Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 2001

Page 1

March 2001

Environmental Science


& Engineering Covering Canada's multi-billion dollar environmental protection Industry since 1988. "

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Conference Previews - Environmental Management, Compliance &

Engineering 2001, BCWWA,OWWA/OMWA,Americana 2001, WEAO First municipally owned/operated microflltration plant opens in BO Does the wastewater Industry need a national strategy? Guidelines for dealing with hazardous materials Unclogging wastewater pumps Are water meters effective?

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February/March 2001 Vol.14 No. 1 Issued March, 2001

Hazardous materials procedures and guidelines - See page 42

ipatty dwneH-operated ti'on plairit opens in BC - See page 14

Features 7

68 Upgrading conventional filterbeds

Editorial Comment - by Tom Davey

10 Cover Story - Government funds trickle while problems increase

12 Paper mill must meet China's stringent regs. 14

First municipally owned-operated microfiltration plant opens in BC


New impeller solves pump clogging problems


Does the wastewater industry need a national strategy?


Water plant commissioned in only eight months

77 Walkerton had a prequel in the US 78 Arctic innovation cleans up DEW sites

Spring Conference Preview

30 Emissions reduction trading 32 Fuel cells could energize STPs 34

Environmental Management, Compliance and Engineering 2001

Food processors also need corrosion protection

WEAO Technical Symposium and OPCEA

36 Asphalt landfill liner could improve safety and capacity


Ontario Water Works Association/Ontario

38 Study on alternative bedding could cut costs

Municipal Water Association Joint

40 Waste heat keeps pipes from freezing



Hazardous materials procedures and guidelines

Americana 2001 Tradeshow & Conference


Remediating a contaminated urban lake

AWMA Conference & Exhibition British Columbia Water & Waste Association Conference

67 Do water meters reduce wastage?

Departments 8





Ad Index


Literature Reviews


Industry Update


Product Review


Professional Cards

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

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Editorial Comment

When the absence of proof could prove the real ergonomic burden

Driving through the United

States of America is always a view of extremes. This is

a new Roman Empire where the world plays American music, watches its movies and television shows

while eating its burgers, hot dogs and fried chicken - all while wearing US trainers, fashions and other palpable symbols of American culture. The US, is unquestionably the only remaining super power, having wrestled the Soviet giant to exhaustion in global economic

Jimmy Carter had nuclear engineering experience in the US Navy. While he always behaved like a gentleman, he was, inevitably, better known as a pea

the accused must prove their innocence, rather than the state prove their guilt. As governments have far more money and resources than individuals, onus pro

nut farmer.

bandi has also been a bedrock in Brit

While US engineering remains an invisible profession, there are legions of elected lawyers in American state and federal politics. The legal profession is dominant in popular movies and televi sion shows. Cinematic courtrooms, in

ish, Canadian, and Australian legal sys tems, to name but three others. But

eternal vigilance is the price which must be paid to maintain judicial freedom. There are some disturbing thoughts about a new Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulation which, claims the Washington Legal Founda


tion', was rushed through in the waning

Where other historical conquistadors used force of arms to subjugate vassal states, billions of people around the world are peacefully and willingly, coopted into adopting US culture - hap pily paying to wear the badges and logos

days of the Clinton Administration. The Washington-based WLF states that OSHA-,the federal agency responsible for workplace safety, has a new and sweeping regulation that will affect Mom and Pop grocery stores and For tune 500 corporations alike. "OSHA's rule will govern the height of desks, the angle of computer monitors, even pos ture when employees lift a phone book," a WLF spokesman told me. Wishing to check further into the le gal status of the OSHA Regulation, I contacted an independent writer in Washington for clarification. He re plied: "The ergonomics standard is not a law, but a regulation. Laws are passed by our legislative branch (President signs). Regulations implement laws in detail, under authority delegated to the executive branch by the legislature. Although there are lots of procedural rules, the president has much power over what regulations are issued. The Ergo nomics Standard(a regulation, under the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

of Coca Cola, McDonalds, KFC, Nike,

Disney, Microsoft, IBM and countless others. Traditionally, it was manufac turers who paid to advertise their wares to consumers. Now,by media spin and economic alchemy, today's consumers fork out their own money to proudly advertise multinationals' logos. While US leadership in astro-phys ics and computer technology is a given, few are aware that world leadership in water treatment and research began 130 years before Walkeiton and over three decades before Henry Ford revolution ized industrial production with his Model 'T'.

This negation of the engineering presence is also reflected in US politics. Engineers and scientists are especially scarce in the US cabinet and state legis

fact, have replaced Wild West saloons as the backdrop staple of contemporary movies, a matter of art imitating reality. For unquestionably, the US has far more lawyers in politics than any other profes sion, and Los Angeles County alone is said to have more lawyers than Japan. Appropriately for Hollywood's home turf, the US legal profession provides an abundance,of heroic figures in mov ies and television programs. Moreover, many more lawyers have become award-winning novelists than have journalists. John Grisham, William Bernhardt and Scott Turow are but three

of the many lawyers who have written novels, many of which were turned into

latures, Presidents Herbert Hoover and

movies. Journalists, who also earn their

was issued in final form in November.

Jimmy Carter being two exceptions to

"Final" means it would be very hard to flat-out revoke because of procedural requirements." The Foundation says that OSHA's stated purpose is to reduce the number

when told that Hoo

living by the written and spoken words, rather surprisingly, have not matched the creative output of their legal counter parts. But perhaps our newshounds have already satiated their creative appetites in their reportage of environmental is sues which, all too often, has displayed imaginative conclusions unsupported by

ver was an engineer,

scientific realities.

the rule. Hoover was a brilliant busi

nessman and politician who, unfortu nately, inherited an economy poised for the Great Depression. One apocryphal story tells of a woman who,

remarked: "Oh


thought he was a gen tleman."


By Tom Davey E-mail: tom@esemag.com

Tbe foundation of North American

jurisprudence is onus probandi - the burden of proof- where the accused do not have to prove their innocence. This is a fundamental difference with legal systems in some other countries where

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

of work-related musculoskeletal disor

ders(MSDs). To implement this, OSHA has relied on the "fuzzy discipline of ergonomics", defined as "the science of fitting the job to the worker". OSHA's rule imposes several conditions, among them mandatory medical care and timeoff or reduced work responsibility- both with full pay, says WLF. The Foundation feels that OSHA has

Editorial Comment

Environmental Science

& Engineering Editor & Publisher

Managing Editor



Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mall: denlse@esemag.ccm Circulation Manager


Publisher's Assistant


E-mail: kathy@esemag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board

committed a terrible folly by issuing such an ambitious government mandate without a sound basis, because OSHA

cannot accurately identify what exactly causes an MSD. Nor can anyone be sure that the elaborate measures it prescribes will reduce workplace injuries. "But armies of plaintiffs' lawyers are itching to take advantage of this government

mail, assembling computers, loading trucks, mopping the floor, sitting in front of a computer, dealing blackjack, or helping patients into wheelchairs, you're covered."

In a phone interview, a WLF lawyer told me that OSHA issued its ergonom ics rule in November 2000, but the first

effective date for certain aspects of the

Cinematic courtrooms, in fact, have replaced Wild West saloons as the backdrop staple ofcontemporary movies, a matter of art imitating reality.

Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP.

Church & Trought Inc. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M HILL Canada Limited Dr. Howard D. Goodfellow

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng. Terminal City Iron Works

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.

Information contained in ES&E has been compiled from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

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fiasco anyway," says the WLF. WLF has powerful connections in US federal politics including the controver sial Attorney General, John Ashcroft now America's top lawyer - who has served on WLF's Board. Ironically, if the Washington Legal Foundation is correct in its assertions, then US law

yers may have struck the litigation motherload. Even if only one employee reports a single work-related MSD, an employer must develop a full-blown er gonomics program for that job and for all other jobs requiring similar physical activities. Brushing aside due process, says the Foundation, OSHA's rule will force employers to prove that employ ee's aches and pains are not work-re lated.

One expert, David Piaseck\ wrote: "The standard applies to 'All General Industry' with the only exception being agricultural, construction, or maritime operations. The scope of this standard is so broad that whether you're flipping burgers, running a machine, delivering

rule occurred in January 2001. Busi nesses must have an ergonomics pro gram in place in October 2001 if they have had employees who have reported work-related nnisculoskeletal injuries. OSHA has been sued by the Washing ton Legal Foundation, along with a long list of groups that represent private in dustry. The regulation will be chal lenged, as being unlawful on procedural, statutory, and constitutional grounds In my opinion, if the WLF is correct, the ergonomics regulation would reverse the long held protection that the burden of proof gives citizens against the might of governments. A federal agency is be ing sued by the WLF,yet John Ashcroft, the Attorney General of the Bush Ad ministration, had previous links to the WLF. The ensuing legal battles might end up being the stuff that dramatic movies are made of. Only in the United Torts of America, eh? Www.wlf.org %ww.osha-slc.gov/ergonomics-standard/ %ww.inventoryOps.com

Feedback Dear Editor: Re: Water contamination should be

prevented, not cured - RFK Jr. I read the above-noted short piece on page 66 of your November 2000 issue. I do not think that RFK Jr. was putting engineers down, as Tom Davey indi

must be less concerned with the origin of the advice than we are with the qual ity of the advice. Murray W.Jamer,P.Eng., Director of Engineering & Public Works, City of Eredericton, NB

cated. RFK Jr.'s view that it is better to

Dear Tom:

stop pollution from happening in the first place is consistent with engineering principles. I even agree with him that, by putting engineers in charge, we are sometimes conceding that the solution is in remediation instead of prevention. As an engineer, I am not at all offended by RFK Jr.'s remarks. If we are to properly address the is sues which affect the water industry, we

Thank you for your editorial comment The Gravity of Newton's Sentence, November 2000 issue. Audio pollution has increased and our attitude towards

it has decreased over the years. When I phone for a reservation to dine out these days, my first question is:"Are you play ing loud background music?" D.L. Thomas, Parry Sound, Ontario

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

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Guest Editorial

Government funds trickle while the flow

of problems Increases ith alarming frequency,


we read of horror stories which focus on the de

clining quality of our water supplies. These issues relate not only to the quality of the groundwaters, but also to the infrastructure required to treat and distribute water. Over the past 15 years we have witnessed a striking decline in the health of our water and

sewage infrastructure. Governments at all levels and of all political stripes have allowed this decline to occur.

Changes to the financial relationship between Ontario and the municipalities resulted in the transfer of responsibility for water and sewerage financing to the municipalities. In theory, a correspond ing transfer in financial flexibility should have accompanied this, due to the Province assuming the full cost of education from municipalities. How ever, few municipalities have used this flexibility to invest in underground in frastructure, which is much less visible to voters.

The Ontario government has recog nized the pressure on water and sewage systems across the Province and has pro vided municipalities with access to over

$200 million via the three-year Provin cial Water Protection Fund, but that is

less than $6 per person per year. It's sim ply not enough to make a difference. It does not appear that the federal government is any more prepared to foot the bill for water and sewage infrastruc ture renewal than any other level of gov ernment. It is allocating a mere $400 million per year for infrastructure (wa ter/sewerage,roads and affordable hous ing) over five years -for the entire na tion! That's less than $4 per person per year, two-thirds as much as the provin cial government. We understand that there is fierce

competition for scarce public funds, and that tax dollars are not limitless. At

the same time, how

ever, we watch help lessly as municipali ties continue to defer

By Tony DIPede 10

expenditures or significantly reduce capital budgets for maintaining and re placing water and sewage infrastructure. So where is the money to fix our grow ing infrastructure problem going to come from?

Over the long term, municipalities must be more responsible. This is not a novel idea. Successive provincial gov ernments have tried to get municipali-

it actually costs to provide water treat ment and sewage collection and treat ment services. One easy way is to have separate billing tied to usage for each and every user. Each user should pay for what they use. Full-cost Accounting The third step is actually the easiest. Municipalities should be forced to adopt full-cost accounting practices that en-

It does not appear that the federal government is any more prepared to foot the bill for water and sewage infrastructure renewal than any other level of

government. It is allocating a mere $400 million per year for infrastructure over five years -for the entire nation! That's less than $4 per person per year, two-thirds as much as the provincial government. ties to better manage their affairs. Re cent legislative steps, such as amalga mation and service realignment, can do much to improve economies of scale, but municipalities have taken to saving money not spending money, or direct ing it towards other projects. Less money spent on water and sewerage di rectly affects our waterways with more flooded basements,and more water that

is simply lost due to pipeline leakage. Change must happen now. Decisions can be deferred no longer. It is time to take a proactive approach and set municipalities on a course of action that is fuelled less by talk and more by action. How? With simple pro vincial legislation designed to protect our water quality, we can put water and sewage infrastructure financing on a sta ble, responsible footing today and into the future. Dedicated Reserve Accounts

The first step is to establish manda tory reserve accounts so that municipali ties have the means to deal with ongo ing maintenance, repair and eventual re placement. That's why we have RRSPs, so that governments can reduce the bur den of an aging population in future years. This is common sense. Separate Water and Sewage Billing The second step is to ensure that all municipalities have a sense of how much

sure that depreciation and eventual re placement are factored into budgets. Right now, municipalities generally treat assets as if they will last forever. This makes no sense. Municipalities need to treat their infrastructure assets, as assets

that wear out over time and eventually need to be replaced. By forcing municipalities to establish mandatory reserve accounts dedicated to water and sewage infrastructure, by implementing separate billings for us ers, and adopting business practices, the Province can ensure that municipalities have the tools to achieve financial

sustainability of our infrastructure. No longer will politicians at any level be free to ransom water quality for other more politically attractive projects. Municipalities cannot be expected to implement these changes overnight. Transition assistance and a phased ap proach will be needed to ensure that change is brought about in an orderly and timely fashion. The Ontario government has an op portunity to take a leadership role and leadership is what everyone in the Prov ince is looking for. It's time to clean up our water and protect our environment. Tony DiPede is past-president of the Ontario Sewer and Watermain Con struction Association.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001


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Intiustrial Wastewater

Canada-China partnership constructs a SBR system in Shanghai Paper mill must meet China's stringent regulations

The Shanghai Xin Lun Paper Co. Ltd., located in

Shanghai Province, China, required secondary wastewater treatment to meet the regulated efflu

ent requirements for its recycle paper mill. They also needed a treatment system to be installed and operat ing when a new paper machine was brought on line in Au gust 2000. The paper mill produces a latex-coated linerboard from recycle paper. Regulations meant the mill had to meet a stringent effluent COD limit of 100 mg/L (other effluent limits are 30 mg/L BOD and 200 mg/L TSS). There are no COD lim its on pulp and paper effluents in Canada, but limits on ef fluent COD are the norm in Asian countries. Limits on BOD

and TSS are not as significant as COD with respect to the design and operation of the wastewater treatment plant. Several secondary treatment alternatives were consid ered, but in order to produce the lowest possible effluent COD,the mill selected the ADI-SBR (sequencing batch re actor) system. This batch-fed SBR eliminates shortcircuiting of untreated effluent to the sewer and maximizes COD removal efficiency. Mill expansion in the future will include a de-inking proc ess and a second paper machine. Therefore, expandability of the wastewater treatment plant was also a consideration during the technology selection. The fact that an SBR sys tem can be easily expanded by the construction of new ba sins, as needed, was a determining factor in its selection. A contract between Shanghai Xin Lun Paper and ADI Systems Inc. was signed in January 2000. ADI supplied the process design, assisted with equipment and site layout, and supplied equipment including its proprietary stainless steel decanters, fine bubble aeration system, selected control valves and nutrient metering pumps,control logic diagrams and start-up assistance. Partners on the project included the mill, which provided project and construction management, Changsha Design ing Institute of Light Industry for detail design, and Hunan

ADI-SBR basin during aeration. The batch-fed SBR maxi mizes COD removal.

Systems Computer Company Limited for programming. ADI also participated in the planning and layout of the future expansion of the wastewater treatment plant. Present design wastewater characteristics are tabulated below:

Flow, average COD,average BOD,average TSS, average

15 000 mVd 800 mg/L 400 mg/L 400 mg/L

Construction was earned out on a fast-track basis start

ing in May 2000 with substantial completion by August 2000. The plant was started up in September 2000. The treatment system includes coarse and fine screen ing, pumping station, primary clarifiers, equalization basin, pumping station, and nutrient addition system. It also in cludes an SBR comprised of two 10,800 m^ basins and cen trifugal blowers for supplying air to a grid of fine-bubble, sock-type diffusers, and a combined primary/secondary sludge dewatering facility (belt filter presses). A design feature is the energy-saving aeration system. Each SBR is equipped with a fine-bubble diffuser grid and an on-line dissolved oxygen sensor. Fine-bubble diffusers have demonstrated an excellent efficiency in transferring oxygen from the air to the process water. This minimizes the volume of air that has to be compressed to meet oxygen demand.

Additionally, each centrifugal blower is regulated by Table 1 - Average SBR Influent and Effluent Characteristics During First Two Weeks of Automatic Operation Parameter

SBR Influent

Flow (mVd) A sign at the plant reads "Environmental Protection -Every one's Duty", a good slogan in any language. 12

SBR Effluent


COD (mg/L)



TSS (mg/L)



Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Industrial Wastewater

ADI Systems Inc. had designed and installed a similar-sized SBR

system for the pulp and paper industry in Canada, and were very impressed with the speed and quality of work in China. control valves on the suction side of the

blowers. As oxygen demand increases or decreases, the blower power draw is increased and/or more blowers are

brought on-line. Altematively, as oxy gen demand decreases in the basins, the number of operating blowers is auto matically reduced to a minimum,and the power draw on these blowers is also minimized.

Average SBR influent and effluent characteristics over a two-week test pe riod immediately after the system was placed in automatic operation in No vember 2000 is summarized in Table 1.

BODj of the effluent has ranged be tween 5 and 15 mg/L. Furthermore, during this period of relatively low or ganic loading, only one blower was run ning, and it was usually running at mini mum power consumption. Each SBR basin measures 30 m by 60 m,with a 7 m wall height. Up to four hundred labourers worked on leveling the floor ofeach basin when the concrete was

continuously poured over a 24-hour pe riod. ADI Systems Inc. had designed and installed a similar-sized SBR system for the pulp and paper industry in Canada, and were very impressed with the speed and quality of work in China. The system is automatically control led by a PLC system with a personal computer operator interface. All con trol screens are bilingual(Mandarin and English). Plans are in place to install a telephone line to the control computer. This will allow access to process spe cialists at ADI offices in Canada,so that

the system can be monitored remotely to assist in troubleshooting operations as flows and loadings increase. It is envisioned that a second paper machine will approximately double the flow and loading. The pretreatment sys

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tem is sized for this future flow scenario,

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Tired of solids ologging your pumps? Weary from constant monitoring of pumps to keep equipment operating? Protect your valuable equipment by handing your solids problems over to the Industry's number one grinder, the Muffin Monster? Better yet, invest in the high tech, award-winning Auger Monster? Utilizing an auger with either the Muffin Monster or Channel Monster® grinder can achieve the high flow rate of traditional bar screens AND the capture rate of fine screens, it leaves impoi lant organics in the wastestream, while rapidly removing and dewatering ground solids for easy disposal to landfill. Go with the industry's most advanced designs Muffin Monster® to protect your equipment. Contact us to see how we can help you lower your costs.

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email:kae@envirorentals.com For more information, circle reply card No. 128

Drinking Water

Revelstoke has the first munlclpallyowned/operated microfiltration plant in BC

Since 1930, the city of Revel stoke, BC, has used the un

treated Greeley Creek as its primary source for drinking water. In the summer of 1995, the Min

istry of Health confirmed several cases of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis. Detailed sampling and investigation revealed the diseases were waterbome,

originating with animals in the Greeley Creek Watershed.

As an interim measure, the source water was chlorinated, but the commu

nity did not support long-term use of chlorine as a primary disinfectant. A Community Water Advisory Com mittee was appointed to identify options and to conduct an open process, encour aging two-way communication that in formed and listened to residents. By February 1998, the city council unani mously accepted the Committee's rec ommendation to build the 4.5 million

gallons per day(MGD)membrane treat ment plant and implement a water re use efficiency program as part of the operation and distribution systems. USFilter's Memcor CMF Microfil

tration plant was selected based upon a competitive evaluation of capital cost, operating cost, including membrane re placement,life cycle and technical abil ity. By April 2000, USFilter had in stalled a system,consisting offive mem brane skids containing a total of 450


Aerial view of the Greeley Water Treatment Plant.

membrane modules, which is capable of producing 4.5 million gallons per day. It is the first municipally owned and operated membrane filtration water treatment plant in British Columbia. A completely automated system,the CMF system is monitored and operated from the city's downtown offices, reducing operating costs. The system also allows comprehensive analysis of turbidity lev els and system integrity. In situ tests pro vide both filtrate water quality assurance and operational diagnostics for the main-

tenance of the system. With the membrane plant, Revel stoke only uses chlorine as a secondary disinfectant to provide 'disinfection re sidual' throughout the distribution lines to prevent bacterial re-growth. The use of chlorine was reduced to non-tastable

levels of.2 to .3 parts per million. Fur thermore, the washwater used to flush

the membranes can be discharged into Greeley Creek without impacting the environment.

As part of the new water treatment facility and increased discussion regard ing water management, the community committee has recommended and will

actively advocate new water use effi ciency programs to ultimately reduce water demand and manage water re sources within the city of Revelstoke. Revelstoke water treatment facility at Greeley Creek began operation in the spring of 2000, due largely to the team work and problem-solving among the project partners. USFilter partners on this project include the design team of Dayton & Knight, Ltd., of West Van couver, BC, and Malcolm Pimie Inc.,

of Carlsbad, California, and project management by Maple Reinders, of Kelowna,BC. USFilter's representative is Mequipco Sales, Ltd., of Richmond, BC.

USFIIter's Memcor continuous microfiltration system. 14

For more information, circle reply card No. 129 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

A piping solution

the taxpayers will love. Want to be known for fiscal responsibility? Use the VictaulicÂŽ grooved-end piping system in your water and wastewater treatment plants.


After all, it installs 3 to 5 times faster

than alternative systems and keeps saving you money every time it needs service. Any joint can be accessed easily, because all the sealing elements are outside the pipe and not trapped between pipe ends as with

flanged systems. Victaulic offers a complete system of couplings, fittings, flange adapters, plug and check valves. And it's suitable for


ductile, steel, stainless, PVC, HDPE, lined and coated pipe. It meets AWWA C-606 groove standards, and is available in AWWA sizes 3"-36", with specials up to 144". The gaskets are, of course, ULC classified to ANSI/NSF 61 for potable water. Call Victaulic today for a free value analysis or demonstration at 416/675-5575, or fax 416/675-5729. Or visit www.victaulic.com.

''Now, that's Victaulic value!"


iCtauliC An ISO 9001 certified company

Victaulic Company of Canada 65 Worcester Road Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7 Phone; 416/675-5575 Fax: 416/675-5729


Victaulic is a registered trademark of Victaulic Company of Canada. Š1998 Victaulic Company of Canada. /U1 rights reserved.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 130(See page 25)

Spring Conference Preview


Management, Compliance and Engineering 2001 In association with the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow

April 10-11,2001 Regal Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario

Environmental Science & Engi-

Mj neering will present the 9th m ' Annual

ing environmental consultants. Here are some program highlights:


■ ^ Management, Compliance


Law, Regul.ation and Due Diligence

and Engineering Conference,in asso ciation with the Ontario Environmen

tal Tradeshow, April 10 and 11, 2001. Ontario's largest private conference of environmental compliance strategies, technologies and solutions takes place at the Regal Constellation Hotel, near Pearson International Airport, Toronto. The workshops provide a unique en vironmental education and training op portunity for; • Plant managers and engineers. • Environmental managers and • Environmental lawyers. • Environmental and engineering consultants.

• Environmental health and safety managers.

Phone (905) 670-4677 • Fax (905) 670-3709

For more information, circle reply card No. 264

tal compliance. • Federal environmental legislation. • Provincial environmental legislation. Session A2 - p.m.

Environmental regulation & compliance 2001 (2) • The approvals process and approvals reform.

new definitions of'hazardous waste'

• Environmental auditors.

ABS Pumps Corp. 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit #7 Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5T 1H3

• The new framework for environmen

• Enforcement, inspections and inves tigations. • Spill reporting requirements. • The waste management system: The


-for Cost-Effective Pumping

Session A1 - a.m.

Environmental regnlation & compliance 2001 for supervisors & managers(1)

• Dangerous materials shippers and supervisors. • Storage tank managers. • Spills and emergency response teams. Workshop participation gives del egates access to some of Canada's lead

and how they will affect you. • Clean-up of contaminated sites. Compliance In Practice

Session B1 - a.m.

