Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 2000

Page 1

November 2000



& Engineering


I, m

Focus on storage tanks & containment Consultants fear shortage of trained engineers Pumps cast as unseen extras in movies

Biosolids management across Canada Ultrafiltration installed at Walkerton Toxic mould removal

SUCTION ZeeWeed* Membrane Cassette

ZeeWeed' modules fit

m existing tankage


TREATED WATER Gentle suction ensures


longer membrane life


Open tank allowsfor use

ofcoagulants and any type offeedwater

Modular,conveniently expandable components

THIS... is ZENON's ZeeWeed" immersed

The MEMBRANE itself is an NSF 6l certified

membrane system.A revolutionary drink ing water filtration technology that employs our unique suction teclmology. This SUCTION process provides imparaUeled advantages over conventional and other membrane filtration systems. The innovative ZeeWeed速 system operates in an open environment and gently draws water through the membrane. This means it can

handle virtually any type of feedwater - from pretreated to high turbidity or even filter backwash -

without plugging. This ability to handle liigh solids and resist clogging means that ZeeWeed速 can easily accommodate coagulants or be immersed directly in

ultrafilter that is chlorine tolerant and

100 TIMES STRONGER than the compe tition. Providing over 6 log removal of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and other harmful parasites. The most remarkable thing about ZENON's ZeeWeed速 technology may be its ability to immediately upgrade your current conventional filtration plant by fitting inside your existing tanks. Ensuring a reduction in capital costs with minimal change to your infrastructure. This... is why ZENON invented immersed membrane

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PUMPS Distributors across Canada

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For more information, circle reply card No. 102(See page 25)



October/November 2000 Vol. 13 No.5

Issued November, 2000

Examiningjbiosmi^s mahagernent

Spill management at the US/Mexican

,>' ,^^ross C^hacla - see pag^'12

border - See page 14

Features 7

The gravity of Newton's sentence - by Tom Davey 10 Ultraflltration being used in Walkerton 16 Control system improves activated sludge and thickening process

Consultants' Forum Consulting has entered the new millennium

Small consultants surviving in a giant's world Shortage of trained engineers looms


Is there a chlorine taste in your drinking water? 20 Pumps make Hollywood special effects a reality 22 Protecting groundwater from intensive farming operations 40 Cover Story - Toxic mould found at Newmarket courthouse


Epoxy resin lining chosen for OttawaCarleton watermain rehab


Boston's $390 million offshore wastewater effluent tunnel opens

on horizon

The environment requires global thinking Changing the development and design of engineered solutions Laboratory association addresses Walkerton inquiry Methane recovery from Egyptian

Special Tank Focus

Latvian landfill remediation project

Storage tanks and containment A UST detective story with a surprise ending No fuss, no muss fluid dispensing Concerns spur mini-boom for onsite coverage Canadian fabricator supplies huge

generates power

tanks to the Middle East


Departments 8



Literature Reviews


Date Pad


Industry Update


Ad index


Professional Cards


Product Review



Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

New Hach CL17 Online


Chlorine Analyzer The new CL17 uses the proven DPD colorimetric method to provide


around-the-clock free or total chlorine measurement for detection as low as

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Monitor Residuals Anywhere The IP62 enclosure of the new CL17

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High and Low Concentration Alarms


Two user-selectable alarms with SPDT

relays alert the operator when results are outside user-defined limits.

Flexible Data Management and Chlorine Feed Control Connect the programmable 4-20 mA out put to a feed pump, AquaTrend" network, chart recorder, PLC, or SCADA system.

CL17' The new Hach CL17 Chlorine Analyzer offers the highest accuracy and flexibility yet. With advanced features to assure proper disinfection and regulatory compliance, the CL17 provides a fast, reliable, and cost-effective method for determining free or total chlorine anywhere in your distribution system.

Hach makes the total-solution process analyzers that perform best for you. To order the CL17 Chlorine Analyzer, please visit Hach online at www.hach.com, or call 800.227.4224. For a current CL17 data sheet, call Hach or visit us online at www.hach.com, or send

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intensity and duration.

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Simulations produced by the Expert !rt Sizing System version 2.0 are based on runoff that is generated from a stabilized catchment iment of specified size and imperviousness with all areas covered by vegetation, concrete, asphalt, asphalt, structures and/or other non-erodible surfaces."

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Editorial Comment

The gravity of Newton's sentence

After winter's stark, cold si

stead of thank you! He later told the De

lence, wonderful sounds of

troit Free Press,"it makes me think about

wildlife emerge. Robins begin chirping,cardinals cry

other people's styles of music. I prob ably wouldn't appreciate it if some old man drove past me blasting this music." The sentencing judge must have had a keen sense of humour as well as a per ceptive way of making the punishment

out, and loons can move us with their

hauntingly melodic cries, in nature's eternal quest for renewal. But with spring, a young man's fancy also turns to love. These days, the rhyming cou plet gives way to the rhythmic thudding beat of rap music, now seemingly a per vasive part of teenage mating rites. Young men cruise with their stereos full blast, cutting acoustical swaths through many a peaceful community. The har mony of animal mating calls is often drowned out by the ear-splitting ca cophonies of these electronic entreaties from motorized swain. One can feel, as

well as hear,the pulsing beats ofcar ster eos, a hundred metres away. Since recycling is in vogue, I won dered if this energy might be recycled into something useful. I consulted a pip ing contractor. He checked the decibel levels, and, after further calculations, he

said the deep pulsing 'music' could cer tainly be used to tamp down pipe bed ding - or backfill-for small to medium sewer pipes - all in accordance with Newton's law of gravity, of course. Go ing further, he said that much of the stereo music was noise pollution any way,so using it in sewerage projects was environmentally appropriate. But Troy, Michigan, named after the ancient city of Trojan Horse fame, has struck back with a city ordinance de signed to defend the city - not against invading Greeks, but against acoustical invaders borne by horsepower. One of the city's judges recently backed up the noise by-law with some creative sentencing which was music to my ears. After violating the City of Troy's ordinance against loud radios by driving with his stereo blaring and win dows down, Justin Rushford, 18, was sentenced to sit in a courthouse and listen several times to an

entire compact disc, featuring Wayne Newton's Greatest

Hits. He is now say ing Danke Schoen in-

By Tom Davey

fit the crime. But for second offences, I

think more serious punishments would be in order. If Justin Rushford thought that two hours of Wayne Newton was bad, how about a mandatoiy minimum

hearing losses. This "retribution signa ture" unfortunately inflicts higher noise levels on the captive audiences. Testing for noise is done fairly regu larly around Toronto. Alan Mihalj,a sen ior project manager with the consulting firm Marshall Macklin Monaghan, says noise checks are common for new build

ing projects. He says it is difficult to pin point particular noisy spots in the city other than the airport and major roadways -but he does note that downtown streets

must cope with both increased bustle and

Deep pulsing 'music' could certainly be used to tamp down pipe bedding - all in accordance with Newton's law of gravity, of course of four hours of Chopin's Noctume in E Flat? Both penal reformers and Rappers will, no doubt,say this punishment is too harsh, but musicologists could work out sliding scales appropriate to the gravity of the offences. We must have a right to protect our tympanic membranes (eardmms) with appropriate weaponry. What was intriguing about the Troy case was the precedent-setting nature of a judgement, based on the quality of the sound, not just the volume. A great ju dicial distinction. Under present noise by-laws, an overture from the Toronto Symphony is lumped in the same meas urement soup as the ragged V-twin roar of a Harley Davidson. Lawnmowers are said to range between 85 to 100+ deci bels; jet fly-overs hover around 103 decibels;jackhammers at 110 decibels; discotheques at 120 decibels; and shot gun blasts at 130 decibels. I used a decibel counter recently to measure the music at an aerobics class. The needle flickered from 90 to well

over 100 decibels, a somewhat perverse situation for those seeking good health. The trouble is that there is no way to put value on sound emissions. How can the

finale of Beethoven's Ninth, performed in a concert hall, before people who paid to be there, be measured against the rag ged note of a 200 c.c. dirt bike in cottage country where people have gone to get away from it all? Such a question could test the wisdom of Solomon.

There is no question that loud music is reducing the hearing capacity of our youth, ironically causing noise levels to rise to greater levels as our teenagers turn up the volume to compensate for

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

a "hard" environment, where sound is

reflected off concrete and buildings. Now,in Britain, an MP with the un

likely, but acoustically appropriate name of Robert Key,has launched a bill to ban Muzak,or other piped music from pub lic places. "The dangers of passive, or involuntaiy listening are only beginning to enter the realm of public awareness. All music is devalued if it is treated as

acoustical wallpaper," said Mr. Key. His Private Member's Bill would ban piped music in hospitals, doctors'offices, pub lic pools, bus and railway stations, and airports. Mit Key's bill inadvertently ad dresses the fact that the duration of noise

emissions could be as important as the volume.

I believe that any legal decibel lev els should be combined with exposure periods to set acceptable limits and pen alties - much as our traffic acts com

bine speed with prevailing urban and rural road conditions when speed limits and penalties are drawn up. Surely acceptable acoustical penalty calibration values could be worked out

similar to our highway code which com prises limits from 100 km/h down to 25 km/h. An irate motorist honking his hom on the Don Valley Parkway during rush hour could be termed a minor infraction.

Loud blasts on a horn to signal depar tures in a quiet neighbourhood, late at night, are an intolerable acoustical intru sion, usually resulting in disturbed sleep. Science has shown that such disturbances

can have negative health effects. Such acts should invoke penalties commensu rate with the level of nuisance and po tential health effects, tom@esemag.com


Environment Science &

Engineering Editor & Publisher

Managing Editor



Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com

Sales Representative DENiSE SIMPSON E-mail: denise@esemag.com Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Assistant


E-mail: kathy@8semag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Dear Penny, I just received the September 2000 is sue of Environmental Science & Engi neering magazine via the post. As usual, a multitude of interesting technical and educational articles that do, and should

concern us all. As is my want, I first turn to your dad's Keynote Address page to see what gems of wisdom he has unturned and will get my own grey cells synapsing in double quick time! I was reading with interest, his tidbits of historical folly, when I read:"During the American Civil War, John Adams,

Harvard graduate, lawyer and the first US Vice President, wrote...". As John

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Adams died on July 4, 1826 (the same day as his political foe Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States), I find it startling that he was still writing during the American

Dr. Howard D. Goodfellow

Civil War - and if he was, that he was

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc. Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng. Terminal City Iron Works

being published. It would be much more likely that he was writing during the American Revolutionary War. Please continue to publish one of the most informative magazines in Canada and the world,on environmental topics. Doug Moore, Buckman Canada

we saw the cell where the Confederate

President, Jefferson Davis was confined. Despite ail this, I stiii managed to con fuse the two wars in the article.


Culpa agam Doug. Thanks for your kind words about ES&E's content.

Tom Davey

Dear Tom: Your Consultants Forum in an earlier is

sue certainly caught my attention. Once again, the common lament is price com petition, low margins, etc., etc., etc. I began to realize over 20 years ago that this was a serious problem in the con sulting fratemity. Even in these seem ingly "times of plenty", there appears to be no shortage offirms ready to low ball the estimate when it is clear that they are involved in a price competition. I will close on an upbeat note. You publish a truly marvelous magazine, Tom. No doubt as it is in many consult ants' offices, yours is the one which is circulated rather than stashed, with firm

rules in place about not clipping any thing from it until it has been through its circulation.

Yours truly, C.C. Tatham,P.Eng., C.C. Tatham & Associates Ltd.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.

Mea Culpa, especially as I am deeply interested in the American Revolution

ary War and its subsequent Civil War. As a family, we have visited Williamsburg, Yorktown, and Monticeilo, Thomas Jefferson's home, as well as George Washington's farm at Mount Vernon. We were also moved during visits to such Civil War sites as Gettysburg, Fredericksburg and Ft. Monroe, where

Dear Tom:

Thanks for publishing the feature on our Pearson de-icing project. Already it has led to several important enquiries,show ing the article was read by potential clients, and for that we are appreciative. Peter Overton, Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited

Information contained in ES&E has been complied from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the Information contained In this magazine is beiieved to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice.

Date Pad

Canadian Publications Mail Sales

November 27-28,2000. EECO 2000 Envi ronment & Energy Conference - business strategies for sustainable economic growth,

Second Class Mali

Toronto, ON. Contact: Tel: 1-800-274-6097,

Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750

E-mail: info@eeco.apfnet.org, Web site:

Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written per mission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year(plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one year. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering,220 industrial Pkwy.S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com


November 27-28,2000. 23"Symposium sur les eaux usees, 12" Atelier sur I'eau potable. Laval, QC. Contact: www//reseau-environ nement.com.

November 28, 2000. Council for Public Private Partnerships 8th National Confer ence. Contact: www.pppcouncil.ca/ ~partners.

January 29-31, 2001. Second NSF Inter national Conference on Indoor Air Health -

Members of:



Trends and Advances in Risk Assessment

and Management, Miami Beach, FLA. Contact: Wendy Raeder, NSF International, E-mail: raeder@nsf.org, Web site: www.nsf. org/conference/air2.

January 29 - February 1, 2001. 87th An nual Meeting of the Pulp and Paper Techni cal Association of Canada, Montreal. Con tact: Glen D. Black, Tel: (514) 392-6967,

Fax: (514) 392-0369, E-mail: gblack@pap tac.ca, Internet site: www.paptac.ca. March 28-30, 2001. Americana 2001 PanAmerican Environmental Technology Tradeshow and Conference - Evolving solu tionsfor a changing world, Montreal, QC, organized by Reseau environnement. Con tact: Tel; (514) 270-7110, Fax: (514) 2707154, Web Site; www.americana.org.

April 10-11,2001. Environmental Manage ment and Compliance 2001 Conference/ Workshops and the Ontario Environmental Tradeshow. The Regal Constellation Hotel, Etobicoke, ON. Contact: ES&E,Tel: 1-888-

254-8769, or (905) 727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

The New Generation N-Pumps. They'll run efficiently day after day after day.


Chances are, that every day you run your pumping operation, your costs are creeping up and up: maintenance, servicing, the cost of replacement. So the New Generation N-Pumps could bring a brighter start to your day. The N-impeller is designed to prevent clogging and maintain higher pumping efficiency over longer periods.

The N-technique, patented by ITT Flygt, features a self-cleaning impeller that, together with an integrated relief groove in the pump housing, ensures sustained high hydraulic efficiency and clog resistance.

The Spin-out™ seal protection system prevents particles from damaging the seals. New, improved cooling means the motors operate more efficiently, and at lower temperatures. And the new Plug-in™ seal system means that if you do have to replace a seal, it'll take just a few minutes. Have a nice day. Day after day. Call us for more information, or visit us at



For more information, circle reply card No. 105(See page 25)

ITT Industries Engineered for life

Walkerton Crisis

Ultrafiltration being used in Walkerton Part of OCWA's multi-barrier approach

Zenon delivered one of its mo

bile containerized Zee-WeedÂŽ

ultrafiltration water treatment units to the Town of Walker

ton, after responding to a request for pro posal from the Ontario Clean Water Agency early in October. The unit will be used in OCWA's interim drinking water clean-up plan which is expected to last six months to two years. OCWA's consultant, R.V. Anderson Associates

Limited, will use the ZeeWeed system in a design which features a multi-bar

rier approach to treating Walkerton's groundwater which is tainted with E. coli 0157:H7 bacteria. This approach includes wellhead protection, ultrafiltra tion, chlorine disinfection and residual

maintenance prior to distribution. The system is being installed on a new concrete pad at Well #7 site by Stonetown Construction, and will pro

The second container is iowered onto a concrete pad at Well #7 site.

duce a maximum flow of 5,000 mVday

housed in the white container, while the

of ultrafiltered water. This transportable system comes complete in two contain ers, as shown in the picture. The equip ment,including process pumps, valves, instruments and control system, is

immersed hollow fibre membranes will

necessary services to deliver raw well water to the unit, chlorinate and provide

be installed in the blue steel tank.

chlorine' contact time for the treated

On-site work by the contractor con sists of civil, mechanical, electrical and

control work required to provide the


water, and commission high lift pumps to convey the treated water to the town's elevated water storage tank. The pre-assembled and tested ZeeWeed system minimizes on-site con struction time and cost; the unit was ex

Summa celebrates two decades in business

'a ma

pected to be commissioned in 3-4 weeks. The on-board Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) monitors the system, and makes necessary adjust ments to ensure the plant is operating optimally. The PLC is connected to OCWA's Gutposf'^ Supervisory Con trol and Data Acquisition(SCADA)sys tem, which has recently been integrated with Walkerton's system to oversee op eration of the entire system. Raw groundwater is pumped into the membrane tank where it is filtered by passing through the hollow fibre ZeeWeed membranes, which are at tached to the suction side of an ANSI

Summa Engineering recently celebrated its 20th year of business. Frank Cosentino, Vice President (seated third from the right), said his firm was committed to staying the course as system integrators, control and process products suppliers in the environmental and process fields. He stressed that Summa valued working with consulting engineers in systems integration projects, as well as supplying high quality process products. Summa's success over two decades, he emphasized, was largely due to the fact that the company had stayed on course with its original objectives. 10

end suction centrifugal pump. Under a partial vacuum, water is drawn through the pores of the membrane to the inside of the hollow fibre, requiring only -2 to -8 psi of suction. With a nominal pore size of 0.04[xm, the membranes form a positive banier to solids in the water, producing filtered water with less than 0.1 NTU of turbidity. For more information, circle reply card No. 107

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, November 2000

A piping solution

the taxpayers will love. Want to be known for fiscal responsibility? Use the VictaulicÂŽ grooved-end piping system in your water and wastewater treatment plants. After all, it installs 3 to 5 times faster than alternative systems and keeps saving you money every time it needs service. Any joint can be accessed easily, because all the sealing elements are outside the pipe and not trapped between pipe ends as with flanged systems, Victaulic offers a complete system of couplings, fittings, flange adapters, plug and check valves. And it's suitable for

ductile, steel, stainless, PVC, HDPE, lined and coated pipe. It meets AWWA C-606 groove standards, and is available in AWWA sizes 3"-36", with

specials up to 144". The gaskets are, of course, ULC classified to ANSl/NSF 61 for potable water.

Call Victaulic today for a free value analysis or demonstration at 416/675-5675, or fax 416/675-5729. Or visit vww.victaulic.com.

"Now,that's Victaulic value!'

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Victaulic Is a registered trademark of Victauiic Company of Canada. Š1998 Victaulic Company of Canada. M\ rights reserved.

For more information, circle reply card No. 108(See page 25)

Wastewater Operations

Biosolids 2000-examining residuais management across Canada

Following the tainted drinking

tives and technologies. During the open water tragedy in Walkerton, ing general session,speakers from vari management of organic resi ous provinces outlined key biosolids duals in Canada is becoming strategies and policies. more challenging and complex, both Larry Schut, Ministry ofAgriculture, socially and politically. Many farmers Food and Rural Affairs(OMAFRA),ex and town councils are increasingly be plained that Ontario's first biosolids coming opposed to land application of (sludge) land application guidelines biosolids. were published in 1973 and were last In September, some 250 producers, updated in 1996. managers, practitioners and regulators These initial guidelines specified met in Toronto, at the


1st Canadian Na

share their experi

• sludge must be stabilized (no patho gens); • must meet toxicity standards; •not exceed 11 heavy metal guidelines; • not be applied to soils under pH 6;

ences and learn more

• not elevate soil metals above normal

about various initia-

background levels. Currently in Ontario, he said three

tional Residuals and

Biosolids Manage ment Conference, to

By Steve Davey, President, ES&E magazine

Cylinder valve shut-off system....Capital Controls Cyl-Safe™ provides automatic rapid closure of chlorine cylinder valves upon con tact closure from a gas detector, fire alarm, seismic sensor, etc. Cyl-Safe cylinder valve shut-off systems are Ideal for protection of personnel and property wherever chlorine is used. In some cases, Cyl-Safe replaces the need for scrubbers and containment devices.

Easy to Install for Indoor Installation, each Series CS100 Is factory tested. Units can be provided for one to four cylinders. The closing device mounts directly onto the cylinder valve with a clamp. Circle reply card No. 250

provides technical advice, and the Min istry of Health deals with related health issues.

Mr. Schut explained that current per

mit requests for land application of wastes,i.e. slaughterhouse effluents, are reviewed by the special Biosolids Utili zation Committee(BUC). This cormnit-

tee is made up of government and stakeholder representatives. BUC ex amines applications on a case-by-case basis and then advises the Ministry of the Environment if they are acceptable. Jack Bridon,from BC,told delegates that in his province, 90% of municipal biosolids is land applied. Of that, 70% is used for land reclamation, 25% for

agriculture and the remaining 5% is re tailed as compost. He believes that be cause of extensive education efforts,

ministries are involved with biosolids

public concern in BC is not a problem.

issues. The Ministry ofthe Environment is responsible for legislation, OMAFRA

plained that most wastewater facilities

Turbidity monitoring systems....The ABB Turbidity Systems 4670 Series Is a long-term and reliable instrument with favourable quali ties. It has many features which makes it the most preferred Instrument. A few of the key features Include: provides the operator Interface and communications to other de

vices, large, easy-to-read display, easy to program and configure, high accuracy, easy Installation, maintenance and calibration, auto-cleaning, comes with a dry secondary calibration standard which eliminates the

need for chemical standards to be produced, ultralow back scatter, reliable sensing. Circle reply card No. 251

Brent Ame, from Manitoba, ex

Iron and manganese removal.... Flltronlcs Electromedia 1 System Is a simple, compact filtration system that effectively removes Iron and manganese concentrations without the use of green sand or potassium permanga nate. Electromedia I filters up to 15 gpm per sq. ft. and offers extremely low opera tion and maintenance costs, especially In chemicals. It is the leading system for Iron and manganese removal-the perfect choice for both small and large utilities. A single filter vessel system Is capable of flows up to 2,300 gpm. Circle reply card No. 252



15 Connie Ores., Unit 3, Concord, Ontario, L4K1L3 • Tel: (905) 738-2355, Fax: (905) 738-5520 E-mail: metcon@metconeng.com • Web site: www.metconeng.com Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Wastewater Operations

ProMinent - Leaders in Ciilerination. [Disinfeclioirmoniloring

technology anldeiiveryl

Larry Schut, from OMAFRA, outlined Ontario's guidelines.

in his province use holding lagoons, some of which are only pumped out every nine years. Biosolids can be land applied at a one time use of 55 tonnes per hectare. He said that the increasing number and size of hog plants, and a recent re port showing that 48% of private wells were contaminated, was causing in creased public concern. Richard Beaulieu, from the Quebec Ministry of the Environment said that in his province in 1999,80% of biosolids was incinerated, 12% landfilled and 8%

or .5 million tonnes was either land ap plied or composted.



