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Drinking water experts speak out about Walkerton and North Battleford Wet scrubber improves odour control at BC wastewater plant Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites Flexible membrane vs. ceramic coarse bubble diffusers
Hunger striker wins action on tar ponds Pulp and Paper industry focus
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June/July 2001 Vol.14 No. 3 Issued June, 2001
Rapid response - See page 40|
Reverse osmosis - See page 42
Couid the Supreme Court ruie against the Supreme Being? - editoriai comment
New stormwater containment technoiogies Lead contamination on firing ranges
10 Nationai media iistens when OWWA speaks 12 Drinking water in the post Waikerton era
14 Report on Environmentai Management, Compiiance and Engineering 2001 16 Wet scrubber improves odour controi 18 Web of iife seminar captured interest then spawned debate on ecoiogicai economics 20 Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions
34 CFD analysis helps develop up to four
from iandfiii sites
Pulp and Paper Industry Focus
times faster oil containment boom
36 Quebec bridge restoration uses innovative approaches
40 Rapid response, cooperation and analytical capabilities are required at today's fires 41 New headworks at Napanee facility 48
New Age products used to construct storm sewer and outfaii in waterfront park
Flexible membrane vs. ceramic coarse bubble diffusers
ES&E's semi-annual focus
42 New Brunswick P&P company achieves breakthrough by using reverse osmosis 44 Brazil's Amazon Rainforest still shrinking 45 Single-Stage UF Pilot Plant for P&P processes
46 When the chips are down at P&P mills 47 Drywall paper recycling closes the loop
Site remediation contractor reuses
58 CAEAL and SCC help to bring potable water to Latin America
59 Hunger striker wins action on tar ponds 60
Ontario tackles US and domestic air
63 Governments bid to save unique bog 64 Life cycle pumping costs 66
The need for asset management
68 PCBs - still a potent problem
Environmental Science & Engineering, Jane 2001
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Could the Supreme Court rule against the Supreme Being?
Nasdaq has flatlined; Nortel
has plummeted along with my other high-tech stocks, so why am I not down
hearted? Because the immutable laws
of physics indicate that when high-tech sectors fall, opportunities for low-life stocks such as my Rent-a-Mob companies will rise. Rent-a-Mob did particularly
the anti-chlorine protest business fell
til late 2000, was unable to account for
like a stone after the E. coli OI57:H7
over one billion dollars in federal grants. But the dramatic fall of high-tech stocks early in 2001 made me look for an entirely new venture, the Victim Busi ness. It is admittedly, an unlikely source
drinking water problems. The Rent-a-Mob's effective opposi tion to all kinds of garbage incineration spawned many other environmental problems, with the subsequent and pro
of revenue, as the word victim would indicate someone who has lost,
not gained from an occumence. But emerging data indicate an
well when I launched it in
abundance of wealth could stem
Canada during the first flush of those early days,I offered a full range of protest teams, from
from victim enterprises, most absurd, some tragic. Some 12 years ago, Britain had its Hillsborough disaster when 96
environmental activism. In
blue-collar rednecks, observed
football fans were crushed to
in bars during losing streaks at Maple Leaf hockey games (a protracted recruiting season),to
death-a terrible tragedy which
tweed-clad academics who
officer has been awarded
could spout polysyllabic non sense with affected English ac cents, especially during televi
ÂŁ330,000 (approximately $750,000 Canadian) in an outof-court settlement for post-
traumatic stress after he revis
still haunts the world of soccer.
Now a retired British police
The blue-collar group was
ited the football stadium nine
for intimidation; the academic
years later, while employed on another job. This amount, re ported The Guardian's James
contingent was brought in later as counterpunches of irritation and obfuscation. But my most feared line of protesters were the bona fide hockey mothers whose tungsten-tipped tonsils had been hardened and sharpened while scream ing at referees during years of pre-dawn peewee hockey schedules. They were particularly effective during political protests where they repeatedly evoked sympathy while cutting into complex issues with counter arguments so sim
plistic they could only fit on bumper stickers.
When the usual journalistic pre ferences for sensational headlines at
the expense of scientific realities are blended to the mix, we now have the
ingredients for real political change based on perception, not realities. Environmental issues were a major component of the early Rent-a-Mob suc cesses. PCBs, PVCs, urea-formalde
hyde and chlorine were among the first chemicals to be demonized before the
act moved on to garbage treatment, but
By Tom Davey, Editor and Publisher
Lewis, was more than 100 times the amount awarded to the victims' relatives.
tracted blocking of any landfill site al ternatives. It was like discovering the laws of perpetual motion as various gar bage projects were shuffled around be fore resting in expensive limbos. But while my protest franchises surged during the late '70s and '80s, business leveled off until the totally un expected eruptions against globalization and opportunities such as Peppergate in British Columbia and latterly in Quebec City. During these debacles, a British jour nalistic colleague, on hearing Prime Minister Chretien's tortured syntax in both English and French, came to the admiring, but incorrect assumption that Canada was a tri-lingual nation. He first suspected that a third official language existed during the PM's convoluted defense of the various grants in Shawinigan Riding. Linguistically, the PM's mastery of language almost rivaled the
Canada is already proving to be fer tile ground for the emerging victim trend. An Ontario woman, Linda Hunt
was awarded $300,000 after a judge found her employer partially responsi ble for injuries she sustained while driv ing home drunk following an office Christmas party in December, 1994. Ms. Hunt rejected offers from her boss to arrange for her to get home safely including calling her husband to pick her up. Instead, she left the party and con tinued drinking at a local pub. Driving home later, she collided with a pickup truck, suffering severe head injuries including brain damage, broken bones and a fractured spine. Ontario Supreme Court Judge Clair Marchand ruled that Ms. Hunt was 75% responsi ble for the crash and its damages,includ ing her own injuries, totalling about $1.12 million. He ruled the pub and Ms. Hunt's employer were responsible for
arithmetical convulsions of Human Re
the other 25%, about $300,000 when
sources Minister Jane Stewart, who un
fees and interest were added. As the pub
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
no longer had any assets, the full cost of
the settlement will fall on the insurer for
Hunt's employer. Thejudge ruled that asking Ms. Hunt
Editor & Publisher
E-mail: email@example.com Managing Editor Saies Director
SANDRA DAVEY PENNY DAVEY
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: email@example.com
Circulation Manager Publisher's Assistant
VIRGINIA MEYER KATHLEEN CARIGNAN
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org President
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.
Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.
George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfeilow
Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc. Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates
if she wanted a ride home was insuffi
cient as the alcohol had impaired her judgement! I see many problems for this ruling in the real world - what's an em ployer to do, tie up workers who insist on driving home while drunk? No doubt this could provoke allegations of bond age, creating another victim project. While many Dot-Coms have risen and fallen recently, there seems to be no limits to the growth potential of the vic tim industry which effortlessly crosses national and international borders. In the United States lives a woman who claims her life hasn't been the same
since she was hit by lightning some six years ago on New Smyrna Beach. She has sued Volusia County for not warn ing her about an approaching storm. The lawsuit says beach lifeguards knew
about it and were making their own preparations to seek shelter, but didn't warn bathers.
It gets even better. And I am not making this up. In Pennsylvania, a man has endeavoured to sue God! However,
a federal judge has rejected a lawsuit by the man who claims that his life was
ruined by a US Corporation after they fired him more than thirty years ago. This same person also sued God for tak ing "no corrective action" against his enemies and demanded that God com
pensate him by returning his youth and granting him guitar-playing skills. But surely,even in America, not even the US Supreme Court could rule against the Supreme Being? The "E" business may have slumped, but with judicial rulings like these, the "V" business is certain to become the stock market's newest fad.
Sailing into rough waters
Stanley Mason, P.Eng.
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industriai piant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ESSE cannot
be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained In this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility Is assumed. Articles In this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada fvlagazine Fund, toward our editorial costs. Canadian Publications Maii Saies Second Class Mail
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The Ontario government is facing tough challenges. The Walkerton Inquiry has gone beyond iethal drinking water supplies to widespread concern over agricuiturai contamination of groundwater. Aiso, there are the growing prob lems of biosolids contamination, which are reviving the incineration debate. The province is increasingiy beset with major air pollution issues, largely ema nating from the United States. Ontario is the oniy province fronting on to four of the Great Lakes (oniy Michigan is a totaiiy American lake). Ontario has aiso additional responsibilities for some 250,000 fresh water lakes and nu merous rivers, many of them drinking water sources. See ES&E photo cover age of the 2001 OWWA conference in this issue. Photo - Tom Davey
ES&E's Directory & Specifiers' Guide is now on the Web at: www.esemag.com Environineiilal Science & Engineering, June 2001
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OWWA/OMWA Conference Report
National media listens when 0\N\NA speaks lars in compensation and legal enquir ies. Now a parasite had been added as a threat to drinking water. Reporters were told, in no uncertain terms, that low
water rates had been a major factor in our deteriorating environmental infrastruc ture. At long last, the news media were going to the real experts for information
when complex issues of public health and water quality were being debated.
Reporters from radio,TV and
national newspapers crowded around speakers following the opening session of the
2001 Ontario Water Works Association/
Ontario Municipal Water Association
annual conference in Toronto, May 7-9. Hershel Guttman, P.Eng., a Director of R.V. Anderson Associates,a past OWWA Chair and AWWA Director, gave the key note address. Drinking Water in the Post
Waikerton Era. Later he fielded ques tions from a bevy of reporters on the im plications of the Cryptosporidium out break in North Battleford,Saskatchewan, and, of course, the Waikerton E.coii is sues. The interviews were broadcast on CBC Radio and covered in the Globe &
Mail, and other newspapers. The Canadian Environmental Law Association's Paul Muldoon also fielded
reporters' questions on jurisdictional le galities of drinking water issues, after he had reviewed current policies and
legislative issues with CELA's propos als for reform.
Hershel later appeared on a Global TV program with Toronto Councillor Jack Layton and Andre Proulx, P.Eng., Delcan's Ottawa Division Manager. The
two engineers presented epidemiological and historical data which dispelled many of the media's misconceptions on drinking water. On the final day of the conference, Hershel was interviewed
live on eight radio stations across Canada- as far afield as Vancouver and
Prince George, BC. Ironically, it was barely 12 months earlier that the lethal E. coil 0157.H7 had
killed some six people, hospitalized hun dreds and cost countless millions of dol-
Photo report by Tom Davey E-mail: email@example.com 10
"But the United States has moved forward with an initiative that I believe deserves our consideration. In October
1999,the United States introduced man
presented with The Fuller Award, the AWWA Section's premier honour, ap peared in a lengthy interview on CBC
datory annual Consumer Confidence Reports for all water suppliers. Here in Ontario, our tough existing regulations do require operators to make quarterly reports available to the public. But
News World, where he related various
through consumer confidence reports,
capabilities of membrane technologies
of media neglect on drinking water is sues, this copious media coverage now
US water suppliers now must make a "good faith effort" to reach their con sumers, whether it's through advertising, mailouts or posting results on web sites. "I believe that making an effort to reach consumers is consistent with your
made the role and relevance of environ
conference theme of Consumer Confi
mental engineers, chemists and opera tors, highly visible. The prestigious Howard Award went
dence,and it fits very well with our gov ernment's vision of greater, broader ac countability. I look forward to hearing your thoughts as we explore this initia
Dr. Andrew Benedek, who had been
The Hon. Elizabeth Witmer
all times, anywhere in the province. In fact, Ontario's mandatory quarterly re porting for water suppliers is a very ef fective system and, overall, more strin gent than the US EPA requirements.
for the removal of bacteria and viruses,
as well as parasites such as Crypto sporidium and Giardia. After decades
to Geoff Jenkins.
Ontario Environment Minister, Eliza
beth Witmer, talked about her govern ment's commitment to safe drinking wa ter. "You have shown great foresight by making consumer confidence your con ference theme. This is an issue that cuts
to the very core of the drinking water is sue. People need to know that the water they drink is safe and protected," she said. She said the recent Cryptosporidium
tive," the Minister said.
One delightful addition to this year's conference was the Young Profession als Reception where recently graduated engineers, at the start of their promising careers, could meet and mingle with older people in water engineering. Any lingering suspicion that water treatment
events in North Battleford, Saskatch
is a male dominated profession was to be quickly dispelled at this meeting. AWWA Vice President, Kathryn
ewan, are a reminder of the continuing fear and uncertainty in many rural com munities. "Clean, safe drinking water is non-negotiable. All residents must be able to count on their drinking water, at
McCain, displayed boundless enthusi asm and energy at this conference where many learned papers were presented by young women engineers who spoke with poise and authority on complex issues.
Photo 1: Dr. Andrew Benedek receives the Fuller Award from A WVJA Vice Presi
dent Kathryn McCain. Photo 2: Hershel Guttman, keynote speaker, with Rod Holme, an A WWA Past President. Rod also serves on ES&E's Technical Advi
sory Board. Photo 3: Hershel Guttman fields questions at OWWA's press con ference. Photo 4: The highly successful Young Professionals Reception (left to right): Gulden Muylwyk, CH2M Hill Canada; Kathryn McCain,AWWA Vice Presi dent; Sandra Latorre, University of Toronto (XCG); Laurie Ford, R. V. Anderson
Associates. Photo 5: Former OWWA Chair, Pat Lachmanluk, with Doug James, OMWA. Photo 6: The Michael R. Provart Environmental Award was given to JamsZimmer(centre). University of Waterloo, with Anne Provart(left)and Roland Welker, Dillon Consulting (right). Recognition was also given to KIrsten Exall, Queens University, for Best Oral Presentation, and Sarah Dorner, University of Waterloo, for Best Poster Presentation. Photo 7; Debbie Korolnek, director of York Region's Water and Wastewater Branch, Transportation and Works De partment, was presented with an honorary mention plaque for its water use pro gram. Photo 8: Casino Night, sponsored by the Ontario Water Works Equip ment Association, was the most popular social event of the conference. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
OWWA/OMWA Conference Report
OWWA Keynote Address
Drinking water in the post Walkerton era
Weal know thatthe history
of public water supply goes back well over 125 years in North America. Initially, public water supplies had two purposes. The first was for fire protec tion, especially in an era of wooden buildings in close proximity. The abil ity to protect a town or city from being destroyed emerged as not only an eco nomic issue, but a social one.
Louis Pasteur in the 1880s, on the con nection of bacteria with disease, that
people began to understand that poor sanitation conditions and contaminated
drinking water were vectors for disease. Cholera and typhoid fever epidemics became linked with unchecked pollution of drinking water sources, and the recy cling of pathogenic bacteria via the drinking water supply. The reaction of public officials was
Fires not only killed, they destroyed
twofold; first to collect and redirect
homes. This connection, therefore, with
the sewage by building sewers; sec ondly, to make the drinking water safe
the public health of the community was fairly direct. An even more direct con nection with a community's public health was the ability of water to reduce disease. This was because of its ready availability in the home for drinking, washing, cleaning, and cooking. The ability to easily use water for these pur poses promotes sanitation and thereby protects the public health. Ironically, this also led to poor sani
And a major component of that has been the treatment of drinking water, not only with chlorine,but filtration and other means to protect the public health. It is worth noting as an aside, that these deci sions were in the hands of engineers. In fact, the subject taught in the early part ofthe 20th centuiy in engineering schools was called Public Health Engineering. Now, as the last century progressed, we went beyond treating for dysentery, cholera, and typhoid fever. We discov ered other pathogens such as viruses and protozoa. Lately, drinking water pro-
The question is no longer if, but how to meet a high level of public health protection and how is an engineering issue. by disinfecting it. The method of choice for disinfection was chlorination. In
North America, this was first tried in
1908 in Chicago, and Toronto intro duced it in 1919 in response to another typhoid epidemic.
fessionals have been treating for such protozoans as Giardia lamblia, and the more recently recognized lethality of Cryptosporidium which caused the deaths in Milwaukee in the early 1990s. And we continue to find and treat for
outside the home, as
Great Public Health Achievements in the
newly discovered bacteria and strains, such as E.Coli 0157:H7and Campylobacter jejuni, which caused the recent
sewage was allowed to be washed away
20th Centuij. One of them was the
illnesses in Walkerton.
"control of infectious diseases."
in the streets. It was
To quote, control of infectious dis eases has resultedfrom clean water and improved sanitation. Infections such as typhoid and cholera transmitted by con taminated water, a major cause of ill ness and death early in the 20th cen tury, have been reduced dramatically by improved sanitation.
The message here is clear: The public health ofour communities depends on our drinking water. Which brings us to the point that water must be made safe. It is easy for all of us to take this for granted in our day-to-day jobs, but I do not think we should. I think we need to be vigilant, whether as providers of water or not, and here is why: Drinking water is different
not until the work of
By Hershel Guttman, P.Eng., R.V. Anderson Associates, Past OWWA Chair and AWWA Director and VP
In 1999, the Center for Disease Con
trol in Atlanta, published their list of Ten
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
OWWA Keynote Address from all other home deliveries - it has no substitute! Think about it:
• Gas is piped to your home, but can be replaced by oil or electricity. • Telephone and cable are interchange able and can be supplemented via mail and couriers.
• Newspapers also delivered to your door, can be replaced by radio and TV. • Cable TV can be replaced by books and videos.
• Even electrical power can be replaced by oil and gas. But only water has no substitute, it is essential for life. In fact, without it, there is no life. So we should never take it
for granted. But if it represents life it self, it must be made safe to drink and
that is exactly what the new Ontario Reg 459 was designed to do. It is a good start in securing public health. I ask municipalities and public utili
ties: What more can you do to protect drinking water quality? What about cross-connections? Is this a boring sub
ject, or recognition that this issue repre sents one of your major vulnerabilities? A water system without a comprehen sive cross-contamination prevention program,complete with customer train ing and monitoring, is like shopping in a drug store for a headache tablet, and finding all the bottles open! We should be listening to customers. An excellent example of this, is a recent visit I made to a northern Ontario city. It seems there was a standing water problem with lead in the courthouse water, but no problem with the running water samples. For most of us, given that the water supplier has no jurisdic tion with building plumbing, it would have ended there. But this public offi cial, recognizing that he nevertheless had a responsibility for public health, correctly pointed out that the issue for him was public education. Pre-Walkerton, we had non-binding guidelines on drinking water quality. The level of public health protection, therefore, was ultimately a political de cision. Public health engineers could
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recommend, but could not overrule their
Bono Zon Ozone
Bello Zon Chlorine
political masters. Now a new Regulation and the Ontario Drinking Water Standards are binding. The question is no longer if, but how to meet a high level of public health protection and how is an engineer ing issue. So ironically, public health protection is now back in engineering
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hands where it began. ❖ Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
For more Information, circle reply card No. 107 (See page 25)
Report on Environmental Management, Compliance and Engineering 2001 Tradeshow space more than double that of 2000 event
Environmental Management, Compliance and Engineering
2001, and the Ontario Envi ronmental Tradeshow, held at
the Regal Constellation Hotel in Toronto, April 10-11, drew record attendance at its workshops, seminars and exhibits. Every category showed an increase over previous years, including 57 exhibitors, double that of last year's event when a table-top exhibition was launched in con junction with the workshops. In addition to the registered del egates, walk-in traffic was high, thanks to passes attached to the March issue of
I t. \M.: I \|i:it(.I N(
Some 700 people attended, confirm ing it as the largest privately-sponsored conference and tradeshow in Canada. This was the ninth consecutive work
shop series, organized by Environmen tal Science & Engineering Magazine, in conjunction with Environniental Regu lation & Compliance News. Program highlights included: Law, regulation and due diligence • Environmental regulation and compli ance.
•Practical problem-solving for environ mental and plant managers. Environmental Management • Principles and best-practices of envi ronmental management. Contaminated Site Management and Development
Some 700 people attended, confirming it as the largest privately-sponsored confer ence and tradeshow of its kind in Canada.
Law,Regulation and Due Diligence • Environmental due diligence for su pervisors and managers. •Implementing due diligence: Frontline personnel management procedures. Engineering and Compliance Solutions
• Air emissions management: Monitor ing and compliance methods and strate gies.
place health and safety managem ent systems.
• Principles and best practices of envi ronmental and health & safety auditing. Emergency Response Planning & Management •Spill prevention planning and response for supervisors and managers. A high level of client satisfaction was demonstrated at the conclusion of the
• Brownfields and contaminated land
and energy efficiency problems. Environment and Health & Safety Management
conference by people who attended the workshops. Plans are now underway for the 2002 workshops and Ontario Environmental
now: The essential introductory course.
• Integrating environment with work
• Successful solutions for noise, odour
m Robert Manselt (left), of the law firm Torys, chaired a popular session on environmental health and safety, attended by some 200 registrants. This session was only one of the 16 convened at ES&E's conference and tradeshow. 14
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Nitrogen for safer handling of chemicals Nitrogen helps chemical producers fulfill their commitment to safe han
dling of chemicals, starting with pro duction and continuing until the prod uct reaches the customer. As a dry, inert and oxygen-free gas, nitrogen minimizes flammability hazards dur ing processing, storage, packaging and transportation operations. It also helps protect chemicals from expo sure to air and moisture, thereby main taining product quality and consist
continued. "Our on-site nitrogen sup ply also allows us to use it in place of
trogen include: purging to reduce con
instrument air for control valves, to
cal compounds in reactors or pipe lines; blanketing to maintain tank pressure and to reduce product emis sions; drying of solids; and sparging and stripping dissolved contaminants from liquids.
blow lines clear and to pressure up rail cars for off-loading product. Gase ous nitrogen works well for this ap plication because it's dry, and it saves us the expense of an air compressor system." Other chemical applications for ni
centrations of water or other chemi
For more information,
circle reply card No. 108
Dow Chemical Canada uses
Praxair nitrogen for a variety of blan keting, purging and instrumentation applications - from the moment chemicals arrive by railcar at their West Coast Distribution Centre in
North Vancouver, British Columbia, until the chemicals reach customers
by ship halfway around the world. Dow's distribution centre has six stor
age tanks for chemicals, which in clude caustic soda, ethylene dichloride and ethylene glycol.
