Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 2001

Page 1

November 2001



& Engineering Covering Canada's multi-billion dollar environmental protection Industry since 1988.


Historic water treatment plant now uses high-tech chlorine gas measurement Oxidation system certified for secondary wastewater treatment Southern Ontario studies land application of biosolids Are consulting engineers facing an identity crisis? Storage tanks and containment systems Remediating a RGB contaminated site The facts about UV disinfection

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ISSN-0835-605X October/November 2001 Vol. 14


Issued November, 2001

Contents New facilities at Ashbndges Bay - See page 66

High-strength P&P tanks - See page 46

Features 7

Train a grande Vitesse causes distress

60 Oxidation system certified for secondary wastewater treatment

- editorial comment

10 Coping with the environmental aftermath of

62 Engineering feasibility studies for remediation of a PCB contaminated site

the World Trade Center disaster


El Nino impacts biological production

30 Cover story - Chlorine gas measurement used at historic water treatment plant


New truck loading and odour control facilities at Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant



Taiwan paper mill invests in env. protection


Biosolids research and demonstration field trials conducted in Southern Ontario


New urinal eliminates need for water lines

The facts about UV disinfection

58 Infrastructure security a major topic at WEFTEC 2001

Special Tank Focus

Consultants' Forum

14 Consultant or Consulting Engineer do we have an identity crisis? 16 Evolution of hybrid consulting engineers 18 Groundwater challenges also pose new opportunities 20 Env. consulting after September 11, 2001 21 The dynamics of environmental consulting 22 Is sustainability the new challenge? 24 New engineering trends are emerging 26 What's changing in our world of change?

41 42

42 43 44 46 48 50

First glass bolted tank in PEI New Brunswick tank farm chooses

geomembrane When sunshine is not good for tanks Chemical surface cleaning Geosynthetic clay liners Special reinforcement was the key to building high-strength P&P tanks Tank alignment plays important role in early storage tank leak detection Flexible PVC lining system

Departments 8





Ad Index


Date Pad


Industry Update


Product Review


Professional Cards


Literature Reviews Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

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Train a grande Vitesse causes distress

To ride on the French train a

grande vitesse is an almost unbelievable experience in ultra-high-speed travel, rival ling the virtual reality of Huxley's Brave New World. As a boy, I once sat in a bus going from Paris to Nice. While the scenery was a delight, the cramped conditions on a ten hour jour ney remain a painful memory to this day. Today, there is little actual sensa tion of speed as the TGV whisks pas sengers along from Paris to the Medi terranean at 300 kilometres an hour and

the rock-like stability and passenger space makes it much more comfortable than cramped airline travel. And as railway stations are usually located in downtown areas, a TGV can equal and sometimes exceed the speed of jet

location is factored into total travelling

The unmatched beauty of the Mediterranean can be reached in three hours from Paris, thanks to the TGVs. ES&E Photo - T. Davey


North America.

travel when its convenient downtown

But now, two problems, which have long plagued airlines, are impacting on the TGV: noise, and vibration for build

ings on the route of these engineering marvels. Protests are mounting. Ear lier this year, a group of families gath ered in the ultra-modern TGV railway station at Valence. They were not there to view the new super-speed service between Paris and Marseille, they were there to protest noise pollution. Protest ers claimed the station is the only per fectly sound-proofed building on the 250 km link through Provence, where a dou ble-decker train a grande vitesse may whoosh by at 300 km/hr. every four minutes with a noise said to rival a for

mula one racing car at maximum revs. One home located 300 metres from

the line, has had to put up with recorded noise levels up to 97 decibels at every TGV passage, while the state-owned railway company, which has built a se ries of sound barriers, estimates the av

erage at 62 decibels. French noise bar

riers incidently, are usually artistic archi tectural configura

Valence has seen trade drop by as much as 30% in its town centre because

the new TGV station is in open country - a problem shared by Avignon (once a historic home of the Popes) in the Vaucluse. President Jacques Chirac, who inaugurated the line which puts the Mediterranean some three hours from

Paris, sent an encouraging note of sup port to protesters, but he is likely to be called upon to back other complaints against the service that has already car ried millions of passengers. Meanwhile, shock waves from pass ing trains are shaking and said to cause huge cracks in the houses of several Provengal villages - a threat residents fear will increase, if the planned superspeed rail traffic is to be tripled. The aviation industry has long been plagued by noise complaints which se verely restricted airport expansion plans. TGV is now encountering equally se vere noise problems which will chal lenge the superlative French engineer ing and scientific skills. Another problem is more conven tional - convergence of the TGV with the much slower traditional rail service.

tions instead of the

Since the super speed line opened,local

monotonous slabs

train traffic has been thrown into confu

more common in

By Tom Davey

The airlines too, are feeling the im pact of TGVs performance. Passenger air travel between Lyon and Paris drop ped dramatically with the arrival of the TGV.

When the French national railway in troduced a three-hour train service on the 789 kilometre route from Paris to

Marseille in May, 2000, Air France cut round-trip fares on the route to as little as(US)$70, vs(US)$84 for a secondclass round-trip ticket on the TGV. Other airlines simply gave up. When Germany introduced its high-speed ICE trains in 1991, Lufthansa closed its Hanover-to-Frankfurt route. Air France

has discontinued flights from Paris to Brussels.

It seems ironic that the speed of our oldest mechanical mode of travel, the

railways, now seriously threatens the airways which long ruled the roost as the fastest way for travellers. But like the modern jet planes, TGVs may have to overcome the formidible acoustical

problems which dogged another engi neering marvel, the Anglo-French Con corde. It too once faced severe restric

tions on its point-to-point journeys be cause of noise problems. Unlike the Concorde, whose eco

from Aries, Aix-en-Provence and the

nomic performance never matched its supersonic status, the TGVs have been wildly successful. But perhaps, too, the

Riviera sometimes arrive late because

TGV now has its own sound barrier to

TGVs have priority.

overcome. â?–

sion. Traditional commuter services

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Reader Feedback

Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor & Publisher


E-mail: tom@esemag.com Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director


E-mail: p8nny@esemag.com

Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denlse@esemag.oom Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Assistant


E-mail: kathy@esemag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop

Dear Mr. Davey: It was a pleasure to meet you at the Pottageville meeting on pesticide spray ing and other environmental issues. I was interested in discussing the con cept of LBE (Low Bid Ethos - the Di rectory issue of ES&E) with you as it relates to the choice of sewage servic ing in King City. I would love to point out your edito rial when we have our next committee

meeting. Thank you for your time and input. Leah Werry, MA, Councillor, Ward 4,

King Township, Ontario

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP.

Church & Trought Inc. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfeliow

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd.

Dear Tom, Re: June 2001 issue.

The best issue yet. Keep up the good work.

Ronald F. Frank, Cable Engineering Consultants Inc., London, Ontario

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech Canada Inc.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

Ref.: Pulp and Paper Industry FocusBrazil's Amazon Rain Forest Still


While I agree that the deforestation of Brazil's Amazon rain forest is an impor tant issue, I fail to understand why your

publication has placed this article under the heading of "Pulp and Paper Indus try Focus". To my knowledge, none of the wood fibre from the Amazon rainforest is used

for the commercial production of pulp and paper products in Brazil. Further more,the properties of this fibre are not suitable for pulp and paper products. In fact, Brazil has some of the most ad

Beak International Inc.

Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg

Dear Sir:

vanced plantation programs in the world which grow more suitable wood species. Most of these plantations are located south of the Amazon region which is where the vast majority of the pulp and paper manufacturing industry is situated. Joe Boyko, NEK Consultants Inc., Vancouver, BC

Dear Tom,

wastewater plant operators and contractors.

Love your magazine. Looking forward Dear Tom, to catching up on the latest environmen I have missed reading your magazine tal news and technologies. since I retired. Chris Bullock, Wayne Manley, Western BioResources Consulting Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario Castlegar, BC (Mr. Manley is a retired WTP Superin tendent, now involved in Operator Greetings! Training) I received a September issue of ES&E this morning. My attention was drawn Dear Tom, immediately to the contention in the Edi Never get tired of your outlook on the torial Comment that "there have been lethal Cryptosporidiurn outbreaks in world - love your comments.

Information contained In ESSE has been compiled

Oxford, England and Sydney, Aus

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and

Dick Coulter(USA)

from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained In this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility Is assumed. Articles In this magazine are Intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward our editorial costs. Canadian Publications Mali Sales Second Class Mall

Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written per mission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year(plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one year. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6,

Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax; (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com


Yes,there were allegations of an out break in Sydney, and a massive panic response, but as I recall from subsequent reports-notably in AWWA publications - it was not proven. Apparently, epide miologists could find no evidence in the water consuming population of such an outbreak. It has been reported that in all probability, the whole affair was the result of a lab which misidentified the

species of micro-organism found in the water. In this circumstance, it is inap propriate to compare Sydney with


A voice (or more correctly, the written word)from the past. I didn't get a chance to chat at the last OWWA Conference

but it was good to see you there. I look forward avidly to your ES&E magazine and especially your often irreverent, but still environmentally pointed/focused, columns. Don't change-as if you could or would!

Ken Roberts,Ph.D.,P.Eng.

Milwaukee and Oxford.

None of this undermines the conten

tions made in the Editorial, because we

are all aware of the many other instances where outbreaks, illness and fatalities did occur.

Regards, W.H.(Bill) Brant,P.Eng., Director, CWWA & WCWWA

Dear Sir:

I would like to receive your magazine on a regular basis. I love reading Environmental Science & Engineering. The articles are well written, timely and very informative. Abhay D. Tadwalkar,P.Eng., Senior Engineer,Toronto Water Supply

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

The New Generation N-Pumps. They'll run efficiently day after day after day.

N-Pumps win Canada's Energy Efficiency Awards 2000. The energy-using equipment award for sustained efficiency in raw sewage.

Chances are, that every day you run your pumping operation, your costs are creeping up and up: maintenance, servicing, the cost of replacement. So the New Generation N-Pumps could bring a brighter start to your day. The N-impeller is designed to prevent clogging and maintain higher pumping efficiency over longer periods.

The N-technique, patented by III Flygt, features a self-cleaning impeller that, together with an integrated relief groove in the pump housing, ensures sustained high hydraulic efficiency and clog resistance.

The Spin-out™ seal protection system prevents particles from damaging the seals. New, improved cooling means the motors operate more efficiently, and at lower temperatures. And the new Plug-in™ seal system means that if you do have to replace a seal, it'll take just a few minutes. Have a nice day. Day after day. Call us for more information, or visit us at


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Engineered for life

September 11, 2001

Coping with the environmental aftermath of the World Trade Center disaster

Theter orist at ack on the Twin

Towers of the World Trade

Center on September II, is still reverberating around the

tire Trade Center area will require site remediation on a previously unimagina ble scale. In addition to the complexi ties of residual chemicals and toxic com

firefighters growing with every revela tion. Their bravery and persistence in this unprecedented high-rise fire matches that of the most ferocious military en counters. The New York police and other US agencies also seemed to have re sponded with commendable ability. There is a cruel irony in the name of

pounds emitted by the disaster, the large loss of human life poses new ethical problems. Structural engineering teams from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, on request from the City of New York, surveyed buildings and structures near the World Trade Center so the City could assure the safety of search, rescue and debris removal operations in and around

the Staten Island site called 'Fresh Kills'

the affected areas.

landfill, which was reopened to take in

At the request of the Federal Emer gency Management Agency, the Corps

world with admiration for the New York

the massive amounts of debris. The en

dredged the Hudson River to allow the city better access in removing debris to the Staten Island landfill. Under a(US) $790,500 contract with the Corps, which

lowered the depth between Pier 6 and a navigation channel, an estimated 75,000 cubic yards of material were removed and transported to the Newark Bay Con fined Disposal Facility. The Environmental Protection

Agency brought 10 specialized trucks into lower Manhattan, equipped with highly efficient air filters capable ofcap turing particulate matter including as bestos fibres. Each truck had a (US) 3,000 gallon capacity to help clear streets, vehicles and buildings of poten tially hazardous dust. Dust and other materials are collected in air tight stor age containers which are part ofthe truck design. The collected material is off loaded at two city transfer stations, clas sified and disposed of according to law. Even cleaning up undamaged offices and apartments in the area became a mammoth undertaking. As this is being written, the formidable task of site

remediation continues. In the gaping void that was the World Trade Center,

broken water and sewer pipes lie like sev ered veins and arteries, posing an un matched restoration problem for water services. A complex web of once sophis ticated telephone and computer process ing conduits - in a concentrated area un equalled anywhere-now lie severed like the residual nerve endings of a once mighty and viable commercial organism. But this is America. New York fal

The most famous skyline in the world before the attack. Now broken water and sewer pipes lie like severed veins and arteries, posing site remediation problems unmatched In both scale and sensitivity. 10

tered briefly after the saboteurs deliv ered their deadly blows, before its fa bled emergency systems moved in to quell the fires, save lives, tend to the injured and begin the massive tasks of restoring services and site remediation. No one who saw the response teams in action can doubt that neither city nor country will falter in the task. Canadians began their participation with American colleagues at WEFTEC 2001, October 13, in Atlanta, Georgia, barely a month after the catastrophe. ES&E staff were on hand to express their support for an organization that has served the public with life saving tech nology, research and engineering for decades. Tom Davey

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001



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Consultants' Forum

Consulting challenges and opportunities are emerging In the new millennium

Norm Muggins

Bill De Angeiis

Jim Bishop

Nicholas Sonntag

The new millennium has already brought dramatic challenges to the consulting engineering profession. We invited leading figures to express their views and concerns about the profession. According to the Guardian Weekly, one of the most respected newspapers in the world, Fortune magazine estimates the global water and sanitation market is a(US) $405 billion a year industry, which is some 40 percent of the size of the oil sector, and one third larger than the pharmaceuticals market. Fortune states that "water is the best investment sector of the century." The true value of water, however, transcends all economic criteria in the prevention of disease and the maintenance of life itself on planet earth. Tom Davey

John Fisher

Robert Leech

Eric MacDonaid

Don Pinchin

Consultant or Consulting Engineerdo we have an Identity crisis?

Taketime to think of the skil s

and the effort that have gone

into the homes we live in, the

roads and bridges we travel on for work, pleasure and emergencies. Does anyone ask; "How does that water magically and continuously ap pear?" Then, "Where does it go after use?" Does the public have any idea of the training, skills and, yes, the legal re sponsibilities that consulting engineers provide daily? Regrettably, the answer is no.

Historically, consulting engineers have had a role in the planning, design, construction and commissioning of our 14

products, along with the portability of their constantly developing skills, gives added value to clients' in-place staff. VP, CH2M HILL Canada Limited Many civic leaders, regrettably, are una ware of the hidden cost of many lost public environmental infrastructure. opportunities to their communities when Indeed, consulting engineers have been they do not award contracts based on the catalysts in securing society's infra engineering experience, which in turn, structure needs now and for the future. is based on total life cycle benefits. Consulting engineers are able to concen The technical challenges of consult trate their particular disciplinary skills ing engineers have never been greater and experience to ensure cost-effective than they are today and for the foresee designs that, over the life cycle of able future. Projects to reduce traffic projects, are remarkably economical. gridlock with its attendant and everExperience gained by consulting en increasing air pollution, safe drinking gineers on diverse types of projects and water and water resources management. By Norm Muggins, P.Eng., Chair, Consulting Engineers of Ontario,

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Consultants' Forum

are all linked to society's goals of sus tainable growth which challenge con sulting engineers daily. The Walkertons,

tioners i n other fields that are far re

the North Battlefords and the economic

• Consulting engineers should raise the profile of the industry by separating con sulting engineering from generalized use

recovery from the World Trade Center and Washington, DC, tragedies of Sep tember 11, further highlight these chal lenges. Emerging problems of consulting engineers are at a critical level. Our pro fession is confronted with an aging ex perience base that is not being replen ished at a rate that will match the chal

moved from the engineering disciplines. How do we turn this trend around?

raise the profile of consulting engineer ing careers in the career choice years of our young people. • Clients and consulting engineers should alert the media to the successes

of consulting engineering and so rein force the partnering successes between the community and our industry. Finally, we should all celebrate the innovation and foresight of those who have built the consulting engineering industry to what it is today and prepared us for a strong industry tomorrow. ❖

of the word consultant.

• Clients should adopt and encourage qualifications-based consulting engi neers selection policies with price cri teria replaced by value criteria. • Both clients and consulting engineers should develop grass roots programs to

lenges of the future. Ironically, it will be clients and communities that will suffer down the road if the decline of

Environmental Consulting Services

the engineering disciplines continues.

Emerging problems of consulting engineers are at a critical level. Our

profession is confronted with an aging experience base that is not being replenished at a rate that will match the challenges of the future. The shortage of new recruits, particu larly civil engineering candidates, to consulting engineering, is a subject of continuing debate. The obvious culprit is a competitive climate that is too often based on initial low prices instead of the quality of engineering. In addition to cut-throat competition and higher pay in other engineering sec tors, we face many other misconcep tions. The current use of the phrase con sultant often conjures up a false image in the public's mind of high cost serv ices which yield few tangible benefits to the public. Consulting engineers, through the classification of their serv ices, are wrongfully cast into groups oth

T. Harris Environmental Management has over twenty years of environmental consulting experience. We specialize in an extensive range of environmental and occupational health and safety services, fully supported by a highly experienced group of Professional Engineers, Certified Industrial Hygienists, Physicists, Chemists, and other senior staff with a wide range of technical qualifications.

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erwise referred to as consultants. A

widespread misconception of consulting engineering is the root cause of a de clining skills resource. Recent Toronto newspaper headlines on an auditor's report on municipal spending on "consultants' fees" high lighted the public's wrong perceptions of the intrinsic worth of consulting en gineering. Regrettably, the misconcep tions created by these reports were not based on consulting engineers but rather they were critical of a variety of practi-

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Consultants' Forum

Evolution of hybrid consulting engineers

The days of the traditional, single focused consulting engineering firm are waning in North America. Many cli ents are now demanding a range of en gineering skills from their service pro viders. Market forces are driving this change. Competition generated by mul tiple consultants in a limited market place continues to generate bidding wars between professional firms to secure projects,in the name of lowest price(but not necessarily best value) to clients. Downsizing in municipal bureaucra cies has reduced the ability of many to plan, design, tender, and administer new and expansion projects in the environ mental industry. Key staff in all envi ronmental sectors have retired, leaving many potential clients with gaping ex pertise holes they have little chance to fill, requiring external hiring or contract ing of engineering expertise. Shedding of liability is a hallmark of client behav iour in these times. Minimizing risk is a very attractive proposition in both the public and private sectors today. How do consulting firms operate efficiently and cost-effectively in today's market place? We either stay very small and attack a niche market(such as soft ware programming),or change the way we do business. Size matters when it

comes to setting a business strategy in the consulting engineering sector. Many clients like the perceived stability of a

Bill De Angelis, P.Eng., MBA Director ofEngineering,

or "virtual teams" with other consulting professionals, combining resources and skill sets to improve competitiveness

Azurix North America

and attractiveness. In fact,some clients

Engineering Corp.

insist on teaming arrangements because they recognize that no one firm may have all required disciplines or strengths for a particular project. Flexibility in project delivery meth ods and mechanisms improves the suc cess or "hit" rate on jobs, using conven tional versus design/build approaches. Again, any mechanism the client can employ to reduce cost to owners or rate payers is worth investigating. Open-mindedness,flexibility and re sponse time are key to success in the operation of our businesses. This con cept is currently being applied by many

large firm. Therein lies the paradox: to get work, you need to be large, but it's easier to be profitable when you are small.

