Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 2001

Page 1

September 2001

Environmental Science


& Engineering

i - s^jakSii


Does our drinking water need a "Marshall Plan"? Wastewater plant uses ultrasonic detection and digital radio technoiogy Rehabilitating the Walkerton water distribution system Stormwater quality for a brownfieid redevelopment

Land application of biosoiids for crop production Pilot study shows water quality improvements State-of-the-art wastewater faciiity for Alberta

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August/September 2001 Vol.14 No. 4 Issued September, 2001

Highly oxidizing environment over

State-of-the-art wastewater

the South Pole - See page 60

facility - See page 58 11^

Features 7

Does our drinking water need a "Marshall

50 Stormwater facility for Toronto's airport

Plan" - editorial comment

53 Experts forecast energy innovations

10 Rehabilitating the Walkerton drinking water distribution system

54 Aquifer storage recovery is a key component in sustainability

16 Removing hydrogen sulphide from sour gas

55 Study finds environment is greatest success story of the last 30 years


How one electronics component supplier is getting the lead out

20 Stormwater quality for a brownfield redevelopment in Toronto

58 State-of-the-art wastewater facility for Strathmore, Alberta designed in BC

24 Washington hosts 15,000 at AWWA Conference


56 Environmental management technologies transform US army ammunition plant

60 Evidence of highly oxidizing environment

New membrane microfiltration system

over the South Pole

28 Land application of sewage biosolids for crop production

62 Congress repeals ergonomics rule, handing victory to WLF

34 Wastewater plant uses ultrasonic detection and digital radio technology

64 Road salt pickling Toronto rivers 66

38 Culvert is compatible with Canadian wildlife

Four golf resorts are reusing treated sewage for irrigation

42 Screw presses for sludge dewatering at recycling facilities

70 Giant corporations eye $655 billion world

44 Pilot study shows potential water quality improvements


Some environmental facts of life revealed


UN chair established to ease water crises and conflicts in Africa

market for water-related services

48 Citizens and Mohawks oppose expansion of a garbage dump in Greater Napanee

Departments 8



Industry Update


Ad Index




Literature Reviews


Professional Cards


Product Review


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

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Editorial Comment

Does our drinking water need a "Marshail Pian" to restore crumbiing infrastructure?

It is alarmingly apparent that our water and wastewater infrastruc

ture is in such bad shape that human health is increasingly at risk. Canadians are still wrestling with the Walkerton E. coli 0157:H7 drinking water tragedy in Ontario, as well as the North Battleford Cryptosporidium out break in Saskatchewan. Few seem

States, the country that put men on the moon and later provided the Lunar Rover for them to drive around the sat

ellite, has just been awarded a 'D' grade for the state of America's drinking wa ter infrastructure. While we are used to

alarmist, and often wildly exaggerated stories about drinking water safety, it is worthwhile enquiring about the valid-

water pipe networks that have long passed their prime; in some cases, they are more than 100 years old, some dat ing back to the 1800s. As a 'D' rating will not even get you a high school di ploma, it is unconscionable that a na tion that has spent trillions on some rather dubious military adventures, while becoming the richest country in

aware that the Americans have

the world, would risk the

had major E. coli and Crypto sporidium outbreaks in their drinking water. In 1993, 400,000 people became sick, 4,000 were hospitalized, and

health of its population with such neglect. But America's (US) $11 billion shortfall applies only to

50 deaths were attributed to

more unwelcome news. If

water mains. There's even

Cryptosporidiosis from con taminated drinking water in

sewerage systems were added to the ASCE report they would Milwaukee. There have also almost certainly emerge as in been lethal Cryptosporidium as bad, and probably in worse outbreaks in Oxford,England, shape than the water mains. and Sydney, Australia, in re As potable water systems op cent years. erate under pressure, water A tiny protozoan parasite, leakages are quaintly desig Cryptosporidium lives and re nated as exfiltration. As sewer produces in the intestines of lines don't usually operate un mammals,including humans, der pressure, they may take in and gets into the water supply Joint storm sewer project, City of Brossard and St-Hubert, liquids, a process called infdfrom the fecal material of in tration. If water mains pres Quebec. Photo - Beton Brunet Ltee. fected mammals. American sure drops, and if the sewer Water Works Association(AWWA)re ity of the source of the 'D' grade. Did pipes have leakage in the area, there is search indicates that Cryptosporidium is this alarmingly low rating evolve from some chance of infiltration. Water and present in 95 percent of all surface wa some emotional protest groups where sewer pipes often are run alongside each ter sources in the US. "It enters the scientific realities were discarded by the other below ground. Interestingly, dur water supply prior to maturity, early in regular rent-a-mob malcontents; or was ing wartime when foreign spies crossed its development," say AWWA research it shouted out as some global protester borders, they were called infiltrators. ers. It is encased in a tough outer shell, was dragged to a paddy wagon? It was It must be stressed that North Ameri which makes it impervious to chlorine not. This sombre warning came from can water leakages are often modest by disinfection. Infection by a specific the American Society of Civil Engineers comparison to many other countries and strain known as Cryptosporidium (ASCE), one of the largest, learned as when pressures drop,sometimes during parvum. also causes Cryptosporidiosis sociations in the world whose members repairs, there are adequate safeguards in in humans. Symptoms include stomach and their predecessors had designed the place when boil water orders are issued. cramps and diarrhea. There is no cure water systems of North America. Efficient municipalities operate with but people with healthy immune systems ASCE's data were immediately backed regular pipe repair and replacement recover naturally after approximately 14 up by the American Water Works Asso schedules but regrettably, their sterling days. For individu ciation, which, combined with its Re work is buried underground and out of als who have weak search Foundation, has been a world sight of the public it serves. ened immune sys leader in drinking water research and The same day the US report was re tems, such as those development since 1871. Combine the leased, some data emerged from a infected with HIV, two associations and you can go no Water Environment Association of the disease can be higher in obtaining expert, unbiased tes Ontario conference which gave some fatal. timony on drinking water quality. equally alarming figures on infrastruc Now the United The ASCE Report estimates a short ture neglect in Canada. Unlike the US fall in drinking water infrastructure of report, the WEAO data dealt with both

By Tom Davey,

Editor and Publisher

(US)$11 billion per year. It notes that

water and wastewater infrastructure.

many communities continue to rely on

The Canadian report agrees with the

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Editorial Comment

Environmental Science

& Engineering

figure of(US) $11 billion shortfall in water treatment funding but adds that an additional (US) $12 billion will be needed for wastewater needs in the US

Editor & Publisher TOM DAVEY E-mail: torn lesemag.com

Managing Editor Sales Director


E-mail; penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Assistant


E-mail: kathy@esemag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

BIN Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfellow

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc.

per year. Already some feel that even these large sums are woefully inad equate. Put in simple terms. North America is vastly overdrawn at the in

a devastated Europe was fully restored to become a highly prosperous Demo cratic community. A second economic miracle followed the American occupa tion of Japan under General MacArthur. George Marshall once served as America's most senior general during World War II. After he so deservedly

frastructure bank. In the face of these

won the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize for his

massive fiscal shortfalls which, clearly, many communities cannot afford, per haps an environmental Marshall Plan should be implemented. Following the devastation of World

European Recovery Plan, history will remember him as a peacemaker, not a

War II, the Marshall Plan became one

environmental Marshall Plan for a

of the most successful political and eco nomic programs ever initiated. The US, alone among the belligerent countries, had emerged richer and more powerful than any of the other combatants, while major European countries lay in ruins. George Marshall urged Congress to help restore Europe with funding and sup plies. American investments in the Marshall Plan were amply repaid when


It might be time for both the US and Canada to immediately undertake an

shamefully neglected environmental in frastructure. The tainted waters of Walkerton and North Battleford have

recently, and painfully demonstrated that, in addition to death and suffering, the economic consequences of infra structure neglect are vastly in excess of any apparent monetary savings by not investing regularly in environmental restoration.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ESiSEprovides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers Include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and

The staff ofEnvironmental Science ÂŁr Engineering Magazine wish to express their sympathy and profound regret over the terrorist attacks in New York and

Washington on September 11, 2001.

federal environmental officials, water and

wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the Information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide Information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We ackncwiedge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Eund, toward our editorial costs. Canadian Publications Mall Sales Second Class Mall

Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750 Printed In Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written per mission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year(plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one year. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S.,

Canadian environmental professionals have had a long association with their colleagues through such organizations as the Water Environment Federation, American Water Works Association, and the Air Er Waste Management Association.

This link will only be strengthened by this mcuor tragedy.

Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6,

Tel: (905)727-4866, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

To the families, friends and victims, our thoughts and prayers are with you.

Envimmnental Science & Engineering, September 2001

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Drinking Water

Rehabilitating the Walkerton drinking water distribution system

Theobjectives ofthis high pro

Design of pipe rig system

file project in Walkerton, Ontario, were to examine pos sible sources of contamination

of the municipal wells and the distri bution system, to ensure all sources of


® valve

(s)sample port

(m)flow meter

(a) air bileed Influent

contamination were eliminated and to

Dechlor Chlorine tank


ensure that Campylobacter jejiini and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 were re moved from both the wells and the dis




tribution system.


Pipe 4

It was known that three drilled wells

provided water for the town. Well #5 is 15 metres deep in limestone bedrock and

has a capacity to supply 1,771 mVday.


Plpe 3

Shortly after the investigation began. Well #5 was considered to have been the

major source of contamination of the distribution system. This was based on

Pipe 2


Pipe 1


a number of factors: • It is a shallow well located at the south



west perimeter of town, near a farm

Filter units


with cattle.

• The aquifer and/or well were strongly suspected to be affected by surface water.

ground reversed flow and re-entered the aquifer. Surface contamination, including

• The presence in the well of coliforms and E. coli was detected in late May and early June, and continued in large volume (1-5 litre) samples. Well #6 is 72.2 metres deep and has

by means of a video camera situated in the well. It was concluded early in the investigation that the distribution sys tem was affected by soil and surface

a capacity to supply 1,446 mVday. This

water contamination.

well was considered a possible minor

It was speculated that during rainfall events, ponding occurred on the soil

source of contamination late in the in

vestigation. The aquifer was found to be connected to surface ponds near Well #6. Well #7 is 76.2 metres deep in lime stone bedrock and has the capacity to

supply 4,390 mVday. An investigation of Well #5 by hydrogeologists revealed two major facts:

• The majority of water entered the well at 5.5 to 6.4 metres, immediately be low the casing. • Approximately 15-20 metres from

the well, water was

found exiting from the ground. It was found that when the


pump operated,

water exiting the

By Garry Palmateer, and Dr. Michele Van Dyke GAP EnviroMicrobial Services 10

water and soil, was observed in Well #5

For example, one shallow dug well that was directly connected, had a pump capable of producing water pressures significantly greater than the municipal main pressure. The surface of another well contained hundreds of earwigs and the water contained 40,000 coliforms

per 100 mL and few E. coli. The investigation revealed many sur prises. Cisterns, some in basements, which were used as a source of soft

limestone. When Well #5 was pump ing, surface water containing soil mi

water, were commonly found to be con nected to the municipal water supply. Such cistern water has the potential of being highly contaminated by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Distribution System Investigation GAP conducted microbial testing and consulting for OCWA,including:

crobes and nutrients was drawn into the

• Tests to determine the source of con

distribution system.

tamination through environmental, dis tribution system, raw water and well zone samples. • Consulting work for disinfection of the distribution system,including provision of disinfection protocols from mains and service lines, testing distribution system samples of water and biofilm, and con ducting a biofilm study.

surface. Because of the limited amount

of soil covering the limestone bedrock, there were many opportunities for sur face contaminants, such as microbial

pathogens or pesticides, to enter under ground aquifers through the fissured

Potential urban sources of contami

nation were also investigated including intrusion of sewage or stormwater into watermains, watermain repairs per formed improperly and the improper digestion of sludge at the sewage plant. None of these potential conditions were found to have contaminated the water

supply. Moreover, there were some

The Walkerton water distribution

abandoned wells which remained con

system was comprised of approximately

nected to the municipal system. There were also private wells directly con nected to the municipal system.

40 km of water mains. Watermain ma

terials were primarily iron and PVC, with lesser amounts of polyethylene and

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Drinking Water copper. Some water services were gal vanized iron and lead. Most pipes con tained high amounts of biofilm. Reha bilitation of the Walkerton distribution

system was conducted to ensure the complete removal of microbial patho gens, includng E. coli 0157:H7 and Campylobacter jejimi. Rehabilitation included biofilm removal by swabbing and disinfection using high levels of

Enterobacter, and were resistant to el

evated levels of chlorine (greater than 1.5 mg/L free chlorine). In a compara tive study, Klebsiella sp. and Entero bacter sp. isolated from the Walkerton distribution system showed increased chlorine resistance when compared to E. coli. Biofilm

A biofilm study was initiated by the

chlorine. In addition, dead end elimi

Health unit, Ontario Clean Water

nation, pipe replacement, and discon nection of cisterns and private wells

Agency and GAP to determine if the dis-

infection program could kill pathogens introduced into pipes containing biofilm. A pipe-rig apparatus was constructed comprising a 60 year old, 4-inch cast iron pipe and a new 4-inch cast iron pipe. This system was built in a maintenance shed close to Well #5. Water from Well

#5 was passed through the pipes. Experimental protocol data • Raw water flow for two weeks - pipe conditioning. Continued overleaf

were done.

In investigating the efficacy of dis infection of the distribution system, it was decided to assess levels of con

forms, E. coli and heterotrophic bacte ria (HPC) at multiple sites of the sys tem including source wells. Aerobic spore-forming bacteria, such as Bacil lus species, were also assessed. These

• f

IS the V(V.ter sokpe to swim IP?



Swab dispenser attached to fire hydrant. bacteria are found naturally in soil, and will be at low concentrations in groundwater. They are very resistant to chlo rine, and, as such, can serve as indica

tors of disinfection beyond that of coliforms and E. coli. High level recovery of spore-forming bacteria can indicate contamination by surface water. Results showed that after swabbing

To h ave perfect control over wastewater flowing into rivers, lakes and oceans, you need to know the interface level of the sludge in the clarifler. Endress+Hauser provides that control with systenns for both primary and secondary treatment. Ask us. 1-800-668-3199. www.ca.endress.com

' Ultrasonic transmitter for sludge level Interface In primary clariflers,

and chlorination, the occurrence of ad

verse results in the distribution system, including coliform detection and high heterotrophic bacterial counts, de creased over time. As well, the chlo rine demand decreased over time, as

thickeners, flotation cells and

A —



settling tanks ' Optoelectric system for secondary sedimentation and flotation tanks

shown by the steady rate of increase in free chlorine residual with constant chlo

rine dose. The chlorine-resistant sporeforming bacteria were reduced to low levels with only a few exceptions. Coliform bacteria were isolated from

Well #6 and from the distribution sys tem late in August 2000. These coliforms were identified as Klebsiella and

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

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Drinking Water • Inoculum recirculated through pipes 'Campylobacter jejuni for two days - E. coli naih E. coli (2 X 10' cfu/mL) O i 57:H7, C.jejuni. • Bacteria added using • Raw water flow for one week.

sterile water from Well

• Water containing 5 mg/L chlorine for


• Concentrations

two weeks.

• Swabbing, chiorination at 200 mg/L for 24 hours.

• Water containing 2 mg/L chlorine for


creased by two log units after two days recirculation.

Pipe effluents -

four weeks.

• Biofilm and pipe effluent samples col lected at each stage.

after inoculation

• All three strains present Six inch cast iron distribution pipes. Left - not swabbed, in pipe effluent after right - swabbed. seven days of unchlorinated raw mains in Walkerton could remove before inoculation • Unchlorinated raw water from Well #5 water flow (old and new pipes). introduced E. coli and C. jejuni from 'All three strains absent in pipe efflu pipes containing high amounts of for two weeks. Biofiim controls -

• Removed 8 cm- of biofilm from inside

of pipes. • No coliforms,E. coli, E. coli 0157:H7

or C.jejuni. • Heterotrophs(HPC)

ents after three hours of water flow


containing 5 mg/L chlorine. Biofilm samples -

Biofilm formation can occur rapidly in pipes without disinfectant. Old pipes containing high amounts of biofilm require mechanical treatment

after inoculation

'After swabbing and superchlorination

- old pipes = 7 X 10'cfu/cm^ - new pipe = 6 x 10' cfu/cm-

- three strains not detected in new and

Pipes inoculated with bacteria • Escherichia coli naf(1 x 10' cfu/mL) - nalidixic acid resistant, non-patho genic

old pipes. • After chlorinated water (2 mg/L) for four weeks - three strains not detected in new and

old pipes

•Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (1 x 10' Conclusions cfu/mL) 'Experimental results show that the

protocols used to disinfect the water

- verotoxin-negative strain


to reduce total bacterial numbers.

The team was comprised of MIchele Van Dyke, Andrew Scott, Dan Van Bake!, Lily Gin, and Garry Paimateer of GAP EnviroMicrobial Services; Marc Ethier, Rick Turnbuli, Cari Grimstead, Trevor

McTeer, Brent Zehr, Roger Mellow, and Gord Eagles of the Ontario Clean Water Agency.


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Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2001


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Air Pollution

New process for removing hydrogen sulphide from sour gas

ADIInternational Inc. of Fredericton, New Bruns

wick, has just completed a major R&D effort, under the Industrial Assistance Research Pro

gram (IRA?) of the National Research Council Canada, which helped develop a new process for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. Hydrogen sulphide can be present in various air streams and is often found

in gas streams associated with petroleum storage and transfer facilities, anaerobic digesters, sewage treatment plants and pulp and paper mills. In many cases, the hydrogen sulphide has to be removed because of its toxicity, corrosive prop erties and unpleasant odour. Media G2ÂŽ adsorption media consists of an inorganic, natural mineral impreg nated with a substantial quantity of iron hydroxide. It was originally developed for removing arsenic from contaminated drinking water supplies, having been

awarded a US patent, certified by NSF Standard 61, and with a performance claim verified by Canada's Environmen tal Technology Verification Program. Virtually every wastewater treatment plant produces off-gas (i.e., "biogas"); many anaerobic digesters produce a biogas which is high in hydrogen sul phide concentration. The simplest means of dealing with this is to flare the biogas, which converts hydrogen sul phide to sulphur dioxide; however,typi cal conversion rates are only 90%-95%, which in many cases is not sufficient to meet stringent air quality regulations. In addition, sulphur dioxide emissions may

media), caustic scrubbers, or water scrubbers. These all work well, but have

drawbacks. For example, iron sponge and other media are typically used only once and then thrown away (iron sponge can theoretically be regenerated, but the procedure can result in ignition of the media), caustic scrubbers are expensive and use large quantities of chemicals, and water scrubbers typically achieve only 85% H,S reduction. Media G2ÂŽ consists of a natural min

Where greater H,S removals are re quired, or in cases where flaring is not possible because the biogas is to be used as fuel in boilers or electrical genera

eral, calcined to increase hardness, po rosity, and surface area, with an iron oxide coating applied. It has proven capable of providing up to 99.98% re duction of H,S in biogas. The media may be generated and reused repeatedly, and the regeneration process is simple, safe, and produces no hazardous wastes. This media is a simple, low-cost op

tors, other treatment methods must be

tion for use in wastewater treatment

used. These include adsorptive media (e.g., iron sponge, or other proprietary

facilities requiring scrubbing of odorous off-gases from digesters. The high level

be excessive.

The Full Range of Services

Water and Wastewater Related Only Azurix North America delivers the full range of management solutions for water and wastewater operations, biosolids, engineering, carbon and underground infrastructure. And only our customers reap the benefits of this horizontal integration: increased water quality and safety, smoother operations, and lower costs. Find out what satisfied customers in 4! states and provinces already know about Hamilton-based Azurix North America. Contact us at 888-776-7306 or azurixna.com


The full range of water and wastewater related services 888-776-7306 www.azurixna.com


For more Information, circle reply card No. 112 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Air Pollution wm^


i a 1 1^ ■i 1 : ij

\ Ib

1 IP 1 1 ''li





i li

1 i An ADI installation In Australia (left). A pilot-scale Media G@ filter for H^S scrubbing (right). of treatment should allow compliance with the strictest of air emissions stand

ards. It could also result in significant economic impact in the protection of boiler or electrical co-generation facili ties utilizing biogas as fuel. In some cases, where the cost of

scrubbing gas upstream of such equip ment previously made biogas uneco

nomical as fuel, use of this product may now make it practical, thereby resulting

30,000 mg/L;reduces H^S to non-detect

in use of "free" fuel that would other

achieved in 60 seconds or less contact

wise be wasted, and contributing to the

time. It can be regenerated, simply with air(residuals include water and sulphur). Up to 560 mg H,S is adsorbed per gram of media,50% of media weight. For more information, circle reply card No. 113

conservation of natural resources. Hav

ing reduced hydrogen sulphide to less than 0.2 mg/L, sulphur dioxide emis sions from combustion are not an issue.

Media G2* can handle H,S up to

able levels (0.2 mg/L); and reduction is

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www.greatarlo.com•sales@greatarloengsys.com Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 114 (See page 25)


Hazardous Materials

How one electronics component supplier Is getting the lead out

A consensus is building in the electronics industry

that, within the next few years, it will be neces sary to remove lead from electronic products. Converting to lead-free solder alloys provides a number of major challenges to electronics assemblers and components suppliers. As a major component supplier to the Japanese electronics industry, which is cumently leading the world in eliminating lead, Rohm Electronics is developing components that are capable of withstanding the higher melt

ing temperatures that aie characteristics of virtually every alloy that is being considered as a lead solder replacement. Addressing environmental issues The toxic effects of lead are well-known - lead poison ing can occur when the level of lead exceeds 25 micrograms/ deciliter in the blood. In the body, lead binds strongly to proteins and inhibits normal synthesis and function. Ef fects include delays in neurological and physiological de velopment, hypertension, and nervous and reproductive sys

There are a number of low melting point elements includ ing indium, gallium, cadmium,tin, selenium, bismuth, tan talum and silver, that can be combined to form feasible sol

der systems. But several of these elements offer toxicological problems of their own. The result is that attention to date has focused on the following solder systems: tin-sil ver, tin-silver-copper, tin-bismuth and tin-copper. Changes in components and processes Clearly the use of these or other lead-free solder materi als will require some significant changes in components and processes. Their use will require a re-evaluation of the en tire soldering system including the flux, cleaner, substrate, component lead frame material and finishes and component packaging processes. For example, many component leads are tinned with tin-lead solder that are applied by either elec troplating or hot dipping. Component manufacturers will have to face the same issues as assemblers in adjusting their

materials and components to the higher temperatures of leadfree solders.

tem disorders.

Lead has already been eliminated from paints,from sol der for tin cans used in the food industry, and from house hold plumbing. No evidence has ever been presented that the use of lead solder presents any risk to assembly work ers, given normal safety practices. But concern has been expressed throughout the world that the disposal of elec tronic products could result in lead leaching out and enter ing the groundwater supply. Lead-free solder is clearly the direction in which the elec tronics industry is heading. Tough Japanese regulations state that manufacturers must have programs in place to recover lead solder and other potentially toxic materials from appli ances. Major Japanese manufacturers have responded by moving to eliminate lead from their products. Matsushita has already introduced a portable minidisc player and a cel lular telephone that were assembled entirely with lead-free

Examples of types of solder TVpe



Sn 95. Pb 5

Temo 224

Sn 65. Pb 35


Sn 63. Pb 37


Sn 60. Pb40


Sn 55. Pb45


Sn 50. Pb 50

215 227

Sn 45. Pb 55


Special. Hiah temperature Electronics(PCB etc)

General wiring purposes

Sn40. Pb 60



Sn 38. Pb 6?



Sn 30. Pb 70


Sn 20. Pb 80


Sn 10, Pb 90


Hlqh temperature

Sn 5. Pb 95



Sn 2. Pb 98

Low temperature

Light bulb


Sn 43. Bl 14. Pb 43

322 165


Sn 42. Bl 58


Sn-Pb-Aq Sn-Aq

Sn 62, Pb36,Aq2 Sn 96.5, Aq3.5


Copper piping


Sn 95. Sb 5


Special, High temperature


Pb 97.5. AaZ5


Pb 97.5, Aq 1.5, Sn 1

304 309


Anti*silver corrosion


The Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Indus try has called for a 50% voluntary reduction of lead in vehi cles, excluding batteries, by 2001, and a 66% reduction by 2003. The European Union has banned the use of lead in products, beginning in 2004. While United States electronic assemblers have moved somewhat more cautiously, the de velopment of lead-free alternatives has been driven by im pending legislation and Environmental Protection Agency regulations restricting lead usage. The current popularity of tin-lead al loy solders is due to their low melting temperatures, excellent bonding charac teristics, good wicking tendency, good electrical continuity and low cost.

Clearly, tin lead finishes will have to be eliminated from electronic components. Other tin alloys can also be applied by electroplating or hot-dipping but temperature may be a concern because of the higher melting temperatures of most of these alloys. The Rohm internal lead-free project committee was es tablished some two years ago. The committee's assignment was to develop alternative materials and processes to make it possible to remove lead from Rohm products and to en sure their compatibility with lead-free assembly processes. Recently, the firm's development work has been mov ing to the stage where electronic part samples designed spe cifically for use in lead-free products can be supplied to

Alternative interconnection materials

Electronics assemblers, along with component and ma terial suppliers, are working together to meet the challenge of ensuring a clean environment in the coming century. While no drop-in replacement is yet available, the progress

and processes are challenged to meet the capabilities ofcurrent soldering methods.

By Mark Dorais, Senior Engineer, ROHM Eiectronics, San Diego, CA 18


that has been achieved to date demonstrates that the indus

try is capable of meeting this challenge. For more information, circle reply card No. 170 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001


Moving hazardous materials with greater safety Nitrogen, as a dry, inert and oxygen- with any residual product vapor safely free gas, minimizes flammability haz discharged to a flare stack for incin eration. ards during processing, storage, pack aging and transportation operations. • Perform "bubble-leak" testing on re Purging and pressurizing railway tank placement valves and fittings cars with nitrogen helps ensure that Under recent regulations, a pressure chemicals, petroleum-based products test must be conducted to ensure the and other hazardous materials are

transported safely and in an environ mentally responsible manner from source to market. It also helps pro tect these products from exposure to air and moisture,thereby maintaining product quality and consistency. Procor Limited's rail car repair and maintenance facility in Sarnia, Ontario, uses Praxair nitrogen for re pairs, re-qualification, alterations and

cars have no leaks prior to leaving the loading site. "Our nitrogen usage has more than doubled since 1981 because it's a very

safe product to deal with in meeting more stringent regulatory testing requirements," said Procor's plant manager Jan Dekoning in Sarnia. "And throughout our consistently high-volume usage, Praxair's service has been excellent, with efficient, re

liable deliveries, and good mainte nance support." For more Information, circle reply card No. 115


conversions of tank cars. With more

than 22,000 railway cars, tank cars and specialty freight cars,Procor Lim ited manages Canada's largest and most varied private rail car rental fleet. These units often carry cargo such as petroleum by-products, liquefied pe troleum gas, sulphuric acid, ethylene glycol and sulphur dioxide. ■ffmRk

When you think of industrial gases, think of Praxair! Praxair account manager Mark Heerema (left) and Procor plant manager Jan Dekoning at Procor's facility in Sarnia, Ontario.

Praxair is the largest industrial gases company in North and South America, and one of the largest worldwide. We produce a broad spectrum of atmospheric, process and specialty gases in a wide selection of supply options for virtually every industry known to man. That's what makes us big, but that's not what makes us the best! We stand out from the rest because of an extraordinary line-up of

To help meet rigorous safety, oc cupational health and environmental protection standards for the storage and transportation of these products, Procor uses nitrogen purging as part of their rail car cleaning process, in

commercially-proven gas application technologies that can make your business better. From food processing to metal fabrication, and from chemicals production to water treatment, Praxair is put to the ultimate test every day... helping customers increase production, lower operating costs and find

order to:

cost-effective environmental solutions.

• Displace vapor to maintain pressure - As an inert gas, nitrogen provides the safest method of purging and pres surizing rail cars that carry volatile products. • Reduce oxygen levels to below 2% after steam cleaning tank cars Typically, a three-cycle purge with high-pressure nitrogen is performed.

End your search for the best industrial gases supplier. Talk to Praxair! Call 1-800-PRAXAIR, or visit our website at www.praxair.com.

Making our planet more productiveCopyright 2(XM). Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. PRAXAIR, the FLOWING AIRSTREAM design and the term MAKING

OUR PLANET MORE PRODUCTIVE are trademarks of Praxair Technology, Inc. in the United Slates. Canada and other countries.

Site Remediation

Stormwater quality for a brownfleld redevelopment in Toronto

The area of St. Clair Avenue West and Weston Road in the

City ofToronto is well known as the Stockyards District. The Stockyards have now been demol ished and the site has been remediated

and redeveloped. R.V. Anderson Associates were re

tained by Graywood Developments Ltd. to provide the decommissioning and en gineering for the redevelopment of the site to a residential com

munity of 352 units with a com munity park. Highly con strained, the site provided sev eral design challenges. Design Requirements The majority of the previous industrial site was comprised of building and concrete or paved surfaces, resulting in almost 100% imperviousness. The residential redevelopment in corporated the traditional sod ded lawns and boulevards

constraints, the absence of the need for

stormwater quantity controls, and the high land value, a solution that could be readily incorporated into the existing plan with minimal space requirements was needed. After reviewing the alter natives, space consuming water quality ponds were ruled out and the use of oil/ water/grit separators was selected as the preferred solution.

to treat 82% of the run-off.

The other large drainage area was 0.98 ha. with a mn-offcoefficient of0.65.

The two-year peak flow is 139 L/s. A Stormceptor Model STC1500 was se lected for this area. This unit was capa ble of providing Level 3 treatment(60% TSS removal)and was estimated to treat 86% of the run-off.