CONTROLLERS offer precise,

is the first caiibratabie pump to display continuous feedrate and pumped volume, as well as operating status and stroke length.

state-of-the-art chlorine

Many farmers and town councils arc increasingly becoming opposed to land application of biosolids. Craig Peddie, of Azurix, explained that in Alberta and Saskatchewan,regu lations specify a maximum biosolids ap plication rate of 25 tonnes per hectare. Biosolids cannot be applied to land used for root crops, vegetables, tobacco or dairy grazing. An Ottawa representative of the National Sludge Alliance presented his organization's position on problems with Canada's land application policies. For example, he said that Ontario's guide lines do not specify any minimum dis tance between the land involved and the

general public. Other issues the Alli ance do not feel are being addressed properly include: the effects of leachate

monitoring and control capabilities, in free or total chlorine sensor technology.

Safe and reliable

monitoring for less

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lack of proper monitoring; and insuffi cient emergency planning. â?– Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 109 (See page 25)


Stormwater Treatment

Patrolling the US/Mexican Solutions for measurement


The City of Laredo has always been known to the residents of

& analysis

South Texas as "The Gateway to Mexico". Laredo is located

on the historic Rio Grande River, which


provides a natural border between the United States and Mexico.

analysis,storage tank measurement

Laredo is unique because it is the only city to operate international bridges between two Mexican states and the United

& leak detection

(equalling 38% of all ground trade be tween the US and Mexico), something had to be done to protect the Rio Grande from run-off pollution and potential spills at this location. For this application, Mia decided that the Stormceptor System,from CSR Hy dro Conduit, was the solution. Since the system has been proven in numerous field and lab tests to remove virtually


With a population base approaching 200,000 people, this border town,


located two hours

- Magnetic level


gauges - Local indication - Alarm switches - Continuous

output - No leaks - No maintenance

Evita - Inline dissolved

oxygen meters

Warrick - Conductance

actuated liquid level controls

- Control panels - Tank leak




Antonio, Texas, is the second fastest

growing city in the United States (pri marily due to the passing of the North American

Free Trade Agree ment in 1994).

Unfortunately, rapid growth does not come without problems. For example, "how do you treat stormwater run-off in a rapidly ex panding urban area, while protecting natural resources and not compromis ing economic development?" Riazul Mia,Laredo's Environmental

Manager, faced this very problem at a new US/Mexico border station being constructed in Laredo. The border sta

all free oil from stormwater run-off,trap large spills, and remove up to 80% of total suspended solids(TSS), it was the logical choice for the border station. Six STC 7200s were used within the

new storm drain system to provide stormwater treatment and spill control at this large facility. The STC 7200 is the largest Storm ceptor manufactured. With the high vol


tion handles a large volume of interna

umes of international truck/vehicle traf


tional vehicle traffic between the United

fic, oil storage volume was a key ele ment in deciding which device to use

States and Mexico, with its stormwater


run-off eventually draining into the Rio Grande River. Areas of heavy vehicle traffic, such as this, are known to be 2200 Bristol Circle

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large contributors of pollution, as well as a huge potential for spills. Since ve hicle maintenance is not regulated as strictly in Mexico as in the United States, concerns associated with pollutants from vehicle traffic were increased signifi cantly. Considering that the City of Laredo handled over $65 billion dollars in trade

By Scott Love, CSR Hydro Conduit, Dallas, Texas For more information,

circle reply card No. 110

on this site. Each of the STC 7200s has

the ability to contain approximately 1,100(US)gallons of oil/hydrocarbons, without risk of scouring. In addition to the large oil storage capacity, the sys tem will hold over 700 cubic feet of sedi

ment before requiring maintenance. The City of Laredo decided not only to implement the use of Stormceptor at this and several locations in the city, it purchased its own vacuum truck. Since maintenance is straightforward (but of ten overlooked), city officials decided to take it upon themselves to ensure the long-term operation of the system. For more information, circle reply card No. 111

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000


Don't assume open cut is less expensive than Insituform* Today, Insituform is an affordable choice for day-to-day sewer rehabilitation. Of course Insituform is less disruptive Ihan digging up and replacing old sewers. But did you know it's otten less expensive, too?

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Techmlogks Limited Š2000 Insilulorm Technologies, Inc.

For more information, circle reply card No. 112(See page 25)


Control system improved activated sludge and sludge thickening processes

The activated sludge and sludge thickening pro

cesses at Toronto's main treatment plant have been greatly improved by a sludge retention time con

trol system. This is a 818,000 mVday(180 MGD) secondary facility that consistently meets discharge limits on BOD,TSS and phosphate. Despite excellent water quality produced by an activated sludge system, the plant experienced high variability of MLSS concentration,SRT,and mass of wasted sludge. High variability of the SRT reduces the ability of the activated sludge system to withstand the stress caused by changes in flow, temperature, or toxic spills. Significant changes in MLSS and in mass of wasted sludge cause overloading of the sludge thickening DAF units and the necessity to bypass them. In order to over come these challenges, an SRT control system was installed at Toronto Main at the end of the summer of 1999.

SRT Control System The automatic SRT control system manufactured by Royce Instrument Cor-

By Cordell Samuels,Toronto Works Dept.

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poration consists oftwo suspended solids meters and a waste flow controller. (Figure 1). Royce is represented in Canada by Cancoppas Ltd. The control algorithm employed takes into account the dynamic characteristics of the individual activated sludge system. One of the suspended solids meters was installed in the mixed liquor channel; another TSS meter was installed in the sampling sink to measure suspended solids concen tration of RAS that is pumped there. Operation of SRT Control System The suspended solids meters were initially calibrated and then checked daily with a portable TSS meter. If the differ ence between the portable and permanent TSS readings ex ceeded 5%, the permanent TSS meters were recalibrated. Laboratory data was used only once per week to calibrate the portable TSS meter. During the first part of October, 1999, the SRT control system was utilized in monitoring rather than control mode; during this period, plant opera tors controlled the waste flow using conventional strategies. Starting in the second part of October, the waste flow was controlled by the SRT control system. Initially, the SRT target was 1.2 days, since it was equal to operational data at the time. It was recommended, though, to slowly raise the SRT target to reduce observed earlier dispersed growth,com monly associated with SRT below two days. By the end of November the SRT target was 2.2 days. Table 1. Percent deviation from 24 hour moving average


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The number of required laboratory TSS tests was reduced by more than 80%. Suspended solids meters provided ac curate data with reliability. The meters did not require main tenance and rarely needed recalibration. The treatment proc ess was improved considerably. Data presented covers 16 days of manual control(September 28 through October 12, 1999) and 16 days of automatic control(December 11-26). The data was received from the SRT control system via mo dem. As can be seen from Table 1 and Figure 2, stability Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000












able increase in sludge blanket depth.



The control system was very robust; during the testing period, there were no occasions when a faulty control sig nal was generated by the controller. On several occasions, RAS flow to the sampling sink was interrupted, and as a result, the RASSS meters produced invalid readings. The control system automatically detected problems with RASSS readings and not only initiated alarms but also changed the control algorithm to disregard the faulty readings. Once

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conditions returned to normal, the controller automatically

changed the control algorithm back to the one used prior to the problems encountered. Conclusions

• The SRT control system considerably improved stability of the activated sludge process by reducing variability in sludge age.

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• It also drastically improved the sludge thickening by re ducing variability in sludge mass loading. • The SRT control system proved to be a very low mainte nance and reliable system due to a self-cleaning feature of the TSS meters and to a sophisticated expert algorithm built into the controller.

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Drinking Water

Is there a chlorine taste in your drinking water? Bad taste could be due to a lack of chlorine

Somepeople complain thatthere is a 'chlorine' taste in their

drinking water. But, if you can smell or taste chlorine in your drinking water, there isn't enough re sidual in it!'

Chlorine produces bacteria-free wa ter, and eliminates algae and slime. It also removes hydrogen sulphide from groundwater (wells, springs)

found in amounts that exceeded US fed

After this, the bottled water is given a two-year shelf life, or more. There are

eral limits. The results were not made

few or no(US)restrictions on the envi

public until 14 months later.In the US,when the same type of tests are given to a municipal or rural water district producing potable drinking

ronment in which the water is stored.

22, 1994. Nine contaminants were

The complete elimination of deadly diseases such as cholera, typhoid, and others, is now taken for granted,in many cases, thanks to the effectiveness

of chlorinated water. So why

would anyone chance the return of

and eliminates iron bacteria

diseases like these, or risk deaths

(cenothrix), which are associated with objectionable odour and taste. Despite these important facts,some people still object to chlorine in their drinking water. Comments like "I don't like the way chlorine makes my water taste," are com

from E-coli or other contamina

tion? Many say:"We will wait to disinfect when we are told we have to." Livestock manure is one of

the suspects in the recent deaths in the Town of Walkerton, Ontario,in

May 2000. What goes in the ground today, you might drink to morrow. This is reason enough to chlorinate properly.


The bad taste is actually due to an insufficient residual or the lack

Chlorine has been available

of chlorine in their water. The

since the early 1900s,and has over whelmingly proved its effective

proper dosage of chlorine to main tain the required minimum residual of free chlorine, is the important key. If the residual falls below the free minimum, the re-forming of chlororganics and chloramines(the taste and odour producing part of the disinfection process), takes place as a result of increased con tamination (chlorine demand). The

in the drinking water is mandatory

increased levels can be a result of

in most US states. It would seem

a mains break, cross connections,

very important to consider the ben efits, cost-effectiveness, and safety record of chlorine gas. Water quality can be obtained by many forms of processes and al

ness since that time. It is as im

portant to pure water as the polio vaccine has been to children's and adults' health. Both continue to

keep disease away from humans. Polio vaccination is mandatoiy for US school children, and chlorine

increased bacteria growth from a dead-end line, or a combination of all of these, and more. There are some who favour

switching to bottled water to avoid drinking chlorinated water. Con sumers may be startled to learn that

ternative means of disinfection.

However, a minimum residual

level of the disinfectant has to be pro

some brands of bottled water contain

water, the public must be informed im mediately of any contaminants found in

toxins in amounts that exceed US fed

excess ofEPA limits. The water district

injection point. Chlorine, so far, is the only disinfectant approved that provides this required measurable residual

vided at the furthest distance from the

eral standards.

would then be tested on a more frequent

The Kansas Department of Health and Environment conducted a study of 80 bottled water samples which were


Many brands of bottled water begin as tap water from a public water sys


collected from retail stores and manu

tem, with the chlorine residual removed!

and odour control, water main steriliza

facturers between March 21 and May 'Principles of Chlorination in the Handbook

By Ron Grage, Special Projects Director, Chlorinators Incorporated, Stuart, FLA

of Chlorination by George Clifford Wfiite. 5th Edition.

^Bottled Water: Does it IVteet the Test? by Scott Hoober, Eiien Miiier Group; printed July 1995, Kansas Rural Water Association,"Life line".


Chlorination is also suitable for taste

tion, algae and slime control, hydrogen sulphide, and iron and manganese re moval,cooling towers,low pressure drip irrigation systems, and poultry drinking/ processing water. For more information, circle reply card No. 116

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000



The New Generation N-Pumps. Celebrate the end of clogging.

A wastewater pump that's designed to resist clogging, and maintain high levels of pumping efficiency over long periods of time. Now there's something worth celebrating. At the heart of the New Generation N-Pump, you'll find the proven N-impeller. Its unique design reduces the risk of clogging, even in fluids with a high

Sensors in the inspection chamber give an early alert of any fluid build-up and allow for simple checking and maintenance.

fiber and solids content. And with an

impeller that keeps itself clean, you'll find it maintains consistently high levels of pumping efficiency. So not only are your power costs under better control, you're also spending less on maintenance. Cheers! Call us for more information, or visit us at


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For more information, circie repiy card No. 117(See page 25)


Pumps behind the special effects In 'The Perfect Storm'and 'Titanic' movies

The hit movie The Perfect

Guard. The North Atlantic though, bore the brunt of the storm which eventually destroyed the fisherman's boat and took

Storm, used four Jumbo® 604 pumps, specially equipped with "people protector" Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter - an electrical protection located in the ABS control panel. These units provided

the lives of all on board.

wave effects for the dramatic storm

Starring George Clooney, Mark Wahlberg and Diane Lane, The Perfect Storm was released in July, 2000. The award-winning film Titanic,


from Fox Studios, utilized two Jumbo

The Warner Bros. Studios production traces the horrific trials of a Gloucester,

Massachusetts fishing boat captain, his vessel and crew, in the North Atlantic.

It was a true story about a fast moving storm in the autumn of 1991, that was

so powerful it produced waves up to 70 feet(more than 20 m)high. The devastating effects of the storm, named the greatest storm in history, were felt throughout the East Coast of the United States. Several pleasure and fish-

Jumbo 604 high volume pumps suppliecl by ABS,provided dramatic effects in two hit movies.

604 high volume pumps to provide the flooding action for the climactic scene, where Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet were depicted, trying to save a little boy while the passageway was rap idly flooding. Out of 14 Academy Award nomina tions, Titanic won II, most notably the Oscars for Best Picture and Best Cin

ematography, and took in a record(US) ing boats were overcome and daring res cues were performed by the US Coast

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USEPAapproved GLI Method 2 and ISO 7027-1984 (E) to pro vide unparalleled measurement stability and accuracy in drink ing water treatment plant applications. Circle reply card No. 242

Ultrasonic Flowmeters... KROHNE ultrasonic flowmeters

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

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Protecting groundwater from intensive farming operations

Groundwater is important to

the economic and social

well-being and the health of many people in Ontario. Nearly three million people depend on groundwater as their main source of domestic water, and it is used exten

sively for irrigation,livestock op erations, and a wide variety of commercial operations. Groundwater sustains ecosys tems by releasing a constant sup ply of water into wetlands and contributing up to 20 percent of

Groundwater may become contami vincial and federal agencies. nated by leaking underground storage The Ministry of the Environment tanks, farming activities, leachate from (MOE) plays a key role in managing landfills, discharges and spills from in groundwater by administering the On dustrial facilities, and pesticides and fer tario Water Resources Act (OWRA). tilizers from golf courses. Many rural The OWRA requires anyone that draws residents rely upon septic tanks which. more than 50,000 litres of groundwater or surface water a day to obtain a permit to take water (PTTW). Historically,PTTWs were issued on a first-come, first-served ba sis. When a conflict arose, MOE could use PTTWs to allocate

water flows diminish, most of the

available groundwater among competing users. In the past, the ecosystem functions of water were "also important considera tions", but were not overriding

stream flow can be attributed to


groundwater. Groundwater is also important for water quality. Adequate quantities of clean groundwater are needed to sup port human and ecological needs. Underground aquifers are re charged mainly by rainfall and snow. As long as the water con tained in these aquifers is not ex tracted faster than it is replen ished, groundwater is a renew

In April 1999, MOE intro duced a new regulation, the Wa ter Taking and Transfers Regula

the flow of headwater streams. In

some regions of the province, during dry periods when surface

able resource. However, hous

ing development and the intensi

tion, that sets out criteria to be

considered by MOE staff before issuing a PTTW. Other ministries also have

important responsibilities for groundwater, but the variety of provincial laws, regulations and programs, promotes conflicting While small family farms can still prosper in Ontario, new goals with respect to ground-

farms are often high-investment intensive operations.


fication of land use in rural southern

if not well-maintained, can threaten

Ontario are placing extraordinary de mands on groundwater, creating concern that some aquifers are being depleted faster than they can be recharged. For example, certain commercial operations, especially water bottling plants, consume 100 percent of the groundwater they extract. When water is used for irrigation, over 70 percent of the water extracted evaporates or is lost to run-off. Industrial and municipal uses consume approximately 10 percent of

groundwater quality.

the extracted water. At the same time,

agricultural land and green space are being transformed into built-up areas. Land that has been paved over or other wise built up has a reduced capacity to absorb rain water and return it to aqui fers, resulting in precipitation running off directly to streams. In addition, the quantity of groundwater has important implications for water quality because reduced flows can aggravate the effects of contamination. 22

Given the environmental and eco

nomic importance of groundwater, the Ontario government,together with other stakeholders such as municipalities, in dustry, farmers and environmental groups, must ensure that these resources are protected and managed for the ben

efit of present and future generations. However,the government does not cur rently have a comprehensive strategy in place to protect groundwater. In four previous annual reports, the Environ mental Commissioner of Ontario(EGG) has urged the Ontario government to de velop a groundwater management and protection strategy in consultation with key stakeholders and the public. Shared management of groundwater

Several provincial ministries share responsibility for aspects of groundwater management with municipalities, conservation authorities and other pro

For example,the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), provides guidance to ru ral landowners on wells and encourages farming practices that minimize the im pacts upon both groundwater quality and quantity. The ministry also administers the Drainage Act, which provides a le gal mechanism for rural landowners to drain their lands and share the costs of

doing so. Moreover, the Drainage Act encourages farmers to increase the pro ductivity of agricultural lands by drain ing low-lying areas, potentially divert ing water away from aquifers. The Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) manages aquatic habitat and provides support to Conservation Au thorities under the Conservation Authori ties Act to enable them to control flood

ing and erosion, and to conduct water shed planning. However,the Aggregate Resources Act administered by MNR, promotes resource extraction activities that may alter groundwater flows.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000


The Ministry of Municipal Affairs stakeholders and the public. Moreover, and Housing (MAH) has set out poli the ECO encourages MOE to use en cies in the Provincial Policy Statement hanced public participation measures to (PPS) under the Planning Act, that mu keep the public informed and attempt to nicipalities must have regard to in mak resolve conflicts before they become ing land use planning decisions that may disputes. affect groundwater. The PPS expresses the need for municipalities to protect Ontario currently has water quality and quantity, but the policy is not legally binding and must only be over 3.4 million hogs considered by municipal planners and developers. Moreover,MOE,not MAH, (approximately 400,000 is responsible for ensuring that this as in Huron County pect of the PPS is adequately considered. The Technical Safety Standards alone), and altogether, Authority administers and enforces the they produce as much Gasoline Handling Act(GHA) on be half of the Ministry of Consumer and

raw sewage as the province's 10 million people.

Commercial Relations. The GHA and

a range of regulations and policies un der that Act,contain a number of provi sions related to prevention of gasoline spills by service station operators. To conclude,the contours of a clearly defined, comprehensive groundwater strategy have yet to emerge. The ECO urges the ministries to develop and im plement a groundwater strategy in a timely manner in consultation with key

Intensive Farming While small family farms can still prosper in Ontario, new farms are often high-investment intensive operations, with very large numbers of livestock. Farms with 3,000 or more pigs or 1,200


cattle are increasingly common. The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs suggests that one defi nition of an intensive farm might be a facility with over 10,000 pigs or 1,500 dairy cows. As this new form of farm ing spreads, environmental laws created when small operations were the norm may not address the associated environ mental risks that come with more inten

sive farm operations. The management of nutrients, par ticularly from manure, is one of the major sources of environmental risk in agriculture. Raw manure is tradition ally spread onto farm fields as fertilizer, and this can be a reasonable environ

mental practice as long as farmers have sufficient acreage to absorb the manure of their livestock. But new large-scale farms produce vast quantities of manure and often do not have correspondingly large areas of farm land. Ontario cur rently has over 3.4 million hogs (ap proximately 400,000 in Huron County alone), and altogether, they produce as much raw sewage as the province's 10 million people. Continued overleaf

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place short-term moratoria on new large livestock operations, or require manure management plans. These municipalities have also urged the provincial government to take action, arguing that municipalities do not have the legislative tools necessary to deal with manure management. OMAFRA has long promoted a voluntary approach to the management

Excess manure application can result in run-off to streams or leaching of nu trients from the soil into groundwater. The run-off spurs additional growth of algae and other aquatic plants, which may make water unusable for drinking or swimming. As well, excess aquatic plant growth reduces oxygen levels in the water, leading to frsh-kill incidents. Excess nitrogen (as nitrate), can make groundwater unsafe to drink, particu larly for infants and the elderly. Am

of environmental risks from manure.

The contamination of drinking water

Since 1993, OMAFRA has provided technical support to the voluntary En vironmental Farm Plan Program. Under the program, farmers with peer-reviewed Action Plans are eligi ble for up to $1,500 ofincentive funds to offset expenses. OMAFRA re ported to the Environmental Commis sion of Ontario in February 2000,that more than 17,000 people have at

with E. coli that killed several resi

tended Environmental Farm Plan

monium nitrate and ammonium

sulfate emitted to the air from animal

housing can be harmful to human and animal health.

Epidemiologists have also recently found that Ontarians living in rural areas with high cattle density have el evated risk for toxic E. coli infections.

dents of Walkerton, Ontario, in May 2000, is suspected by some experts to be related to livestock manure. Residents in a number of rural On

tario municipalities have complained in recent years about the handling of ma nure at large livestock operations. Sev

eral large manure spills and leaks have increased the public's concern. Within the last two years, numerous counties and townships across rural Ontario have attempted to deal with the issue by passing by-laws, which either

workshops across Ontario, represent ing an estimated 30 percent of Ontario's farm acreage. Farmers have also com pleted 7,000 environmental improve ment projects, with the support of the incentive funds. It is not clear how many Continued overleaf

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Ad Index



Reader Service No.

ABS Pumps






Company international Water Supply ITT Flygt ITT Flygt


Reader Service No.

67 9 19

123 105 117 136




A.O. Smith Storage








KMK Consultants






Labcor Technical Sales



Azurix North America



Makloc Buildings



Berlie Technologies



MacViro Consultants


Marsh McBirney









Can-Am Instruments



Cancoppas Century Enviropans

37 23

119 132

CH2M Gore & Storrie


Columbian Steel Tank


Davis Controls

MSU Mississauga







Pinchin Environmental











27 67 30 24

142 125

Diverse Plastic Tanks






Regional Munic. of Waterloo Response Rentals R.J. Burnside Engineering Scarborough Supply

DTE Industries






Eagiebrook Ecodyne

26 36

140 161

Stan Mech Agencies Stormceptor

54 6

170 104






Fabricated Plastics


Terra Nova Industries
















Waterline Environmental


147 255

Gorman-Rupp Greatario Hach





Waterloo Barrier


Hassan Steel Fab



XP Software






ZCL Composites



Insituform Technologies



Zenon Environmental



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November 2000

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000



of these projects addressed manure man agement.