Competitiveness in consulting is di rectly proportional to the competence of your team,and inversely proportional to overhead cost burdens. Continued prof itability requires close attention to both. One approach to maintaining competi tiveness and profitability is to diversify revenue streams, accumulating income from several sources while spreading the risks associated with bidding and man aging projects. This is accomplished by adding business lines to the firm's port folio that may be quite different from the status quo. New Age consultants are not necessarily constrained by the old paradigms of consulting engineers. Another approach is through the use of vertical integration within the com pany structures, allowing the engineer ing function to provide professional ex pertise to other business lines, while continuing to seek third party work. Those lines could include Operations, Design/Build, Project Management,

firms south of our border. US firms are

more and more often being seen on bid ders lists for Ontario projects, and some of our traditional client base is actively soliciting US firm participation in engi neering projects in our province. If we are going to continue to suc cessfully compete for work locally, we have no choice but to evolve into multi

Finance, Construction, and others. The

ple service providers. The work is out there. Our engineers can compete with anyone in the world. However, all the skills in the world are no good if they cannot be put to good use. Much as many of us hate to admit it, we need to change the way we do business if we

hybrid consultant enters into alliances

are to continue to flourish. ❖


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

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That's why more and more engineers, contractors and municipalities are turning to Victaulic? In addition to piping solutions that install 3 to 5 times faster than alternative methods, we help control unexpected costs with our comprehensive Construction Piping Services. These include total, start-to-finish, drawing, planning and material management services. In fact, we even do a Value Analysis that shows you in advance how much money you'll save — usually, a very persuasive number. So contact Victaulic for your next piping project. Just call us at 1-800-PICK-VIC. Or visit our website: www.victaulic.com. With everything going right, all you'll have to worry about Is what to do with the money you save.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 110 (See page 25)

Consultants' Forum

Groundwater challenges also pose new opportunities

After years in the doldrums,

By Robert E.J. Leech, B.Sc., M.Eng.Sc., Chairman,

with most hydrogeologists migrating (pun intended) to

Gartner Lee Limited

the contaminant side of the

business, the pendulum is now swing ing back to the more interesting and fun damental supply side of our science. Cries from hydrogeologists about the need for all levels of government to get engaged in understanding this vital re source better, have fallen on deaf ears.

The Walkerton water tragedy focussed attention on the importance of groundwater. It is now up to the groundwater industry to show leadership, or once again fall into neglect and decades of inactivity. Over three million people in Canada rely upon groundwater for their daily needs as do a significant number of in dustries. Groundwater very definitely is big business, but it is not treated as such and it receives very little attention and almost insignificant funding. In the

past, groundwater supplies in this water wealthy nation were developed by sim ply drilling a hole in the ground and pumping to see if it met the demand. If the demand grew over a period of time, further wells would be drilled in almost

the same place. All of this went on with out a proper understanding of the aqui fer's potential or an understanding of the resource management issues and asso ciated environmental impacts. We are now beginning to understand the issues that poor groundwater man agement creates: reduction of stream baseflow, drying up of wetlands, inter ference with other groundwater uses, induced contamination from various land

uses, and deteriorating water quality. The groundwater industry should now focus on introducing sound scien

R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited is an experienced engineering and consulting firm with over 150 full-time

tific methodologies to understand the re source. This will require a significant amount of investment, time and money to complete. The groundwater industry is ready and willing to invest the time, but are the governments (the owners) prepared to invest the money? They will cry poverty, but I argue the money is there. Now is the time for governments to go to full-cost recovery on pricing water. The cost of water on average in Canada is about $0.60/m\ which is well

below half the price paid by most Euro pean countries. With the current public attention on water issues, the time is right to implement full-cost recovery mecha nisms. This will allow municipalities to properly fund the science and engineer ing studies to manage the resource in a sustainable and efficient manner.

Another area where govemments can contribute to water resource manage ment is the introduction of full meter

ing for municipal systems. Studies in

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Consultants' Forum

The Tow/n of New Tecumseth is planning to decommission the McKelvey and Spring

Canada have clearly demonstrated that metering leads to significantly lower consumption. This is voluntary conser vation by members of the public. Export of water is a lightning rod for nationalists and environmentalists alike. This is an issue where politics have relied upon emotion and not science. We need to apply sci ence and economics to this issue to understand our water resources and to delineate whether there are resources avail

able for export from a sustainable perspective. By way of example, over the past few years several water export ini tiatives have been brought forward; Gisborne Lake in New foundland, the Nova Group in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Snowcap Waters Ltd. in British Columbia. Each of these initiatives has created controversy and all have been rejected by various Jurisdictions. These initia tives are proposing to export bulk water by tanker, and bot

Water Treatment Plants located in the

community of Beeton, Ontario. A general list of the process equipment that the Town plans to sell to interested buyers includes: McKelvey WTP: • Two Reactivator-clarifier tanks (Ecodyne)(6.8 m dia.) • Two Monoscour automatic filter tanks (Graver)(3 m dia.) • Lime feeder system silo (O'Connor tanks) (3.7 m dia., 12 m high) • Sodium chlorite tank (Fibergloss Design Plastic Co.) (2.4 m dia.) • Air stripper tank (1.5 m dia.,6.5 m high)and two fans(Fabco) • Degassifier tank / methane burner (Heetco) • Pre-contact tank (3 m dia.) • Various chemical storage tanks, chemical pumps, valves, and flow meters.

Spring WTP:

tled water in the case of Gisborne Lake. The total volume

of water would be less than 3% of Ontario's consumptive use from the Great Lakes. Is it not our duty to help support those less fortunate, particularly if it can be done in a sound envi ronmental fashion and a strong business case can be made? The water industry, and groundwater in particular, has sig nificant challenges ahead. It is clear now, following several public health incidents, that the public will is there to support increased investment into our water supplies. The big question is: are our governments up to the chal lenge? The money is available simply through proper pric ing of water. The next few years could see a resurgence of the water industry and the return of our municipal systems to ones that deliver some of the best water quality in the world.

• Ferric chloride tank (3.5 m dia.) • Two lift pumps • Two sludge pumps


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For more information, circie reply card No. 114 (See page 25)


Consultants' Forum

Environmental consulting after September 11, 2001

Aswe moved from the 20th to

the 21st century, there was a general air of guarded op

By Jim Bishop, President, Beak International Incorporated

timism in the environmental

consulting sector. One could read arti cles in this very magazine about the changes in the consulting engineering industry, about the benefits of consoli dation and the resulting improvement due to multidimensionism and fuller

servicing, and how all this might ward off the bete noire of the consulting fra ternity - the "low bid ethos". Then along came September 11, 2001, with its still unbelievable violence

and a lingering legacy of shock, disbe lief, fear and paranoia. Continuing threats of more doomed aircraft and horrors like anthrax in the hands of ma

niacs are reported almost gleefully by our media, who have seldom had such a

run of good/bad news. The events of September 11 are likely

ening of the need for all nations, reli gions, races - in short, all normal peo ple - to pull together and act as one, which is basically what happened one month after the terrorist attacks.

Experienced investment advisors point out that similar downturns caused by war,revolt, and other events typically rebound after a lag time of 3-6 quarters, and it is expected that the overall economy will recover as it has in the past. The very nature of the environ mental consulting sector means we may be somewhat buffered from the imme

sulting sector, engineer and scientist

diate downturn,experience a slowdown over the next year, then slowly recover

I believe that the environmental con

alike, must now maintain or return to a

as the rebound occurs.

lean and mean operating approach. The difficulty with this approach lies in the definition of lean and mean. Companies

after the events of September 11, the consulting industry will cleave to the

must take care that lean doesn't become

traits that have characterized it from the

gaunt and that mean doesn't imply petti ness, miserliness and poor quality. Nobody can predict exactly what will happen with Canada's economy, or the world economy, following September 11, but according to most economists,

beginning, and which have sustained it through the political and financial up heavals of the 1990s and through the ongoing fallout from Walkerton.

As we become accustomed to life

As the international business com

munity gradually sets its new course,

the attacks came at a time when the

these traits have been and remain our

templates for success: quality, value and integrity. It is the everyday sustenance

able national introversion will eventu

US economy was already shaky, and now there will be'downward pressures' on business activity for the next few

ally be supplemented by a gradual awak-


to result in a certain amount of interna

tional "bunkering", but this understand

Acres &



Frank Dolling, P.Eng. Senior Project Manager Water Division

of our sector to work hand-in-hand with

Continued on page 21

Acres & Associated Environmental Limited (A&A) is a multi-disciplinary consulting engi neering firm which provides a full range of environmental and management services from our offices in Toronto and Niagara Falls. A&A is supported by a combined staff of more than 1,000 from its affiliated companies-Acres International Limited and As.sociated Engineering Group. Bill Chisholm, President of A&A,is pleased to announce that the following staff members have recently joined our Toronto office.

Patrick Fritz

Jo-Anne Lane

Senior Project Manager Electrical, Instrumentation &

Environmental Scientist/

Aquatic Biologist - Environ

Wendell Thiessen, P.Eng. Senior Electrical Engineer Electrical, Instrumentation &

Frank is a senior Civil Engineer who brings to A&A over 35 years of experience in project manage ment,engineering design and con

Controls Division

mental Assessment Division

Controls Division

Patrick will be responsible for the operation of our Electrical, Instru

Jo-Anne will contribute to A&A's

capabilities in environmental as

mentation and Controls Division.

sessments, water management

tract administration services. He

He obtained his Bachelor of

plans and aquatic biology studies.

has been involved in industrial,

Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Witwatersrand (WITS), Johannesburg in 1988. Patrick's 13 years of expe rience provides him with a back ground covering all phases of project management, construction and commissioning, as well as

She received her Bachelor of Sci

Wendell will provide engineering services in all phases of power dis tribution design,including lighting design, power distribution layouts and the development of motor con

mining and transportation projects, while specializing in water supply and treatment. He holds a Bach

elor of Science Degree in Civil Engineering which he received from the University of Glasgow in 1964. Frank previously worked for a water authority in the UK and a number of engineering consulting firms in both the UK and Canada.

electrical, instrumentation and me

chanical design. He has been in volved in industrial, water and

wastewater projects throughout his career.


ence Degree in Biology from the University of Saskatchewan in

trol schematics. He obtained his

1980 and her Masters of Science

Engineering from the University of Saskatchewan in 1987 - special izing in power and computers. Wendell has 13 years experience in the consulting field and is expe rienced in all phases of project ex ecution - from preliminary stud ies to construction supervision.

from the University ofBCin 1983, specializing in Aquaculture and Fish Nutrition. She has completed numerous environmental assess

ments and impact studies, as well as subwatershed studies, transpor tation EA's, aquatic habitat resto ration plans and master environ mental servicing plans.

Bachelor of Science in Electrical

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Consultants' Forum

The dynamics of environmental consulting

Ifthe experts are coirect and we are

indeed heading into a recession, the dynamics of environmental consulting could change signifi cantly. Whilst many consultants have expe rienced unprecedented growth over the past two or three years, we have also witnessed the birth and growth of many environmental consulting firms. This has led, in its turn, to an unprecedented de mand for new graduates from environ mental courses. However,the potential

Continuedfrom page 20 companies, agencies, and professionals who obviously understand and respect these very same principles; it is up to us to maintain and reconfirm these values in all the work we do.

The simple fact of the matter is that consultants who are seen to maintain

quality, value and integrity will build trust with their clients, and trust gener ates confidence. And ifthere is one thing our collective economy needs right now, it is confidence. â?–

John C. Fisher

Chief Operating Officer T. Harris Environmental

Management Inc.

now exists for a slowing of the economy, which may lead to a weakening in de

see a tendency for marginally trained technicians receiving compensation packages that do not reflect their experi ence or knowledge base. The slowdown in proliferation of new consulting firms that have been estab lished should lead to cost stability for our

mand for environmental consultants and,

clients. In addition, clients will be able

thus, newly graduated employees. On a positive note, a weakening economy may lead to a sense of stabil

to properly assess the qualifications, ca pabilities and professionalism not only

ity in the environmental consulting pro fession. Over the past few years there has been a tremendous amount of per sonnel turnover as some employees have exploited the vulnerability of their em ployers' needs for experienced staff by looking for other potential employment. This is attributable partly to corporate raiding by other consulting firms offer ing various opportunities. While it is natural to experience move ment of personnel in a strong economy, this can lead to higher consulting fees because demand for labour increases la

bour costs which is the most significant component of consulting fees. We also

of these new firms, but also established

firms who have experienced considerable change due to the factors noted above. The ability of the client to be able to thoroughly analyze a consultant's quali fications should alleviate some of the

frustration that these clients may be fac ing or have faced in the past. These in clude, but are not limited to choosing consultants with little history because established consultants were too busy to accept new projects or commitments. It has been our continuing experience that close and continuous communica

tion with clients is imperative if a strong relationship is to develop, especially during a recession. â?–

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We've pioneered many of the technologies used to manage Âť the availability, quality, and control of water-our most

important natural resource. Millions of Canadians are now ^ served by water treatment facilities and supply infrastructure designed or upgraded by our company.

The Town ofParry Sound, Ontario, opened its new water treatment plant in August 2001. The facility was designed by CH2M HILL Canada to use cost-effective, uitrafiitration

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Sustainable development is a concept we incorporate into all of our water resource management projects to ensure

that water resources aren't compromised.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 200!

For more information, circle reply card No. 115 (See page 25)


Consultants' Forum

Is sustainablllty the new challenge to consulting engineers ?

Today,the engineering commu

nity faces the fundamental challenge of helping society to achieve sustainable develop ment, which involves balancing social, environmental and economic needs dur

ing the development process. Our takemake-waste model that draws freely on energy, materials, and ecological re sources, under the assumption that they are limitless, must be changed. Engineers have helped to perpetuate this model by directing their efforts to ward finding cheaper ways to extract more resources, rather than on ways to recycle or use less. Inner cities with their existing infrastructures are left to decay, while we claim more open lands and add to our sprawl. We have figured out ways to access more of our limited water re

sources, rather than finding ways to use less, or recycle what we have. Conversely, sustainable development is about finding new ways to deliver essential services to the public and to do business. It demands change: doing more with less, new technologies and manufacturing processes, more use of recyclable materials, and the develop ment of regenerative or recyclable out put components.

In our experience, sustainable engi neering solutions can provide economic, social and environmental benefits for

clients and their communities. They can even help companies realize competi tive advantages in the marketplace, since



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impending problems of non-sustainable behaviour and technologies needed to solve them. Ibelieve that engineers are uniquely positioned to take action in these areas. They possess not only the predictive tools to see impending envi ronmental problems, but also the tech nological tools and creativity to solve them. ❖





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an approach that embraces sustainability offers a way to capture new markets and financing opportunities. The sustainable development concept is steadily gaining acceptance and traction in the business world, with more and more companies around the world recognizing that it's the wave of the future. But progress has been slower than many of us would like, and perhaps slower than it needs to be. Because of their role in designing, planning, managing and building infra structure, products and technologies, and in solving environmental problems, consulting engineers can - and must play a critical role in the development of the future. To be agents of change and leaders in the quest for sustainable development, they need to: • Develop a strong business case for sustainable development. For the most part, sustainable development is cur rently portrayed as a noble cause with out much practical application. Corpo rate CEOs, faced with increasing com petition, cost pressures and a rapidly changing business environment, need solid proof that becoming sustainable will help their companies survive and be profitable. • Develop technologies that foster sus tainable growth, while maintaining and enhancing quality of life. Sustain able development poses a string of de-


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Consultants' Forum

New engineering trends are emerging

Foreseeing the future of any industry is always

fraught with peril. Forecasters of a 20,000 point Dow Jones index of a year ago are now silent in light of the dot.com and fibre optic meltdown.

Rather than concentrate on the business issues involved in

the engineering profession this article will concentrate on three specific growth areas of engineering: environmental building issues - primarily mould; odour and air emission from industrial sites and farm operations; and pollution pre vention programs. Mould and other building contaminants have replaced asbestos in newspaper headlines on environmental/health and safety issues. Whether this development is caused by improved sealing of buildings,or energy conservation meas ures, or an increasing sensitivity to indoor moulds (due to greater time spent indoors, changes in diet or an increas ingly sensitive population)or whether this is an issue which has always been with us but now is more widely publicized, is unclear and largely irrelevant. Originating in the US, concerns over indoor mould growth spread to Atlantic Canada and more recently in On tario and Western Canada. Growth of a variety of moulds can occur in buildings whenever water leakage occurs. De tection, remediation and particularly building alteration to prevent future leakage are the major areas of work, which involves the engineering profession. Much publicity initially centered on school portables.

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By Dr. Don Pinchin, President, Pinchin Environmental Ltd.

Large-scale mould remediation projects in high rise office and residential towers are occurring without fanfare and are a more interesting market. The concern over mould is a double-edged sword. The underlying causes of water leakage or condensation, which are necessary for mould growth, often originate in the build ing design or construction. Lawsuits, which usually include architects and engineers, abound in the US and are starting in Canada. Most of these suits are in the early stage but some settlements have occumed. Whether or not readers are in

volved, defence costs and settlements will undoubtedly in crease insurance rates (which were already hardening). The sensitivity of the public to nuisance odours as well as airborne substances hanriful to health is increasing at the same time that zoning changes are allowing intermixing of resi dential and industrial properties. Brownfield residential de velopment and infilling as well as the construction of hous ing in farming areas contribute to the friction. Odours may or may not be indicative of health risks but certainly can cause extreme aggravation, can render some properties unliveable and affect resale value.

Engineering services to address this market include stack testing, predictive impact modelling, olfactometry, product reformulation, industrial ventilation and pollution abatement systems. With recent changes to provincial modelling stand ards (effects-based standards for odour, soiling and health) public complaints and the knowledge of compliance require ments ai-e increasing. Over the next 5-10 years, a significant amount of engineering input will be needed to bring compa nies and agricultural operations into compliance and reduce complaints. Over the past three years there has been a significant shift of government policy from pollution control to pollu tion prevention. In this context, pollution prevention means the maximum feasible reduction, preferably elimination, of all toxic wastes and National Pollution Release Inventory listed pollutants. The obvious benefits of liability reduction, public profile and health and environmental benefits can of ten be accompanied by reduced operating costs. Recent changes in federal regulation include incorporation of pollu tion prevention provisions in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999.

Pollution prevention plans are now being implemented at the municipal level in sewer use by-laws. The city of Toronto now requires all sectors to develop a Pollution Pre vention (P2) Plan and Summary Plan. Across the country, the Region of Waterloo has adopted a Business Pollution Prevention (P2) Plan for small and medium size businesses

and the Greater Vancouver Regional District is currently reviewing their sewer use by-law. It is anticipated that all major cities will move towards P2 plans as concerns over contaminants entering their sewage treatment plants in crease. This will lead to a significant increase in the work of auditing professionals, and in the process, reformulation and pollutant removal processes. In summary, specialized firms or firms with a wide cli ent base should consider these as areas of future growth.❖ Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

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ABS Pumps



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Azurix 19 CanadianEnvironmental.com .. 62 Can-Am Instruments Card

114 147

178 166 117





26 22 21

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Chemtrac Systems



ClearTech Industries ClearTecti Industries

49 57

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Davis Controls Delcan Denso Diverse Plastic Tanks Donson

67 16 30 44 43

154 109 122 129 127




Ecoflo Ontario EIMCO Process

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150 123

EnvirOzone Technologies Gorman Rupp

28 3

142 102




Green Turtle Technologies



12-13 48

107 135

Grundfos Canada Harnois Industries



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International Water Supply ITT Flygt

39 9

168 105

Kee Industrial Products KMK Consultants

28 26

141 251







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40 63 65 27 24

126 149 176 120 118




ONDEO Degremont ONDEO Degremont Paques ADI

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106 157 124

Parkson ProMinent Fiuid Controls R.J. Burnside & Associates Rusmar

68 29 18 62

155 144 112 146


Sanitherm Engineering





STANMECH Technologies Stantec Consuiting Stantec Consulting Stormceptor T. Harris Env. Management

65 18 19 6 15

177 Ill 104 108

Urecon Victaulic Westeel Wolf Email

65 17 47 44

175 110 134 130

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186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215

216 217 218 219

220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253

n Yes No n Date:

254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304


305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321

November 2001

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001


Consultants' Forum

What's changing in our worid of change?

Ourindustry is stil in aconsolidation trend,which

is likely to continue as long as our engineering services are treated as a commodity. Perhaps the trend will eventually slow down, but only when the global firms control the market. Alas, fees may increase to respectable levels! The emergence of the Ontario Society for Professional Engineers(OSPE)as our advocate is both encouraging and a sign that at last our profession is acknowledging that blow ing our own trumpet may be the way to go! Increasingly, the consulting industry is noticing that pur chasing departments are controlling the means of hiring pro fessional engineers. This process is based on a philosophy that buyers wish to view engineering services as a com modity e.g., like buying pencils! In addressing this issue, and through Consulting Engineers of Ontario, our industry is striving to make progress by requesting distinct policies for purchasing engineering services that are separate and different from policies for purchasing commodities. The events of September 11 will undoubtedly have sig nificant impacts at the municipal engineering level. Mu nicipalities need to face the public demands for effective infrastructure protection such as to prevent rather than react to the threat of terrorism. Our water systems must be made as physically secure as modern technology allows, e.g., SCAD A and video-monitoring must be applied not just to

CCME Pollution Prevention Awards


The Canadian Council of Ministers of the

Environment is the principal intergovernmental forum in Canada for discussion and joint action on environmental issues.

