Storage Tanks & Containment - ES&E's biannual focus Membranes remove disinfection by-product precursors in BC and NS Is Toronto drowning in a sea of consultants? - editorial comment Anaerobic wastewater treatment methods reviewed for industry Latest weapon in smog war developed in Canada On-site groundwater remediation
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April/May 2001 Vol.14 No. 2 Issued May, 2001
Rick Corbett is new
- See page 14
Features 7 10
Is Toronto drowning in a sea of consultants? - editorial comment
37 International news report 38 On-site groundwater remediation
Rex Murphy highlights annual WEAO
12 Ontario's Regulation 459/00 - a good start 14
but is it enough? BCWWA praised for its pre-eminence in the water and wastewater industry
Precast box culverts used as groynes and aquatic habitat
Membrane filters remove disinfection
by-product precursors in BC and NS 64
Zebra mussel resistant materials for intake screens and assemblies
66 To Ethiopia and back in a hurry a consultant's story 68 Safety-Kleen issues vigorous response to media reports
Latest weapon in smog war developed by Canadian firm
Anaerobic wastewater treatment methods
reviewed for industry Magnetic drive pumps eliminate
Cover Story - Leak detection is more
Ontario embraces new vision for
environmental protection Production of a cost-competitive biodiesel fuel alternative to petroleum diesel
Storage Tanks & Containment ES&E's semi-annual focus
Growing use of giass-fused-to-stea! tanks for wastewater applications
mechanical seal maintenance vital than ever
Evolution of protected aboveground tanks
Cathodic protection of water storage tanks saves money - a case study Massive HCL tanks for earthquake zone
Preview of the AWWA's annual conference
Newfoundland's first bolted steel tank for
in Washington, DC Measuring ammonia with online analyzers
Industry Update Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
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City drowns in a sea of consuitants
Toronto Sun headline - March 17, 2001
Toronto City Council recently
approved $10.6 million worth
of consultants "with barely a second thought," according to a Toronto Sun report on March 27. Councillor Jane Pitfield was quoted as saying that consultants have been on a bit of a 'feeding frenzy' thanks to over whelmed city officials. The Sun's re porter, Sue-Ann Levy, wrote:"Just look
at the $159 million spent on consultants in 1999 alone, more than the value of Metro Hall."
In a Toronto Sun Editorial, April 17, Lorrie Goldstein wrote scathingly: "Why would City Hall even think about dropping dental programs for poor kids and seniors when it could maintain them
indefinitely just by wiping out a tiny por tion of its annual budget for consultants? We're being spun by left-wing council lors on this one, folks, just as we have been from time immemorial."
Well, consultants are many and var ied and those practitioners who came under these penetrating analyses were not singled out as environmental engi neers. However, the generalized criti cism does focus on the persistent lack of understanding of the role of consult ing engineers. Using the value of an in-place build ing such as Metro Hall, to compare the monetary worth of intellectual property from learned professions, comes peril ously close to economic illiteracy. Im agine a spectacular but inanimate glass and steel building being compared to the neurons and synapses of professionals who design such things. Some of the bridges, highways, water treatment and wastewater projects, many of which were designed by consulting engineers, are worth billions of dollars today. Com pared to the value of any of the city's infrastructure pro jects-some of which
For decades, consultants have played a significant role in designing the Mega City's water and wastewater treatment faciiities.
ally all of the above public works were essential in the development of the wealth, economic viability, and yes, the vibrant cultural ambience of Toronto.
Without its infrastructure, Canada's
largest city might still be a village perched on Lake Ontario, perhaps to evolve into a quaint tourist attraction such as Niagara-On-The-Lake. Far fetched? Just look at how Toronto's ne
then the capital cost of Metro Hall is petty
glected highway and transit infrastruc tures are now seriously impacting on the city's viability. With its highway arter ies becoming ever more clogged, both corporate and entertainment businesses are increasingly suffering as its popula
cash in construction
tion chokes on traffic fumes. Pulmo
values alone. Virtu-
nary diseases are on the increase. Add to this the economic losses emanating from a workforce fatigued, and less ef ficient through twice daily frustrating
have lasted over a
century or more -
By Tom Davey E-maii: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
commuting grinds. It is hard to realize that when Great
Britain proudly began its first 70 miles of motorway,the M-1,in the late 1950s, Toronto already had in place more mo torways than Great Britain - a pretty good record for a city with a population of some 1.5 million. There are many controversial environmental viewpoints on motorways but few will argue that Toronto cannot continue with the present policy of auto asphixiation of its resi dents.
Unlike its highway system,Toronto's water and wastewater infrastructure still
ranks among the finest and best-main tained in the world. This system man ages to draw raw water from Lake Ontario, treat, then distribute it through some 5,000 kilometres of watermains. Continued overleaf
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of pipe maintenance and replacement measured even against international standards - ranks among the best, and consulting firms have been involved with the infrastructure designs and re placements for many decades. Fai adoxically, water quality standards in Toronto are high, yet water rates are among the lowest in the world. Toronto water costs less than a fraction of a penny
per litre. Watermain failures, despite cli matic extremes, are so reliable that TV
crews are dispatched to the scene when-
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discussions, with every query came a reassurance that: The guards will look after thai. Juvenal's famous rejoinder is still relevant after almost two millen
nia. With sardonic perception he en quired: But who will guard the guards? Rome,paradoxically, became renowned for its aqueducts and pipelines which brought fresh water to the great city. Without fresh water the Roman Empire would be unknown to history and the Coliseum, the great aquaducts and fountains, and even the movie Gladia
tor might never have been conceived. Which poses a simple arithmetical question if there is ever a significant re duction in consultants retained by Toronto. For Canada's largest city to do all its municipal engineering in-house.
It is admirable to have highly competent core staff in any large city but symbiotic benefits occur when city engineers work alongside consultants whose mobility and skills have been cross-fertilized with experience on many different projects. ever watermains fail and roads are
Toronto would have to hire about 1,000
flooded, while disgruntled homeowners' complaints are broadcast to the nation with all the solemnity of a major event. It would be hard for any comparable in dustry or sector to match its combination of reliability in the fields of health, fire protection and economic value. Few recall that there were originally 13 municipalities in place before Met ropolitan Toronto was formed in the mid 1950s, when amalgamation brought po
engineering staff. That is without the
lice, water and wastewater services un
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governance problems emerged during
der one political entity. Rather surpris ingly, the six fire departments created by Metro remained separated for four decades until the Harris Provincial Gov
ernment abolished the Metropolitan con cept to revert to what is now simply the City of Toronto. Council's recently avowed aim was for a five percent reduction goal in the use of consultants, with at least one
councillor striving for a 20% cut in con sulting usage. It may be an ominous sign when councillors display little under standing of how huge and complex mu nicipal services are planned, designed, and maintained.
Their attitude reminds me of another
great city, ancient Rome,when the Eter nal City was going through one of its periodic political upheavals. Whenever
additional construction work if Toronto
is awarded the 2008 Olympiad it so des
perately seeks. Meanwhile, there is al ready a serious shortage of engineering graduates which is reliably predicted to get worse. To paraphrase what Juvenal asked of ancient Rome, without consult
ants: Who then will do the engineering? It is admirable to have highly com
petent core staff in any large city but symbiotic benefits occur when city en gineers work alongside consultants whose mobility and skills have been cross-fertilized with experience on many different projects. When particular projects are completed and specialized disciplines are not required by a city, consultants simply move on to new projects, relieving the city of the fixedin-place burdens of office accommoda tions, pension plans, severance pack ages, office costs, and many other ex penses borne by consultants. A huge metropolis like Toronto will always require a diversity of increas ingly complex skills and talents to take advantage of emerging technologies which are changing exponentially. A mix of consultants and city staff is posi tively the best way to adapt to these challenoes. ❖
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
The New Generation N-Pumps. They'll run efficiently day after day after day.
N-Pumps win Canada's Energy Efficiency Awards 2000. The energy-using equipment award for sustained efficiency in raw sewage. Chances are, that every day you run your pumping operation, your costs are creeping up and up: maintenance, servicing, the cost of replacement. So the New Generation N-Pumps could bring a brighter start to your day. The N-impeller is designed to prevent clogging and maintain higher pumping efficiency over longer periods.
The N-technique, patented by ITT Flygt, features a self-cleaning impeller that, together with an integrated relief groove in the pump housing, ensures sustained high hydraulic efficiency and clog resistance.
The Spin-outâ„˘ seal protection system prevents particles from damaging the seals. New, improved cooling means the motors operate more efficiently, and at lower temperatures. And the new Plug-inâ„˘ seal system means that if you do have to replace a seal, it'll take just a few minutes. Have a nice day. Day after day. Call us for more information, or visit us at
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Engineered for life
Rex Murphy highlights annual WEAO conference "Now the UK and
Europe are having massive slaughters of cattle and sheep
first day of the conference,A1 Goodman,
mouth disease, and threats of BSE;these
Past President of the Water Environment
our lives. ern green
ments have made a
fetish of the environ
Rex Murphy (left), with Tim Constantine of CH2M Hiii ment based on im Canada, at the Opening Session. pulses that are al most religious in
some hilarious views on New
foundland politics with some thoughtprovoking analyses on the expectations of modern Canadians, in his keynote address at the 2001 Water Environment
Association of Ontario Conference. Rex is a Rhodes Scholar who had studied at Oxford at the same time as Bill Clinton.
Federation, quoted a Water Infrastruc ture Network Report: Twenty-one non profit, NOG,professional organizations had determined that a $2 trillion invest ment would be needed over the next 20
"But some mod
Murphy- noted for his cutting asides - eloquently mixed
At a news media session, held on the
because of foot and
are powerful re minders that disrup tions are still part of
Famed CBC commentator. Rex
morseless when drinking water tragedies occur. The response to Walkerton had become larger than the tragedy itself.
tone and often irrational," he said. As
an example, he pointed out how a phos phorus plant had been built at Long Harbour in Newfoundland, near the sea
years in America. A funding gap of $23 billion more per year was needed than what is being invested to enhance the infrastructure (water and wastewater). The US needs $11 billion in drinking water and $12 billion in wastewater per year. Federal investments in the US have declined; grants have caused de pendence and higher O&M in some cases (all figures are in US dollars).
three decades ago. Adjacent forests
The investment was needed,said Mr. Goodman, because of:
were denuded, fish schools were rav
1. More regulations and un-funded man
aged and a mountain of tailings emerg ed. Then after 30 years, the plant closed down. Seven years ago plans were made to put a state-of-the-art incinerator in Long Harbour. "Compared to the phos phorus plant," Rex Murphy said, "the incinerator would have been like taking a match into Hell. But the very idea of an incinerator provoked such an outcry
2. Higher costs for new technology. 3.Infrastructure under-funding for years.
4. Research needs: The Water Environ
After confessing to his own two failed Liberal campaigns in Newfoundland politics, he opined that Joey Smallwood thought of elections as being minor in terruptions to his role ofPremier. "Joey's idea of a caucus meeting was to have a second thought," he added, but, on the
evidence of a dramatic change in atti tudes in 30 years at the very same loca
States,clean water supports some $50 bil
other hand, he added,John Crosbie's rid
lion per year in water-based recreation,
ing seemed to be comprised of "geneti cally programmed Tories". Switching from levity to seriousness, he said the Walkerton E. coli tragedy had brought a great cloud over water issues. He pointed out the fundamental biblical words: Darkness would sujfer a deluge and afirmament would appear. "We are
The news media does not do a good Job in interpreting scientific realities, he
$300 billion per year in coastal tourism, and $45 billion per year in fishing and
admitted. On health and environmental
shell fishing industries. In spite of this. Continued on page 15
at the end of scientific and social revo
lutions so this generation has not had the horrors of WW I and WWII." he said. "The advances and benefits from tech
nology are unparalleled in our history, yet they have produced a gap between generations. The current generation has become accustomed to living standards which were unthinkable to their parents; but abundance in our supermarkets has been available, even to their parents."
Photo Report by Tom Davey 10
of horror that the idea was killed -clear
issues, the present generation is re
ment Research Foundation now has
over $60 million in research and about
$7 million per year being added, yet more is needed.
Stressing the values and impacts of water quality, he said that in the United
From top left: 1. WEF past-president, A! Goodman, presents Larry Madden, C&M Environmental Technologies, with the Bedell Award; 2. John Thompson, City of Toronto, won the Flatfield Award, while Lisa Stasiuk, OCWA, won the
Laboratory Analyst Excellence Award; 3. ES&E president, Steve Davey (cen tre), was presented with a WEF Service Award by WEAO past-president. Bill DeAngells, Azurix (left), and WEF past-president, Al Goodman;4. A WEAO pastpresident, Tony Ho, MOE, with Kit Woods, City of Windsor; 5. OPCEA director, Brian Allen, Indachem (left), with conference chair, Heinz Held, SEW Eurodrive; 6. The Totally Wasted Game Show host, Michelle Gallant, City of Hamilton (left), with OPCEA president, Ed Yanoshita, National Process Equipment, and Tim Constantine, CH2M Hill Canada; 7. Overall Operations Challenge winners were the Highlanders, City of Toronto. Front row(L to R): Paul Bongelli, Bruno MIchllts (coach). Second row (Lto R): Dave Smith, Tony Gisitsch, Jeff Mclntyre (Opera tions Committee Chair), Al Goodman (Past WEF President), Pat Dowman, Rhonda Harris (WEF); 8. OPCEA treasurer, Ross Humphry, Canadian Safety Equipment (seated). Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Photo Eight 11
& Engineering Editor & Publisher
Managing Editor Sales Director
SANDRA DAVEY PENNY DAVEY
E-mail: email@example.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Assistant
E-mail: email@example.com President
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.
Bill Boriase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.
George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfellow
Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc. Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates
Stanley Mason, P.Eng.
Ontario's Regulation 459/00 - Is It enough?
Regulation 459/00 was gaz
etted on August 26, 2000, to address concerns that arose
following the tragic events in Walkerton. The regulation was a defi nite improvement as this issue had been
previously only covered by guidelines. Although the regulation now covers thorough reporting and notification, there are still several major issues that are not addressed adequately. The definition of"Water Distribution
System" is not clear in terms of where the system starts and where it ends. The existing wording defines a water distri bution system as a part of a water treat ment or distribution system that distrib utes water, if that part of the system in cludes one or more water works. The
question here is where does the distri bution system end? Is it at the point of delivery to the consumer's plumbing system or at the property line? The Ontario Building Code Act spe
Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi
monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. Readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and
cifically excludes "plumbing" in the
definition of "water works" that is con
tained in this act. The plumbing system is defined by the Ontario Building Code
as a system ofconnected piping,fittings, valves, equipment,fixtures and appur tenances contained in plumbing. The
"water system" portion of the plumbing system begins at the downstream end of the water service pipe or water meter. In Schedule 2 of the regulation(Sam
pling and Analysis Requirements),it re fers to samples taken "in the distribu tion system". This would appear to dis allow samples to be taken from a "Plumbing System". The question here is what is the responsibility of the pur
veyor if samples are taken from a point in the system over which he has no con trol or jurisdiction? This schedule also does not address
the correct type of fixture for sampling or the best location for this fixture. To
obtain a clean sample, with the lowest possibility of background contamina tion, the samples should be taken from
rMueller Canada I Resilient Wedge Gate Valves
wastewater plant operators and contractors. Information contained In ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot
be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained In this magazine Is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Canada Magazine Fund, toward our editorial costs.
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a dedicated sampling station, or other outlet, located before the consumer's
plumbing system. This will ensure that the samples are obtained from the "dis tribution system" from the portion of the system that is under the control of the purveyor. The water purveyor has no control, orjurisdiction, over "plumbing"
and should not therefore be taking sam ples from a plumbing system. There may be cross connections within the plumbing system or dead ends of pipe that could cause a tainted sample to be taken. Samples should also not be taken from any hydrant that has a drip open ing located below ground surface. The point in the system to which the purveyor remains responsible for the quality of the water is not defined. In the United States, the Environmental
Protection Agency mandates that the purveyor is responsible to the "point of use". Some states define this as the point at which the water supply crosses the property line. Others define it as the "last free flowing tap". We are not sure where this responsibility ends in Ontario. There is also no reference to other pro grams that a water purveyor should im plement to ensure water quality. A Cross Connection Control Program (CCCP)is generally regarded as a very important element in a complete water quality man agement program. The owner of a water treatment or distribution system has the
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primary responsibility for providing the consumer with a safe and potable water supply. This responsibility should begin at the source, include all of the public water distribution system and service con nections, and end at the point of delivery to the consumer's plumbing system (as defined by the Ontario Building Code). In the exercise of this responsibility,
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implement a CCCP program. These were done as a voluntary measure when, in fact, it should be a
mandatory type of program. â?–
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BCWWA is pre-eminent in British Columbia's water & wastewater industry -Kevin Ramsay, out-going President
Vice President, Katie McCiain presents ttie Fuiier Award to Murray McLeod in Penticton, BC.
TheBritish Columbia Water and Waste Association
continues to establish itself as the pre-eminent leader in the water and wastewater industry. This positions the Association to take an active role in the future of our important industry. We have spent a considerable effort promoting strong relationships with the Provincial government. It has been obvious to all parties that these strong ties benefit the indus try in the Province. BCWWA and the Ministry of Health worked together to develop a small water systems course that will be provided throughout the Province in 2001 and be yond. BCWWA worked closely with the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks, to as sist with public consultation for the Drinking Water Protec tion Plan. BCWWA and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, continued the Provincial Water Conservation Strategy. The BCWWA office staff has had significant turnover during the last year, but I am happy to report that our office competence is stronger than ever. Del Haylock was hired as Executive Director in August, 2000 and has done an out standing job managing all aspects of the operation. Xue For Sale
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Telephone:(250) 362-7396, Fax:(250) 362-5451 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Frank Beifry(ieft), receives the BedeiiAward from WEFPresi dent, Joe Stowe, Jr.
Wang,Accountant, and Vilma Rosa, Cross Connection and Member Services Coordinator, were hired in early 2001, and bring a wealth of experience to the Association. Diana Piche, Program Administrator, continues to prove herself invaluable.
Many similar water and/or wastewater associations in North America marvel at the high level of activity of the BCWWA. It is a volunteer organization and its strength is based on these volunteers. During the last year, there was great participation by our numerous Association commit tees. Much is planned for the future. Operator Education, Water Use Efficiency, Cross Connection Control, Small Water Systems, Drinking Water,Small Wastewater Systems, and Membership Committees were all very active through out the term.
BCWWA has a tremendous future, and long-term plan ning during the last term has identified a number of areas for future development. Our already successful operator training program will continue to expand as the needs of our members increase. Information communication to our
membership will be enhanced through increased utilization of technology. Partnerships with other organizations, gov ernments, and others, will be vital for future growth. It has been an extreme pleasure to serve the Association as President for the 2000-2001 term. I would like to ex
press my appreciation to the Executive,incoming President Rick Corbett, and our Executive Director, Del Haylock,for their support. I also formally thank the City of Vancouver and my staff for their support during my term, and I do look forward to life returning to normal, whatever that might be! BCWWA 2001-2002 Executive
President Past President President Elect Vice-President Treasurer Secretary
Richard Corbett,Associated Engineering Ltd. Kevin Ramsay, City of Vancouver Inder Singh, Greater Vancouver Reg. District Harlan Kelly, Dayton & Knight Ltd. Don Degen, City of Kelowna Phil Wong,Environment Canada
Environmentai Science & Engineering, May 2001
YN Pipe Coupling
WEAO Conference Report, continuedfrom pg. 10 he pointed out that, in 1996, the US had 2,500 beach clo sures and 2,200 fish consumption advisories(PCB, toxics, etc.), affecting 15% of US lakes and 5% of its river miles. The general public could seriously affect environmental professionals through lack of knowledge of systems,takenfor-granted attitudes, unawareness of real costs of service (<2% of household income for water and wastewater in the US), not knowing that there is now no "zero" in laboratory data, and a distorted perception of risk. The WEAO Biosolids Committee organized two sessions at the Annual Conference appropriately entitled: Biosolids Management-The Challenge of Tomorrow. The morning session focused on the biosolids manage ment issues facing generators. Long-term biosolids man agement plans being developed in the Regions of Peel and Niagara were discussed. An update was provided on nutri ent management planning in the province and the relation ship to biosolids land application programs. Dr. Mel Webber reported some of the recommendations that resulted from the WEAO-sponsored literature review on contaminants in
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YN is an all S.S. "bolted, split-sleeve" coupling conforming to ISO-9002, ASTM F-1476 and AWWA standards. What else?
The aftemoon session involved presentations on a number of technological innovations related to biosolids treatment. Process and design changes were discussed that have suc cessfully improved the biosolids quality produced from the anaerobic digestion process. The new WEAO President is Bob Crane, City of Hamil ton; Deborah Ross, KMK Consultants, is Vice President. ❖
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For more information, circle reply card No. 149
THE PREMIER WATER SOLUTIONS PROVIDER
ONDEO Degremont Thunder Bay chooses BIOFOR ONDEO Degremont will provide the City of Thunder Bay with Its BIOFOR 0 BAR (Biologically Aerated Filters) technology, for the upgrade of the Atlantic Avenue Water Pollution Control Plant, from primary treatment to secondary treatment. Andre Leger, CEO of ONDEO Degremont Ltd., was pleased to announce the confirmation of the company's collaboration with the city ofThunder Bay. "Once again, ONDEO Degremont demonstrates its leadership in biofiltration process. More than 10 years ago, the company supplied the CUQ (Urban Community of Quebec) with the largest installation of first generation biofilters in Canada. With the Thunder Bay award,ONDEO Degremont will install its BIOFOR process(co-current upflow)in what will become the largest second generation biofiltration plant in Canada. With our bio-filtration technology. Thunder Bay will be able to meet the new and more demanding requirements of the Ontario requirements for secondary treatment," noted Mr. Leger.
The city of Thunder Bay mandated third party experts to perform comparative analysis. After months of testing, these experts have retained ONDEO Degremont's BIOFOR C BAF technology for the upgrade of Thunder Bay's Atlantic Avenue Water Pollution Control Plant. XCG Consulting recommended the process for implementation after lengthy pilot studies of alternative technologies. Through a public tendering process, EarthTech Canada (formerly Reid Crowther and Partners Ltd.), in association with Wardrop Engineering Inc., evaluated the competitiveness of BIOFOR process. This evaluation considered both capital and long-term operating costs.
BIOFOR INSTALLATION IN THE ThUNDER BaY ATLANTIC AvENUE WaTER POLLUTION
Control Plant: the largest BIOFOR installation in north America
The secondary treatment installation will use 11 biofilters "BIOFOR" designed to treat a maximum flow of 265,000 mVd (70 MUSGPD).
