities of air emis sions of all contaminants that exceed the Table 2B thresholds.

Table 2€ - NPRI Contaminants

Facilities required to report under the National Pollutant Release Inventory are required to submit a copy of the portion of the NPRI report containing the par ticulars of air emissions. As noted, the MOE and Environment Canada are work

ing on a pilot software program that should

eventually extract the appropriate NPRI requirement end runs any opportunity a information in a fonn appropriate to com business may otherwise have to aigue for ply with the Ontaiio regulation. protection of competitive information. Reports and Records Companies reporting under the NPRI are The regulation requires facilities to entitled under CEPA1999 to request(and make their reports available to the pub justify)confidentiality ofinformation that lic, either by posting on the Internet, or could affect its business. upon request at their head office. Re Ontario companies could make a simi ports must also be filed with the MOE. lar request to the MOE under Ontario's The regulation requires that records be Freedom of Information and Protection kept for seven years. of Privacy Act for the air portion of their Penalties for Non-Compliance NPRI filing. However, the MOE's re The proposed Administrative Mon quirement that companies make reports etary Penalty (AMP) regulation pro of non-NPRI data available to the pub poses base penalties of$1,500 to $2,000 lic means that companies are denied the per day for failing to comply with moni opportunity to argue for confidentiality toring, reporting or record keeping ob of even the most legitimately withheld ligations under O. Reg. 127/01. Multi- competitive information. day penalties and increased penalties for facilities with previous environmental violations are provided for in the AMP's proposals. Confidentiality Issnes Protection of confidential business information is also a concern. Under

Ontario's regulation, facilities are re quired to make reports available to the public by posting them on the Web, or making them available on request, dur ing business hours at their office. This

Doug Pethe,


Willms c& Shier







What quality standard does your lab meet? Check our Web site: www.caeal.ca

or call us at:(613)233-5300 Quality Assurance For Environmental Laboratories

• Proficiency testing •ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation audits

(with accreditation by the Standards Council of Canada) The Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical Laboratories For more information, circle reply card No. 162 (See page 25)

rofspectrum EducationalSupplies Limited

1-800-668-0600 E-mail: nasco(a)golden.net

For more information, circle reply card No. 163 (See page 25)

Invasive Species Ballast slime hatches

aquatic Invaders Recent research shows that making ships dump ballast waters before enter ing the Great Lakes might not be enough to stop the growth of invasive species. Currently, freighters are required to exchange their ballast water in the ocean before entering the Great Lakes to flush out aquatic nuisances that might have hitchhiked from foreign ports. But a bi ology student at the University of Wind sor in Ontario, Sarah Bandoni,has found that the slime and silt at the bottom of

the ballast tanks carry lots of eggs. This silt isn't all removed when the tanks are

flushed. Despite having been in dark and freezing conditions, when things become better, the eggs can hatch.

Probably 50% to 75% ofthe eggs have been able to hatch, which means there is

at least the potential for some of these eggs to escape into Great Lakes ports. About 160 invasive species, such as

the zebra mussel, have been imported by cargo ships, causing damage to na

tive species, including fish, and also damage to water intakes and other en vironmental infrastructure. ❖

Announcement MS Filter Inc. supplies the Multi MS Filter Inc. is pleased to announce Robert K. Abernethy, P.Eng., MBA, stage Filter Package Water Treatment has been appointed President of the Plants for small systems. With no pretreatment chemicals, the MS Filter is firm. Rob brings 17 years of experi an effective yet simple alternative to ence in product and business develop ment for water treatment equipment in chemically assisted filtration. the municipal and industrial market. Rob takes charge of MS Filter Inc. in MS FILTER INC. a period of strong growth and will de www.msfilter.com velop and expand on the firm's cument markets.

Leakage Control Through Innovation HETEK Solutions provides specialized water leak detection equipment, pressure and flow monitors, as well as meters and loggers to manage leakage and unaccounted-for water.


Noise generated by the leak travels along the pipe wall, or through the water column, In both di rections. Sensors are deployed at two positions (one either side of the leak). The difference In actual time of the leak noise at each sensor, cou

pled with knowledge of the pipe material, diam eter and length, enables the leak to be pinpointed precisely. • New high sensitivity sensors with extended low frequency response for improved per formance on plastic pipes. • Robust design for Intensive tield use. • Faster and 'cleaner' correlation display. • Superior correlation technology while retain ing the ease-of-use of previous MlcroCorr

It Is recommended to confirm the leak position audibly before excavatlon/repair begins. (Note: This equipment can also be used for general acoustic surveying.) • Lightweight, easily portable systems. • Robust, IP65 construction for field use. • Excellent acoustic performance. • Easy-to-use control unit. • Rechargeable battery pack with long opera tion between charges.

Circle reply card No. 181

Intelligent logging units, deployed permanently or temporarily on any pipe fitting for automatic leak diagnosis. These units transmit a "Leak" signal by radio to a receiver module "Patroller" In a moving vehicle. By driving around the area under Investigation, a list of the potential leak locations Is automatically generated. • Leakage reduced quickly - and easily main tained at low level.

• More cost-ettective than traditional survey methods.

• Dramatic productivity gain through fast cov erage of large areas. • Long-term, maintenance-free operation for up to 10 years. • No specialist labour required, 'de-skllls' leak


• New,faster electronics are combined with APS to enable the user to detect leaks quickly, even on plastic pipes.


Circle reply card No. 182

Circle reply card No. 180

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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Product and Service Showcase Chemical tank cleaning

Low cost AutoFlash


evaporation process The AutoFlash is

a time-proven evaporation sys tem with the capability of using low-grade, reject, waste heat as the

Circle reply card No. 244

only source of en ergy for phase .separation. This exclusive feature makes evaporation a very viable treatment method for TDS (total dissolved solids), over4,500 milli grams per litre. The proprietary,self-regu lating device causes the AutoFlash to be able to operate outside of steady state con ditions in a highly stable manner. Donson Engineering Circle reply card No. 245

Tank solutions

Glass coated steel tanks

Tank surfaces in contact with water will

accumulate organic and inorganic depos its over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBFs, and increased HFC numbers.

Heavy deposits lead to increased comosion and reduce the lifetime ofsurface coatings. NSF approved Floran products have been developed for convenient & efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and filter surfaces. ClearTech Industries

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump hou.se. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 246

Oil/water separators

and silos

Diverse Flastic Tanks offer a full range of product designs, including closed or open top vertical tanks in flat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, contain ment tanks and a complete line of"UN" approved intermediate bulk containers. (IBCs). They distribute the Snyder In dustries line of tanks which have many advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the wid est .selection of sizes up to 22,000 gal

ZCL coalescing separators provide sub stantially higher design flows than grav ity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MFakÂŽ design removes oil droplets as small as 20 microns! Efflu ent oil concentrations are reduced to as

Circle reply card No. 247

Circle reply card No. 248

low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/ water separators are manufactured with premium-grade fibreglass reinforced plastic. They have no moving parts and require minimal maintenance. ZCL Composites Inc. Circle reply card No. 249

Underground double wall jacketed tanks

Mobile refuelling

Interested in saving money?

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Superior corrosion protection and sec ondary containment; inner tank can be compartmentalized; total compatibility with petroleum fuels, as well as a wide range of chemicals; sand, pea gravel or crushed stone may be used for backfill; globally recognized third-party approv als; flat and dished end caps. DTE Industries Limited

Circle reply card No. 250 46

Wolf Email has more than 30 years ex perience with a wide range of tank appli cations. Advantages of our modular de sign include easy transport and access, fast and simple erection, adaptability to remodel,extend, dismantle and resite the

tank, low maintenance, long life and cor rosion resistance. Tanks and silos are de

signed according to DIN or AWWA standards and are ISO 9001 certified. Wolf Email GmhH

various sites, truck-mounted tanks with

hold-down straps and internal baffles to avoid dangerous load shifts are provided in warning red enamel. Special venting device, fill cap and labels are included. Capacities are 454-4540 litres(I GO-1000 gallons). Also available in dotiblewall

storeÂŽ tank over its expected service life and compare it side-by-side to other al ternatives. Order your free copy of the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Frogram today!

vacuum-monitored version for added


safety margin. DTE Industries Limited Circle reply card No. 251

Engineered Storage Products Company Circle reply card No. 252

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

storage Tanks & Containment

Storage tanks and containment systems

A diverse range of case histories and legal issues are reviewed in EScSE's semi-annual look at tanks and containment.


Reducing the cost of hydrocarbon spiils

Hydrocarbon spil s haveenor

Based on these records, the total volume

mous environmental and

of spills is estimated to be 11,700,000

economic Impacts. Consider

litres; 1,580,000 litres of these were

that 1 ml of oil will contami

hydrocarbon-based. That volume is enough to contaminate the flow passing over Niagara Falls for seven days. The volume of unreported spills has not been

nate 1,000,000 ml or 1 m-' of water (a tablespoon of oil added to a swimming pool) to a toxic level. Even small re leases have significant impacts. Hydro carbons are released from many differ ent land uses. A study by Shepp(1996) showed that high concentrations of hy drocarbons in stormwater are released

regularly from automotive intensive-use areas such as convenience store park ing lots, gas stations, streets and all-day parking lots. The study also indicated that hydrocarbons are easily mobilized, even during very frequent light rainfall events.

Spills occur often. Records collected by the Ministry of the Environment in Ontario (population 11,000,000),show that 5,000 spills were reported in 1995.

By Todd Neff, M.A., Sc., P.Eng., Stormceptor Group


In addition to environmental damage, spills are costly to clean up. Numerous examples exist, including a fuel oil spill in Essex County, New York,in 1985. In this example, 7,000 US gallons of fuel oil were spilled during the transfer from a tanker trunk to a storage facility. The final cost for clean-up was $589,000. An additional $106,000 was paid in inter est and penalties after arguments went through the court system for 14 years. Spill prevention measures are much less costly than spill clean-ups. The cost of providing an interceptor and contain ment system for the NY spill described above, would be approximately (US) $50,000, saving the owner 92% of the clean-up costs. When the potential sav ings in liability insurance premiums,the

Environnientai Science <6 Engineering, May 2002

cost of the lost product, lost time, regu latory fines and the huge potential for civil damages and liability are factored in, the cost for spill protection becomes very economical. Many different sites could benefit from the application of an interceptor for spill protection including: commercial sites, industrial sites, high volume inter sections, gas stations, and convenience and fast food stores.


1. D. Shepp, 1996. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations Observed in Runoff From Dis

crete, Urbanized Automotive-intensive Land

Uses. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Watershed '96.

2. Ministry of Environment and Energy, 1997. Spiiis Action Centre Summary Report of 1995 Spiiis. Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy. 3. New York State News Department of Envi ronmental Conservation, 1999. Business to

pay State $695,000 for Adirondack Oii Spiil. New York State Department of Environmen tal Conservation.

For more information, circle reply card No. 170 47

storage Tanks & Containment

Liners - a solution for leaking HPS acid tanks

In 1980, during a routine tank

inspection, the staff at a public utility water treatment plant no ticed some fine leaking cracks in the interior oftwo Fiberglass Reinforced

Plastic (FRF) tanks where the bottom meets the side.

The tanks are 8'in diameter x 9'deep and contain Hydrofluosilicic Acid(HFS Acid). Plant personnel were advised that

the tanks could be repaired but it would not be a long-term solution. The repair would also be less resistant to chemical attack than the rest of the tank.