Pollution Avoiding or minimizing the creation of Prevention: pollutants and waste, instead of cleaning them up or treating them after they've been produced.


operational needs but also to security aspects. Our staff are demanding company support for on-going learning and skills upgrading. This,of course, is being done in part through on-the-job training and,in addition, through internal training sessions on new and changing technology. Staff continue to seek opportunities to attend seminars, night courses and conventions which is to be supported, if our industry wishes to be known as an organization that contin ues to attract and keep the best brains.

The consulting industry is noticing that purchasing departments arc controlling the means of hiring professional engineers....based on a philosophy that buyers wish to view engineering services as a commodity. With regard to our work habits, it is normal nowadays for both the husband and wife to be working and require flexibility in working hours so that they can look after their responsibilities to their families and home. The internet, of course, has made it possible for staff to work in alternative locations and feed their part into the team. This means of communication enables our working conditions to be both efficient and effective, while allowing flexibility to our em ployees. It begs the question, however, are we heading to being a cottage industry, operating and producing from our home offices?

Define Your Success... CCME:

Eric A.D. MacDonald, President, MacViro Consultants Inc.

Recognizing companies and organizations

Today, as in the past, many engineering consulting com panies are owned by their employees,although it is acknowl edged that several of the larger firms are being established as publicly-owned companies. The modus operandi of the two ownership models is becoming evident, with the smaller employee-owned companies demonstrating their ability to be more customer friendly than their big brothers, the publicly-owned companies who need to follow more strin gent corporate policies. This begs the question; Is ; better?

showing leadership and innovation in pollution prevention.

Define your success... apply for a CCME Pollution Prevention Award.

Consultants Limited

Nominations close November 30,2001 Visit www.ccme.ca or call (204) 948-2032 for more information.


Consulting Engineers, Project Managers, Ecological Planners, Landscape Architects Providing Professional Services Since 1959 Brampton (905)459-4780

Canadian Council of Ministers

of the Environment


Le Conseil canadien


des ministres

(705) 679-5979


Pickering (905)837-0314




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de I'environnement

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Ryerson ST0R4GE X\NKS




Michael J. McForlond

Philip Myers This is the one reference devoted exclusively to Ahoveground Storage Tanks (ASTs); this book assembles the most critical information on the subject in a single convenient volume. The result is on ideal tool for chemical, environmental, and civil engineers, as

well OS management and government personnel and others concerned with the regulatory issues governing ASTs. Section by section, this complete reference thoroughly exomines ond clorifies:•Vorious types of storage media ond their opplications•Fundamentol environmental engineering concerns•Indostriol codes and stondords for ASTs•AST design considerations•The proper construction, fabrication, ond erection of tanks•The oftenconfusing requirements designed to keep ASTs environmentolly sound. At lost, here's a timely, in-depth handbook on ASTs and the new stondords for their mointenonce ond inspection—one thot mokes meeting these mondotes o less forbidding task...and ultimotely helps to render our environment o little more secure.

Biosolids Engineering offers step-by-step help for designing ond monoging o biosolids program. This guide con help you: Engineering •understand the meonings, legol significonce, ond romificoh'ons of the foctors in wostewoter ond biosolids processing thot affect usobility•opply soil chemistry ond physics to finding safe ond oppropriote uses for biosolids•design needed hydraulic, storage, and transport systems •ensure pothogen and vector attraction reduction•moke biosolids engineering o teom effort with agricultural speciolists, mining engineers, woter treotment officlols, ond highwoy, tronsportotion ond timber speciolists•opply sompling and analysis protocols for effectiveness and sofety•increase public owareness of the safety ond volue of biosolids opplicotions and mucb more. Biosolids

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Newly revised, and bringing together the resources of infernotionol experts, this job-critical guide is the one and only guide to the design, applicotion, specificotion, purchose, operation, and maintenance of pumps of oil kinds. Covering everything from odvonced seols to basic design poradigms, the Pump Handbook, 3/e takes you through oil the lotest developments in pump technologies. This importont updote, the first in 14 yeors, enables you to keep stote-of-therart reference doto ond resources olwoys of bond.

and Edward Wundram

A definitive guide to mastering Design Build Sfudded with illustrative case histories, this is the first book to cover every legal, technical, and administrative aspect of Design Build. Whether you're o design or construction professional or on owner, this outhoritotive and up-trnlate

monual gives you the ocross-the-hoord, real-world onswers you need for timely, glitch-free, ond cost-effective projects. You get expert orchitecturol and engineering odvice on: •Procuring services• Developing RFQs ond RFPs•Orgonising ond monoging contracts •Estimoting•Allocoting risks•Obtaining insurance ond bonding. ISBN: 0-07-00631 1-7 * 540 Pages * 100 lllus. * Hardcover * 594.95

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This exhoustive reference shows you step-by-step how to design guorter-turn monuol valves, check volves, control valves (including actuotion valves) and smart volves. Scores of sectioned-vlew

drawing, opplicotion photos, and other how-it-works illustrations help demonstrate the latest design. You also get tons of design detail for each valve, volve operating tips, the odvontoges ond disodvontoges of various valve designs, on overview of common design voriotions in the morketplace, ond much more. You even get procticol advice for solving common problems, preventing fugitive emission, calculoting valve life-cycle cost, ond outomoting monuolly operated valves.

David Willoughby The one and only source of knowledge on the plostic pipe industry, and its opplicotion in the liquids ond gos fields. Provides detoiled ond eosy-to-use doto and formulas covering o full range of vitol topics, from pipe selection ond plostic pipe codes ond stondords, to pipeline purging and drying, to leok detection. Features codes ond specs for gos ond water transmission, inspection ond testing procedures, along with plenty of charts, doto sheets, ond tables. The reference of the decode on o subject too long neglected, this indispensoble book is finally here to moke work flow more smoothly in your engineering or construction office or site. ISBN: 0-07-135956-7 * 750 Pages * 30 lllus. * Hardcover * 5157.95

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Secure On-line Ordering Available at www.mcgrav/hill.ca For more information, circle reply card No. 120(See page 25)

PSC 0140

Water Conservation

New urinal eliminates need for water lines

Water conservation in Canada is now get ing

Cross-section of Eco Trap®

the attention it deserves. Concerns over avail

ability, costs associated with the treatment and supply of water and rising costs and budget cuts to the end user, are forcing facility managers to take a closer look at water. This drive to conserve has inspired an ingenious product that eliminates the need for water. The Waterless No-Flush'"^ urinal is that product. Introduced to the US market ten years ago in 1991 by the Waterless Company'-'-'^ of Del Mar,California, these uri nals represent the next generation of environmentally friendly plumbing fixtures, without compromising function ality or hygiene. This CSA listed product is now being produced in Canada and is available through Water Matrix Inc. of Woodbridge,

X-Traptor Access Slots y

EcoTrap® BiueSeai®


To Drain

Ontario. It has won several awards since its introduction. The urinal looks like a conventional urinal. It installs

easily to the existing 2" drain line connections and, in new construction, added savings can be realized with the elimi nation of the water supply lines. The key to the success of this product is the patented

EcoTrap® system. The internal EcoTrap contains BlueSeal®, By Sean Kimmons, Conservation Technologies, Water Matrix Inc.

an immiscible liquid which is lighter than urine. Once the urine flows from the urinal through this liquid barrier in the trap, it is completely closed off from the restroom atmos phere, thereby eliminating the urine odour. Since the BlueSeal liquid has a pleasant fragrance, it also eliminates the need for deodorizers.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 143

What are three lasting reasons BNVIROZONE i

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UK Report


New inquiry to be held Into

Cornish water poisoning The British Government is expected to announce its investigation into Britain's worst water-poisoning incident - 13 years after it took place. There will be a new inquiry into how chemicals were dumped into the public water supply in Camelford, north Cornwall, in 1988.

Some fear that the poisoning could have contributed to unusually high rates of Alzheimer's disease in the area.

Campaigners have been calling for a public inquiry since 1988, when water supplies to 20,000 homes were polluted by 20 tonnes of aluminum sulphate dumped in the wrong tank at Lowermoor treatment works, run by what was then South West Water Authority. The water authority was fined $22,000 with $55,000 costs after a 17day trial at Exeter Crown Court in 1991 at which it was convicted of causing a public nuisance by supplying water


which contained amounts of the chemi

cal likely to endanger public health or comfort.

ProMinent Chlorine Controllers

Five years ago, 148 victims accepted out-of-court damages totalling almost $880,000. Settlements ranged from nearly $1,550 to $22,000.

are reagent free and buffer solution free, therefore No Special Protection against corrosive chemicals is needed. No Contest.

Royal Navy spends millions to save dolphins After evidence that the active sonar used

by the Royal Navy's Type 23 frigates was having an adverse, sometimes fatal effect on whales and dolphins, the Brit ish Navy agreed to fund the develop ment of a lower-frequency sonar that could significantly reduce the problem. A contract worth $352 million was

Reagent free chlorination monitoring technology and delivery from the experts in disinfection. PROMINENT SENSORS AND CONTROLLERS offer precise,

state-of-the-art chlorine monitoring and control capabilities,


in free or total chlorine sensor technology. Forget the hassles of handling dangerous chemicals or wearing protection, choose clean and sophisticated sensor control.

awarded to Thomson Marconi Sonar to

develop an active/passive sonar system with a lower frequency for six Type 23 frigates. If the system is successful, the plan is to upgrade the sonar systems on all 16 Type 23 frigates, which would cost a total of $660 million. The first sonar

2087s, as they will be called, will enter service in 2006.

The wildlife experts told the Minis try of Defence that an increasing number of dead whales and dolphins had been washing up close to naval waters. They said that the strong sonars used by the Navy were disrupting the lives of mam mals that relied on sound not only to com municate and travel, but also to feed and to socialize.

Report by Steve Davey

ProMinent Eastern Canada ProMinent Ontario

ProMinent Alberta ProMinent USA


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Tel: (450)663-1905 Tel: (519)836-5692 Tel: (780)450-3246 Tel: (412)787-2484

Fax:(450)663-9194 Fax:(519)836-5226 Fax:(780)450-3046 Fax:(412)787-0704


For more information, circle reply card No. 144 (See page 25)


Cover Story

Mass flowmeter chlorine gas measurement at historic water treatment plant

TheR.C.Harris Filtration Plant is an historic land

mark on Toronto's lakefront. Constructed in the

late 1930s, this architectural masterpiece has been declared a National Historic Civil Engineer ing Site. Inside the massive and silent marble halls, a lot of high tech instrumentation is quietly at work ensuring safe drink ing water for the citizens of Toronto. The R.C. Harris plant can provide for up to 950 megalitres per day and supplies 45% of the city's water. Some three years ago, a team was established at R.C. Harris to explore new technologies available to tbe indus try. One of the goals they wanted to achieve was an accu rate and instantaneous measurement of chlorine gas in the post-chlorination stage. Post-chlorination, one of several stages at which chlorine is added to destroy harmful patho gens, immediately follows filtration. An instantaneous measurement of gas flow provides an additional input to the logic of the chemical loop control and adds the possibil ity of remote feed rate monitoring within SCADA. This provides a valuable and instant diagnostic tool to fine-tune and troubleshoot the system. Endress+Hauser Technical Representative, Gord Dalley, suggested that a Promass 63 F Coriolis mass flowmeter with stainless steel tubes might provide such a measurement and, after reviewing alternative designs and specifications, the project team decided to put a Promass 63 on trial. As a result of that trial, a meter was purchased and has been run

ning since 1998. It has been taken out of service once dur ing that time for inspection and absolutely no corrosion or

Photos courtesy Endress+Hauser Canada Ltd.

local display in the main hall, but future plans include a link to future SCADA system upgrades. R.C. Harris has purchased a second meter for sulphur

deterioration was evident.

dioxide measurement and another installation on chlorine

The unit measures volume flow in kg/hr which can be totalized. It is presently connected to a controller with a

gas has been made at the Toronto Island Filtration Plant.

For more information, circle reply card No. 113


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001



ring 2002


The 10th Annual Environmental

Conference/Workshops and Tradeshow Ontario's largest and most cost-effective environmental training opportunity

April 9-10, 2002 To be held at the conference and tradeshow facilities of

The Regal Constellation Hotel 900 Dixon Road, Etobicoke, ON

A unique networking opportunity For nine years, Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine,and Canadian Environmental Regulation and Compliance News have combined to produce the highly successful Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering Conference & Workshops. The annual event has proved to be of great value to professional people with environmental responsibilities, and those concerned with occupational health and safety issues. Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering2002w\\\ be held in conjunction with The Ontario Environmental Tradeshow. There are a limited number of booths, so call

now for details on exhibiting.

The Regal Constellation Hotel offers first class conference amenities, ample parking, and convenient access to 427 and 401 highways.

We are proud that each year, many delegates are repeat attendees - a definite vote of confidence in the quality and value of our speakers. In fact, this event has become among the best attended environmental conferences of its kind in Canada.

We hope to see you at Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering 2002. A 10% early registration discount is available. Please contact us at 1-888-254-8769,(905) 727-4666 or fax:(905) 841-7271 for details.

Call or fax to receive more program details. Special hotel rates have been obtained for both conference and show delegates.

220 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Unit #30, Aurora, Ontario L4G 3V6

Industry Update

Hydro-Quebec and Fabgroups develop innovative sludge processing technology An innovative sludge-treatment process will emerge on the market soon, under an agreement signed recently by HydroQuebec and Fabgroups Technologies of Montreal. Plasma-assisted sludge oxi dation (PASO) is an advanced technol ogy developed by LTEE, HydroQuebec's electrochemical and electro-

technologies laboratory. Hydro-Quebec has licensed Fabgroups Technologies to manufacture and market a rotary kiln equipped with an electric plasma torch. The kiln can be used to process organic sludge from a variety of sources. The project was launched in 1997 at the request of pulp and paper mills that were having trouble disposing of their solid waste. The main industries that can benefit

from this new technology are pulp and paper (primary and secondary sludge),

Paques ADI Inc. brings solid experience and solution-

based results to your unique situation.

Serving customers across

fers an excellent alternative to incinera

more economical than incineration, for

treatment packages. Our technologies range from low-rate to ultra-high-rate anaerobic processes.

offered to provide a complete treatment train.

which consumes less than 100 kWh of

electricity per wet tonne of sludge, of

will be able to reduce their waste vol

rate anaerobic wastewater

Upstream and downstream unit processes are also

is estimated at 2 million tonnes a year for pulp and paper, 1.9 million tonnes for pig manure,and a little over 650,000 tonnes for municipal wastewater. This energy-efficient technology,

ume by 95%. The PASO process is said to be much

Wastewater Treatment Packages

We provide a wide range of customized technologies.

proteins and carbohydrates), wastewater treatment plants, and various other in dustries that produce organic solid waste. The Quebec market for PASO

tion, landfill disposal, or sludge farm ing (spreading on land surfaces). Plants that produce large quantities of sludge

Paques ADI Inc. Paques ADI Inc. is a leader in providing high- and low-

agribusiness (sludge containing fats,

example. Purchase and operation costs for the kiln compare favorably with the average cost of sludge farming or landfill disposal.

Innovative Technology Award presented to

Our staff can readily assess

JWC Environmental

your situation and determine

JWC Environmental received an Inno

a custom solution to meet

vative Technology Award from the

your specific needs.

Water Environment Federation on

With many anaerobicaerobic installations across

North America, chances are

we have helped others solve treatment problems similar to yours.

Canada, USA, and Mexico,

October 16, at WEFTEC 2001. They are the winner in the Solids Handling/ Disposal category for their product "Screenings Washer Monster™". This is a self-contained hopper-fed system used to effectively handle screenings that have been captured by a bar screen or other screenings removal device. A major benefit of the system is the reduc tion of odorous content in the screen

ings and returning organic material to

A Leader in Wastewater Treatment Paclages

the influent stream.

The Innovative Technology Awards recognize products or services that use For more information:

new ideas, methods, alterations or


unique changes from existing systems in four categories: collection systems, instrumentation, process equipment,and solids handling and disposal.

Phone: (506)452-7307 /1-800-561-2831 Fax: (506)452-7308 E-mail: paquesadi(gadi.ca Internet: www.paquesadi.com

Large sewer guidelines published The Institute for Research in Construc tion at the National Research Council

Paques ADI Inc.

of Canada, has announced that the

182 Main St, Unit 6 Salem, NH 03079

1133 Regent St, Suite 300



Fredericton, NB E3B 3Z2

Guidelines for Condition Assessment and Rehabilitation of Large Sewers, is now published by the NRC/IRC. The price of the document is $25. Call Paulette or Ginette at: I -800-672-

7990 to order (Order # NRCC 45130).


For more information, circle reply card No. 124 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Industry Update

Wet air oxidation system contract awarded in

People's Republic of China

vasive aquatic species, soil erosion, manure management, wetlands,species at risk,federal ecosystem programs, and more.

USFilter's Zimpro Products has been awarded the contract to supply a

Over the past thirty years, the qual ity of the lakes and river has improved

Zimpro® wet air oxidation system to

and the Commissioner credits the fed

Fujian Petrochemical Co., Ltd., a petro chemical refinery in the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China. Wet oxidation is a liquid phase reac tion in water using dissolved oxygen to oxidize wastewater contaminants. In

treating spent caustic, sulfides and other contaminants are either destroyed or re duced to biodegradable components to allow discharge to a conventional wastewater treatment facility. Fujian Petrochemical is a joint ven ture between the Fujian Provincial Gov ernment and Sinopec. The (US)$3.15 million system will treat refinery spent caustic, a typical application for the tech nology.

eral government and many other organi zations for these past gains. However, she warns that the momentum has

slowed in recent years, and these im provements are now at risk. The Com missioner criticizes the government for

Ferric Sulfate ♦



Dry Ferric Sulfate



Ferrous Sulfate ♦

Aluminum Sulfate

protecting Great Lakes basin

PASS® 100 ♦

Acidified Aluminum

sioner of the Environment and Sustain


able Development, Johanne Gelinas, in her annual report. "I am alarmed by the lack of progress and loss of momentum in dealing with the immense pressures facing the basin," she said.



Sixteen million Canadians live in the

basin, which encompasses the lakes and river system and the surrounding land in Ontario and Quebec. The basin is under tremendous and growing environ mental stress due to increasing popula tion, urbanization, industrial and agri cultural activity, and recreational de mands. The Commissioner's report


Feds criticized for not

Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

and monitoring systems;for limited use of its powers; and for poor reporting to Parliament and the Canadian public. Contact: www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/envi-

A municipally run lagoon that serves as a dumping point for private companies that pump out residential septic tanks was closed during the summer because it had reached capacity. The Halifax Re gional Municipality had to find an al ternative plan. In the meantime, com panies that clean septic tanks were asked to only service emergency cases.

basins of Canada, warned the Commis

threats;for weakened scientific research

Ferric Chloride Ferrous Chloride

Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

ments and international commitments;

for significant gaps between its commit ments and the funding allocated to meet ing them; for having ill-defined strate gies, unclear roles, and missing action plans to address key environmental

Takeout & Deliverv

Halifax seeks new place to dump sewage

The federal government is not doing enough to protect the environment in the

failing to meet its legislative require

Sodium Aluminate


looks at environmental matters such as

industrial and municipal pollution, con taminated sediments, drinking water, habitat loss, fisheries management, in Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

EAGLEBROOK' Vbur Single Source'

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 125 (See page 25)


Industry Update formation Management as a branch of Centre for Advancement of Trenchless professional land surveying. Geo Technologies, the National Research graphic Information Managers who Council of Canada,Trenchless Technol Experienced individuals in Canada di meet the requirements of the AOLS,and ogy, and the University of Waterloo. rectly involved with geodata or with in achieve professional status, will be eli Two papers on the Standard Installation formation technology related to geog gible to use the Ontario Land Surveyor design method for concrete pipe were raphy and land management(but focus (OLS) and Ontario Land Information presented: ing on geodata) are eligible to apply for Professional (OLIP) designation. •Full scale testing ofconcrete pipe bed designation as a "GIM Professional". Contact the AOLS now,if you are in ding design, E.N.Allouche,S. Wong and On December 27, 1999, Section 23 of terested in the Grandfathering option, M.E. Baumert, University of Western the Regulation 509/99 of the Surveyors Tel; 1-800-268-0718. Ontario; and Act, was set in place to create a two-year • SIDD pipe bedding and Ontario Pro window of opportunity for the experi SIDD design process vincial Standards, J.Q. Zhao and L. enced Geographic Information Manager Daigle, National Research Council presented at UlR 2001 to join the Association of Ontario Land Canada. Conference Surveyors (AOLS) through a "GrandThese two papers were a result of fathering" provision. That window The 2001 Underground Infrastructure research sponsored by the Ontario Con closes on December 27, 2001. Research Conference was held at the crete Pipe Association, based on longOntario Regulation 509/99 was re Four Points Sheraton in Kitchener, On term research conducted in the United quired to accommodate Geographic In tario. The conference was organized by States by the American Concrete Pipe

GIM professional designations opportunity

Association, to demonstrate the Stand




environivientaL SERVICES INC.

activities to date.