When you think of industrial gases, think of Praxair! Praxair account manager Doug Lennox (ieft) and Mike Martel, manager of Dow Chemicai Canada's West Coast Distri
bution Centre, with cargo ship being readied for loading.
"We load an average of about 95 ships per year at this coastal distribu tion centre, bound for destinations
such as Australia, Japan, Korea, Tai wan and Hong Kong," said Mike Martel, the centre's manager. "Our biggest use for nitrogen is to purge the ships' tanks to reduce oxygen levels before loading ethylene dichloride,
Praxair is the largest industrial gases company in North and South America, and one of the largest worldwide. We produce a broad spectrum of atmospheric, process and specialty gases in a wide selection of supply options for virtually every industry known to man. That's what makes us big, but that's not what makes us the best! We stand out from the rest because of an extraordinary line-up of commercially-proven gas application technologies that can make your business better. From food processing to metal fabrication, and from chemicals production to water treatment, Praxair is put to the ultimate test every day...helping customers increase production, lower operating costs and find cost-effective environmental solutions.
End your search for the best industrial gases supplier. Talk to Praxair! Call 1-800-PRAXAIR, or visit our website at www.praxair.com.
which is flammable. We also blanket
the tank with nitrogen to keep air out. "For ethylene glycol, we use nitro gen for padding the tank after load ing to minimize oxygen that would be detrimental to product quality," he
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Copyright 2000. Pra.xair Technology. Inc. All rights reserx'cd. PRAXAIR. the FLOWING AIRSTREAM design and the term MAKING OUR PLANET MORE PRODUL 1IVE are trademarks of Praxair Technology. Inc. in the United States. Canada and other countries.
Wet scrubber improves odour control at Vancouver Island wastewater treatment plant
The French Creek Pollution
Control Centre treats waste-
water from the City of Parksville and the Town of
Qualicum Beach on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. Originally, the plant used the extended aeration proc ess with aerobic sludge digestion for wastewater treatment. From 1995 to
complaints in a month. The District started adding iron (ferrous) chloride to the wastewater collection system in an effort to control odours, but odours and
....the most difficult
component to control is dimethyl disulphidc, which was mainly coming from the digcstion/scptagc tanks.
1997, the facility underwent a major upgrade to accommodate the increasing population in the area. At the same time, the facility was converted to the more robust trickling filter/solids contact(TF/ SC)process for treating the liquid stream and autoheated thermophilic aerobic sludge digestion(ATAD)for treating the
ciated Engineering as their wastewater
treatment consultant. One of their first
The 18 million litre per day plant achieved a very high quality effluent using the TF/SC process; however, odours became a problem. At a peak, the Regional District of Nanaimo,which operates the plant, received up to 40
assignments was to investigate the odour problems at the French Creek plant. Led by Dr. Dave Forgie, from Associated Engineering's Bumaby office, the team
In 1998, the District retained Asso
building and the airstream from the di gestion process and septage receiving tanks. Other sources of odour originated in the dewatered biosolids loading bay. The main components of the odour consisted of hydrogen sulphide (rotten egg odour), methyl mercaptan(a skunky smell), dimethyl sulphide (rotten cab bage odour), and dimethyl disulphide (rotten vegetables odour). "Ofthese,the most difficult component to control is dimethyl disulphide, which was mainly coming from the digestion/septage tanks," reports Dave Forgie. Improvements to plant housekeeping and better control over air flow resolved
some of the odour problems. "The so lution to odours emanating from the dewatered biosolids loading bay and grit hopper room was simply keeping the doors to those areas closed and allow
ing the air management system to col
identified the main sources of odour as
lect the odorous air," he said. "Other
the air flow from the trickling filter
odour sources required more complex
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
and costly solutions, such as biofilters and/or wet chemical scrabbers."
The airstream from the ATAD/septage tanks was already being treated by biological, odour-scrubbing towers. While these two towers effectively removed ammonia and hydro gen sulphide, they did not remove dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide. Since this airstream was smaller and, therefore, less costly to treat than the much larger trickling filter airstream, the team recommended treating the ATAD/ septage tank airstream with a wet chemical scrubber system. The Regional District of Nanaimo accepted the recom mended odour control system, stipulating a four-month schedule for implementation. To achieve this schedule. Associated Engineering arranged an equipment prepurchase tendering process, and fast-tracked the design of the remain ing infrastructure around the selected equipment. A dualpass, sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite wet scrubber was selected. Infrastructure needs included a sodium hy pochlorite storage system, sodium hydroxide storage sys tem, piping, air ducts, and electrical supply and controls. "Since implementing the odour control works, odours from the plant have diminished substantially and the number of monthly odour complaints has dropped to almost zero," Dave Forgie reported. The situation is being monitored, and air samples from the wet scrubber and the trickling filter are analyzed weekly. Further action, if any, will involve reducing any residual odours from the trickling filter building.
For more information, circle reply card No. 111
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
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Web of life seminar captivated audience spawned debate on ecological economics entire picture of human impact on the earth," he stressed. "Many of the goods and services that ecosystems produce are not commodities and so seem to have
ure we use to assess the health of eco
no obvious market value. Natural wa
systems tells us we are drawing on them more than ever and degrading them at an accelerating pace. His powerpoint
ter filtration, erosion control, biodiver
sity and climate protection are all eco system services that have always been considered/ree goods. But undervalu ing ecosystem services has contributed to many shortsighted management prac We cannot improve lives by destroy ing the web on which life depends; eco system is not an alternative to develop ment, it is part of it. Until we under
statistics which showed that industrial,
in "semi-natural" condition or converted
cannot be undertaken in isolation. Inte
to plantations. Many developing countries today rely on timber for export earnings. At the same time, millions of people in tropical countries still depend on forests to meet their every need. He warned that the greatest threats to forests were
ing, warned the President of the Washington World Re
grated ecosystem approaches must guide our political and economic activi
sources Institute, Jonathan
ties to restore the natural abundance of nature's web of life. "Coral reefs were
the rain forest equivalents of our oceans yet few realizejust how severely human intervention has degraded them through pollution, overfishing and other human activities," he warned.
and services that humankind is both a
He repeatedly cited data which showed how quite separate human en deavours such as logging,fishing or in dustrial production can collectively have far-reaching effects on a global scale. While providing some thought-provok ing data on the massive environmental degradation which has taken place
part of, and utterly dependent upon; it
around the world, his
is a web in which all lives are connected,
message was not with out hope that science and technology could meet the global eco logical remediation challenges. Compa
focus attention on scientific realities, he
spoke about t\\&fabric of nature's goods
with the strength of each strand support ing every other strand. "This web is resilient, exquisitely complex, and marvelously durable. We can pull out a strand here and there, yet we seldom see the distortion of the
nies can, and must, he
whole. Six billion people and their needs for food, fuel, fibre, water, space - all pull at the web's strands constantly, yet we see the consequences only as an
said,look beyond mere environmental compli
ecdotes, such as the terrible decline of
tainable work ethos,
ocean reefs, or landscapes changed by invasive species. Rarely do we see the
By Tom Davey 18
1980 in industrial countries, but declined
commercial and engineering projects
to our lives, we will continue to weaken
it by how we live. His talk was illustrated with global
Lash,as he powerpointed some dramatic statistics on ecological decline. His presentation. The Fraying Web of Life, was part of a CH2M Hill Canada Feb ruary seminar in Toronto. In lucid, selfdeprecating prose, he said he was a lapsed lawyer, a recovering bureaucrat, and a refugee from the too quiet univer sity life; but, never, he stressed, had he had as much fun anywhere as with what he did at WRI. Using poetic imagery to
bly as much as 50 percent. Suiprisingly,
by almost 10 percent in developing countries. Tropical deforestation prob ably exceeds 130,000 square kilometres a year. Less than 40 percent of forests globally were relatively undisturbed by human action. The great majority of forests in industrial countries, except Canada and Russia, are reported to be
stand the web of life and its connections
The global web of life is fray
presentation showed how global forest cover has been reduced by 20 percent since pre-agricultural times, and possi forest area has increased slightly since
tices," he stressed.
WRI President Jonathan Lash
Earth's ecosystems and its peoples are bound together in a grand but tenu ous symbiosis. Yet nearly every meas
conversion to other forms of land use or
fragmentation by agriculture, logging, and road construction. Logging and mining roads appeared to lead the way in opening up formerly intact forest to pioneer settlements and increases in hunting, poaching, fires, and exposure of flora and fauna to pest outbreaks and invasive species. Destroying trees may seem counter intuitive as ecosystem protection.
ance. At the same time, he stressed that a sus
harnessed with scien could also create busi
Cora!reefs were the rain forest equivalents of our oceans. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Sustainability Watershed conservation usually in volves efforts to prevent deforestation, but in South Africa, the opposite strat egy has proved effective. The new South African government launched the Work ing for Water Program which employs more than 42,000 people. It has cleared invasive plants from half a million hec tares ofland and water flow has increased
as much as 120 percent in some areas. Mr. Lash said the WRI had an
nounced a three-year sustainable coastal and marine resources program that com bines global marine issues with a focus on people and fishing communities. He said that 40 percent of the world's popu lation lives within 100 kilometres of a
coastline, an area that accounts for only about 20 percent of the land mass. Popu lation increases result in conversion for
development, agriculture, and aquaculture. This reduces mangroves, coastal wetlands, seagrass areas, and coral reefs at an alarming rate. He said fish and shellfish provide about a sixth of the animal protein con sumed by people worldwide, and one billion people, mostly in developing countries, depend on fish for their prime source of protein. In a comprehensive
review of data on freshwater species,37 percent of freshwater fish species, 67 percent of mussels, 51 percent of cray fish, and 40 percent of amphibians are threatened or have become extinct.
Ironically, coastal ecosystems have al ready lost productive capacity because of overfishing, destructive trawling tech niques, and destruction of nursery habi tats. Moreover, rising pollution levels are associated with increasing use of synthetic chemicals and fertilizers. Ralph R. Peterson, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CH2M Hill
Companies, introduced the speaker while giving a global overview of the ways that ecological and economic pro gress could be pursued in harmony with environmental sustainability. A subsequent question period turned into high level exchanges of sophisti
I II L L
KNOWLEDGE storm Sewer Specificatien HydrauKcs
m Structural Design lUlethed
Chemical 6 Abrasion Resistance
cated environmental and economic re
alities, a web oflife which certainly cap tured our imagination that evening. Mr. Lash, who flew in from Wash
ington DC, also spoke at York Univer sity earlier the same week at an event which was also sponsored by CH2M
Hill Canada and York's Faculty of Environmental Studies. ❖
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Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from iandfiii sites ethane and carbon diox
ide are two of the primary gases and are the main focus for worldwide emis
sion reduction and control of greenhouse gases. Methane is the chief component of"natural gas" but also occurs naturally by the anaerobic decomposition of or ganic material in swamp areas, at landfill sites and at any location where organic deposits are present. Carbon dioxide is also pro duced by the decomposition of organic material as well as being a primary by-product of
(DGPS), efficient and cost-effective monitoring of landfill sites is now a re ality. Computer software has been de veloped and standard procedures are now documented in support of numer ous trial surveys and scheduled projects. We refer to the project as our Methane Emission Monitoring System(MEMS). A primary objective of the MEMS
Environment" in 1997.
Our company has played a pioneering role in the detec tion of hydrocarbon gases in North America. The initial fo
cus of the company was the development of instrumenta tion and procedures to effi ciently and accurately locate pipeline leakage. In recent Testing "hot spot" location. years,this focus has expanded to include testing for a wide variety of program is to effectively locate surface combustible and toxic gases, including emissions of methane gas from active surface emission testing of landfill sites. landfill sites using FI technology, and With advances in existing technology to plot the "hot spots" using a DGPS sys coupled with the development of new tem. The mobile FI detection system technologies, the process of gas detec was originally developed for the natu tion and monitoring has established new ral gas industry but is also ideally suited for methane gas emission studies at horizons. By combining several tech nologies, a cost-effective approach to landfill sites. The DGPS system pro surface emission monitoring of green vides sub-metre accuracy for plotting house gases over landfill sites and pipe emission locations at landfill sites. The lines is gradually evolving as a proven use of ATVs provides enhanced area technique. coverage over walking procedures, re By equipping All- sulting in enhanced productivity and (ATVs) with modi
fied and specialized
Heath Consultants Incorporated (USA)developed the first track mounted
mobile flame-ionization unit in Newark,
New Jersey in 1961. HETEK Solutions Inc.,formerly Heath Consultants Limited (Canada), installed El equipment on
a Differential Global
ATVs in 1993 and conducted several
By Gary Eade, C.E.T., Manager, Environmental Operations, HETEK Solutions Inc.
face software. These units are available and can meet the New Source Perform
ance Standard(NSPS),drafted on March 12, 1996 in the United States. This stand
cate surface emissions of
quantification and control of these two primary greenhouse gases were the main focus at the Kyoto "Conference on the
designed for landfill gas emission test ing and was further equipped with rela tively new DGPS equipment and inter
ard requires that all large landfill sites be inspected for methane gas emissions. Walking landfills with portable El instruments to lo
combustion. The detection,
gas gathering and transmission pipelines. In 1996 a mobile FI/ATV unit was re
1,000 kilometres of pipeline inspections in Alberta and Saskatchewan.
These units proved to be accurate and reliable for locating leakage on natural
methane gas is time-consum ing and costly. With the aid of an ATV more ground can be covered quickly and effec tively, thus reducing manda tory inspection costs. All re quired reporting can be gen erated directly from the com puter. Projects completed to date indicate increased pro ductivity to average about 400% over conventional
walking procedures, with en hanced documentation and re
porting. Monitoring accuracy is equivalent to or better than previous conventional methods of sur face emission testing and the procedure is recognized by Environment Canada as the "study evaluation of choice". Our current system has sub-metre accuracy within the point of reference. We use either the "Coast Guard Beacon
Satellite" system for areas near water or the "Satellite Lock" system for inland areas. If required, a "Real Time Kin ematic" (RTK) GPS unit can be pro vided for "survey grade coordinates" typically within +/- O.I feet. Locations will be recorded to the nearest foot.
The City of Calgary has now com pleted three years of seasonal methane gas surface emission testing (spring and summer) at four large landfill sites. Environment Canada has also conducted
follow-up studies, where "hot spots" were detected, for quantifying off-gassing at these landfill locations. We can now provide the Optical Methane Detector(OMD)system using infrared technology. These units should Continued overleaf
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Drinking water, naturally ONDEO
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By stimulating bacterial reproduction, iron and manganese are nearly entirely removed, producting a higher or similar water quality than conventional processes (such as green sands), without their inconvenients.
. Little or no chetnicals required . Filtration rates in excess of 50m/h
. Longer filter runs allowing higher iron and manganese retention . Less water is required for backwashing . No deterioration of water quality over time . Lower capital and operating costs 20275, Clark Graham, Bale d'Urfe (Quebec) H9X 3T5 Phone:(514) 457-4100 Fax:(514) 457-1808
www.ondeo-degremont.com For more information, circle reply card No. 207(See page 25)
improve the ability to operate in extreme weather conditions and allow for higher speeds consistent with terrain condi tions. The OMD is designed to perform 14,000 measurements per second, thus providing immediate response. In the future, this technology could make ATV emission testing
mer conditions. However, the location
of"hot spots" seems to remain constant, although the emission areas tend to be larger during summer conditions. In situ testing of gas levels in the soil tends to be higher in the summer
even more cost-effective.
Currently, the capital cost for the OMD system is approxi mately four times that of the FI system. Experience to date indi cates that surface emissions are reduced when site condi
trapping the sun's heat near the earth's surface. This natural effect establishes
our planet's climate and maintains the earth's average temperature at about 33Â°C. In previous centuries, the release and adsorption of greenhouse gases re mained approximately in equilibrium. During this past century, mankind's progress and activi ties have resulted in greater quantities of greenhouse gases being released than are adsorbed. It is generally be lieved that increasing levels of greenhouse gases will result in global warming resulting in unpredictable and complex changes in the earth's climate. At the Kyoto "Conference on
tions are damp(dew),particu larly in the northern regions. For reliable and repeatable results, dry surface conditions are preferable. Tests have in the Environment" in 1997,the dicated that westerly facing industrialized countries slopes exhibited low to nonagreed to an average cut of existent gas emissions during 5.2% in greenhouse gas emis Conducting DGPS perimeter study prior to starting surface the morning hours. However, sions from the 1990 level by emission analysis. by early afternoon the gas years 2008-2012. emission levels on west side slopes in months, probably due to better venting The combined technologies built into creased dramatically. conditions. High readings under a frost the MEMS unit provide another tool for The warm weather experienced dur cap are not unusual in Canadian landfill monitoring greenhouse gas emissions ing studies may have contributed to sur sites. This is probably the result of an and helping to move us toward this am face emissions becoming more activated accumulation of methane gas in the soil bitious objective. To date, ATV emis as a result of ground surface warming. due to restrictive venting caused by the sion testing vehicles have proven their Weather conditions,including heat from frost cap. As the soil cools in the winter worth in various types of gas detection. the sun and barometric pressure, are es months there appears to be a drop in Greater productivity will offset the sential to understanding surface emis anaerobic activity in shallow sites but higher capital cost for mobile inspec sions from landfill sites and can indi not to the same extent in the deeper sites. tions over walking inspection. cate when to best schedule surface emis
Soil moisture content is a decisive fac
sion testing. Seasonal comparisons have found lower emissions during spring and fall projects when compared to similar projects conducted during warmer sum-
tor in the rate of anaerobic activity. Atmospheric greenhouse gases -
The PC Pump that Doesn't Devour Spare Parts
such as methane, carbon dioxide and
nitrous oxide- act like a greenhouse by
When interfaced with DGPS technol
ogy, additional time can be saved as computer based evaluations and gener ated reports can be produced quickly and professionally. Information generated will assist regulatory agencies in calcu lating volumetric or weight equivalent emissions from landfill sources as a
measure of success. Also, this informa
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New stormwater containment technologies
During storm events, run-off
containing sediment and oil/ grease pours into catch basins and drains, many of which empty directly into rivers, streams and lakes. Such non-source pollution
of a catch basin and held in place by the grate. Hanging down into the basin is a containment pouch that retains the sedi ment that enters through the grate. Most
These products are also designed to work with curb style basins or combi nation curb and grated basins. These
of these devices can hold 40-70 lbs. of
ent pillows and socks held in the inte rior of the mesh, allowing the storm water to pass through the absorb ent material and allowing the oils and greases to be trapped.
sediment. Additionally, these devices
associated with stormwater has
been slowly polluting North America's waterways. To date, most of the regulatory focus has been on regulating the construction industry and minimizing the flow
models are also available with absorb
Passive skimmers are also be
ing used to lie down inside the catch basins, usually on standing water. These units passively soak up the floating layer of oil inside
of sediment into the drains. Re
cently, more emphasis has been placed on reducing oil and hydro
of the catch basin. All of these dis
posable units are inexpensive, easy to install, and require limited main
carbon based chemicals from en
tering the waterways via storm drains and basins.
Industry has been developing innovative products to meet the new challenges. Sediment con tainment products have been modi fied to include oil-only absorbent materials to capture oil as it passes through the absorbent. The oilsaturated absorbents are replace able in many units. The range of
Stormwater solutions are not
just at your feet. Products are available to capture oils and chemi cals that leave a building via ex haust fans and build-up on roofs. These oils accumulate and then
wash off the roof during storms. Modular, replaceable filtering units, such as the Ultra-G2 GreaseGuard can be installed to
solutions can be found from less
surround the exhaust vent and ab than (US)$100.00 per basin for a disposable, retrofit-type unit, to Various sizes, shapes and combinations provide sorbent and contain the contami nants at the source. (US)$5,000.00 for permanent ret solutions to practically any type of drain. In the state of Washington, the non can have absorbent bags, mats or con rofits or a new catch basin with built-in figurations designed to trap and hold oil profit group Planet CPR has been work sediment and oil containment features. ing with Americorps, the Boy Scouts, entering via stormwater. Focusing on the inexpensive, retro Most of these units require replacing and middle school children to place over fit-type units, product solutions include flexible fabric containment and filtering every 3-6 months depending on local five hundred Ultra-DrainGuards into catch basins throughout the Seattle and devices that are placed into the opening rainfall and sediment conditions. Other effective styles actually block King County area. This effort is de the sediment from even entering the signed to help the endangered salmon By Mark Shaw drain by sliding the grate into a mesh species in the Northwest, as well as the Vice-President fabric covering. The mesh drops the overall water quality in the area. Planet Ultralech International, Inc. sediment prior to entering the drain. CPR is also performing independent testing of various catch basin contain ment devices to assess the potential ef ANNOUNCEMENT fectiveness of the units and collect data
RAL Engineering Ltd. is pleased to have two new engineers join the firm's
that will calculate the effect the units can
have on the environment.
Fadi Absi, M.Eng. Fadi has a Masters of Environmental Engineering from McGill University and has over eight years experience in the water and wastewater industry. Michael Galan, B.Sc., B.Eiig. Michael recently graduated in Chemical Engi neering from University of Western. He has spent two summers with RAL Engineering Ltd., and we welcome him back on a full time basis. RAL Engineering Ltd. specializes in practical and effective water and sewage
The city of Griffin, Georgia, has a federal grant to study a variety of storm water treatment products such as those discussed herein.
As industry seeks to meet regula tions, the development and introduction of products and technologies to meet
treatment solutions for communities.
those needs will continue to occur.
Stormwater management is a problem with an increasing number of solutions. For more information,
RAL ENGINEERING LTD.