OMAFRA has avoided using regu latory measures to deal with manure management. There are no legally bind ing standards for constructing manure storage facilities or for the application of manure. For example, there are no rules forbidding the spreading of manure onto fields that are drained by tile drains. There are also no monitoring mecha nisms to ensure that farmers use best

practices for managing manure. Ontario environmental legislation also specifi cally exempts some aspects of manure management. For example, waste man agement requirements in the Environ mental Protection Act(EPA)do not ap ply to animal waste (certificates of ap proval and manifests are not required). In 1998, the Farming and Food Pro duction Protection Act(FFPPA)streng thened the protection offarmers against complaints from neighbours. The new

FFPA also stipulates that no municipal by-law can restrict a normal farm prac tice if the practice is determined to be "normal" by the Normal Farm Practices Protection Board. The ECO's 1998 an

nual report noted that, as a result of this new law, farm discharges may not be dealt with as vigorously as industrial discharges and emissions. The EGO said it would continue to monitor and

report on the impact of this new law. In fact, this legislation has already been used to overturn a municipal by law attempting to control intensive farm ing operations in Biddulph township, north of London, Ontario.

To deal with manure problems, the Ministry of the Environment has in some cases undertaken prosecutions and is sued orders under the EPA. In 1998,

MOE issued a Director's Order against a hog farmer with 1,000 pigs in Hope Township,requiring him to provide bot tled water to seven families whose wells

were contaminated. In 1999, MOE or

dered the farmer to drill new deeper wells for each of the affected families.

In 1999,a pork producer in the Chatham area was prosecuted successfully under the Fnvironmental Protection Act for a

discharge of approximately 1.5 million litres of pig manure, some of which reached a drain and Lake Erie. As well.

Environment Canada charged a pig pro duction facility under the Fisheries Act in 1999; it was the first prosecution of

Why Is there excitement in the air about Eaglebrook? We're continuing to spread our wings - taking the lead as your single source for water coagulation products and chemistry.

its kind in Ontario.

Other jurisdictions, including New Brunswick and Quebec, have created regulatory standards for manure man agement. In the United States, the En vironmental Protection Agency has re cently announced that large agricultural operations will be required to have per

Check out our extensive product range and see why vye're attracting so many customers. We have it all, induding aluminum- and iron-based products for water and wastewater treatment.

mits under the National Pollutant Dis

charge Elimination System, as factories already do. Many American states also have regulatory requirements. About half require that farms have manure management plans. Some states also prohibit spreading of manure during the

With expert technical services in regional offices across Canada and the United States, we're up to your specific challenge. So don't expect the buzz about Eaglebrook to stop anytime soon. Future acquisitions and new product development are in the works. Deal with a company that's top flight all the way.

winter, when the risk of run-off from

frozen ground is high. Abridged from: The Protection of Ontario's Groundwater and Intensive


1-800-428-331 I

Farmitig: Special Report to the Legis lative Assembly of Ontario, by Gord Miller, Fnvironmental Commissioner of Ontario. Updates can be obtainedfrom:

Matteson, Illinois



Your Single Source^' For more information,

circle reply card No. 141 26

For more information, circle reply card No. 140 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

The Regional Municipality of Waterloo is a unique urban/rural area (population 431,000)situated in south-central Ontario, approximately 100 km west of Toronto. We offer excellent educational, cultural, and recreational opportunities. Currently, we are seeking proven professionals to join our Engineering and Public Works Department.

Leading In Project Management... the Region's Design and Constniction Division is committed to excellence in engineering.




& Programs

Reporting to the Director of Design and Construction, you are responsible for delivering a $30 million dollar annual capital program. Your staff of Project Managers lead consultant teams in the design and construction of facilities for water supply, treatment, storage and transmission, wastewater treatment, and solid waste disposal. You are an accomplished manager who

likes to set challenging goals and lead your team to exceed them. A strong problem solver, you have a solid track record of consistently delivering quality projects on time and on budget. This key position requires exceptional leadership, supervisory, communication, and decision making skills. A Civil Engineer and member of the PEO, you have advanced project management skills in preparing budgets, scheduling, design, and contract administration for municipal engineering infrastructure. Experience in the design and construction of water, wastewater or solid waste projects would be valued.

• Waste Management Through needs a.s.se.ssment analysis and a comprehensive understanding of technological opportunities, you will take a proactive role as you develop medium and long-range plans and philosophies for our waste disposal sites, facilities, and programs such as blue box, yard waste, and garbage collection. A .strong problem solver with excellent negotiation and human relation .skills, you will implement technological programs, tender preparation, and contract administration. In this consultative role, you will develop and review policy, provide technical .support to the division, and prepare and pre.sent propo.sals, budgets, 10-year capital plans, and forecasts including investment requirements to internal and external parties. A strong communicator with sensitivity to public concern, you will act as our primary contact and public relations official for area residents and the MOE. An Engineer and member of the PEO, you have comprehensive knowledge of environmental engineering. Position #2000-435

Position #2000-593

Manager,Engineering Senior Project Manager & Planning •Water Services • Environmental Engineering Reporting to the Head, Environmental Engineering, your strong technical knowledge, project management, and leadership skills are required as you plan and manage the design and con.struction of water supply, wastewater, and waste management capital projects. Highly organized and an excellent communicator, you will direct a number of capital projects managed by engineering consultants. You will prepare detailed project cost estimates and manage workplans, budgets, and schedules from pre-design through to the completion of construction. A Civil Engineer and member of the PEO, you have a thorough knowledge of civil engineering and strong communication, human relations, and negotiation skills. A practical knowledge of contract administration, scheduling, and budget preparation and monitoring is essential. You are highly functional in a computerized environment utilizing WordPerfect, Quattro Pro, and CAD software. You must be able to travel to various work sites. Position #2000-604

Reporting to the Director of Water Services, you will organize and manage the engineering and planning activities of our Water Services Division.

You will coordinate and supervise the development and

implementation of feasibility studies and pre-design and pilot projects for water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. This position also requires you to.supervise the development and maintenance of our computer models and develop new policies and guidelines related to water supply and wastewater treatment and servicing issues. In addition, you will supervise staff and/or consultant studies to resolve operational problems and develop and regularly review/update our twenty-year capital program. You have comprehensive knowledge of environmental and municipal engineering, normally acquired through the attainment of a degree in Civil Engineering, and progressively responsible experience in hydraulics, water pumping and distributing facilities and water and wastewater treatment processes. Eligible for membership in the PEO, you have proven leadership, human relations, and communication skills and the ability to write reports and pre.sent issues to various committees as required. You are able to travel to various work sites. Position #2000-123

www.region.waterloo.on.ca w If you feel that you are our ideal candidate, please respond in writing, quoting the appropriate position number, to: The Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Staffing Coordinator, 150 Frederick Street, 3rd Floor Kitchener, Ontario N2G 4J3 Fax:(519) 575-4454 e-mail: rywendy®region.waterioo.on.ca


We are commined to etnployrtietil equity atld thank alt appticants hi advance: however, we wilt be corresponding only with those .selected for an interview.


w w

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Consultants' Forum

Consulting has entered the new millennium

'f V

The Waikerton tragedy, Toronto's garbage crisis, air pollution's impact on human health, mergers - the consulting profession faces daunting challenges in the new millennium. This special Consultants'section focuses on the

Nicholas C. Sonntag

Frank Belfry

future of the profession and reports on some innovative projects and initiatives.

Barry Loescher


try has faced many challenges over the past two decades,and always found ways to respond successfully. As we approach the end of 2000, our industry is beginning to respond to both internal and external factors to remain competitive and sus tainable.

As a people business,one of the most significant internal challenges we face is on the Human Resource side. Suc

cessful consulting firms will have to focus on internal training to become leaming organizations that attract and retain qualified staff. Changing demo

graphics and lifestyle choices amongst employees are forcing firms to develop new definitions of employment. Professional staffin organizations to day are becoming less interested in par ticipating in 'old style'company politics or rigid and restrictive workplace poli cies. Employees are becoming increas ingly mobile at a time when there are significant opportunities in the US. Our industry must,therefore, become more flexible in our approach to staff work habits, while providing a stimu lating work environment with career ad vancement opportunities. To respond to these challenges and maintain profitable businesses we should leam from man-

Don Ingram

By Brian H. Coniin, P.Eng., President, Colder Associates Ltd.

Brian H. Coniin

Bruce Stewart

but the operational and decision-mak ing centres can shift from Toronto or Vancouver,to Atlanta or Stockholm,for

example. With these shifts, it will be agement consultants that collectively de cided to shift from hourly rates to value

come harder for small and mid-sized

added services.

tact with these clients due to the geo graphic, time and cultural barriers. The second implication of consoli dation is that businesses will be looking for efficiencies in their purchasing de partments by reducing the overall number of service providers. Consult ing firms will have to focus on client

The second internal challenge we mustface is technology. In recent years consulting companies have started to invest heavily in workplace and e-based technology. Firms should consider the option of collaboration in such large technology investments. Our challenge now, is to turn these expenditures into assets that will provide returns to our companies. Externally, the consulting industry needs to assess what changes are hap pening within our clients' organizations and develop ways to remain responsive. In recent years, industry around the world has been undergoing consolida tion in almost every sector. Along with this consolidation has been a trend to

wards specialization, and a move within corporations to realize efficiencies from their e-based technology investments. Business consolidation has many implications for the consulting industry. As our client businesses undergo merg ers and acquisitions, the absolute num ber of potential clients not only declines

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Canadian firms to maintain close con

service, as this will be one of the most

important differentiators amongst serv ice providers. We will deal with these challenges. The Canadian consulting industry is strong, both domestically and inter nationally. Until we demonstrate the value of our services to our clients and receive com

pensation that reflects the benefits we provide, we can expect consolidation in our industry to continue. This consoli dation, public stock companies acquir ing mid-sized private firms, will accel erate to the point where a few global firms control the market and the herit

age of the Canadian consulting firm may be lost. â?–

Continued overleaf 29

Consultants' Forum

Small consultants surviving In a giants' world

In today's market,there are only a

relatively small number of what would be considered giant con sulting engineering firms operat ing in Canada. We all know who they are - they have giant offices and giant payrolls-providing the engineering for all of the giant projects - but there are also thousands of smaller consulting


You may or may not know them quite as well-they usually operate out of tiny rented or home offices, and they have only a small number ofemployees,ifthey have any employees at all. The boss may be the senior project manager in the morning, but he is likely also to be the guy who answers the phone, buys the paper clips, and takes out the garbage. How can these small consulting firms compete in the giants' world? The first key to surviving as a small consulting firm is to avoid tiying to com pete on all levels directly with the gi ants. It is much better to limit your serv

The third key is accessibility. When clients call a small consulting firm they expect to talk to the boss. Although this can often be difficult when your time is divided between attending meetings, analyzing data, writing reports, market ing, office administration, etc., today's technological advancements have helped to simplify the problem. Cell phones and pagers let clients contact you no matter where you are; voice mail sys tems inform your clients of when you are away from the office and when you may return; E-mail lets you send and re ceive all types of information instantly; and the Intemet has opened up a whole new world for gathering information. One of the most important elements of success, however, is the same today as it was years ago - return your phone calls immediately. In the consulting engineering field there is always plenty of room for firms that provide superior results, whether they are giants or small niche players

By Bill Gauley, P.Eng., and Alain Lalonde, P.Eng., Veritec Consulting Inc.

ing strengths. Work towards becoming an expert in one specific area. Look for opportunities to participate in large or complex projects by becoming part of a team. You may find yourself as one of the leaders of a group of several small firms, or you may find yourself being a very small part of a giant's team. The second key element is to grow

your business slowly and in a control led manner- develop your strengths and stay within yourself. Although we al most expect mega engineering projects to go over budget and over schedule,the same latitude is not usually granted to small consulting firms. Don't try to be

ices to a "niche" market sector that takes

all things to all clients- provide quality rather than quantity. Although it often takes years to develop a respectable reputation, it may take only one botched project to destroy it. The best recipe for cultivating repeat business is to do good

particular advantage of your engineer-

work, on time, and on budget!

like the rest of us. Excuse us, we must

go and take out the garbage.


Engineers, Hydrogeologists, Environmental Consultants

MacViro Designing Environmental &â– Energy Solutions

David Trudeau

Marius Caprariu

Eric A.D. MacDonald, President & CEO, is pleased to announce that David Trudeau and Marius Caprariu have joined the firm. David Trudeau has fifteen years experience in consulting engineering and fifteen years experience in the public sector. He is now Practice Leader - Special Projects with MacViro.

Marius Caprariu has eight years experience in water and wastewater treatment and will continue to work in this field with MacViro.

MacViro is a firm of consulting engineers specializing in environmental and energy solutions.



Rui F. De Carvalho, M.Eng., P.Eng.

R. J. (Bob) Burnside, IVI.Sc., P.Eng.



The Board of Directors of R. J. Burnside &

in project management, water resources

Associates Limited, is pleased to announce the appointment of Rui F. De

planning and environmental engineering.

Carvaiho, M.Eng, P.Eng., as President, effective September 1, 2000. Robert

R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited has

(Bob) J. Burnside, M.Sc. P.Eng., President and Founder, becomes

offices in Orangeville, Brampton, Newmarket, Coiiingwood, Stratford, Wingham and Ottawa.

Cbairman of the Board and will continue

to be active with the company. R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited Rui has been with R. J. Burnside &


Associates Limited for over 23 years. As a

Orangeville, Ontario

Senior Manager, Rui has gained broad experience in the management of a private

sector technical services organization. He has been instrumental in the development

of the company with extensive experience

L9W 3R4

Tei: (519) 941-5331 Fax: (519) 941-8120 Email: info@r|burnside.com Web: www.rjburnside.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Consultants' Forum

Shortage of trained engineers looms on horizon

Theconsulting industry is con

cerned that there is a man

power crisis looming over the horizon. To staff our compa nies and to compete in world markets, we require a continuing supply of quali fied, experienced, innovative technical specialists. We believe that the demand for technical staff, both engineers and technicians,is already starting to exceed the supply and there are certainly indi cations that the situation will worsen.

By Don Ingram, P.Eng., President, Consulting Engineers of Ontario We are, and we must be committed

to a major program of infrastructure re newal and growth. It is essential to sup port economic growth and competitive ness, protect our environment, preserve our public health standai'ds, and to main tain our quality of life. 1 now quote from a recent editorial in Environmental Science & Engineering magazine on the role of civil engineers in the development of our society; "Recent events in Walkerton's drinking water supplies were described as un precedented. Because of impure drink ing water supplies, the people of Walkerton suffered deaths, widespread

14,000 inhabitants. In response, the city commissioned a waterworks and pump ing station to provide water from Lake Ontario, a much purer source. • In 1911, typhoid fever struck the city of Ottawa; in a little over two months,

987 cases were reported and 83 people died from this disease. In July 1912, Ottawa was stricken with a second and

even worse typhoid epidemic; 1,878 people contracted the disease and 91 died from it."

Many people would assert that the Today, many of our client groups are contributions of the engineering profes expressing similar concerns. For very sion to public health in Ontario, surpass solid economic reasons, they have even those of the medical profession. outsourced much of their engineering We are still very much in the prelimi work to our industry. For example, last nary stages, but we hope to work to year consulting engineering firms did gether to develop solutions in Ontario: more than 85% of the design and con to create broad awareness of the excit tract administration work for Ministry ing, challenging opportunities in civil of Transportation Ontario. MTO is cur sickness and severe economic disloca engineering and technology;to increase rently experiencing the same hiring dif tion and losses, but looking back in his student enrolment in these programs; tory, this tragedy was not unprec ficulties as us, but they are also con and to build an image that matches the cerned about the ability of our industry edented: tremendous accomplishments of our in •In 1854, a cholera epidemic in Hamil to meet their future requirements. ton, Ontario killed 552 of the city's dustry. � In the early 1990s, there was a sud den decline in construction spending in Ontario, triggered by an economic re cession, which severely impacted the consulting economy. By 1993, indus try revenues dropped to one-third of the 1989 level, equivalent to the industry ENVIRONMENTAL income of ten years earlier. In response, consulting engineering firms basically tried to survive; some didn't. Many re Mark Cotter, Ph.D., P.Eng., CEA


duced staff, reduced work weeks,chased

work in other countries, merged, and regrettably, stopped hiring new grads. Price competition flourished as cli ents took advantage of the excess sup

ply to drive fees down. Consulting en gineers were equally guilty, bidding to survive so engineering services became a commodity. The firms that survived became lean and mean. There is still a

reluctance in many firms to change that lean and mean approach. Many firms are reluctant to hire and train new gradu ates. Many qualified people left the in dustry. A little later, in the mid 1990s, they also moved out of our clients' busi nesses, as outsourcing and downsizing eliminated those positions. It is not surprising that engineering salaries in the consulting sector declined relative to other sectors. A demographic void was created in our industry; expe rienced engineers and technologists with 5-10 years experience are in short sup ply as a result of non-hiring in the 90s.

Vice President, Environmental Management Services

Pinchin Environmental Ltd. is pleased to announce that Mark Cotter, Ph.D., P.Eng., CEA, has joined the firm as Vice President, Environmental Management. Mark brings 10 years of environmental consulting experience to the firm, most recently with an inter national environmental consulting company. He has extensive experience in the assess ment and management of environmental issues in a wide variety of industrial sectors. Mark is a Certified Environmental Auditor and Chair of the Examination Panel of the

Canadian Environmental Auditing Association, responsible for overseeing the certifica tion of new auditors. Mark Cotter is also an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto.

Mark assists companies in implementing ISO 14001 environmental management sys tems, and integrating these systems with quality and health & safety management sys tems. Mark has delivered many training courses on environmental topics, including environmental auditing, environmental management systems, and integrating quality and environmental management systems.

Pinchin Environmental was established in 1981 by Dr. Donald J. Pinchin to provide consulting services to the asbestos abatement industry. The company now provides engineering, consulting, management, implementation and training in: environmental management, hazardous materials, air emissions, indoor air quality and microbiological contamination of buildings, occupational health and safety and agricultural waste and emissions.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000


Visit us at: www.pinchin.com 31

Consultants' Forum

The environment requires giobal thinking CG&S seminar focussed on sustainable development matter because it is neither created nor natural systems. • Material quality can be characterized destroyed. by the concentration and structure of •The net increase in material quality on earth is produced by sun-driven proc matter. What we consume are the quali the theme of the third seminar esses. Photosynthesis is the only largescale producer of material quality. in a series put on by CH2M Among the most important of the Gore & Storrie, in Toronto, September 18. Nicholas Sonntag, laws that govern energy and material transformations in all physical systems CG&S President, introduced Dr. Brian Nattrass, a leading global thinker in sus are two important conservation laws upon which physicists agree. The first tainable development and business, and the co-author of The Natural Step for law deals with energy which exists in a Business. Dr. Nattrass listed the follow number of different forms including gravitational energy, chemical energy, ing basic scientific principles which serve as the foundation for his work: electrical energy, heat,light, and motion. All can be measured in the same energy • Matter and energy cannot be created units called joules. These different or destroyed (according to the first law forms of energy are constantly being of thermodynamics and the principle of transformed from one type into another. matter conservation). According to the law of conservation of •Matter and energy tend to disperse(ac ties of matter and energy - the concen tration, purity, and structure of matter, energy, also known as the first law of cording to the second law of thermody and the ability of energy to perform thermodynamics, energy is neither de namics). Sooner or later, matter intro duced into society, will be released into work. We never consume energy or stroyed nor created during these trans-

By Tom Davey

Sustainable development was


Golder Associates is helping its clients maintain the balance

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Consultants' Forum

formations. The total energy input al ways matches the total energy output. The principle of matter conservation deals with matter: the conservation of

atoms during material transformations. According to this principle, the atoms of the material inputs to a transforma

tion process are conserved so that they are exactly the same in the material out puts. The only exceptions to this rule are nuclear reactions. This means that

all material resources we exploit and transform through human activities must end up somewhere - if not in products, then in the environment.

In summary, the Earth is a closed system with respect to matter. This means that the overall mass of the Earth

remains constant; we have the same volume of matter now as we did 4.5 bil

lion years ago. In other words, nothing disappears-itjust takes a different form. For example,as gasoline is used in a car, it doesn't disappear, it simple changes to a different form - much of it as mo

lecular garbage,that although invisible, exists nontheless. Dr. Nattrass said that matter and en

ergy tend to disperse and that material quality can be characterized by the con-

As matter disperses, it loses its concentration, purity and structure its order. Biological and economic value come from concentration and structure. centration, purity, and structure of mat ter. The laws that state that nothing is created or disappears, apply to every thing: to matter and energy. The only thing that can disappear is the quality or

functional value, as does a bathtub filled

value of matter.

ops a negative economic and functional value as it becomes a disposal problem, while the quantity of water and ink re main the same before and after they are mixed together. Dr. Nattrass and his co-author, Mary Altomare, fielded questions from the audience. Nicholas Sonntag made cop

The spontaneous tendency of energy and matter to dissipate as described in the second law of thermodynamics, is what changes or diminishes material quality. Because nothing disappears and everything tends to disperse, a carpet turns to dust and a car turns to rust, and

with pure water. As the ink is dripped into the water,it disperses and both lose their economic and functional value.

The contaminated water, in fact, devel

not the reverse. Dust does not reassem

ies of the author's book available follow

ble into a carpet or rust into a car. As matter disperses, it loses its con centration, purity and structure - its or der. Biological and economic value

ing the meeting. It is published by New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island,

come from concentration and structure.

Storrie will be holding other environ

A bottle of pure ink has economic and

mental seminars in the future.

