Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 2000

Page 1

September 2000

Environmental Science


& Engineering Covering Canada's muiti-billion dollar environmental protection industry since 1988.

Anaheim to host WEFTEC 2000 Walkerton fuels

privatization debate Wind turbines harvest

more green power How inert is inert fill?

Digester upgrade uses unconventional solution

Ontario unveils tough drinking water regs


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Our old pumps

were clogging at least euce a month.

These German-Rupps have never clogged in ever three years" Clayton MacMurtry, Works Superintendent Town of Middleton/Nova Scotia

"We were having a lot of problems with one of our submersible bft

stations. We were bandUng rags, ban

dages and other sobds from a nearby hospital as well as a large amount of sand caused by two other main bnes with non-gasketed joints. "The old pumps were clogging at least once a month, and we were

costing us about $7,000 a year. "Then we decided to go with a

Gorman-Rupp T Series above ground and maintenance are a pleasure because of the sobds handling abibty. compared to the hassle of the old wet well. We like the Gorman-Rupp pumps so well we've already

replaced two other submersible lift stations with the T Series pumps.


replacing wear rings eveiy six months. Maintenance and downtime were

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Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd.• 70 Burwell Road • St.Thomas, Ontario N5P 3R7• 519-631-2870• Fax 519-631-4624 www.gormanrupp.com

E-Mail: grcanada@gormanrupp.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 102(See page 25)

Contents Cleaning out Walkerton's digesters


August/September 2000 Vol. 13 No. 4 Issued September, 2000

jhy the water is gre^t in Sydhi^^ r-u-srr^iswewjmiEs

â– See plage 18:

Features 7

Obscurity masks a century of engineering progress



Waikerton fueis privatization debate



Cleaning out Waikerton digesters required extraordinary pianning

48 Zenon opens world headquarters


Anaheim set to host WEFTEC 2000


Cover Story - Wind turbines harvest

Extreme conditions for Alaska site

remediation project


How odour compliance is assessed

Digester upgrade uses unconventional solution


New trunk water main helps York Region cope with growth

Using energy audits to benchmark and reduce energy costs

more green power


Why the water is great in Sydney



Wastewater project for Honduras textile plant


What can be done about corrosion

in submersible pumps 24

Creemore WPCP meets town's



Automated chiorination installed without a hitch


Cleaning up after Rudolph Diesel


Microbes in basalt thrive on a mixed diet of toxic wastes


How inert is inert fill?


Is Canada a pollution haven?

62 Ontario unveils tough new drinking water regulations 65


Destructive effects of roots in sewers

U.S.E. Hickson fire was hot, hazy and hazardous

Departments 8





Ad Index


Date Pad


Literature Reviews


Industry Update


Product Review


Professional Cards

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000



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Keynote Address

Obscurity masks a century of progress

Youhavejustseen the confer

ence opened by a Town Crier ringing his bell and resplend ent in the striking robes of

his office. Town Criers were the news media of the era before the invention of

the printing press led to widespread lit eracy and subsequently the half-penny newspapers. As we have just seen,even then, media types were a colourful lot. Virtually all professions have devel oped striking artifacts to remind society of their status and value to society. Law yers,judges, priests, military leaders and academics, all wear striking robes or uniforms. Even politicians begin their legislative sessions parading behind a regal mace as a sym bol of their authority, with the speaker - always one of

Huge slabs of stone were quarried in Wales, them moved to Southern Eng land to be erected, in a circular align ment to catch the sunrise on the sum

mer solstice, the year's longest day. We can only speculate on how it was done to some complex mathematical plan some three millennia before the Romans built London.

By contrast, when Neil Armstrong stepped on the moon - through a mira cle of science and engineer ing-the world could

ment in record time. Another

their own - clad in flow

watch the event

mind us of the exalted status and im

live, thanks to mind-

portance of their role in society. Engineers are different- very differ ent, in fact. This is a profession which can design dazzlingly complex struc tures of great strength, beauty, and in tricacy and durability. Engineers, sci entists, physicists, astronomers, and oth ers, ultimately put a man on the moon following Sputnik's beeping challenge. We could not see how Captain Cook landed in Botany Bay, nor could we see Charles Darwin when The Beagle ar rived in the Galapagos. And we can only

boggling precision engi neering of the telemetry equipment. The Americans never like walking, even on the moon, so they took a car along with them. The Lunar Rover now occupies the most expensive pai-king space in our

aluminum ring might be in order here.

He later became the second President of

the United States. He was astute to note

tanks. I met him in Toronto when he

was a speaker on leakage detection at a

cient Britons accom

In spite of all their achievements, engineers chose a simple artifact as the symbol of their calling - a ring of base metal cut from a failed bridge. There's a humility in the engineering profession not found in any other. Take the Avro Arrow. The finest fighter plane prototype of its day - tragically and ironically shot down - not by an enemy of our government-but by the political bungling of the government of its day. Wouldn't it have been appropriate for these politicians to have worn alumi num rings to celebrate the destruction

years ago.

By Tom Davey Abridged from his Keynote Address given at the Millennium Conference, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, London, Ontario, June 8,2000.

the first US Vice President, wrote:"Dis

ease has destroyed ten of us where the sword of the enemy has killed but one."

Ironically, Neil Armstrong wentfrom outer space to a subterranean world when he used his scientific training to detect leaks in underground storage


with the tools of their

But I say that the engineering profession has saved more lives, stayed more epidemics, enhanced more agricultural production, and, in countless ways, stemmed the flow of human misery better than virtually any other profession. During the American Civil War,John Adams, Harvard graduate, lawyer, and


wonder how the An

era in building Stonehenge thousands of

What about the infa

mous and oxymoronic BC 'Fast Ferries'. The only speed records they set were for rapidity in going over budget as well as their remarkable history of going from launching to retire

ing robes. Political poli cies are proclaimed in Speeches From The Throne. Indeed, practi cally all these professions initiate their meetings with great so lemnity,their ceremonies designed to re

plished their remark able engineering feat

of a plane which might have catapulted Canada into the leading edge of the jet age? Then take the legal profession. Law yers who lose court cases don't have iron rings made from prison bars to com memorate lost cases,do they? And what should journalists wear when we misreport science and technology? Our stock-in-trade being paper - a double ring of diapers perhaps-ideal for muck raking?

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

that while modem weaponry inflicted frightful casualties - a precursor to the slaughters of World War I conflict, dis ease and death from dirty drinking wa ter and poor sanitation were more lethal than cannon or musketry. Histoiy re peatedly shows that water-borne dis eases have been the most fearsome en

emies of mankind. Unquestionably the engineering profession has always been in the forefront offighting this awesome enemy.

The outbreak of E. coil 0157:H7 in

May 2000 at Walkerton, Ontario has been called an unprecedented disaster in Ontario. But Walkerton is not, as

some politicians have said, unprec edented. Water-bome diseases were fre

quent visitors in Europe and North America. For example,few seem aware

Keynote Address

Environment Science &

Engineering Editor & Publisher

Managing Editor



Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY E-mail: penny@esemag.com Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON E-mail; denlse@esemag.com Circulation Manager Publisher's Assistant


E-mail: kathy@esemag.com President


E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.

that the incidence of typhoid fever in Ottawa was high in the early part of the century. Ordinarily, however, the dis ease was primarily confined to the lower-class districts and civic officials

showed almost no concern about the

prevalence of these diseases. Suddenly, in January 1911, typhoid swept across the city. Each week the number of re ported cases increased. By early Feb ruary, there were 119 new cases in one week alone.

When the epidemic finally ended in late March,a total of987 cases had been

typhoid epidemic; 1,878 people con tracted the disease and 91 died from it.

Now the Walkerton tragedy is no longer an isolated problem. Other out breaks of E. coli 0157:H7 are being in vestigated in various parts of Canada. In recent years there have been out breaks of giardia and cryptosporidium in Canada and various parts of the world. Technology to analyze the water for pathogens and provide effective treat ment processes is available to keep our waters safe, but too often water is con

sidered a 'free' commodity. Nor would it cost much to remediate, compared to other consumer costs. People willingly pay more per year on cable TV than on water and wastewater services. In phys

reported and 83 people had died from the disease. Despite this dramatic waming, civic authorities did little to rem edy the underlying causes of the epi demic. In July 1912, Ottawa was

ics, as well as economics, there can be

stricken with a second and even worse

no free lunch - or drinking water. â?–

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited


Dr. Howard D. Goodfellow

Stantec Global Technologies Ltd. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc. Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Stanley Mason, P.Eng. Terminal City Iron Works

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi monthly business publication of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.

Information contained in ES&E has been complied from sources believed to be correct. ES&E cannot

be responsible for the accuracy of articles or other editorial matter. Although the information contained in this magazine is believed to be correct, no responsibility is assumed. Articles in this magazine are intended to provide information rather than give legal or other professional advice. Canadian Publications Mali Sales Second Class Mali

Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written per mission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year(plus $3.15 GST). USA $45.00(US)for one year.

All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering,220 industrial Pkwy.S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

Members of


Dear Tom:

Re: Keynote address to CSCE's "2000 Conference", London This is just a brief note to extend my personal thanks and the thanks of the society for the excellent keynote address you gave to us in London,June 8,2000. Your address was considered one of

the high points of the conference and was enjoyed by all who attended - and there was considerable media interest in

your career as a journalist who has also been a visionary in the environmental engineering area. Your participation in the conference is deeply appreciated by all of us. W. Wayne Irwin, P.Eng.,ECSCE Chair, Conference Organizing Committee, The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering

Dear Tom: Re: Walkerton

I found your Editorial Comment on the Walkerton tragedy very interesting and complete as it touched on many perti nent aspects related to the drinking wa ter industry in Ontario and Canada. Through your historical flashback of the water treatment history in Ontario, you brought an excellent perspective of the consequences of underfunding and of the reduced role of engineers and scien tists in government bureaucracies. Finally, your statement "safe water demands constant vigilance by experts and adequate funding from govern ments" clearly defines the direction needed for safe drinking water in Canada.

Caroline Alepin,P.Eng., M.Eng., ProMinent Fluid Controls

Dear Tom:

Walkerton Editorial, ES&E June/July 2000 Congratulations on writing an editorial that apdy demonstrates the high journal istic standards of your magazine. You have done what had to be done - you told the truth without embellishment. Your editorial hit home with at least

one director in the Ministry of the Envi ronment. He told me that everyone in the Ministry should read it. In particu lar, he felt that the comments regarding the lack of technical expertise in the sen ior management of the Ministry were well taken. Your editorial certainly re flects the views of many of the remain ing engineers and scientists in the MOE. Allen Jones,P.Eng.

Dear Tom: Excellent Issue!

I enjoyed the June issue, especially the Walkerton article and the follow-up chlorination articles.

Pamela Welbourn,Ph.D., Welboum Consulting Dear Steve:

Rick and Dave,together with the rest of us at Sanitherm Engineering Limited, would like to congratulate you on being the recipient of the Bedell Award. We simply want to add our congratu lations and recognize such a wonderful achievement and honour.

Joan Smyth, Sanitherm Engineering Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

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Why I would drink privatized water Walkerton fuels this long-standing debate

In the aftermath of the E. coli

outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario,

media outlets quickly moved from examining human error as the cause of the infection to pointing the finger at the government for deregulation, off-loading, and privatization. The Tuesday, May

vide incentives for individuals and or

ganizations to be more vigilant about communicating possible problems to the public in a timely manner.

This data was collected by the SLDF for the United Fishermen and Allied

Workers' Union, Local 24, and Georgia Strait Alliance. It was based on a ques tionnaire sent to municipal or re gional governments. SLDF con ducted follow-up interviews, and in some cases obtained additional

30, 2000 edition of CBC

written or verbal information. In

Newsworld's Counterspin was

addition to the completed sur veys, some cities provided tech nical reports. Since that report, Moncton,

titled: Don't Drink the Privatized Water.

That show was inspired by the Ontario opposition parties who denounced the privatization of Ontario's water supply testing as a possible cause for the outbreak. Many people,including column ists Terence Corcoran, Andrew

New Brunswick, which was not

surveyed by the SLDF, has pri vatized its water system. That city not only treats the water coming into the system, but also has a treatment facility for the water leaving the system. It has invested $23 million in the sys

Coyne, and Lome Gunter, have correctly pointed out that the test ing was the only component of tem and has standards 10 times the Walkerton water system that higher than the national regula functioned properly. Not only tions.' did the private lab detect the E. The problem does not lie with coli bacteria in the water sample, lax legislation or weak regula but the lab also immediately no The importance of safe drinking water was sharply tion. Most environmentalists ac tified the municipality. knowledge that Canada has very brought into focus with Walkerton. In previous months, the lab stringent laws governing the dis had also notified the Ontario Environ This is where privatization comes in. posal of sewage. The problem, as Eliza ment Ministry about high E. coli counts. Rather than seeing privatization as the beth Brubaker of Environment Probe The municipality's response was to in cause of the problem in Walkerton, points out, is that the government does crease the chlorine levels in the town's Ontario opposition MPPs should recog not enforce its legislation, nor does it water, and to deny that there was any nize it as a solution to maintaining a fine or charge the polluters. Brubaker thing wrong with the water supply. healthy water system in the province. and the Sierra Legal Defence Fund agree Reducing error Regulating effluent treatment that the government is in a conflict of Until the inquiries by the coroner, Improperly treated water from Cana interest. medical officer, and provincial govem- dian municipalities makes its way into Provincial governments must con ment are concluded, there is much to be Canadian rivers, lakes, and wells, where tribute to the costs of constructing sew learned about what went wrong with it has the potential to pollute the water age treatment works. "In such cases, Walkerton's water supply. But we do supply. Walkerton is not alone in the prosecution ofpermit offenders by the know a number of things. First, the On country in having a problem with its provincial governments may be an un tario government failed to enforce its water supply. The Sierra Legal Defence realistic expectation; it would be pres own regulations, and second, govern Fund(SLDF)found in its 1999 National suring itselftofund improvements to the ment employees who were in charge of Sewage Report Card that of the 21 cit system. This raises an unresolved con the water supply ies it examined, "only one city- Calgary flict-of-interest question in instances.... made errors in - is using truly effective, environmen when provincial authorities take over judgement. Little tally sound technology in its effluent and drop private prosecutions ofmunici can be done to com treatment." (Wristen, p. 3). palities for violations of the Fisheries pletely eliminate hu Four of the 21 cities dump a com Act."(Wristen, p. 58). man eiTor. However, bined total of: "365 million litres ofun Continued overleaf some actions can re treated sewage directly into the nation's duce errors and pro- rivers, lakes, and seas every day. Eleven other cities dump an average of 437 'Greater Moncton Water Treatment Facility Fact Sheet. million litres of untreated sewage per ^Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Trustee By Lydia Miljan day through by-passes and combined Councii. Legacy of an Oil Spill 10 Years After The Fraser Institute sewer overflows."(Wristen, p. 3). Exxon Valdez. 10

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000


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Viewpoint Elizabeth Brubaker argues that one way for Canadians to resolve this con flict of interest is to take a page from the British example and privatize sew age treatment. This would allow the govemment to become the regulator and the private sector to provide the neces sary money and improvements in the water treatment across of the country. She notes that while the number of pros

Moncton, NB has invested $23 million

in the system and has standards 10 times higher than the national regulations.

ecutions in the UK have increased since

privatization, pollution has declined.

any type ofTylenol product. Moreover, "they told consumers not to resume us ing the product until the extent of the tampering could be determined. Along with stopping the production and adver tising of Tylenol, Johnson & Johnson recalled all Tylenol capsules from the market. The recall included approxi mately 31 million bottles ofTylenol, with a retail value of more than 100 million dollars."(Kaplan, p. 381)

Johnson & Johnson's immediate

ers. Now it does, and the environment

munications. Had the water workers in

change was to create triple safety seal packaging. When in 1986 the company was hit with another product tampering episode, Johnson & Johnson stopped all capsule production and created the replacement caplet, which was less easily tampered with (ten Berge, pp. 28-29). Indeed, Robert Wood Johnson, the company leader for 50 years, wrote a credo in the mid-1940s that outlined the corpora tion's responsibilities (ten Berge, p. 32) The executives in charge of the Tylenol recall were working with the credo, which kept at the forefront of their

is significantly cleaner for it. The private sector's record on communicating errors and tampering If the government regulating the pri vate industry were not sufficient cause

Walkerton been as responsible in noti fying the public about the E. coli counts, many ofWalkerton's citizens might have

professionals using its products, employ ees, the communities where its people

While this makes sense, some inter

ests criticize privatization. Most nota ble are union and special interest groups such as, in this country, CUPE and the Council of Canadians,respectively, who want to see more government involve ment in water supply and treatment. When union representatives like CUPE's Judy Darcy point to the increase in pros ecutions in the UK as an argument against water privatization, as she did on the May 30 Counterspin show, they fail to note that prior to privatization, the government did not pursue pollut

for one to have more confidence in a

private versus a public water system,one should examine the record of corpora tions when dealing with accidents and human error. The private sector, with its eye on maintaining customer loyalty, responds more effectively to public safety than do governments. Part of the problem in Walkerton was that the mu nicipality took too long to notify the public of the high E. coli counts. This

Johnson & Johnson stock declined in

the weeks after the tampering scare, but soon rebounded because of the compa ny's forward-looking and positive com

concems the "consumers and medical

avoided the contamination and felt con

work and live, and its stockholders."

fident that the govemment was protect ing the general public's interests. From the Tylenol contamination

According to Tamara Kaplan: "Johnson believed that ifhis company stayed true to these responsibilities, his business wouldflourish in the long run. Hefelt his credo was not only moral, but prof itable as well."(Kaplan, p. 382). Profits and safety Despite the record ofcompanies such as Johnson & Johnson, who are inspired by the profit motive to make their prod

scare, Johnson & Johnson also learned

that it needed to be more proactive and vigilant about product safety. It imple mented changes which had little to do with regulation, and a lot to do with its need to reassure the public and regain the public's confidence. The changes were not coerced by the government; they were inspired by the is in contrast to Johnson & Johnson,the need to maintain share price and prof makers ofTylenol products, who in 1982 its. According to economist Mark dealt with the problem of product tam Mitchell, because of the 1982 product pering and became the model for crisis tampering, Johnson & Johnson: "suf communications (tenBerge, 1988). fered a $1.24 billion wealth decline(14 When seven people died after taking percent of the forecasted value of the cyanide-laden Tylenol, the company im company)due to the depreciation ofthe mediately alerted consumers across the company brand name and the Tylenol nation, via the media, not to consume brand name"(Mitchell, p. 616).

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ucts safer and more effective for the con

sumer, there is another compelling rea son to prefer privatized utilities to pub lic ones: mistakes happen. But when mistakes happen to a private company, the company, not the taxpayer, pays for the mistake.

Consider Walkerton's citizens. They will pay for their water system's faults three times. First, their tax dollars have

already been spent to pay for the inad equate water supply system. Second,it was they who suffered illness and loss of life from the poor system. Finally, when they sue the local and provincial governments for damages, any settle ment they may get will come out of their tax dollars.

Had a private company been respon sible, the damages would have come out of the shareholders' pockets. After all, shareholders would have assumed the


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Viewpoint risk when they bought shares in the com pany. However, this is not to say that legal remedies are foolproof in obtain ing compensation. While more people are suing corporations in product-liabil ity cases, their success rate is declining. According to Jury Verdict Research, "Plaintijfs won 44 percent ofthe prod uct-liability cases that went to juries in 1994, compared with 55 percent in 1989." (Mergerhagen). Scholars have hypothesized that part of the reason for the declining success rate by consum

ers is that injured people may be bring ing weaker cases to court than they did in the past(Eisenberg and Farber, p. 3). Notwithstanding the success rates of previous cases, the threat of litigation can cause corporations to behave more cautiously. This cautious behaviour, in turn, makes it easier for corporations to

laid criminal and civil fines on the cor

Lydia Miljan (lydiam@fraserinstitute. ca), is the Director of the Alberta Ini

poration on October 9, 1991. Exxon was fined $150 million in the criminal plea,

of The Eraser Institute. She received

where $125 million went to cleaning up the spill and paying private claims.

her Ph.D. in Political Sciencefrom the University of Calgary.

Twelve million dollars went to the North

Bibliography Brubaker, Elizabeth (1997). Bring Back Our

incompetent crew,the US District Court

American Wetlands Conservation Fund, and $13 million went to the national Vic tims of Crime Fund. As restitution for

injuries caused to the fish, wildlife, and lands of the spill region, Exxon agreed

Beaches: Britain Did.

We Should Take the

Plunge Too. The Next City, Summer. Eisenberg, Theodore and Henry Farber(1996). The Litigious Plaintiff l-iypothesis: Case Selec tion and Resolution. National Bureau of Eco

to pay $100 million to federal and state governments. In the civil settlement, Exxon agreed to pay $900 million with

nomic Research Inc., Working Paper Series, 5649, July. Kaplan,Tamara(1994). The Tyienoi Crisis:How

annual payments stretched over a 10-

Johnson. In Glen Broom, Allen Center, Scott

Effective Public Relations Saved Johnson S

Gutlip. Effective Public Relations, 7th edition.

year period.^ The government of Ontario must shoulder the blame for Walkerton: first,

In the Walkerton case, not only would a private company have had a greater in centive than a public body to provide safe drinking water, but a private company

for not enforcing its own regulations, and second,for privatization. The criti cism of privatization should not be, as the opposition MPPs suggest, that the privatization went too far, but that it didn't go far enough. Full privatization of Ontario's water supply might ensure

win their cases.

tiative, and the National Media Archive

would also have home the brunt of the

that these errors are reduced in the fu

error, not the taxpayers of Walkerton. When Captain Joseph Hazelwood

ture, and if they do occur, will ensure

left the Exxon Valdez in the hands of his

the human error.

proper compensation for the victims of

Prentlce-Hali Inc.

Mergerhagen, Paul (1995). Product Liability. American Demographics, June. Mitchell, Mark (1989), The impact of External Parties on Brand name Capital: The 1982 Tylenol Poisonings and Subsequent Cases. Economic Inquiry. Vol. 28 (October), ten Berge, DIeudonnee (1988). The Tyienoi Poisonings:A Textbook Case Cf Crisis Manage ment. In The First 24 Hours: A Comprehensive Guide To Successful Crisis Communications.

Oxford: Sterling Nederland. Wristen, Karen (1999). The National Sewage Report Card (Number Two), Rating the Treat ment Methods and Discharges of 21 Canadian Cities. Sierra Legai Defence Fund Report, August.

Drinking water disinfection and continuous on-line chlorine monitoring Sodium Hypochlorlte Feed Systems, including: • ProMlnent metering pumps


Analyzer and Campovnd Loop Control

• Flow monitoring for loss of chemical alarming, etc. • Pre-engineered and pre-fabricated pump panels • Storage tanks

Instrumentation Panel

a\ ProUintnl \ OIC I Cofiimiv

Chlorine Residual Analyzer: • Alarm contacts for upset conditions • Reagent/buffer - free technology • Simple calibration - menu driven display • Integrates with remote annunciation or SCADA technology • Analog outputs for recording chlorine




Somplg Inlet

Sodium Hypo Uog Ffoir Ueter

residual Chlorine residual

Analyzer sample

• No moving parts • pH independent


15 Connie Ores., Unit 3, Concord, Ontario, L4K1L3 • Tel; (905) 738-2355, Fax;(905) 738-5520 E-mail; metcon@metconeng.com • Web site; www.metconeng.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 107 (See page 25)



Cleaning out Waikerton digesters required extraordinary planning

Digester cleaning crews from

Azurix North America/ Terratec were called in to assist the Town of Walker-

ton, Ontario, during the recent water contamination crisis. Crews cleaned out

potentially contaminated sludge from the primai'y and secondary digesters and sludge storage at the town's wastewater treatment plant. Sludge was transported to the Greenway WWTP in London and new seed sludge was delivered to re-stai1 the digesters. Although the specialized nature of


the work was well within the normal

range of residual management services, the heightened sensitivity suiTounding Waikerton required careful planning. There was a close working relation ship and constant dialogue between the Ministry of the Environment (MOE), A biosolids haulage truck waiting to be loaded. town officials and Azurix. All proce dures had to be approved by the com Proper on-site handling procedures detectors, safety harnesses, boots and mand centre that had been set up. were developed so that staff would not gloves, and explosion-proof lights. MOE approval was received to con be exposed unnecessarily. For exam As emergency spill contingency plans duct the work under an existing C of A. ple, drivers' duties were restricted to were put in place, a communications The sludge was tested for the particular driving only in order to prevent carry strategy was developed to respond to the strain of E.coli to ensure worker safety. over of material onto clothing or into the media and public. The MOE issued a None was detected. All equipment such cab. Designated operators who con news release explaining the project. as tankers and hoses that had come in ducted the pumping functions were After a thorough cleaning of the pri contact with the sludge had to be cleaned. washed down on-site at the end of each mary digester, followed by disinfection day. To enter the digesters, clean-out with chlorine, new seed sludge was de By Phil Sidhwa, Vice-President, crews were equipped with normal safety livered from the Hanover plant and Canada Region, Azurix North equipment, including self-contained pumped into the primary digester. To America breathing apparatus with air lines, gas prevent any possible contamination of the seed stock, clean tankers were uti


SINCE 1950 2-10 Alden Road, Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 2S1

Tel:(905)475-1545 1-800-615-4406 Fax:(905)475-2021 e-mail: info@napier-reid.com weh site: wiuiv.napier-reid.com

lized rather than those previously used for transporting sludge. The secondary digester was then cleaned, again using a vacuum truck with a 3,300 cubic feet per minute pump and six-inch suction. The holding tank was pumped down using the sludge truck loading pump at the plant to within


two feet of the bottom, after which a


heavy solids from the bottom. Water

vacuum truck was used to clean out the was used for dilution and to clean the floor and walls.