Environmental Consultants www.aandaenv.com/

The University of Western Ontario work is based on Type 4Installations, i.e. no imported granular bedding and little or no compaction of the bedding, in the

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Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

Toronto area. The National Research

Council Canada(NRCC) work is being conducted in Ottawa and co-sponsored by the Ministry of Transportation, City

water resources planniug ivater supply, transmission and treatment wastewater collection and treatment

electrical engineering, instrumentation and controls

Acres &


municipal infrastructure services


solid ivaste and hazardous materials management geo-environmental investigations and site remediation environmental assessments and planning environmental health and safety

Environmental Limited

ard Installations design and installation process for concrete pipe. The papers provided preliminary information on the

of Ottawa, NRCC and the OCPA. In addition to this work, the Canadian

Standards Association(CSA)recently re leased the CAN/CSA 06-00 Canadian

Highway Bridge Design Code - A Na tional Standard of Canada, which includ

ed the Standard Installation design meth odology for buried concrete structures.

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The Canadian Environmental Auditing


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and compliance audits in Canada. The grandparenting process is available for those practitioners with 10 years or more of experience in conducting these stud ies. Individuals that qualify for grandparented status are invited to contact the CEAA offices to obtain an application package. Tel:(905) 814-1158, E-mail: execdirector.ceaa@sympatico.ca.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Industry Update

Ontario takes strong action

to reduce SOg in Sudbury air and acid rain in Ontario The Ontario MOE is proposing to order INCO and Falconbridge to drastically improve Sudbury's air quality by reduc ing emissions that also cause acid rain. The ministry will issue Notices of

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

Water, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

For employment and project development opportunities visit our web site; www.rvanderson.com

Toronto(416)497-8600 E-mail: Toronto@RVAnderson.com Welland Ottawa Sudbury London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay,India

Intent to order International Nickel

Company (INCO) Ltd. and Falconbridge Ltd. to: • Reduce allowable sulphur dioxide (SO,) concentrations at ground level from the current 0.5 parts per million (ppm) to 0.34 ppm,(averaged over one hour) by April 1, 2002. A growing amount of scientific information points

Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering

Creating Value Through Service and Innovation British Columbia




to SOj as a known contributor to respi ratory problems, smog and acid rain. Existing limits have been in place since

Telephone: 604.293.14! I







• Reduce total annual legally allowable SO,emissions from their Sudbury-area smelters by 34% by the end of 2006. This reduction will be a significant first step towards achieving Ontario's com


Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

mitment to the Canada-Wide Acid Rain

Strategy for Post-2000, which includes


a further SO^ reduction of50% from the

T«l.(705)444-2565 EMail: lnfo@cctatham,com

province's Countdown Acid Rain cap by the year 2015. • Ensure that both companies are more accountable to the Sudbury community. Both INCO and Falconbridge would be required to implement a system to no tify the public of poor air quality days and to report annually and publicly on

Tel.(705) 645-7756 Wob: www.cctatham.com


(Unte 198S)



their work to ensure further reductions.

The draft orders were posted on the Environmental Bill of Rights (EBR) Registry for a 60-day public review and comment period. The EBR Registry can be accessed from the ministry's web site at: www.ene.gov.on.ca. After the 6G-day EBR comment period, the ministry will


Orlllla Tel.(705) 325-1753



PHONE t (418) 837-1444 |eel Deichenet, Vice-president

FAX t(418)837-7723

E-MoH t ctaniex9ac.aira.com

WebSite t www.clamex.qcca

Central Projects Group Inc. 250 Shields Court, Unit 15,

consider all comments received and then

decide on the appropriate next steps.

Agriculture targetted In New Brunswick

Tel: (905) 470-6570 Fax: (905) 470-0958 WebSite: http:// •Phase I & II Environmental Site Assessments

• Cost Effective Remediation

•Environmental Risk Assessments

•Construction Management

•Hydrogeological Investigations

A new $1.5 million initiative will facili

ConszA-ltirxg Ertgintzer's

tate the conservation and enhancement

of the natural resources used by the ag riculture sector and minimize the impact of agricultural practices on the environ ment in New Brunswick. There are six


programs under the initiative, including nutrient management,soil conservation, on-farm stewardship, agro-environmen tal clubs, integrated pest management

Specializing in;

• Drainage Planning

• Water S Wastewater Systems

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and odour reduction.

• Stormwater Management

• Environmental Planning

Toronto • Ottawa London • Hamilton Vancouver • Victoria Corporate Office: 133 Wynford Drive Toronto, Ontario M3C 1K1

Tel: (416) 441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

CWWA Bulletin

Envirotimental Science & Engineering, November 2001


Industry Update

Con Cast Pipe wins 2001 I Infrastructure 1 Environment


Ontario Concrete Award

' Communities

The American Concrete Institute -

1 facilities

Ontario Chapter, and the Cement Asso ciation of Canada,recently awarded Con Cast Pipe the 2001 Ontario Concrete Award in the Precast Concrete Category


Vancouver • Ye/hmknife • Calgaij • Winmpeg • Windsor • Chatham Condon • Cambridge • Toronto • Ottama • Iqahiil • Frederkton Moncton • Halifax • Port Hamkesbnij • • International 2i5 YorklandBonkvard, Suite SOO, Toronto, Ontario M2]4Y8 (416)229-4646

for Material Development and Innova tion. Con Cast Pipe earned this prestig


ious award for its work on the Gordon

Duke Engineering & Services(Canada),Inc. A Duke Energy Company



Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Environmental Management and Compliance Hydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling Site Remediation

• Risk Assessment

Street CON/SPAN Bridge Reconstruc tion in Guelph. This Award is shared with Con Cast's

project team that included CON/SPAN Canada,Totten Sims Hubicki Engineers

(613) 232-2525

Architects & Planners, Chant Construc


tion, City of Guelph, and Gamsby &

(905)513-9400 Calgary (403) 262-4885

Mannerow Ltd. 'The Gordon Street

Bridge is the major link between the University of Guelph and the city cen tre. Totten Sims Hubicki chose the CON/SPAN structure because it com

bined the best options for aesthetics, economy and speed of installation.


Ontario must recognize limits to growth, says bronto'




commissioner "There are limits to the growth and de velopment we can place on the land in Ontario beyond which there will be se rious damage to the ecological processes that we depend on for our quality of




life," said Gord Miller, the Environmen tal Commissioner of Ontario, in his


2000/2001 annual report.

EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIMA EMPAT program


107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108


GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc. Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting

ATP' Microbial Training Consulting Services Respirometry 1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Telephone: 519-681 -0571 Fax: 519-681-7150 Cryptosporldium & Glardia Microorganism Identification Rapid E.coli recreational water





Lee Limited

ruses, and trace contaminants such as CALGARY VANCOUVER WHITEHORSE YELLOWKNIFE

"For professional services in environmental training, due diligence, health and safety, and compliance auditing, give me a call." Lou Locatelli, Principal, Tel:(905) 477-8400 ext. 208 Email: llocatelli@gartnerlee.com Website: www.gartnerlee.com


Several of the environmental issues

are essentially land use concerns. Eor example, the regulations that govern spreading sewage sludge and septage from septic tanks and portable toilets onto agricultural land are not founded on the need to protect groundwater. Miller explained. The ECO has received many complaints during the past year about the Ministry of the Environment's lax enforcement of the regulations for spreading these materials, which contain nutrients that contaminate waterways, live pathogens such as bacteria and vi heavy metals. Also covered in the report is the lack of enforcement of Ontario's 3Rs regu lations - to reduce, reuse and recycle in the province's industrial and commer cial sectors. An ECO research project revealed, in fact, that Ontario is lagging behind other provinces in waste diver sion and that large quantities of valu-

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Industry Update able recyclable material such as alumi num are being landfilled. The growing industry of cage aquaculture - growing fish in net cages in the bays of the Great Lakes - was also examined by the EGO during 2000/ 2001. Droppings from the fish and sur plus food fall into the water below the cages, where their decomposition con sumes oxygen and releases damaging nutrients. Commissioner Miller pointed to one cage operation that turned an area of 250 hectares at the bottom of a bay into "a dead zone for higher life". Mr. Miller also called upon the gov ernment to make the Ministry of Edu cation subject to the regulations of the Environmental Bill ofRights(EBR). "I am gravely concerned that at a time when there is a critical need for the peo ple of Ontario to understand complex

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Tel:(519)886.7500 Fox:(519)886•7419

Experts In Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis,Inc. □H_ja

Consulting Engineers

210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tel: (519) 624-7223 Fax: (519) 624-7224 1685 Main Street \West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, LOS 1G5 Tel: (905) 522-0012 Fax: (905) 522-0031

E-mail: info@hydromantis.com Web: www.hydromantis.com

environmental issues, environmental

science and outdoor education programs

are being cancelled throughout the school system." By refusing to prescribe the Ministry of Education under the EBR, Miller said: "We are denying the public the right to participate in deci sions regarding the environmental edu cation of our children. I do not see how

this serves the long-term interests of a

J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

Consulting Engineers, Architects & Planners Water 8( Wastewater Treatment I Environmental Assessment 8t Planning

Solid Waste Management I Stormwater Management I Watermain & Sewer Rehabilitation


Providing a wide Ottawa


of Environmental Services

Kingston 613-544-1424



Sudbury 705-522-8174

sustainable environment." Contact: www.eco.on.ca.


Edmonton testing sewer odour control system Edmonton's sewer gas problems occur

Designing Environmental & Energy Solutions

when the system gets pressurized with

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment

air under certain conditions. Shallow

sewers drop their sewage into deeper trunk sewers and as they drop and the water falls, it induces air to be pumped into the trunk sewer system. Pressurized ■ air from the trunk sewer system then can't escape back up where the water is coming from so it jets through manhole

MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 * Fax: (905)475-5994 E-Mail: reception@macviro.com Marshall Macklin


lids and sidewalk catch basins in cer

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources

tain neighbourhoods,depending on their proximity to trunk sewer lines. The problem particularly afflicts

Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone; 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

older areas with combined sewers. Af

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca

ter tracking the complaints, the city has launched a pilot project in Kenilworth


and Mill Creek. A consultant has sug

gested venting the bad air with giant fans,depressurizing the sewers. Bio-filters, consisting of raised beds of composted, moist wood chips at ground level, would soak up the smell before the air escapes into the atmosphere. The first filter system is planned for con struction in the Fall or early next year.



National Comprehensive Environmental Testing Services MaxxLINK - Internet accessible sample tracking and report viewing Air Monitoring Services Occupational Hygiene Services > Rush Analysis

EDMONTON 9331 •'48th Street


Edmonton, AB T6B 2R4

Mississauga, ON L4Z 1P1

(780) 468-3500 Fax (780) 466-3332

(905) 890-2555 Fax (90S) 890-0370

CALGARY 2021 -41 Avenue N.E.


Calgary, AB T2E 6P2 (403) 291-3077

Fax (403) 291-9468

5540 McAdam Road

9420 Cote de Liesse

Lachine, QC H8T 1A1 (514) 636-6218

Fax (514) 631-9814

Toll Free: WEST (800) 386-7247

EAST (BOO) 563-6266

CWWA Bulletin

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001


Industry Update Exceptional People. Exceptional Results. 1

Weather Dancer officially opened Weather Dancer 1, Western Canada's




5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N9 vgeldart@philipmc.com • 1-800-263-9040 ext. 275 • Fax:(905)890-8575

tallest wind turbine, was officially opened in October, on the land of the Peigan First Nation. Standing 72 metres high, with a generation capacity of 900 kilowatts. Weather Dancer 1 is a

joint business venture between the Peigan Indian Utility Corporation and EPCOR Power Development Corpora tion.


Consuming Engineers



Weather Dancer i will generate ap proximately 2,960 megawatt hours of eiectricity each year, which could meet the electrical needs of approximately

Head Office:

Regional Office:

1815 Ironstone Manor

Suite #10

516 O'Connor Drive Suite 205

Offering Services in the areas of: Water Supply

Pickering, Ontario

Kingston, Ontario

Pollution Controi

450 homes. This low environmental


K7P 1N3


Tei:(905)831-1715 Fax:(905)831-0531

Tei: (613)389-1661 Fax:(613)389-2442


impact generation project will offset CO, equivalent emissions equal to re moving approximately 17,500 cars from the road per year.


The name Weather Dancer refers to

"A leader\n providing innovative automation solutions to our customers. We offer a complete range of products & services In the areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • WIMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, MIssissauga, ON L4V1J2 Tel: (905) 678-3388, Fax: (905) 678-0444

a dance performed on the last day of the Sundance (Okaan), a ceremony main tained by traditional Biackfoot, which renews the relationship with the natural world. Contact Jay Shukin, EPCOR, Tei:(780)412-8877.

Summa Enterprises, Place Grllll, 3539 Blvd. St, Charles, #350, Kirkland, QC H9H 5B9 Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587

Ontario cracks down on



Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management• Environmental Assessment


Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA


TEL:(905)668-9363•WHITBY• Fax:(905)668-0221 E-mail: tsh@tsh.ca Web site: www.tsh.ca


The Ontario government has finalized a regulation which strictly limits emis

sions from fossii-fuei power plants, while also moving to cap air pollution from other major industries. Ontario's stringent new emissions limits for the electricity sector will re duce smog-causing nitrogen oxides by almost 20,000 tonnes a year - as much

as is produced by over one million pas senger cars.

umcr Ontario

Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia

Northern Territories

& internationally

The new eiectricity sector emissions caps will take effect January i, 2002. When fully implemented in 2007, the limits will help Canada meet its com


Environmental Engineering Water & Wastewater Engineering Site Assessment & Remediation

mitments under the Ozone Annex and


cut smog and acid-rain causing emis

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Urban Drainage

sions of nitrogen oxides (NO,;) from fossii-fuei plants by 53 percent and sul

phur dioxide (SO,) by 25 percent.

Visit our website at www.timagroup.com

Contact: www.ene.gov.on.ca.



• industriai/Municipai Wastewater Management • Watershed and Stormwater Management • Drinking Water Quaiity and Treatment

Vancouver (604)990-0582 Kitchener (519)741-5774 Toronto area (905) 891-2400 Kingston (613)542-5888 www.xcg.commail@xcg.com

• Hydrogeoiogy Investigation /Modelling

Ten year London water contract awarded A 10-year contract to operate and main tain the Lake Huron and Elgin Area Pri mary Water Supply Systems has been

• Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing

awarded to Azurix North America.

• Remediation and Decommissioning

These water supply systems serve the municipalities of London, St. Thomas,

• Environmental Management Systems

Lamhton 38

Shores, South


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001


Bluewater, North Middlesex Centre,

Southwold, Centra! Elgin, Malahide, Aylmer and Bayham. The contract was awarded by the Board of Management for each system after a competitive bid process that in volved four short-listed companies. Azurix North America's winning bid is priced at $71.2 million over the length of the contract. This represents a sav ings to the communities served of ap proximately $1 million per year. The contract has an option for an additional five years. Azurix will take over operations on January 1, 2002, from the incumbent operator, Ontario Clean Water Agency, a Crown corporation. As operator of the systems, Azurix North America will be responsible for the delivery of safe drinking water to a population of ap proximately 420,000.

Hamilton to spend $22 million on storage tanks

Non-regulated electric generation company to use USFIIter Actlflo® process to treat water TransAlta Corporation has awarded USPilter a (US)$7 million contract to

the power generation process. The Actiflo technology by USFilter's

use its Actiflo® technology in their

John Meunier Products, Saint-Laurent,

water treatment program. TransAlta, Canada's largest non-regulated electric generation and marketing company, is upgrading to replenish their historical impact on the water level of Wabamun

Quebec, meets the strict project require ments of 0.06 NTU turbidity and non living zooplankton. John Meunier Prod ucts is also offering the client a strin gent process performance warranty, guaranteeing a yearly volume of eight million cubic metres per year of treated water at the appropriate water quality.

Lake, west of Edmonton. Two of

TransAlta's three power plants located in this area use water from the lake in

"For Cost Effective Pumping" ABS has the most comprehensive range on the market.

A company in the Cardo Group

Sales & Service

• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or(905) 670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

For more information, circle reply card No. 165

Hamilton, Ontario hopes to improve wa ter quality in the Cootes Paradise marsh and nature sanctuary by building three combined sewer overflow underground storage tanks. Currently, sewage can


overflow into creeks and then into the

Cootes marsh and nature sanctuary when heavy rain overwhelms the combined storm and sanitary sewer system. Five such tanks have already been built in various parts of the city. Rain water and sanitary sewage are held in



TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX;(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 167

the tanks until storms end, then the mix

is pumped to the Woodward Avenue wastewater plant to be treated. While storm and sanitary sewers are separate in new subdivisions, the combined sys

Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal Complete Services

tem with the tanks offers the added ben

efit of treating the first flush of stormwater,laden with animal waste, oil, pes


ticides, rubber and other contaminants washed off streets and sidewalks and

The full range of water and wastewater related services


800-465-21 15 www.trlmaxenv.com; 888-776-7306 www.azurlxna.com

CWWA Bulletin

For more information, circle reply card No. 169







nth rafliter




After Hours Emergency Pager:(705) 734-3277


TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617



Media & Coal Ltd.




342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

For more information, circle reply card No. 166 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Tel:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705) 721-0138 E-mail: iws@iws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 168 39

Date Pad

November 28-29, 2001. 24th Symposium sur las eaux usees, Montreal, QC. Contact: RESEAU environnement, tel: (514) 2707110, Fax: (514) 270-7154, Web site: www.reseau-environnement.com.

December 4-7, 2001. 17th Pollutec Inter

national Exhibition of Environmental Equip ment, Technologies and Services for Indus try, Paris-Nord Viilepinte, France. Contact: www.pollutec.com,or Alison Cousland,Tel: (416) 929-2562, Fax:(416)929-2564, Web site: www.promosalons.com. January 9, 2002. One-day seminar on HDPE piping systems, Sheraton North Hou ston, Houston,TX. For further information,

contact Plastics Pipe Institute at:(202)4629607,ext. 13, Web site: www.plasticpipe.org. January 27-30, 2002. Water Sources Con ference and Exhibition - Reuse, Resources,

Conservation, Las Vegas, NY. Jointly spon sored by the American Water Works Asso ciation and the Water Environment Federa

tion. Contact AWWA,Tel: 1-800-926-7337, Fax:(303)794-8915. January 28-31, 2002. 88th Annual Meet

ing of the Pulp and Paper Technical Asso ciation of Canada,including EXEORÂŽ 2002, Montreal, QC. Contact Glen D. Black, Tel: (514) 392-6967, Fax:(514) 392-0369, E-mail: gblack@paptac.ca. Web site: www.paptac.ca.

February 17-20, 2002. WEE Specialty Conference - Disinfection 2002: Health and

Safety Achieved Through Disinfection, St. Petersburg, Florida. Contact WEE: 1-800666-0206, E-mail: confinfo@wef.org. February 18-23,2002. Canadian Concrete Pipe Association/Ontario Concrete Pipe As sociation Annual General Meetings, Las Vegas, NV. Contact: (905) 565-0380, Fax: (905)565-0346, E-mail: info@ccpa.com. February 20, 2002. One-day seminar on HDPE piping systems, Radisson Hotel Atlanta Airport South, Atlanta, GA. For

March 24-27, 2002. WEF/AWWA Joint Management Conference, Charlotte, North Carolina. Contact WEF: 1-800-666-0206, E-mail: confinfo@wef.org.