British Columbia. He stressed that CH2M Gore &


Positions Available


Hatch is a large multidiscipline engineering consulting firm, serving primarily the metallurgical and mineral industries, and the rail and transit sector, Hatch is an employee-owned firm, with more than 4,000 employees worldwide, providing professional engineering, management and technology services to both the public and private sectors. Hatch is offering permanent positions in our Mississauga office for:

Engineer - Water Technologies (Position #41)

R. Laird Smith, REng., Chief Operating Officer of Azurix North America Corp., is pleased to announce the appointment of Bill De Angelis, MBA,REng., to the position of Director of Engineering, Canada.

Bill will be responsible for the day-today operations of the consolidated Engi neering and Automation team,providing traditional consulting engineering serv ices as well as innovative project devel opment, management and financing options. Azurix North America, headquartered in Hamilton, Ontario, provides a full range

Requirements: The Water Technologies Group is looking for an engineer with 3-5 years of experience to join our team. The engineer will be responsible for carrying out analysis of wastewater issues and conceptual design, including process and equipment selection of industrial water and wastewater treatment plants. Previous experience in process design, sizing of equipment, costing of equipment and project management is required. A strong knowledge of water chemistry is essential.

Qualifications: The candidate will possess a Chemical or Environmental Engineering degree from a well-recognized engineering university. The candidate will have obtained or will be obtaining their REng. designation in the near future. Junior Engineer - Air Quality and Water Technologies (Position #44 and #40) Qualifications: The candidate will possess a degree in Chemical, Environmental Mechanical (Air) or Civil (Water) Engineering from a well-recognized engineering university and will have excellent communication skills and will be an effective team player.

of water and wastewater related services

Please provide resumes complete with copies of transcripts, quoting position

to the municipal and industrial sectors. The company operates from offices in

number, to: Hatch

Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa and the

Human Resources

United States.

2800 Speakman Drive Mississauga, ON L5K 2R7 Fax:(905) 855-7628

Azurix ^


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

E-mail: hr@ hatch.ca


Consultants' Forum

Public consultation: Changing the development and design of engineered solutions By Frank W. Belfry, P.Eng., President, Kerr Wood Leidal Associates Ltd.

Governmentshave increasingly involved the pub

lic in the decision-making process for proposed engineered improvements that have an impact on the public or the natural environment. This

public consultation process has significantly changed not only the tasks undertaken by engineers and the time involved to bring a project to completion, but also the final design of engineered solutions.

Public involvement requires engineers to be effective communicators. Designing the most practical solution from

a purely engineering perspective may not always succeed in obtaining public support and approval. Identifying all stakeholders at a project's outset and inviting their partici pation throughout the design and construction phases are crucial to a project's success. Engineers must be prepared

Public relations' efforts required for a given project may be elaborate, and may not always be in proportion to the

dollars spent on the actual engineered works. Some projects, particularly those where environmentally-sensitive issues

are involved, may require direct mailings, advertising in the media, and/or a series of open houses. They may also in volve the formation of special committees and focus groups. All of these means of obtaining public comment require considerable time and effort on the part of the consulting engineers to both communicate concepts and then filter and analyse public response.

Once identified, public opinion must then be integrated with clients' needs, objectives, budgetary restrictions, regu

latory requirements and what is practical from an engineer ing perspeetive. Gaining an early understanding of stake holders' concerns generally ensures that large commitments

of resources and time are not wasted on concept designs that are unlikely to win approval.

This trend towards involving the public in the design

to listen to the wishes of stakeholders and integrate their

process is challenging the engineering community to imio-

sometimes conflicting requirements into a solution that will win broad-based acceptance. Although this consultation process often lengthens the project completion time, it can produce positive outcomes if it is well-managed.

The public is no longer accepting of large, "hard" engineered solutions that scar the landscape. vate. In British Columbia, this can be seen most dramati

cally in the area of environmental preservation, where pub

lic awareness of environmental issues has heightened sig

nificantly in recent years. The public is no longer accepting of large, "hard" engineered solutions that sear the landscape. Engineered works must, as far as possible, blend with the landscape and preserve environmental values. These de



mands have led to the development of new techniques and "natural" bioengineered solutions, which either replace or are used with traditional "hard" engineered solutions. For example, one of the initial design concepts for a re cent culvert replacement project, in a densely-populated residential area of British Columbia, called for a new ex

tended culvert with a small side channel for fisheries pres

ervation. However, during an extensive public consulta tion process, it was determined that the public favoured day-


lighting the culvert, that is, replacing much of the culvert with an open creek channel. The resulting creek works in




□ minimal chemical diffusion

□ excellent quality assurance/control □ long service life


P.O. Box 385, Rockwood, Ontario, Canada NOB 2K0

Tel: (519) 856-1352

Fax: (519) 856-2503

For more information, circle reply card No. 255 (See page 25)

cluded a new "natural" channel with many fish-friendly fea tures such as weirs and extensive bioengineered plantings along the creek banks. The final product has received positive public endorse ment and has enhanced the local fisheries resource by open

ing an area that had been closed to fisheries for the past 50 years. Final project costs, including the public consulta tion, were less than they would have been for the culvert


Given such potentially positive results, it seems likely that the trend towards public consultation will continue to increase. Although this will require engineers to spend more time on non-engineering tasks, perhaps it will inspire fur ther innovation and advancements in engineering science. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Consultants' Forum

CCIL submission to the Waikerton inquiry highlights roie of private laboratories

TheCanadian Council ofInde

pendent Laboratories (CCIL) is a professional association of independent consulting, in spection and testing firms that fosters high standards, ethical business prac tices and technical excellence among its members and the industries they serve. CCIL members are committed to pro tecting the public through: education; adhering to a code of ethics; encourag ing good performance and reliability; and fair fees.

CCIL members are very concerned that private labs be regarded as part of the Waikerton problem when the reality is, we were not and we are doing abso lutely everything we can to be part of the solution. What follows is a synop sis of our position presented to the Waikerton inquiry. Never Again The first and foremost thought of CCIL's members is for the people of


By Barry Loescher, PhD., Vice President,

Philip Analytical Services

analyzing drinking water in Ontario for a long time, well before the change in the role of the Ministry of the Environ ment's own testing laboratories that was

Waikerton. We share their loss. We

instituted in 1995. In addition to mu

share their grief. We share their deter mination that from this day forward all

nicipal drinking water, we test the water that goes into bottled water con tainers, soft drinks and beer. It is widely agreed by accreditation authorities that government and private laboratories generate data of equal quality.

Ontario residents, whether in Waikerton,

other small communities, large urban areas, or even remote corners of the

province, must be able to have complete confidence in the quality and safety of their drinking water. Ontario's privately owned environ mental testing laboratories have a key role to play in ensuring a positive out come. Indeed, we have been pursuing this goal in many ways for many years. Building on Strength Private testing laboratories have been providing, and will continue to provide, prompt and accurate data to ensure the quality of Ontario's drinking water. Private laboratories have been


There have been no issues that we

are aware of, regarding data quality in Waikerton. In fact, the private labs in volved in the analysis of Waikerton water correctly detected the problem. Accreditation

Accreditation provides independent assurance of laboratory capability. CCIL strongly supports the initiative re quiring laboratories to achieve and maintain accreditation/proficiency for all drinking water parameters for which Continued overleaf



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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 159 (See page 25)


Consultants' Forum

data is being provided. In fact, CCIL has been advocating this position since our inception. The majority of private labs are already accredited for the drink ing water parameters they analyze and full compliance is just common sense. Private labs have been part of the ac creditation process in Canada from the beginning in 1989 and occupy half the seats on the Board of Directors of the

accreditation provider(CAEAL), which operates under the imprimatur of the Standards Council of Canada. There are

more accredited private labs in Canada than public labs, both in absolute num bers and on a percentage basis. Private and public labs are accredited to the same, internationally recognized standards. There is more than adequate accred ited capacity and capability in the pri vate sector to deliver the increased work

load generated by the new Standards. Reporting Requirements Any Ontario Drinking Water Stand ards exceedence must immediately be reported to the local Officer of Health,

entrenched in regulation, as the Ministiy of the Environment has now done. In underscoring the importance of clear, full reporting requirements, there are several requirements that give us concern. In particular, for our labs to comply with the reporting requirements, it is critical that drinking water samples be clearly identified. A legally defined prefix or specific chain of custody form is recommended. We are also concerned

about liability if no one answers, since to date, some Ministry of Health offi cials and waterworks operators have been very difficult and in some cases im possible to contact directly. Public - Private Partnership Some commentators have wrongly cast the Walkerton situation in terms of

tive and technical issues. In CCIL's

view this partnership is a model of how best government and the private sector can work together.

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the MOE District Office and the con

tracting agency. Given the extreme im portance ofsuch reporting requirements, we absolutely agree that they should be

public versus private laboratories. The suggestion is that somehow the problem would not have occurred if public labo ratories had done the testing rather than private laboratories. This is not the case. CCIL member laboratories work very closely and well with the Laboratory Services Branch of the MOE; the pri vate laboratories are partners of the Branch, with each party playing their relative role well, with full, open com munication. This partnership is man aged by a formal, senior-level Liaison Committee that meets regularly to dis cuss a wide range of policy, administra

For more information, caii 1-800-268-7742 ext. 2105 or visit Environmental Risk Intenmation Services Ltd.


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Potable water.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Consultants' Forum

Methane recovery from landfill sites begins In Egypt

The Greater Cairo area gener

ates 12,800 tonnes of solid

waste per day. In April 2000, Industry Canada launched a demonstration project in conjunction with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA)for the design of two pilot-scale bioreactor landfill cells to be constructed at candidate landfill sites

near Cairo and Sadat City, Egypt. This project will demonstrate the re covery oflandfdl gas, which can be used for power generation. The main com ponents of landfill gas are carbon diox ide and methane. Since these gases con tribute to climate change, the opportu nity for landfill gas recovery and utili zation also represents a means for con trolling global warming. Not only will the release of landfill gas be mitigated, but all waste by-products from the cells will be diverted and used as compost material.

R.J. Burnside International Limited,

with project partners at AAW Consult ing Engineers in Cairo, Biothermica In-

Location of bioreactor iandfili ceii near industriai area in Sadat City, Egypt (top). Park constructed foilowing end use rehabiiitation on previous Iandfili site (bottom).

ternational in Montreal, and SCS Engi neers in Kansas City, continue with ef forts to design and plan for the construc tion of these bioreactor landfill cells.

Most recently, the EEAA has granted approval for two sites: one in an indus trial area near Sadat City and the other near Nasser City.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 119 (See page 25)


Consultants' Forum

International landfill remediation project and energy cell development in Latvia

The Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania,located

By E.A. McBean, Ph.D., P. Eng.,

south of Finland and border

and Ed Taves, M.Sc.,

Conestoga-Rovers & ing the Baltic Sea, were oc Associates Limited cupied by the Soviet Union from the mid 1940s to 1991. During that time, the process of landfill site selection, and formerly termed as a "dump". The spe solid waste management practices were cific circumstances associated with the models of simplicity, but did not dem Riga landfill include: onstrate significant environmental • the surface soil (Quaternary) deposits awareness. Landfills were placed in ar consist of coai'se lacustrine delta sands eas not suitable for any other purpose, (hydraulic conductivity of up to 50 ml typically low-lying, or backwoods ar day). Because of the coarse nature of eas; and solid waste management prac these soils, precipitation infiltration gen tices essentially consisted of dumping erally exceeds run-off; the garbage with limited controls. The following points generally character ize the landfill operations: •no restrictions were placed on the types of wastes received for disposal. Therefore, refuse in landfills used in

these countries during these periods typically contains the complete spectrum of solid wastes locally generated, in cluding industrial, hospi tal, hazardous, demoli

tion, and potentially even military wastes; • no daily, or any other form of landfill cover was utilized; •no leachate minimization,collec tion, or treatment measures were em

contamination of the upper Devonian aquifer, and localized contamination of a deeper Devonian aquifer are antici pated by 2020. Since 1991 Latvia has made signifi cant progress towards establishing a modem market-based economy. The el ements of progress include establishing a national currency; controlling infla tion; and generally improving the stand ard of living of the citizenry. However, without international assistance, the technical and financial resources re

quired to modernize its solid waste man agement practices,including the upgrad ing of its landfills, would not occur in the foreseeable future. Intemational as

sistance for landfill design and construction purposes has been obtained from the World

Bank, and the Swedish In

temational Development Agency,and for managerial assistance, from

Canada through the Canadian International

Development Agency (CIDA). The estimated cost to upgrade the landfill utilized by the City of Riga is projected as

approximately $25 million (USD). Upgrades provided for in this cost include:

•for the existing landfill area - cap ployed; and, ping of the landfill, constmction of a • no landfill/greenhouse gas collection, •the shallow groundwater occurs 1 to 2 leachate collection system and a leachate or odour abatement measures were un metres below the ground surface, and is treatment plant, installation of a landfill dertaken. heavily contaminated with landfill gas collection system, installation of a The landfill utilized by the City of leachate. The leachate plume is ex landfill gas-to-electricity conversion Riga,the capital of Latvia, with a popu pected to reach the major regional plant; and lation of approximately 800,000,fits the Daugava River, located 1.6 kilometres •forfuture landfilling requirements above description perfectly. In 1973, away, within two years. The shallow the constmction of eight energy cells, when the need for a new landfill was groundwater is used for irrigation pur including the landfill gas collection sys identified, a small sand quarry was se poses for nearby summer gardens. El tem and connection to the above-noted lected. evated concentrations of metals and landfill gas-to-electricity conversion This sand quarry was conveniently other contaminants have been identified plant, various waste sorting and recy located, within 15 minutes of the city in these gardens; clable material diversion equipment, centre. As additional space was re • the deeper (Devonian) aquifers are and various heavy equipment, weigh quired, the landfill was extended onto utilized by the City of Riga and envi bridges, and operations buildings as re an adjacent bog. Today the landfilled rons as a source of municipal potable quired for effective landfill operations. area is approximately 36 hectares in size, water supply. The deep aquifers are only The World Bank is funding over 50% and 37 metres in height, with an esti partially protected, by discontinuous till of the project costs via a loan through mated volume of 3.7 million cubic me layers, from the leachate-contaminated the International Bank for Reconstruc tres (m^) of waste. shallow groundwater. It is anticipated tion and Development (IBRD), and a Environmentally, the landfill is al that leachate will infiltrate the upper grant through the Global Environment most a textbook example of what was Devonian aquifers by 2002. Massive Fund (GEF). The collection of landfill 38

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Consultants' Forum

gases, resulting in a significant reduc tion in greenhouse gas emissions, and conversion of the landfill gas into an indigenous electrical energy source, is the principal justification for funding from both these agencies.

Approximately 3.7 million m' of waste are currently disposed at the landfill, with a density of 800 kilograms per cubic metre, or approximately three million tonnes of waste. With an or

ganic carbon content of approximately 60 percent (60 percent of this is con sidered biodegradable), all dry weight values, the estimated quantity oflandfill gas that will be produced from this waste is 200 million m\ over a period of 20 years. Collection and conversion of this

landfill gas will be accomplished by what is now proven technology operat ing at a number of municipal landfills

constructed every six months, or for every 100,000 tonnes of municipal waste received. The waste will be

crushed or shredded, metals sorted out

with a magnetic separator, and the re maining waste placed in the energy cell provided with an underdrain system for leachate collection. Once filled, landfill

gas collection piping will be installed and the energy cell capped. The col lected leachate is recirculated through the energy cell to maintain optimum moisture content. Leachate will also be

heated, and can be enhanced with nutri

ents and alkalinity to accelerate anaero bic decomposition of the refuse. After approximately five years, the rate of landfill gas generation decreases and continued operations will no longer be economically viable. Wastes treated in an energy cell are reduced in mass by approximately 20 percent. The remain-

methane, also represents a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions for Latvia. Methane as a greenhouse gas is considered to have 21 times the global warming potential of carbon di oxide. The greenhouse gas abatement costs for the landfill, have been calcu

lated to be approximately 3.4 USD per tonne of carbon dioxide, substantially less than the maximum value of 10 USD

per tonne established for eligibility for funding from the Global Environment Fund. As a signatory of the Kyoto Pro tocol, this project also represents a sig nificant component of Latvia's efforts to achieve its greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. CRA's primary role with the project is with respect to capacity building for procurement, under the auspices of CIDA's Bilateral Program. This role utilizes CRA's knowledge and experi-

in Canada and elsewhere. Perforated

pipes placed in the landfill wastes col lect the gases, which are directed via a gas blower station, to an energy conver sion plant. The energy conversion plant consists of modified natural gas engines, fired by the landfill gas, connected to electric generators which feed to a sup ply grid, and secondary recovery of waste heat for use in a small gas heat ing boiler for on-site energy use. Considering that landfill gas is typi cally 50 to 55 percent methane,a caloric

heat value of 5 kilowatt hours per m' (kWh/m')is calculated. With a current market value of electricity in Latvia of 0.034 USD/kWh, this represents a po tentially significant revenue source over the next 20 years. However, privatiza tion of Latvenergo, the monopoly sup plier of electricity in Latvia, makes this potential revenue uncertain.

The collection of landfill gases, resulting in a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and conversion of the landfill gas into an indigenous electrical energy source, is the principal justification for funding....

ture energy cells, or deposited in the

ence in landfill technology in general, and energy cell technology in particu lar, and in equipment procurement. A note of interest to equipment suppliers is that many components of this project are open to international suppliers. A total of 16 procurement packages were

main landfill.

to be distributed this fall and include

ing wastes will be excavated and may be separated into three streams;combus tible materials, inert wastes, and soil.

The inert wastes and soils will be recy cled to the degree possible, and the residues used as cover materials for fu

Once operational, the energy cells will produce approximately 26 million m'of landfill gas per year. Over the 20 year life of the landfill, an estimated 640

separate procurement packages for items such as:

• Supply and delivery of: - heavy vehicles and equipment such as

million m' of landfill gas will be col

wheeled and track loaders with detach

The landfill will continue to receive

lected from the historical landfill, and

waste for another 15 to 20 years, at an

the energy cells. This quantity of gas

able accessories, and various container vehicles;

estimated rate of 205,000 tonnes of

would fill the Main Chamber of the Ca

municipal waste per year and 45,000 tonnes of industrial waste per year. In novative energy cell technology will be used to optimize the landfill gas genera tion rate/revenue potential, from these wastes. In an energy cell, waste decom position is completed under forced anaerobic conditions. By controlling variables such as the waste particle size, moisture content, acidity, temperature, and the carbonmitrogen ratio, optimal conditions for anaerobic decomposition can be achieved, and the decomposition or landfill gas generation period, can be reduced from 20 years to 5 years. At the landfill, an energy cell will be

nadian House of Commons 13 times per day, or every 1 hour and 50 minutes over the 20 year period of the operation of the landfill (a unit of measurement we were first introduced to by ES&E). This landfill gas also represents a potential revenue source of approximately 110 million USD over the next 20 years. While the construction, operation and maintenance costs are also substantial,

- gas regulation stations; and - piping (steel and plastic) for the gas extraction systems; • Supply, delivery, and installation of: - weigh scale bridges, and registration systems for the landfill entrance and exit;

- a turn-key energy conversion unit in cluding the building, blowers, gas mo tors, PLCs, piping, alarms, etc; - radiation monitoring equipment for the

this revenue source is the basis to en

landfill entrance area; and

sure the economic viability of the landfill once the World Bank project is completed. It is also noted that the con version of640 million m'of landfill gas,

- waste shredders/crushers, magnetic sorting equipment, plus associated sort ing and conveyance equipment. For more information, circle reply card No. 163

of which 50 percent(320 million m')is

Environmental Science (& Engineering, November 2000


Cover Story

Toxic mould found at Newmarketcourthouse Lawyers,Judges and accused work in campsite settings By Bruce Stewart, CIH, ROH, Senior Vice President, Pinchin Environmental Limited

Imagine you were driving north

through Newmarket, Ontario, in early November 2000, along Yonge Street. On the west side of Yonge, you might see over 30 construc tion trailers and portable offices, located next to a modem four storey building, surrounded with construction hoarding. Given the number of trailers and the

fresh appearance of the building, you might conclude that this was a constraction site for a large new building. You would be wrong. For life has been turned upside down at the Newmarket provincial courthouse. The workers in the temporary trail ers are not construction workers but law

yers, judges and other staff of the cen tral courthouse for York region. And in the courthouse, built in the 1970s, you would find not judges and lawyers but demolition workers wearing respirators and disposable coveralls, labouring in side carefully maintained containment

Mould has been found in other places besides the Newmarket courthouse. Here workers wearing sophisticated protection gear strip mould from a portable building. Photo - Pinchin Environmental

have been many press reports in the past few years of the massive efforts by school boards to correct mouldy condi tions,especially in portable classrooms. In the province of Ontario alone, 40 million dollars was granted last year to compensate school boards for their ex traordinary expenses to correct mould

finds the walls of the house pitted with reddish or greenish depressions, the priest is to go out of the house,to the door, and shut it up for seven days. On the seventh day he must go back again, and if on examination he finds that the infection has spread

Facilities Management, with Pinchin

contamination. And in British Colum

over the walls of the house, he must

Environmental as the consultants, al

bia, there have been many reports of leaky condominiums and the impact on the health and pocketbooks of their

be removed and thrown into some


In this project, managed by Profac

most all of the walls and ceilings of this 165,000 square foot building are being removed to eliminate every trace of mould growth. Along with the workers are representatives of the Ministry of Labour and the regional Public Health office, under whose watchful eye the work is proceeding. This year has been a very trying time for the staff and man agers of the York regional courthouse, and all because of mould growth. The concems over mould growth in buildings are not confined to the New market provincial courthouse. There

the house; and if on examination he

give orders for the infected stones to

new concem. However,there are warn

unclean place outside the town. The stones must be replaced by new ones and the house given a new coat of plaster. "If the infection spreads again after

ings regarding mould, back at least to

the stones have been removed and the

the time of Moses. Witness the follow

Need to hire qualified and experi

"When you reach the land of Canaan, which I am giving you as an inherit ance, if I strike a house with leprosy in the land you are to possess, the

house scraped and replastered, the priest is to come and examine it. If he finds that the infection has spread, this means that there is a contagious leprosy in the house; it is unclean. It must be pulled down and the stones, woodwork and all the plaster taken to an unclean place outside the town. "Anyone who enters the house while

enced staff?