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Lead contamination on firing ranges The effects of lead munitions on groundwater
Residues of lead are common contaminants in industrial
sites and urban areas. Target shooting is an activity that re sults in continuous accumulation of lead in the environment. There are thousands
of small arms firing ranges in Canada used by military personnel,law enforce ment officers and civilian target shoot ers. Characterization of the forms and
fate of metallic lead from spent muni tions in soil and its impact upon surface water and groundwater are necessary be fore risk assessments are conducted and
cost-effective processes to restore these sites are proposed. Lead occurs naturally as hundreds of mineral compounds, the most common of which is lead sulphide (galena or PbS). Galena is nearly insoluble in wa ter; tap water in equilibrium with galena will have lead levels below drinking water guidelines. But metallic lead is not stable in the natural environment;
There are thousands of small arms firing ranges in Canada used by military per sonnel, law enforcement officers and civilian target shooters.
compounds may contain lead, barium or antimony.
either the lead will transform to more
Lead munitions in soil
stable phases in situ or it will move un
High velocity rifle bullets tend to fragment upon impact in most soils, whereas handgun bullets and shotgun pellets retain their shape. Studies of impact soils from military firing ranges indicate that lead metal is present in all
til conditions are encountered where
such transformation is possible. In 1997, the US Environmental Pro
tection Agency conducted a review of reports on lead contamination of firing ranges and concluded that these "...do not provide enough information to con clude that ground or surface water con tamination does or does not result from
fired munitions on ranges... There are two exceptions: lead and white phospho rus from fired munitions on ranges have been adequately documented to con clude that these materials may contami nate surface waters and affect fish and fowl."'
Lead in munitions is alloyed with antimony (to increase hardness) or ar senic (to improve sphericity in shotgun pellets). Rifle bullets are encased in jackets containing iron, copper or zinc. Military incendiary and tracer rounds may contain phosphorus, strontium, magnesium, zinc or barium. Priming 'Military Munitions Final Rule: Hazardous Waste identification and Management; Explo
sive Emergencies, Manifest Exemptions for Transport of Hazardous Waste on Rigfits-ofWays on Contiguous Properties (40 CFR Parts 260 through 266 and 270), Federai Reg ister, Vol. 62, No. 29, 6621-6657. 26
soil size fractions, with a bimodal dis
tribution. Separation of bulk soils with screens and hydrocyclone reveal that 85% of the total lead is present in the >300|im (sand size fraction),6% of the lead is present in the fraction <10 |im (clay size fraction), with the remaining 9% of the lead in between these size lim
its. The highest lead concentrations in screened soil fractions range between >9% Pb(>300[im fraction)to < 1%(<10 pm fraction). Calculated whole soils "assays" average 2.5% Pb or 25,000 ppm. This figure is more than two or ders of magnitude greater than back ground concentrations of lead in urban
of whole pellets would be completed in 300 years. For larger rifle bullets, oxi dation will be correspondingly longer. Effects of lead munitions
on groundwater Fortunately, lead oxide and lead car bonate are sparingly soluble in water. Modeling of the solubilities of these compounds in natural waters predict that the equilibrium concentration of dis solved lead in fresh water would be
<0.010 mg/litre (which is also the On tario Drinking Water Objective for lead). This is borne out by groundwater moni toring beneath military firing ranges on Canadian Forces Base Kingston (some of which have been in operation for more than 60 years) where dissolved lead in groundwater remains below de tection limits (<0.002 mg/litre). Waste classification
The classification of waste in Ontario is based on the leachate characteristics
Metallic lead in soil undergoes trans
of the soil. In Ontario, the Regulation 347 Schedule 4 Leaching Procedure is used, whereby the soil is crushed to a size that will pass through a 9.5 mm
formation to oxide, carbonate and sul
screen and is leached in dilute acetic
phate forms. Scanning electron micro scope images reveal the presence of "rinds" of lead oxide and possibly lead carbonate, which begin to form within several years of burial. Studies of the thickness of oxide rinds on shotgun pel lets with time suggest that the oxidation
acid, chosen to mimic the organic acids produced during the anaerobic decom position of garbage in municipal landfill sites. The Regulation 347 procedure is equivalent to the US toxicity character istic leaching procedure (TCLP). Continued overleaf
soils on Ontario.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
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Summary of lead munitions restoration alternatives, costs & limitations Technology
Require landfill site licenced to accept leachate-toxic
less expensive disposal options and possible reuse as engineered fill.
High clay content requires
water to mill the soils,
collection of "fines" and
freatmenf of process water
$20 - $50
Possibility that metals retained In "fines" (slimes) will exceed regulatory criteria, requiring off-site
Restoration of soils
(no treatment required)
available to remediate lead-con
taminated soils, many of which were developed specifically to deal with lead battery waste sites (LEWS),in which the major spe cies are lead sulphate, lead diox ide and metallic lead. Our pre ferred approach is to process soils
disposal or stabilization
in situ in order to recover the lead
Fines (slimes) will contain high lead levels - off-site disposal or gravity separation required
Chemical additives (acids and chelating solutions not
and reuse the cleaned soils when
suited for lead metal and
carbonate soils) Solidification/ Stabilization
Encapsulates metals (decreases leaching potential), requires off-site disposal as non-hazardous
$60 - $72 /tonne +
(for post-gravity separated slimes)
Not suitable for elemental
lead in soils. But may be applicable to process water
(for lead In process water)
/tonne In-Situ Vitrification
A B C D
Not suited for surface
accumulations (I.e. backstop berms) of
tains metals valued at US $30.95/ tonne of soil.
• Most soils contain a significant fraction of silt- and clay-sized particles which necessitates a mill ing step to disaggregate the soil and liberate encased munitions.
contaminated soil Ex-Situ Volatilization
ever possible. The most promis ing and cost-effective method ap pears to be through the applica tion of mineral processing tech nology derived from the mining industry. In essence, the soils are mined, milled and processed as "ore". At current spot market prices, a soil with 2.45% Pb con
The technical problems to be surmounted with this approach
containing mnnitions Numerous technologies are
Sublimates lead metal to
vapor (requires capturing lead vapor)
(for post-gravity separated slimes)
As water is used in the milling stage,a process must be instituted to treat the process water; • Up to 15% of the lead is finer than 300|im;ofthis6% is smaller than 10|im. This limits the effec tiveness of mechanical soil
wet-screen the same soils exhibits lead
tions: such soils are hazardous when
levels in water <0.04 mg/litre, concen trations that are only marginally greater than the commonly-accepted drinking water objective of0.01 mg/litre. In gen
placed in a landfill but are relatively in nocuous if left out in the rain, but they must be transported to a landfill.
screening and mineral processing, where the finest grain sizes (<10 (im) are termed "slimes" and are not amenable to physical separa tion or physico-chemical process ing (e.g. flotation); • Most glaciated soils in eastern Canada contain high levels of carbonate miner als which limits the applicability of soil washing in acid media. Acid reagents preferentially dissolve the carbonate minerals and decrease the hydraulic con ductivity with released CO, bubbles; • Metals recoveries must include a sig nificant proportion of antimony,copper,
In an effort to reduce the levels of
zinc and arsenic in order to reuse the
eral, lead levels in leachates from con
"leachable" lead to non-hazardous val
taminated soils are lower when TCLP
ues, preliminary experiments demon
is replaced with the synthetic precipita tion leaching procedure (SPLP), which is deionized water adjusted to pH = 4.2
can be solidified and stabilized using commercially-available binders to allow
• The unprocessed "slimes" must be re covered, de-watered, treated and possi bly disposed off-site if the levels of re sidual lead exceed applicable guidelines
Conventional technology, commercially available, field-tested. Conventional technology, requiring custom design and site-speclfic pilot scale tests. New technology, bench-test or pilot project scale or proprietary processes. Passive technology, limited field tests. In all cases, acetic acid leachates
from soils containing crushed munitions contain elevated lead levels (>50 mg/ litre Pb), thereby classifying the soils as
with a 60/40 mixture of sulphuric acid and nitric acids.
hazardous waste. Yet the water used to
This suggests an unfortunate regula tory paradox when it comes to the clas sification of soils containing lead muni
strate that soils with contained munitions
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 200J
(usually falling within the range between 200 and 1000 ppm in most Canadian jurisdictions). A review of the applicability and pub lished costs of the restoration alterna tives for lead-contaminated soils is sum
marized in the accompanying table. Environmentally re-engineered small arms ranges Some firing ranges, both military and civilian, will be decommissioned and re
stored for reuse for other purposes. Other firing ranges may be remediated
urban environments. Components for re-engineered firing ranges currently being examined include: • Reaction bamers to prevent long-term migration of lead through soils into aquifers; • Soil amendments to stabilize soils
against impact tunneling and increased erosion from repeated bullet impacts; •Erosion protection and surface run-off controls to minimize transport of fine lead particles to surface water and sen
out Canadian summers and winters.
The most pressing goal is to reduce the potential for health and ecological risks from accumulating lead.
By Barry Gorman, Aquafor Beech Limited, Andrew Woliin,
Cdn. Forces Base Kingston, and Richard Wagner, Lakefieid Research
sitive sites; and.
and subsequently re-engineered for con tinued use. Re-engineering firing ranges will incorporate design elements used for other environmental projects in
• The construction of easily-maintained bullet traps that remain effective through
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
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For more information, circie repiy card No. 210 (See page 25)
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water compar For more information, circle reply card No. 121 (See page 25)
Site remediation contractor reuses concrete pipe
When reinforced concrete
pipe is specified, it is due to its service life and per
Concrete pipe drainage systems are ex pected to be installed on projects that have decades-long design lives, often extending for more than 100 years. Rarely is a concrete pipe system prema turely excavated with replacement in mind. A recent project in Gloucester, near Ottawa, Ontario, is a reminder that rein
forced concrete pipe can be reused. Some contractors in the Ottawa area
are familiar with recycling concrete pipe systems. In 1998, 110 metres of a 33year old (1090 mm x 1725 mm) hori zontal elliptical pipe was exhumed,
and Cyrville Road in the City of
After afew pieces ofthe pipe had been
cleaned and re-installed on a site that had
Gloucester. The contract included the
been contaminated by coal tar. The sys tem was upgraded with gaskets and
removal of approximately 45 metres of
maintenance holes when it was re-in-
stalled in 1975. Soil around and under
excavated,John Landerville of C.A.C.E. realized that the system appeared to be in excellent condition. He contacted City officials and Centennial Concrete Pipe
the pipe was contaminated with hydro
In 2000,a situation similar to the one in 1998 occurred where C.A.C.E. Con
struction (1991) Ltd. started soil clean up of a contaminated site at Innis Road
The reinforced concrete pipe was removed, cleaned and reinstaiied.
a 1,350 mm diameter storm sewer in
who had supplied the pipe,and requested strength tests to determine if the pipe
carbons, and had to be removed and re
placed. The contractor suggested that the existing pipe should be reused, if found to be structurally sound.
could be reused for the storm water drain
The pipe had been installed in a 2.44
What quality standard does your lab meet? SEALANT
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Tel; (519) 856-1352
Fax: (519) 856-2503
For more information, circle reply card No. 211 (See page 25)
Quality Assurance For Environmental Laboratories
• Proficiency testing • ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation audits
(with accreditation by the Standards Council of Canada) The Canadian Association for
Environmental Analytical Laboratories For more information, circie repiy card No. 212 (See page 25)
Infrastructure THREE EDGE BEARING RESULTS
metre (8 feet) wide trench with a bed
ding of clear stone, and a distance from the top of the pipe to finished grade of 2.55 metres(8 feet,6 inches). The new
Total Load to Produce 0.3 mm Crack
trench for the installation would be 4.5
Actual Load (kN)
metres (15 feet) wide with granular C bedding specified, and the pipe would be buried under 2.6 m (8.5 feet) of fill. Greater loading on the pipe was due to the greater trench width, necessitated by
Superintendent, reported that the DLoad of the pipe supplied from the job site met the requirements of 195D. The pipe had actually strengthened from
removal of contaminated material.
1OOD to 195D while buried over the 25-
The test to determine concrete pipe year period. The Centennial report strength is called the Three Edge Bear noted that the entire pipe run could be ing Test, with results referred to as the considered to meet the same require D-Load of the pipe. A piece of pipe is ments of 195D structural strength based placed under extreme loading until a 0.3 on the following assumptions: mm crack appears in the wall of the pipe. • The pipe on this run was produced in At this point, a reading is taken of the accordance with CSA A257 and was all force that was required to cause the the same class; and, crack. The pipe can then be subjected •The concrete design used was the same to greater forces until it fails. Another in all pipe produced. reading is taken at this point and reported The report went on to suggest that, as the ultimate load for that production with regards to the new installation con line of pipe. ditions of 2.6 metres of fill and a C Bed The piece of pipe delivered to the ding, a 65D pipe would be sufficient. Centennial test facility was a 2.44 m long, The report concluded that the pipe 1,350 mm diameter 100 D with an O Ring would be more than adequate for reuse gasket. The table shows the test results on the job. Only six pieces of new pipe had been undertaken on November 14, 2000. Serge Poirier, Centennial's Plant installed before the testing was re
Required Load (kN)
quested. Once the results were accepted by the City and consulting engineer. Colder (Montreal Office), the old pipe was carefully removed, steam cleaned, fitted with new gaskets and re-installed. The contractor benefited from the re
use of the pipe because they were able to continue working on the site clean up with an immediate supply of high quality concrete pipe. The technique was so successful that the contractor is
expected to clean up another section of the area early in the new year, reusing the existing precast concrete drainage system. Only pieces broken during ex cavation will be replaced with new con crete pipe.
By Peter O'Connor and Serge Poirier, Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products inc., Ottawa For more information, circle reply card No. 213
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Environmenial Science & Engineering, June 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 214 (See page 25)
CFD analysis helps develop up to four times faster oil containment boom
Researchers using computa
tional fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis have improved the velocity at which oil contain ment booms can operate successfully, increasing the current level of under 0.4
2.44E-01 2J3E-01 2,22E-01 2.11E.01 2.00E-01 l.g9E-01 1.78E-01 1.67E-01
metres/second, where traditional booms
fail, to a theoretically possible 2.0 metres/ second. The boom velocity is critical because oil spill clean-up is limited by
1.33E-0] 1.22E-01 LUE-Ol
how fast the booms can be towed before
hydrodynamic forces cause them to fail. To develop a boom that operates at faster velocities, oil companies have been evaluating a number of new de signs, including angled booms and po rous nets that operate below and up stream of traditional booms. Previously, researchers performed water channel
tests to evaluate new designs but this
By Chang-Fa An, DalmierChrysler Technology Center, Auburn Hills, Michigan
5J7E-02 4.46E-02 3,35E-02 2^E4)2 1.12E-02 1.34E.04
PEANUT OIL TEST 01(B)
Feb 14 1996
Lmax = 3.222E-01 Lmin = 1.344E-04 Time
A typical water-oil flow around a flat boom simulated using FLUENT. The picture Is a velocity vector overlapped by the oil slick contour. The water with spilled oil flows from left to right with velocity 0.15m/s. At about 20 seconds after the spill, the oil stops In front of the boom and stays there all the time. The main stream of water, however, continues to flow underneath the boom and makes a large reclrculatlon In the downstream region of the boom.
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For more information, circie reply card No. 215 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Spills Containment added significantly to development
ometry. Next,the grid files are imported into FLUENT where boundary condi
problem are specified.
costs. Now,CFD simulation is used in stead. This alternative allows research
tions and other information about the
through comparisons to channel testing and researchers can now quickly evaluate the performance of new oil boom designs. To test a new design, engineers modify the boom geom etry with GeoMesh, regenerate the grid, import the new grid into FLU ENT, and run a new analysis. One of the recently studied de signs, called a net-boom structure,
ers to simulate many design alterna tives quickly and inexpensively. Re cently, researchers have also begun
to animate CFD results to enhance
their understanding of boom failure mechanisms.
When oil is accidentally spilled on water,the most common response is to use barriers or "booms" to col
lect the oil. As with any new prod uct, part of designing a new boom involves evaluating its performance under typical operating conditions. Oil boom testing is normally done in a tank, or channel, that is at least
30 metres long, by 15 metres wide, by two metres deep. What makes this type of testing expensive is the cost of the power needed to acceler ate that volume of water through the
This model has been validated
consists of a solid boom with front
and bottom porous nets. The bot
Researchers have turned to CFD
analysis as a less expensive way of predicting boom performance. The first step in preparing a water chan nel simulation is the creation of a
grid to conform to the problem ge
A series of simulated water-oil flows around a
flat boom with velocity 0.24m/s at sequential time moments from 60 seconds after the spiil. From these pictures, one can see the entire process of the oil loss underneath the boom.
tom net is horizontal. The front net
can be vertical or positioned at an angle in relation to the boom. Be cause it is so easy to evaluate differ ent design alternatives, researchers looked at numerous positions for the front net,including 0,30,49, and 67 degrees as measured from vertical. To adapt the analysis model to the new design with nets,engineers only needed to add porous regions(to rep resent the nets) as an additional mo mentum sink in the governing mo mentum equations. For more information,
circie repiy card No. 112
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For more information, circie repiy card No. 216 (See page 25)
Magnetic Level Gauges Lower leak risk, less maintenance than glass sight gauges. Point Level Switching and Continuous Output.
Evita Inline Dissolved Oxygen Meters,inline ammonia, nitrate and phosphorous measurement
Warrick Conductance Actuated Liquid Level Controls, Intrinsically Safe Control Panels, Tank Leak Detection Equipment 2200 Bristol Circle, Oakville, ON L6H 5R3 Tel:(905)829-2000
For more information, circle repiy card No. 217 (See page 25)
Quebec bridge restoration uses innovative approaches to environmental considerations
Unique among the world's
The restoration of this famous bridge
bridges, the Quebec Bridge
is scheduled to run from 1998 to 2007,
is located at Mile 2.70,
and is broken up into one and two year projects for steel repairs, lead removal and application of a new coating sys tem, and the installation of a lighting system. Team participants for the lead removal and overcoat portion include CN North America(the owner), Corrpro Canada (coatings and environmental consultants), and CH Heist(the contrac tor/applicator).
Bridge Subdivision,Quebec City. Considered the "Eighth Wonder ofThe World" when completed in 1919, it was the longest cantilever, steel rail way bridge in the world. Its 'sister' bridge, of similar design and construc tion, is the famed Firth of Forth Bridge, in Scotland.
The Quebec Bridge is a rivetted steel structure with 8,000,000 square feet of painted structural steel. The overall length is 3,239 feet, and the width is 94 feet. The bridge is 340 feet high, from the top of the cantilever to the water below. Each cantilever span is 540 feet long. The bridge currently accommo
Environment and containment are the two main concerns of owners when con
sidering the removal of lead-based coat ings. Both imply increased costs. In addition, the bridge is over both a heav ily used arterial roadway and the St. Lawrence River. The original proposal
tainment systems and an overcoat paint system of calcium sulfonate alkyd, were used to reduce these costs. CN
North America, the Government of Canada, and the Province of Quebec, have set aside $60,000,000 as the recla mation budget. The Quebec Bridge posed some
unique challenges for scaffold design ers. Windload restrictions made it dif ficult to use traditional containment materials and construction methods.
Waterjetting allowed an easing of these restrictions so 'negative pressure' con tainment was no longer required. The lower level of environmental control
required for waterjetting operations, re duced cost, and created a safer work en
vironment for all personnel.
dates one rail line, three lanes of auto
called for total removal of all old coat
Environmental controls were com
motive traffic, and two pedestrian walk ways. In 1987, it was declared a his toric monument by both the Canadian and American Society of Civil Engi
ings by sandblasting. Original cost es timates ranged from $120 to $180 mil lion dollars. Structural design con
prised of light platforms, geotextile fab
neers, and was declared a National His
toric Site in 1996, by the Department of Canadian Heritage.
By Rob Roy, Corrpro Canada Inc.
straints limited the amount of area which
could be contained at any one time. Original costing was not within the budget available to the owner, which meant an alternative, innovative ap proach was required. Waterjetting and selective watercleaning, coupled with innovative con
rics for water filtration and paint chip collection, lightweight solid and flow through tarps. Another design parameter was that, in the event of high winds, the containment must be able to be dropped quickly, to protect the structure from excessive wind loads. This type of flex ibility is not possible with traditional negative pressure containment, as envi ronmental constraints demand immedi-
lllustration showing condition of the structure prior to a failure on August 29, 1907. When completed in 1919, it became the longest cantilever, steel railway bridge in the world. 36
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Toxic Clean-up ate removal of lead dust and abrasives.
Waterjetting Equipment The bridge has been divided into 'zones', requiring dif ferent levels of surface preparation. Basically, the entire upper portion of the structure will be watercleaned using water pressures of between 5,000 to 10,000 psi. These pres sures are adequate to remove loose coatings, rust and other loose debris. The coating system selected is 'surface toler ant' and CN's consultants have determined that this level of
surface preparation will meet their requirements. The lower surfaces of the bridge, where salt contamination has resulted in severe corrosion, are waterjetted using ultra high pres sures (30,000-1- psi). This level of pressure easily removes rust scale and all coatings. As the intent of the specification was to leave tightly adhered coatings in place and to overcoat, the waterjetting removal technique is used to determine whether existing old coatings are tight or loose. Waste Wash Water
A common misconception regarding the use of water is that it does not have to be collected or filtered. CN,Coixpro and CH Heist have worked closely with Environment Canada, to ensure there will be no damage to the adjacent Marine Aquarium, and the St. Lawrence River below. Current Canadian regulations require that all waste wash water be captured and tested, lead and other heavy metals removed, and pH adjusted, prior to its release into the river system. The LC 50 Test Protocol, otherwise known as'Ref erence Method For Determining Acute Lethality of Efflu ents to Rainbow Trout', requires that trout fingerlings be
placed in a sample of waste wash water for a specified amount of time (96 hours). A mortality rate of less than 50% is required. A control sample is run concuiTently. In addition, CH Heist recycles and reuses its wash water, ensuring less demand on the local water supply. All
platforms have been constructed so as to totally trap and contain waste wash water and debris. A containment basin
under the bridge is the repository for all wash water and paint chips. Wash water is separated, filtered, and reused.
