Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 2001

Page 1

Environmental Science

May 2001



& Engineering

Storage Tanks & Containment - ES&E's biannual focus Membranes remove disinfection by-product precursors in BC and NS Is Toronto drowning in a sea of consultants? - editorial comment Anaerobic wastewater treatment methods reviewed for industry Latest weapon in smog war developed in Canada On-site groundwater remediation

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April/May 2001 Vol.14 No. 2 Issued May, 2001

Rick Corbett is new

BCWWA President

- See page 14

Features 7 10

Is Toronto drowning in a sea of consultants? - editorial comment

37 International news report 38 On-site groundwater remediation

Rex Murphy highlights annual WEAO



12 Ontario's Regulation 459/00 - a good start 14


but is it enough? BCWWA praised for its pre-eminence in the water and wastewater industry

Precast box culverts used as groynes and aquatic habitat


Membrane filters remove disinfection

by-product precursors in BC and NS 64

Zebra mussel resistant materials for intake screens and assemblies

66 To Ethiopia and back in a hurry a consultant's story 68 Safety-Kleen issues vigorous response to media reports

Latest weapon in smog war developed by Canadian firm


Anaerobic wastewater treatment methods


reviewed for industry Magnetic drive pumps eliminate


Cover Story - Leak detection is more


Ontario embraces new vision for


environmental protection Production of a cost-competitive biodiesel fuel alternative to petroleum diesel

Storage Tanks & Containment ES&E's semi-annual focus

Growing use of giass-fused-to-stea! tanks for wastewater applications

mechanical seal maintenance vital than ever

Evolution of protected aboveground tanks

Cathodic protection of water storage tanks saves money - a case study Massive HCL tanks for earthquake zone


Preview of the AWWA's annual conference

Newfoundland's first bolted steel tank for

potable water


in Washington, DC Measuring ammonia with online analyzers

Departments 25

Ad Index




Literature Reviews


Professional Cards


Product Review


Date Pad


Industry Update Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

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Editorial Comment

City drowns in a sea of consuitants


Toronto Sun headline - March 17, 2001

Toronto City Council recently

approved $10.6 million worth

of consultants "with barely a second thought," according to a Toronto Sun report on March 27. Councillor Jane Pitfield was quoted as saying that consultants have been on a bit of a 'feeding frenzy' thanks to over whelmed city officials. The Sun's re porter, Sue-Ann Levy, wrote:"Just look

at the $159 million spent on consultants in 1999 alone, more than the value of Metro Hall."

In a Toronto Sun Editorial, April 17, Lorrie Goldstein wrote scathingly: "Why would City Hall even think about dropping dental programs for poor kids and seniors when it could maintain them

indefinitely just by wiping out a tiny por tion of its annual budget for consultants? We're being spun by left-wing council lors on this one, folks, just as we have been from time immemorial."

Well, consultants are many and var ied and those practitioners who came under these penetrating analyses were not singled out as environmental engi neers. However, the generalized criti cism does focus on the persistent lack of understanding of the role of consult ing engineers. Using the value of an in-place build ing such as Metro Hall, to compare the monetary worth of intellectual property from learned professions, comes peril ously close to economic illiteracy. Im agine a spectacular but inanimate glass and steel building being compared to the neurons and synapses of professionals who design such things. Some of the bridges, highways, water treatment and wastewater projects, many of which were designed by consulting engineers, are worth billions of dollars today. Com pared to the value of any of the city's infrastructure pro jects-some of which

For decades, consultants have played a significant role in designing the Mega City's water and wastewater treatment faciiities.

ally all of the above public works were essential in the development of the wealth, economic viability, and yes, the vibrant cultural ambience of Toronto.

Without its infrastructure, Canada's

largest city might still be a village perched on Lake Ontario, perhaps to evolve into a quaint tourist attraction such as Niagara-On-The-Lake. Far fetched? Just look at how Toronto's ne

then the capital cost of Metro Hall is petty

glected highway and transit infrastruc tures are now seriously impacting on the city's viability. With its highway arter ies becoming ever more clogged, both corporate and entertainment businesses are increasingly suffering as its popula

cash in construction

tion chokes on traffic fumes. Pulmo

values alone. Virtu-

nary diseases are on the increase. Add to this the economic losses emanating from a workforce fatigued, and less ef ficient through twice daily frustrating

have lasted over a

century or more -

By Tom Davey E-maii: tom@esemag.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

commuting grinds. It is hard to realize that when Great

Britain proudly began its first 70 miles of motorway,the M-1,in the late 1950s, Toronto already had in place more mo torways than Great Britain - a pretty good record for a city with a population of some 1.5 million. There are many controversial environmental viewpoints on motorways but few will argue that Toronto cannot continue with the present policy of auto asphixiation of its resi dents.

Unlike its highway system,Toronto's water and wastewater infrastructure still

ranks among the finest and best-main tained in the world. This system man ages to draw raw water from Lake Ontario, treat, then distribute it through some 5,000 kilometres of watermains. Continued overleaf

Editorial Comment

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of pipe maintenance and replacement measured even against international standards - ranks among the best, and consulting firms have been involved with the infrastructure designs and re placements for many decades. Fai adoxically, water quality standards in Toronto are high, yet water rates are among the lowest in the world. Toronto water costs less than a fraction of a penny

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discussions, with every query came a reassurance that: The guards will look after thai. Juvenal's famous rejoinder is still relevant after almost two millen

nia. With sardonic perception he en quired: But who will guard the guards? Rome,paradoxically, became renowned for its aqueducts and pipelines which brought fresh water to the great city. Without fresh water the Roman Empire would be unknown to history and the Coliseum, the great aquaducts and fountains, and even the movie Gladia

tor might never have been conceived. Which poses a simple arithmetical question if there is ever a significant re duction in consultants retained by Toronto. For Canada's largest city to do all its municipal engineering in-house.

It is admirable to have highly competent core staff in any large city but symbiotic benefits occur when city engineers work alongside consultants whose mobility and skills have been cross-fertilized with experience on many different projects. ever watermains fail and roads are

Toronto would have to hire about 1,000

flooded, while disgruntled homeowners' complaints are broadcast to the nation with all the solemnity of a major event. It would be hard for any comparable in dustry or sector to match its combination of reliability in the fields of health, fire protection and economic value. Few recall that there were originally 13 municipalities in place before Met ropolitan Toronto was formed in the mid 1950s, when amalgamation brought po

engineering staff. That is without the

lice, water and wastewater services un

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governance problems emerged during

der one political entity. Rather surpris ingly, the six fire departments created by Metro remained separated for four decades until the Harris Provincial Gov

ernment abolished the Metropolitan con cept to revert to what is now simply the City of Toronto. Council's recently avowed aim was for a five percent reduction goal in the use of consultants, with at least one

councillor striving for a 20% cut in con sulting usage. It may be an ominous sign when councillors display little under standing of how huge and complex mu nicipal services are planned, designed, and maintained.

Their attitude reminds me of another

great city, ancient Rome,when the Eter nal City was going through one of its periodic political upheavals. Whenever

additional construction work if Toronto

is awarded the 2008 Olympiad it so des

perately seeks. Meanwhile, there is al ready a serious shortage of engineering graduates which is reliably predicted to get worse. To paraphrase what Juvenal asked of ancient Rome, without consult

ants: Who then will do the engineering? It is admirable to have highly com

petent core staff in any large city but symbiotic benefits occur when city en gineers work alongside consultants whose mobility and skills have been cross-fertilized with experience on many different projects. When particular projects are completed and specialized disciplines are not required by a city, consultants simply move on to new projects, relieving the city of the fixedin-place burdens of office accommoda tions, pension plans, severance pack ages, office costs, and many other ex penses borne by consultants. A huge metropolis like Toronto will always require a diversity of increas ingly complex skills and talents to take advantage of emerging technologies which are changing exponentially. A mix of consultants and city staff is posi tively the best way to adapt to these challenoes. ❖

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001


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Engineered for life

Conference Review

Rex Murphy highlights annual WEAO conference "Now the UK and

Europe are having massive slaughters of cattle and sheep

first day of the conference,A1 Goodman,

mouth disease, and threats of BSE;these

Past President of the Water Environment

our lives. ern green


ments have made a

fetish of the environ

Rex Murphy (left), with Tim Constantine of CH2M Hiii ment based on im Canada, at the Opening Session. pulses that are al most religious in

some hilarious views on New

foundland politics with some thoughtprovoking analyses on the expectations of modern Canadians, in his keynote address at the 2001 Water Environment

Association of Ontario Conference. Rex is a Rhodes Scholar who had studied at Oxford at the same time as Bill Clinton.

Federation, quoted a Water Infrastruc ture Network Report: Twenty-one non profit, NOG,professional organizations had determined that a $2 trillion invest ment would be needed over the next 20

"But some mod

Murphy- noted for his cutting asides - eloquently mixed

At a news media session, held on the

because of foot and

are powerful re minders that disrup tions are still part of

Famed CBC commentator. Rex

morseless when drinking water tragedies occur. The response to Walkerton had become larger than the tragedy itself.

tone and often irrational," he said. As

an example, he pointed out how a phos phorus plant had been built at Long Harbour in Newfoundland, near the sea

years in America. A funding gap of $23 billion more per year was needed than what is being invested to enhance the infrastructure (water and wastewater). The US needs $11 billion in drinking water and $12 billion in wastewater per year. Federal investments in the US have declined; grants have caused de pendence and higher O&M in some cases (all figures are in US dollars).

three decades ago. Adjacent forests

The investment was needed,said Mr. Goodman, because of:

were denuded, fish schools were rav

1. More regulations and un-funded man

aged and a mountain of tailings emerg ed. Then after 30 years, the plant closed down. Seven years ago plans were made to put a state-of-the-art incinerator in Long Harbour. "Compared to the phos phorus plant," Rex Murphy said, "the incinerator would have been like taking a match into Hell. But the very idea of an incinerator provoked such an outcry


2. Higher costs for new technology. 3.Infrastructure under-funding for years.

4. Research needs: The Water Environ

After confessing to his own two failed Liberal campaigns in Newfoundland politics, he opined that Joey Smallwood thought of elections as being minor in terruptions to his role ofPremier. "Joey's idea of a caucus meeting was to have a second thought," he added, but, on the

evidence of a dramatic change in atti tudes in 30 years at the very same loca

States,clean water supports some $50 bil

other hand, he added,John Crosbie's rid


lion per year in water-based recreation,

ing seemed to be comprised of "geneti cally programmed Tories". Switching from levity to seriousness, he said the Walkerton E. coli tragedy had brought a great cloud over water issues. He pointed out the fundamental biblical words: Darkness would sujfer a deluge and afirmament would appear. "We are

The news media does not do a good Job in interpreting scientific realities, he

$300 billion per year in coastal tourism, and $45 billion per year in fishing and

admitted. On health and environmental

shell fishing industries. In spite of this. Continued on page 15

at the end of scientific and social revo

lutions so this generation has not had the horrors of WW I and WWII." he said. "The advances and benefits from tech

nology are unparalleled in our history, yet they have produced a gap between generations. The current generation has become accustomed to living standards which were unthinkable to their parents; but abundance in our supermarkets has been available, even to their parents."

Photo Report by Tom Davey 10

of horror that the idea was killed -clear

issues, the present generation is re

ment Research Foundation now has

over $60 million in research and about

$7 million per year being added, yet more is needed.

Stressing the values and impacts of water quality, he said that in the United

From top left: 1. WEF past-president, A! Goodman, presents Larry Madden, C&M Environmental Technologies, with the Bedell Award; 2. John Thompson, City of Toronto, won the Flatfield Award, while Lisa Stasiuk, OCWA, won the

Laboratory Analyst Excellence Award; 3. ES&E president, Steve Davey (cen tre), was presented with a WEF Service Award by WEAO past-president. Bill DeAngells, Azurix (left), and WEF past-president, Al Goodman;4. A WEAO pastpresident, Tony Ho, MOE, with Kit Woods, City of Windsor; 5. OPCEA director, Brian Allen, Indachem (left), with conference chair, Heinz Held, SEW Eurodrive; 6. The Totally Wasted Game Show host, Michelle Gallant, City of Hamilton (left), with OPCEA president, Ed Yanoshita, National Process Equipment, and Tim Constantine, CH2M Hill Canada; 7. Overall Operations Challenge winners were the Highlanders, City of Toronto. Front row(L to R): Paul Bongelli, Bruno MIchllts (coach). Second row (Lto R): Dave Smith, Tony Gisitsch, Jeff Mclntyre (Opera tions Committee Chair), Al Goodman (Past WEF President), Pat Dowman, Rhonda Harris (WEF); 8. OPCEA treasurer, Ross Humphry, Canadian Safety Equipment (seated). Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Conference Review

Photo One

Photo Two

Photo Three

Photo Four

Photo Five

Photo Six

Photo Seven

Photo Eight 11

Guest Comment

Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor & Publisher

Managing Editor Sales Director



E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Assistant


E-mail: kathy@esemag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfellow

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc. Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng.

Ontario's Regulation 459/00 - Is It enough?

Regulation 459/00 was gaz

etted on August 26, 2000, to address concerns that arose

following the tragic events in Walkerton. The regulation was a defi nite improvement as this issue had been

previously only covered by guidelines. Although the regulation now covers thorough reporting and notification, there are still several major issues that are not addressed adequately. The definition of"Water Distribution

System" is not clear in terms of where the system starts and where it ends. The existing wording defines a water distri bution system as a part of a water treat ment or distribution system that distrib utes water, if that part of the system in cludes one or more water works. The

question here is where does the distri bution system end? Is it at the point of delivery to the consumer's plumbing system or at the property line? The Ontario Building Code Act spe

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi

monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and

cifically excludes "plumbing" in the

definition of "water works" that is con

tained in this act. The plumbing system is defined by the Ontario Building Code

as a system ofconnected piping,fittings, valves, equipment,fixtures and appur tenances contained in plumbing. The

"water system" portion of the plumbing system begins at the downstream end of the water service pipe or water meter. In Schedule 2 of the regulation(Sam

pling and Analysis Requirements),it re fers to samples taken "in the distribu tion system". This would appear to dis allow samples to be taken from a "Plumbing System". The question here is what is the responsibility of the pur

veyor if samples are taken from a point in the system over which he has no con trol or jurisdiction? This schedule also does not address

the correct type of fixture for sampling or the best location for this fixture. To

obtain a clean sample, with the lowest possibility of background contamina tion, the samples should be taken from

rMueller Canada I Resilient Wedge Gate Valves

wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained In ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained In this magazine Is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward our editorial costs.

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Guest Comment

a dedicated sampling station, or other outlet, located before the consumer's

plumbing system. This will ensure that the samples are obtained from the "dis tribution system" from the portion of the system that is under the control of the purveyor. The water purveyor has no control, orjurisdiction, over "plumbing"


r s


and should not therefore be taking sam ples from a plumbing system. There may be cross connections within the plumbing system or dead ends of pipe that could cause a tainted sample to be taken. Samples should also not be taken from any hydrant that has a drip open ing located below ground surface. The point in the system to which the purveyor remains responsible for the quality of the water is not defined. In the United States, the Environmental

Protection Agency mandates that the purveyor is responsible to the "point of use". Some states define this as the point at which the water supply crosses the property line. Others define it as the "last free flowing tap". We are not sure where this responsibility ends in Ontario. There is also no reference to other pro grams that a water purveyor should im plement to ensure water quality. A Cross Connection Control Program (CCCP)is generally regarded as a very important element in a complete water quality man agement program. The owner of a water treatment or distribution system has the

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primary responsibility for providing the consumer with a safe and potable water supply. This responsibility should begin at the source, include all of the public water distribution system and service con nections, and end at the point of delivery to the consumer's plumbing system (as defined by the Ontario Building Code). In the exercise of this responsibility,

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Conference Review

BCWWA is pre-eminent in British Columbia's water & wastewater industry -Kevin Ramsay, out-going President

Vice President, Katie McCiain presents ttie Fuiier Award to Murray McLeod in Penticton, BC.

TheBritish Columbia Water and Waste Association

continues to establish itself as the pre-eminent leader in the water and wastewater industry. This positions the Association to take an active role in the future of our important industry. We have spent a considerable effort promoting strong relationships with the Provincial government. It has been obvious to all parties that these strong ties benefit the indus try in the Province. BCWWA and the Ministry of Health worked together to develop a small water systems course that will be provided throughout the Province in 2001 and be yond. BCWWA worked closely with the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks, to as sist with public consultation for the Drinking Water Protec tion Plan. BCWWA and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, continued the Provincial Water Conservation Strategy. The BCWWA office staff has had significant turnover during the last year, but I am happy to report that our office competence is stronger than ever. Del Haylock was hired as Executive Director in August, 2000 and has done an out standing job managing all aspects of the operation. Xue For Sale

• Two (2) OZONIA OZ-40W-AT Ozone Generators.

Capacity 18.1 kg./day each, at 10% in 94% purity oxygen (LOX). Cooling water consumption 5 gpm/unit. • One supplemental air system. FAD 11.5 cfm@ llOpsig, 20W, 120V, 150 psi. • Two(2)IN-USA HC analyzers. • One(1) two point IN-VSA ambient monitor. • One(1) off gas destruct system (thermal/catalytic). • Stainless steel piping, fittings and valves. These ozonators have only been operated for six months until it was found that they were oversized for the City's water treatment facility. For further information and a detailed product specification or view ing, please contact Mark Martin at the City of Rossland, British Columbia, Canada.

Telephone:(250) 362-7396, Fax:(250) 362-5451 E-mail: markmartin@rossland.com


Frank Beifry(ieft), receives the BedeiiAward from WEFPresi dent, Joe Stowe, Jr.

Wang,Accountant, and Vilma Rosa, Cross Connection and Member Services Coordinator, were hired in early 2001, and bring a wealth of experience to the Association. Diana Piche, Program Administrator, continues to prove herself invaluable.

Many similar water and/or wastewater associations in North America marvel at the high level of activity of the BCWWA. It is a volunteer organization and its strength is based on these volunteers. During the last year, there was great participation by our numerous Association commit tees. Much is planned for the future. Operator Education, Water Use Efficiency, Cross Connection Control, Small Water Systems, Drinking Water,Small Wastewater Systems, and Membership Committees were all very active through out the term.

BCWWA has a tremendous future, and long-term plan ning during the last term has identified a number of areas for future development. Our already successful operator training program will continue to expand as the needs of our members increase. Information communication to our

membership will be enhanced through increased utilization of technology. Partnerships with other organizations, gov ernments, and others, will be vital for future growth. It has been an extreme pleasure to serve the Association as President for the 2000-2001 term. I would like to ex

press my appreciation to the Executive,incoming President Rick Corbett, and our Executive Director, Del Haylock,for their support. I also formally thank the City of Vancouver and my staff for their support during my term, and I do look forward to life returning to normal, whatever that might be! BCWWA 2001-2002 Executive

President Past President President Elect Vice-President Treasurer Secretary

Richard Corbett,Associated Engineering Ltd. Kevin Ramsay, City of Vancouver Inder Singh, Greater Vancouver Reg. District Harlan Kelly, Dayton & Knight Ltd. Don Degen, City of Kelowna Phil Wong,Environment Canada

Environmentai Science & Engineering, May 2001

Conference Review

YN Pipe Coupling

WEAO Conference Report, continuedfrom pg. 10 he pointed out that, in 1996, the US had 2,500 beach clo sures and 2,200 fish consumption advisories(PCB, toxics, etc.), affecting 15% of US lakes and 5% of its river miles. The general public could seriously affect environmental professionals through lack of knowledge of systems,takenfor-granted attitudes, unawareness of real costs of service (<2% of household income for water and wastewater in the US), not knowing that there is now no "zero" in laboratory data, and a distorted perception of risk. The WEAO Biosolids Committee organized two sessions at the Annual Conference appropriately entitled: Biosolids Management-The Challenge of Tomorrow. The morning session focused on the biosolids manage ment issues facing generators. Long-term biosolids man agement plans being developed in the Regions of Peel and Niagara were discussed. An update was provided on nutri ent management planning in the province and the relation ship to biosolids land application programs. Dr. Mel Webber reported some of the recommendations that resulted from the WEAO-sponsored literature review on contaminants in

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The aftemoon session involved presentations on a number of technological innovations related to biosolids treatment. Process and design changes were discussed that have suc cessfully improved the biosolids quality produced from the anaerobic digestion process. The new WEAO President is Bob Crane, City of Hamil ton; Deborah Ross, KMK Consultants, is Vice President. ❖

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ONDEO Degremont Thunder Bay chooses BIOFOR ONDEO Degremont will provide the City of Thunder Bay with Its BIOFOR 0 BAR (Biologically Aerated Filters) technology, for the upgrade of the Atlantic Avenue Water Pollution Control Plant, from primary treatment to secondary treatment. Andre Leger, CEO of ONDEO Degremont Ltd., was pleased to announce the confirmation of the company's collaboration with the city ofThunder Bay. "Once again, ONDEO Degremont demonstrates its leadership in biofiltration process. More than 10 years ago, the company supplied the CUQ (Urban Community of Quebec) with the largest installation of first generation biofilters in Canada. With the Thunder Bay award,ONDEO Degremont will install its BIOFOR process(co-current upflow)in what will become the largest second generation biofiltration plant in Canada. With our bio-filtration technology. Thunder Bay will be able to meet the new and more demanding requirements of the Ontario requirements for secondary treatment," noted Mr. Leger.

The city of Thunder Bay mandated third party experts to perform comparative analysis. After months of testing, these experts have retained ONDEO Degremont's BIOFOR C BAF technology for the upgrade of Thunder Bay's Atlantic Avenue Water Pollution Control Plant. XCG Consulting recommended the process for implementation after lengthy pilot studies of alternative technologies. Through a public tendering process, EarthTech Canada (formerly Reid Crowther and Partners Ltd.), in association with Wardrop Engineering Inc., evaluated the competitiveness of BIOFOR process. This evaluation considered both capital and long-term operating costs.


Control Plant: the largest BIOFOR installation in north America

The secondary treatment installation will use 11 biofilters "BIOFOR" designed to treat a maximum flow of 265,000 mVd (70 MUSGPD).

This three year-long contract is valued at over $8.4 M Cdn and was obtained with the active support of Aqua Technical Sales, ONDEO Degremont's representative in Ontario. For more information, ciroie repiy card No. 165(See page 25)



The Biofor" has been chosen

by the cities of Canmore, AS, Thunder Bay, ON and Chateauguay, QC



Like all simple ideas, biofiltration is efficient. ONDEO Degremont combines and masters two operations in one: biological degradation and retention of suspended solids. The benefits of biofiltration include:

The Biofor® is based on the co-current upflow of air and water, and the retention of bacteria and

suspended solids in a media called Biolite®. This results in a high rate of filtration and provides extended filter runs and an odour-free workplace. ONDEO Degremont is a world leader in the

• more compact installations • improved plant efficiency

design and manufacture of biofiltration systems for municipal wastewater, industrial effluent water, and iron and manganese removal for drinking

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/ o Degremont Head office 20275 av Clark Graham, Baie-d'Urfe, QC, H9X 3T5, Tel: (514) 457-4100, Fax:(514) 457-1808 Representatives - Pipeline Supply Int'i inc, Vancouver, BC, Tel: (604) 596-2180; Aqua Technical Sales Inc, Hamilton, ON, Tel: (905) 528-3807; Canada Water Supply Ltd., St. John, NB, Tel: (506) 652-5885 For more information, circle reply card No. 107(See page 25)

Waterfront Ecology

Precast box culverts can also be used as

groynes and aquatic habitat

Precast concrete box culverts

do more than channel run-off

to provide safe crossings of waterways and drainage sys tems. They are used as sti^uctures for people and migratory animals to pass safely under railways and major roadways. They also serve as storage structures for stormwater to prevent flooding, and tunnels for traffic. Avail ability, durability, and speed of installa tion factor, significantly, into the speci fication of box units.