The conclusion was that the tanks

were still structurally sound but they re quired lining if they were to continue in long-term use. Replacing them was con sidered but,in addition to the cost of new

tanks,the city had to allow for opening a i

section of the building which housed the

Diverse Plastic Tanks Is your source for double wall containment

tanks to move the new ones in. Kentain's

heavy gauge, flexible PVC, bag-type membrane liners were chosen for the fol

lowing reasons: • excellent chemical resistance;

storage tanks

• a closed top, one piece construction; • flexible and unaffected by the tank flexing; • the tanks require very little prepara tion prior to installing the liners; • leak detection system assures early awareness should a problem occur; • the tank would provide the extra secu rity of becoming a secondary contain ment area; and

• liners are virtually maintenance free. The tanks were prepared including a fiberglass repair inside, then the liners were installed. The job was completed in three days by Kentain's installation su pervisor and one helper supplied by the customer. The entire inside of the tanks,

fittings and man way were lined so that the FRP tanks would no longer come in contact with liquid or the vapour. In 1994, Kentain replaced the liners in both tanks. Installation was simple, removing the suspension system hold ing the old liners and installing the new liners. The liners were replaced after fourteen years as a part of a preventive maintenance program. The liners had never leaked and the utility had not spent any money on maintenance.

Circle reply card No. 165 Need to hire qualified and experi enced staff?


Diverse Plastic Tanks Inc 14-3105 Unity Drive, Mississauga, ON L5L 4L2 Ph:(905) 607-5189 Fax:(905) 607-9835 lnternet:www.plastictanks.ca Email: tanks@plastictanks.ca F 5 yt


For more information, circle reply card No. 166 (See page 25)

Environmental Sci

ence & Engineering reaches over 19,000 water, wastewater and en

vironmental protection profession als across Canada.

Call us at:(905)727-4666 for special rates Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Storage Tanks & Containment

Uncertainties associated with historicai USTs

When it comes to investi

gations of Underground Storage Tanks (USTs),

there are all sorts of sur

prises. Several years ago, one of our clients called to complain about heavy, black oil that showed up in one of their building's sump pits. "The sumps were connected to exterior weeping tiles that surrounded the building. The client was aware of only two USTs on their site. One was a 10,000 gallon diesel fuel tank for the boilers, and the other a 500 gal lon diesel tank for the back-up genera tor. No heavy, Bunker C-type oil had been used at the building since the old Bunker C tank had been converted to

diesel fuel many years ago. Shortly thereafter, during an early spring thaw, what appeared to be the same oil was noted to be seeping out of the ground near the northwest comer of the building. It was believed that this was the same oil that had appeared in the

sump pit several weeks earlier, having leached into the weeping tile bed and/or catch basin and flowed into the sump. The client was perplexed as to the source of the oil. It was then suspected that the neighbour,having several months before removed a UST approximately 150 feet away from the oil seeping from the soil, must have caused the problem. The tank had been removed quickly and quietly with no indication ofleaking,test ing, or clean-up at the time.

ered by rock landscaping and was approximately 0.5 metres below grade. It appears that the newly discovered tank had been used for Bunker C oil for the

old boilers before they were converted to diesel. Apparently, the tank was not converted to

diesel fuel but simply aban doned, with a new diesel tank

installed nearby. After the dis covery, rumours surfaced that the old tank had been emptied

apparent during the remediation that the

the oil to travel substantially up-gradient in the tile bed system. Confirma tory sampling showed evidence of bun ker oil as well as diesel fuel from previ ous spills and fill overflows associated

old Bunker C tank had leaked and that

with the newer tanks.

it had not even been emptied before it was decommissioned. The process was also complicated by the fact that the oil had followed the weeping tiles partially around the building. In addition, the

Despite the surprises,complications, and difficulties of the job,full remedia tion of the site was eventually com pleted. This case is a perfect example of opening a "tank" of worms when in vestigating USTs and their potential impact on sub-surface environments. Circle reply card No. 139

and filled with sand.

A full site remediation was per formed, with all three USTs removed and one new tank installed. It became

weeping tile system had failed and a sig nificant amount of water in the system buoyed the fuel to the top. This caused

The client commissioned the services

ofT. Harris Environmental Management Inc.(THEM)to conduct a Phase IESA (Historical) and a Phase II sub-surface

investigation in order to gather evidence against the neighbour. The Phase I ESA identified the two USTs currently pre sent on site but no other items of con

cern. During the course of the Phase II sub-surface investigation,it was discov ered that the contamination was not

present between the neighbour and the visual oil seepage on site. A subsequent geomagnetic investigation revealed an additional UST that was not identified in historical documentation and which

the current owner of the property did not know existed.

The access port for the tank was cov-

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For more information, circle reply card No. 140 (See page 25)


storage Tanks & Containment

Is your storage tank in compliance?

Overthe pastfew years,thousandsofunderground

storage tanks have been upgraded to include sec ondary containment, overfill protection and spill containers. These devices,along with tank moni tors, are designed to protect against releases of product into the environment.

With the expense of these upgrades out of the way, tank owners have breathed a collective sigh of relief and consid ered that their newly upgraded systems were safe into the foreseeable future. This has proven to be a false sense of security because, although tank owners have installed all of the necessary equipment,they have failed to maintain these devices. It is very common to find tank systems where the upgraded equipment has not been inspected or maintained One prime example of this is in the area of secondary and spill containment systems. It is now mandated in al most every province that all tank systems must have con tainment around fill pipes, underneath product dispensers and in submersed pump and piping pits. Many of these systems have been in place for five years or more and are deteriorating due to exposure to fuel and weather. A new law in California recognizes the implications of secondary containment systems that are no longer able to

By Peter Sutherland, Tanknoiogy Canada Inc.

liMlliifgfMtilil®!!) Choose Summit" Structures for any construction or environmental project requiring a rapidly deployed, relocatable, and affordable enclosure. I Pre-engineered buildings

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I Custom building sizes also available to meet any site requirements.

• Site reclamation or containment

• Materials storage or separation • Wastewater and water treatment • Winter construction enclosure

the test.

By comparison,an inspection of containment systems in

since it was installed.

Maintain a controlled environment

contain leaks when they occur. This new law requires that all secondary containment systems be tested upon installa tion, six months later, and every thirty-six months for the remaining life of the tank. There is another secondary con tainment regulation in the state of Florida and other states are considering similar laws. After a year of testing sumps in California, Tanknoiogy has discovered failure rates between 10% and 20%,depend ing on the type of equipment tested. For example, one re view of failure rates showed that 19% of sumps located un der dispensers and 14% of product line containments leaked. These rates were calculated even after some minor repairs were conducted on systems that would have obviously failed

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Canada shows that some are full of water, product or a com bination of both. Although these systems are designed to contain releases of fuel, they are not intended to contain or store fuel over an extended period. Moreover, many of the components, particularly nitrile rubber boots around pip ing, may deteriorate in a relatively short time period. In addition, if leaks do occur, water will flow into the

system and there is the potential for releases of product into the sun'ounding environment. The associated operational problems, such as repeated/oAe alarms from monitoring systems and the potential for environmental releases, are making testing of these sumps a popular practice even in jurisdictions where it is not required by law. Currently the most popular methods for containment testing involve the accurate measurement of a water level over a short period of time. Normally the containment is cleaned of all debris and residual product using a power washer and detergent. The containment is then filled with water and tested using an approved test method. There are third party approved methods available that use a magnetostrictive level measuring device with compensation for level changes caused by thermal expansion or contrac tion of the water. These tests are typically conducted within a thirty minute time period and will detect even very small leaks.

Methods and techniques are available for conducting re pairs of leaking components. Normally, leaks are discov ered at entry and exit points, (i.e., at the point where the piping or electrical conduit enter the containment). Leak ing entry and exit boots can be replaced with relative ease. There are also foams and epoxies available to "patch" cracks or leaking seams. Although it is extremely unlikely that Canadian law makers will catch up with their American counterparts in this area of regulation, many tank owners will recognize that the benefits of a properly maintained system outweigh the costs by a significant margin. The average service sta tion in Canada has between twelve and twenty secondary containment devices. With failure rates of 15%,the risk of

an environmental release is significant. Periodic mainte nance on all liquid handling equipment is a costeffective strategy to assure a level of protection against prod summ tstructures.com


uct releases.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 141 For more information, circie reply card No. 142 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

rDTE INDUSTRIES LIMITED Since 1951 DTE Industries Limited has been supplying the Petroleum, Petro chemical, Agricultural, Forestry, Mining, Heating, Contracting & Engineering fields with quality Storage tanks. Customer satisfaction is our number one priority... Advantages to you the customer are:

•We have our own fleet of trucks and ship from Vancouver to Halifax

•Competitive pricing - Lease or Buy option available ® 5 year or 30 year warranties available ® Superior Quality Products & Services for over 48 years

Let us show you how we can provide security & valuefor your money Plant tours are available by contacting our Engineering department

DTE Industries Limited 69 Comstock Rd. Scarborough, ON 1-800-387-1400 • Tel. 416-757-6278 • Fax. 416-757-5579 www.dteindustries.com


ouble WallTank

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For more information, circle reply card No. 150(See page 25)


Storage Tanks & Containment

Extreme service conditions and a tight fit challenge designers

When Norsk Hydro Canada Inc.,ofBecancour Quebec,contracted Fabricated Plastics Lim

ited(Fabco)of Maple,Ontario^ to design and fabricate a large diameter FRF (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics) storage tank, several challenges had to be dealt with. This tank was required to control the down stream processing in Norsk Hydro's magnesium refinery. As this vessel was to be 5,700 mm in diameter and 7,122 mm high, it was too large to transport in one piece to the customer's facility. In addition to the transportation challenges, Fabco had to address the design of the tank for the service conditions,

which included a solution having a specific gravity of 1.31 and a design temperature of 100° C. The tank also had to be designed for positive and negative pressures of -I-I2 Kpag and -12 Kpag respectively. The tank's configuration incorporated a conical bottom and flat top (due to the limited head room at the tank's final location). The fabrication of the flat top incorporated the use of steel support beams laminated to the top and encap sulated with FRP laminate, to handle the positive and nega


Conical bottom of tank loaded onto trailer for transport to Oshawa.

splashing, or spillage. In order to maintain the tank's contents at a constant tem

perature, a 50 mm thick layer of polyurethane foam insula

tive pressure requirements. The FRP laminate applied to

tion was applied to the exterior of the tank shell, top and conical bottom. A 4 mm thick FRP protective outer skin

the steel reinforcing members would protect them from the

then covered this insulation.

corrosive nature of the tank's contents, in case of accidental

The tank's conical bottom required some form of sup-

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For more information, circle reply card No. 143 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

storage Tanks & Containment port, to keep the bottom drain nozzle a predetermined dis tance from floor level. It was decided that Fabco would

also design and supply a steel support structure, into which the tank would be installed, once it arrived at the Norsk

Hydro plant. The tank was to be installed inside Norsk Hydro's existing facility in a location that had not originally been designed to accommodate such a large structure. The area in which the tank was to fit was extremely tight. The final location ex ceeded the tank's proportions by only inches or fractions of an inch. Dimensional accuracy was, therefore, crucial as to whether the vessel would be able to occupy the space al lowed. The fact that the tank was being made in sections


that would be assembled outside of the controlled environ

ment of Fabco's plant further complicated this matter. The drain nozzle at the base of the conical bottom was

designed to support a 500 lb. steel pinch valve, as well as to be used as a lug to facilitate the moving of the tank from the horizontal to the vertical position, during the installation. Once the design had been established, the tank sections were produced in Fabco's plant, under strict quality control conditions to ensure that all of the requirements were met. The tank was produced in two sections; a top section and the conical bottom section, both of which included a por tion of the tank shell. Since both sections were over 20'

wide, special shipping arrangements had to be made to transport them from Fabco's plant to the Port of Oshawa. The assembly commenced in Oshawa with the erection of the steel support structure into which the conical bottom section was secured. The top section was then lifted and placed onto the bottom section and, while a crane held the top in position, the two pieces werejoined by applying FRF laminate over the seam area. Care had to be taken to make

certain that the joint laminate cured properly. When neces sary, heaters were used to maintain the temperature in the joint area at around 20° C. Fabco's strict quality control re sulted in the successful final assembly at the Port. Norsk Hydro then arranged to have a ship pick up the completed tank to transport it to their facility in Becancour. Upon its arrival at the Port of Becancour, the tank was

The tank is blue.