Old paint Is effectively removed wltfi waterjetting. Photo - A. Beaulieu
Debris is separated, manifested as hazardous waste, and trucked to a disposal centre. CN, Canadian Coast Guard and Environment Canada
regulations require absolutely no waste wash water leakage. Environmental Monitoring and Health and Safety CH Heist took air, soil and water samples prior to start up. Monitoring continues on a regular basis. All appropri ate agencies were advised before project start-up. In addition, all workers on site may be exposed to the hazards of lead, or other heavy metals contained in the old coating. Workers' blood lead levels are tested every two months. Lead wipes are used to check employee lunch rooms. A "Decontamination Trailer" provides workers with daily showers prior to leaving the site. A continuously moni tored Health and Safety program of all workers,ensures the protection of all employees on site. In addition to current Canadian Regulations for Worker Health and Safety, CN has decided the jobsite work envi ronment must conform to US regulatory requirements as well. The SSPC (Society For Protective Coatings) QPl/ QP2 Program is also enforced. QPl is a Quality Control Program. The history, the sta bility of staff, and financial capabilities of the contractor are assessed by an independent third party auditor. A site audit of an active job is a part of this program. Certification to QP2 qualifies the contractor to work on US lead removal projects. The QP2 component assesses the contractor's abilities and experience in the removal and treatment of hazardous materials. This also includes an
annual audit of an active lead removal project. Corrpro is responsible for monitoring all aspects of the Quality Control, Lead Health and Safety, and Environmen
tal aspects of the contract. Daily Quality Control checks are performed. Site inspections confirm compliance with all regulatory requirements. Weekly and monthly summa ries are forwarded to CN. This documentation is reviewed
by CN, to confirm compliance, but also to verify that the Removal oflead-based coatings requires strict containment procedures to ensure environmental protection. Photo - Rob Roy
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
method of lead removal and the coating system will meet their 25-year goal.
For more information, circle reply card No. 113 37
Systems donated to North Battleford for
the systems were opera tional by 3 p.m. the next afternoon.
USFilter has donated the use of two
had worked around the
Memcor® microfiltration systems for water purification to the city of North
clock to refurbish two re
Battleford, Saskatchewan, which was
microfiltration (CMF) systems in order to reach the city qiiickly. The systems work by filtering the water through polymeric membranes with microscopic pores, which trap and remove Ciyptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other pathogens. Up to 72,000 gal-
combatting contamination of its water supply from Cryptosporidium. The systems, which arrived in North Battleford at midnight on May 12, were installed by tapping into the current wa ter distribution system at Battleford's Civic Centre and Fire Hall. USFilter
staff, local contractors and city person nel worked through the night to ensure
tired Memcor continuous
Chemical Feed - Sludge Transfer
Polymers Hypo Sulphates
thousands of pumps now In use worldwide
self prlmlng/runs dry
no need for check valves or
instmmental in the mobilization of the
degassing equipment fully programmable Waste Sludge TRIAL PUMPS AVAILABLE ..5% accuracy Carbon
Circle reply card No. 200 Distributed by:
(mmn MARLQW PUMPS Bredei
North Battleford's 14,000 residents
have been boiling their tap water since April 25, when a boil water advisory was issued by the city. According to news service reports, as many as 61 residents in the North Battleford region were diagnosed with Cryptosporidium infection and thou sands suffered nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps. USFilter's representative Mequipco in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and engineer ing firm, MR2 McDonald & Associ ates of Regina, Saskatchewan, were
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systems to North Battleford. USFilter's sister company, Culligan of Canada, in conjunction with regional franchises and retail stores, provided bottled water to the citizens of Battleford. By May 16, Culligan had donated a total of 159,600 litres of bottled water.
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90 Ironside Ores. Unit 12 Toronto, ON MIX 1M3 Tel: 416.291.3435 Fax: 416.291.0898
For more Information, circle reply card No. 201 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Water Supply Announcement
OWWA Spring workshop
CH2M Hill Canada Vice-Presldent elected as CEO Chairman
reviewed Waikerton remediation
Water safety in Waikerton
Norm Muggins, P.Eng., Vice-Presl dent of CH2M Hiii Canada Ltd., was
elected in May to serve the next 12 months as Chairman of Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO).
was the fascinating theme at a one-day semi nar held May 30, in Toronto, sponsored by the Ontario Water Works Association. Experts from the Ontario Clean Water Agency re counted the various procedures in scour ing, disinfecting, and replacing water mains. Problems encountered in pro viding full disinfection included cul-de-
In his address at the annual meeting, Mr. Muggins encouraged members to integrate their leadership skills to pro vide successful solutions for clients and members. Me stressed the im
sacs and other areas where the mains
water did not flow through. Other prob lems were encountered with basement
cisterns designed to catch rainwater. Some stretches of mains showed ad vanced tuberculation and were ideal for the lethal E. coli 0157:H7. The last
speaker, Garry Palmateer, from GAP EnviroMicrobial Services, took the au
dience on a fascinating trek inside one of the ancient water mains which had
provided an ideal habitat for lethal bac-
teria inside the system. "Slime, which protected organisms from chlorine, was a problem in ensuring total disinfec tion," he said. He pointed out how some organisms could envelope themselves with a slimy substance which helped protect them during disinfection opera tions. Swabbing, pipe replacement and several disinfection operations were done until the system was declared safe for Waikerton residents. Tom Davey
portance of getting involved in the committees that serve as an integral part of the engineering industry. "Ac tive participation in the committees and activities of CEO is the most ef
fective way to leverage your fee in vestment," said Mr. Muggins.
Mr. Muggins is a graduate of Queen's University with over 33 years in the consulting engineering industry. Me is currently the Secretary and Chair man of the MEA/CEO Liaison Com
mittee and is the founding Chairman of the Toronto International Partner
ship. Mr. Muggins is the third CEO Chairman from CM2M Mill Canada.
The Town of New Tecumseth is planning to decommission the McKelvey and Spring Water Treatment Plants located in the
community of Beeton, Ontario. A general list of the process equipment that the Town plans to sell to interested buyers includes: McKelvey WTP: • Two Reactivator-clarifier tanks (Ecodyne)(6.8 m dia.) • Two Monosoour automatic filter tanks (Graver)(3 m dia.) • Lime feeder system silo (O'Connor tanks) (3.7 m dia., 12 m high) • Sodium chlorite tank (Fibergloss Design Plastio Co.) (2.4 m dia.) • Air stripper tank (1.5 m dia.,6.5 m high)and two fans(Faboo) • Degassifier tank / methane burner (Heetco) • Pre-oontact tank (3 m dia.) • Various ohemical storage tanks, chemioal pumps, valves, and flow meters.
PLASTICS INC. j
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BULK FRAME CONTAINERS TOTES FDR ALL REQUIREMENTS AND BUDGETS! Techstar Plastics Inc. now
offers a complete line of new U.N. certified polyethylene units, D.O.T. 57 re-certifled steel tanks, commonly used one-way shipping containers, and many other models. Reconditioned tanks are available on a first come first serve basis.
SPILL CONTAINMENT BIN
Spring WTP: •
• Ferric chloride tank (3.5 m dia.) • Two lift pumps • Two sludge pumps
Photographs and specifications of the above equipment are available upon request. For further information, please contact:
Roto molded from tough LLDPE Chemical resistant
Removable top for easy cleaning 2 way forkilft entry Holds 2 X 45 gal. drums Model Number
SOB 200 Dimensions [LkVUxHI
Stantec Consulting Ltd. Attention: Mr. Richard Waite, P.Eng. Manager, Environmental
160-7070 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ont. L5N 7G2 Phone:(905) 858-4424, ext.267, Fax:(905) 858-4426 E-mail: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
50 Imp. gal./227 llt./60 US gal.
Contact: Cathy Arkles ;(416)430-6111 •Toll Free: 1-600-263-7643•Fax:(605)685-0265
For more information, circle reply card No. 202 (See page 25)
Rapid response, cooperation and analytical capabilities are required at today's major fires
Afireatan abandoned tannery in downtown Toronto caused
TEAM-1 to speed to the scene as there were reports that the major blaze was surrounded by residential areas and a public school. Toronto Fire Service had already set up a major decontamination area for their personnel. Upon arrival,TEAM-1 incident com manders met with police, fire. Ministry of Environment(MOE)and Ministry of Labour(MOL) officials. It was deter mined that their hazardous materials
technicians would enter the site wear
ing NFPA Level B personal protective equipment. The MOE and the MOL had viola
tion file history on the building. The MOE actually had some outstanding concerns over the contents and this
Toronto fire department with Team-1 at the scene.
heightened the importance of the tactics. Several above ground tanks were in threat of exposure but were not directly
fire fighting gear along with a portable
involved. Two HazMat technicians entered the
site with portable direct reading instru ments. The fire service had also previ-
By Mitchell Gibbs, Manager, Emergency Services,
ously entered the site wearing structural photo ionization detector(PID). Toronto Fire Service is probably the only Ontario fire service with a PID but this
alone is not effective in determining toxic vapours. A PID will only meas ure certain volatile organic compounds based on the installed ionizing lamp. TEAM-1 crew members extracted
seven different vacuum samples and de-
parted through the decontamination process. The extracted samples were put through a barrage of tests including in
jection into a $200,000 mass spectro meter and a gas chromatograph. As the Ministry of Labour was not satisfied with any on site agencies' knowledge of the emissions, their Deputy Director authorized the officers on site to employ TEAM-1 to enter and conduct toxic air monitoring. Results showed that various test sites did in fact contain toxic levels of air
emissions that were above the standards
as set by the Provincial Government (several were double the acceptable lev els). The results were given in hard copy to the MOL who relayed the findings to those concerned.
The fire was eventually snuffed out and area residents carried on with their
lives. This fire follows the three mil
lion dollar payout to the residents of Hamilton in the area that sustained
chemical fallout during the 77-hour Plastimet fire. These and other related occurrences
where human lives and health are at risk,
stringent safety measures quickiy put in piace. 40
only show the need for rapid, reliable and realistic emergency response and cooperation from support agencies. For more information, circle reply card No. 114 Environmental Science & Engineering. June 2001
New headworks at Napanee facility Not glamorous but unique to North America
The Greater Napanee Water
Supply and Pollution Control Board in Ontario has recently put on stream its new headworks treatment process-the first such system in North America. It comprises a Mectan® Vortex Grit Chamber,a Sam®
Dewatering Screw,a Rotopac® Washing
ing a digester recirculation pump and tank weirs, would require cleaning two or three times per day," said Todd Harvey. "The new system, which has been up and running for the last few months, has already made a difference in the downstream processes. Rather than manually removing the debris
Compactor and,for the first time in North America,an Escalator® Fine Screen replaces manually cleaned horizontal grit chambers
ondary treatment process. Wastes from the Escalator are expelled as a relatively dry, compact plug, suitable for disposal as solid waste.
R.V. Anderson and Associates as
sisted Napanee with the headworks equipment selection. A major problem formerly experienced at the Napanee plant was plastics and other floatable inert substances pass ing directly into the downstream systems.
Lifestyle changes, especially the greater use of plastics, have resulted in a wider variety of ob jects entering the wastewater stream. The system filters out those objects society generally
and a comminutor.
The Escalator gives continu ous fine screening for channel type applications with very few moving parts below the water level. Perforated stainless steel
screen panels are carried on heavy-duty chains and incorpo
doesn't think twice about flush
ing down the drain, either know ingly or inadvertently. Besides plastics, rags, and other larger objects, the Escalator Fine Screen is also removing a sig
rate holes of 1/4 inch(6 mm)di ameter, giving fine screening in any direction. The screen pan els are specially formed to cre ate steps, which remove larger
nificant amount of hair. The net
effect is not only reduced equip
solids, and increase the effective
screening area. Both, board manager Max Christie and Todd Harvey, operations manager, are convinced the system will pay for itself in the reduction of manual labour
in cleaning downstream pumps and process tanks, as well as wear and tear on other mechanical equipment. "Some areas of the process, includ
ment maintenance but also the
which is now removed by the headworks, operators' time can be spent in more productive ways," he added The Escalator, when coupled with a washer compactor, also breaks up larger biodegradable materials, returning them to the liquid process stream where they are more optimally treated in the sec
Low Cost, Long Life
anaerobic digester cleaning frequency will be significantly reduced. Although the Escalator Fine Screen is new to North America, it is widely used in Europe. Over 600 such screens have been installed in the UK.
For more information, circle reply card No. 228
.i DONSON ENGINEERING AND
' CONTRACTING LIMITED is the exclusive source for Permastore tanks and
silos in Canada, supplying integrated design, construction and warranty programs.
191 Booth Rd. North Bay, Ontario, Canada, PIA4K3
Tel:(705) 474-4759, Fax:(705) 474-9041 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
PERI1AS10RE Glass-Fused-to-Steel Tanks and Silos offer
the complete storage solution. Over 40,000 tanks installed in 70 countries Excellent corrosion resistance
Modular construction growth — capacity Easily relocated after years of use Custom roof components Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 106 (See page 25)
Pulp & Paper Industry Focus
New Brunswick P&P company achieves breakthrough by using reverse osmosis
To meet government regula
tions, most pulp and paper mills built conventional sec
ondary treatment lagoons. Treating pollution after it has exited the mill pipe in a secondary treatment la goon has been the standard technology, enabling mills to meet regulations with limited costs.
Faced with local opposition to a lagoon, Irving Pulp & Paper underwent a complete Environmental Impact Assessment. After researching other options, the mill, which is located in Saint John, New Brunswick, decided to
go in an unprecedented direction. Irving Pulp & Paper launched a pollution prevention strategy to recover, reduce and reuse pulp-making materials in the mill. It is believed that no other kraft
pulp mill in the world has ever attempted this approach. The New Brunswick-based mill
planned their strategy around the best known technologies of the day. At the time of design there were not enough known technologies to take them all the way to environmental compliance. They believed that with the rate of technologi cal advancement and the ongoing re-
Irving Pulp & Paper's reverse osmosis system.
search, new technology would evolve by the time the known technologies were in place. Irving Pulp & Paper achieved envi ronmental compliance through innova tion and determination. Three key pieces of technology, one for which the company has been granted the patent, have enabled the mill to meet federal
government regulations. These tech nologies, used in novel applications, set Irving apart from all other pulp mills in the world, says a company report. The new technologies include: two-stage oxygen delignification, reverse osmosis, and a moving bed bioreactor. Reverse osmosis, the same system used by municipalities and homeown ers to purify drinking water, was added in a world-first application to filter water used in the pulp making process. "Reverse osmosis had intriguing char acteristics," explains George Rogers, Site Manager of Irving Pulp & Paper. "But it had never been used at a pulp mill before." One of these characteristics is the
opportunity to selectively remove com pounds through the use of specialized internal membranes. These membranes,
which differ in size and shape, are cus tomized to remove targeted compounds. Other molecules,like water, are allowed
Close-up of one of the system's mem branes. 42
to pass through the system. In a home filtering unit, the system may consist of
one or two membranes. At Irving Pulp & Paper, 210 membranes on 5' x 10" spools remove 10- 15 gallons of con centrated filtrate each minute. The con centrate is incinerated and the filtered
water is recycled in the mill to be re used in the process. Reverse osmosis has played a signifi cant role in lowering pollution levels in the mill, and in an important discovery, researchers found that the system re moved compounds responsible for en docrine disruption in fish. Endocrine disruption is a global environmental is sue affecting normal hormonal proc esses in humans and wildlife. Potential
effects include mild to severe reproduc tive problems. The reverse osmosis sys tem eliminates Irving Pulp & Paper's potential for endocrine disruption in fish at Reversing Falls. Deborah MacLatchy, a professor at the University of New Brunswick, Saint John, who has been studying the issue of endocrine disruption near the Irving Pulp & Paper mill for the past three years, noticed significant improvements once reverse osmosis was installed.
"Reverse osmosis removed compounds responsible for endocrine disruption in fish," Dr. MacLatchy states. "This is significant. Irving Pulp & Paper is fur ther ahead on the endocrine disrupter issue than probably every other mill in Canada."
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Pulp & Paper Industry Focus Researchers at Environment Canada are working with Dr. MacLatchy to study the compounds responsible for en docrine disruption in fish near pulp and paper mills. Many research institutions are interested in Dr. MacLatchy's work and she has been invited to speak at numerous national and international conferences.
The significance of this advancing technology in the pulp and paper industry is clear. Mills now have a viable alter native solution to conventional secondary treatment facili ties. Wally Vrooman, past president of the Pulp and Paper Association of Canada, also believes this helps put the mill and the country on the map. "It's a new option everyone has they didn't have five years ago. And if it's cost com petitive or better, it's one the industry should consider. This is a technology the company can export. It's great for Canada to have technology that they can give back to the industry." Richard McLean, Environmental Coordinator for the
mill, gives credit to the owners for making a choice that many other mills would not have been able to consider. "A
The Company Cbemtrac Svstems
secondary treatment facility costs $58 million. We spent $300 million. I doubt the board of directors of a publicly
Better Wet-End Stability
traded company, concerned about share value, would ever have allowed this to be happen." Willa Mavis, a vocal opponent back in 1992 to the pro posed lagoon at Sheldon Point, is pleased with Irving Pulp & Paper's efforts. "In addressing community concerns," she says," a real scientific advancement has been achieved for the industry."
For more information, circle reply card No. 122 For more information, circle reply card No. 219
New advanced technology for water & wastewater Actiflo® Package Plant
Escalator® Fine Screen
A major step towards a highly efficient clarification
gives continuous fine screening for channel type ap plications with very few moving parts below the wa ter level. Product is used in open channels where fine screening is required. The unit can readily be installed in new or existing channels with a minimum of civil works. The screen has aperture sizes of 1/4" (6 mm)or 1/8"(3 mm)in any direction. Circle reply card No. 327
A fine screening step type screen unit, the Escalator® process,Actiflo® package plants are units engineered to provide a compact modular system in response to an ever-growing demand for a high performance water treatment process. Typical applications are in municipal (water and wastewater) and industrial (process water). Circle reply card No. 326
OHN Meunier Contact: Al Vivian, Regional Sales Manager 250 Royal Crest Court, Markham, ON, Canada, L3R 3S1 Tel:(905) 944-2819 • Fax:(905)474-1334
E-mail: email@example.com • Web site: www.johnmeunier.com Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Pulp & Paper Industry Focus
Brazil's Amazon Rainforest still shrinking
Deforestation ofthe Brazilian
Amazon was greater last year than at any time since 1995, according to new sat ellite data released in May. Brazil's Na tional Institute for Space Research (INPE), which monitors deforestation by satellite, issued a provisional estimate for the period August 1999 to August 2000, based on a sampling scheme. The mean
annual rate of gross deforestation in the 1999 to 2000 time period equalled 19,836 square kilometres (7,658 square miles). From August 1998 to August 1999, the mean annual rate of forest cut down
was 17,259 square kilometres (6,663 square miles), a rate based on INPE's complete and final assessment. Environ ment Minister Jose Samey Filho,said that
there are a series of factors which cause
deforestation. He cited settlements and
the building of roads as examples of how the environment is harmed.
"The government will introduce an environmental licensing system for
Ferric Chloride ♦
properties in areas of the rainforest
where deforestation is greatest," an en vironment ministry official said. The satellite TM-Landsat, used by INPE, does not include deforestation of areas smaller than 6.4 hectares (.02 square miles). This means that the im pacts of hundreds of thousands of small scale farmers and selective logging of lucrative species are not included. Greenpeace Amazon campaigner Paulo Adario, who monitors illegal log ging in Manaus, in cooperation with the Brazilian environment agency IBAMA, said that, "scientific studies have repeat edly shown that Amazon soil is not suit able for agriculture and cattle ranching. The biological richness of the region lives only in the standing forest." Greenpeace is calling on the govern
ment of Brazil to reduce deforestation
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Dry Ferric Sulfate ♦
fhosphorus remova\ Odour control condit'o"'"^
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PASS® 100 ♦
to zero by the year 2010. "In 1970, only one percent of the Brazilian Amazon had been deforested. By 2000 almost 15 per cent has been destroyed. This means a
PASS® C ♦
forest area the size of France was lost in
only 30 years. Stopping forest destruc tion has become a global priority. It must become a Brazilian priority before
it is too late to act," Adario warned.
The Brazilian Amazon comprises the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima,
www.ferricchloride.ca 1-800-428-331 1
Your Single Source^
For more information, circle reply card No. 221 (See page 25)
Tocantins and portions of Maranhao and Goias, totaling an area of approximately five million square kilometres, roughly equal to the size of Western Europe. Of this, approximately four million square kilometres is covered by forest. ❖ Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Pulp & Paper Industry Focus
Single-Stage UF Pilot Plant for P&P processes
Pulpand paper producerscan use
in discharge effluent. In one example of the latter at a large pulp mill, two pi lot plants allowed PCI to develop mem branes specifically suited to the mill's
ferent process designs and membrane materials for effluent-control processes such as paper-coating removal, de-inking, Whitewater recycling, and COD re duction. Offered by PCI Membrane Sys
can configure the pilot plant with any of three different designs from its range of standard modules,or develop custom membranes to suit specific processing requirements. Pulp and paper producers generally use the Single-Stage UF Pilot Plant to help develop large-scale processes that either recover valuable process products
tems Inc., the unit has an automatic data
or reduce the amount of waste material
Circle reply card No. 123
a compact, pilot-scale mem brane ultrafiltration (UF) plant
to streamline evaluation of dif
logging feature that frees operators from having to manually record temperatures, pressures, and flow rates. Operators can define set points either through a per sonal-computer interface, or remotely through a dedicated phone line. The Single-Stage UF Pilot Plantfrom PCI operates either in batch mode or continuous "feed-and-bleed" mode. In
hardwood and softwood effluents, lead
ing to a full-scale plant installation and a successful start-up of what became the world's largest membrane filtration sys tem of its kind.
which otic Pits best?
feed-and-bleed mode, the operator en ters set points to individually control the feed-pump flow volume and the volume "bleeding" out of the retentate line, allowing different effluent concentra tions to be created across the membrane surface.