Now, precast concrete box culverts have been used as groynes, with a value added ecological feature. This applica tion introduces a 21st century way of thinking to solve a complex problem involving industrial requirements,local tourismyrecreation trade, and safe use of

waterfront amenities in a major city.

Culvert installation at Deflector A, ultimately a home for aquatic species.

The Dalhousie Yacht Club, founded

bour,it has approximately 300 members, with an active fleet of both power and sailboats. In 1988, St. Catharines' Hy

Consulting Engineers undertook the predesign study, it recommended construc tion of two groynes made with precast concrete box units, after considering rubble mound groynes, and a steel sheet piling deflector that would protrude above the water. The consulting engi

dro-Electric Commission built the

neer concluded that the rubble mound

in 1935,is a well-developed destination on the south shore of Lake Ontario, a few miles west of the Welland Canal. Set in old Port Dalhousie's historic har

Heywood Generating Station upstream of the yacht club. There were strong current and water surges in the yacht dockage area of the club that raised safety and mooring issues. The yacht club financed a study in 1997, through the Canadian Hydraulic Centre at the National Research Coun

cil of Canada, that showed that a series

of water deflectors, known as groynes, would redirect cuiTcnts away from the boat moorings and solve the club's prob lem with rushing water. A partnership followed between the City of St. Catharines, Dalhousie Yacht Club, and

the Hydro-Electric Commission to fund the engineering required to construct the groynes.

When the engineering firm, SHAL

By Paul Martin, Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products Inc., Cindy Toth, City of St. Catharines, and Brian Rankin,

Stephens and Rankin Inc. 18

Canadian Coast Guard issued a permit

that required completion of construction by the second week of April, or another permit application would need to be filed. Approval was also received from the Niagara Peninsula Conservation

Authority. The tender for the construc tion of the groynes called for works to be completed between March 13 and alternative would cost almost fifty per cent more than the other alternatives, April 30, before the 2000 boating sea son. This horizon provided enough time and would be unsightly and not condu to satisfy the constraints placed on the cive to mooring within the yacht club. project by various approval agencies. The cost of each of the other two al The precast concrete box culvert op ternatives would be essentially the same. tion was the preferred solution because: Since the box culvert alternative would be more attractive and better suited to • It promised little in-water work to being incorporated into the mooring avoid disturbing fish habitat; basin, it was recommended as the • It could be constructed quickly within preferred solution. Construction was very tight permitting periods; scheduled for the spring of 2000,but the • It would function fully as a groyne to deflect water flows; challenges were not yet over. • It could be removed, if necessary; The lands within and around the har bour are federally owned and managed • It would resist pressures from ice due by Small Craft Harbours,and waterfront to its mass; and, projects in the area are subject to per • It would last for the full term of the mission from the federal Department of design life of the project. But the box units also had another Fisheries and Oceans. In addition, ap proval for timing of construction is also advantage that the designers recognized. required from the Ontario Ministry of Submerged units could serve as fish Natural Resources(MNR)to avoid the habitat to enhance the ecology of the spawning season of certain fish species. fishery in the harbour. Both groynes were designed to ac The MNR issued an absolute require ment to complete construction with commodate a two-tier box culvert sys minimal in-water work by the end tem at right angles from existing con of March or first week of April. The crete shoreline. Each culvert was comEnvironmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Waterfront Ecology prised of three box units, and each groyne had one culvert placed on top of the other, for a total of six box units. One groyne, located outside of the mooring basin, was 2,400 mm wide x 1,800 mm high x 2,500 mm long. The second, constructed inside the mooring basin, was 1,800 mm wide x 1,200 mm high x 2,500 mm long. The six units of each groyne had rip rap boulders placed on the bottom for ballast, and the three submerged lower units were filled with loose bundles of pruned tree branches. The end unit of the top culvert on each groyne was capped to prevent the entry of ice and debris. Wooden bumper strips were placed along the sides of each upper unit for mooring watercraft. The end unit of the submerged culvert was not capped, so

and members of the yacht club enjoyed safe harbour of their crafts. Anglers were observed catching fish near the pub licly accessible groyne located outside of the yacht club's mooring basin. Many members of the club have reported that mooring in the harbour has improved. For more information, circle reply card No. 108



that small fish could access the habitat of boulders and branches.

Stephens and Rankin staff has years of experience in the Welland Canal and Port Dalhousie area, and knew that the

harbour bottom consisted of very soft material, that would not support the weight of the precast concrete box units. SHAL engineers had also considered the bottom material of the basin, and worked with Stephens and Rankin to de sign rock mattresses to support each of the groynes. Up to 2.3 metres of 50 mm tolOO mm granular material were installed for the mattress of the groyne located at the



harbour entrance, and 1.6 metres of the same material was OVER 25 YEARS OF CHLORINATION EXPERIENCE

installed for the mooring basin groyne, using an Hitachi 300 excavator. A prefabricated steel channel frame was embed ded in the mattresses as a leveling device. A 118 Link Belt and clam bucket was then used to level the upper surface of the mattresses. Divers worked with the machine operator to ensure that the surfaces were level. A rubber strip was glued on the upper surface of each of the lower units before they were lowered onto the mattresses. Then, the upper three units were placed on top of the submerged units. Filler plates on the sides of the upper and lower units locked them together, so that there would be no lateral movement be tween the upper and lower systems. To complete the instal lation, rock was placed around the edge of the units where they made contact with the mattress. The groynes were in

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stalled at a cost of $89,914, plus taxes. During the summer of 2000, boaters visiting the harbour

For more information, circle reply card No. 169

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Mailing: 536O South Service Road Burlington, Ontario L7L 5L1

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Air Pollution

Latest weapon in smog war was developed by a Canadian firm

Industries, governments and pub

lic health organizations now have access to an important, new and proven technological tool that can help better understand the contributing sources of air pollution and resolve ur ban air quality and pollution problems in a very cost-effective and timely man ner. Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin

Inc., an international consulting engi neering firm based in Guelph, Ontario, claims to be the only firm in Canada to offer the technology to clients on an ongoing basis. The Regional Airshed Modelling Framework (i.e. "Models 3/CMAO Modelling System: or "Models-3")tech nology is a proven state-of-the-art com puter hardware and software system that scientists can use to simulate and fore

cast how atmospheric pollution forms and behaves under various weather con

ditions. The system acts as a 'pollution weather map'. For example, the formation of pol lutants that have negative health effects, such as ozone and fine particulate mat ter, can be simulated in the Models-3

system. Simulations can be made to analyze and predict the formation of ozone and fine particulates under many different weather scenarios. Realistic

and cost-effective steps can now be taken to improve upon a region's air quality. The simulations can show the effect of mitigation measures, such as reducing vehicular traffic, using alter native fuels, or decreasing industrial and household emissions and their effect on the formation of ozone and

fine particulate matter. Realistic steps

Dr. Anton Davies (second from left), former Minister of the Environment, Dan Newman,and Brenda Eiiiott, MPPforGueiph, during Regional Airshed Model pres entation by Xin Qiu of RWDi.

tem is nearly $500,000 US.

efforts from Environment Canada,fund

The system took more than two years for RWDI to develop- with the research

ing assistance from CRESTech,the Cen tre for Research in Earth and Space Technology,the US Environmental Pro tection Agency, McMaster University and corporate sponsors. Gas Research

assistance of the Institute of Chemical

Process and Environmental Technology at the National Research Council of

Canada (NRC) and the Centre for At mospheric Chemistry at York Univer sity. The initial work focused on the Southern Ontario airshed. The size of

an airshed is defined by the movement of polluted air through a region. In or der to study the air pollution in south

Institute - Canada,and Dofasco. A show

on RWDI's technology for regional airshed modelling appeared on the Dis covery Channel on February 5, and fea tured Anton Davies.

ern Ontario, one has to include the

"We have successfully proven the effectiveness and value of this type of system in the cities ofToronto and Ham

movement of air contaminants from

ilton in Ontario, Vancouver, British Co

Ohio, New York, Michigan, and other neighbouring US states. The project was also supported by

lumbia, and Hong Kong - and the de mand for this critical simulation pro gram is increasing on a worldwide

can be identified to reduce the destruc

scale," said Dr. Davies. "With the new

tive nature of ozone.

standard governing the formation of ground level ozone and secondary particulate matter, industries will need the Models-3 system to assess their con tribution and compliance and capital for planning purposes. Governments need the technology for compliance assess ment, regulatory enforcement and transboundary pollutant control negotia tion purposes. It takes anywhere from two to six months to begin and complete a customized regional airshed modelhng framework program." For more information,

"The unique Models-3 system takes into account the complex mix of manmade and natural pollutants that are in the air that we breathe in any region in the world," said Dr.Anton Davies,Prin

cipal ofRowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. and Project Leader for the "Mod els-3" project. The cost incurred to date to successfully complete the turnkey proprietary hardware and software sys-

By S. Cralg Hunt, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. 20

Dr. Anton Davies of RWDi during the filming of Discovery channel show.

circle reply card No. 110

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Unfortunately, we don't live in

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Industrial Wastewater

Anaerobic wastewater treatment reviewed Several modes available for Industries type wastewaters that are high in fat, oil, and grease (FOG). One industry that has benefited from

the patented low-rate anaerobic ADIBVF digester technology offered by Paques ADI Inc. is a candy bar manu facturing facility in Canada. This plant has a design average flow of 1,135 m/d, average BOD of 1,600 mg/L,

average TSS of 410 mg/L, and FOG of 200 mg/L. The on-site wastewater treat ment plant now allows the manufactur ing facility to meet effluent limits of 300 mg/L BOD and 350 mg/L TSS. In addition to the low-rate anaerobic

Industries are facing tougher ef lu

digester, the treatment package is com prised of an insulated equalization tank

Candy bar manufacturing facility in Canada uses ADI-BVF digester technology. ent limits each year and often find it hard to know the best treatment method to meet their needs. A cou

ple of years ago Paques, of The Nether lands, and ADI, of Canada, decided to

form a company that would offer these industries a wider range of technologies to choose from; thus, Paques ADI Inc. was bom.

no "one technology fits all" available on the market. There is, however, a range of anaerobic treatment technologies that will effectively meet the needs of indus tries having small flows and limited space. There are also anaerobic tech nologies for those industries with larger flows but still constrained by space, as well as those with large flow and ample space to install on-site pretreatment.

By Al Cocci, Connie Smith, and Robert Landine,

Paques ADI Inc.

pumps and in-line grinder, a magnesium hydroxide feed system for pH-alkalinity adjustment, and a control building. The effluent discharges into a street sewer and flows a short distance to the publicly owned treatment works(POTW). The entire system is controlled

through a PLC system which can be accessed to change operating variables via the operator's PC workstation in the control building.

Low-rate anaerobic

Not all industries have the same

wastewater characteristics, and there is

ahead of the anaerobic reactor, feed

Some technologies are especially successful on particular waste streams. A prime example is low-rate anaerobic pretreatment. This technology is very successful at treating dairy and dairy-

Another successful installation is at

a dairy in Virginia, USA. This wastewater treatment plant was delivered on a design-build basis. ADI Systems Inc., Paques ADI Inc.'s design-build partner.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Industrial Wastewater

move methanol from the condensates to

comply with the MACTI portion of the Cluster Rules. This 6.5 m diameter re

actor (water depth of 20 m) typically removes more than 98 percent of the methanol at a hydraulic retention time of six to seven hours. The granular


biomass inside the IC reactor converts methanol into methane and carbon di

oxide; this biogas is separated inside the reactor and recovered. The biogas con tains approximately 85 percent methane and is used in the mill's combo boiler.

An installation at a purified terephthallc acid plant in Taiwan.

provided complete services. The treat ment facility comprises a screen, raw waste pumping station, equalization tank, calamity tank, an ADI-BVF di gester, and a proprietary ADI-SBR (sequencing batch reactor). This raw wastewater was a challenge as the incoming pH ranged from 2-12, the temperature ranged from 60-88°F, average TSS was 1,000 ppm, and peak day FOG concentrations approached 1,200 ppm. Nevertheless, a high-qual ity effluent is being produced with a BOD of 30 mg/L, SS of 30 mg/L, and FOG of 20 mg/L. The effluent dis charges into a sewer and flows by grav ity three miles to the POTW. The POTW effluent discharges into a creek that flows into the Potomac River and on to

Chesapeake Bay. These low-rate systems can be de signed as in-ground basin reactors or as above-ground tanks, depending on site restrictions.

High-rate anaerobic A technology proven to be particu larly suitable for treating chemical and chemical-type wastewaters is the highrate anaerobic ADI-Hybrid. This tech nology combines features of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed and upflow anaer obic filter processes and has been suc

cessfully employed at several complex chemical plants around the world. One successful installation is at a purified terephthalic acid(PTA)plant in Taiwan. In this case, the pretreatment system consists oftwo ADI-Hybrid reactors, one being 5,000 m in volume and the other, 4,000 m. They are designed to operate in series and give excellent performance in treating this complex wastewater. Preliminary treatment includes screening, equalization, and pH adjust ment for PTA solids dissolution prior to

treatment in the anaerobic reactors.

The pretreatment facility is designed to handle 7,800 m/d of this difficult-to-

treat wastewater at a design COD con centration of 6,500 mg/L (50,500 kg COD per day), including 8,400 kg/d of terephthalic acid solids. The hybrid re actors remove the majority of the bio degradable organics in the wastewater and convert them into biogas. The biogas is captured and utilized in process boilers at the site.

The pretreated wastewater dis charges to an existing deep-shaft acti vated sludge treatment facility for final polishing. Hybrid reactors are suitable where land is limited.

Ultra-high-rate anaerobic A very popular technology is the ul tra-high-rate anaerobic BIOPAQ -IC (in

The COD,which is typically between 4,500 and 5,000 mg/L,is reduced by 75 to 80 percent. The anaerobically treated condensates are discharged to the mill's aerated lagoons. The tall cylindrical design of this re actor makes it very suitable for applica tions where land is at a premium. Summary As stated, one technology does not fit all wastewater treatment needs, and

industries should investigate all their options before committing to a major capital investment. Every situation is unique, and a pilot study should be con sidered whenever there is a question as to the applicability of a technology or the treatability of the waste. On-site pretreatment with an anaero bic system that can produce biogas for reuse in the plant as a means of offset ting energy requirements should be given serious consideration. For more Information,

circle reply card No. 112

ternal circulation)reactor. This

system has become,for some, the preferred technology over the standard UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge bed). The reactor features a two-

stage separation/collection of biogas within a tall cylindri cal vessel and uses the gas-lift principle to induce internal circulation of treated effluent.

This technology is particu larly appealing to pulp and paper industries and breweries. One such reactor is success

fully installed at a kraft mill in Alabama where it is treating foul condensates. The foul

condensates originate from the pulp digesters and evaporators and contain mainly methanol, reduced sulfur compounds, and some terpenes. In this case, the kraft mill was faced with having to re

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001


A reactor instaiied at a kraft mili in Aiabama where

it is treating foul condensates. 23

Plant Operations

Magnetic drive pumps eiiminate mechanicai seai maintenance

Waterand wastewatertreat

ment plants utilize many


different chemicals for

various plant processes including coagulation, flocculation, odour control, sludge conditioning and disinfection. Many of these chemicals are utilized in liquid form and can be highly corrosive and toxic. Mechanical seals are the weak point in the design of many pumps. Normal


wear of mechanical seals can result in

leakage. In addition, seal water systems required to provide a barrier fluid, also require maintenance and waste valuable plant service water. New technology has made it possi ble and cost-effective to completely eliminate mechanical seal maintenance

on pumps for corrosive service. The seal-less magnetically driven centrifu gal pump manufactured by ANSIMAG, Inc. of Elkgrove, Illinois, is designed to handle the harshest chemicals. All wet

ted parts are non-metallic or ceramic. The cast metal casing is fully lined with ETFE, using a rotational moulding process that bonds a continuous seam less lining from the suction to discharge flanges.

Lakeview Water Treatment Plant pumps in chlorine injection system. standards, so, in most installations, lit

tle or no piping modifications are re quired when retrofitting. The Lakeview Water Treatment Plant

in Mississauga, Ontario, delivers more than 555 million litres of water per day to the South Peel Water System. The plant had corrosion issues with their

New technology has made it possible and cost-effective to completely eliminate mechanical seal maintenance on pumps

ance to ANSI and ISO dimensional

By Edward Yanoshita, P. Eng., National Process Equipment 24

plant operators are very happy with the operation and reliability of the pumps." The Ashbridges Bay Wastewater Treatment Plant in Toronto has a flow

for corrosive service. High strength permanent magnets drive the pump at motor synchronous speed with no slip losses. Inner and outer magnet assemblies are completely encapsulated for protection from the chemicals being pumped. The non-me tallic Kevlar reinforced rear casing pro vides a burst strength of 1,925 psi, with no efficiency or heat losses due to eddy currents. A large diameter non-rotating shaft, with a patented shaft groove, al lows solid particulate in dirty fluids to be expelled without damaging or clog ging the pump. The pump is designed in conform

Therefore, seal water leakage no longer occurs, and the pump room environment is now dry and non-corrosive to other equipment. Andrew Fair, R Eng., project engi neer with EarthTech, reports that: "The

chlorinated water feed pumps used for zebra mussel control. Worn and leak

ing mechanical seals were causing on going corrosion, both for the pumps themselves and for other equipment lo cated in the area.

Recent plant process changes re sulted in these pumps being used as part of the disinfection system. Therefore, the issue of reliability was raised. Earth Tech Canada Inc., was given the task of finding a reliable, cost-elfective solution to the problem. ANSIMAG pumps were selected as replacement pumps and were easily retrofitted into the existing pip ing with minor piping modifications. Seal maintenance and pump corrosion have been eliminated. Seal water for

these pumps is no longer required.

capacity of more than 600 million litres per day. The plant had an ongoing main tenance issue with leaking mechanical seals on their sodium hypochlorite recirculation pump on the odour control scrubber in P Building which treats air from the Grit Collection Building. Leaking sodium hypochlorite also poses a health and safety risk. The issues were dealt with by retro fitting the scrubber with an ANSIMAG mag drive pump, replacing the original ERP (Fiberglas Reinforced Plastic) pump which had double mechanical seals. An important consideration in the selection of the new pump was its abil ity to handle the solids that collect in the scrubber sump. The pump fit easily into the existing piping. Seal water is no longer required. Enzo Corelli, Chief Works Supervisor,reports that the pump has been maintenance free since it was

installed in early 2000. For more Information, circle reply card No. 113

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Ad Index



Reader Service No.

ABS Pumps



Hetek Solutions




Acres & Associated Env.


Allmax Professional Solutions Allmax Professional Solutions Antfirafilter

42 71 71

180 166 141




Arcus Absorbents Armtec Construction Products

43 57

193 114

Ashtead Technology








Mueller Canada

Berlie Technologies Can-Am Instruments





Career Advancement




Centennial Concrete Pipe


CH2M Hill



Chemtrac Systems Chlorinators Incorporated City of Rossland Colgate Palmolive Con Cast Pipe

61 19 14 42 79

155 169 182-184 137

Davis Controls Davnor Denso Donson

62 62 64 55

156 157 161 132




Ecoflo Ontario Environmental Auditors Fabricated Plastics Focus Environmental

43 53 54 19

194 171 109

Gary Steacy Dismantling GDT Corporation Gorman Rupp

22 63 3

170 158 102

Greatario Hach

58 5

128 103



Reader Service No.



Hydromantis 39 International Water Supply 71 Interprovincial Corrosion Control .. 52 ITT Flygt 9

136 145 163 105

KMK Consultants



KSB Pumps MakLoc Buildings Maple Leaf Environmental

63 42 69

159 187




MLE Equipment MSU Mississauga

69 32




ONDEO Degremont 16 ONDEO Degremont 17 Professional Engineers Ontario .... 68

165 107 151

ProMinent Fluid Controls ProMinent Fluid Controls PS International

13 33 52

106 127 164

Rusmar Foam Technology






Stan Mech Agencies Stormceptor Summa Engineering

42 6 8

181 104 176-178

61 71 43 40-41 29

260 146 188 326-332 122

Techstar Plastics Trimax Residuals Urecon US Filter Victaulic

Waterloo Biofilter Systems






Wyevale Containment



XP Software



YNC Pipe Coupling Co ZCL Composites

15 60

148 118



Zenon Environmental

FOR QUICK RESPONSE, FAX BACK TO (905)841-7271 FREE Information Service for Readers





□ Municipal & Government Personnel

Company Name: .

□ Provincial Government □ Federal Government


□ Consulting engineer/consultant □ Industrial (Please specify area of activity)





. Prov: _



Fax: (

For more information on products and services mentioned in this issue, circie the appropriate numbers beiow. Fiease maii or fax (905) 841-7271. □ Contractors engaged in construction of municipal and industrial waterworks, sewerage and pollution control plants, etc.

□ Other: Please be specific

Your request wiil be forwarded to the manufacturer. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

115 116 117

118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185

/ want to receive (continue to receive) Environmentai Science & Engineering magazine.

186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215

216 217 218 219

220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235


237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253

n Yes No n Date:

254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285

286 287

288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304


305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321

May 2001 Environmental Science <& Engineering, May 2001

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338


Cover Story

Leak detection Is more vital than ever

Water sup liers are under

increasing pressure to re duce leakage rates and provide a consistent, high integrity water supply. Resource devel opment is expensive and reductions in un accounted-for water are an attractive and

economically viable means of increasing the headroom between supply and de mand. New techniques in leak detection are emerging to help water suppliers achieve their objectives. Palmer Environmental, in conjunc tion with Hetek Solutions Inc., has re

cently launched the Fermalog leak lo calization system which is the first that can be justified economically for permanent/semi-permanent installation. With leakage levels being legislated in the UK, initial trials in a major UK water company have shown the poten tial of Fermalog to reduce leakage to record low levels and for water suppli ers to maintain these over a 10 year pe riod at low cost and with significantly improved customer service. Fermalog units are deployed through out the distribution system to provide continuous surveying of leakage. Eas ily installed on main lines and hydrant valves, they are retained in place by a strong magnet and are battery-powered for at least 10 years. Loggers are im mersion-tested to 1F68 and will continue

A leakage patrol can be carried out in specific areas using the Fermalog "Patroller" module to detect, decode and analyze signals from loggers. signals from loggers to identify the lo cation of units in leak mode and thereby the approximate position of the leaks. These data are indicated audibly, dis played on the LCD screen and stored in memory. Leak locations can be investi gated during, or at the end of, the pa trol. Leak data are printed out or downloaded to a PC, enabling correla tion to be concentrated solely on sus

• Completely non-invasive method with no detrimental effects on supply to cus tomers(preferred alternative to step test ing)- reducing discolouration. • Improves overall detection efficiency

and motivation by enabling skilled staff to concentrate on finding "known" leaks and avoid wasting time in no-leak areas. • Operates continuously over a 10-year period.

pect areas.

Economic Benefits

Operational Benefits Some of the many operational ben efits of the system are: • Option to monitor 100% of distribu tion system. • Finds more leaks more quickly than traditional sounding at valves or hy

to operate even in flooded chambers with no maintenance required. Each unit adapts itself automatically to its environment. If no leak is present drants. a signal is transmitted to indicate nor • Responds rapidly to new main breaks, mal background conditions. However, improving the service to customers. as soon as a possible leak is detected, • Automates and de-skills leak survey the Fermalog unit enters an alarm state ing, eliminating human error and find and transmits leak data. ing leaks that would otherwise be Following a rise in the nightline, or missed. at standard periodic intervals, a leakage • Operates independently of the size, structure or integrity of the area being patrol can be carried out in specific ar monitored. eas using the Fermalog "Patroller" mod ule. This detects, decodes and analyzes • Independent of metering/balancing.

