Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 2001

Page 1

Environmental Science

June 2001


& Engineering Covering Canada's multi-billion dollar environmental protection industry since 1988.

Drinking water experts speak out about Walkerton and North Battleford Wet scrubber improves odour control at BC wastewater plant Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites Flexible membrane vs. ceramic coarse bubble diffusers

Hunger striker wins action on tar ponds Pulp and Paper industry focus

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June/July 2001 Vol.14 No. 3 Issued June, 2001



Rapid response - See page 40|

Reverse osmosis - See page 42

Features 7

Couid the Supreme Court ruie against the Supreme Being? - editoriai comment

24 26

New stormwater containment technoiogies Lead contamination on firing ranges

10 Nationai media iistens when OWWA speaks 12 Drinking water in the post Waikerton era


14 Report on Environmentai Management, Compiiance and Engineering 2001 16 Wet scrubber improves odour controi 18 Web of iife seminar captured interest then spawned debate on ecoiogicai economics 20 Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions

34 CFD analysis helps develop up to four

from iandfiii sites

Pulp and Paper Industry Focus

times faster oil containment boom

36 Quebec bridge restoration uses innovative approaches

40 Rapid response, cooperation and analytical capabilities are required at today's fires 41 New headworks at Napanee facility 48

New Age products used to construct storm sewer and outfaii in waterfront park


Flexible membrane vs. ceramic coarse bubble diffusers

ES&E's semi-annual focus

42 New Brunswick P&P company achieves breakthrough by using reverse osmosis 44 Brazil's Amazon Rainforest still shrinking 45 Single-Stage UF Pilot Plant for P&P processes

46 When the chips are down at P&P mills 47 Drywall paper recycling closes the loop

Site remediation contractor reuses

concrete pipe

58 CAEAL and SCC help to bring potable water to Latin America

59 Hunger striker wins action on tar ponds 60

Ontario tackles US and domestic air

pollution sources

63 Governments bid to save unique bog 64 Life cycle pumping costs 66

The need for asset management

68 PCBs - still a potent problem

Departments 25

Ad Index


Industry Update


Literature Reviews



49, 51-55

Product Review


Professional Cards

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jane 2001

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Editorial Comment

Could the Supreme Court rule against the Supreme Being?

Nasdaq has flatlined; Nortel

has plummeted along with my other high-tech stocks, so why am I not down

hearted? Because the immutable laws

of physics indicate that when high-tech sectors fall, opportunities for low-life stocks such as my Rent-a-Mob companies will rise. Rent-a-Mob did particularly

the anti-chlorine protest business fell

til late 2000, was unable to account for

like a stone after the E. coli OI57:H7

over one billion dollars in federal grants. But the dramatic fall of high-tech stocks early in 2001 made me look for an entirely new venture, the Victim Busi ness. It is admittedly, an unlikely source

drinking water problems. The Rent-a-Mob's effective opposi tion to all kinds of garbage incineration spawned many other environmental problems, with the subsequent and pro

of revenue, as the word victim would indicate someone who has lost,

not gained from an occumence. But emerging data indicate an

well when I launched it in

abundance of wealth could stem

Canada during the first flush of those early days,I offered a full range of protest teams, from

from victim enterprises, most absurd, some tragic. Some 12 years ago, Britain had its Hillsborough disaster when 96

environmental activism. In

blue-collar rednecks, observed

football fans were crushed to

in bars during losing streaks at Maple Leaf hockey games (a protracted recruiting season),to

death-a terrible tragedy which

tweed-clad academics who

officer has been awarded

could spout polysyllabic non sense with affected English ac cents, especially during televi

ÂŁ330,000 (approximately $750,000 Canadian) in an outof-court settlement for post-

sion interviews.

traumatic stress after he revis

still haunts the world of soccer.

Now a retired British police

The blue-collar group was

ited the football stadium nine

for intimidation; the academic

years later, while employed on another job. This amount, re ported The Guardian's James

contingent was brought in later as counterpunches of irritation and obfuscation. But my most feared line of protesters were the bona fide hockey mothers whose tungsten-tipped tonsils had been hardened and sharpened while scream ing at referees during years of pre-dawn peewee hockey schedules. They were particularly effective during political protests where they repeatedly evoked sympathy while cutting into complex issues with counter arguments so sim

plistic they could only fit on bumper stickers.

When the usual journalistic pre ferences for sensational headlines at

the expense of scientific realities are blended to the mix, we now have the

ingredients for real political change based on perception, not realities. Environmental issues were a major component of the early Rent-a-Mob suc cesses. PCBs, PVCs, urea-formalde

hyde and chlorine were among the first chemicals to be demonized before the

act moved on to garbage treatment, but

By Tom Davey, Editor and Publisher

Lewis, was more than 100 times the amount awarded to the victims' relatives.

tracted blocking of any landfill site al ternatives. It was like discovering the laws of perpetual motion as various gar bage projects were shuffled around be fore resting in expensive limbos. But while my protest franchises surged during the late '70s and '80s, business leveled off until the totally un expected eruptions against globalization and opportunities such as Peppergate in British Columbia and latterly in Quebec City. During these debacles, a British jour nalistic colleague, on hearing Prime Minister Chretien's tortured syntax in both English and French, came to the admiring, but incorrect assumption that Canada was a tri-lingual nation. He first suspected that a third official language existed during the PM's convoluted defense of the various grants in Shawinigan Riding. Linguistically, the PM's mastery of language almost rivaled the

Canada is already proving to be fer tile ground for the emerging victim trend. An Ontario woman, Linda Hunt

was awarded $300,000 after a judge found her employer partially responsi ble for injuries she sustained while driv ing home drunk following an office Christmas party in December, 1994. Ms. Hunt rejected offers from her boss to arrange for her to get home safely including calling her husband to pick her up. Instead, she left the party and con tinued drinking at a local pub. Driving home later, she collided with a pickup truck, suffering severe head injuries including brain damage, broken bones and a fractured spine. Ontario Supreme Court Judge Clair Marchand ruled that Ms. Hunt was 75% responsi ble for the crash and its damages,includ ing her own injuries, totalling about $1.12 million. He ruled the pub and Ms. Hunt's employer were responsible for

arithmetical convulsions of Human Re

the other 25%, about $300,000 when

sources Minister Jane Stewart, who un

fees and interest were added. As the pub

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Editorial Comment

no longer had any assets, the full cost of

Environmental Science

the settlement will fall on the insurer for

& Engineering

Hunt's employer. Thejudge ruled that asking Ms. Hunt

Editor & Publisher


E-mail: tom@esemag.oom Managing Editor Saies Director


E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denlse@esemag.com

Circulation Manager Publisher's Assistant


E-mail: kathy@esemag.com President


E-mail; steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfeilow

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc. Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

if she wanted a ride home was insuffi

cient as the alcohol had impaired her judgement! I see many problems for this ruling in the real world - what's an em ployer to do, tie up workers who insist on driving home while drunk? No doubt this could provoke allegations of bond age, creating another victim project. While many Dot-Coms have risen and fallen recently, there seems to be no limits to the growth potential of the vic tim industry which effortlessly crosses national and international borders. In the United States lives a woman who claims her life hasn't been the same

since she was hit by lightning some six years ago on New Smyrna Beach. She has sued Volusia County for not warn ing her about an approaching storm. The lawsuit says beach lifeguards knew

about it and were making their own preparations to seek shelter, but didn't warn bathers.

It gets even better. And I am not making this up. In Pennsylvania, a man has endeavoured to sue God! However,

a federal judge has rejected a lawsuit by the man who claims that his life was

ruined by a US Corporation after they fired him more than thirty years ago. This same person also sued God for tak ing "no corrective action" against his enemies and demanded that God com

pensate him by returning his youth and granting him guitar-playing skills. But surely,even in America, not even the US Supreme Court could rule against the Supreme Being? The "E" business may have slumped, but with judicial rulings like these, the "V" business is certain to become the stock market's newest fad.

Contact: tom@esemag.com

Cover photo:

Sailing into rough waters

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers include consulting engineers, industriai piant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ESSE cannot

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained In this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility Is assumed. Articles In this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada fvlagazine Fund, toward our editorial costs. Canadian Publications Maii Saies Second Class Mail

Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750

Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written per mission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year(plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one year. Ail advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering,220 industriai Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com


The Ontario government is facing tough challenges. The Walkerton Inquiry has gone beyond iethal drinking water supplies to widespread concern over agricuiturai contamination of groundwater. Aiso, there are the growing prob lems of biosolids contamination, which are reviving the incineration debate. The province is increasingiy beset with major air pollution issues, largely ema nating from the United States. Ontario is the oniy province fronting on to four of the Great Lakes (oniy Michigan is a totaiiy American lake). Ontario has aiso additional responsibilities for some 250,000 fresh water lakes and nu merous rivers, many of them drinking water sources. See ES&E photo cover age of the 2001 OWWA conference in this issue. Photo - Tom Davey

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OWWA/OMWA Conference Report

National media listens when 0\N\NA speaks lars in compensation and legal enquir ies. Now a parasite had been added as a threat to drinking water. Reporters were told, in no uncertain terms, that low

water rates had been a major factor in our deteriorating environmental infrastruc ture. At long last, the news media were going to the real experts for information

when complex issues of public health and water quality were being debated.

Reporters from radio,TV and

national newspapers crowded around speakers following the opening session of the

2001 Ontario Water Works Association/

Ontario Municipal Water Association

annual conference in Toronto, May 7-9. Hershel Guttman, P.Eng., a Director of R.V. Anderson Associates,a past OWWA Chair and AWWA Director, gave the key note address. Drinking Water in the Post

Waikerton Era. Later he fielded ques tions from a bevy of reporters on the im plications of the Cryptosporidium out break in North Battleford,Saskatchewan, and, of course, the Waikerton E.coii is sues. The interviews were broadcast on CBC Radio and covered in the Globe &

Mail, and other newspapers. The Canadian Environmental Law Association's Paul Muldoon also fielded

reporters' questions on jurisdictional le galities of drinking water issues, after he had reviewed current policies and

legislative issues with CELA's propos als for reform.

Hershel later appeared on a Global TV program with Toronto Councillor Jack Layton and Andre Proulx, P.Eng., Delcan's Ottawa Division Manager. The

two engineers presented epidemiological and historical data which dispelled many of the media's misconceptions on drinking water. On the final day of the conference, Hershel was interviewed

live on eight radio stations across Canada- as far afield as Vancouver and

Prince George, BC. Ironically, it was barely 12 months earlier that the lethal E. coil 0157.H7 had

killed some six people, hospitalized hun dreds and cost countless millions of dol-

Photo report by Tom Davey E-mail: tom@esemag.com 10

"But the United States has moved forward with an initiative that I believe deserves our consideration. In October

1999,the United States introduced man

presented with The Fuller Award, the AWWA Section's premier honour, ap peared in a lengthy interview on CBC

datory annual Consumer Confidence Reports for all water suppliers. Here in Ontario, our tough existing regulations do require operators to make quarterly reports available to the public. But

News World, where he related various

through consumer confidence reports,

capabilities of membrane technologies

of media neglect on drinking water is sues, this copious media coverage now

US water suppliers now must make a "good faith effort" to reach their con sumers, whether it's through advertising, mailouts or posting results on web sites. "I believe that making an effort to reach consumers is consistent with your

made the role and relevance of environ

conference theme of Consumer Confi

mental engineers, chemists and opera tors, highly visible. The prestigious Howard Award went

dence,and it fits very well with our gov ernment's vision of greater, broader ac countability. I look forward to hearing your thoughts as we explore this initia

Dr. Andrew Benedek, who had been

The Hon. Elizabeth Witmer

all times, anywhere in the province. In fact, Ontario's mandatory quarterly re porting for water suppliers is a very ef fective system and, overall, more strin gent than the US EPA requirements.

for the removal of bacteria and viruses,

as well as parasites such as Crypto sporidium and Giardia. After decades

to Geoff Jenkins.

Ontario Environment Minister, Eliza

beth Witmer, talked about her govern ment's commitment to safe drinking wa ter. "You have shown great foresight by making consumer confidence your con ference theme. This is an issue that cuts

to the very core of the drinking water is sue. People need to know that the water they drink is safe and protected," she said. She said the recent Cryptosporidium

tive," the Minister said.

One delightful addition to this year's conference was the Young Profession als Reception where recently graduated engineers, at the start of their promising careers, could meet and mingle with older people in water engineering. Any lingering suspicion that water treatment

events in North Battleford, Saskatch

is a male dominated profession was to be quickly dispelled at this meeting. AWWA Vice President, Kathryn

ewan, are a reminder of the continuing fear and uncertainty in many rural com munities. "Clean, safe drinking water is non-negotiable. All residents must be able to count on their drinking water, at

McCain, displayed boundless enthusi asm and energy at this conference where many learned papers were presented by young women engineers who spoke with poise and authority on complex issues.

Photo 1: Dr. Andrew Benedek receives the Fuller Award from A WVJA Vice Presi

dent Kathryn McCain. Photo 2: Hershel Guttman, keynote speaker, with Rod Holme, an A WWA Past President. Rod also serves on ES&E's Technical Advi

sory Board. Photo 3: Hershel Guttman fields questions at OWWA's press con ference. Photo 4: The highly successful Young Professionals Reception (left to right): Gulden Muylwyk, CH2M Hill Canada; Kathryn McCain,AWWA Vice Presi dent; Sandra Latorre, University of Toronto (XCG); Laurie Ford, R. V. Anderson

Associates. Photo 5: Former OWWA Chair, Pat Lachmanluk, with Doug James, OMWA. Photo 6: The Michael R. Provart Environmental Award was given to JamsZimmer(centre). University of Waterloo, with Anne Provart(left)and Roland Welker, Dillon Consulting (right). Recognition was also given to KIrsten Exall, Queens University, for Best Oral Presentation, and Sarah Dorner, University of Waterloo, for Best Poster Presentation. Photo 7; Debbie Korolnek, director of York Region's Water and Wastewater Branch, Transportation and Works De partment, was presented with an honorary mention plaque for its water use pro gram. Photo 8: Casino Night, sponsored by the Ontario Water Works Equip ment Association, was the most popular social event of the conference. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

OWWA/OMWA Conference Report

Photo One

Photo Two

Photo Three

Photo Four

Photo Five

Photo Six

Photo Seven

Photo Eight

OWWA Keynote Address

Drinking water in the post Walkerton era

Weal know thatthe history

of public water supply goes back well over 125 years in North America. Initially, public water supplies had two purposes. The first was for fire protec tion, especially in an era of wooden buildings in close proximity. The abil ity to protect a town or city from being destroyed emerged as not only an eco nomic issue, but a social one.

Louis Pasteur in the 1880s, on the con nection of bacteria with disease, that

people began to understand that poor sanitation conditions and contaminated

drinking water were vectors for disease. Cholera and typhoid fever epidemics became linked with unchecked pollution of drinking water sources, and the recy cling of pathogenic bacteria via the drinking water supply. The reaction of public officials was

Fires not only killed, they destroyed

twofold; first to collect and redirect

homes. This connection, therefore, with

the sewage by building sewers; sec ondly, to make the drinking water safe

the public health of the community was fairly direct. An even more direct con nection with a community's public health was the ability of water to reduce disease. This was because of its ready availability in the home for drinking, washing, cleaning, and cooking. The ability to easily use water for these pur poses promotes sanitation and thereby protects the public health. Ironically, this also led to poor sani

And a major component of that has been the treatment of drinking water, not only with chlorine,but filtration and other means to protect the public health. It is worth noting as an aside, that these deci sions were in the hands of engineers. In fact, the subject taught in the early part ofthe 20th centuiy in engineering schools was called Public Health Engineering. Now, as the last century progressed, we went beyond treating for dysentery, cholera, and typhoid fever. We discov ered other pathogens such as viruses and protozoa. Lately, drinking water pro-

The question is no longer if, but how to meet a high level of public health protection and how is an engineering issue. by disinfecting it. The method of choice for disinfection was chlorination. In

North America, this was first tried in

1908 in Chicago, and Toronto intro duced it in 1919 in response to another typhoid epidemic.

fessionals have been treating for such protozoans as Giardia lamblia, and the more recently recognized lethality of Cryptosporidium which caused the deaths in Milwaukee in the early 1990s. And we continue to find and treat for

outside the home, as

Great Public Health Achievements in the

newly discovered bacteria and strains, such as E.Coli 0157:H7and Campylobacter jejuni, which caused the recent

sewage was allowed to be washed away

20th Centuij. One of them was the

illnesses in Walkerton.

"control of infectious diseases."

in the streets. It was

To quote, control of infectious dis eases has resultedfrom clean water and improved sanitation. Infections such as typhoid and cholera transmitted by con taminated water, a major cause of ill ness and death early in the 20th cen tury, have been reduced dramatically by improved sanitation.

The message here is clear: The public health ofour communities depends on our drinking water. Which brings us to the point that water must be made safe. It is easy for all of us to take this for granted in our day-to-day jobs, but I do not think we should. I think we need to be vigilant, whether as providers of water or not, and here is why: Drinking water is different



not until the work of

By Hershel Guttman, P.Eng., R.V. Anderson Associates, Past OWWA Chair and AWWA Director and VP

In 1999, the Center for Disease Con

trol in Atlanta, published their list of Ten

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OWWA Keynote Address from all other home deliveries - it has no substitute! Think about it:

• Gas is piped to your home, but can be replaced by oil or electricity. • Telephone and cable are interchange able and can be supplemented via mail and couriers.

• Newspapers also delivered to your door, can be replaced by radio and TV. • Cable TV can be replaced by books and videos.

• Even electrical power can be replaced by oil and gas. But only water has no substitute, it is essential for life. In fact, without it, there is no life. So we should never take it

for granted. But if it represents life it self, it must be made safe to drink and

that is exactly what the new Ontario Reg 459 was designed to do. It is a good start in securing public health. I ask municipalities and public utili

ties: What more can you do to protect drinking water quality? What about cross-connections? Is this a boring sub

ject, or recognition that this issue repre sents one of your major vulnerabilities? A water system without a comprehen sive cross-contamination prevention program,complete with customer train ing and monitoring, is like shopping in a drug store for a headache tablet, and finding all the bottles open! We should be listening to customers. An excellent example of this, is a recent visit I made to a northern Ontario city. It seems there was a standing water problem with lead in the courthouse water, but no problem with the running water samples. For most of us, given that the water supplier has no jurisdic tion with building plumbing, it would have ended there. But this public offi cial, recognizing that he nevertheless had a responsibility for public health, correctly pointed out that the issue for him was public education. Pre-Walkerton, we had non-binding guidelines on drinking water quality. The level of public health protection, therefore, was ultimately a political de cision. Public health engineers could

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Conference Report

Report on Environmental Management, Compliance and Engineering 2001 Tradeshow space more than double that of 2000 event

Environmental Management, Compliance and Engineering

2001, and the Ontario Envi ronmental Tradeshow, held at

the Regal Constellation Hotel in Toronto, April 10-11, drew record attendance at its workshops, seminars and exhibits. Every category showed an increase over previous years, including 57 exhibitors, double that of last year's event when a table-top exhibition was launched in con junction with the workshops. In addition to the registered del egates, walk-in traffic was high, thanks to passes attached to the March issue of

I t. \M.: I \|i:it(.I N(


Some 700 people attended, confirm ing it as the largest privately-sponsored conference and tradeshow in Canada. This was the ninth consecutive work

shop series, organized by Environmen tal Science & Engineering Magazine, in conjunction with Environniental Regu lation & Compliance News. Program highlights included: Law, regulation and due diligence • Environmental regulation and compli ance.

•Practical problem-solving for environ mental and plant managers. Environmental Management • Principles and best-practices of envi ronmental management. Contaminated Site Management and Development

Some 700 people attended, confirming it as the largest privately-sponsored confer ence and tradeshow of its kind in Canada.

Law,Regulation and Due Diligence • Environmental due diligence for su pervisors and managers. •Implementing due diligence: Frontline personnel management procedures. Engineering and Compliance Solutions

• Air emissions management: Monitor ing and compliance methods and strate gies.

place health and safety managem ent systems.

• Principles and best practices of envi ronmental and health & safety auditing. Emergency Response Planning & Management •Spill prevention planning and response for supervisors and managers. A high level of client satisfaction was demonstrated at the conclusion of the

• Brownfields and contaminated land

and energy efficiency problems. Environment and Health & Safety Management

conference by people who attended the workshops. Plans are now underway for the 2002 workshops and Ontario Environmental

now: The essential introductory course.

• Integrating environment with work

Tradeshow. ❖

• Successful solutions for noise, odour

m Robert Manselt (left), of the law firm Torys, chaired a popular session on environmental health and safety, attended by some 200 registrants. This session was only one of the 16 convened at ES&E's conference and tradeshow. 14

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001


Nitrogen for safer handling of chemicals Nitrogen helps chemical producers fulfill their commitment to safe han

dling of chemicals, starting with pro duction and continuing until the prod uct reaches the customer. As a dry, inert and oxygen-free gas, nitrogen minimizes flammability hazards dur ing processing, storage, packaging and transportation operations. It also helps protect chemicals from expo sure to air and moisture, thereby main taining product quality and consist

continued. "Our on-site nitrogen sup ply also allows us to use it in place of

trogen include: purging to reduce con

instrument air for control valves, to

cal compounds in reactors or pipe lines; blanketing to maintain tank pressure and to reduce product emis sions; drying of solids; and sparging and stripping dissolved contaminants from liquids.

blow lines clear and to pressure up rail cars for off-loading product. Gase ous nitrogen works well for this ap plication because it's dry, and it saves us the expense of an air compressor system." Other chemical applications for ni

centrations of water or other chemi

For more information,

circle reply card No. 108


Dow Chemical Canada uses

Praxair nitrogen for a variety of blan keting, purging and instrumentation applications - from the moment chemicals arrive by railcar at their West Coast Distribution Centre in

North Vancouver, British Columbia, until the chemicals reach customers

by ship halfway around the world. Dow's distribution centre has six stor


age tanks for chemicals, which in clude caustic soda, ethylene dichloride and ethylene glycol.

When you think of industrial gases, think of Praxair! Praxair account manager Doug Lennox (ieft) and Mike Martel, manager of Dow Chemicai Canada's West Coast Distri

bution Centre, with cargo ship being readied for loading.

"We load an average of about 95 ships per year at this coastal distribu tion centre, bound for destinations

such as Australia, Japan, Korea, Tai wan and Hong Kong," said Mike Martel, the centre's manager. "Our biggest use for nitrogen is to purge the ships' tanks to reduce oxygen levels before loading ethylene dichloride,

Praxair is the largest industrial gases company in North and South America, and one of the largest worldwide. We produce a broad spectrum of atmospheric, process and specialty gases in a wide selection of supply options for virtually every industry known to man. That's what makes us big, but that's not what makes us the best! We stand out from the rest because of an extraordinary line-up of commercially-proven gas application technologies that can make your business better. From food processing to metal fabrication, and from chemicals production to water treatment, Praxair is put to the ultimate test every day...helping customers increase production, lower operating costs and find cost-effective environmental solutions.

End your search for the best industrial gases supplier. Talk to Praxair! Call 1-800-PRAXAIR, or visit our website at www.praxair.com.

which is flammable. We also blanket

the tank with nitrogen to keep air out. "For ethylene glycol, we use nitro gen for padding the tank after load ing to minimize oxygen that would be detrimental to product quality," he

rPftAXAM Making our planet more productive"

Copyright 2000. Pra.xair Technology. Inc. All rights reserx'cd. PRAXAIR. the FLOWING AIRSTREAM design and the term MAKING OUR PLANET MORE PRODUL 1IVE are trademarks of Praxair Technology. Inc. in the United States. Canada and other countries.