Both of these separators could be in corporated into the plans with out any significant alterations to the design. This saved the cost of a redesign. The STC6000 has a large storage chamber size. There was initial concern that this would interfere with

the parallel sanitary sewer. As it turned out, a large portion of the chamber was deep enough to allow the sanitary sewer to pass over the lower chamber and beside the upper bypass chamber, without any redesign. The STC1500 was small

enough so that it, too, did not alter the existing design. Approvals The storm sewers on the ad In Ontario,stormwater qual jacent roads had accommodated ity features require a Certificate drainage from the large imper of Approval (C of A)from the vious area of the Stockyards Ministry of the Environment, and,therefore, had adequate ca Preparing to connect the storm sewer to the separator at Approvals Branch. A design pacity for the lower anticipated Symes Road. Photo - David Crowder brief was prepared and incorpo flows from the redeveloped site. rated design information provided by the Two large drainage areas are dis As a result, stormwater quantity controls were not imposed by the City (other than charged to the existing storm sewer on manufacturer. This process was rela directing rain water leaders to the ground Symes Road, on the west limit of the tively straightforward and the C ofA was issued within six weeks. and not permitting storm service con project. Six other smaller drainage ar Installation eas are also connected to the existing nections for the buildings). The subdi The general contractor, Con-Strada storm sewers. The water quality initia vision storm sewers system was de signed to outlet to the existing storm tives were focused on the two larger Construction Inc., undertook the decom sewers on the adjacent roads at several drainage areas as they accounted for missioning and servicing contracts for over 70% of the site's drainage. This this project. The installation of the serv locations. Considering that the previous site had approach would provide the most cost- icing works was undertaken in the pres no quality controls and discharged to an effective solution. It would also provide ence of R.V. Anderson inspection staff. Due to the magnitude of the excava existing sewer (not a watercourse), the the City with a high degree of water City's expectations for quality controls quality protection, while proposing a tion adjacent to Symes Road,on the west limit of the subdivision, the City of were for a reasonable improvement over limited number of facilities to be main Toronto permitted a full road closure. tbe existing situation. A Level 3 treat tained. ment objective of60% removal of total The largest of the two drainage areas This provided the contractor with am suspended solids(TSS) was considered was 5.33 ha. with a run-off coefficient ple room to commence the deep exca appropriate. of 0.65. The two-year peak flow is 659 vation required for the Model STC6000. L/s. A Stormceptor Model STC6000 The total depth of the excavation was Due to the combination of on-site (the largest available) was selected for 10 m(33 ft.) beneath the road grade. The By Peter Langan, P. Eng., and this area. This unit was reported to be large excavation was not the only ob David Crowder, C.E.T., capable of providing Level 3 treatment stacle that the contractor encountered. R.V. Anderson Associates (60% TSS removal) and was estimated The existing utilities in the boulevard of which resulted in a decrease in

the impervious area.


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Site Remediation

Symes Road had to be supported, due to the large diameter of the excavation. Once the excavation was complete and the granular base was leveled, in stallation began. The contractor used a crane to lower the base slab, treatment

chamber sections and top slab into place. This work proceeded cautiously due to the weight of the concrete sections; also, the deep excavation was out of view for the crane operator. The site superintend ent directed the crane operator through out the lowering in of the segments.

ProMinent Chlorine Controllers are reagent free and buffer solution free, therefore no special protection against Preparing the base for the installation of

corrosive chemicals is needed. No contest.

the separator. Photo - David Crowder Once the lower treatment chamber

Reagent free clorination monitoring technoiogy

was in place, backfilling was done in lifts around the chamber, up to the level

and deiivery from the experts in disinfection.

of the sewer inverts. The next opera


tion required was to complete the instal lation of the 675 mm diameter concrete

storm sewers that were previously left out to allow adequate space for the deep excavation. The remaining construction included the installation of the upper

state-of-tbe-arf chlorine monitoring and control capabilities,


in free or total chlorine sensor technology.

Forget the hassles of handling dangerous chemicals or wearing protection, choose clean and sophisticated sensor control.

bypass chamber and manhole sections up to the finished road grade, and the backfilling. The entire operation took place over three days. As the STC1500 was significantly smaller, the installation was similar to

installing a manhole. Summary Brownfield development, by its na

ture, is typically within an urban area where land is at a premium. Land value requires the use of the site to be opti mized and the separator assisted in achieving this objective. The City ben efited by having the majority of the site (over 70%) protected with only two treatment units.

For more information,

ProMinent Eastern Canada ProMinent Ontario ProMinent Alberta ProMinent USA


Tel: (450)663-1905 Tel: (519)836-5692 Tel: (780)450-3246 Tel: (412)787-2484

Fax:(450)663-9194 Fax:(519)836-5226 Fax:(780)450-3046 Fax:(412)787-0704


circie reply card No. 116 For more information, circle reply card No. 117 (See page 25)



The AquaLator'" high

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formance, sim

The steel field-erected OMNIPAC® Sequencing

plicity of opera

Batch Reactor system (SBR) from USFilter has numerous proven advantages over form-built, concrete type treatment systems. The OMNI PAC® SBR has a shorter concept-to-completion timeline, is significantly less capital intensive, pro

tion and ease of

vides reduced operational costs throughout the system's life cycle, and has a mote flexible design with a smaller footprint. In a single, cost-effec tive steel reactor basin, the OMNIPAC® SBR

accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarifi cation in a timed sequence. In a convention

al continuous flow process, significantly mote capital-intensive structures are required to obtain the same treatment objectives. These systems are also ideal for retrofits of existing tanks. Jet Tech Products 913-422-7600 phone 913-422-7667fax wtvw.usfilter.com Circle reply card No. 118

maintenance. Its

powerful pump ing action trans fers oxygen into the wastewater and mixes

it for effective biological treatment. This aerator is available in sizes from 1 hp to 150 hp and in a wide range of materials of construction to fit any budget and operational need. A full range of electrical and mooring accessories is available. Select energy efficient motors to reduce electric power costs. Aerator Products also offers the option of Evermore'" Series 5-year no-mainte nance motors to save on maintenance labor expenses.

Aerator Products

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T T T TIT ALKA-PRO'" 300 Series continuously monitors bio

This efficient, reliable system for biological treatment

of municipal and industrial wastewater is a complete mix, closed loop reaaor process, consisting of one, two or three independently aerated channels, it is

logical activity at critical locations in a wastewater treatment plant, allowing operators to detect and correa upset conditions long before they would become evident by any other available test. ALKA-PRO 300 Series automatically controls process equipment, pro

well-suited for both conventional activated sludge and extended air treatment modes. The process is

viding accurate real-time evaluation ofthe plants bac

driven by the Mammoth Rotor'"' aerator, one of the simplest, most effeaive devices for mixing and aerat ing wastewater. More than 4,000 individual Mammoth Rotors are performing successfully in

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ORBAL™ SIM-PRE™ PROCESS Monthly average effluent values of 0.72 mg/1 TN and 1 mg/1 BOD/SS/P —



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Loop Reaaor (VLR) process is a design based upon looped reaaors in series

that allow DO


As such, it is suited for simultaneous nitrifica-

tion/denitrification, biological phosphorus removal and stormwater treatment. The VLR is installed in a

Sim-Pre'" is a series of complete mix reactors in a

reaangular tank, and is similar to an oxidation ditch

single basin with internal recycle. The process is flexible, easy to operate, energy-efficient, and tol

that has been flipped on its side. The construction cost ofa VLR basin is less than that of a comparable

erant of wide flow and load swings.

conventional oxidation ditch.

Envirex Products

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Circle reply card No. 123


At USFilter, our expertise in biological processes ranges far and wide. We've been developing and installing biological systems for decades, all across North America. Whether it's continuous flow or

batch-operated, conventional treatment or biological nutrient removal, our systems can pass the test. For more information, Leam more at our new website,


check the web at www.usfilter.com, call 1.800.547.1202 or e-mail water_info@usfilter.com.

.Vivendi For more information, circie reply card No. 124(See page 25)

water company

Drinking Water

Canadian Forum sold out as Washington hosts 15,000 atAWWA Conference

The American Water Works Association's 120th

Annual conference and Exposition attracted some 15,000 people, including many Canadians, to Washington, DC, June 17-21. The Canadian Forum was a sold out affair with some 400 attending at their spectacular new embassy. Much conversation focussed on the Walkerton Inquiry and the detailed work undertaken by OWWA/OMWA to ensure that the Commission of Inquiry heard the experienced voice of the industry. Delegates an ticipated the outcome of the Inquiry will not only affect Ontario, but also Canada and the rest of North America.

Along with their American and foreign guests, delegates attending the Forum had an opportunity to stroll through and enjoy the sculptures, art and design of the edifice at 501 Pennsylvania Avenue. Designed by award-winning Cana dian architect Arthur Erickson, our embassy is a striking addition to the US Capitol district and since its opening a decade ago, has become the envy of many foreign delega tions in Washington. Later, at the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum, there was a social evening sponsored by USFilter.

The conference covered a range of pressing issues such as the multi-billion dollar arsenic rule under review by the US Environmental Protection Agency; protecting drinking


ES&E's Penny Davey spent an afternoon cycling through the lovely city prior to attending the A \N\NA Conference and Exposition.

water facilities from terrorism; North America's drinking water infrastructure needs; and maintenance of water sup plies and conservation in the face of the severe drought which had been forecasted for states across the US.

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 175 (See page 25)

On June 20, AWWA hosted the Water Matters Rally on the West Front Lawn of the US Capitol, billed as the world's largest rally to promote safe, affordable drinking water. Governor Christie Whitman, US Environmental Protec

tion Agency Administrator,joined with five congressional leaders on safe drinking water issues. "Today's rally dem onstrates the great importance of safe and clean water to all Americans," said Governor Whitman. "1 am committed to

working with AWWA in a partnership to protect this vital resource and ensure that Americans continue to have the

best drinking water in the world." The congressional leaders focused their remarks on the drinking water profession's great success in improving the quality of drinking water in America. They also gave their views on how government can support the nation's tap water providers in overcoming the problems inherent in pro viding hundreds of millions of Americans with an ample supply of safe, affordable drinking water. The rally came at the close of AWWA's conference.

Established in 1881, in St. Louis, Missouri,AWWA now

has over 57,000 members throughout North America and other countries around the world. Since the early days, Canadians have always had a strong presence in AWWA with seven becoming president of what is the world's oldest and largest scientific and educational organization focused on safe drinking water. Next year, AWWA will hold its Annual Conference and Exposition in New Orleans, Louisiana, with the Canadian Water Forum taking place on the evening of June 17, 2002. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Ad Index



Reader Service No.

ABS Pumps ABB Pumps ADI International

57 85 76

146 327 209, 210

Allmax Professional Solutions



American Concrete Pipe Assoc. ... 59








Azurix Azurix CAEAL

16 85 72

12 329 137

Canadian Waste & Recycling



Can-Am Instruments




Reader Service No.

Grundfos Canada Hach

14-15 5

Ill 300-304

Hydromantis International Water Supply ITT Flygt

36 85 9

140 331 105

JWC Environmental KMK

43 54

156 162

Lumldor Safety Products






MakLoc Buildings McGraw-Hill Ryerson

75 51

201 164

Metcon Metcon Militronics

12 26 96

109 125 107




Career Advancement CH2f\/l Hill

85 42

330 139

Chemtrac Systems



Mixing Systems MSU Mississauga

30 46

130 158

Chiorinators Inc ClearTech Industries

24 37

175 142

Neo Valves OCPA

61 95

148 106

Consulting Engineers of Ont Corrugated Polyetfiylene Pipe


ONDEO Degremont 13 Ont. Society of Professional Eng.... 27

110 127

Association CWWA

43 46


Praxair ProMinent Fluid Controls

19 21

115 117




RAL Engineering



Davis Controls Denso Donson

58 64 49

147 151 174

R.J. Burnside & Associates R.V. Anderson

47 45


Sanitlierm Engineering









Eckel Ecoflo Ontario Endress + Mauser

47 76 11

160 208 108

Gary Steacy Dismantling Geneq

56 52

168 166

STANMECH Techinologies STANMECH Tecfinoiogies Stormceptor Summa Engineering

75 76 6 48

203 213 104 171-173

GL&V Globe '02 Golder Associates

68 71 40

134 136

75 22-23 33 41

200 118-124 138 152



Waterloo Biofllter Systems





Zenon Environmental



Gorman Rupp Greatario

Urecon USFiiter Victauiic Waterloo Barrier inc

FOR QUICK RESPONSE, FAX BACK TO (905)841-7271 FREE Information Service for Readers



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For more information on products and services mentioned in this issue, circle the appropriate numbers below. Please mail or fax (905) 841-7271. Your request wiil be forwarded to the manufacturer.

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September 2001

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001


Drinking Water

New membrane microfiltration drinking water system iaunched

PallCorporation has developed the Aria^"^ family of

membrane microfiltration systems to filter drink ing water in municipalities with populations of

10,000 or less. The Aria family of systems is skidmounted, fully automated and self-contained to facilitate installation. Operator interface is simple and straightfor ward. Once programed, the system can run unattended at a constant clean water production rate. It can provide drinking water filtered to high levels of purity for remote areas that cannot rely on large municipalities. The systems utilize Pall Microza Drinking Water Microfiltration(PMDM)modules, which provide drinking water purified to levels exceeding the standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Surface Water Treatment Rule(Microza is a registered trademark of Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.). PMDM systems are capable of removing contaminants including iron and manganese from groundwater sources, and turbidity, organics, colour, pathogenic cysts, oocysts and virus from surface waters. Hollow fibre membranes also

provide protection against by-pass of contaminants and maintain resistance to oxidants such as chlorine, ozone and

permanganate. The systems can be cleaned on-line, allow ing the system to operate with minimal downtime.

Aria system uses Microza PMDM modules.

Your new


Bench Top Meters

team for municipal

Portable Meters





i. liRB*


Pocket Testers

On-Line Analyzers



Contro lers

METCON SALES & ENGINEERING LTD 15 Connie Crescent, Unit 3, Concord, Ontario, L4K1L3 • Tel: (905) 738-2355 - Fax: (905) 738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com


For more information, circle reply card No. 125 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Drinking Water PMDM systems are certified to the National Sanitation Foundation Interna

tional's (NSFI) Standard 61, verifying that all materials that come in contact

with drinking water meet current toxi cology requirements of this Standard for drinking water treatment. This is be lieved to be the first and only US certi fication to date in which all components of a membrane drinking water system have been certified together. This has simplified the task of water treatment en gineers to provide consistent quality throughout the water treatment system. Pall says that consumers can be confi dent that a certified PMDM System,car rying the seal of the highly respected NSFI Standard 61,filters their drinking

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are pro

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are found in nearly 99% of surface waters.

tozoan parasites that affect the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Nau sea and diarrhea are the usual symptoms of cryptosporidiosis. In 1993 in the

Chlorine, one of the most common

methods by which municipalities purify their water systems, has proven ineffec tive against Cryptosporidium. The amended(US)Safe Drinking Water Act recently limited its use since it reacts with natural organic matters in water to form potentially harmful by-products. For more information, circle reply card No. 126

worst outbreak in modern US history, 400,000 people became sick and 50 peo ple died in Milwaukee,Wisconsin,from this waterborne parasite. Outbreaks continue to be reported throughout the world,including Australia, Japan and the United Kingdom.


voice for the profession

Ontario Society of Professional Engineers


Advanced membrane fdtration Membrane filtration is one of the

methods for effeetively eliminating pathogens in water. Pall microfiltration membranes remove both bacteria and

parasites, including Giardia Lamblia and Cryptosporidiutn, to a higher mag nitude than required by the EPA.


The Ontario Society of Professional Engineers is a member services and advocacy organization for professional engineers in Ontario, which seeks to: > > I >

advance the professional and economic interests of members; raise awareness of the role of professional engineers; enhance the profession's image; and act as a strong voice on behalf of professional engineers in Ontario.

Llcensure as a professional engineer in Ontario requires graduation from an accredited engineering program or equivalent education, four years professional working experience, and successful completion of the Professional Practice Examination on law and ethics as applied to engineering. Only professional engineers are entitled to use the P.Eng. designation and call themselves engineers.

There are more than 54,000 professional engineers registered in Ontario.

Tom Walters, president of Carder Concrete Products Company in Littleton, Colorado, is the new chair man of the board of the American

Concrete Pipe Association (ACPA). Three other officers have also been

appointed: • Ray Rhees, Oldcaste Precast, Littleton, Colorado (vice chairman of the board). • John G. Munro, Munro Concrete Products Ltd., Barrie, Ontario (secretary). • Jim Aumann, American Concrete

Products Company, Green Bay, Wisconsin (treasurer^

"Reinforced concrete pipe has achieved its leadership position based upon product performance," Walters said. "We intend to strengthen our competitive position in North America by maintaining these high standards."

OSPE's first elected board of directors, from left to right: Christian Snejdar, P.Eng.; Cindy Krenosky, P.Eng.; Jennifer Moyian, P.Eng.; Daniel Young, P.Eng.; Chris Cragg, P.Eng.; Catherine Karakatsanis, P.Eng.; Robert Goodings, P.Eng.; M. Clare Morris, P.Eng.; and Patrick Quinn, P.Eng.

www.ospe.on.ca lnfo@ospe.on.ca 4950YongeStreet, Suite 1000, Toronto, ON IVi2N 6K1 Tel:(416) 223-9961 Fax:(416)223-9963

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 127 (See page 25)



Land application of sewage biosoiids for crop production

Utilization ofsewage biosoi ds

on agricultural land as a crop nutrient input is a common practice in Ontario. The material provides nutrients for plant growth and is a source of organic matter for the soil. Sewage biosoiids can reduce fertilizer costs and improve the tilth of the soil.

Table 1. Metal Criteria for Fluid^ Anaeroblcally Digested Sewage Biosoiids 1




Max. Permissible Metal Addition to Soil

plus Nitrate Nitrogen


Max. Permissible Metal Content in Soil



Min. Ammonium to Metal Ratios

Required in Anaerobic Sewage Biosoiids

100 14 14 Arsenic The establishment of municipal 500 1.6 Cadmium 1.6 sewer use by-laws, as well as improve 6 210 120 Chromium ments in municipal sewage treatment 50 20 30 Cobalt systems, have increased the quality 150 10 Copper 100 and as a result the quantity - of sewage 15 90 Lead 60 biosoiids available for agricultural use. 1500 Mercury 0.5 0.8 Agricultural land application also ben 4 180 Molybdenum 4 efits municipalities by reducing costs as 32 40 32 Nickel sociated with the disposal of this mate 500 2.4 Selenium 1.6 rial in landfill sites or by incineration. 4 220 330 Zinc Sewage biosoiids result from the de composition and settling of solids at a ' Dewatered and dried anaerobic sewage biosoiids are to meet the Column IV criteria prior to dewatering and drying. sewage treatment plant. This material usually contains about 0.1% - 0.3% to ' Based on dry weight at 105°C. The term mg/kg represents parts per million (ppm) on a dry weight basis. tal nitrogen, and considerable amounts ** Values in Column i i apply to soils of average metal content. of organic matter and elemental phos phorous. Other nutrients such as mag nesium,zinc, copper and boron are also types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, the guidelines may only be applied on present. Since the influent materials that fungi and parasites), reduces the volume agricultural land that meets certain site criteria. Those criteria are also speci enter a sewage treatment plant may vary of material, and stabilizes organic mat fied in the guidelines. Land application considerably, chemical analysis of the ter, reducing the potential for odours. Sewage biosoiids must meet the of sewage biosoiids must be carried out resulting biosoiids is required to deter guideline quality criteria before being under a Certificate of Approval issued mine the nutrient and heavy metal con land applied. If the material does not by the Ontario Ministry of the Environ tent, and calculate an application rate. Before sewage biosoiids can be used meet the provincial guideline criteria, it ment(MOE). Limits to Land Application for land application, they must satisfy must be disposed of at a licensed landfill 1. Nutrients. the criteria outlined in the joint Ontario or incinerated. The guidelines limit sewage biosolid Sewage biosoiids that meet the re Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs/Ministry of Environment quirements and the criteria as set out in application to fields with a soil test of less than 60 parts per million (ppm) of (OMAFRA-MOE) publication Guide Table 2. Metal Criteria for Aerobic available phosphorous in the top 15 cm, linesfor the Utilization ofBiosoiids and Sewage Biosoiids and Dried and as measured by the Olsen sodium bicar Other Wastes on Agricultural Land. Dewatered Anaerobic Sewage bonate extraction method. Only stabilized sewage biosoiids with Biosoiids Soils with a pH of less than 6.0 low metal concentrations are suitable for should not receive sewage biosoiids land application. Maximum Permissible Metal Concentration Metal unless the material contains enough lime Sewage biosoiids must be stabilized (mg/kg of solids) to raise the soil pH to or above 6.0. before land application. Stabilization is Another option is to lime the field to a process that involves reducing bacte Arsenic 170 raise the soil pH above 6.0. ria and other pathogenic organisms. It 34 Cadmium 2. Heavy Metals. is accomplished by a process of sewage 2800 Chromium The major factor in determining the digestion or other acceptable methods Cobalt 340 acceptability of sewage biosoiids for such as lime stabilization. The diges 1700 Copper land application is the presence and con 1100 tion process reduces the number and Lead 11 Mercury centration of heavy metals. There are By Michael Payne^ 94 Molybdenum 11 heavy metals in sewage biosoiids of Mark Janiec^ Marius Marshy 420 Nickel concern to agriculture. These are: ar Janice Patterson, Robert Stone, Selenium 34 senic, cadmium,chromium,cobalt,copand Larry Schut" 4200 Zinc Continued overleaf 28

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

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Table 3. Sewage Biosolid Spreading Restrictions Related to Public Heaith and Pathogens

per, lead, mercury, molybdenum,nickel, selenium, and zinc.

Sewage biosolid quality and applica tion rate is determined by the amount of available nitrogen, and the quantities of metals.

Therefore, limiting the amount of nitrogen supplied by the material for the crop to be grown, in turn, limits the amount of heavy metals applied to the soil. For anaerobically digested sewage biosolids, minimum ammonium plus nitrate nitrogen to metal ratios have been developed as quality standards to ensure that heavy metals are limited (Table 1, column IV). Aerobic sewage biosolids are low in

ammonium plus nitrate nitrogen and for this reason is limited by total metal con centrations rather than a nitrogen/metal ratio (Table 2). 3. Physical Limitations. The maximum depth of a fluid sew age biosolid that can be surface applied at any one time is 1.3 cm. This depth is equivalent to an application rate of 130

m^/ha. Additional applications may be carried out only when the preceding application has dried. If fluid sewage biosolids are injected immediately into


Waiting Period after Sewage Biosolid Application

Hay and haylage

3 weeks before harvest

Pasture for horses, beef or dairy cattle

2 months before grazing

Pasture for swine, sheep or goats

6 months before grazing

Commercial sod

12 months before harvest

Small fruits

15 months before harvest

Tree fruits and grapes

3 months before harvest


12 months before harvest


Application not recommended

Home lawns and gardens

Application not recommended

Golf courses and recreational land

Application recommended only If further stabilizing In addition to digestion is used to reduce pathogenic content

the soil, then greater volumes may be applied, but not greater than 135 kg/ha of ammonium + nitrate nitrogen. Winter application of sewage bio solids on frozen or snow-covered ground is not recommended.

distances are the set back distances from

Sewage biosolids may only be applied to mineral soils. Mineral soils are de

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fined as having less than 17% organic carbon by weight. Site characteristics determine sepa ration distances and the timing of sew age biosolid applications. Separation

environmentally sensitive or conflicting use areas. They are buffer areas where

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biosolids spreading is not permitted. The distances are determined in part by soil texture, slope, drainage, application methods, and neighbouring land

compaction. Spreading when soil is wet may result in rutted fields and reduced crop productivity. Using flotation tires

Injection of fluid sewage biosolids into the soil using a self-propelled or drag hose system can greatly reduce the chance of run-off, odours, and ni

trogen loss. Another method of ap plication is surface spreading or broadcasting by means of a splash plate using a self-propelled or drag hose system. Applying the mate rial by spray irrigation (irrigation gun)decreases the potential for soil compaction, but greatly increases the potential for odour complaints, run-off, and nitrogen loss. Also, if

use. These limitations are further

outlined in the Guidelinesfor the Utilization ofBiosolids and Other Wastes on Agricultural Lands. 4. Other Limitations.

Waiting periods developed for specific crops and livestock spe cies are outlined in Table 3. Ac

cess to fields is limited for a pe riod of time after sewage biosolid application to protect human and wind conditions are not favour livestock health. The waiting pe able,there is increased potential for riods are necessary to further re wind-drift and over spray onto sur duce the number of pathogenic or rounding land uses. ganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi The nitrogen in sewage and parasites) that remain in sew biosolids is used most effectively when the material is applied in the age biosolids after stabilization. It is the responsibility of the farmer spring, either by injection or sur to enforce the appropriate waiting face spreading with incorporation The rights of the farmer must be respected with re into the soil within 24-48 hours. periods between sewage biosolid gard to timing, method and rate of application of the Delaying incorporation will result spreading and cropping, pasturing sewage biosolid. or human access. (See Table 4 for in nitrogen loss to the atmosphere. more cropping limitations.) on spreading vehicles can increase the In these cases, adjust supplemental fer Application/Spreading number of days when sewage biosolids tilizer rates to compensate for the loss Spread sewage biosolids only when may be spread, but it does not eliminate of nitrogen. Continued overleaf the soil is dry enough to minimize soil the possibility of soil compaction.



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Internet; www.cancoppas.com•E-Mail: controls@cancoppas.cani Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 131 (See page 25)



Table 4. Information about Sewage Biosolid Application for Specific Crops Crop


Field corn, hay, haylage, pasture, commercial sod

These crops are well suited to using nitrogen supplied by sewage biosolids. Nutrients such as nitrogen should be applied within crop recommendations.


Spring applications of sewage biosolids containing more nitrogen than is recommended may result In the crop lodging or falling down before harvest.

Perennial legumes and soybeans

Soybeans and hay crops containing more than one-half legumes do not require added nitrogen. However, sewage biosolids can be used to supply phosphorous and organic matter. Some biosolids may cause some management concerns. For example viable tomato seeds can pose a weed problem In a soybean crop.

Tree fruits and grapes

Sewage biosolids may be applied In late fall. Early fall applications may cause nitrogen to be released at the wrong time causing poor fruit quality, delayed hardening of trees or vines and winter injury.

1. The maximum application rate per hectare for anaeroblcally digested biosolids Is 135 kg/ha of ammonium + nitrate nitrogen per five years (four years for commercial sod); for aerobic, dewatered or dried biosolids, the application rate is eight dry tonnes of solids per hectare per five year. 2. The maximum depth of fluid sewage biosolids applied to land at one time Is 1.3 cm (130 mVha). 3. Do not exceed recommended nitrogen application rates for individuai crops. Refer to OMAFRA publications 296, 360,363 and 384 for the recommended nutrient application rates. The importance of uniform applica tion of sewage biosolids cannot be over emphasized. Higher than recommended application rates may result in: • excessive nitrogen, phosphorous and metal additions to the soil

• potential to impair surface and ground water quality • poor utilization of the nutrients by crops

• possible decreases in crop yields • poor crop quality. Equally important to uniform appli cation is applying fertilizer to separation areas such as the field edges, where sew age biosolids cannot be applied. These separation areas must be fertilized to provide for more even crop growth. For more information on separation dis tances see the guidelines. Application Rates The application rate of sewage bio solids is based on the nitrogen fertilizer recommendations in the most recent edi

tions of either OMAFRA Publication

296, Field Crop Recommendations,

until the remainder of the five year pe riod has lapsed. If the amount of ap plied sewage biosolid nitrogen is less than 135 kg/ha sewage, biosolids may be applied to the site again as long as the total rate does not exceed 135 kg N/ ha for the five year period. The nitrogen content of sewage bio solids is reported in milligrams/litre or parts per million (ppm) of ammonium plus nitrate nitrogen. This is an approxi mate measure of nitrogen, which is read ily available to plants. Sewage biosolids contain large amounts of plant available phosphorous. This phosphorous is estimated to be about 40% as available as that of com mercial fertilizer.

Responsibilities The generator of the biosolids is re sponsible for: 1. Keeping records of all fields receiv ing sewage biosolids: location, amount applied, and sewage biosolid analysis. 2. Submitting biosolids samples for analysis (frequency determined by

Publication 360, Fruit Production Rec


ommendations, Publication 363, Vegeta

3. Monitoring application rates. 4. Preparing contingency plans for when the sewage biosolid cannot be land ap plied. 5. Reviewing all analyses to ensure the biosolids are acceptable for application to agricultural land. The hauler/spreader must apply the sewage biosolid uniformly on land at the approved rate, and using the method re quired by the farmer. The rates of ac tual nitrogen applied(kg/ha)and/or sew age biosolid applied (m^'/ha) must not exceed those specified by MOE. The hauler/spreader must maintain

ble Production Recommendations, and

Publication 384, Recommendationsfor Turfgrass Management. The rate of available nitrogen (ammonium and ni trate nitrogen) permitted to be supplied by sewage biosolids is limited to 135 kg N/ha every five years. For commercial sod production, this amount may be ap plied every four years. Depending on the nitrogen fertilizer recommendations, one application of 135 kg N/ha from sewage biosolids may be made in one year. However, sewage biosolids cannot be applied to that site 32

all required separation distances and comply with other site requirements as specified on the Certificate of Approval. A report outlining the nutrients applied must be provided to the farmer after completing the sewage biosolid appli cation to any field. The rights of the farmer must be re spected with regard to timing, method and rate of application of the sewage biosolid.

Farmers,the sewage biosolid hauler/ spreader and the generator should work together to develop a nutrient manage ment program for maximum utilization of land applied sewage biosolids. Farm ers have the right and the responsibility to insist on program flexibility. The sewage biosolid application rates must be adjusted to suit the nitrogen and phos phorous requirements of the crop, as long as the adjusted rate does not ex ceed that specified in the Certificate of Approval. The farmers have the right to instruct the applicator to discontinue sewage biosolid spreading at any time if soil compaction or environmental damage is likely or if timing interferes with soil and crop practices on the farm. Farmers have the responsibility to enforce the appropriate waiting periods between sewage biosolid spreading and cropping, pasturing or human access. For further information, contact:


'Biosolids Utilization Specialist, Crop Technology Branch,Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs. -Terratec Environmental Ltd.



Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

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For more information, ciroie reply card No. 138(See page 25)


Canada's largest wastewater plant uses ultrasonic detection and digital radio technology

The unique challenges of

automating moving bridge primary clarifiers using ultra sonic detection and digital radio technologies, were confronted at Toronto's Ashbridges Bay (ABTP) wastewater plant. This is the first ma jor wastewater facility in North America to attempt this level of complex online measurement of moving bridge primary clarifiers. As this is a very common style of clarifier in Canada, this project leads the way for other facilities to look at online automation of a crucial process

Typical Interface Monitoring & Control Installation Radio Modem to SCADA

Outputs to Computer, etc.

■ Royce Series 2500, Transceiver & Sensor System

Typical Computer (CRT) Profile of Clarifier Interface Sensor Deadzone

Fluff Layer Heavy Fluff Layer Primary Blanket


This project was started in early 1999 and took almost one year to complete the initial testing of the detection sys tems, connect the radio modem and

complete the interface with the plant's SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. It involved close collaboration between the detection

equipment supplier, the local technical representative and the plant instrumen tation department. The first aspect of the project was to test the Royce Interface Level Analyzer on the moving bridge primary clarifier. This system uses an ultrasonic sensor mounted on the moving bridge with a sensor submerged below the liquid sur face. The ILAused the standard dual head

sensor for transmitting and receiving of the ultrasonic signals. Primary clarifiers at ABTP are large rectangular systems inside a building and the inside location of the tanks inside added to the complex ity of the interfacing of the ILA system and the plant's SCADA,referred to later. The ILA produces a graphical, rep resentative display of the sludge settling characteristics and sludge depth indica tion based on the system configuration. An ultrasonic pulse is produced four times per second; these pulses travel through the tank from top to bottom. Af ter emitting a pulse, the system listens for return echoes from the sludge inter faces within the clarifier. It listens to

By Dean Rudd and Jake Alaica, Cancoppas Ltd., and

Cordell Samuels, Waiter Geith,

Figure 1: Clarifier and Profile: Shows the Theory of the ILA. Ashbridges Bay uses rectangular moving bridges, not circular as drawn.

sixty seconds of return echo information and produces an echo profile for the clarifier. This profile is essential infor mation for the plant as it shows the set tling characteristic of the sludge present in the tank. Based on the profile pro duced, the plant personnel can examine the sludge characteristics and make process decisions. The ability to pro duce and view the settling profile of the clarifier sludge was a key factor in the selection of the Royce ILA system. The Interface Level Analyzer also interprets the graphical profile, based on a set of customer-configured parameters, and produces a digital value of sludge depth. This is displayed on a local LCD display. Plant personnel can customize the program parameters so that the in

Gas bubbles were a problem for the ILA until the sensor face was placed on an angle. The sensor face was put on about a two-degree angle off the per pendicular. This allowed the bubbles to roll off the sensor face due to the move

ment of the bridge along the tank. An gling of the sensor face eliminated the problem of the sensor face decoupling from the water.