Assembled tank being loaded onto a ship at the Port of Oshawa.

offloaded and placed onto a transport trailer, which moved the tank to the Norsk Hydro plant, stopping beside the facil ity into which it was to be installed. The critical task of positioning the tank inside the build ing commenced with the placement of the steel support struc ture into the proper position. Pushing the tank through an opening that had been enlarged to accommodate the ves sel's dimensions then followed this step. Norsk Hydro's Project Engineer created a wheeled dolly that would sup port the tank in the horizontal position. Steel angles were secured to the floor creating a track into which the wheels of the dolly would fit, ensuring that the dolly and tank would stay on course when being pushed into position inside the plant. When all was ready, the tank was guided towards the steel support. Once in position for lifting, the tank was slowly raised using lifting lugs imbedded in the top. A spreader bar dis tributed the load on each of the top lugs. A temporary plate bolted to the face of the drain nozzle accommodated a ca

ble, enabling the installers to lift and hold the bottom while the tank was moved into the vertical position and finally into the support steel.

For more information, circle reply card No. 144

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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Storage Tanks & Containment

Expandability was a key factor in aerobic digester tank selection

The Dunnville, Ontario Water Pollution Control

Plant underwent a substantial plant upgrade in 2001, including earthwork, a new digester build ing, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation projects. One of the key issues in the selection of the di gester tank was future design capacity. Designers wanted a tank that could be expanded at a later date for increased flows without incurring the cost of building a new aerobic digester. Low life cycle cost was another important criteria used to select the glass fused to steel coating. This coating is not like any field applied coating. The factory coating is permanent, which will drastically reduce any yearly main tenance recoating costs. This brought about the selection of the bolted glass fused to steel Aquastore tank manufac tured by Engineered Storage Products Company. The existing tank and foundation were designed to sup port the addition of another 2 rings of steel or 157 cubic metres of treatment and an aluminum dome roof. Tank di

mensions are 15.3 m x 5.87 m high, containing 1,083 cubic metres. The tank and foundation are also designed to sup port the loads from an aluminum geodesic dome, if odour from the digester tank becomes an issue. If the tank ever needs to be expanded and/or a geodesic dome added, this

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work can be done at a fraction of the cost of building any new kind of treatment tank.

Because of the inertness of the final coating, this style of tank can be used for treatment such as anaerobic digesters, trickling filters and leachate storage. Borosilicate glass com positions are ground, blended with minerals and clays, then mixed with water to form a sprayable slurry. This formula tion is fused to the steel sheets at 1600 degrees F to produce the tank coating. The molten glass reacts with the steel sur face to form an inert system that is chemically and physi cally bonded to the steel. The sheet edges are flame sprayed with a protective stainless steel alloy. Glass is then added to double coat regular sheet edges with barrier coatings, so that the steel panels are encapsulated in glass. This tank will never need re-painting through its life cycle. In the photograph, one can see the building jacks, which are tied to a common driveshaft and drive. The tank is built

completely from the ground; as a ring of steel is assembled, the tank is raised until completed. The foundation ring of Wolf Email GmbH

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The whole project took several months to complete, but once the foundation was poured, the tank was built in less than one week. This aerobic digester was designed witb a jet manifold aeration system to meet the oxygen demands of 577 kg/day. To accommodate the required piping, the tank shell had a number of penetrations, which were all field located and flanged connected. A factory supplied cathodic protection system was engineered and installed to electri cally protect any submerged metallic components inside the tank vessel.

The project was engineered and managed by American Water Services (formerly Azurix North America) and the General Contractor was Hira Ltd., from St. Thomas. Work

also consisted of a new aerobic digester vessel supplied and erected by Greatario Engineered Storage Systems.

For more information, circle reply card No. 146 For more information, circle reply card No. 147 (See page 25)

EnvinmineiUal Science & Engineering, May 2002

storage Tanks & Containment

Domestic heating oil tanks under scrutiny

Storage tanks that are unpro

tected or not maintained rep resent a potential for environ mental pollution. There are be

tween 1.2 million and 1.5 million homes that heat with oil in Canada. Over the

last few years, there has been a startling

quire that only licensed installers install and regularly inspect tanks. Tanks would have to be

tagged and registered and oil de liveries be made only to tanks that have the registration tag. There fore, the responsibility for tank

number of tank failures and the trend

maintenance has been divided

will grow as traditional steel oil heating storage tanks corrode. The majority of steel fuel oil tanks

among the owner,the installer and the oil company. Manufacturers of storage tanks have improved their prod

rust from the inside out. Because of con

densation, water and sludge accumulate

ucts and wamanties. Several new

at the bottom of tanks. This combina

tank products have been mar keted during the last few years. Steel tanks have gone to a heavier gauge to mitigate the effect of corrosion and perhaps increase the lifespan. New technologies

tion creates an ideal environment for intemal rust or corrosion of the steel tank

wall. More often than not, this damage is not visible and manifests itself as a

catastrophic tank failure. Leaking tanks are also a result of improper tank main tenance, damp locations, and mechani cal damage. Outdoor installations are more susceptible to condensation as a result of day-night temperature changes and humidity. Exterior rusting is notice able by the small pinholes on the tank. Nearly 40% of all fuel leaks reported to local and provincial ministries of en vironment are from domestic, heating oil storage tanks in private homes. The In

Fiberglass 200 gallon single wall fuel tank.

for non-metallic tanks have

emerged so that internal corrosion ceases to be an issue. ZCL Composites offers two tank designs: the all fiberglass tank, available in single wall and dou ble wall versions, and the polyethylene tank, secondarily contained in a galva nized steel container. Both of these

tanks have been proven, tested and are ULC listed for the storage of fuel oil. Industry warranties range from 1025 years and address clean-ups in the event of leaks caused by a faulty tank. For more information, circie reply card No. 148

surance Bureau of Canada, Atlantic Di

vision, says that claims paid for clean-up as a result of leaks from heating oil sys tems account for 5% of all claims paid under homeowners' policies. Oil leaks from storage tanks and line loiptures have caused insurance claims tojump by about 50% in the past few years. Clean-ups can cost between $20,000 and $125,000 or more. Some clean-up costs can grow to greater than the value of the house.

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These are avoidable costs. Insurance

have been building quality glass-fused-to steel tanks Since 1966.

companies and governments have recog nized that without immediate attention to

the problem, leak incidences from do mestic tanks will increase and costs for

clean-up will skyrocket. Several insur ance companies are now offering refunds to their clients to encourage them to re place their furnace and storage tank sys


tems. Tank and furnace manufacturers

are also offering rebates to customers for furnace and tank replacements. The Atlantic provincial governments and most recently the Technical Stand ards and Safety Association (TSSA) in Ontario have instituted or are studying the possibility of introducing new regu lations for heating oil storage tanks to counter oil spills. The rules would reEnvironmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

y Aquastore® Glass Tanks y Temcor® Aluminum Covers y JetMIx™ Vortex Mixing System Phone 519-469-8169 Fax 519-469-8157 www.greatario.com•sales@greatarloengsys.com For more information, circle reply card No. 149 (See page 25)


Historical Fiashback i

Has chemistry become the second invisible profession?

Around 1669,Hamburg alche

mist Hennig Brand, acci dentally discovered phos phorous in his own urine while trying to turn base materials into gold. While he failed in his quest sci entifically, he nevertheless transmuted his findings into wealth. Calling his discovery cold light, for it left

architecture and commerce have their

heroes well represented by such names as Sir Alexander Fleming, Frank Lloyd Wright,J.P. Morgan and many, many others, the historical records of distinguished chemists are remarkably barren. Only after John Walker of Fng-

progress in recent years. The contribu tions of the chemical profession were brought home to me in Washinginton, D.C., when my son Steve and 1 met with the late Dr.Ahel Wolman,then the dean of North American environmental sciences.

The much revered Dr. Wolman was in his nineties when we met

him. While physically frail, his penetrating intellect and impish

a luminous trail in the dark, he

kept his process secret. Later he

sense of humour commanded the

sold it to Krafft who created a

hibited it. Herr Brand had unwit

rapt attention of internationally renowned environmental engi neers and scientists, inevitably concluding in a standing ovation.

tingly taken the first step which led to the knowledge that P is an

he started his scientific career in

sensation before the crowned

heads of Europe wherever he ex

Dr. Wolman told us that when

has been referred to as the first

the early 1900s, the analytical state-of-the-art was only capable

chemist as well as the first per

of measurements down to one

son known to have discovered an

part per ten thousand. By the 1960s,the ability to measure was in the part per million range. In strumentation and chemistry then proceeded at a staggering rate, he

essential element for all life. He


But his phosphorous mirabilis languished as a mere curiosity for a hundred years until a J.F. Gahn made his startling discovery: phosphorous was an essential

told us.

constituent of human and animal

In the 1980s, analytical chem ists could routinely find toxins

bones. Later a C.W. Scheele

at parts per trillion and for some,

found that phosphorous could be Portrait ofAntoine-Laurent Lavoisier, a pioneer in chem in the parts per quadrillion range. produced from bone ash. But istry, and his wife, Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, in their In what Dr.Don Mackay,now a Brand's secret was so well kept, home as he sits recording results, surrounded by his professor at Trent University, once so aptly described as the in Robert Boyle and Kunchel had balloon flasks and test tubes. comprehensibility of tinyness, to rediscover the process meth land invented the lucifer match, in 1827, science can now deal with concentra ods independently. Research continued and in 1780, did phosphorous become an important tions in the range of nanograms, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, a French commercial commodity. The match was picograms or even femtograms per litre surely an important stage in the indus - ranges so incredibly small that even nobleman and public official, demon scientists have difficulty remembering strated that when P was burned in the trial revolution - providing cheap, port air, it produced an acid which weighed able combustion-but who has ever heard what these prefices mean. Some have likened current analytimore than the original phosphorous. of its inventor? This almost literally exploded the prevelant theory that phosphorous consisted of phlogiston and an acid. But, while The ability to measure was in the part per ten thousand range his experiments were still in progress, when Dr. Wolman began his career. Then, instrumentation he was arrested and tried by revolution aries of the French Republic. and chemistry proceeded at a staggering rate. M.Lavoisier pleaded for two weeks' grace to conclude his experiments but the tribunal declared that the state has Chemical professionals - like their cal capabilities to an ability to distin no need ofchemists. His request denied, engineering colleagues - are largely guish one or two hairs from amongst the he was guillotined, dying in obscurity, unknown by the public they serve so heads of every human on earth. This is taking his valuable scientific knowledge well; their achievements are ignored by a fantastic achievement by the chemi with him. the news media who prefer instead to cal profession, yet its significance is not widely appreciated by the public. It is But while luminaries in medicine. record the antics of rock stars and junk

By Tom Davey 56

truly - after environmental engineering

bond dealers.