Depending on the characteristics of the process fluid, the pilot plant can oper ate over a wide range of volumetric con centration factors (VCF) between 1.25
and 50. During operation,an integral heat exchanger can maintain the temperature of the process fluid up to the 175°F operating temperature commonly encoun tered in pulp and paper applications. The tubular membrane modules the
pilot plant uses, are said to be particu larly effective for high-solids fluids, since tubular designs create a turbulent, self-cleaning flow along the membrane surface, which minimizes fouling. PCI
Matching pieces to find the best fit is a challenging and timeconsuming process. In flow measurement you can easily achieve the best fit with the PROIine generation of Promag electromagnetic flow meters. 1-800-668-3199 or visit us at www.endress.com
Pulp mill awards evaporator contract Aracruz Celulose S.A. has selected
PROIine Promag - the new generation of electromagnetic flow measurement instruments
USFilter's HPD Products and Confab
• Economical two-wire and traditional
S.A. to design and install a seven-effect evaporation system as part of Aracruz's $620 million expansion project at its Espirito Santo pulp mill in Brazil. The new seven-effect black liquor evaporation train is part of Aracruz's new 700,000 tons per year pulp produc tion line, which will double its pulp ca pacity to 1.9 million tons per year. USFilter and Confab will provide full turnkey project support on the evapora tor expansion from engineering and fab rication to installation and start-up. ❖
four-wire technology • Modular design • External "Touch Control" operation • Fleldbus compatible • Sensors and process connections to meet industry needs • Approved for sanitary applications
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Endress+Hauser S3 The power of know-how
For more Information, circle reply card No. 222 (See page 25)
Pulp & Paper Industry Focus
When the chips are down at P&P mills
Before a grinder was instal ed
in the treatment plant of a Canadian pulp and paper mill, wood chips and grit in the primary sludge caused the pumping system to clog at regular intervals. As a result, the system required constant monitoring and had to be taken off-line and backwashed at least twice a shift.
Since February 1994, when a Muf fin Monster was installed between the
primary clarifier and the mixing tank, the problem has been eliminated. The Donohue Normick pulp and paper mill in Amos,Quebec,is a sprawl ing complex on the Harricana River. The mill, which uses a thermomech-
anical pulping(TMP)process, produces 500 tons a day of newsprint, 80-90% of which is exported to the US and over seas.
The mill operates an effluent treat ment plant, consisting of primary and secondary treatment, with a capacity of
16,000 mVday. According to mill engi neering supervisor, Jean Fiset, the origi nal problem was created by the passthrough of wood chips from the pulping operation to the clarifiers. Not all the chips in the primary influent would break down during clarification and many would settle to the bottom in the primary sludge. A bar screen was in stalled to remove the troublesome chips, but not all of the chips were captured. The resulting problem occurred downstream, in the dewatering opera-
The Donohue Normick pulp and paper mill in Amos, Quebec, produces 500 tons of newsprint a day. Photo shows the wastewater treatment facility.
tion, where the primary and secondary sludge is combined. The wood chips fre quently collected at the inlet of the cen trifugal pumps, prior to sludge dewater ing, causing the operation to clog and foul. This required taking the pumps off-line and backwashing them to re move the clogged chips. As Fiset ex plains,"It was a lot of trouble. We were looking at around the clock cleaning and monitoring." To eliminate this problem a Muffin Monster was installed just before the mixing tank. It now chews the primary sludge,including the wood chips and grit, producing a fine sludge sluiry which can be easily and smoothly handled by the pumps. Operating at approximately 200 GPM, the grinder has greatly increased the ef ficiency ofthe dewatering operation while saving the mill substantial costs related to pump repairs and system downtime. An upper midwest kraft pulp and paper mill saved over $60,000 in the first year after buying four grinders. The 550 ton/day mill uses Muf fin Monster grinders to protect pumps from damage by bolts, rocks and other hard objects that enter the waste stream during paper making. CuiTently two sets of 8" Muffin Monsters,two on-line units and two
Grinders are hard at work at every ma jor pulp and paper company in the US. 46
backup units, are located in the mill's 15 (US) MGD wastewater
treatment plant. They perform the es sential function of protecting the posi tive screw displacement pumps. One grinder is positioned at the headworks of the pulp mill stream. Another is be tween the thickener and the dewatering unit, after the flows from the pulp proc ess and paper mill are combined. The pulp mill wastewater is treated in a 140 foot diameter clarifier fed by 400 GPM capacity pumps designed to handle a larger flow than that of the pa per mill. In grinding the hard solids down,the grinders protect these pumps. The paper mill flow is treated in an 80 foot diameter primary clarifier fed by a pump that can accommodate hard, in organic solids. These solids are not bro ken down during clarification and end up in the combined flow which goes to the thickener. A second grinder (and backup grinder)is needed to grind down this material to protect the pumps prior to the dewatering centrifuge. The grinders have performed very well and require little maintenance, ac cording to the plant's Chief Wastewater Treatment Operator, John LaTour, who says they save over $60,000 a year in maintenance costs. "If we didn't have
them, we would tear up the screw pumps. As it is, we get a full year's use out of the pumps. It saves us a lot of problems." For more information,
circie repiy card No. 124
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Pulp & Paper Industry Focus
Drywall paper recycling closes the loop
There is a good chance that the
next sheet of drywall you use had a previous life- as a sheet of drywall. Fourteen years ago, New West Gypsum Recycling Inc., of Langley, BC, invented and patented a process to allow the gypsum core that makes up drywall to be remanufactured into new sheets of drywall. Now the company has developed a process to re cycle the paper on scrap drywall into new paper covering. This brings the
just no good reason to waste material that can be recycled, and can help pro vide jobs too." New West Cypsum has recycled over one million tonnes of wallboard since its
inception in 1986. In a single year, it re cycled over 133,000 tonnes - enough to fill a football field 18 storeys high. The company handles about90% ofthe scrap drywall produced in Greater Vancouver,
mostly from new construction sites. McCamley says that the increased value of waste products, coupled with education, has encouraged builders and homeowners to "do the right thing and do the logical thing" by bringing waste to an appropriate transfer station or re cycling plant. For more information, circie repiy card No. 125
waste-stream full circle, so that one hun
dred percent of cast-off wallboard is re used as new wallboard.
Once the paper is mechanically sepa rated from the gypsum core, it is placed in a small pulper and turned into noodle pulp, using essentially the same proc ess as a pulp and paper mill. The pulp then comes out of a screw press and is
for our Community! The Regional Municipality of Durham is seekinu
dried to the correct moisture content.
skilled and dedicated individuals to assume
The pulp is then sold to Crown Packag ing Ltd. in Burnaby, BC, which manu factures it into new drywall paper cov ering, supplied in turn to wallboard
these roles within our Works Department...
New West Gypsum has recycled over one million tonnes of wallboard since its
inception in 1986. In a single year, it recycled over 133,000 tonnes - enough to fill a football field 18 storeys high.
Control Superintendent Reporting to the Plant Operations Manager, you will be responsible for the effective operation of our Lake Ontario water pollution control plants and associated pumping stations as well as the biosolids management program. Using your strong interpersonal skills to supervise and direct the activities of supervisory and unionized operating and maintenance staff, you will also manage the annual budget as well work in collaboration with other Regional staff to maintain quality water and sewer services. Your Class IV Wastewater Treatment licence from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment or a professional engineers designation is complemented by several years' supervisory experience in an automated plant setting. An analytical and organized communicator, your knowledge of computerized operations, maintenance management systems, and safety programs is a valued asset. File #01-VAC-017
One of the wallboard manufacturers
using the recycled paper, BPB Westroc of New Westminster, BC, salutes the
process as "quite a nice circle. It's pretty beneficial for all concerned," says plant Manager Bill Stone. "You can make good quality board from recycled gypsum we've proved it." New board typically has up to 25% recycled gypsum content. Crown Packaging required New West Cypsum to lower the paper's ash con tent for enhanced quality. "New West worked very hard on this process and hit on the right formula," Stone says. "They've done an excellentjob meeting very specific requirements." Tony McCamley of New West Cyp sum points out that he has long been recycling the paper covering from drywall but it hasn't always ended up on new sheets. "This new development closes the loop on the paper. There is
Hydrogeologist This critical position will provide high level support and advice to the Works, Planning, and Health Departments on groundwater related issues. Working with complex and technical issues, your responsibility will be to develop and maintain a comprehensive groundwater management plan to identify and document the groundwater flow systems in our region. Your strong public relation skills will help you to coordinate issues related to groundwater and ensure that policies and programs are implemented for the protection of groundwater resources. A civil engineer with strong project management skills, you are a member of the â&#x20AC;˘ iPEO, have at least five years' experience in hydrogeology and environmental engineering, and lideally have a Master's in science or hydrogeology. Your knowledge of groundwater systems, iiieh^iistry, and hydrodynamics is coupled with an understanding of related computer
:;|J>fb^ams such as GIS and database management. A thorough understanding of the Planning Act. Ontario Water Resource Act, Environmental Protection Act, and
^^^0tilvFisheries,Act is essential. Your driver's licence, access to a vehicle, and willingness to throughout our region are necessary. File #01-VAC-001W
liffleSsf;iafjply^;Ih. writing quoting the appropriate file number lo: StafHiig Atlvisor, The Regional Municipality of Durham, 605 Rossland Road East, Whitby, Ontario LIN 6A3 Fax:(905)668-9935 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org iifh^m>er,.only those to 'he:
M m intervi^ mil be contacted
Ah Ce/uat itpportiinity Employer
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
For more information, circie repiy card No. 223 (See page 25)
New Age products used to construct storm sewer and outfall in waterfront park
Anew storm sewer and outfal were constructed in an envi
ronmentally sensitive public park to improve drainage problems in a waterfront neighbour hood. Known locally in the City of Bande as the Gray Lane Drainage Improvement Project, a 750 mm diameter precast con crete storm sewer was installed in a par cel of land purchased by the City, termi nating at an outfall structure on Lake Simcoe. The challenge to the contractor was to limit any disturbance to the aquatic habitat while constructing the system in
a confined work zone.
The contract required Corm Con struction to install closed sheet piling around the work zone, before construc
tion of the outfall and headwall. City staff believed that, because the work was
at the edge of the lake, the ground con ditions would be poor, with heavy infil tration causing slumping of the excava tion walls. Soil tests indicated that the
outfall location was comprised of sandy silt material that became very dense at greater depths. Corm staff was con cerned that any attempt to install sheet ing would be ineffective, due to the den sity of the native material, and suggested use of an Aqua Dam system to control
By Stephen Mitchell, C.E.T., Corm Construction Sewer & Watermain Limited
Construction of 750 mm diameter precast concrete storm sewer and headwall. lake water from entering the work zone in a safe and environmentally sound manner. City staff concurred with the suggestion, and the project proceeded. The Aqua Dam is an impervious, double celled inner tube-like product that is 30 metres in length by 3.0 metres wide, with a height of 0.9 metres when pumped full of water. The dam forms to the natural terrain with minor distur bance to the shoreline.
The dam was anchored in place with 1.0 X 1.0 metre sand bags that formed a
seal between the shoreline and the dam.
Before the dam was set in place,approxi mately 40 metres ofturbidity curtain were installed at a depth of0.5 metres in close proximity to the Aqua Dam. The dam itself was approximately two metres away from the headwall excavation. Siltation of the near shore aquatic environment was an additional concern.
Although the turbidity curtain would control much ofthe siltation during con struction, an in-line solution was needed
to limit the discharge of silt carried by stormwater. To alleviate this problem, a 3000 mm diameter Stormceptor unit was installed some 18 metres upstream from the outfall. A catch basin installed
in the parking area would intercept siltladen storm water and discharge it into a sewer connected to the Stormceptor unit.
City of Barrie staff designed the project within the requirements of ap proval agencies that included the Lake Simcoe Regional Conservation Author ity (LSRCA), the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans(DFO),and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOB). A Municipal Class Environ mental Assessment (Class EA) was completed according to the requirements of the MOE. Schedule B of the Class
Turbidity curtain and Aqua Dam Installed prior to construction ofstorm sewer outfall headwall. 48
EA included a public meeting to de scribe the project and elicit public in put. The LSRCA commented on the
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Stormwater Management project and forwarded their concern to the City and DFO that the area was con sidered a significant spawning area. The DFO issued a Letter of Advice outlining mitigating measures to prevent harmful
storm sewer and drainage project; how ever, the City tried to accommodate any future design in accordance with an ur ban design, by placing the storm sewer, catch basins, and curbs on only one side
alteration to fish habitat, not
ing that no in-water work would be permitted between April 1 and July 1, 2000. In addition to the regula tory approvals,the design had to account for preservation of as many trees as possible, the master plan of the park that contains future development plans, and a limestone walk way with steps to address con cerns of a special interest user group. The Stormceptor unit was relocated from its origi nal position on the plan to pre
the depth of the footings was a special consideration as was the placement of 450 mm diameter river stone around the
base of the structure. A railing was added as a standard safety precaution. After the public consulta tions, most people were in fa vour of the project. Their greatest concern was siltation, and that was covered by the precautions taken by the con tractor during construction, and the in-line Stormceptor unit. During construction, there were no concerns ex
pressed by local area resi dents, and the project was completed within the short construction period. Products developed late in the twentieth century to facili tate construction in environ
serve a mature tree.
Only half of the Gray Lane Installation of a 3,000 mm diameter Stormceptor unit, some mentally sensitive areas, and 18 metres upstream from the outfall. roadway was constructed be reduce environmental im cause there was no sanitaiy outfall or of the road. pacts, have already become products of pumping station, and funding was not The headwall of the outfall had to choice. The public affected by infra available at that time for the additional drain to the elevation of the high water structure projects are quick to realize work. To accommodate a full roadway mark, and the design had to accommo their benefits. design, additional land needed to be ac date the impact of ice flows on the struc For more information, quired. The project was designed as a ture and wave action. For these reasons. circle reply card No. 126
Point of entry trap removes
New tube diffuser
sediment from stormwater
The new Airflex Tube 1000, with EPDM, urethane or silicone blend membranes, includes two diffusers and one Airflex
SuperSaddle''''^. Each diffuser has 2.42 square feet of active membrane surface area. This compares with a 9" disc dif fuser, which has 0.41 square feet of ac
The RotoFix''''^ is an advanced second
ary treatment unit for domestic and in
tive membrane surface area. The cost of
dustrial wastewater. It is located down
a complete aeration system designed with the Airflex Tube 1000 system is almost always lower than an equivalent disc dif fuser system, because less manifold and header piping, and therefore fewer stain less supports are required. The diffusers themselves, when calculated on a cost per sq. ft. of active membrane area basis, are significantly less expensive than discs.
stream of the primary treatment system (septic tank). The heart of the RotoFix''''*^ is composed of tubular patented medium consisting of multiple internal wings which provide a large contact surface per volume unit. Many sections of the me
Stamford Scientific International www.StamfordScientific.com
For more information, circle reply card No. 127
dium are assembled around a central axle
and held in place by stainless steel or polymer braces forming the rotors of the RotoFix'i''^. These rotors, placed in a ba sin containing the wastewater to be treated, are activated by a low-power mo tor and belt. Ecoflo Ontario
For more information,
circle reply card No. 128
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
A new catchment device, the Point of En try Trap (POET''''^) removes oil, sediment and pollutants from stormwater, before they enter the main drainage system. It also prevents sewer odours from escaping into the environment. Placed at the point of entry to the drainage system, the POET combats dirt and debris at its source. In
stallation is simple. During construction, the crews place it into any standard mu nicipal or OPSD catchbasin that has a flat wall. The POET connects the catchbasin
to the outlet pipe, reducing labour costs. For oil, an optional hydrophobic device absorbs and contains petroleum-based liq uids. For sediment, an optional filter bag captures waste that does not settle into the sump of the catchbasin. Web site: www.poetinfo.com For more Information, circle reply card No. 129
Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666.
1 to PIE
Urecon pre-insulated pipe
Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shaiiow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocable® heat tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insuiated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page
storage Chem-Loc Buildings are uniquely designed and manufactured by MakLoc Buildings Inc. to provide safety, security, segrega tion, and secondary con
Circle reply card No. 145
tainment of hiazardous ma
terials. Since 1971, multi
national oil and gas companies, the Armed Forces, Govern ment agencies, municipalities and golf courses have chosen Chem-Loc as their economical solution. Tel: 1-888-774-7792, Web site: www.makloc.com. MakLoc Buildings inc. Circle reply card No. 146
EIMCO FlexKlear® inclined
Inclined Plate Settler
Hinged plates allow entire piate pack to shed solids and eliminate high overflow solids.
Maintenance Data Preventive
n/fMaintenance Data Management
dampen irregular velocities, enforce uniform flow. Rugged stainless steel design. Combines readily with TracVac™ sludge collectors. EIMCO Process
Equipment Company Circle reply card No. 147
rot*ftm and ExistfBg Gfarffieps
Management AIIMax Task Manager (ATM) is a maintenance data management pro gram designed for any maintenanoe manager. Schedule preventive and corrective maintenance tasks; create purchase and work orders; track maintenance costs and inventory lev els, plus more. A multitude of reports such as Cost Reports, Work Order Forecast Reports, Summary Reports and Current inventory Reports are in cluded with the program. Web site: www.op0ratorlO.com
AIIMax Professional Solutions Inc.
Circle reply card No. 148
Armtec to distribute
Leister welding machines for geomembranes Our Leister line of automatic wedge welders, combiwedge machines and hand tools are used in a wide variety of geomembrane applications where the precise welding control is re quired as part of the seaming proc
Chril Engineering and
Nyloplast pipeline fittings Nyioplast America inc. has appointed Armtec Limited as their exclusive Ca
nadian distributor of PVC fittings and surface drainage products. Nyloplast specializes in the development, manufacture and sale of pressure and non-pressure PVC fittings for pipelines. They serve the commer cial, industrial, landscaping, govern
ess. Our products provide excellent field performance and superior reli ability. Tei: (905) 828-1400, Fax: (905)828-1056, www.stanmech.com Stan Mech Agencies Inc. Circle reply card No. 150
ment and other markets with a line
of custom fabricated heavy duty inline drains and drain basins. Armtec Limited
Circle reply card No. 149
Alternate dally cover
Full colour catalogue Techstar Plastics is pleased to intro duce its all new 12-page full colour catalogue. Techstar Plastics is a Canadian supplier of material han dling containers for source separa tion, recycling, waste handling and storage, it has been a leader in ro tational molding in Canada for over
20 years and is ISO 9001 registered for quality assurance. The complete product line is illustrated and full de scription is provided complete with
ALTERNATE DAILY COVER
AC-T677ETokEQUrVMEl)TroAM pen SOUAPE FOOT
* No CopM tii»eNi'i>»ii» M^ulrod •. All Woothor TonRolo
* CoMvmof Ho Akspofo * MutTPOoy CxpoMf* Dairy Covor wqvifornoRl*
Daily cover practices have now been made easier with Rusmar's newAC-
677-SE Soil Equivalent Foam. Ben efits include: pennies per square foot cost, no capital investment required, ail weather formula, consumes no airspace, multi-day exposure, meets ail subtitle "D" daily cover require ments.
Rusmar Incorporated Circle reply card No. 152
detailed specifications. S«p2r3tion
Vbtt us at
Techstar Plastics Inc.
Circle reply card No. 151
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Product and Service Showcase Chemical metering pump
New gate valves from Victaulic
pany has devel oped a new gen eration of resil
ient-wedge valves it
lighter and easier to install than tra
With more industries using Fieldbus tech nologies, ProMinent introduces the GALA chemical metering pump with a Profibus interface. Through this inter face, the pump can easily be manipulated and monitored from a plant control room. All functions and displays normally available only locally at the pump, can be available at the operator's computer screen. ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd.
NRS grooved-end gate valves feature IPS ends and a Positive Displacement Disk™ (PDD)that provides bubble-tight sealing with minimal torque. Low-torque seal ing and a self-centering disc virtually eliminate stem bending, a common prob lem with conventional wedge-type gate valves. Victaulic
Circle reply card No. 154
Circle reply card No. 153
Compact measurement of free chlorine, pH, Redox and
valves. Series 771 OS&Y and Series 772
Dissolved Air Fiotator® units
Environmental Group Inc.
Focus Environmental Group Inc. pro vides clientele with professional, fullservice environmental contracting sup port to suit site-specific needs,including; Waste management (soil, C&D,liquid); AST, LIST removal and disposal, TSSA Ontario licence 0076596253,TSSA PMI,
PM2, PM3 certified personnel; Soil/ groundwater remediation experti.se; Site/ plant-facility decommissioning; Environ mental restoration.
Focus Environmental Group Inc.
Circle reply card No. 155
Reactor-Clarifier® solidscontact clarifiers
temperature BMCO Eliminate
and money install ing the various components of a chlorine system with
complete and compact factoryassembled system Hauser. The sys tem comprises inlet and outlet tube con nectors, dirt-trap, outlet check valve and sampling port for DPD calibration. All cables are pre-wired and concealed in a covered wiring duct. Endress+Hauser
Specify a DAF clarifier or thickener mechanism that combines a job-tested design with the economy of pre-engineered components. Drawn from a halfcentury of custom fiotator experience, the component design meets the require ments of any application. EIMCO Process Equipment Company
Circle reply card No. 156
Circle reply card No. 157
Sludge dewatering and coagulant control
Monster^'*^ units available
landfill costs. JWC Environmental
The use 6000 sig nal converter from Danfoss eliminates
ries for sludge dewatering and coagulant con
essential features: SmartTrac FID Con
trol; Sensor Maintenance Module (SMM), automatic sensor wash and chemical rinse; Web Access Control (WAC), provides data logging/storage, access to controls via web browser, vari ous security levels for access/control, and stand-alone internet/intranet capability. Chemtrac
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
to complete dig ital control, the new system offers three
Circle reply card No. 159
maximum service life.