This three year-long contract is valued at over $8.4 M Cdn and was obtained with the active support of Aqua Technical Sales, ONDEO Degremont's representative in Ontario. For more information, ciroie repiy card No. 165(See page 25)
The Biofor" has been chosen
by the cities of Canmore, AS, Thunder Bay, ON and Chateauguay, QC
Like all simple ideas, biofiltration is efficient. ONDEO Degremont combines and masters two operations in one: biological degradation and retention of suspended solids. The benefits of biofiltration include:
The Biofor® is based on the co-current upflow of air and water, and the retention of bacteria and
suspended solids in a media called Biolite®. This results in a high rate of filtration and provides extended filter runs and an odour-free workplace. ONDEO Degremont is a world leader in the
• more compact installations • improved plant efficiency
design and manufacture of biofiltration systems for municipal wastewater, industrial effluent water, and iron and manganese removal for drinking
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To inquire about adapting a biofiltration process to your requirements, call our offices today.
/ o Degremont Head office 20275 av Clark Graham, Baie-d'Urfe, QC, H9X 3T5, Tel: (514) 457-4100, Fax:(514) 457-1808 Representatives - Pipeline Supply Int'i inc, Vancouver, BC, Tel: (604) 596-2180; Aqua Technical Sales Inc, Hamilton, ON, Tel: (905) 528-3807; Canada Water Supply Ltd., St. John, NB, Tel: (506) 652-5885 For more information, circle reply card No. 107(See page 25)
Precast box culverts can also be used as
groynes and aquatic habitat
Precast concrete box culverts
do more than channel run-off
to provide safe crossings of waterways and drainage sys tems. They are used as sti^uctures for people and migratory animals to pass safely under railways and major roadways. They also serve as storage structures for stormwater to prevent flooding, and tunnels for traffic. Avail ability, durability, and speed of installa tion factor, significantly, into the speci fication of box units.
Now, precast concrete box culverts have been used as groynes, with a value added ecological feature. This applica tion introduces a 21st century way of thinking to solve a complex problem involving industrial requirements,local tourismyrecreation trade, and safe use of
waterfront amenities in a major city.
Culvert installation at Deflector A, ultimately a home for aquatic species.
The Dalhousie Yacht Club, founded
bour,it has approximately 300 members, with an active fleet of both power and sailboats. In 1988, St. Catharines' Hy
Consulting Engineers undertook the predesign study, it recommended construc tion of two groynes made with precast concrete box units, after considering rubble mound groynes, and a steel sheet piling deflector that would protrude above the water. The consulting engi
dro-Electric Commission built the
neer concluded that the rubble mound
in 1935,is a well-developed destination on the south shore of Lake Ontario, a few miles west of the Welland Canal. Set in old Port Dalhousie's historic har
Heywood Generating Station upstream of the yacht club. There were strong current and water surges in the yacht dockage area of the club that raised safety and mooring issues. The yacht club financed a study in 1997, through the Canadian Hydraulic Centre at the National Research Coun
cil of Canada, that showed that a series
of water deflectors, known as groynes, would redirect cuiTcnts away from the boat moorings and solve the club's prob lem with rushing water. A partnership followed between the City of St. Catharines, Dalhousie Yacht Club, and
the Hydro-Electric Commission to fund the engineering required to construct the groynes.
When the engineering firm, SHAL
By Paul Martin, Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products Inc., Cindy Toth, City of St. Catharines, and Brian Rankin,
Stephens and Rankin Inc. 18
Canadian Coast Guard issued a permit
that required completion of construction by the second week of April, or another permit application would need to be filed. Approval was also received from the Niagara Peninsula Conservation
Authority. The tender for the construc tion of the groynes called for works to be completed between March 13 and alternative would cost almost fifty per cent more than the other alternatives, April 30, before the 2000 boating sea son. This horizon provided enough time and would be unsightly and not condu to satisfy the constraints placed on the cive to mooring within the yacht club. project by various approval agencies. The cost of each of the other two al The precast concrete box culvert op ternatives would be essentially the same. tion was the preferred solution because: Since the box culvert alternative would be more attractive and better suited to • It promised little in-water work to being incorporated into the mooring avoid disturbing fish habitat; basin, it was recommended as the • It could be constructed quickly within preferred solution. Construction was very tight permitting periods; scheduled for the spring of 2000,but the • It would function fully as a groyne to deflect water flows; challenges were not yet over. • It could be removed, if necessary; The lands within and around the har bour are federally owned and managed • It would resist pressures from ice due by Small Craft Harbours,and waterfront to its mass; and, projects in the area are subject to per • It would last for the full term of the mission from the federal Department of design life of the project. But the box units also had another Fisheries and Oceans. In addition, ap proval for timing of construction is also advantage that the designers recognized. required from the Ontario Ministry of Submerged units could serve as fish Natural Resources(MNR)to avoid the habitat to enhance the ecology of the spawning season of certain fish species. fishery in the harbour. Both groynes were designed to ac The MNR issued an absolute require ment to complete construction with commodate a two-tier box culvert sys minimal in-water work by the end tem at right angles from existing con of March or first week of April. The crete shoreline. Each culvert was comEnvironmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Waterfront Ecology prised of three box units, and each groyne had one culvert placed on top of the other, for a total of six box units. One groyne, located outside of the mooring basin, was 2,400 mm wide x 1,800 mm high x 2,500 mm long. The second, constructed inside the mooring basin, was 1,800 mm wide x 1,200 mm high x 2,500 mm long. The six units of each groyne had rip rap boulders placed on the bottom for ballast, and the three submerged lower units were filled with loose bundles of pruned tree branches. The end unit of the top culvert on each groyne was capped to prevent the entry of ice and debris. Wooden bumper strips were placed along the sides of each upper unit for mooring watercraft. The end unit of the submerged culvert was not capped, so
and members of the yacht club enjoyed safe harbour of their crafts. Anglers were observed catching fish near the pub licly accessible groyne located outside of the yacht club's mooring basin. Many members of the club have reported that mooring in the harbour has improved. For more information, circle reply card No. 108
THEY MAY LOOK SIMILAR
TO YOU,BUT 4,254 CONTAMINANTS CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE.
that small fish could access the habitat of boulders and branches.
Stephens and Rankin staff has years of experience in the Welland Canal and Port Dalhousie area, and knew that the
harbour bottom consisted of very soft material, that would not support the weight of the precast concrete box units. SHAL engineers had also considered the bottom material of the basin, and worked with Stephens and Rankin to de sign rock mattresses to support each of the groynes. Up to 2.3 metres of 50 mm tolOO mm granular material were installed for the mattress of the groyne located at the
harbour entrance, and 1.6 metres of the same material was OVER 25 YEARS OF CHLORINATION EXPERIENCE
installed for the mooring basin groyne, using an Hitachi 300 excavator. A prefabricated steel channel frame was embed ded in the mattresses as a leveling device. A 118 Link Belt and clam bucket was then used to level the upper surface of the mattresses. Divers worked with the machine operator to ensure that the surfaces were level. A rubber strip was glued on the upper surface of each of the lower units before they were lowered onto the mattresses. Then, the upper three units were placed on top of the submerged units. Filler plates on the sides of the upper and lower units locked them together, so that there would be no lateral movement be tween the upper and lower systems. To complete the instal lation, rock was placed around the edge of the units where they made contact with the mattress. The groynes were in
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stalled at a cost of $89,914, plus taxes. During the summer of 2000, boaters visiting the harbour
For more information, circle reply card No. 169
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For more information, circle reply card No. 109 (See page 25)
Latest weapon in smog war was developed by a Canadian firm
Industries, governments and pub
lic health organizations now have access to an important, new and proven technological tool that can help better understand the contributing sources of air pollution and resolve ur ban air quality and pollution problems in a very cost-effective and timely man ner. Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin
Inc., an international consulting engi neering firm based in Guelph, Ontario, claims to be the only firm in Canada to offer the technology to clients on an ongoing basis. The Regional Airshed Modelling Framework (i.e. "Models 3/CMAO Modelling System: or "Models-3")tech nology is a proven state-of-the-art com puter hardware and software system that scientists can use to simulate and fore
cast how atmospheric pollution forms and behaves under various weather con
ditions. The system acts as a 'pollution weather map'. For example, the formation of pol lutants that have negative health effects, such as ozone and fine particulate mat ter, can be simulated in the Models-3
system. Simulations can be made to analyze and predict the formation of ozone and fine particulates under many different weather scenarios. Realistic
and cost-effective steps can now be taken to improve upon a region's air quality. The simulations can show the effect of mitigation measures, such as reducing vehicular traffic, using alter native fuels, or decreasing industrial and household emissions and their effect on the formation of ozone and
fine particulate matter. Realistic steps
Dr. Anton Davies (second from left), former Minister of the Environment, Dan Newman,and Brenda Eiiiott, MPPforGueiph, during Regional Airshed Model pres entation by Xin Qiu of RWDi.
tem is nearly $500,000 US.
efforts from Environment Canada,fund
The system took more than two years for RWDI to develop- with the research
ing assistance from CRESTech,the Cen tre for Research in Earth and Space Technology,the US Environmental Pro tection Agency, McMaster University and corporate sponsors. Gas Research
assistance of the Institute of Chemical
Process and Environmental Technology at the National Research Council of
Canada (NRC) and the Centre for At mospheric Chemistry at York Univer sity. The initial work focused on the Southern Ontario airshed. The size of
an airshed is defined by the movement of polluted air through a region. In or der to study the air pollution in south
Institute - Canada,and Dofasco. A show
on RWDI's technology for regional airshed modelling appeared on the Dis covery Channel on February 5, and fea tured Anton Davies.
ern Ontario, one has to include the
"We have successfully proven the effectiveness and value of this type of system in the cities ofToronto and Ham
movement of air contaminants from
ilton in Ontario, Vancouver, British Co
Ohio, New York, Michigan, and other neighbouring US states. The project was also supported by
lumbia, and Hong Kong - and the de mand for this critical simulation pro gram is increasing on a worldwide
can be identified to reduce the destruc
scale," said Dr. Davies. "With the new
tive nature of ozone.
standard governing the formation of ground level ozone and secondary particulate matter, industries will need the Models-3 system to assess their con tribution and compliance and capital for planning purposes. Governments need the technology for compliance assess ment, regulatory enforcement and transboundary pollutant control negotia tion purposes. It takes anywhere from two to six months to begin and complete a customized regional airshed modelhng framework program." For more information,
"The unique Models-3 system takes into account the complex mix of manmade and natural pollutants that are in the air that we breathe in any region in the world," said Dr.Anton Davies,Prin
cipal ofRowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. and Project Leader for the "Mod els-3" project. The cost incurred to date to successfully complete the turnkey proprietary hardware and software sys-
By S. Cralg Hunt, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. 20
Dr. Anton Davies of RWDi during the filming of Discovery channel show.
circle reply card No. 110
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
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Anaerobic wastewater treatment reviewed Several modes available for Industries type wastewaters that are high in fat, oil, and grease (FOG). One industry that has benefited from
the patented low-rate anaerobic ADIBVF digester technology offered by Paques ADI Inc. is a candy bar manu facturing facility in Canada. This plant has a design average flow of 1,135 m/d, average BOD of 1,600 mg/L,
average TSS of 410 mg/L, and FOG of 200 mg/L. The on-site wastewater treat ment plant now allows the manufactur ing facility to meet effluent limits of 300 mg/L BOD and 350 mg/L TSS. In addition to the low-rate anaerobic
Industries are facing tougher ef lu
digester, the treatment package is com prised of an insulated equalization tank
Candy bar manufacturing facility in Canada uses ADI-BVF digester technology. ent limits each year and often find it hard to know the best treatment method to meet their needs. A cou
ple of years ago Paques, of The Nether lands, and ADI, of Canada, decided to
form a company that would offer these industries a wider range of technologies to choose from; thus, Paques ADI Inc. was bom.
no "one technology fits all" available on the market. There is, however, a range of anaerobic treatment technologies that will effectively meet the needs of indus tries having small flows and limited space. There are also anaerobic tech nologies for those industries with larger flows but still constrained by space, as well as those with large flow and ample space to install on-site pretreatment.
By Al Cocci, Connie Smith, and Robert Landine,
Paques ADI Inc.
pumps and in-line grinder, a magnesium hydroxide feed system for pH-alkalinity adjustment, and a control building. The effluent discharges into a street sewer and flows a short distance to the publicly owned treatment works(POTW). The entire system is controlled
through a PLC system which can be accessed to change operating variables via the operator's PC workstation in the control building.
Not all industries have the same
wastewater characteristics, and there is
ahead of the anaerobic reactor, feed
Some technologies are especially successful on particular waste streams. A prime example is low-rate anaerobic pretreatment. This technology is very successful at treating dairy and dairy-
Another successful installation is at
a dairy in Virginia, USA. This wastewater treatment plant was delivered on a design-build basis. ADI Systems Inc., Paques ADI Inc.'s design-build partner.
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For more information, circle reply card No. 170 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
move methanol from the condensates to
comply with the MACTI portion of the Cluster Rules. This 6.5 m diameter re
actor (water depth of 20 m) typically removes more than 98 percent of the methanol at a hydraulic retention time of six to seven hours. The granular
biomass inside the IC reactor converts methanol into methane and carbon di
oxide; this biogas is separated inside the reactor and recovered. The biogas con tains approximately 85 percent methane and is used in the mill's combo boiler.
An installation at a purified terephthallc acid plant in Taiwan.
provided complete services. The treat ment facility comprises a screen, raw waste pumping station, equalization tank, calamity tank, an ADI-BVF di gester, and a proprietary ADI-SBR (sequencing batch reactor). This raw wastewater was a challenge as the incoming pH ranged from 2-12, the temperature ranged from 60-88Â°F, average TSS was 1,000 ppm, and peak day FOG concentrations approached 1,200 ppm. Nevertheless, a high-qual ity effluent is being produced with a BOD of 30 mg/L, SS of 30 mg/L, and FOG of 20 mg/L. The effluent dis charges into a sewer and flows by grav ity three miles to the POTW. The POTW effluent discharges into a creek that flows into the Potomac River and on to
Chesapeake Bay. These low-rate systems can be de signed as in-ground basin reactors or as above-ground tanks, depending on site restrictions.
High-rate anaerobic A technology proven to be particu larly suitable for treating chemical and chemical-type wastewaters is the highrate anaerobic ADI-Hybrid. This tech nology combines features of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed and upflow anaer obic filter processes and has been suc
cessfully employed at several complex chemical plants around the world. One successful installation is at a purified terephthalic acid(PTA)plant in Taiwan. In this case, the pretreatment system consists oftwo ADI-Hybrid reactors, one being 5,000 m in volume and the other, 4,000 m. They are designed to operate in series and give excellent performance in treating this complex wastewater. Preliminary treatment includes screening, equalization, and pH adjust ment for PTA solids dissolution prior to
treatment in the anaerobic reactors.
The pretreatment facility is designed to handle 7,800 m/d of this difficult-to-
treat wastewater at a design COD con centration of 6,500 mg/L (50,500 kg COD per day), including 8,400 kg/d of terephthalic acid solids. The hybrid re actors remove the majority of the bio degradable organics in the wastewater and convert them into biogas. The biogas is captured and utilized in process boilers at the site.
The pretreated wastewater dis charges to an existing deep-shaft acti vated sludge treatment facility for final polishing. Hybrid reactors are suitable where land is limited.
Ultra-high-rate anaerobic A very popular technology is the ul tra-high-rate anaerobic BIOPAQ -IC (in
The COD,which is typically between 4,500 and 5,000 mg/L,is reduced by 75 to 80 percent. The anaerobically treated condensates are discharged to the mill's aerated lagoons. The tall cylindrical design of this re actor makes it very suitable for applica tions where land is at a premium. Summary As stated, one technology does not fit all wastewater treatment needs, and
industries should investigate all their options before committing to a major capital investment. Every situation is unique, and a pilot study should be con sidered whenever there is a question as to the applicability of a technology or the treatability of the waste. On-site pretreatment with an anaero bic system that can produce biogas for reuse in the plant as a means of offset ting energy requirements should be given serious consideration. For more Information,
circle reply card No. 112
ternal circulation)reactor. This
system has become,for some, the preferred technology over the standard UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge bed). The reactor features a two-
stage separation/collection of biogas within a tall cylindri cal vessel and uses the gas-lift principle to induce internal circulation of treated effluent.
This technology is particu larly appealing to pulp and paper industries and breweries. One such reactor is success
fully installed at a kraft mill in Alabama where it is treating foul condensates. The foul
condensates originate from the pulp digesters and evaporators and contain mainly methanol, reduced sulfur compounds, and some terpenes. In this case, the kraft mill was faced with having to re
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
A reactor instaiied at a kraft mili in Aiabama where
it is treating foul condensates. 23
Magnetic drive pumps eiiminate mechanicai seai maintenance
ment plants utilize many
different chemicals for
various plant processes including coagulation, flocculation, odour control, sludge conditioning and disinfection. Many of these chemicals are utilized in liquid form and can be highly corrosive and toxic. Mechanical seals are the weak point in the design of many pumps. Normal
wear of mechanical seals can result in
leakage. In addition, seal water systems required to provide a barrier fluid, also require maintenance and waste valuable plant service water. New technology has made it possi ble and cost-effective to completely eliminate mechanical seal maintenance
on pumps for corrosive service. The seal-less magnetically driven centrifu gal pump manufactured by ANSIMAG, Inc. of Elkgrove, Illinois, is designed to handle the harshest chemicals. All wet
ted parts are non-metallic or ceramic. The cast metal casing is fully lined with ETFE, using a rotational moulding process that bonds a continuous seam less lining from the suction to discharge flanges.
Lakeview Water Treatment Plant pumps in chlorine injection system. standards, so, in most installations, lit
tle or no piping modifications are re quired when retrofitting. The Lakeview Water Treatment Plant
in Mississauga, Ontario, delivers more than 555 million litres of water per day to the South Peel Water System. The plant had corrosion issues with their
New technology has made it possible and cost-effective to completely eliminate mechanical seal maintenance on pumps
ance to ANSI and ISO dimensional
By Edward Yanoshita, P. Eng., National Process Equipment 24
plant operators are very happy with the operation and reliability of the pumps." The Ashbridges Bay Wastewater Treatment Plant in Toronto has a flow
for corrosive service. High strength permanent magnets drive the pump at motor synchronous speed with no slip losses. Inner and outer magnet assemblies are completely encapsulated for protection from the chemicals being pumped. The non-me tallic Kevlar reinforced rear casing pro vides a burst strength of 1,925 psi, with no efficiency or heat losses due to eddy currents. A large diameter non-rotating shaft, with a patented shaft groove, al lows solid particulate in dirty fluids to be expelled without damaging or clog ging the pump. The pump is designed in conform
Therefore, seal water leakage no longer occurs, and the pump room environment is now dry and non-corrosive to other equipment. Andrew Fair, R Eng., project engi neer with EarthTech, reports that: "The
chlorinated water feed pumps used for zebra mussel control. Worn and leak
ing mechanical seals were causing on going corrosion, both for the pumps themselves and for other equipment lo cated in the area.
Recent plant process changes re sulted in these pumps being used as part of the disinfection system. Therefore, the issue of reliability was raised. Earth Tech Canada Inc., was given the task of finding a reliable, cost-elfective solution to the problem. ANSIMAG pumps were selected as replacement pumps and were easily retrofitted into the existing pip ing with minor piping modifications. Seal maintenance and pump corrosion have been eliminated. Seal water for
these pumps is no longer required.
capacity of more than 600 million litres per day. The plant had an ongoing main tenance issue with leaking mechanical seals on their sodium hypochlorite recirculation pump on the odour control scrubber in P Building which treats air from the Grit Collection Building. Leaking sodium hypochlorite also poses a health and safety risk. The issues were dealt with by retro fitting the scrubber with an ANSIMAG mag drive pump, replacing the original ERP (Fiberglas Reinforced Plastic) pump which had double mechanical seals. An important consideration in the selection of the new pump was its abil ity to handle the solids that collect in the scrubber sump. The pump fit easily into the existing piping. Seal water is no longer required. Enzo Corelli, Chief Works Supervisor,reports that the pump has been maintenance free since it was
installed in early 2000. For more Information, circle reply card No. 113
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Reader Service No.
Acres & Associated Env.
Allmax Professional Solutions Allmax Professional Solutions Antfirafilter
42 71 71
180 166 141
Arcus Absorbents Armtec Construction Products
Berlie Technologies Can-Am Instruments
Centennial Concrete Pipe
Chemtrac Systems Chlorinators Incorporated City of Rossland Colgate Palmolive Con Cast Pipe
61 19 14 42 79
155 169 182-184 137
Davis Controls Davnor Denso Donson
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Ecoflo Ontario Environmental Auditors Fabricated Plastics Focus Environmental
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May 2001 Environmental Science <& Engineering, May 2001
322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338
Leak detection Is more vital than ever
Water sup liers are under
increasing pressure to re duce leakage rates and provide a consistent, high integrity water supply. Resource devel opment is expensive and reductions in un accounted-for water are an attractive and
economically viable means of increasing the headroom between supply and de mand. New techniques in leak detection are emerging to help water suppliers achieve their objectives. Palmer Environmental, in conjunc tion with Hetek Solutions Inc., has re
cently launched the Fermalog leak lo calization system which is the first that can be justified economically for permanent/semi-permanent installation. With leakage levels being legislated in the UK, initial trials in a major UK water company have shown the poten tial of Fermalog to reduce leakage to record low levels and for water suppli ers to maintain these over a 10 year pe riod at low cost and with significantly improved customer service. Fermalog units are deployed through out the distribution system to provide continuous surveying of leakage. Eas ily installed on main lines and hydrant valves, they are retained in place by a strong magnet and are battery-powered for at least 10 years. Loggers are im mersion-tested to 1F68 and will continue
A leakage patrol can be carried out in specific areas using the Fermalog "Patroller" module to detect, decode and analyze signals from loggers. signals from loggers to identify the lo cation of units in leak mode and thereby the approximate position of the leaks. These data are indicated audibly, dis played on the LCD screen and stored in memory. Leak locations can be investi gated during, or at the end of, the pa trol. Leak data are printed out or downloaded to a PC, enabling correla tion to be concentrated solely on sus
• Completely non-invasive method with no detrimental effects on supply to cus tomers(preferred alternative to step test ing)- reducing discolouration. • Improves overall detection efficiency
and motivation by enabling skilled staff to concentrate on finding "known" leaks and avoid wasting time in no-leak areas. • Operates continuously over a 10-year period.