The work had to be conducted effi

WASTEWATER TREATMENT INDUSTRY Water Treatment Plants - Membrane and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plants - SBR and RBC

Heat Exchangers, Grit Removal Systems Design/Build Capabilities

ciently so that the plant could be put back into operation quickly, and also be cause the holding tank was reaching capacity. Crews worked 12 to 14 hours a day, but only during daylight hours to avoid disturbing the neighbours.

Circle reply card No. 108 14

For more information, circle reply card No. 166 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2000

!^^r5ÂŤ-j: "

Don't assume open cut is less expensive than Insituform* Today, Insituform is an affordable choice Todav, for day-to-day sewer rehabilitation. Of course Insituform is less disruptive Mn digging up and replacing old sewers. But did you know it's often less expensive, too?

Drawing on our nearly 30 years in ttie pipe refiabiiitation business, we tiave expanded the range of problems we can solve and lowered our costs. The result: you can now rehabilitate more pipe for your dollar than ever before.

What's more, when you choose insituform, you still get the most reliable products on the market, with a proven 50-year design life. You get experienced pipe rehabilitation professionals who take complete responsibility for your solution. Now it all just costs less.

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For more Information,.circle reply card No. 109(See page 25)

Conference Preview

Anaheim set to host WEFTEC 2000

The 73rd edition of the Water Environment Federation's

(WEF) annual meeting, WEFTEC 2000, will be held in Anaheim, California, October 15-18.

Seventy-nine technical sessions, and 33 preconference workshops, will bring in novative information on utility manage ment, groundwater remediation, water shed management, water reuse, biologi cal monitoring, biosolids/residuals man agement, and much more from around W

the world.

Opening General Session speaker, Sylvia Fade, whom People magazine called "the Jacques Cousteau of our day", will kick off WEFTEC 2000 on October 16. A distinguished marine bi ologist,Fade is chairman ofDeep Ocean (Left to right): Tony Ho, Water Environment Assn. of Ontario; Rhonda Harris, WEF Exploration and Research (DOER) Past President; with the 1st Piace Ontario Operations Chaiienge team 'Fiush in The Pan'who wiii compete in Anaheim:John fkammier; Marty Van Heuvei; Duncan Marine Operations. She has led more Sedgeman (coach); Craig Beifry; Heinz Heid, Ontario Poiiution Controi Equipment than 50 underwater expeditions world Assn.; Richard Foreman; and Joe Stowe, Jr., WEF President. wide in connection with her research on

marine algae and the ecology of ocean Entrepreneur bus inessman and Hall of

Fame football player, Fran Tarkenton, will

speak to conference attendees

on Wednesday, October 18. In addition to the extensive techni




WEFTEC luncheon

By Steve Davey, President, ES&E magazine

cal program and sprawling product and equipment exposition, the conference will feature an Industry Day dedicated

Goodman (Indiana), will "pass the gavel" of Federation leadership to in coming 2000-2001 President Joe Stowe, Jr.(Nodh Carolina). When conference attendees want to

to industrial issues; Water Environment Research Foundation (WERE) activi

unwind,they will not want to miss WEF

ties; the intense skills competition of Operations Challenge 2000; poster pres entations; facility tours; student activi

ing of Monday, October 16.

ties; and more. At the WEF Celebra tion of Excellence Awards Gala on Oc

0206,or(703)684-2452,E-mail; confin fo@wef.org,or online at: www.wef.org/

tober 17, current WEF President, A1


Night at DisneylandÂŽ Park on the even For more information, call the Water Environment Federation at: 1-800-666-



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Environmenlai Science & Engineering, September 2000

Conference Preview

WCWWA's 52ndAnnual Conference Winnipeg Convention Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba November 5-8, 2000

"Services - Balancing Growth with Optimization"

The52ndAnnualConference ofthe Western Canada

and green beer. Tuesday's banquet includes entertainment

Association, Manitoba Chapter, and the Annual SWANA Conference, will be jointly held in Winnipeg,

that is a closely guarded secret. For more information, contact: WCWWA,#203 - 301, 14th Street N.W., Calgary, Alberta, T2N 2A1. Toll free: 1-877-283-2003, E-mail: member@wcwwa.ca. Web site:

Manitoba, November 5-8, 2000.


Water and Wastewater Association, the 22nd

Annual Conference of the Canadian Public Works

This conference includes the participation of the Westem Canada Section - AWWA,the Western Canada Water

Environment Federation, and the Municipal Service and Suppliers Association. The conference will include over fifty papers being pre sented over the three days. The pre-conference workshops offer experts in their respected fields that will both chal lenge and educate the conference delegates. The Trade Show promises to be the biggest ever, with over 100 displays. Something new has been added this year, as the trade show

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

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Cover Story

UK using wind turbines to harvest more green power


ind power is set to make an important contribution to the drive in Britain to

produce 10 percent of its

electricity from renewable sources by

2010. The number of onshore wind

farms in the United Kingdom is grow ing and there are imaginative proposals in the pipeline to build turbines offshore around the country's extensive coastline. Surveys are now under way to en able the builders to overcome significant construction and operational problems in deep water, hostile conditions and gale-force waves and winds that, obvi ously, are not ideal for turbines. There is enormous energy potential and devel opers will benefit substantially from pro cedures and techniques already devel oped for other UK offshore activities, including the North Sea oilfields.

Sea change:Artist's impression of an ocean wind farm. Courtesy British Wind Energy Association

Most of the wind farms will be at

least five kilometres(about three miles)

from land. Experts say that an area of

gin producing electricity in 2000 and research is also underway on designs to have turbines set on barges floating off

sea roughly the size of London is all that

By Dennis Smith, LPS Speciai Correspondent

would be needed to generate 10 percent of the UK's electricity needs. The first offshore turbines were expected to be-

the coast.

Britain has nearly 800 operational


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O Low Maintenance Costs

Sequencing Batch Reactors

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Cover Story turbines on 45 wind farms and they pro duce 350 megawatts(MW)of electric ity. The target is to have 5,000 much larger turbines - an average of 1.2 MW in size - shared between onshore and

offshore locations with the hope that they can produce between a third and a half of the 10 percent electricity target. One big breakthrough was cost; wind power is now competitive with electric ity from fossil fuel and cheaper than that from nuclear power. Modern wind tur bines have two or three bladed rotors

ment Minister Michael Meacher empha sized the UK's commitment to renew

able energy and its determination to see a 20 percent reduction in carbon diox ide gases by 2010. He said: "Climate change poses a serious threat to man kind - it will not go away and the 'do nothing' option is not, in fact, an option. The UK has to make use of its geogra phy - we have potentially 40 percent of the European Union's wind resource." According to a recent report commis sioned by Greenpeace, the European

Wind Energy Association and the inter national Forum for Energy and Devel opment, wind power could meet some 10 percent of world needs by 2020,cut ting carbon dioxide emissions by more than 10 billion tonnes.

One unexpected benefit in the UK is that its first commercial wind farm -

which began operating in 1991 - now attracts 35,000 tourists a year. Details: British Wind Energy Asso ciation, 26 Spring Street, London, United Kingdom, W2 IJA.

around 45 metres in diameter,supported by tubular steel towers rising to 40 me tres. When the wind blows, the blades


tum at a constant speed of about 30 revo lutions a minute, driving a gearbox and a generator that feeds its electrical out put to the electricity grid. A typical well-sited wind farm of about thirty 600-kilowattt turbines has an output sufficient to meet the electric ity needs of some 15,000 homes. This alone would offset the emission of thou

sands of tonnes of carbon dioxide a year. Experts believe that wind farms could eventually provide up to 20 percent of UK electricity needs. There has been some resistance to the

Experts believe that wind farms could eventually provide up to 20 percent of UK electricity needs.

Aquastore* glass-fused-to-steel tanks are full oftechnological advances.

idea of wind turbines, with environ

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mental and countryside groups express ing their reservations. In sensitive ar eas just one or two turbines can be erected to serve a community, so that people can identify with the machines producing the power they personally use, say protagonists. Land right up to the turbine can still be used for agricultural purposes. Off shore, one proposal is a project costing 35 million pounds sterling to build 25 turbines, each of 1.5 MW capacity, off the coast of eastern England. Prime Minister Tony Blair has said that the UK is committed to putting the environment at the heart of all decision

making. Meeting the 10 percent target of electricity from renewable sources

with titanium dioxide offers a tougher water contact surface for potable water. And bolted construction is

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lion tonnes in UK carbon emissions,

making a valuable contribution to cli mate-change strategy. And the govern ment is now requiring the country's elec tricity suppliers to generate a proportion of their output from non-fossil fuel.

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At a recent conference, UK Environ Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 152 (See page 25)


Instrumentation & Controls

Why the water is great In Sydney Instrumentation controls water safety at Olympic pools


In addition to the main 50-metre, ten-iane competition pool, there is a training pool with a movable floor, a diving pool, and a leisure pool with separate spas. The faciiities wiii serve the city decades after the Games.

Remote control technology

controlled water quality at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia. Each of the thi-ee Olympic sized swimming pools, the leisure pool and spa - totaling more than ten million litres -is maintained by a Strantrol SystemS unit, an electronic water chemistry control device with High Resolution Redox technology. The device, only about 10" x 7" by 4.4", uses heavy-duty, highly refined, and very stable platinum-tipped sensors to continuously measure the actual

the water clean for the swimmers'health

by telephone. Normally, the Strantrol Systems unit is self-regulating, like a

and comfort, and to extend the life of

thermostat; however, it still allows the

the equipment. Swimming pool quality can be remotely monitored and control led in two ways: by viewing a computer screen, or by calling into a fax/modem with a telephone from any location. The screen displays pH, HRR mV, Free Chlorine PPM, Total Alkalinity, Calcium Hardness, Langelier Saturation Index, and the Ryznar Stability Index,

technician to make various changes and to program in new settings. Once the SystemS controller is con nected to a computer the operator sees a colour'graphical user interface' which

ticated management capabilities to keep

all of which can be balanced automati

cally with commands to feeders, or at

oxidative rate of the chlorine, which is

the advice of the controllers'calculations

influenced by the water temperature, pH, and the number ofswimmers in the pool. The rate of disinfection is directly re lated to the millivolt redox potential in

to enhance overall water quality, maxi

the water; therefore, a low millivolt

reading indicates that more oxidant needs to be added.

A separate probe measures pH, and

initiates the feed on CO^ gas to automati cally correct the pH. The Strantrol Systems controller keeps the water's pH at around 7.6, and as an extra safe

guard,once a week the pools can be au tomatically 'superchlorinated', if neces sary, and then quickly dechlorinated with sodium thiosulfate. For economy, the Systems controller also lowers chemical levels at night when the pools

mize swimmers' comfort, and extend

equipment life. The monitor also flashes a red light and outputs an audible alarm, disabling the offending equipment if necessary, alerting technicians if the CO, supply runs out, a chlorine feeder fails, a filter recirculation pump shuts down,

shows all the current levels, alarm

ranges, and control setpoints. With a click of the mouse, the software allows

these to be altered. It is also simple to access the controller's datalogging memory to download graphs of the pool readings and events,such as feed cycles, alarms,auto self-probe washes,and even operator adjustments to the unit. If USF Aquatic technicians access the controller by computer, they can re motely check the controller's diagnos tics, perform operational corrections, or give advice to the operator, if necessary. With the modem feature, the controller

can even contact operators or techni

and so forth. All these corrections can be made

remotely by computer and modem or by using the keypad on a telephone. When the technician dials into a voice modem,

cians, itself, for assistance.

Reliable and accurate monitoring and control of chemicals in modem aquatic facilities is maintaining ideal water bal

swimming time for Olympic level com petition. Also, improved automatic chemical control greater reduces chemi cal consumption and operating ex

are not in use.

a recorded human voice is the prompt to a menu, where key #l provides the water's current pH. If the pH setpoint is, for example 7.6, the technician can change it to "7.5" by pressing the keys on the telephone. The water tempera

Along with its software package,this technology provides many other sophis-

ture setpoint, which is kept between 82°85°F,can also be monitored and adjusted

For more information, circie repiy card No. 153


ance to ensure bathers' comfort and fast


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

The New Generation N-Pumps. Cut your down-time and costs.


How could we possibly improve our

N-Pumps? After all, the unique self-cleaning design of the N-impeller is a tough act to follow. So the New Generation N-Pumps have a host of features to reduce the two

New, improved cooling means the highefficiency motors run at lower temperatures. And the new Plug-in™ seal system means that

if you do have to replace a seal, it'll take you just a few minutes. All of which helps put the

things you find toughest in pumping

New Generation N-Pumps a cut ahead of

operations: operational costs, and

the competition in the fight against costs.

downtime. The Spin-out™ seal protection

Call us for more information, or visit us at www.ittflygt.ca/n

system prevents particle damage to seals.

The N-technique, patented by ITT Flygt, features a self-cleaning impeller that, together with an integrated relief groove in the pump housing, ensures sustained high hydraulic efficiency and clog resistance.

Flygt </V ITT Industries Engineered for life

For more information, circle reply card No. 114(See page 25)

Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater project for Honduras textile plant

Solutions for measurement

& analysis Left to right: General Manager, Dragon Head


Textiles, Executive

Manager, Dragon Head


Textiles, Honduras; Andrew Hutton, Sales

tank measurement

Manager, Napier-Reid; Frank Li, Project Man ager, Napier-Reid.

& leak detection MLGs - Magnetic level gauges - Local indication - Alarm switches

- Continuous

output - No leaks - No maintenance

Evita - Inline dissolved

oxygen meters

Warrick - Conductance

actuated liquid level controls

- Control panels - Tank leak

Whatwil eventual y be the

largest textile weaving/ knitting and dyeing facility in South America has contracted to build a Sequencing

Batch Reactor Process to treat their

wastewaters. Approximately 80% of the wastewater will be from the knitting, weaving and dyeing of cotton with 20% from the dyeing of polyester fabrics. The facility is located in a new in dustrial park "Maquiladora" (tax free trade zone),in Comayagua,central Hon

charged to a nearby stream. Phase I col our destruction will be biological treat ment in the SBR. If required. Phase II colour removal will be by ozonation. All

process functions are PLC controlled. Napier-Reid Ltd., Markham,Ontario, was selected by the owner,a state owned corporation of the Peoples Republic of China, to provide process and civil en gineering design, process equipment


supply, site supervision, start-up com mission and operator training. Table 1 indicates plant design/di mensions. As space and power are at a

The process train consists of inlet pumping station, aerated equalization

premium,the process was chosen for its small footprint and low overall power

basin (eight hours storage), two-stage neutralization nutrient balancing, influ

consumption. Construction completion is sched

ent cooling tower,two-basin Sequencing

uled for October 2000.

Batch Reactors and sludge disposal to

For more information,

drying beds. Final effluent will be dis

circle reply card No. 116



Table 1 - Dragon Head Textiles SA de CV 1900 m^/d 90 m^/hr

Design Flow Influent pump rate


Organic Loading

(n 2200 Bristol Circle


Oakville, 0NL6H 5R3 Tel:(905) 829-2000

COD Colour



300 mg/L 800 mg/L 600 Pt Co 12-14 50°C

Inlet temperature

Effluent Quality

<100 mg/L <200 mg/L


6 mg <100 Pt Co

Riant Dimensions E.Q. Basin

10 m X 14.3 m X 5 m

BioBatch™ SBR basins (2) Drying beds (3) For more information,

circle reply card No. 115

22 m X 14.3 m x 5 m (TWL) 20 m X 6.5 m

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000








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Wastewater Treatment

When you leap, don't plan to go half way! Case Study: Creemore Water Pollution Control Plant

Witha decades old concern

with their existing indi vidual septic systems,in cluding cesspools, under sized leaching beds and holding tanks, the Community of Creemore(Township of Clearview, Ontario) looked to take a bold step. They wished to prevent future contamination of their groundwater supply system,rectify on-site con straints, add value to in-town properties and prepare for the future. The chal lenge? Find a communal sewage treat ment system that would not only pro tect the groundwater aquifer, but also not affect the natural character of the Mad

River and be unobtrusive to people in the Community. The residents, who recognized the importance of the change from indi vidual private systems to a Communitywide communal sewage system, were very insistent on the parameters and con straints that they would allow. They required that the collection and treat ment system ultimately provided for

By Peter C. Sladen, P.Eng., Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited and John Thompson, P.Eng., Township of Clearview

Office, diesel generator and blower rooms in appropriate rural architecture. Creemore;

•not negatively impact the environment; • be unobtrusive (ideally invisible or at least attractive); and

• be affordable to construct and operate. The Environmental Study Report that resulted from the Class BA process documented the residents' concerns and

presented alternative solutions to the contamination concern. It was deter-

mined that the Mad River was the only appropriate receiver of treated effluent, and being a Policy 2 watercourse, strin gent effluent discharge parameters were targeted. It was determined that a treat ment process capable of tertiary quality effluent was required, and a number of options were reviewed: • Extended aeration w/tertiary filtration; • Rotating biological contactors w/terti ary filtration; • Sequencing batch reactors w/tertiary filtration; and •ZenoGem® microfiltration membranes.


The Class EA's preferred solution included a treatment approach designed



TANK - 1

TANK - 2

around the ZenoGem® membrane proc ess. The selection was made based on










economics, the system's smaller foot print and a comfort level that the sys tem could easily meet stringent effluent objectives. To this point of the project, develop ment was as expected for a typical serv icing change from private to communal services (except, possibly, for the nam ing of a proprietary product as the pre ferred solution in a Class EA process). That was about to change. In January 1999, the Township of Clearview council passed a resolution that formally authorized the implemen tation of a communal sewage system in Creemore. The first task was to revisit the economics of alternative treatment

Floor plan of the treatment plant. 24

Continued overleaf Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Ad Index



Reader Service No.

ABB Pumps ABB Pumps

64 78

150 160






Greatario Hach

Company Gorman-Rupp

Air Liquids





Hertz Equipment Rental




A.O. Bmith



Aquablast Aquatic Bciences

78 79

161 267

Hoffman Insituform International Reserve

Armtec AWWA Azurix North America Baker Process

88 49 37 29

159 140 117 257

Berlie Technologies Berlie Technologies

38 78

174 162




Cancoppas 47 Cdn. Waste & Recycling Expo ....80

138 268

CH2M Gore & Btorrie Chlorinators Inc

43 63

133 169

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Davis Gontrols Delcan Dense Donson

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Eco Waste Bolutions



International Water Supply Interprovincial Corrosion ITT Flygt ITT Flygt Kf\/IK Consultants KMK Consultants Metcon

Mixing Systems Napier-Reid OGPA ProMinent

RAL Engineering Ltd Response Rentals Banitherm Smiths Falls Water Gomm Bmith & Loveless Boutham Stamford Scientific

Stormceptor Urecon UBFilter Victaulic Water Matrix XP Boftw/are Zenon Environmental


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000


Wastewater Treatment

processes. Firm quotations-were sought benefits of a membrane-based system through a formal pre-selection process justify the system's higher cost? Coun for sequencing batch reactor (SBR) cil weighed the smaller footprint of the processes coupled with tertiary filtration, and for membrane-

a membrane-based treatment system and award the treatment equipment supply to Zenon Environmental Systems. During the economic review, S the option to upsize certain sys-

^ tem components was introduced 'I by Zenon. An expanded system

based technology. This formal pre-selection process was lim ited to SBR/tertiary filtration


was postulated, with oversized

"J influent pump motors, screening

and membrane-based technolo

mechanism, aeration basins, per meate (vacuum) pumps, blow

gies, because of these processes' ability to meet the effluent dis charge requirements with a rela tively small footprint.

ers and ultraviolet disinfection

Three SBR manufacturers, two continuous-backwash filter manufacturers and one mem

brane system manufacturer par ticipated. The quotes arrived and the alternatives' life-cycle Ventila ted aeration tank and digester area. costs were compared. The SBR-tertiary filter combination was less plant, timing of the project, the percep expensive. Table 1 summarizes cost es tion of an emerging technology and the timates based on the formal quotation costs. Council also gave due considera process. tion to the preferred EA solution (incor On review of the equipment quotes porating membrane technology) which and the resulting cost estimates, the had won the acceptance of the local resi Township Council realized that it was dents. The review culminated, in April faced with a dilemma: Can the reported 1999, with a recommendation to utilize Table 1: Life-Cycle Cost Comparison of Treatment Alternatives Membrane



(expanded system)

equipment. This expanded sys tem could efficiently operate at a lower design population of 1,500, due to the selected pump impellers, and appropriate use of variable frequency drives pro vided on the permeate pumps and blowers. When required, impellers could be changed on the influ ent pumps and additional membrane cas settes could be dropped into the aeration basin, increasing the capacity of the plant to serve a design population of 2,500. It was determined that the expanded system, while costing an additional $200,000, would actually be more eco nomical when future expansion costs were considered. Council, realizing the long-term benefit to the community, extended their 'leap' and resolved to proceed with the expanded membrane system.

1. Estimated Capital Cost

The fast-tracked design of the sew age system followed. While one of the community's challenges to provide a system that protected the environment




Concrete and buildings




STP process equipment (Supply only)




had been solved, the works had to be

unobtrusive. The sewer design was straightforward; sewers are easy to hide. The plant was another matter altogether. How does one hide a treatment plant in the middle of an open field? • You can bury it; however, the logical






Electrical and stand-by power







STP site works

Bonding, Insurance, Mob/Demob, etc.

Contingency Allowance @ 5% Subtotal










site in Creemore was within a flood-

plain, so burying much of the works was uneconomical.

• You can hide it; however, the struc

2. Comparative O&M Costs Energy (20 year NPV)


Chemical costs(20 year NPV)




tures required are excessively large and make berming or other forms of land scaping not feasible.

Staffing (20 year NPV)




• You can blend it into the environment.












The solution recommended by the Township was to build a barn - a dairy barn to be more precise - in keeping with the rural nature of Creemore. The pro ject architect was R.H. Carter & Asso

The column on the right side of the table summarizes the cost analysis for an expanded system. Discount rate for the 20 year Net Present Value analysis is taken as 3.00%.

plex and requires specific peripheral equipment, such as fine inlet screens, Continued overleaf

Maintenance and Expansion Costs(20 year NPV) Subtotal TOTAL



The ZenoGem® process is quite com


Environinentai Science & Engineering, September 2000


'"i ."'Vs A-

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Wastewater Treatment

vacuum pumps,dip(cleaning)tanks and steam generators, to make it work. As well, the banks of pumps and blowers, and the mazes of pipes created an inter esting engineering challenge. The barn concept itself forced the team to keep the creative juices flow ing. The barn introduced unique space arrangements,structural complexity and ventilation issues associated with par tially enclosed tankage. The combination of the flood plain location and the desire for flooded

suctions on the permeate (vacuum) which can lead to health concems for pumps, resulted in aeration basins and operators, corrosion, mildew, etc. The digester being quite tall in comparison to cost of ventilating the air space over the the chemical and equipment rooms. To tanks was reviewed and determined to effectively hide this in a bam,the struc be prohibitively expensive. The prob tural design involved the use of multi lem was solved by opening one end of ple trusses connected to cranked verti the structure and providing a shallow cal members. These cranked members breezeway along the bam's side wall. did not just provide the look of gable Only simple exhaust fans were needed frames but also created necessary work to supplement this largely passive ven ing space for operation of the facility. tilation scheme. Covered tanks, especially aerated Summary tanks, can result in moisture problems. The result of the design was a plant that will initially serve a population of 1,500, the Community's commercial core and the Creemore Springs Brew ery. With the simple replacement of pump impellers and addition of mem brane cassettes, the plant will increase in capacity to serve a future 2500 popu lation plus commercial and industrial loads. A number of opportunities to fur ther expand the plant beyond the 2,500 population have also been considered in the design, including a convertible di gester thickener, stronger base and wall pieces to permit heightening of the sludge holding tanks, and oversized pumping areas. The sewage treatment process con sists of an influent pumping station com plete with an automatic fine screening system, two-basin Zenon-ZenoGem® membrane technology treatment proc ess, UV disinfection, effluent re-aeration chamber and outfall to the Mad River.

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with ZeeWeed® membrane system for thickening,and six-month sludge storage/ hauling facilities are also provided. The plant is designed to treat a higher strength wastewater, due to the presence of brewery wastewater. Influent char

acteristics are estimated to be: BOD^ = 316 mg/L, SS = 338 mg/L, TKN = 40 mg/L, and TP = 10 mg/L. The plant is designed to produce ter tiary quality effluent on a consistent year-round basis with nutrient removal.

Effluent design objectives are: BOD^ = 5 mg/L,TSS = 5 mg/L, NH^N = 3 mg/L

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addition ahead of the aeration tanks. A

single basin aerobic digester equipped

(winter), and 1 mg/L (summer), TP = 0.1 mg/L, E.coli = 100/100 mL(30 day geometric mean). The plant was scheduled for commis sioning and startup in mid-2000. The

you In every way.


Phosphorus removal is achieved by alum

tion Fund provided funding for a por tion of the project cost. For more information, oiroie repiy card No. 120

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

E L I V E R I N G www.bakerhughes.com


Baker Process Technelegy at New Smyrna Beach



Baker Process is the name to call for water

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The tried and trusted products from each of these organi zations will continue to be designed, built, and serviced by the personnel who know them best.