Figure 1 depicts the operation of the ultrasonic interface analyzer. All inter faces are translated into a graphical pro file which is transmitted to the plant SCADA system. The second phase of the project was the installation of the radio modems

which allowed the retrieval of the proc

strument detects and tracks the desired

ess information from the ILAs. As the

interface or blanket.

ILA units were mounted on the moving bridge structures, hard wiring was not an option. Selection of the radio equip ment was made by the local representa tive. Such selection is normally made by the customer or the local representa tive on these projects, as different juris dictions have different regulations for ra dio equipment. GINA (CRE) Radio Modems were

There were some problems encoun tered during the initial testing of the in struments to measure primary clarifier interfaces. The clarifiers at the Ash

bridges Bay plant can have clarifier offgassing problems. Off-gassing occurs when biological activity in the sludge produces a gas by-product. The produc tion of gas within the clarifier can be a significant problem for ultrasonic inter face detection systems. Gas bubbles can accumulate on the sensor face and

decouple the sensor face from the water and could cause the instrument to go

Ashbridges Bay

blind and it is unable to detect reflec

Treatment Plant

tions from the interfaces in the tank.

Instrumentation will produce an alarm 34

if this situation occurs.

chosen for several reasons:

• These radios use spread spectrum technology to limit possible external interference.

• They do not require any special licensing. • The physical dimensions worked well with the existing equipment.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001


• The system pricing was very competi tive. Method of communications

The radio equipment was integrated into NEMA 4x enclosures to withstand

the environment in the primary clarifier building. The radio modems are con nected to the RS-485 output of the ILA systems. They use a 1200-baud rate for communications.

strength of the return echo. In the sys tem at Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant, the largest return echo indicates the po sition of the interface or sludge blanket. Each response is spaced at 2.7 cm (0.1 feet) in depth; because of this, only the first 155 character pairs are used, as the tanks are 418.5 cm (15.5 feet) deep. The

come corrupted or be truncated; if this happens, the port will wait indefinitely. This effectively hangs up the applica tion. In order to deal with this problem, a ladder logic program in the PEC moni tors the data from the interface level sys tems. When the system detects a flat line for one hour, it resets the Basic Module.

raw ASCII data from the ILAs is con

A relay closes briefly, which shorts out

verted to floating point and then sent via shared memory to the PLC5 using BTR

two wires from the reset switch of the

There were some hurdles to clear

Basic Module. This relay closure restarts the Basic Module program. Two main reasons for selecting a

Basic Module.

when setting up the radio systems and

Basic Module for the communications

Radios were set up in a point multi point configuration. The program in the basic module uses the Royce Commu nications Protocol to access each bridge ILA and the system is programmed to request two reports from the ILA,a data report and the profile report. The basic module begins by sending out an ASCII string requesting the two reports. The ILA replies to the data re port request with a 14 character pair with the tank height and the sludge blanket depth. The second request is for the profile report to which the ILA replies with a 249-character pair message. Each pair represents the position and relative

the communications, as the communi

to read in a long message like the pro file without getting buffer overflows it is necessary to read in a 200-character pair block at an uncontrolled faster rate. The last 60 character pairs are read in at

were that reading/writing serial ports is much easier, and, if the program in the Basic Coprocessor hangs up it does not affect the main program in the PLC. Testing of the system comprised two Royce ILA units and two radios. Once the system had been proven, a perma nent installation of three Royce Model 2505 Interface Level Analyzers and

a slower rate in a controlled fashion. The

radios was undertaken.

Interconnection between the mo

dems and the plant SCADA is through a PLC5 Processor, and a 1771-DB

(Block Transfer Read) instructions.

cations protocol of the Royce instru ments is limited. There is no command

for end-to-end flow control, so in order

buffer will check for data pairs before reading them in. If there is no data pair

Benefits of the ILA/radio system This extensive program was under

then the buffer reads this as the end of

taken for several reasons and the least

the message. This method normally

of the benefits was that it eliminates the

works well.

need for manual sludge blanket measContinued overleaf

Occasionally the data string will be

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clarifier. The plant personnel have setup

Figure 2: Sludge Height vs. Time(Tank 12)

view screens in the SCADA that allow

for the sludge depth, in feet, the tank

profile and a trend of sludge depth vs. time (Figure 2). This trend shows the movement of the bridge and the sludge at each position of the bridge. The op



erator can see the entire tank behaviour. A second function of the online in

formation is to allow the plant to moni tor the operation of the collection mech anism and to see that the raw sludge

pumps are functioning. If either of the above functions were to malfunction,the

J? ^



.4*' .1

J' ^ A-



^ A-



» tfi' <§>' 4







Figure 2: Sludge Height vs. Time.The saw tooth graph shows the bridge moving from one end of the tank to the other and returning.

urements. Since the primary clarifiers in the primary building are enclosed, it creates a very inhospitable environment for plant personnel. The ability to re port sludge blanket level without hav

ing to enter the building, frees up staff for more important tasks. The first and most important benefit

of the system is that the operations staff now have real-time online process values. This allows the plant to make proactive decisions as to the process and its condition. The radio modems allow

the process people to not only see the sludge blanket level but also the com plete settling characteristics of each

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trend graph would change drastically. Thirdly, this information can be used to help with raw sludge distribution. The plant operation personnel can monitor the sludge levels in the different primary tanks and adjust raw sludge pumping schemes to ensure proper distribution of solids. This is important as the Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant has 11 dif ferent aeration trains in the plant and several different dewatering points. The ability to get real-time online sludge lev els allows for better solids handling and treatment.

Movement of sludges to digesters from the primaries is a key point of con-

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Environmenlal Science & Engineering, September 2001







^ ry


trol within the plant. It is essential that the digesters receive the proper flow of solids to maintain proper temperatures and sludge treatment times. Raw sludge pumping can be controlled by either time or by density control. The limita tion of time-based pumping is that it makes assumptions based on historical data. The better method of raw sludge pumping is density-based pumping. A crucial component of the densitypumping scheme is the maintenance of controlled primary blanket levels. It is important to maintain at least a mini mum sludge level in the tanks to ensure sufficient sludge density. When the blanket readings are provided by manual measurements it is quite possible to over pump the clarifier and send low level solids to the digesters. These low level solids create problems for the digestion process. The more constant the solids fed to digesters, the better the treatment

^ r






. r





Corrosion InhilDitors^^ ^ ] from ClearTech • Corrosion Control • Scale Control


- Membrane

- Lime Slurry • Fe/Mn Stabilization • Pb/Cu Corrosion Control


While the total scope ofthe project is still in its infancy, the plant is able to use the online interface

level information to better control

the overall plant process. Finally, there is the problem of sep tic sludge and odour. As was discussed previously, there is the problem of offgassing and septic sludge. If the primary sludge is allowed to remain too long in the primary clarifier, it will go septic and start to biodegrade. This biological ac tivity produces odorous gases that give treatment plants their smell. One of the best ways of controlling primary sludge

The results you want! • More effective disinfection

• Fewer customer complaints • Aesthetically pleasing water • Reduced soluble lead

• Lower pumping energy costs

• Improved infrastructure life For more information, contact one of our sales offices:

Saskatoon:(306) 933-0177 Regina:(306) 721-7737 Calgary:(403) 279-1096 Vancouver:(604) 272-4000 Winnipeg:(204) 987-9777 Edmonton:(780) 452-6000

Toronto (Mississauga): Toll Free (800) 387-7503

is to know the levels on real-time bases,

which allow for proper distribution of the raw sludge before the odour occurs.

or visit us at




While the total scope of the project is still in its infancy, the plant is able to

Head Office CiearTech Industries Inc. 2302 Hanselman Avenue

use the online interface level informa

Saskatoon, SK S7L 5Z3


tion to better control the overall plant

process. A project to control sludge pumping based on interface level will be looked at in the future. This project proved the feasibility of the use of ul trasonic interface detectors and digital radios and interfacing with an existing SCADA system. The plant has other moving bridge primary clarifiers and there are plans to automate in the same manner.

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 141 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

For more information, circie repiy card No. 142 (See page 25)


Wildlife Protection

Culvert is compatible with Canadian wiidiife Concrete culvert solves beaver problem

In his book,Company ofAdventur

ers, Peter C. Newman writes that

"early naturalists fantasized that the paddle-tailed beaver lived in multi-story condominiums in which 'their republics are well governed', and there were engravings of the animals marching around, lugging smoothly planned wooden boards on their shoul ders to build their dams." These images have long passed into history, as have their creators.

Nowadays,the beaver enjoys a lovehate relationship in the minds of Cana dians because of its place in our nation's history, and because of the damage caused to woodlots, meadows and man-

made infrastructure by its persistence in dam building. In many regions of Ontario, the beaver is regarded as a costly pest and nuisance. The destructive impact of beavers

Installation of CON/SPAN unit In confined construction conditions.

was shown on a section of Muskoka

Sharpe's Creek tributary upstream from

Road 14 near Bracebridge, Ontario. The road runs along the floodplain of a tribu tary of Sharpe's Creek where a major washout of the road occurred in August 2000. The late spring and summer of 2000 were unusually wet seasons in some areas of the province, including the Muskoka region. A series of four to five beaver dams,constructed on the Sharpe's Creek tributary upstream from a culvert crossing of Muskoka Road 14, were so well constmcted that they held back a tre

the culvert, as well as culvert material

mendous volume of natural mnoff. Even

tually, after a heavy storm in August, the dams broke and a surge of water rushed down the tributary flood plain and washed out a corrugated metal culvert. The resulting flows had volumes similar to the characteristics that Hurri cane Hazel had demonstrated in the mid

50s. Fortunately, no one was injured in the washout, but it did isolate cottagers and year-round residents until the road was temporarily restored. People were also fortunate that no emergency serv ices were required while the road was impassable. The washout provided District engi neers with the opportunity to reconsider the potential stream hydraulics of the

By Jason Spencer, Con Cast Pipe

and structure. The existing 6-foot cor rugated metal culvert had been in place for approximately 30 years, and the road had undergone reconstruction several times over the past ten years because of the impact of beaver dams. A perma nent solution was definitely required to reduce the cost of constant unplanned maintenance of the road and culvert.

Since the August washout, the road had been temporarily repaired by re-installing a corrugated metal pipe. Con Cast Pipe was contacted in Sep tember to provide tbe features and costs

of a CON/SPAN culvert. The wide span and structural integrity of this system offered immediate benefits to the com

munity,and a permanent solution to any future hydraulic fluctuations caused by beavers. Before final approval of the design of a CON/SPAN system, how ever, there were permits required from the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans for work in the stream bed adja cent to the location of the structure, and

scheduling to mitigate any impact on the cold water fishery. An open channeled structure was preferred over a corru gated metal pipe culvert to enhance the ecology of the stream and floodplain. The design called for a 21.69 metre long, 4.880 metre x 1.829 metre wide culvert. Each 2.44 metre-long unit


weighed 13,790 kg. The units were butt joined and wrapped with filter fabric. Nine units were required for the job. With a cover of at least two feet of fill,

the culvert was extended beyond the traveled roadway so that it did not re quire headwalls or wing walls. The banks were sloped according to local specifications for grading and end treat ment of culverts. The culvert was in

stalled in January, 2001. The construction schedule for place ment of the units was set back because

of design challenges associated with the footings. The location of the culvert has a high water table, and dewatering is required for construction. The District decided to proceed with precast concrete footings, after dewatering, to facilitate installation of the units and construction activities. There was little room for

maneuvering during construction as the road allowance was bordered by private property on both sides, and one lane had to be kept open for local access. In ad dition, a temporary stream diversion was required, and installation of the footings and units required precision installation techniques. The contractor. The Sherk Group of Midland installed the system which is expected to withstand the con sequences of any natural dams built by that marvelous creature, the beaver.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 143

Environmental Science c& Engineering, September 2001

Dagex Inc. introduces...Step Screen® Future for solids/liquid separation

Dagex Inc. introduces...ROTAMAT® Machine for continuous

sludge treatment RoS3 - ROTAMAT® Plant

for sludge dewatering Installation

angle between 40° & 60° is selected to suit individual site



Step Screen Future The variable installation angle guarantees: optimal adjusting to the Individual hydraulic situation, such as limited upstream levels due to preceding hoists; operating reliability due to tailor-made layout.

The Step Screen® system The success and broad acceptance of the STEP SCREEN system is due to its function,easy-to-understand operation,simple cleaning, (self-cleaning effect is due to the counter current principle), easy servicing, ability to handle very large screenings volumes and operating reliability. The motor linkage drive has been developed from the proven and patented link system. To the benefit of our customers, we did intentionally avoid difficult-to-maintain chain drives, with the linkage type we are able to master the occuring bending moments on the laminae, in particular with high water levels.

ROTAMAT® Continuous Sludge Press reduces sludge volume by more than 90% while avoiding high filter headlosses associated with filter cake formation. Variable bar spacing to suit different dewatering degree of sludge. Retention time of sludge in press is controlled with wet sludge in continuous contact throughout the sludge passage area. Pressure is continuously built up in proportion to dewatering degree of sludge. Circle reply card No. 189

The TOVEKO CX Sand Filter

by Dagex Inc. • Easy to install &

Circle reply card No. 187


HUBER Wash & Press - W.A.P.

• Only 2,3 m high • Minimum wash water

• Gravity feed • Treats oily waste

Washing,dewatering,compacting,transporting with system. Ben efits include: reduction of disposal costs by volume reduction up to 70%, weight reduction up to 70%, dewatering performance up to 45% DS; increase of the carbon proportion contained in the wastewater; odour-encased plant; and clean, hygienic condition inside the screen chamber. Circle reply card No. 188

Distributed by:

:>mAGEX INC. 4141 Yonge Street, Suite 307, North York, Ontario M2P 2A8 Tel:(418) 250-7111, 1-800-665-7136, Fax:(416) 250-8111 E-mail: lnfo@dagex.ca Web site: www.dagex.ca

The TOVEKO CX continuous filter is a novel method ofsuspended solids removal using sand filtration. It may be used with or without chemical precipitation according to the application, and is well suited for tertiary filtration in both sewage and industrial wastewater treatment applications. The TOVEKO CX sand filter continuously cleans itself whilst in service, and the sand bed is, therefore, continuously moving. The compact nature of its modular construction provides significant advantages to the user in both space requirements and investment cost. It is delivered to site largely pre-assembled and tested, thereby minimizing set-up costs. Circle reply card No. 190


Distributed by:

[>X DAGEX INC. 4141 Yonge Street, Suite 307, North York, Ontario M2P 2A8 Tel:(416) 250-7111, 1-800-665-7136, Fax:(416) 250-8111 E-mail: lnfo@dagex.ca Web site: www.dagex.ca

Insect Control

Scientists set to defeat probiem of iocusts and grasshopper piagues

Scientists have successfully

developed and implemented an environmentally safe, natural alternative to chemical

International Institute of Tropical Agri culture(IITA)developed the natural pes ticide over a ten-year period. IITA de veloped the bio-control as part of an in

insecticides in the fight against crop-destroying locusts and grasshoppers. Swarms of locusts and grass hoppers have long plagued farm ers around the world. The first

commercial quantities of this new bio-pesticide were recently re leased in what is believed to be

the largest aerial spraying of a bio-pesticide ever conducted in Africa. Early reports of the spraying in Niger indicate that it provides complete control up to three times longer than do current chemical insecticides, making it less expensive but environmentally safe for farmers to protect their crops from lo custs and grasshoppers.

control. This makes localized

ternational research consortium called

LUBILOSA (LUtte Blologique contre les LOcusts et les SAuteriaux or Bio

logical Control of Locusts and Grass hoppers).

Scientists with the Nigeria-based


rally occurring fungus- scientific name Metarhiziuin anisopliae - that is deadly to both locusts and grasshoppers, but does not damage other insects, plants, animals, or people. Once in fected by the fungal preparation, locusts and grasshoppers die within four to ten days. The fun gus strain currently used by sci entists is indigenous to Africa, but strains from various origins can be used to produce the bio-

The new control method uses a natu

Consulting Engineers of Ontario

formulations possible. Scientists foresee the fungal formulation as having wide spread use beyond Africa in other countries where grasshoppers and locusts are problem pests, includ ing the United States, Argentina, Aus tralia, Indonesia, Spain, and Russia. Recently, Texas farmers battled one of the worst outbreaks of grasshoppers in 30 years, and in October, 2000, the UN Announcement

RL&L & Golder merge

Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO), an advocacy association for the business and professional aspects of the practice of consulting engineering, invites applications for the position of:

Industry, governments and other clients will have access to a wider range of services from a single firm,following the merger of ground engineering and environmental


Environmental Services Ltd., which specializes in aquatic science and environmental biology.

Key responsibilities of the president include: • to promote the business and professional interests and the image of the consulting engineering sector; • to represent the industry with public and private sector clients and with other related groups; • to act as an advocate for member fimis on a broad spectrum of issues; and

• to develop educational materials, position papers, seminars and other events on issues of current interest to the industry. Qualifications should include P. Eng. registration in Ontario, senior management experience in the consulting engineering industry, government relations experience at a senior level, excellent oral and written communications skills and well-

developed management,organizational and leadership skills. Candidates should submit detailed applications, not later than October 12,2001 to: Norm Huggins, P. Eng., Chairman 10 Four Seasons Place, Suite 405 Toronto, Ontario M9B 6H7 Fax:(416)620-5803 • E-mail: staff@ceo.on.ca Web site: www.ceo.on.ca


science firm

Golder Associates



RL&L,established in 1977, has earned a reputation for high quality service to clients and has worked on over 900 projects in the power, forestry, mining, and oil and gas industries, and for various levels of government. Projects include fisheries and limnology studies in support of resource development, as well as water quality analysis and reclamation planning projects for industry and governments in Canada and the US. RL&L has a staff of approximately 50 in Edmonton, Alberta, and in Castleger and Prince George, BC. Golder Associates is an employee-owned global group of consulting companies specializing in ground engineering and environmental sciences. Founded in Toronto in 1960, the group now has over 2,400 employees in 84 offices across North America, South America, Europe, and Austral-Asia. In 2001, Golder Associates Ltd.,the Canadian company, was named one of Canada's 50 Best Managed Private Companies. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Insect Control

AWL\idz\Wmlm\ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAQ) issued a desert locust warning for Northern Mali.

The per unit cost of using the bio-control (US $4 per acre) is approximately the same as conventional pesticides, but its overall usage cost is about one-third less because the fungus requires only one application per season. Unlike


Chemical insecticides kill beneficial small


animals and insects as well as pose dangers to local peoples living in these areas. chemical insecticides, the fungal pathogen remains infec tive to grasshoppers and locusts for a longer time because it is a living organism and survives in the vegetation. The bio-pesticide also eliminates environmental and health costs associated with chemical pesticide applications. "Local farmers living in the Sahelian region of Niger -


where this first commercial release was made- had become

accustomed to the quick kills produced by chemicals," says Lukas Brader, an entomologist and director general ofIITA. "But the farmers soon realized that biological control which protects their crops longer, for less money, and with fewer health hazards - serves their interests far better." Chemical insecticides kill beneficial small animals and




insects as well as pose dangers to local peoples living in these areas. According to IITA scientists, the ongoing spray ing of insecticides throughout Africa - including locations frequented by migratory birds - is contributing to large de creases in the numbers of migratory flocks in Europe.

□ minimal chemical diffusion

□ excelient quaiity assurance/controi □ long service life

WATERLOO BARRIER INC. RO. Box 385, Rockwood, Ontario, Canada NOB 2K0 Tel: (519) 856-1352 Fax: (519) 856-2503

For more information, circle reply card No. 152

Contact: www.cgiar.org/iita.


WASTE& RECYCLI November 28 - 29, 2001 The International Centre, Toronto, ON

Canada's Only National Trade Show for the Collection, Hauling, Processing and Disposal of SOLID, LIQUID and HAZARDOUS WASTE, PLUS... Machinery and Equipment for the Recycling of


Wood, Metals, Demolition, Paper, Plastics, Fibre, Tires and morel See the newest equipment, products and services for all Waste and Recycling needs For further information, call 1-800 787-9328 or visit www.exposition.com

o ^IIARIO Wwt* MansoftTMM







The Composting Council of Canada

.. 0 f

Ix* ConscU canadien du compostago



(Official Show Guide)

HAZARDOUS Materials Management


The Canadian Waste & Recycling Expo Is produced and managed by: Contact Exposition Management Inc. Showing You The Way To Success!

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 153



Screw presses for sludge dewatering at recycling facilities

For the past several years the

City of Toronto has increas ingly been faced with a gar bage disposal problem. As local waste dumps are filling up, there is more of a prevailing attitude that waste disposal is a local issue and that garbage should not be shipped hundreds of kilometres for disposal. The search for local solutions in

The plant provides a high level of di version from landfill.

After separating the ferrous metals using an electro-magnet and the out-ofspec material using a trommel screen, the garbage is sent to a pulper, which creates a liquid suspension from the sol ids waste. The heavy materials are sepa rated off the bottom and the light mate rials are separated off the top, allowing the recycling of certain products. The highly organic slurry is pumped to eight Huber screw presses, which dewater the sludge from a typical con

cludes reducing the amount of garbage that needs to be sent to landfill through recycling, and finding ways to recycle material that previously couldn't be or centration of 3-7% to over 40% solids. wasn't being recycled. During the sum The liquid phase is then digested anaeromer of 2000,a plant was opened in New market, Ontario, by Canada Composting bically to produce methane. The meth Inc.(CCI)to process up to 150,000 tons/ ane is used to power two 820 KWe year of source separated organics, mixed (1,100 hp.) electrical generators, which and high fibre waste which forms the feed surplus electricity into the local grid majority of Toronto's waste problem. as well as powering the plant. The sol ids phase is treated aerobically to con vert it to market grade compost. By Doug Kvistbo, Dagex Inc. Each of the Huber screw presses will

dewater 10 m Vhr of primary sludge,for 24 hours per day. The presses have a wedge wire screen surrounding the screw, with openings of 0.2 mm to al low the liquid phase (digester feed) to flow out while retaining the majority of the solids(raw compost). As the screen openings are smaller than the size of paper fibres, the screw presses are par ticularly effective in applications where cellulose fibre is used.

After the successful start-up of the

privately owned Newmarket plant, the City of Toronto decided to invest in a similar operation at their Dufferin Mixed Waste Recycling Facility in north Toronto. Both the Newmarket and

Dufferin plants were designed and built by Stone & Webster, using the patented BTA process. The City of Toronto has contracted CCI to operate and maintain the Dufferin facility. Huber screw presses were also cho sen for the Dufferin plant where they

CH2MHILL ResponsibiD ^oiulions for a sust.-unaole Futuie


Professionals responsible for water treatment and supply, wastewater, and water resources face complex problems

in a global community that's becoming increasingiy environmentally conscious. CH2M HILL Canada Limited has built its 80-year reputation as a water industry leader by working with our clients to solve problems and exceed expectations. We've pioneered many of the technologies used to manage the availability, quality, and control of water-our most important natural resource. Millions of Canadians are now served by water treatment facilities and supply infrastructure designed or upgraded by our company.

The Town ofParry Sound, Ontario, opened its new water treatment piant in August 2001. The facility was designed by CH2/W HILL Canada to use cost-effective, ultrafiitration I membrane technology and to


integrate with the natural landscape and environment. It incorporates a landscaped roof that connects to a shoreline

Sustainable development is a concept we incorporate into all of our water resource management projects to ensure

that water resources aren't compromised.

recreational trail.

Toronto:(416)499-9000 Barrie:(705)722-8800 www.ch2mhillcanada.com


For more information, circle reply card No. 139 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001



Structural Design Method

Chemical & Ahraslon Resistance

Doug Kvistbo inspects a Huber screw press just after unloading at the Dufferin facility. will be used to dewater the treated sludge. again with a target of at least 40% cake solids. The screw presses were installed in July and the plant is presently on sched ule for a winter start-up. The screw presses are small and light enough that they can be placed on a steel grid floor on the mezzanine level of the plant. This allows the solid waste to be

discharged into a hopper on the floor below, allowing easy removal by truck. The machines run at a speed of only 5 rpm so that there is little abrasion or noise. The low speed also means that electrical power consumption is mini mal with each machine being run by a 4 kW electric motor.

Circle reply card No. 155

Whatever yeu lheff te knew


about specifying, designing

JWC's Screenings Washer Monster'^'^^ Wins the 2001 WEF Award For Most

polyethylene pipe, look to the

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CPPA. Wsit oup web site^ or Screenings Washer Monster™ with unique integrated Muffin Monster®

call SOO-Slb-dP^OP FRS technical heeklets, bpochures and Other Inlorjiafion.^


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(800) 331-2277 (949) 833-3888 e-mail: jwce@jwce.com See these award winners at WEFTEC, Booth no. 3461


For more information, circle reply card No. 156 (See page 25)

Call 800-510-GPPA (2772) Your Information Resource For more information, circle reply card No. 157

Drinking Water

Pilot study shows potential water quality Improvements using ozonatlon and sedimentation

Asaresultofincreasing waterdemands and service

population growth, an expansion of the Burlington Water Purification Plant(WPP) was needed. As part of the expansion project, improvements to the treated water quality and protection of public health were also considered. The water quality objectives of the expansion project, which were identified by the Regional Municipality of Halton, are more stringent than the regulations currently in place in Ontario; • Increase plant capacity. •Provide increased disinfection by implementing ozonation for Cryptosporidium inactivation (and taste and odour

Figure 2: Filter Effluent Turbidity vs Time

I♦ Direct Filtration ■ Ozone + Direct Filtration I 0.25


? 5.0.15 a-

♦ ♦









• Provide filter effluent turbidities of 0.1 NTU or less.







• Reduce aluminum residuals. sludtw end rrtfctagand return


coagulation optimization and high-rate sedimentation, the ozone generator and ozone contact column, and two dual media filter columns. The pilot plant was configured to examine the following treatment trains: • Direct filtration.


• Ozonation followed by direct filtration. • Sedimentation followed by filtration.

[>< Injection

V Lamelta danfier '


• Sedimentation followed by ozonation and filtration. During each experiment, two treatment trains could be operated at once to allow for direct comparison of the dif ferent treatment scenarios and to quantify the performance attributed to each process unit. ACTIFLO unit

Figure 1: Schematic of the ACTIFLO Process.

The Burlington WPP is a direct filtration plant that cur rently employs chlorine for primary disinfection and residual maintenance in the distribution system. To meet the hy draulic needs of the expansion, consideration was given to operate the existing filters at a higher rate (from 8 m/h to 12 ni/h). To avoid degradation in water quality while operat ing at the higher filtration rate, strategies to reduce the amount of solids loaded onto the filters were pursued, in cluding reintroducing sedimentation to the treatment train. However, site constraints dictated the use of a high-rate

sedimentation process (ACTIFLO® operating at rise rates in excess of 40 m/h (compared with rise rates of <10 m/h typically associated with conventional sedimentation). The Burlington WPP uses Lake Ontario as its source and is characterized by low turbidity (less than 5 NTU,90 per cent of the year), low colour, low organics (total organic carbon(TOG)= 2 mg/L), moderate alkalinity(= 85 mg/L as

The ACTIFLO process is a high rate settling process that combines ballasted flocculation and lamella clarification.

Figure 1 shows the treatment process in a typical full-scale unit. The total contact time was approximately 13 to 15 min utes at a design flow rate of 30 m'/h, corresponding to a rise rate of 40 m/h.

Alternate coagulants, including aluminum sulphate (alum), polyaluminum sulphate, polyaluminum chloride, aluminum chlorohydrate and ferric chloride, were exam ined at pilot using the process. The impact of coagulant choice on turbidity removal,aluminum residual control, and TOC was investigated. The optimum coagulation strategy used an alum dosage of 14-16 mg/L, two polymer (Percol

LT-22S)dosages of 0.1 mg/L each, and a sulphuric acid dosFigure 3: Riter Effluent Turbidity vs Time

I♦Sedimentatton + Ritratlon ■ Direct RltraBon j 0.25

CaCOj)and pH ranging from 7.5 to 8.5. Methodology A pilot plant was built at the Burlington WPP and was composed of three main units: the ACTIFLO pilot unit for


i 0.15 I

I 0.10 By Liza Ballantyne, Quirien Muylwyk, Ken Mains, CH2M HiLL Canada Limited,

3 H


Jean-Frangois Beaudet, John Meunier Inc./ US Filter, and Larry Chariton, Regional Municipality of Haiton 44







Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Drinking Water Figure 5: Disinfection By-product Speclatlon After 48 Hours Holding Time with Free Chlorine

Figure 4; Headloss Accumulation in Filters

[♦Sedimentation + Filtration ■ Direct Filtration I



T0C = 1.6niQ/L


^ 50


TO ==1.3m(i/L

T0C = 1.4ma/L

Cl2 = 1.5mg/L

Cl2 = 0.8 mg/L

Clj Dose = 1.2 mg/L

♦ ♦

g 0.6 0.2

T0C = 1.6ma/L


» 10 § 0.8 = 0.4

= 1.2mg/L

♦ ♦



Direct Filtration 10




Time (hours)

age of 13-19 mg/L to depress the pH to 6.8. This chemical dosage combination was used for all subsequent pilot tests using this process. The current coagulation strategy at the Burlington WPP consists of an alum dosage of 3-5 mg/L and intermittent use of polymer. Ozone generator and ozone contact column An ozone generator and ozone contact column were in cluded in the pilot plant to investigate the impact of ozonation on flocculated water (formation of micro-flocculation) and settled water (as obtained from the ACTIFLO unit) with respect to improved filter effluent turbidity levels, improved filter run times and reduced filter headloss.

An ozone contact time of approximately 60 minutes was provided using a 3.3 m high, 150 mm diameter clear PVC pipe. Ozone was applied in a "counter-current" manner: water was fed at the top of the column while ozone was sup plied at the base of the column via a fine bubble diffuser. Two 200 mm diameter dual media filter columns were


Filtration rates on the effluent of each filter were kept constant at 12 m/h or 0.38 m%, using automatic flow con trol valves. Headloss through the filter columns was meas ured at various depths in the filter bed, as well as in the filter underdrain, using manometers. Analyses taken during pilot-scale experiments Parameters examined during the pilot experiments in cluded the following: turbidity, temperature, pH, flow rates, chemical dosages, headlosses, particle counts, bromide, bromate, ozone residuals, heterotrophic plate counts, total coliform, aluminum and TOC.

