Science & Engineering Covering Canada's multi-billion dollar a year environmental protection industry since 1988. June 2000
Special ES&E comment on the Walkerton tragedy Sustainable strategies for the pulp and paper industry Miiton's Big Pipe opens up development lands Ferric sulphate reduces odour complaints Do existing EAs offer enough protection? Effective water suppiy disinfection /
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June/July 2000 Vol. 13 No. 3 Issued June, 2000
tragedy - See page 7
Cleaner water for Olympivfacilities - see page 33;
The Walkerton tragedy - by Tom Davey
Chlorine has saved countless lives
Disinfection of weii water
Guest Comment - Emergency air monitoring at toxic fires
WEAO conference attracts over 700
ES&E's conference another success
Highlights from BCWWA
The forest industry & global warming
Auger Monster saves reams at mill
60% of forests to be certified by 2003
Bill Borlase, P.Eng. City of Winnipeg
The fate of ECDs in sewage biosolids
Alan Church, O.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.
George v. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.
Cleaner water for Olympic facilities
Dr. Howard D. Goodfeliow
Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc. Peter Laughlon, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE
Big Pipe opens development in Milton
Why pumps can run rough
Ferric sulphate reduces odour
Cover Story - Unique V-box channel CSO facility provides 4000 m^ of
Literature Reviews Product Review
Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY
Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON
E-mail: email@example.com Circuiation Manager
Technical Advisory Board Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.
Stantec Global Technologies Ltd Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical
CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited
R.V. Anderson Associates
Stanley Mason, P.Eng. Terminal City Iron Works
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business pubiication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editoriai coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mall Sales
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Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this pubiication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, (plus $3.15 GST) USA $45.00 (US)for one year. Ail advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3U6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271,
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The Walkerton tragedy is no longer an isolated problem
Theentire Canadian watertreat
ment industry came under public scrutiny following an
outbreak of E. coli 0157:H7 at
Walkerton, Ontario, where several died
and over 2,000 were made ill. This tiny, lethal bug was usually associated with poorly cooked hamburgers, but the tragic events in this small Ontario town brought
airwaves and in print. Some genetic engineering in the world of semantics took place as the story unfolded. In both early print and TV reports, E. coli 0157:H7 was cor rectly described as a lethal bacterium, but as the story grew, the bacterium was
national awareness and out
rage that this could ever hap pen to Canadian drinking
In addition to the heartbreak
ing tragedy of children and the elderly being stricken, there are other factors which must be
added to the pain,suffering and medical costs. A small, but
prosperous town was virtually brought to a social and eco nomic standstill by a tiny bac terium about two microns in
size, while ironically, the big gest new growth industry in town was the news media.
Reporters and videographers seemed to propagate like bacteria in a petri dish as they
of our water problems could well be the reduced role of engineers and scientists in government bureaucracies. Flash back to the glory days of the Ontario Water Resources Commission(OWRC) in the mid 1950s, which later evolved
into the Ontario Ministry of the Envi ronment(MOE). For decades, the senior people in the OWRC and the subsequent MOE senior bureaucrats, gen erally had strong scientific and engineering backgrounds. Moreover, Dr. A. Berry, OWRC's first Chief Engineer, General Manager, and emi nent scientist, encouraged many in his young team of engineers to obtain Master's degrees in various environ mental disciplines. Their combined multi-disciplinary credentials and talents gave them both practical and scien tific expertise in overseeing the design and operation of drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Some 10 years ago, the dominance of technical and
scientific staff began to erode, as P.Engs, scientists, and chemists were being replaced and relatives. The Mike Harris by highly educated but non govemment was berated in the legislature for what was termed A small, but prosperous town was virtually brought to a social technical people. The trend and economic standstill by a tiny bacterium about two microns continued under David an unprecedented loss of life In size. Photo - Sue Ann Eliis, The Walkerton Herald-Times Peterson's Liberal govern through drinking water. The usual media suspects - budget mysteriously transmuted into a lethal ments, Bob Rae's NDP reign, as well as virus, sometimes in the same sentence. two Mike Harris PC governments. Over cuts, private laboratory services, down A CBC presenter aggressively called the past ten years, capital spending on sizing - were brought in for question ing. What I found interesting, is that for an increased federal government role sewage and water treatment started to decline. As a result, we now have a sew chlorine -for many years the bete noire to protect our water supplies. If the Fed erage and water treatment infrastructure eral Human Resources Minister could of environmental activists, was repeat not easily find one billion dollars in her in dire need of massive infusions of capi edly cited as a paradigm for safe drink ing water. While some media reports grants program,I have serious doubts if tal. The underfunding is notjust in On the feds could find a particular strain of tario, but in many parts of Canada. were thoughtful, sci