New Smyrna Beach Success Story The City of New Smyrna Beach, Florida, recently com pleted installation of the new, cost-effective nutrientremoval system as part of its management plan for wastewater treatment, reuse and biosolids management. This innovative system protects receiving streams and watersheds from harmful nitrogen and phosphorus nutri ents using the EIMCO® Bardenpho® process, a method



that is both low in cost and minimizes chemical addition.

EIMCO Bardenpho System ■ Five-stage, state-of-the-art process ■ Incorporates the Carrousel® denit/I?® nitrification/ denitrification process

■ 6.0 mgd capacity with nutrient effluent quality limits of 3 mg/1 of total nitrogen and 1 mg/1 of phosphorus among the strictest in the U.S.

■ Produces reclaimed water for residential and golf course irrigation

■ Produces AWT effluent for discharge into the Indian River during wet weather or when reclaimed water demands are low

■ Low construction cost of $2.69 per gallon of treatment capacity - significantly below conventional methods employing chemical-based technology ■ Designed by Hartman and Associates, Inc. of Orlando, Florida, the facility also includes effluent filtration, disinfecting systems, and a residuals management system meeting EPA Class B standard for biosolids For more information on how our nutrient removal and


water reuse technology can work for you, contact Baker Process or your nearest Baker Process representative.

Baker Process For more information, circle reply card No. 257(See page 25)

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Air Pollution

Cleaning up after Rudolph Diesel Vancouver companies pave a road toward cleaner truck engines

Happy the man whose name

becomes generic: Bunsen,

Petri, Hubble - and, of course, Diesel. At the turn

of the last century, the German engineer Rudolf Diesel invented a new type of engine. Like the standard auto engine of today, Herr Diesel's design exploded a mixture of petroleum and air inside a hollow cylinder, forcing down a piston to turn a shaft. But this en

stantly written on its dynamic output, or the application of ultra-high-pressure injection systems to supply its cylinders with fuel oil. But the essential design remains as Rudolf Diesel imagined it: simple, reliable, powerful, and easy to maintain. Diesel has replaced the steam piston in the railways, and the steam turbine at sea. It is as indispensable to the global economy as the electricity it produces, or the oil it burns.

the side of a bus. Then the bus pulls away, and masks the advertisement in a noxious cloud. Eor decades the manufacturers of die

sel engines and vehicles, and the vehi cle drivers, maintained that despite the foulness of their engine emissions, their services were so vital to the economy that they should be exempted from laws

like those that limit NO^^ and particulate matter in auto exhausts. Public-transit

gine had a key difference

engineers added their own

from other internal-combus

voice to the chorus of leave-

tion plants: it needed no elec tricity to detonate its fuel. Instead of a spark plug atop the power cylinder, the Die sel engine used a compres sion ratio high enough to

diesels-alone. Sure,they ad mitted, diesels are smelly, but every bus holds many people. If you calculate emissions per passenger, the bus still runs green.

heat its air-fuel mixture to

Well, no. Recent research

ignition. It squashed its way

coming out of California shows that the average city

to a burn.

Diesel's simple innova tion gave his engine major advantages over sparked powerplants. First, it could muddle through on a lower grade of petroleum than what sparked engines de manded - highly refined gasoline for autos, and a still more rare fied distillate for aircraft, kerosene.

bus emits 88 times the

pollution of the standard passenger car. Even fully loaded, most buses hold

fewer than 88 passengers. If average use is 80 percent(an over-estimate of transit use),

However, the last decade has high lighted some major disadvantages for this omnipresent engine. Diesel is an

Diesel's engine burned a petroleum de rivative as crude as furnace oil. It prac environmental barbarian. Its emissions tically lived on sludge. are loaded with oxides of nitrogen As well, the diesel's dynamic char (NOj,), plus a carcinogenic soot known acteristics made it ideal for heavy work. to regulators as PM (particulate matter), plus carbon dioxide - a "greenhouse Sparked engines developed their high est torque, or twisting power, at higher gas" linked to global warming. Strong and tractable though this Clydesdale speeds - about three thousand revolu tions per minute. By contrast, the die- may be,it reeks. Think how often you've sel was a kind of mechanical Clydesdale. put your car's air vents on RECIRC The more slowly it turned, the more when marooned behind a truck. Worse,the harder a diesel works, the torque it developed, which made it nearly impossible to stall. When the more its stinks. The property that makes it so useful - its virtual inability to stall going got tough, the diesel got going. Over its century of use, the diesel - means that at low revs, a diesel burns dirty. Temperatures fall inside the cyl came to dominate the stand-alone pro duction of heavy-duty power. Examples inder, combustion is less complete, and

and every car holds only one person (an under-estimate), then each person taking transit still causes more pollution than if he or she drove a car. Admittedly, this is simplistic. It re ports only on-site, in-use emissions, and neglects the environmental load of mak ing all those automobiles and the roads they drive on. But in their turn, manu facturing emissions are largely due to diesel. And emissions in remote loca

tions, mines and inter-city rail lines, ar guably have more dilution, and less hu man impact,than pollution vomited into congested urban areas. No way around it-the diesel's long free ride must come to an end.

In fact it is. The US Environmental

Protection Agency has mandated major reductions in allowable pollution thresh

range from on-road (trucks), to rail (lo-

PM-CO,-NO^ emissions go soaring.

olds for NOj,and particulate matter from

comotives),to off-road (mining trucks), to mobile electric power generators. Over this time, the diesel engine has accumulated a considerable quantity of technology; learned papers are con-

The consequences of this are both prac

diesel engines. The new regulations take place in 2002 across the continental US, the world's biggest market for commer

By William lllsey Atkinson 30

tical and ironic. Consider the dominant

role that diesels play in public transpor tation. With the exception of Montreal's and Toronto's subways and Vancouver's SkyTrain, nearly every vehicle in Cana da's mass transit systems relies on die sel. GO GREEN! proclaims a poster on

cial diesels.

That's the law; but how to follow it?

There have been several attempts to clean up the diesel. It's possible, for instance, to made a diesel burn clean fuels such as

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Air Pollution

natural gas, provided the engine is "sparked" - that is, modified to accept spark plugs. Unfortunately, while it has reduced emissions, the sparked diesel also relinquishes a diesel's best feature: strong torque at low RPM. Test drivers routinely report poor response in hillclimbing and sluggish pull-aways from stops even on level roads. A space-age approach to diesel clean up involves the fuel cell, a high-output power source pioneered by the US space program and taken to the world's most advanced levels by Ballard Power Sys tems of Burnaby, BC. Like the stand ard diesel, the fuel cell produces power by an exothermic oxidation reaction; but this is the two powerplants' only point of resemblance. The Ballard process is noiseless and pollution-free, uniting oxygen and hydrogen across a catalytic membrane to produce nothing but elec tricity and water.

weapons program. Powerful super computers had modelled, in extreme slow motion, how the infant fireball

propagates from the core of a newly detonated atomic bomb. In a flash of

insight. Dr. Hill saw how the data could be applied to making a diesel engine burn natural gas without any need for power-sapping spark plugs. The solution, Dr. Hill saw, was to in

ject a tiny amount of diesel fuel in a pre cisely predetermined spray pattern, at exactly the right time. Normal compres sion heating would ignite this 'pilot burn', which would then ignite a second injection of natural gas a few millisec onds later. It all came down to knowing precisely how a newborn oxidation front might spread inside a diesel cylinder. To make a long story short. Dr. Hill's insight was correct. Westport Innova tions, the company Dr. Hill and his as sociates incorporated to develop his The Ballard unit has attracted the theoretical breakthrough into a practi interest of auto giant DaimlerChrysler, cal and cost-effective engine technology, which has invested millions of dollars is maintaining a fairly robust stock price for product R&D. Still, optimistic sce on the Toronto Stock Exchange. More narios do not foresee reliable, affordable to the point, as far as human lungs are

Storm Sewer Specmcatien


Structural Design Method

Chemical & Ahrasion Resistance

Canadian technology is producing a heavy-duty powerplant with an exhaust cleaner than most cars...

fuel cells replacing diesels for another decade.

As the US is the world leader in low

ering engine-emission thresholds, Cali fornia plays that role within the United States. "California fuel policy is at a crossroads," says John White,a state lob byist on air-quality issues for the Sieira Club. "The South Coast(of California), is setting a tougher standard for the state as a whole, and that is forcing the tech nology (of cleaner diesels) forward." A recent report in the Wall Street Journal notes that while diesel-powered vehicles make up only two percent of California's total vehicle registration,

they generate almost a third of NO^,and a staggering two-thirds of particulate matter. Barry Wallerstein, District Ex ecutive Officer for the South Coast Re

gion,cites a recent study that"implicates diesel exhaust in 70 percent of airborne cancer risks in Los Angeles." Evidently something needs to be done well before 2010, when the fuel cell comes on stream.

Enter another Canadian firm. Ten

years ago. Dr. Philip Hill, a professor of mechanical engineering at the Univer sity of BC, was reviewing recently de classified data from the US nuclear

concerned, Westport has entered into a co-development project with Cummins Engine Company of Columbus,Indiana. Cummins is the world's largest manu facturer of high-output diesel engines. Cummins units power on- and off-road trucks, and generate electricity in remote locations. Cummins is now nearing com pletion of a new class-8 diesel powerplant for on-road trucks-the eighteen-wheeler rigs that thunder down the highway carlying everything from cattle to consumer goods. But the Cummins-Westport unit will not only be powerful and economi

about specifying, designing

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cal, it will also be clean.

Westport and Cummins expect their new engine will meet or exceed the stiff EPA regulations for 2002; but their revo lutionary new engine carries an addi tional benefit. Besides cutting particu late matter and nitrogen-oxide emissions to a tenth of their previous levels, the engine will also have a greatly reduced output of carbon dioxide. Canadian technology is thus producing a first for the environment- a heavy-duty powerplant with an exhaust cleaner than most cars, which anticipates greenhouse-gas restrictions still not written into law.

It's enough to make you breathe easier.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Your Information Resource For more Information, circle reply card No. 123

Site Remediation

Microbes in basait thrive on a mixed diet of toxic wastes

Seventy-five metres beneath the surface of a site in

Idaho, where high-level radioactive waste has been stored for more than 40 years, microorganisms liv ing in the pores and crevices of dry basaltic rock

are able to reduce a toxic form of chromium to a much less

toxic form -and they do so faster in the presence of volatile organic wastes. Hoi-Ying Holman and her colleagues Dale Perry, Michael Martin, Wayne McKinney,and Jennie Hunter-Cevera of the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Labo ratory, made the discovery. They examined core samples from beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. By using infrared spectromicroscopy at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source (ALS), they were able to follow the reduction of toxic metals among populations of living organisms on minerals for the first time. The researchers discussed their findings in the October/November issue of Geomicrobiology Journal. "We have shown that organic vapour may accelerate the transformation of mobile, toxic chromium pollutants into less mobile, less toxic, stable compounds," says Holman, a chemist and engineer with Berkeley Lab's Earth Sciences Division and the Center for Environmental Biotechnology (CEB). "This should help in the design and implementa tion of new,environmentally benign remediation techniques for cleaning up mixed waste sites." The Idaho site is polluted with mixtures of hexavalent chromium and other inorganic ions, radionuclides, petro leum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds.

Hexavalent chromium (Cr^^)is carcinogenic, mutagenic,and highly toxic to living organisms because it occurs in solu ble chromates that readily cross cell membranes. Once in side the cell, these ions are reduced (electrons are added)

first to pentavalent chromium (Cr^^), then to trivalent chro-

Protem Mo ecules

mium (Cr^''), which disrupts DNA replication. Outside the cell, however, trivalent chromium is much less toxic, because it is insoluble and cannot cross cell mem

branes. "Polyvalent metal ions at this and other polluted sites are reduced on the surfaces of geologic materials that has been known for some time," Holman says, "but there were two views of how this happens." The dry Columbia River basalts are limited in organic carbon and other nutrients, according to Holman,but dense clusters of microorganisms live in the pores and fractures of the rock. When water infiltrates from rain or melting snow, a burst of nutrients reaches them through fissures in the rock, and they bloom like flowers in the desert - sug gesting that microbes might play a role in metal-ion reac tions.

It was uncertain which microorganisms might be involved in a biological reduction mechanism and what metabolic processes were important, however. An alternate, chemi cal-mechanism hypothesis proposed that metal oxides such as iron oxides in basalt, could help catalyze reductions with no help from living microbes. To determine which mechanism was at work, Holman

and her colleagues obtained basalt core samples beneath the site from the unsaturated rock above the water table. From

these, Tamas Torok, a CEB microbiologist with the Lab's Life Sciences Division, isolated and purified 85 strains of microorganisms, many tolerant of hexavalent chromium and able to reduce it - especially in the presence of toluene

(C^Hg), another of the site's contaminants, which is a com mon product of leaking fuel tanks. These chemical reactions typically proceeded through one or more steps, and many of the organisms encountered bottlenecks that slowed the process. One strain of bacteria, Arthrobacter oxydans, emerged as the most effective. Arthrobacter oxydans tends to concentrate in areas rich Continued overleaf






Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

A Brave New World.


And BOVAR is ready for it! We're proud to be a global leader in the destruction of waste.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 124(See page 25)

Site Remediation

in magnetite, an iron-oxide compound common in basalt; the researchers had

to eliminate the possibility that the mag netite itself was responsible for the re duction. They tested to see if reactions would proceed on sterilized magnetite under realistic environmental condi

tions: in an aerobic atmosphere, at room temperature, and in the dark. Arthrobacter oxydans was reintro-

duced on some of the sterilized magnet ite samples. Dilute chromate solution was applied to both the abiotic (barren)

and biotic (inhabited) magnetite sam ples; in a separate set of tests, the sam ples were also bathed in a tenuous va pour of toluene. Working on the ALS's infrared beamline over a five-day period, the re searchers applied Fourier-transform spectromicroscopy to observe the steps in the reduction process and the precise location of reduced chromium.

"The infrared is the end of the spec trum not usually associated with syn chrotrons," says Holman,"but for us it's

perfect - and not only because it is nondestructive of organisms. You have an extremely complicated spectrum in the ten-micrometre region, which is the dimension of the beam. We identified

markers in this spectral region that tracked the key compounds that undergo changes. We could resolve the spectrum in time, to follow the different steps of the reduction, and also in space, to see

exactly where the reactions were hap pening." On the samples with no living bacte ria, no changes were evident. On sam ples with living Arthrobacter oxydans, in the absence of toluene,chromium re duction was weak.

But where Arthrobacter oxydans had been exposed to toluene, infrared spec tromicroscopy showed that hexavalent

Consultants Limited

chromium and toluene had been re


placed by pentavalent chromium and products of hydrocarbon degradation,in association with biomolecules - right

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where the bacteria were concentrated. Was this microbial reduction an ac

curate reflection of what happened at the waste site? "We now needed to study natural communities in the basalt," Holman says, and to do so, she had to devise a unique diamond saw that could cut thin slices from fresh basalt cores,

slowly,at cool temperatures, under asep Senior Water and Wastewater Engineers with a minimum of ten years experience in process and piant design, reiated studies, and project management. Candidates must hold a P.Eng., designation in Ontario, and be ready to assume the roie of Team Leader on groups of projects. Water and Wastewater Engineers with a minimum of four years experience in the design of piant systems, underground piping systems, or hydraulic analysis of large distribution/collection systems.

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tic conditions.

Over a period of four months, the slices of native rock, with their resident

communities of microbes still in place, were exposed to solutions of hexavalent chi-omium and toluene vapour. At first, infrared spectromicroscopy showed no evidence of reduction, and it appeared that many of the organisms were dying. But after four months, chromium-toler

ant and chromium-reducing natural mi croorganisms were seen to be thriving in association with trivalent chi-omium.

management and CIS.

Municipal and Subdivision Engineers and Technologists with at least four years experience In design and project management in municipai and subdivision engineering. Technologists/Technicians with a minimum of four years experience in the design of underground piping systems and reiated hydraulic design. Construction Inspectors with a minimum of four years experience in subdivision and heavy engineering construction.

Says Holman, "As far as we know, this is the first time that infrared syn chrotron studies have been used to fol

low the steps in the transformation of toxic chromium on mineral surfaces."

The Berkeley Lab is a US Depart ment of Energy national laboratory lo cated in Berkeley, California. It con ducts unclassified scientific reseairh and

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Visit ES&E's web site at

www.esemag.com Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Environmental Management & Compliance 2001 Conference and Tradeshow A unique networking opportunity organized by Environmental Science &

Engineering Magazine and Canadian

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Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, and Canadian Environ mental Regulation & Compliance News, Environmental Management & Compliance is designed to be a low cost opportunity for you to network with existing and potential clients. As the leading event of its kind in Canada for the past eight years, our conference and tradeshow has attracted some 400-500 delegates and speakers each year; all are key specifiers of environmental equipment and services. Call ES&E at (905) 727-4666 or 1-888-2548769 for a complete information package, or to reserve booth space.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000


Remediation / Reguiations

And just how inert is inert fill? An appeal for regulatory framework

The question, "how clean is clean?" or "how inert is in

ert?" is being raised again re lating to fill materials that are being excavated, moved and deposited

the only significant exemption under Regulation 347 for soil would remain for "inert fill" which has been described

Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario

as: "earth or rock fill or waste of a simi

(February 1997). A no-nonsense operator may argue that any testing of soil for man-made substances is a waste of money; that we

across Ontario. The Province is in a con

lar nature, that contains no putrescible materials or soluble or decomposable

struction boom and millions of tonnes

chemical substances".

of soil are being excavated and moved

organisms. The latter philosophy is also the premise of Ontario's Guideline for

In the early years of the blossoming

around. Just how clean is this fill?

site assessment and remediation indus

This article is an appeal to Ontario regulators and politicians to provide a clear regulatory framework to answer this question, and to tie to gether the requirements of the Guidelines for Use at Con taminated Sites, February 1997, to Ontario's Regulation

try in North America, following the "Love Canal" incident in the US,an ini

tially strict interpretation of this defmi-

should fu'st wait and see until we have

a clear and obvious reason to spend this money, usually after it is too late. To a certain extent,the current requirements under Regulation 347 leave interpretative room for all three opinions. Depending on which side of the fence you are (and if you are paying the bill or not), it will make a difference which

opinion is taken.

347 definition for "inert fill".

Why? To create consistency

With the environment as a

and to save millions of dollars

topic having fallen to the bot

due to, on the one side, the

tom of the Ontario Govern

disposal of perfectly suitable

ment's political agenda, at

fill as "waste" and on the other

least until Walkerton, the

side, to prevent the dumping of inappropriate fill materials as "clean" that may come back to haunt developers, land owners, and the general pub

much needed reforms to On

tario Regulation 347 on this issue that had been developed to a large extent in the late 1990s by Ministry staff, have unfortunately also been put on

lic in the future.

Regulatory framework vs business reality Even though, over the past decade, Ontario's policy mak Is this a 'waste'? ers have debated possible re tion in Regulation 347 by many regula forms to address the question,"how in tors and practitioners in the field led to a ert is inert?", to date, the legal frame work remains unchanged, ambiguous situation where soil with any man-made substances in it (chemical or otherwise) and open to wide interpretation. In prac was deemed a waste. tice, the policy in its current state, is in During the maturing of our industry efficient, and has translated into a re in the early 1990s,it was recognized that ceiver beware principle, leaving tremen dous loopholes for abuse. Depending this strict interpretation did not make on how much risk a receiver is willing sense. Slowly but surely, it became ac ceptable that soil could have some manto take and/or how unscrupulous or ig norant the owner is at sites where con

made modifications/contaminants in it,

struction takes place, significant vol umes of "waste"(as defined in Regula tion 347) may wind up in your backyard. Since the introduction of Regulation 347, soil that has any man-made con taminant in it (above "naturally occur ring" background concentrations) has

as long as this soil did not pose a risk

been classified as a waste. In fact, in

the recent proposed regulatory changes.

By Rene de Vries, Principal Central Projects Group Inc. 36

for adverse environmental effects (as noted in the Ontario Environmental Pro

tection Act). Purists will argue that by taking this route, we have stepped on a slippery slope that will inevitably lead to environmental decline.

Others will argue that people are also part of the natural environment and if man-made influences have impacted the subsurface, it is, first and foremost, im

portant to quantify that influence and see if it poses a risk to humans and other

the shelf. Inconsistencies and inefficiencies Due to the lack of consist

ent and clear regulatory framework, the answer that people and corporations come up with, in relation to the "how inert is inert" question var ies widely and may surprise many. These differences of opinion have led and will continue to lead to costly and unnecessary inefficiencies, new (real or perceived) site contamination problems, disputes, and misunderstandings. What one professional (and their le gal counsel) considers inert, another may find contaminated and, therefore, "a waste"(under Regulation 347). If we want consistency and a level playing field for everyone on this subject. Regu lation 347 reforms must be pushed for ward. First and foremost, it is impor tant that the definition of inert fill is clarified. Tying this definition in to the available Guidance Documents such as

the Guidelinefor Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario, and other provincial and federal soil quality guidelines. Continued on page 79

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

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Hazardous Wastes

Is Canada a pollution haven for US Hazwaste?

Theamountofhazardous waste imported by Canada from the United States has more than

doubled in some provinces, according to figures released July 28, 2000. The figures reveal more hazard ous waste is being dumped in landfills rather than being recycled. The 1999 Canadian statistics on

transboundary movements of hazardous waste prompted Federal Environment Minister, David Anderson, to alert his

provincial and territorial counterparts. He wants strengthened provincial stand ards for all facilities that accept hazard ous waste, including landfills. "Canada does not want to become a

pollution haven," said Anderson. "The

continuing rise in imports of hazardous waste is raising questions of safety and responsibility." Hazardous waste is made up of resi-

By Neville Judd

dues from industrial production - used

like car batteries and oil-based paints are

solvents, acids and bases,leftovers from

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oil refining and the manufacture of chemicals, and metal processing residues. Common household products

Certain chemicals in many waste products make them potentially hazard ous to human health and to the environ-

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Hazardous Wastes

ment. Some can bum skin on contact,

240,000 tonnes. All other provinces

ened provisions under the new Cana

or cause long-term health or environ

combined accounted for less than one

dian Environmental Protection Act

mental risks due to accumulation and

percent of the total imports - 5,200 (CEPA)to enforce this. tonnes. About 80 percent of that was But landfilling falls under provincial recycled. jurisdiction so Anderson must convince Environment Ministry spokeswo his provincial counterparts. "We must man Johanne Beaulieu said the drop in work with all provinces and territories recycling is partly attributable to the type so there is a consensus on how to deal of hazardous waste being imported. "In with hazardous waste," said Beaulieu. Quebec,for instance, we saw a lot more The new CEPA requires that reduc contaminated soil imported last year. tion plans be prepared for exports of You can't recycle that easily," she said. waste sent for final disposal. It intro She added that it is not simply duces an enhanced liability regime so tougher standards in the US that account that hazardous waste generators remain for increased imports of hazardous waste responsible for their waste even after it

persistence of toxics in the environment. Unlike the United States which has

banned the dumping of untreated haz ardous waste in landfills, Canada per mits such practice. This,combined with a weak Canadian dollar and the fact that

US companies face stricter legal liabil ity for the wastes they generate, makes Canada a logical choice for American companies that want to get rid of haz ardous waste.

Between 1998 and 1999 there was an

18 percent increase in imported hazard

to Canada. "The weaker Canadian dol

leaves their site.

ous waste into Canada-663,000 tonnes

lar definitely helps imports, plus there is a lot more space available in Canada for landfilling." Domestically, Canadians generate

banning untreated hazardous waste from landfills, it provides the legal authority to impose such a ban.

as compared to 545,000 tonnes. In 1998 nearly 60 percent of these imports were recycled. In 1999 only 40 percent of imports went to recycling operations. The trend of increasing im ports for disposal,especially landfilling, is especially prevalent in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. Imports for disposal in Quebec went from 57,000 tonnes in 1998 to 151,000

tonnes in 1999. In Ontario, imports for disposal went from 174,000 tonnes to

While the new law does not mention

about six million tonnes of hazardous

Environment Canada's work with

waste. Fifty-five percent of hazardous waste generated in Canada is destined for recycling. Canada exports about five percent of this amount. Anderson wants domestically gener ated and imported hazardous waste to be pre-treated to render it safe, prior to final disposal. He plans to use strength

provincial and territorial governments on a strengthened regime will take place in the coming months and will be dis cussed at the next meeting of the Cana

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Site Remediation

Pipe project copes with extreme climate conditions

Alaska is not the easiest place for construction, especially underground projects. It is far off the beaten path and

weather conditions are extreme, with

temperatures ranging from the 90°s F to lower than -60°F.

Bristol Environmental and Engineer ing, based in Anchorage, Alaska, is of ten hired by the US Department of Defense to repair damage done to the environment by fuel spills,landfills and hazardous waste dumps. This usually means laying several different sizes and types of corrugated high density poly ethylene(HDPE)pipe. Rick Green, Project Coordinator of Bristol Environmental, says: "FIDPE pipe is easy to handle and easy to work with. In remote projects, it is light weight so shipping costs are lower than

for any other piping. But most impor tantly, it is durable and flexible enough that it can make it through even the



Installation crew members bury HDPE pipe in King Salmon, Alaska. harshest Alaska winter. The shift in the

ground here during the freeze/thaw cycle is so extreme, our projects need a pipe that can handle it."