Odour Control

Wet scrubber improves odour control at Vancouver Island wastewater treatment plant

The French Creek Pollution

Control Centre treats waste-

water from the City of Parksville and the Town of

Qualicum Beach on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. Originally, the plant used the extended aeration proc ess with aerobic sludge digestion for wastewater treatment. From 1995 to

complaints in a month. The District started adding iron (ferrous) chloride to the wastewater collection system in an effort to control odours, but odours and

complaints persisted.

....the most difficult

component to control is dimethyl disulphidc, which was mainly coming from the digcstion/scptagc tanks.

1997, the facility underwent a major upgrade to accommodate the increasing population in the area. At the same time, the facility was converted to the more robust trickling filter/solids contact(TF/ SC)process for treating the liquid stream and autoheated thermophilic aerobic sludge digestion(ATAD)for treating the

ciated Engineering as their wastewater


treatment consultant. One of their first

The 18 million litre per day plant achieved a very high quality effluent using the TF/SC process; however, odours became a problem. At a peak, the Regional District of Nanaimo,which operates the plant, received up to 40

assignments was to investigate the odour problems at the French Creek plant. Led by Dr. Dave Forgie, from Associated Engineering's Bumaby office, the team

In 1998, the District retained Asso

building and the airstream from the di gestion process and septage receiving tanks. Other sources of odour originated in the dewatered biosolids loading bay. The main components of the odour consisted of hydrogen sulphide (rotten egg odour), methyl mercaptan(a skunky smell), dimethyl sulphide (rotten cab bage odour), and dimethyl disulphide (rotten vegetables odour). "Ofthese,the most difficult component to control is dimethyl disulphide, which was mainly coming from the digestion/septage tanks," reports Dave Forgie. Improvements to plant housekeeping and better control over air flow resolved

some of the odour problems. "The so lution to odours emanating from the dewatered biosolids loading bay and grit hopper room was simply keeping the doors to those areas closed and allow

ing the air management system to col

identified the main sources of odour as

lect the odorous air," he said. "Other

the air flow from the trickling filter

odour sources required more complex

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Odour Control

and costly solutions, such as biofilters and/or wet chemical scrabbers."

The airstream from the ATAD/septage tanks was already being treated by biological, odour-scrubbing towers. While these two towers effectively removed ammonia and hydro gen sulphide, they did not remove dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide. Since this airstream was smaller and, therefore, less costly to treat than the much larger trickling filter airstream, the team recommended treating the ATAD/ septage tank airstream with a wet chemical scrubber system. The Regional District of Nanaimo accepted the recom mended odour control system, stipulating a four-month schedule for implementation. To achieve this schedule. Associated Engineering arranged an equipment prepurchase tendering process, and fast-tracked the design of the remain ing infrastructure around the selected equipment. A dualpass, sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite wet scrubber was selected. Infrastructure needs included a sodium hy pochlorite storage system, sodium hydroxide storage sys tem, piping, air ducts, and electrical supply and controls. "Since implementing the odour control works, odours from the plant have diminished substantially and the number of monthly odour complaints has dropped to almost zero," Dave Forgie reported. The situation is being monitored, and air samples from the wet scrubber and the trickling filter are analyzed weekly. Further action, if any, will involve reducing any residual odours from the trickling filter building.

For more information, circle reply card No. 111


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Web of life seminar captivated audience spawned debate on ecological economics entire picture of human impact on the earth," he stressed. "Many of the goods and services that ecosystems produce are not commodities and so seem to have

ure we use to assess the health of eco

no obvious market value. Natural wa

systems tells us we are drawing on them more than ever and degrading them at an accelerating pace. His powerpoint

ter filtration, erosion control, biodiver

sity and climate protection are all eco system services that have always been considered/ree goods. But undervalu ing ecosystem services has contributed to many shortsighted management prac We cannot improve lives by destroy ing the web on which life depends; eco system is not an alternative to develop ment, it is part of it. Until we under

statistics which showed that industrial,

in "semi-natural" condition or converted

cannot be undertaken in isolation. Inte

to plantations. Many developing countries today rely on timber for export earnings. At the same time, millions of people in tropical countries still depend on forests to meet their every need. He warned that the greatest threats to forests were

ing, warned the President of the Washington World Re

grated ecosystem approaches must guide our political and economic activi

sources Institute, Jonathan

ties to restore the natural abundance of nature's web of life. "Coral reefs were

the rain forest equivalents of our oceans yet few realizejust how severely human intervention has degraded them through pollution, overfishing and other human activities," he warned.

and services that humankind is both a

He repeatedly cited data which showed how quite separate human en deavours such as logging,fishing or in dustrial production can collectively have far-reaching effects on a global scale. While providing some thought-provok ing data on the massive environmental degradation which has taken place

part of, and utterly dependent upon; it

around the world, his

is a web in which all lives are connected,

message was not with out hope that science and technology could meet the global eco logical remediation challenges. Compa

focus attention on scientific realities, he

spoke about t\\&fabric of nature's goods

with the strength of each strand support ing every other strand. "This web is resilient, exquisitely complex, and marvelously durable. We can pull out a strand here and there, yet we seldom see the distortion of the

nies can, and must, he

whole. Six billion people and their needs for food, fuel, fibre, water, space - all pull at the web's strands constantly, yet we see the consequences only as an

said,look beyond mere environmental compli

ecdotes, such as the terrible decline of

tainable work ethos,

ocean reefs, or landscapes changed by invasive species. Rarely do we see the

tific methodologies,

By Tom Davey 18

1980 in industrial countries, but declined

commercial and engineering projects

to our lives, we will continue to weaken

it by how we live. His talk was illustrated with global

Lash,as he powerpointed some dramatic statistics on ecological decline. His presentation. The Fraying Web of Life, was part of a CH2M Hill Canada Feb ruary seminar in Toronto. In lucid, selfdeprecating prose, he said he was a lapsed lawyer, a recovering bureaucrat, and a refugee from the too quiet univer sity life; but, never, he stressed, had he had as much fun anywhere as with what he did at WRI. Using poetic imagery to

bly as much as 50 percent. Suiprisingly,

by almost 10 percent in developing countries. Tropical deforestation prob ably exceeds 130,000 square kilometres a year. Less than 40 percent of forests globally were relatively undisturbed by human action. The great majority of forests in industrial countries, except Canada and Russia, are reported to be

stand the web of life and its connections

The global web of life is fray

presentation showed how global forest cover has been reduced by 20 percent since pre-agricultural times, and possi forest area has increased slightly since

tices," he stressed.

WRI President Jonathan Lash

Earth's ecosystems and its peoples are bound together in a grand but tenu ous symbiosis. Yet nearly every meas

conversion to other forms of land use or

fragmentation by agriculture, logging, and road construction. Logging and mining roads appeared to lead the way in opening up formerly intact forest to pioneer settlements and increases in hunting, poaching, fires, and exposure of flora and fauna to pest outbreaks and invasive species. Destroying trees may seem counter intuitive as ecosystem protection.

ance. At the same time, he stressed that a sus

harnessed with scien could also create busi

ness opportunities.

Cora!reefs were the rain forest equivalents of our oceans. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Sustainability Watershed conservation usually in volves efforts to prevent deforestation, but in South Africa, the opposite strat egy has proved effective. The new South African government launched the Work ing for Water Program which employs more than 42,000 people. It has cleared invasive plants from half a million hec tares ofland and water flow has increased

as much as 120 percent in some areas. Mr. Lash said the WRI had an

nounced a three-year sustainable coastal and marine resources program that com bines global marine issues with a focus on people and fishing communities. He said that 40 percent of the world's popu lation lives within 100 kilometres of a

coastline, an area that accounts for only about 20 percent of the land mass. Popu lation increases result in conversion for

development, agriculture, and aquaculture. This reduces mangroves, coastal wetlands, seagrass areas, and coral reefs at an alarming rate. He said fish and shellfish provide about a sixth of the animal protein con sumed by people worldwide, and one billion people, mostly in developing countries, depend on fish for their prime source of protein. In a comprehensive

review of data on freshwater species,37 percent of freshwater fish species, 67 percent of mussels, 51 percent of cray fish, and 40 percent of amphibians are threatened or have become extinct.

Ironically, coastal ecosystems have al ready lost productive capacity because of overfishing, destructive trawling tech niques, and destruction of nursery habi tats. Moreover, rising pollution levels are associated with increasing use of synthetic chemicals and fertilizers. Ralph R. Peterson, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CH2M Hill

Companies, introduced the speaker while giving a global overview of the ways that ecological and economic pro gress could be pursued in harmony with environmental sustainability. A subsequent question period turned into high level exchanges of sophisti


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Chemical 6 Abrasion Resistance

cated environmental and economic re

alities, a web oflife which certainly cap tured our imagination that evening. Mr. Lash, who flew in from Wash

ington DC, also spoke at York Univer sity earlier the same week at an event which was also sponsored by CH2M

Hill Canada and York's Faculty of Environmental Studies. ❖

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Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from iandfiii sites ethane and carbon diox


ide are two of the primary gases and are the main focus for worldwide emis

sion reduction and control of greenhouse gases. Methane is the chief component of"natural gas" but also occurs naturally by the anaerobic decomposition of or ganic material in swamp areas, at landfill sites and at any location where organic deposits are present. Carbon dioxide is also pro duced by the decomposition of organic material as well as being a primary by-product of

(DGPS), efficient and cost-effective monitoring of landfill sites is now a re ality. Computer software has been de veloped and standard procedures are now documented in support of numer ous trial surveys and scheduled projects. We refer to the project as our Methane Emission Monitoring System(MEMS). A primary objective of the MEMS

Environment" in 1997.

Our company has played a pioneering role in the detec tion of hydrocarbon gases in North America. The initial fo

cus of the company was the development of instrumenta tion and procedures to effi ciently and accurately locate pipeline leakage. In recent Testing "hot spot" location. years,this focus has expanded to include testing for a wide variety of program is to effectively locate surface combustible and toxic gases, including emissions of methane gas from active surface emission testing of landfill sites. landfill sites using FI technology, and With advances in existing technology to plot the "hot spots" using a DGPS sys coupled with the development of new tem. The mobile FI detection system technologies, the process of gas detec was originally developed for the natu tion and monitoring has established new ral gas industry but is also ideally suited for methane gas emission studies at horizons. By combining several tech nologies, a cost-effective approach to landfill sites. The DGPS system pro surface emission monitoring of green vides sub-metre accuracy for plotting house gases over landfill sites and pipe emission locations at landfill sites. The lines is gradually evolving as a proven use of ATVs provides enhanced area technique. coverage over walking procedures, re By equipping All- sulting in enhanced productivity and (ATVs) with modi

fied and specialized

reduced costs.

Heath Consultants Incorporated (USA)developed the first track mounted


mobile flame-ionization unit in Newark,

(FI)instruments and

New Jersey in 1961. HETEK Solutions Inc.,formerly Heath Consultants Limited (Canada), installed El equipment on

a Differential Global

Positioning System

ATVs in 1993 and conducted several

By Gary Eade, C.E.T., Manager, Environmental Operations, HETEK Solutions Inc.


face software. These units are available and can meet the New Source Perform

ance Standard(NSPS),drafted on March 12, 1996 in the United States. This stand

cate surface emissions of

quantification and control of these two primary greenhouse gases were the main focus at the Kyoto "Conference on the


designed for landfill gas emission test ing and was further equipped with rela tively new DGPS equipment and inter

ard requires that all large landfill sites be inspected for methane gas emissions. Walking landfills with portable El instruments to lo

combustion. The detection,


gas gathering and transmission pipelines. In 1996 a mobile FI/ATV unit was re

1,000 kilometres of pipeline inspections in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

These units proved to be accurate and reliable for locating leakage on natural

methane gas is time-consum ing and costly. With the aid of an ATV more ground can be covered quickly and effec tively, thus reducing manda tory inspection costs. All re quired reporting can be gen erated directly from the com puter. Projects completed to date indicate increased pro ductivity to average about 400% over conventional

walking procedures, with en hanced documentation and re

porting. Monitoring accuracy is equivalent to or better than previous conventional methods of sur face emission testing and the procedure is recognized by Environment Canada as the "study evaluation of choice". Our current system has sub-metre accuracy within the point of reference. We use either the "Coast Guard Beacon

Satellite" system for areas near water or the "Satellite Lock" system for inland areas. If required, a "Real Time Kin ematic" (RTK) GPS unit can be pro vided for "survey grade coordinates" typically within +/- O.I feet. Locations will be recorded to the nearest foot.

The City of Calgary has now com pleted three years of seasonal methane gas surface emission testing (spring and summer) at four large landfill sites. Environment Canada has also conducted

follow-up studies, where "hot spots" were detected, for quantifying off-gassing at these landfill locations. We can now provide the Optical Methane Detector(OMD)system using infrared technology. These units should Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Drinking water, naturally ONDEO


Degremont Iron and manganese removal without a chemical oxidant ? Ondeo Degremont has developed two innovative bioiogicai processes to remove iron and manganese from groundwater without requiring chemical oxidants. FerazurÂŽ and MangazurÂŽ processes use bacteria naturally present in water.

By stimulating bacterial reproduction, iron and manganese are nearly entirely removed, producting a higher or similar water quality than conventional processes (such as green sands), without their inconvenients.

[VixiUMfV /jj

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www.ondeo-degremont.com For more information, circle reply card No. 207(See page 25)


improve the ability to operate in extreme weather conditions and allow for higher speeds consistent with terrain condi tions. The OMD is designed to perform 14,000 measurements per second, thus providing immediate response. In the future, this technology could make ATV emission testing

mer conditions. However, the location

of"hot spots" seems to remain constant, although the emission areas tend to be larger during summer conditions. In situ testing of gas levels in the soil tends to be higher in the summer

even more cost-effective.

Currently, the capital cost for the OMD system is approxi mately four times that of the FI system. Experience to date indi cates that surface emissions are reduced when site condi

trapping the sun's heat near the earth's surface. This natural effect establishes

our planet's climate and maintains the earth's average temperature at about 33°C. In previous centuries, the release and adsorption of greenhouse gases re mained approximately in equilibrium. During this past century, mankind's progress and activi ties have resulted in greater quantities of greenhouse gases being released than are adsorbed. It is generally be lieved that increasing levels of greenhouse gases will result in global warming resulting in unpredictable and complex changes in the earth's climate. At the Kyoto "Conference on

tions are damp(dew),particu larly in the northern regions. For reliable and repeatable results, dry surface conditions are preferable. Tests have in the Environment" in 1997,the dicated that westerly facing industrialized countries slopes exhibited low to nonagreed to an average cut of existent gas emissions during 5.2% in greenhouse gas emis Conducting DGPS perimeter study prior to starting surface the morning hours. However, sions from the 1990 level by emission analysis. by early afternoon the gas years 2008-2012. emission levels on west side slopes in months, probably due to better venting The combined technologies built into creased dramatically. conditions. High readings under a frost the MEMS unit provide another tool for The warm weather experienced dur cap are not unusual in Canadian landfill monitoring greenhouse gas emissions ing studies may have contributed to sur sites. This is probably the result of an and helping to move us toward this am face emissions becoming more activated accumulation of methane gas in the soil bitious objective. To date, ATV emis as a result of ground surface warming. due to restrictive venting caused by the sion testing vehicles have proven their Weather conditions,including heat from frost cap. As the soil cools in the winter worth in various types of gas detection. the sun and barometric pressure, are es months there appears to be a drop in Greater productivity will offset the sential to understanding surface emis anaerobic activity in shallow sites but higher capital cost for mobile inspec sions from landfill sites and can indi not to the same extent in the deeper sites. tions over walking inspection. cate when to best schedule surface emis

Soil moisture content is a decisive fac

sion testing. Seasonal comparisons have found lower emissions during spring and fall projects when compared to similar projects conducted during warmer sum-

tor in the rate of anaerobic activity. Atmospheric greenhouse gases -

The PC Pump that Doesn't Devour Spare Parts

such as methane, carbon dioxide and

nitrous oxide- act like a greenhouse by

When interfaced with DGPS technol

ogy, additional time can be saved as computer based evaluations and gener ated reports can be produced quickly and professionally. Information generated will assist regulatory agencies in calcu lating volumetric or weight equivalent emissions from landfill sources as a

measure of success. Also, this informa

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Biological ipoatmont, SodlmontaUon, Filtpatlon, and Dewatoring -from Uio flrvpia/SouPGo

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Thickeners ■ EIMCO Reactor-Clarifier®

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Non-Source Pollution

New stormwater containment technologies

During storm events, run-off

containing sediment and oil/ grease pours into catch basins and drains, many of which empty directly into rivers, streams and lakes. Such non-source pollution

of a catch basin and held in place by the grate. Hanging down into the basin is a containment pouch that retains the sedi ment that enters through the grate. Most

These products are also designed to work with curb style basins or combi nation curb and grated basins. These

of these devices can hold 40-70 lbs. of

ent pillows and socks held in the inte rior of the mesh, allowing the storm water to pass through the absorb ent material and allowing the oils and greases to be trapped.

sediment. Additionally, these devices

associated with stormwater has

been slowly polluting North America's waterways. To date, most of the regulatory focus has been on regulating the construction industry and minimizing the flow

models are also available with absorb

Passive skimmers are also be

ing used to lie down inside the catch basins, usually on standing water. These units passively soak up the floating layer of oil inside

of sediment into the drains. Re

cently, more emphasis has been placed on reducing oil and hydro

of the catch basin. All of these dis

posable units are inexpensive, easy to install, and require limited main

carbon based chemicals from en

tering the waterways via storm drains and basins.


Industry has been developing innovative products to meet the new challenges. Sediment con tainment products have been modi fied to include oil-only absorbent materials to capture oil as it passes through the absorbent. The oilsaturated absorbents are replace able in many units. The range of

Stormwater solutions are not


just at your feet. Products are available to capture oils and chemi cals that leave a building via ex haust fans and build-up on roofs. These oils accumulate and then

wash off the roof during storms. Modular, replaceable filtering units, such as the Ultra-G2 GreaseGuard can be installed to

solutions can be found from less

surround the exhaust vent and ab than (US)$100.00 per basin for a disposable, retrofit-type unit, to Various sizes, shapes and combinations provide sorbent and contain the contami nants at the source. (US)$5,000.00 for permanent ret solutions to practically any type of drain. In the state of Washington, the non can have absorbent bags, mats or con rofits or a new catch basin with built-in figurations designed to trap and hold oil profit group Planet CPR has been work sediment and oil containment features. ing with Americorps, the Boy Scouts, entering via stormwater. Focusing on the inexpensive, retro Most of these units require replacing and middle school children to place over fit-type units, product solutions include flexible fabric containment and filtering every 3-6 months depending on local five hundred Ultra-DrainGuards into catch basins throughout the Seattle and devices that are placed into the opening rainfall and sediment conditions. Other effective styles actually block King County area. This effort is de the sediment from even entering the signed to help the endangered salmon By Mark Shaw drain by sliding the grate into a mesh species in the Northwest, as well as the Vice-President fabric covering. The mesh drops the overall water quality in the area. Planet Ultralech International, Inc. sediment prior to entering the drain. CPR is also performing independent testing of various catch basin contain ment devices to assess the potential ef ANNOUNCEMENT fectiveness of the units and collect data

RAL Engineering Ltd. is pleased to have two new engineers join the firm's

that will calculate the effect the units can


have on the environment.

Fadi Absi, M.Eng. Fadi has a Masters of Environmental Engineering from McGill University and has over eight years experience in the water and wastewater industry. Michael Galan, B.Sc., B.Eiig. Michael recently graduated in Chemical Engi neering from University of Western. He has spent two summers with RAL Engineering Ltd., and we welcome him back on a full time basis. RAL Engineering Ltd. specializes in practical and effective water and sewage

The city of Griffin, Georgia, has a federal grant to study a variety of storm water treatment products such as those discussed herein.

As industry seeks to meet regula tions, the development and introduction of products and technologies to meet

treatment solutions for communities.

those needs will continue to occur.

New Address!

Stormwater management is a problem with an increasing number of solutions. For more information,


17665 Leslie St., Suite 47, Newmarket, Ontario, L3Y 3E3 24

circle reply card No. 110 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Ad Index

Company ABB Pumps

Page 71

Allmax Professional Solutions

Reader Service No. 130

Company International Water Supply ITT Flygt

Page 71 9

Reader Service No. 134 105



American Concrete Pipe Assoc. .80


John Meunier/USFIIter


326, 327




JWC Environmental



Aquablast Aqua Terre Solutions Aqua Terre Solutions

71 29 59


f\/lakLoc Buildings






Azurix Azurix

17 71

204 132

Berlie Technologies





CAEAL Can-Am Instruments


MSU Mississauga



Munro Concrete Products



ONDEO Degremont PaquesADI Inc

21 29

207 210

Parkson Inc Praxair ProMinent Fluid Controls

57 15 13

225 108 107




Career Advancement CH2M Hill

65 34

143 215

RAL Engineering



R.J. Burnside



Chemtrac Systems Con Cast Pipe Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe

43 79

219 139

Reg. Municipality of Durham Sanitherm Engineering Seepex

47 72 22

223 230 208






Davis Controls





50 39 6



Stan Mech Agencies Stantec Consulting Ltd Stormceptor Techstar Plastics TSH UltraTech International Urecon USFIIter USFIIter Waterloo Barrier WEF XP Software York Fluid Controls Zenon Environmental

39 57 69 50 30 31 32 62 65 38 2








Eckel Ecoflo Ontario Eimco Endress -i- Mauser

35 49 23 45


Gary Steacy Dismantling



Golder Associates



Gorman Rupp

128 232 222



Hach Harnois Industries

5 33

103 214




104 202 236 145 115-120 121 211 218 144 200 101

FOR QUICK RESPONSE, FAX BACK TO (905)841-7271 FREE Information Service for Readers





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135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

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/ want to receive (continue to receive) Environmental Science & Engineering magazine.

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305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321

June 2001

Environmental Science & Engineering. June 2001

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338


Contaminated Sites

Lead contamination on firing ranges The effects of lead munitions on groundwater

Residues of lead are common contaminants in industrial

sites and urban areas. Target shooting is an activity that re sults in continuous accumulation of lead in the environment. There are thousands

of small arms firing ranges in Canada used by military personnel,law enforce ment officers and civilian target shoot ers. Characterization of the forms and

fate of metallic lead from spent muni tions in soil and its impact upon surface water and groundwater are necessary be fore risk assessments are conducted and

cost-effective processes to restore these sites are proposed. Lead occurs naturally as hundreds of mineral compounds, the most common of which is lead sulphide (galena or PbS). Galena is nearly insoluble in wa ter; tap water in equilibrium with galena will have lead levels below drinking water guidelines. But metallic lead is not stable in the natural environment;

There are thousands of small arms firing ranges in Canada used by military per sonnel, law enforcement officers and civilian target shooters.

compounds may contain lead, barium or antimony.

either the lead will transform to more

Lead munitions in soil

stable phases in situ or it will move un

High velocity rifle bullets tend to fragment upon impact in most soils, whereas handgun bullets and shotgun pellets retain their shape. Studies of impact soils from military firing ranges indicate that lead metal is present in all

til conditions are encountered where

such transformation is possible. In 1997, the US Environmental Pro

tection Agency conducted a review of reports on lead contamination of firing ranges and concluded that these "...do not provide enough information to con clude that ground or surface water con tamination does or does not result from

fired munitions on ranges... There are two exceptions: lead and white phospho rus from fired munitions on ranges have been adequately documented to con clude that these materials may contami nate surface waters and affect fish and fowl."'