EIMCO Process Equipment Company Circle reply card No. 158
trol. In addition
See for yourself how the removed solids are drier, more compacted, lighter and cleaner than typical screened solids. The Screenings Washer Monster™ is a selfcontained system used to grind, wash, compact and de-water screenings cap tured by removal devices. Grinding prior to separation removes soft organics from the screenings, reducing odours and
Rapid mixing,gentle turbine flocculation, clarification and sludge thickening, are combined in a single tank. High influent recirculation and optimum particle growth. Superior heavy-duty design for
Circle reply card No. 160
protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in aeration tanks. De
signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor, this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to -I-70°C with + 0.1° accuracy. Davis Controls Limited
Circle reply card No. 161 51
Product and Service Showcase Pump effectively handles sodium hypochlorite
WWTP Modelling 1^
I Mppiii II I I I
On-site wastewater treatment
The Waterloo Biofilter® is a patented aerobic trickle filter designed for efficient York Fluid Controls Limited introduces
treatment of residential and communal —.WH
the new 620R series that effectively han dles sodium hypochlorite applications
wastewaters and landfill leachate. We
Powerful wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation. Dynamic modelling of almost any municipal or in dustrial facility. Optimise the entire plant. The perfect tool for diagnosing process problems or testing capacity. See it at: www.hydromantis.com. Hydromantis Inc. Circle reply card No. 163
and 90-99% coliform in a single pass. (Photograph: RattleSnake Point Golf Club Treatment Facility, Milton, ON). Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 164
Biological activity monitored
Rapid sand filter
Geodesic domes & flat covers
The ALKA-PRO® 300 Series continu
The Ultraflote Ultradome trademark is
Circle reply card No. 165
Hydro-Clear® Rapid Sand Filters are used for a variety of wastewater applications. They feature a unique underdrain system and a shallow bed of single-media, fine grained sand. The filter surface can be "pulsed", prolonging filter runs and keep ing the filter online, despite unpredictable changes. The filter can be backwashed efficiently with significantly less power and water than is required with other types of filters. USFilter Zimpro Products Circle reply card No. 166
Package Wastewater Plants
Enclosed screw pumps
with reduced maintenance downtime.
Ideal for environmental applications, the 620R reliably pumps harsh chemicals and partially crystallized products without vapour locking from product off-gasing. York Fluid Controls Limited
Circle reply card No. 162
ously monitors biological activity at criti cal locations in a wastewater treatment
plant, allowing operators to detect and correct upset conditions long before they would become evident by any other avail able test. It automatically controls proc ess equipment, providing accurate real time evaluation ofthe plant's bacteria me tabolism and biomass health. USFilter Davis Products
Adapted to Your Needs
specialize in treating wastewater for im mediate domestic re-use and golf course irrigation. Typical removal rates are >95% TSS and >90% BOD,20-50% TN
now available in the Batten Quad Seal design. Ultraflote, established in 1972, is an international leader in the design, manu facture and installation of geodesic domes and flat covers. Ultraflote's attention to detail has been instrumental in the success
of dealing with dilficult applications re quiring specific engineering and construc tion know-how and experience. Donson Engineering & Contracting
Circle reply card No. 167
Sediment flushing tank
The Internalift® Enclosed Screw
Pump is efficient and reliable -
even in high-vol ume applications. Available in a 4
We have supplied Package Sewage Treat ment Plants worldwide. The Package Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treat ment. It is economical, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any loca tion unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 168 52
wide range of ca pacities, Interna lift pumps can lift 23,000 gpm of stormwater more than 60 feet. Continuously welded flights form the interior of the pump cylinder, and the cylinder turns as a single unit, with no leakage, no friction, no jamming, no plugging. Far less maintenance is re quired, and the enclosed design mini mizes safety, odour and weather con
The Hydrovex® SFT Sediment Flushing Tank is designed to clean the sediments, grit, and debris out of CSO/SSO/stormwater retention tanks. It is designed to tip automatically with no external energy. The total water content of the Hydrovex SFT is released instantly in the chamber, creating a powerful high velocity wave. Made of long-lasting stainless steel, more than 350 units are in operation across
cerns. USFilter CPC Products
USFilter John Meunier Products
Circle reply card No. 169
Circle reply card No. 170 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Product and Service Showcase Completely destroy RGBs
EAGLEBROOK* Vour Sing/e Source
Reduce Costs and
Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) With Iron Salts.
www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 171
Improved level measurement and monitoring
Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. is the only Ministry of Environment approved final destruction/incineration facility in On tario. Here, we completely destroy PCBs in an environmentally safe manner, us ing no hazardous chemicals or solutions which themselves require destruction. We are capable of destroying and have safely and totally destroyed or recycled waste electrical equipment from Askarel transformers to light ballasts. Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. Circle reply card No. 172
surface is automatically created and ready for presentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software Circle reply card No. 173
Complete monitoring & control
Circle reply card No. 174
Round hatches to fit precast
characterization curves. Milltronics
HEC-RAS allows water level results read back into our 12D model. A water level
EnviroRanger,first introduced in 1999,has been enhanced to provide greater function ality. This system combines non-contact ing ultrasonic technology, patented Sonic IntelligenceÂŽ echo-processing technolo gies and proven applications software to meet pump control and level monitoring needs. EnviroRanger is an advanced pump controller, managing up to five pumps in both wet well (pump down) or reservoir (pump up) applications using several op tional control strategies. Milltronics Circle reply card No. 175
Milltronics MiniRanger Plus has an ex tended range up to 15 m(50 ft.) on liquids and 7.5 m (25 ft.) on .solids. Its backlit display gives a read-out as a percentage of full tank volume or in any standard engi neering unit. Operators can choose auto matic level-to-volume conversion for up to eight standard vessel configurations, or open channel flow measurement for weirs and flumes using a total of 11 point flow
Create a HEC-RAS model directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and cre ate inundation maps from the results. Complete integration between 12D and
concrete manhole sections
Paques ADI offers anaerobic wastewater treatment packages to industries having high-strength waste streams and supplies these packages on a design-build basis. Packages range from low-rate to ultrahigh-rate anaerobic and include up stream/downstream processes when re quired to complete a treatment train. Systems range in size from compact(and modular) to large. Paques ADI Circle reply card No. 176
Megadome and Superdome storage buildings The clear span de signs of the Mega dome and Superdome series pro vide the space and clearance for maxi
mum storage ca
pacity and accessi bility. A diversity of size and shape
Parkson recently acquired the HycorÂŽ line ofliquid/solid separation equipment which focuses on headworks screening,convey ing and washing,as well as grit and stormwater management. Screen types range from rotary drum screens(both internally and externally fed), side hill, step screens, moving media screens, gravity disc and climber screens to screening systems with integral conveying and dewatering. Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 177
Standard MSU, all aluminum, round
hatches fit precast manhole sections from 48" to 144" diameters, and are available
in two- and four-door configurations. They are suited for leachate collector manholes in landfill sites. Custom con
figurations are available to meet special applications such as pumping stations. MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 178
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
means these build
ings can meet current requirements and expand along with future business needs. Megadomes and Superdomes can be used to store any type of products that need protection against inclement weather, thereby safeguarding stored investment. Harnois Industries
Circle reply card No. 179 53
Product and Service Showcase Pipeline rehabilitation
More than two million feet installed and a
decade of low-dig/no-dig pipeline reha bilitation and construction experience. Azurix Lining Systems''^'^' includes: Na
Providing the complete spectrum of serv ices needed to plan, design and construct water and wastewater infrastructure in
cluding: Traditional engineering, design
tional Liner''^', U-Liner™,Channeline''^',
and construction, design/build,SCADA/
Epoxy resin and cement mortar lining. CCTV inspection, grouting and cleaning.
lands/recreational water quality.
Azurix North America
Azurix North America
real time control, and structured wet
RACO Manufacturing's new Catalyst Interactive Communications System combines data and event logging, alarm notifications and status checking into a single package. Catalyst features allow real time, 2-way communications via phone, fax, cell, or paper, remote pro gramming and upgrades, monitoring of up to 256 points, and PLC interface. Summa Engineering
Circle reply card No. 180
Circle reply card No. 181
Circle reply card No. 182
Sludge level monitor
The Odyssey DR/2500 Laboratory Spectrometer will include such advanced features as automatic wavelength selec tion, a touch screen display with a sim ple user interface,easy computer connec
Circle reply card No. 184
Hach Company's new OptiQuant™ sludge level monitor for accurate, fulltime, unattended sludge level monitoring requires minimal maintenance and no sample conditioning. Full-time monitor ing enables plant operators to optimize the extraction of recirculated sludge, compensate for normal fluctuations, cor rect for extreme conditions such as sludge discharged and poor sedimentation. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 185
immersed membranes for
MSA's permanent instruments are
designed for con tinuous detection
of LEL, oxygen, toxic, and other
gases. They are used in chemical
and petrochemi cal industries, re
fineries, mining, industrial facilities and wastewater treatment plants where haz ards are present. The most popular in dustrial instruments are the Ultima® Gas
tions, and advanced software. It can also
Monitor,Toxgard® Monitor, DAN® Data Acquisition Network,FlameOard® Flame
read pH with an optional electrode di rectly. A newly designed cell holder al lows the use of many different sizes of sample vials without having to mess with multiple adapters. Hach Company
Detector, and Safeye Open Path Gas Monitor. Cancoppas
Circle reply card No. 183
New BTE Pump/Mixer
seepex. Inc. has developed and intro duced a new type of open hopper pro gressive cavity pump which incorporates a high volume auger and induction cham ber into the pump design. The unit can be used to pump filter cakes from presses or centrifuges; or, it can be used to mix powders or solids into liquids to form pastes or putties. The pump can handle viscosities to 700,000 cps, paper stock to 12%, and sewage sludge to 32% solids, seepex, Inc. Distributed hy: Performanee Fluid Equipment Inc. Circle reply card No. 186 54
500 series of im
1000 series ofim
mersed ultrafiltra tion membranes is
brane in the in
branes is specifi cally designed for drinking water
the only mem
with a reinforced
hollow fiber. The
rugged fibers, combined with an open module design, allow operation in high levels of suspended solids. The mem brane simplifies conventional proces.ses and provides a long membrane life, even under the harshest operating conditions. ZENON Environmental Inc.
Circle reply card No. 187
system produces high quality water while making operation and maintenance simpler than ever before. Offering a small plant footprint and low energy consumption, the 1000 series can be used to upgrade any existing filtration plant for capacity and quality. ZENON Environmental Inc.
Circle reply card No. 188 Environmental Science c6 Engineering, June 2001
Product and Service Showcase Now available!
Dual rated sampling cylinders
h,r®Ml Canada With both Transport (TC) and U.S.
ROCO robot first In Canada
(DOT) certification, Pea cock's new Hoke dual
stamped sampling cylin ders offer safe, legal solu tions for transporting haz ardous gases and liquids by road, rail, ship or air, any where in Canada and to and from the US. Used in sam
pling of hydrocarbons,gas, nuclear materials and other
An in-depth analysis of drainage pipe per formance and design comparisons of con crete pipe vs HOPE. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Call for your copy now!
critical applications, the.se cylinders, in capacities
from 75 ml to 15 litres, are
manufactured to exacting standards to maximize performance and user safety.
Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products has improved its workplace environment, product quality, and production effi ciency. Standing for "Rings Off Cleaned and Oiled", Centennial's ROCO handling equipment automates the removal of the pallet and header from finished rein forced concrete pipe. The machine then stacks the joint rings, and places the prod uct on a conveyor.
Circle reply card No. 189
Circle reply card No. 190
Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products Circle reply card No. 191
Oil In water monitor
Flow pacing valve
Glass pipe outerwrap
Denso Glass Outerwrap is a water acti vated fibreglass tape that is used for me chanical protection over Denso Petrola tum Tape Systems or as a pipe repair product for cracked or broken pipe. Glass Outerwrap is said to offer exceptional impact and mechanical strength on above or below ground pipes, pilings, and fit tings. Glass Outerwrap is paintable and has an in service temperature from sub
Circle reply card No. 192
The Regal Smartvalve'''''' is an accurate and versatile Flow Pacing Valve for chlo rine or sulphur dioxide. Operating on fully automatic or manual, with an ad justable "low-flow" alarm, it is widely lused for treating water with varying flow rates. The multi function digital display highlights flow rate; valve flow position in pounds per day of actual gas feed rate; mode of operation; and dosage value. Chlorinators Incorporated Circle reply card No. 193
Solids/corrosive liquids pumps
Package potable water
introducing the N-Pumps!
For industrial and municipal measure ments of hydrocarbons in water, Arjay offers the FluoroCheck 2000. Using the selective and accurate technology of fluo rescence, this instrument has been de
signed for quick and easy readings with its automatic sample read feature. Once the unit has been initiated to your site through a simple calibration, prepared samples are in.serted into the unit and the rest is taken care of automatically. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.
zero to 350°F. Denso North America
Circle reply card No. 194
Years of research
coupled with cus tomer demands and
field trials have
Gorman-Rupp T Series^''' pumps are de signed for economical, trouble-free op eration in handling solids-laden liquids and slurries. Pumps feature a large volute design which allows them to reprime automatically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with liquid and a completely dry suction line. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 195
The Pulsapak® is a package potable water treatment plant designed for both munici pal and industrial applications. It com bines two Degremont technologies: the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, and a sand
and anthracite dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak produces clean water equal in quality to that produced by large instal lations. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 196
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
produced a revo lutionary new pump design that combines high ef ficiency with Flygt's clog-free performance. The N-Pump series feature a radical new hydraulic end design which ensures efficient, clog-free, and troublefree pumping over extended periods. The result is improved operational economy due to less downtime, dramatically reduc ing the total life cost of the installation. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 197 55
Flexible membrane vs. ceramic coarse bubble
diffusers - Who's winning the wastewater war?
The size, shape, and materials of construction of diffused
aeration devices may vary; however, they all tend to be classified as either fine or coarse bub
ble. Coarse bubble diffusers produce a bubble diameter of 6-10 millimetres
(mm), whereas fine bubble diffusers produce 2-5 mm bubbles. The first fine bubble aeration systems
were composed of a ceramic type me dia, either a fused alumina oxide or a silicon oxide material. Those aeration
systems have been around for 80 years and until the 1950s and 1960s they were fairly efficient. However,over time,they have developed problems due to media fouling. Fouling consists of build-up of biofilms and/or deposition of inorganic precipitates that can alter the operating characteristics of the diffusers. Four
general shapes of fine pore diffusers exist: plates, tubes, domes and discs. Porous plastic media was the next step in fine pore diffusers, claiming lighter weight,durability, cost effectiveness and ease of manufacturing. Porous plastic media was made in rigid or non-rigid form. These plastic diffusers were in stalled in the 1980s, but have lost popu larity due to several problems such as media fouling, lack of quality control in the manufacturing process (no uniform air distribution) and emerging cost com petitiveness of other fine pore products. Membrane diffusers that have shown
The evolution of the diffuser product is simpiy one exampie of how the face of the wastewater treatment industry is changing. ate a drastically reduced foul rate. This operating flexibility dominates over the ceramic technology at the present time. Coarse bubble aeration systems were developed in the 1960s and competed against the fine bubble systems because they appeared to be virtually mainte nance free and never lost efficiency. The coarse bubble diffusers seemed to be
fine until energy costs became a major issue in the mid 1970s and 1980s, and
that is how the predominant focus in the wastewater treatment industry began to
the most potential are the flexible mem
turn toward fine bubble devices.
branes made of elastomers or thermo
plastic material. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)is the most common thermoplas tic material, producing a soft, flexible
In the last 10 years, fine pore mem brane technologies made of elastomer, the flexible membrane type, have be come more popular. Their popularity
membrane. Elastomers are made from
stems from the idea that the membranes
rubber or synthetic rubber materials, and
are less susceptible to fouling and oper ate at maximum efficiency longer than the ceramic type of media. Early mem brane products had a very short life and the media deteriorated on its own. Only within the last five years has the tech nology of the elastomers reached matu rity. Most membrane products now have lifespans in excess of five years, often extending to nearly 10 years before any maintenance or replacement of the prod uct is necessary. Cleaning
claim to be more resistant than other
media to fouling and debris infiltration. Flexible membrane diffusers have
better operability and flexibility. Their operability is improved because they are die-cut to create small slits. Since the
size of the slits is controlled, the quality of the product and the air distribution on the product back flow prevention ere-
By Linda Chaloux, Environmental Analyst, Frost & Sullivan, San Antonio, Texas 56
The ceramic coarse bubble diffusers
are like a grinding stone, in that they
have a very porous surface, which must be cleaned by high pressure hosing in combination with a muriatic acid-based
application. This cleaning method is much more intensive than the fine pore membrane, where the membrane, in
most cases, needs only to be cleaned by hosing or scrubbing the media. Energy consumption One other consideration in choosing methods of aeration is energy consump tion. This has typically been the number one reason for replacing the traditional coarse bubble aeration systems with fine pore aeration devices. Fine pore aera tion devices maintain much higher oxy gen transfer efficiency. Since aeration energy consumption does represent 50 to 90 percent of the total energy required by a wastewater treatment plant, and at least 30 percent of an activated sludge plant, it has become essential to mini mize energy costs. And now the ultra-fine... The ultra-fine bubble diffuser is the
newest addition to the diffuser product line. Utilizing a homogenous thermo plastic membrane,the ultra-fine diffuser is able to generate bubbles of approxi mately 1 mm in diameter, as opposed to the 2-10 mm diameters found in the con
ventional coarse or fine bubble systems. This particular diffuser product offers oxygen transfer efficiencies of almost
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
• Portable Samplers
• Refrigerated Samplers
• Open Channel Flow • FRF Enclosures
• Rain Gauges/loggers • Software
N:4M Call 1-800-215-4469 or
Email: can-am @can-am.net
Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Sales * Service * Rentals
OilMater Separators Portable Oil in Water Monitor
• In-line Oil in Water Monitor • Oil Float Sensor THESE BARRELS ARE Fi
• Oil Interface Monitor
• Liquid Leak detection • Oil Skimmers
Email: can-am @can-am.net or
Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Sales * Service * Rentals
Fax: 905-829-4701 www.can-am.net
two times that of conventional fine bub ble ceramic or membrane discs. The ultra-fine bubble diffusers also
come in a different form: a flat plate or panel version. This much larger model of aeration diffuser products encom passes an increased aeration basin, of fering greater oxygen dispersion. Ad ditionally, the smaller bubbles and the larger surface area combine to produce a longer retention time of the bubbles with the suspended solids. This technology has been proven to last at least 10 years before replacements are required, which is much greater than the 3-5 year range originally given some other fine bubble diffuser products. Ad ditionally, although clean water tests only put this device at 30 percent greater efficiency than fine bubble products, in situ or dirty water tests reveal efficien cies as great as 200 percent better than earlier fine bubble products. The largest disadvantage of this type of system is the relatively high initial cost compared to other aeration devices. However, in areas where energy costs are extremely high, this system could prove its economic benefits within a very short time-span.
The primary factor that end-users need to consider is the life cycle cost of the product. It is never just the initial installation figure, but it is the operations and maintenance. try has been swinging toward the mem
Who is the winner?
Many large wastewater treatment plants and large cities continue to choose the coarse bubble ceramic products be cause of replacement costs. Very large plants have maintenance budgets, but they do not have a large capital expendi ture budget where they can afford to re place the diffusers every few years. However, smaller installations are
finding the benefits and energy savings of the flexible membrane diffusers far
outweigh the cleaning and/or replace ment costs.
Some industry participants believe that flexible membrane diffusers are the
best technology,capturing as much as 75 percent of the diffuser market; they are the first choice for replacements and ret rofits. Additionally, most competitors to day only manufacture the membrane type, so that is another reason the indus
brane. With the addition of the ultra-fine
bubble technology, diffuser product manufacturers are able to offer the
wastewater treatment industry a product in almost every cost and size category. The primary factor that end-users need to consider is the life cycle cost of the product. It is never just the initial installation figure, but it is the operations and maintenance, replacement fees, labour required, and effluent quality. The evolution of the diffuser prod uct is simply one example of how the face of the wastewater treatment indus
try is changing, and should prompt endusers to calculate with their limited dol
lars, which system is the best fit, and will provide the greatest result for the longest period of time. For more information, contact: www.frost.com.
ENGINEERING EXCELLENCE TSH is a multi-disciplinary engineering firm with ten branch offices located throughout the province of Ontario. We provide consulting services to public and private sector clients throughout the province. Our continued growth has resulted in the following career opportunity:
THERMO-SYSTEM Solar Sludge Drying
ManagerA/ice-Presldent, Environmental Science This newly created role will provide client services for projects involved in environmental issues including project management. Expectations will include the development of new business and building and leading a team of environmental specialists. The necessary qualifications for the position include at least 10 years experience in environmental assessment processes for infrastructure projects in Ontario, an M.Sc. or preferably Ph.D in Biology, Ecology, Water Science or a related discipline. The ideal candidate will possess specialized experience in aquatic habitat assessment and compensation strategies. Location is flexible.
This career position offers long-term growth and stability, opportunity for future share engineers ownership and comprehensive architects planners benefits. We invite you to fax your resume in confidence to Tanya Currie, Recruiting Coordinator, at:(905)668-0221 or email: email@example.com. Visit our website at: www.tsh.ca
for a greater appreciation of our operations and possible future together. We thank all candidates for their interest, however, only those invited for interviews will be contacted. TSH is an equal opportunity employer. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
The Thermo-System Solar Dryer is an energy-efficient system designed to dry sludges to over 75% solids. The combination of solar heat, convection heat, an electric "mole" and a micro
processor creates optimum drying conditions and reduces operator attention. Call us for our brochure.
>IPARKSON CORPORATION 9050 Ryan Avenue, Dorval, QC H9P 2M8 Tel: 514-636-8712 Fax 514-636-9718
e-mall: firstname.lastname@example.org www.parkson.com An Axel Johnson Inc. Company
For more information, circie reply card No. 225 (See page 25)
CAEAL and SCC help to bring potable water to Latin America
TwoCanadian organizations wil be helping coun
tries in Latin America and the Caribbean to pro vide clean, safe, drinking water for their people. The Standards Council of Canada(SCC)and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Labo ratories(CAEAL),have agreed to work with the Pan Ameri can Health Organization (PAHO) to provide accreditation services to water testing laboratories, in order to ensure the
provision of reliable, accurate testing of drinking water. This voluntary program will be similar to SCC and CAEAL's Canadian laboratory accreditation program, which is based on ISO/IEC 17025, the international standard for
technical competence and quality in all areas of testing and calibration. Under the agreement: • PAHO will apply the program through their Lima, Peru, laboratory, Centra Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente (CEPIS), promote it throughout the region, and work with CAEAL to provide site assessment and proficiency testing;
•CAEAL will conduct the site assessments and operate the proficiency testing program in conjunction with CEPIS; and •SCC will accredit the laboratories, based on CAEAL's rec ommendations.