Cleaning up King Salmon In King Salmon, a village in south west Alaska, there is a bluff littered with countless barrels of waste, some of it

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Site Remediation

Industry Update

hazardous. It was dumped there by the community and the United States Air

Export opportunities in the United Kingdom

This sub-sector offers many oppor tunities to Canadian exporters. Legis

lack of sites and tougher pollution con trols, are forcing waste management companies to find other options. Similarily, forthcoming legislation on emis sions specifies limits that are beyond the capabilities of existing incinerators. There is growing interest in recycling and in composting which have not been regarded as serious options until re cently. Air pollution This area is poised for growth fol lowing the introduction of the European Union Integrated Pollution Prevention

through the pipe, while keeping soil out.

lation forced the water utilities to invest

and Control Directive. The Directive is

The contaminated water is then funneled

$85 billion during the 1990s. Over the next five years, another $20 billion has

much broader than current national leg islation and applies to all industrial in

Force from the 1940s to the 1970s. That

With 500 officers working in 133 cities

bluff overlooks a pristine wetland,clear King Salmon Creek,and several homes.

around the world, the Canadian Trade

Residents called it the "Barrel Bluffs".

Commissioner Service has the local

market knowledge that can help penetra

In the mid-90s, the Air Force hired

tion of international markets. The

Bristol Environmental to dig up the ex posed waste and cover the remaining waste underneath with an earthen "cap" to keep it in place. The project meant burying an infrastructure of 12-inch di ameter HOPE pipe to collect any con taminants leaching out of the site. A fil ter sock slipped over the dual-wall pipe

United Kingdom's environmental sector has changed dramatically since the late 1980s. Over the last ten years, most of the basic services - water supply, sew erage, waste disposal - have been pri

allows contaminated water to filter

safely through the pipeline to a treatment station that treats any contaminants be

vatized. Water and wastewater

contamination tests in the wetlands are

been committed to tackle problems such as lead in drinking water, Cryptosporidium,river and coastal water pollution, and rehabilitation of the water supply network and sewerage system.

coming out negative. The "Barrel Bluffs" area has been turned into a park

The United Kingdom generates at

fore the water is sent into the wetland.

After four years, the pipe is doing exactly what it was designed to do and

Solid waste

stallations built since October 1999.

Beginning in 2007,all installations built before October 1999 will have to con

form to it as well. Implementation of the Directive is expected to increase the value of the air pollution monitoring

sector to approximately $430 million by

with an access road that makes it easier

least 400 million tonnes of waste annu


for residents and visitors to fish for

ally. Over 80% of this goes to landfill, the remainder is recycled or incinerated. Rising landfill taxes, combined with a

You can learn more about the many opportunities in the United Kingdom market at: www.infoexport.gc.ca

salmon in King Salmon Creek.

Circle reply card No. 132


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 133 (See page 25)


Odour Control

Assessing odour compliance scientificaiiy Complaints have been increasing over the years

The number of odour-related

complaints received by the Ontario Ministry of the Envi ronment(MOB) has steadily increased over the years. The trend is expected to continue as greenbelts that once provided natural noise and odour buffer zones are developed, placing resi dential neighbourhoods in the backyards of industry. Due to the instantaneous and complex nature of odours they are amongst the

health effect, and most important to the homeowner, loss of enjoyment of nor mal use of property. Eactors that can influence one's odour

complaint threshold include frequency of exposure, odour intensity, character of the odour and duration. Eor exam

ple, it is reasonable to expect that a per son who is constantly exposed to a foul odour will eventually complain. Equally, a person wearing too much co logne or perfume at the office may in

most difficult of contaminants

to quantify and control. Even the regulated point-of-impingement limit is identified as a "guideline" value that must be carefully scrutinized when engineering control solutions.

lated under the Environmental Protec

gous to an allowable POl concentration. Sampling for odours is accommo dated by extracting raw exhaust gas from the source of emission into inert pre-con ditioned sample containers. Typically, Tedlai" sample bags with integrated shutoff valves are used to collect and trans-

poif samples from the sampling location to the odour analysis laboratory. Caution must be exercised when col

lecting odour samples from moist, el evated temperature sources to prevent odour-scrubbing con densate from forming in the bag once the gas cools. Nitro gen is commonly blended with the raw stack gas as it is ex tracted from the source, which

Odour, unlike most emis sion contaminants, cannot be

readily quantified using con ventional analytical methods, and is not well defined by a clear-cut "in compliance" or "out of compliance" limit. Detection and recognition of odour by humans is quite com plex and involves the interaction ofodour molecules with receptors found in the up per respiratory tract that relay impulse signals to various regions of the brain including the limbic system. The limbic system is responsible for basic emotions, instinctive actions and memory, which helps to explain why certain smells can trigger memory responses. In Ontario,odour emissions are regu

and the value of 1 ou/m'becomes analo

voke the same response. On the other hand, people exposed for short, infre quent periods to offensive odours may become momentarily irritated but refrain from complaining due to the short-lived exposure.

Therefore, considering the compre hensive definition of an adverse effect,

the factors that can influence complaints, and the close proximity of industrial emission sources to the residential

tion Act(EPA),Revised Statutes of On

receptors,it becomes apparent that odour

tario, 1990, Chapter E.19. Section 1 of

issues will be around for some time.

raises the dew point of the bag sample. Conventional odour samplers are capable of dilut ing the raw gas by 10 to 50 times with nitrogen, and neat samplers, or lungs, are used to extract samples undiluted. In Ontario, compliance sampling for odours should follow the Ministry of the Environment's Draft Source Sampling For Odours, Version #2,Eebruary 1989 that outlines the sample collection protocols and ref erences the MOE's Source Testing Code, Report #ARB-66-80, November 1980, for stack gas velocity, volumetric flow rate and moisture determination proce dures.

Once collected, odour samples must be analyzed within 24 hours. In accord ance with the protocol, sample presenta tion to the assessors or panellists should

Assessing environmental compliance follow ASTM D1391,Standard Method for odour involves sample collection, for Measurement of Odor in Atmos pheres (Dilution Method), or use a dy analysis, predictive atmospheric disper sion modelling, and comparison of the namic dilution olfactometer. Analysis results to the guideline limits. In On of the samples must follow ASTM tario, the Ministry of the Environment Standard of Practice E679 Determina has established a point-of-impingement tion of Odor and Taste Thresholds By a Forced-Choice Ascending Concentra cause an adverse effect". An adverse (POl)guideline value of 1 (one), over a effect has a somewhat all encompass 10-minute averaging period, represent tion Series Method of Limits, which is ing definition that includes impairment ing the concentration at which 50% of a currently accepted internationally. of the quality ofthe natural environment, normal population would detect an A dynamic dilution olfactometer is a injury or damage to property, adverse odour. The POl limit is a dimensionless laboratory instrument that accurately value since it is derived from a series of dilutes odorous gas with odour-free air By Philip M. Girard, P.Eng. and sample dilutions (ratios). However,for and then presents the diluted sample at Paul E. Geisberger, P.Eng., convenience, the units of odour unit per a specific flow rate and velocity to caliPInchin Environmental Limited Continued overleaf cubic metre(ou/m')are typically applied

the EPA defines odour as a contaminant

and Section 14(1) states; "Despite any other provision of this Act or the regu lations, no person shall discharge a con taminant or cause or permit the dis charge of a contaminant into the natural enviromnent that causes or is likely to


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000



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For more information, circie reply card No. 121 (See page 25)


Odour Control

brated panellists who "sniff" the pres entations. During a typical analysis se quence the panel operator, using the

Prediction of off-property or neigh bourhood impact is accomplished using atmospheric dispersion models such as

olfactometer, dilutes the raw odour sam


ple several hundred or thousand times

PRIME. These models use emission

with odour-free air to sub-detection lev

source specific information such as emission rate, exhaust velocity, exhaust temperature, discharge height, distance to receptors, and in some cases mete orological data to predict the minimum amount of dilution that can be expected before the odorous emissions impact the ground or identified critical receptor. Comparison of the maximum predicted impact value to the odour POI guide line establishes compliance. Currently, the MOE specifies the use of SCREENS for the prediction of offproperty odour concentration and one

els. In turn, each of the eight panellists is presented with the diluted sample and two randomly presented odour-free blank samples and then asked to iden tify which of the three presentations was different by recording a Guess, Detect, or Recognize response. The concentration of odour in the

next set of three presentations is then incrementally increased and re-presented to the panellists who are again asked to record their Guess, Detect or

Recognize response. The ascending concentration sequence is repeated un til each of the panellists has detected the odour. Statistically, the dilution at which 50% of the panellists have detected the

must remember to convert the POI re The olfactometer.

odour is known as the odour threshold

concentration of an emission source.

value (OTV). This statistical approach is known as triangular forced-choice ascending concentration method as per

When the OTV, reported as ou/m', is

ASTM E679.

OTV is a dimensionless unit; how ever, it can be considered as the odour

multiplied by the stack gas volumetric flow rate of the source, it yields the odour emission rate (ou/s) which is analogous to a gram per second emis sion rate for conventional contaminants.

sults to lO-minute equivalent values using appropriate formulae. SCREENS is well suited to simple applications where clear compliance is demonstrated. However, when evaluating multiple emission points, complex terrain appli cations, or when SCREENS results in

dicate marginal compliance, the more complex dispersion models listed may prove beneficial.

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors & Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressors & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at discharge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as sewage aeration, combustion, drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 90 years.



Ifii u



An Invensys company 58 Bertal Road, Toronto, Ontario, M6M 4M4, Tei(416)763-4681 Fax:(416)763-0440 email: hoffman.can@btrinc.com, website: www.hoffmanair.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 178 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Odour Control

Delcan Corporation

One final note - it is imperative to understand that marginal demonstration of compliance will not eliminate the pos sibility of nuisance odour complaints; it simply indicates that the probability of a complaint has been reduced to a level acceptable to the MOE. Remember that a concentration of 1 ou/m^ statistically infers that 50% of the population could detect the odour. Therefore, other fac

Douglas G. Langley

tors must be considered when develop

ing actual performance targets for an odour abatement program, such as, the economics of setting lower targets, the frequency of exceeding detection lev els, character of the odour, etc.

The MOE's odour compliance guide line should be considered useful only

when applying for a Certificate of Ap proval (Air) and for demonstrating ini tial compliance. Ongoing compliance is established by the absence of odour complaints. Remember, if complaints occur, you could be in contravention of Section 14 of the Environmental Pro

tection Act and regardless of the preventative measures you may have im plemented, additional measures may be required. Circle reply card No. 137

Peter J. Boyd, President and CEO of Delcan Corporation, is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Douglas G. Langley as a member of the Board of Directors, and Mr. David R. Yaeger as a Principal. Mr. Langley has 35 years experience in the environmental industry and is cur rently Vice President of Delcan's Environmental Division where he par ticipates in the analysis of client needs and the formation of responsive project strategies. He oversees the division's commitment to human and strategic resources to meet client requirements and he leads the global development

David R. Yaeger

and growth of Delcan's environmental practice.

Dave Yaeger is Head of Hydrotechnical Engineering at Delcan and has been with the firm for 15 years. Dave is responsible for the management and technical exe cution of water resource related projects. Dave is a member of Professional

Engineers of Ontario, and the Canadian Water Resources Association.

Delcan is an international engineering, planning, architectural and project management firm with offices in Canada, the USA, in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Venezuela, El Salvador, Israel, Greece and locations in Africa.




' 3'

Q.a □

With its distinctive green finish, the AQUACELL P wastewater sampler is clearly outstanding in the field. With a transparent distrihutor dome, you can he assured the sample is collected as required. The choice is clear! 'Available in a variety of bottle configurations and refrigerated formats.

With a phased array transmitter/receptor for automatic cofour compensation, the Royce 7011 TSS analyzer with the 73A sensor provides accurate readings unaffected hy colour changes. With a variety of suspended solids sensors availahie, all with (optional) automatic optics cleaning, they definitely outshine the rest.

1045 South Service Road W., Oakville, ON L6L 6K3 Tel:(9D5) 847-2740 • Fax:(905) 827-6984

Internet: www.cancoppas.com • E-Mail: controls@cancoppas.CDm

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 138 (See page 25)


Industry Update

Zenon opens world headquarters in Oakville

Zenon Environmental Inc. recently opened its

international corporate headquarters and North American Systems Assembly Plant in a spectacular building, in Oakville, Ontario, which is independent of water and wastewater service lines. The new corporate headquarters are located on a 151 acre site of unserviced land. Because of an absence of


municipal sewers, this unserviced location could not oth erwise have been used. However, with Zenon's technol

ogy, all potable drinking water is obtained from on-site wells, and wastewater is treated on site. So, in addition to being able to build on unserviced land, the advanced water reuse technology also significantly reduces the im pact of water discharge on the local environment. As an example of ZeeWeed effectiveness, some ob viously polluted water was poured into a transparent miniature Zenon treatment plant. After the plant started, the treated effluent was directed into a plastic tank con

taining live goldfish. Long after these opening ceremo nies were concluded, the goldfish were swimming hap pily - a bold, but effective demonstration before a large crowd of water treatment experts. Dr. Benedek, Zenon Chairman and CEO, spoke of membranes being natural. "ZeeWeed works much the same way as a tree's roots. Membranes operate by re-


e*'- >


The new international headquarters are independent of water and wastewater service lines.

moving microorganisms from the water source - not by killing them and leaving dead or partially dead organ isms in treated water. The system is even effective against pathogens such as Cryptosporidium, which are difficult to kill by more conventional means." ZeeWeed ultrafiltration membranes have a pore size of 0.035 microns and act as a barrier to microorganisms, which are 10 to 100 times larger in size. Pathogens such as Cryptosporidium cysts and Giardia oocysts, or smaller microorganisms such as coliforms, including E. colt, are filtered from the water.

The key speaker at the opening,Eederal Industry Min ister John Manley, spoke of the need to maintain Cana da's lead in water purification technology at a time when water quality has never been more important. The Min

ister announced a $9.9 million Technology Partnerships Canada repayable investment to advance research at Zenon. The R&D program will concentrate on improv ing energy efficiency and performance standards in mem brane-based water treatment.

The fact that the new headquarters were independent of the normal water and sewerage link-ups, gives new horizons in land use planning. Land slated for indus trial or commercial development could be developed without costly waiting periods for municipal infrastruc ture. This could also result in significant cost savings from land purchase.


practical efficient solution to noise reduction needs.

High Performance Combined with Economy • Outstanding sound absorption • Reduction of reverberation & background noise • Simple installation • Easy maintenance & durability

ECKEL INDUSTRIES OF CANADA LIMITED 15 Allison Ave., Morrlsburg, Ontario KOC 1X0 (613) 543-2967 Fax:(613)543-4173 1-800-563-3574 CAI\I./USA Web site: http://www.eckel.ca/eckel E-mail: eckel@eckel.ca

For more information, circie reply card No. 134 (See page 25)

Dr. Benedek said: "Third World countries do not have

our infrastructure of roads, hydro, and telephone lines, but mobile phones have transcended the need for con ventional phone lines, even in the Third World. Our tech nology could do the same.

"Eighty million people are added to this planet on a yearly basis, causing further strain on an already limited natural resource - water. According to the World Health Organization, there are 3.1 billion people living with no sanitation at all. As a result, approximately 25 million children die each year from waterborne diseases and, in some countries, water quality has been so degraded that it is not even fit for basic industrial use."

For more information, circie repiy card No. 134 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

;okile kmpcralurc 'I'cmpcralurc lite zero (-273 Celsius. 459 ankiii) as zero. See also absolute


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incy. AlJ||||||j|laminol<

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Dedicated to Safe Drinking Water 303-794-7711 • www.awwa.org For more information, circie reply card No. 140(See page 25)

Dagex Inc.introduces...Step Screen'® Future & Step Screen Vertical for solids/liquid separation

The TOVEKO CX sand filter

by Dagex Inc. • Easy to irtstall & operate • Only 2,3 m high


• Minimum wash water

angle between

• Gravity feed • Treats oily waste

40° & 60° is selected to suit individual site



Step Screen Future The variable installation angle guarantees: optimal adjusting to the individual hydraulic situation, such as limited upstream levels due to preceding hoists; operating reliability due to tailor-made layout.

The TOVEKO CX continuous filter is a novel method of

suspended solids removal using sand fdtration. It may be used with or without chemical precipitation according to the application,and is well suited for tertiary filtration in both sewage and industrial wastewater treatment applications. The TOVEKO CX sand filter continuously cleans itself whilst in service, and the sand bed is, therefore, continuously moving. The compact nature of its modular construction provides significant advantages to the user in both space requirements and investment cost.

It is delivered to site largely pre-assembled and tested, thereby minimizing set-up costs. _

, Wash water



Step Screen Vertical Pointing -the-way screening technology for 80° installation. Ideal for narrow and deep channels, big discharge heights and big throughputs.

Reject water Raw water

u u Sandbed

The Step Screen® system

Filtrated water

The success and broad acceptance of the STEP SCREEN system is due to its function,easy-to-understand operation, simple cleaning, (self-cleaning effect is due to the counter

current principle), easy servicing, ability to handle very large screenings volumes and operating reliability. The motor linkage drive has been developed from the proven and patented link system. To the benefit of our customers, we did intentionally avoid difficult-to-maintain chain drives, with the linkage type we are able to master the occuring bending moments on the laminae,in parhcular with high water levels. Distributed by:



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4141 Yonge Street, Suite 307, North York, Ontario M2P 2A8 Tel:(416) 250-7111, 1-800-665-7136, Fax:(416) 250-8111 E-mail: dagex ©istar.ca Web site: www.dagex.ca

4141 Yonge Street, Suite 307, North York, Ontario M2P 2A8 Tel:(416) 250-7111, 1-800-665-7136, Fax:(416) 250-8111 E-mail: dagex® istar.ca Web site: www.dagex.ca

For more information, circie repiy card No. 261 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 262 (See page 25)

\Natet Mains

New Bathurst Street trunk water main To help cope with the rapid growth in York Region

TheBathurstStre tTrunk Water Main will provide improved

water service to the Western Pressure District of New

market, north ofToronto. At the present time this is a "direct-pumped" supply area, based on groundwater from the Yonge Street Aquifer. In other words, all of the supply comes via pumps (in this case from the Kirby Crescent Booster Pumping Station). As a result, the supply available to meet peak hour and fire demands is limited by the capacity of the pumps at the booster pumping station. To increase the supply capacity, the Region undertook a Class Environmen tal Assessment, which identified the

need for a 5,500 m'reservoir at the in tersection of Bathurst Street and Old Bathurst Street. The Bathurst Street

Water Main is the first component of this project - a 1.5 km long, 600 mm (24") diameter concrete pressure pipe that will connect the Newmarket Westem Pres

sure District with the proposed reservoir, which is currently in final design. Initially, the area will still be supplied from the same pumping station, but since peak hour and fire supply can all be de livered from the reservoir, the water sys tem will meet development requirements for a number of years. Eventually, the

The 1.5 km watermain project forges ahead on Bathurst Street, Newmarket. Photo - Tom Davey

chambers are located at each low point in the main, and combination air relief/

ducts, gas mains, local water mains, sewers and hydro poles all needed to be

vacuum breaker valves are at each high point. These allow air to escape from

avoided, and in some cases relocated.

the main when it is filled, and air to en

reservoir are completed,supply reliabil ity and capacity will be significantly improved for the Westem Pressure Dis

ter the main when it is drained.

Another design challenge was the presence of numerous existing utilities in the small corridor that could be used

for the new water main. Bell telephone

Once the water main and the new

trict of Newmarket.

For more information, circle reply card No. 259

Bathurst Street Water Main will be ex tended south to interconnect with the

Westem Pressure District of Aurora. All

Reduce Water Costs and

of this is part of the Region of York's Long Term Water Supply strategy.

Increase Operational Performance by choosing the UTC Sentinel™ System by WATER MATRIX

Mardave Construction Ltd. of

Etobicoke is undertaking the current contract. The constmction value is just



over $1,000,000. The pipe is AWWA

The UTC Sentinel™ is a unique electronic control system used to automate urinal flushing. It offers maximum vandal resistance and efficient use of water.

C301 concrete pressure pipe supplied by Hyprescon Ltd. of Quebec. Some interesting aspects of the de sign are the three deep ravines that the water main crosses. Since the Region wished to keep the water main well off the roadway to allow for future widen ing, the water main drops down into

• Retrofit urinal tanks and reduce consumption by as much as 95% • Retrofit flushometers and reduce maintenance costs, odor problems and drain degradation • Install the UTC Sentinel™ in new construction and you are guaranteed a long term, reliable solution to urinal flushing.

A free trial offer with guaranteed satisfaction makes it easy to choose"WATER MATRIX.

each ravine, where the water main


crosses under large culverts. Drain


1 -800'668'4420

By Ken Campbell and Zoran Filinov,

331-3 Trowers Road, Woodbridge, ON L4L 6A2

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 179 (See page 25)


Energy Management

Using energy audits to benchmark and reduce energy costs

Over the past decade we have witnessed signifi cant changes in the delivery

of water and wastewater

treatment services throughout North America. Market changes are motivat ing plant owners and operators to find ways to increase the efficiencies and

cost-effectiveness of their operations. Efficiency Tools A number of efficiency tools exist including workplace best management practices (BMPs), plant optimization, and plant automation. Energy audits and benchmarking(EA&B)are one type of plant optimization tool that can be ap plied to an existing plant to reduce op erating costs but can also be part of pro grams to upgrade and expand plant ca pacity. In the latter case, the incremen tal costs incurred for more energy effi cient equipment can provide attractive

SPIant 1

I 2000

□Plant 2

Plant 3

01Pant 4

S Plant 5

2 1000

Liquid treatment

Solids treatment


Figure 1. Electrical energy consumption per miliion gallons treated for different proc ess category for six municipal wastewater treatment plants In New York State.