To supplement the results generated during the pilot test ing program, various water quality issues were addressed using bench-scale studies. Ozone demand and decay testing Ozone demand and decay testing was conducted using raw water and settled water generated at the pilot plant. A range of ozone dosages was applied to both waters under cold (5°C) and warm (20°C) water conditions. Ozone resi

Sedimentation + Sedimentation + Filtration Ozone + Filtration

Note: Sufficient chlorine was added to establish 0.7 mg/L tree chlorine after 30 minutes

decay rates. Results from the bench-scale tests were used to size the ozone generators and to optimize the configura tion of the ozone contact tanks.

Disinfection by-product formation potential tests To assess the formation of disinfection by-products as sociated with chlorine residual maintenance (distribution system), sufficient chlorine was added to raw and treated (settled water from the pilot plant) waters to establish a free residual of 0.7 mg/L in treated water after 30 minutes (with storage in an amber bottle in the dark at room temperature). The chlorine dose was noted. Temperature, pH, total trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and adsorbable organic halides (AOX) were measured after a 48 hour holding time. Continued overleaf

New Staff Appointment

Dual media filter columns

set up as part of the pilot plant. Both filters contained 500 mm anthracite and 280 mm sand supported by a 250 mm gravel bed. The pilot filter media specifications were the same as those for the full-scale plant filters. The filter underdrains were located below the gravel support bed. The filters were equipped with an overflow weir, a backwash water overflow weir (closed during normal operation of fil ters) and a filter influent port, all located above the filter

Ozone + Filtration

R.V. Anderson Associates

Limited is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Charlie Murray, REng., to the position of



Consultant with the firm.

Mr. Murray has 25 years of experience in the environmen tal field as a regulator with the Ontario Ministry of Environ ment. He brings to the firm a diversified knowledge of environmental disciplines which include water and wastewater, contaminated site remediation, as well as the

management of municipal and industrial solid wastes. His knowledge of regulatory compliance in various environ mental disciplines will be an asset to the firm. As a graduate of the University of Guelph in mechanical engineering, Mr. Murray also has a strong background in agricultural activities and the interface with biosolids man agement. He will be located in the firm's London office. R.V. Anderson Associates Limited is an environmental and

infrastructure engineering and technology management firm, specializing in water, wastewater, transportation, ur ban development, energy and telecommunications, founded in 1948, with a staff complement of over 150. R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

duals were monitored to determine ozone demand and ozone

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001


Drinking Water • Average filter effluent turbidity levels were always less than 0.1 NTU when filtering settled water (with and with

Figure 6A; Direct Filtration I Raw II Flocculated A% Removal I

out ozone) and ozonated flocculated water. This condition


was not always achieved when filtering flocculated water


without ozone.






II 1 ■ ana

• Filter backwashing during the pilot tests was driven by headloss accumulation rather than turbidity breakthrough.


20% J u


10% ■"


Headloss accumulation was slower when settled water was

used as the filter influent, as compared to flocculated water (Figure 4). • The use of sedimentation in addition to filtration reduced

L 0%



Test 5-

Test 6-


Test 8-






THMs and HAAs by 52 and 37%, respectively. This reduc tion is attributed to improvements in precursor removal. There was no noticeable change (< 5 pg/L difference) in THMs and HAAs formation as a result of ozonation


The following summarizes the major findings of the pi lot plant test results: • Filter effluent turbidity levels obtained when filtering flocculated and ozonated flocculated waters varied as a func

tion of fluctuations in the raw water quality. The sedimen tation process in the ACTIFLO pilot unit provided a buffer for fluctuations in raw water quality thus ensuring that a consistent filter influent and effluent water was produced. • Ozonation of flocculated water slightly improved filter performance but did not increase filtration capacity, as de fined by turbidity effluent (Figure 2) and filter run time. • Sedimentation prior to filtration significantly increased filter run times, improved filter performance and greatly reduced the frequency for filter backwashing (Figure 3).

10th National Conference and

1st Policy Forum on Drinking Water

(Figure 5). • TOG removal of approximately 30% was observed in water treated by sedimentation. TOG removal approached 10% in water treated by direct filtration alone (Figures 6A, 6B, 6C). • Bromide levels ranging from 10 to 27 pg/L were observed in pre-ozonated samples collected during the pilot testing. Bromate was not detected in all ozonated water samples (detection limit < 1 pg/L). • Average aluminum residuals in water treated by sedimen tation and filtration were 75% lower than the average levels observed in water treated by direct filtration. The optimi zation of coagulant and polymer dosages, and the pH of coagulation resulted in a significant reduction of aluminum residuals.

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Drinking Water Figure 6B; Sedimentation + Filtration

Figure 6C: Sedimentation + Ozone + Filtration I Raw H Settled ▲ % Removal

Settled ▲ % Removal

I Raw







i 20% »

20% I

11-0 L>





• The pilot results showed a slight performance improve ment, but no capacity improvement, when comparing di rect filtration to ozonation followed by direct filtration. However, when direct filtration was compared with sedi mentation followed by ozonation and filtration, a doubling in the length of filter run time was observed. • Results from the bench-scale ozone demand and decay testing indicated that the ozone demand of settled water (from pilot plant)is relatively low (<0.3 mg/L)and the ozone decay is slow (k < 0.05 min"')- As expected, the ozone de cay was enhanced under warm water conditions. Conclusions

Pilot testing with raw water supplied from the Burlington



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WPP suggests that adding ozone will slightly improve filter performance but not enough to have an impact on filtration capacity (and ultimately the production of the plant as a whole). Adding a high rate solids removal process consist ently produced high quality water to the filters, reduced the solids loading rate, allowed longer filter runs, and reduced the formation of disinfection by-products. To meet the Region's water quality objectives for the plant expansion, the pilot- and bench-scale test results were used to identify process modifications and design parameters rec ommended for implementation at full-scale. For more information, circle reply card No. 159

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Landfills and Public Opinion

Citizens and Mohawks oppose expansion of a garbage dump in Greater Napanee

Ecology is a big factor in our daily lives. The word is de

man was put to death for violating a clean air law prohibiting the burning of

System...The ad

rived from the Greek word

coal in furnaces.

vanced Accu4™ Tur

"oikos" meaning household or place to live. Ecology is simply about our homes and our neighbourhoods. Canadians today are a mixed bag - we don't share a common culture, history, language, race or religion. What we do

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pled with IPG 010 converters, these magmeters offer high accuracy, bi-direc

tional flow measurement and both analog and pulse outputs. Circle reply card No. 172

share is our commitment both to demo

cracy and to our land. I believe that this

study of nature is a civic and political duty. The picture we get from nature is most graphic and complete. Many in dustries today, including municipalities, appear to embrace intolerance, selfish ness, pride, aiTogance toward creation, and irresponsibility to the community and future generations. One of the principal characteristics of stakeholders. Concerned Citizens

Group, and the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte, is their willingness to use the courts as a tool to protect their Godgiven share in nature -good water from protected aquifers.

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1960, North Americans found them

selves with the highest standard of liv ing of any people in history; concurrence of events exposed the planet's fragility and the waste of public resources. At that same period in time, North Americans were losing their health, many birds and fishes, and the purity of their waterways. A Clean Water Act and other water

foundation of the Law of Nuisance in

Law Review: "Effective deterrence re

and the Sandbanks and environs is evi

Circle reply card No. 173

Over the years, the laws have had to be made flexible in order to cope with changing threats to the social order. By

alienum nan laedas(use your own prop erty but not to injure another), as the

sis in North America of pollution as an proven to be in the environmental vio lator category must be treated as crimi nals. The closing of certain beaches on Lake Ontario, Toronto, Presqu'ile Park,

media re-stratification.

caused a "dreadful terror".

protection laws would be a positive step in protecting public property and wel fare, and improve our declining water quality by forcing dischargers to inter nalize the cost of pollution. However, the regulations by themselves will not accomplish any of these objectives. Only widespread compliance with the law will achieve these goals. While the environmental law gives government the authority to stop pollution, it cannot compel governments to exercise that authority. As environmental law professor David Hodas explained in the Maryland

Governments must address the cri environmental crime and those that are

Optimize Filter Cleaning...The Expansion Pro Analyzer - EPA 2000™ takes guess work out of gravity filter backwashing. Primary benefits: improve filter cleaning; extend filter run time; reduce turbidity; reduce media loss; and promote even

Over the centuries, an entire body of public nuisance law accumulated as a compendium of behaviour forbidden by some legislatures and courts. Edward II signed the first known clean air act, a smoke pollution control law, as early as 1273. By 1525, London residents were successfully suing city officials to re quire private property owners to control their swine, whose stench they claimed

denced every summer and this is just the tip of the iceberg. In French, nuisance means annoy ance or harm. Blackstone expressed the Roman law maxim sic utere tuo ut

the late eighteenth century. Ancient quires four elements:(1)significant like British common law flatly forbade an lihood that a violation will be detected; owner from using his property in such a (2)swift and sure enforcement response; way. A defendant's use of his land that (3) appropriately severe sanctions; and caused injuries to the community at large (4)that each of these factors will be per (air pollution, bad odours, health threats) ceived as real." was treated as a criminal offence known Unfortunately, in Ontario, none of as public nuisance. The law was treated these factors are consistently present. seriously indeed; in 1307, an English Enforcement is underfunded,abused,and ignored in nearly every environmental By Stephen C. Geneja, bureaucracy. Even some supposedly fer Chairman, The Concerned

Citizens Group of Tyendinaga and Environs

vent environmentalists find their charac

ters and ideals wrestled from them by the seductive siren song of industry money!

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Landfills and Public Opinion In some cases, polluters fall back on very old tactics - they will move jobs from the area if they are forced to com ply with environmental laws. Locals will then cry out;"What will we do with our garbage?" New technology does exist that can take care of all gases from

are now proposing a mega dump expan sion. Under the circumstances, I sug gest the following safeguards: a) If the Ontario government is bent on proceeding with the official plan

drainage systems could continue to con taminate the groundwater and aquifer for over 1,000 years. Our group has been seeking solutions to the closing of the Richmond dump fill site for over three years now. Cell #1, which is at least 50 years old is not lined, and our greatest

amendment,the stakeholders in the sub

ject area insist on C.W.S. Inc. placing a $5,000,000 indemnity bond with the courts or the government. If required, a referee could make payment to an in jured landowner due to any financial shortfall in the sale or future property development. b) The existing landowners both in the

the wastes.

We must constantly invest in our en vironmental infrastructure - clean riv

ers, clear air, safe foods, proper disposal of toxic waste, and recycling - in the same way that we invest in our trans portation, telecommunications, educa tion, and hospital infrastructure. Oceanographer Sylvia Earl has said that: "The economy is a wholly-owned sub sidiary of the environment," We ignore that relationship at our peril.

immediate area and downstream or

westerly of the dump site, should be given a UV system on their water sup ply from wells for both human and ani mal consumption or supplied with bot

If the environment movement is to

tled water. The cost for same should be

be a force in Canadian politics, it must have relevancy in the daily lives of the majority of Canadians. We continue to emphasize the central tenet of the Con cerned Citizens Group in concert with the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte that we are entitled to aquifers that are not compromised in any fashion or in the least degree, as well as clean waters in

fear is that it is now,or will, spill leachate into the surrounding groundwater and aquifers because of the type offractured

bom by either C.W.S. Inc. or the MOE. c) A hydrogeological study should be made around the exterior of the dump site - strictly on private lands abutting the problem site, and reported to an in dependent third party. Since there is no provision for intervenor funding, this expense should be borne by both C.W.S.

limestone that it is known to rest on.

Inc. and the MOE.

XCG Environmental, of Kingston, Ontario, prepared a 33 page report on water leachate and sediment sampling at Richmond Landfill Site, specifically for the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte. It states categorically, that the Richmond Landfill Site has resulted in impacts on the quality of surface water in Marysville Creek and to a greater extent, the

d)If a hydrogeological study shows se rious leachate impacts in the limestone

our rivers, creeks, and clean air. In our

area we depend on individual household wells for our drinking water so we are especially vulnerable to any pollution from landfills or other sources.

We believe that the technology that is up and running in Kitchener, Ontario (Subbor) could handle the current leachate crisis to our satisfaction. If the

Ontario government allows this current dump or any expansion thereof to con

Beechwood Ditch downstream of the

tinue, this area at the headwaters of three

Canadian Waste Services (C.W.S.)

landfill property.

bed beneath the soil overburden, then

recourse to having filtration water piped in from the Town of Deseronto water

purification plant would appear to be the only corrective measure possible. As Concerned Citizens, we are op

posed to any amendments to the offical plan without the due process of public input, and the safeguards noted, being put in place. â?–


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Stormwater Management

Sophisticated stormwater facility for Toronto's Pearson international Airport

Toronto'sPearson International

Airport is undergoing a com prehensive redevelopment program, which includes run way and taxiway expansion,redevelop ment and expansion of passenger and cargo terminal facilities, and improved airport ground access facilities. The entire airport is being rebuilt, while operations continue at full capacity. A fundamental part of this redevelopment

a combination of surface detention stor

tem. As a result, the construction of the

age and an underground storage tank, with each contributing one half of the required storage volume. The north limit of the new in-field development generally coincided with the location of the existing Moore Creek watercourse, and required that most of the water-

Facility was staged with the diversion structures and by-pass culvert con structed first, ensuring that storm flows would be safely routed through the site. The Facility, including the under ground storage tank and surface deten tion ponds,is designed to accommodate the run-off from the first 25

mm (1 inch) of rainfall from

the designated drainage areas. The run-offfrom the first 12.5

mm (1/2 inch)of rainfall is re tained in a 42,000 m' under ground concrete storage tank

was the Master Stormwater

Implementation Plan, devel oped to determine how the Greater Toronto Airports Au thority (GTAA) will manage stormwater to support the air port's long-term development plans and reduce the amount

with overall dimensions of67 metres x 220 metres and a

depth of 7.5 metres. As the underground tank reaches its maximum operating level, the

of contaminants that enter sur

continued stormwater flow is

rounding waterways. As a result of this plan, a stormwater quality control fa cility was proposed for three adjacent drainage areas cen trally located within the air port, comprising Terminal 3, Vista Cargo and one half of the new in-field development. These drainage areas refer

then directed to the two sur

face detention ponds. In the event that the water level in

the underground tank contin ues to rise beyond its maxi mum operating level, the in coming flow will be isolated by a series of sluice gates in the diversion chambers. The continued stormwater

enced as WM3,WM5 and A4,

flow from the WM3/WM5

drainage areas will overflow tares (1090 acres) and repre a set of weirs in the WM3/ Construction of the 2,100 mm Moore Creek Pond Conduit. sent three of the airport's WM5 diversion chamber and twenty-one drainage areas. In the fall course be filled. As a result, the under will be directed to the newly constructed of 1998, the GTAA retained the serv ground storage tank was located within Moore Creek surface detention pond. ices of Azurix North America Engineer the watercourse to take advantage of the As the Moore Creek pond fills, a sec ing Corp. to design the WM3AVM5/A4 existing topographic contours. The ond set of weirs in the WM3/WM5 di stormwater quality control facility re Moore Creek watercourse location re version chamber are overtopped and the ferred to as the "Moore Creek Storm quired that approximately half of the continued flow is directed to the newly water Facility", in accordance with the underground tank would be positioned constructed Spring Creek surface deten Master Stormwater Implementation below the new in-field development tion pond. Continued storm flow re Plan. Azurix retained the professional tarmac and the structure would therefore ceived from the A4 drainage area in ex engineering services of Hatch Mott be subject to aircraft loading. The in cess of the storage volume in the under MacDonald (Mississauga) to complete creased costs associated with the struc ground tank, will overflow a set of weirs the structural design of the Facility. tural design and provision to protect in the A4 diversion chamber and is then Several alternatives were considered against aircraft loading, was offset by directed to the Spring Creek surface de during the design of the Moore Creek the reduction in the volume of excavated tention pond. Effluent is discharged Stormwater Facility, with careful con materials and infrastructure costs com from the Spring Creek and Moore Creek sideration given to the ultimate require pared with those of alternative tank surface detention ponds at a controlled ments of the new in-field development. locations. rate through perforated pipe outlet struc The preferred alternative was to utilize Utilizing the existing Moore Creek tures. The Moore Creek and Spring watercourse also presented the problem Creek surface detention ponds have a cover a total area of 441 hec

By William Andrews, B.Sc. Env., Azurix North America

Engineering Corp. 50

of tank construction within a water

total combined capacity of 42,000 m^

course that has a continuous baseflow

and provide peak flow attenuation and Continued overleaf

and is part of an active storm sewer sys-

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001



Environmental Resources



American Water Works Association

Shun Dar Lin and C. Lee

This book gives you o single-volume reference that's encydoperlic in its scope. At your fingertips you'll find definitions of ohbreviotions and acronyms, hydraulic

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includes a CD-ROM. Its Water/Target software generates freshwater use/wostewoter generation targets, and suggests ways to reach them. It lets you isolate bottlenecks limiting water reuse and find new reuse opportunities, all without the expense of detailed engineering designs. ISBN: 0-07-134855-7•450 Pages•200 lllus.•Hardcover•SI 57.95

and wastewater. Water and Waste Water Calculations

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Manual by Shun Lin gives you a step-by-step approach to calculations ranging from simple to complex. Incorporating practical field data, the Alonuo/includes: •Conversion factors•Calculations for flows in aquifers, pumping, and stream sanitation•Techniques for classification of lake water quality •HydrauliG for environmental engineers•Pipe networks for water supply distribution • Fundamental concepts of water flow in pipes, weirs, orifices and open channels ISBN: 0-07-137195-8•854 Pages•1000 lllus.•Spirulbound•SI 26.95 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS HANDBOOK

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Stormwater Management suspended solids reduction prior to dis charge into Spring Creek. The Moore Creek Stormwater Facil

ity focuses on the control of glycol-contaminated run-off, accidental fuel spills and suspended solids. The underground storage tank is separated into four cells with a volume of 10,500 m^ each. The total tank volume (42,000 m^) is ad equate to capture 80% of the average annual run-off and remove up to 70% of total suspended solids. The majority of heavy sediment and coarse debris are captured within the first cell, and finer material can be settled in the remaining

water separator gallery control the flow from the tank. Flow can be diverted to

the oil/water separators, the effluent pumping station or directly to the by pass culvert. The Moore Creek Stormwater Facil

ity is equipped with two oil/water sepa rator channels (with a capacity of 250 L/s per channel) installed in a gallery adjacent to the storage tank. The oil/ water separators are designed for a treat ment flow rate sufficient to drain the

tank in a 24-hour period and produce an effluent containing less than 10 mg/L of oil droplets 60 microns or larger. They

three cells. The tank cells are connected

by weirs that allow them to operate in series and, therefore, only the required number of cells are utilized during a given rainfall event. This approach can significantly reduce maintenance re quirements by needing to clean only those cells that have been in operation during a given storm event. Each cell is equipped with an auto mated sediment flushing system consist ing of eight Autoflush (Grande, Novae & Associates Inc.)tipping buckets to as

from the oil/water separators to Spring Creek and the wastewater discharged to the sanitary sewer system. Oil and fuel collected in the oil/

water separator channels is periodically removed using a manually operated skimmer trough and flows by gravity to

a 41 m-* storage chamber. Sludge that accumulates in the bottom of the sepa rator channels is periodically transferred through a series of drain lines (four per channel)to a 35 m'storage chamber.An oil/sludge pumping station, equipped with two Moyno progressive cavity pumps is used periodically to transfer the waste material to tanker trucks for

Effluent that does not meet

the specified BOD criteria is diverted to the effluent

disposal off-site and/or return water to the head of the separator channel to minimize disposal costs. The Moore Creek Stormwater Facil

pumping station for disposal in the Region of Peel sanitary sewer...

ity is fully automated utilizing a Super visory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)system provided by Summa Engineering Limited (Mississauga), and can be locally operated using the on-site SCADA terminal or remotely using the

utilize a combination of Slant Rib

remote terminal located at the CTAA

Administration Building. Due to the potential presence of hydrocarbons, explosion proof equipment and fixtures were utilized throughout the under ground tank and oil/water separator gallery. An extensive gas detection system was also installed to protect workers from potentially hazardous atmospheres when entering the underground storage tank or the oil/water separator gallery. The Facility, constructed by Kenaidan Contracting Limited (Mississauga), at an approximate cost of$30 million, was substantially completed January 2001, and is currently in service. Einal site

by flap valves that allow the cells to drain simultaneously through the inlet cell drain. A modulating plug valve and

Coalescing Media and Dense Packs (Great Lakes Environmental Inc.) in stalled in an API type channel. The Coalescing Media and Dense Packs enhance the oil removal efficiency of the separators. Effluent is continu ously monitored using an on-line Bio chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer that prevents glycol-contaminated effluent, which requires additional treatment, from being discharged into Spring Creek. Effluent that meets the BOD limit is discharged (by gravity flow) to Spring Creek. Effluent that does not meet the specified BOD crite ria is diverted to the effluent pumping station for disposal in the Region ofPeel sanitary sewer on the Britannia Road ex tension. Two composite samplers are

a venturi flow meter located in the oil/

used to monitor the effluent discharged

circie repiy card No. 165

sist in sediment removal and mainte

nance. Each tank cell is equipped with a sump that collects the sediment and washwater and each cell can be indi

vidually drained to the effluent pump ing station. The effluent pumping sta tion, located in the oil/water separator gallery, is equipped with three ITT Flygt N-Pump dry pit submersible pumps and a 300 mm forcemain connected to the

Region of Peel sanitary sewer on the Britannia Road extension.

The tank is drained by gravity flow through a 750 mm drain located in the inlet cell. The cells are interconnected

restoration works were scheduled for

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Environmental Science

Engineering. September 2001


Battelle experts forecast energy innovations for 2010

Significant changes are on the horizon for energy-related in

dustries. Oil fields could be

supplemented by fuel farms and gas stations will morph into energy stations. We'll pay for electricity in a fashion similar to the way we pay shift ing rates for long distance service. Our household habits will likely shift as peo ple realize it's more eco

the efficiency of energy production and distribution systems such as pipelines, refineries, power plants and transmis sion lines.

• Distributed power generation: The cun'ent national power grids are on the way out. Major blackouts due to storms and overloading of the grid will become a thing of the past. The economic cost

nomical to run the dish

washer after midnight rather

eration batteries will be based on lithium

polymer technology and have about three times as much energy capability as those cumently on the market. • Energy farms: The use of bio-engineered crops for fuels will be hurried along by the genetic revolution that per mits cultivation of crops to produce fuels such as ethanol. "We will grow gasoline, so to speak, to lessen our dependence on imported oil," Millett said.

than after dinner.

"With advances in DNA en

"We're on the cusp of some major, fundamental changes in energy. In fact, it's already starting," said Dr. Steve Millett, Thought Leader and manager of

gineering, we will be able to grow energy as well as food crops." •Solarenergy: Considered


Battelle's forecasts.

An expert focus group from Battelle, and various

labs, has identified the top ten energy innovations by the year 2010 that will have the greatest economic im pact. They include:

the ultimate sustainable en

ergy form, it is also difficult to capture and store large quantities in a cost-effective manner. Battelle experts see substantial improvements over the next decade. Ad vancements have been made

using solar energy for the heating and cooling of build ings, and recent advances in • A shifting energy indus the solar cell efficiency hold try structure: Substantial innovations in the energy Experimental hybrid fuel Volvo at Biosphere 1, Arizona. ES&E,June '98. the promise of making wide spread teiTestrial application industry and its energy tech a reality. Progress is continually being nologies are occurring. Deregulation of of a power disruption in informationmade in the development of efficient the natural gas and electric utilities will driven business like finance and e-comcontinue, resulting in more competition merce, is extremely high. Power may photovoltaic cells. • Methane hydrate crystal mining: and more mergers. The convergence of be generated locally for neighbour the electric, gas, telecommunications hoods and individual residences and Geologists have discovered rich depos its of frozen natural gas crystals on the and water industries could result in onebusinesses. This will be done via mi ocean bottom. "Tapping this reserve stop shopping. cro-turbines, internal combustion en would be a quantum leap in our ability •Hybrid vehicles: The first generation gines, and fuel cells. to provide energy for the future. Al of these vehicles is already here in a • Fuel ceils: Fuel cells will become in though some new government programs sporty two-seater from Honda. Hybrid creasingly popular for transportation and are exploring recovery methods and as for portable and stationary power gen vehicles use smaller, more efficient in

ternal combustion engines, and use power from electric batteries for an ex tra boost during acceleration. US auto makers have produced a next-generation of hybrid concept cars that will pave the way to 80(US) mpg. •Smart energy management systems: Computers, the Internet and Global Po sitioning Systems will increase the effi ciency of transportation. They'll reduce congestion and traffic delays, and be used in heating, air conditioning, house hold appliances, and business equip ment. They also will play vital roles in

eration over the next decade.

• Gas to liquid conversion: Scientists predict the development of chemical engineering processes to transform hydrocarbon compounds from gases to liquids. One example is the conversion of natural gas to diesel fuel for trans portation. Gas to liquids technology offers an economically attractive oppor tunity to convert natural gas from remote locations - which otherwise would be

wasted - into easily transported and in herently clean fuel. • Advanced batteries: The next-gen

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

sociated ramifications, there haven't

been any commercial attempts to re trieve this vast reserve," said Gary Brawley,Program Manager in Battelle's Equipment Development and Mechani cal Systems Department. It is expected that this energy source will emerge in the next decade to add to our natural gas production. Headquartered in Columbus, Ohio, Battelle focuses on technology develop ment, technology commercialization, and laboratory management. For more information, circle reply card No. 177 53

Water Resources

Aquifer storage recovery Is a key component in sustainabiiity

Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) has revolutionized the water resources man

agement field, providing a means for sustainable development of water supplies while minimizing envi ronmental impacts. By using under ground geologic formations as a me dium for storing large volumes of treated water, aquifer recharge is now widely applied throughout the world to resolve water resource and environmental is

sues, including seasonal water supply deficits, emergency storage, ground sub sidence, and saline intrusion.

CH2M HILL pioneered the develop ment and implementation of ASR tech nology as a tool for managing water sup ply systems. From its first project in Manatee County, Florida, the company expanded its expertise by developing op erational systems throughout the United States and internationally. CH2M HILL developed the first operational ASR well in Canada at Mannheim, Ontario. ASR

is also being implemented in England, Holland,Israel, Kuwait,Australia,Thai

Water can be stored in under

ground aquifers through ASR wells during the wet season when suiplus water is available and de mands are typically lower. The stored water can be recovered us

ing the same wells during the peak demand dry season. Water can also be stored underground on a longterm basis, thereby providing a

water resources within a watershed

ASR is a water supply strategy that can be a key component of sustainable development of municipal water sup plies. Many municipalities are experi encing rapid population growth and in creasing pressure on finite water re sources. However, in many instances

to balance the needs of competing

on an annual basis, but are not always available at the time (dry season) and place when they are most needed. This is where ASR can play an important role.





sustainable water reserve to meet

emergency or drought water needs. ASR is a very efficient and costeffective approach to water system expansion because it optimizes the use of existing facilities and avail able water resources by matching available supply to water demand through underground storage. ASR can be used to provide sus tainable water supplies to commu nities, while preventing aquifer depletion and maintaining or en hancing sensitive ecosystems. Thus, ASR can provide an effec tive tool for sustainable develop ment and management of available

land and Taiwan.

sufficient water resources are available







water demands.

Social and Economic Benefits

ASR optimizes the use of ex Aquifer Storage Recovery isting water supply and treatment facili pacity with ASR is less than half the cost ties and available water resources. It can

be used to provide sustainable water supplies to communities, while mini mizing the need for construction of new infrastructure, thereby deferring capital expenditures. Typically, the cost to develop additional peak water supply ca-

of conventional alternatives such as ex

pansion of water supply, treatment, or distribution facilities.

Reduced Environmental Impacts As water is obtained during periods

of water surplus for use during periods of water shortage when ecosystems may be stressed due to lack of water, the im

pact of water withdrawals is minimized. ASR can also reduce environmental

impacts from surface water diversions, surface storage reservoirs and storage tanks, and transmission facilities.

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Ecosystem Maintenance or Enhancement

Through restoration of groundwater levels in depleted aquifers and maintain ing groundwater discharge to streams and sensitive ecosystems, particularly during dry periods, the health of these ecosystems can be maintained or en hanced.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 163 54

For more information, circle reply card No. 162 (See page 25)

Environmental Science <& Engineering, September 2001

Environmental Report Card

Stan Mech announces

strategic changes

Study finds environment is greatest success story of the last 30 years

Thevastimprovementofthe US

environment is one of the great

about "urban sprawl," only five percent of all US land is developed. Pastureland, rural land, forestland, rangeland, crop

public-policy success stories of the last generation, accord ing to the Index ofLeading Environmen

land, and federal land account for 93

tal Indicators 2001, released in April by

• Toxic Emissions: Overall, there has

percent of US land today.

the California-based Pacific Research

been a 45-percent decline in toxic emis

Institute. The annual study examines

sions since 1988, and the EPA contin

data on key environmental indicators

ues to report a reduction of more than 1.5 billion pounds a year. •Energy:The public may perceive Cali fornia residents as energy guzzlers, but the state is the fourth most energy effi cient in the country,behind Hawaii, New

across the board. Environmental qual

ity data for all 50 states and 100 US met ropolitan areas was also released on the Institute's website at: www.pacific research.org. Public confidence in environmental

York, and Rhode Island.

quality remains pessimistic despite dra matic improvements nationwide in air

The Index includes a special in-depth section analyzing energy supplies, and

and water quality, toxic emissions, and

finds that artificial market constraints

Crises sell papers, but the evidence shows that these positive environmental trends are almost certain to continue in the coming decade... and a refusal to utilize supplies of fossil

Stan Mech Agencies Inc. has announced the change of the company's name to STANMECH Technologies Inc., to co incide with a series of strategic changes to the positioning of the business. "We have changed our name to more accu rately reflect the nature of our business," stated Paul Subject, President. The company recently announced the opening of their Toronto repair centre to service and repair their complete line of products including Leister hot air weld ing equipment, Munsch extrusion weld ing equipment.Packaging Aids heat seal ing equipment, and Ultra Sonic Seal ul trasonic welding equipment. STANMECH Technologies Inc. spe cializes in developing plastics joining, fabricating and forming solutions rang

ing from plastics joining methods, such as hot air, extrusion, ultrasonic, hot plate,

spin, vibration, and laser welding, to sup plying innovative packaging and sealing solutions, to providing heat sources for industrial applications, including solder ing, shrinking, forming, and drying. Contact Paul Subject at: Tel: (905) 828-1400, Fax:(905) 828-1056, E-mail: information@stanmech.com, Web site: www.stanmech.com.

other significant improvements, accord ing to Dr. Steven Hayward, director of

fuels have caused the current California

the Institute's Center for Environmental

energy debacle. Conventional energy

Cancoppas Ltd. is now the

and Regulatory Reform. Sensational media coverage may exacerbate mis placed public concern and divert public debate, a trend that appeared to be re curring as California's energy crisis threatened to spread nationwide. "Crises sell papers, but the evidence shows that these positive environmen

sources remain abundant and modern

authorized sales and service

technology has made them cleaner than

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tal trends are almost certain to continue

in the coming decade, the result mostly ofimproving technology and increasing local efforts," said Dr. Hayward. Key findings include: ' Air Pollution: Since 1970, aggregate

air pollution emissions decreased 64 per cent. Over the last 10 years alone, nine major cities that historically have had the worst air quality have reported dramatic decreases in the number of days reach ing "unhealthful" thresholds on theEPA's Air Quality Index, ranging from a 57 to a whopping 100 percent decline. • Water Quality: Lake Erie was consid ered "dead" in 1970, but today 98 per cent of the Great Lakes' shorelines have

been assessed to be fully supporting for swimming and drinking. • Urban Sprawl: Despite widespread media attention and public concern Environmental Science

ever. The study also reveals that alter native energy resources pose their own environmental trade-offs. For example, windmill generators in California alone kill 39 golden eagles annually, eight times the mortality rate of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989.