Environmental Sci

owner must come and warn the

it is closed will be unclean until

ence & Engineering reaches over

priest; he must say, "I have seen something like leprosy in the house". The priest is to give orders for the house to be emptied before he goes

evening. Anyone who sleeps there must wash his clothing. Anyone who eats there must wash his clothing. But ifthe priest finds, when he comes

Call us at:(905)727-4666

to examine the infection; thus noth

to examine the infection, that it has

for special rates

ing in the house will become unclean. "Then the priest must go and look at

not spread in the house since it was plastered, he is to declare the house

19,000 water, wastewater and en

vironmental protection profession als across Canada.



Most of us would consider the health

hazards of mould in buildings to be a

ing text from Leviticus, ascribed by tra dition to Moses:

Yahweh spoke to Moses and Aaron; he said;

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Consultants' Forum

clean, for the infection is cleared. Leviticus, 14:33-48. The Jerusalem Bible.

(Editor's note; Italics added by author) Ontario Ministry of Health confirms hazards of mould in buildings It appears Moses was convinced that mould growth in buildings was a haz ard. A recent expert panel review spon sored by the Ontario Ministry of Health

Since 1995, many provincial occupational health and safety authorities, including British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Ontario, have published guidelines for the assessment and control of mould in buildings.

came to the same conclusion. The Min

istry convened a medical panel in 1999 to review the evidence linking mould contamination in buildings and adverse health effects. The panel included phy

is evidence in the scientific literature

which supports an association ofseveral health effects, primarily symptoms, with unusual fungal growth in the indoor en

sicians and scientists drawn from the

vironment or with environmental con

University of Toronto, McMaster Uni versity, the Hospital for Sick Children

ditions which are associated with fun

in Toronto,the Ministries of Health and

Labour, the Health Units of the Region of Peel and Brant County, and the Eastem New York Occupational and Envi ronmental Health Center.

In response to the question, what are the health effects of exposure to moulds?, the panel concluded that there is strong evidence to support the rela tionship between the exposure to mould in buildings and many health effects. However, some of the health effects do

not apply to exposures generally expe rienced in residential settings or at low levels. Considering exposure in all set tings and where exposure may include inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion, the possible health effects listed by the expert panel were: 1)Allergic and other immune-mediated mechanisms including asthma, hayfever, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. 2)Infectious diseases, generally limited to illnesses in immuno-compromised in dividuals from normally non-pathogenic organisms such as Aspergillus species. 3) Potential toxic effects from mycotoxins and volatile products including eye and throat irritation, skin rash, changes in lymphocytes and neurobehavioral and cognitive effects, and pulmonary hemorrhage in infants. 4) Potentially carcinogenic mechariisms. There is strong evidence of a car cinogenic effect in certain agricultural and industrial settings. However, there is no evidence that the low-level expo sure to fungi that would occur in resi dences and schools has any relationship

gal growth (e.g. humidity and conditions which promote fungal growth - mould amplifiers)." The position of regulatory agencies The federal and provincial occupa tional health and safety and public health authorities have published a number of guidelines for the assessment and remediation of mould growth in build ings. One of the most important Cana dian references in this area is the Health

Canada 1995 guidelines, based on the recommendations of a federal/provincial


working group. This recommends that inspection for mould contamination in buildings be based on a combination of air monitoring, interviews with occu pants and building managers regarding the history of air quality complaints and water problems, and a detailed physical inspection. The Health Canada guide lines say that the physical inspection often may have to include hidden spaces such as ceilings and wall cavities, for these areas may be missed by a non-in trusive inspection. Since 1995, many provincial occu pational health and safety authorities, including British Columbia, Saskatch ewan and Ontario, have published guidelines for the assessment and con trol of mould in buildings. These agen-

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to cancer.

In response to a question on how con vincing the data was regarding an asso ciation between mould growth and health effects, the panel wrote: "The expert panel agrees that there Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 106 (See page 25)


Consultants' Forum

cies all consider mould growth in build ings to constitute a health hazard sub ject to their regulatory authority. And this authority has been widely used. For example, we are aware of differ ent occasions where Ontario Ministry of Labour inspectors have issued orders to test for mould, to abate the mould

growth where found, and to close down work areas until the mould could be

abated. In a paiticularly interesting case, a provincial labour inspector, on find ing mould growth on a demolition pro ject, required that all mouldy materials be removed following the highest degree of abatement procedures, before the demolition of the building could pro ceed.

Recommendations for assessment and abatement of mould

The most current professional guide lines for controlling the mould hazard in buildings is Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments, published by the New York City Department of Health in April of 2000. These guidelines were pre pared with the assistance of the most important medical and scientific re

searchers in this field in the US. Cana

dian health and safety authorities gen erally recommend compliance with the 2000 Guidelines. The 2000 Guidelines were an exten

sive update of a 1993 version. The ear lier version had applied only to the haz ards and control of Stachybotrys chartarum, a particularly toxic species of mould commonly found growing on drywall and ceiling tiles. The 2000

The abatement methods to be fol

lowed depend on the extent of mould growth to be removed. Level 1 work requires only a half-facepiece respira tor, plastic dropsheet, and careful clean up. Only a vacuum cleaner with a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA, > 99.97% efficient at 0.3 micrometres)can be used and all waste must be removed

in sealed bags. The step up to Level 2 and Level 3

Guidelines differ from the eaidier ver

work adds containment of the work area

sion in that all types of mould are con sidered hazardous and are subject to the same requirement for remediation. The New York City Guidelines clas sify mould remediation into the follow ing six categories of work, depending on the extent of mould growth to be

with plastic sheeting and better worker protection. Qualified health and safety professionals must supervise level 3 and Level 4 work. Level 4 work requires the highest level of precautions,includ

ing temporary decontamination facilities for workers to use on leaving the work


area and HEPA filtered air exhaust units

• Level 1: less than 10 square feet of total mould growth; • Level 2: 10-30 square feet; • Level 3: 30-100 square feet; • Level 4: more than 100 square feet; • Level 5: less than 10 square feet in ventilating equipment; and • Level 6: more than 10 square feet in ventilating equipment.

to create a negative pressure in the work. Clearance air sampling is required after Level 4 and Level 6 work.

The mould abatement procedures underway at the Newmarket courthouse are being performed under a combina tion of Level 3 and Level 4 procedures. For more information, circle reply card No. 148


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because they last longer and are less expensive,


story with a surprise ending


P.O. Box 2907• Kansas Cit>', KS 661101

PHONEi 913-621-3700•FAX:913-621-21^ E-mail: tanks@columbiantaiik.com|, AVebsite: www.columbiantank.cora i

For more information, circie repiy card No. 149

"The Engineered Difference in Tanks" Our mission at Diverse Pias-

tic Tanks is to provide our customers \«ith the buik stor

age, processing and trans portation tank soiutions which exceed their safety and performance require ments at the iowest possibie cost.

New Product: Bleach Protection Tank. This new HDPLE resin

has been deveioped to biock harmfui ultravioiet(UV) radiation that can destroy iight sensitive chemicais such as Sodium Hypochiorite (NaOCi). UV radiation aiso has the potentiai to significantiy degrade the structurai integrity of buik storage tanks and interme diate buik containers(iBCs)that contain light sensitive chemicais. This proprietary resin package is formulated with a special opaque pigment that prevents UV rays from attacking the bleach contained within. Previously, most polyethylene tank and IBC manufacturers have promoted either black pigmented or natural translucent polyethylene for sodium hypochiorite applications. A black tank can biock UV rays, but it aiso absorbs sunlight, which can heat the tank to a level that harms both the tank and the chemi cais it contains.

Visit our web site at: www.piastictanks.ca or contact us directly for a copy of our product catalogue.

contamination. Earlier, there had been a spill of diesel fuel due to over-filling during the filling of boiler tanks in win ter. But a clean-up of the diesel fuel and soil had been com pleted. During the following spring thaw, the client identified heavy oil seeping from the ground to the west of the build ing. He deduced that oil flowed into the catchbasin and into a weeping tile system and into a sump pit. The client surmised that a neighbour's recently removed Underground Storage Tank (UST) must have been leaking. The neigh bour had removed the tank quickly with no evidence ofleak ing, odour, or a clean-up noted. The client was aware of only two USTs on his own site: one 10,000 gallon diesel tank for the fumace and one 500 gallon tank for the back-up generator.

The client contacted us to arrange for a Phase IESA(His torical) and a Phase II sub-surface investigation to gather evidence against the neighbour. During the course of the sub-surface investigation, it was discovered that contami nation was not present between the neighbour's property and the visual oil seepage. A geomagnetic investigation revealed an additional UST that was historically used for Bunker C oil for the old boil ers before they were converted to diesel. After the discov ery, rumours surfaced that the old tank had been emptied and filled with sand. Investigators found a tank cover in a landscaped area - covered with soil and stones, approxi mately 0.75 metres below grade in a round access tube. A remediation program was arranged. When three tanks had been removed, only the oil bunker C tank had leaked and the contamination followed the weeping tile bed. Confirmatory sampling showed evidence of bunker oil and diesel from previous spills and fill overflows. The con tamination had migrated along weeping tile beds surround ing the building footprint. Contamination was made worse by the fact that the weeping tiles had failed and standing water built up in the area of the USTs and up-gradient along the weeping tile beds. Remediation was completed successfully; however, many difficulties were encountered. Challenges included the prox imity of a major roadway (access and permits), steep grade and the building footings situated very close to the tanks, and the only equipment access was through the neighbour's property. But ultimately, it was confirmed that it was the client's own tank that had leaked and that it did not con

Diverse Plastic Tanks 3190 Ridgeway Drive, Unit 22, Mississauga, ON L5L 5S8 Tel: (905) 607-5189, Fax:(905) 607-9835 1-800-685-3174



For more information, circle reply card No. 150

taminate adjacent properties.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 165

By Christopher Nielsen, B.Sc., T. Harris Environmental Management Inc. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

flOUfWORE' Tanks

Better initial value! AquastoreÂŽ tanks are fabricated in ISO 9001 quality system certified facilities.

Save on construction! Aquastore assembly by factory-trained builders is faster than site welding.

Save on maintenance! Aquastore tanks offer lower maintenance costs than welded tanks.

Save on repainting! Aquastore glass outlasts paint and eliminates repainting costs. Before you order your wastewater or potable water tank, talk to your Aquastore dealer about state-of-the-art water storage. Otherwise the cost could be higher than you think!

SomethiJig notfoundin mosttariks.

. .






345 Harvestore Drive, DeKalb, Illinois 60115|316-421-0200 Phone|316-421-9122 Fax|www.aquastore.com For more information,

circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)


storage Tanks and Containment

No mess, no fuss fluid dispensing

Storage of oils and other lubri

An authorized Harley Davidson dealer for nearly 40 years, Bill Chancy

tem installed by Innovative Fluid Han dling Systems, eliminated wasted time, labour space and fluids, helped main tain proper inventory and increased the safety of the working environment. The company said that while nine 55US gallon drums take up ap proximately 120 square feet offloor space, the eight con tainer system occupies only 25 square feet and can hold 520 US gallons of capacity -

wanted a neat, clean fluid

25 more than the nine drums.

handling system for his 13,000 square foot dealer ship and service centre in

With no drum tipping and cleaning, switching or re placement of drum pumps, along with highly-visible sight gauges, the user can easily tell exactly how much product remains, so there is less risk of running out or overstocking for fear of run ning out. The system also features clearly-labelled

cants in 55-US gallon drums can be messy as well as an inefficient way to access all the liquids you have paid for. Companies might want to consider a fluid handling and dispensing system that makes storage and retrieval

occuiTcd. While screw caps were placed on the nozzles before the hoses were

pulled back, they wore out easily and often fell off, leaving a trail of oil splat ters on the service area floor.

The system also made it hard for the

of fluids more efficient.

Walnut Creek, California.

His old system consisted of four 55-US gallon drums with air pumps that stored 20/50 and 50 weight motor oils, chain lube and trans

mission oil. To get at the flu ids, a technician would open the drum lid and insert a hose

containers and faucets that

to transfer the lubricants

reduce the chances of the

through ceiling mounted

wrong product being used. Clean-up is aided by selfclosing faucets and timer

hoses on reels.

Service people would pull these 50foot long hoses

The IFH storage and dispensing system heips eliminate the use shut-off that allow minimal of messy and inefficient drums to store lubricants and fluids. operator supervision. down to their work area, and Innovative Fluid Handling Systems waste oil drums were positioned under company to track inventory accurately. the nozzle to catch some of the leakage "We never knew how much oil was in is represented in Canada by Eco-Tec in from the hanging hoses. It was during the drum at any given time," said Mississauga. For more information, the pulling down and recoiling of these Chancy. circle reply card No. 152 hoses that most of the leakage problems A new storage and dispensing sys

Low Cost, Long Life Low Maintenance

Rapid Installation




is the exclusive source for Permastore tanks and

silos in Canada, supplying integrated design, construction and warranty programs. 191 Booth Rd. North Bay, Ontario, Canada, PIA 4K3


Tel:(705) 474-4759, Fax:(705) 474-9041 E-Mail: camg@donson.com

Glass-Fused-to-Steel Tanks and Silos offer

the complete storage solution. P\ ^ >*

Over 40,000 tanks installed in 70 countries Excellent corrosion resistance

Modular construction growth — capacity Easily relocated after years of use Custom roof components


For more information, circle reply card No. 153 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

rDTE INDUSTRIES LIMITED Since 1951 DTE Industries Limited has been supplying the Petroleum, Petro

chemical, Agricultural, Forestry, Mining, Heating, Contracting & Engineering fields with quality Storage tanks. Customer satisfaction is our number one priority... Advantages to you the customer are:

•We have our own fleet of trucks and ship from Vancouver to Halifax

•Competitive pricing - Lease or Buy option available

Offering Steel & Plastic Jaiicketed Tanks from 227 to 100),000 litres (50 gal. to 25,000 gal.) For aboveground applications. We specifications.

and und unc erground

all ULC and UL

•5 year or 30 year warranties available

•Superior Quality Products & Services for over 48 years

Let us show you how we can provide security & valuefor your money Plant tours are available by contacting our Engineering department

Other models av Bench Tanks

Fuel Oil Tanks

Farm Utility Tanks Oil/Water separators

DTE Industries Limited

69 Comstock Rd. Scarborough, ON 1-800-387-1400 • Tel. 416-757-6278• Fax. 416-757-5579 www.dteindustries.com


Doubln We)!i Tank

Aboveground Vertical

round Horizontal

fe WailTan'k




For more information, circle reply card No. 154(See page 25)


storage Tanks and Containment

Concerns spur mini-boom for on-site coverage of manure, sait and garbage

The Walkerton E. coli disaster

has shattered Canadians'

sense of security. Several peo ple died and more than two thousand fell sick from microscopic bac teria lurking in their drinking water. Other cases of contaminated water are

popping up across the continent, sug

quick solution for covering manure piles. They can be disassembled and re located if the producer moves. "New technology has brought these buildings a long way," says Hogervorst. "They are made of a heavy-weight polyethylene, not canvas or tarp mate rial, so they really stand up over the

The Institute's Executive Director,

Dick King, calls the research that led to the request "weak and inconclusive". The Institute does,however,recommend

covering salt piles. Not only does a cover provide water protection, it also saves taxpayers' dollars when otherwise the salt might literally go down the drain.

gesting that we can no longer take the safety of our drinking water for granted. As task forces and government offi cials struggle to secure the proper treatment of drinking water, there is a mini building boom on the rural landscape.

Another environmental ini

tiative driving fabric-covered building sales is domestic gar bage. Many cities are banning kitchen waste and other biode

gradable materials from their landfill sites. In Halifax, Nova

Scotia, curbside pick-up is pro vided and the material is

While it is sometimes diffi

hauled to a mass composting facility housed in a giant Cover-All building, 72 feet wide and 440 feet long. New Era Farms General Manager Andrew Wort says: "At any

cult to track the exact cause of

groundwater contamination,it is known that cow manure can

carry some strains of E. coli. While the bacteria are not

harmful to animals,they can be

Covered storage could minimize run-off problems

acutely harmful to people. Rain falling on uncovered manure piles can wash the bacteria and nitrates into water bodies

or cause them to leach into the ground. So far, there is no legislation demand ing the piles be covered, but at least one manufacturer of steel-framed, fabric-

covered buildings has noticed an in crease in sales directly from concern for the environment.

Ben Hogervorst from Lucknow,On tario is a Cover-All Building Systems, Inc. dealer. He says the structures are a

By Patti Mertz, Cover-All Building Systems, Inc.

years. They are also naturally-lit inside, which saves on power demands." Environmental concerns are pushing sales in other directions as well. Many municipalities now demand that salt and sand piles be covered. Road salt, once thought to be benign, is now also sus pected of leaching into groundwater, threatening the supply of safe drinking water and increasing soil salinity. It could hamper the growth of plants, trees and crops. In fact. Environment Canada is recommending that road salt be labeled a toxic substance, sparking an outery from suppliers and organizations

one time, we have three to five thousand

tonnes of material on site. The product and odours are fully contained, which is really important in an urban setting like ours." The buildings' components even promise to be part of the solution; the frames are made of steel, the most-

recycled element on the planet, and the covers are 100% recyclable. Solving groundwater problems will take time and money. Simple coverage of manure piles may reduce threats to human health, while later composting measures can enrich the soil.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 155

such as the Salt Institute.

Hassan Steel Fabricators Limited 223 Ashland Ave., London, Ontario N5W 4E3

Complete Storage Systems

Secondary Containment Units Bulk Oil Systems & Dispensers

Call US today for a quote on your requirement Tel: 519-451-3100


Fax: 519-451-3102

For more information, circle reply card No. 156 (See page 25)

Toll Free: 800-668-0814

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000



Portable Samplers

Refrigerated Samplers Open Channel Flow • FRF Enclosures

Rain Gauges/loggers • Software

Call 1-800-215-4469 or

Email: can-am @can-am.net


Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Sales * Service * Rentals


Fax: 905-829-4701


OllaPivbl^^ Is

OilAVater Separators

• Portable Oil In Water Monitor

• In-line Oil In Water Monitor

• Oil Float Sensor THESE BARRELS 1



• ON Interface Monitor


• Liquid Leak detection • Oil Skimmers

Ca// 1-800-215-4469 or


Email: can-am @can-am.net

Can-Am Instruments Ltd.


Sales * Service * Rentals

Fax: 905-829-4701 www.can-am.net

storage Tanks and Containment

Canadian plastics fabricator supplies huge chemical tanks to Far East

Aninternational manufacturer of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), contracted Fabri cated



(Fabco), to engineer, manufacture, ship and install over 30 miles of custom-

made plastic(FRP)piping,lined plastic and thermoplastic tanks for the expan sion of its plastics resin plant in the United States.



Fabco was later invited, along with other plastics manufacturers, world wide, to tender for another complex project located in the Far East. This con sisted of a petrochemical complex, one of32 plants being built on a huge 12,000 acre site. The required tanks and tow


ers, 14 of each, were destined for the

chlor-alkali supply plant, specifically for the Ion Exchange Membrane system (lEM). The lEM plant produces liquid chlorine, a key ingredient of PVC plas tic resin.

The plant site is located in a sensi-

Four Chlorine Gas Absorbers installed on site.

tive seismic zone so that any construetion, and particularly a plant handling hazardous chemicals, had to be able to

withstand earthquakes. The hydrostatic loads this equipment had to accommoContinued overleaf

Leaking Tank?


• Only highest quality materials are used.

• Durable - Long Life - Pinhole Free. For 38 Years, FABCO has

produced High Quality Chemical Processing & Pollution Control

Equipment, for the Chemical

Processing, Pulp & Paper & Mining

• Highly resistant to chemicals such as: Sodium Hypochlorite, Liquid Alum, Hydrofluosilicic Acid. • Electronically welded lap seams (Homogeneous Weld). • Un-effected by expansion and

Woodstave Tank




Let Canada's leadingflexible PVC tank lining manufacturer solve your containment needs.

Open Top PVC Liner

FRP: Hand-Lay-Up & Filament Winding


2175 Teston Road, Maple

LEentamJ Products Ltd.

"Celebrating 25 Years"

(Toronto), Ontario Canada, L6A 1T3 Phone: (905)-832-8161 • Fax: {905)-832-2111

E-mail: info@fabricatedplastics.com Web Site: www.fabricatedplastics.com

For more information, circie repiy card No. 137 (See page 25)


PVC Lined Fittings

For more information, circie repiy card No. 136 (See page 25)

Storage Tanks and Containment

WMmmwA Terra Nova INDUSTRIES *

Thousands of Guaranteed Quality Metal Buildings

date were particularly high too, so that great strength and integrity were impera tive. The challenge then, was to maxi

Since 1987


mize the amount of fusion machine

welding of thermoplastic lining and to armour the equipment by the filament winding process. Armourplastics, the registered trade name for Fabco's construction of ther

moplastic, armoured with fiberglass, was chosen for the construction mate rial.


It is believed that no project ever before had included this number of

oversize tanks, using super-strength

specifications, or this total poundage of material. The details of the engineering required exploring previously uncharted territory including computer-aided lami nate design and stress analyses of lami nate layers. ASMERTP-1 design meth

Chemical & Hazardous Material

Containment Buildings built to meet your Specifications

ods were followed.

A large investment was required in plant modification and machinery, namely an enormous vacuum form ca pable of producing the tank tops and bot toms without any hand welded seams.

For more information, please call as at

403 236 0800 Fax: 403 236 0803

4115 - 72 Avenue SE


The oversize sheets ofPVC plastic, ma chine fused and set in the gigantic

email: tni@tni.ca

Calgary, Alberta

T2C 2G5


vacuum forms, were perfectly produced For more information, circle reply card No. 237

For all vour storage solutions Effective Solutions for Potable Water, Wastewater,

Leachate Storage, Industrial Storage.