"This partnership is further proof of Canada's commit-
R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited is an experienced engineering and consulting firm with over 150 full-time staff. Our services include:
• Land Use, Water Supply and Drainage Planning • Waste, Wastewater and Stormwater Ivlanagement • Transportation, Structures and Bridge Design • GIS Applications and Satellite Remote Sensing For more information on these services and our other
specialized divisions including Burnside Environmental and Burnside Golf Services, contact:
( I R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited ENGINEERS » HYDROGEOLOGISTS • ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS BURNSIDE
Value, Innovation and Service since 1970 15 Townline. Orangeville, Ontario, Canada L9W 3R4 Tel; 519 941-5331 Fax:519 941-8120
E-mail: email@example.com www.rjburnside.com
Canadians are helping to bring potabie water to Peru. ment to leadership in international standardization," said Pe ter Clark, executive director of the Standards Council. Dr.
Rick Wilson,executive director of CAEAL,says:"Our pro gram is rigorous and has received international recognition, yet it is inexpensive because it is based on volunteers."
Dr. Peter Toft, Manager, Special Projects for PAHO's Health and Environment Program, noted:"Many countries in the Latin America and Caribbean Region lack a compre hensive program for accrediting drinking water labs. We are very pleased that Canada is willing to help." Accreditation is the formal recognition of an organiza tion's competence to carry out certain functions. By verify ing that laboratories have the appropriate people,equipment and skills, the accreditation program will help to ensure the reliability of their results. The Pan American Health Organization is an international
public health agency. It serves as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization(WHO),and as the health organization of the Inter-American System. PAHO's mission is to strengthen national and local health systems and improve the health of the peoples of the Ameri
cas, in collaboration with ministries of health, other gov ernment and international agencies, non-governmental or ganizations, universities, social security agencies, commu nity groups, and many others. The Standards Council of Canada is the Federal Crown
corporation that oversees the National Standards System. Its Program for Accreditation of Laboratories - Canada (PALCAN) has accredited over 250 laboratories in a vari
ety of general testing and specialty areas. PALCAN and its partners (including CAEAL), have jointly obtained inter national recognition from the Asia Pacific Laboratory Ac creditation Cooperation (APLAC) and the International
i Orangeville • Brampton * Newmarket• Vaughan • Colhngwood • Stratford • Wmgham • Ottawa
For more information, circle reply card No. 226 (See page 25)
Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC). The Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories is a not-for-profit association of public and private sector laboratories. A principal objective of the as sociation is to promote and maintain a high level of assur ance in analytical test data. To this end, CAEAL manages proficiency testing and site assessment programs that are tailored to meet the specific needs of environmental testing laboratories. ❖
Environmentai Science & Engineering, June 2001
Hunger striker wins action on Sydney tar ponds
A17day hunger strike on Par
posures are found to pose a health risk
liament Hill by the executive
to the residents.
director of the Sierra Club of
Ms. May spent each weekday during the hunger strike in front of the Peace
Canada ended May 20, 2001. The government has promised to relocate families at risk who are living in the neighbourhoods adjacent to the Sydney Tar Ponds,Canada's worst toxic waste site. Attorney Elizabeth May ended her hunger strike after a statement issued by Canadian Health Minister
Government of Nova Scotia website:
an estimated 40,000 tonnes are
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), more than 20 times the amount of toxic
sludge from New York's infamous Love Canal.
Twelve years ago the federal and pro vincial governments launched a $34 mil
The Canadian Health Minister's
lion project to clean up the Tar Ponds.
Taxpayers spent $60 million on an in
AquaTerre Solutions Inc. is pleased
cinerator to burn sludge from the ponds, but the piping system to transport the toxic waste did not work and the project
to announce that Mr. Lee D. Howell
statement is the substance of a letter sent
to Nova Scotia Minister of Health, Jamie Muir,and to Ronald Russell, chair of the
Just upstream from the Tar Ponds,the 51 hectare(126 acre) coke oven plant is
Treasury and Policy Board, on May 14. It provides that the following four steps be taken immediately: • soil sampling and analysis of residen tial property, as well as blood and hair analysis of the residents; • design of a chronic health risk assess
now a broken field of coal black rubble
counseling; and • concurrent development of relocation and remedial contingency plans in the
and wild grass. Benzene,toluene, kero sene, napthalene, and tar were commer cial by-products created by the coke plant. The Sierra Club says the coke plant's benzene tank leaked for years and 'a substantial amount of the ground is saturated with the deadly chemical'. Ms. May now intends to ensure that the province of Nova Scotia commits to relocation as soon as possible, that any hair and blood tests be done by inde pendent, out of province experts, and
event that contamination levels and ex
that no work start on the coke ovens site
• meetings with affected residents to ex
plain the preliminary findings and offer
Lee Howell joins Aqua Terre
The Sydney Tar Ponds contain 700,000 tonnes of toxic sludge, of which
Allan Rock's office committed the fed
acres in Sydney, Nova Scotia.
Tower on Parliament Hill.
eral government to take steps that will end what Ms. May calls 15 years of "deny and delay." The now defunct Sydney Steel Mill left more than one million tons of toxic waste over 300
until after people are moved.
has joined our Toronto office as a Senior Project Manager. Lee has over 17 years of experience in the en vironmental industry as both a con sultant and a regulator with the MOE and TSSA. He has been instrumen
tal in the development of recent envi ronmental guidelines, policies and legislation and possesses expert knowledge of the working relationship between regulators and the regulated community. As such, we feel his ex perience will provide an invaluable benefit to our clients.
Aqua Terre is a leader in the field of environmental consulting. Contact us at:(416)635 5882, or visit our web site at: www.aquaterre.ca to learn more about our services.
A aH TERliE
Dispose of your PCB wastes safely & economically at THE PCB incinerator site in Ontario Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd will destroy the PCBs from: • All transformers of any size • Light ballasts • Cable
• Capacitors • All PCB wastes
Our facility is conveniently located just
PCB waste is stored in
bermed,steel buildings until it is put through
off the 401 near Colbome Ontario
Call our specialists today! For safe and efficient disposal of your PCB wastes.
GARY STEACY DISMANTLING LTD P.O. Box 188, Colborne ON KOK ISO
Phone:905-355-3046 • Fax:905-355-5480• email: firstname.lastname@example.org • www.steacydismantling.com Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 227 (See page 25)
Ontario tackles US and domestic
air poiiution sources
Although more than half of
lion dollars over the next three years to
Ontario's smog comes from
reduce emissions at three of its coal-fired
sources south of the border,
plants. This environmental initiative
Smog and acid rain are regional is sues that must be tackled through co
Ontario has taken strong ac
includes the installation of Selective
ordinated regional efforts. This is why
tion at home to reduce emissions from
Catalytic Reduction (SCR) equipment
Ontario intervened before US courts in
major sources. The province says its plan is the most comprehensive of its kind in North America, focussing on smog and climate change-causing emis sions from a variety of sources.
at the Nanticoke and Lambton Generat
support of the US Environmental Pro tection Agency's (EPA) efforts to cap
ing Stations and low-NO^^ bumers at the
emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO^,) Lakeview Generation Station. The new equipment is expected to reduce NO^, from Midwestem states. It is also why
• implemented the new Air Quality
emissions by 13,000 tonnes a year. Ontario is also developing stringent emissions caps and has announced an expansion of mandatory emissions re porting requirements to all industrial sectors. As well, emission performance standards are being developed for all electricity sold in Ontario. Ontario is backing its tougher rules with stronger enforcement and increased
Ontario initiative to ensure all Ontarians
penalties. The government has an
have early and improved access to air quality information.
nounced the creation of an environmen
NOjjand SO,at rates three to seven times
tal SWAT team. As well, Ontario has
higher than Ontario Power Generation. Ontario's acid deposition and smog prob
The Province of Ontario has: •introduced strict air emission limits and
mandatory monitoring and reporting re
quirements for the electricity generat ing sector;
• placed a freeze on the sale of all coalfired generating plants pending an en vironmental review;
Ontario Power Generation has an
nounced it will spend a quarter of a bil
introduced the highest fines and longest jail sentences in Canada for major envi
WE BELIEVE BOTH
INDUSTRY AND NATURE SHOULD WIN!
Ontario made a commitment to meet or exceed the US EPA standards for the
electricity sector, once implemented. Some facts on transboundary pollution
• Ontario's sulphur dioxide (SO^) and nitrogen oxide (NO^^) emissions pale in comparison to emissions from compa rable US states. Eor every kilowatt-hour of electricity, US Midwest states such as Ohio,Michigan,Indiana and Illinois emit
lems cannot be solved without substan-
Golder Associates is helping its clients maintain the balance
between industrial development and the environment. With innovative services like environmental risk
assessment, remote sensing and GIS modelling, plus traditional services, such as surface and
groundwater management, strategic planning and biological assessments, site assessment and remediation, and environmental
, Golder Associates Geotechnical, Environmental & Mining Solutions
1 800 414-8314 Offices throughout Canada, the United States, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America
impact analysis, Golder Associates has the expertise that clients have trusted for 40 years. With the integrated team of environmental and geotechnical specialists behind our name, our professionals can meet all of your environmental needs.
For more information, circle reply card No. 220 60
(See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
tial reductions in US emissions.
• Acid deposition and smog problems in the US are, for the most part, caused by US emissions. US states contribute more than 50% to Ontario's smog and have 217 coal-fired power plants- while Ontario has only five. • Ontario is more reliant on nuclear and
hydraulic power generation than US states. Three-quarters of Ontario's elec tricity comes from hydro and nuclear power plants. • Due to the importance of clean gen eration technologies in Ontario, the province's emissions per unit of electric ity generated are much lower than those of nearby US states. Ontario's electric ity system produced less than two
grams of NO,^ and SO^ for every kilo watt-hour generated in 1998. Ohio's sys tem produced over 10 grams. Ohio's
Ontario's smog problems are moving north. Usually, Toronto's CN Tower and sky line are clearly visible from this vantage point on the Oak Ridges fJloralne, a dis tance ofsome 30 kilometres. On June 15, during a smog advisory, the Tower and skyline disappeared and only a vague outline of Richmond Hill's church steeples could be seen, a distance of only 3 kilometres. ES&E photo
cause acid rain. The province is also com-
emissions. As such,the strategies for re
tonnes, compared to Ontario's total of
mitted to a further 50% reduction by 2015 to keep Ontario ahead of the US.
ducing emissions need to be different. • Ontario's coal-fired power plants meet
total emissions amounted to 1,500,000 200,000 tonnes.
• It is important to note that sources of
the US Clean Air Act standards for
• Even New York produced over
NOj^ in the United States differ from
300,000 tonnes of NO^ and SO^ -50%
those in Ontario. In the eastern half of
NO^, while clearly beating US stand ards for SOj.
more than Ontario.
the US, emissions from electricity gen
• With respect to fossil-fueled generat ing stations, Ontario is well ahead of the
eration account for 33% of total NOj^
US EPA in reducing SO^ emissions that
• Critics comparing US and Ontario power plants often forget to mention that the US SIP Call's tough standards are only emissions. In Ontario,electricity genera tion accounts for less than 15% of N0„ in force for five months of the year. ❖
New staff appointments
Need to sell any surplus equipment?
for Azurix Azurix North America is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Phil Sidhwa to the position of Vice President, Residuals Management,for Canada.
ES&E reaches over
Mr. Sidhwa brings 20 years of experience in the biosolids management field, both in the government and private sectors. For 12 years Mr.Sidhwa was the President and
wastewater and environmental
iS CD C C
protection professionals across Canada.
CEO of Terratec Environmental, a suc Phil Sidhwa
cessful biosolids management company.
He will work closely with municipal clients, regulators and the public in the delivery of residuals management programs in Canada and specifically Ontario. Azurix North America's biosolids operations in Ontario serve a population of approxi mately 4 million.
In Ontario, Azurix maintains biosolids partnerships with the
Regional Municipalities of Halton, Waterloo and Niagara, and
Call us at:
for special rates Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
the Cities ofToronto,Hamilton,Windsor,Kingston and Belleville. Azurix North America provides a full range of water and wastewater services,including engineering, operations and main tenance, underground infrastructure rehabilitation,carbon regen eration and biosolids management.
Azurix biosolids beneficial reuse programs include: land appli cation, pelletizing, composting and lime stabilization. Azurix employs more than 1,000 people across North America, with 350 located in Ontario.
Azurix NORTH AMERICA
Attend the Largest Water Quality Conference &
Exposition in North America! Over 34 Hours of Technical Sessions
& Workshops on the Most Current Wastewater Topics • Research
Municipal Wastewater Treatment • Residuals & Biosolids Management • Collection Systems • Remediation of Soil & Groundwater
Industrial Issues & Treatment Technology Surfaoe Water Quality & Ecology Management Facility Operations
Natural Systems, Water Reuse & Small Communities • Current Issues
• International & Public Education Issues
For More Information: Call WEF's Fax on Demand (Select document #4000):1-800-444-2933 or 1-703-684-2401 (if outside the U.S. & Canada) E-mail: email@example.com
The largest wafer
Call: 1-800-666-0206 or 1-703-684-2452
(if outside the U.S. & Canada) Visit WEF's WEB Site: www.wef.org
and exposition in North America. Water Environment Federation
74th Annual Conference & Exposition Georgia World Congress Center; Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A OctoberlS- 17, 2001 M'
For more information, circle reply card No. 218(See page 25)
Two governments bid to save unique Canadian bog
The largest domed peat bog on
the west coast of North
America could be perma nently protected if a financial offer made by the Canadian and British Columbia govemments is accepted. The announcement, made by federal and pro vincial government ministers, is worth $105 million and includes the creation
fox, black tailed deer, black bear, por cupine, bobcat, beaver, snowshoe hare, spotted skunk, the northwestern jump ing mouse and the rare southern red backed vole.
But animal life is only part of Burns Bog's story. Bogs are a type of wetlands where peat accumulates. Over thou sands of years, sphagnum mosses,
of new parks in EC's south ern Gulf Islands.
the bog since the 1940s, and roads have encroached on its boundaries. Burns
Bog has been subject to more dramatic threats in recent years. The bog is home to the largest garbage dump west of Toronto, Ontario. Almost a quarter of EC's solid waste is trucked into the
dump daily, amounting to 500,000 tonnes of garbage a year. According to the Burns Bog Conservation Society, the City of Vancou
The new national and pro vincial parks will protect a key portion of the Strait of Geor gia Lowlands-one of the last remaining natural regions in southern Canada not yet rep
ver makes $22 million in
profit annually from the gar bage dump,in addition to free dumping privileges. Two years ago. Delta Eraser Properties Partnership and the BC government agreed to undertake an ecosys
resented in Canada's national
parks system. Spread over 12 islands, the
tem review to decide what is
GulfIslands National Reserve
will total about 1,200 hectares (2,965 acres). In addition,
Au *â&#x2013; Si' I ^ I 1. both governments have put up funding to purchase the mostly privately-owned Bums Bog. The bog lies south of The bog is home to more than 200 species of birds, including Vancouver and covers about the great blue heron. 3,000 hectares (7,413 acres) of the
leaves and roots accumulate faster than
Eraser River delta between the south arm
they can be decomposed, and peat forms. This peat supports unique plant
of the Eraser River and Boundary Bay. Its size and biological diversity have earned it the description of"lungs of the Lower Mainland", the geographic term given to Vancouver and its suburbs. In a broader context, the bog is a carbon sink, absorbing greenhouse gas pollut ants such as carbon and methane.
But the bog's future has long been uncertain. As far back as the 1970s, the
provincial government has been in volved in discussions with private land owners on the potential purchase of at least part of Bums Bog. Almost two thirds of the bog, about 2,200 hectares (5,500 acres), is now owned by a devel opment company. Delta Eraser Proper ties Partnership. According to Environment Canada, Burns Bog is globally unique on the basis of its size, chemistry and plant life. It is home to more than 200 species of birds, including the great blue heron. Greater Vancouver's largest population of bald eagles and the threatened greater sandhill crane.
Mammals at the bog include the red
communities able to thrive in water
logged, acid and nutrient-poor condi tions. Only 17 percent of Canada's origi nal wetlands remain and BC has one per cent of the country's total wetlands. Besides moss unique to Burns Bog, there are a variety of rare insect species, including two sub-arctic species of the Blue Darner dragonfly. Several nation ally and provincially listed species of wildlife including the Pacific water shrew live in Burns Bog. Where flora has been left undisturbed, plants reach extremes of adaptation such as dwarfed pines, insect eating plants and acid pro ducing mosses. But undisturbed areas of Burns Bog are scarce and constantly under threat.
Eorty per cent of the original bog area has been lost to development and more than half the remaining bog has been disturbed by human activities. The bog is cut off from adjacent natural ecosys tems by urban, industrial and agricul tural development. While peat has been extracted from
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
needed to preserve the bog's ecological integrity. In April 2000, the Burns Bog Ecosys tem Review Synthesis Report concluded that 2,450 hectares
(6,054 acres) are required to preserve the ecological integ rity of Bums Bog and to sus tain its distinct processes and life forms. Talks over the future of Burns Bog began in early April 2001 between gov ernment officials and Delta Eraser Prop erties Partnership. In a statement, both provincial and federal government said the funding commitments would allow the province to proceed with a formal purchase offer, based on current ap praised values,to acquire the Bums Bog. "Details of the partnership contribu tions will be made public if and when a purchase offer is accepted and the pur chase is completed. This announcement brings us one step closer to achieving a long time personal goal of mine - en suring permanent protection for Bums Bog," said Ian Waddell, who was, then, BC Environment Minister.
Bob Peart, executive director for the
BC chapter of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS), con gratulated the BC government and federal Environment Minister David
Anderson. "This biodiversity package is one of the most significant conser vation announcements for private and public land that has ever occurred in North America," said Peart. â?&#x2013; 63
Optimizing Pumping Systems
Life cycle pumping costs of major importance to pump users worldwide
The European association for
pump manufacturers. Europump, decided in 1997, on a
Swedish initiative, to establish
a working group called Enersave. The purpose was to formulate guidelines to help users, consultants and design engi neers to optimize pumping systems with regard to the whole life cost. In 1998,
the North American association for
pump manufacturers, the Hydraulic In stitute, decided to join the project and an agreement was achieved to make a common guideline. ABS' Technical Director Kjell Alfredsson was heavily involved from the very beginning, and was appointed secretary for the project. "It has been an interesting project with more than 40 people involved on both sides of the
Other costs | Maintenance
Typical LCC cost division for a medium-sized industrial pumping system, where the initiai cost only accounts for a very small part of the total life cost (diagram included In the Enersave guideline).
Atlantic Ocean. All the international
pump suppliers involved in the project have taken an active part in the group work, giving a good mix of different
opinions and input. "The project has, to a large extent, also been influenced by pump users,
We, as major pump manufacturers, could, of course, do our own estimations, but only the people using our prod-
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Environmental Science <& Engineering, June 2001
Optimizing Pumping Systems
What is Life Cycle Cost? The life cycle cost(LCC)of any piece of equipment is the total "lifetime" cost to purchase, install, operate, maintain, and dispose of that equipment. Deter mining LCC involves following a methodology to identify and quantify all of the components of the LCC equation. When used as a comparison tool between possible design or overhaul alter natives, the LCC process will allow the most cost-effective solution within the limits of the available data.
ewer and wo.-icmcnt:i irie.-uciiiig Model dual drainage and other complex
The LCC equation can be stated as; LCC =(C. +Cin +C-I-C-I-C -rC-i-C + Cd ^ ic e o m s ei '
C -- cost element
= initial cost, purchase price (pump, system, pipe, auxiliary) = installation and commissioning energy costs
= operating cost (labour cost of normal system supervision) = maintenance cost (parts, man-hours) = down time, loss of production
= environmental costs
systems of both open and closed conduits Use Rational, SCS, SWMM Runoff and many otlier hydrology methods Design/analyze separate/combined systems Handle flow reversals and looped systems Directly import GIS and other database data Simulate, pumps, orifices, weirs regulators multiple outfalls and real time control
ucts in daily operation year after year, could give us the whole picture. "Pump users have, therefore, been included in the project group, and the whole package has been circulated to both European and American users and consultants for comments, which have
been well considered in the guideline." Why is LCC important? LCC (life cycle cost) is especially important when it comes to existing pump installations. Existing systems provide a greater opportunity for sav ings through the use of LCC methods, than new systems do. "Eirst of all, there are at least 20 times
as many existing pumping systems, as are newly built each year. Another ma jor reason is that many of these have pumps or controls that are much less energy-efficient than they could be. This is due to the fact that the applications and pumping tasks have changed over
time," explains Alfredsson. Studies have shown that 30-50% of
the energy consumed by pump systems could be saved through equipment or control system changes,i.e., by optimiz ation of existing systems. "The long-term focus on LCC and cost-effective pumping at ABS can be likened to the iceberg. This symboli cally demonstrates how the purchase price, which is seen above the water sur face, is only a small part of the whole LCC. Energy and maintenance costs are hidden below the water level but account
for the major part of the costs through out the entire life of the pump." The complete Enersave guideline, A Guide to Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Pumping Systems, is a 200 page book.
Combined Culvert and Pond Analyzer Design and analyze all bridge, culvert and pond hydraulics Only culvert and pond hydraulics software to combine full unsteady flow and FHWA inlet analysis Use constant or hydrograph inputs and include road overtopping Include upstream storage and ponds
It was scheduled to be available for dis
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For more information, circle reply card No. 143 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 144
The need for asset management in today's waterworks industry lot of organizations will have duplicate data sets. For example, the operations group may have a hydrant database that is being used for maintenance schedul ing and the engineering department may have a separate database for hydraulic analysis. Trying to manage duplicate data sets is very cost-ineffective and dif
Elements of an Asset Management System PM Programs Act vities
ficult to maintain.