There are many economic benefits, including: • Survey costs markedly reduced. • Dramatic productivity gain - one per son can survey a large area per day. • Record low leakage levels attainable. • Low installation cost and no mainte

nance costs, with reducing operating costs each year. • No night work required for leak sur veying. • Negligible incremental cost of addi tional surveys in an area (e.g. following repair). • Rapid payback. • Reduced cost of water into supply. • Fotential headroom in supply/demand balance.

•Demonstrates high technology benefits to customers, shareholders and interna tional clients.





I r~i <z:CD rfZ)C3rsted


For more information, circle reply card No. 264 (See page 25)


Methodology Benefits The above operational and economic benefits relate principally to water com panies with an established methodology for leakage monitoring, detection and control. In many cases, of course, this does not exist so it must be developed Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

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Check out our extensive product range and see why we're attracting so many customers. We have it all, including aluminum- and iron-based products for water and wastewater treatment. With expert technical services in regional offices across Canada and the United States, we're up to your specific challenge. So don't expect the buzz about Eaglebrook to stop anytime soon. Future acquisitions and new product development are in the works. Deal with a company that's top flight all the way.


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For more information, circie reply card No. 119 (See page 25)

Cover Story from the outset. Permalog allows water utilities to consider alternative approa

operation of the system. • The approach, once established in an

ches and in such instances offers some

area, is sustainable at low-cost over the

important benefits: • Within a zone, Permalog will identify areas of leakage without the need for additional flow monitoring.

long term (10 years and more). Following Up The Permalog system will identify

high quality correlators and ground mi crophones and requires trained operator(s). Note that such equipment is required in all water leak detection projects, irrespective of the localization method.

Repair Times To enable a quick impres sion to be gained of the effi cacy of the system, it is very important that leaks are re paired quickly. Failure to

the area in which a leak is located. How-

• This means that flow zones

can be planned on a larger scale.

• Larger zones implies less in vestment in infrastructure

(boundary valves, etc.). • In turn, less flow metering and telemetry equipment is re quired. • Larger (or no)zones provide

achieve this blurs the link be tween leaks identified and re

ductions in the nightline. It should also be noted that one

leak can mask another,and that

new leaks can be caused by higher pressure following re pair of identified leaks. In both cases, quick repair of the first leak helps the op

a more flexible network with

less potential for water quality problems caused by opening and closing valves. • The whole planning and im plementation process is speeded up and simplified. • No labour needs to be re

erator draw conclusions about

Units are deployed throughout the distribution system to provide continuous surveying of leakage.

cruited to carry out leak locali zation (although some labour is required for follow-up with correlators and ground microphones). • Little or no training is required in the

the new leak. Since the introduction of

ever, it will not pinpoint the leak, which

Permalog, several trials have been completed in Canada, the US and

must be done before excavation and re

around the world with favourable results.

pair can take place. Pinpointing and

For more information,

confirmation must be undertaken with

circle reply card No. 120

Temnepwfe OiPHiie uv Analysis




Our industry leading analytical and control instrumentation, gives you the process knowledge needed to take your facility operation to the next level. 2595 Dunwin Drive, Unit #2, Mississauga, ON L5L 3N9 Tel:(905) 569-6246• Fax:(905) 569-6244 internet: www.cancoppas.coni•E-Mail: controls@cancoppas.coni


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 200!

A piping solution

the taxpayers will love. Want to be known for fiscal responsibility? Use the VictaulicÂŽ grooved-end piping system in your water and wastewater treatment plants. After all, it installs 3 to 5 times faster than alternative systems and keeps saving you money every time it needs service. Any joint can be accessed easily, because all the sealing elements are outside the pipe and not trapped between pipe ends as with flanged systems. Victaulic offers a complete system of couplings, fittings, flange adapters, plug and check valves. And it's suitable for

ductile, steel, stainless, PVC, HDPE, lined and coated pipe.

It meets AWWA C-606 groove standards, and is available in AWWA sizes 3"-36", with

specials up to 144". The gaskets are, of course, ULC classified to ANSl/NSF 61 for potable water.

Call Victaulic today for a free value analysis or demonstration at 416/675-5575, or fax 416/675-5729. Or visit www.victaulic.com.

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Victaulic is a registered trademark of Victaulic Company of Canada. Š1998 Victaulic Company of Canada. All rights reserved.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 122(See page 25)

Government Affairs

All Ontario Ministries must be Involved Mike Harris weicomes 21st century vision been able to implement a coher

ewer and V^stewaier iViocieiing

ent vision of its own. Other

Model dual drainage and other complex systems of both open and closed conduits

places have been able to move forward by: • Eollowing strong, committed leadership; • Recognizing that change will not be easy; • Finding the resources within and outside government in or der to make the change.

Use Rational, SCS, SWMM Runoff and many other hydrology metliods Design/analyze separate/combined systems Handle flow reversals and looped systems Directly import GIS and other database data Simulate, pumps, orifices, weirs regulators multiple outfalls and real time control


Recommendations In order to re-establish the

Ministry of the Environment as a leader in environmental prac tices, the Executive Resource

Combined Culvert and Pond Analyzer Design and analyze all bridge, culvert and pond hydraulics Only culvert and pond hydraulics sofhvare to combine full unsteady flow and FHWA inlet analysis Use constant or hydrograph inputs and include road overtopping Include upstream storage and ponds


Urban Stormwater Design and Analysis Design and analyze drainage systems using up to 7 return periods with the Rational fonnula Predict an accurate HGL and analyze inlets using HEC-12, rating curve or max. capture

Group recommended a new vi sion for the ministry: Mike Harris reieases a boid, sometimes criticai 1. That responsibility for the en report on environmental management in Ontario. vironment is shared among ap propriate ministries. Ontario's Premier, released a 2. That the Ministry of the Environment new report that calls for a set its sights on continuous improvement broad, modern vision for in environmental practices rather than protecting the environment. Managing on ensuring that only minimum stand the Environment was commissioned by ards are met. the Ontario government and authored by 3. That the ministry look at the environ management expert Valerie Gibbons and ment as a complex system and not as the Executive Resource Group. It ex unrelated components (air, water, land) amined the operations of Ontario as well and that it look at things like watersheds as other jurisdictions and organizations as places which have fixed geographic to determine best practices. boundaries. 4. That the ministry use strong enforce The Report's Findings In its January 2001 Report, the ment measures as well as incentives and Executive Resource Group made these partnerships to achieve its goals. 5. That Ontario recognize that govern observations about Ontario's manage

On February 7, Mike Har is,

ment of the environment;

ments do not have the resources to man

1. Ministry staff are committed and are operating well despite being under con siderable pressure in recent months. 2. Although the ministry supports mov ing in a new strategic direction,the over all direction of the Ministry of the Environment cannot be called "leading".

age the environment alone and that there must be partnerships among the private sector, the public and other groups.

In fact:

Include inlet bypasses and surface flow


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• Ontario is behind the progress made elsewhere - other jurisdictions have adopted new environmental strategies; • The gap between Ontario and leading jurisdictions is widening;

Staff of all ministries with environ

mental management responsibilities are reviewing the report's many recommen dations. The government is also for warding it to Justice O'Connor so he can include it in his deliberations in the

Ontario an environmental leader.

Walkerton inquiry. "This report calls for a break from the way that the Ministry of the Envi ronment has been run for many decades and represents a bold new vision for environmental protection," said Harris.

3. Despite an awareness of the strate gies and practices developed elsewhere, the Ministry of the Environment has not


• It will take a concerted effort to make

More information is available at:

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Air Pollution

Production of a cost-competitive biodiesel fuei aiternative to petroieum diesei

Research has shown a number

ronmental and health benefits of this

rently producing biodiesel still employ a "high pressure, high temperature" method that is en ergy intensive and extremely costly. Or they use a chemical

non-toxic and biodegradable fuel in clude its potential for reducing harmful

ASTM standard Biodiesel in a one

of important benefits of biodiesel fuel as an alterna tive to fossil fuels. The envi

method that does not achieve

exhaust emissions, decreasing green house gas (GHG) production and en hancing diesei engine performance as a lubricity additive. As well as contribut

pass cost-effective manner. Both the seed oil (soybean, canola,etc.) and the yellow grease

ing to a cleaner environment, the use of biodiesel, produced from recycled veg etable oils, agricultural seed oils or waste animal fats and grease, should also ben

low with regard to market pricing. It is anticipated that prices may remain depressed for sometime primarily due to the awareness of

efit and increase the income of the agri cultural community in North America. Up to this point, however, the pro

international effect it has on the

duction and commercialization of

biodiesel as an alternative fuel to petro leum diesei has seemed unlikely, due to the costs associated with its production

(approximately three times as much as petroleum diesei). All companies cur

markets are at a historic all time

BSE(Mad Cow's disease)and the

animal proteins market. Bio diesel, however, could be pro duced from both seed oil and yel low grease.

Functional pilot unit located in Oakvllle, Ontario, processing one million litres per annum.

The Process

The BIOX process, a new biodiesel process developed by the University of

Toronto, has successfully demonstrated, in a laboratory setting, that biodiesel fuel (produced from recycled vegetable oils. Continued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001



Kuala Lumpur

For more Information, circle reply card No. 124 (See page 25)


Air Pollution

agricultural seed oils or waste animal fats and greases) may soon become a viable, cost-competitive alternative to petroleum diesel. Professor David Boocock of the Uni

versity of Toronto, and developer of the BIOX Process, has examined the proc ess of base-catalyzed transesterification

(specifically transmethylation) of veg etable oils to produce biodiesel methyl

esters from triglycerides and methanol has several disadvantages, including:

catalyzed step is complete in seconds. • Flas a recycle stream of methanol and

• The reaction is slow at ambient tem

a co-solvent, and the latent heat of con


densation is used to heat the incoming

• The reaction does not go to comple tion, and therefore requires a second and even third pass to achieve the necessary purity.


• The reaction cannot handle substrates

esters. The kinetic data for this reaction

has been previously misinterpreted. At the University of Toronto he has shown that the methanolysis is slow because the

which have fatty acid contents much above one percent, simply because the acids neutralize the catalyst to form soaps.

The new process addresses these problems in the following ways: phases, and the reaction is, therefore, • Uses an inert, cheap, recyclable cosolvent to make the reaction one phase, mass transfer limited. The problem has been solved by the thus improving mass transfer and thereby, the reaction rate. selection of inert co-solvents that gen erate an oil-rich one-phase system. This • Uses more methanol to increase the reaction is 95% complete in ten minutes polarity of the mixture, which maintains the ionization of the catalyst. at ambient temperatures, whereas pre vious processes required hours. Con • For substrates containing fatty acids, it tinuous processes are now feasible. The first uses a one-phase acid-catalyzed step acid catalyzed process, which is required to convert the fatty acids, before using when the substrate contains fatty acids, base catalysis to convert the triglycerides. is complete in minutes rather than the •In the two-step process, approximately usual several hours. 30 minutes is required to convert the fatty The traditional base-catalyzed acids at close to the boiling temperature method for producing fatty acid methyl of the methanol (60C). The baseinitial reaction mixture consists of two

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The process is claimed to be the only biodiesel production process that will be able to compete with petroleum diesel on a production cost basis, and the only process that can successfully exploit high fatty acids to produce biodiesel. The process is able to deal with animal fats and greases. It is estimated that by using both used agricultural oils and waste grease, costs can be cut by as much as 50 percent, making biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel. The costs of biodiesel using tradi tional processes vary depending on type of feedstock to be converted. If virgin soy oil were used as a feedstock,for ex ample, production cost would be ap

proximately $0.66/litre. The goal of the BIOX process is to produce biodiesel from any feedstock, including vegeta ble oils, agricultural seed oils, recycled cooking oils and grease or waste animal fats and grease, at a cost of $0.18/litre. For more Information, circle reply card No. 126

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Conference Preview

American Water Works Association Annual

Conference & Exposition June 17 - 21,2001, Washington,DC Located in the nation's capital, this year's conference offers more than 100 tech

nical sessions led by industry experts, nine workshops for hands-on education, and five technical tours at regional water systems.

Workshop topics include: Water Main Rehabilitation, A.I. Integration, 'Net: Better, Faster, Cheaper Field Computing,Outsou rein g/In tern al Mgmt.,Terrorism & Security, Leader ship in Public Affairs, Operations Plan

Leaders in Chlorine DISINFECTION

for Dist., Arsenic Treatment Facilities,

Global System Financing. Conference Highlights HlOpen Forum - Critical Water Issues: The Political Perspective This year's Forum focuses on today's critical water issues from the perspec tive of legislators and congressional leaders, several of whom are invited to

participate in this lively and thoughtprovoking session. E-Commercefor the Water and Wastewater Industries: How to Take

Advantage of the Digital Economy E-commerce is a hot topic -for both the water and wastewater industries. This

second annual joint session, sponsored and developed by AWWA and the Water Environment Federation, will bring together experts in this evolving field. T22: American Academy of Environmental Engineers Euncheon At this AAEE luncheon, Joseph Hoffman, the executive director of the commission, will outline the commis sion's vision for the future and the con

crete steps being taken to assure and protect the Potomac regions precious



CONTROLLERS offer precise,

is the first caiibratabie pump to display continuous feedrate and pumped volume, as well as operating status and stroke length.

state-of-the-art chlorine

monitoring and control capabilities, in free or total chlorine sensor technology.



Schematic showing how easiiy ProMinent's chiorine disinfection equipment connects to the existing municipai water suppiy.


o Q_

water resource.

Young Professionals Technical Session This special session, developed by AWWA's Ad Hoc Committee on Young Professionals, will be presented by younger members of AWWA and will cover a range of drinking water topics. Water Matters! A Rally at the Capitol You can show your support for the people and the profession that make clean and safe water a reality by partici pating in a rally on the steps of the US Capitol.




Ll_ OU cy>




For further information contact the


American Waterworks Association,Tel: (303) 794-7711, Fax: (303) 795-1989.

The full program can be downloaded from AWWA's website, www.awwa.org. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 127 (See page 25)



Measuring ammonia with oniine analyzers Instrumentation Testing Association conducts fieid tests

Ammonia is a chemical com

Table 1-Online Ammonia Analyzers Evaluated

bination of elemental hydro gen, H, and nitrogen, N,oc curring extensively in na ture. The physical state of ammonia is dependent on temperature and pH but pH is normally the determining factor. At a high pH, ammonia is expressed as



UV2150S NH3-N

LiV absorbance

Monitor 90 S


Evita Insitu


lonChem 2005 Ammonia


APA6000 NH3-N


pAI-8232 Ammonia Monitor





ASA, Inc., ChemScan Bran -i- Luebbe

Danfoss Analytical FPM Analytics

NHj, and is referred to as "free ammo Hach Company

nia". In this state, ammonia is a colour

less gas that is partially soluble in water. At low pH or acidic conditions, am monia becomes completely soluble in water and forms ammonium,

Waltron Ltd. WTW Measurement

Systems, Inc.


Ammonia Analyzer

Zellweger Analytics

is referred to as "ionized ammonia". In

Polymetron 8810 Ammonia


addition, ammonia and ammonium can

also be expressed as ammonia-nitrogen and ammonium-nitrogen, respectively, which is the quantity of elemental ni trogen, N,present in the form of ammo

nia, NHj, expressed as NH^-N or am monium, NH+-N. ' 4

In high-nitrogen environments, free and ionized ammonia coexist and the

NHj-N + H^O =NH/-N + OHAmmonia-Nitrogen -I- Water = Ammonium-Nitrogen + Hydroxyl Ion Under conditions of low pH,the high concentration of hydrogen ions, con verts ammonia to ammonium as de

scribed by the following equation:

in mg/L. The general chemical behav iour of free and ionized ammonia in

water is described by the formula:

ple, ammonia, NH^, is a nutrient, by product or feed additive for all activated sludge wastewater treatment processes.


NHj-N 4-

Ammonium-Nitrogen —> AmmoniaNitrogen -I- Hydrogen Ion Measuring Ammonia Levels

Ross, P.E., Instrumentation

Testing Association, and Stephen G. Nutt, M.Eng., P.Eng.,

Treatment facilities use online am

XCG Consultants Ltd.

monia analyzers to monitor and control Table 2-lnterferences for Ammonia Analyzers


Potential Interferences Grease or oils

Turbidity Colour

Magnesium Calcium

pH lon-Selectlve Electrode


Mercury Silver Grease or oils

pH High ionic strength or large changes in Ionic strength Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrophotometer

Wastewater treatment plants use on line ammonia analyzers to optimize ac tivated sludge and biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. For exam

NHj-N + W-> NH/-N

By Tony Palmer, and Maureen


more reliable and cost-effective.

Ammonia-Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ion ^ Ammonium-Nitrogen Under conditions of high pH,ammo nium is converted to ammonia by the following equation:

quantities of each are summed to meas ure the concentration of total ammonia,

treatment processes. Controlling ammo nia levels can make treatment processes

Grease or oils

Turbidity Organic matter (absorbs UV light) Some inorganic ions (chlorate, nitrate, etc.)

In addition, some advanced waste-

water treatment plants use online am monia analyzers to monitor nitrification to meet ammonia discharge limits. Finally, some water treatment plants use online ammonia analyzers when monitoring "chloramination", a drinking water treatment process used to create a persistent disinfectant residual. Testing Ammonia Analyzers The Instrumentation Testing Associa tion (ITA), a nonprofit technical and educational association, was directed by its membership (municipal and indus trial treatment facilities, consultants and manufacturers) to field test online am

monia analyzers for water and wastewater treatment applications. ITA tested online ammonia analyzers at the City of Houston Beltway Wastewater Treatment Plant over a three month period. The ITA test was conducted in a wastewater treatment environment of an

activated sludge aeration basin. Test ing ammonia analyzers in wastewater involves more variables and provides a harsher environment than testing in water,thereby, best representing a worst case scenario. The ITA test included

Continued overleaf 34

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001








Centenniai OMiaeteP^&f^uct mc

Stormceptor - Engineering Purity. For more information, circle reply card No. 133(See page 25)



Colorimetric Ammonia Analyzer

Ammonia Ion-Selective

Electrode Analyzer lectronics Module Temperature (RTD)Sensor



r Reagent 1 Feed Tubing (Buffer)

Reference Electrode


Reagent 2 Feed Tubing (Colour Indicator)

Porous Membrane

Sample Flow

Reagent 3 Feed Tubing (Hypochlorlte)

Porous Reference Junction


pH or Measuring Electrode Sensor Membrane Cap Filled with Ammonium Chloride (NH.CI)

Silver Wire Coated

with Silver Chloride

pH or Measuring Electrode


Light Source

Glass Membrane filled



with Buffer Solutio


Generic Online Ion-Selective Electrode Ammonia Analyzer Generic Online Colorimetric Ammonia Analyzer

eight analyzers, representing the three major types of online ammonia analyzer technologies available to measure am monia concentration in a treatment process stream: 1) Colorimetric, 2)Ion-selective electrodes (ISE), and 3)Ultraviolet(UV)absorbance or multiple wavelength UV absorbance spectrophotometers. The product of this test is a comprehensive report on the performance of the eight analyzers tested. Table 1 lists analyzer manufacturers and technologies evaluated at the City of Houston. Each technology detects ammonia concentrations using different analytical methods. In addition, manufacturers of each technology utilize different methodologies for such functions as sample transport, sample conditioning, chemi cal addition, primary measurement, and secondary signal conditioning and amplification. Treatment Processes Affecting Analyzers Samples that have certain interferences may affect the ability of the ammonia analyzer to measure accurately. Table

to your specific needs to select the most suitable analyzer for your application. ITA's performance evaluation report. Online Ammonia Analyzersfor Water and Wastewater Treat ment Applications, is an essential reference for aiding in the selection process. For more information, visit ITA's Weh site at: www.instrument.org.

Copyrighfi Instrumentation Testing Association, 2001, reprinted with permission.

Ultraviolet Absorbance

Ammonia Analyzer

Electronics Module


2 lists these interferences.

Applications Typical applications for ammonia analyzers in water, wastewater, and industrial treatment processes are:


Reagent Feed Tubing 1 (Buffer)

Reagent Feed Tubing 2 (Hypochlorlte)

• Industrial Pretreatment • Influent

• Primary Effluent

UV Light

• Aeration Basin

• Water Disinfection (chloramination) • Effluent Disinfection

Filter ^ Transmitted


UV Light Waves


• Effluent


• Stream and River Monitoring Analyzer Selection Selecting an accurate and reliable ammonia analyzer is a challenge. It is necessary to take into consideration the dif ferent types of ammonia analyzer technologies,installation, maintenance, cost, and the parameters of most importance







UV Light Waves

UV Light Absorbing Particles

Generic Online Ultraviolet Absorbance Spectrophotometer Ammonia Analyzer Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

International News

China pumping up to get greener Flygt China recently received its larg

est pump order ever - US$1.05 million - for a complete submersible pump/ mixer package to be installed in a sew age treatment plant for the city ofZheng Zhou in the province of Henan. This is the first sewage treatment plant for Zheng Zhou, which has a population of over two million.

China is increasing its investment in environmental infrastructure. The offi

displaced and resettled people. It is

Dams and development Dams And Development:A New Frame work for Decision-Making, the Final Report by the World Commission on Dams,seeks to turn costly controversies into clear and productive consensus. For the first time, a diverse forum of engi neers, environmentalists, government officials, indigenous people,financiers, affected people and academics,engaged for two years in an unprecedented global public policy process. Some of the key findings of the

cial target is to allocate 2-3% of Gross

commission are:

Domestic Product for investment in en

•Dams deliver significant development services in more than 140 countries; they account for 19% of electricity and for an estimated 12-16% of global food production. • Some large dams continue to generate benefits after 30-40 years; however a considerable portion fails to deliver its physical and economic targets. • Large dams have led to the loss of

vironmental improvements, but the lo cal authorities will have to raise a cer

tain percentage of this by themselves. What's driving this growing invest ment? With a fast-improving living standard and an increase in foreign con tracts, China is under strong pressure from within and from neighbouring countries to improve its environment. In Shanghai, for example, the estimated wastewater volume is 5.7 million cubic

metres per day, but the sewage treatment capacity for secondary treatment is less than 10%.

estimated that some 40-80 million

people have been displaced by dams worldwide.

Cost is £20 for paperback. Order on-line at: www.earthscan.co.uk.

ERIS(Environmental Risk Information Services) is a reporting service that accesses key federal, provincial and private sector databases to help identify potential environmental risks. When you order an ERIS report, you'll get all the current and historical information you need to reduce your risk of environmental liability.

forests and wildlife habitat and the loss

of aquatic biodiversity of upstream and downstream fisheries.

• There is a pervasive and systematic failure to assess negative impacts on

For more information,

circle reply card No. 162

Understand. AT CH2M




We offer full-service solutions across the fields of Water, Environment, Energy, Telecommunications, Transportation, and Industrial Processes. Our experts work closely together each day to understand how all aspects of the environment, community, and industry are interdependent. Because understanding enables responsible decision-making. And that makes the world a better place for everyone.




Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 2001






For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)



On-site groundwater remediation in Texas

A patented TiO,slur y photoby Purifies®, is being used to

products and then cap off the site. Once this was completed, the last step was to pump and treat groundwater throughout

remediate contaminated

the site. For the remediation of this

groundwater, surface water and process

groundwater,the EPA stated in its Record of Decision (ROD) that UV Oxidation (UV/Ox) would be the method of treat ment for the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether.

catalytic process developed

water. .