Our Epoxy, Galvanized, Stainless Steel, Glass or Glass 97 coatings offer distinct advantages:

Proven performance with| low^ Bolted lap joints for rapid maintenance costs

Cost effective construction

, assembly in any location

Phone: 519-469-8169 Fax 519-469-8157

Sales@greatarioengsys.com 50

For more information, circle reply card No. 135

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Storage Tanks and Containment

Vf ism^

These two sections, now joined, then underwent the same procedure to seal them to the bottom piece. The com pleted tanks then had their ladders and safety rails attached. A stevedore crew then quickly but very carefully loaded the tanks into the ship's hold. Quickly because there is a time limit imposed by weather on the St. Lawrence Seaway. In fact, the loading was completed and the ship set sail just beating the Seaway's seasonal closing on December 22,1997. Once the ship arrived in the Far East,

many of the tanks could be lowered di rectly into their final positions. The rest were transported and lowered into posi tion by construction cranes. During the remainder of the winter of 1997/98, the

final pieces were fabricated and shipped out on the first ship leaving the Seaway in the Spring of 1998. Subsequently, Fabco installation experts completed their task and the entire plant, virtually a turn key operation, was successfully test run. For more information,

circle reply card No. 138

Your Coast-to-Coast

Supplier of Underground Storage Tanks PVC/FRP Sodium Hypochlorite tanks.

in spite of the manufacturer's concerns. The identical process was used to make the seamless tank linings in order to avoid hand welding. The tanks were fabricated and filament wound in large pieces. A special permit was sought and granted by the Department ofTransport to truck the finished materials to a ship yard on the St. Lawrence Seaway. In Ontario, December temperatures can easily drop into the minus twenties Cel sius, hardly the best conditions for the final assembly of the equipment. Temporary buildings were erected that allowed a system of heat control. Inside these buildings the tanks were



Canada's Ultimate 'Site Risk' Reducer Coast to coast, ZCL fiberglass tanks offer the ultimate in site risk mimagement. Made of 100% resin and fiberglass rein forced plastic,ZCL tanks will not rust -

the ZCL Double-Wall Prezerver™ ULC listed, ZCL's double-

inside or out!This is a key factor when

give you perhaps the

comparing ZCL fiberglass tanks to other storage tanks made from steel. Repair or reiining due to corrosion is never required because ZCL tanks are simply not susceptible to rust. Even after years of reliable,trouble-free service,

wall Prezerver™ tanks safest state-of-the-art

secondary contain ment on the market. A true

360° doublewall tank, Prezerver™

ZCL tanks can be recertified and re-used!

offers twice the

Designed to withstand the hea%'y

risk management of any single-

weight of all road vehicles (H-20 axle loads - 32,000 ibs./axie),ZCL tanks are lighter and easier to handle than steel,

Sodium Hypochiorite tanks being ioaded to beat Seaway dosing.

Double Your Risk Management with

wall tank. In the



unlikely event that there is a breach in the primaiy wall, the secondary wall is designed to contain your product and prevent a spill into the

eliminating the expense of heavy crane equipment rental when installing or removing. Ideal for the safe storage of environment. all fuel types and most hazardous An amazing 3-D glass fabric technology called Parabeam® adds incredible wall liquids, ZCL tanks are also available in strength and creates a defined interstitial cost-effective multi-compartment designs .space (sandwich core) to accommodate that can store two or more products in your choice of monitoring methods the same tank. Capacities range from including pressure, vacuum,dry and wet (hydrostatic) monitoring, of both walls.


assembled and made ready for loading onto the ship. This required using a massive construction crane to lift the

tops onto the centre sections. Continu ous welding sealed the PVC liner, fol lowed by a complete fiberglass seam to



Discover how to reduce site risk, ^ Qflfl f^ISi QOfSR call us today to discuss your particular needs I^OIIU'DD ■"OfcOw

seal the exterior armour coating. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 139 (See page 25)


Product and Service Showcase Underground double wall jacketed tanks

Mobile refuelling

Tank solutions

Diverse Plastic Tanks offer a full range

When fuels are required in small quanti ties, to fill construction machinery on Superior corrosion protection and sec ondary containment; inner tank can be compartmentalized; total compatibility with petroleum fuels, as well as a wide range of chemicals; sand, pea gravel or crushed stone may be used for backfill; globally recognized third-party approv

various sites, truck-mounted tanks with

hold-down straps and internal baffles to avoid dangerous load shifts are provided in warning red enamel. Special venting device, fill cap and labels are included. Capacities are 454-4540 litres(100-1000 gallons). Also available in doublewall

als; flat and dished end caps.

vacuum-monitored version for added

DTE Industries Limited

Circle reply card No. 180

safety margin. DTE Industries Limited Circle reply card No. 181

TecStore epoxy-coated tanks

Introduced at WEFTEC 2000

dustries line of tanks which have many

advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the wid est selection of sizes up to 22,000 gal lons. Diverse Plastic Tanks

Circle reply card No. 182

New Aquastore brochure

This colour bro

Based on the con

A.O. Smith Engi

chure introduces

cept of Engineered Storage Products Company's tradi tional glass-fused-

neered Storage

TecStore™ EpoxyCoated liquid stor age tanks from En gineered Storage Products Company.

Products Com


pany offers a new eight-page bro chure on its glass-

TecStore'''^ Bolted



The tanks combine

Tanks are available

Aquastore'® tanks.

the construction ad-

in epoxy-coated

The Aquastore

steel, galva-

product line is well estabhshed for municipal and indus trial water storage. The brochure explains the manufacturing process and the advan tages of bolted assembly. Other topics include the benefits of glass coating and the company's proprietary Edgecoat™ process and Glass97™ potable water coating system. A.O.Smith Circle reply card No. 185

vantages of the company's Aquastore® glass-fused-tosteel tanks with the coatings and materi als of their Peabody TecTankTM API stor age tanks. The brochure includes descrip tion of typical industrial water and wastewater treatment applications, as well as technical information and capac ity charts. The tanks are made to AWWAD103 and AISC standards. A.O.Smith

Circle reply card No. 183

The solution to your containment challenge

IHHff' i


nized and stainless

steel fabrication.

All three lines are stocked as precut sheets for prompt shipment. The savings in TecStore Bolted Tanks result from mass

fabrication, modular design and quick erection. They are suitable for most in dustrial waste and waste treatment stor

age applications. A.O.Smith Circle reply card No. 184

Instant fuel storage

Self Dyked Tanks Above ground

A Kentain liner can restore life

double wall tanks

to an old tank,

cal and environ

are the economi

mentally friendly storage system of today. They are transportable and

which is struc

turally sound but has started to leak.

Kentain uses only the highest quality PVC materials,

with proven dura bility, high resistance to chemical attack and pinhole free. Each seam of the sin gle piece Kentain liner is electronically welded for a complete homogenous weld. All seams are completed at the state-ofthe-art plant in Kitchener, Ontario. Kentain Products Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 186


of product designs, including closed or open top vertical tanks in flat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, contain ment tanks and a complete line of"UN" approved intermediate bulk containers. (IBCs). They distribute the Snyder In

Aero Tec Laboratories Inc. has upgraded its entire line of heavy-duty bladder tanks for bulk storage of gasoline. Jet Fuel,

fuel or chemical

AVGAS and diesel. These durable

storage require

come in all sizes

and styles to meet

"Petro-Flex" pillow tanks are extremely compact, and may be easily air lifted or trucked to remote work camps, mines, and exploration sites. Set-up is instant as the Hex-Tanks need only be unfolded

storage systems receive a positive re sponse from banks,insurance companies, landlords, and local approval authorities.

on a smooth site and filled.

Waterline Environmental Services

Aero Tec Laboratories Inc.



All tanks are ULG labeled.

Circle reply card No. 188

Circle reply card No. 187 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Product and Service Showcase Double-wall tanks

Mobile storage tanks

Hassan Steel Fabricators continues to Dual-Tek™ double-wall tanks from

Viatec, Inc. feature a standard pre-engineered detection system that includes a liquid sensor and strobe alert alarm sen sor. These corrosion resistant, reinforced

thermoplastic (RTF) double-wall tanks have a wide range ofchemical resistance. Dual-TekTM tanks are offered in over 600

standard sizes, plus custom designs. Viatec, Inc.

develop solutions for the safe storage of your fuel products. Shown is one ofthese solutions, a mobile storage tank that comes complete with a toolbox attached. This tank is ULC approved and built to stand up to the rigours of the job. Other mobile storage tanks are available for truck or trailer mounting. Sizes range from 200-5,000 litre capacity. Hassan Steel Fabricators Ltd.


The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Circle reply card No. 189

Circle reply card No. 190

Circle reply card No. 191

Double-wall storage system

Oil/water separators

Home fuel oil tanks

The double-wall Prezerver fuel storage system is your best response to second ary containment regulations. If legisla tion requires you to install secondary con tainment, our double-wall tanks make compUance easy and economical. The Prezerver allows you to choose the moni toring system that best suits your busi ness and location. 100% premium grade

ZCL coalescing separators provide sub stantially higher design flows than grav

ity separators having the same footprint. An enhanced MPakÂŽ design removes oil droplets as small as 20 microns! Efflu ent oil concentrations are reduced to as

resin and double-wall F]^ construction provide corrosion free internal and extemal service. ZCL Composites Inc. Circle reply card No. 192

low as 10 parts per million. ZCL oil/ water separators are manufactured with premium-grade fibreglass reinforced plastic. They have no moving parts and require minimal maintenance. ZCL Composites Inc. Circle reply card No. 193

Centrifugal pumps

Flowline Level catalogue This four-colour,

Cornell Pump Company manu

gal pumps for sewage and water,

overview of the

complete range of Flowline prod ucts, including

sizes 2" to 42",

vertical dry pit, immersible, hori

level transmitters, level switches, flow switches, controllers, and

zontal, self-prim ing. Exclusive features include


Circle reply card No. 195

Multi-stage filter for small systems

130-page cata logue provides a comprehensive

factures centrifu

Cycloseal-non-flushed mechanical seals, run-dry seal system, immersible power frames and motors. Cornell Pumps are engineered to be rugged, durable and dependable, backed by an industry lead ing two year warranty.

Constructed of corrosion resistant and

fire retardant materials, fiberglass tanks simply will not corrode. Most of today's metal-designed home heating fuel tanks will eventually leak and need replacing. Failure to replace a leaking tank can be expensive to insurers and home-owners with clean up costs ranging from $20,000 - $200,000. ZCL Fiberglass tanks are said to be cost-effective, non permeable, an asset to property, lightweight. ZCL Composites Inc. Circle reply card No. 194

fittings. Introductions for each product grouping contain helpful reference infor mation, such as a glossary of terms and application specifics and recommenda tions. Instructions for accessing the FlowUne Level Superstore on the intemet are also provided. Davis Controls Ltd. Circle reply card No. 196

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no mem branes to replace, and yet treatment per formance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced populations of less than 1,500. RAL Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 197 53

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&Eat(905)727-4666, Leister welding machines for geomembranes


Urecon pre-insuiated pipe

Our Leister line of automatic wedge weiders, combiwedge macfiines and hand toois are used in a wide variety of geomembrane appiications where the precise weiding control is re quired as part of the seaming proc ess. Our products provide excellent field performance and superior reli ability. Tel: (905) 828-1400, Fax: (905)828-1056, www.stanmech.com Stan Mech Agencies inc. Circle reply card No. 170

Urecon pre-insuiated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocabie® heat tracing). Other appiications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insuiated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page


at: www.urecon.com.

Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 171

Coming soon!

Corrosion resistant tanks

An in-depth analysis of drainage pipe performance and design comparisons of concrete pipe vs HOPE. The technical data you need to know when specifying your next project. Reserve your copy now! OCRA Circle reply card No. 172

and vessels

Armourpiastics* thermoplastic lined FRF armoured tanks and vessels

resist corrosion over a broad range of temperatures. They are suited to both the most severe chemical serv

ices and for high purity appiications where it is necessary to keep the process fluid totally free of contami nants. Lining choices include PVC, CPVC, P.P., PVDF, ECTFE,PEP PFA


and TEFZEL. Fabricated Plastics Limited

Circle reply card No. 173

Water and Wastewater Tanks

Hazardous materials

IS09001 manufacturer of factory-

storage Chem-Loc Buildings are uniquely designed and manufactured by MakLoc Buildings Inc. to provide safety, security, segrega tion, and secondary con

coated, bolted steel tanks for all

stages of water treatment. Tanks for digesters, clarifiers, aeration, waste holding, equalization, potable water, etc. Capacities from 4,000 to 2.4 million gallons. Columbian's Trico-Bond 478 coating resists cor rosion over a wide pH range. For extra exterior corrosion protection, Columbian offers our Z-Bond 493

system. Specifications and draw ings on diskette or our web site. Columbian Steel Tank Company Circle reply card No. 174

Trash removal and dewatering



tainment of hazardous ma

terials. Since 1971, multi

national oil and gas companies, the Armed Forces, Govern ment agencies, municipalities and golf courses have chosen Chem-Loc as their economical solution. Tel: 1-888-774-7792,

Web site: www.makloc.com. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circle reply card No. 175

Wk<m TfetS ©ira 'iijus.

The StrainPress SludgeCleaner is the first closed system which both screens and then compacts trash from siudge. It screens trash from primary, secondary, return, waste, or digested siudge, septage, as weii as

•An cxtzRiivc cotnplimcni of

from concentrated scums. The re-

•Rj^d 24 hour mponif. (Onvuio'« only Mobile

suiting StrainPress sludge output is cieaner and more aestheticaily pleasing, and can be used for fertiiizer, composting, or soii improve ment. The screenings are dry and can aiso be disposed of with other plant wastes to landfills at reduced disposal costs. Parkson Circle reply card No. 176

«]ulFaie»l& c!(dic4t(d ntv. •TTtUEnulllyle mpontf



• CoAi»<t«4(orell«,F)re I mdlndusyforlanilasil I


«Opeolerofllie FmtTgencySeivInM

TiilnlhgAcodemy HIH



Office (90S)3S3-53.in

offer an extensive complement of equipment and dedicated crew. TRUE multiple response facilities. Contracted to police, fire and indus try for land and marine response. Rapid 24 hour response (Ontario's only Mobile Decon Trailer). Opera

tor of The Emergency Sen/ice Train ing Academy with three fully equip ped locations.

with 3fslly oiulyped loeu'oi


Emergency Response Team-1 Environmental Services

Team-1 Environmental


Services Inc.

North AjfHirkxi Vtikki

Circle reply card No. 177

^ i-aoo-3S-SPlLL

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Product and Service Showcase Storm and Wastewater

Culvert design software

PipePac 2000 software


XP-SWMM2000 is a friendly, graphics-

BOXCAR Software from the American

based storrawater and wastewater deci

Concrete Pipe Association can help en gineers significantly reduce design time and costly over-designs on projects us ing precast concrete box sections. The Windows-based CD-ROM provides

sion support system. XP-SWMM2000 may be used to model the fully hydrologic cycle from stormwater and wastewater flow and pollutant generation to the simulation of the hydraulics in any com bined system of open and/or closed con duits with any boundary conditions. www.xpsoftware.com. XP Software Circle reply card No. 200

ity fluid weight,live loads and user speci fied surcharge loads. AGFA Circle reply card No. 201

Classifying & washing system

Flo-Line® cleaner

complete structural analysis for loads due to box weight, soil weight, internal grav

PipePac 2000 software from the Ameri can Concrete Pipe Association is an en hanced version of ACPA's popular PipePac software. It offers integrated analysis using three independent pro grams for D-load calculations(3EB),es timating the material costs ofthe pipe and embedment zones (CAPE) and the real

cost of the materials specified over the design life of the program(LCA). Pipe Pac helps you select the right material for a buried infrastructure system. AGFA

Circle reply card No. 202

Membrane filter presses

The Derrick Flo-Line screening machine utilizes two 1,800 RPM vibrating motors

Circle reply card No. 204

With rising costs and regulations imposed on land disposal of both industrial and municipal solid waste, applications for membrane filter presses are now show ing acceptable returns on investment. A simple payback calculation based on dis posal cost often reveals economical jus tification for the added capital cost of a membrane filter press system. Dagex Inc. Circle reply card No. 205

Stop water inflow

Denso Petroiatum Tapes

above the live screen frame. The motors

With the Coanda Grit Washing Plant, grit classifying and grit washing are com bined in one plant. By using the Coanda effect, the process of classifying can be combined with the process of sorting, so that a continuously high separation ca pacity and simultaneous optimum wash ing can be guaranteed. Dagex Inc.

Circle reply card No. 203

operate in opposition to each other cre ating a linear motion over the entire screen traverse. Positive solids convey ing is achieved and bed angles may be

varied from 15° downhill to 5° uphill. In most cases, this machine is operated in the 5° uphill position which allows a pud dle of fluid to form at the feed end of the

machine. Dagex Inc.

Flow pacing valve

Manhole leakage wastes money! "^■^asssssai

The Regal Smartvalve™ is an accurate and versatile Flow Pacing Valve for chlo rine or sulphur dioxide. Operating on fully automatic or manual, with an ad justable "low-flow" alarm, it is widely used for treating water with varying flow rates. The multi function digital display highlights flow rate; valve flow position in pounds per day of actual gas feed rate; mode of operation; and dosage value. Chlorinators Incorporated

Circle reply card No. 206

Cretex Manhole Chimney Seals stop manhole frame-chimney inflow, the sin gle largest public sector source. This in flow reduces system capacity and in creases pumping and treatment costs. Manhole frame-chimney inflow enters manholes through frame-chimney area joints that are unsealed or have been bro ken by soil movement, frost heave, ther mal expansion and contraction of the sur rounding pavement and/or traffic load ing. Scarborough Supply Circle reply card No. 207

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, miUs, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso!

Circle reply card No. 208 55

Product and Service Showcase Environmental Monitoring



Oxygen Do you need oxy gen for your waste water treatment

Are you puzzled about...

plant? Maybe you Aquatic Sciences biological experience ranges from the collection of baseline en vironmental data to impact assessment, biomonitoring and fisheries studies. Their toxicology lab is presently serving MISA compliance needs. In addition to stand ard toxicity testing, the laboratory com pletes advanced toxicity identification

would hke to use

oxygen as a feed gas for your ozone generator? Be it our on-site tech

plex effluent streams. Aquatic Sciences Circle reply card No. 209

nology, or our numerous cylinder distri bution centres and liquid plants located across North America, let Air Liquide provide you with the right mode of sup ply for your oxygen needs. Air Liquide Circle reply card No. 210



evaluations for clients with more com

Your Single Source

...lowering pH without using hazardous chemicals, reducing aluminum residuals in your water, eliminating sodium hypochlorite scaling from your WTP pip ing? Carbon Dioxide solutions from Air Liquide may be what you're looking for. Talk to one of our representatives and let Air Liquide show you how it all fits to gether. Air Liquide

Circle reply card No. 211

Spring 2000 Catalogue

Your Single Source

Odor & Corrosion Control Enhancing Primary

One Simple Solution For Two

Reduce Costs and

Major Problems. finprcue Treatmenl.

ChemksHy Enhanced Primary Treatment(CEPI)

Cpntrolllng Odor And Cocroston' With iron Sails.

With Iron Salts.



www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 212

www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 213

Trenchless Technology

Lamella Clarlfler

Free 4-colour Hertz catalogue featuring over 1,200 used equipment items for sale. Equipment ranges from air compressors to earthmoving, material handhng, aerial, trucks, and much more! All equipment is listed by make, model, serial number, price, and location. The Spring 2000 catalogue includes information on lowrate financing program as well as details on rental purchase option. Hertz

Circle reply card No. 214

Process Analyzers Chemscan


Analyzers utilize ultra violet absorbance to de tect and measure the

concentration of multi


ple parameters such as ammonia, phosphate, chlorine, nitrate, nitrite, and more, in waste-

Insituform Technologies' proprietary trenchless technologies make it possible to reconstruct underground sewers and other pipes without digging or disruption. The Insituform*速, NuPipe速,Paltem速, and Tite Liner速 processes are used by wastewater, gas, and industrial customers worldwide. For more information, visit our website at: www.insituform.com.

Insituform Technologies,Inc. Circle reply card No. 215 56

water. Chemscan on

Ecodyne custom-designed Lamella Clarifiers, the unit process of choice for a wide variety of applications, are fully assem bled and factory painted, have individu ally removable FRP plates and adjustable effluent weir plates. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 216

line analyzers can auto matically provide wastewater treatment plant operators with timely process chem istry measurements without the need for frequent manual sampling or lab meas urements. This can assure process con formance, control energy and chemical costs as well as improve process perform ance. Cancoppas Limited

Circle reply card No. 217 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Product and Service Showcase

EIMCO component flotators offer you the opportunity to save both time and money by specifying a thickener/clarifier mechanism that combines a job-tested design with the production economy of pre-engineered components. Baker Proc ess engineers have drawn on a half-cen tury of custom flotator experience to de sign modular, standardized mechanisms that meet the requirements of many com mon municipal and industrial applica tions with economy. Baker Process Circle reply card No. 218

Solids/corrosive liquids pumps

Packaged sewage pumping system

Dissolved Air Flotators

Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Packaged Submersible Pumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 219

Gorman-Rupp T Series''''^ pumps are de signed for economical,trouble-free opera tion in handling solids-laden hquids and slurries. Pumps feature a large volute de sign which allows them to reprime auto matically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with hquid and a completely dry suction hne. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 220

Signal converter

Noise control panels

The use 6000 sig nal converter from Danfoss eliminates the



choosing specific communication

In today's global marketplace,concem for one's neighbours and the environment is more than good citizenship, it's good

protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in

business. Our clients believe this and so

aeration tanks. De

do we. Knowledge of our customer's

process and business helps us tum envi ronmental challenges into strategic op portunities. Hatch, wvrw.hatch.ca

Circle reply card No. 221

signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor,this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and sahnity. It operates in tempera

tures ranging from -40°C to -t70°C with ± 0.1 ° accuracy.

provide a more comfortable acoustic en vironment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EPFs promote safety and help improve produc tivity. EPFs can quickly add sound ab sorption to compressor rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms.

Davis Controls Limited

Eckel Industries, Inc.