Practical problem-solving for environmental & plant managers(1) • Air Emissions: New monitoring & reporting regulations.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Spring Conference Preview • Industrial wastewater compliance issues. Session B2 - p.m. Practical problem-solving for environmental & plant managers(2)

• Environmental detective work: Phase I & II

• On and off-site contamination.

• Decommissioning, remediation, and the RSC. • Site specific risk assessment.

• Hazardous Materials: Compliance, spills, handling and removal.

Environmental Site Assessments.

• What can you do with a brownfield? • The law and the liabilities?

• Adverse effects.

Session D2 - p.m.

Environmental Management Session C1 - a.m.

Brownfields and contaminated land now: New

Principles and best-practices of Environmental Management(1) A practical approach to ISO 14001: Making it work.

opportunities and developments • New innovations and legislation - The Brownfields

• The ISO 14001 framework for an Environmental

• Process model for contaminated sites.


Management System (EMS). • Underlying ISO 14001 principles. • Connectivity of elements. • The logical flow of environmental protection elements. Session C2 - p.m. Principles and best-practices of Environmental Management(2) ISO 14001 in practice: Management tips, tricks and traps. • Integrated design of environmental protection elements within an Environmental Management System. • Environmental management tips, tricks and traps.

Continued on page 19

KMK CONSULTANTS LIMITED Consulting Engineers, Project Managers

Ecological Planners. Landscape Architects KMK DESIGN BUILD LTD. Design Building of Municipal and Industrial Infrastructure

Brampton (905) 459-4780 Pickering (905)837-0314

Contaminated Site Management & Development

Kitchener (519)743-6111 Cobalt (705)679-5979

Session D1 - a.m.

E-mail: kmk@kmk.on.ca ■

Brownfields and contaminated land now: Tbe essential

introductory course • Brownfields - What do you need to know? • Do you have a brownfield?


For more Information, circle reply card No. 263

HYDRABLOC™ Modular Ultraflltratlon Design By BCA the Clearwater Group

The HYDRAcap Advantage • Provides greater removal efficiency of viruses and other pathogens compared to microfiltration.

• Replaces conventional pretreatment for RO applications in treating highly fouling surface

60" HYDRAcap 162-module


waters and wastewater effluents.

• Reduces use of pretreatment chemicals, coagulants and filter aids. • Enhances RO element recovery and flux following pretreatment with HYDRAcap UF. • Reduces formation of disinfection by-products.

Modular Design

Membrane Operation

Pre-engineered design reduces engineering cost

• Feed water flows inside the fiber; filtrate is

and time.

collected into a central core tube.

• Filtrate backwash flows from filtrate central core tube to inside of the fiber and out to drain.

• Low pressure feed and backwash.

• Gross-flow or dead-end operation.

Modular design, easily expanded. Smaller footprint results in lower building cost. Operates virtually "chemical free" compared to conventional pretreatment. No sludge disposal.


15 Connie Ores., Unit 3, Concord, Ontario, L4K 1L3 • Tel: (905) 738-2355, Fax:(905) 738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com • Web site: www.metconeng.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more Information, circle reply card No. 131 (See page 25)


Ontario Environmental Tradeshow

Exhibitor List(as of March 1, 2001) A&A Environmental


Endress -I- Hauser

Services Inc.

1440 Graham's Lane,#1

3 Industrial Dr., Box 604 Kirkland Lake, ON P2N 3J5

Burlington, ON L7S 1W3 Enviro Rentals

3505 Laird Rd., Unit 18

Bay 8 - 823 -41 Ave. N.E. Calgary, AB T2E 6Y3

Mississauga, ON L5L 5Y7

Environmental Management

Ashtead Technology



Purifies Env. 1941 Mallard Rd.


London, ON N6H5M1

Quality Systems International #309 125 Hartwell Ave.


Lexington, MA 02421

Solutions Inc.

RPR Environmental

Occupational Health & Safety

4278 Greenbank Rd.

164-166 South Service Rd.

250 Main St. E.

Nepean, ON K2C 3H2

Stoney Creek, QN L8E 3H6

Cdn. Centre for


Hamilton, ON LBN 1H6

11 Laurier, Place du Portage,

Fielding Chemical Technologies Inc. 839 Central Parkway West Mississauga, ON L5C 2V9

Phase 111, 6B3

Gartner Lee Limited

Canadian General


Standards Board

Hull, QC KIA 1G6

102-140 Renfrew Dr.

Canatech Environmental

Markham, ON L3R 6B3


Systems Inc.


3-130 Saunders Rd.

Environmental Systems 145 King St. East, Suite 200

Barrie, ON L4M 6E7

Cancoppas Limited


Harold Marcus Ltd.

Missis-sauga, ON L5L 3N9

15124 Longwoods Rd., Hwy.#2

CD Sonter


HETEK Solutions Inc.

77 Browns Line, Suite 200 Toronto, Ontario M8W 3S5

2085 Piper Lane Horizon Environnement Inc.

SAIC Canada # 308

Gloucester, ON K1A0H3 Sentinel Laboratories Ltd. #202

Southam Environment #101

1450 Don Mills Rd.

Don Mills, ON M3B 2X7 Standards Council of Canada #511

270 Albeit St., Suite 200 Ottawa, ON K1P6N7


871 Victoria St. N.

Stantec Consulting Ltd. Kitchener, ON N2B 3S4

RR#2 Stn Gait

T. Harris Environmental

IHS Canada


Management 242 Galaxy Blvd.

Toronto, ON M5C 2N8

Toronto, ON M9W 5R8

Industrial Scientific


Tanknology Canada

299 Brock Rd.

Guelph, ON N1H6H9 Concrete Solutions


20 Victoria St.

Corporation 94 McGee Cres.

Mississauga, ON L5N 6M5

Rexton, NB E4W 1W8

Aurora, ON L4G 6C8

Team-1 Environmental

infoPoint Information

Services Inc.


7895 Tranmere Dr., #11

Mississauga, ON L5S 1V9 Davnor Water Treatment

Technologies Ltd.

Terrafix Geosynthetics Inc. 128 Bethridge Rd.



Petro Sep Membrane Technologies 2270 Speers Rd.


Ottawa, ON KIB 5N3

195 King St., Suite 204 St. Catharines, ON L2R 3J6

3230 Wharton Way Mis.sissauga, ON L4X 2C1


Company Ltd.

27-2450 Lancaster Rd.

Elemental Controls Limited

KWH Pipe(Canada)Ltd.

Niagara College Centre #503 for Env. Training Glendale Campus, 135 Taylor Rd., RR#4 Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON LOS IJG

22-3190 Ridgeway Dr. Mississauga, ON L5L 5S8

EHS Alliance Inc.

Hamilton, ON L8W 3P2

Toronto, ON M9W 1N3

Calgary, AB T2E 6T3

Ecoflo Ontario

1650 Upper Ottawa St.

1-117 East 15th St.

37 Centre St. N., PO Box 5435 Huntsville, ON P1H2K8

4007-23rd St. NE

Diverse Plastic Tanks Inc.


Technologies Inc. North Vancouver, BC V7L 2P7







2650 Meadowvale Blvd., Unit 12A

58 California Rd.

Corrpro Canada



123 LabelleBlvd.



50 Bathurst Dr., Unit 1 Waterloo, ON N2V 2C5

Rosemere, QC J7A 2G9

Con Cast Pipe


3439 River Road

Pipe & Products Cambridge, ON N1R5S3


Guelph, ON NIK 1B8

London, ON N5V 3S5 #406



650 Woodlawn Rd. West

Bothwell, ON NOP ICO

Management Inc.

Centennial Concrete


Toronto, ON M5C 2Y8

2 - 2595 Dunwin Drive


Technologies Inc.






6740 Invader Cres.

Mississauga, ON L5T2B6 Trans-Cycle Industries


455 Archer Dr., Box 518 Kirkland Lake, ON P2N 3J5 Water Environment


Association of Ontario

Oakville, ON L6L 2X8

177-14845-6 Yonge St.

Professional Engineers

Aurora, ON L4G6H8



Wessnc Inc.

25 Sheppard Ave. W., Ste 1000

1577 Colborne St. E.

Toronto, ON M2N 6S9

Brantford, ON N3T 5L4


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Spring Conference Preview • Municipal financial tools. • The Olympic bid. • Amendments to Regulation 347. APRIL 11

Law,Regulation & Due Diligence Session A3 - a.m.

Environmental due diligence for supervisors and managers(1) • Environmental due diligence: What it means for owners, supervisors, and managers.

• Essential skills and techniques. • Compiling audit reports and action plans. • Auditing management systems for continuous improvement. Emergency Response Planning & Management

Session D3 - a.m.

noise: Successful environmental en

• Due diligence: The consultant's per spective. • What to do when you hear the knock at the plant door. • Anatomy of an environmental pros ecution.

Session A4 - p.m. Implementing due diligence: Frontline personnel management procedures(2) • Making environmental due diligence a fact of daily worklife. • Getting the support of senior manage

gineering and management strategies. • Environmental odours: Successful

environmental engineering and man agement strategies. • Money-saving strategies for combin ing energy and environmental

• ISO 14000 and the human elements.

Identification of responsible persons. Internal dispute resolution. Training and documentation. Implementing effective staff compli ance and due diligence motivation programs.

Engineering and Compliance Solutions

Session B3 - a.m.

Air emissions management: Monitoring and compliance methods and strategies. • Review of new provincial, national

Spill prevention planning and response for supervisors and managers(1) • Planning, preparedness and response: How the system links together. • The provincial approach to spill pre vention.

• Introduction to spill prevention pro grams.

Session D4 - p.m. Spill prevention planning and response for supervisors and managers(2) • An industry spill prevention and response plan. • A chemical spill prevention and response plan. • Facing the worst case scenario: Suddenly there's a spill: What Do You Do? A guideforfirst responders.


Environment and Health & Safety Management Session €3 - a.m.

Integrating environment with workplace health and safety management systems

• Basic principles of all management


• • • •

and international regulatory require ments governing air emissions. • Plant facility testing. • New tools for measuring and model ling air quality. • Negotiating with the ministry. Session B4 - p.m. Successful solutions for noise, odour and energy efficiency problems. • Environmental and occupational


• Elements of an integrated EH&S management system. • The role of risk assessment and man

The full conference program can


• Practical consideration for integration. Session C4 - p.m. Principles and best practices of environmental and health & safety auditing • Description and uses of environmen tal and H&S audits.

• Audit protocols. • The general audit process.

Low Cost, Long Life

he downloaded from Environmental

Science & Engineering weh site: www.esemag.com. Click on the Con ference and Tradeshow section on the

home page. For more information, please contact Environmental Science &

Engineering at: 1-888-254-8769,(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271.


' CONTRACTING LIMITED is the exclusive source for Permastore tanks and

Low Maintenance

silos in Canada, supplying integrated design, construction and warranty programs.

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PERI1AST0RE Glass-Fused-to-Steel Tanks and Silos offer

the complete storage solution. Over 40,000 tanks installed in 70 countries Excellent corrosion resistance

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 132 (See page 25)


Spring Conference Preview


The 30th Annual WEAO Technical

Symposium and OPCEA Exhibition 0PCE4 Westin Harbour Castle Hotel, Toronto, Ontario April 1 - 3, 2001 TECHNICAL SESSIONS

Session 10

Monday,April 2 Session I

Water Environment Association of

Biosoeids Management - The


Small Community Issues This session will focus on innovative

and alternative wastewater technologies

Challenge of Tomorrow

for small communities, natural treatment

Wondering what to do with all those

systems, including wetlands, and pro vide case studies of some of the cur

"biosolids"? You're not alone. This ses

sion will bring you up to date on how others are coping with this issue, both on the technology and regulatory/pub lic interest side.

Session 2 Preliminary and Primary Treatment - Not To Be Forgotten

This session provides some case stud ies on the benefits of understanding and controlling the preliminary, primary, and sidestream processes for improved treat ment and optimized performance. Session 3 Management Issues - New

rently operated systems.

PWO Workshop Secondary Treatment

Session 11

This workshop is focused on providing hands-on information for plant opera tors and supervisors. Basic fundamen tals, concepts and theories will be pre sented. The workshop will cover issues such as: equipment; online metering; oxygen transfer; anoxic zones; perform ance measures; respirometry; foaming; bulking sludge; denitrification; biologi cal nutrient removal; dye testing, and system optimization. Tiiesday, April 3

Upgrading Your Wastewater

Millennium Challenges

Session 7

This session will cover a major issue facing municipalities across Canada Asset Management. Papers will be pre

Plant Optimization - Perfecting

sented that cover some of the issues on

asset management and will touch on optimizing the operation and perform ance of assets and resources. Session 4

Treatment Plant 101

Is your aging treatment plant in need of a face lift? Is the concrete starting to crumble? Are museum curators check

ing out your switchgear? Practitioners with specialized experience in plant up grades will take you through planning, inspection and construction aspects of rehabilitating your old plant. Session 12 Research - The Key To The Future

Wastewater has long been considered a 'waste' to treat and 'throw away'. The

THE Process

value of wastewater as a resource has

This session will present various papers that are related specifically to plant op timization and will endeavor to provide

begun to be recognized. In this session,

information such as:

• How to find spare capacity in existing facilities.

the results of research to recover/reuse

water, sulphur, nitrogen and hydrogen, as products from wastewater treatment will be presented. Session 13

Biosolids Management - The

•Challenges of operating BNR in north

Challenge of Tomorrow This is a continuation of Session 1. It

• Case studies on WWTP audits and

This session will provide various aspects of collection system design, operation

optimization projects.

and maintenance.

will bring you up to date on how others are coping with this issue, both on the technology and regulatory/public inter est perspectives. Session 5 Advanced Treatment- Reaching High Treatment Levels

Increasingly more stringent limits are being placed on wastewater treatment facilities today, requiring a high level of treatment. This session presents a number of new advances to achieve a

high level of treatment. Session 6 Sewer Use - Gaining Control

ern climates.

Session 8 New Technologies - Scientific and Engineering Breakthrough

This session will provide interesting in formation on a variety of applications of novel technologies. The papers are intended to challenge our approaches and perceptions about process design, and include discussions of Anaerobic

SBRs, Recirculating Intermittent Sand Eiltration, Greenhouse-based biological wastewater treatment, and chemical

augmentation. Session 9 Watersheds and Stormwater

Collection Systems

Session 14

Phyto Technologies For Landfill, Stormwater,and Wastewater Applications

Phyto technologies are becoming in creasingly attractive for a variety ofcon taminant reduction applications. They are considered by many to be a sustain able technology that, in addition to pro viding a contaminant removal mecha nism, also provides a benefit to the lo cal community for enjoyment of outdoor activities and provides new or restored wildlife habitat.

The WEAO and the Municipal Enforce ment and Sewer Use Group(MESUG), have once again joined forces to profile issues related to the prevention, control and treatment of discharges to sanitary

This session will provide an update on the latest approaches for watershed stud ies, biological analysis,combined sewer

For general conference informa tion and registration details, contact Francesca Davino, Tel: (905) 7261300, Fax:(905) 726-2300, Web site:

and storm sewers.

control and stormwater management.




Enviwnmental Science & Engineering, March 2001




The Biofor" was

0! / successfully incor-



porated Into a new

facility in Chateauguay, Quebec. At this facility, design flow is 27,000 m^/d, with peak of 83,000 m^/d. BOD removal efficiency is greater than 80%.

Like all simple ideas, biofiltration is efficient. Degremont Infilco combines and masters two

The Biofor® is based on the co-current upflow of

operations in one: biological degradation and retention of suspended solids.

suspended solids in a media called Biolite®. This

The benefits of biofiltration include:

more compact installations improved plant efficiency cost-effectiveness

operational flexibility

air and water, and the retention of bacteria and

results in a high rate of filtration and provides extended filter runs and an odour-free workplace. Degremont Infilco is a world leader in the design and manufacture of biofiltration systems for municipal wastewater, industrial effluent water, and iron and manganese removal for drinking water.

To inquire about adapting a biofiltration process to your requirements, call our offices today.


Infilco ltd.

Head office 20275 av Clark Graham, Baie-d'Urfe, QC, H9X 3T5, Tel: (514) 457-4100, Fax:(514) 457-1808 Representatives - Pipeline Supply Infl Inc, Vancouver, BO, Tel: (604) 596-2180; Aqua Technical Sales Inc, Hamilton, ON, Tel: (905) 528-3807; Canada Water Supply Ltd., St. John, NB, Tel: (506) 652-5885

For more information, circle reply card No. 133(See page 25)

Spring Conference Preview

OWWA/OMWA Annual Joint Conference



Toronto Colony Hotel, Toronto, Ontario May 6-9, 2001

Ontario Water WorksAssociation/Ontario


Water Association Annual Joint Conference 2001 intro

duces expanded plenary and technical sessions, featuring discussions and pres entations revolving around the theme Consumer Confidence -a 21st Century Challenge. Current shortfalls within the water supply profession will be identi fied and solutions will be explored and developed to move the water industry forward and improve public confidence in our water supplies. Monday, May 7,2001 Opening Plenary Session • Drinking Water in the Post Walkerton Era

• The Continuing Crisis of Our Water Resources: A Review of the Policy and Legislative Issues and Some Proposals

for Reform

• The Plain, Hard Truth about Pathogen Monitoring • Leadership is the Key to Consumer Confidence

Discussion and Question and Answer Period.

• Novel Applications of Horizontal Di rectional Drilling in Municipal Engi neering • Enhanced Water Quality Monitoring in the Distribution System: Customer Complaints Can Help • Do You Need an Asset Management Plan?

CoNcuitRENT Sessions

Ontario Municipal Water Association


• Canadian Chemical Producers Asso

• Taste and Odour in Drinking Water -

ciation "Responsible Care Program" • Planning for an Emergency and Com municating in an Emergency Situation

• Magic in a Box: Retrofitting Conven

The Search for the Cause Continues tional Filters with Immersed Mem

• Peer Review and Accreditation Pro



• Biological Iron and Manganese Re moval, Pilot and Full Scale Applications

• Legal Responsibilities and Liabilities of Public Water Authority Political and Managerial Representatives Operations & Systems Management • Cross Connections - A Water Purvey or's Viewpoint

• Ozone: Is it the Answer to Taste and Odour Problems? Research Forum

•Inactivation and Potential Reactivation

of Cryptosporidiiim parvum following

GL&V/Dorr-Oliver....the synergy continues!! NOW YOUR INTEGRATED SOURCE FOR

WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT Anaerobic Digesters (External Beam) Circular Clarifiers


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• Dedicated Management Team • Total Capability: Sales, Design, Engineering and Manufacturing

(Pier, Bridge, Spiral, Solids Contact)

ODS Diaphragm Pumps Detritors Thickeners Pretreator

State-Of-The-Art Rectangular Suction Secondary Clarifier

• Committed to Customer Service

• Full Quality Assurance Programme • 85 Year Track Record

Degritters Travelling Bridge Clarifiers:

• Experience in Export Transactions • Full Service across the USA

(Grit, Primary, Secondary) GL&V / Dorr-Oliver inc. 174 West Street South

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Tel:(705) 325-6181 • Fax:(705)325-2347 Ken.Smith@glv.com, Brian.Burrell@glv.com

For more information, circie repiy card No. 134 (See page 25)

612 Wheeler's Farm Road

Mllford, CT 06460-8719

Tel:(203)876-5400 • Fax:(203)876-5599 Mike.Smith@glv.com, Paul.Doan@glv.com

Environmenlal Science

Engineering, March 200!

Spring Conference Preview UV Exposure •An Evaluation of Chlorine-Based Dis infectants on Corrosion in Cast-Iron

Distribution Systems • Bench Scale Ozone Decay Study in Windsor, Ontario

• The Effects of Alkalinity and Hydro gen Peroxide on Ammonia's Ability to Inhibit Bromate Formation during Ozonation

• Effect of Temperature on Persistence of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in River Water by In Vitro Infectivity As say

• Temperature and Organic Matter Effects on Floe Size and Coagulant Efficiency

• Improving Customer Confidence through Better Asset Management Young Professionals •Primary Disinfection at the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant: Refocusing Ozone and Implementing Ultraviolet Irradiation

• Improving Drinking Water Quality through SCADA System Improvements •Potential Water Quality Improvements using Ozonation and Sedimentation at the Burlington Water Purification Plant • Application of Immersed Ultrafiltration Membranes for Organic Removal and Disinfection By-Product Reduction Surface & Groundwater Source Protection

Walkerton by swabbing and chlorine disinfection • Full Scale Trial of Chlorine Dioxide

at Wiarton, Ontario

•Water Demand Forecasting Model and its Utilization in High Lift Pump Op eration to Reduce Energy Costs •Water Industry and Consumers'Sensi tivity to Water Quality and Esthetic Issues

Closing Plenary • How do Municipalities pay for their Water Services?

Case Studies of

Smaller Municipalities and their Differ ent Financing Models •Water Safety: When is too Much Power Not Enough? The Medical Perspective • Tap Water: To Drink or Not to Drink? Keynote address: The Commitment to Safe Drinking Water, Ontario Minis

Tuesday, May 8,2001

• Impacts of Agriculture on Groundwater Supplies • Watershed Management - Surface Water Supplies • Groundwater Protection: Inception to Implementation • Can Watershed Management and

Concurrent Sessions

Enhanced Disinfection with UV Elimi


Management • Water Utility Strategies for Success

nate the Need for Filtration of a High Quality Surface Water

• R.C. Harris Filtration Plant

• A New Era for Water Providers

Distribution & Treatment

• Water Efficiency, Good Management and Improved Customer Confidence

• The removal of pathogenic bacteria from distribution system biofilm in

• Isolation and Characterization of

Legionella from Groundwater • Assessing Fouling in Membrane Sys tems using Particle Counts and Field Flow Fractionation

ter of The Environment.

• Discussion and Question & Answer Period

Wednesday, May 9, 2001

• Air Canada Centre

For further details, contact Tel:

(416)252-7060, Fax:(416)252-3908 or E-mail: owwa@idirect.com.

ffOFFMAn Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors & Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressors & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at discharge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse appiications such as sewage aeration, combustion, drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cieaning, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 90 years.

W i\\


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 25)


Spring Conference Preview

AMERICANA 2001 - Montreal, March 28-30, 2001

Representativesofindustry and the international environmen

with complex and varied realities. Cli mate change, one of the most pressing

Centre. For information and registra tion: Patty Jones, (604) 590-7433, Email: patty.jones@powertechlabs.com.

tal community from the Americas, Europe, the Mid dle East and North Africa plan to meet in Montreal from March 28-30, 2001,

concerns, will receive a lot of attention

AWMA 94th Annual

from the specialists and governments at this year's conference," said Nathalie Drapeau, President of RESEAU envi


for AMERICANA 2001.


RESEAU environnement, the group organizing AMERICANA, has a pro gram that mirrors global concerns about climate change. Other concerns to be discussed throughout the conference are: air, agri-environmental issues, drinking water, municipal and industrial wastewater, groundwater, environmen tal geomatics, watercourse management, environmental management, solid

"More than ever, representatives of industry and the environmental commu nity must demonstrate the will to put

wastes and contaminated sites.

forward reasonable and lasting solu tions. This is the focus we want to give to AMERICANA 2001," she concluded.

RESEAU environnement is Quebec's leading environmental trade association, supported by a membership of 1600, including businesses, municipalities and several hundred professionals.

AMERICANA emphasizes techni cal, commercial and scientific ex

For more information, contact: Tel:

(514) 270-7110, Fax:(514)270-7154.

changes; the participants are scientists,


managers,engineers,technologists, con


sultants,financiers, environmental con

for Water and Wastewater Treatment

sultants and representatives of institu tions and governments. About fifty for eign delegations will take part. All par ticipants will be sharing their concerns about the environment, discussing their

May 10-11, 2001, Vancouver, BC Hosted by the BC Hydro Water and Wastewater Centre and co-sponsored by

view of development and offering pos

the British Columbia Water and Waste

Association, this seminar is directed at

"The environment is a concern for

governments as well as businesses and citizens who are trying to create a healthier environment. Every country is now confronted by many environmen tal problems and must come to terms

TheAir & Waste Management Association Conference is

designed for environmental managers, facilities supervi sors, business and industry executives, government agency officials and repre sentatives, global urban experts and planners, professional technicians, sci entists, engineers, analysts, educators, consultants, researchers, and students of environmental and related fields.

researchers, business leaders, industrial

sible solutions.