Case History Superfund Site - CERCLA ID #TXD980629851 - is located near

The site consists of 24 wells, which

Galveston Bay, Texas(EPA Region VI), approximately one mile north of the Gulf Coast. Years ago,the site originally con sisted of several lagoons for the storage or disposal of heavy end petroleum prod ucts(also known as DNAPL or Sinkers). These heavy end petroleum products had been cut or liquefied with a solvent called Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether so that they could be removed and transported to the dis posal site. Over time, the site was con taminated with this primary solvent(and others including LNAPL or Eloaters) as

are each pumped at specified flow rates and duties and the groundwater is blended in a holding tank prior to treatment. From this point, water is fed into the treatment train at the prescribed flow rate of 15 L/

it leached or was washed out of the la

goons into the suirounding groundwater. The first step in the remediation proc ess was to incorporate a 75 foot (23 m) deep slurry wall around the entire site. The purpose of this was to stop migra tion of the contamination off the site and

into the surrounding groundwater and recreational surface water. After this was

performed, the next step was to remove and incinerate the bulk of the petroleum

By Tony L. Powell and Brian Butters, Purifies Environmental

Technologies Inc.

mill on a continuous basis. The influent

concentration of the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether averaged < 200 ppm, and its origi nal treatment specification was 2.4 ppm. Other chlorinated VOCs present in the groundwater are vinyl chloride, 1,2dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane,

Party (PRP) of the site, through its en vironmental consultant, investigated UV/Ox technologies to treat this groundwater. Based on work by their consultant and a UV/Ox vendor, it was

found that if the groundwater was pretreated with polymer flocculation fol lowed by filtration (in order to remove suspended solids and possibly iron), standard UV-H,0,technology would be successful in treating the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether below the treatment speci fication of 2.4 ppm. The PRP then set out to procure the hardware in a competitive bid process. Purifies put in a bid for its first gen eration TiO,slurry photocatalytic technol

ogy, trade named Photo-Cat®, utilizing a 14 kW system without polymer floccu lation pre-treatment, as it is not required for this photocatalytic technology. The photocatalytic equipment was

benzene, phenanthrene, DNAPL and LNAPL (in the range of 0.1% to 0.3%). installed and commissioned in the fall The groundwater is brackish, with chlo of 1995. The 14 kW photocatalytic sys ride levels exceeding 6,000 ppm. The tem destroyed the Bis(2-chloroethyl) influent COD is approximately 1,720 ether from 200 ppm to 0.2 ppm (99.9% ppm, the total dissolved solids (TDS) is removal). This performance was an 14,500 ppm with iron levels between 2-3 additional order of magnitude below the ppm. The high chloride and COD levels discharge specification of 2.4 ppm in of the groundwater increase the difficulty effect at the time of commissioning. The operating and maintenance of treatment of the groundwater and pro vided challenges in materials of constaic- (O&M) cost comparison of UV/H,0, tion. For example, plastic components in and Photo-Cat is based on the follow contact with the untreated water would

last only hours due to the aggressive at tack from the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether which would dissolve the plastic. In 1992, the Principal Responsible


ing parameters: a power cost of $0.06/ kWh, an estimated replacement cost of $3,000 for 38 kW of medium pressure lamps with a life of 3,000 hours. The actual annual lamp replacement cost of the Photo-Cat process is based on the demonstrated 12,500 hour life. All cost

figures are in US dollars. The costs of chemicals consumed for the AOP proc ess, such as caustic and H,0„ have been


omitted for the sake of simplicity even though it favours the selected process. Elimination of the polymer floccula tion pre-treatment process and the solid waste issues associated with it represents a large reduction in both capital and


O&M costs.

The capital cost of the Photo-Cat sys tem is believed to be similar to, or


ir.-G aw

The photocatalytic equipment was commissioned in the fall of 1995. 38

slightly greater than the cost of a UV/ H,0, system. Equipment standards, specifications and horizontal integration affect capital cost comparisons. Within a year of operation of the Photo-Cat, the discharge limit of the Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether was lowered by Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001


The site after the

Aerial view of site before excavation.

the EPA from 2.4 ppm down to 20 ppb.

project was completed.

and the system turned on without a fault. Also, the system was frozen when the Galveston Bay area was hit by a hun dred year frost. In this application, the system was back up and running within three days. Conversely, the system has repeatedly operated without fault at sus tained ambient temperatures where the

added to increase the power of the sys

eight hours to complete),the photocatalytic system destroyed the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether down below its detection level of 1 ppb (> 99.9995% removal). Over the life of the system, it has been subjected to several adverse con ditions. In its first year of operation, the reactor system was submersed twice in one foot of water when storms coming

tem to 19 kW.

in off the Gulf of Mexico flooded the

at a time.

Once the expansion was completed (the expansion required approximately

containment basin. On both occasions,

For more information,

the containment base was pumped out

circle reply card No. 135

To obtain the additional treatment re

quired to meet the new discharge limit, additional modular capacity was added to the system. The original 14 kW sys tem was comprised of six modular photocatalytic racks stacked upon-each other. An additional two racks were

daytime high approaches 40°C for days

The Better Way to Design and Cost Wastewater Treatment

Systems... Free demo can be downloaded from; www.hydromantis.com

A planning level tool _ to help you rapidly design and cost a new plant. CapdetWorks - C:\PrQgram Rles\CapdelWaik8\LQyouts\A(:tivQted Sludge and Trickling Filter Cnmp Hie Bit Layout Preferences Cost Data Cast Analysis Help

CapdetWorks helps you work more efflcientlv. Define the


influent, desired effluent quality and treatment scheme - press a button and the schematic is automaticaily designed and costed. You can quickiy buiid treatment aiternatives and compare their relative costs. Of course, you can customise all costs.


LPreiminafy Treatment

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CadpetWorks uses accepted design aigorithms to derive the required unit process designs. Designs are based on many characteristics of the wastewater being treated, not just one parameter such as wastewater flow. This accuracy is a big improvement over other methods.

Aerated Lagoon

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CapdetWorks calculates aj]the costs - capital, operating and maintenance for each treatment alternative. Labour, amortization,

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land, power, haulage, chemicals, design fees - everything! Coitact

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Simply drag-and-drop from a choice of 60 unit processes to buiid a treatment schematic. CapdetWorks wiii then calculate the design and estimate the cost to build, operate and maintain the facility.

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Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers 1685 Main St. West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 1G5

Tel:(905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031


Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 2001


[Extended Aeration Adkiated Sludge CapdetWorks version 1.0 is available for all Windows operating systems and costs US$ 2,450 per license.

For more information, circle reply card No. 136 (See oaae 25)





FOR WATER TREATMENT The ACTIFLO system is a compaa, high-rate, physical-chemical clarifi cation process that uses microsand along with lamellar setding to enhance flocculauon and clarification. By utilizing microsand as a seed for floe formation and

Not any more. We've put two of the industry's best technologies together resulting in the Envirex High Performance Clarifier. Our Rim-Flo® clarifier with

peripheral feed and overflow uses 50% less surface area than center feed designs. And our Tow-Bro® system provides increased return solids concentra tion, reduced sludge pumping and increased tank capacity reducing aeration requirements by 35%. These integrated technologies, tested and proven, constitute the ultimate aaivated sludge final clarifier. The proof is in the performance and we have the numbers. Envirex Products

262.547.0141 phone 262.547.41207^

Circle reply card No. 326

clarification, the ACTIFLO process is up to 20 times smaller than conventional processes. Furthermore, the sand allows for more effective removal of solids,

organics, metals and pathogens. The sand also stabi lizes the process during sudden fluctuations in raw water quality. In Canada contact:

John Meunier Products

514.334.7230 phone 514.334.5070fax www.usfilter.com

In the U.S. contact:

Kruger Products 919.677.8310 phone 919.677.0082fax

Circle reply card No. 327



SPIRACONE^ CLARIFIER LME® INCLINED The Spiracone sludge blanket clarifier pro


vides maximum water

plate separator is compact and effi

production in mini mal space. The influ

cient. Low influent

ent flow moves in an

velocities prevent the shearing of flocculat ed particles, while allowing heavier particles to settle almost immedi ately to the bottom of the basin. For drinking water applications, a typical 50-plate pack has a footprint ofabout 60 sq. ft. but contains more than 1,147 sq. ft. of effective settling area. This is one-tenth the footprint required by conventional clarifiers and one-fifth the footprint required by tube settlers. Zimpro Products




Circle reply card No. 329

water_info@usfilter.com e-mail www.usfilter.com




of the tank sidewall, and inlet floor orifices control




General Filter Products

800.547.1202 phone 508.347.7049fax

The patented Trans-Flo Clarifier for secondary settling tank application features a unique trans verse, folded flow pat tern for high solids removal efficiency in a rectangular tank. Flow moves along the full length



upward-expanding spiral through zones of water and sludge, emerging clarified at the top. Applications include clarification; softening removal of iron, color and turbidity; phosphate reduction and heavy metals. A pilot plant is available.

flocculation and sedi

mentation in a single

distribution of the influent mixed liquor flow. Flow enters the tank behind a skirt baffle hung beneath

basin for maximum

the inlet channel and travels across the tank width

treated water production in minimal space. Raw

and rebounds back toward the effluent collection

water and chemicals come into contact with

previously formed precipitates, then pass through distinct zones within the basin for reaction, floccu

lation, separation, sludge removal and clarification. The precipitates help accelerate the chemical reaction and serve as a deposit point for newly formed precipitates, creating large, heavy sludge particles that settle rapidly. CONTRAFLO is ideal for applications such as iron and manganese removal, color removal, and lime/soda ash softening. General Filter Products

channel. Short circuiting is eliminated; full basin volume is used for optimum hydraulic efficiency. Settled solids are removed through embedded head ers along the basin length. Headers span the width of the tank; telescoping valves control removal rates through each header. A chain and scraper collector transports settled solids between headers and skims the water surface on the return run. This unique design reduces space requirements and substantial ly cut costs for new tank construction and second ary clarifier upgrades.

800.547.1202 phone 508.347.7049^

Envirex Products

water_info@usfilter.com e-mail




Circle reply card No. 330

262.547.0141 phone

Circle reply card No. 331


USFilter oflFers a vast array of individual clarification technologies, plate and tube settlers, flocculators and clarifiers of every shape and size, as well as pre-engineered systems including a clarification

step. Because of this, we're able to provide the system that most m

cost-effectively meets your unique requirements. For more infor Learn more at our new web site,


mation, check the web at www.usfilter.com, call 1.800.547.1202 or e-mail water info@usfilter.com.

For more information, circle reply card No. 332(See page 25)


water company

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cail ES&E at(905)727-4666.


Data Management software Operator 10ÂŽ Plus, supplier of Op


Leister welding machines for geomembranes


erations and Maintenance Data Man

Our Leister line of automatic wedge welders, combiwedge machines and hand tools are used in a wide variety of geomembrane applications where the precise welding control is re quired as part of the seaming proc ess. Our products provide excellent field performance and superior reli ability. Tel: (905) 828-1400, Fax: (905)828-1056, www.stanmech.com Stan Mech Agencies Inc. Circle reply card No. 181

agement software. Products include water, wastewater, pre-treatment and biosoiids, plus AiiMax Task Manager, maintenance data management. Newly added to our fine product line is our DataPort, hand-tield entry unit with barcode scanner. For more in

formation, E-maii us at: aiimaxÂŽ operatorl O.com, or visit our Web site at: www.operator10.com. AIIMax Professional Solutions inc.

^. agill


Circle reply card No. 180

Cyanide Removal Using sodium hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes

Zebra Mussels

A "Sohjtion" for ZEBRA MUSSELS

To heip controi zebra musseis,one solution involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite,

is detaiied. Buiietin reviews dos

which kills the larvae. VVe are con-

ages, equipment, as weii as stor age, safety and handiing data. Particulariy appiicabie to metai recover or refining operations. Contact: www.coigate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive

suiting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help controi their spread, if you'd like to discuss this prob lem, or be kept informed of the lat est information, please contact: www.coigate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 182


Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 183


Odour Control

Emergency Response

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is

Team-1 Environmental Services

detaiied in a technical buiietin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics Include: storage and air Contact: www.coigate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmoiive

Rapid 24 hour response (Ontario's only Mobile Decon Trailer). Opera tor of The Emergency Service Train ing Academy wifh three fully equip ped locations.

Canada Inc.

Team-1 Environmental

Circle reply card No. 184

Services Inc.

coiiection needs.

Environmental Instrument Rentals

Ashtead Technology specializes in renting portable instruments for air and water sampling and monitoring. The rental fleet includes photoion-

Circle reply card No. 185

Hazardous materials

storage Chem-Loc Buildings are uniquely designed and manufactured by MakLoc

(PIDs and FIDs), multi-gas monitors, air sampling pumps, dust and aero

Buildings inc. to provide safety, security, segrega tion, and secondary con

sol monitors, noise dosimeters and

tainment of hazardous ma-

sound level meters, landfill gas analyzers, water quality monitoring systems, peristaltic and submersible pumps. For a new catalogue visit: www.ashtead-technoiogy.com. Ashtead Technology Circle reply card No. 188

nationai oii and gas companies, the Armed Forces, Govern ment agencies, municipalities and goif courses have chosen Chem-Loc as their economicai solution. Tel: 1-888-774-7792, Web site: www.makioc.com. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circie reply card No. 187

ization and flame ionlzafion detectors


offer an extensive complement of equipment and dedicated crew. TRUE multiple response facilities. Contracted to police, fire and indus try for land and marine response.

teriais. Since 1971, muiti-

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Literature Review & Product Showcase For information on advertising in this section call ES&Eat(905) 727-4666. Urecon pre-insulated pipe Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze profecflon since 1972(with or wifhouf Thermocable® heaf tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insulated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page

Alternate daily cover ALTERNATE DAILY COVER


made easier with Rusmar's newAG-

677-SE Soil Equivalent Foam. Ben efits include: pennies per square foot cost, no capital investment required,


• All W«edi*f ItrmiM

• Cmmmwi

Daily cover practices have now been


> MuM-Ooy Uftun

ail weather formula, consumes no

• Mmm A> SiMlU *&'

Oelly Cavf

airspace, multi-day exposure, meets ail subtitle "D" daily cover require ments.

Rusmar Incorporated Circle reply card No. 189

at: www.urecon.com.

Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 188

High quality plastic piping \a

1 O j uit'

systems Fabricated Plastics Limited offers

industry a full spectrum of high qual ity, corrosion resistant, plastic piping systems, designed and fabricated for a wide range of conditions and tem peratures. End-users now have a choice of a variety of materials from solid FRP to thermoplastic-lined FRP. Lining choices include: PVC, GPVC, PP, PVDF, E-GTFE, FEP, PFA, and TEFZEL. Our 10-page brochure outlines material selection and prop erties, joining methods and dimen sional details. Fabricated Plastics

Circle reply card No. 190



AUX SIGNALS Flew. Ttirtiidity. OAor. pH.Conttuctlviiy. Etc.



Typical Streaming Current Monitor Installation The TGS4500XRD uses Streaming Current measurement to maintain proper eiectrokinetic charge (ionic and colloidal) in the coagulated water. Effectively, it detects and controls the level of residual coagu lant. The objective is to keep the residual at a minimum while maintain ing desired final water quality and process efficiency. Chemtrac Systems Circle reply card No. 191

ecoSep Below Grade Oil/Water Separators


• Save money on disposal costs by turning watery sludge into a solid. ecoSep high efficiency oil water separatons combine <5ppm separation ratios with spill control; they consist of two cham bers. The first pre-treats the influent by allowing solids to drop out before enter ing the main gravity separation chamber. ecoSep continuously removes accumu lated light liquids with a patented auto matic oil draw-off device. Final effluent

polishing is performed in the residual oil coalescing media before discharge. A spill control auto-shutoff valve (ecoStop) is located at the inlet of the separation cham ber. The valve prevents any catastrophic spill from occurring by detecting a spill and shutting the drainage system. The ecoStop is available separately in a stand ard precast concrete manhole or as an in tegral part of ecoSep oil/water separators. Con Cast Pipe For more information, circle reply card No. 192

• 40 lbs. of Liquid Waste Solidifier will solidify up to 1 ton of liquid waste.

• 40 lbs. of Liquid Waste Solidifier costs as little as $20.00 when pur chased in bulk.

The RotoFix'''" is an advanced second

ary treatment unit for domestic and in dustrial wastewater. It Is located down

Liquid Waste Solidifier is a non-toxic granular product designed to absorb water and aqueous solutions. It forms a tight gel that holds water molecules, even under pressure. LWS is easy to use, very economical, and is packed in 24 oz. shakers, 40 lb. bags, or 2,000 lb. supersacs. Arcus Absorbents Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

For more information,

circle reply card No. 193

stream of the primary treatment system (septic tank). The heart of the RotoFix^ is composed of tubular patented medium consisting of multiple internal wings which provide a large contact surface per volume unit. Many sections of the me dium are assembled around a central axle

and held in place by stainless steel or polymer braces forming the rotors of the RotoFix'". These rotors, placed in a ba sin containing the wastewater to be treated, are activated by a low-power mo tor and belt. Ecoflo Ontario

For more Information, circle reply card No. 194


Product and Service Showcase On-site wastewater treatment

The tough just got tougher!

CEM equipment rentals Ashtead Technol

ogy rents equip ment for CEM and ambient air

monitoring and sampling, includ ing analyzers for

The Waterloo Biofilter® is a patented aerobic trickle filter designed for efficient treatment of residential and communal wastewaters and landfill leachate. We

specialize in treating wastewater for im mediate domestic re-use and golf course irrigation. Typical removal rates are >95% TSS and >90% BOD,20-50% TN

and 90-99% coliform in a single pass. (Photograph: RattleSnake Point Golf Club Treatment Facility, Milton, ON). Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 195

§Theuse60 sig Signal converter

Armtec introduces Briage-riate" wnich they claim is the strongest corrugation available in the bridge market today. It is available in arch and box shapes, 3.5 times stronger than structural plate, more than 10 times stiffer than structural plate, and claimed to be the strongest and stiffest product on the market. Armtec built

NO^, SO,, CO, COj, oxygen, ozone, methane/

non-methane hydrocarbons. All instru ments meet EPA requirements. Heated sample lines and sample conditioners also available. All instruments are meticu

Circle reply card No. 196

lously maintained and shipped overnight almost anywhere in Canada. Local pick up and delivery also available at the Ashtead office in Mississauga, Ontario. Ashtead Technology Circle reply card No. 197

Glass pipe outerwrap

Noise control panels

the first Super-Span® bridge in the world and is taking the bridge market to new heights. Armtec

nal converter from

Danfoss eliminates the



choosing specific communication

protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in

signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor, this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to -i-70°C with + 0.1 ° accuracy.

Denso Class Outerwrap is a water acti vated fibreglass tape that is used for me chanical protection over Denso Petrola tum Tape Systems or as a pipe repair product for cracked or broken pipe. Class Outerwrap is said to offer exceptional impact and mechanical strength on above or below ground pipes, pilings, and fit tings. Class Outerwrap is paintable and has an in service temperature from sub

Davis Controls Limited

zero to 350°F. Denso North America

aeration tanks. De

Circle reply card No. 198

Centrifugal Blowers I


Circle reply card No. 199

4h EAGLEBROOK* Your Sing/e Source

Eckoustic® Functional Panels(EFPs)pro vide a more comfortable acoustic envi

ronment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EFPs promote safety and help improve produc tivity. EFPs can quickly add sound ad sorption to compressor rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms. Eckel Industries,Inc. Circle reply card No. 200

EAGLEBROOK* Your Sing/e Source

Odor & Corrosion Control Enhancing Primary

One Simple Solution For Two

Reduce Costs and

Lamson Multi-stage and Turbotron Cen trifugal Blowers provide clean, dry and oil-free air/gas at variable flow rates, with volumes up to 50,000 CFM. The blow ers are dependable, trouble-free and quiet, with a very high-efficiency design. Installation is easy and no maintenance is required. The housings are made of heavy duty cast iron. Pencon Equipment Co. Circle reply card No. 201 44

Major Problems.

tmprooe Trestmenl.

Chernically Enhanced Primary Treatrrient (CEPT)

ControUlngeOdor And Corrosion With Iron Salts.

Withiiron Salts.



www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 202

www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 203 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Product and Service Showcase Specialty gate valve for sewage

Inlet StormceptorÂŽ system The Inlet Storm

Resilient Seal Gate

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as

Valve has been de


signed with sew age applications in mind - forcemains, pumping

the well-known In

line Interceptors. Developed to treat

stations and treat

run-off from an area

ment plants. The Seguro Valve has a

of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor

resilient seal that ensures a 100% bidi

rectional bubble-tight seal, according to Neo Valves. Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in the bonnet area. They are available in sizes up to 60", with 100% full bore design and hundreds of installations in Canada since 1972. Neo Valves

Submerged StormceptorÂŽ system

Neo Valves Seguro

has inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 204


Developed for sub merged and partially submerged storm sewer pipes, the new Submerged Storm ceptor System em ploys the same oper ating principles as the well-known In-line

and Inlet Stormceptor systems. Compared to the In-line system, the Submerged Stormceptor has two modifications: an extended weir and a

Circle reply card No. 205

second drop pipe to enable it to capture oil and sediment during high tailwater conditions. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 206

Completely destroy PCBs

Packaged ozone injection skids Ozonia North America offers

packaged ozone injection skids. Included is a skidmounted Ozonia

Create a HEC-RAS model directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and cre ate inundation maps from the results. Complete integration between 12D and HEC-RAS allows water level results read back into our 12D model. A water level

surface is automatically created and ready for presentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software Circle reply card No. 207

Chlorine dosing packages

Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. is the only

OZAT Compact

Ministry of Environment approved final

Ozone Generator, oxygen generator,

destruction/incineration facility in On tario. Here, we completely destroy PCBs in an environmentally safe manner, us ing no hazardous chemicals or solutions which themselves require destruction. We are capable of destroying and have safely and totally destroyed or recycled waste electrical equipment from Askarel transformers to light ballasts. Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd.

injector, pump, monitors/instru

mentation and control panel. The entire system is fully assembled,piped and wired for easy installation. Standard and cus tom packages are available in sizes rang ing from a few grams per hour up to larger 500 pound per day systems. Ozonia North America

Circle reply card No. 208

Circle reply card No. 209

UV light disinfection system

Submersible mixers

ProMinent has


supplied many chlorine dosing plant installations


Light Disinfec tion System uti


lizes a number of



With their wide

unique key op

range of experi

erator interfaces to demonstrate

ence in the field of


the effectiveness of the UV disinfection

They have the ex pertise you need to implement new and upgrade existing equipment. They can satisfy the largest range offeed requirements from less than 1 litre per hour, to over 1,000 litres per hour, by using standard ProMinent de signed and built packaged solutions for

stage. Its advanced control mechanism monitors bulb efficiency, trends in UV light dosage, and hours of operation to allow for appropriate scheduled preventative maintenance on the unit. UV light dosage is continually monitored using ProMinent's UVB intensity sensor

chlorine feed. ProMinent

diation vessels. ProMinent

mounted on their 316 Stainless Steel ra

Circle reply card No. 210

Circle reply card No. 211

KSB submersible mixers are designed to save energy and maintenance costs in sewage and sludge treatment applica tions. The units are also ideal for clean

ing of pump sumps and stormwater over flow tanks, and can be combined with

other reservoir cleaning systems. The long-life motor design features optimum efficiency and maximum heat dissipation. KSB Pumps Inc.