Lead in munitions is alloyed with antimony (to increase hardness) or ar senic (to improve sphericity in shotgun pellets). Rifle bullets are encased in jackets containing iron, copper or zinc. Military incendiary and tracer rounds may contain phosphorus, strontium, magnesium, zinc or barium. Priming 'Military Munitions Final Rule: Hazardous Waste identification and Management; Explo

sive Emergencies, Manifest Exemptions for Transport of Hazardous Waste on Rigfits-ofWays on Contiguous Properties (40 CFR Parts 260 through 266 and 270), Federai Reg ister, Vol. 62, No. 29, 6621-6657. 26

soil size fractions, with a bimodal dis

tribution. Separation of bulk soils with screens and hydrocyclone reveal that 85% of the total lead is present in the >300|im (sand size fraction),6% of the lead is present in the fraction <10 |im (clay size fraction), with the remaining 9% of the lead in between these size lim

its. The highest lead concentrations in screened soil fractions range between >9% Pb(>300[im fraction)to < 1%(<10 pm fraction). Calculated whole soils "assays" average 2.5% Pb or 25,000 ppm. This figure is more than two or ders of magnitude greater than back ground concentrations of lead in urban

of whole pellets would be completed in 300 years. For larger rifle bullets, oxi dation will be correspondingly longer. Effects of lead munitions

on groundwater Fortunately, lead oxide and lead car bonate are sparingly soluble in water. Modeling of the solubilities of these compounds in natural waters predict that the equilibrium concentration of dis solved lead in fresh water would be

<0.010 mg/litre (which is also the On tario Drinking Water Objective for lead). This is borne out by groundwater moni toring beneath military firing ranges on Canadian Forces Base Kingston (some of which have been in operation for more than 60 years) where dissolved lead in groundwater remains below de tection limits (<0.002 mg/litre). Waste classification

The classification of waste in Ontario is based on the leachate characteristics

Metallic lead in soil undergoes trans

of the soil. In Ontario, the Regulation 347 Schedule 4 Leaching Procedure is used, whereby the soil is crushed to a size that will pass through a 9.5 mm

formation to oxide, carbonate and sul

screen and is leached in dilute acetic

phate forms. Scanning electron micro scope images reveal the presence of "rinds" of lead oxide and possibly lead carbonate, which begin to form within several years of burial. Studies of the thickness of oxide rinds on shotgun pel lets with time suggest that the oxidation

acid, chosen to mimic the organic acids produced during the anaerobic decom position of garbage in municipal landfill sites. The Regulation 347 procedure is equivalent to the US toxicity character istic leaching procedure (TCLP). Continued overleaf

soils on Ontario.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

The Point of Entry Trap (POET") offers assurance of waste particle trapping — reducing contaminated water in the wetlands. Catch sediment. Trap odours. Capture floatables. Eliminate the contaminants before they enter the drainage system. Call today for a free brochure on the POET".




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Contaminated Sites

Summary of lead munitions restoration alternatives, costs & limitations Technology


Cost (Cdn.)





Require landfill site licenced to accept leachate-toxic


less expensive disposal options and possible reuse as engineered fill.

Off-Site Disposal


Gravity Separation




hazardous waste

High clay content requires


/tonne +

water to mill the soils,

disposal of

collection of "fines" and


freatmenf of process water

$20 - $50

Possibility that metals retained In "fines" (slimes) will exceed regulatory criteria, requiring off-site


Restoration of soils

(no treatment required)

available to remediate lead-con

taminated soils, many of which were developed specifically to deal with lead battery waste sites (LEWS),in which the major spe cies are lead sulphate, lead diox ide and metallic lead. Our pre ferred approach is to process soils


disposal or stabilization

Soil Washing


$85-$125 /tonne





in situ in order to recover the lead

Fines (slimes) will contain high lead levels - off-site disposal or gravity separation required


Chemical additives (acids and chelating solutions not


and reuse the cleaned soils when

suited for lead metal and

carbonate soils) Solidification/ Stabilization


Encapsulates metals (decreases leaching potential), requires off-site disposal as non-hazardous

$60 - $72 /tonne +




(for post-gravity separated slimes)



Not suitable for elemental


lead in soils. But may be applicable to process water

(for lead In process water)





Proprietary technologies


/tonne In-Situ Vitrification





Not suited for surface


accumulations (I.e. backstop berms) of


tains metals valued at US $30.95/ tonne of soil.


• Most soils contain a significant fraction of silt- and clay-sized particles which necessitates a mill ing step to disaggregate the soil and liberate encased munitions.


contaminated soil Ex-Situ Volatilization

ever possible. The most promis ing and cost-effective method ap pears to be through the applica tion of mineral processing tech nology derived from the mining industry. In essence, the soils are mined, milled and processed as "ore". At current spot market prices, a soil with 2.45% Pb con

The technical problems to be surmounted with this approach



containing mnnitions Numerous technologies are

Sublimates lead metal to


vapor (requires capturing lead vapor)

(for post-gravity separated slimes)

As water is used in the milling stage,a process must be instituted to treat the process water; • Up to 15% of the lead is finer than 300|im;ofthis6% is smaller than 10|im. This limits the effec tiveness of mechanical soil

wet-screen the same soils exhibits lead

tions: such soils are hazardous when

levels in water <0.04 mg/litre, concen trations that are only marginally greater than the commonly-accepted drinking water objective of0.01 mg/litre. In gen

placed in a landfill but are relatively in nocuous if left out in the rain, but they must be transported to a landfill.

screening and mineral processing, where the finest grain sizes (<10 (im) are termed "slimes" and are not amenable to physical separa tion or physico-chemical process ing (e.g. flotation); • Most glaciated soils in eastern Canada contain high levels of carbonate miner als which limits the applicability of soil washing in acid media. Acid reagents preferentially dissolve the carbonate minerals and decrease the hydraulic con ductivity with released CO, bubbles; • Metals recoveries must include a sig nificant proportion of antimony,copper,

In an effort to reduce the levels of

zinc and arsenic in order to reuse the

eral, lead levels in leachates from con

"leachable" lead to non-hazardous val

soils; and,

taminated soils are lower when TCLP

ues, preliminary experiments demon

is replaced with the synthetic precipita tion leaching procedure (SPLP), which is deionized water adjusted to pH = 4.2

can be solidified and stabilized using commercially-available binders to allow

• The unprocessed "slimes" must be re covered, de-watered, treated and possi bly disposed off-site if the levels of re sidual lead exceed applicable guidelines

Conventional technology, commercially available, field-tested. Conventional technology, requiring custom design and site-speclfic pilot scale tests. New technology, bench-test or pilot project scale or proprietary processes. Passive technology, limited field tests. In all cases, acetic acid leachates

from soils containing crushed munitions contain elevated lead levels (>50 mg/ litre Pb), thereby classifying the soils as

with a 60/40 mixture of sulphuric acid and nitric acids.

hazardous waste. Yet the water used to

This suggests an unfortunate regula tory paradox when it comes to the clas sification of soils containing lead muni


strate that soils with contained munitions

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 200J

Contaminated Sites

(usually falling within the range between 200 and 1000 ppm in most Canadian jurisdictions). A review of the applicability and pub lished costs of the restoration alterna tives for lead-contaminated soils is sum

marized in the accompanying table. Environmentally re-engineered small arms ranges Some firing ranges, both military and civilian, will be decommissioned and re

stored for reuse for other purposes. Other firing ranges may be remediated

urban environments. Components for re-engineered firing ranges currently being examined include: • Reaction bamers to prevent long-term migration of lead through soils into aquifers; • Soil amendments to stabilize soils

against impact tunneling and increased erosion from repeated bullet impacts; •Erosion protection and surface run-off controls to minimize transport of fine lead particles to surface water and sen

out Canadian summers and winters.

The most pressing goal is to reduce the potential for health and ecological risks from accumulating lead.

By Barry Gorman, Aquafor Beech Limited, Andrew Woliin,

Cdn. Forces Base Kingston, and Richard Wagner, Lakefieid Research

sitive sites; and.

and subsequently re-engineered for con tinued use. Re-engineering firing ranges will incorporate design elements used for other environmental projects in

• The construction of easily-maintained bullet traps that remain effective through

Paques ADI Inc.

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Wastewater Treatment Packages

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technicaily skiiled, highiy motivated team players with proven success in project management and in-depth knowiedge of Ontario environmentai regulations. Candidates must have a bacheiors degree in engineering/ applied science,3-7 years of progres sive work experience, superior or ganizational and communication skiils, and a desire to work in an en

Paques ADI Inc. is a leader in providing high- and lowrate anaerobic wastewater

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1133 Regent St, Suite 300



Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Fredericton, NB E3B 3Z2

For more information, circie repiy card No. 210 (See page 25)






Hundreds of muni

For greater efficiency

cipal, commercial

and consistent water

and industrial cus

quality, the MULTI-




use Hydro-Clear filter for a variety of wastewater applica tions. The system was developed specifically for these applications; it is not an adap tation of a potable vv^ter filter. Hydro-Clear filters feature a imique underdrain system and a shallow bed of single-media, fine-grained sand. These innovations permit the filter surfec£ to be "pulsed" or r^nerated periodically, prolonging filter runs and keeping the filter online, despite unprediaable changes in solids loading and charaaeristics. The filter can be backwashed efficiendy with significandy less power and water than is required with other types of filters. Zimpro Products


Process provides exceptionally long filter runs. The key is sustained, simultaneous air and water backwash -

the most effective backwash available. Operation is very easy. No draindown is required; no multiple rates are required. Pilot testing is available. General Filter Products

Circle reply card

800.547.1202 phone 508.347.7049fax

No. 116

water_info@usfilter.com e-mail www.usfilter.com


Circle reply card




and effective Gravisand tech


nology combines the principles and advantages




clear... the effluent from


Kruger Products Hydrotech Disc filter.



tremely small-foot print technology is useful for a variety offiltration applications, includ ing process water filtration, effluent polishing and product recovery. The Discfilter combines simple design, robust construction, and operational flexi bility to reduce maintenance and operational issues associated with other types of filters. Additionally, the Discfilter features an innovative cleaning system that minimizes backwash usage rates. Kruger Products

919.677.8310 phone 919.677.0082fax

Circle reply card No. 117


of conventional

traveling bridge designs but uses improved methods ofaccomplish ing and maintaining filtration and regeneration. The system is ideal for use with suspended growth systems, attached growth systems (trickling filters) and, with appropriate configuration, for phospho rus removal, water reclamation and algae removal. The proprietary "No-Wear" backwash shoe reduces maintenance costs. Costly media migra tion is eliminated with a unique indexing system that isolates each filter cell, unlike ordinary filter systems that utilize a continuously moving bridge. The system is also available with induced air scour or the advanced XCELL'" configuration. Davis Products


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single, dual or mixed-

ed a wide variety of pressure and gravity filter systems. We can



New MULTBLOCK'" system




for increased

effective and afford


depth, faster installa tion and elimination of gravel upsets. Filters can operate at up to 30% higher flow rates, increasing plant capacity without adding more filters. The lightweight, 12-inch high, easily-handled underdrain blocks are of high-strength, corrosion-resistant HDPE. Adding the USFilter MULTIWASH''^ system allows continuous, combined air/water backwashing returning a clean filter bed widiout media loss. General Filter Products

800.547.1202 phone 508.347.7049fax


design the most

underlying support gravel bed, allowing

able system for your application. Our steel filter products include cylindrical steel gravity filters; rectangular steel gravity filters; specialty technolo gies such as the DuoVAL filter, which stores its own







filter, which produces backwash

water as needed from in-service cells; vertical

pressure filters; horizontal pressure filters; the Multi-Tech'^^ Multiple Barrier Filtration System, and ion exchange systems. General Filter Products

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800.547.1202 phone

Circle reply card No. 120


water_info@usfilter.com e-mail

water_info@usfilter.com e-mail




No one sees water like we do. We can help you meet the most difficult water treatment challenges with more filtration options than any other water treatment company in the world, including

pressure filters; concrete or steel gravity filters; shallow bed filters; microfiltration,



nanofiltration systems;

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can custom-design, pilot-test and install a complete, single-soutce Leam more at our new web site,


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www.usfilter.com, call

1.800.547.1202 ore-mailwater_info@usfilter.com.


water compar For more information, circle reply card No. 121 (See page 25)


Site remediation contractor reuses concrete pipe

When reinforced concrete

pipe is specified, it is due to its service life and per

formance characteristics.

Concrete pipe drainage systems are ex pected to be installed on projects that have decades-long design lives, often extending for more than 100 years. Rarely is a concrete pipe system prema turely excavated with replacement in mind. A recent project in Gloucester, near Ottawa, Ontario, is a reminder that rein

forced concrete pipe can be reused. Some contractors in the Ottawa area

are familiar with recycling concrete pipe systems. In 1998, 110 metres of a 33year old (1090 mm x 1725 mm) hori zontal elliptical pipe was exhumed,

and Cyrville Road in the City of

After afew pieces ofthe pipe had been

cleaned and re-installed on a site that had

Gloucester. The contract included the

been contaminated by coal tar. The sys tem was upgraded with gaskets and

removal of approximately 45 metres of

maintenance holes when it was re-in-

stalled in 1975. Soil around and under

excavated,John Landerville of C.A.C.E. realized that the system appeared to be in excellent condition. He contacted City officials and Centennial Concrete Pipe


the pipe was contaminated with hydro

In 2000,a situation similar to the one in 1998 occurred where C.A.C.E. Con

struction (1991) Ltd. started soil clean up of a contaminated site at Innis Road

The reinforced concrete pipe was removed, cleaned and reinstaiied.

a 1,350 mm diameter storm sewer in

who had supplied the pipe,and requested strength tests to determine if the pipe

carbons, and had to be removed and re

placed. The contractor suggested that the existing pipe should be reused, if found to be structurally sound.

could be reused for the storm water drain

age system.

The pipe had been installed in a 2.44





What quality standard does your lab meet? SEALANT

Check our Web site: www.caeal.ca

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□ minimal chemical diffusion

□ excellent quality assurance/control □ long service life

WATERLOO BARRIER INC. RO. Box 385, Rockwood, Ontario, Canada NOB 2K0

Tel; (519) 856-1352

Fax: (519) 856-2503

For more information, circle reply card No. 211 (See page 25)

Quality Assurance For Environmental Laboratories

• Proficiency testing • ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation audits

(with accreditation by the Standards Council of Canada) The Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical Laboratories For more information, circie repiy card No. 212 (See page 25)


metre (8 feet) wide trench with a bed

ding of clear stone, and a distance from the top of the pipe to finished grade of 2.55 metres(8 feet,6 inches). The new

Total Load to Produce 0.3 mm Crack

264.52 kN/m

135.09 kN/m

trench for the installation would be 4.5

Ultimate Load

273.83 kN/m

202.64 kN/m

Actual Load (kN)

metres (15 feet) wide with granular C bedding specified, and the pipe would be buried under 2.6 m (8.5 feet) of fill. Greater loading on the pipe was due to the greater trench width, necessitated by

Superintendent, reported that the DLoad of the pipe supplied from the job site met the requirements of 195D. The pipe had actually strengthened from

removal of contaminated material.

1OOD to 195D while buried over the 25-

The test to determine concrete pipe year period. The Centennial report strength is called the Three Edge Bear noted that the entire pipe run could be ing Test, with results referred to as the considered to meet the same require D-Load of the pipe. A piece of pipe is ments of 195D structural strength based placed under extreme loading until a 0.3 on the following assumptions: mm crack appears in the wall of the pipe. • The pipe on this run was produced in At this point, a reading is taken of the accordance with CSA A257 and was all force that was required to cause the the same class; and, crack. The pipe can then be subjected •The concrete design used was the same to greater forces until it fails. Another in all pipe produced. reading is taken at this point and reported The report went on to suggest that, as the ultimate load for that production with regards to the new installation con line of pipe. ditions of 2.6 metres of fill and a C Bed The piece of pipe delivered to the ding, a 65D pipe would be sufficient. Centennial test facility was a 2.44 m long, The report concluded that the pipe 1,350 mm diameter 100 D with an O Ring would be more than adequate for reuse gasket. The table shows the test results on the job. Only six pieces of new pipe had been undertaken on November 14, 2000. Serge Poirier, Centennial's Plant installed before the testing was re

Required Load (kN)

quested. Once the results were accepted by the City and consulting engineer. Colder (Montreal Office), the old pipe was carefully removed, steam cleaned, fitted with new gaskets and re-installed. The contractor benefited from the re

use of the pipe because they were able to continue working on the site clean up with an immediate supply of high quality concrete pipe. The technique was so successful that the contractor is

expected to clean up another section of the area early in the new year, reusing the existing precast concrete drainage system. Only pieces broken during ex cavation will be replaced with new con crete pipe.

By Peter O'Connor and Serge Poirier, Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products inc., Ottawa For more information, circle reply card No. 213


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Environmenial Science & Engineering, June 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 214 (See page 25)


Spills Containment

CFD analysis helps develop up to four times faster oil containment boom

Researchers using computa

2.67E.01 2i6E-01

tional fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis have improved the velocity at which oil contain ment booms can operate successfully, increasing the current level of under 0.4

2.44E-01 2J3E-01 2,22E-01 2.11E.01 2.00E-01 l.g9E-01 1.78E-01 1.67E-01

metres/second, where traditional booms

1J6E-01 1.45E-01

fail, to a theoretically possible 2.0 metres/ second. The boom velocity is critical because oil spill clean-up is limited by

1.33E-0] 1.22E-01 LUE-Ol


how fast the booms can be towed before


hydrodynamic forces cause them to fail. To develop a boom that operates at faster velocities, oil companies have been evaluating a number of new de signs, including angled booms and po rous nets that operate below and up stream of traditional booms. Previously, researchers performed water channel


tests to evaluate new designs but this

By Chang-Fa An, DalmierChrysler Technology Center, Auburn Hills, Michigan


5J7E-02 4.46E-02 3,35E-02 2^E4)2 1.12E-02 1.34E.04


Feb 14 1996

Velocity Vectors(M/S)

Fluent 4.32

Lmax = 3.222E-01 Lmin = 1.344E-04 Time


Fluent Inc.

A typical water-oil flow around a flat boom simulated using FLUENT. The picture Is a velocity vector overlapped by the oil slick contour. The water with spilled oil flows from left to right with velocity 0.15m/s. At about 20 seconds after the spill, the oil stops In front of the boom and stays there all the time. The main stream of water, however, continues to flow underneath the boom and makes a large reclrculatlon In the downstream region of the boom.


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For more information, circie reply card No. 215 (See page 25)




Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Spills Containment added significantly to development

ometry. Next,the grid files are imported into FLUENT where boundary condi

problem are specified.

costs. Now,CFD simulation is used in stead. This alternative allows research

tions and other information about the

through comparisons to channel testing and researchers can now quickly evaluate the performance of new oil boom designs. To test a new design, engineers modify the boom geom etry with GeoMesh, regenerate the grid, import the new grid into FLU ENT, and run a new analysis. One of the recently studied de signs, called a net-boom structure,

ers to simulate many design alterna tives quickly and inexpensively. Re cently, researchers have also begun


to animate CFD results to enhance

their understanding of boom failure mechanisms.

When oil is accidentally spilled on water,the most common response is to use barriers or "booms" to col

lect the oil. As with any new prod uct, part of designing a new boom involves evaluating its performance under typical operating conditions. Oil boom testing is normally done in a tank, or channel, that is at least

30 metres long, by 15 metres wide, by two metres deep. What makes this type of testing expensive is the cost of the power needed to acceler ate that volume of water through the

This model has been validated



consists of a solid boom with front

and bottom porous nets. The bot

lllllllilWliiliilHIIH mmVHIIIIIIillll


Researchers have turned to CFD

analysis as a less expensive way of predicting boom performance. The first step in preparing a water chan nel simulation is the creation of a

grid to conform to the problem ge

A series of simulated water-oil flows around a

flat boom with velocity 0.24m/s at sequential time moments from 60 seconds after the spiil. From these pictures, one can see the entire process of the oil loss underneath the boom.

tom net is horizontal. The front net

can be vertical or positioned at an angle in relation to the boom. Be cause it is so easy to evaluate differ ent design alternatives, researchers looked at numerous positions for the front net,including 0,30,49, and 67 degrees as measured from vertical. To adapt the analysis model to the new design with nets,engineers only needed to add porous regions(to rep resent the nets) as an additional mo mentum sink in the governing mo mentum equations. For more information,

circie repiy card No. 112

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Toxic Clean-up

Quebec bridge restoration uses innovative approaches to environmental considerations

Unique among the world's

The restoration of this famous bridge

bridges, the Quebec Bridge

is scheduled to run from 1998 to 2007,

is located at Mile 2.70,

and is broken up into one and two year projects for steel repairs, lead removal and application of a new coating sys tem, and the installation of a lighting system. Team participants for the lead removal and overcoat portion include CN North America(the owner), Corrpro Canada (coatings and environmental consultants), and CH Heist(the contrac tor/applicator).

Bridge Subdivision,Quebec City. Considered the "Eighth Wonder ofThe World" when completed in 1919, it was the longest cantilever, steel rail way bridge in the world. Its 'sister' bridge, of similar design and construc tion, is the famed Firth of Forth Bridge, in Scotland.

The Quebec Bridge is a rivetted steel structure with 8,000,000 square feet of painted structural steel. The overall length is 3,239 feet, and the width is 94 feet. The bridge is 340 feet high, from the top of the cantilever to the water below. Each cantilever span is 540 feet long. The bridge currently accommo

Environment and containment are the two main concerns of owners when con

sidering the removal of lead-based coat ings. Both imply increased costs. In addition, the bridge is over both a heav ily used arterial roadway and the St. Lawrence River. The original proposal

tainment systems and an overcoat paint system of calcium sulfonate alkyd, were used to reduce these costs. CN

North America, the Government of Canada, and the Province of Quebec, have set aside $60,000,000 as the recla mation budget. The Quebec Bridge posed some

unique challenges for scaffold design ers. Windload restrictions made it dif ficult to use traditional containment materials and construction methods.

Waterjetting allowed an easing of these restrictions so 'negative pressure' con tainment was no longer required. The lower level of environmental control

required for waterjetting operations, re duced cost, and created a safer work en

vironment for all personnel.

dates one rail line, three lanes of auto

called for total removal of all old coat

Environmental controls were com

motive traffic, and two pedestrian walk ways. In 1987, it was declared a his toric monument by both the Canadian and American Society of Civil Engi

ings by sandblasting. Original cost es timates ranged from $120 to $180 mil lion dollars. Structural design con

prised of light platforms, geotextile fab

neers, and was declared a National His

toric Site in 1996, by the Department of Canadian Heritage.

By Rob Roy, Corrpro Canada Inc.

straints limited the amount of area which

could be contained at any one time. Original costing was not within the budget available to the owner, which meant an alternative, innovative ap proach was required. Waterjetting and selective watercleaning, coupled with innovative con

rics for water filtration and paint chip collection, lightweight solid and flow through tarps. Another design parameter was that, in the event of high winds, the containment must be able to be dropped quickly, to protect the structure from excessive wind loads. This type of flex ibility is not possible with traditional negative pressure containment, as envi ronmental constraints demand immedi-

lllustration showing condition of the structure prior to a failure on August 29, 1907. When completed in 1919, it became the longest cantilever, steel railway bridge in the world. 36

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Toxic Clean-up ate removal of lead dust and abrasives.