& Exhibition Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, Florida June 24-28, 2001

academia, professionals, water and wastewater plant managers and opera tors. It will provide a review and indepth look at the interim and final re sults from numerous projects sponsored by the BC Hydro Water and Wastewater

Highlights include 200 technical and educational sessions offering more than 800 peer-reviewed presentations, an ex hibition featuring more than 300 com panies and organizations, excellent so cial and technical tours, and a unique opportunity for industry, government, and consultants to come together in a balanced, non-partisan forum for the ex change of ideas and knowledge on tech nical, scientific, and management issues. Contact Nancy Bernheisel, Meet ings Coordinator, Air & Waste Man agement Association, Tel: (412) 2323444, ext. 3157, Fax:(412) 232-3450, E-mail: nbernheisel@awma.org.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 136 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Ad Index


Reader Service No.


Harnois Industries Hoffman IMS Canada

56 23 61

146 135 246

International Water Supply



185 251

IPEX Inc ISA 2001

37 Insert




Reader Service No.

ABS Pumps ABS Pumps

16 76

264 166

ACPA Acres & Associated Env AIIMax Professional Solutions Anthrafiiter

3 70 59 53

Aquablast Ashtead Technoiogy

53 43

252 157

Azurix Baker Process

75 11

113 125

BC Hydro Beriie Technologies

58 53

165 253

42 57 53 Card

170 164 254

Cancoppas Cancoppas

35 71

150 118




CH2M Hill



Chemtrac Systems Colgate Palmoiive Colgate Palmoiive Con Cast Pipe

72 59 68 33

116 186-188 122 147

Davis Controls Davnor

58 74

138 168

Degremont infiico








CAEAL CAEAL Career Advancement Can-Am Instruments




JWC Environmental Kee Industrial Products KMK Consultants

ITT Fiygt

13 72 17

127 117 263

KSB Pumps Metcon Sales & Engineering MSU Mississauga

38 17 38

160 131 161




Neo Valves OCPA Ozonia

32 79 80

144 106 105

Paques ADI









Professional Engineers Ontario



ProMinent Fluid Controls


RAL Engineering Ltd



RJ. Burnside & Associates RPR Environmental

74 61

114 248


Rusmar Foam Technology Sanitherm Engineering Schiumberger

42 39 46

171 169 176







Eckel industries



Stantec Consulting Stan Mech Agencies Stormceptor Summa Engineering

36 59 6 77

173 189 104 260-262

Team-1 Env. Services



Trans-Cycle Industries



Trimax Residuals Urecon Victaulic XP Software Zenon Environmental

53 59 15 70 2

256 184 130 266 101

Ecoflo Ontario



Endress + Mauser Canada Enviro Rentals Enviro-Test-Sentinei Labs

27 13 36

141 128

Gary Steacy Dismantling



GLV/Dorr Oliver Canada Goider Associates

22 37

134 151





103, 270-273


FOR QUICK RESPONSE, FAX BACK TO (905)841-7271 FREE Information Service for Readers





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Spring Conference Preview

British Coiumbia Water & Waste Association 29th Annuai Conference Penticton, BC, April 8-11, 2001

In a pristine set ing, Penticton has

that "small town" atmosphere, yet has all of the amenities to host

major conferences such as that of the British Columbia Water & Waste Association.

Conference Schedule

Sunday,April 8 Technical Tours

• Penticton's Water Filtration Plant, fol lowed by Wine Tour.

Treatment Plant followed by visit to compost site and Wine Tour. Monday,April 9 Opening Ceremonies 9:00 am - 11:30 am

• Penticton's Advanced Wastewater

Afternoon Sessions

Decentralized Wastewater Treatment: The Sustainable Solution The BCWWA Small Wastewater

Systems Committee, Ministries of Health and Environment,Lands &Parks

present a program addressing the eco nomic, social and environmental ben efits to decentralized wastewater treat ment.

Water Quality & Treatment Selected papers highlight current top ics including risk assessment, pilot stud ies, full-scale plant performance, disin fection and contaminant removal tech

nologies. Trencliless Technology A full-scale demonstration slip-lin ing project is being planned. Operations Forum I - Develop Your Own Waterworks Emergency Response Plan

Why is there excitement in the air about Eaglebrook?

Although it is mandatory that BC water utilities have a current 'ERP',

We're continuing to spread our wings - taking the lead as your single source for water coagulation products and chemistry.

many utilities do not have a plan in place. The BC Ministry of Health and BCWWA Small Water Systems Com mittee will conduct a workshop-style session using actual case studies. Operations Safety Competition 5:00 pm - 7:00 pm Several teams will compete for the BCWWA Operator Safety Award.

Check out our extensive product range and see why we're attracting so many customers. We have it all, including aluminum- and iron-based products for water and wastewater treatment.

Tuesday,April 10

With expert technical services in regional offices across Canada and the United States, we're up to your specific challenge. So don't expect the buzz about Eaglebrook to stop

anytime soon. F^uture acquisitions'and new product development are in the works. Deal with a company that's top flight all the way. ■ ••• www.eaglebrook.net


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Matteson, Illinois

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For more information, circle reply card No. 140 (See page 25)

Wastewater Treatment & Disposal This popular session will feature new technologies in operation in BC and throughout North America. Environmental Planning & Management A series of presentations will focus on environmental planning processes important in BC today. These typically include ecosystem-based planning, in tegrated stormwater planning, and liquid waste management planning proc esses ofinterest in the Georgia Basin and inland.

Water Use Efficiency The BCWWA Water Use Efficiency Committee, with the support of the MinEnvironmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Spring Conference Preview istry of Environment, Lands & Parks, have assembled a series of papers out lining the state of water use efficiency in domestic and agricultural applications in BC today. Operators'Forum II- Sanitary Sewer Lift Stations - Design, Operations & Maintenance Techniquesfor Efficient and Trouble-Free Operations

sewer systems operators with classroom and field displays and instruction on operations and maintenance issues im portant to proper maintenance of your community's sanitary sewer collection system. Focus will be on preventative maintenance and cost saving measures. Waterworks Operators'Roundabout

This session will be of interest and

workstations to provide waterworks sys tem operators with hands-on experience with a variety of techniques and equip ment used in community water supply.

value to municipal wastewater lift sta tion operators and designers. Water Distribution

Typical session topics will include new piping products and techniques, modeling,contemporary thrust restraint procedures, and water quality deterio ration within the distribution system. Wastewater Collection Systems Innovative collection system pro jects, investigations and studies will be highlighted including inflow and infil

This session consists of a series of

Focus will be on water quality protec tion in the distribution system. Experi enced operators will be providing in struction on equipment selection, opera tion, maintenance and troubleshooting procedures, water quality issues, and answering attendees' questions. For more information, contact: British Columbia Water & Waste As

sociation, 342 - 17 Fawcett Road, Coquitlam,BC V3K 6V2. Tel:(604) 540-0111, Fax:(604) 540-4077.

"where iocs the WOkter goi"

tration, odour control and construction

techniques. Approaches in Stormwater& Drainage Management A series of local projects incorporat ing new methods for integrated stormwater management will be discussed. CMHC Water Conservation Workshop Series

The objectives of the nation-wide se ries of workshops are to share results of recent research in water use manage ment, and identify alternative water use management strategies. Operators' Forum III - Paper, Paper, Paper This session explains ways that mu nicipal operations departments and per sonnel are using the latest technology to reduce paper and increase efficiency. Wednesday,April 11 Technology Transfer Sessions A forum for drinking water manag ers and regulators will focus on contem porary health and treatment issues in BC. Typical topics will include; Waterborne pathogens; Traditional treat ment technologies; Contemporary treat ment technologies; Community water sheds; Case study - East Kootenays;

My duckie loves to take a batti, but I am careful to take film out of the water before I pull the plug. I wonder where the water goes when it swirls down the drain. Water - a priceless resource. Endress-i-Hauser offers solutions in analytical measuring technology. Ask us.

Groundwater and surface water issues;

Operator education and certification; Water sampling programs; and the New BC safe drinking water plan. Sewer Systems Operators'Roundabout This session will provide community


Analyzers with sample conditioning for Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphate • Elminate expensive ultra-filtration • Small sample volumes • Compact • Automatic self cleaning & calibration • Compensation for turbidity

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 141 (See page 25)


Wastewater Operations

New impellersolves pump clogging problems

Within weeks of instal a

tion, the new pumps at a

Florida water reclama

tion plant were continu ously being clogged by masses of hair and rags. ITT Flygt's new 'N' impeller proved able to cut this fibrous material and solve the problem. On Florida's Atlantic coast, Cocoa

Beach Water Reclamation Department's (CBWR) prime mission is to convert sewage generated by its resi dents, tourists and nearby

ity of the staff encountering sharp ob jects that could easily slice through a work glove." Needing a solution, Blanchard turned to Ellis K. Phelps and Company, the Orlando-based Flygt distributor, who began sleuthing out a solution. One key

fact that pump flow rates at Cocoa Beach vary with the volume of inbound mate rial, and there are often high flow spikes throughout the day and throughout the season.

This is not so surprising given the fact that tourism-dominated Cocoa Beach can

factor, Blanchard stressed, was that he

see its 12,000 base population swell four

was certain that, hydraulically, the high flow, low head Flygt pumps were right for the job.

fold in season,and that the Air Force Base

Patrick Air Force Base, into

tends to pump over its sewage in very high flows for short intervals at various times during the day. Therefore, variable speed pumps make sense for vari

irrigation water for lawns, at an adjacent golf course, and the Base's public areas. That

ous reasons. As Blanchard

mission, however, was

factor, we achieve tremen

threatened less than two

dous savings by using just the power we need, instead of continually operating at top speed. We definitely didn't want to have to go to maximum speed just to

stresses: "Since electrical

power is always a key cost

years ago when a series of new pumps, installed to boost plant capacity as part of a $12 million upgrade, al most immediately started to fail. While four internal re

cycle axial flow Flygt model LL 3152 pumps were not im pacted by the inflow of hair and rags, the four new RAS Some of the debris that gets down the drains. (return activated sludge) Slicing up the Problem axial flow LL 3127 pumps were becom ing so clogged they were barely func When the snarling first occurred, tioning. Blanchard recalls:"We thought it was a According to Darby Blanchard, Wa hair binding problem. But that proved

J avoid pump fouling." The

N-Impeller equipped pumps allow the CBWR to do just


From Sewage to Profits The Cocoa Beach Water

Reclamation Department is the second Florida city to provide its residents with a separate lawn irrigation system. Co coa Beach homes have a colour coded

ter Reclamation Administrator:"Within

not to be the answer. Just when we

pipe which enters each valve box. And

weeks of installation, the new Flygt model LL 3127 submersible pumps were continuously being snarled by masses of hair and rags that would clog the pump impellers and render the pumps useless." While there is quar ter-inch influent screening at the plant's headworks that blocks coarse or heavy material, hair and pieces of rags were still able to get through. Another factor is the crumbling cement around the screening at the sewage water entry point. Some of that cement dates back to the plant's opening in the mid-1960s, and gaps definitely allow material to pass through.

thought we'd exhausted all possibilities, Flygt suggested replacing the impel lers." After replacing one with a Flygt model 'N', and subsequently three oth ers, since April 1997, except for stand ard maintenance tasks such as checking the oil and motor, the pumps have re mained in place and on the job. What proved to be necessary was a means of cutting fibrous stringy mate rial before it got into the pumps. The design of the new 'N' impeller features a base groove operating within a very tight configuration. The sharpened end of the high chrome impeller provides the needed shearing action. And, while the same volume of hair and rags are likely still entering the Cocoa Beach water treatment system, their ability to foul critical pumps has essentially been cur

each home must have installed a back

A Maintenance Horror Show

As frequently as every other day, Blanchard's staff would have to pull and disassemble the pumps, then hack away at hair masses with a machete. Blanchard vividly remembers: "This was dirty and dangerous work, particu larly when there was a strong possibil 28


N-Impeller allows for Variable Speed Efficiencies Equally if not more important was the

flow preventer that blocks any mixing of irrigation with drinking water. Home owners are also required to attend a seminar that details the do's and don'ts

of water service. Cocoa Beach style. Cocoa Beach's irrigation water sys tem is a real cost saver to homeowners

since much-more-expensive drinking water does not have to be squandered on lawns. While it can be costly to in stall new irrigation water lines, subse quent savings make those investments a very good deal. Now that the plant's pumps are ful filling their original mission, normal maintenance has again been achieved. That not only allows the hard-working Cocoa Beach Water Reclamation staff

time to ponder new ways of turning sew age and sludge into profits, they've also been able to hang up their machetes. For more information, circle reply card No. 142

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001


Moving hazardous materials with greater safety Nitrogen, as a dry, inert and oxygen- with any residual product vapor safely free gas, minimizes flammability haz discharged to a flare stack for incin ards during processing, storage, pack eration. aging and transportation operations. •Perform "bubble-leak"testing on re Purging and pressurizing railway tank placement valves and fittings — cars with nitrogen helps ensure that Under recent regulations, a pressure chemicals, petroleum-based products test must be conducted to ensure the and other hazardous materials are cars have no leaks prior to leaving the loading site. transported safely and in an environ "Our nitrogen usage has more than mentally responsible manner from doubled since 1981 because it's a very source to market. It also helps pro tect these products from exposure to air and moisture,thereby maintaining product quality and consistency. Procor Limited's rail car repair and maintenance facility in Sarnia, Ontario, uses Praxair nitrogen for re pairs, re-qualification, alterations and

safe product to deal with in meeting more stringent regulatory testing requirements," said Procor's plant manager Jan Dekoning in Sarnia. "And throughout our consistently high-volume usage, Praxair's service has been excellent, with efficient, re

liable deliveries, and good mainte nance support." For more information, circle reply card No. 143



conversions of tank cars. With more

than 22,000 railway cars, tank cars and specialty freight cars,Procor Lim ited manages Canada's largest and most varied private rail car rental fleet. These units often carry cargo such as petroleum by-products, liquefied pe troleum gas, sulphuric acid, ethylene glycol and sulphur dioxide. 'gmmin

When you think of industrial gases, think of Praxair! Praxair account manager Mark Heerema (left) and Procor plant manager Jan Dekoning at Procor's facility in Sarnia, Ontario.

To help meet rigorous safety, oc cupational health and environmental protection standards for the storage and transportation of these products, Procor uses nitrogen purging as part of their rail car cleaning process, in order to:

Praxair is the largest industrial gases company in North and South America, and one of the largest worldwide. We produce a broad spectrum of atmospheric, process and specialty gases in a wide selection of supply options for virtually every industry known to man. That's what makes us big, but that's not what makes us the best! We stand out from the rest because of an extraordinary line-up of

commercially-proven gas application technologies that can make your business better. From food processing to metal fabrication, and from chemicals production to water treatment, Praxair is put to the ultimate test every day...helping customers increase production, lower operating costs and find cost-effective environmental solutions.

•Displace vapor to maintain pressure

End your search for the best industrial gases supplier. Talk to Praxair!

- As an inert gas, nitrogen provides the safest method of purging and pres surizing rail cars that carry volatile products. • Reduce oxygen levels to below 2% after steam cleaning tank cars Typically, a three-cycle purge with high-pressure nitrogen is performed.

Call 1-800-PRAXAIR, or visit our website at www.praxair.com.

}PRAXAIR Making our planet more productive" Copyright 2000. Praxair Technology. Inc. All rights reserved. PRAXAIR. the FLOWING AIRSTREAM design and the term MAKING OUR PLANET MORE PRODUCTIVE are trademarks of Praxair Technology. Inc. in the United Stales. Canada and other countries.

Air Pollution

Emissions reduction trading in the energy sector

After operating in a regulated

Act. These establish an emissions

The information on which the claim

reduction-trading program to help elec tricity generators reduce the emissions of contaminants that cause smog and

is based is that the intelligent deployment

stitute the currency of markets. In A Theory ofLegislation, the 18th century philosopher Jeremy Bentham expressed the view that property is designed to do something, and what it is supposed to do is tap individual energies in order to make us all more prosperous. In Economic Analysis of Law, the modern-day economist Richard Posner submits that property does this by cre ating private property rights that encour age people to invest their efforts in things they own (since each owner reaps

of market mechanisms is needed for ef

the reward of investment decisions as

ficient environmental management of the airshed by Ontario's electricity genera

well as bearing the costs) and because they encourage trade (since clear enti tlements are a precondition to trade). This, he argues, is desirable because in vestment and trade make us collectively

tions is that the government should de

market for many years,elec tricity generators in Ontario are facing shifting govern ment perspectives with respect to in creased competition and deregulation. A concern is whether these changes will increase air pollution. The Ontario gov ernment has responded to this by pro posing regulations for electricity genera

are allowed to electricity generators, divide that level into a number of rights, and auction off these rights to the high est bidder as private property. After the initial auction has been held, electricity generators can buy and sell these rights from one another in an open market

tion under the Environmental Protection


acid rain.

Emissions reduction-trading is a mar ket-based approach to environmental management that uses "pollution cred its" as the currency of exchange. The government creates pollution credits by capping emissions at specified levels and auctioning off rights to pollute the airshed ("allowances") up to this level. Polluters purchase the allowances that they need for their operations. A pol luter achieving a level of emission that is below its allowance creates a pollu tion credit. Polluters that have earned credits can sell them to others that did not meet their allowances.

The policy claim behind the regula30

fine an airshed, determine the maximum

levels of SOjj and NO^ emissions that

tors. This is abstracted from the Minis

try of Environment's document entitled In Brief: Emissions Reduction Trading, which reads in part that, "the govern


ment believes that emissions reduction

So if we want to reach that result of

trading will unleash the power of mar ket forces to develop innovative, costeffective opportunities to reduce air pol lution." This suggests that the govern

collective well-being, we need to have clear and secure property rights and open markets in which to trade them.

ment's information is that market forces

is contained implicitly in this analysis is justice - both individual justice (just

cause the development of innovative, cost-effective opportunities to reduce pollution. Reliance on markets carries judg

The value or ethical consideration that

rewards based on work ethic) and so

ments that are based on values and eth

cial justice (collective well-being). Since reducing air pollution is the government's objective and its informa

ics because private property rights con

tion is that "unleashing" market forces

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Air Pollution

will achieve this, its argument trans

between countries in quotas for the emis

emissions from the US. In border ar

formed market forces into emissions re

sion of CFCs. No such mechanism,how

eas, the contribution from US sources

duction-trading. This argument is based on the assumption that electricity gen erators are motivated by the desire to achieve production efficiency. That this is the argument is evidenced by the state ment in the In Sn'e/document that, "in helping Ontario companies to meet the

ever, has as yet been established. An analogy is also unavailable to support the argument for the same rea son. Quasi-market incentives(or "green taxes")found official favour rhetorically in England, but have not found their way into policy-making.

is much higher. Any long-term solution to Ontario's air quality problem requires actions to be taken throughout the re gional airshed. Ontario emissions re

Province's stricter emission limits at the

Other countries have made more

lowest cost, the government is working

progress in actually implementing green taxes, especially on water pollution. Most notably, France, Germany,and the Netherlands make use of per-unit pol lution charges in their repertoire of en vironmental policy instruments, but the experiences of these countries is decid edly mixed. In France,charges are used mainly as a revenue-raising device, and

to ensure the continued health and com

petitiveness of the provincial economy." Thus, the cost-effectiveness of emis

sions reduction-trading for electricity generators is important because this helps them remain healthy and competi tive.

Production efficiency is essential because it results in lower operating costs and consumer prices. The cost of compliance with the air pollution caps will be an operating cost because of the desire of the electricity generators to achieve goodwill, which maximizes profits and the returns on investment to shareholders through higher consumer sales. The emissions monitoring and reporting strategy will create public awareness of the environmental per formance of electricity generators. Con sumers will set the acceptable level of environmental performance through their buying powers,and consumer pres sures will motivate electricity genera tors to achieve this level.

Pollution rights will provide electric ity generators with flexibility in timing the investments they need to make in or der to meet the emission limits. Those

for which it is easy and cheap to reduce emissions will cut back rather than pay for pollution rights, whereas those for which emissions reduction is expensive will purchase pollution rights. Environ mentalists who believe that abatement

should be greater still can purchase pol lution rights themselves and leave them unused.

A parallel case is unavailable to sup port this argument because emissions reduction-trading does not have a track record. The United States has experi mented with pollution rights to a lim ited extent. For example, the 1990 US

Many environmentalists argue that the environment has intrinsic value

or is a common property resource and, as such, is

not a commodity to be bought and sold. are not set high enough to affect dra matically the environmental behaviour of polluters. In the Netherlands, charges are successful and widely supported by environmentalists. In Germany, green taxes play only a secondary role within a more traditional regulatory system. In the absence of parallel case and analogy to support the argument, the government can point to the desire of influential organizations to follow its proposed course of action. For exam ple, the Organization for Economic Co operation and Development and the European Community have, in recent years, been promoting market-type policy instruments. These instruments were endorsed by the 1987 Brundtland Report, Our Common Future, which

duction actions must be coordinated and

harmonized with actions taken through out the regional airshed, which stretches beyond the province." The policy claim behind the proposed regulations describes the actions that are prescribed by the regulations, which is the creation of an emissions reduction-

trading program. It is not concerned with the outcomes of the action. These

are not fully known in advance. Only the maximum level of air pollution is prescribed. How the emissions reduc tion-trading program will play out is unknown and will be determined by market forces alone. Thisjump into the unknown is not reckless. It is based on

values and ethics, and assumptions about the motivating power of inten tions, goals or values of electricity gen erators after deregulation. Many environmentalists challenge these values and ethics. For example, they argue that the environment has in trinsic value or is a common property resource and, as such, is not a commod

ity to be bought and sold. Another re buttal is that people not only have con sumer and producer preferences, as is presumed by advocates of market-based approaches to environmental manage ment, but also citizen preferences. Fur thermore, these may point in different directions.

For example, as a consumer I may want to have free municipal water, but as a citizen I may want to externalize the cost of producing clean water through consumption charges. The result is that the arguments for and against an emissions reductions-trading system in Ontario's energy sector are es sentially arguments for and against a set of values that are being given predomi nance by the present Ontario government.

launched the era of sustainable devel

The emissions reduc

tion trading system is only the forum in

Clean Air Act Amendments allow for

opment on the international stage. The government qualified its policy claim by noting that coinelative and har

emissions trading for SO^ from coal

monized actions must also be taken

ing values are being

fired power plants. It is too early to as

throughout the regional airshed, which stretches beyond the Province. This qualifier is explicit in the Media Back grounder for the government's press re lease, which points out that, "over half of Ontario's smog problem is caused by


sess the results of the initiative. The United States is ahead of other countries

on such measures. On a larger scale, the 1987 Montreal Protocol for the protec tion ofthe ozone layer provided for trades

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

which these conflict

By Ayoub A. All, M.Sc., LL.B.j All, Cook LLP, Barristers & Solicitors 31


Fuel cells could energize treatment plants

Fuel cel s operating at waste-

much more pollution to the

water treatment facilities have

air and are less efficient than

been demonstrating a cuttingedge application for reducing

a fuel cell.

emissions of methane and carbon diox

ide, pollutants that contribute to global warming. A fuel cell in Yonkers, New York,

utilizing Anaerobic Digester Gas(ADO) has the distinction of being the first project of its kind in the Western Hemi sphere. According to Yan Kishinevsky of the New York Power Authority, more than 90% of the wastewater treatment

plants in the United States generate ADO as a by-product of their operation, requiring many of these plants to be regulated as stationary sources of air pol lution under the Clean Air Act.

The gas, primarily methane and car bon dioxide, is a by-product of sewage treatment. Modem plants flare the gas, and many more are using it to power absorption chillers, reciprocating elec tric generators, or even as fuel for a gas turbine. All of these options contribute

Realizing the potential of digester gas as a fuel, NYPA enlisted the help of Westchester County in find ing a way to utilize the gas while reducing plant emis sions. The partners decided tion. To demonstrate the ap plication, they installed a 200-kilowattt fuel cell power plant, manufactured by Inter

of valves for water

Cathode (+)


national Fuel Cells of Con

necticut, at the Yonkers Wastewater Treatment Plant.

The fuel cell is producing

power at just below $0.08/ kWh, and while the original estimated operation mainte nance costs were $0,015/

roton exchange membrane

Diagram courtesy Hydrogenics Corporation.

kWh, they are substantially below that figure to date Fuel cells use a chemical reaction

Valves are not a component you want to

cut corners on and risk compromising

and wastewater




Oxygen (Gz)

Hydrogen (Hz)

your professional reputation. It's not a risk we're prepared to take either; with your reputation, or ours! When you specify NEO, you can be certain you are specifying quality valves without compromise. Regardless of the application, call us for immediate, expert attention to your valve requirements; support you should expect ...and definitely deserve. We're ready for your business.