Circle reply card No. 212 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001


Product and Service Showcase Design data for seismic applications

Victaulic now offers detailed design data for use of its grooved mechanical piping system in fire protection, HVAC,munici pal and industrial applications in seismically active areas. The 12-page re port covers the Victaulic system's builtin stress relief, performance characteris tics of its flexible and rigid couplings, seismic movement compensation de vices,system bracing and support guide lines. Victaulic Company of Canada Circle reply card No. 213

Packaged sewage pumping system

PVC pressure pipe and PVC sewer pipe

Prelubricated gaskets eliminate mess, save time

The Vic-Plus patent-pending, dry-lubri cated gasket system requires no field lu brication and saves a step in installing piping systems with its grooved mechani cal couplings. Dry, inert and non-toxic, the new gaskets substantially reduce as sembly time and eliminate messy lubri cants and residue from over-lubrication.

Victaulic Company of Canada Circle reply card No. 214

Package potable water

IPEX Municipal Systems provide noncorroding infrastructure solutions for water and sewer projects. We combine the proven durability and reliability of PVC pipe with unparalleled engineering support. IPEX Centurion pipe is avail able up to 1200 mm nominal diameter. Visit our website at: www.ipexinc.com for more information on our engineered thermoplastic solutions. IPEX Circle reply card No. 215



Biofor® is based on the co-current

upflow of air and water, and the re tention of bacteria

and suspended .solids in a media

called Biolite®. This results in a

Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Packaged Submersible Pumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 216

Water filter system

The Pulsapak® is a package potable water treatment plant designed for both munici pal and industrial applications. It com bines two Degremont technologies: the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, and a sand

and anthracite dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak produces clean water equal in quality to that produced by large instal lations. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 217

Skid-mounted filter systems

Individual BioSand filters are available

Davnor BioSand Water Filters(B WF)are installed and operating at various First Nations including: Stoney Nation and Adolescence Ranch, Morley, Alberta; Yorkton Tribal Council, Saskatchewan;

Bonaparte Band, Cache Creek, BC. The patented, Canadian Water Filtration proc ess allows the BWF to be used as required (i.e., stopped and started). Davnor

Circle reply card No. 219 46

for mounting on skids, with capacities from 20 - 2,000 1/h. Several filters may be operated in parallel to achieve greater capacity. The CWF system is never backwashed. The BWF system can be operated using water supplies, which may not normally be considered for u.se be

high rate of filtra tion and provides extended filter runs and an odour-free workplace. The Biofor was successfully incorporated into a new fa

cility in Chateauguay, Quebec. At this fa cility, design flow is 27.000 mVd, with peak of 83,000 mVd. BOD removal effi ciency is greater than 80%. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 218

Automatic meter reading

Ramar Technology's automatic meter reading systems for water, gas and elec tric utilities are the answer to reducing meter reading costs by increasing effi ciency and accuracy in collecting meter information. Ramar's radio frequency devices work in concert with existing util ity equipment to provide a distinct costeffective means of migrating from

cause the available flow is too low.

manual to automated data collection.


Hetek Solutions Inc.

Circle reply card No. 220

Circle reply card No. 221 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Product and Service Showcase New high performance ciarifier

The Rim-Flo®clarifier with peripheral

Underdrain system offers operational flexibility

solids concentration, reduced sludge pumping, and increased tank capacity, reducing aeration requirements by 35%. The company claims these integrated technologies, tested and proven, consti tute a superior activated sludge final ciari

Designed for efficient retrofits and plant expansions, the MultiblockT" underdrain supports single-, dual- or mixed-media without the need for an underlying sup port gravel bed. This allows for deeper media depths, reduced installation time and elimination of gravel upsets. By sup porting mixed media filter beds, the Multiblock system allows filters to oper ate at up to 30% higher flow rates.

fier. USFilter Envirex Products


feed and overflow, uses 50% less surface

area than centre feed designs. The Tow-

Bro® system provides increased return

Gas detection for pump stations, wetwells, treatment

Model 440-WW has been packaged with wetwell applications in mind. A central panel receives an input from each of three sensors. This panel is usually provided in a Type 4X enclosure for mounting in a non-hazardous control room, but is also

available explosion proof should the site constraints require mounting into this clas sification. Enmet Canada

Circle reply card No. 222

Circle reply card No. 223

Circle reply card No. 224

Solids/corrosive liquids pumps

Aeration system

Microfiltration systems

Gorman-Rupp T Series''^'^ pumps are de signed for economical, trouble-free op eration in handling solids-laden liquids and slurries. Pumps feature a large volute design which allows them to reprime automatically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with liquid and a completely dry suction line. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 225

This system for biological treatment of wastewater, is a complete mix, closed loop reactor process, consisting of one, two,or three independently aerated chan

The Memcor CMP microfiltration sys tem has been used in 200 installations in Noifh America and more than 700 world

4,000 of these rotors are in use.

wide. Customers can build a system that works affordably, efficiently, and at a flux rate that won't bum through the mem brane. The system removes a wide range of contaminants, including: algae, bac teria, yeast, protozoa and cysts.

USEilter Zimpro Products

USEilter Memcor Products

nels. It is well-suited for both conven

tional activated sludge and extended air treatment modes. It is driven by the Mammoth Rotor aerator.

Flushing and cleaning of

More than

Circle reply card No. 226

Circle reply card No. 227

AFP submersible pumps

The Con/Span Advantage

pump sumps

Apart from use in pump sumps,RW 200280 mixers are also used for a variety of mixing and stirring applications in sew age treatment plants and in industrial ar eas. The submersible mixers can be in

stalled independently of the tank shape or dimensions. Depending on the inten sity of mixing required and the flow for mation needed, one or more mixers may be installed. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 228

AFP pumps are compact submersibles which may be installed in either wet or dry pits. They can be used in dry pits because they continue to run even if the dry pit floods. When used in dry pits, the optional cooling jacket keeps the motor cool. AFP pumps are suitable for both fixed and transportable applications, and can be mounted either vertically or horizontally. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 229

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

• Fully engineered and custom-designed to your site requirements • Saves weeks off construction schedules

• Long life cycle and low maintenance • Carries heavy loads at low stress levels Your only precast choicefor your next project. CON/SPAN CANADA

Circle reply card No. 230 47

Product and Service Showcase Hach adds to its customer

On-site herbicide assays

Contemplating a GO or a data system?

rewards program Hach Company has added on-line in 'Pa

strumentation and accessories to its list

of products eligible for their Premium

Points Program, or

P'. P' now recog

Hach products - a current list is avail able at p3.hach.com. Hach Company

Hach Company offers test kits for on-site assays of atrazine, alachlor, or metolachlor in water. Kits include everything needed for comparing a sample against known-concentration calibrators, so they provide quick and inexpensive semiquantitative screening. You can identify which samples should undergo further quantitative analysis and make your her bicide monitoring program more effi cient. Hach Company

Circle reply card No. 231

Circle reply card No. 232

Circle reply card No. 233

Residuals management

Engineering services

SS/lnterface meter gets MLSS

nizes Hach's on-line turbidimeters and

analyzers, calibra tion standards, and reagents, including 1720D Series low range process turbidi meters, new OptiQuant'"''^ analyzers, and new CA610 fluoride analyzers. Bonus

P^ points are offered quarterly on select

Over the past 12 years, SRI Instruments has sold over 3,000 gas chromatographs and data systems. Each GC is tailored to your specifications. Detectors can be added in the future, to a maximum offour,

to accommodate your changing needs. Each GC is backed by a two-year war ranty. The compact size makes it suit able for field use or crowded laborato ries. Can-Am Instruments

numbers fast


Circle reply card No. 234

Circle reply card No. 235

The Royce Model 711 suspended solids and interface level portable is two analyzers in one. It is a fast way to get MLSS numbers,and primary and second ary clarifier blanket levels. The 711 and a portable Model 900 dissolved oxygen meter allow you to make wastewater process control decisions like a pro. The 711 is built tough for the rigours of the plant and it even floats. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 236

Dewatering and cleaning

Pipeline rehabilitation

Parkson acquires Hycor line

Professional, cost-effective management of collection, classification, treatment and

Providing the complete spectrum of serv ices needed to plan, design and construct

beneficial reuse requirements including: Municipal biosolids, pulp and paper sludges,food industry residuals, and spe cializing in stabilization,land application and pelletization.

lands/recreational water quality.

Azurix North America

Azurix North America

water and wastewater infrastructure in

cluding: Traditional engineering, design and construction, design/build, SCADA/ real time control, and structured wet


Parkson recently acquired the HycorÂŽ line of liquid/solid separation equipment for headworks screening, conveying and washing, as well as grit and storm water Providing residuals dewatering, digester cleaning, lagoon dredging and disposal fleets. Multiple turnkey mobile units re sult in clean, fast, economical projects. 25% drier cake reduces disposal costs. Municipal, industrial and pulp and paper clients across North America. Azurix North America

Circle reply card No. 237

More than two million feet installed and a

decade of low-dig/no-dig pipeline reha bilitation and construction experience. Azurix Lining Systems'''" includes: Na tional Liner''", U-Liner''",Channeline''",

Epoxy resin and cement mortar lining. CGTV inspection, grouting and cleaning. Azurix North America

Circle reply card No. 238

management. Screen media includes: wedgewire, perforated, mesh, bar and specially configured screening elements. Screen types include rotary drum screens, side hill, step screens, moving media screens, gravity disc, climber screens and screening systems with conveying and dewatering. Parkson Corporation

Circle reply card No. 239 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Product and Service Showcase Step ScreenÂŽ Future - SSF

Wash Press(wash & press)

Round hatches to fit precast concrete manhole sections

< '''N.

The success and broad acceptance of the Step Screen system is due to its function, the easy-to-understand operation method, the simple cleaning method without any aids (self-cleaning effect according to counter current principle),easy servicing, its ability to handle very large screenings volumes, and its operating reliability. Dagex Inc. Circle reply card No. 240

Washing,dewatering,compacting,trans porting with system. Benefits include: reduction of disposal costs by volume reduction up to 70%, weight reduction up to 70%, dewatering performance up to 45% DS; increase of the carbon pro portion contained in the wastewater; odour-encased plant; and clean, hygienic

hatches fit precast manhole sections from 48" to 144" diameters, and are available

in two- and four-door configurations. They are suited for leachate collector manholes in landfill sites. Custom con

Circle reply card No. 241

figurations are available to meet special applications such as pumping stations. MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 242

WWTP Modelling


condition inside the screen chamber.

Dagex Inc.

YN pipe coupling

Standard MSU, all aluminum, round

% You want quick,easy and cost-effective? The YN Grip Ring coupling has real teeth to grip plain end piping. Cut your pipe to length on the site, slip on the coupling and tighten. No end preparation, no ma chining, no grooving, no problem! YN

steel coupling with a choice of EPDM, NBR, Viton, or silicone gasket. YNC Pipe Coupling Co. Circle reply card No. 243

Powerful wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation. Dynamic modelling of almost any municipal or in dustrial facility. Optimise the entire plant. The perfect tool for diagnosing process problems or testing capacity. See it at: www.hydromantis.com. Hydromantis Inc. Circle reply card No. 244

Chemical safety information

Skid mounted systems

conforms to ISO-9002, ASTM F-1476, and AWWA standards. An all stainless

Rapid design and costing of wastewater treatment plants. Define influent, layout the treatment schematic, define effluent

quality and CapdetWorks will provide the design and cost to build, operate and maintain the facility. See it at: www.hydromantis.com Hydromantis Inc. Circle reply card No. 245


Contracting Expertise

CHEMpendium''''^ is a source of chemi cal safety information for workplaces and the environment. Instead of searching through many references for chemical information, CHEMpendium puts a col lection of important chemical hazard re sources right on your desktop. Relied on by many environmental, health and safety practitioners, it is said to improve pro ductivity and effectiveness with reliable information from authoritative sources.

Contact CCOHS Client Services for your free 30-day trial today. CCOHS

Circle reply card No. 246

Environmental Group Inc.

GDT Corporation has introduced a pack aged skid mounted water and wastewater treatment system. Applications include ozone and oxygen dissolution and CO,, VOC and Radon stripping. The patented GDT''''^ process is modular and can sup port small and large scale treatment ap plications. Pictured is the front and back of a compact (only 4 ft.- of floor space) system with oxygen and ozone generators mounted on the skid. GDT Corporation Circle reply card No. 247

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Focus Environmental Group Inc. pro vides clientele with professional, full service environmental contracting sup port to suit site-specific product needs, including: Waste management (soil, C&D, liquid); AST, UST removal and disposal, TSSA Ontario licence 0076596253,TSSA PM2,PM3 certified

personnel; Soil/groundwater remediation expertise; Site/plant-facility decom missioning; Environmental restoration. Focus Environmental Group Inc. Circle reply card No. 248 49

Tanks and Containment Showcase Geodesic domes & flat covers

The Ultraflote Ultradome trademark is

now available in the Batten Quad Seal

design. Ultraflote, established in 1972,is an international leader in the design, manu facture and installation of geodesic domes and flat covers. Ultraflote's attention to detail has been instrumental in the success

of dealing with difficult applications re quiring specific engineering and constmction know-how and experience. Donson Engineering & Contracting

Circle reply card No. 249

Cathodic protection/corrosion control

Oil/water separators

Storage for liquids

ZCL coalescing separators provide sub stantially higher design flows than grav ity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MPakÂŽ design removes oil droplets as small as 20 microns! Efflu

Environmentally safe storage for fuel or other hazardous liquids, is now manufac

ent oil concentrations are reduced to as

C 142.5-1994. The Wyevale Fuel Dome

low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/ water separators are manufactured with premium-grade fibreglass reinforced plastic. They have no moving parts and require minimal maintenance. ZCL Composites Inc. Circle reply card No. 250

is manufactured to meet ASTM Standard

B843-93, Grade MlC.

Water Environment Federation.

Interprovincial Corrosion Control

Circle reply card No. 252

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 253

Storage buildings

Multi-gas monitor for harsh

Canadian Distributor of the MAXMAG

Magnesium Anode, offers customized services throughout the process of ca thodic protection/corrosion control, in cluding initial surveys,system design,en gineering serviees, follow-up monitoring and system maintenance. The MAXMAG

Harnois Indus

weather conditions and meet Under writers' Laboratories standard ORD-

design: 500 gallon steel inner tank; inte rior of concrete outer shell is finished

with three coats of epoxy paint; exterior has a three-coat maintenance-free, attrac

tive factory finish. Wyevale Containment Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 251


The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the

Interprovincial Corrosion Control, the

tured in Canada to withstand Canadian

Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc.(TCI) "Total turn key service"

TCI provides full PCB disposal services including: Disposal of all PCB wastes (transformers, capacitors, light ballasts, and lead shielded cable); on site drain

ing; oil storage and draining; site remediation and decontamination; $2.4 million closure bond; PCB analysis

(CAEAL proficiency tested); full trans portation services. Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc.

Circle reply card No. 254

Oil-water separators



tries have engi neered a storage building that is said to be both

stronger and more cost-effective

The TMX412 simultaneously monitors up to four gases: combustible gases(EEL or methane), oxygen and any one of two of six toxic gases (carbon monoxide, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide). The instrument automatically recognizes all installed sensors and presents instantaneous readings on the easy-to-read LCD display.

PS International, Inc. provides coalesc ing plate oil-water separators for the re moval of petroleum hydrocarbons from wastewater. Separators can be provided with a final polishing polypropylene me dia impingement coalescer for removal of oil particles down to 20 microns in size. They can be rectangular or cylindrical, of single or double wall steel construction, and will be fiberglass coated per UL-1746 for below ground installations.

Industrial Scientific

PS International, Inc.

than current con

ventional build

ings. Our clear span designs of the Megadome and Superdome series provide the space and clearance for maximum storage capacity and accessibility. The diversity of size and shape means these buildings can meet your current requirements and ex pand in the future. Harnois Industries Circle reply card No. 255

Circle reply card No. 256 50

Circle reply card No. 257 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

ES&E's Semi-Annual Focus

Storage tanks and containment systems

A remarkable range of options and case histories are reviewed in ES&E's semi-annual look at tanks and containment.

1 I 1 I

Growing use of giass-fused-to-steel tanks for wastewater applications

The glass-fused-to-steel tank

market has been driven by the corrosion-resistant silica glass coating on the steel panels. Today, there are over 180,000 installa tions in more than 80 countries, with un

precedented growth during the past dec ade. The system is a storage tank made of sectional steel panels with glass molecularly bound (fused) to the steel surface. This provides a very durable, but flexible surface with excellent corro

sion resistance, resulting in a tank, which can provide long life in a wide variety of applications. The tanks are available in standard

sizes, ranging from 2,600 to over five million gallons capacity, with roof, floors, mixing equipment and many other appurtenances available. Glass-fused-to-steel tanks have

try. In addition, as simple storage ves sels, tanks have become very popular with the engineering fraternity, for the more complex industrial process appli cations. In potable water treatment, the sectional tank systems are used as clarifiers, shells, filters, contact tanks, thick

quired. The panels overlap and are bolted together and sealed with a high performance seal, chosen to suit the material being stored. At the top and bottom of the tank, a galvanized steel anchor provides dimen sional stability. The bottom angle is

eners, reservoirs and standpipes. In the waste treatment industry, they are used

crete base, with anchor bolts. The re

as aeration tanks, clarifier shells, trick

bate is then filled with concrete and a

ling filters, anaerobic digesters (tanks and/or covers), gasholders, odour con trol units, biosolids storage and flow equalization. Glass tankage systems are easily adapted to a wide variety of complex internal requirements that could include clarifier mechanisms, aeration systems, mixers, media support structures, weir troughs, baffles and many other special ized requirements.

perimeter seal to ensure a bubble tight interface. Sectional tank designs can be carried out in a wide variety of national codes, including AWWA,DIN, NSF61 and local building codes. Panel joining is an important feature worthy of closer examination. The seal ant (mastic) is applied to the overlap sheet surface and is allowed to dry and cure. Mastic has the benefit of forming an adhesive bond with the glass on the panel. It is also flexible and has high cohesion strength. This means that, as

found very wide application in the

Tanks are delivered to site, flat

water and wastewater treatment indus-

packed, for easy transport and site han dling. The prime components of the kit are the glass-fused-to-steel panels,ready for bolting together and complete with any special cut-outs for nozzles and/or manways or other appurtenances as re-

By Cameron Gray, P.Eng., Donson Engineering and Contracting Ltd., North Bay, Ontario

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 200J

leveled on shims and secured to the con

the tank flexes, the seal can move with

the tank and remain intact, an improve ment over gasket seals. All the bolt heads are plastic-capped Continued overleaf 51

storage Tanks & Containment A simple procedure of breaking the seal at the concrete foundation, jacking the tank and adding additional rings can in crease the capacity for a remarkably low cost.

•Relocating tanks. Due to the high cor rosion resistance of the glass surfaces, the tankage system, after 20 or 30 years or even longer, can have considerable life left. It is a simple matter of disas sembling the tank, cleaning the mastic from the sheets, relocating, and re-erect ing the tank in another area. This again, could be done at low cost. twraiw

• Final Disposition of Asset. If, at some time in the future, the tankage is no longer required, it is a simple matter Anaerobic digestion plant under construction. of disassembling the system and remov ing the tankage. This compares favour ably to the costs of removing a concrete, to provide corrosion protection in the gional Municipality of Niagara - Gar process environment. Mastic squeezes ner Road biosolids storage where the in-ground vessel and restoring the prop out between the panels and the bolt head third tank (106' diameter x 33' sidewall erty by back-filling the excavation. In complete with geodesic domes) was addition, the glass-fused-to-steel tank seals the shank and protects it from con has significant value even after 30 plus erected in less than two weeks! tact with process fluids. years of service. Many consulting en Technical benefits Construction with jacks is cost-effec gineers are now calculating the final dis There are a number of unique ben tive and particularly beneficial for taller tanks. A trained and experienced crew efits to the end user for sectional bolted position of tankage in the life cycle analysis. of three people can easily install twenty steel tanks: Anaerobic digesters and covers sheets per day. An example of this effi • Expandability. Systems are easily An exceptional application for the expandable to suit future requirements. cient construction procedure is the Re :|



The Proven Protectors In The Fight Against Pipeline Corrosion

rotors mrnEngineered for^SupefiprJP^onptincie



PS International, Incorporated


• 20 years of experience • Standard Flow Rates trom 0-5400 gpm is engineered into Insist on the checkmark of excellence

□ High potential magnesium anod^ producing a true open circuit potential of 1.75 to 1.80 volts.

□ Available in a complete line of sizes, shapes and weights. □ Made to strict ASTM standards of chemistry, production control, testing and certification. □ Manufactured to industry standard criteria or to customer specifications.

IN STOCK • FAST DELIVERY • COAST-TO-COAST International Corrosion Control Inc. P.O. Box 441, Lewiston, NY, USA 14092

every separator we build.

• UL-1746 exterior

fiberglass or STI-P3

• Cylindrical fir Rectangtilar Designs to fit your


protection system. • Free oil



• "Single dr Double Wall Construction.

quality of 10 ppm or less.

Rhone: 1 -800-699-8771

Interprovincial Corrosion Control Co. Ltd. 930 Sheldon Court, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7L 5K6 Regional Offices : Montreal and Calgary Phone: 905-634-7751 Website: www.Rustrol.com • Email: Contact@Rustrol.com Central Fax: 905-333-4313 RUSTRDL* SYSTEMS

For more information, circle reply card No. 163 (See page 25)

1013 Shenandoah Circle

Sioux Falls, South Dakota • 57103 Phone: 605-332-1885 • Fax: 605-332-1293

Visit us online at: www.psinternational.com For more information, circle reply card No. 164 (See page 25)

storage Tanks & Containment inert corrosion-resistant glass-fused-tosteel technology is anaerobic digester tanks and/or covers. Problems related

to corrosion in anaerobic digesters sim ply have not been solved by the equip ment manufacturers, or the engineering profession, to this point in time. Pre-

years. This is primarily a function of the reduction of heavy metal at source, which frees a much higher percentage of sulphide ion, thus producing hydro gen sulphide gas and subsequently, sul phuric acid. Corrosion on all types of tankage, including concrete and steel.

of corrosion.

The glass-fused-to-steel technology is basically a design-build approach in virtually every application. The manu facturer is responsible for site prepara tion, foundation design and placement, as well as design, erection and testing

ventative maintenance to minimize

of the tank and cover. There is an

corrosion will help, however, there are many covers that need replac ing as a result of this aggressive off gas environment which is unique to anaerobic digestion. Permastore® recognized this op portunity over 25 years ago and has over 300 successful operating in

excellent opportunity for the con sulting engineering profession to partner with the tank manufactur ers to reduce engineering costs to benefit owners.

The tremendous increase in the

popularity of this technology is principally a function of a more thorough approach to life cycle stallations. The external beam de sign, shown in the photograph of costs, including elimination of cor rosion, cleaning of the tank sur the anaerobic digestion plant under faces, expandability, as well as the construction, results in only glass being exposed to the products of Regional Municipality of Niagara Garner Road ability to relocate at a very low cost. anaerobic digestion. With a special biosolids storage facility. A third tank was erected One of the most intriguing aspects of this technology is the asset value glass coating, designed specifically in less than two weeks. for this application, long, maintenance- has become a concern for the wastewater of the tankage system at some point in free life is the norm. This application industry at large. The inert corrosion- time in the future. Whether it be 20 or can be used for a new grass-roots facil resistant capability of glass-fused-to- 30 years, the tank could still have sig nificant value if it is no longer required ity as well as replacement covers. steel technology eliminates this prob The wastewater industry has recog lem. More and more, municipalities, for service. For more information, nized the significant increase in hydro owners and engineers are looking at circle reply card No. 129 gen sulphide gas over the past 15-20 long-term solutions to the elimination


V 1




I?. N T A 1.