Waterjetting Equipment The bridge has been divided into 'zones', requiring dif ferent levels of surface preparation. Basically, the entire upper portion of the structure will be watercleaned using water pressures of between 5,000 to 10,000 psi. These pres sures are adequate to remove loose coatings, rust and other loose debris. The coating system selected is 'surface toler ant' and CN's consultants have determined that this level of

surface preparation will meet their requirements. The lower surfaces of the bridge, where salt contamination has resulted in severe corrosion, are waterjetted using ultra high pres sures (30,000-1- psi). This level of pressure easily removes rust scale and all coatings. As the intent of the specification was to leave tightly adhered coatings in place and to overcoat, the waterjetting removal technique is used to determine whether existing old coatings are tight or loose. Waste Wash Water

A common misconception regarding the use of water is that it does not have to be collected or filtered. CN,Coixpro and CH Heist have worked closely with Environment Canada, to ensure there will be no damage to the adjacent Marine Aquarium, and the St. Lawrence River below. Current Canadian regulations require that all waste wash water be captured and tested, lead and other heavy metals removed, and pH adjusted, prior to its release into the river system. The LC 50 Test Protocol, otherwise known as'Ref erence Method For Determining Acute Lethality of Efflu ents to Rainbow Trout', requires that trout fingerlings be

placed in a sample of waste wash water for a specified amount of time (96 hours). A mortality rate of less than 50% is required. A control sample is run concuiTently. In addition, CH Heist recycles and reuses its wash water, ensuring less demand on the local water supply. All

platforms have been constructed so as to totally trap and contain waste wash water and debris. A containment basin

under the bridge is the repository for all wash water and paint chips. Wash water is separated, filtered, and reused.

Old paint Is effectively removed wltfi waterjetting. Photo - A. Beaulieu

Debris is separated, manifested as hazardous waste, and trucked to a disposal centre. CN, Canadian Coast Guard and Environment Canada

regulations require absolutely no waste wash water leakage. Environmental Monitoring and Health and Safety CH Heist took air, soil and water samples prior to start up. Monitoring continues on a regular basis. All appropri ate agencies were advised before project start-up. In addition, all workers on site may be exposed to the hazards of lead, or other heavy metals contained in the old coating. Workers' blood lead levels are tested every two months. Lead wipes are used to check employee lunch rooms. A "Decontamination Trailer" provides workers with daily showers prior to leaving the site. A continuously moni tored Health and Safety program of all workers,ensures the protection of all employees on site. In addition to current Canadian Regulations for Worker Health and Safety, CN has decided the jobsite work envi ronment must conform to US regulatory requirements as well. The SSPC (Society For Protective Coatings) QPl/ QP2 Program is also enforced. QPl is a Quality Control Program. The history, the sta bility of staff, and financial capabilities of the contractor are assessed by an independent third party auditor. A site audit of an active job is a part of this program. Certification to QP2 qualifies the contractor to work on US lead removal projects. The QP2 component assesses the contractor's abilities and experience in the removal and treatment of hazardous materials. This also includes an

annual audit of an active lead removal project. Corrpro is responsible for monitoring all aspects of the Quality Control, Lead Health and Safety, and Environmen

tal aspects of the contract. Daily Quality Control checks are performed. Site inspections confirm compliance with all regulatory requirements. Weekly and monthly summa ries are forwarded to CN. This documentation is reviewed

by CN, to confirm compliance, but also to verify that the Removal oflead-based coatings requires strict containment procedures to ensure environmental protection. Photo - Rob Roy

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

method of lead removal and the coating system will meet their 25-year goal.

For more information, circle reply card No. 113 37

Water Supply

Systems donated to North Battleford for

Cryptosporidium removal

the systems were opera tional by 3 p.m. the next afternoon.

USFilter engineers

USFilter has donated the use of two

had worked around the

Memcor® microfiltration systems for water purification to the city of North

clock to refurbish two re

Battleford, Saskatchewan, which was

microfiltration (CMF) systems in order to reach the city qiiickly. The systems work by filtering the water through polymeric membranes with microscopic pores, which trap and remove Ciyptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other pathogens. Up to 72,000 gal-

combatting contamination of its water supply from Cryptosporidium. The systems, which arrived in North Battleford at midnight on May 12, were installed by tapping into the current wa ter distribution system at Battleford's Civic Centre and Fire Hall. USFilter

staff, local contractors and city person nel worked through the night to ensure

tired Memcor continuous

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North Battleford's 14,000 residents

have been boiling their tap water since April 25, when a boil water advisory was issued by the city. According to news service reports, as many as 61 residents in the North Battleford region were diagnosed with Cryptosporidium infection and thou sands suffered nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps. USFilter's representative Mequipco in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and engineer ing firm, MR2 McDonald & Associ ates of Regina, Saskatchewan, were



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systems to North Battleford. USFilter's sister company, Culligan of Canada, in conjunction with regional franchises and retail stores, provided bottled water to the citizens of Battleford. By May 16, Culligan had donated a total of 159,600 litres of bottled water.



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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Water Supply Announcement

OWWA Spring workshop

CH2M Hill Canada Vice-Presldent elected as CEO Chairman

reviewed Waikerton remediation

Water safety in Waikerton

Norm Muggins, P.Eng., Vice-Presl dent of CH2M Hiii Canada Ltd., was

elected in May to serve the next 12 months as Chairman of Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO).

was the fascinating theme at a one-day semi nar held May 30, in Toronto, sponsored by the Ontario Water Works Association. Experts from the Ontario Clean Water Agency re counted the various procedures in scour ing, disinfecting, and replacing water mains. Problems encountered in pro viding full disinfection included cul-de-

In his address at the annual meeting, Mr. Muggins encouraged members to integrate their leadership skills to pro vide successful solutions for clients and members. Me stressed the im

Garry Palmateer

sacs and other areas where the mains

water did not flow through. Other prob lems were encountered with basement

cisterns designed to catch rainwater. Some stretches of mains showed ad vanced tuberculation and were ideal for the lethal E. coli 0157:H7. The last

speaker, Garry Palmateer, from GAP EnviroMicrobial Services, took the au

dience on a fascinating trek inside one of the ancient water mains which had

provided an ideal habitat for lethal bac-

teria inside the system. "Slime, which protected organisms from chlorine, was a problem in ensuring total disinfec tion," he said. He pointed out how some organisms could envelope themselves with a slimy substance which helped protect them during disinfection opera tions. Swabbing, pipe replacement and several disinfection operations were done until the system was declared safe for Waikerton residents. Tom Davey

portance of getting involved in the committees that serve as an integral part of the engineering industry. "Ac tive participation in the committees and activities of CEO is the most ef

fective way to leverage your fee in vestment," said Mr. Muggins.

Mr. Muggins is a graduate of Queen's University with over 33 years in the consulting engineering industry. Me is currently the Secretary and Chair man of the MEA/CEO Liaison Com

mittee and is the founding Chairman of the Toronto International Partner

ship. Mr. Muggins is the third CEO Chairman from CM2M Mill Canada.

The Town of New Tecumseth is planning to decommission the McKelvey and Spring Water Treatment Plants located in the

community of Beeton, Ontario. A general list of the process equipment that the Town plans to sell to interested buyers includes: McKelvey WTP: • Two Reactivator-clarifier tanks (Ecodyne)(6.8 m dia.) • Two Monosoour automatic filter tanks (Graver)(3 m dia.) • Lime feeder system silo (O'Connor tanks) (3.7 m dia., 12 m high) • Sodium chlorite tank (Fibergloss Design Plastio Co.) (2.4 m dia.) • Air stripper tank (1.5 m dia.,6.5 m high)and two fans(Faboo) • Degassifier tank / methane burner (Heetco) • Pre-oontact tank (3 m dia.) • Various ohemical storage tanks, chemioal pumps, valves, and flow meters.


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Roto molded from tough LLDPE Chemical resistant

Removable top for easy cleaning 2 way forkilft entry Holds 2 X 45 gal. drums Model Number

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

55"x31"X14.5" Uolume

50 Imp. gal./227 llt./60 US gal.

Contact: Cathy Arkles ;(416)430-6111 •Toll Free: 1-600-263-7643•Fax:(605)685-0265

For more information, circle reply card No. 202 (See page 25)

Emergency Response

Rapid response, cooperation and analytical capabilities are required at today's major fires

Afireatan abandoned tannery in downtown Toronto caused

TEAM-1 to speed to the scene as there were reports that the major blaze was surrounded by residential areas and a public school. Toronto Fire Service had already set up a major decontamination area for their personnel. Upon arrival,TEAM-1 incident com manders met with police, fire. Ministry of Environment(MOE)and Ministry of Labour(MOL) officials. It was deter mined that their hazardous materials


technicians would enter the site wear

ing NFPA Level B personal protective equipment. The MOE and the MOL had viola

tion file history on the building. The MOE actually had some outstanding concerns over the contents and this

Toronto fire department with Team-1 at the scene.

heightened the importance of the tactics. Several above ground tanks were in threat of exposure but were not directly

fire fighting gear along with a portable

involved. Two HazMat technicians entered the

site with portable direct reading instru ments. The fire service had also previ-

By Mitchell Gibbs, Manager, Emergency Services,

ously entered the site wearing structural photo ionization detector(PID). Toronto Fire Service is probably the only Ontario fire service with a PID but this

alone is not effective in determining toxic vapours. A PID will only meas ure certain volatile organic compounds based on the installed ionizing lamp. TEAM-1 crew members extracted

TEAM-1 Environmental

seven different vacuum samples and de-

parted through the decontamination process. The extracted samples were put through a barrage of tests including in

jection into a $200,000 mass spectro meter and a gas chromatograph. As the Ministry of Labour was not satisfied with any on site agencies' knowledge of the emissions, their Deputy Director authorized the officers on site to employ TEAM-1 to enter and conduct toxic air monitoring. Results showed that various test sites did in fact contain toxic levels of air

emissions that were above the standards

as set by the Provincial Government (several were double the acceptable lev els). The results were given in hard copy to the MOL who relayed the findings to those concerned.

The fire was eventually snuffed out and area residents carried on with their



lives. This fire follows the three mil

lion dollar payout to the residents of Hamilton in the area that sustained

chemical fallout during the 77-hour Plastimet fire. These and other related occurrences

where human lives and health are at risk,

stringent safety measures quickiy put in piace. 40

only show the need for rapid, reliable and realistic emergency response and cooperation from support agencies. For more information, circle reply card No. 114 Environmental Science & Engineering. June 2001

Wastewater Treatment

New headworks at Napanee facility Not glamorous but unique to North America

The Greater Napanee Water

Supply and Pollution Control Board in Ontario has recently put on stream its new headworks treatment process-the first such system in North America. It comprises a Mectan® Vortex Grit Chamber,a Sam®

Dewatering Screw,a Rotopac® Washing

ing a digester recirculation pump and tank weirs, would require cleaning two or three times per day," said Todd Harvey. "The new system, which has been up and running for the last few months, has already made a difference in the downstream processes. Rather than manually removing the debris

Compactor and,for the first time in North America,an Escalator® Fine Screen replaces manually cleaned horizontal grit chambers

ondary treatment process. Wastes from the Escalator are expelled as a relatively dry, compact plug, suitable for disposal as solid waste.

R.V. Anderson and Associates as

sisted Napanee with the headworks equipment selection. A major problem formerly experienced at the Napanee plant was plastics and other floatable inert substances pass ing directly into the downstream systems.

Lifestyle changes, especially the greater use of plastics, have resulted in a wider variety of ob jects entering the wastewater stream. The system filters out those objects society generally

and a comminutor.

The Escalator gives continu ous fine screening for channel type applications with very few moving parts below the water level. Perforated stainless steel

screen panels are carried on heavy-duty chains and incorpo

doesn't think twice about flush

ing down the drain, either know ingly or inadvertently. Besides plastics, rags, and other larger objects, the Escalator Fine Screen is also removing a sig

rate holes of 1/4 inch(6 mm)di ameter, giving fine screening in any direction. The screen pan els are specially formed to cre ate steps, which remove larger

nificant amount of hair. The net

effect is not only reduced equip

solids, and increase the effective

screening area. Both, board manager Max Christie and Todd Harvey, operations manager, are convinced the system will pay for itself in the reduction of manual labour

in cleaning downstream pumps and process tanks, as well as wear and tear on other mechanical equipment. "Some areas of the process, includ

ment maintenance but also the

which is now removed by the headworks, operators' time can be spent in more productive ways," he added The Escalator, when coupled with a washer compactor, also breaks up larger biodegradable materials, returning them to the liquid process stream where they are more optimally treated in the sec

Low Cost, Long Life

anaerobic digester cleaning frequency will be significantly reduced. Although the Escalator Fine Screen is new to North America, it is widely used in Europe. Over 600 such screens have been installed in the UK.

For more information, circle reply card No. 228


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For more information, circle reply card No. 106 (See page 25)


Pulp & Paper Industry Focus

New Brunswick P&P company achieves breakthrough by using reverse osmosis

To meet government regula

tions, most pulp and paper mills built conventional sec

ondary treatment lagoons. Treating pollution after it has exited the mill pipe in a secondary treatment la goon has been the standard technology, enabling mills to meet regulations with limited costs.

Faced with local opposition to a lagoon, Irving Pulp & Paper underwent a complete Environmental Impact Assessment. After researching other options, the mill, which is located in Saint John, New Brunswick, decided to

go in an unprecedented direction. Irving Pulp & Paper launched a pollution prevention strategy to recover, reduce and reuse pulp-making materials in the mill. It is believed that no other kraft

pulp mill in the world has ever attempted this approach. The New Brunswick-based mill

planned their strategy around the best known technologies of the day. At the time of design there were not enough known technologies to take them all the way to environmental compliance. They believed that with the rate of technologi cal advancement and the ongoing re-

Irving Pulp & Paper's reverse osmosis system.

search, new technology would evolve by the time the known technologies were in place. Irving Pulp & Paper achieved envi ronmental compliance through innova tion and determination. Three key pieces of technology, one for which the company has been granted the patent, have enabled the mill to meet federal

government regulations. These tech nologies, used in novel applications, set Irving apart from all other pulp mills in the world, says a company report. The new technologies include: two-stage oxygen delignification, reverse osmosis, and a moving bed bioreactor. Reverse osmosis, the same system used by municipalities and homeown ers to purify drinking water, was added in a world-first application to filter water used in the pulp making process. "Reverse osmosis had intriguing char acteristics," explains George Rogers, Site Manager of Irving Pulp & Paper. "But it had never been used at a pulp mill before." One of these characteristics is the

opportunity to selectively remove com pounds through the use of specialized internal membranes. These membranes,

which differ in size and shape, are cus tomized to remove targeted compounds. Other molecules,like water, are allowed

Close-up of one of the system's mem branes. 42

to pass through the system. In a home filtering unit, the system may consist of

one or two membranes. At Irving Pulp & Paper, 210 membranes on 5' x 10" spools remove 10- 15 gallons of con centrated filtrate each minute. The con centrate is incinerated and the filtered

water is recycled in the mill to be re used in the process. Reverse osmosis has played a signifi cant role in lowering pollution levels in the mill, and in an important discovery, researchers found that the system re moved compounds responsible for en docrine disruption in fish. Endocrine disruption is a global environmental is sue affecting normal hormonal proc esses in humans and wildlife. Potential

effects include mild to severe reproduc tive problems. The reverse osmosis sys tem eliminates Irving Pulp & Paper's potential for endocrine disruption in fish at Reversing Falls. Deborah MacLatchy, a professor at the University of New Brunswick, Saint John, who has been studying the issue of endocrine disruption near the Irving Pulp & Paper mill for the past three years, noticed significant improvements once reverse osmosis was installed.

"Reverse osmosis removed compounds responsible for endocrine disruption in fish," Dr. MacLatchy states. "This is significant. Irving Pulp & Paper is fur ther ahead on the endocrine disrupter issue than probably every other mill in Canada."

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Pulp & Paper Industry Focus Researchers at Environment Canada are working with Dr. MacLatchy to study the compounds responsible for en docrine disruption in fish near pulp and paper mills. Many research institutions are interested in Dr. MacLatchy's work and she has been invited to speak at numerous national and international conferences.

The significance of this advancing technology in the pulp and paper industry is clear. Mills now have a viable alter native solution to conventional secondary treatment facili ties. Wally Vrooman, past president of the Pulp and Paper Association of Canada, also believes this helps put the mill and the country on the map. "It's a new option everyone has they didn't have five years ago. And if it's cost com petitive or better, it's one the industry should consider. This is a technology the company can export. It's great for Canada to have technology that they can give back to the industry." Richard McLean, Environmental Coordinator for the

mill, gives credit to the owners for making a choice that many other mills would not have been able to consider. "A

The Company Cbemtrac Svstems

secondary treatment facility costs $58 million. We spent $300 million. I doubt the board of directors of a publicly

Better Wet-End Stability

traded company, concerned about share value, would ever have allowed this to be happen." Willa Mavis, a vocal opponent back in 1992 to the pro posed lagoon at Sheldon Point, is pleased with Irving Pulp & Paper's efforts. "In addressing community concerns," she says," a real scientific advancement has been achieved for the industry."

For more information, circle reply card No. 122 For more information, circle reply card No. 219

New advanced technology for water & wastewater Actiflo® Package Plant

Escalator® Fine Screen

A major step towards a highly efficient clarification

gives continuous fine screening for channel type ap plications with very few moving parts below the wa ter level. Product is used in open channels where fine screening is required. The unit can readily be installed in new or existing channels with a minimum of civil works. The screen has aperture sizes of 1/4" (6 mm)or 1/8"(3 mm)in any direction. Circle reply card No. 327

A fine screening step type screen unit, the Escalator® process,Actiflo® package plants are units engineered to provide a compact modular system in response to an ever-growing demand for a high performance water treatment process. Typical applications are in municipal (water and wastewater) and industrial (process water). Circle reply card No. 326

OHN Meunier Contact: Al Vivian, Regional Sales Manager 250 Royal Crest Court, Markham, ON, Canada, L3R 3S1 Tel:(905) 944-2819 • Fax:(905)474-1334

E-mail: avivian@johnmeunier.com • Web site: www.johnmeunier.com Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001


Pulp & Paper Industry Focus

Brazil's Amazon Rainforest still shrinking

Deforestation ofthe Brazilian

Amazon was greater last year than at any time since 1995, according to new sat ellite data released in May. Brazil's Na tional Institute for Space Research (INPE), which monitors deforestation by satellite, issued a provisional estimate for the period August 1999 to August 2000, based on a sampling scheme. The mean


annual rate of gross deforestation in the 1999 to 2000 time period equalled 19,836 square kilometres (7,658 square miles). From August 1998 to August 1999, the mean annual rate of forest cut down

was 17,259 square kilometres (6,663 square miles), a rate based on INPE's complete and final assessment. Environ ment Minister Jose Samey Filho,said that


there are a series of factors which cause


deforestation. He cited settlements and

the building of roads as examples of how the environment is harmed.

"The government will introduce an environmental licensing system for

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where deforestation is greatest," an en vironment ministry official said. The satellite TM-Landsat, used by INPE, does not include deforestation of areas smaller than 6.4 hectares (.02 square miles). This means that the im pacts of hundreds of thousands of small scale farmers and selective logging of lucrative species are not included. Greenpeace Amazon campaigner Paulo Adario, who monitors illegal log ging in Manaus, in cooperation with the Brazilian environment agency IBAMA, said that, "scientific studies have repeat edly shown that Amazon soil is not suit able for agriculture and cattle ranching. The biological richness of the region lives only in the standing forest." Greenpeace is calling on the govern

ment of Brazil to reduce deforestation

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to zero by the year 2010. "In 1970, only one percent of the Brazilian Amazon had been deforested. By 2000 almost 15 per cent has been destroyed. This means a



forest area the size of France was lost in

only 30 years. Stopping forest destruc tion has become a global priority. It must become a Brazilian priority before

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it is too late to act," Adario warned.

The Brazilian Amazon comprises the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima,


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Your Single Source^


For more information, circle reply card No. 221 (See page 25)

Tocantins and portions of Maranhao and Goias, totaling an area of approximately five million square kilometres, roughly equal to the size of Western Europe. Of this, approximately four million square kilometres is covered by forest. ❖ Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Pulp & Paper Industry Focus

Single-Stage UF Pilot Plant for P&P processes

Pulpand paper producerscan use

in discharge effluent. In one example of the latter at a large pulp mill, two pi lot plants allowed PCI to develop mem branes specifically suited to the mill's

ferent process designs and membrane materials for effluent-control processes such as paper-coating removal, de-inking, Whitewater recycling, and COD re duction. Offered by PCI Membrane Sys

can configure the pilot plant with any of three different designs from its range of standard modules,or develop custom membranes to suit specific processing requirements. Pulp and paper producers generally use the Single-Stage UF Pilot Plant to help develop large-scale processes that either recover valuable process products

tems Inc., the unit has an automatic data

or reduce the amount of waste material

Circle reply card No. 123

a compact, pilot-scale mem brane ultrafiltration (UF) plant

to streamline evaluation of dif

logging feature that frees operators from having to manually record temperatures, pressures, and flow rates. Operators can define set points either through a per sonal-computer interface, or remotely through a dedicated phone line. The Single-Stage UF Pilot Plantfrom PCI operates either in batch mode or continuous "feed-and-bleed" mode. In

hardwood and softwood effluents, lead

ing to a full-scale plant installation and a successful start-up of what became the world's largest membrane filtration sys tem of its kind.


which otic Pits best?

feed-and-bleed mode, the operator en ters set points to individually control the feed-pump flow volume and the volume "bleeding" out of the retentate line, allowing different effluent concentra tions to be created across the membrane surface.

Depending on the characteristics of the process fluid, the pilot plant can oper ate over a wide range of volumetric con centration factors (VCF) between 1.25

and 50. During operation,an integral heat exchanger can maintain the temperature of the process fluid up to the 175°F operating temperature commonly encoun tered in pulp and paper applications. The tubular membrane modules the

pilot plant uses, are said to be particu larly effective for high-solids fluids, since tubular designs create a turbulent, self-cleaning flow along the membrane surface, which minimizes fouling. PCI

Matching pieces to find the best fit is a challenging and timeconsuming process. In flow measurement you can easily achieve the best fit with the PROIine generation of Promag electromagnetic flow meters. 1-800-668-3199 or visit us at www.endress.com

Pulp mill awards evaporator contract Aracruz Celulose S.A. has selected

PROIine Promag - the new generation of electromagnetic flow measurement instruments

USFilter's HPD Products and Confab

• Economical two-wire and traditional

S.A. to design and install a seven-effect evaporation system as part of Aracruz's $620 million expansion project at its Espirito Santo pulp mill in Brazil. The new seven-effect black liquor evaporation train is part of Aracruz's new 700,000 tons per year pulp produc tion line, which will double its pulp ca pacity to 1.9 million tons per year. USFilter and Confab will provide full turnkey project support on the evapora tor expansion from engineering and fab rication to installation and start-up. ❖

four-wire technology • Modular design • External "Touch Control" operation • Fleldbus compatible • Sensors and process connections to meet industry needs • Approved for sanitary applications

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001


Endress+Hauser S3 The power of know-how

For more Information, circle reply card No. 222 (See page 25)


Pulp & Paper Industry Focus

When the chips are down at P&P mills

Before a grinder was instal ed

in the treatment plant of a Canadian pulp and paper mill, wood chips and grit in the primary sludge caused the pumping system to clog at regular intervals. As a result, the system required constant monitoring and had to be taken off-line and backwashed at least twice a shift.