The Environmental Future:

Technology and Local Control The study finds that positive environ mental trends are likely to continue as a result of improving technology, marketbased incentives, and local activism,

which people tend to rate more highly than government efforts. "For too long the commitment to en vironmental protection has been meas ured on the basis of growth of the EPA budgets, the number of enforcement actions brought, and the amount offines levied," said Hayward. "The next 30 years of environmental progress will be led by local control, cooperative dia logue, and results-oriented technologi cal and market-based innovations,rather


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than cumbersome bureaucracy and dec ades of litigation." ❖

Engineering, September 2001


Env. Performance Management

Environmental management technologies transform US army ammunition plant

Anenvironmentalinitiative by

the US Army at its largest active ammunition produc tion facility in Radford, Virginia, is setting a new standard for environmental and eco-efficiency per

ing formats. The emphasis on use of only Oj^-r/7e-s/)e//technologies facilitates system upgrades and expansions and ensures that the REDMAP environmen

tal management concept is adaptable to other facilities and industries.

REDMAP innovations replace many

formance. Started in 1998 and now

nearing completion, the Radford Environmental Management and Development Program(REDMAP) has successfully overlaid state-ofthe-art control, monitoring, com

of information that gives managers and

plant personnel remote monitoring,con trol, and response capabilities that were previously unheard of in an industrial environmental management system. The project employs small and spe cialized industrial programmable logic 1 controllers or PLCs, which are nor

mally used in production and manufacturing processes. These devices are integrated with envi ronmental instruments and linked

munications, Web and other infor

to a Web-enabled database man

mation technologies onto a mature chemical production facility.

agement system. It continuously monitors data from dispersed pro duction areas, wastewater treat

Modeled after an earlier and

successful program at the Tobyhanna Army Depot in Pennsylva nia, the program integrates com mercially proven environmental instruments, monitors, analyzers, controllers, recording devices,con trol software and alanning systems to generate real-time data and re porting for environmental per formance management. Using fibre optics in combina An array of the ammunition produced at the US Ar tion with a wireless local area net

my's facility in Radford.

work(LAN)and radios, real-time envi ronmental data is gathered from remote

locations throughout the plant and fed to all browser-equipped workstations in highly intuitive and user-friendly report-

ment systems and other pollutant treatment processes that are spread over the facility's 4,000 acres. Through its Web-enabled and enterprise-wide data reporting, REDMAP gives plant operators and managers a shared and global perspective on facility operations and performance. Near real-time data improves environmental com pliance, data accuracy, and timeli ness. It also enhances worker

of the time-consuming,labour-intensive

safety and reduces damage to the envi

field verifications, data collection and

ronment through early detection and prevention of spills and permit-violat ing discharges. It has enabled plant management to adopt a "beyond com-

laboratory testing tasks that are funda mental to a traditional environmental

compliance program. It creates a web

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Env. Performance Management pliance" mindset and to set ambitious goals for enhanced operational and re source efficiency. A global perspective on facility operations Perhaps the greatest benefit of this global oversight is seen in the Upstream Monitoring Systems(UMS). REDMAP installed UMS in four areas of the

Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RFAAP), including the industrial wastewater treatment plant, the sanitary treatment plant,the waste acid treatment plant, and the sewer system. The UMS provide operators and managers alike with a shared and global perspective of their entire treatment process.

puter by plant operators and environ mental managers to the plant's entire performance database. Through the alarm system, operators become immediately aware of spills, leaks, abnormally high flows, or pollut ant loads. Security and fire department personnel are also instantly notified of selected alarms. Treatment plant opera tors are able to divert high pollutant flows to off-line basins and adjust wastewater treatment strategies, thereby mini mizing treatment plant disturbances and permit violations. Environmental man agers can also easily investigate an in cident by backtracking to the source by analyzing trends and historical data gen-


Treatment plant operators are able to divert high pollutant flows to off-line basins and adjust wastewater treatment strategies, thereby minimizing treatment plant disturbances and permit violations. In a recent case, RFAAP personnel used the UMS data on RFAAP's secure

Intranet to discover that one of the pro duction areas was releasing 400,000 (US) gallons per day of extra water to the wastewater treatment plant in an un necessary effort to keep the water pipe lines from freezing. The discovery and corrective action not only saved thou sands of dollars in water charges, but also improved the wastewater treatment plant's operational efficiency. In addition, data is monitored from

five of the plant's permitted outfalls,sev eral pump stations, ammonia storage fa cilities, the raw water influent, its selec

tive catalytic recovery facility (for abatement), and two weather towers. A plant-wide ammonia emergency re sponse system, which includes detec tion, notification, and plume prediction, was also instituted to improve the plant's ability to respond quickly to any ammo nia release. The brains of REDMAP is its Envi

ronmental Information System (EIS). The EIS links each environmental/in

dustrial process into a unified, integrated whole using a relational database man agement system, programmable logic

erated by the system. Other examples of savings and effici encies generated include: • Reduced maintenance hours and ex

tended life of equipment through more rigorous monitoring of equipment con dition.

• Less environmental liability through minimized risks of excursions and proc ess upsets.

•Cost avoidance through early problem detection, process optimization and con sequent minimization of the amounts of waste treated and sludges generated. • Reduced product loss and raw mate rial usage. • Labour savings as a result of reduced field monitoring requirements. •Reduced reporting costs through com puterized data reporting and improved accuracy.

•(US)$50,000 in annual cost avoidance in the wastewater treatment area.

•(US) $12,000 saved annually in re duced manhours as a result of the new

ammonia detection system. Both the Army and the community have recognized REDMAP's impor tance as a trendsetter for industrial en

vironmental performance, and have rec ognized RFAAP each year with environ or automated control system software mental performance awards, including: packages, and a Web-based document the 1998 US Amy Environmental Qual management system. The EIS is respon ity Award, the 1999 Secretary of sible for collecting and storing the real Defense's Environmental Security Award time environmental data and processing for Pollution Prevention, and the 2000 it into usable information for analysis Virginia Governor's Awardfor Environ and reporting. The system permits easy mental Excellencefor Manufacturers. access from any Web-connected comCircle reply card No. 145 controllers,"human/machine interface"

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

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Wastewater Treatment

New state-of-the-art wastewater facility for Strathmore, Alberta, designed in BC

Anew wastewater treatment facility built for the

Alberta Town of Strathmore is now in service.

The plant, designed by Ecotluid Systems, Inc. of Vancouver, BC, was built to replace eight ex tended aeration lagoons and incorporates their patented, proven USBF(Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration) process. The USBF"technology ensures high quality effluent that meets or exceeds typical regulatory requirements including phosphorus and nitrogen reduction. The plant is designed to produce effluent no greater than 15 mg/1 BOD and TSS plus 1 mg/1 Total Phosphorus, and

treat an average wastewater flow of 4,000 mVd (1 million gallons/day) and peak day flows of 10,000 mVday for Strathmore's rapidly growing population. It will be oper ated by EPCOR. Due to the modular design of the USBF system,the plant can be readily expanded to meet future growth in a costeffective manner. This plant will meet the immediate and

long-term wastewater treatment needs for residential and business development. The Ecofluid USBF process is the result of over 40 years

of research and development, testing and practical experi ence. It is a modification of the conventional activated

Strathmore, Alberta WWTP, USBF clarifier detail.

sludge process that incorporates an anoxic selector zone and an USBF clarifier in one integrated bioreactor vessel. This compact, modular system takes up significantly less space and contains few moving parts. The result is said to be an efficient, highly affordable wastewater treatment plant with low maintenance and operating costs. The operation of a USBF plant is simple and self-regu lating. Wastewater enters the anoxic compartment of the bioreactor where it mixes with activated sludge recycled from the bottom of the clarifier. Agitated and moved in a

plug flow manner, the mixed liquor eventually underflows

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into the bioreactor's aerobic compartment. After aeration, a stream of the mixed liquor enters the bottom of the clarifier where sludge flocs and water are separated by upflow sludge blanket filtration. After separation, clear water overflows into a collection trough and is discharged from the system.

To complete the internal circulation loop, activated sludge collecting at the bottom of the clarifier is recycled back into the bioreactor's anoxic compartment.

The technology has no inherent capacity limits and is used in a wide range of applications. Plants serving the domestic and municipal sectors designed for treating indus trial, food processing and agricultural wastewater are in suc cessful operation around the world.

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Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2001

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Air Pollution

Evidence of highly oxidizing environment over the South Pole

Morethan 15 years after the

discovery of an ozone hole in the stratrosphere

over the Antarctic, the re

mote continent is yielding another at mospheric surprise. A team of researchers led by the Georgia Institute of Technology, has found a surprisingly high level of an air-

CEOb^l"pQLE SOUTH noALD ambnosea


17. "I" I

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purifying chemical(or oxidizing agent) in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. The finding has implica tions for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores.

The summertime 24-hour average value of the primary atmospheric oxidant-known as the hydroxyl(OH)radi cal - at the South Pole is higher than that estimated from OH measurements

recorded at the equator. The research ers will report their findings this fall in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

The OH radical is widely recognized as vital to scrubbing pollution and natu rally occurring chemicals from the air throughout the globe; it prevents a buildup of toxic levels of these sub stances.

"What we now know is that the near-

Scientists found a high level of an air-purifying chemical in the near-surface atmos phere over the South Pole.

other five to 10 years after they are trapped in the snowpack. Davis expects that scientists will soon focus more at

measurements of nitric oxide, Davis

tention on this topic.


"Snow release of nitric oxide, which leads to the formation of OH, can, in

the selected-ion chemical-ionization

principle, occur anywhere globally where there are accumulations of nitrate ions in ice and there is also solar radia

surface atmospheric zone called the mixed layer (from the surface upward to between 20 to 200 metres)is a highly oxidizing environment at the South Pole," says Doug Davis, one of the lead researchers and a professor in the Geor gia Tech School of Earth and Atmos pheric Sciences. "Equally exciting, we are beginning to see evidence that a lot of this oxidizing chemistry is also oc curring down in the snowpack. Thus, once things get buried in the snow,there continues to be active chemistry - in cluding oxidation - that could further modify chemical species before they are trapped in the ice in their final chemical

Davis adds. "And,anytime you are pro ducing higher levels of OH,it means this chemistry is having some local or re gional impact. The final global impact from this chemistry, however, is still



This finding suggests that glaciochemists - who study climate change based on an analysis of trace chemicals trapped in polar ice-have to be far more careful in their interpretation of Antarc tic ice cores,says Davis, whose research team is funded by the National Science Foundation. Changes in some chemi cal species buried may continue for an60

than what they originally expected to find based on their Antarctic coastal

tion," Davis says. "Other researchers have found evidence of this phenom enon in Summit, Greenland, and Alert, Canada. What makes the South Pole

unique is that the levels of nitric oxide and other nitrogen oxides are nearly an order of magnitude higher than any where else.

"But any significant elevation of ni tric oxide at any snow-covered location should result in an enhancement of OH,"

At the South Pole, researchers re corded OH radical levels over a 24-hour

period; the average measurement was about 2 X 106 molecules per cubic cen timetre of air several days during their December 1998 to January 1999 expe dition and again from December 2000 to January 2001. These measurements are nearly an order of magnitude higher

To measure OH, the scientists used

mass spectrometer(SICIMS)technique, which in the early 1990s became the first sensitive method for measuring this radi cal. Georgia Tech Adjunct Professor Fred Eisele,the other lead researcher for

this project, developed the SICIMS tech nique at Tech. To measure nitric oxide (NO), re searchers used the well-established

chemiluminescence technique with modifications to improve its sensitivity by an order of magnitude. Nitric oxide, also a radical, is a by-product of inter nal combustion engines. But Davis and his co-workers believe NO is formed at the South Pole when ultraviolet radia

tion interacts with nitrate ions. Scien tists are not certain about the source of

the nitrate, but it could originate from stratospheric denitrification processes and the long-range transport of nitric acid formed at low latitudes during elec trical storms.

Although the factors that cause NO levels at the South Pole to exceed 550

parts per trillion by volume of air(pptv) are still under investigation. Davis be lieves the most important factor is the atmospheric mixing depth at the South

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Air Pollution

Pole. This depth seems to be highly vari able at the pole and is sometimes no

production in the Southern Ocean,

radical oxidizes most of the DMS be

which, in turn, reflects both water tem

fore it reaches the South Pole.

more than 25 metres above the surface.

perature and solar radiation, Davis ex plains. So a more comprehensive un derstanding of DMS chemistry around and on the Antarctic should provide valuable information in studying past climate changes, he adds.

"The oxidizing environment at the South Pole is truly astounding," Davis says. "We didn't expect it. And, ini tially, it made no sense. It was like find ing some distant planet's atmosphere plugged into Earth's atmosphere, but having it limited to only the Antarctic polar plateau." The researchers hope to make more sense of their data as they analyze meas urements from their 2000-01 trip dur ing the next year. Already, Davis' col league,Associate Professor Greg Huey, may have identified a new atmospheric nitrogen oxide species in the Antarctic troposphere. The research team hopes

The Davis team's latest results indicate

large fluctuations in atmospheric levels of NO without major changes in NO lev els within the snowpack. Elevated levels of NO (20 to 550 pptv) in the near-surface atmosphere react with the hydroperoxyl radical - a less reactive oxidizing agent than OHand are converted to OH and nitrogen

Based on the results of the sulfur

chemistry studies led by Eisele and former Georgia Tech Research Institute scientist Harald Berresheim at Palmer

dioxide. The latter reacts with OH to

in 1994, Davis and his colleagues moved

produce nitric acid, which can return to the snow, thus forming a closed cycle. "It's not that this is new chemistry," Davis explains. "Most of the time in the background remote atmosphere where NO levels are typically less than 10 pptv, a large fraction of the hydro peroxyl radical reacts with itself and creates hydrogen peroxide, which is lost

their ISCAT research to the South Pole.

They expected to record significant at mospheric transport of sulfate and DMS from the coast to the pole, which is 10,000 feet above sea level.

"Well, our initial hypothesis was wrong, and we found out why when went to the South Pole," Davis explains. "There was very little unreacted DMS

to the surface. But at the South Pole, in

that reached the South Pole because of

the presence of this large source of ni tric oxide,the hydroperoxyl radical pre dominantly reacts with NO to generate the more reactive OH radical. Every body tends to associate nitric oxide lev

the very high levels of OH in the nearsurface air at the South Pole - and per haps more importantly - over the entire polar plateau." Elevated NO maintains a highly oxi dizing environment on the polar plateau 24 hours a day, Davis says. The OH

els with combustion,thus the South Pole

is one of the last places on earth that you might expect to find nitric oxide in such large concentrations." Davis and his colleagues discovered the high NO and OH radical levels in their funded research project, called ISCAT, for the Investigation of Sulfur Chemistry in the Antarctic Troposphere. Specifically, the scientists are working to more fully understand the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under the cold conditions and high latitudes of Antarctica. This information will also

help glacio-chemists better interpret sulfate and methane sulfonate concen

trations incorporated into the continent's 400,000-year-old ice records, Davis


Antarctic ice cores have revealed

clear evidence of major volcanic activ ity in the Southern Hemisphere, and to gether with methane sulfonate, evidence of glacial and interglacial periods in the earth's climate history. The level of DMS is a chemical indicator of biomass

sented in the ISCAT team are the Na

tional Center for Atmospheric Research, New Mexico State University, the Uni versity of California at Irvine, Drexel University,the University of Minnesota, the University of New Hampshire and Arizona State University. For more information, contact: E-mail: douglas.davis@eas.gatech.edu.

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Sulfate is a chemical signature for both southern hemispheric volcanic ac tivity and major fluctuations in phytoplankton populations in the Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica. Phytoplankton lead to the release of DMS from the ocean, part of which is oxidized by OH to sulfate. Methane sulfonate is formed only from DMS.

to return to Anarctica in 2003 to con

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Congress repeals ergonomics rule, handing major victory to WLF Our March 2001 editorial commented

on the legal conflict looming between Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)and the Washington Legal Foundation (WLF) over the so-oalled Ergonomics Rule. As the May ES&E Issue was going to press, the contentious rule was

eral court, charging that OSHA had ex ceeded its power in seeking to impose onerous workplace restrictions on more than 100 million American workers.

Passage of the repeal legislation brings the litigation to a successful conclusion. "Congress evidently

overturned and we Included a brief

understood that the

news Item on the ruling. Here Is a more detailed account of the very

ergonomics rule threatened to swamp our already flounder ing economy," WLF

short life of a contentious Issue.

The WLF triumphed against what it termed excessive gov ernment regulation when a new OSHA ergonomics rule

was repealed. President Bush has said that he would sign this repeal, bringing to a swift end what WLF says is "the most intrusive federal oversight of American workplaces in history."

discipline ofergonomics, defined as "the science of fitting the job to the worker". The rule covered Mom and Pop grocery stores and Fortune 500 corporations alike. It would have governed issues

such as the height of a worker's desk,

^ W y

the angle of computer monitors, even a worker's posture when lifting a phone book. WLF filed suit

Litigation Affairs

based on its objection to several aspects of

Shawn Gunnarson

the rule. First, it had

Senior Counsel for

said. "We are pleased that OSHA's attempt to over-regulate American workplaces has been decisively squelched." On November 14, 2000, OSHA is sued a massive regulation aimed at re

a low threshold. If a

single employee re

ported a single "job related" ergonomic injury, the employer was required to set up a full ergonomics program, which carried with it substantial administrative

As ES&E's March Editorial Com

ducing the number of work-related

costs and burdens. Secondly, the rule

ment reported: WLF filed suit challeng

"musculoskeletal disorders" (MSDs). To do this, OSHA relied on the fuzzy

made employers liable for injuries ag gravated but not caused by conditions

ing the rule in December 2000 in fed

Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc.

Can you help ES&E's Environmental History Project? Historical data on Canada's true envi

ronmental pioneers is in danger of being lost to posterity. There were some able and generous moves In the past. For example. Gore & Storrle, now CH2M Hill Canada, once com

piled a booklet on Consulting Engi

neering in Canada, and the Pollution Control Association of Ontario commissioned Recollections, an environmental

history of wastewater treatment. I was privileged to edit both these projects. Additionally, the Ontario Water Works Association did a series in its Newsletter years ago.

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Admirable though these publications were,there is now a real need to compile priceless documents, photos and drawings, enabling historical data to be captured for pos terity. Much has already been lost. Many young pro fessionals have never heard of some of the pioneering engineers, chemists and others who,for decades, did more to eradicate disease and mortality than the medical profession. ES&E is undertaking the compilation of a data bank of historical environmental projects and the history of various Canadian environmental associations, which will be used,

first in a series of articles, and perhaps later compiled Into a book. E-mall contact Is preferred at first. Do not send origi nal photos but we will arrange for artwork and old photo graphs to be sent electronically later. Please send suggestions, sources and other data which might help to: kathy@esemag.com. Please include phone and fax numbers.

Tom Davey

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001


...the proponents of this repeal measure argued that the ergonomics rule was poorly tailored to protect workplace safety and represented a boon to plaintiffs' lawyers...

New federal regulations for dry cleaning operations Proposed regulations to dry cleaning operations under the new Canadian Environmental Protection Act(CEPA),

on the job. For instance, an employer bore the responsibility of caring for an employee who sprains his wrist while doing yard work on Saturday afternoon, if typing on a computer keyboard would aggravate that condition. Thirdly, the rule imposed several requirements be yond state workers' compensation law, among them mandatory medical care and time off or reduced work responsi bility - both with 90-100% pay. WLF brought its action on behalf of itself and the American Legislative Ex change Council in the US Court of Ap peals for the District of Columbia Cir cuit. In addition to asserting that OSHA had adopted the ergonomics rule in vio lation of its statutory mandate, WLF challenged the rule on the grounds that it exceeded Congress's power under the Commerce Clause and violated the

Tenth Amendment by failing to exempt state and local governments. Apartfrom WLF, the rule was challenged in court

by more than 100 business groups, in cluding the US Chamber of Commerce and the National Association of Manu facturers.

On March 6, 2001, the US Senate

voted to repeal the ergonomics rule. Invoking the never-before-used Con gressional Review Act, the proponents of this repeal measure argued that the ergonomics rule was poorly tailored to protect workplace safety and repre sented a boon to plaintiffs'lawyers, who were expected to take full advantage of the vague and ambiguous language of the rule to bring lawsuits against a wide range of businesses. One day later, March 7,2001, the House of Represent

will significantly reduce the release of a toxic substance called tetrachloroethylene (PERC). The proposed regulations contain the following key provisions: • the phase out of old technology dry cleaning machines by 2002; • the use of cleaning machines which consume less toxic solvent by 2002; • a stewardship provision for solvent suppliers to collect contaminated waste and waste water from dry cleaners; and • an option for dry cleaners to manage and treat their own contaminated waste.

The regulations also fulfill the Gov ernment of Canada's obligation to de

velop control measures for the lifecycle management of tetrachloroethyl-

atives voted 223 to 206 to kill the rule.

ene, which has been found to be toxic

ES&E obtained this latest report fol lowing phone interviews with Glenn G. Lammi, Chief Counsel, Legal Studies Division, Washington Legal Foundation.

to the environment as defined under

Tel: (202) 588-0302, Web site: www.wlf.org.

CEPA. Almost all of the solvent used

in dry cleaning is lost to the environ ment as emissions during the cleaning process, or from spills or improper dis posal of waste and wastewater.

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portable gas monitors to be used for confined space entry. Ttie monitors are user friendly, simple to operate (one button operation) and able to monitor/alarm up to five gases simul

taneously. An internal sampling pump, rechargeable battery or alkaline batteries, sampling hose with water trap, CSA approvals, training video, etc. are standard features. Please contact us at 905-474-1474 or fax us at 905-474-1740

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 150 (See page 25)


Water Resources

Road salt pickling Toronto rivers

Testsfound saltlevels 140times

through the disposal of waste snow. Run

water,surface water, poison wildlife and harm vegetation. Streams, small lake ecosystems and groundwater are particularly vulnerable

from patrol yards where salts are stored have resulted in high concentrations of

27, Kevin Mercer, of Riversides Stew

to road salt, which should be added to

chloride in surface water, with concen

ardship Alliance, released the results of river salt testing which the city

the Canadian Environmental Protection

trations greater than 1,000 milligrams per litre (mg/1).

Ontario limits in Toronto's riv

ers, according to a study car ried out last winter. On March

off of meltwater from roads and releases

conducted in December and

Rainbow trout die after a

January. In one case, samples of storm sewer discharge taken at a tributary of Mimico Creek, near Hwys 427 and 401, contained a

week's exposure to concentrations of 1,000 mg/1, and 10 percent of aquatic species are banned by pro longed exposure to chloride con centrations greater than 220 mg/1.

salt concentration of 35,000 mil

ligrams per litre - 140 times the limit set by provincial waterquality standards. "You might as well be pick ling whatever lives or would like

Environment Canada estimates. Sensitive fishes are harmed not

only by the salt, but by the ferro cyanide used as an anti-caking agent to keep the salt from clump ing together. The assessment found that reducing salt use or re ducing the content of ferrocyanides in road salt formulations

to live in that water," said Mer cer. "You couldn't drink it. Pro

vincial water-quality standards set 250 milligrams per litre as the Please don't drink the run-off. Photo - Steve Davey could reduce the risks to sensi limit for salt." He called for city council to significantly reduce the Act's toxic substances list. Environment tive aquatic vertebrates in areas of high use of road salts. 130,000 tonnes of salt Toronto crews put Canada said in its report. High chloride concentrations in Road salts are sodium chloride, cal on roads each winter. He also wants the groundwater are of concern because the city to look at alternatives to road salt. cium chloride, potassium chloride, mag Environmentalists have requested nesium chloride and ferrocyanide salts. groundwater eventually surfaces at The principal salt used on roads is the springs and contributes further to sur Toronto's works committee to endorse face water contamination. Urban areas an Environment Canada report which table salt used on food. The only irrita in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime classifies road salt as environmentally tion for humans from road salt is its ad provinces of New Brunswick, Nova verse effect on the taste of contaminated toxic. Scotia and Prince Edward Island where roadside well waters, said the study. A five year assessment by Environ rock salt is used heavily during winter Road salts enter the environment from ment Canada found that the five million suffer most from contaminated ground storage facilities, through their applica tons of road salts used across the coun try every winter contaminate ground- tions to roads, streets and sidewalks and and surface water. ❖



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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Business News

ONDEO Degremont wins Thunder Bay WPCP upgrade contract

US communities choose Canadian membrane

technology ONDEO Degremont is providing the City of Thunder Bay with its Biofor C Biologically Aerated Filter(BAF)tech nology for the upgrade of the Atlantic Avenue Water Pollution Control Plant

from primary treatment to secondary treatment. "We are very satisfied that after months of comparative testing and analysis, third party experts have re tained our Biofor C BAF technology for this upgrade. With our bio-filtration technology, Thunder Bay will be able to meet the new and more demanding requirements of the Ontario water regu lation. This will be the first Biofor in

stallation in Ontario and the largest Biofor installation to date in North

America," noted M.Andre Leger, CFO of ONDFO Degremont. Less than 10 years ago, the company supplied the CUQ (Urban Community of Quebec) with the largest installation of first generation biofilters in Canada. With the Thunder Bay award, ONDFO Degremont will install its Biofor proc

ess (co-cument upflow) in what will be Zenon Environmental Inc. has been cho come the largest second generation sen by three communities in the United biofiltration plant in Canada. States to provide its proprietary drink The city of Thunder Bay mandated ing water technology for contracts third party experts to perform compara totalling approximately C$12 million. tive analysis. XCG Consulting evalu Eastern Municipal Water District ated the process through lengthy pilot (FMWD) provides water services to a studies of alternative technologies. 555-square mile area with a population FarthTech Canada (formerly Reid of440,000 in western Riverside County Crowther,Winnipeg)evaluated the com in California. According to Bruce petitiveness of Biofor through an in- Mitzel of FMWD,engineering consult depth analysis of capital and operating ants CH2M Hill and Carollo provided costs. The product of ONDFO them with a solution to achieving both Degremont R&D's efforts, the Biofor a high level of water recovery along with process combines two operations in one: premium water quality consistently. biological degradation and retention of "The best technology for our appli suspended solids. cation was the Zenon membrane," said Designed to treat a maximum flow Mr. Mitzel. "Instead of purchasing po of 225 ML/d, the secondary treatment table water from the Metropolitan installation will use 11 biofilters Water District and expanding the exist (1177m^). This two year-long contract ing pipeline, we felt that building a new, is valued at over $7.7 M and was ob

tained with the active support of Aqua Technical Sales, ONDFO Degremont's representative in Ontario.

RVA working on consulting contract for Mumbai(Bombay)sewerage study India's Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, has appointed R.V. Toronto, in a joint venture with Mott

Major changes in wastewater standards for marine discharge, coupled with sub stantial population growth since then, and the need to provide improved health

MacDonald of the UK,for a 32-month

and environmental benefits to Mumbai's

feasibility study aimed at developing a new master plan for sewage collection, treatment and disposal in the Greater Mumbai(Bombay)area. Working with

metropolitan area, mean that the plan now needs updating to bring improved

Anderson Associates Limited of

Indian consultants PHF Consultants Ltd.

and Mahindra Acres Consulting Engi neers Ltd., the joint venture team will also undertake preliminary engineering design for the plan's principal compo nents and develop a phased implemen tation program. Mumbai's present sewerage system, parts of which originate from the 1880s, incorporates over 1,300 km of sewers, 51 pumping stations and treatment plants serving an estimated 15 million people in an urban area of 420 km-. Following various improvements and extensions over the years, a sewerage master plan had been developed in 1979.

environmental conditions in the sur

rounding coastal and creek waters. The consultancy team is constructing a computer model of the system, study ing available population and sewage flow data, and predicting future figures based on cument urban development plans, plus emerging growth trends in the region. The next stage entails reviewing pro posed sewerage plans and formulating an optimum system allowing maximum use of existing collection facilities. The team will also identify additional works needed to deliver the required environmental improvements,develop an operation and maintenance strategy, and identify train ing needs for staff tasked with operating and managing the system.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

more efficient plant was the viable eco nomical alternative for our customers."

Evergreen,Colorado and Marysville, Washington, will also be the sites oftwo new drinking water plants for the tech nology. The Evergreen Metropolitan

District's new plant will use ZeeWeedÂŽ membranes in a two step process to optimize water recovery. Initially, ZeeWeed membranes will purify surface water taken directly from nearby Evergreen Lake. The remaining untreated water will then be treated in a

second step, again using ZeeWeed mem branes, to provide additional premium quality drinking water. In addition to decreasing the amount of wasted water during treatment, con cerns over current and anticipated future regulatory requirements influenced the City of Marysville in its decision to choose the right technology for the new drinking water plant. Currently, water from the Stillaguamish River is only disinfected with chlorine. The new plant will use ZeeWeed membranes to provide a safe and reliable drinking water supply to the community. Both the Evergreen and Marysville plants are scheduled for com pletion by mid 2002.