Operating cost reductions identified by the EA&B exercise can vary depend ing on whether they are applied to on going operations or are part of an up grade and expansion program. Eor an existing plant, as well as plant expansions and upgrades,expected elec trical cost reductions of between 10 and

20% can be achieved through: • Reduction of peak demand charges through analysis of the power bill and demand profile. • Modifications of operating and con trol procedures. • Upgrading of electrical equipment through use of premium efficiency mo tors, variable frequency drives, and power factor correction equipment. Results from an EA&B performed in six wastewater treatment plants(and il lustrated in this article) found cost sav ings ranging from 7.8% to as high as 52% of the current energy costs. Conducting an Energy Audit and Benchmarking Program A myriad of equipment is used in wastewater treatment plants, each piece contributing to the total energy con-

By Carlos Filipe, Ph.D., Linda Ferguson, P.Eng., Matthew Elliott, P.Eng. and Steve Black, P.Eng. CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited 52

sumption and, therefore, to the cost of operation of the facility. Clearly, a rational approach is necessary to effi ciently perform EA&B. Ferguson (On line wastewater process monitoring. Environmental Science and Engineer ing, March 1999, pp. 36.) outlined such an approach, and applied it to the study of six municipal wastewater treatment plants in New York State. The plants varied in size and type of technologies used for wastewater treatment. The New

York project will be used throughout this article to demonstrate the structure and

the final products of an EA&B. There are four major components to an EA&B:

1. Preparation of an electrical equipment database.

2. Analysis of power bill and demand profile. 3. Determination of baseline energy use. 4. Development of recommendations for reducing energy costs. The first three items in an EA&B

quantify the current energy consumption and process performance on a processby-process and whole plant basis includ ing treatment efficiency, energy con sumption, peak demand, and equipment/ process load factors. It also includes re view, analysis, and inspection of energyconsuming devices. Existing on-line process monitoring and electrical sub-

metering techniques are used to meas ure "wire to water" performance effi ciency and examine the dynamic inter relationship between the various unit processes and its effect on energy con sumption and peak demand charges for the facility. Benchmarking Benchmarking is a very important product of the EA&B process because it allows for the identification of the dis

tribution of energy uses, which can be revealing and provide clear direction on the identification of energy cost savings opportunities. In the case of the New York State Energy Research and Devel opment Authority (NYSERDA) project, the following plot was prepared as a part of benchmarking the energy utilization at the plants. Figure 1 clearly indicates that the major contributors to the total energy consumption are associated with sec ondary treatment (identified as liquid treatment), and that the variability of cost per unit of flow treated is signifi cant from plant to plant. This is in part due to the fact that wastewater charac

teristics differ from plant to plant and that some plants include a requirement to nitrify while others do not. Nevertheless, Figure 1 clearly indi cates where potential energy cost sav ings opportunities are most likely to be

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Energy Management located (secondary treatment) and that particular area of the plants. Figure 1 also reveals that the mis cellaneous electrical consumption (i.e HVAC,lighting, building and site serv

For facilities more than 20 years old, technological advances have occurred since the original electrical equipment was installed.

ices), calculated as the difference be tween the process related energy con sumption and the total energy consumed onsite is significantly higher at Plant 5 than at the other five plants. Bench marking allows identification of any

variable speed drives on existing retum activated sludge(RAS) pumps at Plant 4 resulted in a potential energy savings of 7.8% of the plant's total annual en

clearly above-average energy consump

ergy consumption.

tion components and paves the way to identification of significant energy cost savings opportunities. Cost Savings Opportunities

rate was controlled by throttling the RAS discharge line to each aeration ba

more effort should be dedicated in this


At this stage, cost savings opportu nities are identified and areas for proc ess improvements are proposed includ ing changes to treatment process con trol and operating procedures,load shed ding opportunities, installing more effi cient electrical and power management technologies, and low capital upgrades to improve efficiency and performance. In the New York project, these recom mendations typically resided in each one of the following major categories; • Maintenance and housekeeping items. • Operating and control procedures. • Electrical equipment replacement. • Capacity related issues. Common maintenance and house

keeping items include inoperable or worn valves on pumps,inappropriate or worn pressure relief valves on blowers, inappropriate valve or gate settings, and worn pumps. The capital cost of replac ing these items is usually small and therefore the payback period for these energy cost savings is usually less than one year. For example, secondary ef fluent pumping modifications were rec ommended at Plant 1, resulting in a po tential energy savings of 3.6% of the plant's total annual energy consumption and a 25% increase in available treat

ment capacity. Common changes to operating pro cedures include modifying pump con trol strategies, modifying wet well op erating levels, providing measurement

It was observed that the RAS flow

sin. The recommendation to install vari

able speed drives was to improve effi ciency of the pumps and reduce the en ergy required to pump against a high head. The capital cost was $7,756 for each drive replacement with a one year simple payback period. For facilities more than 20 years old, technological advances have occurred since the original electrical equipment was installed. Therefore,replacing older electrical motor and drive systems with more efficient units can result in cost

savings, with usual payback periods of less than five years. Excess capacity in one or more unit processes can contribute to increased energy consumption at many facilities. Common capacity concerns include ex cess or mismatched pumping capacity, excess aeration basin volume, and ex

cess solids stabilization capacity. For the New York project,recommendations included taking basins out of service, downsizing equipment, and load level ing. As an example. Plant 5 had recently upgraded from coarse to fine bubble aeration, resulting in decreased air re quirements. The existing blowers were not operating efficiently at the new op erating air requirements so it was rec ommended that one blower be replaced with a smaller unit to increase the effi

and control of miscellaneous air use

ciency of the aeration process,resulting in a potential energy savings of 9.3% of the plant's total annual energy consump tion. The capital cost was $866,000 with a 4.3 year simple payback period.

for common air supply systems, and changes to solids handling procedures (including changes in the recycle streams). The capital cost for these rec ommendations was usually small to moderate and,therefore, the payback pe riod is usually less than two years. For example, recommended installation of

ling filter (because contribution to the overall treatment process was deter mined to be insignificant) resulted in potential energy savings of 5.2% of the plant's total energy consumption. Re moval of the trickling filter reduced pumping requirements, thereby saving

Recommendations to remove a trick

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

energy. The capital cost for the recom

mended operational change was $3,550 with a two year payback period. Energy Reuse Energy cost savings may also come in the form of energy reuse. For exam ple, the recommendation was made to modify three engine driven stand-by aeration blowers at Plant 6 to provide dual-fuel capabilities, the alternative fuel being the biogas generated by the onsite digesters. The engine-driven stand-by blowers became the duty blow ers for the facility, reducing or eliminat ing the need for the electrical blowers. This recommendation resulted in the

elimination of this electrieal component and a potential energy savings of 52% of the plant's total annual energy con sumption. The capital cost was $1.8 million with a 2.5 year simple payback period. Summary A recent and very successful New York State project involving a number of wastewater treatment plants provides an excellent example of how the EA&B process is applied in practice. A rational approach was used to identify signifi cant energy cost savings opportunities in each plant, and the implemented cost savings revealed. The same approach can be used when planning the upgrade and expansion of wastewater treatment plants. In the New York case,identification and integration of energy cost savings opportunities dur ing the design decision process was pur sued as a significant aspect of process selection. For this to be done in the most

informative fashion possible, it is reconunended that an EA&B be performed prior to an upgrade and/or expansion. This will help in determining how po tential changes will interface with ex isting equipment, and the resulting im pact on energy utilization costs. Energy cost savings opportunities identified in upgrade and expansion projects are likely to be significant be cause the designer has larger flexibility in determining how the final process is going to be configured. For more information,

circle reply card No. 176 53




OPERATING SERVICES How do beleaguered municipalities cope with growth? Maintain aging

The Internalift pump is one of the most popular enclosed screw pumps in the United


States. It's efficient and reli



regulatory and employ ment issues? At USFilter

Operating Services, we've anticipated - and solved — those problems. We forge partnerships with communities to deliver and operate safe, dependable, low-cost water supply and wastewater treatment facilities and systems that are under complete capital, maintenance and service guarantees. Our partnerships free communities from complex regulatory demands and can provide needed resources, giving communities more time — and money - to focus on other public needs. Operating Services 800.522.4774 phone

able - even in high-volume applications. Available in a wide range of capacities, Internalift pumps can lift 23,000 gpm of stormwater more than 60 feet.

Continuously welded flights form the interior of the pump cylinder, and the cylinder turns as a single unit. This design offers a variety of benefits over other types of pumps- no leakage, no friction, no jamming, no plugging. Far less maintenance is required, and the enclosed design minimizes safety, odor and weather concerns. Installation is easy.

CPC Products 800.547.1202 phone water_info@usfilter.com e-mail www.water.usfilter.com/wet_weather


Circle reply card No. 330

Circle reply card No. 331




PRODUCTS introduces


the EMU Rotox Self

Aspirating Jet Aeration System for use in CSO installations. The System

The Cog Rake Bar

consists of: Robust EMU

arm to remove flow

Submersible Pump, Heavy Duty Nozzle and Venturi Piping, and Custom Engineered Basin Layout Configurations for Self-Cleaning Action. The pump and discharge nozzles are located in the middle ofthe specially sloped basin to ensure self-cleaning action as the discharge flow from the pump returns down the slope. The high discharge velocity of the flow extends to the end of the basin where the floor to wall radius elevates the flow and divides it in half for the

return trip to the sump under the pump.The return flow has enough velocity to "wash" the floor of the basin down into the sump. The action of the Rotox system is sufficient to mix and aerate the full basin until it can be pumped down and processed through conventional treatment methods. EMU Products 800.841.1550/j/jone 912.227.1661 fax www.water.usfilter.com/wet_weather Circle reply card No.332

Screen incorporates

an articulating rake debris that has been

captured on a bar rack. The rake arm is

driven by means of a cog wheel and pin rack design. A guide track system moves the rake into the bottom of the bar rack and removes the captured debris as it ascends to the discharge chute. The rake arm is designed such that lodged objects, chat would t)^!cally shut down a screen, are passed over iillowing the cleaning cycle to continue. The ru^ed design makes the Cog Rake suitable for a wide range ofapplications in widths up to 30 feet. Optional motor enclosure is available for applications where the drive may be momentarily submerged. Link-Belt Headworks Products 800.207.9490 phone 215.996.1156fax www.water.usfTlter.com/wet_weather Circle reply card No.333







drum sieve is specifically designed to remove float-

is designed to clean the sediments, grit and

ables in CSO events. The

debris out of CSO/SSO/



is designed with 3 mm, 4 mm or 5 mm slotted openings. This configuration offers a very high filtering surface while maintaining a large flowrate capacity (up to 272 CPS per unit). To minimize solids handling and maintenance, rotating brushes return the sieved material directly to the sewer. The brushes provide a complete and reliable cleaning of the drum surface. A clean sieve surface is presented to the flow by the rotating cleaning of the drum surface. The installation of the HYDROVEX RDS is very flexible: it can be installed on an emergency overflow, on an overflow

tanks. Of considerable





maintenance cost than


methods, the

HYDROVEX SFT is designed to tip automatically with no external energy. The total water content of the HYDROVEX SFT is released instantly in the chamber, creating a powerful high velocity wave. The action of this wave produces a shear stress on the floor of the tank which will flush away the sed iments and debris to a sump at the end of the tank. Made of long-lasting stainless steel, more than 350 HYDROVEX SFT units are in operation across

weir or in a CSO/SSO retention tank.

North America.

John Meunier Products 514.334.7230 phone 5l4.334.5070fax ^vww.wate^.usfilter.com/wet_weather

John Meunier Products 514.334.7230 phone 514.334.5070fax www.water.usfilter.a)m/wet_weather

Circle reply card No. 334

Circle reply card No. 335


You can meet major stormwater events with greater peace

of mind with the help of USFiiter. Choosing from the industry's broadest array of technologies, we can create

cost-effective, site-specific systems to prevent or mitigate combined sewer overflows (CSOs) even under extreme

conditions. Wet weather issues are an increasing problem for millions of Americans. In response, we have created a special group to work with consultants, municipalities and

others in developing and implementing solutions. For details, and to contact us, go to our special CSO website at www.water.usfilter.com/wet_weather or call 1.800.525.0658.

.Vivendi water company


Tillsonburg digester upgrade & conversion A conventional approach leads to an unconventional solution

In the summer of 1996, Acres & Associated were retained to

develop an upgrade strategy for aging digesters at the Tillsonburg Water Pollution Control Plant. The

digesters had been in service for some twenty-five years, had served their

fine pore aeration, which allowed excess aeration capacity to be applied to di gester aeration while providing an at tractive payback on the aeration up grade. Fine pore diffusers were also specified for the digesters to maximize aeration transfer and minimize upgrades

useful life, and were in need of a

major upgrade or replacement. Specifically, the floating roof on the secondary digester had developed a leak in its flotation tanks and needed to be replaced. The primary digester had a number of inoperative gas diffusers and the gas handling system required upgrading to comply

sets alkalinity that is consumed during nitrification, providing improved pH control. An interesting feature of the anoxic phase is that digestion rates un der anoxic conditions are essentially the same as aerobic conditions.

Typically, aerobic digestion systems are fed with only waste activated sludge from an extended aeration plant. The Tillsonburg project was unique in that the liquid treat ment train uses a conventional ac

tivated sludge process with pri mary clarification. Primary sludge exerts a significantly greater oxygen load than waste activated sludge, and has the po tential to generate odours and cre ate foaming problems if not prop erly handled. Construction of the upgrade and eonversion started in April

with current Canadian Gas Code

B105 requirements. Addition ally, a short-term biosolids stor age remedy was required until the County of Oxford could develop a more comprehensive biosolids master plan. As part of the Feasibility Study, a relatively conventional approach was used to examine upgrade altematives to determine

1999 and included: • construction of a third new di


• conversion of the existing anaerobic digesters to aerobic/ anoxic digesters;


• installation of a new fine bub

the most cost-effective solution,

while considering operational,

ble aeration system in the second

environmental and social im

ary treatment system;

Existing primary digester roof being removed, withi new

• installation of a new 75 HP pacts. The options investigated aerobic digester in the background. blower with associated piping in included upgrading the existing the existing blower building; to the blower facility. Based on con anaerobic digesters, converting the di gesters to aerobic/anoxic digestion, re ceptual level costing, the economic • refurbishment and upgrading of an placement/conversion to Autothermal analysis indicated that the capital cost existing 60 HP blower to a 125 HP for Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion to convert to aerobic/anoxic digestion increased aeration capacity; and, • installation of a Supervisory Compu (ATAD) and off-site lime stabilization. was approximately $1M less than up Surprisingly, conversion of the existing grading the existing anaerobic digesters, ter and Data Acquisition(SCADA)sys anaerobic digesters to aerobic/anoxic and $500,000 less in life-cycle cost over tem using WonderwareT'^' operator in terface and Allen Bradley'''"' SLC 5/03 was found to be the most cost-benefi 20 years. cial and rated the highest when opera Although aerobic digestion has been eontrollers for automatic control offeed ing, aeration, anoxic, settling and decant tional and environmental factors were used for many years in Ontario, the di considered. gester conversion at Tillsonburg was, to cycles. The new third aerobic digester in A novel approach which was devel our knowledge, the first engineered oped to improve the aerobic/anoxic digestion facility in creased the capacity of the sludge economics of the Ontario. The operation of an aerobic/ stabilization process at the plant, and aerobic/anoxic op anoxic digester is very similar to that of provided significant flexibility for tion was conversion a conventional aerobic digester except sludge storage. Under normal operat of the existing coarse for the introduction of anoxic cycles in ing conditions, the two existing digest bubble aeration sys the digestion process. During the an ers would operate as primaries, with the tem in the secondary oxic reaction cycle, nitrate nitrogen that new third digester operating as a sec treatment train to is produced during aerobic digestion, is ondary through automatic transfer, de canting and settling phases. If the sludge used as an oxygen source, thereby re storage capacity in the secondary di ducing the overall oxygen requirements. By Mike Hribljan, gester becomes fully utilized, the pri Another benefit of the anoxic cycle Acres & Associated mary digesters could also automatically is the production of alkalinity, which off 56

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 2000


Major Equipment Suppliers Tillsonburg Digester Upgrade Manufacturer


ITT Flygt


EDI FlexAir

Aeration diffuser


system Aerzen

Aeration blowers




Valve actuators


Water pumps

Klockner Moeller


Bailey Fischer & Porter


Pressure sensors Air flow sensors

operate in a decant and settle mode to conserve, and maximize digester capac ity. This unique design feature also al lows operations staff to take any digester out of service with minimal impact on digester operating flexibility. To mitigate odours and control foam ing, a very inexpensive and simple ring spray system was installed around the perimeter of each digester that is sup plied by the plant's effluent water sys tem. Odours were encountered during start-up as a result of over-feeding the digester, and with the injection of an odour masking agent, the odour control system was found to be quite effective until process modifications resolved the source of the odours.

The upgrades were placed into op eration over the period of construction with the full system becoming opera tional in March 2000. Operation data



CONTROLLERS offer precise,

is the first caiihratahie pump to display continuous feedrate and pumped volume, as well as operating status and stroke length.

state-of-tfie-art cfilorine

monitoring and control capabiiities, in free or totai chlorine sensor technology.

to date indicates that volatile solids re

duction is well in excess of 40%. We

have observed higher than average di gester temperatures; on start-up,the pri mary digesters quickly rose to 20°C,and as of early June,2000,the digesters were operating in the 30°C range. Higher temperatures obviously favour increased digestion rates, but also create opera tional concerns with respect to foaming and oxygen transfer. As with any new process, the first year of operation will offer new challenges and a tremendous learning opportunity as we work with the operations staff to fine-tune process parameters.

Acres & Associated acknowledges the cooperation from the Town of Tillsonburg, the County of Oxford, On tario Clean Water Agency and Detra

Safe and reliable

monitoring for loss

than $200/yr foporatlng costs] ProMlnent Canada

ProMinent USA

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Builders Inc.

Tei: 412-787-2484 Fax: 412-787-0704


For more information, circle reply card No. 142 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 143 (See page 25)


Equipment Maintenance

What can be done about corrosion In

submersible pumps?

Flygt has had a great deal of

of thumb should also be borne in mind.

General corrosion of an aluminum pump

With metals, it is normally the case that the higher the concentration of corrosive substances in a liquid, the worse the corrosion will be. For rubber and plas tics, however, long-term exposure to

after three months In sea water with low

such as paper and paint production, where colour purity is important. Coatings and anodes A less expensive and more flexible alternative against salt water corrosion is to use a coating on a conventional cast iron pump. This is more flexible be cause the entire range of Flygt pumps can be coated. The most widely used coating is epoxy (a polymer material). Normally, zinc anodes are used in con junction with epoxy coating because of the inevitability of post-production scratches occuiring in the coating. The use of anodes significantly ex tends the life of a coated pump. Between five to ten anodes are implanted at vari ous points around the cast iron structure of the pump. Because zinc has a lower electric potential than cast iron, the con tact between the two materials sponta neously generates a micro current. The presence of the cuixent protects areas of cast iron exposed by the scratches, while


the zinc anodes themselves are "sacrifi-

experience with submersible pump technology, and has ac

cumulated considerable know

ledge about how to deal with corrosion problems. Here are a few tips for endusers about what to watch out for, plus a survey of the materials and techniques which can help counter corrosion risks. A submersible pump's corrosion risk is, of course, determined by the envi ronment it is exposed to and, specifi cally, by the medium it is required to pump. The following liquids can be ex pected to pose a corrosion risk: sea water, hydrochloric acid, some types of solvents, hydrogen sulphide, liquids with a high copper content, bases with a high pH value and some liquids con taining a mixture of acids. In addition to this general list of po tentially corrosive liquids, a further rule

lower concentrations can also result in

quite severe corrosion.

ture, the vast majority of submersible pumping operations are carried out by cast iron pumps. This normally presents no corrosion problems when pumping liquids such as surface water and domes tic sewage. The low oxygen content in raw sewage,in particular, lowers its cor rosion effect to almost nothing. In mining and construction applica

cially" corroded. Impressed current An alternative to using sacrificial anodes is to supply the micro current by

tions, aluminum submersibles are usu

ally preferred. This is, however,for rea sons of weight, given that the majority of these pumps are portables, rather than from considerations about corrosion.

Two of Flygt's stainless steel pumps.

Counteractive strategies Corrosion problems in submersible pumps can be counteracted in two basic ways. Firstly, the entire pump can be manufactured of a corrosion resistant

material, such as stainless steel. Sec

ondly, various other measures can be taken, such as coatings, anodes and/or the use of resistant materials for particu lar components which are especially exposed to corrosion risks. If we look first at the main material of manufac-

By Steve Minett, PhD. ITT Industries 58

The large, main pumps in mines, on the other hand, are usually made of cast iron. This material is robust,inexpensive and, as these pumps are stationary, weight considerations are not significant (and, in fact, in alkaline liquids, cast iron is a more resistant material, being able to tolerate pH values of up to 14, whereas aluminum is resistant only up to a pH

cable from an external power source. This is known as an "impressed current".

value of around 8).

In this method, a non-sacrificial anode

Stainless steel Stainless steel is used as the main

material in submersible pumps for two reasons: firstly, for use in acidic liquids and, secondly, where the purity of the liquid being pumped is a prime consid eration, as in certain process industries.

A test being carried out to develop regu lating equipment for use with Impressed current.

is suspended in the liquid beside the pump. The anode is attached by cable to the pump and the micro current is in troduced into this cable. The impressed current method, however, is compli cated, expensive and requires a lot of monitoring to be effective. In addition.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Equipment Maintenance

Corrosion resistance measures are used in

various combinations depending on the exact nature of the corrosion potential the pump is likely to be exposed to. rings, cables and cable bushings are cru cial components of submersible pumps. They are often manufactured from re sistant materials for use in corrosive environments. In conventional sub

mersible pumps, nitrile rubber is used for the "O" rings, but for pumps de signed for use in acidic liquids, or liq uids containing solvents, the rings are made from fluoro-carbon rabber,known

An epoxy coated, CS-3126 pump from Flygt.

as "Viton"R. As a rule, Flygt submers ible pumps manufactured from stainless steel are always supplied with corrosionresistant "Viton"R,"O" rings. The standard material for the outer

the extra cables required constitute ob structions in the pump well and often get damaged. Consequently, the implanted (sacrificial) anode method,being simpler and less expensive,is normally preferred. Resistant components Rotating shaft seals, rubber "O"

rotating shaft seal is made of a special, corrosion resistant cemented carbide

known as WCCR (Wolfram Carbide Corrosion Resistant). For use in acidic liquids the shaft seals can be made from two types of ceramic: aluminum oxide or silicon carbide. The latter is more

expensive but has the advantage of also being more abrasion resistant. Cable protection Finally, the cable for a submersible pump also needs protection in corrosive liquids. Chlorinated rubber is used as cable sheathing for conventional pumps but Flygt has developed a special "HCR" (High Corrosion Resistance)cable, with sheathing made from a fluorinated ethylene plastic. Tailored solutions These corrosion resistance measures are used in various combinations de

pending on the exact nature of the cor rosion potential the pump is likely to be exposed to. For example,in liquids con taining solvents it is possible to use standard submersible pumps and sim ply insert corrosion resistant "O" rings and fit an "HCR" cable.

Circle reply card No. 144



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For more Information, circle reply card No. 145 (See page 25)


Drinking Water

Automated chlorination system installed at Goderlch water treatment plant

The challenges facing water

superintendents throughout Canada have certainly taken on new importance in recent

months. There are, however, some

water utilities that have always kept their disinfection systems updated to new technology for simplicity, safety, con sistency, and a variety of other reasons. To that end, the search for equipment realistically must consider more than just the "low bidder", to procure a sys tem that meets all of the requirements


of the water system. One such water system is in the town

of Goderich, Ontario. Their history is explained by the Water Superintendent, Lawrence Cox of the Public Utilities

Commission. The system did not re spond accurately in the lower part of the feed ranges. The existing system dated

Regal™ Chlorinators operating with the Regal automatic flow pacing valves.

back to the mid 1980s and was consid ered obsolete.

Cox said:" Chlorination is our pri mary and secondary means of disinfect ing our source water which is drawn from Lake Huron. We chlorinate at four

possible locations in our water treatment processes: at the water intake (for zebra mussel control); at the flash mixer; be-

By Ron Grage, Special Projects Director Chlorinators Inc., Stuart, FLA

fore the filter; and after filtration.

During a routine sales call, Fryston Canada,Inc. of Mississauga, performed a demonstration of Regal Gas Chlorina tors (manufactured by Chlorinators Incorporated), and went on a tour of the present system for evaluation.

made to replace their entire present sys tem. Specifications, product bulletins, and a quote listing all of the equipment proposed, was given to the town of Goderich. As is generally the case in working with municipalities, the PUG was required to seek competitive pric ing. One manufacturer offered a sys tem which looked similar in design and was priced well below Regal equipment. By working closely with the Fryston sales representative, and the Regal

In March of 1999, a decision was

Technical Sales Advisor at Chlorinators

"The source water is of variable qual ity and flows fluctuate so a highly re

sponsive control of Cl^ residuals is criti cal to providing safe, high quality water to the town of Goderich."

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Fax: (905) 853-8807 email: ral@raleng.com web: www.raleng.com

Dedkated to developing practkal solutions to a community's servidng needs. 60

For more information, circle reply card No. 146 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Drinking Water Incorporated, Laurie Cox was now in a position to evaluate both systems by their features rather than price alone. Laurie Cox felt that the decision to

upgrade his disinfection system was more important than just settling for the low bidder's equipment. After he con tacted some of the references, he made

arrangements to take a trip to Michigan to visit an installation, similar to the one

proposed for his plant.

The chlorination was never interrupted for more than one hour."

"The entire system, including full automated control with the Smartvalve,

was up and running within four hours. In addition, this time of four hours in cluded training the sales people, opera tional staff and PUC Superintendent

Laurie Cox, on operation and routine maintenance as well as using all of the features the Smartvalve provides."

The result of this was that the PUC

Laurie Cox concluded:"We installed the

was able to justify higher priced Regal equipment. A 60-day trial period was

equipment using our own staff and have

been impressed with the user-friendly aspect of the Smartvalves. The Regal Smartvalve and new chlorination sys tem have done an excellentjob through out their entire feed range, from a low of 2% feed rate, and a high of95% feed rate."

The system is running well and is working up to the customer's expecta tions. It was purchased well before the end of the 60-day trial period ended. For more information, circle reply card No. 147

offered after installation so that no in voice would be issued until the end of the trial. If the trial was deemed suc

cessful, Goderich PUC agreed to proc ess the invoice for payment. If the equipment did not perform to expecta tions, the system would be removed by Fryston Canada, Inc. at no cost to the


Goderich PUC.

The town of Goderich approved the conditional purchase of the equipment, with start-up scheduled for September 1999. The start-up itself was an issue ofconcern for the utility, as they did not want to shut down their ability to chlo rinate for any length of time. This was now early Fall, but it had been a dry summer and they were still into near peak demands for treated water. Fryston assured Cox that with proper prepara tions, the system would be up and run ning in manual mode within two hours of being on site and instrumentation could also be in full operation that same day, barring any unforeseen obstacles. This was significant, as the plant must continue to chlorinate in order to

meet its permit to operate, not to men tion protecting public health. This was a critical point in the utilities' eyes as the start-up was the yardstick used to help measure the success of the trial in stallation.

Start-up day came and Randy Brace-

well of Fryston recalls,"I was planning

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2^ Individually removable FRP plates Adjustable effluent weir plates

to do the start-up myself, but Laurie Cox allowed us to bring three of our sales people out to observe the installation and start-up process. The installation went well, thanks to the preparations of Laurie and his staff. The 110 volt and

4-20 maDc wiring and plumbing were rerouted to accommodate the differences

between the old equipment and the new. This time-consuming task was the key factor in the success of the system re placement. Tools for the start-up were limited to basic hand tools, such as


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screwdrivers, pliers, and utility knives. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 148 (See page 25)


Drinking Water Regulations

Ontario responds to Walkerton crisis with tough drinking water regulations

Following the Walkerton tragedy, the Ontario govern

from the local municipal council (for municipal waterworks only), approval



from the Medical Officer of Health,two

drinking water regulation, August 8, which will become part of the Ontario Water Resources Act. It puts into law the Ontario Drinking Water Standards (formerly the Ontario Drink ing Water Objectives), which have been updated and strengthened to reflect the most current expertise and procedures in drinking water protection. Introduced in the House by Environ

years of exemplary water quality test results, public meetings and installation of stand-by equipment in case disinfec tion is required. The minimum treatment for drinking



water from a surface water source is

chemically assisted filtration and disin fection, or an equivalent treatment proc ess. There are no exemptions. Water works must have an approved treatment process in place by December 31,2002. Keeping the public informed

ment Minister Dan Newman, the new

regulation prescribes strict and manda tory requirements, claimed to be the toughest in Canada. It makes clear what steps must be taken to test and treat Ontario's drinking water, and what must be done to protect the public when wa ter does not meet acceptable standards. The regulation also identifies who is ac countable for drinking water safety, and supports the public's right to timely and accurate information on drinking water quality. The regulation was posted on the Environmental Bill of Rights Registry for a 30-day comment period even though it will be in force as soon as it is gazetted (scheduled August 26). It will apply to large waterworks that serve most Ontario residents. The govemment will also hold consultations to identify what small waterworks can do to better

protect the drinking water they offer to members of the public. Other measures under Operation Clean Water include the inspection of all municipal waterworks to ensure they comply fully with laws intended to pro tect public health. These inspections ai'e already underway,and will be conducted annually from now on. Drinking Water Protection Regulation Under the new regulation, waterworks in Ontario will have to follow strict rules

to protect drinking water quality. This applies to all waterworks that: • use more than 50,000 litres of water

on any day; or • have the capacity to supply 250,000 or more litres of water per day; or • serve six or more residences.