Offering a complete line

(416) 661-6020 (416) 661-6787 (514) 333-9600 (514) 333-0330 (604)421-4010 (604) 420-9457

E-mail: neovalves@emplastic.com

Anod e (-)â–

that fuel cells were the solu

Forty years in this business has taught us that valves are critical to the reliability of your project and the long term cost-effectiveness of your plant.


Tel; Fax: Mont. Tel: Fax: Van. Tel: Fax:





illustration of PEM Fuel Cell


For more information, circle reply card No. 144 (See page 25)

rather than combustion, to produce elec tricity in a process that is the reverse of electrolysis. In electrolysis, an electric cur rent applied to water produces hydrogen and oxygen. By reversing this process, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in the fuel cell to produce electricity and water. The environmental benefits of fuel

cells are significant, especially when compared with typical fossil-fuelled power plants. Air emissions, in particu lar, are much lower from a fuel cell. For example, the Power Authority's 200-kw fuel cell in Yonkers generates about 1.6 million kilowatt-hours of electricity a year, and in that time releases only 72 pounds of emissions into the environ ment. In comparison, an average fos sil-fuelled plant generating the same amount of electricity annually produces more than 41,000 pounds of pollutants. "Projects like these demonstrate the enormous potential of fuel cell technology to do 'double-duty' for our environment," says Robert Rose, executive director of the US Fuel Cell Council. "First, they capture waste gases which are contributors to glo bal wanning. Second, by utilizing digester gas, a renewable source of fuel, fuel cells reduce the need for traditional, fossil-fuel

based power generation. As an added bo nus, fuel cells are a more elficient way to generate electricity - you're harnessing more power from the fuel." Source: US Fuel Cell Council,

Tel: (202) 293-5500 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

r oil/water separator features these

important parts: Cost-effective and safe, this

highly efficient below grade oil/water separator provides maximum protection against oil spill contamination. The

spill stays on-site where it belongs - so all will be able to enjoy our precious environment.

Check out all the benefits of ecoSep, the clear choice for clean water:

• Optimally designed for point source and industrial stormwater applications ■ • 5 ppm oil/water separation • Up to 50% annual maintenance and disposal costs savings • High operational reliability - only mechanical and stainless steel components

ecoStop ecoStop features a patented automatic shut-off valve. Flow through the system is stopped when maximum oil storage capacity is reached or when a certain liquid level exceeded. In its closed position, the ecoStop valve will remain tight up to a 5 metre total dynamic head pressure.

Use ecoStop for maximum protection against unexpected and catastrophic petroleum spills.

Full access to all major elements makes ecoSep easy to operate and maintain.


299 Brock Road South, R.R.#3 I

Licensed by Con Cost Pipe from Royal Environmental Systems Inc., A Division of Royal Enterprises America

Guelph, Ontario N1H 6H9 1 800 668-PIPE


For more information, circle reply card No. 147(See page 25)

Food Industry

Food processors also require corrosion protection hile Denso North America

Inc. is one of the country's largest suppliers of corro sion prevention products to the water, oil and gas transmission indus tries, its tapes are also used in the food in dustry. For many years the company has supplied petrolatum tapes and primers to food processors for use in pickling plants, protection of brine lines, as well as to re frigeration companies needing products for their cooling equipment. Recently,the company was called upon to supply products on a pipe-wrapping project involving high temperature edible oil lines. A processing plant, located in Ontario, required corrosion protection; it operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The oil products produced are high quality com and canola oils that are mostly used on a commercial basis by restaurants for deep frying foods. Raw oil is brought into the plant via ship or rail car from Western Canada where it is processed and transported by a series of buried pipes to holding tanks several thousand feet from the plant. With little opportunity for mainte nance down time, the company needed a high quality, high temperature coating for their transportation lines that could be applied without major disruption and ex tensive delays in the plant. Due to se vere corrosion of the existing piping, new pipe had to be installed. As well, the anticorrosion coating had to be applied in a


48-hour time frame in order not to dis



Severely corroded hot oil pipes that were repiaced.


Wrapping of Denso Hotline Tape on new pipes using roiling pipe support.

rupt a nearby rail yard and personnel parking lot. Operating temperatures of these oil lines reached 200°F(93°C), well within the operating range of Denso Hotline Tape. The tape was applied to the new pipe sections on a rolling pipe support above the trench and, once the wrapping was complete, these were lowered into place and bolted to the next pipe section. This project was completed well within the required two-day time frame with mini mal disruption to the plant and surface operations. For more information, circle reply card No. 148

By Blair Slessor Denso North America Inc.

Connection of newly wrapped pipes coming from processing plant under railway tracks.


Environmental Science & Engineering. March 2001




With 10,000 team members worldwide, we offer total solutions across the fields of Water, Environment,

Energy and Industrial Systems, Telecommunications, and Transportation. Sure, we've changed our name, but our commitment to providing innovative, practical, and sustainable solutions keeps growing, Evolution is good.








For more information, circle reply card No. 149(See page 25)

One System

Multiple Parameters

A single ChemScan® system can perform automatic on-line analysis for one or more of those parameters in water or wastewater:

•Iron • Nitrite

• Other Metals

• Ammonia


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001


For more information, circle reply card No. 150 (See page 25)


Groundwater Protection

Asphalt landfill liner could Improve safety and increase capacity

Morethan 200 mil ion tons

of trash are produced an nually in the United States and probably 20 million tons in Canada,so environmental safety and landfill space are always ofconcem. Researchers at the University of Mis souri-Columbia are developing a new type of landfill liner which they hope will improve safety while increasing capacity. "Since 1993, the Environmental Pro

tection Agency has required that landfills are lined with at least a two-foot layer of compacted soil and a 1.5-millimetre plas

hydraulic conductivity that is 100 to 1,000 times lower than traditional com

pacted soil liners. Hydraulic conduc tivity describes how a liquid flows through a material, and is important when preventing leakage from landfills. "Landfills with traditional soil liners

may have a flow rate of about 140 US gallons per acre, per day," said Profes sor Bowders, who is working with Civil Engineering Assistant Professor Erik Loehr to evaluate the new liner. "With

associate professor of civil engineering.

asphalt alone, the flow rate decreases to about nine gallons per acre, per day. When you complete the liner with a layer of sprayed asphalt and a geosynthetic fabric on top, the flow is al

"For an alternative liner to be used, it

most unmeasurable."

must meet or exceed cuixent standards.

Another environmental safety advan tage of the asphalt liner, he says, is that it is more flexible and pliable than tra

tic membrane," said John Bowders, an

An asphalt liner can do just that." He said an asphalt landfill liner has a number of advantages, the most impor tant of which is increased environmen

tal safety. The asphalt liner can have an

tional soil liners. In addition, the layer of sprayed asphalt on the liner's surface has the ability to seal itself against punc tures, a feature traditional plastic mem branes do not possess. Asphalt landfill liners also take up less space. Traditional soil liners are more than two feet thick, but asphalt lin ers are between four and six inches thick.

Although it doesn't sound like much,the additional volume that the asphalt liner provides is substantial. If you installed a four-inch-thick asphalt liner on a 30-acre landfill, you would gain 70,000 cubic yards of volume. This would mean that the landfill could hold about 50,000 more tons of trash.

Professor Bowders says that asphalt

ditional soil liners. This allows it to

handle deformations without cracking, which sometimes happens with tradi

liners could be used to line about 90

percent of landfills in the US. Landfills that hold petroleum wastes, hydrocar bon wastes or organic solvents could not use asphalt because these wastes could degrade the liner. He adds that installa-

^f- EnviroTest

Knowledge Based





For the Environment ANNOUNCEMENT

Dennis Erickson, President of Enviro-Test Laboratories (ETL) and Jeffrey Pike, President of Sentinel Laboratories of Waterloo are proud to announce the merger of the two companies. Effective March 1, 2001, Sentinel Laboratories will be operating as:


Enviro-Test Laboratories - Sentinel Division

Lab operations will continue without disruption at: 50 Bathurst Drive, Unit 1 Waterloo, ON

offices OODSS North America In Canada call

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(519> 886-6910 (ph) (519) 886-9047 (fax)


Arizona • Nevada • Callfomia • Utah Colorado• North Carolina • South Carolina

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This merger recognizes the commitment of ETL, Canada's premier environmental laboratory network, to provide high quality analytical services on a national basis. The merger also provides Sentinel with the mandate and resources to effectively pursue the recent developments in the environmental field in southern Ontario. For more information on the capabilities of ETL, please do not hesitate to contact Mr. Pike at the phone number listed above.



For more information, circle reply card No. 173 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Eni>ineerini^, March 2001


Groundwater Protection

tion costs are comparable between as phalt and traditional liners. Produced from a variation of the


same materials that are used in road con

struction,the development of the asphalt landfill liner is based on the knowledge that natural asphalt formations are


known to remain intact for between

3,000 and 6,000 years. "Today's compacted soil/plastic membrane liners can last up to 700 years, but more permanent systems are in demand," he says. "Using asphalt, we can build liners that could last for

1,000 years and beyond." These recommendations, outlined in

the paper: Asphalt Barriers for Waste Isolation, were scheduled to be pre sented at the GeoEng2000 Conference,

Smooth, clean inside surface that will never tuberculate

Has a break rate 50 times lower than Iron pipe' PVC is the most popular choice tor replacing corroded iron watermain pipes



For more information,

circle reply card No. 181 For more Information contact IPEX Inc.


TOLL FREE (800) 268-4664

November 19-24, in Melbourne, Aus

tralia. The conference brought together members of a number of international

organizations including the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,the International Society for Rock Mechanics, and the International Association of Engineer ing Geology and the Environment. For more information, contact: JenkinsJL@missouri.edu.


Associates Geotechnical, Environmental & Mining Solutions

1 800 414-8314 Offices throughout Canada, the United States, Europe, Asia,

Golder Associates is helping its clients maintain the balance

between industrial development and the environment. With innovative services like environmental risk

assessment, remote sensing and GIS modelling, plus traditional services, such as surface and groundwater management, strategic planning and biological assessments, site assessment and remediation, and environmental impact analysis, Golder Associates has the expertise that clients have trusted for 40 years. With the

integrated team of environmental and geotechnical specialists behind

Australia and South America

our name, our professionals can meet all of your environmental



Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)


Concrete Pipe Bedding

Studies on alternative bedding could cut costs

TheNational Research Council hosted a conference

purpose of this study is to collect data from a test site in

in Ottawa to begin a research project Alternative Bedding for Concrete Pipe Study. Researchers will examine the use of standard installations bedding design as an alternative to the current practices outlined in

Ontario to further validate the model and, by extension, prove that the Standai'd Installation design method and in stallations are appropriate for concrete pipe in Ontario. Com parisons of the Standard Installations method with the cur

the Ontario Provincial Standards (OPS).

rent Ontario Provincial Standard will be made in terms of

Partners in this three to four year study are the National Research Council of Canada(NRC), Ministry of Transpor tation of Ontario (MTO), the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton (RMOC) and the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA). The Standard Installation Direct Design method takes into account the inherent strength of concrete pipe and the in situ soil conditions. The bedding/backfill design mini mizes the use of imported material, making maximum use of the native soils when installing pipe. The design method has been derived from a finite element analysis model de veloped by consultants Simpson, Gumpertz and Heger called "SPIDA". Using SPIDA, four standard installations were developed ranging from Type 1, which includes the use of good quality imported material for bedding,to Type 4, which requires no imported material. Through extensive monitoring of test installations and input of the field data, the SPIDA model has been validated in the United States and, in part, in Western Canada. The

performance and costs. If the bedding designs prove to be feasible, the total costs to use concrete pipe, including bed ding costs, could be reduced. Current OPS design standards utilize the Indirect Design method for the design of backfill and bedding. Also known as the Rational Design Method, this design method was developed several decades before the computer age and the use of finite element analysis models. Thus, the inher ent strength of the pipe was not fully considered. As well, every installation is the same, regardless of the type of soils

By Paul Smeltzer, Ontario Concrete Pipe Assoc.

Wastewater problem?

v/^ettle it. The new KSB submersible mixers

are designed to save energy and maintenance costs in sewage and sludge treatment applications. They're also ideal for cleaning I pump sumps and stormwater overflow tanks- and can be combined with other reservoir

which surround it. It also assumes that the backfill and bed

ding materials are properly installed and compacted. The test site for this study will be due south of the Na tion's Capital, a culvert replacement project on River Road outside of Osgoode, Ontario. RMOC is replacing an exist ing 1,200 mm diameter pipe, which has corroded. The new culvert will be 1,350 mm diameter reinforced concrete pipe donated to the project by M-Con Products Inc. of Carp, Ontario. The pipe will be monitored by a number of strain gauges and pressure sensors. A digital data logger will col lect the data for evaluation based on the theory using the

Access Handles

Lifting Davits Vent Pipes

Access Hatches

Lifting Hooks Liquid Level Regulator Holders

Safety Chains Railing Systems

cleaning systems. KSB mixers come in o number of

configurations, oil designed for optimum efficiency and long life. A perfect complement for the KSB line of submersible wastewater pumps. Find out more from KSB.

Safety Landings Fail Arrest Systems

Trash Baskets


Guide Bars•

Climbing Rungs


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KSB KSB Pumps Inc., 65 Queen St. W., #405, Toronto, ON M5H 2tV!5 Phone: 416 868-9049 Fax: 416 868-9406


For more information, circle reply card No. 160 (See page 25)

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corrosion resistant,

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For more information, circle reply card No. 161 (See page 25)

Concrete Pipe Bedding

regulating the profession Professional Engineers

If the bedding designs prove to be feasible, the total costs to use concrete pipe, including bedding costs, could be reduced. SPIDA finite element model. The NRC will download the

information regularly via a telecommunications line from the site to their offices in Ottawa. Monitoring will continue for a period of not less than three years. Two types of in stallations will be studied: Type 2 and Type 3 which are similar to the cument OPS Class B and Class C.

In addition to the bedding study, the OCPA has commis sioned the University of Western Ontario's Civil Engineer ing Department(UWO)to oversee a separate bedding study. UWO will inspect the installation of and monitor four sepa rate Type 4 Standard Installations. Type 4 does not use any imported material and requires minimal backfill compaction. It is the worst case scenario for pipe installation. The four sites are located at: Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products, Cambridge; Con Cast Pipe, Guelph; Munro Concrete Products, Bairie; Hanson Pipe & Products Canada, Whitby. The purpose of this work is to determine whether reinforced concrete pipe can withstand traffic loading when it has been installed in native material only, with no im ported bedding or backfill. The installations at the concrete pipe plants were com pleted by July 2000. Installation of the concrete pipe cul vert in Osgoode, Ontario was scheduled for completion by Labour Day of 2000. For more information, circle reply card No. 152

serving the public


Professional Engineers Ontario (PEC) licenses professional engineers in all fields of engineering, and regulates engineering practice in Ontario. PEO serves and protects the public interest where engineering is concerned. The association publishes Professional Practice Guidelines for many fields of engineering, which are available by visiting the PEO website at www.peo.on.ca. Printed guidelines and contract documents can be purchased by completing and returning the website Publications Order Form, or by contacting our publications desk. Look for a new Schedule ofSuggested Fees for Engineering Services to be published in 2001. PEO welcomes inquiries on professional practice and ethics for

engineers and will verify whether individuals or companies are licensed.

Visit us April 10 and 11 at the 2001 Ontario Environmental

Tradeshow/, Booth 513, for complimentary copies of PEO practice guidelines.

Professional Engineers Ontario, 25 Sheppard Avenue West, Suite 1000, Toronto ON M2N 6S9.

Tel.: (416) 224-1100;(800) 339-3716. Fax: (416) 224-8168;(BOO) 258-0496. Website: www.peo.on.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 180


Solar Sludge Drying

Package Wastewater Treatment Plants Worldwide

Manufacturers and Suppliers of Water and Wastewater Products and Processes

Sanitherm Engineering has developed a worldwide reputation for quality equipment and service over 55 years. Our package plants are found in South Korea, Indonesia, Russia, Peru and throughout North America. We design, build, install and/or operate, and represent over 20 premier manufacturers in Canada, the USA, and




extended aeration, RBC

and SBR package plants,

The Thermo-System Solar Dryer is an energy-efficient system designed to dry sludges to over 75% solids. The combination of solar heat, convection heat, an electric "mole"and a micro processor creates optimum drying conditions and reduces operator attention.

odour control, disinfec tion, static tube aeration,

air stripping towers, membrane technology and more.

Underground Package I reatment Plant, Extended Aeration. Abiquiu. New Mexico, Feb. 2000

Call us for our brochure.

Please see our Product Index at



HEAD OFFICE, NORTH VANCOUVER,BC,CANADA Tel:(604) 986-9168 Fax:(604)986-5377 E-mail: saneas:@sanitherm.com

9050 Ryan Avenue, Dorval, QC H9P 2M8 761:514-636-8712 Fax 514-636-9718

e-mail: canacia@parkson.cGm www.parkson.com An Axel Johnson Inc. Company

For more information, circle reply card No. 169 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 162 (See page 25)


Waste heat keeps water running at -40°C

Engineers were given the chal

lenge of designing a commu nity water distribution and sewage collection system for

the Northlands First Nation of Lac

Brochet. A remote northern community in Manitoba, Lac Brochet has a climate

more severe than Yellowknife's, despite being further south, and is in the zone

of discontinuous permafrost. Extremely cold winter temperatures, -30°C to

-40°C,cold lake temperatures, and sandy soils with deep seasonal frost penetra tion defied UMA to find an economical

way to prevent the water distribution system from freezing. UMA's team of engineers investi gated various methods of watermain freezing prevention, including several configurations of heating plants with an oil-fired boiler, an electric boiler, a wood-fired boiler and an 'enhanced"

electrical heat-traced system. The Na tion was not in favour of any method with environmental risks, e.g., hauling and storing the fuel required for an oilfired boiler, or operating the existing diesel-powered generating station to produce additional electricity for the electric boiler and heat-trace alterna

tives. These systems also entailed high annual operation and maintenance costs, so an alternative solution was sought.

By Rebecca Sullivan, UMA Group Ltd.

Crews installing pipe modifications to capture the heat emitted from the generators inside Manitoba Hydro's generating station. UMA proposed an innovative proc ess: utilizing the waste heat emitted from the operation of large engines in Mani toba Hydro's diesel-powered electrical generating station to heat the water in the distribution system. The warm water (heated to approximately 6°C) is recirculated through multiple loops of the community pipeline system. This is the first time this application of utiliz ing waste heat as a means of watermain

freezing protection has been applied to an entire community in Manitoba. The success of this project is a result

of a unique partnership between UMA, Manitoba Hydro, the Northlands First Nation, Indian and Northern Affairs

Canada, and Ininew Project Manage ment (who assisted with the negotia tions). The energy conservation over the operating life of the waste-heat recovery heating plant will amount to significant savings compared to the alternatives. This innovation also demonstrates a sub stantial reduction in the use of fossil fu

els, a small but important step in the re duction of greenhouse gas emissions. Circle reply card No. 154

MULTI-STAGE FILTER PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANT for SMALL SYSTEMS Enhanced Multi-Stage Slow Sand Filtration Package Plant. ' No coagulant, coagulant aide, or pH chemicals required. No chemical cleaning or chemicai wastewater disposal. No costly membranes to replace. No moving parts. ■ Treats a wide range of raw water quality. ' Greater than 4 log removal of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. •!' Removes high colour and organics with pre-ozonation option. Simpie cleaning technique produces less than 0.5% washwater. Operating cost is a fraction of membrane or conventional filters. Meets all government guidelines for filtration of surface waters.

Phone (905) 853-0626 482 Queen Street, Newmarket,ON. L3Y 2H4 ENGINEERING



Fax: email: web:

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Dedicated to developing practical solutions to a community's servicing needs.

For more information, circle reply card No. 153 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001




disinfect! TODAY

New Water regulations in the Works? Everyone involved in the drinking water treat ment industry during the past year knows that Canada's drinking water quality has been put under a lot of scrutiny. Analysis of exist ing water treatment practice and the deriva tion of new direction for the application of disinfecfion effects everyone producing water to become responsible for maintaining a healthy supply.

IS« ' *••***'■■■■' '* *

Microbiological Rjsk Optiiiniin Area

Key drinking water protection requirements currently include: • mandatory sampling and analysis by accredited laboratories • notification of exceedances of health-based standards

• public access to water quality information, review of municipal waterworks every 3 yrs •specification for minimum treatment levels. We believe Ontario is leading the way

towards stricter regulations. A large facility would be required to disinfect prior to the treated water entering the distribution sys tem.* Further to this method of treatment a

large facility with surface water being the source must provide chemically assisted fil tration or other treatment capable of produc ing water of equal or better quality. Regulations Made Under the Ontario Water Resources Act, Drinking Water Protection. Smaller water treatment systems may be subjected to the same types of criteria. For example, a small facility that uses surface water as its source water may also be


l)osa2col Disiiitcclanl

Water treatment piants could face stringent new testing requirements..

required to filter and disinfect using chlorine as well. A small facility using groundwater as a source may only have to disinfect, using one of a number of aiternafives.

Regulations pertaining to smaii and large waterworks also stipulate monitoring and testing requirements for microbiological parameters, long term health risk concerns, and parameters that are not health related, but are tested to ensure the effectiveness of

the water treatment system. Smaii water works will have testing requirements that balance protecting individuals while ensuring that businesses are not subjected to unnec essary cost or regulation.**

the waterworks includes a chlorine monitor

to display the level of Free Residual Chlorine in the system, and a Turbidity Meter that will allow for monitoring the tur bidity, or level of suspended solids in the water. The effectiveness of Free Residual

Chlorine is dependant on the turbidity of the water as well, as any coiioidai matter in the water can prevent bacteria from being con tacted by the chlorine and also adds to chlorine demand. High turbidity can cause re-infection down stream in the water dis

tribution system.

What is required? Obviously, many water treatment facilities that at one point were not required to provide any type of disinfection or filtration process are now faced wifh fhe dilemma of meeting the new standards.

Smaii private waterworks now servicing six or more households must provide some form of disinfection, as well as monitoring of

Main/Backup pump system with fiow monitoring.

This means that if the water usage is more than 34 litres per minute a disinfection and possible filtration system must be installed as well. Equipment required on the outlet of

the residual in the line to act as proof that the water has been treated according to the specifications outlined. Size is also a con cern, 50,000 litres per day is not very large.

• Regulations Made Under the Ontario Water Resources Act, Drinking Water Protection. "" Protecting Drinking Water (or Small Water Works in Ontario.


What do you look for in a water treatment package if you have to chlorinate or disin fect? Chiorination has been used as the pri mary disinfectant in water treatment for

years. Designing an effective chiorination system is a balancing act as too much chlo rine can be considered a long term health risk as a result of by-product formation. Too little and the microbiological risk is high, leading to short term health risks. The key is optimization using the most reliable dosing and monitoring equipment available. continued overleaf

The largest Chlorine Dioxide Bello ZonÂŽ installation in the world ENEL is Italy's national power supplier. Treatment of cooling water Involves the use ofseawater, which passes through heat exchangers before returning to the sea. This system can handle 40,000 rrf of water an hour-an enormous amount which demands a corre

spondingly high capacity over a short period for disinfection.

The Bello ZonÂŽ Installations produce 4x10 kg chlorine dioxide per hour. After the reactor, the seawater Is used to dilute the disinfectant

In a bypass conduit and Is then transported to where metering takes place. Thanks to a four branch system, metering can be carried out at four different places In the cooling water conduit. The systems are reliable and operate without any problems. The Installation Is the subject of national acclaim - grazie e complimenti amid!

Ozone addition

not depletion Ozone is not only in the atmosphere it is a valuable oxidant and disinfectant with the

estimable quality of breaking down into nat ural oxygen after use. Its excellent disinfec tion properties means it is being increasingly used in the food and beverage industry. The OZVa series from ProMinent offers users

an extraordinarily high level of safefy and practically zero product maintenance within the capacity range of 5-35g/h.The BONa technology can produce ozone at rates up to 800g/h. The newly developed "FCC" technol ogy means that the electrical components are fully protected. The exact ozone capacity is digitally displayed in "grams/hour" and the user can turn down ozone discharge to any value from 3 to 100% of rated capacity. The integrated alternating pressure adsorber drier and the use of a dielectric with

better heat conductivity than stainless steel are at the heart

of the system's compact design. The silent electrical

discharge takes place at the dielectric.



design of the generator ensures optimum cooling and rapidly draws off any heat generated in order that the ozone does not break down

immediately as a result of overheating. The OZONFILTÂŽ OZVa requires neither an injector nor a booster pump for reliable ozone metering.