ES&E on line at:

www.esemag.com 65

Sewage Treatment

Four golf resorts are reusing treated sewage for Irrigation

The Waterloo Biofilter is simi

lar to standard trickle filter

technology but the filter me dium is absorbent for retention

time without multiple passes. Because

of its specific physical properties, the system is overall aerobic but concommitant anaerobic activity results in no aerobic sludge production as in other aerobic systems. Hydraulic

used at Blue Springs golf club. A cus tom SCADA unit is an important design component and is invaluable for trou bleshooting. Disposal is by gravity or pump to the irrigation ponds. The sys tems are operational year round with lower and weaker flows during the win ter, but with no change in operation, and

a strong UV unit can remove E. colt well below the required limits. Table 1 shows the influent values

measured in the septic tanks before alum addition. Most of the parameters are on average higher than the design criteria, with stronger wastewater during the busy summer season. Close co-opera tion with company staff keeps wastewater strength as low as pos

overloads can be handled without


the filter medium plugging or backing up. Figure 1 is a phot omicrograph of the filter medium after 12 months loading, showing bacteria colonizing inner surfaces and growing into large -0.5 mm

The design concentration of40 mg/L TKN proved fairly accurate but did increase in the busy sea son, often to >100 mg/L TKN,and >98% nitrification would be needed to meet the effluent crite

ria (Table 2). As expected, the or ganic matter loading was twice the ClubLink golf clubs and resorts w design of 250 mg/L cBOD,but rein Ontario are treating sewage circulation of the filter effluent wastewater to the highest degree back to the septic tank reduced or and reusing the treated effluent in ganic matter to a level where thor the golf course irrigation system. Figure 2 is an aerial view of the Figure 1. Photomicrograph offilter medium after 12 ough nitrification could take place. Treatment system results Blue Springs golf club. The filter months loading, showing bacteria coionizing inner Table 2 shows the effluent val is housed in the circled garage-type surfaces and growing into large pores. Pores are ues of the golf resorts year by year, building. Stringent effluent crite -0.5 mm diameter. ria were set to meet objectives of both no addition of carbon source or nutrients. along with the compliance requirements Addition of liquid alum to the septic and the target values. Generally the sys the company and the government. Soil disposal of sewage was not an option tank is controlled by linking the alum tems improve with age, even when the due to lack of space, difficult soils, and pump to a sewage pump going to the wastewater increases in mass loading. High mass loading is critical in the start septic tank or to an effluent pump to dis regulatory requirements. One of the challenges was to meet posal, something that approximates the up phase (typically one month) where the stringent effluent criteria, especially flow through the system. The strength nitrifiers have not established them selves properly, and nitrification can be for ammonium, when extremely strong of the alum is correlated with the ex wastewater and variable daily and pected loading of phosphorus. Tests of impeded by the high organic loading. Once the system has matured, abovefilter effluent carried out for ultraviolet hourly flows are to be expected. An other challenge was to test the use of disinfection effectiveness showed that design loadings can be handled without alum addition in septic tanks in high Table 1. ClubLink golf club influent values flow systems, a process that was suc (median values mg/L; to June 2001) cessfully tested by Ministry of Environ ment personnel on small systems. TKN TP cBOD TSS Treatment system design 40 10 250 250 Design The design is kept as simple as pos sible and includes exterior grease traps, 58 13.1 471 263 Rattlesnake Point 1999 septic tanks, a surge pump tank, filters 208 58 6.1 379 2000 above or below ground, effluent re-cir2.4 21 52-1620* 133 2001 culation to the septic tank for ammo 147 47 6.0 423 Blue Springs 1999 nium removal, alum addition for phos 6.2 38 175 2000 535 phorus removal,and ultraviolet disinfec 1.2 49 35 2001 156 tion. Figure 3shows the Waterloo tanks 277 74 8.5 Kings Riding 2000 1010 pores.

By E. Craig Jowett and

Joe M. Rogers, Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc., and Scott Kirby, ClubLink Corporation 66

Rooky Crest







202/459** 326/-

74/88 141/-

39/93 30/-

3.3/9.6 4.7/-


range provided; **resort/clubhouse sewage separated Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Sewage Treatment respectively. The combination ofhigh flows in the summer with high strength wastewater also led to above-design organic matter loadings. While this was not a problem during the second summer of operation, it can cause problems during the start up period. Organic matter loading was well above design at Kings Riding right at start-up and inhibited adequate am monium removal. To solve the prob lem quickly, more filter tanks were added, although ammonium values may Figure 2. Aerial photograph of Blue Springs golf club showing attractive garagetype building (circled) housing the sewage treatment plant.

have lowered on their own in time as

compromising the quality of effluent. The filters react very favourably to flow fluctuations between busy and

periods ofhigh and low flows. Both the

the existing tanks matured. The design to remove ammonium also has the effect of removing total ni

alum addition and the UV disinfection

trogen (TN = TKN-rNO^-N). TN val

performed very well, lowering the TP

slack seasons, which in these cases are

to <1 mg/L and E. coll. to 1 cfu/100 mL

ues during the first year at three of the Continued overleaf

summer and winter, respectively. Figure 4 shows the effluent cBOD val ues (left axis) compared to the actual daily flow rate measured (right axis) at RattleSnake Point golf club. The cBOD values are consistently <5 mg/L in both

seasons, with flows ranging from <5 m-^ in the winter to over 45 m' in the sum mer. Ammonium values also remained

consistently below target levels during

Table 2. ClubLink golf club effluent values (median values mg/L; to June 2001) cBOD


- carbonaceous bio


chemical oxygen demand total suspended solids total Kjeldahl nitrogen total phosphorous biochemical oxygen demand


- ammonium nitrogen - total nitrogen





cfu/ lOOmL

Compliance Target Rattlesnake Point











n/a n/a

3.8 2.0































































Acronyms cBOD


Blue Springs

Kings Riding

Rocky Crest



18.7 -



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Sewage Treatment with the remote monitoring and data recording, and very difficult without it. Difficulties can be anticipated by daily inspection of the monitoring data, an example being the unbalanced cycling of pressure switches indicating the stick ing of the rotating valve.

Rattlesnake Point Golf Resort

up Surtimer



W nter




Emuent cBO










Days From Startup

Figure 4. Fluctuating hydraulic flow rates at RattleSnake Point golf club from sea son to season do not affect the quality of the filter effluent. sites indicate removal rates of 60% in

the buried concrete system where air is freely vented (RattleSnake) and 75% removal in the polyethylene containers where air supply is controlled (Blue Springs and Kings Riding). In areas of very soft water, alkalinity concentrations are inadequate for nitri fication to occur, and sodium bicarbo

nate added to the sewage successfully remediates this shortfall, although sig

nificantly adds to the maintenance re quirements. These surface discharge sites are all monitored remotely by a custom "Sitewatch" system that records tempera tures, pump on and off times,flow rates, pressure switches, alarms,etc., and sum marizes the data each day. Serious alarms are paged to the professional op erator and to Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Problem trouble-shooting is easy

Figure 3. Waterloo Blofliters housed In portable polyethylene tanks 2.4 m diam eter by 2.4 m high with controlled air flow using corrosion-resistant fans, each suit able to treat 5000 Ud.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Fall Conference Previews

Atlanta to host WEFTEC 2001

WEFTEC 2001, the Water Environment Fed

eration's(WEE)74th Annual Conference &

Exposition, takes place October 13-17,2001, at the Georgia World Congress Center in At lanta, Georgia. The event will include nearly 600 presenta tions and more than 800 exhibitors.

Bruce Babbitt, former Secretary of the Interior, will be the featured Opening General Session speaker. Christine Todd Whitman, current US EPA Administrator, has been

invited to be a speaker. The 2001 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate, Takashi Asano, recognized worldwide as a water reuse expert, will speak at the session. US EPA office directors Geoff Grubbs(Science and Tech nology) and Mike Cook (Wastewater Management), will provide a regulatory update. Eric Strassler will discuss the Agency's plans to propose effluent guidelines for the con struction and development industry. A Total Maximum Daily Loads stakeholder panel will discuss aspects of the TMDL process and revisions to the regulations. This year's topic at a special invitation-only luncheon briefing for journalists, concerns the growing national wa ter infrastructure crisis. According to the Water Infrastruc ture Network, a non-partisan coalition of organizations, the price tag for clean water is an incredible trillion dollars over the next 20 years. Between current investments in infra

C Winning teams from Canadian association Operations Chal lenges will be competing at WEFTEC 2001.

Rheology and Mythology. • The Benefits to Performing an EPA cMOM Audit. •Traits of a Successful LIMS Implementation: Approaches to Selecting and Implementing a LIMS in Your Lab. • Operation and Maintenance of Pumps. • The Habitat Assessment Process: An Introduction to Eco

logical Assessment Using US EPA's Bioassessment Proce

structure and investments needed to meet Clean Water Act


requirements, this translates to $23 billion a year for Ameri ca's 54,000 drinking water systems and 16,000 wastewater

• Wastewater Microbiology. Technical Programs For complete technical program information, contact WEE at:(703)684-2400, or on-line at: www.wef.org.


The finals of Operations Challenge 2001 will take place October 16.

Workshops being held at WEFTEC • Creating a Water Reuse Market. • Implementing Instrumentation, Control, and Information Technology in Activated Sludge Systems. • Monitoring to Support Watershed Assessments and Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). • Odour and CoiTosion Characterization, Measurement,and

Control in Collection Systems. • The People Side of Change. •Inoculate Yourself Against Ignorance: Leant about the CDC and ATSDR.

• Research and Applications in Wastewater Treatment. • The Cyanide Challenge: Lessons Learned from WERF's Three-Year Study. • Joint WEEAVERE: Is Your Utility "Measuring Up"? • Public Perception and Participation: When Emotion Trumps Reason, How Not to Fold. • State-of-the-Art WWTP Sensing and Control Systems. • Technology and Watershed Assessment: Application to Reasonable Assurance Determinations in Columbus, Geor

gia. •Analytical Data QA/QC, Validation and Management. • Decentralized Wastewater Management - Best Practices 2001.

• Market Opportunities in Asia and Resources to Help US Companies Succeed. • Operation of Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants. •Selection and Application of Residual Transport Systems: Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Western Canada Water & Wastewater Association - 53rd Annual Conference October 28-31, 2001 Shaw Conference Centre, Edmonton, Alberta Tours - Sunday October 28 • E.L. Smith Water Treatment Plant - as well as an over

view of the current treatment process, the tour will also in clude the remote operation system and ultraviolet pathogen inactivation unit.

• Edmonton Composting Facility - the largest municipal solid waste and wastewater biosolids co-composter in North America. • Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant- tour includes the

recent BNR upgrade, door control systems and new grit and screenings facilities. • St. Albert Public Works Yard and Edmonton Ring Road will tour the City of St. Albert Public Works facilities and the construction activities on the $250 million Anthony Henday Drive portion of the Edmonton Ring Road Project. Workshops - Suuday, October 28 • Water Pathogens. • Water and Wastewater Automation.

• Improving Water Utility Management through use of Artificial Intelligence. Techuical Program For complete information on the technical program,con tact the association at: Tel:(877)283-2003,Fax:(403)2832007, or online at: www.wcwwa.ca. 69

Water Treatment

Giant corporations eye $655 billion world market for water-related services

Companies who formerly derived their primary

revenues from operation of public water treatment facilities have acquired companies in vastly different water-related markets and,in effect, have

through its acquisitiion of US Filter. Its activities now range from the operation of water utilities to the supply of car tridges for chemical separations. This broader market is two percent of the world's gross

defined a new combined market with

revenues in 2000 valued at (US) $655

2000 World Water Market: $655 Billion

billion. This broader market includes the


treatment and distribution of public water


supplies; the collection, treatment and discharge of municipal wastewater; the


treatment of industrial water and

60.0 51.1

wastewater and the treatment of process water and other fluids. The size and distribution of this market has been

tabulated by the Mcllvaine Company in its Clear Solutions report. Water, the universal solvent, is the workhorse of industry. Water is also the

50.0 <0 c o

g 40.0






** 30.0

most important substance used in the generation of electricity. Expensive wa ter treatment is needed in this steam cy

cle. Suez Lyonaisse, with the purchase of Nalco, became the largest player in

20.0 10.0 0.0













this market. Vivendi has diversified

domestic product. Twenty-nine percent of this market is in the US. Even when the US is divided into nine regions,

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Manufacturers and Suppliers of Water and Wastewater Products and Processes

each of the regions ranks among the top 20 mix. Germany is the largest market, followed by Japan, the UK,Italy, and France. Sixth place is held by the Pacific States which in cludes Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washing ton. Seventh place is held by the Southeastern States which includes Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. US regions also hold the next four positions. Canada is in the thirteenth spot followed by China.

Sanitherm Engineering has developed a worldwide reputation for quality equipment and service over 55 years. Our package plants are found in South Korea, Indonesia, Russia, Peru and throughout North America. We design,

Treatment represents only 15% of the total cost of public water supply while distribution and other costs constitute the other 85%. Treatment constitutes 25% of total munici

pal wastewater costs. Treatment costs for industrial

build, install and/or operate, and represent over 20 premier manufacturers in

wastewater are 85% of the total, compared to 60% for in dustrial water and 95% for process liquids.

Canada, the USA, and

Outsourcing of treatment and distribution started in the public water supply segment, but is now increasingly con sidered a viable option in the other segments. Inroads have been made in the production of ultrapure water for semi conductor and power plants. US Filter, Ionics, and several smaller companies have been successful in obtaining con tracts to own and operate the purification facilities. The fastest growing sector will be the delivery of




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desalinated water on a contract basis. The cost of

desalination is now less than alternatives in Israel and many

areas that have relied on ground or surface water until now.

Tampa,Florida has recently signed a long-term contract for desalinated water even though groundwater was an option. For more information, contact The Mcllvaine Company, Northbrook, IL, Fax:(847) 272-9673. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

GLOBE 2002 7th Biennial Conference & Trade Fair on Business and the Environment


Call for Papers

leaders from corporate, industrial and government circles converging to discuss strategy and source technology in

Authors are encouraged to submit abstracts for oral presentations and discussions. Topics to be covered fall under three program themes and include,

Vancouver next March at GLOBE 2002

but are not limited to:

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GLOBE 2002 is the largest event of its kind in North America, providing critical informa tion on key environmental issues and innovative programs driving business in the new millennium. International leaders from over 75 economies will convene to discuss

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Expertise to a World Class Audience GLOBE 2002 is pleased to announce the exciting addition of Technical Sessions to our core Conference agenda. A stand alone module in the GLOBE Conference

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Urban Environmental Management • Sustainable building technology • Transportation policy, planning & management •

Land conversion

• Urban waste management • Urban ecology Energy Efficiency

• Industrial / Commercial energy efficiency • Electric — Industry innovations • Community and/or household energy efficiency • Hydrogen fuel cells • Renewable energy • Nuclear energy • General energy policy Water

• Municipal wastewater technologies • Reclamation and reuse of municipal effluents • Instrumentation, process control, and computer applications • Management of resources

The first deadline for abstract submission

is October 15, 2001. Please visit our website for further information.

technical solutions.

For more information

visit www.globe2002.com, email info@globe.apfnet.org Telephone: Gillian Moron (800) 274-6097 /(604) 775-6197 For more information, circle reply card No. 136(See page 25)

Air Pollution

Some environmental facts of life revealed

to the Ontario legislature

Lastyear,morethan 380tonnes

of air pollution were kept out

environmentally friendly electric or re chargeable models. The MOE was glad

of the air as a result of Pollu

to work with the Clean Air Foundation

tion Probe's Clean Air Cam

and a number of private sector sponsors to make this program possible.

paign and Commute. I am pleased to say that my ministry is again a sponsor of this important campaign. The cottage and the backyard are where many Ontarians relax,enjoy sum mer and get back in touch with nature. But they may not be aware of the impact they have on the environment when they are trying to enjoy the great outdoors. For example, running a typical gas lawnmower for two hours can create

While more than half of Ontario's

smog is the result of pollution from sources in the United States,there is still

be even more polluting than gas lawn

about the same amount of air emissions

as driving a car from Ontario to the Maritimes. Other gas-powered motor tools like trimmers and chainsaws can

By The Hon. Elizabeth Witmer, Ontario Minister of the Environment


This is why we have supported the Mow Down Pollution program, an in novative environmental partnership be tween government and non-government groups. The pilot program offered peo

ple a cash rebate to turn in their old, airpolluting gas lawn mowers for more




What quality standard does your lab meet? Check our Web site: www.caeal.ca

much we can and must do to improve our air quality at home. Here are some other interesting facts to keep in mind while enjoying Ontario's natural beauty: • a two-stroke, 70-horsepower engine emits the same amount of smog-caus ing pollution in one hour as driving a new car 8,000 kilometres; and

• running a 100-horsepower personal watercraft for seven hours is estimated

to cause more air pollution than driving a three year-old car 160,000 kilometres. Simply driving our cars less and tak ing public transit-even one day a week - can make a big difference to the air we all share. If that's not an option, making sure our vehicles are well tuned so they run more efficiently and use less gas also helps, as does the avoidance of idling our cars while stopped. The products we use also have a large impact on our air quality. We should all try to avoid products like aerosol sprays, oil-based paints or strong cleaning prod ucts - especially on hot summer days when smog levels are higher. We could reduce the number of days a week we water our lawns, conserving our precious water resources. And prac tising pesticide-free lawn and garden care reduces the amount of chemicals

that can leach into our ecosystems. Excerptedfrom a statement to the Leg islature.

or call us at:(613)233-5300 Quality Assurance For Environmental Laboratories

Obituary One of Ontario's most respected operators, Earl Hunter Baldock, died peacefully, July 10, 2001, in Toronto. Earl Baldock was renowned for his

• Proficiency testing • ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation audits

(with accreditation by the Standards Council of Canada) The Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical Laboratories 72

For more information, circle reply card No. 137 (See page 25)

expertise in wastewater operations. A learned man, he passed on his experiences to younger generations not only at his work, but in lectures and seminars.

He is survived by his wife Jean Amelia, a son-in-law, and four grand children.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001


• Portable Samplers

• Refrigerated Samplers • Open Channel Flow • FRF Enclosures

• Rain Gauges/loggers • Software

Call 1-800-215-4469 or

Email: can-am @can-am.net


Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Sales * Service * Rentals


Fax: 905-829-4701


1?. Oil/Water Separators

oaaPw"**"" Is

Portable Oil in Water Monitor

In-line Oil in Water Monitor

• Oil Float Sensor THESE AR

• Oil Interface Monitor


Liquid Leak detection Oil Skimmers

Call 1-800-215-4469



Email: can-am @can-am.net or

Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Sales * Service * Rentals

Fax: 905-829-4701 www.can-am.net

ES&E Magazine presents:

The 2002

Ontario Environmental Tradeshow held in conjunction with the 10th annual

Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering conference and workshops A unique networking opportunity organized by Environmental Science &

Engineering Magazine and Canadian

Environmental Regulation & Compliance News

April 9 & 10, 2002 Regal Constellation Hotel Etoblcoke (Toronto), Ontario

Now in its fourth year, our tradeshow is held in conjunction with our highly successful conference. Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, and Canadian Environmental Regidation & Compliance News, the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow is designed to be a low-cost, high quality opportunity for you to network with existing and potential clients.


Call now for an Exhibitor Prospectus

â– "5

220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #30,

Environmental Science

^ Engineering Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Aurora, Ontario L4G 3V6

Tel:(905)727-4666, 1-888-254-8769, Fax:(905) 841-7271 Web site: www.esemag.com Contact:

Penny Davey penny@esemag.com

Denise Simpson denise@esemag.com 73

Water Resources

UN Chair established to ease water crises and conflicts In Africa

A collaborative international

effort to help resolve water use conflicts and improve water quality in Africa was launched last year at the University of Waterloo, Ontario. The establishment of the United Na

tions University Chair on African Great

velopment activities of UNU's Interna tional Network on Water Environment

and Health;

• scientific consultancy services, di rected to the sustainable management of African aquatic ecosystems; and •collaboration with African institutions

from the University of Waterloo, Envi

and professionals through joint research, training programs,scientific exchanges, fellowships and information dissemi

ronment Canada's National Water Re


Lakes and Rivers, involves researchers

search Institute, and the United Nations

The three partners are sharing the

University's International Network on

costs of the chair. In addition:

Water, Environment and Health (UNU/ INWEH). Inaugural chairholder. Prof. Robert

• Environment Canada's National

Hecky of UW's biology department,said the broad theme to be pursued was the integrated management of African lake and river basins, with initial emphasis on the Great Lakes of East Africa.

Hecky is a renowned Canadian limnologist with a distinguished record of re search, capacity development and project management in East Africa. Nations in East Africa's Rift Valley have a wide array of pressing water management needs, exacerbated by se rious underlying economic, environ mental and social problems. Strength ening of scientific and institutional ca pacity is critical to resolving Africa's water crisis. The chair will serve as a

focal point for programs to strengthen the capacity of Africa's Great Lakes na tions to understand, monitor, and man

age shared aquatic resources. The principal activities of this fouryear partnership include: •research, basic and applied,on the eco system of African Great Lakes and Riv ers;

• graduate education and training, par ticularly of African students and profes sionals;

• leadership of the African capacity-de

Water Research Institute is providing access to its laboratories and the partici pation of its scientists in chair-related projects; • UW is providing office, laboratory and support services for the chair and its as sociated research professionals and graduate students; and • the UNU International Network on

Water, Environment and Health is pro viding support staff as well as man agerial, administrative, communica tions and outreach support for collabo rative projects. A support team of research associ ates and students is being established and key universities in East and South Africa approached to associate with the chair. Initial projects focus on Lake Vic toria and Lake Malawi,including devel opment of regional centres to provide training in river basin management and water toxicology. The partners will also seek support from international development agen cies and foundations that support Afri can-related work.

Modeling Research, Lake Malawi/Nyasa Among the chair's first initiatives is a project to help predict water quality problems in Lake Malawi (also known

as Lake Nyasa), a 500 km long, 48 km wide body which lies between Malawi, Tanzania and Mozambique. Lake Ma lawi has exceptional water quality and fishing is heavy along its banks. Increas ing nutrient loadings, however,threaten rapid eutrophication, depleting the lake's oxygen. To avoid this, it is necessary to evaluate the consequences of changing land-use and water demands.

A model will be created to predict nutrient and sediment inputs, pollutant dispersal, phytoplankton growth and future eutrophication rates. Training in the model's use will be provided to the staff of national organizations in each of the three countries, together with graduate students who will retum to their home agencies, both to use the model and to train others.

With World Bank funding,the project is to be implemented with additional support from Delft Hydraulics of the Netherlands, and from scientists from

several universities, government insti tutes and private firms in Malawi, Canada, the USA and the UK. ❖

The Global Water Crisis At any given time, an estimated one half of people in developing countries are suffering from diseases caused either by infection through the consumption of contaminated water or food, or indi

rectly by disease-carrying organisms (vectors), such as mosquitos, that breed in water. These diseases include diar

rhea, schistosomiasis, dengue fever, in fection by intestinal worms, malaria, river blindness(onchocerciasis),and tra choma (which alone causes almost six million cases of blindness or severe

complications annually). Unless action is stepped up, the number of people without access to safe water will increase to 2.3 billion by 2025, with the number of those affected

...We see your environmental risks. ERIS(Environmental Risk Information Services) is a reporting service that accesses key federal, provincial and private sector databases to help identify potential environmental risks. When you order an ERIS report, you'll get all the current and historical information you need to reduce your risk of environmental liability. order on-line


For more information, circie repiy card No. 176 (See page 25)

by unsafe water expected tojump sharply as well. (Unsafe water is currently esti mated to cause 3.3 billion illnesses and

5.3 million deaths yearly). Right now, 20 percent of the world's population in 30 countries,face water shortages, a fig ure that will rise to 30 percent of the world's population, in 50 countries, by 2025, according to UN figures.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666.


Urecon pre-insulated pipe

Hazardous materials

Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocable® heat tracing). Other applications Include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insulated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140'C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page

storage Chem-Loc Buildings are uniquely designed and manufactured by MakLoc Buildings Inc. to provide safety, security, segrega tion, and secondary con

at: www.urecon.com.

Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 200


Op«rAtlen{ Oau M4n4gement

Operations Data Management Software Operator 10® Pius offers wastewater, water, biosolids and pre-treatment data management. Our software helps you to manage data and calcu late process control Information to maintain productivity. Built-in state and federal regulatory agency reports, 3-D graphing capabilities, and more. Also offered Is our DataPort, hand held data entry unit, that Is used in conjunction with our operations soft ware to collect data In the field.

tainment of hazardous ma

terials. Since 1971, multi

national oil and gas companies, the Armed Forces, Govern ment agencies, municipalities and golf courses have chosen Chem-Loc as their economical solution. Tel: 1-888-774-7792, Web site: www.makloc.com. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circle reply card No. 201

Leister welding machines for Civil Engineering and

geomembranes Our Leister line of automatic wedge welders, comblwedge machines and hand tools are used In a wide variety of geomembrane applications where the precise welding control Is re quired as part of the seaming proc ess. Our products provide excellent field performance and superior reli ability. Tel: (905) 828-1400, Fax: (905)828-1056, www.stanmech.com STANMECH Technologies Inc. Circle reply card No. 203

AIIMax Professional Solutions,Inc. Circle reply card No. 202

SOS-Slow Bins Swict Stp»aiion CootMntrj

Visit us St:


Full colour catalogue

Membrane technology for

Techstar Plastics is pleased to intro duce its all new 12-page full colour catalogue. Techstar Plastics Is a Canadian supplier of material han dling containers for source separa tion, recycling, waste handling and storage. It has been a leader in ro tational molding in Canada for over 20 years and is ISO 9001 registered for quality assurance. The complete product line is illustrated and full de scription Is provided complete with detailed specifications.

industrial wastewater ZENON's ZenoGem® bioreactor

Techstar Plastics Inc.

Circle reply card No. 204

system can retrofit any existing wastewater treatment facility, im mediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The system in corporates immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass retention, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge. ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 205

Turbidity monitoring

Environmental instrument

systems The ABB Turbidity Systems 4670 Series is a long-term and reliable instrument with favourable quali ties. It has many features which

Ashtead Technology specializes In renting portable Instruments for air and water sampling and monitoring. The rental fleet includes photoion-

make it the most preferred instru ment. A few of the key features include: provides the operator in terface and communications to

other devices, large, easy-to-read display, easy to program and configure, high accuracy, easy installation, maintenance and calibra tion, auto-cleaning, comes with a dry secondary calibration standard which eliminates the need for chemical standards to be produced, ultralow back scatter, reliable sensing. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001


Izatlon and flame lonization detectors

(PIDs and FIDs), multi-gas monitors, air sampling pumps, dust and aero sol monitors, noise dosimeters and sound level meters, landfill gas analyzers, water quality monitoring systems, peristaltic and submersible pumps. For a new catalogue visit: www.ashtead-technology.com. Ashtead Technology Circle reply card No. 207


Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Reduction of heavy V vv


metals from water

supplies using MEDIA G2® adsorption

Reduction of hydrogen sulfide from sour gas

using MEDIA G2® adsorption

\^ —-

The RotoFixT" is an advanced second

ADI International Inc. introduces a new

ary treatment unit for domestic and in

adsorption process for the reduction of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. The process uses an iron-based adsorption filter material(MEDIA G2®) in up-flow

dustrial wastewater. It is located down

stream of the primary treatment system (septic tank). The heart of the RotoFix '''^ is composed of tuhular patented medium consisting of multiple internal wings which provide a large contact surface per volume unit. Many sections of the me dium are assembled around a central axle

and held in place by stainless steel or polymer braces forming the rotors of the RotoFix''''^. These rotors, placed in a ba sin containing the wastewater to be treated, are activated by a low-power mo tor and belt. Ecoflo Ontario

For more information, circle reply card No. 208

Pump selection software

Water treatment systems for removal of arsenic and other metals such as iron, hexavalent chromium and uranium, us

ing our patented, iron-based adsorption filter media - MEDIA G2®. Certified to

ANSI/NSF Standard 61 for drinking water applications. Removes arsenic from 1200 ppb to less than 2 ppb - nonhazardous residuals. Reduces hexavalent

chromium from 200 ppb to 0.1 ppb. Sys tems available for capacities of 50 to 10,000 gpm. ADIInternationallnc. For more information, circle reply card No. 209

Chlorine dosing packages

cantly streamlines the pump selection process by enabling pump specifiers and users to automatically calculate friction loss in a system. By automating exten sive, time-consuming calculations, ABSEL helps to ensure the appropriate selection of an ABS pump to achieve optimum system operating efficiency. ABS Pumps For more information, circle reply card No. 211 76

(0.2 mg/L)." • Reduction in 30 to 60 seconds.

• Multiple regenerations,simply with air. • 540 mg H,S adsorbed per gram of media.

ADI International Inc.

For more information, circle reply card No. 210

Leister develops new, high-speed wedge welder

in thicknesses from 60 to 120 mil, and at

Users' Manual ABSEL,a pump selection software pro

of biogas from anaerobic digesters, prior to flaring or co-generation. • Handles H,S up to 30,000 mg/L. • Reduces H,S to non-detectable levels

Leister's new ASTRO hot-wedge welder is designed to quickly and easily weld high-density polyethylene geomembrane,

ABSEL ABS Selection Program

gram developed by pump manufacturer, ABS Pumps, and offered free, signifi

fixed bed adsorbers. Ideal for treatment

ProMinent has supplied many chlorine dosing plant installations and retrofits. With their wide range of experience in the field of chlorination. They have the expertise you need to implement new and upgrade existing equipment. They can satisfy the largest range of feed require ments from less than 1 litre per hour, to over 1,000 litres per hour, by using stand ard ProMinent designed and built pack aged solutions for chlorine feed. ProMinent

For more information, circle reply card No. 212

speeds up to 16 feet/minute. The ASTRO provides the perfect combination of elec tronic control, pressure roller control and drive speed control, all in one heavy-duty package,to produce consistent, high-qual ity geomembrane welds in the field. The built-in microprocessor provides precise, closed-loop control for welding tempera ture and speed, which minimizes the ef fect of voltage fluctuations, working vari ations and changing ambient conditions. It has been purpose-built to handle harsh field application conditions. STANMECH Technologies Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 213

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Product and Service Showcase Residuals management

UV light disinfection system

Noise control panels

ProMinent's Dulcodes


Light Disinfec tion System uti lizes a number of

unique key op erator interfaces to demonstrate the effectiveness of the UV disinfection

wm Professional, cost-effective management of collection, classification, treatment and

beneficial reuse requirements including: Municipal biosolids, pulp and paper sludges,food industry residuals, and spe cializing in stabilization, land application and pelletization. Azurix North America

stage. Its advanced control mechanism monitors bulb efficiency, trends in UV light dosage, and hours of operation to allow for appropriate scheduled preventative maintenance on the unit. UV light dosage is continually monitored using ProMinent's UVB intensity sensor mounted on their 316 Stainless Steel ra diation vessels. ProMinent

Circle reply card No. 215

Circle reply card No. 214

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Eckoustic® Functional Panels(EFPs)pro vide a more comfortable acoustic envi

ronment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EFPs promote safety and help improve produc tivity. EFPs can quickly add sound ad sorption to compressor rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms. Eckel Industries, Inc.

Circle reply card No. 216

Submerged Stormceptor®

ROCO robot first in Canada

system The Inlet Storm

Developed for sub merged and partially submerged storm sewer pipes, the new Submerged Storm ceptor System em ploys the same oper ating principles as the

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as the well-known In

line Interceptors. Developed to treat run-off from an area

of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor jjas inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water run-off remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 217

Package Wastewater Plants

well-known In-line

and Inlet Stormceptor systems. Compared to the In-line system, the Submerged Stormceptor has two modifications: an extended weir and a

second drop pipe to enable it to capture oil and sediment during high tailwater conditions. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products has improved its workplace environment, product quality, and production effi ciency. Standing for "Rings Off Cleaned and Oiled",Centennial's ROCO handling equipment automates the removal of the pallet and header from finished rein forced concrete pipe. The machine then stacks the joint rings, and places the prod uct on a conveyor.