Operational Benefits Some of the many operational ben efits of the system are: • Option to monitor 100% of distribu tion system. • Finds more leaks more quickly than traditional sounding at valves or hy
to operate even in flooded chambers with no maintenance required. Each unit adapts itself automatically to its environment. If no leak is present drants. a signal is transmitted to indicate nor • Responds rapidly to new main breaks, mal background conditions. However, improving the service to customers. as soon as a possible leak is detected, • Automates and de-skills leak survey the Fermalog unit enters an alarm state ing, eliminating human error and find and transmits leak data. ing leaks that would otherwise be Following a rise in the nightline, or missed. at standard periodic intervals, a leakage • Operates independently of the size, structure or integrity of the area being patrol can be carried out in specific ar monitored. eas using the Fermalog "Patroller" mod ule. This detects, decodes and analyzes • Independent of metering/balancing.
There are many economic benefits, including: • Survey costs markedly reduced. • Dramatic productivity gain - one per son can survey a large area per day. • Record low leakage levels attainable. • Low installation cost and no mainte
nance costs, with reducing operating costs each year. • No night work required for leak sur veying. • Negligible incremental cost of addi tional surveys in an area (e.g. following repair). • Rapid payback. • Reduced cost of water into supply. • Fotential headroom in supply/demand balance.
•Demonstrates high technology benefits to customers, shareholders and interna tional clients.
I r~i <z:CD rfZ)C3rsted
For more information, circle reply card No. 264 (See page 25)
Methodology Benefits The above operational and economic benefits relate principally to water com panies with an established methodology for leakage monitoring, detection and control. In many cases, of course, this does not exist so it must be developed Continued overleaf
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
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Why is there excitement in the air about Eaglebrook? We're continuing to spread our wings - taking the lead as your single source for water coagulation products and chemistry.
Check out our extensive product range and see why we're attracting so many customers. We have it all, including aluminum- and iron-based products for water and wastewater treatment. With expert technical services in regional offices across Canada and the United States, we're up to your specific challenge. So don't expect the buzz about Eaglebrook to stop anytime soon. Future acquisitions and new product development are in the works. Deal with a company that's top flight all the way.
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For more information, circie reply card No. 119 (See page 25)
Cover Story from the outset. Permalog allows water utilities to consider alternative approa
operation of the system. • The approach, once established in an
ches and in such instances offers some
area, is sustainable at low-cost over the
important benefits: • Within a zone, Permalog will identify areas of leakage without the need for additional flow monitoring.
long term (10 years and more). Following Up The Permalog system will identify
high quality correlators and ground mi crophones and requires trained operator(s). Note that such equipment is required in all water leak detection projects, irrespective of the localization method.
Repair Times To enable a quick impres sion to be gained of the effi cacy of the system, it is very important that leaks are re paired quickly. Failure to
the area in which a leak is located. How-
• This means that flow zones
can be planned on a larger scale.
• Larger zones implies less in vestment in infrastructure
(boundary valves, etc.). • In turn, less flow metering and telemetry equipment is re quired. • Larger (or no)zones provide
achieve this blurs the link be tween leaks identified and re
ductions in the nightline. It should also be noted that one
leak can mask another,and that
new leaks can be caused by higher pressure following re pair of identified leaks. In both cases, quick repair of the first leak helps the op
a more flexible network with
less potential for water quality problems caused by opening and closing valves. • The whole planning and im plementation process is speeded up and simplified. • No labour needs to be re
erator draw conclusions about
Units are deployed throughout the distribution system to provide continuous surveying of leakage.
cruited to carry out leak locali zation (although some labour is required for follow-up with correlators and ground microphones). • Little or no training is required in the
the new leak. Since the introduction of
ever, it will not pinpoint the leak, which
Permalog, several trials have been completed in Canada, the US and
must be done before excavation and re
around the world with favourable results.
pair can take place. Pinpointing and
For more information,
confirmation must be undertaken with
circle reply card No. 120
Temnepwfe OiPHiie uv Analysis
Our industry leading analytical and control instrumentation, gives you the process knowledge needed to take your facility operation to the next level. 2595 Dunwin Drive, Unit #2, Mississauga, ON L5L 3N9 Tel:(905) 569-6246• Fax:(905) 569-6244 internet: www.cancoppas.coni•E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
For more information, circle reply card No. 121 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 200!
A piping solution
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ductile, steel, stainless, PVC, HDPE, lined and coated pipe.
It meets AWWA C-606 groove standards, and is available in AWWA sizes 3"-36", with
specials up to 144". The gaskets are, of course, ULC classified to ANSl/NSF 61 for potable water.
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For more information, circie repiy card No. 122(See page 25)
All Ontario Ministries must be Involved Mike Harris weicomes 21st century vision been able to implement a coher
ewer and V^stewaier iViocieiing
ent vision of its own. Other
Model dual drainage and other complex systems of both open and closed conduits
places have been able to move forward by: • Eollowing strong, committed leadership; • Recognizing that change will not be easy; • Finding the resources within and outside government in or der to make the change.
Use Rational, SCS, SWMM Runoff and many other hydrology metliods Design/analyze separate/combined systems Handle flow reversals and looped systems Directly import GIS and other database data Simulate, pumps, orifices, weirs regulators multiple outfalls and real time control
Recommendations In order to re-establish the
Ministry of the Environment as a leader in environmental prac tices, the Executive Resource
Combined Culvert and Pond Analyzer Design and analyze all bridge, culvert and pond hydraulics Only culvert and pond hydraulics sofhvare to combine full unsteady flow and FHWA inlet analysis Use constant or hydrograph inputs and include road overtopping Include upstream storage and ponds
Urban Stormwater Design and Analysis Design and analyze drainage systems using up to 7 return periods with the Rational fonnula Predict an accurate HGL and analyze inlets using HEC-12, rating curve or max. capture
Group recommended a new vi sion for the ministry: Mike Harris reieases a boid, sometimes criticai 1. That responsibility for the en report on environmental management in Ontario. vironment is shared among ap propriate ministries. Ontario's Premier, released a 2. That the Ministry of the Environment new report that calls for a set its sights on continuous improvement broad, modern vision for in environmental practices rather than protecting the environment. Managing on ensuring that only minimum stand the Environment was commissioned by ards are met. the Ontario government and authored by 3. That the ministry look at the environ management expert Valerie Gibbons and ment as a complex system and not as the Executive Resource Group. It ex unrelated components (air, water, land) amined the operations of Ontario as well and that it look at things like watersheds as other jurisdictions and organizations as places which have fixed geographic to determine best practices. boundaries. 4. That the ministry use strong enforce The Report's Findings In its January 2001 Report, the ment measures as well as incentives and Executive Resource Group made these partnerships to achieve its goals. 5. That Ontario recognize that govern observations about Ontario's manage
On February 7, Mike Har is,
ment of the environment;
ments do not have the resources to man
1. Ministry staff are committed and are operating well despite being under con siderable pressure in recent months. 2. Although the ministry supports mov ing in a new strategic direction,the over all direction of the Ministry of the Environment cannot be called "leading".
age the environment alone and that there must be partnerships among the private sector, the public and other groups.
Include inlet bypasses and surface flow
XP Software 9-75 First Street
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l\ www.xpsoftware.ca For more information,
circle reply card No. 123
• Ontario is behind the progress made elsewhere - other jurisdictions have adopted new environmental strategies; • The gap between Ontario and leading jurisdictions is widening;
Staff of all ministries with environ
mental management responsibilities are reviewing the report's many recommen dations. The government is also for warding it to Justice O'Connor so he can include it in his deliberations in the
Ontario an environmental leader.
Walkerton inquiry. "This report calls for a break from the way that the Ministry of the Envi ronment has been run for many decades and represents a bold new vision for environmental protection," said Harris.
3. Despite an awareness of the strate gies and practices developed elsewhere, the Ministry of the Environment has not
• It will take a concerted effort to make
More information is available at:
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Production of a cost-competitive biodiesel fuei aiternative to petroieum diesei
Research has shown a number
ronmental and health benefits of this
rently producing biodiesel still employ a "high pressure, high temperature" method that is en ergy intensive and extremely costly. Or they use a chemical
non-toxic and biodegradable fuel in clude its potential for reducing harmful
ASTM standard Biodiesel in a one
of important benefits of biodiesel fuel as an alterna tive to fossil fuels. The envi
method that does not achieve
exhaust emissions, decreasing green house gas (GHG) production and en hancing diesei engine performance as a lubricity additive. As well as contribut
pass cost-effective manner. Both the seed oil (soybean, canola,etc.) and the yellow grease
ing to a cleaner environment, the use of biodiesel, produced from recycled veg etable oils, agricultural seed oils or waste animal fats and grease, should also ben
low with regard to market pricing. It is anticipated that prices may remain depressed for sometime primarily due to the awareness of
efit and increase the income of the agri cultural community in North America. Up to this point, however, the pro
international effect it has on the
duction and commercialization of
biodiesel as an alternative fuel to petro leum diesei has seemed unlikely, due to the costs associated with its production
(approximately three times as much as petroleum diesei). All companies cur
markets are at a historic all time
BSE(Mad Cow's disease)and the
animal proteins market. Bio diesel, however, could be pro duced from both seed oil and yel low grease.
Functional pilot unit located in Oakvllle, Ontario, processing one million litres per annum.
The BIOX process, a new biodiesel process developed by the University of
Toronto, has successfully demonstrated, in a laboratory setting, that biodiesel fuel (produced from recycled vegetable oils. Continued overleaf
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
For more Information, circle reply card No. 124 (See page 25)
agricultural seed oils or waste animal fats and greases) may soon become a viable, cost-competitive alternative to petroleum diesel. Professor David Boocock of the Uni
versity of Toronto, and developer of the BIOX Process, has examined the proc ess of base-catalyzed transesterification
(specifically transmethylation) of veg etable oils to produce biodiesel methyl
esters from triglycerides and methanol has several disadvantages, including:
catalyzed step is complete in seconds. • Flas a recycle stream of methanol and
• The reaction is slow at ambient tem
a co-solvent, and the latent heat of con
densation is used to heat the incoming
• The reaction does not go to comple tion, and therefore requires a second and even third pass to achieve the necessary purity.
• The reaction cannot handle substrates
esters. The kinetic data for this reaction
has been previously misinterpreted. At the University of Toronto he has shown that the methanolysis is slow because the
which have fatty acid contents much above one percent, simply because the acids neutralize the catalyst to form soaps.
The new process addresses these problems in the following ways: phases, and the reaction is, therefore, • Uses an inert, cheap, recyclable cosolvent to make the reaction one phase, mass transfer limited. The problem has been solved by the thus improving mass transfer and thereby, the reaction rate. selection of inert co-solvents that gen erate an oil-rich one-phase system. This • Uses more methanol to increase the reaction is 95% complete in ten minutes polarity of the mixture, which maintains the ionization of the catalyst. at ambient temperatures, whereas pre vious processes required hours. Con • For substrates containing fatty acids, it tinuous processes are now feasible. The first uses a one-phase acid-catalyzed step acid catalyzed process, which is required to convert the fatty acids, before using when the substrate contains fatty acids, base catalysis to convert the triglycerides. is complete in minutes rather than the •In the two-step process, approximately usual several hours. 30 minutes is required to convert the fatty The traditional base-catalyzed acids at close to the boiling temperature method for producing fatty acid methyl of the methanol (60C). The baseinitial reaction mixture consists of two
The process is claimed to be the only biodiesel production process that will be able to compete with petroleum diesel on a production cost basis, and the only process that can successfully exploit high fatty acids to produce biodiesel. The process is able to deal with animal fats and greases. It is estimated that by using both used agricultural oils and waste grease, costs can be cut by as much as 50 percent, making biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel. The costs of biodiesel using tradi tional processes vary depending on type of feedstock to be converted. If virgin soy oil were used as a feedstock,for ex ample, production cost would be ap
proximately $0.66/litre. The goal of the BIOX process is to produce biodiesel from any feedstock, including vegeta ble oils, agricultural seed oils, recycled cooking oils and grease or waste animal fats and grease, at a cost of $0.18/litre. For more Information, circle reply card No. 126
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For more Information, circle reply card No.172 (See page 25)
For more Information, circle reply card No. 173 (See page 25)
American Water Works Association Annual
Conference & Exposition June 17 - 21,2001, Washington,DC Located in the nation's capital, this year's conference offers more than 100 tech
nical sessions led by industry experts, nine workshops for hands-on education, and five technical tours at regional water systems.
Workshop topics include: Water Main Rehabilitation, A.I. Integration, 'Net: Better, Faster, Cheaper Field Computing,Outsou rein g/In tern al Mgmt.,Terrorism & Security, Leader ship in Public Affairs, Operations Plan
Leaders in Chlorine DISINFECTION
for Dist., Arsenic Treatment Facilities,
Global System Financing. Conference Highlights HlOpen Forum - Critical Water Issues: The Political Perspective This year's Forum focuses on today's critical water issues from the perspec tive of legislators and congressional leaders, several of whom are invited to
participate in this lively and thoughtprovoking session. E-Commercefor the Water and Wastewater Industries: How to Take
Advantage of the Digital Economy E-commerce is a hot topic -for both the water and wastewater industries. This
second annual joint session, sponsored and developed by AWWA and the Water Environment Federation, will bring together experts in this evolving field. T22: American Academy of Environmental Engineers Euncheon At this AAEE luncheon, Joseph Hoffman, the executive director of the commission, will outline the commis sion's vision for the future and the con
crete steps being taken to assure and protect the Potomac regions precious
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Schematic showing how easiiy ProMinent's chiorine disinfection equipment connects to the existing municipai water suppiy.
Young Professionals Technical Session This special session, developed by AWWA's Ad Hoc Committee on Young Professionals, will be presented by younger members of AWWA and will cover a range of drinking water topics. Water Matters! A Rally at the Capitol You can show your support for the people and the profession that make clean and safe water a reality by partici pating in a rally on the steps of the US Capitol.
CD CN C\J LO CD c?o OO
Ll_ OU cy>
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For further information contact the
American Waterworks Association,Tel: (303) 794-7711, Fax: (303) 795-1989.
The full program can be downloaded from AWWA's website, www.awwa.org. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 127 (See page 25)
Measuring ammonia with oniine analyzers Instrumentation Testing Association conducts fieid tests
Ammonia is a chemical com
Table 1-Online Ammonia Analyzers Evaluated
bination of elemental hydro gen, H, and nitrogen, N,oc curring extensively in na ture. The physical state of ammonia is dependent on temperature and pH but pH is normally the determining factor. At a high pH, ammonia is expressed as
Monitor 90 S
lonChem 2005 Ammonia
pAI-8232 Ammonia Monitor
ASA, Inc., ChemScan Bran -i- Luebbe
Danfoss Analytical FPM Analytics
NHj, and is referred to as "free ammo Hach Company
nia". In this state, ammonia is a colour
less gas that is partially soluble in water. At low pH or acidic conditions, am monia becomes completely soluble in water and forms ammonium,
Waltron Ltd. WTW Measurement
is referred to as "ionized ammonia". In
Polymetron 8810 Ammonia
addition, ammonia and ammonium can
also be expressed as ammonia-nitrogen and ammonium-nitrogen, respectively, which is the quantity of elemental ni trogen, N,present in the form of ammo
nia, NHj, expressed as NH^-N or am monium, NH+-N. ' 4
In high-nitrogen environments, free and ionized ammonia coexist and the
NHj-N + H^O =NH/-N + OHAmmonia-Nitrogen -I- Water = Ammonium-Nitrogen + Hydroxyl Ion Under conditions of low pH,the high concentration of hydrogen ions, con verts ammonia to ammonium as de
scribed by the following equation:
in mg/L. The general chemical behav iour of free and ionized ammonia in
water is described by the formula:
ple, ammonia, NH^, is a nutrient, by product or feed additive for all activated sludge wastewater treatment processes.
Ammonium-Nitrogen â€”> AmmoniaNitrogen -I- Hydrogen Ion Measuring Ammonia Levels
Ross, P.E., Instrumentation
Testing Association, and Stephen G. Nutt, M.Eng., P.Eng.,
Treatment facilities use online am
XCG Consultants Ltd.
monia analyzers to monitor and control Table 2-lnterferences for Ammonia Analyzers
Potential Interferences Grease or oils
pH lon-Selectlve Electrode
Mercury Silver Grease or oils
pH High ionic strength or large changes in Ionic strength Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrophotometer
Wastewater treatment plants use on line ammonia analyzers to optimize ac tivated sludge and biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. For exam
NHj-N + W-> NH/-N
By Tony Palmer, and Maureen
more reliable and cost-effective.
Ammonia-Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ion ^ Ammonium-Nitrogen Under conditions of high pH,ammo nium is converted to ammonia by the following equation:
quantities of each are summed to meas ure the concentration of total ammonia,
treatment processes. Controlling ammo nia levels can make treatment processes
Grease or oils
Turbidity Organic matter (absorbs UV light) Some inorganic ions (chlorate, nitrate, etc.)
In addition, some advanced waste-
water treatment plants use online am monia analyzers to monitor nitrification to meet ammonia discharge limits. Finally, some water treatment plants use online ammonia analyzers when monitoring "chloramination", a drinking water treatment process used to create a persistent disinfectant residual. Testing Ammonia Analyzers The Instrumentation Testing Associa tion (ITA), a nonprofit technical and educational association, was directed by its membership (municipal and indus trial treatment facilities, consultants and manufacturers) to field test online am
monia analyzers for water and wastewater treatment applications. ITA tested online ammonia analyzers at the City of Houston Beltway Wastewater Treatment Plant over a three month period. The ITA test was conducted in a wastewater treatment environment of an
activated sludge aeration basin. Test ing ammonia analyzers in wastewater involves more variables and provides a harsher environment than testing in water,thereby, best representing a worst case scenario. The ITA test included
Continued overleaf 34
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Centenniai OMiaeteP^&f^uct mc
Stormceptor - Engineering Purity. For more information, circle reply card No. 133(See page 25)
Colorimetric Ammonia Analyzer
Electrode Analyzer lectronics Module Temperature (RTD)Sensor
r Reagent 1 Feed Tubing (Buffer)
Reagent 2 Feed Tubing (Colour Indicator)
Reagent 3 Feed Tubing (Hypochlorlte)
Porous Reference Junction
pH or Measuring Electrode Sensor Membrane Cap Filled with Ammonium Chloride (NH.CI)
Silver Wire Coated
with Silver Chloride
pH or Measuring Electrode
Glass Membrane filled
with Buffer Solutio
Generic Online Ion-Selective Electrode Ammonia Analyzer Generic Online Colorimetric Ammonia Analyzer
eight analyzers, representing the three major types of online ammonia analyzer technologies available to measure am monia concentration in a treatment process stream: 1) Colorimetric, 2)Ion-selective electrodes (ISE), and 3)Ultraviolet(UV)absorbance or multiple wavelength UV absorbance spectrophotometers. The product of this test is a comprehensive report on the performance of the eight analyzers tested. Table 1 lists analyzer manufacturers and technologies evaluated at the City of Houston. Each technology detects ammonia concentrations using different analytical methods. In addition, manufacturers of each technology utilize different methodologies for such functions as sample transport, sample conditioning, chemi cal addition, primary measurement, and secondary signal conditioning and amplification. Treatment Processes Affecting Analyzers Samples that have certain interferences may affect the ability of the ammonia analyzer to measure accurately. Table
to your specific needs to select the most suitable analyzer for your application. ITA's performance evaluation report. Online Ammonia Analyzersfor Water and Wastewater Treat ment Applications, is an essential reference for aiding in the selection process. For more information, visit ITA's Weh site at: www.instrument.org.
Copyrighfi Instrumentation Testing Association, 2001, reprinted with permission.
2 lists these interferences.
Applications Typical applications for ammonia analyzers in water, wastewater, and industrial treatment processes are:
Reagent Feed Tubing 1 (Buffer)
Reagent Feed Tubing 2 (Hypochlorlte)
• Industrial Pretreatment • Influent
• Primary Effluent
• Aeration Basin
• Water Disinfection (chloramination) • Effluent Disinfection
Filter ^ Transmitted
UV Light Waves
• Stream and River Monitoring Analyzer Selection Selecting an accurate and reliable ammonia analyzer is a challenge. It is necessary to take into consideration the dif ferent types of ammonia analyzer technologies,installation, maintenance, cost, and the parameters of most importance
UV Light Waves
UV Light Absorbing Particles
Generic Online Ultraviolet Absorbance Spectrophotometer Ammonia Analyzer Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
China pumping up to get greener Flygt China recently received its larg
est pump order ever - US$1.05 million - for a complete submersible pump/ mixer package to be installed in a sew age treatment plant for the city ofZheng Zhou in the province of Henan. This is the first sewage treatment plant for Zheng Zhou, which has a population of over two million.
China is increasing its investment in environmental infrastructure. The offi
displaced and resettled people. It is
Dams and development Dams And Development:A New Frame work for Decision-Making, the Final Report by the World Commission on Dams,seeks to turn costly controversies into clear and productive consensus. For the first time, a diverse forum of engi neers, environmentalists, government officials, indigenous people,financiers, affected people and academics,engaged for two years in an unprecedented global public policy process. Some of the key findings of the
cial target is to allocate 2-3% of Gross
Domestic Product for investment in en
•Dams deliver significant development services in more than 140 countries; they account for 19% of electricity and for an estimated 12-16% of global food production. • Some large dams continue to generate benefits after 30-40 years; however a considerable portion fails to deliver its physical and economic targets. • Large dams have led to the loss of
vironmental improvements, but the lo cal authorities will have to raise a cer
tain percentage of this by themselves. What's driving this growing invest ment? With a fast-improving living standard and an increase in foreign con tracts, China is under strong pressure from within and from neighbouring countries to improve its environment. In Shanghai, for example, the estimated wastewater volume is 5.7 million cubic
metres per day, but the sewage treatment capacity for secondary treatment is less than 10%.
estimated that some 40-80 million
people have been displaced by dams worldwide.
Cost is £20 for paperback. Order on-line at: www.earthscan.co.uk.
ERIS(Environmental Risk Information Services) is a reporting service that accesses key federal, provincial and private sector databases to help identify potential environmental risks. When you order an ERIS report, you'll get all the current and historical information you need to reduce your risk of environmental liability.
forests and wildlife habitat and the loss
of aquatic biodiversity of upstream and downstream fisheries.
• There is a pervasive and systematic failure to assess negative impacts on
For more information,
circle reply card No. 162
Understand. AT CH2M
HILL, WE PARTNER
WITH OUR CLIENTS TO
MAKE INFORMED CHOICES.
We offer full-service solutions across the fields of Water, Environment, Energy, Telecommunications, Transportation, and Industrial Processes. Our experts work closely together each day to understand how all aspects of the environment, community, and industry are interdependent. Because understanding enables responsible decision-making. And that makes the world a better place for everyone.
Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)
On-site groundwater remediation in Texas
A patented TiO,slur y photoby Purifies®, is being used to
products and then cap off the site. Once this was completed, the last step was to pump and treat groundwater throughout
the site. For the remediation of this
groundwater, surface water and process
groundwater,the EPA stated in its Record of Decision (ROD) that UV Oxidation (UV/Ox) would be the method of treat ment for the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether.
catalytic process developed
Case History Superfund Site - CERCLA ID #TXD980629851 - is located near
The site consists of 24 wells, which
Galveston Bay, Texas(EPA Region VI), approximately one mile north of the Gulf Coast. Years ago,the site originally con sisted of several lagoons for the storage or disposal of heavy end petroleum prod ucts(also known as DNAPL or Sinkers). These heavy end petroleum products had been cut or liquefied with a solvent called Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether so that they could be removed and transported to the dis posal site. Over time, the site was con taminated with this primary solvent(and others including LNAPL or Eloaters) as
are each pumped at specified flow rates and duties and the groundwater is blended in a holding tank prior to treatment. From this point, water is fed into the treatment train at the prescribed flow rate of 15 L/
it leached or was washed out of the la
goons into the suirounding groundwater. The first step in the remediation proc ess was to incorporate a 75 foot (23 m) deep slurry wall around the entire site. The purpose of this was to stop migra tion of the contamination off the site and
into the surrounding groundwater and recreational surface water. After this was
performed, the next step was to remove and incinerate the bulk of the petroleum
By Tony L. Powell and Brian Butters, Purifies Environmental
mill on a continuous basis. The influent
concentration of the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether averaged < 200 ppm, and its origi nal treatment specification was 2.4 ppm. Other chlorinated VOCs present in the groundwater are vinyl chloride, 1,2dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane,
Party (PRP) of the site, through its en vironmental consultant, investigated UV/Ox technologies to treat this groundwater. Based on work by their consultant and a UV/Ox vendor, it was
found that if the groundwater was pretreated with polymer flocculation fol lowed by filtration (in order to remove suspended solids and possibly iron), standard UV-H,0,technology would be successful in treating the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether below the treatment speci fication of 2.4 ppm. The PRP then set out to procure the hardware in a competitive bid process. Purifies put in a bid for its first gen eration TiO,slurry photocatalytic technol
ogy, trade named Photo-Cat®, utilizing a 14 kW system without polymer floccu lation pre-treatment, as it is not required for this photocatalytic technology. The photocatalytic equipment was
benzene, phenanthrene, DNAPL and LNAPL (in the range of 0.1% to 0.3%). installed and commissioned in the fall The groundwater is brackish, with chlo of 1995. The 14 kW photocatalytic sys ride levels exceeding 6,000 ppm. The tem destroyed the Bis(2-chloroethyl) influent COD is approximately 1,720 ether from 200 ppm to 0.2 ppm (99.9% ppm, the total dissolved solids (TDS) is removal). This performance was an 14,500 ppm with iron levels between 2-3 additional order of magnitude below the ppm. The high chloride and COD levels discharge specification of 2.4 ppm in of the groundwater increase the difficulty effect at the time of commissioning. The operating and maintenance of treatment of the groundwater and pro vided challenges in materials of constaic- (O&M) cost comparison of UV/H,0, tion. For example, plastic components in and Photo-Cat is based on the follow contact with the untreated water would
last only hours due to the aggressive at tack from the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether which would dissolve the plastic. In 1992, the Principal Responsible
ing parameters: a power cost of $0.06/ kWh, an estimated replacement cost of $3,000 for 38 kW of medium pressure lamps with a life of 3,000 hours. The actual annual lamp replacement cost of the Photo-Cat process is based on the demonstrated 12,500 hour life. All cost
figures are in US dollars. The costs of chemicals consumed for the AOP proc ess, such as caustic and H,0„ have been
omitted for the sake of simplicity even though it favours the selected process. Elimination of the polymer floccula tion pre-treatment process and the solid waste issues associated with it represents a large reduction in both capital and
The capital cost of the Photo-Cat sys tem is believed to be similar to, or
The photocatalytic equipment was commissioned in the fall of 1995. 38
slightly greater than the cost of a UV/ H,0, system. Equipment standards, specifications and horizontal integration affect capital cost comparisons. Within a year of operation of the Photo-Cat, the discharge limit of the Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether was lowered by Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
The site after the
Aerial view of site before excavation.
the EPA from 2.4 ppm down to 20 ppb.
project was completed.
and the system turned on without a fault. Also, the system was frozen when the Galveston Bay area was hit by a hun dred year frost. In this application, the system was back up and running within three days. Conversely, the system has repeatedly operated without fault at sus tained ambient temperatures where the
added to increase the power of the sys
eight hours to complete),the photocatalytic system destroyed the Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether down below its detection level of 1 ppb (> 99.9995% removal). Over the life of the system, it has been subjected to several adverse con ditions. In its first year of operation, the reactor system was submersed twice in one foot of water when storms coming
tem to 19 kW.
in off the Gulf of Mexico flooded the
at a time.
Once the expansion was completed (the expansion required approximately
containment basin. On both occasions,
For more information,
the containment base was pumped out
circle reply card No. 135
To obtain the additional treatment re
quired to meet the new discharge limit, additional modular capacity was added to the system. The original 14 kW sys tem was comprised of six modular photocatalytic racks stacked upon-each other. An additional two racks were
daytime high approaches 40°C for days
The Better Way to Design and Cost Wastewater Treatment
Systems... Free demo can be downloaded from; www.hydromantis.com
A planning level tool _ to help you rapidly design and cost a new plant. CapdetWorks - C:\PrQgram Rles\CapdelWaik8\LQyouts\A(:tivQted Sludge and Trickling Filter Cnmp Hie Bit Layout Preferences Cost Data Cast Analysis Help
CapdetWorks helps you work more efflcientlv. Define the
influent, desired effluent quality and treatment scheme - press a button and the schematic is automaticaily designed and costed. You can quickiy buiid treatment aiternatives and compare their relative costs. Of course, you can customise all costs.
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CadpetWorks uses accepted design aigorithms to derive the required unit process designs. Designs are based on many characteristics of the wastewater being treated, not just one parameter such as wastewater flow. This accuracy is a big improvement over other methods.
I Complete Ms Activated Sludgt
CapdetWorks calculates aj]the costs - capital, operating and maintenance for each treatment alternative. Labour, amortization,
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Simply drag-and-drop from a choice of 60 unit processes to buiid a treatment schematic. CapdetWorks wiii then calculate the design and estimate the cost to build, operate and maintain the facility.
Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers 1685 Main St. West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 1G5
Tel:(905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031
Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 2001
[Extended Aeration Adkiated Sludge CapdetWorks version 1.0 is available for all Windows operating systems and costs US$ 2,450 per license.
For more information, circle reply card No. 136 (See oaae 25)
IS "NEW CLARIFIER"
FOR WATER TREATMENT The ACTIFLO system is a compaa, high-rate, physical-chemical clarifi cation process that uses microsand along with lamellar setding to enhance flocculauon and clarification. By utilizing microsand as a seed for floe formation and
Not any more. We've put two of the industry's best technologies together resulting in the Envirex High Performance Clarifier. Our Rim-Flo® clarifier with
peripheral feed and overflow uses 50% less surface area than center feed designs. And our Tow-Bro® system provides increased return solids concentra tion, reduced sludge pumping and increased tank capacity reducing aeration requirements by 35%. These integrated technologies, tested and proven, constitute the ultimate aaivated sludge final clarifier. The proof is in the performance and we have the numbers. Envirex Products
262.547.0141 phone 262.547.41207^
Circle reply card No. 326
clarification, the ACTIFLO process is up to 20 times smaller than conventional processes. Furthermore, the sand allows for more effective removal of solids,
organics, metals and pathogens. The sand also stabi lizes the process during sudden fluctuations in raw water quality. In Canada contact:
John Meunier Products
514.334.7230 phone 514.334.5070fax www.usfilter.com
In the U.S. contact:
Kruger Products 919.677.8310 phone 919.677.0082fax
Circle reply card No. 327
SPIRACONE^ CLARIFIER LME® INCLINED The Spiracone sludge blanket clarifier pro
PLATE SEHLERS The LME inclined
vides maximum water
plate separator is compact and effi
production in mini mal space. The influ
cient. Low influent
ent flow moves in an
velocities prevent the shearing of flocculat ed particles, while allowing heavier particles to settle almost immedi ately to the bottom of the basin. For drinking water applications, a typical 50-plate pack has a footprint ofabout 60 sq. ft. but contains more than 1,147 sq. ft. of effective settling area. This is one-tenth the footprint required by conventional clarifiers and one-fifth the footprint required by tube settlers. Zimpro Products
Circle reply card No. 329
firstname.lastname@example.org e-mail www.usfilter.com
of the tank sidewall, and inlet floor orifices control
CONTRAFLO® SOLIDS CONTACT CLARIFIER The CONTRAFLO" is a true solids con
General Filter Products
800.547.1202 phone 508.347.7049fax
The patented Trans-Flo Clarifier for secondary settling tank application features a unique trans verse, folded flow pat tern for high solids removal efficiency in a rectangular tank. Flow moves along the full length
upward-expanding spiral through zones of water and sludge, emerging clarified at the top. Applications include clarification; softening removal of iron, color and turbidity; phosphate reduction and heavy metals. A pilot plant is available.
flocculation and sedi
mentation in a single
distribution of the influent mixed liquor flow. Flow enters the tank behind a skirt baffle hung beneath
basin for maximum
the inlet channel and travels across the tank width
treated water production in minimal space. Raw
and rebounds back toward the effluent collection
water and chemicals come into contact with
previously formed precipitates, then pass through distinct zones within the basin for reaction, floccu
lation, separation, sludge removal and clarification. The precipitates help accelerate the chemical reaction and serve as a deposit point for newly formed precipitates, creating large, heavy sludge particles that settle rapidly. CONTRAFLO is ideal for applications such as iron and manganese removal, color removal, and lime/soda ash softening. General Filter Products
channel. Short circuiting is eliminated; full basin volume is used for optimum hydraulic efficiency. Settled solids are removed through embedded head ers along the basin length. Headers span the width of the tank; telescoping valves control removal rates through each header. A chain and scraper collector transports settled solids between headers and skims the water surface on the return run. This unique design reduces space requirements and substantial ly cut costs for new tank construction and second ary clarifier upgrades.
800.547.1202 phone 508.347.7049^
Circle reply card No. 330
Circle reply card No. 331
CLARIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES AS FAR AS THE EYE CAN SEE.
USFilter oflFers a vast array of individual clarification technologies, plate and tube settlers, flocculators and clarifiers of every shape and size, as well as pre-engineered systems including a clarification
step. Because of this, we're able to provide the system that most m
cost-effectively meets your unique requirements. For more infor Learn more at our new web site,
mation, check the web at www.usfilter.com, call 1.800.547.1202 or e-mail water email@example.com.
For more information, circle reply card No. 332(See page 25)
Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cail ES&E at(905)727-4666.
Data Management software Operator 10ÂŽ Plus, supplier of Op
Leister welding machines for geomembranes
erations and Maintenance Data Man
Our Leister line of automatic wedge welders, combiwedge machines and hand tools are used in a wide variety of geomembrane applications where the precise welding control is re quired as part of the seaming proc ess. Our products provide excellent field performance and superior reli ability. Tel: (905) 828-1400, Fax: (905)828-1056, www.stanmech.com Stan Mech Agencies Inc. Circle reply card No. 181
agement software. Products include water, wastewater, pre-treatment and biosoiids, plus AiiMax Task Manager, maintenance data management. Newly added to our fine product line is our DataPort, hand-tield entry unit with barcode scanner. For more in
formation, E-maii us at: aiimaxÂŽ operatorl O.com, or visit our Web site at: www.operator10.com. AIIMax Professional Solutions inc.
Circle reply card No. 180
Cyanide Removal Using sodium hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes
A "Sohjtion" for ZEBRA MUSSELS
To heip controi zebra musseis,one solution involves the use of
JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite,
is detaiied. Buiietin reviews dos
which kills the larvae. VVe are con-
ages, equipment, as weii as stor age, safety and handiing data. Particulariy appiicabie to metai recover or refining operations. Contact: www.coigate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive
suiting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help controi their spread, if you'd like to discuss this prob lem, or be kept informed of the lat est information, please contact: www.coigate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.
Circle reply card No. 182
Professional Products Division
Circle reply card No. 183
Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is
Team-1 Environmental Services
detaiied in a technical buiietin.
Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics Include: storage and air Contact: www.coigate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmoiive
Rapid 24 hour response (Ontario's only Mobile Decon Trailer). Opera tor of The Emergency Service Train ing Academy wifh three fully equip ped locations.
Circle reply card No. 184
Environmental Instrument Rentals
Ashtead Technology specializes in renting portable instruments for air and water sampling and monitoring. The rental fleet includes photoion-
Circle reply card No. 185
storage Chem-Loc Buildings are uniquely designed and manufactured by MakLoc
(PIDs and FIDs), multi-gas monitors, air sampling pumps, dust and aero
Buildings inc. to provide safety, security, segrega tion, and secondary con
sol monitors, noise dosimeters and
tainment of hazardous ma-
sound level meters, landfill gas analyzers, water quality monitoring systems, peristaltic and submersible pumps. For a new catalogue visit: www.ashtead-technoiogy.com. Ashtead Technology Circle reply card No. 188
nationai oii and gas companies, the Armed Forces, Govern ment agencies, municipalities and goif courses have chosen Chem-Loc as their economicai solution. Tel: 1-888-774-7792, Web site: www.makioc.com. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circie reply card No. 187
ization and flame ionlzafion detectors
offer an extensive complement of equipment and dedicated crew. TRUE multiple response facilities. Contracted to police, fire and indus try for land and marine response.
teriais. Since 1971, muiti-
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Literature Review & Product Showcase For information on advertising in this section call ES&Eat(905) 727-4666. Urecon pre-insulated pipe Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze profecflon since 1972(with or wifhouf Thermocable® heaf tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insulated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page
Alternate daily cover ALTERNATE DAILY COVER
made easier with Rusmar's newAG-
677-SE Soil Equivalent Foam. Ben efits include: pennies per square foot cost, no capital investment required,
PBNNIBe Pfifl SOlfAfIS BOOT
• All W«edi*f ItrmiM
Daily cover practices have now been
> MuM-Ooy Uftun
ail weather formula, consumes no
• Mmm A> SiMlU *&'
airspace, multi-day exposure, meets ail subtitle "D" daily cover require ments.
Rusmar Incorporated Circle reply card No. 189
Circle reply card No. 188
High quality plastic piping \a
1 O j uit'
systems Fabricated Plastics Limited offers
industry a full spectrum of high qual ity, corrosion resistant, plastic piping systems, designed and fabricated for a wide range of conditions and tem peratures. End-users now have a choice of a variety of materials from solid FRP to thermoplastic-lined FRP. Lining choices include: PVC, GPVC, PP, PVDF, E-GTFE, FEP, PFA, and TEFZEL. Our 10-page brochure outlines material selection and prop erties, joining methods and dimen sional details. Fabricated Plastics
Circle reply card No. 190
M FLOCCULATfON 1
AUX SIGNALS Flew. Ttirtiidity. OAor. pH.Conttuctlviiy. Etc.
STREAMING CURRENT SENSOR
' STREAMING CURRENT CONTROLLER
Typical Streaming Current Monitor Installation The TGS4500XRD uses Streaming Current measurement to maintain proper eiectrokinetic charge (ionic and colloidal) in the coagulated water. Effectively, it detects and controls the level of residual coagu lant. The objective is to keep the residual at a minimum while maintain ing desired final water quality and process efficiency. Chemtrac Systems Circle reply card No. 191
ecoSep Below Grade Oil/Water Separators
• Save money on disposal costs by turning watery sludge into a solid. ecoSep high efficiency oil water separatons combine <5ppm separation ratios with spill control; they consist of two cham bers. The first pre-treats the influent by allowing solids to drop out before enter ing the main gravity separation chamber. ecoSep continuously removes accumu lated light liquids with a patented auto matic oil draw-off device. Final effluent
polishing is performed in the residual oil coalescing media before discharge. A spill control auto-shutoff valve (ecoStop) is located at the inlet of the separation cham ber. The valve prevents any catastrophic spill from occurring by detecting a spill and shutting the drainage system. The ecoStop is available separately in a stand ard precast concrete manhole or as an in tegral part of ecoSep oil/water separators. Con Cast Pipe For more information, circle reply card No. 192
• 40 lbs. of Liquid Waste Solidifier will solidify up to 1 ton of liquid waste.
• 40 lbs. of Liquid Waste Solidifier costs as little as $20.00 when pur chased in bulk.
The RotoFix'''" is an advanced second
ary treatment unit for domestic and in dustrial wastewater. It Is located down
Liquid Waste Solidifier is a non-toxic granular product designed to absorb water and aqueous solutions. It forms a tight gel that holds water molecules, even under pressure. LWS is easy to use, very economical, and is packed in 24 oz. shakers, 40 lb. bags, or 2,000 lb. supersacs. Arcus Absorbents Inc.
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
For more information,
circle reply card No. 193
stream of the primary treatment system (septic tank). The heart of the RotoFix^ is composed of tubular patented medium consisting of multiple internal wings which provide a large contact surface per volume unit. Many sections of the me dium are assembled around a central axle
and held in place by stainless steel or polymer braces forming the rotors of the RotoFix'". These rotors, placed in a ba sin containing the wastewater to be treated, are activated by a low-power mo tor and belt. Ecoflo Ontario
For more Information, circle reply card No. 194
Product and Service Showcase On-site wastewater treatment
The tough just got tougher!
CEM equipment rentals Ashtead Technol
ogy rents equip ment for CEM and ambient air
monitoring and sampling, includ ing analyzers for
The Waterloo Biofilter® is a patented aerobic trickle filter designed for efficient treatment of residential and communal wastewaters and landfill leachate. We
specialize in treating wastewater for im mediate domestic re-use and golf course irrigation. Typical removal rates are >95% TSS and >90% BOD,20-50% TN
and 90-99% coliform in a single pass. (Photograph: RattleSnake Point Golf Club Treatment Facility, Milton, ON). Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 195
§Theuse60 sig Signal converter
Armtec introduces Briage-riate" wnich they claim is the strongest corrugation available in the bridge market today. It is available in arch and box shapes, 3.5 times stronger than structural plate, more than 10 times stiffer than structural plate, and claimed to be the strongest and stiffest product on the market. Armtec built
NO^, SO,, CO, COj, oxygen, ozone, methane/
non-methane hydrocarbons. All instru ments meet EPA requirements. Heated sample lines and sample conditioners also available. All instruments are meticu
Circle reply card No. 196
lously maintained and shipped overnight almost anywhere in Canada. Local pick up and delivery also available at the Ashtead office in Mississauga, Ontario. Ashtead Technology Circle reply card No. 197
Glass pipe outerwrap
Noise control panels
the first Super-Span® bridge in the world and is taking the bridge market to new heights. Armtec
nal converter from
Danfoss eliminates the
choosing specific communication
protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in
signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor, this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to -i-70°C with + 0.1 ° accuracy.
Denso Class Outerwrap is a water acti vated fibreglass tape that is used for me chanical protection over Denso Petrola tum Tape Systems or as a pipe repair product for cracked or broken pipe. Class Outerwrap is said to offer exceptional impact and mechanical strength on above or below ground pipes, pilings, and fit tings. Class Outerwrap is paintable and has an in service temperature from sub
Davis Controls Limited
zero to 350°F. Denso North America
aeration tanks. De
Circle reply card No. 198
Centrifugal Blowers I
Circle reply card No. 199
4h EAGLEBROOK* Your Sing/e Source
Eckoustic® Functional Panels(EFPs)pro vide a more comfortable acoustic envi
ronment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EFPs promote safety and help improve produc tivity. EFPs can quickly add sound ad sorption to compressor rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms. Eckel Industries,Inc. Circle reply card No. 200
EAGLEBROOK* Your Sing/e Source
Odor & Corrosion Control Enhancing Primary
One Simple Solution For Two
Reduce Costs and
Lamson Multi-stage and Turbotron Cen trifugal Blowers provide clean, dry and oil-free air/gas at variable flow rates, with volumes up to 50,000 CFM. The blow ers are dependable, trouble-free and quiet, with a very high-efficiency design. Installation is easy and no maintenance is required. The housings are made of heavy duty cast iron. Pencon Equipment Co. Circle reply card No. 201 44
Chernically Enhanced Primary Treatrrient (CEPT)
ControUlngeOdor And Corrosion With Iron Salts.
www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 202
www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 203 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Product and Service Showcase Specialty gate valve for sewage
Inlet StormceptorÂŽ system The Inlet Storm
Resilient Seal Gate
ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as
Valve has been de
signed with sew age applications in mind - forcemains, pumping
the well-known In
line Interceptors. Developed to treat
stations and treat
run-off from an area
ment plants. The Seguro Valve has a
of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor
resilient seal that ensures a 100% bidi
rectional bubble-tight seal, according to Neo Valves. Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in the bonnet area. They are available in sizes up to 60", with 100% full bore design and hundreds of installations in Canada since 1972. Neo Valves
Submerged StormceptorÂŽ system
Neo Valves Seguro
has inherited the in
ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-
water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc.
Circle reply card No. 204
Developed for sub merged and partially submerged storm sewer pipes, the new Submerged Storm ceptor System em ploys the same oper ating principles as the well-known In-line
and Inlet Stormceptor systems. Compared to the In-line system, the Submerged Stormceptor has two modifications: an extended weir and a
Circle reply card No. 205
second drop pipe to enable it to capture oil and sediment during high tailwater conditions. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 206
Completely destroy PCBs
Packaged ozone injection skids Ozonia North America offers
packaged ozone injection skids. Included is a skidmounted Ozonia
Create a HEC-RAS model directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and cre ate inundation maps from the results. Complete integration between 12D and HEC-RAS allows water level results read back into our 12D model. A water level
surface is automatically created and ready for presentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software Circle reply card No. 207
Chlorine dosing packages
Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. is the only
Ministry of Environment approved final
Ozone Generator, oxygen generator,
destruction/incineration facility in On tario. Here, we completely destroy PCBs in an environmentally safe manner, us ing no hazardous chemicals or solutions which themselves require destruction. We are capable of destroying and have safely and totally destroyed or recycled waste electrical equipment from Askarel transformers to light ballasts. Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd.
injector, pump, monitors/instru
mentation and control panel. The entire system is fully assembled,piped and wired for easy installation. Standard and cus tom packages are available in sizes rang ing from a few grams per hour up to larger 500 pound per day systems. Ozonia North America
Circle reply card No. 208
Circle reply card No. 209
UV light disinfection system
supplied many chlorine dosing plant installations
Light Disinfec tion System uti
lizes a number of
With their wide
unique key op
range of experi
erator interfaces to demonstrate
ence in the field of
the effectiveness of the UV disinfection
They have the ex pertise you need to implement new and upgrade existing equipment. They can satisfy the largest range offeed requirements from less than 1 litre per hour, to over 1,000 litres per hour, by using standard ProMinent de signed and built packaged solutions for
stage. Its advanced control mechanism monitors bulb efficiency, trends in UV light dosage, and hours of operation to allow for appropriate scheduled preventative maintenance on the unit. UV light dosage is continually monitored using ProMinent's UVB intensity sensor
chlorine feed. ProMinent
diation vessels. ProMinent
mounted on their 316 Stainless Steel ra
Circle reply card No. 210
Circle reply card No. 211
KSB submersible mixers are designed to save energy and maintenance costs in sewage and sludge treatment applica tions. The units are also ideal for clean
ing of pump sumps and stormwater over flow tanks, and can be combined with
other reservoir cleaning systems. The long-life motor design features optimum efficiency and maximum heat dissipation. KSB Pumps Inc.