Yet chemistry has made fantastic

- the Second Invisible Profession. â?–

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Historical Flashback 11

Some historicalfacts about pioneering scientists

The chemical profession has made dramatic changes since

Dr. Wolman started his career

in the 19th century. It is inter esting to review some other historical contributions to the analytical sciences. Hennig Brand did, indeed discover phosphorus while trying to turn base metals into gold, but what is more inter esting is that he was experimenting with his own urine in his quest to find the "philosopher's stone". (Remember that as late as 1800, a "philosopher" was what we now call a "scientist".) The "philosopher's stone" was a material that early alchemists (the precursors of to day's scientists) believed could promote

with other chem

contains 4% carbon and steel has no

ists and purchas ing a diamond, which he placed

more than 2%.

England's Henry Bessemer devel oped a process for producing steel that made mass production possible. The process was based on injecting oxygen

in a closed vessel and heated until the diamond dis

in air into molten iron to remove excess

appeared. The

carbon as carbon monoxide. Ironically, the process did not work well on English iron, due to the presence of high levels ofphosphorus, which resulted in steel that cracked easily when formed into imple ments, or when subjected to stress. Considering that major uses of steel

vessel was then



Dr. Abel Wolman

found to contain

carbon dioxide, thereby demonstrating that diamond was a form of carbon.

From this small start, he eventually rewrote and rationalized all of the alche

included railroad construction and train

mists' versions of "chemistry" and he established careful, precise measure

wheels, it is no surprise that death on the rails was very common in the 19th and early 20th century, because wheels, rails, boilers and pistons made of infe rior steel would fall apart under stress, resulting in frequent, tragic crashes. Fortunately, a number of workers(Tho mas, Gilchrist, Mushet) discovered that the phosphorus problem could be eliminated by adding limestone to the

the transmutation of substances; that is,

ment as the basis for chemical laws. He

turn common materials into gold. It would be interesting to learn why he was looking for the philosopher's

is, today, universally acknowledged as "the father of modern chemistry". Making "modern times" possible Iron is a metal we use in almost every conceivable human undertaking. From cars to cannons, from buildings to bridges, we are surrounded by things made ofiron. And yet, as a widely avail able commondity, iron has only been

stone in his own urine, and where he would have looked next.

Also, he may have been referred to as the first chemist to have discovered

an element, but to modem science he is known as "the last of the alchemists".

A.L. Lavoisier not only helped de molish the phlogiston theory, he trans formed alchemy into chemistry. He be gan by demonstrating that diamonds are just another form of carbon, like coal is. He did so in 1772 by pooling his money

with us since the 1700s.

Iron by itself is a stronger metal than copper or bronze, but it is only when transformed into steel that it becomes

the everlasting, unbending backbone of our buildings, vehicles, and weaponry. The difference between iron and steel is

By Jim Bishop,

carbon; in fact, Lavoisier had deter

Beak Internationai Inc.

mined in the late 1800s that pig iron

Bessemer furnace.

Bessemer had earlier come up with the idea of using graphite in place of lead in "lead" pencils, and with the concept of an elongated cannon projectile which would develop spin and therefore travel further. This was a happy fit with the development of steel for cannon con struction,since the spin placed such stress on the barrel that the majority of castiron cannons would split or burst. â?–



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Pipeline Inspection

Safeguarding water pipeline infrastructure by non-invasive means

Asthe age of our infrastruc

ture increases, non-destruc

tive evaluation becomes a

very important tool for cost-

effective decisions, integrity manage ment and overall maintenance of pipe line systems. Pre-stressed concrete cyl inder pipe(PCCP),typically used in the water industry, is no exception. The Remote Field Eddy Current/Trans former Coupling technique(RFEC/TC) was pioneered by the Pressure Pipe In spection Co. and Queen's University. It has been utilized and accepted for non destructive evaluation by nearly all PCCP users in North America. To date,

over 300,000 pipes have been inspected. The strength and function of PCCP pipes are dependent on a set of prestressed wires that are wound around a

Discovery of corroded wire breaks based on RFEC/TC inspection. cylindrical, concrete core. If these wires distressed. Should sufficient numbers of snap or break, then the pressure-capac wires break, then the pipe itself has the ity of the pipe is severely weakened or potential to fail under typical operating conditions, unbeknownst to an operator. Using the RFEC/TC non-destructive Available for Sale or Lease technique, the number and location of breaks can be quantified, so that an in 1,000-GPIVI Water and Wastewater Treatment System

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formed assessment of the condition of

the pipes can be made. The inspection is typically conducted at a normal walk ing pace within the pipeline but is, in fact, quite rapid compared to most other non-destructive evaluation methods.

The operation requires de-watering of the majority ofthe pipeline, which many operators have traditionally done any way for visual inspections and other qualitative techniques. Essentially,the system is a radio trans mitter and receiver, with the pre-stressed wires in the pipe acting as a secondary antenna, boosting the signal. When the pre-stressed wires are broken, the re ceived signal will be distorted. Wirebreaks can be detected anywhere along the length of a pipe, and it is possible to resolve multiple regions of wire-breaks. The major advantage of RFEC/TC is its ability to locate and quantify the number of broken wires in individual

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sections of PCCR

Breaks can be

detected anywhere around the circum

ference or along the length of the pipe. A secondary characteristic of the method,is its ability to determine which pipes are not distressed, which provides Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Pipeline Inspection security and relief to many operators. Re-inspection of a pipeline system using RFEC/TC gives the operator an other level of information, in that it is

possible to determine the rate of dete rioration of individual pipe sections. The growth in the number of wirebreaks per identified region within each pipe can be tracked. Trends and projec

methods rely on the characteristic sound made when a wire breaks, which can be

captured by a well-placed hydrophone (underwater microphone). The RFEC/ TC system can set a baseline and refer ence during later inspection, while the acoustics can monitor the pipeline in operation to indicate relative growth and change in troublesome locations.

tions can then be made and referenced

to scheduling and planning of outages, as well as to when the next inspection should be performed. Many verification assessments have been performed over a wide range of dif ferent pipe configurations and in diam eters ranging from 36" to nearly 160". It

wires because of pipe corrosion and the fact that to expose all of the wire-breaks would often mean full removal of the

mortar by destructive means. Field veri fications however,show that there is ex

cellent correlation, proving that the tech nology and data are viable and effective. Acoustic monitoring systems may be utilized in conjunction with periodic RFEC/TC inspections to provide ongo ing condition-information. Acoustic

ure models, and can include other sources of information such as land us

Distressed areas can be

age, soils and topography.

presented and organized into a GIS-based pipeline management system, which can

taken into account to understand the

individual distressed pipes

impact of wire-breaks on the structural integrity of a pipeline system. The capability of RFEC/TC to detect and quantify broken pre-stressed wires in many different configurations of PCCP gives operators a detailed picture of the present-day condition of their pipeline. It lets them know if there are distressed pipes, to what extent, and where they might be located. Such data are fundamental for forming a manage ment plan for a PCCP pipeline. For more Information, circle reply card No. 130

The result of inspection is that each individual pipe exhibits its own charac teristic signature orfingerprint. By col lecting rh&stfingerprints before a pipe line goes into operation, and by keep ing continual track ofchanges in the sig nal, it is feasible for the method to be extended over time to include detection

and quantification of wire-corrosion as well as wire-breaks.

The typical output of an inspection is a report with various tables and fig


While this baseline information is

essential for knowing the present-day eondition of the pipeline, it is important to realize that many factors have to be

show the location of the

is often difficult to obtain an accurate count of the actual number of broken

ures presenting distressed pipe, as well as a total observed list of pipes to crossreference the lay-schedule. Distressed areas can be presented and organized into a GIS-based pipeline management system, which can show the location of the individual distressed pipes and in teract with various hydraulic and fail




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Environmental Management

Fish fanning moratorium lifted in BC

New environmentalstandards

and practices allow for lift ing of the five year ban on new salmon aquaculture operations in British Columbia as of April 30, 2002.

placed a moratorium on new marine

without regard for the interests of all

salmon farm tenures. An Environmen

British Columbians and our environ

tal Assessment Office scientific review,


Salmon farming in BC uses open net cages that float in the ocean, permitting uneaten food pellets and feces to enter

The David Suzuki Foundation said

completed in 1997, was the most rigor ous and costly in the history of the prov ince. It concluded that, as practised, the risks of salmon aquaculture to the envi

the move means that "business at any

ronment were low. The review made

fish farmed are introduced Atlantic

cost comes first" and wamed that the en

49 recommendations that would further

vironment is being sacrificed. It sup ports "ecologically responsible" aquaculture that does not pollute or allow farmed species to escape, damaging habitat for native wild species. The provincial government has promised, "improved and new policies for fish escapes, fish health, siting and

reduce risks of salmon aquaculture, all of which were accepted in full by gov ernment and industry. Since October 1999,the government says it has worked toward implement ing policies that will result in the most comprehensive regime of any jurisdic tion in the world for managing the salmon aquaculture industry. But Lynn Hunter, aquaculture spe

salmon, which are now reproducing in the wild because so many have escaped.

relocations,fish waste, and research and

development". "The high operating standards pro posed by govemment, along with im proved practices, will protect the envi ronment and allow the industry to ex pand in a sustainable and responsible manner," said John van Dongen, Min ister of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. In 1995, the previous government

cialist for the David Suzuki Foundation, is not satisfied with that assurance. "Pre

mier [Gordon] Campbell has made a choice and it's not for wild salmon or

the marine environment. Most of the

Anne McMullin, executive director of the BC Salmon Farmers Association,es timates that B.C.salmon farmers will in

vest $50 to $60 million annually over the next 10 years while generating as many as 8,000 new, full time jobs, largely in coastal areas of the province. "We intend to grow at a relatively modest rate of 10 new farms per year, which will roughly double the indus try's current footprint within a decade," McMullin said. "Along the way we expect to invest $500 - $600 million

for the health of BC's coast," she said. "With this decision, it is clear that this

in BC's coastal communities, while

govemment is only interested in pleas ing a handful of multinational businesses

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building an industry that generates year." â?–

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002


Drugs, hormones and other chemicals polluting our waterways

Waterways are contami

nated by a medicine

chest of antibiotics, hor

mones, caffeine, pain killers and other drugs, according to a major study of pharmaceutical pollution in US rivers and streams.

The survey -a baseline for future re search - was perfomied by the US Geo logical Survey (USGS). It revealed a list ofcompounds including the painkill ers acetaminophen and ibuprofen, pre scription medicines for cardiac disorders and hypertension, and female sex hor mones used in birth control pills and hor mone replacement therapy. Although concentrations of most of the compounds were low, typically much less than one part per billion, pre vious research has shown that exposure to levels even lower than reported in this survey may cause harm to aquatic spe cies. Effects on humans, if any, have

• caffeine, a stimulant;

examine questions such as how far

• cotinine, a nicotine breakdown pro

downstream from their sources these

duct; •triclosan, an antimicrobial disinfectant;

chemicals may be found, or how con centrations of these chemicals vary with

not been determined.

• tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, a fire

climate, land use, stream flow rates, or

The national reconnaissance survey targeted 95 organic wastewater contami nants, and included samples collected at 139 stream sites in 30 states during


waste characteristics and treatment

•4-nonylphenol,a detergent breakdown product. "Overall, steroids, non-prescription drugs and a chemical found in insect re pellents were the chemical groups most frequently detected," Kolpin said. "De tergent metabolites, steroids and plasti cizers were generally measured at higher



"The 95 chemicals were picked on the basis of estimates about the quanti ties used, toxicity, potential hormone activity, suspected persistence in the environment and the availability of ref erence standards and an analytical method," said USGS research hydrologist Dana Kolpin,Ph.D., who headed the national study. The USGS study suggests that chemicals used in households, agricul ture, and industry can enter the environ ment through a variety of wastewater sources. Those compounds include hu man and veterinary drugs, including antibiotics, natural and synthetic hor mones, detergents, plasticizers, insecti cides and fire retardants.