Portable liquid storage for fuel or hazardous liquids

As a leader in the provision of environmental risk management solutions, Environmental Auditors

(Canada) Ltd. requires an Envi ronmental Engineer/Technologist to join our team. The successful candidate must

have five or more years experi ence in Air Quality Management, Regulatory Approvals, Audits, Industrial Hygiene and/or Assess ments.

Interested candidates should mail or fax their resume no later than

June 15th, 2001. No phone calls please. Environmental Auditors(Canada)Ltd. 100 York Boulevard, Suite 240 Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1J8 Fax:(905) 886 7967

Only those candidates selected for

Environmentally safe liquid storage for fuel, or other hazardous liquids, is now manufactured in Canada to withstand Canadian weather conditions and meet Underwriters' Laboratories Standards.

The Wyevale Fuel Cell meets ULG/0RD-C142.16-1994: •Two hour fire test.

• Baiiistic test to 30 caliber steei jacket sheii. • impact test - 5 tonne at 1.5 metres. The Wyevale Fuel Cell design: • 3/16" custom built 500 gallon steei inner tank. • 1" solid fibregiass insulation. •fair space. • interior of concrete outer sheii is finished with three coats of epoxy paint. • Exterior is a three coat maintenance free, attractive factory finish.

The Wyevale Fuel Ceil is portable and simple to install or relocate. A key feature of the original new design of the Wyevale Fuel Ceil is its sealed top which can be removed, if necessary, to replace or repair the inner steei tank.

interviews will be contacted.

Wyevale Containment Ltd.

For more information see www.environmentalauditors.com

P.O. Box 100, Wyevale, ON L0L2T0 Tel: (705) 322-2845, Fax:(705) 322-0522 E-mail: wyevale.concrete@sympatico.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 116 (See page 25)


Storage Tanks & Containment


The evolution of protected storage tanks

PLASTICS LIMITED ue to the discovery of an underground fuel storage tank (UST) leak in Florida in 1983 and subsequent leaking UST discoveries,environmental agencies in the United States realized that some types of USTs were culprits in polluting the groundwater and began pushing for regulations on underground tanks.


sembly in that it provides protection from ballistics, impact (such as by a ve hicle), and fire. Typically, the primary containment is a steel tank. The second

ary containment, which is always an in tegral part of the unit, can be a high-den sity polyethylene and concrete assembly, a coated concrete system, or a second

In 1986, a business

man, trying to meet the growing requirements of the environmental and fire

protection regulations for storing petroleum prod ucts (fuels) in California, designed and introduced the first protected aboveground storage tank (AST) system under the brand name of Con Vault.

The result was to provide a safe, durable means of

Three 12,000 (US) gallon ConVault ASTs installed in Canada.

storing flammable and combustible liquids (specifically petro leum fuels) above ground, within close proximity to buildings and property lines, that met regulatory requirements. In 1993, ConVault introduced the

protected AST to Canada, meeting the requirements of ULC/ORD-C142.5 Concrete Encased Tank Assemblies,

The Leading Designer & Fabricator of Corrosion Resistant Plastic Pollution

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passing the required testing, and subse quently receiving a ULC/ORD/142.16 Protected Tank Assemblies Listing. This listing required a unique furnace burn test that was passed by the ConVault protected AST. The US Environmental Protection

Agency(EPA)passed a mandate in 1988 requiring all USTs to be upgraded by December of 1998. Environment Canada

issued similar requirements in 1994, with a deadline of 2000. As a result, many companies began manufacturing pro tected ASTs to meet the growing demand. Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) re sponded by creating (with the help of in dustry) a new listing for Protected and Insulated ASTs, titled UL2085.

layer of steel with insulation between the primary and secondary steel tanks. Many of the styles of protected tanks are heavy and/or provide restraints, which also provide movement restric tion in the case of earthquake, flood, or high winds. Today, protected ASTs are used for fuel storage by a wide variety of gov ernment agencies and businesses. These include all branches of the US and

Canadian governments, including but not limited to the military, coastguard, national parks system, and federal in frastructure management groups. Other protected tank users include state and pro vincial governments,local governments, fire departments, forestry, agriculture, utilities, hospitals, golfcourses, marinas, schools, universities, cemeteries, bus

companies, and rental car companies. Although the primary usage of a pro tected AST is for petroleum product stor age, they can be used to store certain chemicals including chemicals that might be flammable or combustible. Due to the

Phone;(905) 832-8161 Fax:(905) 832-2111

A protected AST is distinct from

nature of chemicals,each chemical must

some traditional steel-tank-on-a-stand or


a double walled/contained steel tank as-

info@fabricatedplastiGS.com Web: www.fabricatedplastics.com

By David P. Harris,

be individually evaluated to ensure that it is compatible with the unit, or if a liner can be provided to ensure compatibility. For more information, circle reply card No. 130

ConVauit, inc.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 171

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

storage Tanks & Containment

Cathodic protection of water storage tanks saves money-a case study

Once it has been constructed,

the greatest expense for a steel water storage tank owner is ongoing mainte nance. Inspections and coatings main tenance are critical to maintain the ex

country. Cathodic protection has been proven to double, triple or even quadru ple the life of the interior submerged coating, thereby saving the owners tens or even hundreds of thousands of dol lars over the life of the tank.

a municipality in Wisconsin. Tank inspections performed in 1999 revealed the submerged surfaces of both tanks to be in excellent condition with

no corrosion. The original coating in the 200,000 gallon tank was intact and

terior appearance of the storage tank and to prevent corrosion on the in terior dry surface areas. Interior wet

re-coat was necessary. The original coating in the 500,000 gallon tank

surface areas are a different matter

had failed in some areas; however,

and prudent owners apply cathodic protection in conjunction with appro priate coatings to prevent corrosion

where the cathodically protected steel was exposed, no corrosion was

and extend the life of the coating. The submerged surface areas en

This case study reveals that the use of cathodic protection systems has prevented corrosion while pre serving the coatings on the sub

no immediate recommendation to


dure the most corrosive environment

in a tank. Coatings used for total immersion must withstand a number

merged areas of the steel tanks for

of harsh conditions such as constant

more than 36 years. In each case, cathodic protection has eliminated the need for as many as three and possibly four interior wet surface area re-coatings. The estimated cost savings to the owner are more than

water permeation to the substrate and ice damage in the northern cli mates. If the tank is left unprotected, these and other factors often lead to

costly premature coating failure and serious corrosion damage. Cathodic protection for water storage tanks has been recom mended by the steel plate fabrica tors, independent tank inspection companies and owners throughout the

By John Aru, Corrpro Canada inc.


Two examples of the value of using cathodic protection in conjunction with coatings, are the 500,000 US gallon el evated tank built in 1962 and the 200,000

US gallon elevated tank built in 1964 for

This is only one of countless ex amples where the application of ca thodic protection to steel water stor age tanks has proven to be a costeffective means for long-term corrosion protection and interior coating life ex tension.

For more information, circle reply card No. 131



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silos in Canada, supplying integrated design, construction and warranty programs. 191 Booth Rd. North Bay, Ontario,

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Storage Tanks and Silos. Low Cost, Long Life, Low Maintenance Rapid Installation, Over 40,000 Tanks installed in 70 Countries, Excellent Corrosion Resistance.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 132 (See page 25)


Storage Tanks & Containment

Massive HCL storage tanks for high earthquake zone in the Far East

A recentcontract was awarded to Fabricated Plastics Lim

ited (Fabco) by one of the world's largest chlor-alkali producers, in the Far East. The factory required six storage tanks to be used in its epichlorhydrin(ECH)production fa cility, which produces the base compo nent for epoxy resin. Each of the six tanks would store

1,000 cubic metres of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid,in concentrations rang ing between 21% and 30% at a tempera ture of 80°C. Added to the challenge of designing each of the huge tanks for their extremely aggressive contents was the fact that the plant was located in an area with frequent and high seismic activity. The first challenge was the problem of manufacturing. As the tanks would contain a highly corrosive material, it was critical that they be produced seam less below the liquid level. For tanks of more moderate dimensions this would

not present a problem. But tanks of such enormous proportions, with their corre sponding hydrostatic loads, would have to be built by filament winding under controlled factory conditions. This also necessitated an innovative approach to manufacturing whereby the filament winding was able to continue for ex tended time periods (in excess of 36 hours) by employing a "delayed curing" method. The resin was specially formu

la Two of the tanks being loaded onto a barge, close to west coast fabrication plant. lated to ensure that it remained uncured

during the winding process and then achieved full cure once the winding was complete. To accommodate these unique manu facturing processes, an existing factory located near a west coast seaport was selected, having easy access to river barges and to ocean-going vessels. Active seismic activity at the tanks' final destination made the anchoring system a vitally important design con sideration. The tanks were designed with a unique integral hoop wound shear collar with 36 anchor bolts, each hav-

ing a structural steel anchor dog and a pull out force of95,000 lbs. In an earth

quake,the tanks would sway but the firm anchoring system would eliminate the possibility of them toppling over. The only joints in the entire construc tion were above the maximum liquid

level and were required to attach a dished head to each tank. Each head was fabri

cated as a one-piece construction by the hand-layup method and to save costly shipping space,they were built 18" high instead of the conventional 48". Extra

stiffening was also laminated into the heads to counteract the decrease in size.

A series of interconnecting walkways was required for each of the tank tops. Eabco took advantage of this to further strengthen and stiffen the entire con struction by building and using the sup ports for the walkways as an integral part of the layout of the tank tops. Upon successful completion of de sign, engineering and manufacturing, there was still the significant problem of shipping the huge tanks to their final destination, halfway round the world. The manufacturing location had been carefully chosen, in close proximity to a major waterway,so that the equipment could be placed onto barges and then transported to the seaport. Maneuvering the tanks on and off the barges required a creative arrangement of portable jacks to hoist them off the trucks so that the

One of the tanks being transported through the plant to its final destination, The tanks had to be lifted over pipe bridges and other obstructions. 56

trucks could then be driven away,allowContiimed overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001




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STRENGTH OF STEEL, CORROSiON RESISTANCE OF ALUMINUM Field tests prove ALUMINIZED STEEL™ TYPE 2 corrugated steel pipe delivers superior longevity. Corrugated steel pipes inspected at 52 sites with variable environments showed the superior corrosion resistance of the ALUMINIZED STEEL™ Type 2 coating. *Basecl on field studies of42 to 43-year-oid instaiiations, Aiuminized Steer Type 2service iife is estimated to be 75 years minimum for l.6mm waii thickness in environments with a pH between 5 and 9 and a resistivity of at ieast 1500 ohm-cm. For more information, contact the Armtec office near you.

Photos of two-inch diameter coupons removed from pipe inverts in 1995.



Decatur County, KS

San Benlto County, CA

A - \

•# )'

Oklahoma County, OK

Marshall County, lA

Head Office & intemational Sales: 15 Campbell Road, Guelph, Ontario NIH 6P2 Website: www.armtec.com

Sales Offices: Nanalmo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbrldge, Grande Prairie, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Guelph, Toronto, Peterborough, Ottawa, Quebec City, Montreal, Sackvllle, Halifax, St. John's and Bishop's Falls.

Storage Tanks & Containment Tank Specifications Capacity: 1,000 cubic metres (264,200 U.S. gallons) Size: 30 ft diameter x 50 ft high (9.14 m 0 X 15.24 m high) Weight: Empty 47,000 kg (103,615 lbs) Full 1,146,460 kg (2,527,469 lbs) Pressure: +250mm/-25mm water column

Temperature: 80 degrees Celsius Seismic shear coefficient: 0.30

Design wind ioad: 280 kg/m squared Resin: Vinyl Ester throughout, Dow Derakane 441 -400 for the corrosion liner and Derakane 411-45 for the structural

portion of the shell.

ing the jacks to lower their cargo into

position. Following this, a series of slings and straps was used to lift the equipment by stevedore crane,from the barges onto the ship's deck. When the tanks arrived at their des

tination, the whole loading procedure was reversed. Secured to special trucks at the customer's dock, the equipment was driven through the vast chemical complex to its final destination. At some

All six tanks positioned and secured to their concrete pads, Just before an earth quake, registering 6.5 on the RIchter Scale, hits the area.

points along the route, the tanks had to be lifted by cranes over the top of pipe bridges and other obstacles and then re loaded onto the flatbed trucks to con

tinue their arduous journey. With the tanks firmly anchored to their concrete pads, an opportunity to prove their engineering design and

manufacture occurred. Only one month after erection, an earthquake registering 6.5 on the Richter Scale shook the area,

causing massive destruction in sur rounding cities and towns. The huge tanks were unaffected.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 115

For all your storage solutions Aquastore

- Glass fused to steel Tanks for Potable water, Wastewater Leachate Storage, Industrial Water Storage



JetMix ®

- Mixing Systems for both new or existing steel and concrete tanks

Flat and Geodesic Aluminum Covers

sr «

GREATARIO ENGINEERED STORAGE SYSTEMS P.O. Box 399, County Rd. 4, Innerkip, Ontario, NOJ IMO Tel:(519)469-8169• Fax:(519)469-8157• E-mail: sgregory@greatarioengsys.com 58

For more information, circle reply card No. 128 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

k.Water Environment Federation*

' Presi'niii^ c-I-jiJxind'ig

the Global Mitter EmironmvtU

WEF 2001 Specialty Conference Series - Connecting you to a higher level of expertise

2001- A Collection Systems Odyssey: Integrating O&M and Wet Weather Issues Doubletree Hotel - Bellevue Center

Bellevue, Washington U.S.A. July 8- 11, 2001 Held in cooperation with the Pacific Northwest Pollution Control Association iJs

■ ■Q


Conference Highlights:

Specifically Designed for:

The 2001 Collection Systems conference combines wet weather and operations and maintenance topics. Attend this conference to examine approaches to issues of

• • • • •

efficiency and effectiveness in the design, O





o Q)

:S °e5

operation, maintenance, and management of sewer collection systems while focusing on environmental impacts. In-depth technical sessions will provide you with a forum for discussing topics related to small, medium, and large utility wastewater and stormwater collection systems, and the preconference workshop gives you the opportunity to hear a clear description of the components of the Sanitary Sewer Overflow (SSO) policy. In addition, you will have the chance to gain an understanding of the latest Capacity, Management, Operations and Maintenance (CMOM) regulations. Join Industry professionals for the chance to share your Insights and experiences while enhancing your professional development. We look forward to seeing you in Bellevue!

Utility Managers Wastewater Collection System Managers Wastewater Collection System Operators Engineering Consultants Managers/Owners of Contract Operation Firms

• State and Federal Regulators


o CO

For More Information: visit WEF's Web Site: www.wef.org E-mail: conflnfo@wef.org Call WEF's Fax on Demand

E o

(Select document #2900): 1-800-444-2933 or 1-703-684-2401 If outside the U.S. & Canada Call: 1-800-666-0206 or 1-703-684-2452 if outside the U.S. & Canada

For more Information, circle reply card No. 117 (See page 25)

Storage Tanks & Containment

First bolted steel tank for potable water built In Newfoundland

With the development of a new groundwater sys tem,the town ofStephenville, Newfoundland, re

quired additional storage for potable water. This need was addressed with the

construction of two bolted glass-fusedto-steel tanks, each covered with an

aluminum geodesic dome. The contract

for this construction project was awarded to Greatario Engineered Stor age Systems of Innerkip, Ontario. BAE Newplan Group Ltd. designed and su pervised the development of the Stephenville water system. The work involved the manufacture,

shipment, and installation of two 24 metre diameter by 10.5 metre tall

M-ri 1 I

Aquastore® Glass-fused-to-Steel Tanks and two 24 metre Temcor® Aluminum

Domes. This equates to a total storage capacity of 9,000 cubic metres. Due to

and dome allowed the construction ma

the remote location of the construction

terials to be shipped by both tmck and feiTy. Once the tanks were delivered to

site, the bolt-together design of the tank

site, both tanks were erected in six weeks.

Aquastore tanks are erected from ground level using a unique jacking sys tem. A series ofjacks are placed around the periphery of the tank interior and connected to a common drive. As one

ring is completed, the entire tank is jacked, r eady for the next ring of glassfused-to-steel sheets.

The interior of the tank is treated with

a special cold climate glass formulation which turns the interior tank colour

cream. The exterior of tank is the stand ard cobalt blue colour.

WORRY FREE UNDERGROUND STORAGE Canada's #1 Selling Fiberglass Tanks

Never worry about corrosion againl

For additional sheet protection, all of the sheet edges in the installation have been mechanically rounded and flame sprayed with a stainless steel alloy, the glass is then sprayed on the sheets in multiple steps and baked on to promote a chemical and physical bond with the

When regulations require secondary containment,


ZCL's Prezerver™ double wall tanks are your best solution. Corrosion free Internally and externally, ZCL tanks do not require expensive cathodic protection and are maintenance-free. Both primary and secondary wails are made of 100% fiberglass reinforced plasfic mechanically bonded together to form a unitized construction that provides superior strength and performance. Safe for storage of all fuel fypes and most hazardous liquids.

Photo is taken inside the tank under con

struction. Compieted tank appears in the background. Visible is the glass-fused-

to-steei floor and top ring of steel along with the frame of the aluminum dome.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 153 Need to hire qualified and experi enced staff? ES&E reaches over


For More Info Call Toll Free Today!

visit us at www.zcl.com 1-800-661-8265 60

19,000 water, wastewater and en

vironmental protection profession als across Canada.


For more information, circle reply card No. 118 (See page 25)

Call us at:(905)727-4666 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Drinking Water

Small surface water systems use membrane filters to remove disinfection by-product precursors

TwoCanadian instal ations are

ucts rule in the US,and new regulations

remove the undesirable dissolved or

demonstrating the effective

in Ontario -could soon force small, ru

ness of nanofiltration mem

ral communities to seek solutions that

ganic materials. The membranes also block the passage of oocysts, bacteria and viruses, along with undesirable metals, including manganese and iron. A portion of the input water crosses the

branes in removing dissolved organic materials from surface water used for drinking in many small, rural

effectively remove organic matter prior to chlorination. A new nanofiltration membrane fil

tration process, now available in North plants economically remove organics America from PCI Membrane Systems, (mostly humic and fulvic acids) that, Inc., Milford, Ohio, promises effective after chlorination, yield undesirable dis water treatment without high capital infection by-products such as TTHM costs or heavy labour requirements. The (trihalomethanes) and HAA(5) Fyne Process, as it is called, was first (haloacetic acids) in the treated water. used to clean peaty surface waters in Scotland. Now this membrane-filtration While both Canadian and US regu lations limit the presence ofTTHMs and process has over 30 PCI installations HAA(5)s in municipal water systems, running or on order with the three Scot until recently, many small communities tish Water Authorities. Systems as small that rely on surface water for drinking as(US) 1.8 gal/min (10 mVday) and as have been exempt from these limits. large as 260 gal/min (1420 mVday) are However, new, more stringent drinking currently operating. The Fyne Process starts with raw water rules in North America - includ ing Stage 1 of the Disinfection By-Prod- water, which is drawn into the system through a coarse screen and pumped By David Pearson, GM, through modules, consisting of propri PCI Membrane Systems, Inc. etary half-inch tubular membranes, to communities. The membrane filtration


Quality Assurance is our #1 Priority

membrane and this "filtrate" then is

ready for chlorination and delivery to consumers. Another portion of the in put water (the concentrate or retentate) continues to flow through the membrane tube, carrying much of the retained or ganic matter with it. Because no chemi cals are used in the process, the dis charge water is merely a more concen trated form of raw water, which can be returned to the source.

Operation is simple and automated, so the plant can run unattended, with in tervention on no more than a weekly basis for routine maintenance. Pressure

and flow data are logged continuously and the system can even be monitored remotely when an outside telephone line Continued overleaf

The Process

SMdge Dewatering


The Problem


High Polymer Cost

Techstar Plastics Inc. now

offers a complete line of new U.N. certified polyethylene units, D.O.T. 57 re-certlfied steel tanks, commonly used one-way shipping containers, and many other models.


The Solution

Aiitoniatic Polymer

Reconditioned tanks are available on a first come first serve basis.



Roto molded from tough LLDPE

The Company Chemtrac Systems-

Chemical resistant

Removable top for easy cleaning 2 way forkllft entry Holds 2 X 45 gal. drums Made! Number

Reduce Polymer Costs

SCB 200 Dimensions ILxWxH]

55" X 31" X 14.5" Volume

50 Imp. gal./227 lit./60 US gal.



Chemtrac Systems,Inc. ^ www.chemtrac.com


Contact: Catiiy Apkles Tel:(416)436-6111 •Toll Free: 1-800-263-7943•Fax:(905)965-0265


For more information, circle reply card No. 260 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 155 (See page 25)

Drinking Water is available. The low maintenance re

rated capacity 26.2 gal/min(143 mVday),

quirements are due to the fact that small systems like this use tubular membrane filters, which can be kept clean by peri odically passing a foam ball down the length of the tube.

with a 20-year projected demand of 56

gpm/ 305mVday. The new installation replaced a small packaged water treat-

and colour normally in the 40-100 TCU range. The intake is taken through a 3mm screen and piped to a sump under the water treatment plant room. There is no additional filtration or treat

ment prior to the membrane

These tubular membranes need


chemical cleaning only three to four times per year. The first Fyne system was in

lake. When a chemical clean is

Reject water is fed back to the necessary, these chemicals are sent by separate drain to a wastewater treatment lagoon. The system was competitively bid, and although initial capital costs were higher, the Fyne proc ess was chosen from a variety of

stalled in North America in Feb

ruary 2000 at Chapel Island First Nation in Nova Scotia, and has

been running full-time ever since. A second, smaller system began operating in June 2000 at The Tl'azt'en Nation community of

different treatment methods be

Middle River in British Columbia.

In addition, a Fyne Process membrane filtration plant in stalled to process highly organic surface water in Barrow, Arkan sas, was tested and verified un der the US Environmental Pro

This compact membrane filtration system at Chapei is land First Nation in Nova Scotia, was the first such sys

tection Agency Packaged Water tem instaiied in North America. Treatment Plant Verification Program. ment plant using coagulation and filtra Early North American results tion technology that required expansion Chapel Island is a small First Nation and significant refurbishment. Community located east of Halifax, Nova Raw water is taken from a shallow Scotia. The system was installed with a lake with typical TOC levels of 8 mg/1

cause of its lower overall life cy cle cost. The system also is de signed to allow simple plant ex pansion. The plant has been run above its design capacity since instal lation, producing on average 155

mVday, operating each day for 21.4 hrs on process. It was cleaned only twice in the first 12 months after start

up and was to have been cleaned for the third time around its first anniversary. The plant did experience a significant

Davnor A M




Water Treatment Technologies Ltd. BioSand Water Filtration Systems

DavnorA manufactures and sells modular intermittently operated slow sand filters and slow sand filter systems for treatment of potable water. Davnori BloSand Water Filters:

very (ijitekAas its reward wastewater

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♦Operated and maintained manually or automaticaiiy. ♦Perform as well or better than traditionally designed slow sand filters at a traction of the cost. Performance independently verified. ♦Approved tor treatment of potable water by several federal and provincial agencies. 4007 - 23 rd St. NE

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For more information, circle reply card No. 156 (See page 25)

For more information, circie reply card No. 157 (See page 25)

Drinking Water increase in pressure over a short period, when cleaning of the inlet works cre ated an influx of sediment into the raw

water sump. Although the sediment re mained in the inlet line for a number of

Lift pumps provide water to the plant with

very similar to Chapel Island. Middle River runs at higher pressure due to pro portionately lower membrane area in stalled. Corrected pressure rose at a con

a 2.5-mm screen at the intake.