Circle reply card No. 212 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Product and Service Showcase Design data for seismic applications
Victaulic now offers detailed design data for use of its grooved mechanical piping system in fire protection, HVAC,munici pal and industrial applications in seismically active areas. The 12-page re port covers the Victaulic system's builtin stress relief, performance characteris tics of its flexible and rigid couplings, seismic movement compensation de vices,system bracing and support guide lines. Victaulic Company of Canada Circle reply card No. 213
Packaged sewage pumping system
PVC pressure pipe and PVC sewer pipe
Prelubricated gaskets eliminate mess, save time
The Vic-Plus patent-pending, dry-lubri cated gasket system requires no field lu brication and saves a step in installing piping systems with its grooved mechani cal couplings. Dry, inert and non-toxic, the new gaskets substantially reduce as sembly time and eliminate messy lubri cants and residue from over-lubrication.
Victaulic Company of Canada Circle reply card No. 214
Package potable water
IPEX Municipal Systems provide noncorroding infrastructure solutions for water and sewer projects. We combine the proven durability and reliability of PVC pipe with unparalleled engineering support. IPEX Centurion pipe is avail able up to 1200 mm nominal diameter. Visit our website at: www.ipexinc.com for more information on our engineered thermoplastic solutions. IPEX Circle reply card No. 215
Biofor® is based on the co-current
upflow of air and water, and the re tention of bacteria
and suspended .solids in a media
called Biolite®. This results in a
Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Packaged Submersible Pumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 216
Water filter system
The Pulsapak® is a package potable water treatment plant designed for both munici pal and industrial applications. It com bines two Degremont technologies: the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, and a sand
and anthracite dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak produces clean water equal in quality to that produced by large instal lations. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 217
Skid-mounted filter systems
Individual BioSand filters are available
Davnor BioSand Water Filters(B WF)are installed and operating at various First Nations including: Stoney Nation and Adolescence Ranch, Morley, Alberta; Yorkton Tribal Council, Saskatchewan;
Bonaparte Band, Cache Creek, BC. The patented, Canadian Water Filtration proc ess allows the BWF to be used as required (i.e., stopped and started). Davnor
Circle reply card No. 219 46
for mounting on skids, with capacities from 20 - 2,000 1/h. Several filters may be operated in parallel to achieve greater capacity. The CWF system is never backwashed. The BWF system can be operated using water supplies, which may not normally be considered for u.se be
high rate of filtra tion and provides extended filter runs and an odour-free workplace. The Biofor was successfully incorporated into a new fa
cility in Chateauguay, Quebec. At this fa cility, design flow is 27.000 mVd, with peak of 83,000 mVd. BOD removal effi ciency is greater than 80%. ONDEO Degremont Circle reply card No. 218
Automatic meter reading
Ramar Technology's automatic meter reading systems for water, gas and elec tric utilities are the answer to reducing meter reading costs by increasing effi ciency and accuracy in collecting meter information. Ramar's radio frequency devices work in concert with existing util ity equipment to provide a distinct costeffective means of migrating from
cause the available flow is too low.
manual to automated data collection.
Hetek Solutions Inc.
Circle reply card No. 220
Circle reply card No. 221 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Product and Service Showcase New high performance ciarifier
The Rim-Flo®clarifier with peripheral
Underdrain system offers operational flexibility
solids concentration, reduced sludge pumping, and increased tank capacity, reducing aeration requirements by 35%. The company claims these integrated technologies, tested and proven, consti tute a superior activated sludge final ciari
Designed for efficient retrofits and plant expansions, the MultiblockT" underdrain supports single-, dual- or mixed-media without the need for an underlying sup port gravel bed. This allows for deeper media depths, reduced installation time and elimination of gravel upsets. By sup porting mixed media filter beds, the Multiblock system allows filters to oper ate at up to 30% higher flow rates.
fier. USFilter Envirex Products
feed and overflow, uses 50% less surface
area than centre feed designs. The Tow-
Bro® system provides increased return
Gas detection for pump stations, wetwells, treatment
Model 440-WW has been packaged with wetwell applications in mind. A central panel receives an input from each of three sensors. This panel is usually provided in a Type 4X enclosure for mounting in a non-hazardous control room, but is also
available explosion proof should the site constraints require mounting into this clas sification. Enmet Canada
Circle reply card No. 222
Circle reply card No. 223
Circle reply card No. 224
Solids/corrosive liquids pumps
Gorman-Rupp T Series''^'^ pumps are de signed for economical, trouble-free op eration in handling solids-laden liquids and slurries. Pumps feature a large volute design which allows them to reprime automatically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with liquid and a completely dry suction line. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 225
This system for biological treatment of wastewater, is a complete mix, closed loop reactor process, consisting of one, two,or three independently aerated chan
The Memcor CMP microfiltration sys tem has been used in 200 installations in Noifh America and more than 700 world
4,000 of these rotors are in use.
wide. Customers can build a system that works affordably, efficiently, and at a flux rate that won't bum through the mem brane. The system removes a wide range of contaminants, including: algae, bac teria, yeast, protozoa and cysts.
USEilter Zimpro Products
USEilter Memcor Products
nels. It is well-suited for both conven
tional activated sludge and extended air treatment modes. It is driven by the Mammoth Rotor aerator.
Flushing and cleaning of
Circle reply card No. 226
Circle reply card No. 227
AFP submersible pumps
The Con/Span Advantage
Apart from use in pump sumps,RW 200280 mixers are also used for a variety of mixing and stirring applications in sew age treatment plants and in industrial ar eas. The submersible mixers can be in
stalled independently of the tank shape or dimensions. Depending on the inten sity of mixing required and the flow for mation needed, one or more mixers may be installed. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 228
AFP pumps are compact submersibles which may be installed in either wet or dry pits. They can be used in dry pits because they continue to run even if the dry pit floods. When used in dry pits, the optional cooling jacket keeps the motor cool. AFP pumps are suitable for both fixed and transportable applications, and can be mounted either vertically or horizontally. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 229
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
• Fully engineered and custom-designed to your site requirements • Saves weeks off construction schedules
• Long life cycle and low maintenance • Carries heavy loads at low stress levels Your only precast choicefor your next project. CON/SPAN CANADA
Circle reply card No. 230 47
Product and Service Showcase Hach adds to its customer
On-site herbicide assays
Contemplating a GO or a data system?
rewards program Hach Company has added on-line in 'Pa
strumentation and accessories to its list
of products eligible for their Premium
Points Program, or
P'. P' now recog
Hach products - a current list is avail able at p3.hach.com. Hach Company
Hach Company offers test kits for on-site assays of atrazine, alachlor, or metolachlor in water. Kits include everything needed for comparing a sample against known-concentration calibrators, so they provide quick and inexpensive semiquantitative screening. You can identify which samples should undergo further quantitative analysis and make your her bicide monitoring program more effi cient. Hach Company
Circle reply card No. 231
Circle reply card No. 232
Circle reply card No. 233
SS/lnterface meter gets MLSS
nizes Hach's on-line turbidimeters and
analyzers, calibra tion standards, and reagents, including 1720D Series low range process turbidi meters, new OptiQuant'"''^ analyzers, and new CA610 fluoride analyzers. Bonus
P^ points are offered quarterly on select
Over the past 12 years, SRI Instruments has sold over 3,000 gas chromatographs and data systems. Each GC is tailored to your specifications. Detectors can be added in the future, to a maximum offour,
to accommodate your changing needs. Each GC is backed by a two-year war ranty. The compact size makes it suit able for field use or crowded laborato ries. Can-Am Instruments
Circle reply card No. 234
Circle reply card No. 235
The Royce Model 711 suspended solids and interface level portable is two analyzers in one. It is a fast way to get MLSS numbers,and primary and second ary clarifier blanket levels. The 711 and a portable Model 900 dissolved oxygen meter allow you to make wastewater process control decisions like a pro. The 711 is built tough for the rigours of the plant and it even floats. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 236
Dewatering and cleaning
Parkson acquires Hycor line
Professional, cost-effective management of collection, classification, treatment and
Providing the complete spectrum of serv ices needed to plan, design and construct
beneficial reuse requirements including: Municipal biosolids, pulp and paper sludges,food industry residuals, and spe cializing in stabilization,land application and pelletization.
lands/recreational water quality.
Azurix North America
Azurix North America
water and wastewater infrastructure in
cluding: Traditional engineering, design and construction, design/build, SCADA/ real time control, and structured wet
Parkson recently acquired the HycorÂŽ line of liquid/solid separation equipment for headworks screening, conveying and washing, as well as grit and storm water Providing residuals dewatering, digester cleaning, lagoon dredging and disposal fleets. Multiple turnkey mobile units re sult in clean, fast, economical projects. 25% drier cake reduces disposal costs. Municipal, industrial and pulp and paper clients across North America. Azurix North America
Circle reply card No. 237
More than two million feet installed and a
decade of low-dig/no-dig pipeline reha bilitation and construction experience. Azurix Lining Systems'''" includes: Na tional Liner''", U-Liner''",Channeline''",
Epoxy resin and cement mortar lining. CGTV inspection, grouting and cleaning. Azurix North America
Circle reply card No. 238
management. Screen media includes: wedgewire, perforated, mesh, bar and specially configured screening elements. Screen types include rotary drum screens, side hill, step screens, moving media screens, gravity disc, climber screens and screening systems with conveying and dewatering. Parkson Corporation
Circle reply card No. 239 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Product and Service Showcase Step ScreenÂŽ Future - SSF
Wash Press(wash & press)
Round hatches to fit precast concrete manhole sections
The success and broad acceptance of the Step Screen system is due to its function, the easy-to-understand operation method, the simple cleaning method without any aids (self-cleaning effect according to counter current principle),easy servicing, its ability to handle very large screenings volumes, and its operating reliability. Dagex Inc. Circle reply card No. 240
Washing,dewatering,compacting,trans porting with system. Benefits include: reduction of disposal costs by volume reduction up to 70%, weight reduction up to 70%, dewatering performance up to 45% DS; increase of the carbon pro portion contained in the wastewater; odour-encased plant; and clean, hygienic
hatches fit precast manhole sections from 48" to 144" diameters, and are available
in two- and four-door configurations. They are suited for leachate collector manholes in landfill sites. Custom con
Circle reply card No. 241
figurations are available to meet special applications such as pumping stations. MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 242
condition inside the screen chamber.
YN pipe coupling
Standard MSU, all aluminum, round
% You want quick,easy and cost-effective? The YN Grip Ring coupling has real teeth to grip plain end piping. Cut your pipe to length on the site, slip on the coupling and tighten. No end preparation, no ma chining, no grooving, no problem! YN
steel coupling with a choice of EPDM, NBR, Viton, or silicone gasket. YNC Pipe Coupling Co. Circle reply card No. 243
Powerful wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation. Dynamic modelling of almost any municipal or in dustrial facility. Optimise the entire plant. The perfect tool for diagnosing process problems or testing capacity. See it at: www.hydromantis.com. Hydromantis Inc. Circle reply card No. 244
Chemical safety information
Skid mounted systems
conforms to ISO-9002, ASTM F-1476, and AWWA standards. An all stainless
Rapid design and costing of wastewater treatment plants. Define influent, layout the treatment schematic, define effluent
quality and CapdetWorks will provide the design and cost to build, operate and maintain the facility. See it at: www.hydromantis.com Hydromantis Inc. Circle reply card No. 245
CHEMpendium''''^ is a source of chemi cal safety information for workplaces and the environment. Instead of searching through many references for chemical information, CHEMpendium puts a col lection of important chemical hazard re sources right on your desktop. Relied on by many environmental, health and safety practitioners, it is said to improve pro ductivity and effectiveness with reliable information from authoritative sources.
Contact CCOHS Client Services for your free 30-day trial today. CCOHS
Circle reply card No. 246
Environmental Group Inc.
GDT Corporation has introduced a pack aged skid mounted water and wastewater treatment system. Applications include ozone and oxygen dissolution and CO,, VOC and Radon stripping. The patented GDT''''^ process is modular and can sup port small and large scale treatment ap plications. Pictured is the front and back of a compact (only 4 ft.- of floor space) system with oxygen and ozone generators mounted on the skid. GDT Corporation Circle reply card No. 247
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Focus Environmental Group Inc. pro vides clientele with professional, full service environmental contracting sup port to suit site-specific product needs, including: Waste management (soil, C&D, liquid); AST, UST removal and disposal, TSSA Ontario licence 0076596253,TSSA PM2,PM3 certified
personnel; Soil/groundwater remediation expertise; Site/plant-facility decom missioning; Environmental restoration. Focus Environmental Group Inc. Circle reply card No. 248 49
Tanks and Containment Showcase Geodesic domes & flat covers
The Ultraflote Ultradome trademark is
now available in the Batten Quad Seal
design. Ultraflote, established in 1972,is an international leader in the design, manu facture and installation of geodesic domes and flat covers. Ultraflote's attention to detail has been instrumental in the success
of dealing with difficult applications re quiring specific engineering and constmction know-how and experience. Donson Engineering & Contracting
Circle reply card No. 249
Cathodic protection/corrosion control
Storage for liquids
ZCL coalescing separators provide sub stantially higher design flows than grav ity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MPakÂŽ design removes oil droplets as small as 20 microns! Efflu
Environmentally safe storage for fuel or other hazardous liquids, is now manufac
ent oil concentrations are reduced to as
C 142.5-1994. The Wyevale Fuel Dome
low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/ water separators are manufactured with premium-grade fibreglass reinforced plastic. They have no moving parts and require minimal maintenance. ZCL Composites Inc. Circle reply card No. 250
is manufactured to meet ASTM Standard
B843-93, Grade MlC.
Water Environment Federation.
Interprovincial Corrosion Control
Circle reply card No. 252
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 253
Multi-gas monitor for harsh
Canadian Distributor of the MAXMAG
Magnesium Anode, offers customized services throughout the process of ca thodic protection/corrosion control, in cluding initial surveys,system design,en gineering serviees, follow-up monitoring and system maintenance. The MAXMAG
weather conditions and meet Under writers' Laboratories standard ORD-
design: 500 gallon steel inner tank; inte rior of concrete outer shell is finished
with three coats of epoxy paint; exterior has a three-coat maintenance-free, attrac
tive factory finish. Wyevale Containment Ltd.
Circle reply card No. 251
The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the
Interprovincial Corrosion Control, the
tured in Canada to withstand Canadian
Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc.(TCI) "Total turn key service"
TCI provides full PCB disposal services including: Disposal of all PCB wastes (transformers, capacitors, light ballasts, and lead shielded cable); on site drain
ing; oil storage and draining; site remediation and decontamination; $2.4 million closure bond; PCB analysis
(CAEAL proficiency tested); full trans portation services. Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc.
Circle reply card No. 254
tries have engi neered a storage building that is said to be both
stronger and more cost-effective
The TMX412 simultaneously monitors up to four gases: combustible gases(EEL or methane), oxygen and any one of two of six toxic gases (carbon monoxide, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide). The instrument automatically recognizes all installed sensors and presents instantaneous readings on the easy-to-read LCD display.
PS International, Inc. provides coalesc ing plate oil-water separators for the re moval of petroleum hydrocarbons from wastewater. Separators can be provided with a final polishing polypropylene me dia impingement coalescer for removal of oil particles down to 20 microns in size. They can be rectangular or cylindrical, of single or double wall steel construction, and will be fiberglass coated per UL-1746 for below ground installations.
PS International, Inc.
than current con
ings. Our clear span designs of the Megadome and Superdome series provide the space and clearance for maximum storage capacity and accessibility. The diversity of size and shape means these buildings can meet your current requirements and ex pand in the future. Harnois Industries Circle reply card No. 255
Circle reply card No. 256 50
Circle reply card No. 257 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
ES&E's Semi-Annual Focus
Storage tanks and containment systems
A remarkable range of options and case histories are reviewed in ES&E's semi-annual look at tanks and containment.
1 I 1 I
Growing use of giass-fused-to-steel tanks for wastewater applications
The glass-fused-to-steel tank
market has been driven by the corrosion-resistant silica glass coating on the steel panels. Today, there are over 180,000 installa tions in more than 80 countries, with un
precedented growth during the past dec ade. The system is a storage tank made of sectional steel panels with glass molecularly bound (fused) to the steel surface. This provides a very durable, but flexible surface with excellent corro
sion resistance, resulting in a tank, which can provide long life in a wide variety of applications. The tanks are available in standard
sizes, ranging from 2,600 to over five million gallons capacity, with roof, floors, mixing equipment and many other appurtenances available. Glass-fused-to-steel tanks have
try. In addition, as simple storage ves sels, tanks have become very popular with the engineering fraternity, for the more complex industrial process appli cations. In potable water treatment, the sectional tank systems are used as clarifiers, shells, filters, contact tanks, thick
quired. The panels overlap and are bolted together and sealed with a high performance seal, chosen to suit the material being stored. At the top and bottom of the tank, a galvanized steel anchor provides dimen sional stability. The bottom angle is
eners, reservoirs and standpipes. In the waste treatment industry, they are used
crete base, with anchor bolts. The re
as aeration tanks, clarifier shells, trick
bate is then filled with concrete and a
ling filters, anaerobic digesters (tanks and/or covers), gasholders, odour con trol units, biosolids storage and flow equalization. Glass tankage systems are easily adapted to a wide variety of complex internal requirements that could include clarifier mechanisms, aeration systems, mixers, media support structures, weir troughs, baffles and many other special ized requirements.
perimeter seal to ensure a bubble tight interface. Sectional tank designs can be carried out in a wide variety of national codes, including AWWA,DIN, NSF61 and local building codes. Panel joining is an important feature worthy of closer examination. The seal ant (mastic) is applied to the overlap sheet surface and is allowed to dry and cure. Mastic has the benefit of forming an adhesive bond with the glass on the panel. It is also flexible and has high cohesion strength. This means that, as
found very wide application in the
Tanks are delivered to site, flat
water and wastewater treatment indus-
packed, for easy transport and site han dling. The prime components of the kit are the glass-fused-to-steel panels,ready for bolting together and complete with any special cut-outs for nozzles and/or manways or other appurtenances as re-
By Cameron Gray, P.Eng., Donson Engineering and Contracting Ltd., North Bay, Ontario
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 200J
leveled on shims and secured to the con
the tank flexes, the seal can move with
the tank and remain intact, an improve ment over gasket seals. All the bolt heads are plastic-capped Continued overleaf 51
storage Tanks & Containment A simple procedure of breaking the seal at the concrete foundation, jacking the tank and adding additional rings can in crease the capacity for a remarkably low cost.
•Relocating tanks. Due to the high cor rosion resistance of the glass surfaces, the tankage system, after 20 or 30 years or even longer, can have considerable life left. It is a simple matter of disas sembling the tank, cleaning the mastic from the sheets, relocating, and re-erect ing the tank in another area. This again, could be done at low cost. twraiw
• Final Disposition of Asset. If, at some time in the future, the tankage is no longer required, it is a simple matter Anaerobic digestion plant under construction. of disassembling the system and remov ing the tankage. This compares favour ably to the costs of removing a concrete, to provide corrosion protection in the gional Municipality of Niagara - Gar process environment. Mastic squeezes ner Road biosolids storage where the in-ground vessel and restoring the prop out between the panels and the bolt head third tank (106' diameter x 33' sidewall erty by back-filling the excavation. In complete with geodesic domes) was addition, the glass-fused-to-steel tank seals the shank and protects it from con has significant value even after 30 plus erected in less than two weeks! tact with process fluids. years of service. Many consulting en Technical benefits Construction with jacks is cost-effec gineers are now calculating the final dis There are a number of unique ben tive and particularly beneficial for taller tanks. A trained and experienced crew efits to the end user for sectional bolted position of tankage in the life cycle analysis. of three people can easily install twenty steel tanks: Anaerobic digesters and covers sheets per day. An example of this effi • Expandability. Systems are easily An exceptional application for the expandable to suit future requirements. cient construction procedure is the Re :|
The Proven Protectors In The Fight Against Pipeline Corrosion
rotors mrnEngineered for^SupefiprJP^onptincie
PS International, Incorporated
• 20 years of experience • Standard Flow Rates trom 0-5400 gpm is engineered into Insist on the checkmark of excellence
□ High potential magnesium anod^ producing a true open circuit potential of 1.75 to 1.80 volts.
□ Available in a complete line of sizes, shapes and weights. □ Made to strict ASTM standards of chemistry, production control, testing and certification. □ Manufactured to industry standard criteria or to customer specifications.
IN STOCK • FAST DELIVERY • COAST-TO-COAST International Corrosion Control Inc. P.O. Box 441, Lewiston, NY, USA 14092
every separator we build.
• UL-1746 exterior
fiberglass or STI-P3
• Cylindrical fir Rectangtilar Designs to fit your
protection system. • Free oil
• "Single dr Double Wall Construction.
quality of 10 ppm or less.
Rhone: 1 -800-699-8771
Interprovincial Corrosion Control Co. Ltd. 930 Sheldon Court, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7L 5K6 Regional Offices : Montreal and Calgary Phone: 905-634-7751 Website: www.Rustrol.com • Email: Contact@Rustrol.com Central Fax: 905-333-4313 RUSTRDL* SYSTEMS
For more information, circle reply card No. 163 (See page 25)
1013 Shenandoah Circle
Sioux Falls, South Dakota • 57103 Phone: 605-332-1885 • Fax: 605-332-1293
Visit us online at: www.psinternational.com For more information, circle reply card No. 164 (See page 25)
storage Tanks & Containment inert corrosion-resistant glass-fused-tosteel technology is anaerobic digester tanks and/or covers. Problems related
to corrosion in anaerobic digesters sim ply have not been solved by the equip ment manufacturers, or the engineering profession, to this point in time. Pre-
years. This is primarily a function of the reduction of heavy metal at source, which frees a much higher percentage of sulphide ion, thus producing hydro gen sulphide gas and subsequently, sul phuric acid. Corrosion on all types of tankage, including concrete and steel.