Water Works continued from page 1 The chemical dosing or metering pump is the preferred means of chlorine addition for a small system as the product It Is dosing is readily available, relatively safe, and easy to handle. Selection of an appropriate pump is the key to an effective design. The metering pump must have the range, or turn down capacity to deliver the required amount of chlo rine accurately into the drinking water system. As many of these systems have small flow rates the pump must be able to dose extremely small amounts of chlorine reliably during periods of low use, such as at night. In this situation a contacting tank would be recom mended to supply adequate distribution of the chlorine throughout the whole line.

Materials of construction of the metering pump should also be compatible with chlorine. Materials that are compatible, such as PVC, Acrylic, Viton, Kynar and Teflon should be used. In the case of a pump failure a backup pump should also be readily available to maintain the chlorine residual in the sys tem.In remote Installations it is also a good idea to incorporate chlorine pump flow monlforing, alarm indication, and tank level o s o

indication to a remote alarm detection and annunciation device such as a automatic dialer.

For free chlorine, the sensors consist of a gold cathode and a silver/silver chloride

r Minent

anode. The electrodes sit in an electrolyte contained in a membrane-covered cap. The membrane is selective to hypochlorous acid (FIOCI), which provides the best disin fection of all fhe compounds of chlorine in water. The current measured between the

electrodes is proportional to the concentra tion of FIOCI. ProMinent chlorine monitor.

A proven method is to use a process con troller which continuously measures and controls the chlorine residual to maintain the required residual concentration (set point) by controlling the chlorine addition delivered by a metering pump. This method incorporates PID (proportional-integral-derivative) con

trol and can also accommodate a feedforward signal from a flowmeter (disturbance) to provide a compound-loop control system (combined feedforward and feedback control).

Ozone is the practical solution for iron and manganese removal in combination with

multi-layer filtration (sand and activated car bon). When bottling still water, ozone can be added shortly beforehand to the process water. The process minimizes the problem of re-infectlon of the bottles during bottling. Ozone can be used as a biocide in cooling or washing water systems. If coupled with fil tration the ozone requirement falls - the oxi dation power of the ozone is then applied predominantly for the microbiological stabi lization of the water.

Chlorine has played a crucial role in protecting our drinking water from waterborne dis eases for nearly a cenfury. As a disinfecflon method, chlorine has proven itself to be a cost effective means of disinfection against a variety of pathogens such as bacteria E. Coli, Salmonella (typhoid). Vibrio (cholera), and virus hepatitis A. The main benefits of providing a properly engineered chlorine-based disinfection system far outweigh the potential health risks associated with disinfection by-products such as chloramines and THMs. Especially since these by-products can be considerably reduced or eliminated by designing a proper water treatment system, that takes into account raw water quality, in synergy with chlorine disinfection. Walter Schajnoha P. Eng., National Engineered Product Sales

Food disinfection - Simple Chlorine Technology? Vegetable, meat and poultry process water and sanitation. Superior products, longer shelf life, mlcroblal control, these are all factors affected

by the disinfection process Involved with food washing and sanitation. High bacter ial loading, cross contamination, re-lnfectlon and inconsistent quality of material being processed are common criteria when designing an effective disinfection system, The best alternative will address these key concerns and contribute to pro

viding the proprietor with a high quality product that will outsell their competition.

As the pH Increases the disinfection capa bility of the water declines. This would not represent a problem If contact times were high as the dissociation of these two com

pounds exists In an equilibrium dependent on pH. However, In wash applications, contact times are typically low resulting in Inadequate disinfection. The problem of pH Is compounded by the fact that chlorine Is very alkaline by nature and adding large quantities Increases the pH of the water to over the 7.5 to 8.0 range that bounds Its effectiveness.

The most commonly used disinfectant In the food Industry Is chlorine as It Is a low cost alternative and when used correctly

The solution, already practiced by a num ber of food producers, Is to monitor and

and accurately controlled In order to ensure adequate HOCI concentration as well and to optimize chemical use.

Thirdly the configuration of the system can offer significant Improvements to Its efficiency and reliability. In many systems chlorine and pH control are applied to the Input side of the wash system, which means there Is no con trol of the actual process water after the Initial chlorine addition. Certain

chlorine concentrations may leave a sufficient residual after the washing stage to ensure good disinfection whereas others may not. Sensors should be situated on a recirculating loop after the disinfection process to account for the variation In chlorine

demand exerted by various products. Variations of Active % of some

Disinfectants based on the pH 120 100

S? 80


S 40 20

Chlorine Dioxide CiP system. extremely effective. Fed Into the process as a liquid or a gas, chlorine Is proven to destroy moulds, fungi, and bacteria. Industrial guidelines recommend chlorine dosages of up to 50 ppm for vegetable wash applications. Chlorine Is also used In carcass wash applications In the meat pro cessing Industry. Adding chlorine to the process to maintain a 50 ppm level seems simple enough, however chlorlnatlon Is a â– process that not only depends on the amount of chlorine added. It also depends on the pH of the water that It Is being added to.

Chlorine, when dissolved In water of pH greater than 4.0 can be found In two major forms. Each form Is greatly effected by the pH of the water. Free chlorine (HOCI) or hypochlorous acid Is the most powerful disinfecting form of chlorine when In dis solved state. Free chlorine disassociates

to the hypochlorlte Ions (CIO-) at pH levels above 7.5. The hypochlorous Ion Is not a powerful disinfectant compared to HOCI.


control not only the chlorine residual of the water, but also the pH to ensure the correct level of HOCI concentration.

Design Criteria for Effective Ctiiorine Disinfection Processes

Many of the products that require disinfec tion start soiled with organic material. This material should be removed as much as

possible before the product enters the washer. This not only lessens the require ment of disinfecting chemicals, but It also minimizes the formation of chlorinated by products that can cause tainting. Both pH and HOCI should be monitored and controlled using appropriate tech niques. The chlorine concentration should be monitored using an HOCI sensor rather than a redox or ORP sensor when possible. This ensures that the measured parameter Is an accurate Indication of the disinfecting power of the system. The pH should be monitored using a potentlometric sensor

The ProMinent free and total chlorine

monitoring system. The outputs of the controllers should then be used via a feedback loop to accurately control chemical metering pumps that maintain the pH and HOCI concentrations at optimum levels by dosing citric acid and sodium hypochlo rlte at the in/out to the washer.

Accurate control of the hypochlorous acid and the pH In this way ensures that the sys tem will operate efficiently and offer excellent microbiological results. In addition to this, the Increased precision of dosing minimizes the overall chemical cost.

Alternate technologies expand on nieinfAAtinn ■ the efficiency options for industry to improve of heat exchangers. time for cleaning and maintenance of the heat exchange equipment with con sequent loss of profit, reduction of fhe useful life of the equipment and most significantly the increase of the energy consumption by engines, recircuiation pumps and fans. Ozone and Chlorine Dioxide offer not

only biocide effectiveness but also effec tive slime removal and prevention of the adhesion of slime. As neither effects the

pH of the water in the same manner that chlorine will the pH of the system is more stable as is the alkalinity. The increased efficiency of fhe heaf exchange process results in lower oper ational costs and the stability of the alkalinity results in a reduction of the corrosion levels present in the cooling tower. The stability of the alkalinity also reduces the requirement of corrosion

Cooling Tower-Treatment


Further to the benefits associated with

the use of chlorine dioxide over chlorine,

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Anywhere chlorine finds applications, alternative disinfection technologies can also be considered. One area receiving much attention recently is the application of Ozone and Chlorine Dioxide in cooling

ozone has no increasing effect on the conductivity of the water. This results in an increase of the number of cycles experienced in the system. Systems have been designed to the point where only the water required to replace the evaporative losses is needed and no blow down is required.

fower water treatment.

Problems that require examination in cooling water treatment are corrosion, scaling and slime or microbiai control. Slime appears due to the adhesion and/or sedimentation of determined types of particles that can exist in suspension in the cooling water. These particles are

composed of microorganisms (algae, bacteria, fungi) and small non-organic particles (sand and products of corro sion). This slime formation is the cause of many problems in cooling systems:



• Fail in the efficiency of the heat exchangers • Clogging of the tubings of fhe heat exchanges • Fail of the efficiency of the cooling tower • Acceleration of the corrosion.

The effects on fhe system caused by slime formation also leads to down

Talk to your water treatment expert about disinfection alternatives in your industry.

ES&E Magazine presents:

The 2001 Ontario Environmental Tradeshow held in conjunction with the 9th annual

Environmental Management, Compliance & Engineering conference and workshops A unique networking opportunity organized by Environmental Science &

Engineering Magazine and Canadian


Environmental Regulation & Compliance News

April 10 & 11, 2001 Regal Constellation Hotel Etoblooke (Toronto), Ontario

Now in its third year, our tradeshow, held in conjunction with our highly successful conference, now has its own name. Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, and Canadian Environmental Regulation & Compliance News, the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow is designed to be a low-cost, high quality opportunity for you to network with existing and potential clients.

Ml im

Call now for an Exhibitor Prospectus 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #30,

Environmental Science

ÂŽ Engineering Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Aurora, Ontario L4G 3V6

Tel:(905)727-4666, 1-888-254-8769, Fax:(905)841-7271 Web site: www.esemag.com Contact:

Penny Davey penny@esemag.com

Denise Simpson denise@esemag.com 41

Emergency Response

Procedures and guidelines for hazardous materials

They said it could not happen-

but, it did! Heat inside a pulp and paper process was esca lating to dangerous levels. Looking for answers,the mill contacted other facilities around the world that

used the same equipment. The replies were the same;"It's impossible... It can't happen". When the heavy steel struc ture started to melt, water was used to

cool the outside walls, eventually an explosion and fire occurred and the

process equipment was lost. Later, it was discovered that the emergency fail safe system was at fault. Whether an event is large or small, working around Hazardous Material Proc ess Systems is a serious business. Project Administrators have an enormous respon sibility to ensure the work is completed according to standard and to operating expectations. Each trade, contractor or individual is an important part of the team

By Cliff Holland, President, Spill Management Inc.

An exercise to minimize the reiease of corrosive vapour to the atmosphere. Photo - Spill Management Inc.

when it comes to ensuring that the job is done right. Spills, leaks and releases can

When working with hazardous ma

result from human error, mechanical fail

terial process systems, standard operat ing practices, procedures and guidelines

ure and chemical reactions.

must be followed.


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Environmental Analytical Laboratories For more information, circle reply card No. 170 (See page 25)



For more information, circle reply card No. 171 (See page 25)

Emergency Response Careful planning and the selection of competent, professional tradespeople are two crucial ingredients required in today's process safety management pro grams. Working with hazardous mate rial process equipment requires being alert to, and prepared for, potential spills, leaks and releases. This means a bal

ance of pro-active and reactive ap proaches, plans and procedures to ad dress the production needs of the job as well as the needs of the customer.

Planning should consider the oper ating history, frequency of releases, age of the process and response capability. Oversights could lead to upsetting con ditions inside the plant and the evacua tion of nearby residents. Understand the team approach Whether your job involves develop ing an Action Plan, designing the proc ess or setting the specifications, it in volves having specialized skills, know ing your limits and being a team player. Players must understand: • not only what to do but also what not to do,

• how the equipment works, • which chemicals are used in various


• where safety features and alarms are located,

• when "safe work practices and per mits" are required, • who to call for information,

mately familiar with all aspects of the project, is appointed as the Project Ad ministrator. The Project Administrator is responsible for developing an Action Plan that transforms the approved project into a working reality. Process Safety Management Procedures Prac tices and Guidelines are developed by the Project Administrator on a job-spe cific basis to ensure that the sequence of events, proper equipment and work permits are in place and that workers know exactly what, where, when, why

and how to do theirjob. Pro-active plan ning, actions and preparedness may pro vide the buffer required to gain control of an unanticipated event. The ideal team will have an intimate

knowledge of the standards,codes,speci fications, regulations and the hands-on skills required to do the job as well as a working knowledge of the chemicals in volved in the process. The team should include representatives from operations, maintenance, engineering, chemistry. Continued overleaf

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Availability and quick delivery are critical requirements when you rent air monitoring and sampling equipment. We know, because renting is all we do. We specialize In rental instruments for virtually any air monitoring application, from PIDs to FIDs, CEMs and ambient air testing and sampling. We stock hundreds of reliable instruments from all the major manufac turers. Most instruments ship overnight, to just about anywhere in Canada. Or you can arrange for local pickup and delivery at our Mississauga office. Next time you're ready to rent air monitoring equipment, call the supplier whose business is renting. Call us. Call Ashtead Technology.

NO/NOz/NOx analyzer


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• who to call in an emergency, and • why they are part of the plan. In addition to knowing how to do the job, all personnel are expected to obey the facility's general workplace safety rules, work in compliance with local, provincial/state and federal legislation and follow developed Process Safety Management Practices, Procedures and Guidelines laid down by the Project

Portable combustion

Administrator. In accordance with the


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Project Administrator's Action Plan, everyone is expected to do their job ef fectively, in a timely manner and com municate results and difficulties.

"Safe work practices" such as main tenance, confined space entry, line break-ins/tie-ins, lock-out and tag-out procedures are routine activities at a re finery or process plant. People who do this type of work on a regular basis are skilled, trained and knowledgeable. They know that no one person on the project has all the answers and that it takes teamwork to bring projects to a successful conclusion.

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A team leader, who must be inti Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 157 (See page 25)


Emergency Response environment, health and safety, as well as outside contractors and consultants

as required. Developing an action plan An Action Plan must address the

needs of the job as well as the overall operating, sales and marketing objec tives for the plant. Effective planning is based on understanding the needs of the project. Walk throughs, video footage and drawings of the job site help to explain objectives and focus ini

dangers that could affect workplace safety, cause fires, explosions, release toxic vapours and create runaway reac tions. Material Safety Data Sheets and workplace labels ai'e the starting point for gathering information about process chemicals. Data from these and other sources should not be taken at face value

and the requirements of emergency re sponse teams.

Emergency response Teams responding to emergencies should also view them as opportunities to expand their knowledge, establish project-specific response procedures and ensure that appropriate supplies, equipment and support services are in place during critical phases of the job. The majority of the members involved in an indus

trial response team are from the maintenance or engineering de partments who may have built the systems, operated the chemical processes and seen unexpected events react vigorously or remain dormant. They are used to "safe work practices", and often their judgement and reactions are drawn from first-hand experi

tiatives. An Action Plan is a series of

written operating procedures that provides technically-accurate in structions for co-ordinating and implementing the work. The in structions must be clearly under stood by all personnel including those who speak a different lan guage. Failing to address criti


Debriefing the job In spite of the best laid plans, unanticipated events occur. Some are good and some are not, but ment. both increase the base knowledge Considerations to address of all involved. Recently, during critical issues may include: a hydrochloric acid line break-in • stockpiling finished product to and tie-in at a refinery, both an ex meet customer demands, perienced plant engineer and pipe • using portable feed tanks to fitter had concerns about joining maintain production, old plastic acid pipes to new ones. • reducing the inventory of haz Acting upon the information of a ardous materials during periods Inspecting hazardous material processes to determine reputable supplier, a testjoin was cal issues could result in business

interruptions caused by the lack of quality control, loss of produc tion and upset of process equip

of construction,

levels of risk and hazard. Photo - Spill Management Inc.

• eliminating high-risk working condi tions or modifying existing conditions. Respect and understand the properties of chemicals A planning team made up of experi enced people from diversified back grounds can provide the best foundation for establishing realistic approaches, goals, time-lines and procedures for modifying existing risks and hazards as well as co-ordinating work activities. Informative and readily understood dia grams, charts and documented chemi cal information should be available to

help understand the codes and standards used to establish good engineering and chemical management practices. Workers need to know, understand

and respect the physical and chemical properties of the process chemicals, the chemicals stored or used in close prox imity to work areas, the appropriateness and compatibility ofdischarging residues to nearby floor drains and what action to take in the event of an emergency. Workers must be aware of thejob-site 44

but rather supplemented with testing, pro cess chemistry information and verified by technical and experienced personnel. Chemical information, in relation to

workplace conditions and experiences, will identify the need for special per sonal protective equipment, portable collection systems,etc., and the need for emergency response supplies, equip ment and personnel to be at the site or on stand-by. Understand indnstrial eqnipment Equipment that is built to handle highly-hazardous chemicals or condi tions has to be designed, constructed, installed and maintained to minimize

impacts to people, property and the en vironment. Understanding the compat ibility of equipment, hoses, pumps, and containers used to transfer, store and

handle the chemicals is all part of the necessary considerations. When system changes are to be made,the Project Ad ministrator must research and adjust the action plan to identify the potential scales of impacts, consequential losses

done and the results were satisfac

tory to proceed with the break-in and tiein of the HCL line.

After the job was done and pressure tested, a minor drip leak resulted at one of the joints. Routine countermeasures were installed. The supplier was con tacted concerning the failure results and it was discovered that the recommended

resin was not suitable for the old style plastic pipe. The pipe fitter conducted a series of"Peel Tests" that verified there

was nothing that could have adequately bonded to meet their engineering stand ard. Others can benefit from their de

briefing process. The lesson here is... never assume!

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 163 Cliff Holland is scheduled to take part In the Environmental Management, Com pliance and Engineering conference on Wednesday, April 11, 2001. He will be presenting an introduction to spill pre vention programs and a guide for first responders when there is a spill.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

"Total turn key service' - your one-stop-shop

for management, transport, handling and final disposal of your waste. TranS'Cycle Industries provides full PCB disposal services including: •Disposal of •Transformers

•Capacitors •Light baliasts •Lead shielded cable •All PCB wastes

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On-site draining Oil storage and disposal Site remediation and decontamination

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One of our modern trucks will safely handle all your waste transportation needs.

For more information, circie reply card No. 158(See page 25)

Industry Update CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd. becomes CH2M HILL Canada Limited CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited, the Canadian division of the international

engineering firm CH2M HILL Compa nies Ltd., recently changed its name to CH2M HILL Canada Limited. CH2M

HILL Canada is headquartered in To ronto, with offices in Waterloo, London,

Niagara, Ottawa, and Barrie, Ontario. Offices serving western Canada are lo cated in Calgary, Alberta, and Vancou ver, British Columbia. Services offered

by the US parent company will provide Canada with international benefits such

as technology, ideas and resources. Envlroclub Pollution prevention is becoming a way of doing business in the Saguenay-LacSaint-Jean and Quebec-Centre areas, with the recent inauguration of Enviroclub''^. Established under a partnership involv ing Environment Canada, Economic Development Canada, National Research Council and the Climate Change Action Fund, the new Program involves twenty small and medium-based manufacturing enterprises that will realize pollution pre vention in-plant projects or the initiation of an Environmental Management Sys tem and will attend four workshops. Enviroclub''"'^ activities in other parts of Quebec have resulted in numerous advancements that benefit both the en

vironment and good business. E-mail contact: kathy.crate@ec.gc.ca.

Pumps speed up operation of largest dry dock in the US In New Orleans, on the Mississippi River, the largest dry dock in the United States is being built by Conrad Dry Dock. Dry docks are utilized to repair large ships, and range in size up to three hundred feet long(more than 90 metres). The process of preparing a ship to be dry docked can be long and tedi

pumps, a total of 80,000 gallons per minute (more than 300,000 litres) will

be pumped from the dock! Computerized control panel ABS



signed a special con trol panel that oper'ates all the pumps,

ous. The dock is first flooded,

valves and accesso

allowing the ship in need of repair to be pushed into the dock by tug

ries from one loca

tion. The computer ized control centre can

be operated by just one person, controlling all 16 pumps at the same time. The modular control system

boats or tow boats.

Once the ship is in place, the dry dock is then raised

by emptying the

monitors the level of docks and level

water out of the

of chambers, the alarms, and operating and closed valves. The pumping sys

dock with pumps that are placed in chambers on each side of the dock.

Sixteen large AFP 2523 M360/6 pumps from ABS will be used to pump the water out of the dry dock. Each pump is rated at 47 hp (con-esponding to 35 kW) and delivers almost 19,000 litres of water per minute. With the 16

Parkson acquires American Bulk Conveying Parkson Corporation recently an nounced it has acquired American Bulk Conveying, Inc. (ABC). ABC's prod uct line and the combined marketing

tem will reduce the time to raise and

lower the dock by 50%. The whole process used to take seven hours with the old pumping system, but now the dock is flooded and drained in

only 3.5 hours. For more Information, circle reply card No. 159

organizations will provide Parkson with the ability to provide complete inte grated headworks systems that comple ment the Aqua Guard® Screen, BioGuard® Influent Cleaning System, and Biolac® Wastewater Treatment System product lines. Parkson Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of Axel Johnson Inc. For more informa

tion, visit Parkson's web site at:


www.parkson.com. New Minister of the

Environment appointed

Resource Management Services

The Hon. Elizabeth Witmer has

been appointed Ontario Minister of Schlumberger Resource Management Services (RMS) offers a world class portfolio of products and services for the water utility industry. Our superior meter measurement and communication solutions allow us to process metering data with leading edge technology. As a total solutions provider, we offer recognized expertise, experience and commitment to quality that water utilities demand.

the Environment. Elizabeth Witmer

was first elected to the Ontario Leg islature in 1990 as the representa tive for Waterloo North. In June

1995,she was sworn in as Ontario's

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For more information, circle reply card No. 176 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

ES&E launches new column

"Taking Stock Investment Profile

Viewpoint" The financial industry has been a roller coaster ride over the last few years. Vir tually every day we hear about Nortel

way that revenue and market share have been built, and it will give some finan cial information and analysis. This column will try to look for fu ture winners and attempt to stay ahead of the market as it reports on develop ments in the environmental and invest

or other stock market wonders and wait

ment industries. Readers are encour

to learn about high-flyers or disasters.

aged to submit suggestions and ideas! Contact: James Sbrolla, Tel: (416)

Stock and mutual fund values fluctuate

up and down like elevators and with them ride the retirement savings and investment portfolios of our readership. While all this has been going on, the environmental industry has also wit

828-2077,Fax:(416)747-8146,E-mail: vessel @hotmail.com

Please note:Investments ofany kind should only be made after careful con sideration and review by a qualified in vestment advisor. Issues including in dividual investment objectives, time ho rizon, diversification, liquidity, and risk tolerance must be evaluated before any investment decisions are made. Marshall Macklin


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

nessed its share of market mania.

While some prominent environmen tal companies have gone through bank ruptcies, others have remained solvent but seen their share prices go through huge price swings. Today there are only a few large environmental companies that are widely traded on major stock

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water resources planning water supply, transmission and treatment

Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

market indices. At the same time it is

wastewater collection and treatment

quite evident that the growth of the in dustry will continue. It is with this backdrop that Environ mental Science & Engineering maga

electrical engineering, instrumentation and controls municipal infrastructure services solid waste and fjazardoiis materials management geo-environmental investigations and site remediation environmental assessments andplanning environmental health and safety

Acres &



Environmental Limited

zine has decided to introduce a new col

umn, which will feature environmental

companies and technologies that are

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available for investment to individuals

and institutions. It is planned to profile one company in each issue. Featured companies will be primarily publicly traded companies that are already listed on a stock exchange as well as a selected few privately-owned companies that may want to raise capital in the near future. The article will give a short history of how the operation was founded, de scribe the technology and/or the novel

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ARC to license clay liner technology Alberta Research Council Inc.(ARC) has signed an agreement to license a new geosynthetic liner(GSL)technology to Colloid Environmental Technologies

Company (CETCO), of Arlington Heights,Illlinois. Under the agreement, CETCO will have exclusive worldwide

rights to produce and distribute the liner technology. GSL, a reinforced networked poly mer/clay alloy composite, acts as a hy


draulic barrier and can be used as a liner

Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Coliingwood



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||^ CH2MHILL CH2M Hill Canada Limited

Environmental Engineers, Planners and Scientists 255 Consumers Road, Toronto, Ontario M2J 5B6

phone:(416) 499-9000, fax:(416) 499-4687 direct dial: (416) 499-0090 4- ext. Barrie • Calgary • Ottawa • Thorold


Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo

Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc. Dredging (since 1971)

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester •Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction • High Speed Decanter Centrifuges

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Central Projects Group Inc.