Since February 1994, when a Muf fin Monster was installed between the

primary clarifier and the mixing tank, the problem has been eliminated. The Donohue Normick pulp and paper mill in Amos,Quebec,is a sprawl ing complex on the Harricana River. The mill, which uses a thermomech-

anical pulping(TMP)process, produces 500 tons a day of newsprint, 80-90% of which is exported to the US and over seas.

The mill operates an effluent treat ment plant, consisting of primary and secondary treatment, with a capacity of

16,000 mVday. According to mill engi neering supervisor, Jean Fiset, the origi nal problem was created by the passthrough of wood chips from the pulping operation to the clarifiers. Not all the chips in the primary influent would break down during clarification and many would settle to the bottom in the primary sludge. A bar screen was in stalled to remove the troublesome chips, but not all of the chips were captured. The resulting problem occurred downstream, in the dewatering opera-


The Donohue Normick pulp and paper mill in Amos, Quebec, produces 500 tons of newsprint a day. Photo shows the wastewater treatment facility.

tion, where the primary and secondary sludge is combined. The wood chips fre quently collected at the inlet of the cen trifugal pumps, prior to sludge dewater ing, causing the operation to clog and foul. This required taking the pumps off-line and backwashing them to re move the clogged chips. As Fiset ex plains,"It was a lot of trouble. We were looking at around the clock cleaning and monitoring." To eliminate this problem a Muffin Monster was installed just before the mixing tank. It now chews the primary sludge,including the wood chips and grit, producing a fine sludge sluiry which can be easily and smoothly handled by the pumps. Operating at approximately 200 GPM, the grinder has greatly increased the ef ficiency ofthe dewatering operation while saving the mill substantial costs related to pump repairs and system downtime. An upper midwest kraft pulp and paper mill saved over $60,000 in the first year after buying four grinders. The 550 ton/day mill uses Muf fin Monster grinders to protect pumps from damage by bolts, rocks and other hard objects that enter the waste stream during paper making. CuiTently two sets of 8" Muffin Monsters,two on-line units and two

Grinders are hard at work at every ma jor pulp and paper company in the US. 46

backup units, are located in the mill's 15 (US) MGD wastewater

treatment plant. They perform the es sential function of protecting the posi tive screw displacement pumps. One grinder is positioned at the headworks of the pulp mill stream. Another is be tween the thickener and the dewatering unit, after the flows from the pulp proc ess and paper mill are combined. The pulp mill wastewater is treated in a 140 foot diameter clarifier fed by 400 GPM capacity pumps designed to handle a larger flow than that of the pa per mill. In grinding the hard solids down,the grinders protect these pumps. The paper mill flow is treated in an 80 foot diameter primary clarifier fed by a pump that can accommodate hard, in organic solids. These solids are not bro ken down during clarification and end up in the combined flow which goes to the thickener. A second grinder (and backup grinder)is needed to grind down this material to protect the pumps prior to the dewatering centrifuge. The grinders have performed very well and require little maintenance, ac cording to the plant's Chief Wastewater Treatment Operator, John LaTour, who says they save over $60,000 a year in maintenance costs. "If we didn't have

them, we would tear up the screw pumps. As it is, we get a full year's use out of the pumps. It saves us a lot of problems." For more information,

circie repiy card No. 124

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Pulp & Paper Industry Focus

Drywall paper recycling closes the loop

There is a good chance that the

next sheet of drywall you use had a previous life- as a sheet of drywall. Fourteen years ago, New West Gypsum Recycling Inc., of Langley, BC, invented and patented a process to allow the gypsum core that makes up drywall to be remanufactured into new sheets of drywall. Now the company has developed a process to re cycle the paper on scrap drywall into new paper covering. This brings the

just no good reason to waste material that can be recycled, and can help pro vide jobs too." New West Cypsum has recycled over one million tonnes of wallboard since its

inception in 1986. In a single year, it re cycled over 133,000 tonnes - enough to fill a football field 18 storeys high. The company handles about90% ofthe scrap drywall produced in Greater Vancouver,

mostly from new construction sites. McCamley says that the increased value of waste products, coupled with education, has encouraged builders and homeowners to "do the right thing and do the logical thing" by bringing waste to an appropriate transfer station or re cycling plant. For more information, circie repiy card No. 125

waste-stream full circle, so that one hun

dred percent of cast-off wallboard is re used as new wallboard.

Once the paper is mechanically sepa rated from the gypsum core, it is placed in a small pulper and turned into noodle pulp, using essentially the same proc ess as a pulp and paper mill. The pulp then comes out of a screw press and is

Service Excellence

for our Community! The Regional Municipality of Durham is seekinu

dried to the correct moisture content.

skilled and dedicated individuals to assume

The pulp is then sold to Crown Packag ing Ltd. in Burnaby, BC, which manu factures it into new drywall paper cov ering, supplied in turn to wallboard

these roles within our Works Department...


New West Gypsum has recycled over one million tonnes of wallboard since its

inception in 1986. In a single year, it recycled over 133,000 tonnes - enough to fill a football field 18 storeys high.


Water Pollution

Control Superintendent Reporting to the Plant Operations Manager, you will be responsible for the effective operation of our Lake Ontario water pollution control plants and associated pumping stations as well as the biosolids management program. Using your strong interpersonal skills to supervise and direct the activities of supervisory and unionized operating and maintenance staff, you will also manage the annual budget as well work in collaboration with other Regional staff to maintain quality water and sewer services. Your Class IV Wastewater Treatment licence from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment or a professional engineers designation is complemented by several years' supervisory experience in an automated plant setting. An analytical and organized communicator, your knowledge of computerized operations, maintenance management systems, and safety programs is a valued asset. File #01-VAC-017

One of the wallboard manufacturers

using the recycled paper, BPB Westroc of New Westminster, BC, salutes the

process as "quite a nice circle. It's pretty beneficial for all concerned," says plant Manager Bill Stone. "You can make good quality board from recycled gypsum we've proved it." New board typically has up to 25% recycled gypsum content. Crown Packaging required New West Cypsum to lower the paper's ash con tent for enhanced quality. "New West worked very hard on this process and hit on the right formula," Stone says. "They've done an excellentjob meeting very specific requirements." Tony McCamley of New West Cyp sum points out that he has long been recycling the paper covering from drywall but it hasn't always ended up on new sheets. "This new development closes the loop on the paper. There is

Hydrogeologist This critical position will provide high level support and advice to the Works, Planning, and Health Departments on groundwater related issues. Working with complex and technical issues, your responsibility will be to develop and maintain a comprehensive groundwater management plan to identify and document the groundwater flow systems in our region. Your strong public relation skills will help you to coordinate issues related to groundwater and ensure that policies and programs are implemented for the protection of groundwater resources. A civil engineer with strong project management skills, you are a member of the • iPEO, have at least five years' experience in hydrogeology and environmental engineering, and lideally have a Master's in science or hydrogeology. Your knowledge of groundwater systems, iiieh^iistry, and hydrodynamics is coupled with an understanding of related computer

:;|J>fb^ams such as GIS and database management. A thorough understanding of the Planning Act. Ontario Water Resource Act, Environmental Protection Act, and

^^^0tilvFisheries,Act is essential. Your driver's licence, access to a vehicle, and willingness to throughout our region are necessary. File #01-VAC-001W

liffleSsf;iafjply^;Ih. writing quoting the appropriate file number lo: StafHiig Atlvisor, The Regional Municipality of Durham, 605 Rossland Road East, Whitby, Ontario LIN 6A3 Fax:(905)668-9935 e-mail: humanres@reglon.durham.on.ca iifh^m>er,.only those to 'he:

M m intervi^ mil be contacted


Ah Ce/uat itpportiinity Employer

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

For more information, circie repiy card No. 223 (See page 25)


Stormwater Management

New Age products used to construct storm sewer and outfall in waterfront park

Anew storm sewer and outfal were constructed in an envi

ronmentally sensitive public park to improve drainage problems in a waterfront neighbour hood. Known locally in the City of Bande as the Gray Lane Drainage Improvement Project, a 750 mm diameter precast con crete storm sewer was installed in a par cel of land purchased by the City, termi nating at an outfall structure on Lake Simcoe. The challenge to the contractor was to limit any disturbance to the aquatic habitat while constructing the system in


a confined work zone.

The contract required Corm Con struction to install closed sheet piling around the work zone, before construc

tion of the outfall and headwall. City staff believed that, because the work was

at the edge of the lake, the ground con ditions would be poor, with heavy infil tration causing slumping of the excava tion walls. Soil tests indicated that the

outfall location was comprised of sandy silt material that became very dense at greater depths. Corm staff was con cerned that any attempt to install sheet ing would be ineffective, due to the den sity of the native material, and suggested use of an Aqua Dam system to control

By Stephen Mitchell, C.E.T., Corm Construction Sewer & Watermain Limited

Construction of 750 mm diameter precast concrete storm sewer and headwall. lake water from entering the work zone in a safe and environmentally sound manner. City staff concurred with the suggestion, and the project proceeded. The Aqua Dam is an impervious, double celled inner tube-like product that is 30 metres in length by 3.0 metres wide, with a height of 0.9 metres when pumped full of water. The dam forms to the natural terrain with minor distur bance to the shoreline.

The dam was anchored in place with 1.0 X 1.0 metre sand bags that formed a

seal between the shoreline and the dam.

Before the dam was set in place,approxi mately 40 metres ofturbidity curtain were installed at a depth of0.5 metres in close proximity to the Aqua Dam. The dam itself was approximately two metres away from the headwall excavation. Siltation of the near shore aquatic environment was an additional concern.

Although the turbidity curtain would control much ofthe siltation during con struction, an in-line solution was needed

to limit the discharge of silt carried by stormwater. To alleviate this problem, a 3000 mm diameter Stormceptor unit was installed some 18 metres upstream from the outfall. A catch basin installed

in the parking area would intercept siltladen storm water and discharge it into a sewer connected to the Stormceptor unit.

City of Barrie staff designed the project within the requirements of ap proval agencies that included the Lake Simcoe Regional Conservation Author ity (LSRCA), the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans(DFO),and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOB). A Municipal Class Environ mental Assessment (Class EA) was completed according to the requirements of the MOE. Schedule B of the Class

Turbidity curtain and Aqua Dam Installed prior to construction ofstorm sewer outfall headwall. 48

EA included a public meeting to de scribe the project and elicit public in put. The LSRCA commented on the

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Stormwater Management project and forwarded their concern to the City and DFO that the area was con sidered a significant spawning area. The DFO issued a Letter of Advice outlining mitigating measures to prevent harmful

storm sewer and drainage project; how ever, the City tried to accommodate any future design in accordance with an ur ban design, by placing the storm sewer, catch basins, and curbs on only one side

alteration to fish habitat, not

ing that no in-water work would be permitted between April 1 and July 1, 2000. In addition to the regula tory approvals,the design had to account for preservation of as many trees as possible, the master plan of the park that contains future development plans, and a limestone walk way with steps to address con cerns of a special interest user group. The Stormceptor unit was relocated from its origi nal position on the plan to pre

the depth of the footings was a special consideration as was the placement of 450 mm diameter river stone around the

base of the structure. A railing was added as a standard safety precaution. After the public consulta tions, most people were in fa vour of the project. Their greatest concern was siltation, and that was covered by the precautions taken by the con tractor during construction, and the in-line Stormceptor unit. During construction, there were no concerns ex

pressed by local area resi dents, and the project was completed within the short construction period. Products developed late in the twentieth century to facili tate construction in environ

serve a mature tree.

Only half of the Gray Lane Installation of a 3,000 mm diameter Stormceptor unit, some mentally sensitive areas, and 18 metres upstream from the outfall. roadway was constructed be reduce environmental im cause there was no sanitaiy outfall or of the road. pacts, have already become products of pumping station, and funding was not The headwall of the outfall had to choice. The public affected by infra available at that time for the additional drain to the elevation of the high water structure projects are quick to realize work. To accommodate a full roadway mark, and the design had to accommo their benefits. design, additional land needed to be ac date the impact of ice flows on the struc For more information, quired. The project was designed as a ture and wave action. For these reasons. circle reply card No. 126

Point of entry trap removes

New tube diffuser

sediment from stormwater


The new Airflex Tube 1000, with EPDM, urethane or silicone blend membranes, includes two diffusers and one Airflex

SuperSaddle''''^. Each diffuser has 2.42 square feet of active membrane surface area. This compares with a 9" disc dif fuser, which has 0.41 square feet of ac

The RotoFix''''^ is an advanced second

ary treatment unit for domestic and in

tive membrane surface area. The cost of

dustrial wastewater. It is located down

a complete aeration system designed with the Airflex Tube 1000 system is almost always lower than an equivalent disc dif fuser system, because less manifold and header piping, and therefore fewer stain less supports are required. The diffusers themselves, when calculated on a cost per sq. ft. of active membrane area basis, are significantly less expensive than discs.

stream of the primary treatment system (septic tank). The heart of the RotoFix''''*^ is composed of tubular patented medium consisting of multiple internal wings which provide a large contact surface per volume unit. Many sections of the me

Stamford Scientific International www.StamfordScientific.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 127

dium are assembled around a central axle

and held in place by stainless steel or polymer braces forming the rotors of the RotoFix'i''^. These rotors, placed in a ba sin containing the wastewater to be treated, are activated by a low-power mo tor and belt. Ecoflo Ontario

For more information,

circle reply card No. 128

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

A new catchment device, the Point of En try Trap (POET''''^) removes oil, sediment and pollutants from stormwater, before they enter the main drainage system. It also prevents sewer odours from escaping into the environment. Placed at the point of entry to the drainage system, the POET combats dirt and debris at its source. In

stallation is simple. During construction, the crews place it into any standard mu nicipal or OPSD catchbasin that has a flat wall. The POET connects the catchbasin

to the outlet pipe, reducing labour costs. For oil, an optional hydrophobic device absorbs and contains petroleum-based liq uids. For sediment, an optional filter bag captures waste that does not settle into the sump of the catchbasin. Web site: www.poetinfo.com For more Information, circle reply card No. 129


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

1 to PIE

Urecon pre-insulated pipe

Hazardous materials

Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shaiiow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocable® heat tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insuiated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page

storage Chem-Loc Buildings are uniquely designed and manufactured by MakLoc Buildings Inc. to provide safety, security, segrega tion, and secondary con

at: www.urecon.com.

Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 145

tainment of hiazardous ma

terials. Since 1971, multi

national oil and gas companies, the Armed Forces, Govern ment agencies, municipalities and golf courses have chosen Chem-Loc as their economical solution. Tel: 1-888-774-7792, Web site: www.makloc.com. MakLoc Buildings inc. Circle reply card No. 146

EIMCO FlexKlear® inclined

Inclined Plate Settler

Hinged plates allow entire piate pack to shed solids and eliminate high overflow solids.

Maintenance Data Preventive

plate settlers

n/fMaintenance Data Management

Ported launders

dampen irregular velocities, enforce uniform flow. Rugged stainless steel design. Combines readily with TracVac™ sludge collectors. EIMCO Process

SllMaxTask Tnanager

Equipment Company Circle reply card No. 147

rot*ftm and ExistfBg Gfarffieps

Management AIIMax Task Manager (ATM) is a maintenance data management pro gram designed for any maintenanoe manager. Schedule preventive and corrective maintenance tasks; create purchase and work orders; track maintenance costs and inventory lev els, plus more. A multitude of reports such as Cost Reports, Work Order Forecast Reports, Summary Reports and Current inventory Reports are in cluded with the program. Web site: www.op0ratorlO.com


AIIMax Professional Solutions Inc.

Circle reply card No. 148

Armtec to distribute

Leister welding machines for geomembranes Our Leister line of automatic wedge welders, combiwedge machines and hand tools are used in a wide variety of geomembrane applications where the precise welding control is re quired as part of the seaming proc

Chril Engineering and

Nyloplast pipeline fittings Nyioplast America inc. has appointed Armtec Limited as their exclusive Ca

nadian distributor of PVC fittings and surface drainage products. Nyloplast specializes in the development, manufacture and sale of pressure and non-pressure PVC fittings for pipelines. They serve the commer cial, industrial, landscaping, govern

ess. Our products provide excellent field performance and superior reli ability. Tei: (905) 828-1400, Fax: (905)828-1056, www.stanmech.com Stan Mech Agencies Inc. Circle reply card No. 150

ment and other markets with a line

of custom fabricated heavy duty inline drains and drain basins. Armtec Limited

Circle reply card No. 149

Alternate dally cover

Full colour catalogue Techstar Plastics is pleased to intro duce its all new 12-page full colour catalogue. Techstar Plastics is a Canadian supplier of material han dling containers for source separa tion, recycling, waste handling and storage, it has been a leader in ro tational molding in Canada for over

20 years and is ISO 9001 registered for quality assurance. The complete product line is illustrated and full de scription is provided complete with



* No CopM tii»eNi'i>»ii» M^ulrod •. All Woothor TonRolo

* CoMvmof Ho Akspofo * MutTPOoy CxpoMf* Dairy Covor wqvifornoRl*

Daily cover practices have now been made easier with Rusmar's newAC-

677-SE Soil Equivalent Foam. Ben efits include: pennies per square foot cost, no capital investment required, ail weather formula, consumes no airspace, multi-day exposure, meets ail subtitle "D" daily cover require ments.

Rusmar Incorporated Circle reply card No. 152

detailed specifications. S«p2r3tion

Vbtt us at



Techstar Plastics Inc.

Circle reply card No. 151

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Product and Service Showcase Chemical metering pump

New gate valves from Victaulic


Contracting Expertise

Victaulic Com

pany has devel oped a new gen eration of resil

ient-wedge valves it



lighter and easier to install than tra

With more industries using Fieldbus tech nologies, ProMinent introduces the GALA chemical metering pump with a Profibus interface. Through this inter face, the pump can easily be manipulated and monitored from a plant control room. All functions and displays normally available only locally at the pump, can be available at the operator's computer screen. ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd.


NRS grooved-end gate valves feature IPS ends and a Positive Displacement Disk™ (PDD)that provides bubble-tight sealing with minimal torque. Low-torque seal ing and a self-centering disc virtually eliminate stem bending, a common prob lem with conventional wedge-type gate valves. Victaulic

Circle reply card No. 154

Circle reply card No. 153

Compact measurement of free chlorine, pH, Redox and


valves. Series 771 OS&Y and Series 772

Dissolved Air Fiotator® units

Environmental Group Inc.

Focus Environmental Group Inc. pro vides clientele with professional, fullservice environmental contracting sup port to suit site-specific needs,including; Waste management (soil, C&D,liquid); AST, LIST removal and disposal, TSSA Ontario licence 0076596253,TSSA PMI,

PM2, PM3 certified personnel; Soil/ groundwater remediation experti.se; Site/ plant-facility decommissioning; Environ mental restoration.

Focus Environmental Group Inc.

Circle reply card No. 155

Reactor-Clarifier® solidscontact clarifiers

temperature BMCO Eliminate



and money install ing the various components of a chlorine system with

CCEl, a

complete and compact factoryassembled system Hauser. The sys tem comprises inlet and outlet tube con nectors, dirt-trap, outlet check valve and sampling port for DPD calibration. All cables are pre-wired and concealed in a covered wiring duct. Endress+Hauser

Specify a DAF clarifier or thickener mechanism that combines a job-tested design with the economy of pre-engineered components. Drawn from a halfcentury of custom fiotator experience, the component design meets the require ments of any application. EIMCO Process Equipment Company

Circle reply card No. 156

Circle reply card No. 157

Screenings Washer

Sludge dewatering and coagulant control



Monster^'*^ units available

landfill costs. JWC Environmental

The use 6000 sig nal converter from Danfoss eliminates

SCM 500-Se-


ries for sludge dewatering and coagulant con

choosing specific

essential features: SmartTrac FID Con

trol; Sensor Maintenance Module (SMM), automatic sensor wash and chemical rinse; Web Access Control (WAC), provides data logging/storage, access to controls via web browser, vari ous security levels for access/control, and stand-alone internet/intranet capability. Chemtrac

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Signal converter


to complete dig ital control, the new system offers three

Circle reply card No. 159

maximum service life.

EIMCO Process Equipment Company Circle reply card No. 158


trol. In addition

See for yourself how the removed solids are drier, more compacted, lighter and cleaner than typical screened solids. The Screenings Washer Monster™ is a selfcontained system used to grind, wash, compact and de-water screenings cap tured by removal devices. Grinding prior to separation removes soft organics from the screenings, reducing odours and

Rapid mixing,gentle turbine flocculation, clarification and sludge thickening, are combined in a single tank. High influent recirculation and optimum particle growth. Superior heavy-duty design for

Circle reply card No. 160




protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in aeration tanks. De

signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor, this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to -I-70°C with + 0.1° accuracy. Davis Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 161 51

Product and Service Showcase Pump effectively handles sodium hypochlorite

WWTP Modelling 1^


I Mppiii II I I I

On-site wastewater treatment


The Waterloo Biofilter® is a patented aerobic trickle filter designed for efficient York Fluid Controls Limited introduces

treatment of residential and communal —.WH

the new 620R series that effectively han dles sodium hypochlorite applications


wastewaters and landfill leachate. We

Powerful wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation. Dynamic modelling of almost any municipal or in dustrial facility. Optimise the entire plant. The perfect tool for diagnosing process problems or testing capacity. See it at: www.hydromantis.com. Hydromantis Inc. Circle reply card No. 163

and 90-99% coliform in a single pass. (Photograph: RattleSnake Point Golf Club Treatment Facility, Milton, ON). Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 164

Biological activity monitored

Rapid sand filter

Geodesic domes & flat covers

The ALKA-PRO® 300 Series continu

The Ultraflote Ultradome trademark is

Circle reply card No. 165

Hydro-Clear® Rapid Sand Filters are used for a variety of wastewater applications. They feature a unique underdrain system and a shallow bed of single-media, fine grained sand. The filter surface can be "pulsed", prolonging filter runs and keep ing the filter online, despite unpredictable changes. The filter can be backwashed efficiently with significantly less power and water than is required with other types of filters. USFilter Zimpro Products Circle reply card No. 166

Package Wastewater Plants

Enclosed screw pumps

with reduced maintenance downtime.

Ideal for environmental applications, the 620R reliably pumps harsh chemicals and partially crystallized products without vapour locking from product off-gasing. York Fluid Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 162

ously monitors biological activity at criti cal locations in a wastewater treatment

plant, allowing operators to detect and correct upset conditions long before they would become evident by any other avail able test. It automatically controls proc ess equipment, providing accurate real time evaluation ofthe plant's bacteria me tabolism and biomass health. USFilter Davis Products

Adapted to Your Needs

specialize in treating wastewater for im mediate domestic re-use and golf course irrigation. Typical removal rates are >95% TSS and >90% BOD,20-50% TN

now available in the Batten Quad Seal design. Ultraflote, established in 1972, is an international leader in the design, manu facture and installation of geodesic domes and flat covers. Ultraflote's attention to detail has been instrumental in the success

of dealing with dilficult applications re quiring specific engineering and construc tion know-how and experience. Donson Engineering & Contracting

Circle reply card No. 167

Sediment flushing tank

The Internalift® Enclosed Screw

Pump is efficient and reliable -

even in high-vol ume applications. Available in a 4

We have supplied Package Sewage Treat ment Plants worldwide. The Package Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treat ment. It is economical, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any loca tion unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 168 52

wide range of ca pacities, Interna lift pumps can lift 23,000 gpm of stormwater more than 60 feet. Continuously welded flights form the interior of the pump cylinder, and the cylinder turns as a single unit, with no leakage, no friction, no jamming, no plugging. Far less maintenance is re quired, and the enclosed design mini mizes safety, odour and weather con

The Hydrovex® SFT Sediment Flushing Tank is designed to clean the sediments, grit, and debris out of CSO/SSO/stormwater retention tanks. It is designed to tip automatically with no external energy. The total water content of the Hydrovex SFT is released instantly in the chamber, creating a powerful high velocity wave. Made of long-lasting stainless steel, more than 350 units are in operation across

cerns. USFilter CPC Products

USFilter John Meunier Products

Circle reply card No. 169

North America.