There is a significant effort and knowledge base required to create and
maintain an accurate asset information Tools
Today's waterworks managers have a lot more to think about
then they did 20 years ago. Environmental issues, balanc
• 30% of unhappy customers won't tell you but they will tell ten others; satis fied customers will only tell three others about their experience.
ing operational efficiency against safe • 60% of customers who feel snubbed levels of service are all new manage will switch services. ment challenges. All this didn't happen • 68% will switch services when they overnight, although the Walkerton dis perceive an attitude of indifference by aster makes it appear that way. Now that staff. we are operating under regulations and Operations managers have a major not guidelines,our industry must change challenge in trying to improve customer the way it does business. relations. They have to know what their Today's water managers must have organization is doing wrong, as well as well-documented work procedures and what they are not doing, before they can must be fully knowledgeable of the start making improvements. Knowledge from information water system's structural, hydraulic and water quality integrity. Most impor Informed decision-making is based tantly, they must be in tune with their on knowledge of the water system as sets and the customers that it serves. To customers' needs and concerns. Typi cally, they don't have the information, gain that knowledge, a waterworks organization requires a dependable, tools or trained staff to gain the neces sary knowledge. well-managed source of accurate infor Fortunately, things are changing in mation. Information, therefore, must be
There are many sources of digital and hard copy data throughout an or ganization. Some of it will be accurate and relevant, while other data sets may be obsolete and difficult to maintain. A
cause undue stress on some members of
considered as valuable as the assets
waterworks industry. Technology is ad vancing "at the speed of thought". Hard ware is more powerful, networks are getting faster, and the variety and sophis tication of applications is improving. Understanding your customers Recent surveys have indicated that from a customer satisfaction per spective:
themselves. For information to be valu
value will be sometime in tbe future.
With this information, a manager can start to develop more cost-effective, longer term maintenance and rehabili tation strategies. Getting started Asset Management Systems involve people,the infomiation they use to make decisions, and the technology and ap plications that manage that information. The first step involves a review of an organization's current business prac tices. It is important to take into con sideration the positive as well as the negative impacts that the introduction of new technology can have on an or ganization. Undoubtedly, change can
the business world that can benefit the
By Jamie Powell, Ainley Group
system. The level of effort required to keep asset information cument and accu rate is significantly more then the cost of the support technology, the application software and the ongoing staff training. Asset Management More and more waterworks manag ers are implementing some form of Asset Management, which is the com prehensive and structured planning process for optimizing the life cycle value of physical assets. A key building block of Asset Man agement is information management. Simply put, managers cannot make costeffective decisions unless they have ac curate information at their fingertips. Today's managers find this to be one of their biggest challenges. The Asset Management process Asset Management is a cyclical process requiring current and accurate information about the physical assets (i.e. watermain size and age), their cur rent condition (i.e. structural, hydraulic), the assets' current value, and a predic tion or understanding of what the assets'
able however, it must have a high de gree of integrity, be readily available and be presented in a manner appropriate to the decisions being made. The value of information increases dramatically when it is used and shared.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Water Supply the organization, sometimes to the ex tent that they may choose to take early retirement. More often than not, the
change,if properly managed, has a posi tive impact on staff when they accept the new work processes and the support ing applications that make their work
of effort for information collection, and
that it is required to reduce data costs. Two options are: • A vendor-driven solution, or
Secondly, an organization's
mined in order to develop the best implementation strategy. In-house training for your key staff may be considered, so that they are on board when the time comes to go
• Remember, data should come first.
• A common, open standard such as the Municipal Infrastructure Data Standard
Don't run out and buy the latest version of software if you don't have any data to put into it. • Regardless of which Asset Man agement System you ultimately select to improve your business processes, the software is only the Business icing on the cake. It is all the Solutions preparation that makes it work and, to do that, you need a good recipe. • Keep in mind that there have been many successful Asset Man agement System implementations, so you don't have to reinvent the
time more effective. technical skills must be deter
Figure 1, are essential to the successful implementation of the system.
The Investment Ratio Technology Infrastructure
The need for a data standard
Significant progress has been made in the last decade to develop municipal/utility standards for wa
wheel. Talk to other waterworks
ter, sewer and road information. A
lot of utilities/municipalities are beginning to realize the impor tance of information sharing and maintaining data integrity for common data items used in the various
computerized systems. It is well recog nized that information exchange be tween systems is necessary to improve overall management,reduce duplication
The right solution depends on the size of the organization and the level of tech nical support it can provide. The elements of an enterprise-wide Asset Management System, depicted in
SALES & ENGINEERING
managers who have gone through the process. Each one will have a slightly different experience but they all have benefited from the exercise in the long run. As well, there are numerous books, magazine articles and consultants available to help you through the process. For more information, circie reply card No. 198
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 229 (See page 25)
PCBs- still a potent problem
Themere mention ofpolychlo-
rinated biphenyls can still cause many people to shudder. These once life-saving chemi cals have been blamed for everything from cancer to low intelligence. The push has been on since the 1980s to rid ourselves of this material and everything with which it has come into contact.
Yet there is still a large volume of PCB contaminated equipment both in use and in storage. Apparently, many generators of PCBs, with waste in stor age, are still holding on to their inven tories, hoping that prices will fall or per haps that the regulations will change. However,due to the price of petroleumbased products, prices are starting to
The chemical itself is not yet proven to be a highly toxic health hazard. It is a persistent chemical, however, in that it does not readily break down in the en vironment and it also bioaccumulates. But the real hazard in PCBs is when
they are degraded through heat at a rela tively low temperature, less than 1,000 degrees Celsius. At low temperatures.
Since its inception in 1987,the Swan Hills treatment centre in Alberta has
processed close to 200,000 tonnes of waste, much ofthis PCB waste. Our com
pany's privately owned and operated PCB
Even cooking utensils such as electric skillets may contain high levels of PCBs.
waste incinerator in Colbome, Ontario,
started operation in 1998 and has proc essed over 3,500 tonnes of PCB waste
since receiving its Certificate ofApproval. Add to these incinerators the companies that are decontaminating waste equip ment with solvents and sodium-based
solutions and you have large amounts of PCBs that have been processed.
By John Crowe, Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd.
creep upward and the regulations are changing. They are becoming more strict. Equipment that had been consid ered PCB-free may soon be considered PCB-contaminated.
So why all the fuss about getting rid ofPCBs? After all, because of their very high flash point and great stability, they were used in everything from electrical equipment to newsprint to floor tiles. Even cooking utensils such as electric skillets may contain high levels ofPCBs.
such as in a house fire or transformer
fire, the PCBs release polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlori nated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and quaterphenyls (PCQs) into the atmos phere. These are proven health hazards. Even the burning out of a simple fluo rescent light ballast can release a small cloud of acrid smoke contaminated with dioxins and furans. It was the dioxins and furans in the PCB-contaminated rice
oil incidents in Japan and Taiwan in
ES&E Magazine presents:
The 2002 Ontario Environmental Tradeshow held in conjunction with the 10th annual
Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering conference and workshops April 9 & 10, 2002 Regal Constellation Hotel, Etobicoke (Toronto), Ontario Now in its fourth year, our tradeshow is held in conjunction with our highly successful conference. Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, and Canadian Environmental Regulation & Compliance News, the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow is designed to be a low-cost, high quality opportunity for you to network with existing and potential clients.
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
PCB Disposal 1968 and 1978 that started the PCB hys teria ofthe'70s and '8Gs. The PCBs were
and some was possibly saved by an economy-minded landfill or yard opera
thermally degraded during the cooking
tor to be burned in an oil-fired heater.
which formed the toxins.
The limit now in Ontario is 200 ppm. Presently, incineration is the only
Generally, an article containing a concentration of50 parts per million (ppm) or more of
eration may be replaced. Whether or not a limit of 2 ppm comes into effect nationally under the proposed amendments to the Chlorobiphenyls Regulations and to the Stor age of PCB Material Regu lations under the Canadian
PCB was considered PCB
material, except for Sas
Act, there is still a large in ventory of PCB contami nated waste held in storage. The Ministry ofthe Environ ment in Ontario has begun a push to convince holders of these inventories to dispose
katchewan where the limit is
5 ppm. Until the CCME guidelines for Transformer Decontamination were re
cently adopted, Ontario, un der the Gott's Rule, allowed PCB-contaminated trans
of them sooner rather than
formers of up to 500 ppm to
later. The longer this waste is kept in storage,the greater
be sent to landfills and other
non-regulated sites as long as they were carefully
the risk of containers dete
drained and redrained. It has
risk of an incident.
riorating and the greater the
been our experience that even with the most carefully
Until the waste is re
ceived at a regulated waste drained transformers, one or This skille t contained PCB contaminated oil at 587,000 ppm. disposal site, holding a more barrels of residual PCB Certificate of Approval for oil that had leached out of the porous way to totally destroy all traces ofPCBs that waste, ownership and,therefore,the materials could still be drained from a while leaving no contaminated residues consequences of any incident, remain truckload of transformers. or other contaminated substances; how with the generator. Perhaps some of this oil that could ever, great strides have been made in For more information, be drained off, made its way into the soil bioremediation. Someday, even incin circie repiy card No. 199 US environmental and
infrastructure engineering shows some growth
ve you 1
Parkas Berkowitz & Company has esti
er the s
mated that the combined environmen
tal and infrastructure engineering mar ket in the United States grew nine per
cent in 2000 to $18 billion, experienc ing less expansion than the previous year's 14 percent growth. "The outlook is good, but the US market does show signs of slowing. We anticipate an over all growth rate of roughly five percent
in 2001," said Mr. Farkas.
In contrast, international gross rev enue for US firms in this market rose
13 percent in 2000,following four per cent growth in 1999. Much of the in crease was in transportation, water qual ity and power engineering. Regarding the US market overall, Mr. Farkas noted that engineering firms con tinue to face the challenges associated with alternative delivery mechanisms in nearly every sector. As design-build, design-build-operate, and program management contracts proliferate,firms take on greater risks that could bring financial demise or potentially greater
Rest easy knewing UltraTech is a key part of year stormwater pollution ppovontion plan.
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
For more information, circie repiy card No. 236 (See page 25)
Mercury flows to Third
Foot-and-mouth: What If it
happens in North America?
Western nations are slowly phasing out the use of mercury in products and manufacturing because of environmen tal and health problems. Now some traders are increasingly looking to the developing world for buy ers of surplus mercury, despite its toxicity and ability to easily move within the biosphere. So while the US EPA plans to require coal-fired power plants to install equipment to remove mercury from flue gas at a cost of $15,000 to
The British foot-and-mouth livestock
$50,000 per pound ofremoved mercury,
epidemic may finally have waned, but it has already led to the slaughter of more than 2.2 million animals. What if a simi
lar livestock epidemic happens in North America? Some environmental angles have surfaced in the UK:
• Air pollution: Quarantine restrictions on transport meant that thousands of carcasses were burned in the open, not in incinerators. Pyres lit during the first six weeks of the crisis released dioxins
equivalent to 18% of average UK an
traders are selling mercury on the inter
nual emissions, officials said.
national market for a few dollars a
• Water pollution: Surface and groundwater (including drinking water sup plies) have been contaminated with bac
pound. This may change as activists in India and the US,for instance, have recently blocked a mercury shipment bound for Bombay from a non-operational US chemical plant. Chlor-alkali chemical manufacturers
are the world's largest user of mercury.
teria from buried or stored carcasses.
• Odour and pests: Stored carcasses awaiting disposal attract insects and ver min, and rot causes odour problems. These are only a few of the problems in Britain.
Cleaning sewage from rivers after flooding
Fuel-cell technology for multi-dwelling buildings Hydrogen fuel cells could soon be powering multi-dwelling and small commercial buildings. Fuel cells con vert energy into electricity through an electrochemical process. The system, being developed by Hydrogenics, known as the Fuel Cell Energy Tap,gen erates electricity by using proton ex change membrane(PEM)fuel-cell tech nology fueled by natural gas. Each gen erator is capable of providing electrical power, as well as space and water heat ing, to approximately six to seven units in a building. Fuel-cell technology is a promising energy option for reducing carbon di oxide emissions-a key greenhouse gas. Fuel cells produce clean energy, oper ate at low temperatures, and are highly efficient and very reliable. The 50kilowatt prototype electrical generator that uses fuel-cell technology fueled by natural gas, could reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by one megatonne over 12 years. The total project cost is $6,000,000. The Government of Canada is contrib
plied with a battery-operated storm- uting $2 million - $1,600,000 from the monitoring device which records date, technology early action measures time and duration of overflow opera (TEAM) component of the Climate tion. Change Action Fund, and $400,000 During storms and flooding, the from Natural Resources Canada. Airmex screens the storm sewage Hydrogenics Corporation is contribut through stainless-steel wedge wire, ing $4,000,000 through private financwith an aperture of six millimetres by six millimetres, providing good pro tection for the receiving waters. Review of sewage force Screens are physically cleaned by
mechanical brushes inside and outside
Photo - Alan Chandler
ofthe wedge wire. Brush mechanisms are activated and deactivated by a non-fouling level float opening and closing an air-feed cylinder. The whole system is constructed
Torrential rainfalls, storms and hurri
from stainless-steel and facilitates mini
canes have become frequent occumences worldwide. Increasingly, there is con
mal mechanical servicing; all parts are easily replaced with minimum skills.
tamination of streams and rivers after
The heavy-duty brushes require replace
floods, threatening a risk of epidemics.
ment on average, only once every five years. If a breakdown occurs,the screen
Hydrok UK, an engineering com pany based in south-west England, has developed the Airmex, a low-cost me chanical screen device for cleaning up storm overflows. Powered by its own nitrogen cylinders, the equipment is de signed to be installed in remote locations where electricity supplies are not avail able, providing the benefits of a me chanical screening without costly main tenance and controls. It can also be sup70
will still operate for a limited period as
Section 02531 "Sewage Force Mains", of the National Master Specifications Secretariat, is underway. The Canadian Concrete Pipe Association was con tacted by Public Works and Government Services Canada to let the concrete pipe industry know about the update. Some producer members are affiliated with companies, or divisions within their organization involved with sewage force mains.
National Master Specifications
a static screen.
(NMS)are written to ensure that a broad
The Airmex is designed to be fitted to existing overflow chambers with minimum disruption to the system and can easily be exchanged between over
industry-wide standard of operation is provided across Canada. NMS undergo a three-year review cycle. The current Sewage Force Main Sec tion does not specifically provide the choice for concrete pressure pipe. Ma terial specifications, as well as installa tion/testing requirements are required. Contact E-mail: email@example.com.
flows if required. Its modular design allows for multiple installation depend ing on weir length and flow rates. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
"Monsters" enter Asian market
"For Cost Effective Pumping" A company in the Cardo Group
has the most comprehensive range on the market. Sales & Service
• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • El'lluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T IH3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905) 670-4677, Fax: (905) 670-3709. Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you
For more information, circle reply card No. 130 ■/fSi ' ■
;;| 111!!'!' lilll^^
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Technology that sees underground ogy can use information stored in com puters on what lies below ground, over laying a graphic of this on to what the person can see on site. It will allow the operative to see where many features are positioned, from water pipes to electricity cables and
even areas of contaminated land.
It is being developed by the School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering(SchEME)and the Institute
of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy at the University of Notting
The difficult task of finding under ground pipes and cables in need of re pair could be made easier by virtual-re ality technology. British engineers are working to produce equipment that al lows workers on site to "see" below
ground surface. The system uses the latest advances in satellite-based technology,combined
with virtual-reality techniques. Called Augmented Reality (AR), the technol
ham, in the English Midlands. The AR technology could revolution ize a range of industries,including utili ties companies such as water suppliers
not X-ray vision - but we can take in formation stored by companies on com puter and make it work for us out on site."
The university's Artificial Intelli gence in the Mining Sector(AIMS)re search unit has been developing the computer technology behind the project. AIMS anticipates that workers will carry portable computers when they go out on site and use special semi-transparent glasses, on which the graphics will ap pear, allowing them to see the image and the real world simultaneously. By Liz Clark, LPS Staff Correspondent Photo - Chris Mikami
who will be able to use the information
they have about their network of pipes to plan maintenance works more effec tively. In the case of electricity cables and gas mains, being able to see where they are could even save lives. Professor Bryan Denby, the head of
SchEME and its principal investigator, explained:"The technology won't actu ally let us see through the ground - it is
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Nova Scotia noise by-law can impose fines up to $5,000 The Cape Breton Regional Municipal ity has put a high price on peace and quiet with a new noise by-law. The by
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asphalt, reducing the fuel requirements of heavy vehicles. According to the NRC study, con crete roadways drive down fuel costs incurred by trucks and other commer cial vehicles by up to 11 percent. If, for instance, Ontaido reconstructed its pri mary road network in concrete, this would translate into a savings of at least $67 million each year, based on a truck
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ing industry fuel price of $0.60/litre. Meanwhile, the Ontario government
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Coal + sewage sludge = dangerous pollution?
Mixing dried human sewage sludge with pulverized coal is being evaluated as a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal fired power plants, as well as to overcome sewage disposal problems. But a new study indicated that, in mice, this combination could produce more lung damage than coal alone. lost Wendt of the University of Arizona, Tucson,and colleagues exposed mice to
different doses of airborne particuiate
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matter from different sources.
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Red tape entangles sea power trials
A revolutionary British power station that generates electricity from the ocean tides, may be built in Iceland because
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John Hassard, a co-founder of RYco,
of planning permission red tape. Dr. said the firm bad planned to build the two-megawatt station on the coast of Britain, it found out that it could take
two years to get the approval from up to 14 agencies. Two British wave power firms, Wavegen (see ES&E, March 2001,page 70)and Ocean Power Delivery, are also considering moving part of their re
search overseas because of lack of sup
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Dr. Hassard said the price of wave generated electricity would ultimately be competitive with cheap gas power stations.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
Mandatory air emissions monitoring and reporting
rying heat and energy from one end of the planet to the other through more or less warm water currents. These water
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Ontario's new regulation requiring the mandatory tracking and public report ing of 358 air pollutants is now law. The regulation makes the province the first jurisdiction in the world to require moni toring and public reporting of a full suite of key greenhouse gases according to a May 2, announcement. "The Ministry of the Environment will work with corporations to move be yond mere compliance toward greater accountability in the system," said En
rying gases, in particular carbon diox ide (CO.,). Since the levels of CO,con centration in the atmosphere are an im portant factor in the warming of the cli mate, it is crucial to monitor these lev
known about air/ocean interactions. For
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vironment Minister, Elizabeth Witmer.
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Industry Update the Kyoto global warming treaty, the
Aeromix responds to save town
Bush administration has announced a
smell over a three-week time frame became so bad that it caused local residents
to stay indoors and close their windows. "It was one
of the worst things I have ever smelled," said Tim
Devlin, St. Stephens Wastewater Treatment Plant Op erator.
Odours from the St. Stephen, New Brunswick, wastewater treatment plant were becoming so unbearable that some of the 4,976 residents of the small Canadian border town had to wear sur
gical masks when they went outside. The aerobic bacteria that feed off the
organic materials that caused the odours, died because of a lack of oxygen. The
The Town placed an emergency order of three, 20-hp Aeromix Systems Tornado Surface Aspirating Aerators. The aerators were sent overnight to St. Stephens where they were put into op eration immediately. "With the increased mixing and aera tion of the lagoon, it took about a month for the aerators to fully take care of the odour problem; but we haven't had any problems since," said Devlin.
series of policies recently that have en vironmentalists heating up - and Demo crats seeing a political opportunity. Gallup polls indicate that Americans are at odds with many of these policies. Still, as of the first week in April, the
public has not markedly changed its generally positive ratings of George W. Bush on the environment.
Americans consider global warming real, but not alarming The hottest question in the global warming debate is whether human ac tivities are responsible for the rise in the Earth's temperature. By a nearly twoto-one margin, Gallup finds that Ameri cans believe humans are responsible. Americans also think the effects of glo bal warming are likely to occur in their lifetime.
At the same time, relatively few Americans are very concerned about the
problem, with only 33% saying they worry about it "a great deal"(among the Government of Canada takes further action for clean air The Government of Canada has added
respirable paiticulate matter less than or equal to 10 Microns(PM 10)to the List of Toxic Substances under the Canadian
Environmental Protection Act(CEPA). The announcement was made in May by Environment Minister David Anderson
and Health Minister Allan Rock. Along with ground-level ozone, paiticulate mat ter(PM)is a key component of smog. The ministers also announced that
four other smog-causing substances
Be right when you can't afford to be wrong.
have been added to the List of Toxic
lowest of Americans' environmental
Substances. These four substances are
concerns), and just 31% feeling it poses
in the category of Volatile Organic Com pounds(VOCs),and are part of the mix ture that forms ground-level ozone. For that reason, they are sometimes known as smog precursors. The four are acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, and 1,3butadiene which are produced from combustion sources or released through industrial processes.
a serious risk in their lifetime.
Environmentalism among Americans on Earth Day A variety of results from Gallup's Earth Day poll on April 22,suggested that only a quarter or so of Americans are highly troubled about environmental condi
tions. Still, a majority of Americans,
nomic needs conflict - a tradeoff at the heart of some recent Bush administra
to view demo of product.
tion policy decisions. (However, in to day's climate of economic uncertainty, this percentage is down 10 points from last year.) And,on specific issues-such as regulating industrial emissions, drill ing in the Alaskan wilderness, and the Kyoto global warming treaty - Ameri cans favour the more environmentallyfriendly options, putting them in oppo sition to the administration's positions
Call toll free: 1-800-668-2374 to
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order (in Toronto 416-442-2122)
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For more information, circle reply card No. 234
on environmental issues If Americans are concerned about the
state of their nation's environment, then
the British are downright gloomy about it. Three-quarters of adults living in the United Kingdom describe environmen tal conditions there as only fair or poor, compared to 53% of Americans who feel that way about the US. The British are also much more likely than Americans to say that environmental interests should supersede economic and energy needs. And while only a third of Ameri cans support caps on the amount of en ergy that average consumers can use, a majority of the British support this idea.
57%, side with environmentalism in situations where environmental and eco
The British out-worry Americans
Does Quebec mouid pose a potential risk? Doctors will follow up on hundreds of patients who underwent surgery at Mon treal's Royal Victoria Hospital in past months to determine whether any were infected by an aspergillus mould. Con tamination has shut down the entire op erating block. Most people will not get sick after exposure to the mould, but it is a potentially fatal risk to patients with weakened immune systems who have undergone operations. Officials said the operating rooms will stay closed for up to three months for repairs.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001
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