Prescription drugs found in water supplies Some water depaitments could eventu ally wind up having to treat water sup plies to remove contamination by pre scription drugs,predicts the New Mexico Water and Waste Management Division. The forecast followed the recent discov

ery oftrace amounts of prescription anti biotics, painkillers, epileptic seizure drugs, and oral contraceptives in surface water in various parts of the state. Greg Lewis, director of NMW

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excreting about 30-60 percent of what (prescription drugs) we take in. Amounts are showing up in very low

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they will become a larger problem later." Of particular concern, he noted, are

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for landfills and other containment ap plications. The technology was con ceived and developed by ARC scientists in a joint venture with Niiex Inc. and is considered to be the next generation of geosynthetic clay liners(GCL). Using cument technology, GCL is a manufac tured hydraulic banier composed of a layer of bentonite clay sandwiched be tween two geotextiies or bonded to a geomembrane. ARC's GSL technology, on the other hand, contains a clay/polymer alloy that has been polymeiized in situ. For details, contact Bob Trauger,Tel: 1-800-527-9948,E-mail: bob.trauger®

antibiotics, which could result in bacte

ria becoming antibiotic-resistant. Tech nology currently exists(adsorption with granulated carbon) to remove the drugs from water. He said that although pre scription drugs are unregulated, water departments might want to start think ing about compliance issues and costs associated with upgrading their systems if the problem escalates in the future. Source: AWWA /Vlainstream

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Industry Update

Anglo-Canadian bid for "cleaner" gas turbines The London-based Rolls-Royce aero engine and industrial group has commit ted itself to a long-term industrial gas turbine technology partnership with the Canadian government. Under an agree ment signed mid-year, Rolls-Royce (RR)will invest 100 million pounds ster ling in R&D at its Montreal facility, while the Canadian government will in vest an additional 33.3 million pounds sterling in its Technology Partnerships Canada program. The investments are aimed at increasing the R&D effort to

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achieving further reductions in emis sions of nitrogen oxides, carbon mon oxide and carbon dioxide from indus


trial gas turbines. Rolls-Royce Industries Canada, the UK group's local subsidiary, will work with the Canadian government on the research partnership. The 53-megawatt industrial Trent gas turbine, which is the world's most pow erful and efficient gas turbine of its kind, was the first major research and devel opment program to be undertaken by RR

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combined sewer overflows

A four year project is underway in the Toronto area to examine the feasibility of using a technique called polymer co agulation to get better removal of sus pended solids and other pollutants in the combined sewer overflow discharges that come during periods of high rain

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fall and snowmelt. Environment Canada's Wastewater

Technology Centre and the Great Lakes Sustainability Fund are providing sup port to the North Toronto Combined Sewer Overflow project. Data from the study can be used for the future design of this type of high-rate treatment sys tems. During the year 2000, there were


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these generated over 3,000 individual analyses. The work will eventually assist in protecting Canada's water bodies and, eventually, water supply. Contact: www.ee.gc.ca/tips/en. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

* Microbial Training * Consulting Services Respirometry






"For professional services in environmentai training, due diligence, heaith and safety, and compiiance auditing, give me a caii." Lou Locatelli, Principal, Tei: (90S) 477-8400 ext. 206 Email: iocatelii@gartneriee.com Website: www.gartneriee.com 49

Industry Update

Cleaning up the Saint Frangois River

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Saint-Francois determined that a seem

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Noise Vibration and Acoustics

in areas that need rehabilitation.

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ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics

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The Saint Francois River runs through rugged green valleys and rocky slopes in the area around Sherbrooke, Quebec, winding its way through communities that depend on it for recreation and live lihood. The community group Action

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J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

munity Funding Program as 225 volun teers gave up many weekend hours to clean up 30 metric tonnes of refuse. Their efforts not only improved the riverbanks of a precious resource, but helped those in the area understand more about the importance of future protec tion.

During its years of operation, the or ganization has pulled some 150 metric tonnes of trash and garbage from 30 dif ferent waterways that feed into the Saint Frangois River. Eighty percent of what was gathered has been recycled.

COPE updates National

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and Sustainability for all Professional Engineers sets out the core principles of environmentally-friendly engineering, as well as the environmental responsi bilities of engineers. It also defines the terms sustainability and sustainable de velopment. "CCPE developed the new national guideline in conjunction with our 12 members,the associations/ordre respon sible for regulating the profession of engineering in Canada," said Marie Lemay, ing., CCPE's Chief Executive Qfficer. "The new guideline is intended to promote the same core principles as CCPE's national Code ofEthics, which calls on engineers to hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Industry Update and the protection of the environment. Following the principles contained in the guideline is in the best interests of the public, the environment, engineers across Canada,and the engineering pro

•environmental site assessments


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CCPE's new guideline, which up dates and replaces its 1995 guideline. The Environmental Practice ofProfes sional Engineering, is based on four pri mary tenets that support environmen tally-sound engineering work: •Education, awareness and competence - all engineers must ensure that they are suitably equipped to practice in an en vironmentally responsible manner; •Integration and protection ofthe envi ronment in engineering work - all engi neering work must include an evalua tion of its impact on the environment and of its sustainability; • Cooperation and compliance - all en gineers should play a prominent role in promoting compliance with sound en vironmental practices, and in promoting the principles of sustainability. They must comply with regulations and co operate fully with regulating authorities; •Leadership and responsibility - all en gineers have an obligation to take a lead ership role in environmental issues which they are competent to address, and in promoting sustainability.

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New competitor poised to enter pipe market


With the approval of four new specifi cations published by ASTM Committee C17 on Fiber Reinforced Cement Prod

ucts, cellulose fiber cement pipe appears ready to enter the US market. This prod uct, very similar to asbestos cement pipe, but substituting wood fibers for the as bestos, can be manufactured in diam eters from 255 mm to 750 mm (8-30 inches). The pipe can be made on the


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crete Pipe Association of Australasia at: mguire@concpipe.asn.au, or Josh Beakley at:jbeakley @concrete-pipe.org.

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Industry Update

"A leader\r\ providing innovative automation solutions to our customers. We offer a complefe range of producfs & services in fhe areas of: •Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation •Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services •Service Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V 1J2

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Tel:(905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444

Researchers report significant turbiditygastroenteritis link Statistically significant relationships between turbidity levels in the Greater Vancouver Regional District's unfiitered surface water supply and the incidence of endemic gastroenteritis as assessed by hospital admissions, physician vis its, and visits to the British Columbia



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In an article released late 2000, re

searchers, led by J. Arimini of Health Canada's Centre for Infectious Disease

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The researchers concluded that their

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for land and water There are now more than 110 demon

Environmental Consultants and Engineers ^ Environmental Engineering

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stration projects in five watersheds underway in Saskatchewan,designed to

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the Saskatchewan Wetland Conserva

tion Corporation has enlisted the help oflandowners to promote practices that provide both agricnltnrai and environ mental benefits. The successes have

been highlighted through workshops and tours, as well as a management guide and video. Contact: www.ec.gc.ca/tipsheet. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001


New hazardous waste

regulation announced The Ontario government has passed the toughest hazardous waste regulation in the province's history. The new rules take effect on March 31, 2001.

The new regulation requires the use of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to determine if a waste is hazardous. This procedure is more advanced than the leaching test currently being used in Ontario. The re quirements will be tougher than those





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The regulation also introduces a new "derived from" rule,stating that any list ed hazardous waste will keep this clas sification until it can be clearly demon strated that it is no longer hazardous. As



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well, Ontario's schedules of hazardous

wastes have been updated to include 129 new chemicals and industrial processes. The province has now fulfilled its six-point action plan announced in Sep tember 1999. The plan included: • giving immediate legal force to the Generator Registration Manual; • revising the hazardous waste regula tion - effective September 1999 - to

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with US rules;

• amending the Certificate of Approval for the Philip Enterprises Imperial Street facility in Hamilton; •revising other Certificates ofApproval

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of a similar nature that have been issued

at other sites across Ontario; and

• establishing an independent expert panel to examine the potential for any long-term effects as a result of waste deposited at the Taro East Landfill. Contact: www.ene.gov.on.ca. —




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Industry Update Feds fund new sustainable

development technologies Natural Resources Minister Ralph Goodale introduced legislation Febru ary 2, to create the Canada Foundation for Sustainable Development Technol ogy. This new Foundation will admin ister the Sustainable Development Tech nology Fund for the development and demonstration of new technologies, in particular, those aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improv

ing air quality.

ject-by-project basis for technologies such as alternative energy production, will be managed by a Board of Direc geological sequestration of carbon di tors with expertise in technologies that oxide, fuel cells, advanced materials, promote sustainable development. They and technologies to reduce volatile or will be chosen from the business com ganic compounds and nitrogen oxide in munity, academia and not-for-profit or the air. Eligible recipients will be ex ganizations. The Foundation will oper pected to provide or seek other funding ate at arm's length from the Government, and will be asked to make provisions for and will be fully accountable to the pub ensuring broad dissemination of the re lic, presenting an annual report on its sults of the projects. activities to Parliament. The Sustainable Development Tech Funding will be available on a pro- nology Fund was first announced in the 2000 federal budget, with initial funding When established, the Foundation

of$100 million. The Fund complements other existing Government of Canada programs that encourage technological innovation,such as the Technology Early Action Measures component of the Climate Change Action Fund and Tech nology Partnerships Canada's program for environmental technologies. 2001 Showcase Award Winners The Consulting Engineers of Alberta have announced winners of their 2001

Showcase Awards, including: • Stantec Consulting Ltd. who received an Award of Merit in the Project Part nering category. The City of Calgary retained Stantec Consulting Ltd. when it was determined there was a need for

the development of a pro-active Corpo rate Environmental Liabilities Assess

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• UMA Engineering Ltd. received an Award of Merit in the Technology In novation category. For the past eight years, UMA Engineering Ltd. has been involved in one of the largest environ ment clean-up projects in Canada. This clean-up is of 21 Distant Early Warning

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in the Environmental category. The project involved developing the Step Bio-P process, in partnership with the City of Lethbridge. This process is an innovative new method to accomplish biological nutrient removal at wastewater treatment plants using existing bioreactor capacity. This method, for which a public domain patent has been issued, was developed through extensive process modeling and piloting at the Lethbridge Wastewater Treatment Plant, which began in 1992. The full-scale Step Bio-P process was commissioned at Lethbridge in 1998. Eor more information, contact

Wendy Cooper, Consulting Engineers of Alberta at:(780)458-1852.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Restoring an Ecosystem

A unique approach to evaluating remedial options for a contaminated urban lake

Mohawk Lake, located in

Brantford, Ontario, is a

prime example of a con taminated, urban lake, in

which both water and sediment quality often exceed provincial quality objec tives. Parameters of concern include

metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and faecal coliforms.

Mohawk Lake has a rather complex history, having been constructed as a barge canal in the early 1800s and, as a result, encouraged industrial develop ment in Brantford, particularly in the im mediate vicinity of the canal. Conse quently, the present day condition of the lake is perceived by many to be the re sult of historical contaminants associ

ated with past industrial activities in cluding the discharge of wastewaters from several metal foundries into the

lake, historical waste disposal practices

tion projects. In 1994, the City of Brantford re ceived a $6 million grant from the Prov

(i.e., there are seven abandoned landfills in the immediate vicinity of the lake), a former coal gasification plant, and ero

eral studies were carried out which

sion at contaminated sites and construe-

the lake. Based on these studies, sev

ince to rehabilitate Mohawk Lake. Sev

documented the present day quality of eral preliminary remedial options were

By Sherry Eaton,

identified. However, due to the with

Golder Associates Ltd.

drawal of provincial funding in 1995, plans to rehabilitate Mohawk Lake were cancelled and,consequently, none of the

and Miriam Diamond,

University of Toronto

remedial options were ever evaluated in detail or implemented. As a continuation to the work already conducted, it was decided to carry out an independent review and evaluation of remedial options for Mohawk Lake by developing a multi-media (air, water and sediment) mass balance model of the lake. Using currently available data, the model would provide an estimate of current conditions, including an assessContinued overleaf

Figure 1- Influence of Various Remedial Options on the Source and Concentration of of BaP in Water and Sediment Water Column Canal

Sediment Canal



Source of Source of

BaP in

BaP in



■ inflow

■i Inplace






a. Q. (Q













C3) C


■O c












"co E o

























0 CO

'■u 0


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001


m inpiace

BaP 400

■1 inflow
















cn TJ






E o









E •a 0















Restoring an Ecosystem Figure 2 Primary Processes Affecting Fate and Transport of BaP Under Baseline Conditions and the Influence of Various Remedial Options Water Column


Primary Source Primary Sources ParUculaie Inflow

Sources of Btf*


(% of total)

Losses of BaP

Sources of BaP

(% of total)

Losses of BaP

(%(rf total)

(% of total) Primary Losses

Primary Losses

ment of the primary sources of pollut ants, and allow the evaluation of sev

eral remedial options. The mass balance model developed for Mohawk Lake was based on the

QWASI (Quantitative Water Air Sedi ment Interaction) model developed by, and successfully applied to many aquatic systems of concern In Ontario, by the University of Toronto. The model func



ParticUate Outflow


tions by relating site specific hydrologlc, llmnologlc and chemical contribution data with partitioning,transport and trans formation properties of the chemical of concern, to produce order of magnitude estimates of factors such as loadings, concentrations, amounts, process rates and chemical persistence In each of the model components or phases. The study began by first developing

and calibrating the model for Mohawk Lake In order to determine baseline con

ditions. Model parameter values were then modified to reflect each of the re

medial options and thus estimate the effectiveness of the selected remedial

options. Five remedial scenarios were evaluated: (1) sediment capping, (2) sediment traps at the end of storm sewer outfalls discharging Into the canal,(3)


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001



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Restoring an Ecosystem ACLAE construction of a wetland at the mouth of the canal,(4)com

plete dredging of sediments, and (5) a combination of sedi ment traps, wetland construction and complete dredging. The canal, which drains into the lake and receives the majority ofstormwater mnoff,and the lake, which discharges into the Grand River, were modelled separately with the out flow from the canal representing the inflow to the lake. The dynamics of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the lake were used as an indicator of the effectiveness of remedial scenarios.

BaP, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), was selected as an indicator compound since its presence and concentration in the lake are of concern. As well, it is thought that several historical sources, in addition to stormwater discharges (in which PAH are typically present in urban areas), are or have been contributing to the presence of PAH in Mohawk Lake. A summary of the results of the model for baseline con ditions and each of the remedial scenarios is provided on Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 summarizes water and sediment concentrations and a breakdown of the sources of BaP (i.e., inflow versus in-place/historical contributions)for baseline conditions and each of the remedial scenarios. Figure 2 summarizes the major processes affecting the transport and fate of BaP in the canal and lake under baseline conditions and for each of the remedial scenarios.

It must be noted that due to the lack of, and uncertainty associated with some data, as well as the use of annualized,

averaged conditions, the model developed for Mohawk Lake repre.sents a screening or preliminary level of assessment, upon which further research can be based. The results of Continued overleaf


Do you know enough about ISO/IEC 17025? CAEAL AGM(with Training Sessions) 24/25 May 2001, Edmonton,Alberta • ISO/IEC 17025(60 spaces) • Measurement Uncertainty (60 spaces) Quality Assurance For Environmental Laboratories

www.caeal.ca/training.html for info or call us at:(613)233-5300 The Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical Laboratories For more information, circle reply card No. 164

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Restoring an Ecosystem the model do, however, clearly indicate that the primary factor responsible for poor water quality in Mohawk Lake is the contaminants associated with stormwater inflows. In

comparison,the impact on water quality resulting from historical/in-place contaminants is relatively minor. Of the five remedial options evaluated,#5(combination of sediment traps, wetland and dredging) provided the most improvement to the overall quality of the canal and lake, while the wetland scenario was able to provide the most significant improvement to lake water quality. It should be noted that the stormwater management op tions considered in this study represent passive, structural, control devices, designed to remove pollutants prior to their discharge into the lake (i.e., end-of-pipe treatment). It is expected that significantly better improvements in the wa ter quality of Mohawk Lake could be achieved via a stormwater management program which involves both endof-pipe treatment and source control techniques. Examples of source control techniques for the improvement of stormwater quality include public education,industrial spill prevention, housekeeping programs,sewer rehabilitation and improved street sweeping. The results of this study have shown that the degraded water quality in Mohawk Lake is the result of present day stormwater discharges, typical of most urban areas, and not the result of historical contamination, as perceived by many to be the case. In fact, comparison of the environmental

as a large stormwater retention pond, protecting the Grand River from the impacts of Brantford's stormwater runoff. The selection of the preferred remedial option for Mohawk Lake, as for any aquatic system, is ultimately de pendent on the objective or goal of the remedial program. For example, if the primary objective of the remedial pro gram for Mohawk Lake is to improve water quality, and thus protect downstream water quality, then a remedial pro gram involving stormwater management is necessary. How ever, if the objective is to improve the aquatic habitat of the lake and reduce impacts on existing biota, then stormwater management alone is inadequate and a combination of dredg ing and stormwater management would be required. The remedial program originally considered for Mohawk Lake was intended to improve water quality to support rec reational use, improve aquatic habitat for fisheries and en sure the long-term protection of the lake from potential sources of contamination. Based on the results of this study, it has become apparent that both in-place sediment and stormwater quality must be addressed in order to achieve the original remedial goal established for the lake. However, with the loss of $6 million in provincial funding and current restraints on government spending, it is unlikely that the original reha bilitation goal for Mohawk Lake will be achieved. In the mean time, Mohawk Lake is destined to remain

conditions of Mohawk Lake with that of urban stormwater

one of the largest and oldest stormwater retention ponds in Ontario, providing a degree of protection for the Grand River, likely unachievable by any other means.

retention ponds, suggests that Mohawk Lake essentially acts

For more information, circle reply card No. 139


Davis Controls•com /IBnviro



Don't miss this opportunity to hear an in-depth review of the latest technology research in water and wastewater treatment. Some of this research is the first of its kind in North America.

everv^click has its reward $

Meters measurement

ammonia, nitrate

Hosted by BC Hydro's Water and Wastewater Centre and co-sponsored by the British Columbia Water and Waste Association, this seminar presents results from research and demonstration projects involving technologies such as membrane systems, ozonation, sequencing batch reactors, ultraviolet disinfection, oxidation, electro coagulation and MicroSludge. You'll learn how these technologies can provide you with cost-effective solutions to your water and wastewater treatment problems. For registration, call Patty Jones at (604) 590-7433 or email: patty.jones@powertechlabs.com

actuated Liquid Level Controls, tntrinstcaliy Safe Panelsr.Tank Leak Detection Equipment. 2200 Brt^ol.Gircle. 0akville. 0N L6H 5R3

Tei:,(805} 829-2000

Powertech ra A subsidiary of

For more information, circle reply card No. 138 (See page 25)




For more information, circle reply card No. 165 (See page 25)

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&Eat(905)727-4666. Urecon pre-insulated pipe

Maintenance Data Preventive

Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or


aintenance Data Manaaement

without Thermocable® heat tracing). Other applications Include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insulated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page

aUMaxTask manaaer

at: www.urecon.com.

Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 184

AIIMax Task Manager (ATM) Is a maintenance data management pro gram designed for any maintenance manager. Schedule preventive and corrective maintenance tasks; create purchase and work orders; track maintenance costs and Inventory lev els, plus more. A multitude of reports such as Cost Reports, Work Order Forecast Reports, Summary Reports and Current Inventory Reports are in cluded with the program. Web site: www.operator10.com AIIMax Professional Solutions Inc.

Circle reply card No. 185


Cyanide Removal Using sodium hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes

Zebra Mussels

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS

To help control zebra mussels, one solution involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite,

is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

which kills the larvae. We are con

ages, equipment, as well as stor age, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive

sulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this prob lem, or be kept informed of the lat est information, please contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.


ii. ST§T{liim ;'

Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 186


Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 187



Odour Control

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) Is detailed in a technical bulletin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air collection needs.

Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 188

Now available!

An In-depth analysis of drainage pipe performance and design comparisons of concrete pipe vs HOPE. The technical data you NEED to know when specifying your next project. Call for your copy now! OCPA Circle reply card No. 190

Ciutl Engineering andTatf

Leister welding machines for geomembranes Our Leister line of automatic wedge welders, comblwedge machines and hand tools are used in a wide variety of geomembrane applications where the precise welding control is re quired as part of the seaming proc ess. Our products provide excellent field performance and superior reli ability. Tel: (905) 828-1400, Fax: (905)828-1056, www.stanmech.com Stan Mech Agencies Inc. Circle reply card No. 189

Environmental Instrument Rentals

Ashtead Technology specializes in renting portable instruments for air and water sampling and monitoring. The rental fleet includes photolonizatlon and flame lonizatlon detectors

(PlDs and FiDs), multi-gas monitors, air sampling pumps, dust and aero sol monitors, noise dosimeters and

sound level meters, landfill gas analyzers, water quality monitoring systems, peristaltic and submersible pumps. For a new catalogue visit: www.ashtead-technology.com. Ashtead Technology Circle reply card No. 191

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&Eat(905)727-4666. DensadegÂŽ - potable water, pure and simple

DuraTrac sensor

Automate sludge dewatering with Chemtrac's SCM to reduce poly mer and disposal costs, Increase throughput, and improve the overall process. Chemtrac's DuraTrac sensor optimizes poly mer teed tor dewatering equip ment (BFP, GBT, DAF, centri fuges, etc.). This latest sensor design features a 5 gpm flow ca pacity to deter sludge formation In sample lines, resulting In a re liable signal control that ensures plant optimization. Chemtrac Circle reply card No. 193

Dewatering Machine

The Densadeg is used for potable water worldwide. It combines tloccu-

lation, claritication, and thickening in one compact unit, thereby allowing tor reduced surface requirements. It can achieve water claritication velo

cities in the range ot 40 cubic me tres per hourthrough external sludge recycling. Integrated sludge thicken ing reduces the total volume ot sludge. Degremont Infiico Ltd. Circle reply card No. 192

Membrane technology for Industrial wastewater ZENON's ZenoGemÂŽ bioreactor

Rejeclad Solids

The ZENON Membrane

Technology Prize j

The ZENON Membrane

Technology Prize The ZENON Membrane Technology Prize is awarded in recognition of advances in understanding the use ot membrane technology tor the so lution ot water/wastewater manage ment problems. The recipient ot the award will receive US $10,000 in rec

system can retrofit any existing wastewater treatment facility, im mediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The system in corporates immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass retention, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 195

ognition ot their work. For further information visit ZENON's web page at: www.zenonenv.com.

Circle reply card No. 194

Proven water and process fluid treatment systems Ecodyne otters a broad range ot en gineered systems to make water suit

Pump selection software

ABSEL ABS Selection Program Users' Manual

ABSEL, a pump selection software program developed by pump manu facturer, ABS Pumps, and ottered tree, significantly streamlines the pump selection process by enabling pump specifiers and users to auto matically calculate friction loss In a system. By automating extensive, time-consuming calculations, ABSEL helps to ensure the appropriate se lection ot an ABS pump to achieve optimum system operating etticiency. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 196

able for use, recycle or discharge. Available are proprietary designs in clarifiers and filters; lamellas; hot process softeners; oil coalescers, ion exchange; reverse osmosis and deaerators - any ot which can be combined In exactly the right way to provide the most suitable water treat ment process.

Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 197

Centrifugal blowers Potable water - Portable plant Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-englneered and pre-assembled into selfcontained water treatment units easily transported and quickly Installed. Standard sizes treat from 20 gpm to 500 gpm. Each Monoplant con tains flash mixing, tlocculation, claritication, and filtration systems. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 198


Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressor and Exhausters are avail able tor requirements to 45,000 CFM, at discharge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum tor air and gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many di verse applications such as sewage aeration, combustion drying, agita tion, tluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, cooling and pneumatic con veying tor more than 90 years. Hoffman Industries of Canada

Circle reply card No. 199

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, cail ES&E at(905)727-4666. ecoSep Below Grade Oil/Water Separators Ontario

CANADA An IHS GROUP Company ecoSep high efficiency oil water separa tors combine <5ppm separation ratios with spill control; they consist of two cham bers. The first pre-treats the influent by allowing solids to drop out before enter ing the main gravity separation chamber. ecoSep continuou.sly removes accumu lated light liquids with a patented auto


ary treatment unit for domestic and in

IHS Canada, the official distributor of

matic oil draw-off device. Final effluent

ISO and lEC publications on behalf of

polishing is performed in the residual oil coalescing media before discharge. A spill control auto-shutoff valve (ecoStop) is located at the inlet ofthe separation cham ber. The valve prevents any catastrophic spill from occurring by detecting a spill and shutting the drainage system. The ecoStop is available separately in a stand ard precast concrete manhole or as an in tegral part of ecoSep oil/water separators. Con Cast Pipe For more information, circle reply card No. 245

the Standards Council of Canada, offers

released ISO 9000: 2000 Revisions, as

stream of the primary treatment system (septic tank). The heart of the RotoFix '''^ is composed of tubular patented medium consisting of multiple internal wings which provide a large contact surface per volume unit. Many sections of the me

well as the soon to be released ISO 14000

dium are assembled around a central axle

Compendium. IHS Canada will be showcasing these publications and more

us at booth #407 or call 1 -800-267-8220.

and held in place by stainless steel or polymer braces forming the rotors of the RotoFix"*'. These rotors, placed in a ba sin containing the wastewater to be treated, are activated by a low-power mo

IHS Canada

tor and belt. Ecoflo Ontario

ISO 9000 and 14000

publications The RotoFix™ is an advanced second dustrial wastewater. It is located down

access to a range of ISO 9000 and 14000 series piiblications including the newly

at the 2001 Ontario Environmental

Tradeshow. For more information visit

For more information, circle reply card No. 246

For more information, circle reply card No. 247

Continuous non-contact

Aquaflux Fiowmeters

level measurement iKROHNEj

Electromagnetic flowmeleis Lord-Radar

RPREmONMENTAL 164-166 South Service Road,

Stoney Creek, ON L8E 3H6 Tel: 1-800-667-5217, Fax: 1-905-662-3828

maiI@rpr-environmental.com www.rpr-environmental.com

Removal services provided for: • Drummed waste

• Bulk liquid & solids • Lab packs • Gas cylinders • Reactive chemicals • Radioactives

• Explosive chemicals We also provide: • Training & technical support •Transportation - US and Canada ISO 9002 Registered MOE Licensed transporter & receiver

Radar Level provides continuous non-

Aquaflux Fiowmeters are manufactured by Krohne to ISO 9001 certified stand

contact level measurement. Select from

ards. The flow tubes are suitable for

Krohne's family of modular antennae and transmitters to handle the most challeng ing (turbulence, tank internals) or ex treme accuracy (to +/- 1mm) applica tions. Transmitters are interchangeable without compromising ves.sel integrity. Summa Engineering Limited For more information, circle reply card No. 249

water and wastewater applications, and are available for short time or total sub

mersion. Coupled with IFC 010 convert ers, these magmeters offer high accuracy, bi-directional flow measurement and

both analog and pulse outputs. Summa Engineering Limited For more information,

circle reply card No. 250

For more information, circle reply card No. 248 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001


Product and Service Showcase Culvert design software

Concrete Pipe Handbook

On-site wastewater treatment

The Waterloo Biofilter® is a patented aerobic trickle filter designed for efficient BOXCAR Software from the American

The latest edition of the Concrete Pipe Handbook,a comprehensive collection of theories, formulas and aids for designing concrete pipe systems, is available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. Now in its fifth printing, the handbook has been updated to include information on Standard Installation using Indirect De sign. American Concrete Pipe Assoc. Circle reply card No. 200

Concrete Pipe Association can help en gineers significantly reduce design time and costly over-designs on projects us ing precast concrete box sections. The Windows-based CD-ROM provides complete structural analysis for loads due to box weight, soil weight, internal grav ity fluid weight,live loads and user speci fied surcharge loads. AGFA Circle reply card No. 201

Signal converter

TETTTCQR® Aluminum Domes

treatment of residential and communal wastewaters and landfill leachate. We

specialize in treating wastewater for im mediate domestic re-use and golf course irrigation. Typical removal rates are >95% TSS and >90% BOD,20-50% TN

and 90-99% colifonn in a single pass.

(Photograph: RattleSnake Point Golf Club Treatment Facility, Milton, ON). Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 202

Zebra mussel control

The use 6000 sig A ^oluton for

nal converter from


Danfoss eliminates



one solution in


volves the use of

choosing specific communication

protocols when utilizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in aeration tanks. De

signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor, this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to -I-70°C with + 0.1° accuracy. Davis Controls Limited

To help control zebra mussels,



For more than thirty years Temcor has been competitively producing aluminum

dium hypochlo-

Domes, Roofs and Covers for Potable

the larvae. We are

Water and Wastewater applications in a wide variety of climates, successfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum prod ucts are lightweight, corrosion resistant,

consulting with experts to estab lish dosage levels and techniques hest suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be

and maintenance free which translates to

kept informed of the latest information,

longer life and lower maintenance costs.

please contact us. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Aluminum doesn't rust like steel, doesn't

spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Circle reply card No. 203

Circle reply card No. 204

Geodesic domes & flat covers


rite, which kills

Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 205

Completely destroy PCBs

Your Single Source

i Odor & Corrosion Co OneSimple The Ultraflote Ultradome trademark is

now available in the Batten Quad Seal design. Ultraflote, established in 1972, is an international leader in the design, manu facture and installation of geodesic domes and flat covers. Ultraflote's attention to detail has been instmmental in the success

of dealing with difficult applications re quiring specific engineering and constmction know-how and experience. Donson Engineering & Contracting Circle reply card No. 206 62

■Solution For Two

Major Problems. Controlling Odor AndEorroslon With:Iron Salts.


www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 207

Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. is the only Ministry of Environment approved final destruction/incineration facility in On tario. Here, we completely destroy PCBs in an environmentally safe manner, us ing no hazardous chemicals or solutions which them.selves require destruction. We are capable of destroying and have safely and totally destroyed or recycled waste electrical equipment from Askarel transformers to light ballasts. Gary Steacy Dismantling Ltd. Circle reply card No. 208 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Product and Service Showcase Glass pipe outerwrap

CEM equipment rentals

Magmeter for water and wastewater

Ashtead Technol

ogy rents equip Endress+Hauser's

ment for CEM

Promag W is said to offer higher functionality at

and ambient air

lower cost. Fea

monitoring and sampling, includ ing analyzers for

tures include a

NO,, SO,, CO,

choice of hard


rubber or polyurethane lining

ozone, methane/

Denso Glass Outerwrap is a water acti vated fibreglass tape that is used for mechanicai protection over Denso Petrola tum Tape Systems or as a pipe repair product for cracked or broken pipe. Glass Outerwrap is said to offer exceptional impact and mechanical strength on above or below ground pipes, pilings, and fit tings. Glass Outerwrap is paintable and has an in service temperature from sub

display with push button programming for quick set-up and easy commissioning. Remote versions are available for pipe mount, wall mount and panel mount. HART protocol is standard with optional Profibus PA or

zero to 350°F. Denso North America

and 2-line back-lit


non-methane hydrocarbons. All instru ments meet EPA requirements. Heated sample lines and sample conditioners also available. All instruments are meticu

Foundation Fieldbus. Endress+Hauser

lously maintained and shipped overnight almost anywhere in Canada. Local pick up and delivery also available at the Ashtead office in Mississauga, Ontario. Ashtead Technology

Circle reply card No. 209

Circle reply card No. 210

Circle reply card No. 211

Jet Aeration System

Wastewater treatment

Noise control panels



The MTS Jet Aeration System is among the most widely applied aeration systems in biological wastewater treatment plants worldwide. MTS Jet Aeration systems are available with a tJushout system, eliminating the costly requirement of basin drainage or aerator retrieval throughout the expected service life. Flushouts are used to unclog plugged

Circle reply card No. 212

Paques ADI offers anaerobic wastewater treatment packages to industries having high-strength waste streams and supplies these packages on a design-build basis. Packages range from low-rate to ultrahigh-rate anaerobic and include up stream/downstream processes when re quired to complete a treatment train. Systems range in size from compact(and modular) to large. Paques ADI Circle reply card No. 213

New generation of

Chlorine dosing packages

aeration nozzles.

North American Filtration, Inc.

submersible mixers

Now available in Canada is the line of

KSB submersible mixers, designed to save energy and maintenance costs in sewage and sludge treatment applica tions. The units are also ideal for clean

ing of pump sumps and stormwater over flow tanks - and can be combined with

other reservoir cleaning systems. KSB Pumps Inc. Circle reply card No. 215



Eckoustic'" Functional Panels(EFPs)pro vide a more comfortable acoustic envi

ronment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EFPs promote safety and help improve produc tivity. EFPs can quickly add .sound ad sorption to compressor rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms. Eckel Industries, Inc.

Circle reply card No. 214

UV light disinfection system ProMinent's

supplied many chlorine dosing plant installations

Light Disinfec tion System uti


lizes a number of




With their wide

unique key op

range of experi

erator interfaces

ence in the field of

to demonstrate


the effectiveness of the UV disinfection

They have the ex pertise you need to implement new and upgrade existing equipment. They can satisfy the largest range of feed requirements from less than 1 litre per hour, to over 1.000 litres per hour, by using standard ProMinent de signed and built packaged solutions for

stage. Its advanced control mechanism monitors bulb efficiency, trends in UV light dosage, and hours of operation to allow for appropriate scheduled preventative maintenance on the unit. UV light dosage is continually monitored using ProMinent's UVB intensity sensor

chlorine feed. ProMinent

diation vessels. ProMinent

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Circle reply card No. 216

mounted on their 316 Stainless Steel ra

Circle reply card No. 217


Product and Service Showcase Package Wastewater Plants Adapted to Your Needs

Upgrade Now

Multi-stage filter for small systems

The new version of PipePac 2000 in cludes advances such as a new 32 bit

We have supplied Package Sewage Treat ment Plants worldwide. The Package Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treat ment. It is economical, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any loca tion unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 218

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no mem branes to replace, and yet treatment per formance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced populations of less than 1,500. RAL Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 219

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Submerged Stormceptor®

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

operating system for quicker runtime; better help screens; upgrades to the Life Cycle Analysis; and LIVE updates to cape's pipe costing tables. Call the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association(905) 631-9696, for your free copy or if you have Access 2000 or 2000 Runtime,

download PipePac 2000 from www. ocpa.com. OCPA Circle reply card No. 220

New low-cost Levelogger


Through technological advances,

The Inlet Storm

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as the well-known In

line Interceptors. Developed to treat run-off from an area

of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor -


has inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. TTiere are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 221

Suspended solids analyzer

Developed for sub merged and partially submerged storm sewer pipes, the new Submerged Storm ceptor System em ploys the same oper ating principles as the well-known In-line

and Inlet Stormceptor systems. Compared to the In-line system, the Submerged Stormceptor has two modifications: an extended weir and a

second drop pipe to enable it to capture oil and sediment during high tailwater conditions. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 222

Solinst is releas-

ing a new lower-




^ Pits ™'Le palm of

your hand. New Levelogger offers same high quality www.solinst.com datalogging capa bilities as previous model. Levelogger is a datalogger, pressure transducer, tem perature sensor and 8 to 10 year battery, self-contained in one 7/8" dia. x 4.92"

long probe. Factory sealed design elimi nates needing electrical cable, although direct read cables are available. Visit our web site at: www.solinst.com Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 223

The Sludge Judge® II


The Sludge ludge® II is made from a 1 1/4" outside

diameter plastic tubing re sulting in double the capac ity and a very rigid unit when assembled. It holds

The Royce Model 7011A Suspended Sol ids Analyzer provides reliable, continu ous operation in waste treatment plants, rivers, lakes and other aqueous systems. A user friendly text screen provides menu driven setup and operation in easy to un derstand language. The instrument will read in either milligrams per litre or per centage of solids and is auto-ranging. The Model 7011A has set the standard for

measuring suspended solids. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 224 64

6 oz. per foot and can be assembled according to the requirements of the job. Add or subtract sections as

Create a HEC-RAS model directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and cre ate inundation maps from the results. Complete integration between 12D and HEC-RAS allows water level results read

back into our 12D model. A water level

surface is automatically created and ready for presentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software Circle reply card No. 225

needed, and the 1 ft. mark

ers on the tubing will help identify both the depth of the tank and the amount of

sludge on the bottom. The unit is made up of three 5 ft. sections (top, extension, bottom) or as individual sections. NASCO Canada

Circle reply card No.226

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Product and Service Showcase Microbiology testing products

Laboratory spectrometer

Aluminum fittings for railings Kee Lite aluminum

Hach has added

fittings are designed for building railings

several new plastic ampoule products

and other tubular

and a full line of

prepared agar plates. In addition to a quality pre pared media offer ing, Hach now car ries an expanded line of microbio

logical chemicals, extracts, and reagents for the technician who prefers to prepare media from scratch. The new prepared agar plate offerings are m-EI, modified m-TEC, m-ColiBlue24ÂŽ, m-Endo,m-FC, nutrient agar with MUG,R2A,Rose Ben gal, and m-HPC. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 227

Self-cleaning dissolved

structures at water



treatment facilities.


The Odyssey DR/2500 Laboratory Spectrometer will include such advanced features as automatic wavelength selec tion, a touch screen display with a sim ple user interface,easy computer connec

Circle reply card No. 228

strong and light weight, these fit tings feature a bright aluminum finish, unique de sign contours, and hidden set screws for easy installation and aesthetic appeal. They are constructed of high-grade Aluminum Silicone Mag nesium alloy. Kee Industrial Products, Ltd. Circle reply card No. 229

STPs for marine applications

Specialty gate valve for sewage

tions, and advanced software. It can also

read pH with an optional electrode di rectly. A newly designed cell holder al lows the user to use many different sizes of sample vials without having to mess with multiple adapters. Hach Company

oxygen sensor

Neo Valves Seguro Resilient Seal Gate Valve has been de

signed with sew age applications in mind

- force-

mains, pumping

said to provide maintenance-free moni toring of dissolved oxygen in any wastewater aeration system. ATI's new Series B15/60 D.O. monitor solves fouling problems by adding an automatic clean ing system that cleans the sensor at least every 24 hours, and more frequently if required in a particular plant. Analytical Technology,Inc.

Specially designed for the workboat in dustry, the LX-Series FASTÂŽ System has a lightweight DOT certified tank design. The technology comprises a tank packed with fixed media that is totally submerged in sewage wastewater. Bacteria are "fixed" or attached to the media, which prevents hydraulic peaks from washing the bacteria out and provides for a higher surface area to volume ratio. This equates into a higher level of sewage treatment. Smith & Loveless, Inc.

Circle reply card No. 230

Circle reply card No. 231

Circle reply card No. 232

Design data for seismic applications

High capacity hose pumps

Wastewater solids reduction

ATI's new "Auto-Clean D.O. Monitor is

Victaulic now offers detailed design data for use of its grooved mechanical piping system in fire protection, HVAC,munici pal and industrial applications in seismically active areas. The 12-page re port covers the Victaulic system's builtin stress relief, performance characteris tics of its flexible and rigid couplings, seismic movement compensation de vices, system bracing and support guide lines. Victaulic Company of Canada Circle reply card No. 233

Labcor presents the high capacity, high performance Ponndoif hose pumps. These pumps have capacities ranging from 12 to 176 GPM and 30 to 220 PSI. They can be ideal for water treatment and wastewater treatment where waste effluent often re

quires the addition of chemicals to control foaming, enhance flocculation of solids, precipitate hazardous metals and emulsify (or separate), oils and greases. They can also be ideal for other applications in the chemical processing, pulp & paper, rub ber and construction industries. Labcor

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Circle reply card No. 234

stations and treat

ment plants. The Seguro Valve has a resilient seal that ensures a 100% bidi

rectional bubble-tight seal, according to Neo Valves. Additionally, the valve is designed in such a manner that sewage debris is prevented from collecting in the bonnet area. They are available in sizes up to 60", with 100% full bore design and hundreds of installations in Canada since 1972. Neo Valves

JWC Environmental manufactures and

services a complete line of sewage waste grinders, high flow fine screens and re moval equipment for wastewater treat ment. The Muffin Monster grinding tech nology is able to grind solids to a uniform particle size before they reach sensitive equipment. The grinders protect down stream processing equipment from the clogging and damaging effects of unpro cessed solids, eliminating unplanned, costly downtime. JWC Environmental Circle reply card No. 235 65

Product and Service Showcase Environmental Services

Stantec provides value-added pro fessional services

and technologies in the five princi' pal market seg-

StdfltQC ments of environ ment, buildings, industrial, transportation and urban land, from over 40 locations principally in North America. Environmental engineer ing services include municipal and indus

Pre-engineered pump and monitoring packages Pre-Engineered Pump attd Monitoring Packages

Iron and manganese removal

Metcon offers a

variety of pre-engineered, fabri cated metering and control pack ages, as well as design and fabri cation of custom

bution, pumping and storage and general municipal engineering. Stantec Consulting Ltd. Circle reply card No. 236

all necessary piping, appurtenances and fittings assembled and tested. Premounted packages are a cost-effective way of ensuring reliable systems. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 237

Filtronics Electromedia 1 System is a simple, compact filtration system that effectively removes iron and manganese concentrations without the use of green sand or potassium permanganate. Elec tromedia 1 filters up to 15 gpm per sq. ft. and offers extremely low operation and maintenance costs, especially in chemi cals, according to the manufacturer. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 238

Package potable water

Compact ozone generator units

Field instruments training

trial wastewater treatment, wastewater

collection and pumping, municipal and industrial water treatment, water distri

systems. Pack aged panels are corrosion resistant, pre-engineered, pre

packaged, completely self-contained packages with chemical metering pumps,


The PulsapakÂŽ is a package potable water treatment plant designed for both munici pal and industrial applications. It com bines two Degremont technologies: the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, and a sand

Ozonia's range of standardized compact ozone generator units, the OZATÂŽ, take advantage of the latest technological de velopments, including "Advanced Tech nology" dielectrics. They are ideal for: Ozone oxidation; up to 15% concentra tion and higher(from oxygen); chemical

and anthracite dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak produces clean water equal in quality to that produced by large instal lations. Degremont Infilco Ltd.

process oxidation; groundwater oxida tion; recycle process water; wastewater

Circle reply card No. 239

Circle reply card No. 240

Flow pacing valve

Enviro Rentals offers a one-day course on "Obtaining accurate and reliable data from field testing instruments", used in environmental testing. Basic theory of gas detection, water testing, and hands on techniques in recalibration of instru ments will be covered. Automatic data

collection and downloading of several in struments will be also be covered. Enviro Rentals

Circle reply card No. 241

oxidation; sterilize DI water. Pilot units are available. Ozonia

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Stop water inflow Manhole leakage wastes money!

The Regal Smartvalve''''*^ is an accurate and versatile Flow Pacing Valve for chlo rine or sulphur dioxide. Operating on fully automatic or manual, with an ad justable "low-flow" alarm, it is widely used for treating water with varying flow rates. The multi function digital display highlights flow rate; valve flow position in pounds per day of actual gas feed rate; mode of operation; and dosage value. Chlorinators Incorporated Circle reply card No. 242 66

Cretex Manhole Chimney Seals stop manhole frame-chimney inflow, the sin gle largest public sector source. This in flow reduces system capacity and in creases pumping and treatment costs. Manhole frame-chimney inflow enters manholes through frame-chimney area joints that are unsealed or have been bro ken by soil movement,frost heave, ther mal expansion and contraction of the sur rounding pavement and/or traffic load ing. Scarborough Supply

Circle reply card No. 243

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible,Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Circle reply card No. 244

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Water Metering

Do water meters reduce wastage?

Ismetering ef ective? As of 1996,

Chart 1 Incidence of Non-Metering by Municipal Size

approximately 33% or 86 munici palities representing 1.3 million people had not installed water me ters in southern Ontario (Cliart 1). In northern Ontario, the figure is 67% or 32 municipalities comprising 227,000 people. An opportunity to answer the ques tion about meters is provided in the En

Per Cent of All Muntcbalibes m Category

vironment Canada MUD 1996 database

that covers 261 municipalities in south ern Ontario and 48 in northern Ontario.

These data represent 9.7 million residents served by communal water systems or

90% of tire 1996 Ontario population.


Residential water use per capita was used in this analysis as it is comparable from one municipality to another and usually accounts for one half of the water use. Non-metered municipalities






Ncrthem Ontario

Source: 1996 MUD Database. Environment Canada with analysis by Ken Sharratt June 00 Based on 261 municipaiides In S. OnL represendng 9,037,122 people and 48 representing 615,767 in N. Onl

Chart 2 Residential Water Use by Size of Municipality Non-Metered and Metered Municipalities

are those with less than 30% of the con

@Non-Metered ■ Metered

nections that are metered.

According to Chart 2,residential per capita water use is consistently lower for metered municipalities for all size ranges. In southem Ontario,residential water use

in metered municipalities was 253 litres per capita compared with 345 for nonmetered municipalities. The difference was 27%. The effects of metering are equally striking in northern Ontario where residential water use in metered


municipalities was 291 litres per capita and that in their non-metered counterparts

Source: 1996 MUD Database, Environment Canada with Analysis by Ken Sharratt June 00 Based on 261 mun. in S. Ont. representing 9.037,122 people and 48 representing 615.767 in N. Ont


5.00{M9,999 50,000-319.999

320,000 +

Total S. Ont



was 459,for a difference of 36%. These data have shown that meters

Chart 3 Residential Water Use in Metered Compared to Non-Metered Municipalities By Size of Municipality

reduce residential water use but the size

of the municipality also influences the amount of the saving. As shown in Chart 3, metered compared to nonmetered municipalities with a popula

1,000-1,999 2,OOCM,999

tion under 320,000 have a lower level


of use that ranges from 28-34%. The figure is 19% for metered municipali


ties over 320,000 residents. In conclusion, meters work as far as


-15% -20%

residential water use is concerned. Us


age is about 30 percent lower for small and medium sized municipalities. For very large cities the figure is 20%. In


northern Ontario, residential water use

in metered municipalities is 36% lower. Managers and decision makers in nonmetered municipalities can assume that







Total S.




tmsm -31%

H ■■



-34% -W/o


■ Percentage Less in Metered Municipalities --36%-

Source: 1996 MUD Database, Environment Canada with analysis by Ken Sharratt June 00 Based on 261 mun. In 8. Ont Representing 9,037,122 people and 48 representing 615,767 in N. Ont

turn may postpone the need for new capi

meters work and that water use will de cline after meters are installed. This in

tal expansion and will reduce operating costs. Accordingly,one key question can be asked. Will the capital cost savings

By Ken Sharratt, Principal, Sharratt Water Management

resulting from postponement of new ca pacity expansion, combined with lower operating costs, offset the costs of the

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

metering? The answer will vary accord ing to local circumstances but the costefficient utility manager will wish to an swer this question before considering any expansion to water or wastewater plant. For more information,

circle reply card No. 123 67

Drinking Water

New immersed membranes for upgrading conventional filter beds

Municipalities often have


substantial investments in

drinking water treatment infrastructure that may not be able to achieve required water






quality standards. The new ZeeWeedÂŽ 1000 membrane system allows existing conventional filtration plants to be up graded to ultrafiltration facilities, by re placing the existing media with mem branes. In addition to saving capital and/ or operational costs over other upgrade options, the system can simultaneously achieve a high quality effluent and in crease plant capacity in the existing plant footprint. The building blocks of this filtration system are parallel piped membrane el



Treated Waterto Clearwell

Reject Figure 2a. Existing rapid sand filter(5 MGD)

ements. Elements are assembled into

cassettes by stacking them in vertical

elements can be assembled to fit in shal

By Rafael Simon, and Michael 8. Stadnyckyj, Zenon Environmental

An element can be inserted into, or re

and horizontal dimensions. In the ver

tical dimension, a standard stack has three elements,but stacks ofone and two low tanks. In the horizontal dimension,

cassettes of one, sixteen and thirty-two elements, allow the flexibility to fit in virtually any size tank.

moved from the cassette by sliding it like a book into a bookcase. Each stack of

three elements is connected to a perme ate manifold that runs horizontally above the cassette. Cassettes are suspended in the process tank and do not require any bottom connections or support. The sys-


For water disinfection, wastewater treatment,odour

control,cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.