Circle reply card No. 170 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Product and Service Showcase Completely destroy RGBs


EAGLEBROOK* Vour Sing/e Source

Enhancing Primary

Reduce Costs and

frnproue Treatment.

Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) With Iron Salts.


www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 171

Improved level measurement and monitoring

Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. is the only Ministry of Environment approved final destruction/incineration facility in On tario. Here, we completely destroy PCBs in an environmentally safe manner, us ing no hazardous chemicals or solutions which themselves require destruction. We are capable of destroying and have safely and totally destroyed or recycled waste electrical equipment from Askarel transformers to light ballasts. Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. Circle reply card No. 172

surface is automatically created and ready for presentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software Circle reply card No. 173

Complete monitoring & control

Wastewater treatment

Circle reply card No. 174

Liquid/solid separation

Round hatches to fit precast

characterization curves. Milltronics

HEC-RAS allows water level results read back into our 12D model. A water level


EnviroRanger,first introduced in 1999,has been enhanced to provide greater function ality. This system combines non-contact ing ultrasonic technology, patented Sonic IntelligenceÂŽ echo-processing technolo gies and proven applications software to meet pump control and level monitoring needs. EnviroRanger is an advanced pump controller, managing up to five pumps in both wet well (pump down) or reservoir (pump up) applications using several op tional control strategies. Milltronics Circle reply card No. 175

Milltronics MiniRanger Plus has an ex tended range up to 15 m(50 ft.) on liquids and 7.5 m (25 ft.) on .solids. Its backlit display gives a read-out as a percentage of full tank volume or in any standard engi neering unit. Operators can choose auto matic level-to-volume conversion for up to eight standard vessel configurations, or open channel flow measurement for weirs and flumes using a total of 11 point flow

Create a HEC-RAS model directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and cre ate inundation maps from the results. Complete integration between 12D and

concrete manhole sections

Paques ADI offers anaerobic wastewater treatment packages to industries having high-strength waste streams and supplies these packages on a design-build basis. Packages range from low-rate to ultrahigh-rate anaerobic and include up stream/downstream processes when re quired to complete a treatment train. Systems range in size from compact(and modular) to large. Paques ADI Circle reply card No. 176

Megadome and Superdome storage buildings The clear span de signs of the Mega dome and Superdome series pro vide the space and clearance for maxi

mum storage ca

pacity and accessi bility. A diversity of size and shape

Parkson recently acquired the HycorÂŽ line ofliquid/solid separation equipment which focuses on headworks screening,convey ing and washing,as well as grit and stormwater management. Screen types range from rotary drum screens(both internally and externally fed), side hill, step screens, moving media screens, gravity disc and climber screens to screening systems with integral conveying and dewatering. Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 177

Standard MSU, all aluminum, round

hatches fit precast manhole sections from 48" to 144" diameters, and are available

in two- and four-door configurations. They are suited for leachate collector manholes in landfill sites. Custom con

figurations are available to meet special applications such as pumping stations. MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 178

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

means these build

ings can meet current requirements and expand along with future business needs. Megadomes and Superdomes can be used to store any type of products that need protection against inclement weather, thereby safeguarding stored investment. Harnois Industries

Circle reply card No. 179 53

Product and Service Showcase Pipeline rehabilitation

Engineering services

Interactive communication


More than two million feet installed and a

decade of low-dig/no-dig pipeline reha bilitation and construction experience. Azurix Lining Systems''^'^' includes: Na

Providing the complete spectrum of serv ices needed to plan, design and construct water and wastewater infrastructure in

cluding: Traditional engineering, design

tional Liner''^', U-Liner™,Channeline''^',

and construction, design/build,SCADA/

Epoxy resin and cement mortar lining. CCTV inspection, grouting and cleaning.

lands/recreational water quality.

Azurix North America

Azurix North America

real time control, and structured wet

RACO Manufacturing's new Catalyst Interactive Communications System combines data and event logging, alarm notifications and status checking into a single package. Catalyst features allow real time, 2-way communications via phone, fax, cell, or paper, remote pro gramming and upgrades, monitoring of up to 256 points, and PLC interface. Summa Engineering

Circle reply card No. 180

Circle reply card No. 181

Circle reply card No. 182

Detection instruments

Laboratory spectrometer

Sludge level monitor

The Odyssey DR/2500 Laboratory Spectrometer will include such advanced features as automatic wavelength selec tion, a touch screen display with a sim ple user interface,easy computer connec

Circle reply card No. 184

Hach Company's new OptiQuant™ sludge level monitor for accurate, fulltime, unattended sludge level monitoring requires minimal maintenance and no sample conditioning. Full-time monitor ing enables plant operators to optimize the extraction of recirculated sludge, compensate for normal fluctuations, cor rect for extreme conditions such as sludge discharged and poor sedimentation. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 185

Immersed ultrafiltration

immersed membranes for


water treatment

MSA's permanent instruments are

designed for con tinuous detection

of LEL, oxygen, toxic, and other

gases. They are used in chemical

and petrochemi cal industries, re

fineries, mining, industrial facilities and wastewater treatment plants where haz ards are present. The most popular in dustrial instruments are the Ultima® Gas

tions, and advanced software. It can also

Monitor,Toxgard® Monitor, DAN® Data Acquisition Network,FlameOard® Flame

read pH with an optional electrode di rectly. A newly designed cell holder al lows the use of many different sizes of sample vials without having to mess with multiple adapters. Hach Company

Detector, and Safeye Open Path Gas Monitor. Cancoppas

Circle reply card No. 183

New BTE Pump/Mixer

The ZeeWeed®

seepex. Inc. has developed and intro duced a new type of open hopper pro gressive cavity pump which incorporates a high volume auger and induction cham ber into the pump design. The unit can be used to pump filter cakes from presses or centrifuges; or, it can be used to mix powders or solids into liquids to form pastes or putties. The pump can handle viscosities to 700,000 cps, paper stock to 12%, and sewage sludge to 32% solids, seepex, Inc. Distributed hy: Performanee Fluid Equipment Inc. Circle reply card No. 186 54

The ZeeWeed®

500 series of im

1000 series ofim

mersed ultrafiltra tion membranes is



brane in the in

branes is specifi cally designed for drinking water

dustry engineered


the only mem

with a reinforced

hollow fiber. The

rugged fibers, combined with an open module design, allow operation in high levels of suspended solids. The mem brane simplifies conventional proces.ses and provides a long membrane life, even under the harshest operating conditions. ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 187


system produces high quality water while making operation and maintenance simpler than ever before. Offering a small plant footprint and low energy consumption, the 1000 series can be used to upgrade any existing filtration plant for capacity and quality. ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 188 Environmental Science c6 Engineering, June 2001

Product and Service Showcase Now available!

Dual rated sampling cylinders

h,r®Ml Canada With both Transport (TC) and U.S.

ROCO robot first In Canada

(DOT) certification, Pea cock's new Hoke dual

stamped sampling cylin ders offer safe, legal solu tions for transporting haz ardous gases and liquids by road, rail, ship or air, any where in Canada and to and from the US. Used in sam

pling of hydrocarbons,gas, nuclear materials and other

An in-depth analysis of drainage pipe per formance and design comparisons of con crete pipe vs HOPE. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Call for your copy now!



critical applications, the.se cylinders, in capacities


from 75 ml to 15 litres, are

manufactured to exacting standards to maximize performance and user safety.

Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products has improved its workplace environment, product quality, and production effi ciency. Standing for "Rings Off Cleaned and Oiled", Centennial's ROCO handling equipment automates the removal of the pallet and header from finished rein forced concrete pipe. The machine then stacks the joint rings, and places the prod uct on a conveyor.

Circle reply card No. 189

Circle reply card No. 190

Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products Circle reply card No. 191

Oil In water monitor

Flow pacing valve

Glass pipe outerwrap

Denso Glass Outerwrap is a water acti vated fibreglass tape that is used for me chanical protection over Denso Petrola tum Tape Systems or as a pipe repair product for cracked or broken pipe. Glass Outerwrap is said to offer exceptional impact and mechanical strength on above or below ground pipes, pilings, and fit tings. Glass Outerwrap is paintable and has an in service temperature from sub

Circle reply card No. 192

The Regal Smartvalve'''''' is an accurate and versatile Flow Pacing Valve for chlo rine or sulphur dioxide. Operating on fully automatic or manual, with an ad justable "low-flow" alarm, it is widely lused for treating water with varying flow rates. The multi function digital display highlights flow rate; valve flow position in pounds per day of actual gas feed rate; mode of operation; and dosage value. Chlorinators Incorporated Circle reply card No. 193

Solids/corrosive liquids pumps

Package potable water

introducing the N-Pumps!



For industrial and municipal measure ments of hydrocarbons in water, Arjay offers the FluoroCheck 2000. Using the selective and accurate technology of fluo rescence, this instrument has been de

signed for quick and easy readings with its automatic sample read feature. Once the unit has been initiated to your site through a simple calibration, prepared samples are in.serted into the unit and the rest is taken care of automatically. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.


zero to 350°F. Denso North America

Circle reply card No. 194

Years of research

coupled with cus tomer demands and


field trials have

Gorman-Rupp T Series^''' pumps are de signed for economical, trouble-free op eration in handling solids-laden liquids and slurries. Pumps feature a large volute design which allows them to reprime automatically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with liquid and a completely dry suction line. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 195

The Pulsapak® is a package potable water treatment plant designed for both munici pal and industrial applications. It com bines two Degremont technologies: the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, and a sand

and anthracite dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak produces clean water equal in quality to that produced by large instal lations. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 196

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

produced a revo lutionary new pump design that combines high ef ficiency with Flygt's clog-free performance. The N-Pump series feature a radical new hydraulic end design which ensures efficient, clog-free, and troublefree pumping over extended periods. The result is improved operational economy due to less downtime, dramatically reduc ing the total life cost of the installation. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 197 55

Wastewater Treatment

Flexible membrane vs. ceramic coarse bubble

diffusers - Who's winning the wastewater war?

The size, shape, and materials of construction of diffused

aeration devices may vary; however, they all tend to be classified as either fine or coarse bub

ble. Coarse bubble diffusers produce a bubble diameter of 6-10 millimetres

(mm), whereas fine bubble diffusers produce 2-5 mm bubbles. The first fine bubble aeration systems

were composed of a ceramic type me dia, either a fused alumina oxide or a silicon oxide material. Those aeration

systems have been around for 80 years and until the 1950s and 1960s they were fairly efficient. However,over time,they have developed problems due to media fouling. Fouling consists of build-up of biofilms and/or deposition of inorganic precipitates that can alter the operating characteristics of the diffusers. Four

general shapes of fine pore diffusers exist: plates, tubes, domes and discs. Porous plastic media was the next step in fine pore diffusers, claiming lighter weight,durability, cost effectiveness and ease of manufacturing. Porous plastic media was made in rigid or non-rigid form. These plastic diffusers were in stalled in the 1980s, but have lost popu larity due to several problems such as media fouling, lack of quality control in the manufacturing process (no uniform air distribution) and emerging cost com petitiveness of other fine pore products. Membrane diffusers that have shown

The evolution of the diffuser product is simpiy one exampie of how the face of the wastewater treatment industry is changing. ate a drastically reduced foul rate. This operating flexibility dominates over the ceramic technology at the present time. Coarse bubble aeration systems were developed in the 1960s and competed against the fine bubble systems because they appeared to be virtually mainte nance free and never lost efficiency. The coarse bubble diffusers seemed to be

fine until energy costs became a major issue in the mid 1970s and 1980s, and

that is how the predominant focus in the wastewater treatment industry began to

the most potential are the flexible mem

turn toward fine bubble devices.

branes made of elastomers or thermo

plastic material. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)is the most common thermoplas tic material, producing a soft, flexible

In the last 10 years, fine pore mem brane technologies made of elastomer, the flexible membrane type, have be come more popular. Their popularity

membrane. Elastomers are made from

stems from the idea that the membranes

rubber or synthetic rubber materials, and

are less susceptible to fouling and oper ate at maximum efficiency longer than the ceramic type of media. Early mem brane products had a very short life and the media deteriorated on its own. Only within the last five years has the tech nology of the elastomers reached matu rity. Most membrane products now have lifespans in excess of five years, often extending to nearly 10 years before any maintenance or replacement of the prod uct is necessary. Cleaning

claim to be more resistant than other

media to fouling and debris infiltration. Flexible membrane diffusers have

better operability and flexibility. Their operability is improved because they are die-cut to create small slits. Since the

size of the slits is controlled, the quality of the product and the air distribution on the product back flow prevention ere-

By Linda Chaloux, Environmental Analyst, Frost & Sullivan, San Antonio, Texas 56

The ceramic coarse bubble diffusers

are like a grinding stone, in that they

have a very porous surface, which must be cleaned by high pressure hosing in combination with a muriatic acid-based

application. This cleaning method is much more intensive than the fine pore membrane, where the membrane, in

most cases, needs only to be cleaned by hosing or scrubbing the media. Energy consumption One other consideration in choosing methods of aeration is energy consump tion. This has typically been the number one reason for replacing the traditional coarse bubble aeration systems with fine pore aeration devices. Fine pore aera tion devices maintain much higher oxy gen transfer efficiency. Since aeration energy consumption does represent 50 to 90 percent of the total energy required by a wastewater treatment plant, and at least 30 percent of an activated sludge plant, it has become essential to mini mize energy costs. And now the ultra-fine... The ultra-fine bubble diffuser is the

newest addition to the diffuser product line. Utilizing a homogenous thermo plastic membrane,the ultra-fine diffuser is able to generate bubbles of approxi mately 1 mm in diameter, as opposed to the 2-10 mm diameters found in the con

ventional coarse or fine bubble systems. This particular diffuser product offers oxygen transfer efficiencies of almost

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001


• Portable Samplers

• Refrigerated Samplers

• Open Channel Flow • FRF Enclosures

• Rain Gauges/loggers • Software

N:4M Call 1-800-215-4469 or

Email: can-am @can-am.net


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Email: can-am @can-am.net or

Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Sales * Service * Rentals

Fax: 905-829-4701 www.can-am.net

Wastewater Treatment

two times that of conventional fine bub ble ceramic or membrane discs. The ultra-fine bubble diffusers also

come in a different form: a flat plate or panel version. This much larger model of aeration diffuser products encom passes an increased aeration basin, of fering greater oxygen dispersion. Ad ditionally, the smaller bubbles and the larger surface area combine to produce a longer retention time of the bubbles with the suspended solids. This technology has been proven to last at least 10 years before replacements are required, which is much greater than the 3-5 year range originally given some other fine bubble diffuser products. Ad ditionally, although clean water tests only put this device at 30 percent greater efficiency than fine bubble products, in situ or dirty water tests reveal efficien cies as great as 200 percent better than earlier fine bubble products. The largest disadvantage of this type of system is the relatively high initial cost compared to other aeration devices. However, in areas where energy costs are extremely high, this system could prove its economic benefits within a very short time-span.

The primary factor that end-users need to consider is the life cycle cost of the product. It is never just the initial installation figure, but it is the operations and maintenance. try has been swinging toward the mem

Who is the winner?

Many large wastewater treatment plants and large cities continue to choose the coarse bubble ceramic products be cause of replacement costs. Very large plants have maintenance budgets, but they do not have a large capital expendi ture budget where they can afford to re place the diffusers every few years. However, smaller installations are

finding the benefits and energy savings of the flexible membrane diffusers far

outweigh the cleaning and/or replace ment costs.

Some industry participants believe that flexible membrane diffusers are the

best technology,capturing as much as 75 percent of the diffuser market; they are the first choice for replacements and ret rofits. Additionally, most competitors to day only manufacture the membrane type, so that is another reason the indus

brane. With the addition of the ultra-fine

bubble technology, diffuser product manufacturers are able to offer the

wastewater treatment industry a product in almost every cost and size category. The primary factor that end-users need to consider is the life cycle cost of the product. It is never just the initial installation figure, but it is the operations and maintenance, replacement fees, labour required, and effluent quality. The evolution of the diffuser prod uct is simply one example of how the face of the wastewater treatment indus

try is changing, and should prompt endusers to calculate with their limited dol

lars, which system is the best fit, and will provide the greatest result for the longest period of time. For more information, contact: www.frost.com.

ENGINEERING EXCELLENCE TSH is a multi-disciplinary engineering firm with ten branch offices located throughout the province of Ontario. We provide consulting services to public and private sector clients throughout the province. Our continued growth has resulted in the following career opportunity:

THERMO-SYSTEM Solar Sludge Drying

ManagerA/ice-Presldent, Environmental Science This newly created role will provide client services for projects involved in environmental issues including project management. Expectations will include the development of new business and building and leading a team of environmental specialists. The necessary qualifications for the position include at least 10 years experience in environmental assessment processes for infrastructure projects in Ontario, an M.Sc. or preferably Ph.D in Biology, Ecology, Water Science or a related discipline. The ideal candidate will possess specialized experience in aquatic habitat assessment and compensation strategies. Location is flexible.

This career position offers long-term growth and stability, opportunity for future share engineers ownership and comprehensive architects planners benefits. We invite you to fax your resume in confidence to Tanya Currie, Recruiting Coordinator, at:(905)668-0221 or email: tcurrie@tsh.ca. Visit our website at: www.tsh.ca

for a greater appreciation of our operations and possible future together. We thank all candidates for their interest, however, only those invited for interviews will be contacted. TSH is an equal opportunity employer. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

The Thermo-System Solar Dryer is an energy-efficient system designed to dry sludges to over 75% solids. The combination of solar heat, convection heat, an electric "mole" and a micro

processor creates optimum drying conditions and reduces operator attention. Call us for our brochure.

>IPARKSON CORPORATION 9050 Ryan Avenue, Dorval, QC H9P 2M8 Tel: 514-636-8712 Fax 514-636-9718

e-mall: canada@parkson.com www.parkson.com An Axel Johnson Inc. Company

For more information, circie reply card No. 225 (See page 25)

Laboratory Accreditation

CAEAL and SCC help to bring potable water to Latin America

TwoCanadian organizations wil be helping coun

tries in Latin America and the Caribbean to pro vide clean, safe, drinking water for their people. The Standards Council of Canada(SCC)and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Labo ratories(CAEAL),have agreed to work with the Pan Ameri can Health Organization (PAHO) to provide accreditation services to water testing laboratories, in order to ensure the

provision of reliable, accurate testing of drinking water. This voluntary program will be similar to SCC and CAEAL's Canadian laboratory accreditation program, which is based on ISO/IEC 17025, the international standard for

technical competence and quality in all areas of testing and calibration. Under the agreement: • PAHO will apply the program through their Lima, Peru, laboratory, Centra Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente (CEPIS), promote it throughout the region, and work with CAEAL to provide site assessment and proficiency testing;

•CAEAL will conduct the site assessments and operate the proficiency testing program in conjunction with CEPIS; and •SCC will accredit the laboratories, based on CAEAL's rec ommendations.

"This partnership is further proof of Canada's commit-

R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited is an experienced engineering and consulting firm with over 150 full-time staff. Our services include:

• Land Use, Water Supply and Drainage Planning • Waste, Wastewater and Stormwater Ivlanagement • Transportation, Structures and Bridge Design • GIS Applications and Satellite Remote Sensing For more information on these services and our other

specialized divisions including Burnside Environmental and Burnside Golf Services, contact:


Value, Innovation and Service since 1970 15 Townline. Orangeville, Ontario, Canada L9W 3R4 Tel; 519 941-5331 Fax:519 941-8120

E-mail: lnfo@rjburnside.com www.rjburnside.com

Canadians are helping to bring potabie water to Peru. ment to leadership in international standardization," said Pe ter Clark, executive director of the Standards Council. Dr.

Rick Wilson,executive director of CAEAL,says:"Our pro gram is rigorous and has received international recognition, yet it is inexpensive because it is based on volunteers."

Dr. Peter Toft, Manager, Special Projects for PAHO's Health and Environment Program, noted:"Many countries in the Latin America and Caribbean Region lack a compre hensive program for accrediting drinking water labs. We are very pleased that Canada is willing to help." Accreditation is the formal recognition of an organiza tion's competence to carry out certain functions. By verify ing that laboratories have the appropriate people,equipment and skills, the accreditation program will help to ensure the reliability of their results. The Pan American Health Organization is an international

public health agency. It serves as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization(WHO),and as the health organization of the Inter-American System. PAHO's mission is to strengthen national and local health systems and improve the health of the peoples of the Ameri

cas, in collaboration with ministries of health, other gov ernment and international agencies, non-governmental or ganizations, universities, social security agencies, commu nity groups, and many others. The Standards Council of Canada is the Federal Crown

corporation that oversees the National Standards System. Its Program for Accreditation of Laboratories - Canada (PALCAN) has accredited over 250 laboratories in a vari

ety of general testing and specialty areas. PALCAN and its partners (including CAEAL), have jointly obtained inter national recognition from the Asia Pacific Laboratory Ac creditation Cooperation (APLAC) and the International

i Orangeville • Brampton * Newmarket• Vaughan • Colhngwood • Stratford • Wmgham • Ottawa

For more information, circle reply card No. 226 (See page 25)

Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC). The Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories is a not-for-profit association of public and private sector laboratories. A principal objective of the as sociation is to promote and maintain a high level of assur ance in analytical test data. To this end, CAEAL manages proficiency testing and site assessment programs that are tailored to meet the specific needs of environmental testing laboratories. ❖

Environmentai Science & Engineering, June 2001

Contaminated Sites

Hunger striker wins action on Sydney tar ponds

A17day hunger strike on Par

posures are found to pose a health risk

liament Hill by the executive

to the residents.

director of the Sierra Club of

Ms. May spent each weekday during the hunger strike in front of the Peace

Canada ended May 20, 2001. The government has promised to relocate families at risk who are living in the neighbourhoods adjacent to the Sydney Tar Ponds,Canada's worst toxic waste site. Attorney Elizabeth May ended her hunger strike after a statement issued by Canadian Health Minister

Government of Nova Scotia website:

an estimated 40,000 tonnes are

polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), more than 20 times the amount of toxic

sludge from New York's infamous Love Canal.

Twelve years ago the federal and pro vincial governments launched a $34 mil

The Canadian Health Minister's

lion project to clean up the Tar Ponds.

Taxpayers spent $60 million on an in

AquaTerre Solutions Inc. is pleased

cinerator to burn sludge from the ponds, but the piping system to transport the toxic waste did not work and the project

to announce that Mr. Lee D. Howell

statement is the substance of a letter sent

was abandoned.

to Nova Scotia Minister of Health, Jamie Muir,and to Ronald Russell, chair of the

Just upstream from the Tar Ponds,the 51 hectare(126 acre) coke oven plant is

Treasury and Policy Board, on May 14. It provides that the following four steps be taken immediately: • soil sampling and analysis of residen tial property, as well as blood and hair analysis of the residents; • design of a chronic health risk assess

now a broken field of coal black rubble

counseling; and • concurrent development of relocation and remedial contingency plans in the

and wild grass. Benzene,toluene, kero sene, napthalene, and tar were commer cial by-products created by the coke plant. The Sierra Club says the coke plant's benzene tank leaked for years and 'a substantial amount of the ground is saturated with the deadly chemical'. Ms. May now intends to ensure that the province of Nova Scotia commits to relocation as soon as possible, that any hair and blood tests be done by inde pendent, out of province experts, and

event that contamination levels and ex

that no work start on the coke ovens site


• meetings with affected residents to ex

plain the preliminary findings and offer

Lee Howell joins Aqua Terre

The Sydney Tar Ponds contain 700,000 tonnes of toxic sludge, of which

Allan Rock's office committed the fed

acres in Sydney, Nova Scotia.