The glass-fused-to-steel technology is basically a design-build approach in virtually every application. The manu facturer is responsible for site prepara tion, foundation design and placement, as well as design, erection and testing
ventative maintenance to minimize
of the tank and cover. There is an
corrosion will help, however, there are many covers that need replac ing as a result of this aggressive off gas environment which is unique to anaerobic digestion. Permastore® recognized this op portunity over 25 years ago and has over 300 successful operating in
excellent opportunity for the con sulting engineering profession to partner with the tank manufactur ers to reduce engineering costs to benefit owners.
The tremendous increase in the
popularity of this technology is principally a function of a more thorough approach to life cycle stallations. The external beam de sign, shown in the photograph of costs, including elimination of cor rosion, cleaning of the tank sur the anaerobic digestion plant under faces, expandability, as well as the construction, results in only glass being exposed to the products of Regional Municipality of Niagara Garner Road ability to relocate at a very low cost. anaerobic digestion. With a special biosolids storage facility. A third tank was erected One of the most intriguing aspects of this technology is the asset value glass coating, designed specifically in less than two weeks. for this application, long, maintenance- has become a concern for the wastewater of the tankage system at some point in free life is the norm. This application industry at large. The inert corrosion- time in the future. Whether it be 20 or can be used for a new grass-roots facil resistant capability of glass-fused-to- 30 years, the tank could still have sig nificant value if it is no longer required ity as well as replacement covers. steel technology eliminates this prob The wastewater industry has recog lem. More and more, municipalities, for service. For more information, nized the significant increase in hydro owners and engineers are looking at circle reply card No. 129 gen sulphide gas over the past 15-20 long-term solutions to the elimination
I?. N T A 1.
AUDITORS (CANADA) LTD.
Portable liquid storage for fuel or hazardous liquids
As a leader in the provision of environmental risk management solutions, Environmental Auditors
(Canada) Ltd. requires an Envi ronmental Engineer/Technologist to join our team. The successful candidate must
have five or more years experi ence in Air Quality Management, Regulatory Approvals, Audits, Industrial Hygiene and/or Assess ments.
Interested candidates should mail or fax their resume no later than
June 15th, 2001. No phone calls please. Environmental Auditors(Canada)Ltd. 100 York Boulevard, Suite 240 Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1J8 Fax:(905) 886 7967
Only those candidates selected for
Environmentally safe liquid storage for fuel, or other hazardous liquids, is now manufactured in Canada to withstand Canadian weather conditions and meet Underwriters' Laboratories Standards.
The Wyevale Fuel Cell meets ULG/0RD-C142.16-1994: •Two hour fire test.
• Baiiistic test to 30 caliber steei jacket sheii. • impact test - 5 tonne at 1.5 metres. The Wyevale Fuel Cell design: • 3/16" custom built 500 gallon steei inner tank. • 1" solid fibregiass insulation. •fair space. • interior of concrete outer sheii is finished with three coats of epoxy paint. • Exterior is a three coat maintenance free, attractive factory finish.
The Wyevale Fuel Ceil is portable and simple to install or relocate. A key feature of the original new design of the Wyevale Fuel Ceil is its sealed top which can be removed, if necessary, to replace or repair the inner steei tank.
interviews will be contacted.
Wyevale Containment Ltd.
For more information see www.environmentalauditors.com
P.O. Box 100, Wyevale, ON L0L2T0 Tel: (705) 322-2845, Fax:(705) 322-0522 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 116 (See page 25)
Storage Tanks & Containment
The evolution of protected storage tanks
PLASTICS LIMITED ue to the discovery of an underground fuel storage tank (UST) leak in Florida in 1983 and subsequent leaking UST discoveries,environmental agencies in the United States realized that some types of USTs were culprits in polluting the groundwater and began pushing for regulations on underground tanks.
sembly in that it provides protection from ballistics, impact (such as by a ve hicle), and fire. Typically, the primary containment is a steel tank. The second
ary containment, which is always an in tegral part of the unit, can be a high-den sity polyethylene and concrete assembly, a coated concrete system, or a second
In 1986, a business
man, trying to meet the growing requirements of the environmental and fire
protection regulations for storing petroleum prod ucts (fuels) in California, designed and introduced the first protected aboveground storage tank (AST) system under the brand name of Con Vault.
The result was to provide a safe, durable means of
Three 12,000 (US) gallon ConVault ASTs installed in Canada.
storing flammable and combustible liquids (specifically petro leum fuels) above ground, within close proximity to buildings and property lines, that met regulatory requirements. In 1993, ConVault introduced the
protected AST to Canada, meeting the requirements of ULC/ORD-C142.5 Concrete Encased Tank Assemblies,
The Leading Designer & Fabricator of Corrosion Resistant Plastic Pollution
Control Equipment, Fume Scrubbers, Ventilation Systems & Exhaust Stacks.
Forty Years experience using FRP, Thermoplastic, & ArmourplasticÂŽ (Thermoplastic-lined FRP). FABRICATED PLASTICS LIMITED
2175 Teston Rd., Maple (Toronto) Canada
passing the required testing, and subse quently receiving a ULC/ORD/142.16 Protected Tank Assemblies Listing. This listing required a unique furnace burn test that was passed by the ConVault protected AST. The US Environmental Protection
Agency(EPA)passed a mandate in 1988 requiring all USTs to be upgraded by December of 1998. Environment Canada
issued similar requirements in 1994, with a deadline of 2000. As a result, many companies began manufacturing pro tected ASTs to meet the growing demand. Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) re sponded by creating (with the help of in dustry) a new listing for Protected and Insulated ASTs, titled UL2085.
layer of steel with insulation between the primary and secondary steel tanks. Many of the styles of protected tanks are heavy and/or provide restraints, which also provide movement restric tion in the case of earthquake, flood, or high winds. Today, protected ASTs are used for fuel storage by a wide variety of gov ernment agencies and businesses. These include all branches of the US and
Canadian governments, including but not limited to the military, coastguard, national parks system, and federal in frastructure management groups. Other protected tank users include state and pro vincial governments,local governments, fire departments, forestry, agriculture, utilities, hospitals, golfcourses, marinas, schools, universities, cemeteries, bus
companies, and rental car companies. Although the primary usage of a pro tected AST is for petroleum product stor age, they can be used to store certain chemicals including chemicals that might be flammable or combustible. Due to the
Phone;(905) 832-8161 Fax:(905) 832-2111
A protected AST is distinct from
nature of chemicals,each chemical must
some traditional steel-tank-on-a-stand or
a double walled/contained steel tank as-
info@fabricatedplastiGS.com Web: www.fabricatedplastics.com
By David P. Harris,
be individually evaluated to ensure that it is compatible with the unit, or if a liner can be provided to ensure compatibility. For more information, circle reply card No. 130
For more information,
circle reply card No. 171
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
storage Tanks & Containment
Cathodic protection of water storage tanks saves money-a case study
Once it has been constructed,
the greatest expense for a steel water storage tank owner is ongoing mainte nance. Inspections and coatings main tenance are critical to maintain the ex
country. Cathodic protection has been proven to double, triple or even quadru ple the life of the interior submerged coating, thereby saving the owners tens or even hundreds of thousands of dol lars over the life of the tank.
a municipality in Wisconsin. Tank inspections performed in 1999 revealed the submerged surfaces of both tanks to be in excellent condition with
no corrosion. The original coating in the 200,000 gallon tank was intact and
terior appearance of the storage tank and to prevent corrosion on the in terior dry surface areas. Interior wet
re-coat was necessary. The original coating in the 500,000 gallon tank
surface areas are a different matter
had failed in some areas; however,
and prudent owners apply cathodic protection in conjunction with appro priate coatings to prevent corrosion
where the cathodically protected steel was exposed, no corrosion was
and extend the life of the coating. The submerged surface areas en
This case study reveals that the use of cathodic protection systems has prevented corrosion while pre serving the coatings on the sub
no immediate recommendation to
dure the most corrosive environment
in a tank. Coatings used for total immersion must withstand a number
merged areas of the steel tanks for
of harsh conditions such as constant
more than 36 years. In each case, cathodic protection has eliminated the need for as many as three and possibly four interior wet surface area re-coatings. The estimated cost savings to the owner are more than
water permeation to the substrate and ice damage in the northern cli mates. If the tank is left unprotected, these and other factors often lead to
costly premature coating failure and serious corrosion damage. Cathodic protection for water storage tanks has been recom mended by the steel plate fabrica tors, independent tank inspection companies and owners throughout the
By John Aru, Corrpro Canada inc.
Two examples of the value of using cathodic protection in conjunction with coatings, are the 500,000 US gallon el evated tank built in 1962 and the 200,000
US gallon elevated tank built in 1964 for
This is only one of countless ex amples where the application of ca thodic protection to steel water stor age tanks has proven to be a costeffective means for long-term corrosion protection and interior coating life ex tension.
For more information, circle reply card No. 131
.i DONSON ENGINEERING AND
" CONTRACTING LIMITED is the exclusive source for Permastore tanks and
silos in Canada, supplying integrated design, construction and warranty programs. 191 Booth Rd. North Bay, Ontario,
Your competitive advantage for PERNASTORE Glass-Fused-to-Steel
Tel:(705) 474-4759, Fax:(705) 474-904! E-Mail: email@example.com
Storage Tanks and Silos. Low Cost, Long Life, Low Maintenance Rapid Installation, Over 40,000 Tanks installed in 70 Countries, Excellent Corrosion Resistance.
Biosolids Storage, Anaerobic Digester Covers and Tanks, Aeration Tanks, Clarifier Tank Shells, Potable Water Standplpes and Resevoirs, Industrial Waste Storage and Process Tankage
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 132 (See page 25)
Storage Tanks & Containment
Massive HCL storage tanks for high earthquake zone in the Far East
A recentcontract was awarded to Fabricated Plastics Lim
ited (Fabco) by one of the world's largest chlor-alkali producers, in the Far East. The factory required six storage tanks to be used in its epichlorhydrin(ECH)production fa cility, which produces the base compo nent for epoxy resin. Each of the six tanks would store
1,000 cubic metres of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid,in concentrations rang ing between 21% and 30% at a tempera ture of 80Â°C. Added to the challenge of designing each of the huge tanks for their extremely aggressive contents was the fact that the plant was located in an area with frequent and high seismic activity. The first challenge was the problem of manufacturing. As the tanks would contain a highly corrosive material, it was critical that they be produced seam less below the liquid level. For tanks of more moderate dimensions this would
not present a problem. But tanks of such enormous proportions, with their corre sponding hydrostatic loads, would have to be built by filament winding under controlled factory conditions. This also necessitated an innovative approach to manufacturing whereby the filament winding was able to continue for ex tended time periods (in excess of 36 hours) by employing a "delayed curing" method. The resin was specially formu
la Two of the tanks being loaded onto a barge, close to west coast fabrication plant. lated to ensure that it remained uncured
during the winding process and then achieved full cure once the winding was complete. To accommodate these unique manu facturing processes, an existing factory located near a west coast seaport was selected, having easy access to river barges and to ocean-going vessels. Active seismic activity at the tanks' final destination made the anchoring system a vitally important design con sideration. The tanks were designed with a unique integral hoop wound shear collar with 36 anchor bolts, each hav-
ing a structural steel anchor dog and a pull out force of95,000 lbs. In an earth
quake,the tanks would sway but the firm anchoring system would eliminate the possibility of them toppling over. The only joints in the entire construc tion were above the maximum liquid
level and were required to attach a dished head to each tank. Each head was fabri
cated as a one-piece construction by the hand-layup method and to save costly shipping space,they were built 18" high instead of the conventional 48". Extra
stiffening was also laminated into the heads to counteract the decrease in size.
A series of interconnecting walkways was required for each of the tank tops. Eabco took advantage of this to further strengthen and stiffen the entire con struction by building and using the sup ports for the walkways as an integral part of the layout of the tank tops. Upon successful completion of de sign, engineering and manufacturing, there was still the significant problem of shipping the huge tanks to their final destination, halfway round the world. The manufacturing location had been carefully chosen, in close proximity to a major waterway,so that the equipment could be placed onto barges and then transported to the seaport. Maneuvering the tanks on and off the barges required a creative arrangement of portable jacks to hoist them off the trucks so that the
One of the tanks being transported through the plant to its final destination, The tanks had to be lifted over pipe bridges and other obstructions. 56
trucks could then be driven away,allowContiimed overleaf
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
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STRENGTH OF STEEL, CORROSiON RESISTANCE OF ALUMINUM Field tests prove ALUMINIZED STEEL™ TYPE 2 corrugated steel pipe delivers superior longevity. Corrugated steel pipes inspected at 52 sites with variable environments showed the superior corrosion resistance of the ALUMINIZED STEEL™ Type 2 coating. *Basecl on field studies of42 to 43-year-oid instaiiations, Aiuminized Steer Type 2service iife is estimated to be 75 years minimum for l.6mm waii thickness in environments with a pH between 5 and 9 and a resistivity of at ieast 1500 ohm-cm. For more information, contact the Armtec office near you.
Photos of two-inch diameter coupons removed from pipe inverts in 1995.
Decatur County, KS
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Head Office & intemational Sales: 15 Campbell Road, Guelph, Ontario NIH 6P2 Website: www.armtec.com
Sales Offices: Nanalmo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbrldge, Grande Prairie, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Guelph, Toronto, Peterborough, Ottawa, Quebec City, Montreal, Sackvllle, Halifax, St. John's and Bishop's Falls.
Storage Tanks & Containment Tank Specifications Capacity: 1,000 cubic metres (264,200 U.S. gallons) Size: 30 ft diameter x 50 ft high (9.14 m 0 X 15.24 m high) Weight: Empty 47,000 kg (103,615 lbs) Full 1,146,460 kg (2,527,469 lbs) Pressure: +250mm/-25mm water column
Temperature: 80 degrees Celsius Seismic shear coefficient: 0.30
Design wind ioad: 280 kg/m squared Resin: Vinyl Ester throughout, Dow Derakane 441 -400 for the corrosion liner and Derakane 411-45 for the structural
portion of the shell.
ing the jacks to lower their cargo into
position. Following this, a series of slings and straps was used to lift the equipment by stevedore crane,from the barges onto the ship's deck. When the tanks arrived at their des
tination, the whole loading procedure was reversed. Secured to special trucks at the customer's dock, the equipment was driven through the vast chemical complex to its final destination. At some
All six tanks positioned and secured to their concrete pads, Just before an earth quake, registering 6.5 on the RIchter Scale, hits the area.
points along the route, the tanks had to be lifted by cranes over the top of pipe bridges and other obstacles and then re loaded onto the flatbed trucks to con
tinue their arduous journey. With the tanks firmly anchored to their concrete pads, an opportunity to prove their engineering design and
manufacture occurred. Only one month after erection, an earthquake registering 6.5 on the Richter Scale shook the area,
causing massive destruction in sur rounding cities and towns. The huge tanks were unaffected.
For more information,
circle reply card No. 115
For all your storage solutions Aquastore
- Glass fused to steel Tanks for Potable water, Wastewater Leachate Storage, Industrial Water Storage
- Mixing Systems for both new or existing steel and concrete tanks
Flat and Geodesic Aluminum Covers
GREATARIO ENGINEERED STORAGE SYSTEMS P.O. Box 399, County Rd. 4, Innerkip, Ontario, NOJ IMO Tel:(519)469-8169• Fax:(519)469-8157• E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 58
For more information, circle reply card No. 128 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
k.Water Environment Federation*
' Presi'niii^ c-I-jiJxind'ig
the Global Mitter EmironmvtU
WEF 2001 Specialty Conference Series - Connecting you to a higher level of expertise
2001- A Collection Systems Odyssey: Integrating O&M and Wet Weather Issues Doubletree Hotel - Bellevue Center
Bellevue, Washington U.S.A. July 8- 11, 2001 Held in cooperation with the Pacific Northwest Pollution Control Association iJs
Specifically Designed for:
The 2001 Collection Systems conference combines wet weather and operations and maintenance topics. Attend this conference to examine approaches to issues of
• • • • •
efficiency and effectiveness in the design, O
operation, maintenance, and management of sewer collection systems while focusing on environmental impacts. In-depth technical sessions will provide you with a forum for discussing topics related to small, medium, and large utility wastewater and stormwater collection systems, and the preconference workshop gives you the opportunity to hear a clear description of the components of the Sanitary Sewer Overflow (SSO) policy. In addition, you will have the chance to gain an understanding of the latest Capacity, Management, Operations and Maintenance (CMOM) regulations. Join Industry professionals for the chance to share your Insights and experiences while enhancing your professional development. We look forward to seeing you in Bellevue!
Utility Managers Wastewater Collection System Managers Wastewater Collection System Operators Engineering Consultants Managers/Owners of Contract Operation Firms
• State and Federal Regulators
For More Information: visit WEF's Web Site: www.wef.org E-mail: email@example.com Call WEF's Fax on Demand
(Select document #2900): 1-800-444-2933 or 1-703-684-2401 If outside the U.S. & Canada Call: 1-800-666-0206 or 1-703-684-2452 if outside the U.S. & Canada
For more Information, circle reply card No. 117 (See page 25)
Storage Tanks & Containment
First bolted steel tank for potable water built In Newfoundland
With the development of a new groundwater sys tem,the town ofStephenville, Newfoundland, re
quired additional storage for potable water. This need was addressed with the
construction of two bolted glass-fusedto-steel tanks, each covered with an
aluminum geodesic dome. The contract
for this construction project was awarded to Greatario Engineered Stor age Systems of Innerkip, Ontario. BAE Newplan Group Ltd. designed and su pervised the development of the Stephenville water system. The work involved the manufacture,
shipment, and installation of two 24 metre diameter by 10.5 metre tall
M-ri 1 I
Aquastore® Glass-fused-to-Steel Tanks and two 24 metre Temcor® Aluminum
Domes. This equates to a total storage capacity of 9,000 cubic metres. Due to
and dome allowed the construction ma
the remote location of the construction
terials to be shipped by both tmck and feiTy. Once the tanks were delivered to
site, the bolt-together design of the tank
site, both tanks were erected in six weeks.
Aquastore tanks are erected from ground level using a unique jacking sys tem. A series ofjacks are placed around the periphery of the tank interior and connected to a common drive. As one
ring is completed, the entire tank is jacked, r eady for the next ring of glassfused-to-steel sheets.
The interior of the tank is treated with
a special cold climate glass formulation which turns the interior tank colour
cream. The exterior of tank is the stand ard cobalt blue colour.
WORRY FREE UNDERGROUND STORAGE Canada's #1 Selling Fiberglass Tanks
Never worry about corrosion againl
For additional sheet protection, all of the sheet edges in the installation have been mechanically rounded and flame sprayed with a stainless steel alloy, the glass is then sprayed on the sheets in multiple steps and baked on to promote a chemical and physical bond with the
When regulations require secondary containment,
ZCL's Prezerver™ double wall tanks are your best solution. Corrosion free Internally and externally, ZCL tanks do not require expensive cathodic protection and are maintenance-free. Both primary and secondary wails are made of 100% fiberglass reinforced plasfic mechanically bonded together to form a unitized construction that provides superior strength and performance. Safe for storage of all fuel fypes and most hazardous liquids.
Photo is taken inside the tank under con
struction. Compieted tank appears in the background. Visible is the glass-fused-
to-steei floor and top ring of steel along with the frame of the aluminum dome.
For more information, circie repiy card No. 153 Need to hire qualified and experi enced staff? ES&E reaches over
ZCLnttI COMPOSITES INC.
For More Info Call Toll Free Today!
visit us at www.zcl.com 1-800-661-8265 60
19,000 water, wastewater and en
vironmental protection profession als across Canada.
For more information, circle reply card No. 118 (See page 25)
Call us at:(905)727-4666 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Small surface water systems use membrane filters to remove disinfection by-product precursors
TwoCanadian instal ations are
ucts rule in the US,and new regulations
remove the undesirable dissolved or
demonstrating the effective
in Ontario -could soon force small, ru
ness of nanofiltration mem
ral communities to seek solutions that
ganic materials. The membranes also block the passage of oocysts, bacteria and viruses, along with undesirable metals, including manganese and iron. A portion of the input water crosses the
branes in removing dissolved organic materials from surface water used for drinking in many small, rural
effectively remove organic matter prior to chlorination. A new nanofiltration membrane fil
tration process, now available in North plants economically remove organics America from PCI Membrane Systems, (mostly humic and fulvic acids) that, Inc., Milford, Ohio, promises effective after chlorination, yield undesirable dis water treatment without high capital infection by-products such as TTHM costs or heavy labour requirements. The (trihalomethanes) and HAA(5) Fyne Process, as it is called, was first (haloacetic acids) in the treated water. used to clean peaty surface waters in Scotland. Now this membrane-filtration While both Canadian and US regu lations limit the presence ofTTHMs and process has over 30 PCI installations HAA(5)s in municipal water systems, running or on order with the three Scot until recently, many small communities tish Water Authorities. Systems as small that rely on surface water for drinking as(US) 1.8 gal/min (10 mVday) and as have been exempt from these limits. large as 260 gal/min (1420 mVday) are However, new, more stringent drinking currently operating. The Fyne Process starts with raw water rules in North America - includ ing Stage 1 of the Disinfection By-Prod- water, which is drawn into the system through a coarse screen and pumped By David Pearson, GM, through modules, consisting of propri PCI Membrane Systems, Inc. etary half-inch tubular membranes, to communities. The membrane filtration
PLASTICS INC. J
Quality Assurance is our #1 Priority
membrane and this "filtrate" then is
ready for chlorination and delivery to consumers. Another portion of the in put water (the concentrate or retentate) continues to flow through the membrane tube, carrying much of the retained or ganic matter with it. Because no chemi cals are used in the process, the dis charge water is merely a more concen trated form of raw water, which can be returned to the source.