Professional Products Division 6400 Northwest Drive

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4V 1K1 Tei: (905)678-2051 Fax:(905)678-0898

E-mail: javex-12info@coIpal.com

Web site: www.colgate.c^javex Plant Locations: Moncton,Montreal,Toronto,Edmonton


For more information, circle reply card No. 122 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

Drinking Water tern incorporates ultrafiltration mem branes that remove suspended solids, parasites, bacteria and viruses. Filtration is achieved by immersing cassettes into the existing media filter basin. Raw water is fed from the bottom

of the basin and flows vertically through the individual cassette elements. Impu rities are rejected and remain in the proc ess tank, while pure water is drawn through the surface of the membrane fi bre under an ultra-low pressure suction and conveyed to the main permeate col lection system. At specific time intervals, the membrane fibres are back pulsed and the reject water and impurities are re moved through a backwash channel. Given the similarity of operation be tween ZeeWeedÂŽ 1000 and conventional

sand filters, existing troughs, backwash equipment, pipes, blowers, and other in frastructure can often be re-used in the

upgrade, extending the life of capital structures and equipment that have often already been fully depreciated. In fact, operators may find that the system's op eration is more similar to a sand filter than

to other membrane systems. As an example of upgrading exist ing media filter beds. Figure 2a displays



ZW-1000 Cassettes




PUmpS^g g Chemical


Treated Water

Permeate Pump Reject

to Clearwell

Figure 2b. ZeeWeecPIOOO retrofit in same footprint(18 MGD)

a conventional rapid sand filter that can no longer meet demands for effluent flow and quality. The 110 m-(1,200 ft.-) of filter beds have a rated capacity of 19,000 mVd (5 MGD) with a filtration rate of 7.3 mTm^-hr (3 gpm/ft.^). Fig ure 2b shows a ZeeWeed 1000 upgrade

isting spare space. Membrane quality water is achieved while simultaneously increasing the plant capacity by a factor of3.5 to 70,000 mVd (18 MGD). Other than pre-screening, no pre-treatment for the membrane system is required. Rather than adding a new unit process

where membrane cassettes have been

(membrane filtration) after the sand fil

inserted directly into the filter beds. Much of the existing equipment is reused, resulting in a substantial cost savings. The overall plant footprint is essentially unchanged as any additional equipment needed can be fitted in ex

ters, the granular media has simply been replaced by membranes, resulting in a much higher throughput and enhanced treated water quality. For more information, circle reply card No. 120

Effective Solutions for Potable Water, Wastewater, Leachate Storage, Industrial Storage.

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See us at the WEAO Trade Show - April 1-3, 2001

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Sales@greatarioengsys.com Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 121 (See page 25)


Industry Update .P-SWMM2Dna,

Ontario's Environmental Commissioner documents

management problems of Ontario's groundwaters The Environmental Commissioner of

S-SWMM2000 16 a friendly, graphics based storm and wastewater decision support system. XP-SWMM2000 may be used to model the full

hydrologic cycle from storm water and wastewater flow and

Ontario(EGG)submitted a study to the Walkerton Inquiry, February 1, 2001, that pointed to deficiencies in the man agement of major water takings in Ontario. The study, Ontario's Permit to Take Water Program and the Protection of Ontario's Water Resources, is based on background research prepared for the ECO's recently released annual report. Environmental Commissioner, Gord Miller, said the research indicates that

Ministry ofthe Environment(MOE)staff may be allowing users to take thousands of litres of ground or surface water per day without having accurate

enough importance is being given to the consideration of Ontario's ecosystems." Under the Ontario Water Resources

Act, water taking in excess of 50,000 litres per day requires a Permit to Take Water(PTTW)from the Ministry of the Environment. The ECO study reviewed the PTTWs posted by the ministry on the Environmental Registry, an Internet site showing the government's environ mentally significant proposals and de cisions. ECO staff found that descrip tions of some of the water-taking per mits included incorrectly reported sources of water,inaccurate water quan

pollutant generation to the simulation of the hydraulics in any combined system of open

information on how much water is actu

metric litres and Imperial gallons as

and/or closed conduits with an

ally being taken in an area-or how much

units of measure.

water will be available in the future.

Along with the broad exemptions MOE grants for many water takings,

boundary conditions.

"We think the Walkerton Inquiry will be interested in our review," said Com missioner Miller, who monitors whether


provincial ministries comply with the Environmental Bill of Rights. "When ministry staff issue permits without tak ing into account how much water is available in a locality, it means not

tities, and the inconsistent use of both

these inconsistencies and deficiencies.

Commissioner Miller said, suggest that the ministry would not be able to de velop accurate regional overviews of exactly how much is being taken from Ontario's ground and surface water sources. Contact: www.eco.on.ca.


Create a HEC-RAS model

Acres & Associated is a young, dynamic multi-disciplinary, environmental consulting engineering firm serving industrial and municipal clients from our offices located in Toronto and Niagara Falls, Ontario. We are searching for enthusiastic, highly motivated professionals to work in a team environment. We value long-term relationships with our clients, professional development of our staff and sound business practices to ensure continued growth of our company. We have a need for the following positions:

directly from a Digital Terrain Model (12D) and create inundation maps from the results. Complete integration

Senior Wastewater Project Manager with 10 years experience, to market and manage the engineering for all phases of industrial and municipal wastewater facilities.

between 120 and HEC-RAS

Intermediate and Senior Electrical Engineers with 5 to 10 years experience in design and construction of medium and low voltage power and control systems.

allows water level results read back into our 120 model. A water level surface

is automatically created and ready for presentation, plans production and further analysis. XP Software 9-75 First St Suite 224

Orangeville, ON L9W 5B6

877-533-4533 (toll free) 519-941-7966 (fax)

Senior Water Supply Project Manager with 10 years experience, to market and man age the engineering for all phases of potable water facilities.

Intermediate Instrumentation and Controls Project Manager with 5 to 10 years

experience in design and construction ofinstrumentation, controls and information tech nology components.

Intermediate and Senior Municipal Engineer with 5 to 10 years progressive experi ence in design and construction of municipal infrastructure. Junior Civil Technologist - Niagara Falls, to prepare designs and CAD layouts of municipal infrastructure projects. For more information on these positions and other opportunities at Acres & Associated, please visit our web site at: www.aae.on.ca.

We offer competitive salaries and a comprehensive benefits package. To make a differ ence in the environmental fields, send your resume in confidence to: Human Resources Department Acres &. Associated Environmental Limited 525 - 21 Four Seasons Place

Acres &

Toronto, Ontario, M9B 6J8


or E-mail to: HR@toronto.aae.on.ca

www.xpsoftwa re.ca For more information,

circle reply card No. 266


Please note that only those selectedfor interviews will be contacted.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

CWWA Report

Municipal wastewater sector praised for

TheCanadian Water and Waste-

new initiatives

water Association (CWWA)

and member Associations of

CWWA, participated in the Multilateral Meeting on Wastewater Management to discuss the possible de velopment of a national municipal wastewater effluent management strat egy. The Meeting,organized and hosted

by Environment Canada, took place January 16 to 18 in Ottawa. CWWA and Member Association rep resentatives included Doug Scott(Thun der Bay, and President of CWWA),Ted Gillespie (Camrose, Past President of

CWWA and repre senting WCWWA), Fred Nenninger (GVRD and repre senting the Union of BC Municipalities),

By Doug Scott, President

Albert van Roodselaar (GVRD), Bill (CUQ and representing Reseau Brant(Cochrane Engineering, WCWWA environnement), and Peter Hanlon(Saint representative to CWWA Board and rep John and representing ACWWA). resenting the Association of Manitoba Other stakeholders represented in Municipalities), Wayne Green(Toronto), cluded federal departments (both reguMary Tmdeau (Ottawa), Daniel Lessard Continued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

2595 Dunwin Drive, Unit #2, Mississauga, ON L5L 3N9


Tel:(905) 569-6246• Fax:(905) 569-6244


internet: www.cancoppas.com•E-Mail: controls@cancoppas.coni

For more information, circle reply card No. 118 (See page 25)


CWWA Report lating and operating wastewater sys tems), provincial and territorial regula tory departments,First Nations, the Fed eration of Canadian Municipalities and various provincial Municipal Associa tions, and environmental organizations. The meeting was prompted in part by the general recognition that municipal wastewater effluents contribute a signifi cant contaminant burden in environmen

tal waters (both fresh and saline) and in part by the fact that ammonia in the aquatic environment,chloramines,nononphenol and its exthoxylates, and tex tile mill effluents(four substances on the Canadian Environmental Protection

Act's Priority Substances List) have had assessments judging them to be toxic wjthin the meaning of CEPA.

end of the meeting on the definition of municipal wastewater. It was agreed that the term does include conventional wastewater treatment effluent and a ma

jority of participants supported the in clusion of stormwater and combined

sewer overflows. Outstanding issues for further discussion include groundwater, agricultural run-off, and private or small septic systems. The CWWA and Member Associa

tions' messages were consistent in that any management strategy had to recog nize that:

• municipalities had regulatory powers which could be effective adjuncts to fed eral and provincial legislative tools in the overall scheme,

•there is need for flexibility due to vari ability in ecosystems and regional con these substances are added to the List of ditions (e.g., the receiving environment, Toxic Substances in Schedule 1 ofCEPA, the nature of the discharges and load the Department will have two years to ings, the size and age of the municipal ity and of its infrastructure), develop management instruments to con trol their release to the environment. •zero discharge of contaminants is not a realistic objective for end-of-pipe Other provisions of CEPA,e.g. environ mental emergency planning, spill release wastewater treatment facility and other reporting, and pollution prevention plan discharges, given costs, the full scope of environmental issues and social factors ning, could come into effect. contributing to contaminant release, There was no clear consensus at the If this assessment is confirmed and

•some contaminants cannot be removed

once they have entered the sewer system by current treatment plant technology, •therefore,emphasis should be placed on controlling such contaminants at source, i.e.,in products and in industrial and com mercial processes prior to their discharge into wastewater collection systems, • solutions have to be prioritized on the basis of risk, cost and the capability of responding and, overall, should be rea sonable in the circumstances,

•therefore, emphasis has to be given to public communications, awareness and acceptance of the strategy's objectives (e.g., monitoring and reporting,and 'how clean is clean?'), • funding the development and imple mentation of the strategy will present challenges if the strategy takes too nar row an approach to water cycle inter ruption and contamination, or if the time-frame is not realistic,

•the absolute liability under the deleteri ous substances provision of the Fisher ies Act had to be dealt with as a priority. CWWA advanced again the idea of establishing a Ministerial Advisory Coun cil under S. 7 of CEPA in recognition of the great importance and potential mag-

What are three lasting reasons

The Process

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The Problem

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Fitting Function with Styie^' For more information, circle repiy card No. 116 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 117 (See page 25)

CWWA Report nitude and impact ofthe national strategy. The outcome of the meeting was an agreement to work towards the forma tion of a national (not federal) strategy through a multilateral Steering Commit tee representing all the levels of regula tory jurisdiction (federal, provincial/ter ritorial, municipal and First Nations), technical and professional stakeholders such as CWWA and the Member Asso

ciations, possibly industry groups (if management of contaminants is to be undertaken in their life-cycle prior to discharge into sewer systems) and en vironmental groups. The Steering Committee would have

The four-year NRC/FCM project to develop a sustainable municipal infra structure guide was noted as a parallel and valuable activity which will contrib ute much to the success of the plan. In conclusion, this project will have an enormous influence on discharges to municipal wastewater systems and the way the wastewater sector will change and develop in the coming decade. CWWA will therefore be undertak

ing the task of keeping the entire mu nicipal wastewater sector informed of

CWWA will need the

support of all municipal wastewater organizations in this process... tern), operations and maintenance of plants, science and technology research and development,funding and resource optimization, and communications and measurement (determination of public acceptance, e.g., 'how clean is clean?', monitoring and reporting). CWWA's view was that the Steering Committee and its working groups

and knowledge of the sector and their private sector suppliers of services and products. Regular Communiques are planned to the sector on this project, but you may contact CWWA by phone at: (613) 747-0524, by fax at: (613) 7470523,or by E-mail at: admin@cwwa.ca at any time.

Paques ADI Inc.

strict terms of reference and time lines

for meeting goals. It would direct a se ries of working groups on various as pects of the strategy; control instruments (such as regulations, codes of practice, etc.), pollution prevention(manage con taminants at source and not in the sys-

progress and of opportunities to contrib

ute to it. CWWA will need the support of all municipal wastewater organiza tions in this process and access to the professional and technical experience

Wastewater Treatment Packages Paques ADI Inc. is a leader in providing high- and lowrate anaerobic wastewater

treatment packages. Our technologies range from low-rate to ultra-high-rate anaerobic processes.

Paques ADI Inc. brings solid experience and solutionbased results to your unique situation.

Our staff can readily assess your situation and determine a custom solution to meet

We provide a wide range of customized technologies.

your specific needs.

Upstream and downstream unit processes are also

With many anaerobicaerobic installations across

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we have helped others solve treatment problems similar to yours.

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would do the essential technical work, and would be subordinate to but not con

trolled by the proposed Advisory Coun cil. The Council's function would be to

For more information:

ensure that the project is given appro priate attention and recognition at all

Phone: (506)452-7307 /1-800-561-2831 Fax: (506)452-7308 E-mail: paquesadi(@adi.ca Internet: www.paquesadi.com

levels since the outcome will affect di

rectly or indirectly more than 24 mil lion Canadians, all industrial, commer

cial and institutional sectors discharg ing into municipal systems, land devel opment standards, and will likely result in the single greatest investment in mu nicipal infrastructure in the coming dec ade. It was argued that high level rec ognition of these implications would be ensured by creating an Advisory Coun cil under S. 7 of CEPA and reporting to

182 Main St, Unit 6 Salem, NH 03079

1133 Regent St, Suite 300

the Ministers of Environment and



Paques ADI Inc. Fredericton, NB E3B 3Z2

Health (and of Fisheries). Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more information, circle reply card No. 115 (See page 25)


Water Treatment

Piloting to commissioning in eight months Design/build of Port Hardy water treatment plant River, is highly coloured (up to 40 TCU),so much so that it has the appear ance of tea, and is extremely low in al kalinity. The colour is due to the cedar growth in the watershed. Previous treat ment consisted of disinfection using chlorine, and corrosion control using lime and carbon dioxide. In early 1999, the District engaged EPCOR Water Services Ltd. to take over the entire

Port Hardy is a beautiful com

water system on a design-build-operate basis and with a specific mandate to solve the water quality problem with the construction of an appropriate treatment facility. Various treatment options were evaluated including conventional and membrane technology, and costs were

Saturator vessel in background (blue), DAF scraper removing float. munity located on the north

end of Vancouver Island. It is

the habitat of 60 lb. spring salmon; the City Manager boasts of hav ing caught two this size! It is also the

terminus of the ferry run to Northern British Columbia,Prince Rupert and the Queen Charlotte Islands. The District of Port Hardy recently commissioned a new water treatment

estimated. From the evaluation, the Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF)/Filtra-

tion system was selected as the most

By Bryce McGowan, P.Eng., BCA - The Clearwater Group

plant. The water source, Tsulquate

Davnor * Water Treatment Technologies Ltd. BioSand Water Filtration Systems

R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited is an experienced engineering and consulting firm with over 150 full-time staff. Our services include:

• Land Use, Water Supply and Drainage Planning • Waste, Wastewater and Stormwater Management

• Transportation, Structures and Bridge Design • GIS Applications and Satellite Remote Sensing

For more information on these services and our other

Davnor4 manufactures and sells modular intermittently operated slow sand filters and slow sand filter systems for treatment of potable water. Davnor4 BioSand Water Filters:

♦Proven effective at removing: parasites, bacteria, iron and manganese, iron bacteria, turbidity due to suspended particles, hydrogen suifide, color, and toxins. ♦Available in capacities from 20 i/h to 50,000 i/h. Filters with capacities up to 500,000 I/h are being designed. Several filters may be used in parallel. ♦Manufactured out of polyethylene plastic and epoxy coated steel

specialized divisions including Burnside Environmental and Burnside Golf Services, contact:




Innovation and Service since 1970

i 15 Townline, Orangeville, Ontario, Canada L9W 3R4 I

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: E-mail: info@rjburnside.com www,rjburnside.com


♦Operated and maintained manually or automatically. ♦Perform as well or better than traditionally designed slow sand filters at a fraction of the cost. Performance independently verified. ♦Approved for treatment of potable water by several federal and provincial agencies. 4007-23 rd St. NE

Calgary, Alberta, T2E 6T3 IN. (403) 219-3363, Fax: (403) 219-3373 Email: davnorinfo@davnor.com

Orsngevllle • Brampton • Nevmarlmt • Vaog/ian • Collingwooi • Stratford • Wingham • Ottawa

Web site: wvvw.davnor.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 168 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 114 (See page 25)

Water Treatment

appropriate and cost-effective solution. The higher coloured water with low tur bidity has to be treated with a coagulant to form floe from the dissolved organic material and this floe tends to be fluffy and resistant to settling. The DAF sys tem is based upon myriads of micro scopic bubbles buoying the floe upward. BCA - The Clearwater Group devel oped a conceptual design for the DAP/ Filtration plant and jointly conducted a pilot study with EPCOR. The four-week pilot study confirmed the efficacy of the process and further refined the design parameters of the full-scale plant. With the results of the pilot study and a firm capital cost contract, the project was not bound by rigid tendering pro cedures and other time-consuming rou tines. All capital cost construction items were negotiated using a 'fast track' ap proach. Contracts were awarded for portions of the project even while oth ers were still in the conceptual stage. The main contract, for the treatment

plant block, was let in late June 1999 as a design-build contract to Nason Con tracting Croup Ltd. as the General Con tractor, in association with BCA - The

Clearwater Croup as the process de-

The capital cost of the new 10 ML/d water treatment facility at Port Hardy was as follows: Treatment plant and building


Construction outside of treatment building (forcemain, intake)


Other capital costs (including engineering, legal fees, pilot testing, public communications, interest during construction, commissioning chemicals, risk premium/contingency GST etc.)


TOTAL Capital Cost


signer and equipment supplier. All major tankage (units and filters)

largest DAF drinking water plant in BC. Raw water entering the plant receives

were fabricated and assembled in ma

chemical addition of alum and soda ash

rine grade aluminum,off-site at the BCA manufacturing facility, and installed in Port Hardy upon a poured concrete slab. The entire plant was enclosed in a steelframed, metalclad, pre-fabricated build ing erected at the site. Thereafter all interpiping, electrical, instrumentation and building mechanical systems were installed. This use of pre-fabricated process equipment within a pre-engineered building considerably shortened

and is then split among three units. Each unit incorporates flocculation (slow mixing)cells with variable speed turbine mixers followed by the flotation zone. The design surface loading on the DAF units is 4.5 US gpm/ft-. The float accumulation on the sur

the construction schedule.

face of the DAF unit is skimmed by traveling chain and flight scraper into a trough and then to a sump where it is blended with spent backwash water and pumped to the existing sewage system.

The water treatment plant has a pro duction capacity of 2.65 MCD and a hydraulic capacity of 3.3 MCD - the

DAF clarifiers is distributed among four Continued overleaf

The combined underflow from the

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001

For more information, circie reply card No. 113 (See page 25)


Water Treatment

dual-media(anthracite and sand)filters. Filter aid polymer is added prior to fil tration. Filters operate at a design fil tration rate of 3.7 US gpm/ft-.

as is always prudent, all systems can be operated in a manual mode. Each proc ess train has full redundancy since there are three separate DAF units and four

This plant (and associated systems) is highly automated with a SCADA sys tem permitting remote operation but.


Water quality results from the new plant are excellent. Filtered water tur-

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no increase in water rates to the consum

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bidity of 0.03 NTU and a colour of 2 TCU are consistently achieved. Parti cle counts are routinely less than 10/mL. Chlorine dosages have been reduced by approximately 80%, chlorination by products reduced by approximately 90% and the finished water is less aggressive and corrosive than before the plant be came operational. The unit capital cost of approxi mately $370,000 per ML/d is extremely attractive by comparison to other treat ment plants, especially in view of the sophisticated clarification process used. The District ofPort Hardy now has a modem water treatment plant that pro vides safe, high quality drinking water. The plant was constructed rapidly with ers. The project benefited from the de sign-build implementation and the partnering approach that allowed for construction of the plant within 10 months from project inception. The plant's design highlights the cost-effec tive use of pre-fahricated plants within pre-engineered buildings. For more information, circle reply card No. 110

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Water Quality

Walkerton had a prequel in the US

The deadly outbreak of E. coli

in Walkerton, Ontario, was not the first of its kind. Almost a

decade earlier, a similar out break in Cabool, Missouri,took the lives

of three elderly people and sickened 243 others. Institutions such as the US Centers for Disease Control and the US

Environmental Protection Agency have all cited the outbreak as a landmark case,

proving that E. coli can travel through water supplies. All told, the circumstances of

Cabool's E. coli outbreak represent an eerie precursor to the one that took place 10 years later in Walkerton. Factors now

mon was the water. With all other fac

tors eliminated, a large scale study of Cabool's water system was launched. The inquiries included a widespread sample collection and testing regimen and a re-creation of how the pathogen moved through the distribution network. Investigators found a distinct connec tion between the system and illnesses of local residents. The vast majority of in fections had struck on lines adjacent to a pair of watermains that had frozen and cracked in the days leading up to the con tamination. Moreover,inadequate capac ity in the town's storm-sewer system meant that dirty water routinely bubbled

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Investigators found a distinct connection between the system and illnesses of local residents. The vast majority of infections had struck on lines adjacent to a pair of watermains that had frozen and cracked in the days leading up to the contamination. familiar to Canadian authorities would

emerge throughout the investigation of the Missouri case: poorly trained water managers; inadequate water testing; lo cal officials unwilling to admit errors; archaic legislation and regulations; and a general ignorance about the risks E. coli poses. Early in the second week of Decem ber, 1989,elderly residents began check ing themselves into area hospitals com plaining of severe stomach cramps and diarrhea. By Christmas, the trickle of patients had become a torrent. Emer gency rooms across the county filled and doctors worked overtime.

It took only a few days for physicians to identify E. coli as the cause of the ill nesses, and they quickly invited state health officials to investigate. For two weeks that winter, investigators combed the community for contaminated milk or meat, the only known origins of the pathogen at the time. E. coli 0]57:H7 was not regarded, at the time, as a threat to town water supplies because it was linked mainly to cattle waste, from which most wells, aquifers and pipes were assumed to be properly protected. That confidence evaporated when health investigators finally deduced that the only thing all the victims had in com-

out of the sewer grates and into the drain age areas around drinking water lines. These deficiencies may have allowed surface water contaminated with cow

manure to seep into the drinking water. Unfortunately, investigators arrived too late to find the E. coli itself. The

town's water superintendent had per formed no water tests for them to exam

ine. Worse, as soon as the water supply fell under suspicion, he began flushing and chlorinating, pouring household bleach into a system that had previously run without any disinfectant at all. Even tually, investigators found one sterile sample. It turned up high counts of fecal conforms, including one closely associ ated with E. coli, indicating a massive breach or contamination of the system, but it did not contain 0157:H7 itself.

The final twist had devastating con sequences for the victims' families and, arguably, for the larger interest of pre venting more such disasters. A jury, in a resultant civil suit, concluded that,

without incontrovertible proof E. coli was in the water, it could not offer an

award. With the jury's decision behind them, the town denies any involvement in the outbreak, claiming instead that residents became ill after consuming

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tainted meat. CWWA Bulletin

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001


Site Remediation

Arctic innovation deans up DEW sites Of primary concern were PCBs and inorganic eiements

Innovation has been the key to solv

ing one of the largest environmen tal clean-up projects in Canada: remediation of over 100 existing landfills and dumpsites resulting from the operation of 21 Distant Early Warn ing (DEW)Line sites in the Canadian Arctic. The scope of the project includes demolition of existing facilities, removal of contaminated soils and hazardous

waste materials, and the development of new landfills for the disposal of waste materials collected during the clean-up. This innovation, which can be ap plied to other waste management facili

Hall Beach DEW Line site at dusk.

ties in the Arctic, won the 2000 LIMA Taciuk Innovation Award.

inorganic elements such as copper,

cure on-site facilities for containment

A legacy of the Cold War, the DEW Line sites located at the 66th parallel on

lead and zinc and the effect of their mo

and disposal of contaminated soils and

bility and distribution into the aquatic

waste materials.

the Arctic coastline,from the Yukon Ter


ritory to Baffin Island, provided for early detection of military approaches over the

UMA's design team evaluated on-site treatment options as well as transport ing and disposing of the contaminated

UMA's unique design concept uses frozen ground (permafrost) to contain the contaminated waste. Leachate gen eration is minimized by promoting per mafrost formation through the landfill contents by placing an insulating layer of granular material over the landfill. Saturated pemiafrost creates the primary containment banier and a secondary sys tem of synthetic liner materials provides containment over the period required for the permafrost to completely encapsu

North Pole. Advances in radar surveil lance have made these facilities redun

soil at facilities located in southern

dant. At the time the Canadian Depart

Canada; however, the high cost and en vironmental risk were too great. Also, site investigations revealed the presence of contaminated leachate (the percola tion of water/solute through landfill wastes) and it became necessary to find a way to remediate and mitigate the po tential for its migration. The most eco nomical and environmentally sound so lution was to design and construct se

ment of National Defence initiated the

clean-up of these sites, no other engi neered landfills had been developed for the Arctic. Of primary concern were the contaminants - PCBs and other

By Rebecca Sullivan, LIMA Group Ltd.

late the landfill contents.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 108


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 2001



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