April 9-10, 2002. Environmental Management, Compliance & Engi neering 2002 ConferenceAVorkshops and the Ontario Environmental

Tradeshow. The Regal Constellation Hotel, Etobicoke, ON. Contact: ES&E,Tel: 1-888-254-8769,or(905) 727-4666, Eax:(905) 841-7271.

further information, contact Plastics Pipe Institute at: (202) 462-9607, ext. 13, Web

site: www.plasticpipe.org. February 24-27,2002. WEE Specialty Con ference - Watershed 2002, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Contact WEE: 1-800-666-0206,

E-mail: confinfo@wef.org. March 3-6, 2002. 16th Annual WEE Residual and Biosolids Management Con ference: Privatization, Innovation and Opti mization - How to Do More For Less, Aus tin, Texas. Contact WEE: 1-800-666-0206,

E-mail: confinfo@wef.org. March 12-15, 2002. 27th Annual Alberta Operators Seminar, Banff, AB. Contact Kathy Abramowski, Tel:(780)427-7713. March 20, 2002. One-day seminar on

HDPE piping systems, DoubleTree Hotel Lakeside New Orleans, New Orleans, LA.

For further information,contact Plastics Pipe Institute at: (202) 462-9607, ext. 13, Web site: www.plasticpipe.org.

April 10-12, 2002. Salon des technologies environnementales du Quebec, Centre des Congres de Quebec. Sponsored by RESEAU environnement. Tel: (514) 270-7110, Eax: (514) 270-7154, E-mail: info@reseauenvironnement.com. Web site: www.reseauenvironnement.com.

April 21-23, 2002. 31st Annual Water En vironment Association of Ontario Technical

Symposium and Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association Exhibition, Hamil ton, ON. Contact WEAO at: Tel: 1-888-355-

1300, Fax: (905) 726-2300, Web site: www.weao.org.

April 27-30, 2002. 10th National Confer ence and 1st Policy Forum on Drinking Water, Halifax, NS. Contact CWWA, Tel: (613) 747-0524, Fax: (613) 747-0523, E-mail: admin@cwwa.ca.


IN A CONFINED SPACE Lumidor Safety Products has formed a Rental Division for

portable gas monitors to be used for confined space entry. The monitors are user friendly, simple to operate (one button operation) and able to monitor/alarm up to five gases simul taneously. An internal sampling pump, rechargeable battery or alkaline batteries, sampling hose with water trap, CSA approvals, training video, etc. are standard features. Please contact us at 905-474-1474 or fax us at 905-474-1740

to provide assistance and further discuss your specific requirements.

Lumidor Safety Products(Canada) 3075 14th Avenue, Unit #5 Markham, Ontario L3R 0G9


For more information, circie repiy card No. 126 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

storage Tanks & Containment

Storage tanks and containment systems

A diverse range of case histories and maintenance proceedures are reviewed in ES&E's semi annual look at tanks and containment. - .•SMN

First glass bolted tank in PEI

Prince Edward Island's first glas -fused-to-ste l tank for pota

ble water storage was erected in 2001. Consulting engineers, CBCL Limited, from Charlottetown, faced the challenge of designing a tank for Stratford, PEI, that would provide pota ble water for a growing population of 8,000, but still contain an ample supply of fire protection water for a rapidly expanding business park. The town of Stratford decided to proceed by constructing a glassfused-to-steel tank built by Greatario Engineered Storage Systems of Innerkip, Ontario. The 25 foot diameter x 56 foot high Aquastore tank, supplied by Engineered Storage Products of DeKalb, Illinois, holds 166,000 imperial gallons and was built in less than two weeks once the foundation was poured. Pat Hughes, engineer with CBCL,stated that a glass-fused-to-steel tank was chosen for several reasons. Comparatively, the upfront cost of supplying and building the tank was less than the cost of building a welded steel tank. Down-time was a major concern for the town of Stratford because they do not have a back-up reservoir. The glass-

fused-to-steel tank will never have to be taken out of service for re-

coating. This project is Stratford's first step into water storage and distribu tion offlows capable of providing fire protection. To address the mat ter of water quality and the potential of freezing, the internal piping was configured to promote circulation of water throughout the tank. With the reservoir, Stratford can now begin to interconnect the exist ing domestic systems and provide fire protection and quality drinking water as required. For more information, circle reply card No. 161 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

The tank colours are not just for aesthetic pur poses. The white roof ailows the sun to be refiected during the summer months when the sun is at its highest point in the sky. The tank's biue exterior permits the sun's heat to be absorbed dur ing the winter months when the sun is at its low est point in the sky. This helps to prevent freez ing and ensure water quaiity. 41

Storage Tanks & Containment

Tank farm chooses geomembrane

Anew Bulk Fuels Terminal Tank Farm was constructed

in Fredericton, New Bruns

wick, during the summer of 2000. As per standard regulatory re quirements,a geomembrane liner meet ing strict physical and chemical prop erty requirements was a key component in this application. Design Constraints Criteria for selection in this applica tion were defined as follows:

• Compliance with the National Fire Code requirements for secondary con tainment in above ground tank farm applications. •Physical and chemical resistance prop erties that would allow for long-term performance in a bulk plant application. • Seam integrity and efficiency of in stallation given tight project time con straints.

Deployment of single Hazgard 500 panel

Following the liner deployment it

Geomeitibrane Selection

was anchored to the vertical concrete

The geomembrane selected for use in this application was Hazgard 500, a Canadian made product specifically de signed for secondary containment appli

walls surrounding the secondary con tainment area using Layfield's standard 50 mm X 50 mm x 5 mm galvanized an gle bar and 6 mm x 50 mm neoprene gasket detail. This process was com pleted in an additional two days. Quality Control The Hazgard 500 was fabricated and installed using strict quality control measures. A condition of being listed

cations where the National Fire Code must be met.

In this case, the geomembrane was shipped to site in one prefabricated piece to fit the entire tank farm facility thus allowing for very efficient installation and a high level of quality control. The physical and chemical resistance re quirements for this tank farm were met or exceeded, reducing the potential for future maintenance of the liner. Installation The total area to be lined was 33.3 m

X 18.3 m. A prefabricated panel of Hazgard 500,33.6mxl8.6m (allowing 0.3 m for mechanical anchorage to the walls) was shipped directly to site. This panel was deployed in approximately one hour by Layfield's installation crews. An LP6 underlay was placed prior to deploy ing the Hazgard panel and another layer of LP6 geotextile was placed over it to increase the level of protection against abrasion and puncture. A sump,located in the south west cor ner of the tank farm, was built by relief cutting the main panel and seaming a second panel into the excavated area.

By Mark Simpson, Layfleld Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd. 42

must be followed every time an ap proved geomembrane is constructed. In the field, the geomembrane seams were tested and approved using ASTM stand ard methods.

Layfield's new Research and Technol

ogy group developed the Hazgard® prod uct line of secondary containment ma terials specifically to meet the ULC/ ORD-C58.9(1997) requirement which is now part of the National Fire Code of Canada.

with Underwriters' Laboratories of

For more information,

Canada is a regimen of testing which

circle reply card No. 162

When sunshine may not be good for tanks Ultraviolet (UV) rays can play havoc, not only on light-sensitive chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), but on the storage tank itself. SnyderCrown has developed a new HDLPE resin for storage tanks which not only stands up to UV rays, but also keeps them out.

resistance throughout the tank. PE tanks also have excellent impact resistance, which minimizes damage to the tank during shipping and installation. Tank performance is dependent not only upon the materials used, but also on the manufacturing process. SnyderCrown designs the tanks so that the resin

HDLPE #880059, a new opaque is in the bottom knuckle radius of the white resin, was specifically designed tank. Snyder Unitized Molded Outlet for storing NaOCl. Its opacity prevents (SUMO®) helps maximize tank drain UV rays from attacking the sodium hy age to remove sedimentation that can pochlorite while its white colour reflects occur with time. the sunlight. Reducing exposure to the.se HDLPE #880059 opaque white tanks decomposition catalysts means longer may provide a cost-effective alternative shelf life for NaOCl. for storing sodium hypochlorite for the Rotationally molded polyethylene water treatment, wastewater treatment, (PE) tanks have homogeneous walls. pulp and paper, or chemical processing Without any fibres for the chemicals to industry. wick along, there is consistent corrosion Circle reply card No. 252 Environmental Science cfe Engineering, November 2001

storage Tanks & Containment

Chemical surface cleaning may improve water quality and facility maintenance

Producing and distributing high-

quality drinking water is be coming increasingly challeng ing. While rapid technological progress has greatly improved and fa cilitated water treatment, water provid ers have to adjust to tightening water quality standards and increasing con cerns about drinking water safety. Re cent examples of those issues are ar senic, disinfection by-products (DBFs) and heterotrophic plate count (HFC)


such as trihalomethanes (THMs).

Problems caused by surface deposits

Switching to alternative disinfection procedures such as UV,ozone, chlorine dioxide and chloramine is helpful to re duce DBF formation but cannot prevent disinfectant residual decline caused by surface deposits. Farticles or cells that slough off of mature biofilms and heavy Continued overleaf

All surfaces that are in contact with

water accumulate deposits over time. These include pipelines, reactors, claritlers, filters, and storage facilities. De pending on source water, temperature and light conditions, and flow charac teristics, this contamination can be pri marily biological or inorganic. The most


visible are calcium carbonate scale, iron

These problems have been ap proached primarily from the treatment and source water aspects. Methods to

and manganese deposits, permanganate stains and algae. Biofilm is a component of many types of deposit, but might by itself go

reduce arsenic and alternatives to free

chlorine disinfection are being imple mented on a large scale. However, not all water quality problems can be solved through improved treatment. Water quality declines if the storage and dis tribution system is not properly main tained, somewhat like drinking clean water from an unclean glass. An inte grated approach to water quality man agement, including water supply, treat ment,storage and distribution can result in improved water quality at the custom er's tap and also reduce maintenance and

By Ulrich Reimann-Philipp, FLORAN Technologies

promote corrosion and lead to increased production of disinfection by-products

treatment expenses. Chemical surface cleaning is part of the Clean Glass Con

Be right when you can't afford to be wrong.

undetected. The visible contamination

of filter and clarifier surfaces might, by some, be considered primarily an aes thetic issue, but problems associated with surface deposits go much further. Chlorine reacts with both organic and inorganic surface contaminants. This leads to a depletion of the chlorine re

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sidual in the bulk water, which is re ferred to as chlorine demand of tanks

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and distribution lines. In order to main

tain an effective disinfectant residual

throughout the system, chlorination at the treatment plant has to be increased

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or the water has to be booster-chlorin ated downstream.

However,high levels of chlorine may

For more Information, circle reply card No. 128


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 127 (See page 25)


Storage Tanks & Containment scale end up in the water and cause high HPC readings or affect taste and clarity. Current cleaning technology At this time, the American Water Works Association has not established

a cleaning standard for drinking water facilities. Existing standards specify methods for chlorine-based disinfection

but not deposit removal. Tanks are usu ally cleaned on a 3-5 year schedule. The most commonly applied cleaning prac tices are on-line sediment removal and

off-line high-pressure washing. While both methods have their specific ben efits, often only loose debris is removed, with biofilm and scale remaining in place. Corrosion cannot be properly as sessed once heavy deposits cover the paint. Available chemical surface clean ing technology has either been too ex pensive, not compatible with drinking

Underground concrete tank (A) before and(B) after chemical cleaning.

novel surface cleaning formulations in Germany. Inclusion of regular tank and line cleaning into water quality manage ment has enabled German water provid

have been proven highly effective in tri als in the US and are gaining acceptance rapidly. The liquid cleaners are prima rily used in treating interior and exte

ers to reduce chlorine demand and com

rior tank surfaces as well as all accessi

ply with limits of 0.3 mg/1 total chlo rine and THM limits of either 10 pg/l at the plant or 50 |j,g/l at the tap. These formulations have recently been intro

ble treatment plant surfaces. Granular formulations for filter media mainte nance and rehabilitation are also avail

able. The main benefits are efficient de

water facilities or too corrosive to be

duced to the US and Canadian markets

posit removal, surface restoration, re

widely applied. As a result, many tanks have to be sandblasted and repainted long before the projected lifetime of the surface coating is reached. The necessity to reduce chlorination to comply with lower chlorine and THM limits has led to the development of

under the Floran brand name.

duction or elimination of chlorine de

mand and short facility downtime for

Chemical cleaners Floran cleaners are ANSI/NSF stand

ard 60 certified for surface cleaning of water treatment and storage facilities. While being widely applied in Germany for more than a decade, the products

Floran cleaners are based on a two-

component chemistry. Both compo nents are shipped and stored separately and mixed immediately before applica-

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For more information, circle reply card No. 129 (See page 25)

storage Tanks & Containment tion. After mixing, the activity remains stable for 24 hours. The mixture is ap plied as a fine mist at low pressure. For interior tank cleaning, the tank is first drained and the sediment and loose de

posits washed out. No high-pressure washing is necessary. Extremely heavy deposits might require repeated appli cations. After reacting (usually 10-20 minutes) the surface is rinsed. The di lute runoff is neutral or slightly acidic and can be pumped into a sludge lagoon or released to the ground outside the tank. Local regulations may require ad ditional disposal procedures such as dechlorination.

Cleaning results The most obvious result of chemical

cleaning is surface restoration. In con trast to high-pressure washing, chemi cal removal of biological deposits and

scale exposes the underlying paint coat ing. The paint can be inspected and cor rosion sites can be spot-repaired. Since the coatings commonly used on steel and concrete are designed to last for at least 25 years,cleaning can greatly extend the intervals between sandblasting and re painting. The savings associated with extended coating lifetime can be con-

The most obvious result of chemical cleaning is surface restoration. In contrast to high-pressure washing, chemical removal of biological deposits and scale exposes the underlying paint coating. siderable, considering the high cost of resurfacing.

age tank should have little or no chlo

cases. Rapid turnover of the stored wa ter might mask an existing chlorine de mand, especially when samples are drawn from points of rapid water ex change. Multiple point sampling and monitoring when the water demand is

rine demand even when the water is not

low can be used to evaluate the effect of

turned over. The effect of chemical

chemical cleaning.

Chlorine demand of concrete and steel tanks is an indicator for biofilm and

sediment accumulation. A clean stor

cleaning on chlorine demand can be dramatic.

In one underground, raw concrete tank the chloramine residual of 2.7

mg/1 remained stable for five weeks af ter cleaning. Previously, the residual was completely lost within 7-10 days of storage. A steel tank that required regu lar supplementary chlorination main tained a 1.0 mg/1 chlorine residual for two weeks after cleaning. Both tanks


Regular chemical surface cleaning of treatment and storage facilities is an es sential tool to reduce water quality de cline after treatment. In addition, main tenance costs can he reduced due to ex

tended lifetime of surface coatings. Pre venting heavy biofilm and scale build up in the storage and distribution sys tem can significantly reduce drinking water chlorination.

were taken off-line for chlorine residual

For more Information,

monitoring. This is not possible in many

circle reply card No. 132

For ail vour storaae solutions Effective Solutions for Potable Water, Wastewater, Leachate Storage, Industrial Storage.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 131 (See page 25)


Storage Tanks & Containment

Special reinforcement was the key to building high-strength P&P tanks

When Fabricated Plastics Limited of Maple, Ontario, was called on to provide two large fiberglass reinforced plastic tanks for the stor

age of chlorine dioxide at a Quebec pulp and paper mill, the most important requirement was to build them with sufficient strength to withstand extreme wind loads, as well as to achieve a "Zone 2" earthquake rating. "In addition to putting ribs on the wall, you can increase the hoop strength of a tank in one of two ways," says Don Sablinskas,President at FABCO,"either by laying up a very thick laminate, or by 'winding in hoop'(that is, winding the glass reinforcement onto the mandrel at a zero angle). In creasing the wall thickness, of course, increases both the weight and cost of a vessel. On the other hand, a tank wound in hoop only (with conventional glass filament) will have very little axial strength." To achieve the additional axial strength required without sacrificing hoop strength, the company selected a type of reinforcement frequently used by molders in other areas of the composites industry (including boat builders) but not in the corrosion field.

"We developed a very efficient tank design by combin ing hoop winding with unidirectional glass roving (Liasil)," Sablinskas says. "The hoop winding gave us the necessary strength to contain the liquid, and the unidirectional roving provided the axial strength. It also enabled us to reduce the wall thickness-a cost-effective measure that cut the weight of the tanks substantially, which, in turn, made it easier to The two filament wound tanks were built to withstand high wind loads and to achieve a "Zone 2" earthquake rating. assemble them."

Although chlorine dioxide is a highly corrosive material used as a bleaching agent in the pulp and paper industry, it was no problem to select a suitable resin for the units, in this case, a premium corrosion resistant resin. Both tanks are 5.5 m (18 feet) in diameter and 16.7 m

(55 feet) high. Because of their size, each was produced in five separate parts - a top, a bottom and three middle shell sections-for shipment by road to the mill site. Each of the

five sections is approximately 3.5 m (11.4 feet) high with an inside diameter of 5.5 m (18 feet). The ribs are hollow structures wound directly onto the tank wall. It was very important to provide a rib close to the ends of each shell section to maintain its stiffness. When cylindri cal parts are being lifted by crane, they have a tendency to go out of round which makes it extremely difficult to align the parts during assembly. The domed top, molded by hand lay up, is fitted with

two explosion hatches which release suddenly to relieve any build-up of pressure inside the vessel. The top also has molded-in supports to which the feet of a maintenance ac cess walk-way are bolted. The flat-bottomed base of each tank is fitted with a

A domed top is lowered onto the cylindrical wall of one of the chlorine dioxide storage tanks. 46

manway and has specially designed (steel) hold-down lugs to prevent overturn during any earthquake conditions. Be fore the individual tank components were shipped to the Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Storage Tanks & Containment Tank Stats

The capacity of each tank Is 341,000 litres (75,000 gal lons). Its weight, empty. Is approximately 16,000 kg. (35,300 lbs.); when filled. It weighs 380,000 kg.(837,000 lbs.). FABCO was able to complete the job within 12 weeks of order date Including engineering, approval, manufactur ing and erection.

mill(where FABCO field crew later assembled and bonded them together), the tanks were "test assembled" at the Ma ple plant to ensure mating parts fitted together. Assembly Procedure Special lifting lugs were attached to the top section so that a crane could raise it off the ground for the first shell

section to be slid into position beneath it during assembly. The top was then lowered onto the shell and the two parts were strapped together (on both the inside and outside of the components). After the first joint had cured, the joined sections were raised again for a second shell to be slid into place and joined to them - a procedure that was repeated until each tank was fully assembled. In the interest of safety, the work is al ways carried out at ground elevation. Each tank was put together a few feet from the concrete pad and lifted into place with the crane. Once the customer had approved the installation, FABCO's engineers proceeded to confirm the integrity of their design by carrying out strain gauge tests after each

Assembly of tank commences. tank had been filled with water and allowed to stabilize for

a 12-hour period. "We also did the tests as a further quality control measure," Sablinskas said. "They will allow us to make comparison tests in the future to ensure the tanks are still sound and performing as they should." For more information, circle reply card No. 133



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storage Tanks & Containment

Tank alignment plays important role in early storage tank leak detection

Due to ecological concerns in North America, a

great deal of attention is given to the early de tection of leakage from underground tanks at gas stations. For that purpose,and for inventory control, dipstick measurements are taken at least once a day. Very often the arithmetic based on those measurements shows "shortage", i.e. less gas in a tank than there should be, or "over", i.e. more gas left after subtracting volume sold from start-up volume, plus delivered gas if any. Since volume sold is measured by pump meters which are care fully calibrated and regularly checked by all government institutions and oil companies involved, that quantity can be assumed to be error free.

Discrepancies in daily inventory are usually explained by either lack of care with dip readings or an underground tank that is not horizontally aligned. In both cases authori ties expect the numbers to balance themselves out after a period of time (i.e. one week, two weeks). In other words, today's "short" will be compensated by tomorrow's "over". If this is not the case after a period of time, one should start worrying about underground leak age; then expensive ground analyses ensue.

By Gabriel Waisman, GYN Systems Ltd.

As will be shown, that is not always necessary. The method provided can also help with the adjustment of vol ume tables used in daily inventory calculations. In our calculations we used, as an example, Belleville Model D-8 5000. This tank consists of a straight cylinder with ellipses at both ends. Error due to dip readings Error due to dipstick readings can be determined as: 5V = dV/dh.5h (1) where derivative in (I) is equal to:

dV/dh = 2.L.C. V I -(1 -h/C)- 7t.A.h.(2-h/C) (2) 5h - error in dipstick reading, usually in the range of± 1 cm. The(2) and consequently (1)is maximum at h = C (cyl inder radius). In our case: C= 117.5cm, A = 55.0cm (ellip sis axes), L = 451.3cm (cylinder length). The(2) becomes: 5Vmank = ± 0.55%.