The major requirements for these waterworks are: 62

Since Ontarians are entitled to know Minister Dan Newman

about the quality of the water they con

Sampling and testing The Drinking Water Protection Regu lation contains comprehensive require ments for the sampling and testing of drinking water. Waterworks must take regular and frequent samples of their treated water and have the samples tested for microbiological parameters (e.g., total coliforms,fecal coliforms/£. coli), chlorine residuals,turbidity, vola tile organics (e.g., benzene, carbon tetrachloride) and other health-related pa rameters (e.g., lead, arsenic). Tests for health-related parameters must be conducted by a laboratory that is accredited to perform these tests. Tests for operational parameters can be performed by licensed operators at the

sume, waterworks owners are now re

waterworks. Laboratories are also re

quired to produce and make readily available a free, quarterly report for the people to whom they supply drinking water. The report must provide basic system and water source information, outline the measures taken to comply with the regulation and summarize water testing results. First reports must be received by the Ministry of the Envi ronment,and made available to the pub lic, no later than October 30, 2000. Waterworks that serve more than 10,000

people must also post their reports on the Internet.

The public can ask to see test results, certificates of approval and copies of the Drinking Water Protection Regulation and the Ontario Drinking Water Stand ards. In all cases where drinking water

quired to provide the Ministry of the Environment with analytical data. Minimum level oftreatment

ing water does not meet acceptable

Disinfection of water to eliminate

standards and corrective action has not

disease-causing organisms is the most important step in the drinking water treatment process. As of December 31, 2002, all drinking water that enters a water distribution system or plumbing must be disinfected through chlorination or an equivalent process that persists as effectively as chlorination in the distri bution system or plumbing. This is con sistent with the most stringent practices in other parts of the world.

been taken, waterworks owners must

Disinfection is the minimum treat

ment for drinking water from a groundwater source. An exemption from this requirement will only be considered if a waterworks meets certain rigorous conditions. These include approval

has not been tested, or where the drink

post public notices in prominent loca tions where they are clearly visible to the public. The Ministry of the Envi ronment can also post these notices. Accreditation oflaboratories All laboratories that test drinking water must be accredited for the tests

they perform by the Standards Council of Canada or its equivalent. Accredita tion involves performance testing and auditing to ensure that laboratories fol low appropriate procedures using ac ceptable methods. Upon gazetting of the regulation, waterworks must immediately begin to use accredited laboratories to test for

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Drinking Water Regulations microbiological parameters. If a water works changes the laboratory it is us ing, it must notify the Ministry of the Environment three days in advance, so that the ministry can follow up with the new lab to ensure it is fully aware of its role and obligations. Notifying authorities about water quality Notification requirements about when, how and to whom reports must

Key Dates - Laboratories Requirement

Effective Date

Upon gazetting

Upon gazetting

Laboratories must be accredited by the Standards Council of Canada or its equivalent to perform tests for microbiologicai parameters. Laboratories must follow mandatory notification procedures when test results exceed health-related standards or indi

cate adverse water quality. In effect 24 hours a day,seven days a week. Upon gazetting

Laboratories must send analytical data for waterworks sub ject to the regulation to the Ministry of the Environment.

ceptable standards are made absolutely clear in the new regulation, and apply 24 hours a day, seven days a week. All

October 31, 2000

Laboratories must be accredited by the Standards Council of Canada or its equivalent to perform tests for certain chemical parameters.

notifications must be made to a "live"

February 28, 2001

person and followed up in writing within

Laboratories must be accredited by the Standards Council of Canada or its equivalent to perform tests for all required

24 hours.


be made when water does not meet ac

When test results exceed health-re

lated parameters or indicate adverse water quality, the following procedures


• If the tests have been conducted on-

•Upon being notified by the laboratory,

site, the waterworks owner must imme

must be followed:

the waterworks owner must immedi

diately inform the Ministry of the Envi

•The laboratory that conducted the tests must immediately inform the Ministry

ately inform the Ministry of the Envi

ronment and the local Medical Officer

ronment and the local Medical Officer

of Health.

of the Environment, the local Medical Officer of Health and the owner of the

of Health, even though the laboratory has already done so.


The local Medical Officer of Health

and the Ministry of the Environment share responsibility for protecting the public. The Medical Officer is respon sible for declaring that drinking water Continued overleaf




SUPERINTENDENT The Smiths Falls Water Commission is a progressive utility serving 2,970 customers. The town of Smiths Fails is an active community of approximately 9,000, located in the heart of the beautiful and historic Rideau Canal.

You will be capable of taking responsibility for ail process control and operation within a modern and technically advanced activated sludge process based 14.7 MLVd tertiary sewage treatment plant, with a pellatization operation for the treatment of solids: in addition to a conventional 18.2 MLVd surface

water treatment plant. As an excellent communicator with effective interpersonal and team building skills, you will oversee facility safety and cost effectiveness ensuring that our quality standards and Provincial compliance limits are achieved. You will direct staff, prepare and maintain budgets and provide analytical recommendations for process and equipment improvements. You will have an Ontario Ministry of Environment Licence as a Class iV Wastewater Utility Operator and be eligible for, and successfully obtain, a licence as a Ministry of Environment Class 11 Water Utility Operator. Your progressively responsible and directly related experience includes an excellent understanding of activated sludge process, surface water treatment, and computer assisted process control. You have applied comprehensive troubleshooting skills In combination with effective leadership and supervisory techniques. Ideally, you also have a strong knowledge of computerized financial and maintenance managed systems, and structured QC and safety programs. Additionally, experience with the implementation and administration of a M.I.S.A. Program would be an asset.

Working in the relaxed and picturesque town of Smiths Falls, we Invite you to bring your skills and professional ambition to our team. The Smiths Falls Water Commission offers a competitive salary and comprehensive benefits package. Qualified applicants are invited to submit their resume by Friday October 6, 2000, at 4:00 p.m. Please send resumes to Mr. David Flartwell, Director, Utility/Environmental Services, Smiths Falls Water Commission, 25 Old Mill Road, Smiths Falls, Ontario, K7A 1Z2. Fax:

(613) 283-0558, E-mail: sfwater.on.ca. We thank all candidates for their Interest, but only those under consideration will be contacted.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

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Drinking Water Reguiations is unsafe and advising the public of any precautions that should be taken, such as boiling water. The ministry is respon sible for ensuring that the waterworks I

ilMltl o k

owner takes corrective action.

iillltiiMiii 0 !!lii<' I


Licensing of waterworks staff who testfor operational parameters The new regulation requires that all waterworks staff who conduct tests for


operational parameters be licensed by the Ministry of the Environment. In ad dition, staff will be required to undergo an additional 36 hours of training in ad dition to the 40 hours annually they must receive now. This ensures they have the knowledge, skills and experience needed to conduct the tests competently. Staff who do not currently hold licences will have to verify their relevant expe rience or training and pass certification exams in order to be licensed.

Review of municipal waterworks Municipal waterworks or waterworks that supply water to municipalities must submit an engineer's report,about their facilities to the Ministry of the Environ ment. Reports must be submitted be tween November 2000 and May 2001, according to a schedule set out by the ministry. Subsequent reports will be re quired every three years thereafter. The ministry will set the terms of ref erence for the engineer's report, based on compliance with the Drinking Water Protection Regulation and the Ontario Drinking Water Standards. The report will be reviewed by the ministry, which will then issue new certificates of ap proval specifying the terms and condi tions for each waterworks. The minis

try can also require waterworks owners to upgrade their facilities.

Key Dates - Waterworks Requirement

Effective Date

Upon gazetting

Waterworks must begin comprehensive sampling and testing for microbiological parameters, using accredited laboratories.

Upon gazetting

Waterworks must follow mandatory notification proce dures when test results exceed health-related stand

ards or indicate adverse water quality. In effect 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Upon gazetting

Waterworks must post public notices if drinking water is untested, or does not meet acceptable standards.

Upon gazetting

Waterworks must make information on water quality, including test results and copies of the Regulation and Ontario Drinking Water Standards, available to the

Upon gazetting

Waterworks that change laboratories are required to notify the Ministry of the Environment, three days prior to change.

Upon gazetting

Waterworks staff who perform tests for operational parameters,(e.g., turbidity, colour), must be licensed by the province.

October 30, 2000

Waterworks must produce and submit to the Ministry of the Environment their first quarterly reports for water

public upon request.

users. The reports will provide the public with informa tion on the waterworks, steps taken to comply with the regulation and summarized test results. October 31, 2000

October 31,2000

Waterworks that are currently not disinfecting their drinking water must provide the Ministry of the Environ ment with written notice of their action plan to comply with minimum treatment requirements. Waterworks must use accredited laboratories to test for

additional chemical parameters. April 2001

Waterworks that provide water to municipalities must submit to the Ministry of the Environment an engineer's report on their facilities. Subsequent reports will be due

February 28, 2001

Waterworks must use accredited laboratories for all

November 2000 -

within three years thereafter.

-for Cost-Effective Pumping ABS Pumps Corp. 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit #7 Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5T 1H3

required parameters. December 31,2002

Waterworks must have approved disinfection and treatment processes in place and operational.

Phone (905) 670-4677 • Fax (905) 670-3709

For more information,

circle reply card No. 150

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000


The destructive effects of roots in sewers Tree roots are the number one cause of main-line sewer stoppages

In a report published in 1977, the United States Environmental Pro

tection Agency states that: "The intrusion of roots into sewers is

probably the single most destructive element that faces those maintaining a wastewater collection system".

There is probably no more unpleas ant task in Public Works than explain

ing to homeowners why their basement is full of raw sewage. Tree roots are the number one cause of main-line sewer

stoppages in America. Sewer stoppages flood homes or, in the case of storm

sewers, intersections and yards. Tree roots can also be a factor contributing

to grease problems and problems with sediment accumulation. Roots impede flow,causing the sewer to become slug gish and septic. This enhances grease accumulation and also the generation of hydrogen sulfide. Tree roots can cause considerable

structural damage to a sewer pipe. In the same way that tree roots can lift and fracture cement sidewalks, they can separate and crack sewer joints. Roots enter sewer pipes as tiny, almost micro scopic, hair-like structures. These roots appear to be fragile, but their appearance can be deceiving. If you've done any hiking in the mountains, you've seen tree roots penetrate crevices in giant granite rock. The roots split the rock and keep

growing despite the tremendous weight of the rock above them.

One obvious similarity between tree roots and sewers is that they are both underground, and they are not visible to the unassisted human eye. This presents a challenge to Public Works officials seeking funding for underground utility maintenance.

It's easy to see the damage that roots inflict on sidewalks. The damage in flicted on sewer pipes is much more in sidious and expensive. Considering the replacement costs for underground utili ties, most municipalities have more money invested underground than above ground. Root problems are often unknown until a basement floods. By then, much of the damage has been done. Even a

By Kevin Duke, President Duke's Sales & Service, Inc.

Truck arriving on site with foam injection equipment for root ciearing. television inspection doesn't tell the whole story. When a sewer is televised, the roots visible on the monitor are only the tip of the iceberg. It's the heavy, woody root structures inside the joints and girdling the outside of the pipe that cause the structural damage. How roots grow Most plants have one of two main types of root systems: the fibrous-root system and the tap-root system. Plants with fibrous-root systems, such as garden plants and weeds, are not normally associated with sewer prob lems. Fibrous-root systems generally do not penetrate deeply into the soil. In stead, they occupy the upper layers of the soil and extend outward from the

If the total root system of a four month old corn plant (including lateral roots and feeders) were elongated into a sin gle strand, the total length would be 400 to 600 feet. For a ten-acre field, it could

add up to 5,000 miles or more. A root system will leave no stone untumed in its search for nutrition.

The top of the plant is definitely more dependent on the root system for its sur vival than vice versa. We have all seen

this when trying to remove a willow tree without pulling out the stump. The stump will continue to send up new shoots,despite continual cutting. Roots, are the most tenacious and longest-lived life forms on earth. The root systems of some of the grasses of the American

uniform in size and fibre like.

Great Plains are thought to have re mained alive for thousands of years.

In plants with tap-root systems, the primary root of the seedling grows di rectly downward into the soil. Branches, or secondary roots, grow laterally from

each is detrimental to a sewer system: they anchor the tree and keep it upright, they store food for the plant, and they

base of the plant. The root shoots are

Tree roots have three basic functions,

the primary root. Tap-root systems are

absorb and conduct water and nutrients.

well adapted to deep soils and soils

The anchoring role is particularly true of trees and other plants with tap root systems. Trees are subject to tremen

where the water table is relatively low. The secondary root structures can grow to several inches in diameter and can ex

dous wind forces, and can survive vio

ert enough stress to break a sewer pipe. The extent of a root system can be truly amazing. Most plants have as much mass below ground as they do above ground. The primary root of a corn plant, for example, may penetrate the soil to a depth of four to eight feet.

lent storms without being uprooted. When large tree roots invade shallow

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

sewer pipe, stress can be transferred to the pipe. Similarly, the seasonal expan sion and contraction ofroots as they store food during winter months can cause Continued overleaf 65

Sewerage structural damage to sewer-pipe joints. Eighty-five to ninety-five percent of a plant is water, and the soil moisture content is an important determinant of root growth. Below a certain moisture level, the root hairs and feeder roots will die, and a certain amount of water is held

so tightly by soil particles that the roots cannot absorb it rapidly enough to pre vent wilting. Roots also tend to grow faster and deeper in dry soils or during dry periods. Nearly all water loss in the first six to eight inches of soil is due to absorption and transpiration by plants. During dry seasons, roots burrow downward more rap idly. The activity of surface roots slackens, spurring deeper roots to greater activ ity. This is one reason, in

causing microscopic vapour trails to

Mechanical methods

form. This is one case where water

Mechanical methods of removing roots, such as rodding, dragging, etc., relieve the problem temporarily, but they also encourage regrowth. Just like mow ing a lawn or pruning a hedge,each time roots are cut, they grow back quicker

flows up hill. The meristem encounters this vein and follows it upstream to the sewer. Microscopic openings in sewer joints only a few cells wide enable hair like roots to buiTow their way inside. Why do roots like sewer pipes so much?

• Once inside a sewer pipe, roots have a perfect hydroponics environment in which to grow. •The roots are suspended in a well-ven tilated pipe and have a reliable source

and fuller. Better results are obtained

with full gauge cleaning tools that are able to cleanly cut the root flush with the sewer pipe, such as an 8-inch cutter in an 8-inch pipe; however, this is often difficult because of offsetjoints and pro truding taps. More importantly, cutting the roots inside the pipe does nothing to retard the growth of roots within thejoints and outside the pipe where the structural damage occurs. Chemical methods of

addition to accumulation of

root control in the US

solids, why Public Works staff may experience a rash of sewer problems after a drought.

foaming products and meth ods were developed through

In the late 1960s, the

research conducted at the

University of Southern Cali fornia at Davis. The goal was to develop a formulation

Some trees like willows

and swamp maples have ex treme water needs. A full

grown willow can consume hundreds of gallons of water per day. On a terminal sewer, which is the first upstream stretch of sewer, a stoppage may go undetected because

of herbicides that would be

effective and cost-efficient and would also be safe for the environment and the

treatment plants. The products that were de veloped contain metam, or sodium methyldithiocarbamate. The metam is a very

the tree is able to absorb the water. This situation is simi

lar to a septic tank where the solids are digesting on the up Foam being injected into sewer. stream side of the stoppage. Just as roots will wilt below a cer of water containing high levels of plant tain soil moisture level, roots cannot


survive where the soil is saturated. The

• They have a continually replenished supply of nature's most perfect fertilizer and a temperature that is fairly constant all year round. Where a sewer pipe has a steady flow, such as in sanitary interceptor pipe, the roots grow in from the top of the pipe until they reach the flow, and then they form a veil across the top of the pipe. They can then dam up the flow and col lect solids until they form a blockage.

roots of most trees do not grow under water. For this reason, roots do not nor

mally cause a problem where a sewer pipe is under the permanent water ta ble; however,roots can cause severe in

filtration problems where the water ta ble fluctuates.

The leading tip of a root shoot is called the meristem, and this is where

the action takes place. The meristem grows one cell at a time in the direction

Where there is a low flow or an in

volatile herbicide which

breaks down very rapidly. It is a soil fumigant and is commonly used by gardeners to fumigate potting soil that has become infected by bacteria or fun gus.

Metam is what actually kills the roots. The metam is a contact killer that

is carried by osmosis. It ruptures the cell membrane, which then allows for

bacteria and fungus, in the soil, to in vade the cell and kill it.

The second active ingredient is dichlobenil, or 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile.

Dichlobenil has a relatively low toxicity, but it is very effective as a growth

of the most favorable environment. It

termittent flow,such as in a storm sewer

inhibitor. The dichlobenil is formulated

is this ability of the meristem, to detect very slight differences in nutrient levels

or a small diameter sanitary sewer, the roots will completely fill the pipe. They grow in from the top, and then they form and travel down the pipe. In some situ ations, roots dug up from service con nections form a perfect tube of roots

as a 50 percent wettable powder, and it is 50 percent active dichlobenil and 50 percent ionized clay. The ionized clay permits the dichlobenil to be picked up by the nearest static charge, such as muck in the joints and root masses, which enables it to adhere to the pipe

four to six inches in diameter and sev


and moisture, that enables the root to

find its way to the sewer pipe. The temperature variance between the flow in a sanitary sewer and the sur rounding soil causes condensation to form on the top of the pipe. This mois ture then evaporates up through the soil 66

a structure that looks like a horse's tail

eral feet long.

When the meristem (root rip) enEnvironmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Sewerage counters dichlobenil, it stops growing. By itself, dichlobenil would not be very effective for killing roots, but in combi nation with the metam, it is a powerful growth inhibitor. Dichlobenil is a re sidual, or persistent, herbicide. It is nonsystemic, meaning that it does not harm the above ground vegetation. Generally, the kill effect goes through the root structure one to two feet outside the pipe. In the United States, metam-based

products must be registered with the EPA and each state in which it is sold.

They must also be applied by certified pesticide applicators. Chemical root control is not a one-

shot cure for severe root problems. Retreatment schedules vary according to the severity of the root problem. Gen erally, if the root problem was severe enough to cause a stoppage, then the pipe should be retreated two years after the initial application and then again in three years. In these situations, the root has established itself in the vicinity of the pipe. When treating for preventive maintenance purposes, which is when small roots are first detected, a period of three to five years between treatments is generally adequate. The foaming application method The real trick to foaming sewer roots is the application method. The operator takes a five percent aqueous solution of metam and turns it into 20 parts foam. In other words,one US gallon of metam is mixed with 20 gallons of water and then injected with air to produce 400 gallons of foam. A five gallon can pro duces 2,000 gallons of foam or enough

to treat approximately 800 feet of 8-inch sewer pipe. A I-inch hose is strung through the sewer pipe, and then the foam is injected as the hose is withdrawn. In pipes up to

in the section being treated long enough, so that the major portion of the metam volatilizes within this section, and the

pletely filled with foam, and the foam travels about 10 feet up the service con nections. The exception to this occurs when working on interceptor pipes or pipes with unusually high flows. For best results, these pipes should be treated at night or during periods of low flow. The foam is what brings the chemical

dichlobenil adheres to the pipe surfaces. When working on interceptor pipes directly upstream from treatment plants, consultation with the treatment plant operator is advisable. The operator should closely monitor the status of the plant and retain the flow at the upstream end of the plant as long as possible to permit the metam to volatilize. Aera tion of the sewer flow may also enhance the degradation of the metam.

into contact with the roots. It has also

Root control and sewer

12 inches in diameter, the sewer is com

been found that the product is much more effective when applied as a foam rather than simply as a solution. The reason is

about chemical root control is that it

that the foam enhances the rate of

does not dissolve roots. The chemical

volatilization of the metam by bringing

kills the roots, but the roots decay natu rally. When treating for preventive maintenance purposes, it is not usually necessary to clean the pipe after treat ment,because dead roots cannot support the weight of a sewer stoppage. When treating for the purposes of

it into contact with air.

Wherever one finds roots, there is

usually some grease or fatty acid. In some cases,the grease problems are very severe in the lines to be treated. Foam

ing herbicides contain emulsifiers to cut through these grease deposits, and the foam has been found to also improve the effectiveness of the emulsifiers.

Effects on treatment plants One of the FPA's concerns when li

censing metam products in the US was their potential effect on treatment plants. Metam products are normally safe for treatment plants, because the active in gredients never reach the treatment plant in detectable or harmful concentrations.

One reason for this is dilution. Five US

gallons of concentrate will treat 800 feet of 8-inch pipe. This holds the chemical


One thing that needs to be understood

sewer rehabilitation, where it is neces

sary to clean sewers after treatment or seal pipes against infiltration, a waiting period of at least eight weeks is recom mended prior to subsequent work. This allows the dead roots to decay prior to cleaning. In some cases, particularly where the pipe is well-ventilated and there is a good flow, the roots do not de cay as rapidly. Generally,dead roots will decay quickest in septic, small diameter sewers with poor ventilation and flow. For more information, circie reply card No. 113

Denso Pipeline Coatings The Single-Source Solution for Pipeline Coatings.

In business for over 115 years and with manufactur Petrolatum Tape Systems

ing plants worldwide, Denso is recognized as the global leader in corrosion prevention. For additional


Information and/ DENSO NORTH AMERICA INC. or technical assistance call Denso at 416-291-3435.



90 Ironside Crescent, Unit 12, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Ml X1M3

15 Woodstock Drive, Sherwood Park, AB, Canada T8A 4C4

Tel:(416) 291-3435 Fax:(416)291-0898

Tei:(780) 910-1717 Fax:(780)449-5300


Bitumen & Butyl Tape Systems

Protal Pipeline Coatings

A Member of Winn & Coales International

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 112 (See page 25)


Hazardous Fire Clean-up

The U.S.E. Hickson fire was

hot, hazy and hazardous

Thick black acrid smoke fil ed

the sky as Team-1 HazMat

crews headed towards the massive U.S.E. Hickson fire in Toronto's east end. The smoke could

be seen 30 miles away, and a plume could be detected that was drifting out over Lake Ontario. As U.S.E. Hickson had retained TEAM-1 some 18 months

prior to this fire, as part of their com mitment to due diligence and Health and Safety, we had good working knowledge of both the plant and its operations. Upon arrival at the fire, we were con fronted with a fully-engulfed structure.


Toronto Fire Service was on site in full

force and battling the huge, probably toxic blaze. Numerous explosions were taking place during the event. A pro pane storage area was also fully in volved allowing propane cylinders to BLEVE (boiling liquid expanding va pour explosion). One such unit erupted in a violent explosion and traveled through the air over 650 feet, nearly tak ing out an aerial truck and a five-man fire-fighting crew. The fire spread to the entire structure in a matter of minutes as the fire crews

pulled back to a safe distance. The fact

that the huge black plume was drifting out over the lake was a godsend. Im-

By Mitchell GIbbs, Manager, Emergency Services, TEAM-1 Environmental Services

Target your environmental risks! ERIS, Environmental Risk Information

Services, is a database service that heips environmentai professionals spot conta mination problems on any property. This service - the first of its kind in

Canada - screens key federai, provinciai and private databases and prepares a detaiied information report for a prop erty and its neighbouring sites. Cali for a free brochure

For more information, ECO LOG

call 1-800-268-7742 ext. 2105 or visit

BtvirairnenBlUsklnforrrationS^rvkeiUd WWW.eCOiOgOriS.COm.

Thick, black smoke could be seen 30 miles away. mediate concerns were established by the Fire Command as suspected sol vents,coal tars and other chemicals were

involved. Huge storage tanks and mix ing vats were very well engineered and thus vented off before they exploded.

servative,toxic coal tar and other chemi

This showed a further commitment of

cals were involved in BLEVEs and tank

the company towards Health and Safety. Plant personnel were also on scene to assist the Fire Command with inventory

failures. Combined with the heat of the

safety data sheets(MSDS) and chemi

fire, the massive amounts of fire-fight ing water and extensive amounts of products and raw goods, the clean-up would turn out to be extensive and very

cal breakdowns.

labour intensive.

and other related items such as material

TEAM-1 crews were immediately put into action. Entering the thickest of the plume area (with proper personal protective equipment), air monitoring was conducted. Using a portable mass spectrometer/gas chromatograph and other related instruments such as a photo

At the height of the fire, massive amounts of run off occurred, and To ronto Works assisted TEAM-1 crews

with diversion and capture but most ef forts were futile. In all, over four mil lion litres of water were recovered and

trucked to a licensed disposal site. A

ionization detector and a flame ioniza-

substantial but undetermined amount of

tion detector, numerous samples were extracted. Elevated VOCs were de

contaminated water did enter nearby creeks, storm sewers and eventually

tected but not at alarming rates. All re

Lake Ontario.

sults were made available to the Fire

The Ministry of Labour (MOL) played an extensive role in the fire miti gation and they and the Ontario Fire Marshal (OEM) were the only regula tory agencies that would enter the site. What all were faced with was a huge

Command on a regular basis. Armed with the results, the Fire Service set up Decontamination Stations in the warm

zone for all exiting personnel. Once the fire was relatively con tained, the site was mrned over to the

unstable structure with massive amounts

Eire Marshal, Bill Hiscott. He instantly realized this was a huge occurrence and

of chemicals and numerous spot fires. Several chemicals had flowed together and tanks and pipes were leaking. As the commander of the incident (post fire), the task of entering the building

that hazardous materials were involved.