Low cost AutoFlash

Circle reply card No. 222

Circle reply card No. 223

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Submerged Stormceptor® system

evaporation process

The Inlet Storm

The AutoPlash is

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as

a time-proven evaporation sys tem with the capa bility of using low-grade, reject,

the well-known In

. ..

waste heat as the

only source of en ergy for phase separation. This exclusive feature makes evaporation a very viable treatment method for TDS (total dissolved solids), over 4,500 milli grams per litre. The proprietary,self-regu lating device causes the AutoPlash to be able to operate outside of steady state con ditions in a highly stable manner. Donson Engineering Circle reply card No. 224

Eckoustic® Functional Panels... the prac tical, efficient solution to noise reduction needs. Eckel's sound absorbing EPFs


line Interceptors. Developed to treat run-off from an area


of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor jjgg inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 225

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Developed for sub merged and partially submerged storm sewer pipes, the new Submerged Storm ceptor System em ploys the same oper ating principles as the well-known In-line

and Inlet Stormceptor systems. Compared to the In-line system, the Submerged Stormceptor has two modifications: an extended weir and a

second drop pipe to enable it to capture oil and sediment during high tailwater conditions. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 226


Product and Service Showcase

Clean burning waste system

The clean burning waste



Chemical monitoring

Process controllers


(pyrolytic style) is a two stage proc

ess. The first stage burns garbage and produces inert ash and combustible

gases, while the second stage reburns gases and renders them safe for exhaust. The sys tem has a 2-1-2 hour cycle time, depend ing on waste type and density and one hour for ash cleanout and reload. The

standard system has a capacity of up to 300 lbs. per cycle, depending on waste type, witb larger systems available.

Circle reply card No. 227

production technologies to produce the Kent-Taylor EIL8230 Series of monitors. Models for the monitoring of ammonia, fluoride and nitrate meet the increasing requirement for monitoring river pollu tion, drinking water purification and sew age treatment.

High-sensitivity measurement

Odour evaluation

Pinchin Environ

mental has opened a state-of-the-art odour evaluation

laboratory located in Mississauga, Ontario. The labo

ratory has been constructed

bined with the latest in electronics and

Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 228

Eco Waste Solutions


Over 35 years of experience and innova tion in the design and application of on line chemical analyzers have been com


MOE specifica tions and staff and panellists have been trained to provide compliance quality analyses satisfying ASTM E679 and CEN TC 264 standards. For additional

information on industrial odour sampling and analysis, or environmental impact assessment contact Pinchin. Pinchin

The new, updated MHS-15 Mercury/ Hydride System

NEMA 4X as standard and clear displays mean process status can be seen at a glance. Commander products offer uni versal inputs, transmitter power supplies and extensive process output within the standard instrument. Totalizers, math

functions and logic equations are avail able on many Commander instruments for advanced application functionality. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 229

Catalogues on CD-ROM Raco Manufacturing and Engineering Co. CD-ROM

from PerkinElmer

Instruments, fa

cilitates high-sen sitivity determin ations of mercury and metallic hy dride-forming ele ments, including As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi, and Sn, using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). This inexpensive accessory is used in thousands of lahs as a convenient answer to low-cost, highsensitivity mercury/hydride analysis ondemand. PerkinElmer Instruments

Circle reply card No. 231

Circle reply card No. 230

New 2001 products catalogue

All Commander instruments have dust

and water protection, many to IP66/

Chlorine analyzer

A variety of CD-ROM catalogues of ana lytical instrumentation for water quality and process control are available from Sumrna Engineering. These CD-ROMs offer product information from compa nies such as Raco Manufacturing, Krohne and GLI International.

Summa Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 232

Blanket level control

The Hach CLI7

chlorine analyzer is an online instru ment that utilizes

USEPA accepted DPD method of

The new catalogue from Hach has been updated with current products and infor mation for the water testing industry. New product additions to the Products for Analysis catalogue include: sensioni'''' electrochemical and multi-parameter meters; FilterTrak'''''' process laser nephelometer; Platinum Series electrodes;

Optiquant™ UV nitrate analyzer; mColiBlue® method for detecting total coliforms; and EC-310 pH process moni toring system. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 233 58

analysis for meas uring free or total

BinMinder 9300 employs sophisticated

residual chlorine.

industrial sonar instrumentation and

Drinking water plants use this instrument to control the chlorine feed in the disinfection process,

state-of-the-art signal processing and tracking software to provide dependable monitoring of blanket levels in raw

control taste and odour, and monitor the

water clarifiers. Standard 4-20mA,con

effluent residual chlorine. For waste-

tact relay and RS232/485 serial outputs offer the advantage ofconvenient,continu ous and reliable blanket level monitoring at remote locations and may be used for integration with existing plant control systems. Summa Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 235

water plants, the CL17 is supplied with a self-cleaning bypass Y-strainer and larger tubing and fittings that accommodate wastewater applications. Hach Company

Circle reply card No. 234

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Water Reuse

Hawaiian city reciaims water previousiy discharged into Pacific

Foryears,the City ofHonouliuli

gation and industrial uses, reducing en

discharged secondary effluent

vironmental concerns and the strains

from its wastewater treatment

plant into the Pacific Ocean an acceptable solution by many stand

placed on the city's drinking water re sources. This public-private partnership will save the city and taxpayers millions

ards for some time. In the late 1990s,

of dollars in construction, maintenance

as environmental standards changed,the city found itself under a federal consent decree to improve its wastewater treat ment and disposal. At the same time, the city's potable water resources were strained by population and tourist growth. As a result, the city faced the costly challenge of finding a new solu

and operating costs by spreading out costs over a 20-year period and out sourcing specialized water management. The reclamation facility, scheduled to be launched August 2000, will be the first of its kind in Oahu and the largest in the Hawaiian Islands. It will produce 12(US)million gallons per day(mgd)of beneficial reuse water from effluent pre viously discharged into the Pacific Ocean. The process will generate two grades of water. One grade will be extremely high in purity and will be sold to power and petro-refining companies. Like most industrial manufacturers, power and petro-refining companies need a tre mendous amount of high purity water for their businesses. The second grade

tion for water treatment that would be

cost-effective for taxpayers and comply with a changing regulatory environment. The city entered into a 20-year part nership with USFilter to design, build, finance, and operate a multi-faceted water reclamation facility to preserve its limited potable water resources and meet federal mandates. USFilter will treat

and reuse the city's wastewater for irri

of water will be purchased by the city for irrigation purposes. As a result, the amount of available potable water for residential needs will increase dramati

cally -an important aspect for an island suiTounded by salt water. The facility will use fine-media fil tration, microfiltration and reverse os

mosis processes to treat secondary ef fluent. USFilter's Hydro-Clear® filter system will be used for wastewater pol ishing purposes. The company's Con tinuous Microfiltration Process, which has been used worldwide for wastewater

reuse applications, will be used to re move particles and bacteria from the wastewater prior to reverse osmosis treatment. USFilter's reverse osmosis

technology will be used to create water that matches specification for industrial use as boiler feed water. The agreement is valued at $140 million.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 258

'QLOBEfoundation J0 F

C F, N A D A

environment & energy conference January 29 - 30, 2001 Westin Harbour Castle Convention Centre


• • •

Toronto Ontario

EECO is a powerful US-Canada business strategy forum for crossborder trade and environmental

Business Competitiveness and the Environment The New Economy & Emerging Technologies Cross-Border Regulotory & Policy Instruments

Plus dynamic special features including a focus session on TORONTO'S Green OLYMPIC Bid & THE New Waterfront Project

leadership in the New Economy. Join 500 corporate leaders from the US and Canada at this dynamic

A Conference Progrom is available on our website: www.eeco2000.com, or

call (800) 274-6097 email info@eeco.apfnet.org

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CH2IVIHILL Environment Canada


Environnement Canada

Produced by the GLOBE Foundation of Canada, in co-operation with The Delphi Group and Ontario Ministry of the Environment.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000


Industry Update

Trojan President addresses Empire Club of Canada

already met or exceeded ARET year 2000 targets for all categories of sub stances on which they report. •Year 2000 targets have been exceeded for three of the five ARET substance


categories. • Year 2000 targets have been met or exceeded for 62 percent of ARET sub stances being reported. The ARET initiative, launched in

1994, is a multi-stakeholder, voluntary initiative to reduce the release of 117 toxic substances to the environment.

ARET targets are to reduce by 90% the emissions of30 toxic substances that are

persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT)and by 50% emissions of87 other substances by the year 2000. Voluntary measures can be an effec tive means of accelerating the reduction

At a recent Toronto luncheon meeting of the Empire Club of Canada,Hank Vander Laan,President and CEO ofTrojan Technologies,spoke about the need for a multibarrier strategy to protect potable water quality. In addition to protecting public health, Mr. Vander Laan also stressed that water quality is of concern to the manufacturing sector. He pointed out that it can take up to 350 gallons of water to manufacture one computer chip. One bacterium can short out that chip. Photo - Steve Davey

Canada-Ontario Agreement for 2000 and beyond The Government of Canada has an

nounced its intention to negotiate with Ontario on a new Canada-Ontario

Agreementfor 2000 and beyond,to find and implement effective environmental solutions to improve the health of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem. The agreement will build on the ef forts supported by previous agreements that have resulted in the Great Lakes

being cleaner now than they have been for 50 years. While the 1994 Canada-Ontario

Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin ended March 21,2000, both gov ernments have agreed that cooperative work on the Great Lakes will continue

until the new agreement is negotiated. Copperative efforts in the Great

• Substantial reductions in the release

of persistent toxic chemicals. •Significant reduction and control ofsea lamprey populations. • The protection of over 9,000 hectares of wetlands,4,000 through acquisitions and 5,150 through other methods such


voluntary measures do not produce the desired results. Environment Canada undertook an

evaluation of ARET this past year to determine its level of support for the indicates that, in general,ARET partici pants made a greater effort to reduce releases of toxic substances than non-

participants. Information: www.ec.gc/ARET. New WEF book on for industrial and

municipal wastewater

•More than 50% of the high-level PCBs The Water Environment Eederation which were in storage, have been de (WEE) has announced the publication stroyed, exceeding the year 2000 de of Membrane Technologies for Indus struction target. trial and Municipal Wastewater Treat • Contributions to the environmental ment and Reuse, which compiles related sustainability of Ontario's agricultural papers from Federation conferences and sector. publications into one resource on mem Toxic emissions down on a brane technology. Membrane technologies include

voluntary corporate

plishments, including; •Dramatic improvements in water qual ity, as well as the return of a number of fish and wildlife species to the Great

Environment Canada has released the

of the clean-up actions required in

reduce emissions of toxic substances if

membrane technologies

as easements.

•The rehabilitation of 2,500 hectares of


Lakes basin.

environment. The federal government is prepared to take regulatory action to

initiative in the future. The evaluation

as an area of recovery.

Lakes have led to a number of accom

•The implementation of more than 60%

in the release of toxic substances to the

Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of

Toxics(ARET)Environmental Leaders 3 (EL3) Report. Highlights (for the 1998 reporting year) show:

• Emissions have been reduced by 26,360 tonnes or 67 percent from base-

microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofil-

tration, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, dialysis, and electrodialysis. This soft cover, 412-page book fea tures an introduction to membrane sepa ration technologies, as well as chapters on the application of specific membrane separation systems, and the application of membrane bioreactors to industrial

and municipal wastewater treatment.

•The de-listing ofCollingwood Harbour

year levels. • 169 companies have submitted and are

as an Area of Concern.

implementing ARET action plans.

• The recognition of Spanish Harbour

•43 percent or 136 of 316 facilities have

(703) 684-2452, Lax: (703) 684-2492, E-mail: pubs@wef.org.

Canadian Areas of Concern.


Call WEE at: 1-800-666-0206, or

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Industry Update

Regulation for stricter training requirements for waterworks employees Ontario's Ministry of Environment has proposed amendments to Water Works and Sewage Works O.Reg. 435/93 un

Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

wafer resources planning water supply, transmission and treatment wastewater collection and treatment

electrical engmeering, instrumentation and controls

Acres &


municipal infrastructure services solid waste and hazardous materials management


geo-eninronmental investigations and site remediation environmental assessments and planning environmental health and safety

Environmental Limited

der the Ontario Water Resources Act that

will revise the licence and training re quirements for waterworks and sewage works employees. A new category of licence - water quality analyst- will be created and will require: • grade-12 education or equivalent; •successful completion of a water labo ratory analyst exam; and • two years of water operating experi ence or one year of lab experience or successful completion of 18 hours of approved training in water analysis. In addition, all operators must verify completion of 36 hours of approved training in the previous three years in order to renew their licence. Training must be approved by the ministry, and may include: • formal courses on topics related to operations; • approved municipal training; • correspondence courses; • approved on-the-job training; and • computer-based training. The above requirement is in addition to training required under Section 17(1) of Reg. 435/93 which states the owner of the facility must ensure every opera tor is given at least 40 hours of training every year. The initiative will be phased in over a three year period to be com pletely in effect by September 1, 2003. Notice of the amendments was posted on the Environmental Bill of Rights Registry (Registry Number: RAOOE 0015)August 14. Contact: B. Gildner,(416)314-9324.

Ontario now supplies

525-21 Four Seasons Place, Toronto, Ontario MSB 6J8•Tel(416)622-9502•Fax(416)622-6249 4342 Queen Street, Niagara Falls, Ontario L2E 6W1•Tel(905)374-4470•Fax(905)374-8365


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12 Banigan Drive Toronto, Ontario M4H 1E9

Tel:(416)467-5555 Fax:(416)467-9824




R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, archilects, technology managers

Water, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

For employment and project development opportunities visit our web site: www.rvanderson.com

Toronto(416)497-8600 E-mail: Toronto(^RVAnderson,com Welland Ottawa Sudbury London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay,India

Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering

Creating Value Through Service and Innovation

water with meals Groundwater under the Grand Restau

British Columbia




rant near Orillia is so saturated with road

salt, the Ontario Transportation Minis try has agreed to supply drinking water for the business indefinitely. The Min istry says that elevated levels of salt are a problem in wells bordering Highway 11. Several residents said they would like the province to stop using salt, and just put down sand. The Transportation Ministry says that sand alone is not the best material for snowy and icy roads from both a safety and maintenance per spective.

Telephone: 604.293.141 1




Career Advancement Employment Services Inc.



Permanent & Contract Placement Recruiters


Phone:(905)681-8240 Fax:(905) 639-4601

Financial Con^niter


Q. A


Aj • •



Email: info@careeradvancement.on.ca \vw\v.careeradvancement.on.ca

"Specializing in Environmental Candidates for Environmental Clients"

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000


Industry Update


Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmentai and Municipal Engineering Coiiingwood

Tel.(705) 325-1753



Web: www.cctatham.com

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental Engineers, Planners and Scientists 255 Consumers Road, Toronto, Ontario M2J 5B6

phone:(416) 499-9000, fax:(416) 499-4687 direct dial: (416) 499-0090 -i- ext.

will sit on the committee, one each from

Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo

Agriculture and Food, Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Manage ment, and SaskWater. A representative of Big Sky Farms, the company build ing the hog hams, will also sit on the hoard. The rest of the representatives will he members of the surrounding community. The hog bams have already received approval.

Dredging (since 1971)

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester •Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction •High Speed Decanter Centrifuges

Tel: (506) 684-5821 E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca

Fax:(506) 684-1915 Web site: www.GIROUXINC.com

in partnership with National Research Council Canada

Tel: 613-744-6001

Crechem Technologies Inc.


Fax: 613-744-0573

Simulation-assisted Design • pollution prevention/treatment

• cleaner manufacturing/processing innovative environmentai technologies


1200 Montreal Rd.

BIdg. M-2, 2"'' Floor Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0R6

Toronto • Ottawa


London • Hamilton Vancouver • Victoria

Specializing in:

• Drainage Planning

• Water & Wastewater Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

• Industrial Treatment

• Environmental impact

Toronto, Ontario M3C JKJ

• Stormvrater Management

• Environmentai Planning

Fax: (416) 441-4131

Corporate Office: 133 Wynford Drive Teh (416)441-4171

' Infrastructure

• Communities

i Environment

• Facilities


Yelfojnkn/fe • Calgary • Winnipeg • Windsor • Chaiham London Cambridge • Toronto • OUaim • Iqah/it • Fredericton Moncfon Halifax • PortHaivkesb/r/y • Sydney • International 23S YbrklandBoukmrd, Suite 800, Toronto, Ontario M2] 4Y8 (416) 229-4646 Vancouver \



committee of its kind in the province. The 13 person committee will advise the provincial government on water quality and manure fertilizer use, and will per mit a public review of soil and water monitoring data. The committee will be chaired by a director of the Good Spirit Lake Cot tage Owners Association, after the as sociation expressed concem over the im pact of a hog barn on the lake's water quality. Three government representatives

Barrie • Calgary • Ottawa • ThoroliJ

Consolidated GIroux Environment Inc.


A committee to monitor the impact of hog barns on water quality near Yorktown, Saskatchewan, is the first




Hog farming under scrutiny

Amendments to

Chlorobiphenyls and Storage ot PCB Material Regulations expected Environment Canada recently proposed amending the Chlorobiphenyls Regula tions and the Storage of PCB Material Regulations under the Canadian Envi ronmental Protection Act.


under the Chlorobiphenyls Regulations will include new provisions for track ing and disposal of PCB contaminated equipment, including: • an accelerated phase-out schedule that would require the elimination of PCB equipment in sensitive locations (schools, hospitals, drinking water treat ment plants, food and feed processing sites) within one year of the regulation coming; • the phase-out of all PCB equipment by December 31, 2007; • a maximum PCB content of 2 ppm in all manufactured and imported products; • a prohibition on the release of PCB material (material containing 50 ppm or more PCB content) into the environ ment; and

• the mandatory labeling and reporting of all PCB-contaminated equipment. In addition, proposed amendments to the Storage of PCB Material ReguiaEnvironmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Industry Update tions would prohibit, after December 31, 2009, the continued storage of PCB material already in storage. This allows two years for the destruction of all PCB material after the phase-out date of December 31,2007 for PCB equipment as required in the proposed new Chlorobiphenyl Regulations. In addi tion, the revisions would prohibit the storage ofPCB material for more than a year after its decommissioning and in sensitive locations.

The draft regulations were expected to be published in Canada Gazette Part I in November 2000, to be followed by a 60-day comment period. Final regu lations in Canada Gazette PartII axt an

ticipated in spring 2001.

Duke Engineering &Services(Canada),Inc. A Duke Energy Company


Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Environmental Management and Compliance Hydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling Site Remediation


• Risk Assessment

(613) 232-2525 Toronto

(905) 513-9400 Calgary (403) 262-4885








EMSL Analytical, Inc. participates in the AIHA EMPATprogram


107 Haddon Avenue, Westmont, NJ USA 08108


Newman introduces

toughest penalties in Canada for major pollution

GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.^


Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting

Ontario Environment Minister Dan Newman introduced a bill October 10

* Cryptosporidium & Giardia * Microorganism Identification * Rapid E.coli recreational water

in the Legislature that would give Ontario the toughest fines and longest jail terms in Canada for major environ

* Microbial Training * Consulting Services

* Respirometry

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Telephone: 519-681 -0571 Fax: 519-681-7150

mental offences.

The Environmental Penalties Statute

Law Amendment Act, 2000 would

amend the penalty structure of the En

Specialty Environmental Consulting Services for the Transportation, Infrastructure, Energy, Land Development and Mining Sectors

vironmental Protection Act, Ontario Water Resources Act and the Pesticides

Act. The proposed penalties would: • Increase the maximum fine for a first

conviction of a major offence for a cor

poration from $1 million to $6 million per day, and for a subsequent convic tion from $2 million to $10 million per day.

a Gartner Lee Limited

• Environmental Planning

• Wildlife & Vegetation

• Fistieries

• Groundwater

• Approvals

• Surface Water

• Social Science

• Geology

Contact Deborah Martin-Downs, Principal (905) 477-8400 ext. 225 dmdowns@gartnerlee.com TORONTO








• Increase the maximum fine for a first

conviction of a major offence for an in dividualfrom $100,000 to $4 million per

day, and for subsequent convictions from $200,000 to $6 million per day. •Increase the maximum jail terms for a

Geamatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists 'Industrial Wafer/Wasfewater Treatment

We have moved!

■ Woste Minimizofion/Wostewoter Reuse/Recycle

Our new address is:

■ Treatment System Upgrade/Optimization

person convicted of a major offence

Suite No. 1\465 Phillip Street

from two years to five years. The penalty structure in the Ontario

Waterloo/ Ontario N2L 6C7

Water Resources Act would be amended


■ Treofmenf System Design and Construction


■ ISO 14000 - Environmental Management Systems


to ensure that these new tough penalties

apply to the most serious offences un der the new Drinking Water Protection Regulation, including failure to report samples that exceed standards and fail

Noise Vibration and Acoustics

ure to ensure minimum levels of treat ment.

Mr. Newman has also announced the


creation of a SWAT team, which will be

Noise Vibration Acoustics

a highly mobile compliance,inspection and enforcement unit.

Howe Gastmeier Chapnik

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 1, Suite 203 Mississauga, Ontario L5N1P7 (905) 826-4044, Fax 826-4940 www.hgcengineering.com LIMITED


Industry Update

Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design

NRC presenting seminars on water and sewer infrastructure


Canadian municipalities make signifi

Consulting Engineers

cant investments in their water and

sewer systems each year. Recent ad vances in technology provide new tools and opportunities to better manage bur

1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 1G5

Tel:(905)522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031 iafo@hydromantis.com

ied infrastructure.

J.L. Richards & Associates Limited

Consulting Engineers, Architects & Planners Traffic Engineering I Road & Highway Design I Structural Engineering

Urban & Regional Planning I

Land Development

I Municipal/Environmental Engineering

Three seminars will present new de velopments in buried infrastructure re search and practical examples to show how the information can be applied to maintenance, repair, and management of water and sewer systems. Speakers will include research staff from the Urban Infrastructure Rehabili

Providing Architecture, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering Services

tation Program of the Institute for Re

Ottawa 613-728-3571

search Construction at the National Re

Kingston 613-544-1424

Sudbuiy 705-522-8174

search Council of Canada and the Uni

versity of Waterloo.

Seminars started in September. Re

MacViro Designing Environmental &■ Energy Solutions

maining locations and times include:

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway. Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 {905)475-7270 • Fax: (905)475-5994 E-Mail: 103700.2787@compuserve.com

• environmental site assessments

• risk assessment/management

MALROZ Engineering Inc.

Kingston Ottawa

• Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

December 4, 2000 December 6, 2000 December 8, 2000

Each seminar participant will receive a workbook containing copies of the slides and background material. Engi neering professionals and technicians can earn Continuing Education Units (CEUs) for attending. For registration details, contact G. Lee at: lee@aztec-net.com.