But in many cases, the "shorts" and "overs" are much more even for one tank, and this cannot be explained by inaccurate dipstick readings. Alignment of underground tank If the alignment of the underground tank is not horizon tal, another type of error may occur. If the inclination angle a is not 0°, the formula for calculation of a gas volume as a function of dipstick readings becomes more complicated.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

storage Tanks & Containment 20









90 7°





Figure 1

Gas volume as a function of dipstick measurements at dif ferent inclination angles. Vo - gas volume at0 deg. Vtank volume of gas tank. Fill up opening located at 1 = 0.25 L. A computer program, based on these equations was written and the results obtained are discussed below.

The volume table which gas station personnel use for inventory purposes is based on the assumption a = 0°. We call it Vo. Actual gas volume in case of a other than 0° we call Va. We run the program for positive and negative a and a graph of DV =(Vo - Va)/Vtank was built as a func tion of h - dipstick measurements. We assume that thefillup opening through which the dipstick is pushed for meas urements is 0.25L from the tank edge as in the Belleville D - 8 5000 model(L is a straight part of a cylinder). For in stance, in the worst case of a = 10° and h = 120 cm, the difference is 13% or 3,000 litres (Figure 1). If a service station manager is not aware of the "angle effect", he may be very surprised at the end of the day deal ing with such kind of "shortages" (Positive or negative). Let's consider for example the following scenario: The day starts with a half empty tank. For demonstration purposes only, let's choose a = 10° curve of Figure 1. Let us assume that at the end of the day the tank is almost empty. Since gas station staff use a = 0° tables, we can write that Vo (h = 120 cm)- Vo (h = 20 cm) = Vmeter -i- Error (3) The actual relationship is Va(h = 120 cm)- Va(h = 20 cm) = Vmeter (4)

where Vmeter is pump readings. For simplicity, we assume that there are no deliveries during the day. Subtracting (4)from (3) will get for error \yo(h = \20cm)-Va{h - llQcm)]

Figure 2



Gas volume as a function of dipstick measurements at dif ferent inclination angles. Vo - gas volume at 0 deg. Vtank volume of gas tank. Fill up opening located at 1 = 0.5 L. These curves can be determined using our computer pro gram for different tank sizes and shapes. From the analyses we can see that tank alignment plays an important role in early leakage detection. For a greater than ± 1° volume tables should be adjusted to real numbers. The "angle effect" can be drastically decreased if the fillup opening is in the middle of the tank (Figure 2). This re sult is very important. Tank manufacturers should place the fill-up opening close to the geometrical centre of the storage volume in order to minimize eiTors due to inclination angles. For more information, circle reply card No. 137

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\yo{h : : 20c/w)-Va{h . 20cm)]



From Figure 1,(5) becomes


e= 13.20%-2.20%= 11%

That means that, after n days of record keeping, the ac cumulated error might not disappear but this depends on the starting and ending points on the line of Figure 1. The only way to eliminate uncertainty, is to adjust the zero degree table to actual angle. It can be done either by direct angle measurement during renovation, or by using the existing information for inventory data to fit it to the appropriate curve of Figure 1. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

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Storage Tanks & Containment

Flexible PVC lining system protects tanks

In 1972,two underground concrete

storage tanks were constructed at the City of Barrie Water Pollution Control Centre. The two tanks

were to be used to contain liquid alum and they were lined with a fibreglass lin ing. The fibreglass lining began to crack from the expansion and contraction of the tanks causing the tanks to leak. In 1982, on the advice of Gore and Storrie Limited, Kentain Products Lim

ited proposed a heavy gauge 40 mil (.040")flexible PVC bag type liner. The lining was installed without removing the existing lining. The PVC lining was not adhered to the tank surface and was

not affected by the expansion and con traction or small cracks left in the walls.

The liners were pre-fabricated at Kentain's facility in Kitchener, Ontario, and delivered to thejob site in one piece. They were closed top liners with provi-

By Scott Lippert, Kentain Products Limited

Preliner being prepared.

sions for the manway opening and the other fitting connections. Kentain pro vided an installation supervisor and two helpers who worked in conjunction with the City of Barrie employees, installing

both liners in two weeks.

Early in 1999, after 17 years of trou ble free service, discussions began be tween the City of Barrie and Kentain

Products Limited to have the existing PVC liners replaced for preventative measures.

Working from the existing shop drawings, Kentain manufactured the re placement liners in their plant and made amangements with the City of Barrie to

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set up an installation date. Providing only an installation supervisor, Kentain once again worked in conjunction with the City of Barrie employees to install the new replacement liners. Because of the high standards of tank preparation completed when the tanks were originally lined in 1982, the instal lation for the two replacement liners was completed in one week, half the origi

When regulations require secondary containment,

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Storage buildings

Tank solutions

Tank surfaces in contact with water will

accumulate organic and inorganic depos its over time. These deposits can cause a decline in chlorine residual, increased DBFs, and increased HFC numbers.

Heavy deposits lead to increased corrosion and reduce the lifetime ofsurface coatings. NSF approved Floran products have been developed for convenient & efficient one step chemical cleaning of water tank and filter surfaces. ClearTech Industries

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Asbestos Trakker Version 2.4 The Trakker is a state-of-the-art as

bestos management software program that can be net worked between the

Gorman-Rupp T Series^'^ pumps are de signed for economical, trouble-free op eration in handling solids-laden liquids and slurries. Pumps feature a large volute design which allows them to reprime automatically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with liquid and a completely dry suction line. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 205 52

are self-priming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only the suction line down in the liquid. Service or maintenance can be performed quickly and simply with common hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and never any need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp

facility manager, construction department and health and safety officials through your local network server system. The Trakker system is ex tremely user-friendly; compatible with all Windows-based programs; has a search function that can retrieve a room's survey results in seconds; multiple buildings or wings can be included in one program; has a link-up feature that will allow other department managers to view the Trakker survey findings; and more. T.Harris Euvironmental Management

Circle reply card No. 206

Circle reply card No. 207

Because Gorman-Rupp T Series™ pumps

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Product and Service Showcase Engineering services

Microprocessor controlled multi-gas monitor

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Circle reply card No. 208

Designed to provide personal safety, the MicroMax is OSHA compliant. Its rug ged aluminum case provides RFI/EMI shielding, as well as dust, water and im pact resistance. It is designed, tested and manufactured under strict ISO 9001 qual ity .systems, and is UL classified and CSA certified intrinsically safe for use in Class I, Division I and II, Groups A, B, C and D areas. Lumidor Safety Products Circle reply card No. 209

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal suifaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industiy. The answer is Denso! Circle reply card No. 210

Introducing the N-Pumps!

Submersible pumping/mixing

New Kee Lite™ aluminum

Providing the complete spectrum of serv ices needed to plan, design and construct water and wastewater infrastructure in

cluding: Traditional engineering, design and construction, design/build, SCADA/ real time control, and structured wet

lands/recreational water quality. Azurix North America

slip-on fittings

Years of research We

coupled with cus extensive

1948, when we

field trials have

produced a revo lutionary new pump design that combines high ef ficiency with Flygt's clog-free performance. The N-Pump series feature a radical new hydraulic end design which ensures efficient, clog-free, and troublefree pumping over extended periods. The result is improved operational economy due to less downtime,dramatically reduc ing the total life cost of the installation. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 211

Open channel flow meters


making submers ible pumps since

tomer demands and




world's first sub

mersible designed for pumping con taminated water.

Over the years, our name has come to stand for efficient,

versatile products of the highest quality and we have remained at the forefront of

development. Our designs, patents, and technical innovations have made us the

world's leading manufacturer ofsubmers ible pumping/mixing equipment and fluid handling technology. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 212



Products. Ltd. in troduces seven

new fittings to its line of Kee Lite™

aluminum slipon,structural pipe fittings. Strong, lightweight and corrosion-resist

ant, these fittings provide an attractive, aesthetic appearance for building railings and other tubular pipe structures. They include a variable angle joint. 90-degree crossover joint, wall flange, side palm fixture, metal end plug, internal swivel, and a smooth handrail fitting. Kee Industrial Products, Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 213

Liquid/solid separation

Toshiba flowmeters and


sludge density transmitters


American Sigma flow meters are de signed with the outstanding reliability and ease of use you expect. The innova tive, versatile line of flow meters allows

you to choose the right meter and upgrade as your needs change. They include: Portable Area Velocity, Area Velocity, Long-Term Area Velocity, Intrinsically Safe Portable Area Velocity, Intrinsically Safe Area Velocity, Flow & Water Qual ity and PVM Portable Flow Velocity Meters. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 214

Parkson recently acquired the Hycor® line of liquid/solid separation equipment which focuses on headworks screening, convey ing and washing,as well as grit and stonnwater management. Screen media in cludes wedgewire, perforated, mesh, bar and specially configured screening ele ments. Types include rotary drum screens, side hill, step screens, moving media screens, gravity disc and climber screens, and systems with integral conveying and dewatering. Parkson Corporation

Circle reply card No. 215

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Patented noise suppression circuitry and mechanically retained liners make the Toshiba LF400 Series Electromagnetic Flowineter ideal for wastewater applica tions. The LQ300 Microwave Sludge Density transmitter from Toshiba uses a new principle, microwave phase differ ence measurement, to determine the den

sity of sludge flowing through pipes. It has no moving parts and no projections inside the piping. Cancoppas Limited Circle reply card No. 216 53

Product and Service Showcase On-line chlorine monitoring

UV light disinfection system

Signal converter The use 6000 sig

P r o M i n e n t' s Dulcodes

nal converter from


Danfoss eliminates

Light Disinfec tion System uti


lizes a number of

choosing specific

unique key op


to demonstrate

cations. It comes with .sensors mounted

and pre-wired to the controller on a sam pling line, making correct installation of your chlorine monitoring system simple. ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd.

the effectiveness of the UV disinfection

stage. Its advanced control mechanism monitors bulb efficiency, trends in UV light dosage, and hours of operation to allow for appropriate scheduled preventative maintenance on the unit. UV light dosage is continually monitored using ProMinent's UVB intensity sensor mounted on their 316 Stainless Steel ra diation vessels. ProMinent

Circle reply card No. 218

Circle reply card No. 217

aeration tanks. De

signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor, this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to 4-70°C with

+ 0.1° accuracy. Davis Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 219

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Upgrade Now


protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in

erator interfaces

Creating solutions for easy installation and start-up of online chlorine monitor ing equipment is a specialty of ProMinent Fluid Controls. The PCM Package of fers pre-mounted chlorine monitoring for free, available and total chlorine appli


Submerged Stormceptor® system

The Inlet Storm

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as the well-known In

line Interceptors. Developed to treat The new version of PipePac 2000 in cludes advances such as a new 32 bit

operating system for quicker runtime; better help screens; upgrades to the Life Cycle Analysis; and LIVE updates to cape's pipe costing tables. Call the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association (905) 631 -9696, for your free copy or if you have Access 2000 or 2000 Runtime,

download PipePac 2000 from www. ocpa.com. OCPA

Circle reply card No. 220

Level measurement system for digesters

run-off from an area

of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

Circle reply card No. 221

Circle reply card No. 222

Open channel remote monitoring

Immersed ultrafiltration membranes The ZeeWeed®'

ted with a built-in

ment for digest The wave

guide pipe carries the radar signal from the instrument to the horn antenna, bypassing the spool and valve components,eliminating valve sig nal noise. The instrument can be raised,

inspected or removed without releasing digester gas into the environment. Milltronics

Circle reply card No. 223


modifications: an extended weir and a

500 series of im mersed ultrafiltra

sliding wave guide antenna provides reliable


systems. Compared to the In-line system, the Submerged Stormceptor has two second drop pipe to enable it to capture oil and sediment during high tailwater conditions. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

IQ Radar 300 fit


well-known In-line

and Inlet Stormceptor

water run-off remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are curiently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

The Milltronics


Developed for sub merged and partially submerged storm sewer pipes, the new Submerged Storm ceptor System em ploys the same oper ating principles as the

tion membranes is

the only mem brane in the in

Flow Reporter is a Windows-ba.sed con figuration software and data extractor for use with the Milltronics Open Channel Monitor(OCM 111). It lets you monitor flow, change parameters and download flow data collected by the OCM III di rectly from a remote PC. Try Flow Re porter for a 15-day trial by downloading

dustry engineered with a reinforced

hollow fiber. The

from www.Milltronics.com. Go to Prod

rugged fibers, combined with an open module design, allow operation in high levels of su.spended solids. The mem brane simplifies conventional processes and provides a long membrane life, even under the harshest operating conditions.

ucts, to Flow Reporter and click

ZENON Environmental Inc.

'Download the .software'. Milltronics

Circle reply card No. 225

Circle reply card No. 224 Environmental Sc ience & Engineering, November 2001

Product and Service Showcase WebTRAC

Advanced oxidation system

Full mastery over water clarification Densadeg's effec


tiveness is the re sult of three tech

nologically com plex modules: the reactor chamber,

The WebTRAC systems allow you to build as you grow. The number of sen sors and monitoring/control points is un limited. All data and monitoring and con trol functions are accessible through a standard web browser. From a stand

alone PC, LAN, WAN, Internet, or dial

up connection, accessing the power of WebTRAC is unbeatable. If you know bow to "surf the net", you know bow to use WebTRAC! Chemtrac Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 226

Dechlorlnatlng diffuser

This stainless steel, skid mounted system is suitable for tertiary treatment, water reclamation, and remediation of groundwater contaminated with petroleum prod ucts and additives, pesticides, solvents, etc. It includes a multimedia filter sys tem,three ozone generators, ozone injec tions system, two 10.000 gallon reaction vessels, a medium pressure and a low pressure UV water treatment system, plus monitoring and control systems. Envirozone Technologies Inc. Circle reply card No. 227

High rate iron & manganese removal process

the pre-settlingthickening zone, and the lamella clarification module. It

offers robustness and ease of operation on a wide field of applications including: drinking water, urban wastewater,indus trial process water and sludge treatment. Besides an excellent treated water qual ity, the Densadeg provides high clarifi cation rates and requires less reagents than most existing units. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 228

SLP Phoenix Underdrain

The SLP (Super low

profile)Phoenix Under drain is ideal for new fil

ters and retrofits, with:

Lowest profile available -filtered water pick-up orifice located at base of FILTER OPTIMIZATION

Simply the easiest dechlorination device available, the LPD-250 uses LPD-

CHLOR tablets (81.3% NaSO,) to re move up to 4 ppm of chlorine in potable water. Simply fill the tube with tablets, connect to the hydrant, and start flush ing; the LPD-250 will do the rest. The

This process removes iron and mangan ese effectively using AWI's NSF approved, highly-reactive manganese dioxide filter media. It is cost-effective, flexible and eas

available to treat highly chlorinated

ily adaptable. For new water treatment facilities, filter area is greatly reduced with significant savings on capital and operat ing costs. For existing water treatment plants it doubles or triples capacity with the existing filter area and chemical costs

waters as well. ClearTech Industries

are diminished. Anthratech Western

LPD can accommodate flows from 200 to 1200 USGPM. Modifications are

Circle reply card No. 229


adia n


As part of the commitment of the Cana

fessionals who handle environmental is

ment to pollution prevention, the CCME Pollution Prevention Awards recognize companies and organizations showing leadership in pollution prevention. A panel of industry, non-government and govern ment repre.sentatives selects award win ners from small, medium and large busines.ses. organizations and developers of

letter, a national calendar of events and

pollution prevention innovations. Nomi

training, a discussion forum, and more.

nations close November 30,2001. Visit:


www.ccme.ca. CCME

Circle reply card No. 232

Anthratech Western

Mc Graw II

dian Council of Ministers of the Environ

tal legislation, an environmental product and service directory, the most compre hensive environmental job board in Canada, a monthly environmental news

distribution at various airscour rates.


Visit www.CanadianEnvironmental.com

site include access to environmental in

rosion-resistant, .stainless steel construc

tion; extremely uniform water distribution; and unique air conduit provides uniform

Circle reply card No. 231

-a free on-line Resource Centre for pro

formation and news,links to environmen

of filter; dual-triangular metering zone al lows even pick-up of water across slotted retention panel; media retention slot de sign is self-cleaning in both directions; strong, double-wrapper shell design; cor

Circle reply card No. 230

CCME Pollution Prevention Awards - Call for Nominations

sues related to industry. Features of the

lateral; centreline of ori fice <25 mm from floor

Circle reply card No. 233

Environmental Science & Enj>ineering, November 2001

McGraw-Hill is a leading publisher of Environmental and Civil Engineering books and products. Our authors are in ternational experts and provide critical insights on environmental issues, devel opments and trends. Browse our new online catalogue for product information at: www.McGrawHill.ca/tpm. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Circle reply card No. 234 55


The facts about UV disinfection Itraviolet light is the compo nent of the electromagnetic spectrum situated between X-rays and visible light. With a wavelength between 100 and 400


sure UV-systems over low pressure UVsystems is that with the high intensity lamps large flows can be treated with compact UV-installations. The Aquionics 4000-watt multi-wave lamp is equivalent to that of 18 conventional low-pressure technology lamps. Re duced lamp count means a smaller foot print and lower installation and O&M

able for disinfection. In order to achieve the demanded dis

with wavelengths between

infection,the right UV-dose must be ap plied and this depends on the sensitiv ity of the microorganism. Correct cal culation of the UV-dose, which a sys tem delivers to a microorganism,is cru cial to the successful operation of any UV-installation. Put simply, UV-dose is the energy delivered to a given surface area for a given period of time. UV-dose is calculated by multiplying the UV-lamp(s) intensity by the time a microorganism is resi

200 and 315 nm. The inacti-

dent in the treatment chamber.

nm,UV is divided into four bands: UVA, UV-B, UV-C and Vacuum UV. UV

has multiple applications. UV-Ais used for attracting flying insects into insect exterminators, and UV-A in combination with UV-B is

used for tanning lamps. For disinfection purposes, "UV" refers to the UV-C band

vation of microorganisms takes place through UV ab sorption in the DNA-string. The principle of disinfection is the result of the rupture of the genetic core of the cell, i.e. disintegration of deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)and ribo-

UV-dose is calculated by the formula:

UV Dose (mJ/cm-) Intensity (mW/cm-) X Time (sec) Time (measured in sec

onds) is the period of irradia tion or residence time. Dose

is applied to microorganisms by UV-lamps. The residence C light affects the Thyminetime is the time taken for a mi Adenine band by breaking the Aquionics UV chamber. croorganism to pass from one band and forming a double cost. And another important advantage end of the chamber to the other and is bond. With this formation of the dou ble bond the DNA can no longer divide of medium pressure lamps is the ability calculated from the average flow veloc and replicate so the propagation of this to completely break down proteins and ity and chamber dimensions. Aquionics microorganism is terminated. enzymes, eliminating the possibility of use advanced hydrodynamical compu ter software to be able to handle inhoUV-C light is generated by mercury photo-reactivation. Finally, unlike the output of a low mogeneity in velocity. By knowing the lamps, which contain a slight amount of mercury. The lamps emit UV light due pressure lamp, the output of a medium microorganisms to be killed and the re to a combination of gas pressure and pressure lamp is unaffected by water quired percentage of kill, it is possible to determine the necessary UV dose, electrical current. UV lamps can be di temperature. vided into low-pressure lamps(0,001 to To specify the most appropriate UV- which,according to circumstances, may system for a given contamination prob vary from 10 to over 100 mJ/cml 0,01 bar gas pressure)and medium pres Some of the advantages of the sure lamps(1 to 2 bar gas pressure). The lem, five parameters have to be deter Aquionics UV disinfection system medium pressure mercury vapor lamps mined: require a more advanced technological • Flow (minimum,average, maximum). include: • minimal headloss knowledge. The medium pressure UV- • Transmission of water (at 254 nm). installations typically operate by trans • Type of microorganisms to be killed. • high dose, high volume capability former and emit so-called polychromatic • Degree (log reduction) of disinfection • automatic cleaning • small footprint UV-light. required (i.e. dose required). • no overdosing possibility The emitted wavelengths cover the • Water temperature. total germicidal UV-band,including the The amount of UV-light, which can • lamp output unaffected by water temperature most effective DNA/RNA breaking pass through a volume of water, is ex wavelength of 260 nm - 265 nm and the pressed as the transmission. The higher • adjustable lamp power levels protein/enzyme damaging wavelengths the amount of UV-light which passes • superior 8,000 hour lamp life close to 220 nm. The more sophisticated through the water, the higher the trans • data logging capabilities control makes it possible to control the mission of the water. The transmission • gravity flow and pumped applications effective power,resulting in an efficient of water depends on several factors and • absolute germicidal UV specific monitoring and flexible system, meeting today's cannot be determined by conventional sophisticated requirements. water analysis. It is affected by organic • minimal maintenance requirements The main advantage of medium pres- and inorganic material both dissolved • low capital, operational, and maintenance cost. and suspended in the water. This mate By Kim Guengerich, For more information, rial scatters or even absorbs the UVAquionics Inc. circle reply card No. 139 liaht, reducing the amount of UV avail nucleic acid(RNA). The UV-


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Water Issues

r r

Poor water quality found on native reserves The drinking water problems on Cana da's native reserves are so acute that they need to be addressed immediately,even before problems in the rest of the coun try are fixed, a roundtable on the sub ject concluded. The roundtable, at

tended by MPs,experts, and representa tives from all levels ofgovernment,found that while water quality is a serious prob lem across the country, drinking water on native reserves is in such a poor state that it requires urgent attention. A 1995 Health Canada report found that one in five reserves had water sys

Cdronne? ineafliMlIt! r ^


r\rr r

f- r-

ditions have not improved since the re

ClearTech is your one-stop, Canada-wide solution for quality chlorine products, services and a complete range of related equipment.

port was written. Although the roundtable recom

• Gas Chlorinators

mended the creation of national cleanwater standards, Mr. Mercredi said

•Automatic Shut-Down Systems

tems that could "affect the health and

safety of the community if the problems are not addressed". Former Assembly of First Nations national chief Ovide Mercredi told the roundtable that con

standards alone may not be enough. He said reserves need money to build the kind of water treatment systems that are common in non-native communities of similar size.