The plant was delivered in and con tinues to operate in a heated and venti lated 40-ft container, complete with

days,the membrane plant con tinued to produce its rated vol ume of water, albeit at a higher operating pressure, until its second partial clean a month

stant rate until the first membrane clean, which was scheduled for four



after the incident.

Middle River performance The Tl'azt'en Nation com


months after first operation of the plant. This clean was not entirely effective and a second clean was performed shortly after to establish if any signifi cant irreversible fouling was occurring. Cleaning concen

Posl-treatmer munity of Middle River is a trations and duration were in small village located on a river creased and the plant returned northwest of Prince George, to within 96% of its early-nor British Columbia. The plant malized flux. Potable Water operated initially as a sixRegular analysis of feed month pilot to test its suitabil As raw water flows through the membrane tubes, a portion water and filtrate is also made. ity for operation in a remote (the filtrate) crosses the membrane and then Is ready for TOC reductions improved community. CH2M Hill chlorlnatlon and delivery to consumers. from 30% to 70% over the first Canada monitors performance of the membrane wash tank, chlorine dosing 200 hours of operation and have re system for the Department ofIndian and and contact tanks, and 1100-gallon stor mained consistently low. Iron and man Northern Affairs Canada. At the end of age. Reject from the plant is sent to a ganese were also significantly reduced. the pilot period it was decided to pur sump tank overflowing back to the river. While data on TTHM concentrations are chase the unit. To protect the environment, a separate limited, formation-potential tests indi The Fyne plant, which has a design tank is used to contain washing chemi cate levels well within current Canadian capacity of 5.8 gal/min(22 l/min), oper cals that can then be taken away by guidelines. ates with six PCI ClO filtration modules. tanker truck. For more information, Raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Performance of the system has been circie repiy card No. 160

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 158 (See page 25)



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For more information, circle reply card No. 159 (See page 25)

Invasive Species

Zebra mussel resistant materials

Thezebra mussels that have in

vaded the Great Lakes region have created many serious problems for those relying on

lakes and rivers in the area for their

and replacement of the screen.

material does not lose effectiveness over

Since the screen intakes are so

strongly affected by the attachment of zebra mussels,a solution had to be found

to prevent their attachment.

time, does not affect the environment

and does not require reapplication dur ing service. A passive intake design allows un

water sources. Ironically, while these

Johnson Screens, a division of US

obtrusive continuous intake of water

bodies of water have seen some benefits

Filter, is a US manufacturer of passive

without moving parts to wear out or ex-

from the continuous siphoning of contaminants by the mussels,

eessive noise to disturb the envi

ronment. The high efficiency control of flow velocity near the

their choice of residence has had

a profound effect on the perform ance of the systems used to draw

screen surface allows fish and

raw water intake systems, it

other wildlife to avoid being en trapped by the screen, while re ducing the possibility of debris attaching to the screen cylinders. The patented design for flow con

blocks the available area of

trol allows for the most efficient

the screens used to prevent the in

screen design. Also, a Hydroburst system, which uses com pressed air to purge the screen surface, can be employed to fur ther reduce any possibility of in terruptions of operation due to

the water to its intended location. As the zebra mussel attaches to the outside surfaces of these

take of undesirable matter and

protect the surrounding environ ment. As more of the screen be

comes blocked, the velocity of the flow through the screen in maintenance. creases given the same volumet In addition to the passive in ric flow requirements. This will cause increased pressure drops Johnson Z-Alloy screens remain clean even in infested take, Z-Alloy can be used in a variety of screen configurations through the screen, and increases waters. intake screens and fish diversion panels including fish diversion screens, trash in the pumping capacity required. Even racks, inline strainers or other custom tually, given the rapid proliferation of for use in lakes, streams, rivers and res zebra mussels, the screen will become ervoirs. The company has developed a geometries. Challenging shapes that completely blocked, requiring cleaning proprietary alloy that resists attachment require special forming, welding or other fabrication techniques will not re by costly diving operations or shutdown of zebra mussels. A physical examina tion of a Z-Alloy screen in an actual duce the alloy's effectiveness against the By Michael Ekholm, B.Sc., power plant intake application in Lake zebra mussel. Application Engineer, Coupling the proven efficient design Michigan discovered that the mussels Johnson Screens, MN had not attached to the screen even af of the passive intake screen with a (A Division of USFIIter) ter more than six years of service. The zebra mussel resistant alloy, creates an



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For more Information, circle reply card No. 161 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Invasive Species Z-Alloy is free of attachment. There can be seen some normal light debris(which would be cleared during a Hydroburst air backwash cycle), but no permanent

initial intake solution that does not have

their scheduled maintenance dive in

problems with zebra mussels. A wide array of special alloys and metal treatments were investigated be fore the current material, Z-Alloy, was

November 1999. The images obtained clearly show how well the Z-Alloy ma terial is working against zebra mussels.

formulated. This material could be used

stainless steal structure, the full surface

Alloy screens were not cleaned since the

to fabricate the VEE-WIRE screens used

of the assembly was not protected from attachment by the Z-Alloy material. The side of the joining flange that is

initial installation and have not caused

in the Johnson Intakes (as well as the non-screen components). Initial Testing The material was first tested in cou

As the screens were attached to a 304

attachment of zebra mussels.

The Z-

made from the 304 material is covered

any interruption of service due to block age for any reason. For more information,

by zebra mussels. The side made from

circie repiy card No. 168

pon form in Lake St. Clair between 1990 and 1993. The coupon and screen seg ment tests were later conducted in Lake

Michigan. The coupons made from the Z-Alloy material, showed little or no attachment over extended periods of time. Coupons of other material(Acryl ics, 304 stainless steel), did show sig nificant densities of zebra mussels

(598,000 /m2 for the 304 stainless screens). Coated materials tended to

oxidize, and were ruled out as potential candidates for an effective long-term so lution. At the conclusion of the coupon tests, a site was chosen in Lake Michi

gan for a full-scale test of the alloy. The J.H. Campbell power plant, lo cated on the eastern side of Lake Michi

gan, was chosen for the first fully op erational screen test site. The operators of the plant had used the passive intake screens for several years, but had re cently been experiencing problems with zebra mussels attaching to and block ing the screens. Access covers had to be installed on the existing screens to facilitate the frequent cleaning by divers required to allow the screens to operate. In many cases, even this was not ad equate to keep up with the proliferation of the mussels. The screens were peri odically lifted out and cleaned on shore

When you need to rent air monitoring equipment, you need it right away. So when you need it right away, call Ashtead Technology. Availability and quick delivery are critical requirements when you rent air monitoring and sampling equipment. We know, because renting is all we do. We specialize in rental instruments for virtually any air monitoring application, from PIDs to FIDs, CEMs and ambient air testing and sampling. We stock hundreds of reliable instruments from all the major manufac turers. Most instruments ship overnight, to just about anywhere in Canada. Or you can arrange for local pickup and delivery at our Mississauga office. Next time you're ready to rent air monitoring equipment, call the supplier whose business is renting. Call us. Call Ashtead Technology.

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to clear the 1-3" of mussels from the

screen surface. During one of these re

Portable combustion

movals and reinstallations, a screen


made from Z-Alloy was retrofitted onto one of the operational intake assembhes. These screens were installed in 1993

and showed very good results in their initial performance. The element not fully tested in the coupon and initial screen tests, was how well the Z-Alloy would perform over an extended period of time. The only way to test this ele ment was to keep the screen installed

Linear over entire range, continuous measurement of total hydrocarbons or VOC concentrations

Direct measurement

and examine the condition of the screen

of O2, CO, NO, NO2, SO2

at regular intervals to verify the effec tiveness of the alloy against zebra mus sels.

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brought a video camera with them on Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 150 (See page 25)


Overseas Consulting

To Ethiopia and back in a hurry -a consuitant's story

In 1987,following the Sudan and

Ethiopia famines, my wife Trudy and I volunteered to work in Ethio

pia. HOPE International, a Non Government Organization(NGO),with its head office in New Westminster, BC,took a chance on us. HOPE Inter

would empower the villagers and, most importantly, the women of the villages, to maintain the systems. This would have to include an educational element

and some sort of long-term financing. Including women in village water com mittees is extremely important because

national is a fairly small but very experienced NGO and they specialize in long-term rehabilitation projects in the

ing rig, and discuss the overall situation with Ato Tilahun Sarka, the General

Manager of the government's overall drilling enterprise of which HOPE is a part. In the following days I was to meet with Ato Tsegaye (a HOPE donor and worker), in Nazareth and also with Mr. Maury MiloffofCIDA. So at 6:00 a.m. on Satur

day morning I was trudging across the tarmac to board a

small plane to Arbaminch in the south. The way into the plane was by standard aluminum steps and this is where my mission for HOPE was to end abruptly. I had reached the top platform of the steps when I missed my footing and tumbled halfway down until caught by other boarding passengers. My

Third World.

Although HOPE help with reforestation, village women community develop ment,etc., they specialize in water and irrigation projects which suited me just fine. Trudy and I earlier had spent a year in Awassa, a small town located about 400 km south of Addis Ababa where

we really caught the magic

awkward fall, however, had

of Africa. Before we left we

caused a bad break in the up per femur of my leg. As I lay there, before any pain started, I remembered the prophetic words of Trudy: "Isn't it kind of stupid to be

had dug 32 new wells (us ing a TH 60 Rotary Drill donated by a HOPE sup porter in Western Canada) "God kno ws, the villagers need water." - Bill Ainiey. and established 26 water

systems ranging from simple hand pumps to basic mechanical pumping, elevated storage and distribution sys tems. (The design criteria set by the gov ernment was 80 litres/person/day). It was a HOPE success story. In 1993, I was again retained by HOPE as a volunteer (all expenses, no salary), to tour all the water sites we had established and report on their condition. This was a three week tour and the re

sults weren't good in that only about 1/3 of the systems were still working, due to poor maintenance. During the 3,000 km trip, my two Ethiopian friends and I talked to the villagers at every site and came away with some strong ideas on how to rectify various situations. Finally in 2000, HOPE gave me the chance I'd hoped for to revisit the area. I was retained to look into the possibil ity of developing a new well drilling and spring capping program and, most im portantly in my eyes, establish a water system maintenance program which

By William Ainiey, P.Eng., Chairman, The Ainiey Group 66

it is traditionally women's duty to pro vide water for the family. On Thursday, November 23, 2000,1 left Toronto on a Lufthansa flight to

traipsing around Africa at your age?" Such is the speed of human thought and so powerful are the words of a faithful wife!

travel via Frankfurt to Addis Ababa,the

A few seconds after that incisive

capital of Ethiopia. I checked into the

thought I started to yell as the ever-help ful Ethiopians began to carry me, limb by limb down the stairs. Speaking in a loud voice - I think I even managed a roar - I managed to get them to set me down in a crumpled heap on the bottom step while they fetched a wheelchair from the Airport Building. In the lobby I placed my leg into a somewhat less painful position and dialed the cell phone of my faithful friend Tibebu - HOPE'S agent in Addis Ababa and my one lifeline. Tibebu responded immediately and quite soon an ambulance arrived and I was placed on a stretcher and whisked off to St. Gabriel Hospital - Catholic I think and certainly private. There I was well looked after with lots of morphine shots and tender loving care. Eventu ally an ex-army doctor arrived from the big Black Lion public hospital and calmly picked my foot up, pulled at my

Sheridan, built mainly I guess for Oil Sheiks'R&R because it is the most luxu

rious hotel I have ever seen. I was sup posed to be met at the airport by a HOPE representative and taken to some more modest accommodation but, through some slip-up, I missed my contact and the Sheridan salesman at the airport made things so easy for me I finished up at his luxurious hotel. A lucky break I thought. The next day we got back on track and Ato Tibebu, the HOPE agent in Addis, picked me up at the hotel and I spent the day being briefed on my itin erary and what was hoped for from my report. The itinerary scheduled me to leave Addis early to take a flight into the Southern region where HOPE was constructing water springs. Then I was to drive slowly back through the route

just flown, visit the HOPE rotary drill

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Overseas Consulting leg a bit and twisted it into the straight line he preferred. Amazingly this didn't hurt, either I was too far gone on mor phine or by pulling my foot he separated the bones in my upper leg and thus al lowed him to twist the flesh. Anyway it tumed out he'd done lots of wounds dur

ing his service in the war. He offered to set mine but my heart was in St. Mike's in Toronto and I wished my broken leg to go too.

The doctor agreed there were more advanced techniques in Canada so after straightening my leg to his satisfaction he placed it in traction by tying one end of a piece of rope to my ankle and the other to a bag of sand which he hung over the end of the bed. I was now more or less comfortable

thanks to the skills of my Ethiopian sur geon, lots of drugs and wonderful care from many nurses. They had an endear ing habit of coming into my room in the middle of the night and, after miming the universal need for sleep (with their heads resting on their clasped hands) throwing themselves on the spare bed with a sigh of content where they'd sleep for an hour or more.

Meanwhile,poorTibebu was desper ately trying to arrange transportation to get me home and out of his busy life. He had to arrange - with a very bureau cratic Lufthansa - to take out six seats

to make room for my stretcher. He also

Drawing water is traditionaliy women's work, so a new weli is a happy event for any viliage in Ethiopia.

over my leg with the large donutjammed into my groin and the small donut firmly tied to my foot. This ingenious device was especially appropriate for a wounded man in my profession. At 10 o'clock on Tuesday night, I was carried downstairs by about a dozen will ing helpers. As there were no wheels on

to meet and help transport me the rest of the way. Trudy is a Registered Nurse, albeit a bit rusty, so she was able to take over the job of caring for me. My trusty Ethiopian nurse gave her a quick re fresher course on how to inject morphine (a key element of our relationship!) and dutifully stayed with us until our plane

the stretcher and no rails in the ambulance

left for Toronto.

this apparently excessive manpower was probably needed to get me safely into the vehicle and then into the plane.

when we arrived at St. Mike's emer

...after straightening my leg to his satisfaction he placed it in traction by tying one end of a piece of rope to my ankle and the other to a bag of sand which he hung over the end of the bed. had to arrange for a Registered Nurse to

Finally we arrived in Frankfurt to

travel with me(Lufthansa rules) and this

confront the German method of han

wasn't easy. Eventually, through the

dling stretcher cases. Two enormous attendants, both young and both very strong arrived with a contraption that looked as if it had been invented during the Spanish Inquisition. It consisted of a metal stretcher split longitudinally but with prongs instead of straight edges. The technique here is to roll you par tially over and jam half of it under, then you are rolled back whilst the other half is jammed in - then the whole unit is locked in place, hopefully without any of your skin in it. I made what I felt was a brave little joke but 1 was sternly ignored and quickly picked up and car ried easily out through the plane to a

combined efforts of the Canadian and

British embassies, we managed to hire a fully qualified, English speaking, Ethiopian nurse with a valid passport and a German visa.

Finally, four days after my fall from grace, my surgeon came in proudly car rying a Thomas Splint which the hospi tal mechanic had made up for my trans portation. This contraption consisted of two metal rings, one about 12" in diam eter and one about 6" in diameter. These

rings were connected together by straight metal rods to form an elongated cone(or cage). For relative comfort the two rings were carefully wrapped in a sponge material which was secured by medical tape. To keep my leg rigid whilst in transit this splint was firmly pushed

One last hitch in my medical travels; gency department we were not expected. Frankly, at this point I didn't care. I was pushed into a corner and I heard the comforting sound of my wife and daugh ter's voices raised in controlled anger and knew nothing could withstand them. It was only bureaucracy's last gasp. Within minutes I was wheeled into

stretcher outside. From there I was taken

the emergency room and my faithful Thomas Splint was mercifully removed (leaving behind bruises I cannot describe for our gentle readers) and the hospital machinery began to smoothly lock into place. My Thomas Splint and the Xray I brought back from Ethiopia, plus the work done by my Ethiopian doctor were duly admired by my Toronto sur geons and they even called me a stout fellow as they twisted my foot one last time,then off to the operating room and road to recovery. What happened to my report which HOPE was depending upon for CIDA financing? Well the package had to be sent in without my contribution. I re gret that very much; however, we at

to the "holding" room at the airport. There, wonder of wonders, my wife Trudy and daughter Sue were waiting

an extra prayer or two. God knows the villages need the water. â?–

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

HOPE have a lot of faith and we added


Waste Disposal Issues

Safety-Kleen issues vigorous response to London Free Press report

An announcement from

solid waste which they have disposed • In addition to the inaccurate charac Safety-Kleen has chal of in our facility. This waste is not a terization of the disposed waste as a "re lenged a London Free Press "release" and is not emitted into either lease", the NPRI duplicates and some report which stated that the the air or the ground. The waste is prop times triplicates the actual waste vol Safety-Kleen facility was the "biggest erly disposed of in accordance with the umes. This arises because the NPRI,for polluter" in Ontario. The article reported Ontario Ministry of Environment's re reasons not understood by Safety-Kleen, the facility "released" 15.5 million kilo quirements. counts the waste at each stage of its hangrams of pollution in a year, and ap peared to suggest that all of this was Safety-Kleen says that the London Free Press story was pollution released into the air. fundamentally inaccurate. The inaccuracy arises as a Safety-Kleen says that the London result of the federal government's National Pollution Release Free Press story was fundamentally in accurate. The inaccuracy arises as a re Inventory (NPRI) process... sult ofthe federal govemment's National Pollution Release Inventory (NPRI) • Waste disposal is fundamentally dif dling, e.g., at the generator, at any inter process, which tracks data reported to ferent than airborne emissions, which is mediary facility which handles waste, them by various facilities in Canada. the primary purpose of the NPRI. Im and finally, when it arrives at their fa The NPRI lists data in ways which are portantly, solid waste accounts for 99% cility, so the same waste could be misleading, particularly for those who of the total volume of waste reported by counted three times. are unfamiliar with how the data is ini Safety-Kleen's facility to the NPRI in Frank Hickling, Director of Opera tially characterized. 1999. The actual amount of air emis tions at Safety-Kleen Limited in Specifically, Safety-Kleen said the sions is only 1,342 kilograms which is Lambton/London, has stated that: "Of the overall volume of waste reported in NPRI information: significantly less than 15.5 million kilo • Erroneously defines as "releases" the grams reported. the NPRI report for Safety-Kleen's Announcement ■

Alex Davidson Joins

regulating the profession

Acres & Associated Environmental Limited

Professional Engineers Bill Chisholm, President of Acres

serving the pubiic


& Associated Environmental Lim

ited(A&A),is pleased to announce that Alex Davidson has joined our firm as a Senior Project Manager with our Engineering Resources Division. Alex will provide project management, engineering design

Professional Engineers Ontario (PEG) licenses professional engineers in ail fields of engineering and regulates engineering practice in Ontario, serves and protects the pubiic interest where engineering is concerned.

and contract administration serv

The association publishes Professional Practice Guidelines for

ices on our water and wastewater

many fields of engineering, which are available by visiting the PEG website at www.peo.on.ca. Printed guidelines and contraa documents can be purchased by completing and returning the website Publications Order Form, or by contacting our publica tions desk. Look for a new Schedule of Suggested Fees for Engineering Services to be published in 2001.

projects. Alex obtained his Bachelor of Engineering Degree from McMaster University in 1982 and a Diploma of General Busi ness from Mohawk College in 1983. He has 18 years experi ence in all phases of complex design and construction projects, including feasibility studies, environmental assessments, final design, contract preparation, tendering, contract administration, QA/QC,commissioning and operator training. Acres & Associated Environmental is a young, dynamic, multi-disciplinary consulting engineering firm which provides a full range of environmental and management services from our offices in Toronto and Niagara Falls. A&A is supported by a combined staff of more than 1,000 from its affiliated companies - Acres International Limited and Associated Engineering Group.

Acres &

Associated 68


PEG welcomes inquires on professional practice and ethics for engineers and will verify whether individuals or companies are licensed.

Professional Engineers Ontario, 25 Sheppard Avenue West, Suite 1000, Toronto ON M2N 6S9.

Tel.:(416) 224-1100:(800) 339-3716.

Fax: (416) 224-8168;(800) 268-0496.

Website: www.peo.on.ca

Tel:(416)622-9502 Internet: www.aae.on.ca

For more Information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)

Waste Disposal Issues Lambton facility in 1999, 85.4 percent came from Canadian sources in general, with 80.9 percent coming from the Ontario steel industry specifically. And while some waste reported in the NPRI report for our facility comes to us from


the US, that waste often has ties to VEHICLE

Canada. For example, the largest US source sent 1.8 million kilograms of NPRI reportable material to the SK Lambton facility, but that US source re cycles over 40 million kilograms of haz ardous waste from Ontario annually. "The NPRI fails to provide the ap propriate context for our landfill facil ity operations in that the NPRI does not acknowledge the majority of the alleged "releases" are actually permitted dis posal operations that are in full compli ance with environmental regulations and which protect the public health and the











Plan of Lambton facility.


now become widely publicized as a re

"We also believe that it is important to note that our high-temperature incin

sult of a Pollution Watch Website, which

erator air emissions are 50 times lower

than the Ontario regulations require, and we are constantly pursuing additional initiatives with the Ontario Ministry of Environment to further reduce incinera tor emissions. The NPRI information has


publishes this data without any context. "We expect that given the significant

the importance of promoting public un derstanding through making available technically-sound information. How ever, we believe that the Pollution

inaccuracies in how the data are char

Watch/NPRI Website and data are fac

acterized, people may be under a sig nificant misconception as to the limited extent of the releases which actually arise from our facility. We recognize

tually inaccurate and misrepresent the very real pollution prevention and con trol activities that are at the core of

Safety-Kleen's businesses," he stated. ❖

—~ Announcement~~~ BROCKVILLE, ON - (May 2001) Maple Leaf Environmental Equipment Ltd., a Canadian manufacturer and supplier of groundwater/wastewater treatment equipment,site remediation sys tems, air treatment systems, and PLC based control panels, have launched a new corporate logo and brand - MLE Equipment. "Nothing has changed other than the logo and a shortening of the name," said Bruce Lounsbury, President of MLE Equipment. "The technologies we use in the remediation business are also used in several other areas that we plan on expanding into. We don't want to be known solely as a leading provider of environmental products." Since 1992, MLE Equipment has supplied high quality treat ment equipment to the Canadian, United States, and intemational markets. With over 30 years of combined technical experience in petroleum/water separation, water treatment and project manage ment, MLE Equipment staff continues to lead in the design and ap plication of innovative new technologies in the environmental busi ness. As well, MLE's electrical assembly facility recently received UL approval on the production of control panels and PLC systems. MLE Equipment is also the exclusive Canadian distributor for QED Enviromnental Systems,Inc., groundwater sampling and remediation pumps, sample filters, interface meters and air strippers. With an ever-expanding sales force that includes representatives in Virginia, Florida and Massachusetts, MLE Equipment has plans to further expand into the central and western US, as well as diver sify into other fields.

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URL: http://www.maple-leaf.ca E-mail: info@maple-leaf.ca Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Fax: 610-436-8436

E-mail: foam@rusmarinc.com



For more information, circie repiy card No. 152 (See page 25)

Industry Update importation of CFCs in Canada was

First wave generated power station opens

eliminated in 1995.

a small research

wave energy sta

tion on Islay in 1990, and its suc

cessful operation led to development of the Limpet. Limpet uses an oscillating water column in an in clined


tube that has its

opening below the The Limpet system uses sea power. Photo - Wavegen

action causes the

water level in the collector to oscillate,

commercial wave power station has

and this variation altemately compresses and decompresses the trapped air in the

Britain. Wavegen and Queen's Univer sity Belfast jointly developed the Lim

column. The air flows back and forth

pet (Land Installed Marine Powered Energy Transformer) wave system with

which are driven in the same direction

at all times, regardless of the direction

financial support from the European

of the airflow.