Operation is simple and automated, so the plant can run unattended, with in tervention on no more than a weekly basis for routine maintenance. Pressure
and flow data are logged continuously and the system can even be monitored remotely when an outside telephone line Continued overleaf
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For more information, circle reply card No. 260 (See page 25)
For more information, circle reply card No. 155 (See page 25)
Drinking Water is available. The low maintenance re
rated capacity 26.2 gal/min(143 mVday),
quirements are due to the fact that small systems like this use tubular membrane filters, which can be kept clean by peri odically passing a foam ball down the length of the tube.
with a 20-year projected demand of 56
gpm/ 305mVday. The new installation replaced a small packaged water treat-
and colour normally in the 40-100 TCU range. The intake is taken through a 3mm screen and piped to a sump under the water treatment plant room. There is no additional filtration or treat
ment prior to the membrane
These tubular membranes need
chemical cleaning only three to four times per year. The first Fyne system was in
lake. When a chemical clean is
Reject water is fed back to the necessary, these chemicals are sent by separate drain to a wastewater treatment lagoon. The system was competitively bid, and although initial capital costs were higher, the Fyne proc ess was chosen from a variety of
stalled in North America in Feb
ruary 2000 at Chapel Island First Nation in Nova Scotia, and has
been running full-time ever since. A second, smaller system began operating in June 2000 at The Tl'azt'en Nation community of
different treatment methods be
Middle River in British Columbia.
In addition, a Fyne Process membrane filtration plant in stalled to process highly organic surface water in Barrow, Arkan sas, was tested and verified un der the US Environmental Pro
This compact membrane filtration system at Chapei is land First Nation in Nova Scotia, was the first such sys
tection Agency Packaged Water tem instaiied in North America. Treatment Plant Verification Program. ment plant using coagulation and filtra Early North American results tion technology that required expansion Chapel Island is a small First Nation and significant refurbishment. Community located east of Halifax, Nova Raw water is taken from a shallow Scotia. The system was installed with a lake with typical TOC levels of 8 mg/1
cause of its lower overall life cy cle cost. The system also is de signed to allow simple plant ex pansion. The plant has been run above its design capacity since instal lation, producing on average 155
mVday, operating each day for 21.4 hrs on process. It was cleaned only twice in the first 12 months after start
up and was to have been cleaned for the third time around its first anniversary. The plant did experience a significant
Davnor A M
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DavnorA manufactures and sells modular intermittently operated slow sand filters and slow sand filter systems for treatment of potable water. Davnori BloSand Water Filters:
very (ijitekAas its reward wastewater
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♦Operated and maintained manually or automaticaiiy. ♦Perform as well or better than traditionally designed slow sand filters at a traction of the cost. Performance independently verified. ♦Approved tor treatment of potable water by several federal and provincial agencies. 4007 - 23 rd St. NE
Calgary, Alberta, T2E 6T3 T.N. (403) 219-3363, Fax: (403) 219-3373 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.davnor.com
For more information, circle reply card No. 156 (See page 25)
For more information, circie reply card No. 157 (See page 25)
Drinking Water increase in pressure over a short period, when cleaning of the inlet works cre ated an influx of sediment into the raw
water sump. Although the sediment re mained in the inlet line for a number of
Lift pumps provide water to the plant with
very similar to Chapel Island. Middle River runs at higher pressure due to pro portionately lower membrane area in stalled. Corrected pressure rose at a con
a 2.5-mm screen at the intake.
The plant was delivered in and con tinues to operate in a heated and venti lated 40-ft container, complete with
days,the membrane plant con tinued to produce its rated vol ume of water, albeit at a higher operating pressure, until its second partial clean a month
stant rate until the first membrane clean, which was scheduled for four
after the incident.
Middle River performance The Tl'azt'en Nation com
months after first operation of the plant. This clean was not entirely effective and a second clean was performed shortly after to establish if any signifi cant irreversible fouling was occurring. Cleaning concen
Posl-treatmer munity of Middle River is a trations and duration were in small village located on a river creased and the plant returned northwest of Prince George, to within 96% of its early-nor British Columbia. The plant malized flux. Potable Water operated initially as a sixRegular analysis of feed month pilot to test its suitabil As raw water flows through the membrane tubes, a portion water and filtrate is also made. ity for operation in a remote (the filtrate) crosses the membrane and then Is ready for TOC reductions improved community. CH2M Hill chlorlnatlon and delivery to consumers. from 30% to 70% over the first Canada monitors performance of the membrane wash tank, chlorine dosing 200 hours of operation and have re system for the Department ofIndian and and contact tanks, and 1100-gallon stor mained consistently low. Iron and man Northern Affairs Canada. At the end of age. Reject from the plant is sent to a ganese were also significantly reduced. the pilot period it was decided to pur sump tank overflowing back to the river. While data on TTHM concentrations are chase the unit. To protect the environment, a separate limited, formation-potential tests indi The Fyne plant, which has a design tank is used to contain washing chemi cate levels well within current Canadian capacity of 5.8 gal/min(22 l/min), oper cals that can then be taken away by guidelines. ates with six PCI ClO filtration modules. tanker truck. For more information, Raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Performance of the system has been circie repiy card No. 160
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For more information, circle reply card No. 159 (See page 25)
Zebra mussel resistant materials
Thezebra mussels that have in
vaded the Great Lakes region have created many serious problems for those relying on
lakes and rivers in the area for their
and replacement of the screen.
material does not lose effectiveness over
Since the screen intakes are so
strongly affected by the attachment of zebra mussels,a solution had to be found
to prevent their attachment.
time, does not affect the environment
and does not require reapplication dur ing service. A passive intake design allows un
water sources. Ironically, while these
Johnson Screens, a division of US
obtrusive continuous intake of water
bodies of water have seen some benefits
Filter, is a US manufacturer of passive
without moving parts to wear out or ex-
from the continuous siphoning of contaminants by the mussels,
eessive noise to disturb the envi
ronment. The high efficiency control of flow velocity near the
their choice of residence has had
a profound effect on the perform ance of the systems used to draw
screen surface allows fish and
raw water intake systems, it
other wildlife to avoid being en trapped by the screen, while re ducing the possibility of debris attaching to the screen cylinders. The patented design for flow con
blocks the available area of
trol allows for the most efficient
the screens used to prevent the in
screen design. Also, a Hydroburst system, which uses com pressed air to purge the screen surface, can be employed to fur ther reduce any possibility of in terruptions of operation due to
the water to its intended location. As the zebra mussel attaches to the outside surfaces of these
take of undesirable matter and
protect the surrounding environ ment. As more of the screen be
comes blocked, the velocity of the flow through the screen in maintenance. creases given the same volumet In addition to the passive in ric flow requirements. This will cause increased pressure drops Johnson Z-Alloy screens remain clean even in infested take, Z-Alloy can be used in a variety of screen configurations through the screen, and increases waters. intake screens and fish diversion panels including fish diversion screens, trash in the pumping capacity required. Even racks, inline strainers or other custom tually, given the rapid proliferation of for use in lakes, streams, rivers and res zebra mussels, the screen will become ervoirs. The company has developed a geometries. Challenging shapes that completely blocked, requiring cleaning proprietary alloy that resists attachment require special forming, welding or other fabrication techniques will not re by costly diving operations or shutdown of zebra mussels. A physical examina tion of a Z-Alloy screen in an actual duce the alloy's effectiveness against the By Michael Ekholm, B.Sc., power plant intake application in Lake zebra mussel. Application Engineer, Coupling the proven efficient design Michigan discovered that the mussels Johnson Screens, MN had not attached to the screen even af of the passive intake screen with a (A Division of USFIIter) ter more than six years of service. The zebra mussel resistant alloy, creates an
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For more Information, circle reply card No. 161 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Invasive Species Z-Alloy is free of attachment. There can be seen some normal light debris(which would be cleared during a Hydroburst air backwash cycle), but no permanent
initial intake solution that does not have
their scheduled maintenance dive in
problems with zebra mussels. A wide array of special alloys and metal treatments were investigated be fore the current material, Z-Alloy, was
November 1999. The images obtained clearly show how well the Z-Alloy ma terial is working against zebra mussels.
formulated. This material could be used
stainless steal structure, the full surface
Alloy screens were not cleaned since the
to fabricate the VEE-WIRE screens used
of the assembly was not protected from attachment by the Z-Alloy material. The side of the joining flange that is
initial installation and have not caused
in the Johnson Intakes (as well as the non-screen components). Initial Testing The material was first tested in cou
As the screens were attached to a 304
attachment of zebra mussels.
made from the 304 material is covered
any interruption of service due to block age for any reason. For more information,
by zebra mussels. The side made from
circie repiy card No. 168
pon form in Lake St. Clair between 1990 and 1993. The coupon and screen seg ment tests were later conducted in Lake
Michigan. The coupons made from the Z-Alloy material, showed little or no attachment over extended periods of time. Coupons of other material(Acryl ics, 304 stainless steel), did show sig nificant densities of zebra mussels
(598,000 /m2 for the 304 stainless screens). Coated materials tended to
oxidize, and were ruled out as potential candidates for an effective long-term so lution. At the conclusion of the coupon tests, a site was chosen in Lake Michi
gan for a full-scale test of the alloy. The J.H. Campbell power plant, lo cated on the eastern side of Lake Michi
gan, was chosen for the first fully op erational screen test site. The operators of the plant had used the passive intake screens for several years, but had re cently been experiencing problems with zebra mussels attaching to and block ing the screens. Access covers had to be installed on the existing screens to facilitate the frequent cleaning by divers required to allow the screens to operate. In many cases, even this was not ad equate to keep up with the proliferation of the mussels. The screens were peri odically lifted out and cleaned on shore
When you need to rent air monitoring equipment, you need it right away. So when you need it right away, call Ashtead Technology. Availability and quick delivery are critical requirements when you rent air monitoring and sampling equipment. We know, because renting is all we do. We specialize in rental instruments for virtually any air monitoring application, from PIDs to FIDs, CEMs and ambient air testing and sampling. We stock hundreds of reliable instruments from all the major manufac turers. Most instruments ship overnight, to just about anywhere in Canada. Or you can arrange for local pickup and delivery at our Mississauga office. Next time you're ready to rent air monitoring equipment, call the supplier whose business is renting. Call us. Call Ashtead Technology.
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Independent ranges for NO, NOj, N0â€ž Highly accurate, built-in data acquisition
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to clear the 1-3" of mussels from the
screen surface. During one of these re
movals and reinstallations, a screen
made from Z-Alloy was retrofitted onto one of the operational intake assembhes. These screens were installed in 1993
and showed very good results in their initial performance. The element not fully tested in the coupon and initial screen tests, was how well the Z-Alloy would perform over an extended period of time. The only way to test this ele ment was to keep the screen installed
Linear over entire range, continuous measurement of total hydrocarbons or VOC concentrations
and examine the condition of the screen
of O2, CO, NO, NO2, SO2
at regular intervals to verify the effec tiveness of the alloy against zebra mus sels.
Latest Update Operators at the J.H. Campbell plant
There's a lot more! Call now for a free catalog with specifications for all our air monitoring and other environmental instrument rentals.
brought a video camera with them on Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
For more information, circle reply card No. 150 (See page 25)
To Ethiopia and back in a hurry -a consuitant's story
In 1987,following the Sudan and
Ethiopia famines, my wife Trudy and I volunteered to work in Ethio
pia. HOPE International, a Non Government Organization(NGO),with its head office in New Westminster, BC,took a chance on us. HOPE Inter
would empower the villagers and, most importantly, the women of the villages, to maintain the systems. This would have to include an educational element
and some sort of long-term financing. Including women in village water com mittees is extremely important because
national is a fairly small but very experienced NGO and they specialize in long-term rehabilitation projects in the
ing rig, and discuss the overall situation with Ato Tilahun Sarka, the General
Manager of the government's overall drilling enterprise of which HOPE is a part. In the following days I was to meet with Ato Tsegaye (a HOPE donor and worker), in Nazareth and also with Mr. Maury MiloffofCIDA. So at 6:00 a.m. on Satur
day morning I was trudging across the tarmac to board a
small plane to Arbaminch in the south. The way into the plane was by standard aluminum steps and this is where my mission for HOPE was to end abruptly. I had reached the top platform of the steps when I missed my footing and tumbled halfway down until caught by other boarding passengers. My
Although HOPE help with reforestation, village women community develop ment,etc., they specialize in water and irrigation projects which suited me just fine. Trudy and I earlier had spent a year in Awassa, a small town located about 400 km south of Addis Ababa where
we really caught the magic
awkward fall, however, had
of Africa. Before we left we
caused a bad break in the up per femur of my leg. As I lay there, before any pain started, I remembered the prophetic words of Trudy: "Isn't it kind of stupid to be
had dug 32 new wells (us ing a TH 60 Rotary Drill donated by a HOPE sup porter in Western Canada) "God kno ws, the villagers need water." - Bill Ainiey. and established 26 water
systems ranging from simple hand pumps to basic mechanical pumping, elevated storage and distribution sys tems. (The design criteria set by the gov ernment was 80 litres/person/day). It was a HOPE success story. In 1993, I was again retained by HOPE as a volunteer (all expenses, no salary), to tour all the water sites we had established and report on their condition. This was a three week tour and the re
sults weren't good in that only about 1/3 of the systems were still working, due to poor maintenance. During the 3,000 km trip, my two Ethiopian friends and I talked to the villagers at every site and came away with some strong ideas on how to rectify various situations. Finally in 2000, HOPE gave me the chance I'd hoped for to revisit the area. I was retained to look into the possibil ity of developing a new well drilling and spring capping program and, most im portantly in my eyes, establish a water system maintenance program which
By William Ainiey, P.Eng., Chairman, The Ainiey Group 66
it is traditionally women's duty to pro vide water for the family. On Thursday, November 23, 2000,1 left Toronto on a Lufthansa flight to
traipsing around Africa at your age?" Such is the speed of human thought and so powerful are the words of a faithful wife!
travel via Frankfurt to Addis Ababa,the
A few seconds after that incisive
capital of Ethiopia. I checked into the
thought I started to yell as the ever-help ful Ethiopians began to carry me, limb by limb down the stairs. Speaking in a loud voice - I think I even managed a roar - I managed to get them to set me down in a crumpled heap on the bottom step while they fetched a wheelchair from the Airport Building. In the lobby I placed my leg into a somewhat less painful position and dialed the cell phone of my faithful friend Tibebu - HOPE'S agent in Addis Ababa and my one lifeline. Tibebu responded immediately and quite soon an ambulance arrived and I was placed on a stretcher and whisked off to St. Gabriel Hospital - Catholic I think and certainly private. There I was well looked after with lots of morphine shots and tender loving care. Eventu ally an ex-army doctor arrived from the big Black Lion public hospital and calmly picked my foot up, pulled at my
Sheridan, built mainly I guess for Oil Sheiks'R&R because it is the most luxu
rious hotel I have ever seen. I was sup posed to be met at the airport by a HOPE representative and taken to some more modest accommodation but, through some slip-up, I missed my contact and the Sheridan salesman at the airport made things so easy for me I finished up at his luxurious hotel. A lucky break I thought. The next day we got back on track and Ato Tibebu, the HOPE agent in Addis, picked me up at the hotel and I spent the day being briefed on my itin erary and what was hoped for from my report. The itinerary scheduled me to leave Addis early to take a flight into the Southern region where HOPE was constructing water springs. Then I was to drive slowly back through the route
just flown, visit the HOPE rotary drill
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Overseas Consulting leg a bit and twisted it into the straight line he preferred. Amazingly this didn't hurt, either I was too far gone on mor phine or by pulling my foot he separated the bones in my upper leg and thus al lowed him to twist the flesh. Anyway it tumed out he'd done lots of wounds dur
ing his service in the war. He offered to set mine but my heart was in St. Mike's in Toronto and I wished my broken leg to go too.
The doctor agreed there were more advanced techniques in Canada so after straightening my leg to his satisfaction he placed it in traction by tying one end of a piece of rope to my ankle and the other to a bag of sand which he hung over the end of the bed. I was now more or less comfortable
thanks to the skills of my Ethiopian sur geon, lots of drugs and wonderful care from many nurses. They had an endear ing habit of coming into my room in the middle of the night and, after miming the universal need for sleep (with their heads resting on their clasped hands) throwing themselves on the spare bed with a sigh of content where they'd sleep for an hour or more.
Meanwhile,poorTibebu was desper ately trying to arrange transportation to get me home and out of his busy life. He had to arrange - with a very bureau cratic Lufthansa - to take out six seats
to make room for my stretcher. He also
Drawing water is traditionaliy women's work, so a new weli is a happy event for any viliage in Ethiopia.
over my leg with the large donutjammed into my groin and the small donut firmly tied to my foot. This ingenious device was especially appropriate for a wounded man in my profession. At 10 o'clock on Tuesday night, I was carried downstairs by about a dozen will ing helpers. As there were no wheels on
to meet and help transport me the rest of the way. Trudy is a Registered Nurse, albeit a bit rusty, so she was able to take over the job of caring for me. My trusty Ethiopian nurse gave her a quick re fresher course on how to inject morphine (a key element of our relationship!) and dutifully stayed with us until our plane
the stretcher and no rails in the ambulance
left for Toronto.
this apparently excessive manpower was probably needed to get me safely into the vehicle and then into the plane.
when we arrived at St. Mike's emer
...after straightening my leg to his satisfaction he placed it in traction by tying one end of a piece of rope to my ankle and the other to a bag of sand which he hung over the end of the bed. had to arrange for a Registered Nurse to
Finally we arrived in Frankfurt to
travel with me(Lufthansa rules) and this
confront the German method of han
wasn't easy. Eventually, through the
dling stretcher cases. Two enormous attendants, both young and both very strong arrived with a contraption that looked as if it had been invented during the Spanish Inquisition. It consisted of a metal stretcher split longitudinally but with prongs instead of straight edges. The technique here is to roll you par tially over and jam half of it under, then you are rolled back whilst the other half is jammed in - then the whole unit is locked in place, hopefully without any of your skin in it. I made what I felt was a brave little joke but 1 was sternly ignored and quickly picked up and car ried easily out through the plane to a
combined efforts of the Canadian and
British embassies, we managed to hire a fully qualified, English speaking, Ethiopian nurse with a valid passport and a German visa.
Finally, four days after my fall from grace, my surgeon came in proudly car rying a Thomas Splint which the hospi tal mechanic had made up for my trans portation. This contraption consisted of two metal rings, one about 12" in diam eter and one about 6" in diameter. These
rings were connected together by straight metal rods to form an elongated cone(or cage). For relative comfort the two rings were carefully wrapped in a sponge material which was secured by medical tape. To keep my leg rigid whilst in transit this splint was firmly pushed
One last hitch in my medical travels; gency department we were not expected. Frankly, at this point I didn't care. I was pushed into a corner and I heard the comforting sound of my wife and daugh ter's voices raised in controlled anger and knew nothing could withstand them. It was only bureaucracy's last gasp. Within minutes I was wheeled into
stretcher outside. From there I was taken
the emergency room and my faithful Thomas Splint was mercifully removed (leaving behind bruises I cannot describe for our gentle readers) and the hospital machinery began to smoothly lock into place. My Thomas Splint and the Xray I brought back from Ethiopia, plus the work done by my Ethiopian doctor were duly admired by my Toronto sur geons and they even called me a stout fellow as they twisted my foot one last time,then off to the operating room and road to recovery. What happened to my report which HOPE was depending upon for CIDA financing? Well the package had to be sent in without my contribution. I re gret that very much; however, we at
to the "holding" room at the airport. There, wonder of wonders, my wife Trudy and daughter Sue were waiting
an extra prayer or two. God knows the villages need the water. â?–
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
HOPE have a lot of faith and we added
Waste Disposal Issues
Safety-Kleen issues vigorous response to London Free Press report
An announcement from
solid waste which they have disposed • In addition to the inaccurate charac Safety-Kleen has chal of in our facility. This waste is not a terization of the disposed waste as a "re lenged a London Free Press "release" and is not emitted into either lease", the NPRI duplicates and some report which stated that the the air or the ground. The waste is prop times triplicates the actual waste vol Safety-Kleen facility was the "biggest erly disposed of in accordance with the umes. This arises because the NPRI,for polluter" in Ontario. The article reported Ontario Ministry of Environment's re reasons not understood by Safety-Kleen, the facility "released" 15.5 million kilo quirements. counts the waste at each stage of its hangrams of pollution in a year, and ap peared to suggest that all of this was Safety-Kleen says that the London Free Press story was pollution released into the air. fundamentally inaccurate. The inaccuracy arises as a Safety-Kleen says that the London result of the federal government's National Pollution Release Free Press story was fundamentally in accurate. The inaccuracy arises as a re Inventory (NPRI) process... sult ofthe federal govemment's National Pollution Release Inventory (NPRI) • Waste disposal is fundamentally dif dling, e.g., at the generator, at any inter process, which tracks data reported to ferent than airborne emissions, which is mediary facility which handles waste, them by various facilities in Canada. the primary purpose of the NPRI. Im and finally, when it arrives at their fa The NPRI lists data in ways which are portantly, solid waste accounts for 99% cility, so the same waste could be misleading, particularly for those who of the total volume of waste reported by counted three times. are unfamiliar with how the data is ini Safety-Kleen's facility to the NPRI in Frank Hickling, Director of Opera tially characterized. 1999. The actual amount of air emis tions at Safety-Kleen Limited in Specifically, Safety-Kleen said the sions is only 1,342 kilograms which is Lambton/London, has stated that: "Of the overall volume of waste reported in NPRI information: significantly less than 15.5 million kilo • Erroneously defines as "releases" the grams reported. the NPRI report for Safety-Kleen's Announcement ■
Alex Davidson Joins
regulating the profession
Acres & Associated Environmental Limited
Professional Engineers Bill Chisholm, President of Acres
serving the pubiic
& Associated Environmental Lim
ited(A&A),is pleased to announce that Alex Davidson has joined our firm as a Senior Project Manager with our Engineering Resources Division. Alex will provide project management, engineering design
Professional Engineers Ontario (PEG) licenses professional engineers in ail fields of engineering and regulates engineering practice in Ontario, serves and protects the pubiic interest where engineering is concerned.
and contract administration serv
The association publishes Professional Practice Guidelines for
ices on our water and wastewater
many fields of engineering, which are available by visiting the PEG website at www.peo.on.ca. Printed guidelines and contraa documents can be purchased by completing and returning the website Publications Order Form, or by contacting our publica tions desk. Look for a new Schedule of Suggested Fees for Engineering Services to be published in 2001.
projects. Alex obtained his Bachelor of Engineering Degree from McMaster University in 1982 and a Diploma of General Busi ness from Mohawk College in 1983. He has 18 years experi ence in all phases of complex design and construction projects, including feasibility studies, environmental assessments, final design, contract preparation, tendering, contract administration, QA/QC,commissioning and operator training. Acres & Associated Environmental is a young, dynamic, multi-disciplinary consulting engineering firm which provides a full range of environmental and management services from our offices in Toronto and Niagara Falls. A&A is supported by a combined staff of more than 1,000 from its affiliated companies - Acres International Limited and Associated Engineering Group.
PEG welcomes inquires on professional practice and ethics for engineers and will verify whether individuals or companies are licensed.