Circle reply card No. 218

Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products

Glass pipe outerwrap

Signal converter

Adapted to Your Needs

Circle reply card No. 219

The use 6000 sig nal converter from Danfoss eliminates the



choosing specific communication

We have supplied Package Sewage Treat ment Plants worldwide. The Package Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treat ment. It is economical, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any loca tion unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 220

protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in

Denso Glass Outerwrap is a water acti vated fibreglass tape that is used for me chanical protection over Denso Petrola tum Tape Systems or as a pipe repair product for cracked or broken pipe. Glass Outerwrap is said to offer exceptional impact and mechanical strength on above or below ground pipes, pilings, and fit tings. Glass Outerwrap is paintable and has an in service temperature from sub

signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor,this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to -i-70°C with + 0.1 ° accuracy.

zero to 350°F. Denso North America

Davis Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 221

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

aeration tanks. De

Circle reply card No. 222 11

Product and Service Showcase Point of entry trap removes

Low cost AutoFiash

sediment from stormwater

evaporation process

Specialty gate valve for sewage Neo Valves Seguro Resilient Seal Gate

The AutoFiash is

a time-proven evaporation sys tem with the capa bility of using low-grade, reject,

Valve has been de

signed with sew age applications in mind

waste heat as the ■ . V-

A new catchment device, the Point of En

try Trap (POET''''^')removes oil, sediment and pollutants from stormwater, before they enter the main drainage system. It also prevents sewer odours from escap ing into the environment. Placed at the point of entry to the drainage system,the POET combats dirt and debris at its

source. Installation is simple. Web site: www.poetinfo.com

Circle reply card No. 223

Round hatches to fit precast concrete manhole sections

Standard MSU, all aluminum, round

hatches fit precast manhole sections from 48" to 144" diameters, and are available

in two- and four-door configurations. They are suited for leachate collector manholes in landfill sites. Custom con

figurations are available to meet special applications such as pumping stations. MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 226

New pipe design manual

only source of en ergy for phase separation. This exclusive feature makes evaporation a very viable treatment method for TDS (total dissolved solids), over 4,500 milli grams per litre. The proprietary,self-regu lating device causes the AutoFiash to be able to operate outside of steady state con ditions in a highly stable manner. Donson Engineering


stations and treat

ment plants. The Seguro Valve has a resilient seal that ensures a 100% bidi

rectional bubble-tight seal, according to Neo Valves. Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in the bonnet area. They are available in sizes up to 60", with 100% full bore design and hundreds of installations in Canada since 1972. Neo Valves

Circle reply card No. 224

Circle reply card No. 225


Flow analysis software

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Circle reply card No. 227

New concrete pipe detention systems software

The 13th edition of the Concrete Pipe Design Manual for engineers who select the type, size and strength requirements of concrete pipe, is now available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. The 536-page design manual has been updated to provide the most current tech nical data and design aids needed to as sist engineers in preparing efficient and cost-elfective drainage solutions for sani tary sewer, storm drain and culvert ap plications. AGFA

detention system design using concrete pipe. Called "DASH-Detention and Sewer Hydraulics", the program provides the tools needed for the hydraulic design of concrete pipe detention systems,storm drainage, and sanitary sewers. The pro gram also includes ACPA's popular PipePac2000. AGFA

Circle reply card No. 229

Circle reply card No. 230



mains, pumping

The American Concrete Pipe Association has released new interactive software of

ARTS is a software program for the hy draulic design and analysis of water and wastewater systems. It provides compre hensive flow analysis of water/wastewater, air, and sludge. Users can design complex hydraulic systems that include pipes, channels, most WWTP processes, reservoirs, pumps, forcemains, flumes, weirs, pipe manifolds. ARTS provides full hydraulic profile and waterhammer analysis. Hydromantis Circle reply card No. 228

Screenings Washer Monster

The Screenings Washer Monster™, a self-contained hopper fed system used to grind, wash, compact and de-water screenings, has captured the innovative technology award from the Water Envi ronment Federation. Based on the Au

ger Monster® and Muffin Monster®, this combination of grinding, then separating, removes soft organics from the screen ings, which reduces odours and landfill costs. JWC Environmental

Circle reply card No. 231

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Product and Service Showcase Analyzers for ammonium,

Portable flow velocity meter

phosphate and nitrate

Stormwater management products

Optimize effi ciency and con trol of wastewater treatment


Stamolys online



analyzers from

-i- Hauser. CA70AM I Endress Operating on





colometric princi-


pies, Stamolys analyzers are said to eliminate the need for expensive ul tra-filtration. They are compact in size and feature automatic self-cleaning, au tomatic calibration, low reagent usage, and low maintenance requirements. Endress + Hauser

Circle reply card No. 232

The Sigma PVM is a portable point velocity meter for checking and calibrat ing primary devices,flow meters, and for spot measurements in sewers,streams,and irrigation channels. This rugged, simpleto-operate unit quickly determines fluid point velocity or time average velocity using a Doppler ultrasonic sensor. Veloc ity information is then processed for com puting flow and controlling analog and display outputs. Can-Am Instruments Circle reply card No. 233

tice in stormwater pollution prevention plans. UltraTech Circle reply card No. 234


New portable arsenic test kit

FMCW radar level gauge

UltraTech International Inc. offers a com

plete line of stormwater management products. Designed to remove oil, sedi ment, and other contaminants from

stormwater, these products help comply with NPDES, 40 CFR 122.26 (1999) when used as a Best Management Prac

spectrophotometer Krohne's BM 702 Radar


Gauge, said to be the world's first two-wire


quency Modu lated Continuous

Wave (FMCW) radar level device, recently received Factory Mutual (FM)approval for use in hazardous (classified) locations. Radar is a reliable and accurate choice

for storage tanks and process vessel ap plications that require non-contact, con tinuous level measurement under ardu

ous conditions. Summa Engineering Circle reply card No. 235

Preferred products catalogue

The Odyssey DR/2500 Spectrophoto meter is a water quality analysis tool de signed for the water, wastewater, and in

Flach's new Arsenic Test Kit allows for

dustrial water treatment industries. It al

portable monitoring of drinking water for arsenic contamination. The kit provides an inexpensive, simple, accurate way to monitor treated or ground water and is designed for on-site or field analysis. The

lows direct concentration readout of wa

ter matrix analytes in the visible range. Features include a touch screen display for easy navigation through all instrument functions, a simplified cell management eliminating the need for several cell adap tors, and a patent-pending, high perform ance optical system. Hach Circle reply card No. 236

Completely destroy RGBs

new kits are ideal for use in countries like

Bangladesh, where drinking water must be monitored, but practical means are limited. Hach

Circle reply card No. 237

Plastic saddles

MSA products for continuous monitor

ing include: Gas sen sors and transmitters

htwmd rrstiKll tMtlot

for commercial, in dustrial, chemical, oil & water, wastewater;

Safety and health monitors for agricul tural, chemical, food processing, indus trial, wastewater; Gas monitoring con trollers for chemical,commercial, indus trial, oil & gas, wastewater; Heating, ven tilation and air conditioning monitors for commercial,residential,food processing, industrial, parking garages; Sampling systems and calibration kits for chemi cal,food processing, industrial, oil & gas, wastewater. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 238

Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. is the only Ministry of Environment approved final destruction/incineration facility in On tario. Here, we completely destroy PCBs in an environmentally safe manner, us ing no hazardous chemicals or solutions which themselves require destruction. We are capable of destroying and have safely and totally destroyed or recycled waste electrical equipment from Askarel transformers to light ballasts. Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. Circle reply card No. 239

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Economical plastic saddles are available in sizes 1", 2" and 3", in PP, PE, PVG, CPVC,and PVDF materials. These low-

cost, conventional-shaped products are offered for applications where economy is of utmost importance. Saddles are claimed to be one of the highest capacity plastic packings available. Each saddle has a drip-point design that promotes high mass-transfer rates through effective wet ted surface renewal. Eabco Plastics

Circle reply card No. 240 79

Product and Service Showcase Subscribe by October 31, 2001

Water analysis case

and save $100!

Polymer preparation system


Maintain your ISO 14001 requirements with the help of our Canadian enviroOSH



Standards Web serv

ice (www.ccohs.ca/ legislation/). It in cludes: Full text of



safety and environmental legislation; critical guidelines and codes of practice from federal, provincial or territorial gov ernments; PLUS referenced CSA and CGSB Standards! Free Web and CDROM

trials available!


clientservices@ccohs.ca or 1-800-6684284. CCOHS

Circle reply card No. 241

Hanna Instruments has put together this complete water analysis case allowing drinking water plant operators to test the quality of their water themselves. Includ ing everything needed for measurement of free and total chlorine, turbidity, pH and temperature, this case has proven to be the ideal companion for field and laboratory testing. All necessary reagents, solutions, standards and accessories are also part of this economically priced package. Metcon Sales & Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 242

Packaged sewage pumping system

Self-priming pumps

ProMinent's user-friendly self-promoting Ultromat plant delivers ready-to-use poly mer solutions automatically, safely and continuously. The powder(or liquid poly mer) is first fed into a wetting assembly before entering a triple compartment tank where it is mixed, aged and stored. The Ultromat AT delivers accurate polymer concentrations between 0.05% to 1.0% and

capacities from 400 1/h to 8,000 1/h. Metcon Sales & Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 243

Your information resource

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe

Because Gorman-

Rupp centrifugal pumps are selfpriming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only


Pipe Institute, is your information resource

the suction line

down in the liq uid. Service or

maintenance can be performed quickly and simply with common hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and no need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 244

Association, a divi sion of the Plastics

Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Packaged Submersible Pumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 245

Velocity sensor

on corrugated highdensity polyethylene mWmWm institute m drainage pipe and key issues related to our manufacturers' products, including:

strength, structural integrity, service life, proper installation, hydraulics and chemi cal/abrasion resistance. The CPPA Divi

sion of PPl is dedicated to serving engi neers, highway and transportation agen cies, government entities and contractors.

Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association

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Upgrade Now

Now available!

TheMilltronics VS

100 velocity sen sor, connected to

an Open Channel Meter (OCM HI), will measure flow


rate and volume in

a pipe, stream or

The new version of PipePac 2000 in

channel that has no

flume or weir. The instrument consists of

cludes advances such as a new 32 bit

an electronics box with velocity card and

operating system for quicker runtime; better help screens; upgrades to the Life Cycle Analysis; and LIVE updates to cape's pipe costing tables. Call the

a sensor. The ultrasonic sensor, secured

to the bottom of the channel, uses the Dop-

pler effect to measure water speed. It trans mits the information to the VS 100 elec

tronics to be processed and sent to the OCM 111 as a velocity signal. It computes the flow through the channel,then totalizes and logs the data. Milltronics

Circle reply card No. 247 80

An in-depth analysis of drainage pipe per formance and design comparisons ofcon crete pipe VS HDPE. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Call for your copy now! OCPA

Circle reply card No. 248

Ontario Concrete Pipe Association(905) 631-9696, for your free copy or if you have Access 2000 or 2000 Runtime,

download PipePac 2000 from www. ocpa.com. OCPA Circle reply card No. 249

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Product and Service Showcase Sludge dryer

Packaged odour control

Anaerobic digestion


The Dragon Dryer'''''' offers municipalities and industrial markets an easy way to re duce their sludge volume by 75% while producing a beneficial, reusable Class A product. The single-pass dryer produces dried biosolids in granule sizes perfect for use as a fertilizer and easily storable. It is environmentally sound, utilizing cleanburning, high-efficiency gas burners that meet all federal and state air quality re quirements. USFilter Davis Products

The LO/PRO® is said to be one of the most

The BioPasteur® process is an extremely

technically advanced and cost-effective odour control systems available. It's a pat ented, multi-stage, multi-chemistry wet scrubber system which can be configured to remove hydrogen sulfide, ammonia,and organic odours. Each system,constructed of premium-grade FRP vinylester resin, is factory pre-assembled and mechanically tested prior to shipment.

Circle reply card No. 250

Circle reply card No. 251

small-footprint process that claims to be ahead of any existing anaerobic digester system for the benefit of reducing patho gens to Class A levels. The heat exchang ers employed in the process combine tra ditional technology in a unique way, thereby reducing cleaning and operational issues associated with other types ofsludge heat exchangers. USFilter Kruger Products Circle reply card No. 252

Hydraulic mixer

Flow pacing valve

Two Point PRV Controller

USFilter RJ Environmental Products

^ PPb t »" Anaerobic digesters get a big efficiency boost with a VariPort''"' hydraulic mixer. Advantages include: Multiple discharge points eliminate dead spots; intense, local ized mixing uses less than 0.2 HP/1,000 cu. ft.; no need to take the digester off-line for inspection or maintenance; modular ac tuator housing simplifies installation; and thorough mixing for optimum digestion, maximum gas production.

The Regal Smartvalve™ is an accurate and versatile Flow Pacing Valve for chlo rine or sulphur dioxide. Operating on fully automatic or manual, with an ad justable "low-flow" alarm, it is widely used for treating water with varying flow rates. The multi function digital display highlights flow rate; valve flow position in pounds per day of actual gas feed rate; mode of operation; and dosage value. Chlorinators Incorporated

that enables the pressure into a zone to be switched between two pre-set values ("low" and "high") according to the de mand (flow rate) or the time of day. An internal battery with an expected opera tional life of over five years supplies power. The ControlMate -2 enables the pressure-reducing valve(PRV)to be con trolled reliably and safely.

Circle reply card No. 253

Circle reply card No. 254

Circle reply card No. 255


Multi-Stage filter for small systems

Microprocessor controlled multi-gas monitor

USFilter Envirex Products



ControlMate-2 is a low cost controller

Hetek Soiutions Inc.


nWKAC I y/



The 'WebTRAC systems allow you to build as you grow. The number of sen sors and monitoring/control points is un limited. All data and monitoring and con trol functions are accessible through a standard web browser. From a stand

alone PC, LAN, WAN, Internet, or dial

up connection, accessing the power of WebTRAC is unbeatable. If you know how to "surf the net", you know how to use WebTRAC! Chenitrac Systems Inc.

Circle reply card No. 256

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no mem branes to replace, and yet treatment per formance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced populations of less than 1,500. RAL Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 257

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Designed to provide personal safety, the MicroMax is OSHA compliant. Its rug ged aluminum case provides RFI/EMI .shielding, as well as dust, water and im pact resistance. It is designed, tested and manufactured under strict ISO 9001 qual ity systems, and is UL classified and CSA certified intrinsically safe for use in Class I, Division I and II, Groups A, B, C and D areas. Lumidor Safety Products Circle reply card No. 258 81

Product and Service Showcase 4h EAGLEBROOK* Vour 5/ng/e Source

4h EAGLEBROOK* Vbuf Single Source

Odor & Corrosion Control Efi/ianc/no Primary

One Simple Solution For Tuio

Reduce Costs and

Major Problems.

Mc Graw II

fmproue Treatnient,

Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT)

Controlling Odor And Corrosion With Iron Sails.

With iron Salts.



www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 259

www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 260

McGraw-Hill is a leading publisher of Environmental and Civil Engineering books and products. Our authors are in ternational experts and provide critical insights on environmental issues, devel opments and trends. Browse our new online catalogue for product information at: www.McGrawHill.ca/tpm. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Circle reply card No. 261


Package potable water

Contracting Expertise


Environmental Group Inc.

Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc.(TCI) "Total turn key service"

TCI provides full PCB disposal services including: Disposal of all PCB wastes (transformers, capacitors, light ballasts, and lead shielded cable); on site drain

Focus Environmental Croup Inc. pro vides clientele with professional, fullservice environmental contracting sup port to suit site-specific needs,including: Waste management (soil, C&D, liquid); AST, UST removal and disposal, TSSA

ing; oil storage and draining; site

Ontario licence 0076596253,TSSA PM1,

remediation and decontamination; $2.4 million closure bond; PCB analysis

PM2, PM3 certified personnel; Soil/ groundwater remediation expertise; Site/ plant-facility decommissioning; Environ

(CAEAL proficiency tested); full trans portation services. Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc. Circle reply card No. 262

Flow meter

mental restoration.

Focus Environmental Group Inc. Circle reply card No. 263

Actiflo速 Package Plant

The Pulsapak速 is a package potable water treatment plant designed for both munici pal and industrial applications. It com bines two Degremont technologies: the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, and a sand

and anthracite dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak produces clean water equal in quality to that produced by large instal lations. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 264

Fine screening

PCM3 is a batterypowered (recharge able or alkaline dis

posable) flow meas urement and data

logging system de signed for safe opera tion in both sanitary and storm sewers and

open channels. PCM3 has been designed for reliable operation in harsh field con ditions of sewers and wastewater treat

ment plants and is contained in a robust, submersible, waterproof and corrosionresistant housing. It has a menu-driven membrane keypad and LC display for programming and status check and field replaceable memory card for datalogging. Geneq Circle reply card No. 265 82

A major step towards a highly efficient

clarification process, Actiflo速 package plants are units engineered to provide a compact modular system in response to an ever-growing demand for a high per formance water treatment process. Typi cal applications are in municipal (water and wastewater) and industrial (process water).

A fine screening step type screen unit, the Escalator速 gives continuous fine screen ing for channel type applications with very few moving parts below the water level. Product is used in open channels where fine screening is required. The unit can readily be installed in new or existing channels with a minimum of civil works.

The screen has aperture sizes of 1/4" (6 mm)or 1/8"(3 mm)in any direction.

John Meunier Products/USFilter

John Meunier Products/USFilter

Circle reply card No. 266

Circle reply card No. 267

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Product and Service Showcase Improved level measurement and monitoring

Design data for seismic applications

New gate valves from Victaulic Victaulic Com

pany has devel oped a new gen eration of resil

ient-wedge valves it



lighter and easier Milltronics MiniRanger Plus has an ex tended range up to 15 m(50 ft.) on liquids and 7.5 m (25 ft.) on solids. Its backlit display gives a read-out as a percentage of full tank volume or in any standard engi neering unit. Operators can choose auto matic level-to-volume conversion for up to eight standard vessel configurations, or open channel flow measurement for weirs and flumes using a total of 11 point flow

to install than tra

NRS grooved-end gate valves feature IPS ends and a Positive Displacement Disk''''^ (PDD)that provides bubble-tight sealing with minimal torque. Low-torque seal ing and a self-centering disc virtually eliminate stem bending, a common prob lem with conventional wedge-type gate

Circle reply card No. 268

Victaulic now offers detailed design data for use of its grooved mechanical piping system in fire protection, HVAC,munici pal and industrial applications in seismically active areas. The 12-page re port covers the Victaulic system's builtin stress relief, performance characteris tics of its flexible and rigid couplings, seismic movement compensation de vices, system bracing and support guide lines. Victaulic Company of Canada Circle reply card No. 269

Large digester covers

Introducing the N-Pumps!

Submersible pumping/mixing

characterization curves. Milltronics

Years of research

coupled with cus tomer demands and


field trials have

GL&V/Dorr-Oliver is the leading supplierof large primaiy and secondary(gas holder) digester covers manufactured of steel or stainless steel. This modern de

sign features external stiffeners and a clear uncluttered interior surface for minimum maintenance. Photo shows a

70'(21 m) gasholder recently being in stalled. Sizes to 110'(33.5 m) are oper ating; larger are available. GL&V/Dorr-Oliver

Circle reply card No. 271

produced a revo lutionary new pump design that combines high ef ficiency with Flygt's clog-free performance. The N-Pump series feature a radical new hydraulic end design which ensures efficient, clog-free, and troublefree pumping over extended periods. The result is improved operational economy due to less downtime,dramatically reduc ing the total life cost of the installation. ITT Flygt

Circle reply card No. 272

TtrTTCuR Aluminum Domes




valves. Series 771 OS&Y and Series 772

valves. Victaulic

Circle reply card No. 270

We have been

making submers ible pumps since 1948, when we introduced


world's first sub

mersible designed for pumping con taminated water.

Over the years, our name has come to stand for efficient,

versatile products of the highest quality and we have remained at the forefront of

development. Our designs, patents, and technical innovations have made us the

world's leading manufacturer ofsubmers

ible pumping/mixing equipment and fluid handling technology. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 273

Big tough pumps for big tough jobs

Oxygen For more than thirty years Temcor has been competitively producing aluminum

Do you need oxy gen for your waste

Domes, Roofs and Covers for Potable

water treatment

Water and Wastewater applications in a wide variety of climates, successfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum prod ucts are lightweight, corrosion resistant,

plant? Maybe you would like to use

oxygen as a feed gas for your ozone generator? Be it our on-site tech

and maintenance free which translates to

longer life and lower maintenance costs. Aluminum doesn't rust like steel, doesn't

spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Circle reply card No. 274


nology, or our numerous cylinder distri bution centres and liquid plants located across North America, let Air Liquide provide you with the right mode of sup ply for your oxygen needs. Air Liquide Circle reply card No. 275

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

CH&E pumps are self-priming, hard working and long lasting according to the manufacturer. Features include: heavyduty designs for the rigors of construc tion site dewatering; excellent for high suction lift, medium discharge head ap plications; and are available in sizes to fit most any job from 1 1/2" to 6", up to 100,000 GPH. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 276 83

Industry Update

Peter Laughton is awarded the Albert E. Berry Medal Eollowing World War I,Dr. Beixy joined the Department of Health of the Prov

The Albert E. Berry Medal from the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, for the year 2001, went to Peter J. Laughton, Chairman and Director of Environmental Engineering, R.V.

ince of Ontario and rose to become the

chief engineer of the sanitary engineer ing division. Subsequently, he was ap pointed the first general manager and chief engineer of the Ontario Water

Anderson Associates Limited. Dr.

Laughton obtained a B.A.Sc. in Civil Engineering in 1966 and a M. Eng. in Civil (Environmental) Engineering in 1973 from the University ofToronto. In 1987, he obtained a degree in Compu ter Science from York University and received an honorary doctorate in engi neering from Ryerson Polytechnic Uni versity in 1997. He is a registered pro fessional engineer in Ontario, New

Resources Commission, the forerunner

of today's Ministry of the Environment. His pioneering spirit, his dedication, and his expertise in the field were second to none. He was the only person ever to have served as President of the Ameri can Water Works Association and what is now the Water Environment Federa tion.

Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

Peter J. Laughton

The award is granted to a civil engi neer who has contributed significantly to the field of environmental engineering in Canada. The presentation was made at

In 1995,Dr. Laughton was the recip ient of the Professional Engineers Ontario Engineering Medal for "engi neering excellence". He has also re

Ontario). The Albert E. Berry Award was

ceived the Bedell Award, as well as

established in 1987 in honour of Dr.

awards from the Cariadian Association

Albert E. Berry (1894-1984), an out standing civil engineer who was one of Canada's first environmental pioneers.

launched in 1988.

dle the active sludge being produced from the clothes dying industry, which

terms of five years less a day.

on Water Quality and the Pollution Control Association of Ontario(now the

ITT Flygt receives record order for 195 mixers ITT Elygt has received a record order

Water Environment Association of

accounts for around 90% of the waste-

for 195 mixers for the new wastewater

Ontario's environmental

SWAT team now deployed

south of Shanghai. The delta area of the Yangze river on

Environment Minister Elizabeth Witmer

China's east coast is one of the coun

introduced Ontario's pennanent environ

on to the East China Sea.

The local government has made the decision to build a wastewater treatment

plant to tackle this problem. A loan of US $20 million from the OECE(Over seas Economical & Co-operative Funds) will help finance the new US $60 mil lion plant that will serve the city. ITT Flygt will supply all the mixers, plus all the control equipment for the units, their largest single order to date for mixers.

When completed the sewage treat ment plant will be able to handle 300,000 tons a day, and will include a series of race track aeration tanks to han 84

be fined $4 million per day or face jail The environmental SWAT team will

and waste sites, as well as other sectors

treatment plant in the city of Shaoxing,

try's most developed areas. With a popu lation of around one million people, the city of Shaoxing's major industries in clude chemical fibre printing and dye ing, clothes making and wine produc tion. With no existing wastewater treat ment plant the water has been emptying directly into the Yangze River and then

Peter Laughton has served on Envi ronmental Science & Engineering's Advisory Board since the magazine was

continue to target septic waste haulers


on China's east coast, about 250 km

the Annual Conference in Victoria.

across the province. It was formed in the fall of 2000.

Hexavalent chromium

mental SWAT team June 25. It is a

removal tests are positive

highly mobile inspection and enforce

Hexavalent chromium, or chromium 6,

ment unit formed to crack down on de

achieved national notoriety in 2000 af

liberate and repeat polluters.

ter the Erin Brockovich film. More than

The SWAT team has conducted a

blitz on septic waste haulers. Since May 9, 2001, the team has found numerous

infractions including lack of vehicle markings, operating septic waste haul ing without certificates of approval, and improper record keeping. All 38 haul ers inspected were ordered to meet the requirements of the province's environ mental legislation. The environmental SWAT team also handed out 18 tickets under the Provin

cial Offences Act. These tickets carry a maximum fine of $500. Two cases in

volving illegal dumping of septic waste are being reviewed by the ministry. Under the Toughest Environmental Pen alties Act, a company convicted of its first major offence could be fined up to $6 million per day. Individuals could

a third of non-municipal wells tested in Los Angeles county in California con tained high levels of chromium 6, lead and arsenic. Chromium 6 has been

found in many public and private wells, including 24 used to supply the Los Angeles municipal system. Media G2*, a patented filter media

developed by ADl International Inc. of Fredericton, New Brunswick, removes

chromium 6. ADI is helping solve a hexavalent chromium problem at a site in North Carolina. Following six months of testing, ADI is reducing chro mium from concentrations as high as 200 ppb to less than one ppb. A fullscale treatment system is expected be fore year end. Discussions with several California state agencies and water utili ties are ongoing.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001


EPA rejects activists call for biosolids application

"For Cost Effective Pumping" A company in the Cardo Group

^BS has the most Comprehensive range on the market.


Sales & Service

Recently, the USEPA responded to let ters from both the Pennsylvania Envi

• Sewage Pump.s - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps• Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps

ronmental Network and the National

Sludge Alliance that called on the Agency to issue an immediate morato rium on the spreading of biosolids on farmland and strip mines. The activists' letters cited complaints from people who claim to have suffered health effects

from exposure to biosolids, an article that looked at the potential health effects of odours from animal operations and wastewater treatment/byproduct recy cling, and testimony from a court case. EPA's response states that the infor mation and data available to the Agency do notjustify imposing a moratorium on recycling of Class B biosolids. More over, efforts are underway at the Agency to evaluate practices that can reduce

ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T IH3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905)670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

For more information, circle reply card No. 327






TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 328

odours associated with treatment of

Digester Cleaning,Dewatering,Dredging,Disposal

wastewater residuals, animal production systems, and recycling of residuals.

Complete Services

CWWA Bulletin


Environmentalists throw


suit out of ring


The full range of water and wastewater related services 800-465-2I I5 www.trlmaxenv.com; 888-776-7306 www.azurixna.com

The World Wrestling Federation has lost a key legal battle with the World Wild life Fund over rights to the well-known WWF initials they both use. The High Court in London ruled the wrestling op eration had violated a 1994 agreement it voluntarily signed with the conserva tion group that had put severe restric

For more information, circle reply card No. 329


CAREER ADVANCEMENT EMPLOYMENT SERVICES INC. Permanent & Contract Placement Recruiters




tions on its use of the initials.

"We're extremely gratified," said Michael Ross, a US spokesman for the wildlife fund. "We've been known by the initials WWF for 40 years; that's an identity that's pretty crucial to us." The World Wrestling Federation En tertainment Inc. said they planned to appeal.

Quality Assurance



"Increasing your conipetitivenes.s by strength in human re.sources" Phone:(905) 681-8240 Fax:(905) 639-4601 Email: info@careeradvancement.on.ca Web: wwv.careeradvancement.on.ca


For more information, circle reply card No. 330





Media & Coal Ltd.


TEL;(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617

For more information, circle reply card No. 326






GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 65 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Tel:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705) 721-0138 E-mail: iws@iws.ca, Web site: www.iws.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 331 85

Industry Update

Winnipeg lead levels lowered The Water and Waste Department for the City of Winnipeg reports that lead lev els in the city's water have been reduced. The department began adding orthophosphate to the city's water supply last year to reduce lead levels that, in some neighbourhoods, exceeded national standards. The lead leaches into the

water supply when water corrodes old lead pipes. Orthophosphate coats the insides of pipes and reduces corrosion and lead levels. The city reported homes in the test area now meet the Canadian

standards. Orthophosphate is a foodgrade phosphoric acid often used in soft

of the analysis of water samples, the annual reports and this new regulation are available for the public; • the owner of a system post a warning notice if sampling and analysis require ments are not complied with, or if the required corrective action indicates that water use should be stopped. Furthermore, the MOE and its partner ministries will provide owners and opera tors of small facilities not covered by the proposed regulation - such as cottages, homes, gas stations, camp and play grounds- with the information they need to ensure clean, safe drinking water.

Population now stamps heavy ecological footprint

drinks. CWWA Bulletin

25% smaller, and the Russian Federa

tion, Georgia and Ukraine, will be up to 40% smaller, UN population analysts forecast.

World population is expected to be around 9.3 billion by 2050,the UN esti mates, but it could be anywhere between 7.9 billion and 10.9 billion, depending on fertility, longevity and rates of death.

Canada challenges US Arctic vote Federal Environment Minister David

Anderson has responded to the US House of Representatives' vote, allow ing drilling in the Arctic National Wild life Refuge. "I am disappointed that the House has accepted provisions to open up the "1002 Area" of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge(ANWR)for hydrocarbon exploration and develop ment as part of its consideration of a comprehensive energy plan," he said. Canada's view on drilling in the Arc tic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain is simple: both countries should provide permanent protection for the important wildlife populations shared

Proposed drinking water regulation to protect seniors and children A proposed Ontario drinking water regu lation would place strict requirements on schools, day nurseries, nursing and retirement homes,and social and health care facilities that have their own water

supply system and do not fall under the existing Drinking Water Protection Regulation (Ont. Reg. 459/00). The proposed Drinking Water Pro tection Regulation for Designated Fa cilities was posted to the Environmen tal Bill of Rights (EBR) Registry for public comment in July, and is the next step in Operation Clean Water, which focuses province-wide efforts to im prove water quality and delivery in the province. This regulation follows feedback the Ministry of the Environment received during extensive consultation with stakeholders and the public. The min istry will consider all public comments posted to the EBR Registry before fi nalizing the regulation. These facilities will be provided with information they need to comply with the proposed new stringent require

By mid-century, the populations of 39 countries are projected to be smaller than today. Japan and Germany will be 14% smaller, Italy and Hungary will be

between Canada and the US.

On World Population Day, July 11, 2001,the number of people on Earth was estimated at 6,169,232,446 and climb

ing. Speaking on the occasion of World Population Day,UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, linked the growing popu lation to ecological stress on the plan et's resources. Calling attention to de forestation, pollution and carbon diox ide emissions, he said: "Our ecological footprints on the earth are heavier than

Since first learning of this proposal more than 14 years ago, Canada has consistently urged the US to recognize the environmental implications of drill ing on the sensitive arctic coastal plain, and to accord wilderness protection for the 1002 Area.

Canada supports sustainable devel opment activities, including responsible hydrocarbon exploration and develop ment, in habitats that are not critical to wildlife. However, the 1002 Area of

ANWR contains the core of the critically important calving area for the Porcupine

ever before."