As such, the Fire Marshal was going to rely on our expertise and emergency For more information, circle reply card No. 182

services for support. We set up for what was to be over six weeks of mitigation. The plant suf fered massive damage to over 90% of the operation. Huge tanks of wood pre

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Hazardous Fire Clean-up and stabilizing of it was the first task. The instability of the chemicals, the con tents of drums and the partially exploded containers were second. The problem of preserving the scene to allow the

to enter and depart via decontamination areas. Site security was provided by Toronto Police, a private security agency and TEAM-1 HazMat crews. Logistics were complicated when the strict re-

The Fire Marshal reported fire dam age in excess of 10 million dollars. A good portion of that was environmental and thus the customer's prearranged re lationship with the Emergency Spill

OFM the arduous task of determin

Contractor allowed for a seamless

ing origin and cause was insurmount able. The constant offsite migration of both vapours and wastewater was

transition from fire scene to environ

a continued concern.

ciates, under the direction of David

At the height of the clean-up, TEAM-1 had over 15 personnel on scene. Strict protocol was in place and set by the MOL. A full-time MOL

Dubois, worked with TEAM-1 per sonnel on sorting and classification of wastes and raw goods and eventual offsite disposal of wastes both hazard

officer was stationed at the scene and

ous and non-hazardous.

mental mitigation. An environmen tal consulting company. Colder Asso

no on-site activity could take place

The fact that the Hickson opera tion had accessible MSDS sheets, a

until both the OFM and the MOL were

on site each day. The MOE also had pre-arranged spill response plan and a presence there. To further compli a contracted agency, along with ex cate the clean-up efforts, the U.S.E. tensive product knowledge, contrib Hickson operation was allowed to uted to the safe and efficient outcome continue in a separate part of the prop of this unfortunate occurrence. Sen erty under a MOL directive. This Personnel on site had to be fully protected with ior management and the company appropriate gear. alone was a factor in the logistics of owners were excellent to work with on-site personnel and allotment of PPE. quirements by the MOL prevented sup and provided us with the tools to allow Any and all personnel that entered the port workers from outside agencies from for a safe and expedient mitigation with site were required to be in chemical pro entering unless they were clean-shaven minimal impact on the community and tective clothing and air purifying respi and properly fit tested for respiratory the envirormient. rators (full National Fire Protection As protection. Try telling a 300-lb. trucker For more Information, sociation LEVEL C),and were required that he has to shave to get on site. circle reply card No. 154

The Workhorse


For water disinfection, wastewater treatment, odour

control, cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.



Professional Products Division 6400 Northwest Drive

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4V 1K1 Tel: (905)678-2051 Fax:(905)678-0898

E-mail: javex-12info@colpal.com Web site: www.colgate.ca/javex Plant Locations: Moncton, Montreal,Toronto,Edmonton

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

For more Information, circle reply card No. 255 (See page 25)


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&Eat(905)727-4666.


Instrument Rentals

Water and Wastewater Tanks

Response Rentals Ltd. rents, sells, and repairs Instruments for environ mental monitoring and sampling and

IS09001 manufacturer of factorycoated, bolted steel tanks for all

for Industrial hygiene applications. Response Rentals also offers port


able instruments for cleanroom moni

toring and certification. Equipment may be rented on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. All Instruments are meticulously maintained and cali brated before they are sent to a cus tomer. Most ship overnight for nextday delivery. Visit our web site at: www.responserentals.com. Response Rentals Ltd. Circle reply card No. 191

Instruments for: •EetiraatntnUl MocitMini:•Wutt Quality •Induurfal H}gH»e*Ectr{y Man.i^tnKnt

Columbian offers our Z-Bond 493

system. Specifications and draw ings on diskette or our web site. Columbian Steel Tank Company Circle reply card No. 192

Urecon pre-insulated pipe

The economic advantages of HOPE pipe

Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocable'® heat tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. \Ne also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insulated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to MO'C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page


stages of water treatment. Tanks for digesters, clarifiers, aeration, waste holding, equalization, potable water, etc. Capacities from 4,000 to 2.4 million gallons. Columbian's Trico-Bond 478 coating resists cor rosion over a wide pH range. For extra exterior corrosion protection,

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association's (CPPA) new brochure focuses on the structural and cost

savings advantages of corrugated high density polyethylene pipe. Leading the Underground Revolution highlights current statistics and infor mation on the strength, cost-effec tiveness, ease of installation and

adaptability of polyethylene pipe.

at: www.urecon.com.


Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 194

Circle reply card No. 193

ALTECH celebrates 15 years in business

Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Ofrau txastowdisi qesttn^i

draining, absorbent trickling filter designed for efficient treatment of residential/communal sewage

ALTECH is multi-faceted with expe rience in site assessments and

Int^atcd Solutions' for Business and the Environment

remediation (in situ systems), envi ronmental engineering. Environmen tal Auditing and EMS development (ISO 14001 implementation Includ ing CEA's on staff), and a full range of CMS services.

wastewaters and landfill leachate.

The patented, lightweight, synthetic filter medium optimizes physical properties for microbial attachment and water rentention. Important fea tures include long-term robustness, low maintenance, remote monitoring, and small space requirements. Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 196

ALTECH's crea

tive approach to solving problems ensures delivery of cost-effective solutions.


The ALTECH Group Circle reply card No. 195

Sequencing Batch Reactors

Iw JttUVBR-KEED . - V)Ycar\<<0>n> ( ■> Destta.'MinilY'lMKUatii-a mJ Scoxia;;

- Over

Rraclut frocwioj;;

' Dll> n.\TCil'''.iSc<9thiwnmhM.bfc<lt<iiriogka)R IMcrMiAf Cut .Mnaac^tal ft tc > (^SRUii itrufa-.

Sequencing batch reactors by Napler-Reld offer state-of-the-art technology for biological processing of municipal and Industrial wastewater. Key features include: acti vated sludge process without clarifi ers, batch fed process, and modular construction. These SBRs offer high performance at low energy, low op erating and low maintenance, small footprint, full nutrient removal, and maximum process stability. Napier-Reid Ltd. Circle reply card No. 197

Waterloo Biofilter® The Vt/aterloo Biofilter® is a free-

When Timi on


• Aa Mtnulvctesiplteent of

r^idpaent & dHlcilH ecw. ^

•TSL'TBBltip'cmpFr.ie balilic*.

gf 3b

• Coatnctrd le retlK, Hrc

u4 Indumy for land and Ba BaiincmpoRM,

• Rapid S( hew reipvnie.





• Openteref The

Eawrgrocy Serdtte |

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TlAM-1 Enviixiumenlfll Services Inc.

Emergency Response Team-1 Environmental Services

offer an extensive compliment of equipment and dedicated crew. TRUE multiple response facilities. Contracted to police, fire and Indus try for land and marine response. Rapid 24 hour response (Ontario's only Mobile Decon Trailer). Opera tor of The Emergency Service Train ing Academy with three fully equip ped locations. Team-1 Environmental Services Inc.


North America Widn Respoiieti

Circle reply card No. 198



Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&Eai(905)727-4666. Cyanide Removal OVAJ

Using sodium hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes

Zebra Mussels

A "Sohition" for

To help control zebra mussels,one


solution involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite,

is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

which kills the larvae. We are con

ages, equipment,as well as stor age, safety and fiandling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive

sulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this prob lem, or be kept Informed of the lat est Information, please contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 183

Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 184


EIMCO FlexKlear® inclined

Odour Control

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is detailed in a technical bulletin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air collection needs.

Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 185

plate settlers Baker Proccw

Features: Hinged plates can be nc netl Plate Sett er

shifted to shed accumulated solids;

lightweight corrugated stainless steel plates; ported launders dampen Ir regular velocities, enforce uniform flow; rugged, modular stainless steel support system speeds Installation; adapts easily to rectangular or square basins; combines readily with Trac-Vac™ sludge collectors; pilot plant available. Baker Process

Circle reply card No. 186

New Laser Nephelometer Applying new technology In laser de tection and fiber optics, the new FilterTrak 660 Laser Nephelometer enables drinking water and wastewater utilities to monitor water




quality with greater accuracy, reliabil ity and economy than ever before. The new instrument operates with 150 times greater sensitivity than a conventional turbidimeter, and It Is optimized to measure turbidity in the range of 0 to 1 NTU. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 188

Circle repiy card No. 187 Pipe & cabie locating system

Fiowiine Level catalogue

Equipped with the most productive features you require, the Metrotech® 9800 XT Series Is the only advanced locator available with both Real-Time

This four-colour, 130-page catalogue provides a comprehensive overview of the complete range of Fiowiine products. Including level transmitters,

Continuous Gain Adjustmenf^'^ and

level switches,flow switches, control

Manual Gain control. Take control

lers, and fittings. Introductions for each product grouping contain help

of all your locates with the rugged and highly accurate 9800 XT series. Designed for production locating, it exhibits enhanced sensitivity and un complicated line Identification. Heath Consultants Limited

Circle reply card No. 189

ful reference information, such as a

glossary of terms and application specifics and recommendations. In structions for accessing the Fiowiine Level Superstore on the internet are also provided. Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 190

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000


Product and Service Showcase Indirect design method

New pipe design manual

PIpePac 2000 software

Design Data Number 40from the Ameri

The 13th edition of the Concrete Pipe Design Manual for engineers who select the type, size and strength requirements

Engineers are able to calculate the load on the pipe(soil, live, etc.) and determine what class of pipe from ASTM C76 (AASHTO M170) is required, without "directly" designing the reinforcing steel. Cost for Association members is $3.00; non-members, $6.00. ACPA

of concrete pipe, is now available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. The 536-page design manual has been updated to provide the most current tech nical data and design aids needed to as sist engineers in preparing efficient and cost-effective drainage solutions for sani tary sewer, storm drain and culvert ap plications. ACPA

PipePac 2000 software from the Ameri can Concrete Pipe Association is an en hanced version of ACPA's popular PipePac software. It offers integrated analysis using three independent pro grams forD-load calculations(3EB),es timating the material costs ofthe pipe and embedment zones (CAPE) and the real cost of the materials specified over the design life of the program(LCA). Pipe Pac helps you select the right material for a buried infrastructure system. ACPA

Circle reply card No. 245

Circle reply card No. 246

Circle reply card No. 247

Large digester covers

Centrifugal blowers

New pump from ITT Flygt

can Concrete Pipe Association provides information that allows designers to take advantage of the indirect design method using four new Standard Installations.

With flows up to 160 Lt/sec., and


heads up to 45m, the N-3153 can be installed In either

70'(21 m) gasholder recently being in stalled. Sizes to 110'(33.5 m)are oper ating; larger are available.

Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Com pressor and Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at dis charge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air and gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as sewage aera tion, combustion drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, cooling and pneumatic conveying for more than 90 years.


Holffman Industries of Canada

GL&V/Don'-Oliver is the leading sup plier oflarge primary and secondary(gas holder) digester covers manufactured of steel or stainless steel. This modem de

sign features external stiffeners and a clear uncluttered interior surface for minimum maintenance. Photo shows a

Circle reply card No. 248

Circle reply card No. 249

Pump selection software

The tough just got tougher!

wet or dry pit sta tions, making it suitable for retro fit of older sta

tions. The design of the hydraulic ends of the N-series pumps improves the flow of liquids, which reduces the risk

of clogging, especially when pumping liquids with high fibrous content such as sewage. Because of the high pumping efficiency, reduced maintenance costs are achieved. ITT Flygt

Circle reply card No. 250

The best keeps getting better

ABSEL, a pump selection software


program devel oped by pump manufacturer,

ABS Pumps, and offered free, sig Usera' Manual nificantly stream lines the pump se lection process by enabling pump specifiers and users to automatically cal culate friction loss in a system. By auto mating extensive,time-consuming calcu lations, ABSEL helps to ensure the ap propriate selection of an ABS pump to achieve optimum system operating effi ciency. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 251 ABSEL ABS Selection Program


Armtec introduces Bridge-PlateÂŽ which they claim is the strongest corrugation available in the bridge market today. It is available in arch and box shapes, 3.5 times stronger than structural plate, more than 10 times stiffer than structural plate, and claimed to be the strongest and stiffest product on the market. Armtec built the first Super-SpanÂŽ bridge in the world and is taking the bridge market to new heights. Armtec Circle reply card No. 252

BOSS sewer pipe is a corrugated ther moplastic pipe manufactured from high density polyethylene (HDPE). Engi neered for gravity flow systems, BOSS pipe is available in standard 4-metre lengths in sizes from 100 mm to 900 mm nominal inside diameter. The corrugated exterior provides excellent pipe stiffness characteristics, with 320 kPa at 5% de flection available in all sizes of BOSS 2000 and POLYTITE. Armtec

Circle reply card No. 253

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Product and Service Showcase Polymer casing spacer

Trenchless Technology

Insituform Technologies' proprietary trenchless technologies make it possible to reconstruct underground sewers and other pipes without digging or disruption. The Insituform®, NuPipe®,Paltem®, and

Tite Liner® processes are used by wastewater, gas, and industrial customers worldwide. For more information, visit our website at: www.insituform.com.

Insituform Technologies,Inc. Circle reply card No. 200

Package Wastewater Plants

Need to support pipes passing under road crossings or casing installations? The New Ranger II Casing Spacer is an all non-metallic UV resistant polymer cas

ing spacer. Patented segmented pieces are lightweight, easy to stock and can be

quickly assembled by one person with out any special tools. Ranger II casing spacers come in four different molded segmented sizes. Pipeline Seal & Insulator, Inc. Circle reply card No. 201

Zebra mussel control

Adapted to Your Needs A Swuhon for ZEBRA MUSSELS

To help control

Denso Petrolatum Tapes

Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible,Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines,mills,refineries,steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Circle reply card No. 202

Low cost AutoFlash

evaporation process

zebra mussels,

The AutoFlash is

one solution in

a time-proven evaporation sys tem with the capa bility of using low-grade, reject,

volves the use of JAVEX-I2 so

dium hypochlorite, which kills

We have supplied Package Sewage Treat ment Plants worldwide. The Package Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treat ment. It is economical, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any loca tion unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Sanitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 203

the larvae. We are

waste heat as the

consulting with experts to estab lish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept informed of the latest information, please contact us. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

only source of en ergy for phase separation. This exclusive feature makes evaporation a very viable treatment method for TDS (total dissolved solids), over 4,500 milli grams per Utre. The proprietary,self-regu lating device causes the AutoFlash to be able to operate outside of steady state con ditions in a highly stable manner. Donson Engineering

Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 204

Circle reply card No. 205

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Signal converter

The Inlet Storm

nal converter from

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as

Danfoss eliminates worries


choosing specific

the well-known In


line Interceptors. Developed to treat

protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in

mn-off from an area

of up to 0.30 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor

aeration tanks. De

signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor,this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to -i-70°C with

+ 0.r accuracy. Davis Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 206

Submerged Stormceptor® system

The use 6000 sig



has inherited the in

ternal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are currently more than 4,500 units installed throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 207

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Developed for sub merged and partially submerged storm sewer pipes, the new Submerged Storm ceptor System em ploys the same oper ating principles as the well-known In-line

and Inlet Stormceptor systems. Compared to the In-line system, the Submerged Stormceptor has two modifications: an extended weir and a

second drop pipe to enable it to capture oil and sediment during high tailwater conditions. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 208


Product and Service Showcase Potable water - Portable plant

EAGLEBROOK* Vour S/ng/e Source

EAGLEBROOK* Your Single Source

Odor & Corrosion Control Bnhancing Primary

0)ic Simple Solution For Two

Reduce Costs and

Major Problems.

improve Treatment.

Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Standard sizes treat from 20 gpm to 500 gpm. Each Monoplant contains flash mixing,flocculation, clarification, and filtration systems. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 209



www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 210

www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 211

Spring 2000 Catalogue

Centrifugal pumps

TBTTTCQRÂŽ Aluminum Domes

Controlling Odor


find Corrosion

Enhanced Primary

With Iron Salts.

Treatment (CEPT) With iron Salts.

Cornell Pump Company manu factures centrifu

gal pumps for sewage and water, sizes 2" to 42",

vertical dry pit, immersible, hori

zontal, self-prim ing. Exclusive

Free 4-colour Hertz catalogue featuring over 1,200 used equipment items for sale. Equipment ranges from air compressors to eaifltmoving, material handling, aerial, trucks, and much more! All equipment is listed by make, model, serial number, price, and location. The Spring 2000 catalogue includes inforination on lowrate financing program as well as details on rental purchase option. Hertz Circle reply card No. 212

Cycloseal-non-flushed mechanical seals, run-dry seal system, immersible power frames and motors. Cornell Pumps are engineered to be rugged, durable and dependable, backed by an industry lead ing two year warranty.

Multi-stage filter for small systems

Concrete Pipe Design Manual

features include


Circle reply card No. 213

For more than thirty years Temcor has been competitively producing aluminum Domes, Roofs and Covers for Potable

Water and Wastewater applications in a wide variety of climates, successfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum prod ucts are lightweight, corrosion resistant, and maintenance free which translates to

longer life and lower maintenance costs. Aluminum doesn't rust like steel, doesn't

spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 214

Upgrade Now

PipePac 2000 is now available. The new The MS Filter is a solution to a small

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no mem branes to replace, and yet treatment per formance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced populations ofless than 1,500. RAL Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 215 74

The new updated version is available now from the OCPA. This indispensable manual offers the most current

information on the design, manufacture, application and installation of precast concrete drainage systems. Get your FREE copy and read all about it!



concrete pipe association

â– The cho hoice Of 0 lifetime

Circle reply card No. 216

version includes advances such as a new

32 bit operating system for quicker runtime; better help screens; upgrades to the Life Cycle Analysis; and LIVE up dates to cape's pipe costing tables. Call the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association (905) 631-9696, for your free copy or if you have Access 2000 or 2000 Runtime, download PipePac 2000 from www. ocpa.com. OCPA Circle reply card No. 217

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Product and Service Showcase Emergency decontamination

Emergency Services Training Academy

Culvert & pond analyzer


TEAM-1 have constructed and commis

sioned their 2nd Emergency Decontami

Team-l Environmental Services Inc. is

nation Trailer. This unit is almost three

the Emergency Analytical Unit. Recent large scale occurrences in Ontario have provided the need for proper and rapid air monitoring and thus TEAM-1 is ful filling that role.

pleased to announce the commissioning of their new HazMat Emergency Train ing School. Situated in Hamilton, On tario, Team-1 (a leader in HazMat Spill Response)has opened this educational fa cility to alleviate the need to travel to the US for hands on HazMat and Emergency Response Training.

Team-1 Environmental Services

Team-1 Environmental Services

times the size of the previous unit and the new enclosed trailer will also house

XP-Culvert2000 is the only combined culvert and pond analyzer to use the full unsteady flow equations in conjunction with the US-FHWA inlet rating curves. This new powerful package provides a fast and easy to use tool to accurately design and analyze all culvert, bridge waterway, detention basin and spillway projects. XP Software

Circle reply card No. 218

Circle reply card No. 219

Circle reply card No. 220

Mixing Systems

Blower packages

Floating aerators The Aqua-Lator® High-Speed Floating Me chanical Aerator is known for its

rugged construc tion,

SSI manufactures blower packages fea turing Sutorbilt™, Dresser Roots™, Jet Aeration. Jet Mixing, SBR Systems manufactured by Mixing Systems, Inc. Mixing and oxygen transfer independ ently controlled. Energy efficient, low maintenance. No in-basin moving parts. Liquid depths from 15 to 60 feet. Mixing Systems,Inc. Circle reply card No. 221

able. All blowers can be sold bare shaft

as well. The company specializes in aera tion systems, including the design and manufacture of complete aeration sys tems including fine and coarse bubble diffusers.

Stamford Scientific International,Inc.

Circle reply card No. 222

SBR system

Wastewater filters

Sequencing Batch Reactor(SBR)system from USFilter has a shorter concept-tocompletion timeline, is significantly less capital intensive, provides reduced opera tional costs throughout the system's life cycle, and has a more flexible design with a smaller footprint. The system accom plishes equalization, aeration, and clari fication in a timed sequence in a single

Hundreds of municipal, commercial and industrial customers worldwide use Hy dro-Clear® filters, manufactured and sup plied by USFilter's Zimpro Products,for a variety of wastewater applications. Hydro-Clear filters feature a unique underdrain system and a shallow bed of single-media,fine-grained sand,innova tions which permit the filter surface to be "pulsed" or regenerated periodically, prolonging filter runs and keeping the fil

steel reactor basin. USEilter

ter online. USFilter

The steel field-erected OMNIPAC®

Circle reply card No. 224

Circle reply card No. 225

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000


simplicity of op eration. Available

TuthilfiM, and Hibon^*^ blowers. Multi

stage centrifugal blowers are also avail


maintenance and

in a range of horsepower sizes and mate rials of construction, thousands of the

units are in operation worldwide. The Aqua-Lator aerator is widely used in a variety of applications,including aerated lagoons, stabilization basins, SBRs, ac tivated sludge and aerobic digestion. USEilter

Circle reply card No. 223

LO-CAT® system installation

A USFilter LO-CAT® system has been installed at the Westem Gas treating plant in Cayuga, Texas. The system, engi neered by USFilter's Gas Technology Products, treats hydrogen sulfide (H,S) emissions from an existing Glaus unit the first LO-CAT unit of its kind to treat

tailgas emissions. The system highlights the flexibility of the technology. West ern Gas made the decision to use the LO-

CAT system because of its ease of op eration and flexibility. USFilter Circle reply card No. 226 75

Product and Service Showcase Automatic flush control

REGAL gas chlorinator

Staircase fittings The new,easy-to-

use Kee Klamp® staircase fittings are UTC SENTINEL


cast iron, slip-on pipe fittings, de signed for use




Schedule 40 or 80 The UTC Sentinel™ is the automatic uri

nal flush control system (for new con struction, flush valve and urinal tank ret

rofit). One system controls multiple uri nals offering invisible operation and cus tom on-site programming. Never again worry about maintenance costs or odour problems due to unflushed fixtures. Visit our website at: www.watermatrix.com. Water Matrix

pipe(1/2" to 2" diameter). Equipped with case-hardened set screws,the fittings are galvanized at 2 oz. per square foot, mak ing them ideal for indoor or outdoor use. Kee Klamp fittings are a cost-effective and labour-saving alternative to tradi tional welding. Kee Industrial Products

Circle reply card No. 228

cylinder mounted, all-vacuum system in which chlorine gas is drawn through the unit with a vacuum created by the flow of water through the ejector. If the vacuum line breaks or is damaged, the gas shuts off automatically. The system also features a reusable filter that removes

impurities, while permitting flow rates up to 500 Ibs./day. Chlorinators Incorporated

Circle reply card No. 229

Circle reply card No. 227

New BTE Pump/Mixer

The REGAL Gas Chlorinator is a direct

Wastewater treatment system

Self-priming pumps Because Gorman-

Rupp centrifugal pumps are selfpriming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only

I seepex. Inc. has developed and intro duced a new type of open hopper pro gressive cavity pump which incorporates a high volume auger and induction cham ber into the pump design. The unit can be used to pump filter cakes from presses or centrifuges; or, it can be used to mix powders or solids into liquids to form pastes or putties. The pump can handle viscosities to 700,000 cps, paper stock to 12%, and sewage sludge to 32% solids, seepex, Inc. Circle reply card No. 230

The Model R NUTRIGEST system is a pre-engineered wastewater treatment sys tem with nutrient control. It provides cost-effective treatment for flows from

O.I to 5 MGD and the design flexibility offers a variety of treatment processes, including nitrification/denitrification in one concentric space-saving design. It is self-contained, reducing the need for external pumps, valves and yard piping. Smith & Loveless,Inc.

the suction line

down in the liq uid. Service or

maintenance can be performed quickly and simply with common hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and no need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 232

Circle reply card No. 231

All weather sampler

Chlorine analyzer

Filtration broth

When regulatory and research ob

jectives require sampling plus the logging of criti cal parameters, the


900 MAX All

Weather Refriger ated Sampler from American Sigma provides a range of features that include multiple datalogging channels, a graphical inter

face, and menu-type programming. In addition, the fully enclosed refrigerated unit withstands harsh weather conditions

without a secondary enclosure, while maintaining a constant 4°C intemal tem perature. Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Circle reply card No. 233 76

Hach Company's patented m-ColiBlue24® Broth is now the only commer cially available membrane filtration broth approved by the US EPA for the detec tion of total conforms and E. coli. The

USEPA requires levels of total coliforms in drinking water to be zero. To obtain that goal, water must be tested before and after disinfection and also during the dis tribution cycle. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 234

The Hach CL17 Chlorine Analyzer Is an online instrument that utilizes USEPA

accepted DPD method of analysis for measuring free or total residual chlorine. The CL17 has been recognized as the most dependable, accurate analyzer on the market since 1986. The new version

offers the same reliability with even greater accuracy and flexibility. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 235

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Product and Service Showcase Variable area flowmeters

Chlorine residual analyser

Turbidity analyser

ProMinent Dulcometer Model DIC/CTE Chlorine


sidual Analyser is an amperometric type analyzer with a The Variable Area Flowmeter is an in

strument for measuring the flow rate of liquids and gases in pipelines. A move-


able float rises as the flow rate increases

ered probe. It has many features which make it the most preferred instrument. A few key features

in such a manner that the hydraulic forces are always balanced by the opposing force due to the float weight, which is always constant regardless of the flow rate. The height of the float is a measure

include: No reagents or buffer required; pH independent and temperature com pensated; the electrolyte and cap are the only consumables; sample flow is intro duced into probe holder; the analyser is

of the flow rate. The flow rate value can

menu driven and easily calibrated; meas

The ABB Turbidity Systems 4670 Series is a long-term and reliable instrument. A few key features include: provides the operator interface and communications to other devices; has large, custom-de signed,easy-to-read, backlit,liquid crys tal display; easy to program analyser; supplied with auto-cleaning, high accu racy, easy installation, maintenance and

be read from a scale. Metcon

ures total and/or free chlorine. Metcon

calibration. Metcon

Circle reply card No. 236

Circle reply card No. 237

Circle reply card No. 238

Organic fertilizer

Prevent algae build-up

Dissolved Sulfide Monitor


Triple-R organic fertilizer is a biosolid treated and recycled from municipal re sidual matter. Biosohds are dried, granu lated, and transformed into organic ferti lizer using the Swiss Combi process de veloped by Berlie Technologies Inc. Berlie, a Canadian company, also mar kets the finished product. Triple-R is the result of a voluntary choice driven by sustainable development. Berlie Technologies Inc. Circle reply card No. 239

Ford Hall Company is the manufacturer of the Algae Sweep Automation debris control system. The custom-designed, stainless steel, spring loaded system is for use on primary clarifiers, secondary clarifiers and thickeners, whether they be domed, covered, or open to the elements. Patented since 1989,EHC has nearly 1,000

Circle reply card No. 240

Sulfide Monitor provides an on-line in strument for continuously measuring even very low levels of dissolved hydro gen sulfide in water or wastewater. Meas urements may be made from a few PPB up to 20 PPM,with standard outputs and alarms that may be used to control chemi cal feed systems or provide alarms in the event of process problems. Analytical Technology,Inc. Circle reply card No. 241

Jet Mixers

T Series™ solids handling pumps

SRI Control System

The Waterlink Jet Pod Mixer is often used

Because Gorman-Rupp T Series™ pumps

to treat wastewater in the chemical pro cessing industry because it works well in the circular tanks commonly used. A sin gle jet pod (ranging from 16" to 5' in di ameter) can be used for mixing tanks from 1,000 gallons to 1 million gallons. The jets are fabricated of wear and cor rosion resistant materials, allowing them to be used in a wide variety of mixing applications. Waterlink Circle reply card No. 242

are self-priming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only the suction line down in the liquid. Service or maintenance can be performed quickly and simply with common hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and never any need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 243

units installed in the US and Canada. Cur

rently seeking representatives for Canada. Ford Hall Company,Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

ATI's new Series A15/81 Dissolved

The new Model 7700 SRT Control Sys tem from Royce Instrument Corp., is de signed as a complete package which will accurately and reliably control the wast ing process in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. The system has proven, in actual field installations, to stabilize the operation of the biological nutrient removal process. Cancoppas Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 244 77


"For Cost Effective Pumping" _A company in the Cardo Group

Sales & Service

• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps

ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905) 670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

For more information, circie reply card No. 160






High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

the British Columbia Water and Waste Association.