Tower on Parliament Hill.

eral government to take steps that will end what Ms. May calls 15 years of "deny and delay." The now defunct Sydney Steel Mill left more than one million tons of toxic waste over 300

until after people are moved.

has joined our Toronto office as a Senior Project Manager. Lee has over 17 years of experience in the en vironmental industry as both a con sultant and a regulator with the MOE and TSSA. He has been instrumen

tal in the development of recent envi ronmental guidelines, policies and legislation and possesses expert knowledge of the working relationship between regulators and the regulated community. As such, we feel his ex perience will provide an invaluable benefit to our clients.

Aqua Terre is a leader in the field of environmental consulting. Contact us at:(416)635 5882, or visit our web site at: www.aquaterre.ca to learn more about our services.



Dispose of your PCB wastes safely & economically at THE PCB incinerator site in Ontario Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd will destroy the PCBs from: • All transformers of any size • Light ballasts • Cable

• Capacitors • All PCB wastes

Our facility is conveniently located just

PCB waste is stored in

bermed,steel buildings until it is put through

off the 401 near Colbome Ontario


Call our specialists today! For safe and efficient disposal of your PCB wastes.


Phone:905-355-3046 • Fax:905-355-5480• email: gary@steacydismantling.com • www.steacydismantling.com Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 227 (See page 25)


Air Pollution

Ontario tackles US and domestic

air poiiution sources

Although more than half of

lion dollars over the next three years to

ronmental offences.

Ontario's smog comes from

reduce emissions at three of its coal-fired

sources south of the border,

plants. This environmental initiative

Smog and acid rain are regional is sues that must be tackled through co

Ontario has taken strong ac

includes the installation of Selective

ordinated regional efforts. This is why

tion at home to reduce emissions from

Catalytic Reduction (SCR) equipment

Ontario intervened before US courts in

major sources. The province says its plan is the most comprehensive of its kind in North America, focussing on smog and climate change-causing emis sions from a variety of sources.

at the Nanticoke and Lambton Generat

support of the US Environmental Pro tection Agency's (EPA) efforts to cap

ing Stations and low-NO^^ bumers at the

emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO^,) Lakeview Generation Station. The new equipment is expected to reduce NO^, from Midwestem states. It is also why

• implemented the new Air Quality

emissions by 13,000 tonnes a year. Ontario is also developing stringent emissions caps and has announced an expansion of mandatory emissions re porting requirements to all industrial sectors. As well, emission performance standards are being developed for all electricity sold in Ontario. Ontario is backing its tougher rules with stronger enforcement and increased

Ontario initiative to ensure all Ontarians

penalties. The government has an

have early and improved access to air quality information.

nounced the creation of an environmen

NOjjand SO,at rates three to seven times

tal SWAT team. As well, Ontario has

higher than Ontario Power Generation. Ontario's acid deposition and smog prob

The Province of Ontario has: •introduced strict air emission limits and

mandatory monitoring and reporting re

quirements for the electricity generat ing sector;

• placed a freeze on the sale of all coalfired generating plants pending an en vironmental review;

Ontario Power Generation has an

nounced it will spend a quarter of a bil

introduced the highest fines and longest jail sentences in Canada for major envi



Ontario made a commitment to meet or exceed the US EPA standards for the

electricity sector, once implemented. Some facts on transboundary pollution

• Ontario's sulphur dioxide (SO^) and nitrogen oxide (NO^^) emissions pale in comparison to emissions from compa rable US states. Eor every kilowatt-hour of electricity, US Midwest states such as Ohio,Michigan,Indiana and Illinois emit

lems cannot be solved without substan-

Golder Associates is helping its clients maintain the balance

between industrial development and the environment. With innovative services like environmental risk

assessment, remote sensing and GIS modelling, plus traditional services, such as surface and

groundwater management, strategic planning and biological assessments, site assessment and remediation, and environmental

, Golder Associates Geotechnical, Environmental & Mining Solutions

1 800 414-8314 Offices throughout Canada, the United States, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America

impact analysis, Golder Associates has the expertise that clients have trusted for 40 years. With the integrated team of environmental and geotechnical specialists behind our name, our professionals can meet all of your environmental needs.


For more information, circle reply card No. 220 60

(See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Air Pollution

tial reductions in US emissions.

• Acid deposition and smog problems in the US are, for the most part, caused by US emissions. US states contribute more than 50% to Ontario's smog and have 217 coal-fired power plants- while Ontario has only five. • Ontario is more reliant on nuclear and

hydraulic power generation than US states. Three-quarters of Ontario's elec tricity comes from hydro and nuclear power plants. • Due to the importance of clean gen eration technologies in Ontario, the province's emissions per unit of electric ity generated are much lower than those of nearby US states. Ontario's electric ity system produced less than two

grams of NO,^ and SO^ for every kilo watt-hour generated in 1998. Ohio's sys tem produced over 10 grams. Ohio's

Ontario's smog problems are moving north. Usually, Toronto's CN Tower and sky line are clearly visible from this vantage point on the Oak Ridges fJloralne, a dis tance ofsome 30 kilometres. On June 15, during a smog advisory, the Tower and skyline disappeared and only a vague outline of Richmond Hill's church steeples could be seen, a distance of only 3 kilometres. ES&E photo

cause acid rain. The province is also com-

emissions. As such,the strategies for re

tonnes, compared to Ontario's total of

mitted to a further 50% reduction by 2015 to keep Ontario ahead of the US.

ducing emissions need to be different. • Ontario's coal-fired power plants meet

total emissions amounted to 1,500,000 200,000 tonnes.

• It is important to note that sources of

the US Clean Air Act standards for

• Even New York produced over

NOj^ in the United States differ from

300,000 tonnes of NO^ and SO^ -50%

those in Ontario. In the eastern half of

NO^, while clearly beating US stand ards for SOj.

more than Ontario.

the US, emissions from electricity gen

• With respect to fossil-fueled generat ing stations, Ontario is well ahead of the

eration account for 33% of total NOj^

US EPA in reducing SO^ emissions that

• Critics comparing US and Ontario power plants often forget to mention that the US SIP Call's tough standards are only emissions. In Ontario,electricity genera tion accounts for less than 15% of N0„ in force for five months of the year. ❖

New staff appointments

Need to sell any surplus equipment?

for Azurix Azurix North America is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Phil Sidhwa to the position of Vice President, Residuals Management,for Canada.

ES&E reaches over

19,000 water,

Mr. Sidhwa brings 20 years of experience in the biosolids management field, both in the government and private sectors. For 12 years Mr.Sidhwa was the President and

wastewater and environmental

"m <l>



protection professionals across Canada.

CEO of Terratec Environmental, a suc Phil Sidhwa

cessful biosolids management company.

He will work closely with municipal clients, regulators and the public in the delivery of residuals management programs in Canada and specifically Ontario. Azurix North America's biosolids operations in Ontario serve a population of approxi mately 4 million.

E c

In Ontario, Azurix maintains biosolids partnerships with the


Regional Municipalities of Halton, Waterloo and Niagara, and


Call us at:

(905)727-4666 1-888-254-8769

for special rates Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

the Cities ofToronto,Hamilton,Windsor,Kingston and Belleville. Azurix North America provides a full range of water and wastewater services,including engineering, operations and main tenance, underground infrastructure rehabilitation,carbon regen eration and biosolids management.

Azurix biosolids beneficial reuse programs include: land appli cation, pelletizing, composting and lime stabilization. Azurix employs more than 1,000 people across North America, with 350 located in Ontario.




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Natural Systems, Water Reuse & Small Communities • Current Issues

• International & Public Education Issues

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For more information, circle reply card No. 218(See page 25)


Two governments bid to save unique Canadian bog

The largest domed peat bog on

the west coast of North

America could be perma nently protected if a financial offer made by the Canadian and British Columbia govemments is accepted. The announcement, made by federal and pro vincial government ministers, is worth $105 million and includes the creation

fox, black tailed deer, black bear, por cupine, bobcat, beaver, snowshoe hare, spotted skunk, the northwestern jump ing mouse and the rare southern red backed vole.

But animal life is only part of Burns Bog's story. Bogs are a type of wetlands where peat accumulates. Over thou sands of years, sphagnum mosses,

of new parks in EC's south ern Gulf Islands.

the bog since the 1940s, and roads have encroached on its boundaries. Burns

Bog has been subject to more dramatic threats in recent years. The bog is home to the largest garbage dump west of Toronto, Ontario. Almost a quarter of EC's solid waste is trucked into the

dump daily, amounting to 500,000 tonnes of garbage a year. According to the Burns Bog Conservation Society, the City of Vancou

The new national and pro vincial parks will protect a key portion of the Strait of Geor gia Lowlands-one of the last remaining natural regions in southern Canada not yet rep

ver makes $22 million in

profit annually from the gar bage dump,in addition to free dumping privileges. Two years ago. Delta Eraser Properties Partnership and the BC government agreed to undertake an ecosys

resented in Canada's national

parks system. Spread over 12 islands, the

tem review to decide what is

GulfIslands National Reserve

will total about 1,200 hectares (2,965 acres). In addition,

Au *â– Si' I ^ I 1. both governments have put up funding to purchase the mostly privately-owned Bums Bog. The bog lies south of The bog is home to more than 200 species of birds, including Vancouver and covers about the great blue heron. 3,000 hectares (7,413 acres) of the

leaves and roots accumulate faster than

Eraser River delta between the south arm

they can be decomposed, and peat forms. This peat supports unique plant

of the Eraser River and Boundary Bay. Its size and biological diversity have earned it the description of"lungs of the Lower Mainland", the geographic term given to Vancouver and its suburbs. In a broader context, the bog is a carbon sink, absorbing greenhouse gas pollut ants such as carbon and methane.

But the bog's future has long been uncertain. As far back as the 1970s, the

provincial government has been in volved in discussions with private land owners on the potential purchase of at least part of Bums Bog. Almost two thirds of the bog, about 2,200 hectares (5,500 acres), is now owned by a devel opment company. Delta Eraser Proper ties Partnership. According to Environment Canada, Burns Bog is globally unique on the basis of its size, chemistry and plant life. It is home to more than 200 species of birds, including the great blue heron. Greater Vancouver's largest population of bald eagles and the threatened greater sandhill crane.

Mammals at the bog include the red

communities able to thrive in water

logged, acid and nutrient-poor condi tions. Only 17 percent of Canada's origi nal wetlands remain and BC has one per cent of the country's total wetlands. Besides moss unique to Burns Bog, there are a variety of rare insect species, including two sub-arctic species of the Blue Darner dragonfly. Several nation ally and provincially listed species of wildlife including the Pacific water shrew live in Burns Bog. Where flora has been left undisturbed, plants reach extremes of adaptation such as dwarfed pines, insect eating plants and acid pro ducing mosses. But undisturbed areas of Burns Bog are scarce and constantly under threat.

Eorty per cent of the original bog area has been lost to development and more than half the remaining bog has been disturbed by human activities. The bog is cut off from adjacent natural ecosys tems by urban, industrial and agricul tural development. While peat has been extracted from

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

needed to preserve the bog's ecological integrity. In April 2000, the Burns Bog Ecosys tem Review Synthesis Report concluded that 2,450 hectares

(6,054 acres) are required to preserve the ecological integ rity of Bums Bog and to sus tain its distinct processes and life forms. Talks over the future of Burns Bog began in early April 2001 between gov ernment officials and Delta Eraser Prop erties Partnership. In a statement, both provincial and federal government said the funding commitments would allow the province to proceed with a formal purchase offer, based on current ap praised values,to acquire the Bums Bog. "Details of the partnership contribu tions will be made public if and when a purchase offer is accepted and the pur chase is completed. This announcement brings us one step closer to achieving a long time personal goal of mine - en suring permanent protection for Bums Bog," said Ian Waddell, who was, then, BC Environment Minister.

Bob Peart, executive director for the

BC chapter of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS), con gratulated the BC government and federal Environment Minister David

Anderson. "This biodiversity package is one of the most significant conser vation announcements for private and public land that has ever occurred in North America," said Peart. â?– 63

Optimizing Pumping Systems

Life cycle pumping costs of major importance to pump users worldwide

The European association for

pump manufacturers. Europump, decided in 1997, on a

Swedish initiative, to establish

a working group called Enersave. The purpose was to formulate guidelines to help users, consultants and design engi neers to optimize pumping systems with regard to the whole life cost. In 1998,


□ ■

the North American association for

pump manufacturers, the Hydraulic In stitute, decided to join the project and an agreement was achieved to make a common guideline. ABS' Technical Director Kjell Alfredsson was heavily involved from the very beginning, and was appointed secretary for the project. "It has been an interesting project with more than 40 people involved on both sides of the

Energy cost

Other costs | Maintenance



Typical LCC cost division for a medium-sized industrial pumping system, where the initiai cost only accounts for a very small part of the total life cost (diagram included In the Enersave guideline).

Atlantic Ocean. All the international

pump suppliers involved in the project have taken an active part in the group work, giving a good mix of different

Initial cost

opinions and input. "The project has, to a large extent, also been influenced by pump users,

We, as major pump manufacturers, could, of course, do our own estimations, but only the people using our prod-

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Environmental Science <& Engineering, June 2001

Optimizing Pumping Systems

What is Life Cycle Cost? The life cycle cost(LCC)of any piece of equipment is the total "lifetime" cost to purchase, install, operate, maintain, and dispose of that equipment. Deter mining LCC involves following a methodology to identify and quantify all of the components of the LCC equation. When used as a comparison tool between possible design or overhaul alter natives, the LCC process will allow the most cost-effective solution within the limits of the available data.

ewer and wo.-icmcnt:i irie.-uciiiig Model dual drainage and other complex

The LCC equation can be stated as; LCC =(C. +Cin +C-I-C-I-C -rC-i-C + Cd ^ ic e o m s ei '


C -- cost element

C.ir ce

= initial cost, purchase price (pump, system, pipe, auxiliary) = installation and commissioning energy costs


= operating cost (labour cost of normal system supervision) = maintenance cost (parts, man-hours) = down time, loss of production


= environmental costs



systems of both open and closed conduits Use Rational, SCS, SWMM Runoff and many otlier hydrology methods Design/analyze separate/combined systems Handle flow reversals and looped systems Directly import GIS and other database data Simulate, pumps, orifices, weirs regulators multiple outfalls and real time control


: decommissioning

ucts in daily operation year after year, could give us the whole picture. "Pump users have, therefore, been included in the project group, and the whole package has been circulated to both European and American users and consultants for comments, which have

been well considered in the guideline." Why is LCC important? LCC (life cycle cost) is especially important when it comes to existing pump installations. Existing systems provide a greater opportunity for sav ings through the use of LCC methods, than new systems do. "Eirst of all, there are at least 20 times

as many existing pumping systems, as are newly built each year. Another ma jor reason is that many of these have pumps or controls that are much less energy-efficient than they could be. This is due to the fact that the applications and pumping tasks have changed over


time," explains Alfredsson. Studies have shown that 30-50% of

the energy consumed by pump systems could be saved through equipment or control system changes,i.e., by optimiz ation of existing systems. "The long-term focus on LCC and cost-effective pumping at ABS can be likened to the iceberg. This symboli cally demonstrates how the purchase price, which is seen above the water sur face, is only a small part of the whole LCC. Energy and maintenance costs are hidden below the water level but account

for the major part of the costs through out the entire life of the pump." The complete Enersave guideline, A Guide to Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Pumping Systems, is a 200 page book.

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Water Supply

The need for asset management in today's waterworks industry lot of organizations will have duplicate data sets. For example, the operations group may have a hydrant database that is being used for maintenance schedul ing and the engineering department may have a separate database for hydraulic analysis. Trying to manage duplicate data sets is very cost-ineffective and dif

Elements of an Asset Management System PM Programs Act vities






- .r

'93?^="^ Analysis

Gond ition

'Gopitai Rroaramsao











ficult to maintain.

There is a significant effort and knowledge base required to create and


maintain an accurate asset information Tools


Query Tools

rData Management

Document Manage



Today's waterworks managers have a lot more to think about

then they did 20 years ago. Environmental issues, balanc


Figure 1

• 30% of unhappy customers won't tell you but they will tell ten others; satis fied customers will only tell three others about their experience.

ing operational efficiency against safe • 60% of customers who feel snubbed levels of service are all new manage will switch services. ment challenges. All this didn't happen • 68% will switch services when they overnight, although the Walkerton dis perceive an attitude of indifference by aster makes it appear that way. Now that staff. we are operating under regulations and Operations managers have a major not guidelines,our industry must change challenge in trying to improve customer the way it does business. relations. They have to know what their Today's water managers must have organization is doing wrong, as well as well-documented work procedures and what they are not doing, before they can must be fully knowledgeable of the start making improvements. Knowledge from information water system's structural, hydraulic and water quality integrity. Most impor Informed decision-making is based tantly, they must be in tune with their on knowledge of the water system as sets and the customers that it serves. To customers' needs and concerns. Typi cally, they don't have the information, gain that knowledge, a waterworks organization requires a dependable, tools or trained staff to gain the neces sary knowledge. well-managed source of accurate infor Fortunately, things are changing in mation. Information, therefore, must be

There are many sources of digital and hard copy data throughout an or ganization. Some of it will be accurate and relevant, while other data sets may be obsolete and difficult to maintain. A

cause undue stress on some members of

considered as valuable as the assets

waterworks industry. Technology is ad vancing "at the speed of thought". Hard ware is more powerful, networks are getting faster, and the variety and sophis tication of applications is improving. Understanding your customers Recent surveys have indicated that from a customer satisfaction per spective:

themselves. For information to be valu


value will be sometime in tbe future.

With this information, a manager can start to develop more cost-effective, longer term maintenance and rehabili tation strategies. Getting started Asset Management Systems involve people,the infomiation they use to make decisions, and the technology and ap plications that manage that information. The first step involves a review of an organization's current business prac tices. It is important to take into con sideration the positive as well as the negative impacts that the introduction of new technology can have on an or ganization. Undoubtedly, change can

the business world that can benefit the

By Jamie Powell, Ainley Group

system. The level of effort required to keep asset information cument and accu rate is significantly more then the cost of the support technology, the application software and the ongoing staff training. Asset Management More and more waterworks manag ers are implementing some form of Asset Management, which is the com prehensive and structured planning process for optimizing the life cycle value of physical assets. A key building block of Asset Man agement is information management. Simply put, managers cannot make costeffective decisions unless they have ac curate information at their fingertips. Today's managers find this to be one of their biggest challenges. The Asset Management process Asset Management is a cyclical process requiring current and accurate information about the physical assets (i.e. watermain size and age), their cur rent condition (i.e. structural, hydraulic), the assets' current value, and a predic tion or understanding of what the assets'

able however, it must have a high de gree of integrity, be readily available and be presented in a manner appropriate to the decisions being made. The value of information increases dramatically when it is used and shared.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Water Supply the organization, sometimes to the ex tent that they may choose to take early retirement. More often than not, the

change,if properly managed, has a posi tive impact on staff when they accept the new work processes and the support ing applications that make their work

of effort for information collection, and

that it is required to reduce data costs. Two options are: • A vendor-driven solution, or

Secondly, an organization's

mined in order to develop the best implementation strategy. In-house training for your key staff may be considered, so that they are on board when the time comes to go


• Remember, data should come first.

• A common, open standard such as the Municipal Infrastructure Data Standard

Don't run out and buy the latest version of software if you don't have any data to put into it. • Regardless of which Asset Man agement System you ultimately select to improve your business processes, the software is only the Business icing on the cake. It is all the Solutions preparation that makes it work and, to do that, you need a good recipe. • Keep in mind that there have been many successful Asset Man agement System implementations, so you don't have to reinvent the


time more effective. technical skills must be deter

Figure 1, are essential to the successful implementation of the system.

The Investment Ratio Technology Infrastructure

People Skills

10% 5%



The need for a data standard

Significant progress has been made in the last decade to develop municipal/utility standards for wa

wheel. Talk to other waterworks

ter, sewer and road information. A

lot of utilities/municipalities are beginning to realize the impor tance of information sharing and maintaining data integrity for common data items used in the various

computerized systems. It is well recog nized that information exchange be tween systems is necessary to improve overall management,reduce duplication

75% Information

The right solution depends on the size of the organization and the level of tech nical support it can provide. The elements of an enterprise-wide Asset Management System, depicted in


managers who have gone through the process. Each one will have a slightly different experience but they all have benefited from the exercise in the long run. As well, there are numerous books, magazine articles and consultants available to help you through the process. For more information, circie reply card No. 198


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

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PCB Disposal

PCBs- still a potent problem

Themere mention ofpolychlo-

rinated biphenyls can still cause many people to shudder. These once life-saving chemi cals have been blamed for everything from cancer to low intelligence. The push has been on since the 1980s to rid ourselves of this material and everything with which it has come into contact.

Yet there is still a large volume of PCB contaminated equipment both in use and in storage. Apparently, many generators of PCBs, with waste in stor age, are still holding on to their inven tories, hoping that prices will fall or per haps that the regulations will change. However,due to the price of petroleumbased products, prices are starting to

The chemical itself is not yet proven to be a highly toxic health hazard. It is a persistent chemical, however, in that it does not readily break down in the en vironment and it also bioaccumulates. But the real hazard in PCBs is when

they are degraded through heat at a rela tively low temperature, less than 1,000 degrees Celsius. At low temperatures.

Since its inception in 1987,the Swan Hills treatment centre in Alberta has

processed close to 200,000 tonnes of waste, much ofthis PCB waste. Our com

pany's privately owned and operated PCB

Even cooking utensils such as electric skillets may contain high levels of PCBs.

waste incinerator in Colbome, Ontario,

started operation in 1998 and has proc essed over 3,500 tonnes of PCB waste

since receiving its Certificate ofApproval. Add to these incinerators the companies that are decontaminating waste equip ment with solvents and sodium-based

solutions and you have large amounts of PCBs that have been processed.

By John Crowe, Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd.

creep upward and the regulations are changing. They are becoming more strict. Equipment that had been consid ered PCB-free may soon be considered PCB-contaminated.

So why all the fuss about getting rid ofPCBs? After all, because of their very high flash point and great stability, they were used in everything from electrical equipment to newsprint to floor tiles. Even cooking utensils such as electric skillets may contain high levels ofPCBs.

such as in a house fire or transformer

fire, the PCBs release polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlori nated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and quaterphenyls (PCQs) into the atmos phere. These are proven health hazards. Even the burning out of a simple fluo rescent light ballast can release a small cloud of acrid smoke contaminated with dioxins and furans. It was the dioxins and furans in the PCB-contaminated rice

oil incidents in Japan and Taiwan in

ES&E Magazine presents:

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Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering conference and workshops April 9 & 10, 2002 Regal Constellation Hotel, Etobicoke (Toronto), Ontario Now in its fourth year, our tradeshow is held in conjunction with our highly successful conference. Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, and Canadian Environmental Regulation & Compliance News, the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow is designed to be a low-cost, high quality opportunity for you to network with existing and potential clients.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

PCB Disposal 1968 and 1978 that started the PCB hys teria ofthe'70s and '8Gs. The PCBs were

and some was possibly saved by an economy-minded landfill or yard opera

thermally degraded during the cooking

tor to be burned in an oil-fired heater.

which formed the toxins.