The unit is designed to operate on the shoreline, or it can be incorporated

Limpet is operating on the Island of Islay, off the west coast of Scotland,

famed for its unique whisky distilleries. This first site will generate 500 kW of renewable energy without greenhouse gas emissions. That capacity is suffi cient for 400 local homes.

through a pair of generating turbines

within rubble mounds or caisson break

waters to provide coastal protection schemes as well as power generation. Key features include low cost power, maximum local content and 60-year life with minimal maintenance.

Queen's University Belfast installed

duction worldwide over the next 30

years. HCECs are currently used in many air conditioning and refrigeration applications. Contact: Warren Heeley at: 1-800267-2231.

water level. Wave

What is claimed to be the world's first

been connected to the national grid in

The new program is funded by an environmental levy submitted by refrig erant manufacturers, importers and reclaimers on sales of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) refrigerants. HCECs are alternative refrigerants to CFCs with a lower ozone-depleting po tential that will be phased out of pro

Contact: enquiries@wavegen.co.uk.

New Ontario

environmental policy The Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment adopted a new policy on March 20, 2001,for emissions of oxides of ni

trogen from boilers and heaters. Policy Guideline A-9 adopts in Qntario, the National Emission Guidelinefor Com mercial/Industrial Boilers and Heaters,

published in 1998 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment

(CCME Guideline).

A key part of Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan, Policy Guideline A-9 will

reduce Ontario's NO^ emissions by an estimated 29,000 tonnes/y in the year 2015. Policy Guideline A-9 is the re sult of considerable discussion and co

operation between the Ministry and

Refrigeration industry creates environmental

responsibility program

ducer responsibility corporation called Refrigerant Management Canada

other stakeholders.

The CCME Guideline was written by

(RMC) will see the safe and environ-

a multi-stakeholder committee, includ

Leading companies from the refrigera tion and air conditioning industry have announced a new program that is ex pected to dramatically reduce the quan tity of ozone-depleting chlorofluoro-

mentally-responsible collection and dis

ing representatives of industry, govern

posal of CEC chemicals used in many large air conditioning and commercial

ments,energy companies,and non-gov ernment organizations. Ontario, the other provinces and territories, and the

carbons(CFCs)that are released into the atmosphere.

refrigeration systems. The federal and provincial govern

federal government approved the

ments in Canada are committed to elimi

CCME Guideline in 1998. Ontario is

nating the use of CEC refrigerants over the next 10 years. The production and

the first Canadian province to formally

The industry-led initiative, organized through a new non-profit extended pro


adopt the Guideline.

f CAREER ADVANCEMENT EMPLOYMENT SERVICES INC. Permanent & Contract Placement Recruiters




KMK CONSULTANTS LIMITED Consulting Engineers, Project Managers Ecological Planners, Landscape Architects

Quality Assurance


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E-mail: kmk@kmk.on.ca


For more information, circle reply card No. 167

i "Increasing your competitiveness by strength in human resources" Phone:(905) 681-8240 Fax: (905) 639-4601 Email: info@careeradvancement.on.ca Web: wvvw.careeradvancement.on.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 140


"For Cost Effective Pumping"


f. company in the cardo Group

Your QED Technical Sales

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Sales & Service

for Canada QED is pleased to have Maple Leaf En

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vironmental as our new exclusive Cana

dian distributor for groundwater sam pling and remediation pumps, as well as sample filters, interface meters, and air strippers. Maple Leaf has been design ing a broad range of environmental treat ment systems since 1992, providing qual ity equipment and support to customers throughout Canada. Maple Leaf Environmental Equipment Ltd.

ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905)670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

For more information, circle reply card No. 142


3524 Coons Road

Brockville, Ontario K6T 1A6 Tel:(613)498-1876 Fax;(613) 345-7633 E-mail: glen@maple-leaf.ca





TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 143



AllMax Professional Solutions, Inc.

is pleased to announce the addition



of Leslie Armstrong in Hamilton, Ontario; Midwest Analytical Solu tions in Delaware and Dalton, Ohio;

Superior drying technology and biosolids management

Schenck & Associates in Sussex, Wisconsin; and Reinbrecht Associ

1225 Industrielle Street, La Prairie (Quebec) Canada J5R 2E4 (450) 659-1986 • e-mail: info@berlie-tech.com • web site: www.berlie-tech.com

ates in Hatboro, Pennsylvania as

For more information, circle reply card No. 144

Operator 1(P Plus "Certified Part ners". Representatives from these companies have successfully com pleted the necessary level of training to provide setup, services and train ing to their clients on the Operator





10® Plus software.

GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 65 Years

For more information,

circle reply card No. 166

342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrle, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

Tol:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705) 721-0138 E-mail: lws@lws.ca, Wob site: www.iws.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 145 FILTER MEDIA

Providing Dewatering, Dredging and Digester Cleaning



Trimax Residuals Management inc.



nth rafliter

Afully integrated water and wastewater service company.

Media & Coal Ltd.



TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617


1-800-465-21 15 www.trimaxenv.com


1-888-776-7306 www.azurix.com

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 141 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 146 71

Industry Update William H. Gates receives

AWWA's Distinguished Public Service Award

ing to cover costs. In October 2000, ADA-ES began work on a comprehensive mercury emis sions control program to evaluate the technology that power generating com panies will use to comply with new mercury regulations that will be pro posed by the US Environmental Protec tion Agency in 2003. This work is be

ing performed under a $6.8 million co operative agreement with the US De

William Gates, Manager of the Halifax Water Commission, was selected as one

of two recipients of AWWA's Distin guished Public Service Award. This award is presented annually to members

partment of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL). OPG has been closely following the developments of mercury control tech nologies in the US and has been at the forefront of investigating methods to control the emission of mercury into the environment. In fact, a standard testing method used in the US for evaluating

of AWWA who have been leaders in

Bill Gates has been active with the Atlantic Canada Water Works Associa

tion since the 1970s. In that time, he

has served as Secretary-Treasurer, Director, and Chairman of the Section. He has been especially active in the area of training, and was appointed training

and is named for, OPC's predecessor. During the three-year project, mer

cury control systems will be installed and tested at four coal-fired power

plants. ADA-ES has developed a mer cury control system in which sorbents are injected into the flue gas and col lected by existing particle collection sys tems. The sorbents will absorb the mer

cury, resulting in substantial emissions reduction. According to DOE/NETL,

the goal of the project is to develop a cost-effective technology that will allow the electric utility industry to reduce mercury emissions from power plants by up to 70 percent of current levels. Contact: Michael Durham, E-mail; miked@adaes.com.

water resources plauuiug

Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

their community in their voluntary serv ices to the public.

mercury emissions from fossil-fueled generating stations was developed by,

water supply, transmission and treatnienl wastewater collection and treatment

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co-ordinator in 1994. The AWWA rec

ognized his contribution with an Hon orary Membership and the Fuller Award for distinguished service to the water supply field. The ACWWA recognized his contributions with the Ira P. Macnab Award for service in the waterworks

Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning & engineering

field in Atlantic Canada.

Gates is also a Fellow of the Engi neering Institute of Canada, the Cana dian Society of Civil Engineers, and an Honorary member of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association, hav

ing served as the Association's found ing President. He has also served as Councillor for the Halifax Area of the

Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, and is a Past President of the alumni association, and alumni

representative on the Board of Gover nors, and Chairman of the Board of



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OPG joins mercury project team Environment technology and specialty chemical company ADA-ES,a subsidi ary of Eai'th Sciences, has announced that Ontario Power Generation (OPG)

has joined its mercury control project team and will provide significant fund 72

I R.V. Anderson Associates Limited I consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

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Weliand Ottawa Sudbury London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay, India Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Industry Update

Congress repeals

Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering

Ergonomics Rule, handing victory to WLF (Washington Legal Foundation

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trusive federal oversight of American workplaces in history'. WLF filed suit challenging the rule

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American workers. Passage of the re

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peal legislation brings the litigation to a

Dredging (since 1971)

successful conclusion.

"Congress evidently understood that the ergonomics rule threatened to swamp our already floundering economy," WLF Senior Counsel for Litigation Affairs, Shawn Gunnarson said. "We are pleased that OSHA's at tempt to over-regulate American workplaces has been decisively squelched."

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Tomato belt a goldmine? A waste by-product of tomato process ing, tomato skins are the source of a beneficial cancer-fighting compound that could turn food wastes which are

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liabilities, into beneficial chemicals.

John Shi, an Agriculture and AgriFood Canada research scientist who works

Specializing In Computer-aided Design for Cleaner Production

with the University of Guelph, is look

ing at the potential of extracting the chemical, known as lycopene. Fresh tomatoes have high levels of

lycopene and Ontario is the second larg est tomato producer in North America. More than 25,000 tonnes oftomato skins are currently discarded as waste. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Crechem Technologies Inc. • software development for environmental applications • simulation & modelling tor process optimization • pollution controi system design 1200 Montreal Rd., BIdg. M-2, 2"" Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1A0R6 Tel: 613-744-6001 - Fax: 613-744-0573 - Web site: www.crechem.com 73

Industry Update Quebec introduces new Toronto • Ottawa


The Quebec government is introducing what it calls the toughest drinking wa ter regulations in the country. Under the new rules, any well or source of drink ing water serving more than 20 people, will be subject to mandatory filtration, chlorination, and regular testing. All water suppliers in the province, from individuals to municipalities, will be

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water regulations

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required to test semi-annually for bac teria such as E. coli and protozoa such as giardia, and once a year for nitrates. Distributing water that does not meet requirements will become illegal. Implementing the new standards will cost municipalities about $600 million, but the province will defray more than half the cost through infrastructure pro grams. The standards will cost home


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nicipal water system a minimum of $100 a year and some commercial enterprises

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New Mexico finds


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prescription drugs in water While there is no major cause for con cern now, water departments could eventually wind up having to treat water supplies to remove contamination by prescription drugs. This forecast comes after the recent discovery of trace amounts of prescription antibiotics,

painkillers, epileptic seizure drugs, and oral contraceptives in surface water in various parts of New Mexico. It is un known how the presence of these drugs in surface water will affect ecosystems or human beings in the long term.

Of particular concern are antibiotics, which could result in bacteria develop

ing resistance, and estrogen compounds which are believed to cause the "de-

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sexing" of fish. Technology currently exists to remove the drugs from water, but no one is implementing it at this time.

In a related development, the Octo ber issue of Environmental Health Per



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of prescription drugs and other pharma ceutical and personal care products in water supplies. Most commonly found were anti-inflammatory and pain-killing drugs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, anticonvulsants, and sex hormones from

oral contraceptives, but also detected were products such as perfumes, sun

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Industry Update screen and caffeine. The article warns

Geomatrix Consultants

of the unknown consequences of con suming subtherapeutic doses of drugs, as well as any dose of substances not intended for ingestion. CWWA Bulletin

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The American Water Works Association

has called on Congress and the nation's civil engineers to join it in developing an efficient, responsible plan to over


come America's multi-billion dollar

Consulting Engineers

shortfall in drinking water infrastructure investment. AWWA made its request following an evaluation of the nation's core infrastructure, conducted by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE),which criticized the investment shortfall, by giving the nation's drink ing water infrastructure a "D" grade. In its Report Card for America's In frastructure, the ASCE estimated that the investment in drinking water infrastruc ture falls (US) $11 billion short every

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underfunding of federal drinking water initiatives, coupled with increased de

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mands on water utilities' financial re

sources. ASCE anticipates the problem will be exacerbated by growing demand for drinking water nationwide over the next 20 years. To remedy the situation, ASCE recommended Congress fully fund existing federal drinking water pro grams and institute new federal pro grams targeted specifically to staving off

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future investment shortfalls to counter the current situation.

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budget pressures water utilities face. These led AWWA to call for a stronger commitment to water infrastructure in

vestment from the federal government over a year ago. However,the Associa tion's analysis also indicates that im

proved local management and more co operative relationships between utilities and all levels ofgovemment must be im plemented before access to any new funding resources can be optimized.

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Industry Update


Water pollution sources traced through DNA University of Missouri-Columbia re searchers are using a "fingerprinting" test that can trace water pollution back to its source using DNA from bacteria.

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presence of fecal E. coll bacteria - mi crobes that live in the intestines of their

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the potential presence of disease-pro ducing strains of E. coli, salmonella, or hepatitis virus that also can be found in human or animal waste."

In order to track fecal E. coil water


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Carson's laboratory is applying a DNA pattern recognition technique. This novel approach is based on the premise

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UMA Group Ltd., a national consulting, engineering, constmction and manage ment services company, have acquired the Calgary company, Manray Consult ing. Manray specializes in engineering design, contract administration, and pro ject management services in residential land development. The increasing devel opment within Calgary and surrounding areas make this a very timely union.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

Industry Update

Date Pad

May 31, 2001. Water Environment Asso ciation of Ontario specialty seminar: Mem brane Bioreactors - Applications for Wastewater Treatment, Toronto, ON. Con tact Francesca Davino,Tel:(905)726-1300.

June 6-8,2001. Canadian Water Resources Association 54th Annual Conference, Water

sheds of Change, Guelph, ON. Contact Jennifer McEdwards, Tel: (519) 824-4120, ext. 2558, Fax: (519) 837-8630, Web site: www.cwra.org.

June 7-8, 2001. 5th Canadian Pollution Prevention Roundtable, St. John's, NEED. Contact: 1-800-667-9790, Fax: (519) 337-

3486, E-mail: info@c2p2online.com. Web site: www.c2p2online.com. June 10-13, 2001. 2001 International

Conference on Underground Infrastructure Research - Municipal, Industrial and Environmental Applications, presented by the Centre for Advancement of Trenchless

improve the reliability of severe weather

Thunderous Grants Professor Peter Taylor, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science, York

University, will receive $340,000 over two years to investigate the effects of lake breezes on air quality and severe

warnings. Professor Jochen Rudolph, of York University's Centre for Atmospheric

and radar, as well as surface and aircraft-

Chemistry, is a leader in the field of measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds(VOCs)and their stable car bon isotope composition, and in creat ing the intellectual framework for inter preting the measurements. He will re ceive $594,800 over three years to de velop more effective air pollution con trol strategies by enhancing the reliabil ity and predictability of numerical model

weather conditions. Studies in Ontario

have clearly linked lake breezes with severe thunderstorms,lightning, and tor nadoes, as well as air quality, particu

larly ozone concentration levels in southern Ontario.

Taylor's team will use satellite images based measurements of weather condi


tions to gain a better understanding of the pre-storm environment and provide

$60 million to establish the Canadian

a new data base for a lake-breeze cli

Foundation for Climate and Atmos

matology of southwestern Ontario that will make forecasting more precise and

pheric Sciences which is funding these research projects.

The federal government has invested

Technologies at the University of Waterloo, with the National Research Council of



Canada, Kitchener, ON. Contact: E-mail: uir2001@sunbum.uwaterloo.ca. Web site:



Environmental Engineering Water & Wastewater Engineering


June 11-14. International Chemical


Recovery Conference, Whistler, BC. Con tact the Pulp and Paper Technical Associa

British Coiumbia

Site Assessment & Remediation


Hydrogeoiogy Soiid and Hazardous Waste Management Urban Drainage

Northern Territories

tion of Canada, Tel: (514) 392-6967, Fax: (514)392-0369, Web site: www.paptac.ca.

& Internationaiiy

Visit our website at www.umagroup.com

June 17-21, 2001. American Water Works Association, 2001 Annual Conference and

Compact - Low Impact Drilling

Exposition, Washington, DC. For informa tion call: 1-800-926-7337, Web site:

by Water Regime "Specializing in geo-technical and environmental drilling in confined and low impact environments"


www.awwa.org/ace2001. June 27 - July 1,2001. National Watershed Forum - Building Partnershipsfor Healthy Watersheds, Arlington, VA. Tel:(970)5138340, ext. 204, Fax:(970)513-8348.

■Standard auger and Geoorobe applications available Contact us at: (519) 577-5114 (Drilling Inquiries) (519) 884-5816 (Office)

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July 9-10,2001. Sixth Canadian/American Conference on Hydrogeology, Banff, AB.

, Water Regime Investigations and Simulations Ltd. P.O. Box 28040, Parkdale Postal Outlet. Waterloo, Ont, N2L 6J8

Tel: 1-800-551-7379 or(614)898-7791,Web site: www.ngwa.org. October 1-4,2001. 11th International Con

Environmental Consultants and Engineers ♦ Environmenta! Engineering Services

ference on Aquatic Invasive Species, Alex andria, VA. Tel: (613) 732-7068 or 1-800-

> Solid, Liquid & Hazardous Waste Management

868-8776, E-mail: profedge@renc.igs.net. October 1-4,2001. 6th Research Forum on

November 11-14, 2001. WFFTFC Latin

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America Puerto Rico 2001. The 2nd Latin American Technical Conference and Exhi

bition on Wastewater & Water Quality Tech nology, San Juan, PR. Contact the Water Environment Federation, Tel: 1-800-666-

0206 (US & Canada), E-mail: confinfo® wef.org. November 14-16, 2001. The Composting Council of Canada's 11th Annual National

Conference, Montreal, QC. Contact Susan Antler, Tel: (416) 535-0240, E-mail: ccc@ compost.org. Web site: www.compost.org.



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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

• Hydrogeoiogy investigation / Modelling • Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmental Management Systems 77

Industry Update David Anderson elected

Bush allows snowmobile ban m Yellowstone

President of UNEP

Governing Council The Honourable David Anderson,Cana da's Environment Minister, has become the first Canadian ever elected as Presi

dent of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Pro

gramme(UNEP). He was elected for a two-year term.

UNEP is the leading international forum for governments to address cur rent and emerging environmental issues. The election of Minister Anderson con

A "gathering" of snowmobiles in Ontario's Muskokas shows the popularity of the

tinues a long-standing tradition of ma jor Canadian involvement in UNEP leadership. Two of UNEP's four execu tive directors to date, Maurice Strong

sport. Photo - Steve Davey

and Elizabeth Dowdeswell, have been Canadians.

Following a 90-day delay in implemen tation by his Administration, President

snowmobile industry. Despite repeated requests by the Presi

Bush let stand a National Park Service

dent of the National Parks Conservation

rule designed to protect wildlife and visi tors of Yellowstone National Park by creating a winter mass transit system and phasing out the use of individual snow mobiles. Snowmobiles cause air pollu tion and invasive noise in the park. Implementation of the ruling is still unclear, and under legal assault by the

Association, the NPCA and other

New diet makes pig manure more eco-friendly In the United States, swine produce more than 15 million tons of manure

each year, containing an estimated 460,000 tons of phosphorus- phospho rus that can, when in high enough con centrations, lead to environmental dis

interveners have been shut out of settle

ment discussions. Secretary of the Inte rior, Gail Norton, also has forbidden the staff of Yellowstone National Park to

spend any federal funds on snowcoaches, the favored form of winter mass transit slated for use in Yellowstone.

percent. Performance testing also shows that hogs on this diet do as well as hogs on traditional diets supplemented with phosphorus. Contact: JenkinsJL@missouri.edu.

releases new Standards and Guidelines Alberta Environment has released new

Standards and Guidelines for municipal waterworks and storm drainage systems. These standards, the first revision since

1988, set out the regulated minimum standards and design requirements for these systems in Alberta municipalities. The document includes the application and approval process, treatment per formance standards, design standards and guidelines, and operating and moni toring requirements and guidelines. Access the document online at:

PEO's Engineer-lnResidence program receives funding

www.gov.ab.ca/env/waste/miniwwater/ stormdrainage.html.

aster if a manure spill occurs. However, Gary Allee, a University of Missouri- Under its Youth Science and Technol Columbia researcher, has found a way ogy funding program, the Ontario Min istry of Energy Science and Technology to reduce the risk of phosphorus pollu tion using biotechnology. (MEST), has granted Professional En Allee explains that hogs need a cer gineers Ontario $225,000 in new fund tain amount of phosphorus in their diet, ing to expand its Engineers-in-Resibut that most of the phosphorus in corn dence (EIR) program. MEST's fourand soybeans is in a form that hogs can year investment will allow the EIR pro not digest. So, producers add a mineral gram to increase the number of schools supplement containing phosphorus to it serves, to develop a website and hold the hogs' diets. Although this satisfies a series of community events across the the hogs' nutritional requirements, the province. undigested phosphorus from the com The EIR program is a partnership and soybeans is excreted. between professional engineers, educa To avoid this, Allee started feeding tors, industry and government, that hogs genetically modified com that con brings real-world experience to the tains higher levels of phosphorus that teaching of science technology and hogs can digest. Testing shows that the mathematics. use of this "low-phytate" com can re Contact: Dave Pearce, (416) 224duce phosphorus excretion by 30-40 1100. 78

Alberta Environment

Wind farms will supply British electricity Britain unveiled plans April 5, for 18 offshore wind farms that will quadruple wind-power generated electricity and produce enough to supply more than one million homes. Clusters of wind-

powered turbines several kilometres off shore will help the UK meet its com mitment under the United Nations

Kyoto Protocol. The Crown Estate,a state agency that owns the seabed around Britain, said it

had selected 18 companies, which would each obtain a lease of seabed to develop an offshore wind farm. Each proposed site will contain up to 30 turbines grouped within an area several kilome tres out to sea. The nearest wind rotor will be 1.5 kilometres from land.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001

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I .

Check out all the benefits of ecoSep, the clear choice for clean water:

• Optimally designed for point source and industrial stormwater applications • 5 ppm oil/water separation • Up to 50% annual maintenance and disposal costs savings • High operational reliability - only mechanical and stainless steel components

ecoStop ecoStop features a patented automatic shut-off valve. Flow through the system is stopped when maximum oil storage capacity is reached or when a certain liquid level exceeded. In its closed position, the ecoStop valve will remain tight up to a 5 metre total dynamic head pressure.

Use ecoStop for maximum protection against unexpected and catastrophic petroleum spills.

Full access fo all major elements makes ecoSep easy fo operate and maintain.


299 Brock Road South, R.R.#3

Guelph, Ontario N1H 6H9 L/censec/ by Con Cast Pipe from Royal Environmental Systems Inc., A Division of Royal Enterprises America

1 800 668-PIPE


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w/mm ^Sssst It's so reliable. That's what our

From basic level measurement to

customers say about Milltronics technology installed in thousands

complete lift station monitoring and control, Milltronics technology is effective in enclosed or open vessels, narrow apertures or harsh weather.

of water distribution and

wastewater plants worldwide. ■ Level and volume measurement

Our Echomax® ultrasonic transducers

■ Pump control ■ Lift station monitoring and control ■ Open channel flow monitoring

are built for harsh environments

■ Rake control

■ ■ ■ ■

Clarifier interface monitoring Level control for digesters Gasholder height monitoring Weighing of dry bulk storage

-impervious to dust, moisture, corrosion, vibration, flooding and temperature extremes. The noncontacting design virtually eliminates the nuisance, danger and expense of cleaning, adjusting and repairing contacting devices.

^«WSSgi Transceivers feature our patented Sonic Intelligence® signal processing technology for superior reliability. Products are easy to install, and expert technical support is there when you need it. For information or a representative near you, visit our web site: www.milltronics.com

Technology, innovation. Support.

For more information, circle reply card No. 138(See page 25)