Professional Engineers Ontario, 25 Sheppard Avenue West, Suite 1000, Toronto ON M2N 6S9.
Tel.:(416) 224-1100:(800) 339-3716.
Fax: (416) 224-8168;(800) 268-0496.
Tel:(416)622-9502 Internet: www.aae.on.ca
For more Information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)
Waste Disposal Issues Lambton facility in 1999, 85.4 percent came from Canadian sources in general, with 80.9 percent coming from the Ontario steel industry specifically. And while some waste reported in the NPRI report for our facility comes to us from
the US, that waste often has ties to VEHICLE
Canada. For example, the largest US source sent 1.8 million kilograms of NPRI reportable material to the SK Lambton facility, but that US source re cycles over 40 million kilograms of haz ardous waste from Ontario annually. "The NPRI fails to provide the ap propriate context for our landfill facil ity operations in that the NPRI does not acknowledge the majority of the alleged "releases" are actually permitted dis posal operations that are in full compli ance with environmental regulations and which protect the public health and the
FRETES^TATION .WNDnU LEAGHATE SiSOftlfS
Plan of Lambton facility.
now become widely publicized as a re
"We also believe that it is important to note that our high-temperature incin
sult of a Pollution Watch Website, which
erator air emissions are 50 times lower
than the Ontario regulations require, and we are constantly pursuing additional initiatives with the Ontario Ministry of Environment to further reduce incinera tor emissions. The NPRI information has
TMKK STACIHS AREA
publishes this data without any context. "We expect that given the significant
the importance of promoting public un derstanding through making available technically-sound information. How ever, we believe that the Pollution
inaccuracies in how the data are char
Watch/NPRI Website and data are fac
acterized, people may be under a sig nificant misconception as to the limited extent of the releases which actually arise from our facility. We recognize
tually inaccurate and misrepresent the very real pollution prevention and con trol activities that are at the core of
Safety-Kleen's businesses," he stated. ❖
—~ Announcement~~~ BROCKVILLE, ON - (May 2001) Maple Leaf Environmental Equipment Ltd., a Canadian manufacturer and supplier of groundwater/wastewater treatment equipment,site remediation sys tems, air treatment systems, and PLC based control panels, have launched a new corporate logo and brand - MLE Equipment. "Nothing has changed other than the logo and a shortening of the name," said Bruce Lounsbury, President of MLE Equipment. "The technologies we use in the remediation business are also used in several other areas that we plan on expanding into. We don't want to be known solely as a leading provider of environmental products." Since 1992, MLE Equipment has supplied high quality treat ment equipment to the Canadian, United States, and intemational markets. With over 30 years of combined technical experience in petroleum/water separation, water treatment and project manage ment, MLE Equipment staff continues to lead in the design and ap plication of innovative new technologies in the environmental busi ness. As well, MLE's electrical assembly facility recently received UL approval on the production of control panels and PLC systems. MLE Equipment is also the exclusive Canadian distributor for QED Enviromnental Systems,Inc., groundwater sampling and remediation pumps, sample filters, interface meters and air strippers. With an ever-expanding sales force that includes representatives in Virginia, Florida and Massachusetts, MLE Equipment has plans to further expand into the central and western US, as well as diver sify into other fields.
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For further information, please contact: MLE Equipment, Ltd.
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EQUIPMENT Brockville, ON K6T 1A6 Phone: 1-800-420-4056 or (613)498-1876, Fax:(613) 345-7633
URL: http://www.maple-leaf.ca E-mail: email@example.com Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
For more information, circie repiy card No. 152 (See page 25)
Industry Update importation of CFCs in Canada was
First wave generated power station opens
eliminated in 1995.
a small research
wave energy sta
tion on Islay in 1990, and its suc
cessful operation led to development of the Limpet. Limpet uses an oscillating water column in an in clined
tube that has its
opening below the The Limpet system uses sea power. Photo - Wavegen
action causes the
water level in the collector to oscillate,
commercial wave power station has
and this variation altemately compresses and decompresses the trapped air in the
Britain. Wavegen and Queen's Univer sity Belfast jointly developed the Lim
column. The air flows back and forth
pet (Land Installed Marine Powered Energy Transformer) wave system with
which are driven in the same direction
at all times, regardless of the direction
financial support from the European
of the airflow.
The unit is designed to operate on the shoreline, or it can be incorporated
Limpet is operating on the Island of Islay, off the west coast of Scotland,
famed for its unique whisky distilleries. This first site will generate 500 kW of renewable energy without greenhouse gas emissions. That capacity is suffi cient for 400 local homes.
through a pair of generating turbines
within rubble mounds or caisson break
waters to provide coastal protection schemes as well as power generation. Key features include low cost power, maximum local content and 60-year life with minimal maintenance.
Queen's University Belfast installed
duction worldwide over the next 30
years. HCECs are currently used in many air conditioning and refrigeration applications. Contact: Warren Heeley at: 1-800267-2231.
water level. Wave
What is claimed to be the world's first
been connected to the national grid in
The new program is funded by an environmental levy submitted by refrig erant manufacturers, importers and reclaimers on sales of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) refrigerants. HCECs are alternative refrigerants to CFCs with a lower ozone-depleting po tential that will be phased out of pro
environmental policy The Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment adopted a new policy on March 20, 2001,for emissions of oxides of ni
trogen from boilers and heaters. Policy Guideline A-9 adopts in Qntario, the National Emission Guidelinefor Com mercial/Industrial Boilers and Heaters,
published in 1998 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
A key part of Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan, Policy Guideline A-9 will
reduce Ontario's NO^ emissions by an estimated 29,000 tonnes/y in the year 2015. Policy Guideline A-9 is the re sult of considerable discussion and co
operation between the Ministry and
Refrigeration industry creates environmental
ducer responsibility corporation called Refrigerant Management Canada
The CCME Guideline was written by
(RMC) will see the safe and environ-
a multi-stakeholder committee, includ
Leading companies from the refrigera tion and air conditioning industry have announced a new program that is ex pected to dramatically reduce the quan tity of ozone-depleting chlorofluoro-
mentally-responsible collection and dis
ing representatives of industry, govern
posal of CEC chemicals used in many large air conditioning and commercial
ments,energy companies,and non-gov ernment organizations. Ontario, the other provinces and territories, and the
carbons(CFCs)that are released into the atmosphere.
refrigeration systems. The federal and provincial govern
federal government approved the
ments in Canada are committed to elimi
CCME Guideline in 1998. Ontario is
nating the use of CEC refrigerants over the next 10 years. The production and
the first Canadian province to formally
The industry-led initiative, organized through a new non-profit extended pro
adopt the Guideline.
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"For Cost Effective Pumping"
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vironmental as our new exclusive Cana
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ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905)670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you
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Brockville, Ontario K6T 1A6 Tel:(613)498-1876 Fax;(613) 345-7633 E-mail: email@example.com
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Superior drying technology and biosolids management
Schenck & Associates in Sussex, Wisconsin; and Reinbrecht Associ
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ates in Hatboro, Pennsylvania as
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Operator 1(P Plus "Certified Part ners". Representatives from these companies have successfully com pleted the necessary level of training to provide setup, services and train ing to their clients on the Operator
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For more information, circle reply card No. 146 71
Industry Update William H. Gates receives
AWWA's Distinguished Public Service Award
ing to cover costs. In October 2000, ADA-ES began work on a comprehensive mercury emis sions control program to evaluate the technology that power generating com panies will use to comply with new mercury regulations that will be pro posed by the US Environmental Protec tion Agency in 2003. This work is be
ing performed under a $6.8 million co operative agreement with the US De
William Gates, Manager of the Halifax Water Commission, was selected as one
of two recipients of AWWA's Distin guished Public Service Award. This award is presented annually to members
partment of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL). OPG has been closely following the developments of mercury control tech nologies in the US and has been at the forefront of investigating methods to control the emission of mercury into the environment. In fact, a standard testing method used in the US for evaluating
of AWWA who have been leaders in
Bill Gates has been active with the Atlantic Canada Water Works Associa
tion since the 1970s. In that time, he
has served as Secretary-Treasurer, Director, and Chairman of the Section. He has been especially active in the area of training, and was appointed training
and is named for, OPC's predecessor. During the three-year project, mer
cury control systems will be installed and tested at four coal-fired power
plants. ADA-ES has developed a mer cury control system in which sorbents are injected into the flue gas and col lected by existing particle collection sys tems. The sorbents will absorb the mer
cury, resulting in substantial emissions reduction. According to DOE/NETL,
the goal of the project is to develop a cost-effective technology that will allow the electric utility industry to reduce mercury emissions from power plants by up to 70 percent of current levels. Contact: Michael Durham, E-mail; firstname.lastname@example.org.
water resources plauuiug
Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in
their community in their voluntary serv ices to the public.
mercury emissions from fossil-fueled generating stations was developed by,
water supply, transmission and treatnienl wastewater collection and treatment
electrical engineering, instrumentation and controls
municipal infrastructure services solid waste and hazardous materials management
geo-environmental investigations and site remediation environmental assessments andplanning environmental health and safety
525-21 Four Seasons Place, Toronto, Ontario M9B 6J8 • Tel (416) 622-9502 • Fas (416) 622-6249 4342 Queen Street, Niagara Falls, Ontario UE 6W1 • Tel (905) 374-4470 • Fax (905) 374-6365
co-ordinator in 1994. The AWWA rec
ognized his contribution with an Hon orary Membership and the Fuller Award for distinguished service to the water supply field. The ACWWA recognized his contributions with the Ira P. Macnab Award for service in the waterworks
Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning & engineering
field in Atlantic Canada.
Gates is also a Fellow of the Engi neering Institute of Canada, the Cana dian Society of Civil Engineers, and an Honorary member of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association, hav
ing served as the Association's found ing President. He has also served as Councillor for the Halifax Area of the
Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, and is a Past President of the alumni association, and alumni
representative on the Board of Gover nors, and Chairman of the Board of
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Tel: (416) 467-5555 Fax: (416)467-9824
Governors of the Technical University of Nova Scotia.
OPG joins mercury project team Environment technology and specialty chemical company ADA-ES,a subsidi ary of Eai'th Sciences, has announced that Ontario Power Generation (OPG)
has joined its mercury control project team and will provide significant fund 72
I R.V. Anderson Associates Limited I consulting engineers, architects, technology managers
fTater, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies
For employment and project development opportunities visit our web site: www.rvanderson.com
Toronto (416) 497-8600 E-mail; Toronto(@RVAnderson.com
Weliand Ottawa Sudbury London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay, India Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering
Ergonomics Rule, handing victory to WLF (Washington Legal Foundation
Creating Value Through Service andlnnovation
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ES&Es February/March 2001 Editorial Collingwood
Comment discussed the US OSHA's Er
gonomics Rule which was being op posed by the Washington Legal Eoun-
dation (WLF). Now, in a stunning re
versal, the ergonomics rule has been re pealed. President Bush has said that he will sign this repeal, bringing to a swift
end what the WLF called 'the most in ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS, PLANNERS, AND SCIENTISTS
trusive federal oversight of American workplaces in history'. WLF filed suit challenging the rule
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in December 2000 in federal court,
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American workers. Passage of the re
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peal legislation brings the litigation to a
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"Congress evidently understood that the ergonomics rule threatened to swamp our already floundering economy," WLF Senior Counsel for Litigation Affairs, Shawn Gunnarson said. "We are pleased that OSHA's at tempt to over-regulate American workplaces has been decisively squelched."
• Dewaterlng • Pumping • Weed Harvester •Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction • High Speed Decanter Centrifuges
Tomato belt a goldmine? A waste by-product of tomato process ing, tomato skins are the source of a beneficial cancer-fighting compound that could turn food wastes which are
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liabilities, into beneficial chemicals.
John Shi, an Agriculture and AgriFood Canada research scientist who works
Specializing In Computer-aided Design for Cleaner Production
with the University of Guelph, is look
ing at the potential of extracting the chemical, known as lycopene. Fresh tomatoes have high levels of
lycopene and Ontario is the second larg est tomato producer in North America. More than 25,000 tonnes oftomato skins are currently discarded as waste. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Crechem Technologies Inc. • software development for environmental applications • simulation & modelling tor process optimization • pollution controi system design 1200 Montreal Rd., BIdg. M-2, 2"" Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1A0R6 Tel: 613-744-6001 - Fax: 613-744-0573 - Web site: www.crechem.com 73
Industry Update Quebec introduces new Toronto • Ottawa
□ELCAIM ENVIRONMENTAL DIVISION
The Quebec government is introducing what it calls the toughest drinking wa ter regulations in the country. Under the new rules, any well or source of drink ing water serving more than 20 people, will be subject to mandatory filtration, chlorination, and regular testing. All water suppliers in the province, from individuals to municipalities, will be
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London • Hamilton
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required to test semi-annually for bac teria such as E. coli and protozoa such as giardia, and once a year for nitrates. Distributing water that does not meet requirements will become illegal. Implementing the new standards will cost municipalities about $600 million, but the province will defray more than half the cost through infrastructure pro grams. The standards will cost home
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nicipal water system a minimum of $100 a year and some commercial enterprises
A Duke Energy Company
Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Environmental Management and Compliance Hydrogeologlc/Performance Assessment Modeling Site Remediation V
more. CWWA Bulletin
Environmental Audits/Site Assessments
• Risk Assessment
FUNGI & BACTERIA ID & ENUMERATION
TOTAL SPORE COUNTS (AIR-O-CELL, BURKARD, ALLERGENCO)
INDOOR ALLERGEN TESTING SEWAGE CONTAMINATION IN BUILDINGS
V MATERIALS, PARTICLE & DUST CHARACTERIZATION V
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New Mexico finds
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prescription drugs in water While there is no major cause for con cern now, water departments could eventually wind up having to treat water supplies to remove contamination by prescription drugs. This forecast comes after the recent discovery of trace amounts of prescription antibiotics,
painkillers, epileptic seizure drugs, and oral contraceptives in surface water in various parts of New Mexico. It is un known how the presence of these drugs in surface water will affect ecosystems or human beings in the long term.
Of particular concern are antibiotics, which could result in bacteria develop
ing resistance, and estrogen compounds which are believed to cause the "de-
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sexing" of fish. Technology currently exists to remove the drugs from water, but no one is implementing it at this time.
In a related development, the Octo ber issue of Environmental Health Per
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of prescription drugs and other pharma ceutical and personal care products in water supplies. Most commonly found were anti-inflammatory and pain-killing drugs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, anticonvulsants, and sex hormones from
oral contraceptives, but also detected were products such as perfumes, sun
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
Industry Update screen and caffeine. The article warns
of the unknown consequences of con suming subtherapeutic doses of drugs, as well as any dose of substances not intended for ingestion. CWWA Bulletin
Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists 'Industriol Water/Wosfewafer Treatment
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shortfall in drinking water infrastructure investment. AWWA made its request following an evaluation of the nation's core infrastructure, conducted by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE),which criticized the investment shortfall, by giving the nation's drink ing water infrastructure a "D" grade. In its Report Card for America's In frastructure, the ASCE estimated that the investment in drinking water infrastruc ture falls (US) $11 billion short every
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prime and in some cases is well over 100 years old. As pipes age, they become more likely to burst, leak or corrode.
According to the report, investment shortfalls are a result of consistent
underfunding of federal drinking water initiatives, coupled with increased de
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mands on water utilities' financial re
sources. ASCE anticipates the problem will be exacerbated by growing demand for drinking water nationwide over the next 20 years. To remedy the situation, ASCE recommended Congress fully fund existing federal drinking water pro grams and institute new federal pro grams targeted specifically to staving off
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budget pressures water utilities face. These led AWWA to call for a stronger commitment to water infrastructure in
vestment from the federal government over a year ago. However,the Associa tion's analysis also indicates that im
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Water pollution sources traced through DNA University of Missouri-Columbia re searchers are using a "fingerprinting" test that can trace water pollution back to its source using DNA from bacteria.
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
May 31, 2001. Water Environment Asso ciation of Ontario specialty seminar: Mem brane Bioreactors - Applications for Wastewater Treatment, Toronto, ON. Con tact Francesca Davino,Tel:(905)726-1300.
June 6-8,2001. Canadian Water Resources Association 54th Annual Conference, Water
sheds of Change, Guelph, ON. Contact Jennifer McEdwards, Tel: (519) 824-4120, ext. 2558, Fax: (519) 837-8630, Web site: www.cwra.org.
June 7-8, 2001. 5th Canadian Pollution Prevention Roundtable, St. John's, NEED. Contact: 1-800-667-9790, Fax: (519) 337-
3486, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Web site: www.c2p2online.com. June 10-13, 2001. 2001 International
Conference on Underground Infrastructure Research - Municipal, Industrial and Environmental Applications, presented by the Centre for Advancement of Trenchless
improve the reliability of severe weather
Thunderous Grants Professor Peter Taylor, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science, York
University, will receive $340,000 over two years to investigate the effects of lake breezes on air quality and severe
warnings. Professor Jochen Rudolph, of York University's Centre for Atmospheric
and radar, as well as surface and aircraft-
Chemistry, is a leader in the field of measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds(VOCs)and their stable car bon isotope composition, and in creat ing the intellectual framework for inter preting the measurements. He will re ceive $594,800 over three years to de velop more effective air pollution con trol strategies by enhancing the reliabil ity and predictability of numerical model
weather conditions. Studies in Ontario
have clearly linked lake breezes with severe thunderstorms,lightning, and tor nadoes, as well as air quality, particu
larly ozone concentration levels in southern Ontario.
Taylor's team will use satellite images based measurements of weather condi
tions to gain a better understanding of the pre-storm environment and provide
$60 million to establish the Canadian
a new data base for a lake-breeze cli
Foundation for Climate and Atmos
matology of southwestern Ontario that will make forecasting more precise and
pheric Sciences which is funding these research projects.
The federal government has invested
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June 11-14. International Chemical
Recovery Conference, Whistler, BC. Con tact the Pulp and Paper Technical Associa
Site Assessment & Remediation
Hydrogeoiogy Soiid and Hazardous Waste Management Urban Drainage
tion of Canada, Tel: (514) 392-6967, Fax: (514)392-0369, Web site: www.paptac.ca.
Visit our website at www.umagroup.com
June 17-21, 2001. American Water Works Association, 2001 Annual Conference and
Compact - Low Impact Drilling
Exposition, Washington, DC. For informa tion call: 1-800-926-7337, Web site:
by Water Regime "Specializing in geo-technical and environmental drilling in confined and low impact environments"
www.awwa.org/ace2001. June 27 - July 1,2001. National Watershed Forum - Building Partnershipsfor Healthy Watersheds, Arlington, VA. Tel:(970)5138340, ext. 204, Fax:(970)513-8348.
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July 9-10,2001. Sixth Canadian/American Conference on Hydrogeology, Banff, AB.
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Industry Update David Anderson elected
Bush allows snowmobile ban m Yellowstone
President of UNEP
Governing Council The Honourable David Anderson,Cana da's Environment Minister, has become the first Canadian ever elected as Presi
dent of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Pro
gramme(UNEP). He was elected for a two-year term.
UNEP is the leading international forum for governments to address cur rent and emerging environmental issues. The election of Minister Anderson con
A "gathering" of snowmobiles in Ontario's Muskokas shows the popularity of the
tinues a long-standing tradition of ma jor Canadian involvement in UNEP leadership. Two of UNEP's four execu tive directors to date, Maurice Strong
sport. Photo - Steve Davey
and Elizabeth Dowdeswell, have been Canadians.
Following a 90-day delay in implemen tation by his Administration, President
snowmobile industry. Despite repeated requests by the Presi
Bush let stand a National Park Service
dent of the National Parks Conservation
rule designed to protect wildlife and visi tors of Yellowstone National Park by creating a winter mass transit system and phasing out the use of individual snow mobiles. Snowmobiles cause air pollu tion and invasive noise in the park. Implementation of the ruling is still unclear, and under legal assault by the
Association, the NPCA and other
New diet makes pig manure more eco-friendly In the United States, swine produce more than 15 million tons of manure
each year, containing an estimated 460,000 tons of phosphorus- phospho rus that can, when in high enough con centrations, lead to environmental dis
interveners have been shut out of settle
ment discussions. Secretary of the Inte rior, Gail Norton, also has forbidden the staff of Yellowstone National Park to
spend any federal funds on snowcoaches, the favored form of winter mass transit slated for use in Yellowstone.
percent. Performance testing also shows that hogs on this diet do as well as hogs on traditional diets supplemented with phosphorus. Contact: JenkinsJL@missouri.edu.
releases new Standards and Guidelines Alberta Environment has released new
Standards and Guidelines for municipal waterworks and storm drainage systems. These standards, the first revision since
1988, set out the regulated minimum standards and design requirements for these systems in Alberta municipalities. The document includes the application and approval process, treatment per formance standards, design standards and guidelines, and operating and moni toring requirements and guidelines. Access the document online at:
PEO's Engineer-lnResidence program receives funding
aster if a manure spill occurs. However, Gary Allee, a University of Missouri- Under its Youth Science and Technol Columbia researcher, has found a way ogy funding program, the Ontario Min istry of Energy Science and Technology to reduce the risk of phosphorus pollu tion using biotechnology. (MEST), has granted Professional En Allee explains that hogs need a cer gineers Ontario $225,000 in new fund tain amount of phosphorus in their diet, ing to expand its Engineers-in-Resibut that most of the phosphorus in corn dence (EIR) program. MEST's fourand soybeans is in a form that hogs can year investment will allow the EIR pro not digest. So, producers add a mineral gram to increase the number of schools supplement containing phosphorus to it serves, to develop a website and hold the hogs' diets. Although this satisfies a series of community events across the the hogs' nutritional requirements, the province. undigested phosphorus from the com The EIR program is a partnership and soybeans is excreted. between professional engineers, educa To avoid this, Allee started feeding tors, industry and government, that hogs genetically modified com that con brings real-world experience to the tains higher levels of phosphorus that teaching of science technology and hogs can digest. Testing shows that the mathematics. use of this "low-phytate" com can re Contact: Dave Pearce, (416) 224duce phosphorus excretion by 30-40 1100. 78
Wind farms will supply British electricity Britain unveiled plans April 5, for 18 offshore wind farms that will quadruple wind-power generated electricity and produce enough to supply more than one million homes. Clusters of wind-
powered turbines several kilometres off shore will help the UK meet its com mitment under the United Nations
Kyoto Protocol. The Crown Estate,a state agency that owns the seabed around Britain, said it
had selected 18 companies, which would each obtain a lease of seabed to develop an offshore wind farm. Each proposed site will contain up to 30 turbines grouped within an area several kilome tres out to sea. The nearest wind rotor will be 1.5 kilometres from land.
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2001
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