The most frequently detected com pounds included: • coprostanol, a steroid found in animal feces;

• cholesterol, plant and animal steroid; • N-N-diethyltoluamide(DEET),an in sect repellant;

By Cat Lazaroff

concentrations than the other chemical

groups, but concentrations measured in this study generally were very low - less than one part per billion." Of the 95 target compounds, the re searchers found 82 of them together in at least one stream. In 35 percent of streams tested, the scientists found 10

or more compounds, and in one case, 38 chemicals were present in a single water sample. "The scientists expected to find most of the compounds, but the prevalence of mixtures was a bit surprising," Dr. Kolpin said. Since this was the first at tempt to survey most of these com pounds the researchers tried to pick streams most likely to show some con

When toxicity is taken into account, the measured concentrations of repro ductive hormones may have implica tions for the health of aquatic organisms, according to Dr. Kolpin and his col leagues. However, limited information is available on the potential health ef fects to human and aquatic ecosystems from low level, long-term exposure or exposure to combinations of these chemicals. For example, the research ers found contamination by 14 antibiot ics used in human medicine and animal

agriculture. Some of the antibiotics given to farm animals are excreted in feces or urine,

and can reach waterways from leaking waste lagoons or when wastes are spread as fertilizer onto agricultural fields. "The USGS study shows that many an tibiotics are moving through our envi ronment in ways that weren't widely appreciated before," noted Dr. Mardi Mellon, senior scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists.

tamination. Most are downstream from

wastewater treatment plants or intense livestock activity. Only a few are from less developed, more pristine areas. The reconnaissance study is intended

is available at:www.toxics.usgs.gov/

to set a baseline for future research to


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

The study. Pharmaceuticals, hor mones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US streams, 1999-2000,


Conference Review

ES&E's annual conference and tradeshow

attracts some 1,000 people

Almost one thousand people

attended ES&E's 10th Annual Environmental

Management,Compliance and Engineering Conference and the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow, April 9-10, 2002. Now firmly estab lished as Ontario's largest private con ference of environmental compliance strategies, technologies and solutions, it took place near Pearson International Airport, Toronto. Some program highlights: Regulation and Compliance for supervisors and managers Speakers: Robert Mansall, Leonard J. Grijfiths, Dennis Mahony, MarkAdkins, Sherry Eaton and Jeffrey B. Gracer,


Torys LLP. • The new framework for environmen

tal compliance. • Federal environmental legislation. • Provincial environmental legislation. • The approvals process and approvals reform.

ES&E's staff at the registration desk. Left to right: Virginia Meyer, Sandra Davey, Karen Bruce, Penny Davey and Denise Simpson. • Industrial stormwater management. • Potential impacts of industrial opera tions.

• Recent changes to the waste manage ment regulation. • Enforcement, inspections and inves tigations.

•4.3 Environmental Planning •4.4 Implementation and Operation • 4.5 Checking, Auditing and

• Canada/US trans-border issues.

• Defending environmental charges. Environmental ManagementISO principles and hest-practices Presented by: David MacLeod and Environmental Management specialists at Jacques Whitford Environment.

Chaired by:David Hopper and Jeanette Southwood, Angus Environmental Lim

Dealing with industrial water and

• Introduction to the ISO 14000 Series

ited, and Janet Bobechko, Eraser Milner

• Brownfields.


Speakers: John Willms, Donna Shier, Willms & Shier EnvironmentalLawyers, and Jim Bishop, Beak International. • Overview of legislation. • Enforcement and prohibitions. • Certificates of approval for wastewater treatment.

• Municipal sewer use by-laws.

Dennis Mahony, Torys LLP 62

Corrective Action

•4.6 Management Review Dealing with industrial and contaminated land

Casgrain LLP.

of Standards.

• Integrating environmental with other existing management systems and protocols.

• Bill 56: Brownfields Statute Law

• Essential elements of the ISO 14001

• Phase I Environmental Site Assess

Environmental Management System (EMS)guidelines. •4.1 General Requirements •4.2 Environmental Policy

• Site-owners' liabilities under the law. Amendment Act.


• Phase II ESA,Decommissioning and Remediation.

Continued overleaf

Dianne Saxe,

Paul Plotz,

Saxe Law Office

MOE Enforcement Branch

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Peristaltic Pumps LOGSTOR ///

Watson-Marlow is the world's larg est manufacturer of peristaltic pumps. With thousands of pumps

flexible systems

Rex-Flex, Copper-Flex and SteelFlex pre-lnsulated pipe systems for hot or cold water distribution, come complete with bonded polyurethane foam and polyethylene jacket. Suppiled In colls, these flexible systems allow reduction In number of joints and elbows. Complete selection of brass compression fittings available.

now In service In the most demand

ing process and laboratory applica tions, Watson-Marlow offers the wid

est range of peristaltic pumps, pumpheads and tubing available. These pumps are Ideal for all types of chemical feed and dosing. Includ ing sodium hypochlorlte. A national field sales network provides techni cal support and service. lDedie«(eddriv£sfin#dwfth \ntw.-ihFlip-Top pumphead-T-i

Pre-insuiated Flexible Pipe Systems

Visit our web site for more Informa tion: www.urecon.com. Urecon

York Fluid Controls

Circle reply card No. 254

Circle reply card No. 253

CEO Directory 2002

Your information resource

Ontario's most comprehensive guide to consulting engineers Is now available for purchase. The Consult ing Engineers of Ontario's 2002 Directory provides detailed corporate profile Information and selection

for drainage pipe

The Corrugated (Polyethylene Pipe Association, a division of the Plas

tics Pipe Institute, Is a resource on corrugated high-density polyethylene drainage pipe and key Issues related to our manufacturers' products, In cluding: strength, structural Integrity, service life, proper Installation, hy

criteria for the extensive CEO mem

bership. The directory is complete with geographic locations, contact In formation and fields of specializ

draulics and chemical/abrasion re sistance. We are dedicated to serv

ations for all our members. Price Is

$75 plus GST. Visit our website at: PLASTICS



Consulting Engineers of Ontario Circle reply card No. 255

Because time is money. The Vlctaulic'system lor water and wastewater

piping systems.

A practical approach to piping systems

Pre-Englneered Pump and Monitoring Packages

The Vlctaulic system uses four ba sic components: grooved pipe, a gasket, the housing, and nuts and

bolts. In addition, there are fittings,



Membrane technology for industrial wastewater ZENON's ZenoGem® bioreactor

system can retrofit any existing wastewater treatment facility. Im mediately Increasing capacity by up to four times. The system in corporates immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass retention, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge.

KSB submersible pumps Amacan K, Amacan P/PNT and

Submersible pumps from KSB. Amacan K,Amacan pkt/smt

Amacan M/SNT are submersible ifliililli

pumps in tubular casing design, based on KSB standards. The

main application for municipal users include: purification plant, wastewater/sewage pumping stations, mixed water pumping stations, land reclamation pump ing stations, land drainage plant, and stormwater retention tanks.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 259

Envimnmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Pre-engineered pump and monitoring packages Metcon offers a variety of pre-englneered,fabricated metering and con trol packages, as well as design and fabrication of custom systems. Pack aged panels are corrosion resistant, pre-englneered, pre-packaged,com pletely self-contained packages with chemical metering pumps,all neces sary piping, appurtenances and fit tings assembled and tested. Premounted packages are a cost-effec tive way of ensuring reliable systems. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 258

valves, and accessories of all types, and components available In a vari ety of materials. Another Vlctaulic product Is the Pressfit® system, which joins small diameter (3/4" to 2"/20-

50 mm)carbon or stainless steel pip ing In seconds with a hand-held pressing tool. Vlctaulic Company of Canada Circle reply card No. 257

ing engineers, highway and transpor tation agencies, government entitles and contractors. CPPA, a division of the Plastics Pipe Institute Circle reply card No. 256


KSB Pumps Circle reply card No. 260


Conference Review

• Site-Specific Risk Assessments. • Underground storage tanks.

• Designing efficient and effective en vironmental management programs. • Site contamination: Communicating • Potential EMS traps and solutions. with the Ministry. Management in practice • The Record of Site Condition(RSC). Government & industry case studies

• The "alternative process" to Record of Site Condition.

• Lender regulations and liabilities. EH&S: The supervisor's role health & safety Speakers: Norman A. Keith, and asso ciates at Donahue LLP.

• Supervisors on the front line ofEH&S Jim Bishop, Beak international

Adam Quipp, RWDi

John Wilims, Wilims and Shier Environmental



• Supervisors' responsibilities under OH&S legislation. • Specific responsibilities of the 'com petent' supervisor. • Supervisory functions: generally. • Supervisory functions: specifically. • Inspections, investigations and charges. EH&S: The supervisor's role compliance and due diligence


Ventra EMS.

Preparing for and responding to spills and emergencies Speakers:Wilims & Shier Environmen tal Lawyers, Gary Zikovitz, Spills Ac tion Centre, CliffHolland, President of Spill Management Inc., Dave Reid, EH&S Manager, Molson Canada, Tails Forstmanis, President, TAP Industrial

Consulting. • Emergency Response(ER)planning. • Spills: Specific reporting. • Introduction to spill prevention and response planning. • A chemical spill prevention and re sponse plan. • Potential environmental liabilities of • Developing a Spills Response Plan. managers and supervisors. • Introducing a Chemical Product Man • Environmental responsibilities of agement System (CPMS) for EMS/ managers and supervisors under fed ER systems. eral and provincial laws. • Facing the worst case scenario. • Responding to MOE inspections and investigations. In three years, the number of booths • What supervisors can do to help es sold has increased threefold. Exhibitors tablish environmental due diligence. expressed their approval at both the Dealing with industrial air emissions numbers and quality of attendees. The Presented by: RWDI Consulting Engi 2003 conference and tradeshow are ten neers and Wilims & Shier Environmen tatively scheduled to be held May 13tal Lawyers. 14, at the Toronto Congress Centre. • Regulatory framework. • Certificates of Approval. RN AT 1O N A L • Certificates of Approval: Modeling. • Compliance and enforcement. Dealing with industrial air emissions - Reg. 127 • Airborne Emissions Regulation (O. Reg. 127/01). • Information management. • Complying with air emission moni toring and reporting: Q and A. Due Diligence and the EMS Presented by David MacLeod and • Environmental Consulting Environmental Managementspecialists • Ecotoxicity Testing at Jacques Whitford Environment. • Environmental Technologies Speakers included: Dianne Saxe, Envi ronmental Lawyer, Jag Bilkhu, David CSG IHf 361 Southgate Drive, Parkinson, Jacques Whitford Environ Gueiph, Ontario, Canada ment, Greg Rooney, Ventra. NIG3M5 • Principles of systematic environmen Phone (519) 836-6050 tal management. Web www.8sg.net • Environmental due diligence: Why ISO 14001 is a useful model.

David Hopper, Angus Environmental Limited

• ISO 14001 government case study: City of Calgary. • ISO 14001 industry case study:


• Flow of an Environmental Manage ment System. • Identifying environmental 'aspects'.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 168

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Product and Service Showcase Concrete Pipe Handbook

PipePac 2000 software

On-site wastewater treatment

The Waterloo Biofilter® is a patented aerobic trickle filter designed for efficient

The latest edition of the Concrete Pipe Handbook,a comprehensive collection of theories, formulas and aids for designing concrete pipe systems, is available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. Now in its fifth printing, the handbook has been updated to include information on Standard Installation using Indirect De sign. American Concrete Pipe Assoc.