US casts eye on Canadian water United States President George W.Bush says he wants to talk to Prime Minister

Jean Chretien about piping Canadian water to the parched American south

west. "Our nation must develop a com prehensive water strategy, particularly as these western states continue to

grow," Mr. Bush recently told a group of reporters. He also said he would be

open to "any discussions" about a pos sible continental water pact, similar to talks now underway between Canada, the United States and Mexico on energy. Under NAFTA, water is exempted from rules that require an open two-way trade in commodities. However, the agreement states that once Canada starts


r- r

• Chlorine Leak Detectors

• Cylinder Scales • Emergency Repair Kits

• On-line Analyzers

For more information, including information on ClearTech's comprehensive list of products and services, contact: Saskatoon:(306) 933-0177 Regina:(306) 721-7737 Calgary:(403) 279-1096 Vancouver:(604) 272-4000 Winnipeg:(204) 987-9777 Edmonton:(780) 452-6000 Toronto (Mississauga): Toll Free (800) 387-7503 or visit us at - Partners in -



Head Office

ClearTech Industries Inc.


2302 Hanselman Avenue

Saskatoon, SK S7L 5Z3

trading in bulk water, free-trade provi sions will kick in, requiring open trade to continue. That could limit the power of federal and provincial governments to restrict water exports.

ES&E on line. Check us out at

www.esemag.com Environmental Science <i Engineering, November 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 140 (See page 25)


Conference Report

Security -a major topic at WEFTEC 2001

Weare a war government, stated Tracy Mehan, the US EPA's assistant ad

from simply locking all doors to sending staff information to the FBI for background

ministrator for water, at WEFTEC 2001, which was held last


month in Atlanta,Georgia. He said that the security of water and wastewater systems is a top priority and that the Bush administration has set up a water protection task force. Already research is underway into understanding potential threats, how chemicals could be used and their effects, monitoring, and assessing areas of vulnerability. "All systems and people including op

a five-part action plan the task force is working on:

erators, managers and consultants are



Mr. Mehan then outlined

1. Tools for utilities to use.

These include vulnerability assessment studies and emer

gency response plans. 2. Security training for man agers.

Tracy Mehan Bruce Babbitt 3. Develop secure informa tion systems. dent to endorse such initiatives as the 4. Improve the knowledge base about Florida Everglades restoration and the contaminants, modeling,treatability, etc. massive California Desert Protection 5. Improve communications with other Act. "President Clinton's appreciation government agencies and private organi of the outdoors did not extend beyond

said. "Security pro


the golf course," he said, adding that: "I

cedures should in

In his address to the conference, Bruce Babbitt, former US Interior Sec

got him interested by comparing his en vironmental legacy with Theodore

retary under the Clinton administration, stated: "By being here, you rebuke the


evils of terrorism." He then went on to

tions for the future. "Because the water

explain how he was able to get the Presi-

cycle is getting shorter, wastewater pro-

clude everything

By Steve Davey, Environmental Science &

Engineering Magazine

Mr. Babbitt then gave some predic


"Process Measurement - Control & Environmental Instrumentation"

•Dissolved Oxygen •Suspended Solids •Interface Level

•pH/ORP •Automatic SRT Control

•Wastewater Sampling •Doppler & Transit Time Flow •Ultrasonic & Radar Level •Residual Chlorine

and much, much more...

2595 Dunwin Drive, Unit #2, Mississauga, ON L5L 3N9 Tel:(905) 569-6246 • 1-800-595-0514 • Fax:(905) 569-6244

www.cancoppas.com • E-Mail: controls@cancoppas.com 58

For more information, circle reply card No. 121 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Conference Report fessionals must become watershed man

agers," he said. He believes that the move to set

ambient instead of point source water standards and Total Maximum Daily Loads, will lead to zero discharge limits for wastewater treatment plants. This has already happened in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, and Malibu Creek in California.

According to Mr. Babbitt,in the Gulf of Mexico there is a 7,000 square mile hypoxic "dead" zone. He believes this in itself will lead to legislated nutrient reductions in the 24 states that are in the

Mississippi River watershed. This means that all dischargers,including ag riculture, will have to begin bargaining about their obligations to meet ambient standards. There will be no distinction

between point and non-point sources. It also means that new development will not be able to alter the hydrograph, i.e. flow and quality in the area. Mr. Babbitt warned that the move to

ambient water quality standards and TMDLs will mean that pollution reduc tion will become a political process, and not necessarily a technical process. WEF addressed the concern for

the vulnerability of water systems to ter rorism, by adding two sessions to the program.

Rob Penner, AWWA Deputy Execu tive Director, explained that most bio logical threats can be treated by the sys tems already in place. Managers must also be prepared for other situations such as vandalism and false threats, which

can cause as much panic as a real threat. "Take care of your system's vulnerabil

ity and strengthen communication with public health officials," he said, adding that,"everything going on is really more of a perceived threat than a real threat." Mr.Penner said that AWWA is work

ing on a new protected web site to help educate the industry on system security as well as conducting a series of'by in vitation only' seminars.


Allan Rose, a Vice-President of Black & Veatch, said that utilities need

to test their systems, define the nature of potential threats and then develop effective countermeasures. "View your system as a series of targets.... Don't pro vide the weapon. You have already given them the delivery method," he said. He stressed the importance of knowing your vendors and personnel. Also, utilities should make sure their

public relations staff are capable of deal ing with media questions.

Saturday Evening Gala. Bill Borlase, City of Winnipeg, and Peter Nicoi of CH2M HILL Canada, helped organize the Saturday Evening Gala at WEFTEC 2001 (for merly the Great Canadian Icebreaker). The event attracted some 170 Canadian and 650 American guests. Top photo: Matt Kuzma, US Filter (left), with Brad Hussack, Aiberta Mequipco Ltd., and Pat Given of Associated Engineering. Middle photo: Deborah Ross and AhtoAsu of KMK Consultants, with Brian Evans (back ground)and Kaye Beaier from Texas. Bottom photo: Steve Davey, Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (left), with Scott Lenhardt, Steve Low, Teresa Volsin and Lee Ahenakew ofZenon Environmental.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001


Wastewater Treatment

Oxidation system certified by Caiifornia EPA for treatment of secondary wastewater

The California Environmental

Protection Agency(CALEPA) has certified the performance of EnvirOzone Technologies, Inc.'s Advanced Oxidation System in

treating effluent from the secondary clarifiers of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. This certification is based on the pilot study performed at

East Bay Municipal Utility District's (EBMUD)Wastewater Treatment Plant in Oakland, California, in 1998 and

1999. The(US)1,000-gallon per minute (GPM) system consists of four skidmounted modules designed to treat sec

ondary effluent to any desired degree of purity.

Using a combination of processes in corporating ozone, UV radiation, and

recirculation to treat influent supplied to the plant, the system provides deodorization, colour removal and oxidation of

organic chemicals in addition to the pri mary objective of disinfection. The pi lot plant, which occupies only 1,600 square feet, is said to be the first of its kind to be tested in real world conditions. EBMUD Board of Directors elected

to do an Alternative Disinfection Study (ADS)in 1996. This study was prompt ed by concerns about risks with transpor tation, storage and handling of chlorine gas and sulphur dioxide used in disinfec tion. Eurther, EBMUD was concerned about increased costs of disinfection and

the possible generation of halogenated disinfection by-products(DBPs). CALEPA Certificate number 01-03001 states that the Patented Advanced

Oxidation System (Model EOT-AOX 1000) from EnvirOzone Technologies, Inc. reduces, with 95% confidence in terval, fecal coliform levels in munici

pal secondary treated wastewater efflu ent to less than 23 MPN/100 ml. This

performance certificate is based upon the findings in a State Water Resources Control Board staff report titled Evalu

ation of the EnvirOzone Technologies, Inc. Advanced Oxidation System Model EOT-AOX 1000, dated January 2001. This same system is now being op erated at Sacramento Regional County By Rafi M. Salem, Frank Stuart, and Colleen Henry, EnvirOzone Technologies, Inc.

EnvirOzone 1000-GPM Advanced Oxidation Plant at wastewater treatment facility. Sanitation District's municipal wastewater treatment plant at Elk Grove,Cali

fornia, to evaluate performance with much more stringent discharge restric

is 1000 GPM. Three water-cooled

wash has been added to remove parti-

ozone generators with a combined ca pacity of 261 lbs/day at 10% concentra

culate material that shields the bacteria

tion supplied ozone. The existing oxy

from exposure to ozone and UV light. Initial test results are very promising.

gen plant provided feed to the ozone generators. Under normal operating conditions, two ozone generators were used while the third was on stand-by. Ozone rich gas (up to 15% concen

tions. A multi-media filter with back

This system seems ideal for water reuse under California's Department of Health Services Title 22 provisions. A water utility using this system could evaluate and "tweak" operations designed to pro vide high quality recycled water. System and process overview

tration) enters the water stream via two

in-line Mazzei injectors that draw the ozone into the stream through a vacuum created by the venturi effect. Micro-

bubbles of ozone provide a large surface area for gas to liquid transfer. Ozone EBMUD's secondary effluent and to re dissolved in the liquid was retained in duce the concentration of complex or the mixing tank for about a minute and ganic compounds commonly found in a half, allowing oxidation to take place. municipal and industrial sewage with (Oxidation by ozone is a very rapid re out the use of any additional chemicals. action, in general.) The pilot plant can operate at vari Excess gases are removed in the ous pressures, flow rates, ozone contact degassing unit and sent to the off gas times,ozone(gas)concentrations,ozone destruct unit. The ozone-laden liquid The Advanced Oxidation Process Pilot Plant was utilized to disinfect

doses and UV doses in order to evalu

enters the 10,000-gallon retention tanks

ate the efficiency and effectiveness of

for additional time for oxidation of re

the ozone and UV processes. By-pass and recirculation capability was incor

calcitrant organic compounds. The con tact time can be adjusted between 2 and 27 minutes based on the complexity of

porated to provide additional operational flexibility. A booster pump was included to increase inlet pressure to 80 pounds per square inch (psi)or for recirculation, if desired.

Approximately 800 GPM of second 60

ary effluent, prior to the addition of chlo rine, was supplied to the pilot plant at 50-65 psi although the design flow rate

the influent wastewater and calculated

oxidation requirements. The oxidation process also increases transmittance (lowers turbidity) of the stream, mak ing the UV system more efficient.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Wastewater Treatment

After passing through the retention tanks the effluent flows through either a low-pressure U V unit or a medium pres sure UV unit. UV lamps were separated from direct contact with the water by quartz sleeves that are cleaned periodi cally by automatic wipers. Combining ozone and UV provided the means to produce hydroxyl radicals, which greatly enhances the oxidation potential of the system and the ability to inacti vate resistant pathogens,such as Ciyptosporidium. The pilot plant was equipped with dual UV systems to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of each. In a commercial operation one or the other UV system would be used. Instruments are located throughout the system to measure pressures,flows, temperature and ozone concentration. Sampling ports were installed at critical points in the process train. Analyzer, alarms and instruments were installed

to ensure safe operation. Pilot test overview

Pilot testing protocol was divided into five phases. A Preliminary Phase was designed to obtain data from a wide variety of tests. The tests included fecal coliform, UV transmittance, Chemical

municipal secondary wastewater. Ta ble 1 is representative of the success of the Advanced Oxidation Process in deal

ing with fecal coliform and organic com pounds. Fecal Coliform: the system consist ently performed to the requirements of EBMUD's discharge limits or better, often allowing discharges of less than 10% of the limit.

Phase One was designed to evaluate the impacts of ozone dose (5-20 mg/L) and retention time(2-27 minutes). Phase

Economic Considerations The economics of the EnvirOzone's

process and system are determined by the quality of the effluent desired and the cost of energy at the site. Based on the EBMUD pilot test, the total operat ing cost, including capital cost, labour, utilities and maintenance, for a system for the treatment of the total plant capacity of 55,000 GPM, would be $0.07/1000 gallons. (The cost of power and oxygen at this plant are $0,042 per kw-hr and $25 per ton.) The benefits of the combination of

the valuable oxidation properties of ozone and the potent disinfection prop erties of ultraviolet radiation are nota

ble in today's environmentally conscious world. The ability to combine this sys tem with other water processes such as Reverse Osmosis, Activated Charcoal

ess, in this case, from 10 GPM to 1,000

and various forms of filtration adds to

GPM was proved in a real world experi ment in a municipal environment. The flexibility of the system with its ability

the list of beneficial applications of the

Oxygen Demand (COD), Nitrite, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Volatile Or ganic Compounds(VOC),Semi-VOCs and Pesticides. A special study was con ducted to determine the system's effec tiveness on the removal of MtBE.

This was accom

plished without the introduction of chemicals and without producing harm ful disinfection by-products. Organic Compounds: the system had significant impact reducing 12 of the or ganic compounds detectable in the pilot plant influent. In one test when the sys tem was put into a recirculation mode, MtBE was reduced by nearly 70% after three passes. The concentration ofsome benign biodegradable compounds was increased. These are intermediate by products of the oxidation process. Overall Performance: stated simply, the system performance exceeded ex pectations. The scalability of the proc

to operate in various modes would al low it to meet the treatment require ments of a broad spectrum of urban or suburban municipal, agricultural and industrial settings.

Advanced Oxidation Process.

Circle reply card No. 145



Two focused on the effects of UV dose

(30-150 mj/cm-). Phase Three evaluated different ozone gas concentrations(7%10%)and UV influent pressures(15 and 20 psi). Phase Four measured the effec tiveness ofthe system operating on a con tinuous basis at conditions that had been

determined to be optimal - 10 ppm of


ozone at 7% concentration and UV in

fluent pressure of 15 psi. The following summarizes the over all success of the system in dealing with Table 1: Percent Reduction

Ozone = 15 ppm



Eliminates conventional feed tanks, metering pumps, mixers, etc. • Completely safe for personnel and the environment

Treatment Time = 2 minutes Fecal Coliform


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

• Trouble-free operation and low maintenance

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For more information, circle reply card No. 185 (See page 25)


PCB Site Remediation

Engineering feasibiiity studies for remediation of a PCB contaminated site

PCB contamination of a site in

Smithville, Ontario, occurred

between 1979 and 1985. Origi nally an industrial waste trans fer facility, the site became a storage facility for wastes such as transformer fluids containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorobenzenes and mineral spirits. When PCB contamina tion was discovered in the lagoon area in 1985, the Ontario Ministry of the En vironment (MOB) began a site decommissioning and remediation pro

1991 to 1992,PCB wastes and contami nated soil beneath the lagoon area were incinerated in Phase III.

When contamination was discovered

in the bedrock groundwater in 1987,the Ontario government installed a pump and treat system to contain the dissolved phase plume. The system has worked effectively since it was installed in 1989; however, the rate of Dense Non-Aque ous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) removal from the bedrock is very low. A recent detailed assessment of the

gram. Since 1998, a team of Acres &

PCB DNAPL extent in the bedrock has

Associated Environmental Limited/

indicated that the DNAPL source zone

Acres International Limited (A&A/

is within an area approximately 200

Acres) and specialist subconsultants have been involved in feasibility stud ies for the clean-up. Phases I and II of the four-phase pro gram were completed between 1985 and 1987. These phases secured the wastes from the environment and provided a secure on-site storage facility. From

metres wide in an east-west direction,

and 250 metres long, north-south, along the direction of groundwater flow. The DNAPL extends to at least 11 metres be

low the ground surface and possibly as deep as 23 metres. The fourth and continuing phase is

nants in the bedrock beneath the site.

The objective of the Smithville Phase IV Bedrock Remediation Program,begun in 1993, is to recommend to the MOE costeffective, long-term alternatives for con tainment and remediation of the remain

ing DNAPL in the bedrock and groundwater beneath the site. In 1997, the Program Board of Directors selected nine remediation alternatives including: • Natural-Attenuation Alternative - monitored natural attenuation

(MNA) • Mass Removal Alternatives - excavation and ex situ treatment - thermal wells

• Migration Control - ground freezing - hydromill excavating - .secant piling - permeation grouting - extraction wells

- integrated permeation grouting and extraction wells.

focused on the remediation of contami

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For more information, circle reply card No. 146 (See page 25)

PCB Site Remediation

In a two-stage approach, the engi neering team prepared a Common De sign Basis Report,then Design Descrip tions. The first task facing the engineer ing team was to consider the site con ceptual model developed by scientists


and other consultants and ensure that it

was sufficient for engineering purposes.

The primary focus of the Common De sign Basis was to present information on the geology, hydrogeology, freephase DNAPL contamination, aqueousphase contamination and potential receptors, sufficient for engineering fea sibility studies. The purpose of the De sign Descriptions was to provide tech nical and financial information to allow

a comparison of the various alternatives. For each alternative, unit operation dia grams illustrating implementation steps, an implementation schedule,technology experience, operational life of the sys tem, monitoring requirements and costs were prepared. Optimization studies were carried out by A&A/Acres for three of the alterna tives (MNA, permeation grouting and extraction wells), which included com parison of integrated engineering, con taminant transport modelling and site-

When PCB contamination was discovered in the lagoon area in 1985, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment(MOE)began a site decommissioning and remediation program.

specific risk assessment data for the al ternatives. Critical items with respect

the cost for an alternative.

The Board will prepare a report on their findings and recommendations on

to contaminant concentrations at re

ceptor locations, technical confidence and potential modifications to the alter

preferred alternatives for the future man

natives were identified. The purpose of the optimization process was to increase

agement of the Smith ville site in the Fall of 2001.

For more information,

the technical confidence and/or reduce

circle reply card No. 148


IN A CONFINED SPACE Lumldor Safety Products has farmed a Rental Division for portable gas monitors to be used for confined space entry. The monitors are user friendly, simple to operate (one button

operation) and able to monitor/alarm up to five gases simul taneously. An internal sampling pump, rechargeable battery or alkaline batteries, sampling hose with water trap, CSA approvals, training video, etc. are standard features. Please contact us at 905-474-1474 or fax us at 905-474-1740

to provide assistance and further discuss your specific requirements.