Caribou Herd,and Canada is convinced

• regular testing, analysis and treatment of drinking water;

The United Nations Population Di vision says world population is currently growing at an annual rate of 1.2%, or 77 million people per year. Six coun

that only permanent protection of the plain will assure the herd's long-term sustainability. The indigenous people of the region,

• notification of the Medical Officer of

tries account for half of this annual

the Cwich'in, have sent both the US and

Health and the Ministry of the Environ ment by both the owner of the system and the laboratory in the event of an adverse water quality sample; • all water works produce engineering reports on their systems; • annual reports be prepared by the owner of the system; •the owner of the system ensure a copy

growth: India for 21%, China for 12%, Pakistan for 5%,Nigeria for 4%,Bang

Canadian governments a consistent message over the years: they wish to protect the herd. The caribou are the

ments, which include:


ladesh for 4%,and Indonesia for 3%.

Population in more developed re gions,currently 1.2 billion, is anticipated to change little during the next 50 years because fertility levels are expected to remain below replacement level,the UN predicts.

central focus of their ancestral culture;

more important still, they rely on the caribou for their very survival. Canada has permanently protected from devel opment those sensitive calving areas in the Canadian portion of the herd's range.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Industry Update

Scrap tire research paves way for greener industry




ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES INC. Environmental Consultants www.aandaenv.com/

ENVIRONMENTAL Assessmtru Ajsoaation

Soil, Groundwater & Air Studies ,Investigations Burlington ♦ St. Catharines -f Woodstock -f North Bay -f Kirkland Lake -f Timmins -f Thunder Bay-f Winnipeg Dr. George Duncan, President (705)567 4996 Fax:(705) 568 8368

water resources planning

Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

water supply, transmission and treatment wastewater collection and treatment

Acres &

Associated Moncef Nehdi, a professor in the University of Western Ontario's Depart ment of Civil and Environmental Engi neering, recently received a grant to in vestigate new ways to use scrap tires in civil infrastructure. He is one ofjust ten researchers around the world to receive

the grant from the Lindbergh Founda tion, a non-profit organization based in Minnesota.

Nehdi has found that ground scrap tires can replace aggregates in concrete to make a more flexible construction material. The flexible concrete is more

resistant to impact and better at insulat ing heat and sound than traditional con crete, making it an ideal material for use in foundation pads for machinery,earth quake shock absorbers, heat and sound insulation,railway buffers and bunkers, tunnel linings, trench filling, and pipe bedding. Each year, more than 250 million scrap tires are generated in North America, adding to more than three bil lion scrap tires already stockpiled. Of ten left in illegal dumps, these tires are not only an environmental threat, but also fire hazards and breeding grounds for mosquitos. Dr. Nehdi also recently received $386,000 from the Canada Foundation

electrical engineering, instrumentation and controls municipal infrastructutv serrices


solid waste and hazardous materials management

geo-eiwironmental investigations and site remediation environmental assessments andplanning environmental health and safety

Environmental Limited

525-21 Four Seasons Place, Toronto, Ontario MSB 6J8 •Tel (416) 622-9502 • Fax (416) 622-6249 4342 Queen Street, Niagara Falls, Ontario L2E 6W1 • Tel (905) 374-4470 • Fax (905) 374-8365


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Tel: (416) 467-5555 Fax: (416) 467-9824


I R.V. Anderson Associates Limited I consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

fTater, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

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for Innovation and the Ontario Innova tion Trust to establish a Centre for

Recycling Industrial and Mining Waste

Toronto (416) 497-8600 E-mail; Toronto@RVAnderson.com

Welland Ottawa Sudbury London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay, India

in Construction Materials at Western.

The Centre will lead research to develop new technology for stabilizing various wastes like mine tailings, paint, incinera tor ash, glass, water treatment sludge,

Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering

cement kiln dust and tire rubber in non-

Creating Value Through Service and Innovation

hazardous, readily disposable forms, as well as design civil infrastructure that can

British Columbia




use such waste materials to its benefit.

Contact Moncef Nehdi at:(519)6612III,ext. 88308.


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Telephone: 604.293.141 1 ^



/r 87

Industry Update

Dillon Consulting receives


new ISO 9001:2000



On July 31, 2001, representatives from KPMG presented Dillon Consulting Limited's Cambridge office with regis

Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Colllngwood



Tel.(705) 645-7756

Tel.(705) 325-1733

Tel.(70S)444-2565 EMail: infD@cctatham.com

Web: www.cctatham.com


(Since I98S)




PHONE I(418) 837-1444

|eel Detchenet, Vice-president

FAX •(418) 837-7723


Web lite t vvww.claniex.qc.co

Consolidated GIroux Environment Inc. Dredging (since 1971)

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester •Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction • High Speed Decanter Centrifuges


E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca


Web site: www.GIROUXINC.com

tration in the newly released ISO 9001:2000 quality management system standard, making this consulting com pany one of the first in the world to re ceive this new designation. The ISO 9001:2000 standard has hecome the international model for busi ness structure in North America over the

past decade. The registration process requires a company to document its business practices in keeping with the standard requirements and to demon strate, through provision of objective evidence to a third party registrar, that actual practices are in compliance. Although registration of companies to these standards is quite common,

Dillon Consulting has become one of the first consulting companies registered to the newest standard ISO 9001:2000, which was released in December. This

new standard poses additional chal lenges and benefits potential registrants and their clients.

Over 163 acres turned over for environmental education

Central Projects Group inc. 250 Shields Court, Unit 15,

Tel: (905) 470-6570 Fax: (905) 470-0958

WebSite: http://www.cpg.ca

•Phase I & II Environmental Site Assessments

•Cost Effective Remediation

• Environmental Risk Assessments

• Construction Management

• Hydrogeological Investigations

ConsTA-lting Engirre^ers Toronto • Ottawa


• Drainage Planning

• ITofer S Waslewater Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

• Industrial Treatment

• Environmental Impact

• Stormwater Management

• Environmental Planning


London • Hamilton Vancouver • Victoria

acres of land surrounding its Winnipeg cement terminal to a non-profit environ mental education facility. The land agreement with the Fort Whyte Centre reinforces a long-time association between the neighbouring facilities and Lafarge's ongoing support for the Centre.

Fort Whyte Centre is located just 10 minutes from downtown Winnipeg on 363 acres that were at one time owned

Corporafe O^ice: J33 Wynford Drive

by the cement and construction materi als company. The Centre provides edu

Toronto, Ontario M3C 1KI

cation and outdoor recreation programs

Tel: (416) 441-4111 Fax; (416) 441-4)31

• Infrastructure

• Communities

• E' nvironment

• Facilities


Vancosfver • Yelloniknife • Co/gaij • Winnipeg • Windsor • Chnlham London • Cambridge • Toronto • Oliawa • Iqahdi • Fredericton Moncton • Halifax • PorfHowkeshjity • Sydney • International 235 YorklandBoulevard, Suite 800, Toronto, Ontario M2J 4Y8 (416) 229-4646 www.dillon. ca

Lafarge Canada has turned over 163

that promote environmental awareness and action leading to sustainable living. According to Lafarge Canada Chair man John Redfern: "200 years ago this land was home to bison, and 80 years

ago it was mined for its high quality clay." Approximately half the land in question is currently being used to house a herd of bison. The other half consists

of wet meadow, forest and a lake that has been stocked with rainbow trout and

will he available for special-use angling programs.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Industry Update McDonald's now uses

Duke Engineering & Services(Canada),Inc. A Duke Energy Company


ozone to wash veggies A new ozone technology which is claimed to improve the quality of fresh cut fruits and vegetables, was announced by Praxair Inc., July 23. The first unit has already been installed and is in op eration at a major supplier to


Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Environmental Management and Compliance Hydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling Site Remediation

McDonald's Restaurants. Ozone is tria-

tomic oxygen, a naturally occurring form of oxygen made in our atmosphere by lightning and ultra-violet rays from the sun. Ozone is effective in killing a wide variety of microorganisms through

• Risk Assessment

(613) 232-2525 Toronto

(905) 513-9400 Calgary (403) 262-4885

Software and services for

groundwoter database mqnagement

oxidation of their cell membranes and leaves no toxic residuals behind.

Although ozone is used extensively in food and beverage processing in Eu rope, in the US it has only commonly been used in beverage processing and

T 16.410.4260 www!earthlx.cbiTi613.260.202cf OttawcJ

for wastewater treatment. The US Food

and Drug Administration recently ap proved ozone as an antimicrobial agent for washing fruits and vegetables. The ozone process uses significantly less water than conventional methods and leaves no chemical residue. All

these factors appealed to McDonald's, whose recycling programs and respon sible packaging were recognized last year with an award from the US Envi ronmental Protection Agency.





EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPAT program


107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108


Warning recall on bottled water Think that all bottles of crystalline spring drinking water are safe? Think again. The Canadian Eood Inspection Agency has recalled five brands that are produced and distributed in BC, warn ing they may make consumers seriously ill. A routine inspection turned up evi dence of a bacteria called pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Although there have been no reported illnesses from the bacteria, the agency warns that it can cause gastrointestinal

Prepare for ISO 14001

Compliance Audits, Training, Approvals John K. Curran, CET (903) 356-8755


GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.^ Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting


illness "or other more serious conse

quences". The water came from a com mon BC stream, but the contamination

• Microbial Training * Consulting Services Respirometry 1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Telephone: 519-681-0571 Fax: 519-681-7150 Cryptosporidium & Giardia Microorganism Identification Rapid E.coli recreational water

might not be from the stream itself but rather in the processing equipment or




Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an op portunistic pathogen commonly found in hot tubs and swimming pools, and much more rarely in drinking water. It can cause urinary tract infections, der matitis, soft tissue infections and a vari

ety of systemic infections. CWWA Bulletin

Envirotttnental Science & Engineering, September 2001






"For professional services in environmental training, due diligence, health and safety, and compliance auditing, give me a call." Lou Locatelli, Principal, Tel:(905) 477-8400 ext. 206 Email: llocatelli@gartnerlee.com Website: www.gartnerlee.com


Industry Update

Ontario announces $10

Geonnat:rix Cansultantis

million to protect groundwater

Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists 'Industrial Wafer/Wosfewater Treofment

■ Wosfe Minimizafion/Wasfewater Reuse/Recycle

The largest single investment in groundwater source protection in Ontario's his tory was announced August 22 in

■ Treatment System Upgrade/Optimization

Suite No. 1\465 Phillip Street

■ Treofmenf System Design and Construction

Waterloo, Ontario N2L 6C7

■ ISO 14000 - Environmental Management Systems

Kitchener-Waterloo when Environment Minister Elizabeth Witmer earmarked


Tel:(519)886•7500 Fax:(519)886•7419

$10 million in funding for municipal groundwater studies. Speaking at the Mannheim Treatment Facility, the Min

Experts In Water, Wastewater, Environmental Planning, and Simulation Software

Hydromantis,Inc. [_K_HEJ

ister said: "Three million Ontarians de

pend on groundwater. These studies will greatly enhance communities' ability to protect their water right at the source."

Consulting Engineers

The $10 million will be distributed

210 Sheldon Drive, Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1A8 Tel: (519)624-7223 Fax:(519)624-7224 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 1G5 Tei: (905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031


to municipalities until March 2002. Emphasis will be given to those munici palities that are highly dependent on groundwater and that are ready and able to begin work immediately. Participat ing municipalities will receive funding

E-mail: info@hydroniantis.com Web: www.hydromantl8.com

J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

to cover a minimum of70% and as much

Consulting Engineers, Architects & Planners

as 85% of approved groundwater study costs.

Water 8r Wastewater Treatment I Environmental Assessment 8i Planning

Solid Waste Management I Stormwater Management i Watermain & Sewer Rehabilitation


Providing a wide


of Environmental Services

Kingston 613-544-1424

Ottawa 613-728-3571

Sudbury 705-522-8174

MacViro ^


The municipal groundwater studies will help map sensitive groundwater ar eas and identify potential risks. Con taminants will be inventoried and sur

veys will record how water is used and how aquifers recharge. This informa tion will help municipalities and regions better map and protect their wellheads.

Designing Environmental & Energy Solutions

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Speciaiizing in the Environment

Report evaluates microblal threats to

MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905) 475-5994 E-Maii: reception ©macviro.oom


can make the detection of harmful mi


croorganisms and contaminated water


faster and more accurate than ever, ac


cording to a new report from the Ameri can Academy of Microbiology. Devel

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

opment of direct moiecuiar tests for use

Toronto, Calgary, MIsslssauga, Whitby

in the environment is the key to strong early warning systems, more reliable diagnostics, and better treatment and ciean-up of microbiai pathogens in wa ter and shellfish that threaten public

80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone; 905-882-1100 E-mail; mmm@mmm.ca

FAX; 905-882-0055 www.mmm.ca

health and economics worldwide.


m Analytics Irtc

• National Comprehensive Environmental Testing Services • MaxxLINK - internet accessible sample tracking and report viewing • Air Monitoring Services

The current standard method for 9331 •48th Street

ONTARIO 5540 McAdam Road

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Calgary, AB T2E 6P2

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water quality New moiecuiar techniques and recent advances in the science of microbiology

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water testing has been used for more than too years to detect and count "in dicator" bacteria. Water samples are ex posed to nutrients and then incubated to encourage the growth of bacteria that usually thrive in the human colon, so growth of the "coiiform" bacteria indi-

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Industry Update cates fecal contamination. Such testing cannot pinpoint the source of contami

nation or detect disease-causing viruses like Hepatitis A or E,indigenous patho genic bacteria like Helicobactei; or para

>: PARKSON CORPORATION Aqua Guard Screen • Biolac" System •.DrnaSand Filter • Lamella Gravity Settler • StrainPress SludgeCleaner

sites like Cryptosporidiwn. Current test

ing practices cannot help to identify or


prevent the enteric waterborne diseases that kill up to two million of the world's children each year. The report, Reevaluation of Microbial Water Quality: Powerful New Tools for Detection and Risk Assessment, out


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An Axel Johnson Inc. Company

Exceptional People. Exceptional Results. 1


lines gene probes, genotyping, antibody, and PGR (polymerase chain reaction) techniques that stand to replace outdated methods. The promising technologies can aid in identifying microbes sus pected of causing disease and confront ing emerging problems like antibiotic

resistant bacteria and the geographic




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spread of harmful microbes that can

come from increased globalization. American Academy of Microbiology reports are available on the web at: www.asmusa.org/acasrc/acal.htm.

PPI releases data on

plastic pipe shipments North American shipments of poly


Consulting Engineers


Regional Office:

1815 Ironstone Manor

516 O'Connor Drive

Suite #10

Suite 205

Offering Services in the areas of: Water Supply

Kingston, Ontario

Pollution Control

Pickering, Ontario L1W 3W9

K7P 1N3


Tel:(905)831-1715 Fax:(905)831-0531

Tel: (613)389-1661 Fax:(613)389-2442


ethylene pipe, tube and conduit totaled 1.39 billion pounds last year, an increase

Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia


Knowledge Based

Solutions For the Environment

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Arizona • Nevada • California • Utah • Colorado • Virginia North Carolina • South Carolina• Georgia •Tennessee

"A leader in providing innovative automation solutions to our customers."

The report provides an estimate in

pounds of the volume of pipe,tubing and conduit shipped to six market segments, including water, gas distribution, oil/gas

provided on shipments of polyethylene

In Canada Gall:


million pounds of pipe, representing a total increase of nearly four percent for these two applications.

production, industrial sewers, conduit, and export/other markets. Data is also


Offices across North America

of 0.2 percent from 1999, according to the 2000 Statistical Review released July 24, by the Plastics Pipe Institute. The market demand for pipe in the oil/gas production markets rebounded to 180 million pounds, a 55 percent in crease over the prior year. The indus trial/sewer and the gas distribution mar kets combined to ship more than 460


Head Office:

We offer a complete range of products & services in the areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services •Service Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V 1J2 Tel: (905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444

Summa Enterprises, Place Grilii, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350, Kirkiand, QC H9H 5B9

Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587

pipe, tube, and conduitfrom 1997-2000, as well as on total market volumes from 1982-2000.


North American shipments of polyethylene pipe, tube and conduit to all six markets totaled nearly 1.4 billion pounds in 2000, an increase from the


Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management• Environmental Assessment


Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA


TEL:(905)668-9363• WHITBY•Fax:(905)668-0221

1999 rate total of more than two million

pounds,and an increase of about 20 per

E-mail: tsh@tsh.ca

cent since 1998.

Contact: www.plasticpipe.org.

Web site: www.tsh.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001



Industry Update

Halton's Ric Robertshaw in APWA's Top Ten formance measurement and benchmark


ing exercise for the water and waste-



water functions of 11 of the largest mu nicipalities in Ontario.

His national presence and leadership


recently facilitated the expansion of the Canadian National Benchmarking Water & Wastewater Partnership. This initiative now represents more than 50 percent of Canada's population served by water and wastewater systems.


When the Government of Canada,

through the National Research Council and co-sponsored by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and CPWA

Ric Robertshaw, REng., has been given a Top Ten Leader of the Year award by

established the need to develop national best practices for municipal infrastruc

the America Public Works Association

ture, Ric Robertshaw, as CPWA Presi

(APWA). As Director of Environmen

dent and technical expert, became a key player in defining the concept, develop

tal Services for the Region of Halton, Ontario, he has provided innovative leadership in all public works areas and particularly in infrastructure manage ment and operations. A past president

has stated: "The Top Ten Public Works

of the Canadian Public Works Associa

Leader of the Year award is the ultimate

ment process, and governance of the project. Judith M. Mueller,APWA President,

tion(CPWA),he has served as the Chair

professional honour a public works pro

of the Expert Panel overseeing the per

fessional can receive."

umti Ontario

Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta

British Columbia Northern Territories

& internationaiiy


US Central Intelligence Agency Global Trends 2015 The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has released its most recent re port entitled. Global Trends 2015. The report looks at the world over the next

15 years from the perspective of the na tional security policymaker. Regarding water, the report stated that: "water has been a source of contention historically, but no water dispute has been a cause of open interstate conflict; indeed, water shortages often have stimulated cooperative arrangements for sharing the scarce resource.

"But as countries press against the limits of available water between now

and 2015, the possibility of conflict will increase. Nearly one-half of the world's land surface consists of river basins

shared by more than one country, and more than 30 nations receive more than one-third of their water from outside

their borders. Turkey is building new dams and irrigation projects on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which will affect water flows into Syria and Iraq - two countries that will experience consider able population growth. "Egypt is proceeding with a major diversion of water from the Nile, which

Hows from Ethiopia and Sudan, both of

• Environmental Engineering • Water & Wastewater Engineering

which will want to draw more water

• Site Assessment & Remediation

• Hydrogeology • Soiid and Hazardous Waste Management • Urban Drainage

from the Nile for their own development by 2015. Water-sharing arrangements are likely to become more contentious. Water shortages occurring in combina tion with other sources of tension - such

Visit our website at www.umagroup.com

as in the Middle East - will be the most worrisome."

Compact - Low Impact Drilling by Water Regime "Specializing in geo-technicai and environmenial drilling in confined and low impact environments" Standard auger and Oenprnbe applications avaiinhie Contact us at: (.'i 19)511-51 14 (Drilling Inquiries) (,■519) 884..'i8l6(0fnce)

(Follow the links under "drilling") Water Regime Investigations and Simulations Ltd. P.O. Box 28040, Parkdaie Postal Outlet, Waterloo, Out. N2L 6J8


• Industrial / Municipal Wastewater Management

• Watershed and Stormwater Management • Drinking Water Quality and Treatment

(604) 990-0582 Kitchener (519) 741-5774 Toronto area (905) 891-2400 Kingston (613) 542-5888 www.xcg.com maii@xcg.com Vancouver


• Hydrogeology Investigation /Modelling • Environmental Site Assessment /Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmental Management Systems

Zenon signs ONDEO Degremont as licensee Zenon Environmental Inc. has con

WEB SITE: www,l.sympaIieo.cii/wris


View the complete CIA document at: www.africa2000.com/INDX/trends 2015.html. CWWA Bulletin

cluded a licensing agreement with ONDEO Degremont. The agreement will allow them to assemble water and

wastewater treatment systems using Zenon's proprietary ZeeWeed* im mersed membrane technology. According to Zenon, this relationship is strategically important to them to en sure better penetration of the French market and to take advantage of global opportunities where the wide range of capabilities of the ONDEO Degremont Croup are needed to complement Zenon's technologies.

Environmenial Science & Engineering, September 2001

Industry Update

You can't go wrong with planting trees The debate over the Kyoto Protocol is overshadowing a simple and cost-effec tive way to significantly slow the build up of greenhouse gases-a natural proc ess known as carbon sequestration. A report released August 13, by Reason Public Policy Institute, Reducing Glo bal Warming through Forestry and Agriculture, examines this process and its application to the debate over global warming. The report finds that change in forest and agricultural management could produce a projected annual sav ings offive gigatons (billion metric tons) of carbon, or 35 percent of the expected

Bayer received President's US EPA Green Chemistry Challenge Award

emissions in 2050.

"There are numerous advantages to carbon sequestration and no down sides," said Dr. Kenneth Green, co

author of the report and Director of En vironmental Programs at Reason Pub lic Policy Institute. "Finding alterna tives to fossil fuel comes with pitfalls and economic disruptions. Whereas planting trees and changing the way that fertilizers are used can dramatically re duce greenhouse gases without nega tively impacting people's lifestyles." The report reviews several methods of removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and storing them in forests and agricultural soil. Preventing defor estation, planting more trees, and maxi mizing carbon retention through ferti lizer and herbicide use are identified as

viable ways of storing additional carbon and reducing greenhouse gases. Contact: www.rppi.org.

Leaky, aging pipes pose threat to water safety Leaks in aging pipes could allow para sites like Cryptosporidium to seep into water distribution systems and pose a threat to public health, even in major

The US Marine Corps headquarters has authorized the conversion to potyurethane coatings containing water-reducible resins for all Marine Corps ground vehicles. Bayer Corporation received the US LPA's 2000 Presidential Green Chem

istry Challenge Award for developing an industrial coating material that uses water instead of chemical solvents,thus reducing volatile air emissions by as much as 99 percent. The Bayer technology, a two-com ponent waterborne polyurethane, cuts VOCs released into the atmosphere by

vents microbes from getting into pipes most of the time, because escaping water spurts out of a leak at such a high speed. What the researcher is worried about is the trough or the bottom of the pressure wave, which creates a low pres sure environment inside the pipe. In tests, he has found that the trough can become so big after a surge and it cre ates a negative pressure inside the pipe. CWWA Bulletin

Call For Papers

art water purification plants. A re

Abstracts in English or French, for oral or poster presentations, will be consid

searcher with the American Waterworks

ered for the Tenth National Conference

Service Company has been studying breaks in water distribution pipes. He has found that sometimes surges of water are created when a valve is very quickly opened or closed. This rush of water, a pressure wave,puts a lot of pres sure on the pipe and,on some occasions, the pipe bursts open. Leaks in water pipes happen on a fairly regular basis in most cities and the high pressure water system actually pre-

on Drinking Water, to be held in Hali fax, Nova Scotia, April 27-30, 2002. Abstracts of approximately 500 words, submitted by electronic mail or on dis

North American cities with state-of-the-

kette (WP or Word) must be received

by December 1,2001. Supporting agencies include: Health Canada, Nova Scotia Environment, Canadian Water and Wastewater Asso

ciation, Halifax Regional Water Com mission, and the Centre for Water Re

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

50 to 90 percent, and hazardous air pol lutant(HAP)emissions by 50 to 99 per cent, while maintaining durability and aesthetic standards previously only achieved by solvent-based coatings. The waterborne coatings raw materials ai e used in a broad range of applications, such as industrial and wood finishes,

floor and automotive coatings, adhesives and paper applications. sources Studies, Dalhousie University. Abstracts should be sent to: 10th

National Conference on Drinking Water, c/o CWWA,2nd Floor, Unit 20, 5330 Canotek Road, Ottawa, ON, KIJ

9C3. Tel: (613) 747-0524, Fax: (613) 747-0523, E-mail: admin@cwwa.ca.

Water in the pink Montreal's tap water is full of whole some minerals and compares favourably with the water of other major North American cities, a McGill University study shows. The water has high levels of calcium and magnesium, minerals that are considered healthy. The re searchers studied the tap water of the 25 most populous cities in Canada and the United States. Mineral content varied

widely among the cities. In the last dec ade,tap water consumption has dropped in North America and Europe as more people have turned to bottled water. But the lead researcher for the study says that most North American bottled spring waters contain very low, or in some cases, absolutely no minerals. 93

Date Pad

IC employee receives highest award

October 1-4,2001. 11 th International Con ference on Aquatic Invasive Species, Alex andria, VA. Tel: (613) 732-7068 or 1-800868-8776, E-mail: profedge@renc.igs.net. October 1-4,2001. 6th Research Forum on Recycling, Magog, QC. Contact Andy Hoa Dang-Duy, Pulp and Paper Technical Asso ciation of Canada, Tel: (514) 392-6968, or Web site: www.paptac.ca. October 9-11,2001. 2001 Recycling Coun cil of Ontario Annual Conference, Hamil ton, ON. Contact RCO,Tel:(416)960-1025, Fax:(416) 960-8053, Web: www.rco.on.ca.

bition on Wastewater & Water Quality Tech nology, San Juan, PR. Contact the Water Environment Federation, Tel: 1-800-6660206 (US & Canada), E-mail: confinfo® wef.org. November 14-15,2001. Air & Waste Man agement Association - Ontario Section and

the Ontario Society for Environmental Man agement Conference, Managing Contami nated Land and Brownfieid Development, Waterloo, ON. Contact Sue Ruggero, OSEM,at: Tel:(416)746-9076, Fax: (416) 743-6171, E-mail: plan@idirect.com. November 14-16, 2001. The Composting Council of Canada's 11th Annual National

Mayor of Qingdao, Du Shicheng (left), presents Derek Yue (right), with the Qingdao Award.

Jhe Waterloo Slream Course DESIGNING STREAM

Industry's Canada's Derek Yue was pre sented with a prestigious award for his significant contribution to the social and economic development of the City of Qingdao in China. He was instrumen tal in the establishment and project de velopment of the Canada-Qingdao Sus tainable Cities Initiative (SCI). He vis

ited Qingdao many times while work ing on the SCI project, and speaks fondly of the city and its people. During a visit to Toronto, the Mayor of Qingdao, Du Shicheng, presented Derek with the award, the highest hon our presented to foreigners from the City of Qingdao. He is the first Canadian to receive this award.

An unusual voyage

RESTORATION WORKS • analyzing natural stream

geometry and stability •designing hydtauiics for stream habitats

• soft engineering sustainable

stream restoratian prajects

October 10-12, 2001 Hockley Highlands Inn & Conference Centre

Orangevllle, ON Waterloo Educational Services Inc.

Tel:(519) 856-9119 www.waterloo-educational.on.Ga

October 15-19, 2001. IWA World Water Congress Efficient Water Management Making it Happen, Berlin, Germany. Con tact: www.woiId-water-congress.de. October 30, 2001. One-day seminar on HDPE piping systems. West Coast SeaTac Hotel, Seattle, WA. For further information,

contact Plastics Pipe Institute at:(202)4629607,ext. 13,Web site: www.plasticpipe.org. October 30-31,2001. Canadian Waste Man agement Conference 2001, Chateau du Mont-Sainte-Anne, QC. Contact RESEAU environnement, tel: (514) 270-7110, Fax: (514)270-7154,Web site: www.reseau-envi

Conference, Montreal, QC. Contact Susan Antler, Tel: (416) 535-0240, E-mail: ccc@ compo.st.org. Web site: www.compost.org. November 28-29, 2001. 24th Symposium sur les eaux usees, Montreal, QC. Contact: RESEAU environnement, tel: (514) 2707110, Fax: (514) 270-7154, Web site: www.reseau-environnement.com.

January 9, 2002. One-day seminar on HDPE piping systems,Sheraton North Hou ston, Houston,TX. For further information, contact Plastics Pipe Institute at:(202)4629607,ext. 13, Web site: www.plasticpipe.org. February 20, 2002. One-day seminar on HDPE piping systems, Radisson Hotel At lanta Airport South, Atlanta, CA. For fur ther information, contact Plastics Pipe Insti tute at: (202) 462-9607, ext. 13, Web site: www.plasticpipe.org. December 4-7, 2001. 17th Pollutec Inter

national Exhibition of Environmental Equip ment, Technologies and Services for Indus try, Paris-Nord Villepinte, France. The show will display the latest innovations in equip ment and services for water, waste,recycling, air, noise,energy,soil decontamination,clean technologies, analysis/measurement/moni toring, etc. A new "risk and risk manage ment" sector has been organized in partner ship with INERIS (National Institute for the Industrial Environment and Risks); and four

specialist "villages" have been created: IT, coastal development and management, ecoproducts and high environmental quality building, and communication. For informa tion contact: www.pollutec.com, or Alison Cousland, Tel: (416) 929-2562, Fax: (416) 929-2564, Web: www.promosalons.com.

The Galapagos Islands are a fascinating corner of the world, where only a few inhabitants share the territory with tur tles, iguanas and hundreds of bird spe cies. The place became famous and


well-known worldwide when Charles

1546 pumps for their sewage pumping station. The pumps had an unusual way of finding their final destination. The pumps were first sent from an ABS manufacturing unit in Ireland to Cartagena in Columbia, and then on to Guayaquil in Ecuador. The trickiest part was then delivering them to Santa Cruz. The Galapagos are located in the Pa cific Ocean right on the equator and more

But, if it was easy to load the plane with the pumps, using the cranes at the airport in Guayaquil, imagine how dif ficult it was to unload and transport them to the pumping station in a place with out any facilities - no cranes, no trucks, no roads. The only way was to hire na tives who unloaded the pumps with their own bare hands and then transported

where several resorts are located. A Santa

than 1,000 kilometres from the continent.

them on their shoulders for about six

Cruz hotel recently purchased two AFP

The solution was a Hercules C-130 car


Darwin earned out research there, and

the unique paradise islands are now vis ited by thousands of tourists every year. The Galapagos belong to Ecuador and consist of more than a dozen islands.

Today, the area is a National Park and Marine Biology Reserve, where environ mental protection is a natural lifestyle. One of the largest islands is Santa Cruz,


November 11-14, 2001. WEFTEC Latin America Puerto Rico 2001. The 2nd Latin American Technical Conference and Exhi

rier from the Ecuadorian Air Force.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2001

Why fight it! Go to wvAv.ocpa.com and discover how SIDD (Standard Installation Direct Design) can save you significant time and material. Come out a clear winner on

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i It's so reliable. That's what our

From basic level measurement to

customers say about Milltronics technology installed in thousands

complete lift station monitoring and control, Milltronics technology is effective in enclosed or open vessels, narrow apertures or harsh weather.

of water distribution and

wastewater plants worldwide. ■ Level and volume measurement

■ Pump control ■ Lift station monitoring and control ■ Open channel flow monitoring ■ Rake control

■ ■ ■ ■

Clarifier interface monitoring Level control for digesters Gasholder height monitoring Weighing of dry bulk storage

Our Echomax® ultrasonic transducers are built for harsh environments

-impervious to dust, moisture, corrosion, vibration, flooding and temperature extremes. The noncontacting design virtually eliminates the nuisance, danger and expense of cleaning, adjusting and repairing contacting devices.

Transceivers feature our patented Sonic Intelligence® signal processing technology for superior reliability. Products are easy to install, and expert technical support is there when you need it. For information or a representative near you, visit our web site: www.milltronics.com

Technology. Innovation. Support.

For more information, circle reply card No. 107(See page 25)