PipePac 2000 software from the Ameri can Concrete Pipe Association is an en hanced version of ACPA's popular PipePac software. It offers integrated analysis using three independent pro grams for D-Ioad calculations(3EB),es timating the material costs of the pipe and embedment zones (CAPE) and the real cost of the materials specified over the design life of the program (LCA). Pipe Pac helps you select the right material for a buried infrastructure system. ACPA

Circle reply card No. 190

Circle reply card No. 191

New pump doubles impeller and wearplate life

Packaged sewage pumping system


treatment of residential and communal wastewaters and landfill leachate. We

specialize in treating wastewater for im mediate domestic re-use and golf course irrigation. Typical removal rates are >95% TSS and >90% BOD,20-50% TN

and 90-99% coliform in a single pass. (Photograph: RattleSnake Point Golf Club Treatment Facility, Milton, ON). Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 192

Packaged ozone plants


Canada Ltd., has in

troduced the Super T Series™

of self-

priming centrifugal pumps. Based on the T Series solids-han

dling trash pumps, the new Super T Se ries is said to double impeller and wearplate life to decrease downtime and keep the pump operating at maximum ef ficiency. External shimless wearplate ad justment for easy maintenance of the clearance between the impeller and wearplate results in the dramatic increase in impeller and wearplate life of the Su per T Series pump. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 193

Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Packaged Submersible Pumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp

To meet the increasing demand for eco nomical,easy to install and operate ozone plants, Ozonia has developed a range of standard,skid-mounted systems designed

around the revolutionary OZAT® Ozone Generators, which include Ozonia's pat ented non-glass dielectric assembly. Each packaged system includes all the components needed to safely generate and deliver a specified quantity of ozone with reliability and confidence. Ozonia North America

Circle reply card No. 194

Circle reply card No. 195

A bridge for all reasons

The best keeps getting better

For many years,Armtec has stretched your design dollar with its range of soil steel structures including Multi-Plate and Su per-Span. Keeping pace with the need to provide economical bridge solutions, Armtec offers Bridge-Plate structures for larger installations. Bridge-Plate has the deepest and strongest corrugation in the market today,enabling long span soil steel structures to be designed and built more economically than ever before. Armtec Circle reply card No. 197

pipe systems through the BOSS product line. BOSS products are used in gravity storm sewers, culverts and, using the bell and gasket POLYTITE products,in grav ity sanitary sewers. Armtec is moving to full CSA certification for the complete BOSS product line. Armtec Circle reply card No. 198

Reducing hydrogen sulfide from gas and air streams ADI International Inc. announces a new ad

sorption process for the reduction of hy drogen sulfide from gas and air streams. With MEDIA G2®, the company's pat ented


coated filter media,up to 99.99% of H,S is removed. With a one minute contact time,

concentiations as high as 30,000 ppm have been reduced to below 1 ppm. MEDIA

G2® is capable of multiple regenerations without chemicals or backwashing. ADI can provide complete systems to meet any size need. ADI International

Circle reply card No. 196

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Armtec is a leader in twin-wall HDPE


Product and Service Showcase Asphalt joint sealing

Glass pipe outerwrap

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Densoband is a polymer modified bitumen strip that has been widely utilized in the try for over 30 years. It is used to form a flexible, waterproof seal between new hot asphalt and existing asphalt, concrete or steel. The sealed joint is unaffected by exu^eines in temperature and stays in place to prevent water,road salt and pollutants from penetrating and cracking the asphalt.

Denso Glass Outerwrap is a water acti vated fibreglass tape that is used for me chanical protection over Denso Petrola tum Tape Systems or as a pipe repair product for cracked or broken pipe. Glass Outerwrap is said to offer exceptional impact and mechanical strength on above or below ground pipes, pilings, and fit tings. Glass Outerwrap is paintable and has an in service temperature from sub

Dense North America

zero to 350°F. Denso North America

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil (&; gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso!

road maintenance and construction indus

Circle reply card No. 199

Circle reply card No. 200

Circle reply card No. 201

Asbestos Trakker Version 2.4

Now available!

Also available!

The Trakker is a state-of-the-art as

bestos management software program that can be net


worked between the

facility manager, construction department and health and safety officials through your local network server system. The Trakker system is ex tremely user-friendly; compatible with all Windows-based programs; has a search function that can retrieve a room's survey results in seconds; multiple buildings or wings can be included in one program; has a link-up feature that will allow other department managers to view the Trakker survey findings; and more. T.Harris Environmental Management

Circle reply card No. 202

Engineering Guide now available!

An in-depth analysis of drainage pipe per formance and design comparisons ofcon crete pipe vs HDPE. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Call for your copy now! Ontario Concrete Pipe Association Circle reply card No. 203

If you liked Just the Facts- Concrete Pipe vs HDPE - you'll love the next installment...Concrete Pipe vs CSP. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Ontario Concrete Pipe Association

ecoSep Below Grade Oil/Water Separators

Toshiba magnetic flowmeter technology

Circle reply card No. 204

Eeatures include resistance


slurry noise via patented noise suppressor cir cuit; stable zero

engineeiing guide

via patented multi divided sampling technique; HHT

The CON/SPAN Engineering Guide is a valuable tool with all the necessary in

HART communi

formation to consider the CON/SPAN

System for many different design appli cations. Eilled with numerous figures and charts, the Engineering Guide provides a reference of design parameters, stand ard detail illustrations, and limited design methodologies. Available in binder or CD Rom format. CON/SPAN Canada

Circle reply card No. 205 66

Cost-effective and safe, this highly effi cient below grade oil/water separator pro vides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The spill stays on site, where it belongs. Check out all the benefits of ecoSep...the clear choice for clean water. Con Cast Pipe Circle reply card No. 206

cations; wide range power supply 80-265 Vac(loop powered mags also available); multi-functional converter; digital input control; large wiring terminals; empty pipe alarm; coated circuit boards for high reliability; surface mount circuit boards provide resistance to vibration. Cancoppas Limited

Circle reply card No. 207

Eiivironinental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Product and Service Showcase Multi-stage filter for small systems

Upgrade to the most

Package Wastewater Plants

advanced free chlorine

Adapted to Your Needs

sensor on the market today

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no mem branes to replace, and yet treatment per formance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced populations of less than

.sensor technology, the innovative new CLE3.1 Sensor, www.prominent.ca

1,500. MS Filter Inc.

ProMinent Fluid Controls

For direct continuous free chlorine

measurement in surface water without

the need for buffers or reagents, upgrade to ProMinent's most advanced chlorine

We have supplied Package Sewage Treat ment Plants worldwide. The Package Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treat ment. It is economical, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any loca tion unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 208

Circle reply card No. 209

Circle reply card No. 210


Inlet Stormceptor® system

Series Stormceptor system

The Inlet Storm

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as the well-known In

line Interceptors. Developed to treat run-off from an area

Create a HEC-RAS model directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and cre ate inundation maps from the results. Complete integration between 12D and HEC-RAS allows water level results read back into our 12D model. A water level

surface is automatically created and ready for pre.sentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software

Circle reply card No. 211

Environmental Preparedness

of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all .sediment and oil removed from storm-

water run-off remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 212

Specialty gate valve for sewage


Developed for the treatment of larger catchment areas, the new Series Storm

ceptor system employs the same operat ing principles as the well-known Inline and Inlet Stormceptor systems. The sys tem receives flow from a single inlet pipe and splits it into two distinct streams, which ai'e treated in two separate treatment chambers before recombining into a sin gle outlet pipe. It effectively doubles the treatment area of the inline system. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 213

Flow pacing valve

Neo Valves Seguro Resilient Seal Gate Valve has been de

signed with sew age applications in mind



mains, pumping stations and treat


• location-specific observations,

ment plants. The Seguro Valve has a

• recommendations for action. Benefits:

• review issues by group. • supplement reports, • excellent planning tool. Senior consultant. Cliff Holland has over

20 years of hands-on experience at re sponding to and training for large and small volume spills. Spill Management Inc.

resilient seal that ensures a 100% bidi

rectional bubble-tight seal, according to Neo Valves. Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in the bonnet area. They are available in sizes up to 60", with 100% full bore design and hundreds of installations in Canada since 1972. Neo Valves

Circle reply card No. 214 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Circle reply card No. 215

The Regal Smartvalve''^' is an accurate and versatile Flow Pacing Valve for chlo rine or sulphur dioxide. Operating on fully automatic or manual, with an ad justable "low-flow" alarm, it is widely used for treating water with varying How rates. The multi function digital display highlights flow rate; valve flow position in pounds per day of actual gas feed rate; mode of operation; and dosage value. Chlorinators Incorporated Circle reply card No. 216 67

Product and Service Showcase Signal converter

Filter presses

MAGFLO® magnetic flow meters

The EVITA® USC 7000 Signal Converter from Danfoss is the world's first HART®

multi-drop dissolved oxygen metering system. The USC 7000 is a top of the range converter that is able to communi cate with up to 15 transmitters on the

The MAGFLO® Magnetic Flow Meter from Danfoss is easy to install, easy to commission, easy to service, highly de pendable; it offers simplicity that saves you money for years to come. The MAGFLO® 3100 comes with either Neo-

extremely cost-effective for applications with multiple oxygen transmitters.

prene or EPDM linings and AISI 316 Ti electrodes. User-friendly operator inter face and SENSORPROM technology.

Davis Controls Limited

Davis Controls Limited

same 2-wire HART bus. This solution is

Circle reply card No. 217

Power Biidd up Law


Parkson/Lanco understands tough dewatering jobs and has designed durabil ity and reliability into all its manual,seiniautomatic and automatic filter presses. Plates and filter cloth can be changed to meet new demands. With the optional expansion piece, additional filter plates can be easily added. Filter presses are avail able in plate sizes ranging from 320-1500

mm with capacities from 0.1-300 ft^ per unit and filter cake thicknesses of 3/4-2"

(20-50 mm). Parkson Circle reply card No. 219

Circle reply card No. 218

Problem solving lubes

Drive solutions for water and wastewater



+ Strategy Business Power Power Budd's multi-disciplinary team can empower your business with special ized legal advice and strategic business expertise, in one seamless service. That's Business Power, the power to perform, the power to win. Power Budd LLP Circle reply card No. 220

Lubrication Engineers have solved the toughest lubrication problems at wastewater treatment plants worldwide. Elimi nation of foaming and water emulsification in comminutors, grinders, clarifier gearboxes, filter press hydraulics and lightning mixers. Significant reduction in operating temperatures and electricity consumption, in aeration blowers, influ ent pumps, speed reducers and air com pressors. Lubrication Engineers of Canada Limited

ment with a host of measurable benefits. For wastewater treatment the VLT®

drives ensure reduced energy consump tion, improved throughput and a reduc tion in chemical usage. For water sup ply systems, the drives reduce water leak ages, bursts and maintenance costs. Davis Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 222

Circle reply card No. 221

Multiwash® filtration process

For more than 30 years Danfoss has dem onstrated leadership in water manage

Fiuidized bed reactor

tss to have and to hold 'till The Envirex Fluid Bed Reactor(FBR)is

death parts your parts!

a fixed-film reactor column that fosters

lations. The key is sustained, simultane ous air and water backwash. The proc

growth of microorganisms on a hydraulically fiuidized bed of media, usually sand or granular activated carbon(GAG). The fiuidized media selected provides an extremely large surface area on which a film of microorganisms can grow. This creates a large inventory of biomass in a

ess continues to be refined.

small reactor volume.