Lumidor Safety Products(Canada) 3075 14th Avenue, Unit #5 Markham, Ontario L3R 0G9

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 149 (See page 25)



El Nino impacts bioiogicai production across entire Pacific Ocean

The large scale phenomenon

ft »iii \rY'i '1

known as El Nino has a strong

influence on weather,rainfall,

Sr rSVlt » 'A » - fl

and ocean physics on a plan etary scale. Now a new study by scien tists from Dalhousie University, the US National Oceanographic and Atmos pheric Administration(NOAA),and the University of Maryland, demonstrates that complex atmospheric-ocean inter actions associated with El Nino/South

ern Oscillation(ENSO)also have a large

impact on the biological productivity and export of organic carbon from the tropical Pacific region. The work is based on a unique combination of ship, buoy and satellite observations in the tropical Pacific, which were published

The ocean contains 50 times more CO^ than the atmosphere.

in Science, on July 19.

a distance of over 12,000 kilometres,"

matically increased, while in the west it

said Dr. Daniela Turk, Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, lead author of the study. "This results in changes in the availability of nutri ents that fuel the growth of the phytoplankton, the base of the marine food chain, and consequently large-scale changes in the biological productivity of this region." Biological productivity is directly responsible for marine fisheries, and for the export of organic carbon from the surface to deep waters and sediments. This export has implications for climate as well. For example, only about half of the carbon released in the atmosphere through human activities remains in the atmosphere, while the rest ends up in the ocean, or in plants and soils on land. The ocean contains 50 times more CO, than the atmosphere, and the vast tropi cal Pacific is thought to be responsible for 10 to 55 percent of the export of or ganic carbon from the entire world's oceans. In addition,interannual changes in global carbon sequestration associ ated with El Nino/La Nina cycle con tribute to the largest known natural yearto-year perturbation of the global car bon cycle. During El Nino, much of the Pacific Ocean's capacity to take up and store carbon by biological processes is de

is diminished. The net basin-scale ef

"The wave-like nature of ENSO

sloshes large volumes of water back and forth across the entire equatorial Pacific,

By Dr. Daniela Turk, Dalhousie University


The RotoFix™ is an advanced second

ary treatment unit for domestic and in dustrial wastewater. It is located down

stream of the primary treatment system (septic tank). The heart of the RotoFix''''^ is composed of tubular patented medium consisting of multiple internal wings which provide a large contact surface per volume unit. Many sections of the me dium are assembled around a central axle

and held in place by stainless steel or polymer braces forming the rotors of the RotoFix™. These rotors, placed in a ba sin containing the wastewater to be treated, are activated by a low-power mo tor and belt. Ecoflo Ontario

For more information, circle reply card No. 150 64

creased in the eastern Pacific, but com

pensated to some extent by increases in the west. During La Nina period, the opposite phase of the oscillation, bio logical productivity of the east is dra-

fect was to decrease the export of car bon to the deep ocean by 30 percent during 1997-98 El Nino and to increase it by 40 percent during 1998-99 La Nina. The conclusions are a direct result of

the availability of a combination of high precision observations of the surface of the ocean from satellite, and observa

tions of the ocean interior from buoys and ships. "The measurements of the height of the sea surface from the Topex/ Poseidon satellite altimeter provide a large scale view of the dynamics of the interior of the ocean when combined with subsurface measurements of tem

perature and other variables from bu oys," said Dr. Turk. The Topex/Poseidon sensor built by NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes

Spatiales(CNES,France),is a radar that is capable of measuring the height of the sea surface to an accuracy of 2 cm from a distance of over 700 km. The buoy observations were taken from the Tropi cal Ocean Atmosphere(TAG)amay built and operated under the leadership of NOAA. This array consists of over 70 automated data collection buoys in stalled across the tropical Pacific,which provide ocean and weather information on a routine basis. The combination of

data provides an unprecedented basinscale perspective on the net effects of El Nino on biological productivity of the tropical oceans. Contact Dr. Turk, (902) 494-2167, E-mail; neli@raptor.ocean.dal.ca.

EnviroiuiieiUal Science & Engineering, November 2001

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section oaii ES&Eat(905)727-4666,


Urecon pre-insulated pipe

Hazardous materials

Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocable® heat tracing). Other applications Include: central chilled water pipe, Industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insulated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140'C (with or without ieak aiarm system). Visit our web page

storage Chem-Loc Buildings are uniquely designed and manufactured by MakLoc Buildings Inc. to provide safety, security, segrega

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Leister welding machines for geomembranes Our Leister iine of automatic wedge

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Membrane technology for

Controlling contaminated groundwater

Industrial wastewater ZENON's ZenoGem® bioreactor

system can retrofit any existing wastewater treatment facility, im mediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The system in corporates immersed membrane technology, which assures blomass retention, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge. ZENON Environmental Inc.

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Waterloo Barrier is a low permeabil ity cutoff wall for groundwater con tainment and control.

It is a new

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ground. The product was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo and has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills as sisted in the development of the product Waterloo Barrier Inc.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001


Biosolids Management

New truck loading and odour control facilities at Ashbrldges Bay treatment plant

In spring 2001,the City ofToronto

commissioned its new state-of-the-

art truck loading and odour con trol facilities, the first of three de sign-build projects initiated by the City

as part of its move to beneficial use of biosolids and termination of biosolids incineration.

been used as a heat source for the treat

veyance system;

ment plant and for foul air combustion, alternatives for heating and for treatment

3) a fully automated truck loading fa cility; and 4) a highly-efficient odour control sys tem with sufficient redundancy for the new biosolids storage and truck loading facilities, and existing odorous air

of odorous air streams from the exist

ing and new biosolids management facilities would be required after shut ting down the incinerators. Implementation of the program


The City ofToronto owns and operates the Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant(ABTP),

an 818,000 mVday secondary treatment wastewater treat

ment facility bounded by residential, recreational and commercial areas and Lake

Ontario. Primary and sec ondary sludges removed at the ABTP are anaerobically digested and dewatered us ing horizontal centrifuges, generating approximately 50,000 dry tonnes annually of dewatered biosolids, with a solids concentration in the

range of 25-30 percent; most of this was incinerated.

twelve weeks and included

reviews of various options, development of conceptual designs,outlining design cri teria and performance re quirements, process and air flow diagrams, site layout, building and major equip ment and piping layouts, and development of component specifications. The prepara tion of the conceptual de signs, and review of avail able options provided valu able opportunity for input from the City, allowing staff View of the entrance to the truck loading facility showing the truck to define minimum quality entry doors with traffic lights indicating which bay (green) is full requirements. These early and ready to receive trucks.

In the Fall of 1998, the City decided that incineration was no longer an ac ceptable method of biosolids disposal,

considerations would allow

would involve three projects having a

the contractor selected to focus efforts

total construction value of $85 million.

on a scheme that had already been re viewed by the City. The conceptual design phase ad dressed space constraints, the require ment to provide a minimum offour days of biosolids storage (approximately

sified as beneficial. Various biosolids

These were a dryer/pelletizer facility, truck loading and odour control facili ties, and a plant-wide heating system. The City set an ambitious time limit

and embarked on a search for alterna

tive disposal methods that could be clas beneficial use alternatives were investi

to achieve the shut-down ofincineration,

gated, including alkaline stabilization, direct application of dewatered product to agricultural land, composting, and pelletization. With the active participa tion of the public through a Biosolids Multi-Stakeholder Committee, two op tions were selected for implementation - application to agricultural land and pelletization. These two options would provide the City ofToronto with a more diverse pro gram, giving greater flexibility for bio solids beneficial use, and,consequently,

allowing some 27 months for planning, bid document preparation, bid periods, evaluation, negotiation, award, detailed design, construction and commission ing. In view of this, a design-build project delivery method was chosen. Conceptual designs for the loading and heating projects were developed by the consulting team, led by R.V. Anderson

an end to incineration at the ABTP.

In many respects, the truck loading and odour control facilities project proved to be the most challenging of the three Toronto biosolids projects. The objectives of the project were to provide the City of Toronto with: 1) 4-days biosolids storage capacity;

However, because the incinerators have

By Vincent Nazareth and Valera Saknenko, R.V. Anderson Associates and

Kiyoshi Oka and John Bryson, City of Toronto 66


Preparation of RFP docu mentation was required in

Biosolids beneficial use

Associates Limited, with Brown &

Caldwell assisting. New truck loading and odour control facilities

2) a flexible and reliable biosolids con

2000 m-^), biosolids conveyance, strin gent odour control requirements and the need to minimize inteiTuptions to plant operation. Many of the outwardly suit able options would have exceeded limi tations in relation to the maximum dis

tance for biosolids conveyance by pumping. It was eventually decided to split the biosolids storage, providing intermedi ate 1200 m' bulk storage in three bio

solids storage silos, and 800 m'of bio solids storage in four truck-loading hop pers located directly above the loading bays. After reviewing over a dozen pos sible options, the most favorable solu tion was to construct three of the new

silos in the space used by the three ex isting incinerators. This resulted not only in the reuse of the existing build ing but also existing piled foundations.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

Biosolids Management thereby saving construction time and money.

After considering the use of hydraulically driven reciprocating piston pumps (HDRPP), belt conveyors or screw con veyors, a system utilizing three HDRP pumps was selected as the best option for biosolids conveyance because of its ease of operation, maximum operational flex ibility, reduced space requirements, and containment of odours. The pumps were located in the basement of the silo build

ing directly beneath each silo. In order to reduce friction in the cake piping, a lubrication system utilizing water or a water-polymer mix was added to the conceptual design. The new truck loading facility is de signed to be an unmanned, fully auto matic facility consisting of two truck bays, able to load trucks of any configu ration, within a maximum period of 15 minutes from arrival at the facility. Each truck bay is equipped with two hoppers, and a weigh scale that allows weighing of the truck during the loading process. The loading facility, with a drivethrough configuration, requires loading to be completed with tmck-access doors

closed, to prevent release of odours to the atmosphere. Odour control of paramount importance Since the incinerators were to be shut

down, an alternative method of odour

control was required to treat emissions from the existing and new sludge man agement facilities. At the RFP preparation stage,foul air sources were sampled and analyzed for contaminants. Available technologies were evaluated and, based on the con

taminant gases present, a conceptual odour control system was developed. The concept included three-stage treat ment, consisting of two wet scrubbing stages(allowing use of different chemi cals and redundancy), followed by biofiltration. Biofiltration was selected

for treatment of the organic sulphides, based on lower life-cycle costs and suc cessful history in treating sludge odours. The overall capacity of the odour con trol facility is 20,000 L/s. Design, construction and commissioning The consulting team developed a detailed evaluation protocol requiring

four independent reviewers (two from the consultants and two from the City). Technical proposals were independently scored and subsequently price propos als were opened, scored and the com bined scores calculated. ICON Systems Limited(now Earth Tech(Canada)Inc.) was the successful proponent.

ICON developed the design further, constructed and commissioned the

facilities. Among the major changes to the conceptual design were the use of sliding frames for the biosolids storage silos and 'attaching' the odour control and truck loading buildings, which were adjacent structures. The commissioning of the facilities was almost flawless due to the consid

erable effort of the entire project team during factory acceptance testing. Dur ing a 30-day performance testing period, the contractor's staff operated the facili ties with no significant interruption. The project was turned over to the City of Toronto on April 20, 2001, some 27 months after the initiation of the con

ceptual design process. For more information,

circle reply card No. 152

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For more information, circle reply card No. 153 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 154 (See page 25)

Pulp & Paper

Kuan Yuan paper mill In Taiwan cares for the environment

Taiwanese industries have,for

the past 50 years, been con centrating on developing production and economic growth. This has led to a transforma tion of the society, but some issues, like environmental ones, have not attracted

the same amount of attention during this

period. This development forced the Taiwanese government to regulate in dustrial effluent treatment, and these

days the companies have a new aware ness of the importance of a balance be tween economic growth and environ mental protection. Environmental protection At the Kuan Yuan paper mill, in Taiwan, a lot of effort was put into building an effective wastewater system when their mill in Taichung was built in 1984. Many other plants have learned from their example. "Principally,enough space is the rule

of thumb for good effluent treatment," says the vice president of the mill, David Hsieh. "The total area of Kuan Yuan's

effluent treatment plant is almost one

wastewater and water treatment. Thanks

to optimum aeration, no chemical treat ment (e.g. chemical precipitation for removing residual chemicals)is needed

third of the mill area."

after bio treatment. The ABS aerators

Efficient treatment process All the reject from the cleaner plants and the screening plants is treated with

give the pre-treated effluent the opti mum COD(Chemical Oxygen Demand) and BOD (Biochemical Oxygen De

separate thickening, filtering and de-

mand). The Taichung mill produces an aver

watering equipment. The polymer mix ing and flocculent system was tailor-

made by ABS,using SCABAÂŽ agitators which mix the raw effluent with poly mer to obtain optimum flocculation. The agitation gives very good pre-sedimentation; suspended solids after presedimentation are reported at less than 30 mg/1. No chemicals needed

Kuan Yuan has,in the past few years,

age of420 tonnes per day of coated du plex board. Raw materials used are 50% local waste paper and 50% European and American waste paper. National awards

The efforts have paid off. "Today, the wastewater from Kuan Yuan's efflu

ent plant is clean enough for raising carp!" David Hsieh adds. As a confir mation of its progress, Kuan Yuan Mfg.

installed 21 ABS TA aerators in its ef

has received several national awards

fluent treatment plant. The TA is a selfaspirating submersible aerator for

from the government for its water treat ment and environmental protection. â?–


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For more information, circle reply card No. 155 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 156 (See page 25)


ONDEO Degremont

Top experts join our team ! Marco Bosisio, Robert Jacob,

Jean Marchand and Bruce Webster join the Ondeo Degremont

Andre Leger, Ondeo Degremont Ltd's CEO, is proud to introduce :

Marco Bosisio, Vice-President, Sales and Marketing Holder of a bachelor's degree in microbiology and a master's degree in civil engineering, Marco Bosisio has been working in the water treatment field for over 15 years. After working for 5 years with one of our major competitors, Marco Bosisio has chosen to come back to Ondeo Degremont's dynamic team, and will bring his expertise in understanding the specific needs of our clients.

Robert Jacob, Vice-President Operations With a bachelor's degree in civil engineering, an MBA, and over 20 years of experience with the Pomerleau group among others, Robert Jacob has become a well-known specialist in the management of largescale construction projects. Our clients will thus benefit from the quality of his approach and his expertise in project management.

Jean Marchand, Director of Sales, Canadian municipal market Having started his career with Degremont in 1969, Jean Marchand has

I acquired an in-depth knowledge of available equipment and current

I regulations. Our clients will benefit from his understanding of new challenges in water treatment throughout the country.

Bruce Webster, Director,

Industrial m'arket development. Western Canada Holder of a master's degree in environmental engineering, Bruce Webster has been working in virtually every field of water treatment for

more than 20 years (16 of which in the industrial sector for Ondeo Naico). Our industrial clients of the western provinces will appreciate his expertise and understanding of industrial constraints.

1375 TransCanada Highway, #400, Dorval (Qc) H9P 2W8 Telephone:(514)683-1200 Fax:(514)683-1203 htpp://www.ondeo-degremont.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 157(See page 25)


Biosolids Management

Biosolids research and demonstration field trials in Southern Ontario

Each year in Ontario, Azurix

North America's (ANA)

(SCIA);the Federation of Agriculture; the

biosolids program applies

Ministries of Environ

over 1 million cubic metres of

liquid and 200,000 tonnes of solid ma terial on over 25,000 acres.

Farmers across the province and their respective associations vigorously and proactively support the use of biosolids recycling on farmland and also the need for practical, beneficial on-farm bio

ment, Agriculture, Food & Rural Affairs, and Health; munici

palities; the University of Guelph and the pub lic at large in an effort to build confidence in

these land application

solids research.


The Azurix Residuals Management team actively promotes and encourages

projects and research


on-farm research and demonstration

initiatives include;

field trails at the local level, in co-op eration with various government agen

• Global Positioning Satellite System and Flowmeter Project. Drag Hose Injection System. Accurately displays and records the flow Fall application of biosolids. of liquid biosolids as well as the GPS • Soil Phosphorus and Metals Study. coordinates of the location. Measures the effects of biosolids appli •Nitrogen Credit Project. Measures the cation on soil and crop phosphorus and quantity of ammonium and nitrate ni metals levels. trogen residue in the spring following a •Environmental Farm Plan. ANA staff

cies and academic institutions.

Qualified staff work closely with: the Soil and Crop Improvement Association

By Phil Sidhwa, Azurix North America

experts teach this provincial course on


farm use of chemicals and fertilizers to farmers.

requires a

• Biosolids vs. Commercial Fertilizer

Plot. Compares yields on plots treated

Director of Public Works

with biosolids and commercial fertil izers.

The County of Oxford, with a population of 97,000 and an operating budget of $100 million, is located in South Western Ontario. As a result of retirement, we

are seeking a Director of Public Works to direct and manage the County's Pub lic Works Department in accordance with policies established by Council; meet the County's statutory obligations with respect to County roads and bridges, solid waste management, wastewater collection and disposal, water supply and distribution, and public buildings. Minimum Qualifications: Degree in Civil Engineering and membership in the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario; ten years' broad experience in design, construction, operation and maintenance of public works facilities; keen administrative, organizational, managerial and communication skills with the ability to interpret and communicate technical infonnation in an understand

• Halton Conseiyation Club. Measures

yields' differences following biosolids use under various conservation tillage systems. Ontario's Golden Horseshoe SCIA,

including the counties of Niagara, Ham ilton, Haldimand, Norfolk, Brant,

Halton and Peel, with a population of 2.5 million, is currently involved in a three year biosolids research project to measure the qualitative and quantitative effects of biosolids on agriculture nad the environment.

Azurix North America is sponsoring

able manner.

this research with a commitment of

$15,000. Dr. Mel Webber, a soil scien tist and researcher working with ANA, will be conducting surface and ground-

Resumes to be forwarded by 4:00 p.m., November 30,2001, to: County of Oxford, Human Resources Office, P.O. Box 397, 415 Hunter St., WOODSTOCK ON N4S 7Y3 Fax #(519)537-3024 E-mail: hr@county.oxford.on.ca Web Site: www.county.oxford.on.ca

water studies to monitor metals, nitrate

and bacterial movement through the soil profile. ANA is an industry representative for

Receipt ofpersonal information is acknowledged and will be retainedfor six months in confidence, but only those selectedfor interviews will be contacted personally. 70

the Provincial Biosolids Utilization Committee and the Water Environment Association of Ontario.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2001

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For more information, circle reply card No. 159(See page 25)

Control Effluent Nitrogen and Mixed Liquor Alkalinity The Carrousel® denitIR® System with Integral Anoxic Reactor For wastewater treatment applications where strict nitrogen effluent limits, high influent nitrogen, or low influent alkalinity require denitrification, EIMCO denit/i? Systems offer an elegantly simple solution. The modified Carrousel basin shown here features an integral anoxic reactor where nitrates are biologically reduced and alkalinity restored in a single-basin system without recycle pumps or piping.

denit//? System Description 1. Denitrification Zone Screened, degritted wastewater and return activated sludge contact nitrate-rich, anoxic flow from the Carrousel basin. The combination of a dense biomass,

nitrates and an abundant carbon source(BOD)under anoxic conditions creates

the ideal environment for high rate denitrification. Alkalinity is restored along with much of the oxygen previously bound in nitrates. INFLUENT





denit//? System



Control Gate


with In-Basin Denitrification: 2. Aerobic Zone

C Oxidize Carbonaceous BOD,

The proven Carrousel System achieves efficient oxidation of BOD and complete nitrification. Carrousel System design allows aerator power draw to be reduced by more than 50% without loss of mixing. Oxygen transfer can thus be adjusted so that the mixed liquor reaches an anoxic condition before passing the denitrification zone diversion gate.

Ammonia and Organic Nitrogen C> Denitrify(Reduce)Nitrate Nitrogen Ci Restore Alkalinity

3. Anoxic Flow Control Gate

C Recover Chemically Bound Oxygen,

Nitrate recycle rate is easily controlled by an adjustable gate on the denitIR wall which controls flow into the by-pass channel. This by-pass directs a portion of the main channel flow to the anoxic zone. Carrousel System aerators provide all necessary circulation.

Reducing Aeration Power Usage C Reduce or Eliminate Alkali Addition

A Proven Team ofSpecialists that have the Capabiliti/ to Handle ALL of your Process Needs


For more information, circle reply card No. 123

Process Equipment Company A Baker Hughes company

HMCO • WEMCO • KNOWLEDGESCAPE • MRS • PYRAMID • CARROUSEL • ADVENT AiS 5155 Creekbank Road • Mississauga, ON • L4W 1X2• Tel 866-559-4730, 905-625-6821 • Fax 905-625-3519 669 West 200 South • Salt Lake City, UT 84110-0300 • Tel 800-826-6461, 801-526-2000 • Fax 801-526-2014

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