Information and registration, contact Diana:(604)540-0111 or E-mail to: bcwwa ©bcwwa.org or water@bchydro.com.



Superior drying technology and blosoiids management 1225 Industrielle Street, La Prairie (Quebec) Canada J5R 2E4 (450) 659-1986•e-mail: infa@berlie-tech.com • web site: www.berlie-tech.com

Hubert Demard, Tel: (514) 270-7110, Fax: (514) 270-7154, E-mail: bdemard@reseau-




GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 65 Years 342 Bayvlew Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

October 11-13, 2000. Rubber Recycling 2000-A World of Opportunity,Toronto,ON. Sponsored by The Rubber Association of Canada, and Scrap Tire Management Coun cil. Contact: Tel:(905)270-8322,Fax:(905) 270-2640, E-mail: rac@inforamp.net. October 18-20, 2000. 2nd International Quebec-Paris Symposium on Rehabilitation and Development of Urban Water Courses, Hotel Meridien Montpamasse,Paris, France. Contact: RESEAU environnement, c/o

For more information, circle reply card No. 162

Tel:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705) 721-0138 E-mail: iws@iws.ca. Web site: www.iws.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 163



October 23-26, 2000. ISWA International Symposium on Waste Management in Asian Cities, Hong Kong. Contact: www.bong kongwma.org.bk/iswa.btm. October 24-26, 2000. 2000 RCO Trade Show,Ottawa Congress Centre,Ottawa,ON. Contact: Ana Almeida, Recycling Council of Ontario,Tel:(416)960-1025 ext. 16, Fax: (416)960-8053, E-mail: ana@rco.on.ca. October 26-28, 2000. The Canadian Envi ronmental Auditing Association (CEAA), lOtb Anniversary Technical Meetings and Annual General Conference, Calgary, AB. Contact: CEAA. Tel: (905) 814-1274, Web site: www.ceaa-acve.ca.



November 5-8, 2000. 52nd Annual Westem Canada Water and Wastewater Confer



Good used centrifuges and separators for sludge dewatering/thickening. All ma jor brands in stock, many spare parts

Media & Coal Ltd.





ence, Winnipeg, MB. Contact: Dan Mclnnes, Tel:(204)986-4471. November 27-28,2000. EECO 2000 Envi ronment & Energy Conference - business strategies for sustainable economic growth,

International Reserve

Toronto,ON. Contact: Tel: 1-800-274-6097,

Equipment Corporation

E-mail: info@eeco.apfnet.org. Web site:

P.O. Box 198, Clarendon Hills, XL 60514 Tel:(630) 325-7040 Fax:(630)325-7045

For more information,

circle reply card No. 165 78

October 12,2000 Extensive treatment of membrane systems, industrial and municipal case studies and site visit to a pilot plant included. Featured pres entations by Professor Dan Smith ofthe Uni versity of Alberta and other renowned North

American professionals in the membrane

For more information, circle reply card No. 161

For more information, circle reply card No. 164

Membrane Filtration Seminar

industry. Held at the BC Hydro Edmonds Auditorium,Bumaby,BC and hosted by the BC Hydro Water and Wastewater Centre and

Sponge Jet Cleaning

TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617

October 10-12, 2000. Canada's Energy Efficiency Conference and Awards 2000, Ottawa,ON. Contact: Tel: 1-877-633-7440, (613) 992-6130, Fax: (613) 236-8493, Email: oee.expo@nrcan.gc.ca.


Waste Water Treatment


Date Pad

ABS has the most comprehensive range on the market.


November 27-28,2000. 23" symposium sur les eaux usees, 12" Atelier sur I'eau potable. Laval, QC. Contact: www//reseau-environ nement.com.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

industry Update MOE issued an order to the Municipal ity of Brockton to replace 3.5 kilome tres of water pipes in the Town of

Evaluators hired for Walkerton

Compensation Plan

Walkerton within the next seven weeks.

Ontario Attorney General,Jim Flaherty, announced July 26, that a respected in dependent claims adjusting firm, Crawford Adjusters Canada, has been hired to evaluate claims under the prov ince's Walkerton Compensation Plan. The plan will provide financial compen sation to individuals who became sick

The order was issued because this sec

tion of piping could not be effectively swabbed as part of the continuing de contamination program.

Andjust how inert is inertfill? continuedfrom page 36 would make sense and create the desired

or lost loved ones.

Walkerton to get 3.5 km of new water mains Water sampling teams have been visit ing homes and businesses in Walkerton, Ontario as part of the ongoing decon tamination program underway in the town. "I said earlier we were prepared to go door-to-door to restore confidence in the water supply," Environment Min ister Dan Newman said. "This testing is an important part of our commitment to the people of Walkerton." In some areas, the water distribution

system is being rebuilt with new piping and water samples will be taken after installation is complete. On July 24,

consistency in a useable format. Sec ondly, the criteria in Regulation 347 need to be refined when this testing is considered mandatory. Important questions to consider in the international marketplace

October 22-24, 2000. Atlantic Canada Water Works Association

Annual Conference, Charlottetown, PEI. Contact: Tel: (902) 479-0166, Fax: (902) 477-7245, E-mail: acwwa@hfx.andara.com. Web site: www.acwwa.ns.ca.

soil generated, the level of expertise of the parties involved,the depth of the site owner's pockets, and/or the willing ness to take risks by the developer/ constructor?

In particular, if we want the hopes for the 2008 Olympic Games in Toronto to become reality and not bankrupt our selves by moving the entire Port Lands

When subsurface soils are excavated

and/or the West Donlands to a landfill

from such obvious potential areas of

site, the legal framework for the engi neering challenges related to the testing

concern as former industrial lands that

are operated by responsible corporate citizens, excavated soils usually will be tested, monitored, and dealt with appro priately during construction. But what about everywhere else? Should there be a standard protocol for testing soil be

sistent and efficient enough to give us a chance to compete in the international arena. In this context, did anyone won der: What are Beijing's testing and quality criteria for the reuse offill

fore it is moved as inert fill? Should


this protocol depend on the quantity of


and reuse of fill materials should be con

Circle reply card No. 173


Ego Waste Oxidizer E C O WAST C The has approval for use in SOLUTION 5 Ontario by MOEE. The

system complements existing recycling pro grams. Under 50 Tons/Day are a specialty with energy recovery encouraged. Services for MOEE Air Permits are also available.


WWW.aquaticsciences.com Environmentally Sound Waste Destruction For: ' Residential Waste ■ Commercial/Industrial Waste

• Medical Waste • Institutional Waste

■ Animal Waste ' Environment Canada Verified

• Industrial Waste

E-mail: waste@ecosolutions.com Web site: www.ecosolutions.com

The Aquatic Sciences Inc. website displays o wide range of Environmental Analytical Services for utilities, industries and municipalities. Link to e-mail for specific enquiries.

Aquatic Sciences Inc. Tel: (905) 634-7022 Fax:(905) 634-0831 PO Box 2205, 250 Mortindcle Rood, St. Cothorines, ON L2R 7R8

Eco Waste Solutions Inc. 5195 Harvester Road, Unit 6, Burlington, Ontario L7L 6E9

For more information, circle reply card No. 266 (See page 25)

905-641-0941 Telephone 905-641 -1825 Facsimile www.aquaticsciences.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 267 (See page 25)

CAiy ADi Am


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Industry Update

Eaglebrook enters into an alliance with Applied

Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

Lvaler resources planning Lvater supply, transmission and treatment ivastewater collection and treatment

Biosciences Eaglebrook,Inc. has entered into a stra tegic alliance with Applied Biosciences Corp. of Ogden,Utah. The alliance will present solutions for the treatment of wastewater, derived from a technology combining chemical and biological products. Clients using iron and alumi num based coagulants supplied by Eaglebrook now have access to cuttingedge bioprocess and bioremediation technologies. Applied Biosciences is an environ mental biotechnology company provid ing microbial and enzyme-based solu

electrical engineenng, instrumentation and controls

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ganic products to the next level. Chemi

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middle-class grass? You can tell a lot about a person's socio economic status and political beliefs by how they maintain their lawn,says Allan Greenbaum in his Sociology Ph.D. dis sertation, The Lawn as a Site for Envi ronmental Conflict. He says the recent

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weed-free lawn. Greenbaum's research shows that

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toward social democratic principles as sociated with the political left. Business and Bay Street professionals, on the other hand, prefer the uniformity of the perfectly manicured lawn, and lean to ward the fiscal conservatism of the right. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000


Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Coliingwood Tel.(705)444-2555 EMail: lnfo@cctatham.coni

Orlllia Tel.(705)325-1753

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Industry Update

Career Advancement Employment Services Inc.

CAES. Engineering

Permanent & Contract Placement Recruiters

Canmore's Town Council has voted to


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Canmore approves fullservice utility agreement



accept a 10-year agreement with EPCOR Water Services. The agreement is the


first of its idnd in Alberta and will see


the company provide complete utility services to Canmore: water and waste-

"Specializing in Environmental Candidates for Environmental Clients"

CH2M Gore & Storhe Limited

Environmental Engineers, Pianners and Scientists 255 Consumers Road, Toronto, Ontario M2J 5B6

phone:(416) 499-9000, fax:(416) 499-4687 direct dial: (416) 499-0090 + ext.

water treatment, storm drainage, biosoiids composting, and utility metering and account management. The deal is worth $1.5 million per year and could save the Town over $1 million in oper ating costs over the first five years of the agreement. The contract was scheduled to begin May 15, pending approval from the Al berta Energy and Utilities Board.

Barrie • Calgary • Ottawa • Thorold

Federal initiatives

Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo

for clean air

Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc. Dredging (since 1971)

• Dewaterlng • Pumping • Weed Harvester •Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction •High Speed Decanter Centrifuges

Tel:(506)684-5821 E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca

Fax:(506) 684-1915 Web site: www.GlROUXINC.com

in partnership with National Research Oouncil Canada

Crechem Technologies Inc.

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Simulation-assisted Design • pollution prevention/treatment • cleaner manufacturing/processing innovative environmental technologies


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Anderson announced a Smog Action Plan June 21, for federal departments in Ontario, new funding for expanding daily air quality prediction services across Canada, and additional steps to reduce the health effects of microscopic air particles that contribute to smog. These programs are in addition to an integrated clean air strategy announced by Minister Anderson in May. Speaking at the Toronto Smog Sum mit, the Minister announced an initial $1 million toward a framework to ex

tend daily air quality forecasting across Canada within the next year.

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Environment Canada works with

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provincial and municipal agencies to provide air quality and smog advisories across Canada. Daily air quality pre dictions go further and allow people to take expected air pollution levels into account in day-to-day planning, just as they do with the weather forecast or the UV Index. There are successful pro grams in place in Ontario and in New

Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0R6

Toronto • Ottawa


Federal Environment Minister David

London • Hamilton Vancouver • Victoria Corporate Office: 133 Wynford Drive


Toronto, Ontario M3C IfCI

Teh (416) 441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

Minister Anderson also announced

that, starting with Health Canada, Pub lic Works and Government Services, and

Environment Canada, federal depart ments in Ontario will implement a Cor


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1 Communities

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ernment to meet its commitments under

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porate Smog Action Plan to reduce air pollution. The Minister urged the Ontario gov the Canada Wide Standard for fine particuiate matter and ozone to reduce emis

sions by 45% by 2010 or earlier. "Ac tion in Ontario is key to success in the negotiations with the United States of Environmental Science c6: Engineering, September 2000

Industry Update an Ozone Annex to control trans-

Duke Engineering & Services(Canada),Inc. A Duke Energy Company

boundary air pollution," he said. Minister Anderson also announced the Government of Canada's intent to

declare as toxic, the precursors that cause microscopic air particles or particulate matter to form. The precursors are sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx),volatile organic compounds,and


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LA stormwater program uses public education to reduce pollution The City of Los Angeles Stormwater Program has launched its strategy to re



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duce elevated bacteria in Santa Monica

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GAP EnviroMlcrobial Services Inc.^ Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting

ATP' Cryptosporidium & Giardia Microorganism Identification Rapid E.coli recreational water

duct routine activities on their own prop erties in ways that will safeguard the health of the Bay. Among the protective practices the Stormwater Program is seeking to pro mote is composting or recycling of green

pollution is available at: www.LA Stormwater.org.





partnership launches new







"For professional services in environmental

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Geomatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists 'Industrial Water/Wasfewafer Treatment

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waste; a reduction in the use of water

both in and out-of-doors; the regular maintenance of private septic systems; and the proper disposal of all domestic animal waste. Because many homeown ers in the canyon keep horses on their property, it is essential that they store the manure and soiled bedding in wa terproof containers and either use it for fertilizing their own acreage or arrange to have it collected by the City's Bureau of Sanitation. A full description of the various means by which the Stormwater Program is working to reduce ocean

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The National Biosolids Partnership (NBP),a not-for-profit consortium of the Water Environment Federation(WEF), Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies, and US Environmental Pro tection Agency(EPA),launched its Web site: www.biosolids.org on July 26, 2000. The NBP goal is to advance en vironmentally sound and accepted man agement practices for biosolids.

Noise Vibration and Acoustics ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics

Howe Gastmeier Chapnik

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

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Industry Update

Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design


human health Smog will cause 1,900 deaths across Ontario, draining the health care system

and economy of more than $1-billion says the Ontario Medical Association. That yellow halo surrounding large cit

Consulting Engineers 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontatio, Canada LBS 1G5

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Air quality and

ies such as Toronto - commonly known as smog - contains harmful sulphur and nitrogen oxide, according to York Uni


versity Environmental Studies Profes sor Grant Sheng. He says increased ve hicle use and coal-fired electric genera


Designing Environmental & Energy Solutions Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905) 475-7270 • Fax:(905) 475-5994 E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.conti

tion plants are among the root causes of our air pollution problems. "If this chemical soup can peel paint and erode concrete, think of what it is doing to our lungs," he says. Contact: sheng@yorku.ca.

Stormceptor and Eco Waste Systems awarded •environmental site assessments

ETV certificates


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The federal Minister of the Environ

Engineering Inc.

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ment, David Anderson, presented envi ronmental certificates to five companies for their successful completion of Cana da's Environmental Technology Verifi cation (ETV) Program. The ETV Pro

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gram verifies specific technologies and provides vendors and buyers with the as surance that a technology performs as originally proposed. Recipients of

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Established by Environment Canada and Industry Canada in 1997, the ETV Program accelerates the introduction and application of innovative technologies to address Canada's environmental priori ties. At present, 26 companies have re ceived Canadian ETV certificates; 22 of these are Canadian, three from the United States, and one from China.

Minister Anderson also signed two ETV Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) with the Govemment of Korea and the State of New Jersey. These

agreements will ensure that once tech nology vendors pay the cost of entering one ETV program, they will not be re quired to pay the same cost in subse quent programs elsewhere. This,intum, provides a level playing field to ensure Canadian companies remain competi tive when seeking markets in Korea and New Jersey. Contact: www.etvcanada.com.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Industry Update

India accelerates phaseout of ozone depleting substances India will phase out production of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) with the help of a (US) $82 million grant pro vided by the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Proto col. The project will be implemented through the World Bank, which is a trus tee of the Ozone Trust Fund. The India CFC Production Sector

Gradual Phase-Out Project is the third of its kind to be implemented by the Bank, following similar operations for China and Russia. Together, these three projects will help phase out more than 80 percent of the remaining global CFC production. The project will provide financial compensation for CFC producing enter prises for meeting annual production ceilings that were agreed between India and the Executive Committee of the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund. It

also includes a technical assistance pro gram, to be implemented by the Minis try of Environment and Eorests, with the assistance of the United Nations Envi

ronment Program. This program will help the Indian govemment implement its comprehensive CEC production moni toring and evaluation system, including a CEC Production Quota System. India is the second largest CFC pro ducer in the world, following China. Although India's CFC consumption in creased significantly in the 1990s, on a per-capita basis, it remains among the lowest in the world. CFC consumption in India has started to drop, in line with its intemational obligations under the



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Montreal Protocol.

Globally, CFC consumption has dropped by 90 percent since 1986.



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mainly in industrialized countries, con sumption in developing countries has peaked and begun to drop, heading for a complete phase-out by 2010 as man dated by the Montreal Protocol.

Biosolids Update For further information on the article:

TEL:(905)668-9363•WHITBY•Fax:(905)668-0221 E-mail: tsh@tsh.ca Web site: www.tsh.ca


ECDs in sewage biosolids, page 32, ES&E, June 2000, please contact Tony Ho at: (416) 327-2759, E-mail: hoto@ ene.gov.on.ca, or Dr. Edward Topp at: (519) 457-1470 ext 235, E-mail: toppe @em.agr.ca. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

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Industry Update Ontario MOE orders

vironment Minister Dan Newman. "1

also be produced from this process.

corrective actions at

am determined to make water treatment

Wastewater would be treated in two

facilities in the province conform to the highest standards. We are issuing field orders that will tell operators what needs to be done. And we'll do follow-up in spections to make sure that our orders are complied with," the Minister said.

ways. The sanitary or sewage waste-

72 waterworks The Ministry of the Environment has issued 72 orders to water treatment

plants,requiring them to take corrective action to meet provincial requirements. Further orders are pending. As of July 21, the Ministry had completed inspec tions of 241 of the province's 630 water treatment plants, and found deficiencies at 131 of them. The remaining plants will be inspected by the end of the year. The four most common reasons

In cases where there is failure to com

ply with a field order, the Ministry can take action up to and including prosecu tion under the Ontario Water Resources

Act. For this first round of inspections, the ministry went to water treatment

plants that had been found to have defi

water treatment plants were found defi cient by ministry inspectors were: • In 74 plants, inspectors found an in sufficient number of bacteriological or chemical samples being taken and analyzed. Plants which were not sam pling often enough for bacteriological

ciencies in past inspections.

substances - those most likely to cause

northern desert, and operates 18 hours

health concerns - have been ordered to

per day, six days a week. Like all major

comply immediately; • 29 plants were found not to have ad

manufacturers, a tremendous amount of treated water is needed to produce the trucks- more than 500,000(US)gallons

equately maintained their disinfection equipment, e.g., there was no alarm to signal a chlorination failure or there was no back-up system in the event of such

Water solutions for

Chrysler's Mexico plant The Chrysler plant in Saltillo, Mexico makes 30 trucks each hour in Mexico's

how advanced filtration assists indus

tries not only to comply with everstricter permit requirements, but also to recover investments in supply water through wastewater recycling. USFilter guarantees the system will

meet high-purity process water specifi cations, a significant consideration be cause the reliability of Chrysler's over all process depends on specific water quality at each individual step. Sani tary wastewater and industrial wastewater are treated with a variety of proc esses including biological treatment,

river. As a result, the Chrysler plant was

sis. The plant uses a wastewater recov

ery system that includes multimedia fil tration followed by reverse osmosis.

faced with a water dilemma. It needed

to ensure not only that it had an adequate

water were not chlorinating the water,

amount of water for the manufacturing

or plants using surface water were not treating it with coagulation, floculation

process, but also that it followed govern ment regulations for discharge of

and filtration - this was the case in 24

wastewater into the environment.

"This is not good enough," said En

water and then is used in the manufac

turing processes. For outgoing wastewater, 70 percent of the water or more than 100,000(US) gpd are treated and reused in the plant. The plant illustrates

precipitation, clarification, chlorination,

a failure;

appropriately certified by the MOB or had inadequate ongoing training.

and purified to yield 88 percent of the

per day, yet it is not allowed to discharge any wastewater to the low flowing local

•in some instances, plants using ground-

plants; • in 24 cases, plant operators were not

water would be treated and then used

for irrigation. The industrial wastewater would be treated and reused in the plant. The incoming well water is filtered

USFilter developed a $10 million water and wastewater recovery system

that would incorporate water from deep on-site wells, creating a convenient source of water. Drinking water would

multimedia filtration, and reverse osmo

Air pollution milestones In his plenary address, presented at the Vent 2000 Conference in Helsinki, June

5, entitled M;7esto;ie^ in Industrial Ven tilation Research, Howard D. Good-

fellow,Ph.D.,P.Eng., gave his audience a surprising flashback to ancient venti lation systems.

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• Industrial/l\/lunicipal Wastewater Management • Watershed and Stormwater Management

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tion for centuries, and quoted the Ameri cana Reference Book of 1904-1908.

"In the matter ofventilation, we may

learn wisdomfrom the practice ofthe ancients. We pump airfrom the cel lar, the depositorium of noxious gases. They admitted it through the roof, the highestpoint ofatmospheric purity. From time immemorial in Egypt, the air was allowed to blow in at the topic of the house through large funnels. This method is con tinually employed on ships at sea, our first record thereofhaving been pro posed by Desaquliers, in 1734 A.D. - the forcing offresh air in to force foul air out." Dr. Goodfellow is VP, Stantec Glo

bal Technologies Ltd., and a member of ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 2000

Concrete Pipe is For Life

That's Heavy Sure concrete pipe weighs a lot - it's as solid as a rock! That's what gives it the durability and longevity it's so well known for. It doesn't deflect. It won't deteriorate. Once you install it, it just stays put, doing the job for which it was intended - for the rest of your natural life, the next generation, and those to come. Ohhh baby... that's heavy.



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For more information, circle reply card No. 158(See page 25)



ALUMINi STRENGTH OF STEEL, CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ALUMINUM Field tests prove ALUMINIZED STEEL™ TYPE 2 corrugated steel pipe delivers superior longevity. Corrugated steel pipes Inspected at 52 sites In 15 states showed the superior corrosion resistance of the ALUMINIZED STEEL™ Type 2 coatlng. *easec/ on field studies of42 - 45 year instaiiations, Aiuminized Steer Type 2 service life is estimated to be 75 years minimum at l.6mm in the 5-9 pH and > 1,500 ohm-cm resistivity rahges. For more information, contact the

Photos of two-inch diameter coupons

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Sales Offices: Nanalmo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbrldge, Grande Prairie, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Guelph, Toronto, Peterborough, Ottawa, Quebec City, Montreal, Sackvllle, Halifax, St. John's and Bishop's Falls. For more information, circle reply card No.159(See page 25)