USFilter General Filter Products

USFilter Fnvirex Products

The General Filter MULTIWASH® filtra

tion process from USFilter provides ef ficient operation, consistent water qual ity and exceptionally long filter runs in hundreds of water and wastewater instal

Circle reply card No. 223 68

Circle reply card No. 224

Only Canadian Welding Bureau certified fabricators weld to CSA standards W47.1 for steel and stainless steels and W47.2

for aluminum. Assure the integrity of the products you specify, use and maintain. Make sure that all your welded products are manufactured by a Canadian Weld ing Bureau certified fabricator. MSU Mississauga Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 225 Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 2002

Product and Service Showcase Measurement solutions

Versatile level monitor

Do you need to ensure high qual ity, reduce operating costs and comply with envi ronmental regula


Ranger ultrasonic


level monitor has

TMS 561 Turbidi-

proven its reliabil ity in the water and wastewater, min

tions? This is an

ing, aggregate,ce

easy-to-read re source for opera

ment, chemical,

pulp and paper,

tors of water dis

food, and other

tribution, wastewater treatment and re

process industries. The new-generation MultiRanger has additional features and functions for enhanced performance, greater versatility and unsurpassed reliabil ity for short- to medium-range applications up to 15 metres. It offers digital commu nications, and the latest technology fea tures in a cost-effective package.

lated industries about level measurement

instruments and applications, as well as installation tips and techniques for best results. Siemens Milltronics instruments set the standard for level measurement

with innovative technology and strong technical support. Siemens Milltronics Circle reply card No. 226

Siemens Milltronics

Circle reply card No. 227

Turbidity and suspended

Turbidity measurement

Milltronics' Multi-

On-line TOO anaiyzer

solids measurement




meter is designed for continuous on-line measurement of tur

bidity in filtered or raw water applica tions in municipal water treatment plants, and final effluent applications in wastewater plants. It is a low-cost,economical unit featuring a onepiece modular design with built-in controls for ease of installation and operation. There is a white light version for report ing results under USEPA method 180.1 re quirements, or an infrared version for use in industrial and wastewater applications. USFilter, Wallace & Tiernan Products Circle reply card No. 228

Measure BOD conveniently and continuously


Hach's TxPro™-2 system is economical to install and maintain, because it meas

ures turbidity and suspended solids us ing proven probe technology. This ap proach eliminates sampling and mini mizes operator attention. You can also choose from a wide variety of probe ranges to target your specific application. Hach Company

Be ready for compliance with Hach's dual-stream 1950plus On-line TOC Analyzer. It automatically calculates TOC removal based on the TOC and al

The BioMonitor's design clo.sely repro duces the actual WWTP process to en sure that results are directly applicable to the actual treatment operation. Be cause the BioMonitor results reflect the

Circle reply card No. 229

kalinity of the source water and TOC of finished water,so operators always know compliance status. Continuous TOC measurement also guides processes to optimize clarification, filtration, and dis infection. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 230

Do you fit in?

Dissolved air flotation system

Biological removal of iron and

You can't afford not to.

actual treatment design, they are better predictors of BOD-5. They enable opti mal process control of the WWTP and help operators meet regulatory require ments. Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 231

manganese bQUad&p

: n%

Standards Council of Canada ^ Conseil canadien des normes \_/ÂŤH3.C13. Do you want to become registered to ISO 9000(Quality Management Systems)or ISO 14001 (Environmental Management Systems) by a Standards Council of Canada accredited registrar? Or, do you want to become a registration body for ISO 9000 or ISO 14001? Visit our web

site at: www.scc.ca or call us at: (613) 238-3222. Standards Council of Canada

ONDEO Degremont presents a new solution for the clarification of surface

and ground water, especially with cold water and water with high TOC or col our. The simple yet very effective AquaDAFT'^ system provides operating rates unequalled by conventional flota tion technologies. It enables an excel lent algae, Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal without requiring polymer in most applications. ONDEO Degremont

Circle reply card No. 232 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Circle reply card No. 233

ONDEO Degremont offers an ecological and economical solution for removing iron and manganese from groundwater. The Ferazuf'''' MangazuH'^' system uses the natural microorganisms already present in water to oxidize Fe and Mn. The innovativeness and performance of the system has been recognized by the 2001 Technological Innovation Award of the Ministere des Ajfaires Miinicipcdes, QC. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 234 69

Product and Service Showcase Fall through prevention

Quick panel operator

VersaMax I/O and control



Hatch Net is a rail mounted safety system designed to be installed in all types offloor access and roof hatches to reduce risks

associated with open hatches. The safety net system provides protection during the initial opening of the hatch and maintains protection after access has been gained. The safety net easily slides on guide rails to facilitate entry and then is repositioned to prevent fall through. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 235

Introducing the N-Pumps!

The VersaMax solution is a single con trol product that may be used as I/O, as a PLC,and/or as distributed control for up to 256 I/O points. It offers 34 different I/O modules,a powerful PLC CPU,open networking, and multiple wiring options to save machine builders and end users

time and money. Plus, with Six Sigma design, intuitive diagnostics, and hot I/O module insertion, it provides reliability and increased uptime. Gescan Circle reply card No. 236

Flo-Get system launched

These slim-profile touchscreen graphical operator interfaces provide a practical, cost-effective alternative to a variety of discrete devices. Several screen tech

nologies and sizes are available and pro vide bold, clear displays in colour or monochrome. Each unit communicates

with over 40 major PLCs and PLC net works, including Allen-Bradley Remote I/O and DH-r. Gescan

Circle reply card No. 237

Immersed ultraflltration membranes

Years of research

coupled with cus tomer demands

The ZeeWeedÂŽ


500 series of im


mersed ultrafiltration meiubranes is

field trials have

produced a revo lutionary new pump design that combines high ef ficiency with Flygt's clog-free performance. The N-Pump series feature a radical new hydraulic end design which ensures efficient, clog-free, and troublefree pumping over extended periods. The result is improved operational economy due to less downtime,dramatically reduc ing the total life cost of the installation. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 238

Paperless hydrant pressure recording

the only mem brane in the in

Flo-Get is an original Flygt system,

dustry engineered

which is used for the simultaneous aera

with a reinforced

tion and mixing of all types of liquids. Thousands of installations in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, liq uid manure, fish farming in all types of equalization tanks prove the reliability and efficiency of the system. The sys tem is based on coupling one or more Flygt submersible pumps to one or more ejectors. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 239

hollow fiber. The

Iron and manganese removal

combined with an open module design, allow operation in high levels of suspended solids. The mem brane simplifies conventional processes and provides a long membrane life, even under the harshest operating conditions. ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 240

Safe drinking water by hypochlorlnatlon

M The benefits of Telog's HPR-31 include on-site data evaluation for immediate on-

the-spot problem diagnosis, and collect ing data without exposing internal elec tronics results in decreased maintenance

concerns. Uses: pressure compliant in vestigation, valve performance investiga tion, hydrant flow testing, and model validations. HETEK Solutions Inc.

Circle reply card No. 241 70

Filtronics Electromedia I System is a simple, compact filtration system that effectively removes iron and manganese concentrations without the use of green sand or potassium permanganate. Elec tromedia I filters up to 15 gpm per sq. ft. and offers extremely low operation and maintenance costs, especially in chemi cals, according to the manufacturer. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 242

ProMinent offers a simple and reliable chloiine disinfection program for potable water. Dulcometer sensors provide pre cise continuous monitoring ofchlorine re sidual (free or total), and PID control via high-precision metering pumps to main tain a safe chlorine residual. Features in

clude reagent-free sensor technology, menu-driven display, alarm contacts for upset conditions, and automatic fault di agnostic. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 243

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

industry Update Three new Directors for

Globe 2002 Awards for Environmental Excellence

Ontario Society of Professional Engineers The Ontario Society of Professional Engineers announced the results of its second election March 15. Joining the Board of Directors for a three-year term are Walter K. Bilanski, Ph.D., P.Eng., Stephen Fischer, P.Eng., and Annette M. Bergeron, P.Eng. "We're pleased to have engineers of such a high calibrejoin our Board," said Robert A. Goodings,P.Eng.,Chair of the Society's Board of Directors. "They'll complement an already strong group that is focused on building a voice for engineers in Ontario." • Mr. Bilanski is a professor emeritus of the University of Guelph, where he taught Agricultural Engineering. A li censed professional engineer for 45 years, he is a three-time past president of Professional Engineers Ontario. • Mr. Fischer has 14 years experience as a licensed engineer. A graduate of Carleton University, he works as a Senior Mechanical Engineer for Falconbridge's Kidd Mining Division in Timmins. • Ms Bergeron is an adjunct instructor in Chemical Engineering at Queen's University in Kingston and has been a professional engineer for 12 years. Contact: agill@ospe.on.ca. Rhees named new ACPA Chairman

Nicholas Sonntag, President, CH2M HILL Canada (left), and Doug Langley, VP, Environmental Division, Delcan Corporation, accepting the Awards. Photos courtesy Globe Foundation. In Vancouver, British Columbia,March 15,2002,the Globe Foundation announced the winners in the first annual Globe Awards for Environmental Excellence. The

awards, sponsored by the Globe & Mail, recognize Canadian companies that have taken environmental challenges and turned them into competitive advantages in the marketplace. The Corporate Competitiveness Award, sponsored by the Canadian Secre tariat for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, was presented to CH2M HILL Canada Ltd. and Dofaseo Inc.(tie).

The Industry Award for Environmental Performance,sponsored by the Cli mate Change Action Fund, Government of Canada, was presented to Forest Prod ucts Association of Canada.

The Industry Award for Export Performance, sponsored by Export Development Canada, was presented to Delcan Corporation.

Contact: info@concrete-pipe.org.

tivity that may be harmful to the mu nicipal production wells. It is antici pated the regulation will be used by all 55 municipalities by 2008.

NB wins International

Plastics Pipe Institute's

award for regulations

Technical Director honored The Plastic Pipe Institute's Technical

• Ron Metzger, Rinker Materials-Hydro Conduit Division, Houston, Texas (treasurer).

The Province of New Brunswick re

ceived an international award for adopt ing province-wide regulations that pro tect municipal groundwater supplies

Raymond L. Rhees, Central Region president of Oldcastle Precast, Inc., Littleton, Colorado, has been named the new chairman of the board of the Ameri

can Concrete Pipe Association(ACPA). Rhees assumed the chairmanship at ACPA's 94th annual convention in

Tucson, Arizona, March 20-33, 2002. Three other officers were also named at

the meeting; • John G. Munro, Munro Conrete Pipe Products, Ltd., Barrie, Ontario (vice chairman). • Doug Mohrman, Concrete Industries, Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska (secretary).

Director, Dr. Gene Palermo, will receive

awards from two different organizations in 2002 for his outstanding dedication and contributions to the plastics piping from contamination. The National Ground Water Association (NGWA) industry. He is this year's recipient of the Frank W. Reinhart and Henry named the Department of the Environ Kuhlmann award, administered by the ment and Local Government a winner of the Outstanding Ground Water American Society for Testing and Protection Award for its Wellfield Materials Intemational(ASTM). He has also been recognized with a Silver Protected Area Designation Order. Award of Merit from the American Gas The Wellfield Protected Area Desig nation Order is designed to provide Association (AGA). Dr. Palermo is responsible for ensur drinking water protection to the 55 mu nicipalities in New Brunswick which ing the industry advances technically ac rely on groundwater for their primary curate and responsible positions. He also serves as Chairman ofPPI's Hydro source of drinking water. The regula tion places standards that prohibit or static Stress Board. Contact: www.plasticpipe.org. limit chemical storage and land use ac

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002



Manufacturer selected for the first wind turbine in the

City of Toronto Joint venture partners, Toronto Hydro Energy Services Inc. and the Toronto Renewable Energy Co-operative (TREC),have selected Lagerwey Windturbine International B.V., a Dutchbased manufacturer, for the first wind turbine in Toronto, to be located on the waterfront at Exhibition Place. The con

tract with Lagerwey is worth approxi mately $1.2 million. The Lagerwey wind turbine, a threebladed 750 kW gearless generator, is capable of producing 1,800 megawatt hours of energy per year, enough elec tricity for about 250 homes. Delivery of the turbine is scheduled for Septem ber and commissioning is planned for later in the fall. This is Lagerwey's first installation of a utility-scale wind tur bine in North America.