• site remediation

Researchers to test

• waste management

(613) 548-3446 (613)521-8258

vaccine which could fight

• hydrogeology

E. con Researchers from the National Research

Council have begun testing a vaccine in

Marshall Macklin

cows to suppress the deadly strain of E. coli bacteria that claimed several lives


in Walkerton, Ontario. Outbreaks of E. coli 0157:H7 start with cows, whose


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

contaminated meat ends up on super

Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whilby

market shelves or whose contaminated

feces leak into groundwater. The vaccine works by using bacteria that has the same marker gene as E. coli

80 Commerce Valley Drive East, ThomhIII, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca

M a;^a m Analytics Inc

Comprehensive Environmental Testing National Service

Certified/Accredited Source Emissions

Occupational Health

Rush Analysis



0157:H7, but which does not have the A Chemex Labs Alberta / Novamann international Partnership Ontario 5540 McAdam Road

Calgary ■,

Mississauga, ON L4Z IPI Tel:(905)890-2555 U Fax; (905)890-0370 Qudbec 9420 Cflte de LiesSe

Uchine.QC HBTIAI. Tel: (514) 636-6218 Fax:(5l4)631-9814

2021-41 Avenue N.E.


Calgary. AB T2E6P2

Tel ; (403) 291-3077 - Fax;(403)291-9468 Edmonton

- 9331-48th Street Edmonton. AB T6B2R4

Tel : (403) 465-9877 -

Fax: (403)466-3332

Toll Free: East (800) 563-6266

West (800) 386-7247

same harmful effects. In an earlier trial, mice developed antibodies that attacked E. coli after they were injected with the vaccine. The antibodies succeeded in

warding off future infections and in eliminating E. coli from mice that al ready had it in their systems. The trials are only the first step to ward possibly moving the vaccine into the private realm.

Environmental Science

Engineering, November 2000

Industry Update

Goderich, Ontario selects

USF to operate town's water and wastewater systems


The Town of Goderich, Ontario, has

• Aqua Guard® Screen • Biolac® System • I^naSand® Filter

awarded USF Canada a five-year opera tions and maintenance contract to oper ate the town's water and wastewater sys tems, including treatment facilities and collection/distribution systems. The partnership will provide Goderich and its ratepayers high-quality,reliable serv

• Lamella Gravity Settler • StramPress SludgeCleaner 9050 RYAN AVENUE, DORVAL,QUEBEC H9P 2m8 TELEPHONE 514-636-8712 FAX 514-636-9718



An Axel Johnson Inc. Company


ices at a fixed cost for the term of the


contract. The Town also has the option to renew the contract for a second five-

year term. USF Canada is a USFilter Operating Services affiliate. "Although we will see cost savings over time, our primary objective for en tering into this public-private partner ship is to improve safety and reduce the


WiiU one 0^ th^ kMaudecLfecMe'daUri ieamd. m the Pkdlp,AnctLjiiccii U'amtmiUecl hcodi-e^^ecUoe pAO^^/iamd- udide dtili cm. <^uaiU4^ and Orodome/i de/UMce.


Valerie Geldart, Ssles Manager



1-800-263>9040 ext. 275 orvgeldart@philipinc.com Internet: www.phiiipanalyticai.com

risk of harm to our residents," said

Goderich Mayor, Deb Shewfelt. USF Canada guarantees operating performance and permit compliance and takes on all associated risks of running the town's water and wastewater sys tems. Existing employees'jobs are pro tected, and all project staff will be given advanced training for certification at the highest levels.

$300 million law suit filed

iJSimcoe ij?'SIMCOE ENGINEERING GROUP LIMITED ; Consulting Engineers

Head Office: 1815 Ironstone Manor Suite #10

recently filed in Ontario Superior Court against Walkerton Public Utilities Com mission, the utility's manager, Stan Koebel, the Bruce-Grey-Owen Sound Health Unit,and the Town of Walkerton. The suit, filed on behalf of four

Offering Services in the areas of: Water Supply Pollution Control

Kingston, Ontario K7P 1N3


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Tel: (613)389-1661 Fax:(613)389-2442


Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety Stantec

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"A leader s providing innovative automation solutions to our customers." We offer a complefe range of products & services in tlie areas of: • Systems Integration • Process InstrLmentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service

town's water was contaminated.

Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V1J2 Tel: (905) 678-3388, Fax; (905) 678-0444

Summa Enterprises, Place Grilli, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350, KIrkland, QC H9H 5B9

Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax: (514) 455-3587


of Edmonton. The $150 million com

plex, Air Liquide's largest-ever invest mentin Canada,primarily supplies Shell Chemicals Canada's new monoethylene glycol facility. In addition, Air Liquide will produce oxygen, nitrogen, argon and carbon dioxide in liquid form to meet the growing demand of the mar


Stantec Consulting Ltd.


should have alerted officials that the

Air Liquide Canada has opened a new state-of-the-art industrial gases and utili ties complex in Scotford,just northeast

Regional Office:

Pickering, Ontario

Walkerton residents, alleges children in Walkerton were infected by the E. coli 0157:H7 bacteria two years ago which

Air LIqulde opens new complex


516 O'Connor Drive Suite 205

L1W 3W9

In Walkerton A $300 million class action lawsuit was



Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment


Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA


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ket in Westem Canada.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000


Industry Update

Scientists are cooling on global warming Will taxing fuel stop global warming? New evidence shows the warming trend is caused mainly by the sun. The tem perature rise, previously blamed on the burning offossil fuels, results primarily from an increase in solar radiation, ac

cording to studies released late Septem ber. The research,some of it by the Eu ropean Space Agency(ESA),using sat ellite and other astronomical data, now

claims that earlier computer models se verely underestimated the sun's impact.

road charges. The potential political impact is huge. Measurements show a global aver age temperature rise of 0.6°C over the past century. This is predicted to ex

Brekke, said the results could change thinking on climate. "Taxing carbonbased fuels may be good for other rea sons but our evidence suggests it will not be much help in keeping the Earth

ceed 2°C by 2100. The rise has partly

cool," he said.

melted the North Pole and the Green

Scientists previously calculated that the sun radiates only 0.7% more energy than 150 years ago,causing about a tenth of global warming. Brekke and others say the models underestimated the 3% UV light increase over the same period, generating the extra ozone that locks more heat into the atmosphere. Source: Jonathan Leake, Stronger sun is blamedfor global warming, The Sunday Times.

land and Antarctica ice caps and made British winters far warmer. But some new studies now claim the

main reason is a solar energy surge and a particularly big increase in ultraviolet (UV) light. This has coincided with a doubling in strength of the sun's mag netic field.

Governments worldwide have ac

cepted scientists' warnings that they must cut carbon dioxide emissions and

used them to justify tax increases and

umo Ontario

Much of the data on the sun's role in

global warming was gathered by the ESA's sun-watching Soho satellite. Soho's deputy project scientist, Paal


An improved paint process has resulted in two environmental awards for the

Environmental Engineering Water & Wastewater Engineering



Site Assessment & Remediation


Hydrogeology Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Urban Drainage

British Columbia

Northern Territories

& internationally

A.O. Smith plant recognized for pollution prevention efforts

A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Prod ucts Company plant in Parsons, Kansas. The plant received the 2000 Kansas Pollution Prevention Award for New

Initiatives on September 12. The state singled out the A.O. Smith facility for

Visit our website at www.umagroup.com

its efforts to reduce the use of hazard

Compact - Low Impact Drilling by Water Regime "Specializing in geo-technical and environmental drilling in confined and low impact environments" Standard auger and Geoprobe applications available Contact us at;(519)577-5114 (Drilling Inquiries) (519)884-5816(Office)

WEB SITE: wwwS.sympatico.ca/wris

(Follow the links under "drilling") Water Regime Investigations and Simulations Ltd. RO. Box 28040, Parkdale Postal Outlet, Waterloo, Ont, N2L 6J8

Environmental Consultants and Engineers ^ Environmental Engineering

^ Hydrogeology & Hydrology


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ous chemicals and recycle solvents and other materials.

On September 19, the US Environ mental Protection Agency recognized the plant's paint improvement project as a notable pollution prevention program in the six-state Region VII. The new system is 99.86 percent ef ficient. During the year that the new paint system has been running, solid waste has been reduced by approxi mately six percent and solvent wastes reduced between 85 and 90 percent.

# Environmental Control

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& Monitoring

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Brownfieids Redevelopment ^ Groundwater Control and

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Construction Dewatering Design

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A Better Environmcnl For Business


Water contamination

'should be prevented, not cured'- RFK Jr. Engineers got a put down from a man in high places - Robert E. Kennedy Jr. Citing the Walkerton E. coll crisis, he said;"Machines and chlorination are not


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the best way to prevent water contami nation. It's better to stop pollution from happening in the first place. The lesson of Walkerton is that engineering solu tions are not the best solution to protect ing water quality." In an interview re ported in the Ottawa Citizen, he said: "If you really want water supplies pro tected, you've got to do it at the source." Mr. Kennedy, an environmental law

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

Industry Update professor in New York, was the keynote speaker at a Purchasing Management

Management Association of Canada, it might have been more relevant for him

Association of Canada conference.

to have cited The Low Bid Ethos as a

Moving easily from legalities to hydrol ogy, he gave a somewhat elementary overview of our ecosystem. Words may have failed him here - or perhaps the reporter was simply overwhelmed when seeing the complexities of hydrology, etiology and epidemology unveiled with such brilliant simplicity.

major contributor to our water purifica tion problems. Tom Davey

"In a natural environment, rain and

melting snow percolate through the ground before reaching waterways," he said. "Butin towns and cities, pavement covers a large part of the land. Parking lots, streets, driveways, and even roof tops are designed to drain water as fast as possible into a sewer leading to the nearest river. So engineering and chemi cal solutions are not the solution to our

environmental problems." "That's the problem with putting en gineers in charge of this. They're going to find solutions that are based on con

crete and chemicals, rather than we've

Complex condo water billing plan The Halifax Water Commission has ap plied to the Nova Scotia Utility and Re view Board to bill condominium corpo rations for water costs. Five metro con

dominium corporations will be fighting the application during a board hearing. The Water Commission says that

As his audience was the Purchasing





but individual condo owners would still

be billed separately. If the resident does not pay, the condominium corporation is responsible for the bills. If the corpo ration fails to pay the bills, the Commis sion could shut off water to the entire


"For Cost Effective Pumping" company in the Cardo Group

^BS has the most comprehensive range on the market. Sales & Service

• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or(905)670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

got an ecosystem here and we've got to protect it and implement best manage ment practices. We need ecological so lutions."

while most condo owners pay their wa ter bills, there is an ongoing problem with some residents. Many condo units can share just one water shut-off valve, making it difficult to punish the culprits. The Commission wants to implement a billing system in which all water bills would be put in the corporation's name,

For more information, circle reply card No. 120






TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting lino Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services


Waste Water Treatment


Sponge Jet Cleaning



For more information, circle repiy card No. 121

Media & Coal Ltd


TELi(519)751-1060 FAX:(519)751-0617


BERLIE For more information, circie repiy card No. 124

Continuous Emissions Monitors and dozens of other

Superior drying technology and biosoiids management 1225 Industrielle Street, La Prairie (Quebec) Canada J5R 2E4 (450) 659-1986•e-mail: info@berlie-tech.com • web site: www.ber1ie-tech.com

For more information, circie repiy card No. 122







Instruments for air quality.

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For more information,




After Hours Emergency Pager:(705)734-3277 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,

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E-mail: iws@iws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca

circie repiy card No. 125 Environmental Scietice & Engineering, November 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 123 67

Watermain Rehabilitation

A capital Idea for Ottawa-Carleton Epoxy resin lining chosen for watermain rehabilitation

Since 1969, the Region of Ottawa-Carleton has

owned and operated the water distribution system,

servicing a population of over 1,000,000 across

eleven municipalities. The system consists of ap proximately 2,500 kilometres of watermain, 24,000 valves,

and 14,000 hydrants. The age of the water system varies significantly from a very old system in the City of Ottawa to a relatively new system in the growth communities of Kanata, Nepean and Gloucester. The replacement value of the system is estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Watermain Rehabilitation Options Prior to 1998, the only method of choice to rehabilitate

the existing watermain infrastructure was full system replacement. Although the replacement method is still a viable solution in areas where the watermains have exceeded

their useful structural life cycle, less expensive solutions needed to be found to deal with structurally sound pipe, where there were hydraulic deficiencies or water quality View of corroded pipe.

problems. Table 1 - Total length of iron pipes • Unlined Cast Iron

1874 to 1959

500.3 km

• Cast Iron • Ductile Iron

1956 to 1973 1966 to Present

499.3 km 829.0 km

This situation has become most apparent in the unlined cast iron watermains (approximately 500 km). See Table 1. Unlike the newer, thinner walled ductile iron pipe (ap proximately 829 km),the older cast iron watermains are in

excellent shape in terms of structural integrity, with a serv ice life in excess of 90 years. Through various methods of investigation, it has been noted that failure due to external

corrosion is not as severe on the cast iron pipes. However, because the older cast iron mains were unlined, the interior

walls of the pipes have been subject to internal build-up caused by intemal corrosion, which has significantly reduced the hydraulic capacity of the watermain. As mentioned, replacement of the watermains would eliminate the hydraulic deficiencies but the cost in terms of

financial and social impact would be very high. The Re gion then turned to the various trenchless options available for an answer.

Cleaning and Lining Program In 1998, during a joint municipal project in the Village ofRockclilfe,the Region received numerous red water com plaints from outside the contact area where the watermains were being replaced. It was determined that the increased

water flow generated from the newly replaced watermains was dislodging significant iron deposits on the existing con necting pipes which were unlined cast iron. It was impor tant that a quick solution be found, with minimum disrup tion to the already concemed residents. With the assistance

By Fernando Marcuccio, P.Eng., Region of Ottawa-Carleton, and Piero Salvo, P.Eng., WSA Trenchless Consultants Inc., Ottawa 68

of WSA Trenchless Consultants Inc., the Region selected the cleaning and epoxy lining trenchless method to deal with the situation. Approximately 700 metres of 150 mm, un lined cast iron watermain were rehabilitated and back in

service within nine working days. Based on the initial success and the Region's level of confidence in the process, the Region conducted further re search into the cleaning and lining method, specifically us ing the epoxy resin lining. Research conducted by WSA Consultants, on behalf of the Region, on the availability of approved materials and contractors in Eastern Canada allowed the Region to make this method an alternative to the conventional replacement method.

Some features and benefits of the cleaning and lining method are:

• reduced excavation and restoration cost, • reduced risk to adjacent utilities, • reduced community and social impact, • reduced project costs,

•restoration of the original hydraulic capacity and fire flow, •extended life expectancy of the existing watermain. As a result of the construction experience and research, a Cleaning and Epoxy Lining Program was initiated for the first time in 1999 as part of the Capital Budget for watermain rehabilitation. The budget allocation in 1999 was $1,000,000. The Cleaning and Epoxy Lining program has been extended and expanded in the next Capital Budget until the year 2002. Planning Process

The first step in the planning process for cleaning and lining is to properly assess potential candidate areas for ex isting structural conditions. In Ottawa-Carleton an assess

ment matrix based on a point system of structural and hy draulic criteria is used. Information on the age, material type, number of breaks, type of historical breaks, depth of watermain and fire flow data is compiled in a database and the level of need is assessed. Analysis of actual pipe sam ples may also be utilized to assess remaining pipe thickness Environmental Science <£ Engineering, November 2000

Watermain Rehabilitation

to better educate them in the process, the expected results and timing of the works. It gave staff the opportunity to ask questions and receive answers to any concems that they might have. One element that is often overlooked is the public's in creasing need to know what the work consists of and what the impact and results will be in their area. The Region has made this an important step in the planning process. Public information sessions and written notice distributions were carried out before the commencement of the work.

From the experience gained on the 1998 and 1999 Epoxy Resin Lining projects, some of the major benefits that have been experienced and noted are: • Cost-effective and reliable method for water quality im provement.

• No effect on water quality, including pH. • Thin coating - minimal effect on small diameter mains capacity. •Smooth finish -can improve hydraulic capacity, helps low pressure areas.

• Forms a permanent corrosion barrier - prevents tuberculation.

• Lower risk of blocking service connections/laterals - no need for service replacement. • High rate of lining application - 500 to 800 metres per week depending on location. • Diameter range from 75 mm to 600 mm. • Materials/application equipment/applicators subject to mandatory QA certification. • Minimal road disruption. • 50 year minimum life predicted from laboratory acceler Temporary overland by-pass.

ated tests.

• Good track record/experience. and remaining life of pipe would support the structural life expectancy.

In order to maximize the efficiency of the cleaning and lining process, the Region has also adopted a policy of se lecting areas of adjacent candidates to clean and line. Re duced mobilization of the contractor's lining crews should result in maximizing the contractor's effort, thus reducing the cost per metre lined. The next step in the planning process is to make a deci sion if it is cost-effective to replace existing hydrants, valves and services. Maintenance and operational issues need to be carefully assessed. Coordination of access pits required for the lining process with existing appurtenance location will minimize the number of excavations required. The next step is to ask: Who does what? The contrac tor's responsibilities and those of the internal operational staff need to be clarified and coordinated early in the plan ning process. Requirements for temporary services, opera tion of valves and services posts, connections and flushing and chlorination procedures should be clearly identified in the contract documents.

It is imperative during the planning stage to identify and establish the quality control measures that will be required, as a minimum, on the job site. Requirements such as mate rial and equipment certification, lining application moni toring, hard copy records and CCTV inspection should all be examined and included in the bid documents.

Since the lining process was relatively new to Regional staff, WSA Consultants held several training and informa tion sessions with inspection and operational staff in order Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000


In conclusion, the Region of Ottawa-Carleton has iden tified the cleaning and epoxy lining method as an effective trenchless solution to restore hydraulic capacity in an exist ing watermain and also to eliminate "red water" problems in unlined cast iron watermains.

The Region has also adopted a policy of establishing a proper planning process in order to identify and success fully select an area that can be considered a candidate for this process. Another significant conclusion made by the Region of Ottawa-Carleton is the importance of having a specialized consultant on site that is familiar with the cleaning and lin ing process and all the aspects of quality control that are required. For more information, circle reply card No. 126

KMK CONSULTANTS LIMITED Consulting Engineers, Project Managers Ecological Planners, Landscape Architects

KMK DESIGN BUILD LTD. Design Building of Municipal and Industrial Infrastructure

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E-mail: kmk@kmk.on,ca

CELEBRATING OVER 40 YEARS For more information, circle reply card No. 166



Boston Harbour's offshore tunnel

opens after 10 years of work

Thewater quality in Boston Harbour is expected to improve rapidly after the opening of the world's longest offshore tunnel. The (US) $390 million tunnel will carry all of the treated wastewater dis charges from the Deer Island Treatment Plant to a new

more than 100 times that amount of seawater, according to the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority(MWRA). Construction of the tunnel and its discharge system took

more than 10 years and was the single largest project of MWRA's new Deer Island facilities.

location nine miles offshore in Massachusetts Bay, where

The construction workforce, made up of members of the

deeper water and stronger currents will dilute and disperse

Boston Building Trades Council, including specialized "sandhogs", electricians and operating engineers, worked four million hours to complete the project. A 25 foot diam eter tunnel boring machine mined 1.6 million cubic yards

Boston's sewage. Massachusetts Water Resources Authority executive di rector, Douglas MacDonald, is optimistic. "With the new outfall, there will be a dramatic change. Wastewater dis

of bedrock to excavate the tunnel. The discharge pipes and

charges to Boston Hai-bour will end. All the improvements

ports were installed from an adapted oil rig moored over

to date around the outfall locations will accelerate as the

the tunnel's end.

natural clarity and cleanliness of the water is established. Water conditions should also improve throughout the areas of Massachusetts Bay affected by tidal interchanges of wa ter with Boston Harbour, the Bay's largest estuary." The new outfall diffuser is 6,600 feet long and is made up of hundreds of individual eight inch discharge ports to assure effective dispersal and dilution of the wastewater stream. It is reached by the 25 foot high tunnel, about 100 feet under tbe surface of Massachusetts Bay.

Direct discharges of sewage sludge into the Harbour were stopped on Christmas Eve in 1991. Since then,treated sew-, age has been dumped several hundred feet off the Deer Is land treatment plant in Boston Harbour. Some critics say the money would have been better spent to improve the treatment of wastewater. Others fear the treated sewage, although diluted, will contaminate Massa chusetts Bay and Cape Cod. To answer these concems,the US Environmental Protection Agency has required exten sive scientific monitoring of the outfall effects in MWRA's

Discharges will dissipate and disperse rapidly into the surrounding ocean currents. Each gallon of treated wastewater discharged will be mixed almost immediately with

THERMO-SYSTEM Solar Sludge Drying

discharge permit.

Stellwagen Bank, a National Marine Sanctuary, is 16.4 miles from the discharge site. Areas in eastern Cape Cod Bay are feeding grounds of the critically endangered North Atlantic right whale.

MWRA's science program investment of over $20 mil lion has supported teams of researchers from virtually all marine science disciplines. Findings have been pooled and shared in quest of an integrated picture of the harbour and Bay ecosystems.

Dr. Andrea Rex, a microbiologist who directs marine ecology research and study efforts at MWRA,said: "The science program prompted by the outfall project has cre ated unique research opportunities and led to important sci entific and public policy results. Massachusetts Bay and Boston Harbour have become one of the best-studied and best-understood marine environments in the world. Fish

The Thermo-System Solar Dryer is an energy-efficient system designed to dry sludges to over 75% solids. The combination of solar heat, convection heat, an electric "mole"and a micro

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veterinarians, plankton biologists, physical oceanographers and benthic ecologists,just to name a few,have shared their insights not only for the benefit of basic science, but to as sure that critical environmental policy questions have been soundly addressed." Ongoing patterns in deep water species are being tracked by ecologists. They note changes from pollution tolerant

organisms which appear to be in the process of being replaced by more diverse, healthy communities. Mussels placed near the old haibour outfalls are accumulating lower levels of or ganic pollutants. Some investigators predict that seagrass beds may return to wide areas of the once polluted harbour, providing more natural complexity to the ecosystem. Sampling studies of lobsters showed that while the nearshore environment was an important habitat for juve nile lobsters, the offshore location was not, alleviating fears of significant adverse impacts on lobsters from the sewage

An Axel Johnson Inc. Company

outfall nine miles from shore.

For more information, circle reply card No. 127 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 2000

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