The limit now in Ontario is 200 ppm. Presently, incineration is the only

Generally, an article containing a concentration of50 parts per million (ppm) or more of

eration may be replaced. Whether or not a limit of 2 ppm comes into effect nationally under the proposed amendments to the Chlorobiphenyls Regulations and to the Stor age of PCB Material Regu lations under the Canadian

PCB was considered PCB

Environmental Protection

material, except for Sas

Act, there is still a large in ventory of PCB contami nated waste held in storage. The Ministry ofthe Environ ment in Ontario has begun a push to convince holders of these inventories to dispose

katchewan where the limit is

5 ppm. Until the CCME guidelines for Transformer Decontamination were re

cently adopted, Ontario, un der the Gott's Rule, allowed PCB-contaminated trans

of them sooner rather than

formers of up to 500 ppm to

later. The longer this waste is kept in storage,the greater

be sent to landfills and other

non-regulated sites as long as they were carefully

the risk of containers dete

drained and redrained. It has

risk of an incident.

riorating and the greater the

been our experience that even with the most carefully

Until the waste is re

ceived at a regulated waste drained transformers, one or This skille t contained PCB contaminated oil at 587,000 ppm. disposal site, holding a more barrels of residual PCB Certificate of Approval for oil that had leached out of the porous way to totally destroy all traces ofPCBs that waste, ownership and,therefore,the materials could still be drained from a while leaving no contaminated residues consequences of any incident, remain truckload of transformers. or other contaminated substances; how with the generator. Perhaps some of this oil that could ever, great strides have been made in For more information, be drained off, made its way into the soil bioremediation. Someday, even incin circie repiy card No. 199 US environmental and

infrastructure engineering shows some growth

ve you 1

Parkas Berkowitz & Company has esti

er the s

mated that the combined environmen

tal and infrastructure engineering mar ket in the United States grew nine per

cent in 2000 to $18 billion, experienc ing less expansion than the previous year's 14 percent growth. "The outlook is good, but the US market does show signs of slowing. We anticipate an over all growth rate of roughly five percent


in 2001," said Mr. Farkas.

In contrast, international gross rev enue for US firms in this market rose

13 percent in 2000,following four per cent growth in 1999. Much of the in crease was in transportation, water qual ity and power engineering. Regarding the US market overall, Mr. Farkas noted that engineering firms con tinue to face the challenges associated with alternative delivery mechanisms in nearly every sector. As design-build, design-build-operate, and program management contracts proliferate,firms take on greater risks that could bring financial demise or potentially greater


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Industry Update

Mercury flows to Third

Foot-and-mouth: What If it


happens in North America?

Western nations are slowly phasing out the use of mercury in products and manufacturing because of environmen tal and health problems. Now some traders are increasingly looking to the developing world for buy ers of surplus mercury, despite its toxicity and ability to easily move within the biosphere. So while the US EPA plans to require coal-fired power plants to install equipment to remove mercury from flue gas at a cost of $15,000 to

The British foot-and-mouth livestock

$50,000 per pound ofremoved mercury,

epidemic may finally have waned, but it has already led to the slaughter of more than 2.2 million animals. What if a simi

lar livestock epidemic happens in North America? Some environmental angles have surfaced in the UK:

• Air pollution: Quarantine restrictions on transport meant that thousands of carcasses were burned in the open, not in incinerators. Pyres lit during the first six weeks of the crisis released dioxins

equivalent to 18% of average UK an

traders are selling mercury on the inter

nual emissions, officials said.

national market for a few dollars a

• Water pollution: Surface and groundwater (including drinking water sup plies) have been contaminated with bac

pound. This may change as activists in India and the US,for instance, have recently blocked a mercury shipment bound for Bombay from a non-operational US chemical plant. Chlor-alkali chemical manufacturers

are the world's largest user of mercury.

teria from buried or stored carcasses.

• Odour and pests: Stored carcasses awaiting disposal attract insects and ver min, and rot causes odour problems. These are only a few of the problems in Britain.

Cleaning sewage from rivers after flooding

Fuel-cell technology for multi-dwelling buildings Hydrogen fuel cells could soon be powering multi-dwelling and small commercial buildings. Fuel cells con vert energy into electricity through an electrochemical process. The system, being developed by Hydrogenics, known as the Fuel Cell Energy Tap,gen erates electricity by using proton ex change membrane(PEM)fuel-cell tech nology fueled by natural gas. Each gen erator is capable of providing electrical power, as well as space and water heat ing, to approximately six to seven units in a building. Fuel-cell technology is a promising energy option for reducing carbon di oxide emissions-a key greenhouse gas. Fuel cells produce clean energy, oper ate at low temperatures, and are highly efficient and very reliable. The 50kilowatt prototype electrical generator that uses fuel-cell technology fueled by natural gas, could reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by one megatonne over 12 years. The total project cost is $6,000,000. The Government of Canada is contrib

- .jf


plied with a battery-operated storm- uting $2 million - $1,600,000 from the monitoring device which records date, technology early action measures time and duration of overflow opera (TEAM) component of the Climate tion. Change Action Fund, and $400,000 During storms and flooding, the from Natural Resources Canada. Airmex screens the storm sewage Hydrogenics Corporation is contribut through stainless-steel wedge wire, ing $4,000,000 through private financwith an aperture of six millimetres by six millimetres, providing good pro tection for the receiving waters. Review of sewage force Screens are physically cleaned by

mains underway

mechanical brushes inside and outside

Photo - Alan Chandler

ofthe wedge wire. Brush mechanisms are activated and deactivated by a non-fouling level float opening and closing an air-feed cylinder. The whole system is constructed

Torrential rainfalls, storms and hurri

from stainless-steel and facilitates mini

canes have become frequent occumences worldwide. Increasingly, there is con

mal mechanical servicing; all parts are easily replaced with minimum skills.

tamination of streams and rivers after

The heavy-duty brushes require replace

floods, threatening a risk of epidemics.

ment on average, only once every five years. If a breakdown occurs,the screen

Hydrok UK, an engineering com pany based in south-west England, has developed the Airmex, a low-cost me chanical screen device for cleaning up storm overflows. Powered by its own nitrogen cylinders, the equipment is de signed to be installed in remote locations where electricity supplies are not avail able, providing the benefits of a me chanical screening without costly main tenance and controls. It can also be sup70

will still operate for a limited period as

Section 02531 "Sewage Force Mains", of the National Master Specifications Secretariat, is underway. The Canadian Concrete Pipe Association was con tacted by Public Works and Government Services Canada to let the concrete pipe industry know about the update. Some producer members are affiliated with companies, or divisions within their organization involved with sewage force mains.

National Master Specifications

a static screen.

(NMS)are written to ensure that a broad

The Airmex is designed to be fitted to existing overflow chambers with minimum disruption to the system and can easily be exchanged between over

industry-wide standard of operation is provided across Canada. NMS undergo a three-year review cycle. The current Sewage Force Main Sec tion does not specifically provide the choice for concrete pressure pipe. Ma terial specifications, as well as installa tion/testing requirements are required. Contact E-mail: info@ccpa.com.

flows if required. Its modular design allows for multiple installation depend ing on weir length and flow rates. E-mail: info@hydrokuk.co.uk.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001


"Monsters" enter Asian market

"For Cost Effective Pumping" A company in the Cardo Group

has the most comprehensive range on the market. Sales & Service

• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • El'lluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T IH3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905) 670-4677, Fax: (905) 670-3709. Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

For more information, circle reply card No. 130 ■/fSi ' ■

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Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 131

Auger Monster at Niigougawa WWTR

Tomoe Engineering Company has sold the first Auger Monster into the Asian market. An ACD 1800 shipped early September 2000, has been installed in a pump station in Takayama City. JWC Environmental worked closely

Digester Cleaning, Dewatering,Dredging, Disposal Complete Services

with Tomoe to install a trial ACD5000

unit at the Niigougawa WWTP at no cost, and in return, this became a work

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ing installation site for potential custom

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ers to view.

For more information, circle reply card No. 132

Announcement Canadian ORTECH Environmental Inc.

of Mississauga, has recently acquired the assets of the Ontario Source Testing


unit of Conor Pacific Environmental

Technologies Inc. of Vancouver, BC.

province's largest provider of air qual ity source testing for industry. In March 2000, ORTECH completed the asset

Superior drying technology and biosolids management 1225 Industrielle Street, La Prairie (Quebec) Canada J5R 2E4

acquisition of the Ontario Source Testing Service division of Maxxam Analytics Inc., also of Mississauga.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 133

Contact: www.oilech.ca.




This move solidifies ORTECH as the













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circle reply card No. 135 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Tel: (705) 733-0111, Fax: (705) 721-0138 E-mail: iws@iws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 134 71

Industry Update

Technology that sees underground ogy can use information stored in com puters on what lies below ground, over laying a graphic of this on to what the person can see on site. It will allow the operative to see where many features are positioned, from water pipes to electricity cables and


even areas of contaminated land.

It is being developed by the School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering(SchEME)and the Institute

of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy at the University of Notting

The difficult task of finding under ground pipes and cables in need of re pair could be made easier by virtual-re ality technology. British engineers are working to produce equipment that al lows workers on site to "see" below

ground surface. The system uses the latest advances in satellite-based technology,combined

with virtual-reality techniques. Called Augmented Reality (AR), the technol

ham, in the English Midlands. The AR technology could revolution ize a range of industries,including utili ties companies such as water suppliers

not X-ray vision - but we can take in formation stored by companies on com puter and make it work for us out on site."

The university's Artificial Intelli gence in the Mining Sector(AIMS)re search unit has been developing the computer technology behind the project. AIMS anticipates that workers will carry portable computers when they go out on site and use special semi-transparent glasses, on which the graphics will ap pear, allowing them to see the image and the real world simultaneously. By Liz Clark, LPS Staff Correspondent Photo - Chris Mikami

who will be able to use the information

they have about their network of pipes to plan maintenance works more effec tively. In the case of electricity cables and gas mains, being able to see where they are could even save lives. Professor Bryan Denby, the head of

SchEME and its principal investigator, explained:"The technology won't actu ally let us see through the ground - it is

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Industry Update

Man fell asleep in trash

water resources planning water supply, transmission and treatment

Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

bin and was found

wastewater collection and treatment

buried alive A Saskatoon man who fell asleep in a garbage bin survived a terrifying ordeal. He had been picked up by a garbage truck which compacted the load and dumped him and the garbage into a landfill site. He was found by two men dumping garbage at the landfill site. Fire and ambulance personnel had to extricate the 36 year-old man from a stacked pile of garbage before he could

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be loaded on to a stretcher. He suffered

fractures to his jaw, arm and ribs. The man, who told police he had climbed into the bin for shelter, was expected to remain in hospital for some time. The garbage truck picks up bins and dumps them over the cab into a 'packer' storage unit, which compresses the loads to one-fifth their original size. Considering how close the man was to not being discovered, some are say ing:"How many are there that we don't

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cants must be from the United States or

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Environiuental Science & Engineering, June 2001


Industry Update

Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc.

Canada will sign and ratify the United

Dredging (since 1971)

Nations Convention on Persistent Or

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester

• Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction • High Speed Decanter Centrifuges


E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca

Canada to sign and ratify global agreement on POPs ganic Pollutants (POPs), Environment Minister David Anderson announced

May 9, 2001. The global agreement,


known as the Stockholm Convention,

will dramatically reduce or eliminate

Web site: www.GIROUXINC.com

emissions of twelve toxic substances

known as the "dirty dozen". Canada is the first country to announce that it will also ratify the agreement.

Central Projects Group Inc.


250 Shields Court, Unit 15,

Most POPs have been banned or re

Markham,Ontario, L3R 9W7

stricted in Canada for years, but they are transported from foreign sources

Tel: (905) 470-6570 Fax: (905) 470-0958 WebSite: http:l/iuwiv.cpg.ca •Phase I & II Environmental Site Assessments

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through the atmosphere into Canada. They also amass in the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence basin.

ConsiA.ltin.s: En^inc^ers

Canada was the first country to com

mit specific funding to aid developing countries, and those with economies in transition, to build their capacity to deal

Toronto • Ottawa


London • Hamilton


• Drainage Planning

• Water & Wastewater Systems

• Hydro-technicai Services

• industriai Treatment

• Environmentai impact

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• Environmental Planning

with POPs. The government provided

Vancouver • Victoria

$20 miiiion to the Canada POPs Fund

Corporate Office; 133 Wynford Drive

in March 2000. Substances included in the Stock

Toronto, Ontario M3C 1K1

holm Convention fail into three broad

Tel: (416)441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

categories: • Pesticides - DDT, chiordane, toxa-

phene, mirex, aidrin, dieidrin, endrin, heptachior;


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• Comjnunities

• Industriai chemicals - PCBs, hexachiorobenzene;

• E' nvironment

• Facilities

• By-products and contaminants dioxins and furans.


The UN POPs Convention sets out

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obligations for countries covering the production, use, import, export, and dis posal of POPs. It requires countries to promote, and in some cases implement,

2d5 YorklandBonJevard, Suite SOO^ Toronto, Ontario M2J 4Y8 (416) 229-4646 www.diUon. ca

the best available technologies and prac

Duke Engineering ft& Sen/ices (Canada),Inc.

tices for emissions of POPs from indus

triai processes, and provides a process for adding other POPs to the Conven

A Duke Energy Company

• Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

• Fractured Rock Hydrogeology • Environmental Management and Compliance

• Hydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling • Site Remediation

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o rsit&d

jToronto 1416.410.4260


Nova Scotia noise by-law can impose fines up to $5,000 The Cape Breton Regional Municipal ity has put a high price on peace and quiet with a new noise by-law. The by

groundwater database management I n<=<=> r

ment of new POPs.


Software and services for


tion in the future. It includes a require ment aimed at preventing the develop

law covers several sources including

loud engines, horns, power tools, ster



eos, and even singing - ail in response to more than 880 noise complaints since

January, 2000. Violators could face fines of up to $5,000.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Industry Update A concrete solution to air











EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPATprogram


107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108


GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.

Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting '"ices

A 2000 study conducted by the National Research Council of Canada(NRC)has demonstrated that the rigid surfaces of

Cryptosporidlum & Giardia Microorganism Identification Rapid E.coli recreational water

asphalt, reducing the fuel requirements of heavy vehicles. According to the NRC study, con crete roadways drive down fuel costs incurred by trucks and other commer cial vehicles by up to 11 percent. If, for instance, Ontaido reconstructed its pri mary road network in concrete, this would translate into a savings of at least $67 million each year, based on a truck





ST. Catharines'






"For professional services in environmental training, due diligence, health and safety, and compliance auditing, give me a call." Lou Locatelli, Principal, Tel:(905) 477-8400 ext. 206 Email: llocatelli@gartnerlee.com Website: www.gartnerlee.com

ing industry fuel price of $0.60/litre. Meanwhile, the Ontario government

could expect to save $36 million annu ally in atmospheric pollution clean-up costs and the people of Ontario could

Geomatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists

breathe easier in an environment with

' Indusfriol Water/Wastewafer Treofmenf

fewer greenhouse gas pollutants. In Quebec, the savings to trucking order of$60 million per year, while pol lution clean-up costs would be reduced by $22 million. Previous studies back up the NRC research. Work conducted in 1982 by the US Federal Highway

* Respirometry

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Administration determined that concrete


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highways are built with concrete. The United States, by comparison,has incor porated concrete into over 30 percent of

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its highways.

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Call for Photos The American Concrete Pipe Associa tion is building its library of concrete

J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

pipe application/installation, manufac turing/yard and theme photos. Please send duplicate prints, or dig ital files, with at least 300 dpi resolu tion, to Mike Saubert at the ACPA,222 W.Las Colinas Blvd.,Suite 641,Irving, TX 75039. Please send digital photo files on zip disks.

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Industry Update

Coal + sewage sludge = dangerous pollution?

MacViro ^

Marshall Macklin

Mixing dried human sewage sludge with pulverized coal is being evaluated as a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal fired power plants, as well as to overcome sewage disposal problems. But a new study indicated that, in mice, this combination could produce more lung damage than coal alone. lost Wendt of the University of Arizona, Tucson,and colleagues exposed mice to


different doses of airborne particuiate

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matter from different sources.


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering,

"Our results indicate that the use of

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dried municipal sewage as a 'green' re placement fuel should be considered with caution," say the researchers in a report in the February issue of the jour nal Nature. The replacement of coal by municipal sewage sludge in power sta

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tions is being considered as an option to reduce air pollution and keep sludge out

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gated the effects of inhaling particles produced by burning a mixture of coal and sewage, and found that the mixture caused more lung damage in mice than particles from coal alone, "probably

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Red tape entangles sea power trials


A revolutionary British power station that generates electricity from the ocean tides, may be built in Iceland because

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John Hassard, a co-founder of RYco,


of planning permission red tape. Dr. said the firm bad planned to build the two-megawatt station on the coast of Britain, it found out that it could take

Pickering, Ontario

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two years to get the approval from up to 14 agencies. Two British wave power firms, Wavegen (see ES&E, March 2001,page 70)and Ocean Power Delivery, are also considering moving part of their re


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machines in home waters.

Dr. Hassard said the price of wave generated electricity would ultimately be competitive with cheap gas power stations.


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

Industry Update

Mandatory air emissions monitoring and reporting

rying heat and energy from one end of the planet to the other through more or less warm water currents. These water

now law

masses travel from ocean to ocean, car

Ontario's new regulation requiring the mandatory tracking and public report ing of 358 air pollutants is now law. The regulation makes the province the first jurisdiction in the world to require moni toring and public reporting of a full suite of key greenhouse gases according to a May 2, announcement. "The Ministry of the Environment will work with corporations to move be yond mere compliance toward greater accountability in the system," said En

rying gases, in particular carbon diox ide (CO.,). Since the levels of CO,con centration in the atmosphere are an im portant factor in the warming of the cli mate, it is crucial to monitor these lev

known about air/ocean interactions. For

this reason, it is important to study the mechanisms regulating these dynamics and biological flows.

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vironment Minister, Elizabeth Witmer.

"Eor the first time, the people of Ontario will have timely access to accurate in formation about what smog and climate change-causing emissions are being put into our air and by whom. The new regulation will also help the ministry to

els and find out how oceans absorb and

carry this gas. The Atlantic Ocean is believed to be a major reservoir of at mospheric CO,. However, a great deal remains un

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set and enforce air emission limits."

Ontario has required its electricity sector to report on 28 substances - in cluding emissions that cause smog,acid rain, and climate change- since May 1, 2000. This regulation has been ex panded to include a total of 358 air pol lutants, and now covers other large in


Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management• Environmental Assessment


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dustrial facilities, such as iron and steel

manufacturers and petroleum refiners. A range of other industrial,commercial, and municipal facilities in Ontario will also have to track and publicly report

umcr Ontario


on the same 358 substances beginning January 1, 2002. Contact: www.ene.gov.on.ca.

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Oceanographic research program studying how

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urement campaigns were scheduled to take place between September 15,2000,


and October 2001,in the North Atlantic

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Ocean, halfway between the Azores and the Iberian Peninsula.

The ocean is a huge thermal mass that is in contact with the atmosphere, car


• Industrial/Municipal Wastewater Management • Watershed and Stormwater Management

• Drinking Water Quality and Treatment

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

• Hydrogeology investigation /Modelling • Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmental Management Systems 77

Industry Update the Kyoto global warming treaty, the

Aeromix responds to save town

Bush administration has announced a

smell over a three-week time frame became so bad that it caused local residents

to stay indoors and close their windows. "It was one

of the worst things I have ever smelled," said Tim

Devlin, St. Stephens Wastewater Treatment Plant Op erator.

Odours from the St. Stephen, New Brunswick, wastewater treatment plant were becoming so unbearable that some of the 4,976 residents of the small Canadian border town had to wear sur

gical masks when they went outside. The aerobic bacteria that feed off the

organic materials that caused the odours, died because of a lack of oxygen. The

The Town placed an emergency order of three, 20-hp Aeromix Systems Tornado Surface Aspirating Aerators. The aerators were sent overnight to St. Stephens where they were put into op eration immediately. "With the increased mixing and aera tion of the lagoon, it took about a month for the aerators to fully take care of the odour problem; but we haven't had any problems since," said Devlin.

series of policies recently that have en vironmentalists heating up - and Demo crats seeing a political opportunity. Gallup polls indicate that Americans are at odds with many of these policies. Still, as of the first week in April, the

public has not markedly changed its generally positive ratings of George W. Bush on the environment.

Americans consider global warming real, but not alarming The hottest question in the global warming debate is whether human ac tivities are responsible for the rise in the Earth's temperature. By a nearly twoto-one margin, Gallup finds that Ameri cans believe humans are responsible. Americans also think the effects of glo bal warming are likely to occur in their lifetime.

At the same time, relatively few Americans are very concerned about the

problem, with only 33% saying they worry about it "a great deal"(among the Government of Canada takes further action for clean air The Government of Canada has added

respirable paiticulate matter less than or equal to 10 Microns(PM 10)to the List of Toxic Substances under the Canadian

Environmental Protection Act(CEPA). The announcement was made in May by Environment Minister David Anderson

and Health Minister Allan Rock. Along with ground-level ozone, paiticulate mat ter(PM)is a key component of smog. The ministers also announced that

four other smog-causing substances

Be right when you can't afford to be wrong.

have been added to the List of Toxic

lowest of Americans' environmental

Substances. These four substances are

concerns), and just 31% feeling it poses

in the category of Volatile Organic Com pounds(VOCs),and are part of the mix ture that forms ground-level ozone. For that reason, they are sometimes known as smog precursors. The four are acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, and 1,3butadiene which are produced from combustion sources or released through industrial processes.

a serious risk in their lifetime.

Environmentalism among Americans on Earth Day A variety of results from Gallup's Earth Day poll on April 22,suggested that only a quarter or so of Americans are highly troubled about environmental condi

tions. Still, a majority of Americans,

nomic needs conflict - a tradeoff at the heart of some recent Bush administra

to view demo of product.

tion policy decisions. (However, in to day's climate of economic uncertainty, this percentage is down 10 points from last year.) And,on specific issues-such as regulating industrial emissions, drill ing in the Alaskan wilderness, and the Kyoto global warming treaty - Ameri cans favour the more environmentallyfriendly options, putting them in oppo sition to the administration's positions

Call toll free: 1-800-668-2374 to

on each of these issues.

order (in Toronto 416-442-2122)

From reversing new standards on ar senic in drinking water, to abandoning

Canadian Environmental

Legislation on CD. Visit www.ecoiog.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 234

on environmental issues If Americans are concerned about the

state of their nation's environment, then

the British are downright gloomy about it. Three-quarters of adults living in the United Kingdom describe environmen tal conditions there as only fair or poor, compared to 53% of Americans who feel that way about the US. The British are also much more likely than Americans to say that environmental interests should supersede economic and energy needs. And while only a third of Ameri cans support caps on the amount of en ergy that average consumers can use, a majority of the British support this idea.

57%, side with environmentalism in situations where environmental and eco

Get complete,up-to-date

The British out-worry Americans

Does Quebec mouid pose a potential risk? Doctors will follow up on hundreds of patients who underwent surgery at Mon treal's Royal Victoria Hospital in past months to determine whether any were infected by an aspergillus mould. Con tamination has shut down the entire op erating block. Most people will not get sick after exposure to the mould, but it is a potentially fatal risk to patients with weakened immune systems who have undergone operations. Officials said the operating rooms will stay closed for up to three months for repairs.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2001

n!y oil/water separator features these

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Use ecoStop for maximum protection against unexpected and catastrophic petroleum spills.

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