Each of the turbine's blades, 29 me

tres in length, will be mounted on a tower 65 metres high. From the ground to the tip of the highest blade, the tur bine will stand 98 metres tall, about as high as the Royal York Hotel in down town Toronto. Estimates indicate the

Next generation ozonemonltorlng could improve smog forcasting Knowing the concentration of ozone in the air above urban areas is a missing piece ofimportant information for ozone pollution forecasters. Atmospheric sci entists studying ozone pollution also need this information to help determine the "sources and sinks" (i.e., where it is created and where it goes) of air pollut ants. In turn, metro area planners could devise effective strategies to address air


thejoint venture,Toronto Hydro Energy Services and TREC will install two wind

monitoring continuous and affordable, and results will be available via the Internet in real time.

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Industry Update ACPO seeks licensure for


Ontario chemists following allegations of fraudulent practices

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ment to license the chemical profession in Ontario. The urgency follows in the wake of attention focussed on an alleged case of fraudulent practices by an ana lytical laboratory in Hamilton. Unlike engineers and many other professionals, chemists are not required to be licensed to practise in Ontario. Nothing precludes unqualified individu als from doing chemical tests or mak ing often complex chemical decisions. These decisions may affect public health and safety, impact on the environment or have strong financial repercussions. For several years, Quebec has re quired its chemists to be licensed. This came from a strong desire by that pro vincial government to protect public

chemists also meet strict academic and


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fession of Ontario(ACPO)is renewing its submissions to the provincial govem-

The ACPO ensures that professional


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experience guidelines, and that they ad here to a code of ethics. "But without

mandatory licensure in Ontario, the vast majority of people practising chemistry go unregulated," says Ed Alvarez, presi dent of the ACPO.

Ethical regulation of chemists in Ontario is purely voluntary. If the ACPO learns that one of its members might have acted unethically,it will review the case through its discipline committee. The maximum penalty, however, in volves revoking the chemist's right to




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I R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

I consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

The ACPO and its members were

granted right-to-title in 1984, and the association now represents some 1,100

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Contact: ACPO, 1-800-260-0992. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Industry Update

PEO obtains Order against

GAP EnviroMicroblal Services Inc.^

Ontario resident An Order under the Professional Engi

Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting

neers Act was obtained March 7, 2002,

Cryptosporidium & Giardia Microorganism Identification Rapid E.coii recreational water

by Professional Engineers Ontario (PEO)in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, against Maple, Ontario resident Robin S. Rice,for misrepresenting him self as a professional engineer. Rice is not and has never been licensed as a pro fessional engineer in Ontario. PEO brought the application after receiving information that Rice had mis represented himself as a professional engineer on employment applications and in subsequent interviews, with pro spective employers in Vaughan and Pickering. Rice was hired, according to affida vit evidence from Rice's former employ ers, as a result of these misrepresenta tions on three separate occasions. Rice was terminated from each job when er










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the Professional Engineers Act in his use of the term "professional engineer" and the abbreviated title "P.Eng.". On April 9,2002, Robin S. Rice was fined $56,250,including a victims's sur charge of$11,250,in the Richmond Hill Provincial Court for misrepresenting himself as a professional engineer.

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Illegal sewage discharge

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count under section 30 of the Ontario

Water Resources Act, which prohibits the discharge of contaminants that may harm water quality. The offence oc curred on July 3 and 4, 1999. The court heard that, following a

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thunderstorm, there was a malfunction in the communication link between the

automated pumping station and the Humber sewage treatment plant. After finding that the pump was still working, staff allowed the plant to continue func tioning without supervision. The pump broke down shortly thereafter. The fine, levied on February 11, 2002, comes with a 20% victim fine


J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

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Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 2002


Industry Update • Design and supervision of groundwater exploration programs

Lotowater ltd.

NB firm expands Chinese

• New municipal well design

Hydrogeological Consultants and


• Assessment of groundwater/surface water interaction

Groundwater Supply Specialists

A New Brunswick waste treatment firm,

• Groundwater protection

•Artificial recharge • Hydrogeology studies and groundwater impact assessments

ADI Systems Inc., has landed a new job


P.O. Box 451, Paris, Ontario N3L 3T5

• Video Inspection services

in China with the Hua Run Paper Co. Ltd., to furnish process designs and major equipment for the paper mill's


326 Grand River St. North

• Performance testing of wells and pumps

wastewater treatment system.

E-mali: lwater@lotowater.com. Web site: www.iotowater.com

Located in Shandong Province, the mill is expanding production and the ex isting wastewater treatment system is unable to meet discharge limits. ADI Systems already has a presence in China,

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• Well maintenance, rehabilitation, performance improvement

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plant operating at a similar mill near Shanghai. ADI is continuing its efforts to se cure additional work in China beyond the pulp and paper sector. The firm al ready has systems operating in Taiwan, Malaysia, Korea,and Pakistan for com panies such as DuPont and Eastman


Chemicals. Contact: www.adi.ca.


MacViro Consultants inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994 E-Mail: reception@macviro.com Web site: www.macviro.com


Cruise line uses Zenon


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

technology Zenon Environmental Inc. will be sup plying Holland America Lines Westours passenger cruise ships with a commer cial shipboard application of its patented

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ISO Certification granted two years before deadline



USFilter's John Mennier Products re

5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N9 vgeldart@philipinc.com • 1-800-263-9040 ext. 275 • Fax:(905)890-8575 Valene Geidart

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ceived ISO 9001:2000 certification on

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

Industry Update Organization for Standardization(ISO),

Offices across North America

the ISO 9000 standards are a set of in

ternational quality management system (QMS) standards and guidelines that help organizations incorporate quality management into their processes and activities. The 1994 versions of the ISO

9001, ISO 9002, and ISO 9003 stand ards have been condensed into the ISO

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The companies recognized for inno vative technologies were: Elanco Ani mal Health/Provel, Droycon Bioconcepts Inc., and Encelium Technologies

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002

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Industry Update

Date Pad

May 28-29, 2002. North Eastern Ontario

Contest seeks global solutions to

Waterworks Conference, Sault Ste. Marie, ON. Contact Louis Bumbaco, Tel: (705)

medical waste incineration


safer, low-cost technologies to replace incineration for medical waste disposal in rural areas.

Incineration is a leading source of dioxins and has also been linked to birth

defects, immune system disorders and


May 31 - June 3, 2002. Federation of Canadian Municipalities Municipal Expo,

waste in urban centers, low-cost solu

tions are needed for poor rural commu nities," said Dr. Jorge Emmanuel, a medical waste consultant who chairs the

panel of international judges. Applicants are asked to submit a let ter of intent by October 1, 2002. Se lected applicants will be asked to sub mit conceptual designs that meet a set of technical criteria. Winners will re

With technical support from the World Health Organization, 'Health Care

ceive cash prizes.

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FOG technology proven in

Fine screen installed at

Barrle, Ontario

Canadian military base's

Canatech recently completed a 90-day trial study in the City of Barrie, Ontario, to test the efficiency of the Bacta-Pur Bactivator in lift stations. The purpose was to see if the fats, oils and greases (FOGs) could be eliminated from lift stations, and keep systems clean. The trial was a complete success in that the



Contact: www.canatechsys.com. 78

Conference, Toronto, ON. Contact Earl Morwood, Tel; (519) 847-5717, E-mail: ehmor@ xcelco.on.ca.

June 16-20,2002. American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Expo sition, Your Bridge to the Future, New Orle ans, LA. Contact: www.awwa.org/ace2002. June li-n, 2002. Air & Waste Manage ment Association, 95th Annual Conference and Exhibition, Baltimore, MD. Contact:

www.awma.org or call (412)232-3444. June 30 - July 5, 2002. The 9th Interna tional Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA. Contact Tel:(831) 426-0148, or: www.indoorair2002.org.

plant in Quebec, with an EscalatorÂŽ fine

Co-sponsored by the BC Water and Waste Association, the Water Environment

ond of its kind in North America, and marks the first time that the Escalator Saint Laurent-based USFilter division.

ious odours. Because of the solubiliz-

dian Groundwater Association Annual

screen. The installation is only the sec

provide the ValCartier Canadian Forces

fine screen will be manufactured at the

ing of the FOGs, the resultant volatile fatty acids, hydrogen sulphide and sul phuric gases are eliminated and crown corrosion is greatly reduced, leading to a longer life span of the sewage infra

Web site: www.fcm.ca.

June 11-14, 2002. Canadian Water Re sources Association Conference, Winnipeg, MB. Contact Tel:(204)945-6152,Web site: cwra@hydro.mb.ca. June 12-15,2002. Can'Well 2002- Cana

Base (CFB)'s wastewater treatment

internal equipment had no FOG build up. The Bactivator has been success fully used in the US for about the last year at food processors, but this is the first time solely at a lift station. The Bacta-Pur Bactivator is an auto

Hamilton, ON. Contact Tel:(613)241-5221,

CALL FOR PAPERS 2nd Canadian Organic Residuals Recycling Conference April 23-25,2003 - Penticton,EC

USPilter's John Meunier Products will

FOGs were eliminated and the walls and

matic system, which continuously grows, conditions and delivers precise quantities of non-pathogenic actively growing beneficial microorganisms se lected for their ability to digest FOGs, clean pipes and prevent causes of nox

385-1880, Toll Free: 1-888-823-7469, Fax:

(416) 385-1855, Web site: www.dmgworld

other harmful health effects. Medical

waste incinerators also emit mercury, lead, hydrogen chloride, particulates and other toxic pollutants. "While many good alternatives to incineration exist for treating medical

national contest in search of cleaner,

May 28-29, 2002. The Toronto ISA 2002 Show, Toronto, ON. Sponsored by the In strumentation, Systems and Automation Society,Toronto Section,. Contact Tel:(416)

Twenty-one inches wide and 120 inches high, the equipment installed at the ValCartier CFB provides channeltype applications with continuous fine screening. The screen has few moving parts under water,and heavy-duty chains support its stainless steel panels. Each perforated panel has hundreds of holes one-eighth inch (3 mm)in diameter, al lowing for fine screening in any direc tion. The screen panels'specially formed steps also help remove larger screenings and increase the effective screening area. The CFB installation, which will treat

2.1 MGD, will be completed in May 2002. There are more than 600 Escala tor fine screen installations in the United

Kingdom. Contact: mmeunier@john

Association of Ontario and the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association.

Topics will include:regulatory up dates and directions, organic residuals and biosolids quality standards and nu trient management, organic residuals, soil and water quality standards and in teractions, public and regulatory con cerns, organic residuals processing tech nologies and techniques source control programs, land application programs stakeholder education/outreach pro grams covering: municipal sewage bio solids, animal manures,food processing residuals, pulp and paper biosolids utili zation, synthetic organics (including xenobiotics) in organic residuals. Abstracts should be sent by Novem ber 30, 2002 to: Dave Forgie, Technical Program Committee Chair, Associated Engineering, 300-4940 Canada Way, Burnaby, BC, V5G 4M5. Fax: (604) 291-6163, E-mail: forgiedŠburnaby. associated-eng.com.


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2002



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