thrust cameras and micro
phones at civic leaders, pai'ents
entific, accurate, and
E. coli some two microns in size.
Canadians do not know how well
they have been served in the past nor how little they actually pay for both drinking water and wastewater treatment
sensitive, patches of real ignorance were
problems. Other incidences of E. coli
interwoven with fal
0157:H7 are being investigated in vari
ous parts of Canada. Now we see engi
and distribution. While it is a common
and broadcast ad
neers and biochemists from analytical
laboratories in the forefront of news
sight to see Canadians nursing their plas tic water bottles costing as much as $2 for 200 mL(we in fact paid $3 per bot tle at a sporting event recently), how many know how little they pay for their
By Tom Davey, ES&E Publisher
Walkerton is not alone in its water
media reports, instead of the usual ar ray of self-annointed environmentalists. A more fundamental reason for some
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
municipal drinking water treatment services by comparison? The average home in Ontario uses approximately 250 litres of treated water per person daily. Industrial use and mains leakage puts the per capita use far higher. While these are rough estimates, they give some idea of the enormous scale of the engineer ing required to obtain, treat, and deliver water to customers.
Take the Mega City as an example. Toronto has first-class water and waste-
water treatment facilities and yes, these could be improved further if more in vestment were available. The Mega City has about 5,000 kilometres of water
mains in a distribution system which takes treated water to consumers from
its four treatment plants. Some 5,000 kilometres of sanitary sewers take care of the wastewater, plus another 5,000 kilometres of stormwater sewers.
A vast and complex array of massive pumps, valves,sophisticated instrumen tation, tanks, controls, and other equip ment,is needed to draw water from Lake
Ontario, treat and pump it north as far
as Richmond Hill, some 30 miles away,
water treatment facilities as demon
of Toronto. This water is tested regu larly by highly-trained chemists and microbiologists.
strated over many decades. But the battle for water purity will
The cost to consumers to treat and
parasites such as Giarclia and Cijptosporidium are relentless opponents of
dispose of these enormous volumes of treated water is often just over $1.00 a cubic metre - a fraction of a penny per litre. To do all this at such low prices on a daily basis is an astounding engi neering feat. A buck a cubic metre for a product probably cleaner than many foodstuffs.
'Dirt cheap' is the cliche for the low est value imaginable yet. Try to buy 1,000 kilograms of anything for a dol lar. You cannot get soil delivered to your home for this price. Yet drinking water - usually treated and delivered to medi cally accepted standards - is delivered in both sub zero and sub tropical tem peratures with a regularity not matched by any other service. Canadian tel ephone services are extremely reliable -so are hydro services. But, Walkerton notwithstanding, nothing even remotely
Feedback Dear Mr. Davey: I was thrilled to read your Millennium Memories column and to see your ref
cal breakthroughs spawn. It is all too easy to solely depend on the technologi cal marvels that have been developed;
erences to the formation of the Cana
however, in the absence of human su
dian Water and Wastewater Association
pervision, these technologies can have tragic consequences.
in 1986 from the former FACE. The pic ture of the Change of Office Ceremony displaying the FACE Chain of Office was particularly pleasing to me as I currently hold that same Chain of Office as the President of CWWA and will do so until
May in Regina when I shall pass it to Doug Scott, from Thunder Bay who is the incoming President. Yours sincerely, Ted Gillespie, P. Eng., City Engineer, Camrose, Alberta Dear Tom:
I was browsing through the January 2000 issue, and was struck by a para graph in your editorial Back from the Future - a remarkable past. The para graph I refer to states:"Now,as we con clude the 20th century with fantastic analytical and design capabilities, it is difficult to believe that even in the late
19th century, thousands died from water-
matches the safety and reliability of our
as well as to the east and west borders
As an illustration, I would cite an ex
periment, that tested airline pilots, in a simulator. The test involved flying a highly advanced passenger airliner (simulator)through unfamiliar airspace. The intent was to see what were the con
sequences of complete reliance on in struments. The instruments in the simu
lator's cockpit indicated an all normal situation. This was despite the fact that on the windshield, was projected a mountain, and unless adjustments were made to the altitude of the aircraft, it
would clearly crash into the mountain side. The result? Pilots, by an over whelming majority, believed the instru ments and not their eyes,and yes,the simu lator "crashed" into the mountainside.
I mention this, simply to point out that technology has the capability to pro vide us with safe drinking water, clean
air and safe foods; however,it will never
In light of what we now know,I can't think of a more appropriate statement to highlight the hubris which technologi
replace alert human supervision. Dennis J. Csatari, Water Treatment Technologies Inc.
never end. As bacteria, viruses, and
human health, safe water demands con
stant vigilance by experts and adequate funding from governments. High intensity livestock operations, as well as industrial run-off, are now
seen as growing potential threats to groundwater purity in many parts of North America.
Although no linkage has been made between biosolids land application prac tices and the contamination of the
Walkerton water supply, these practices along with manure handling and other agricultural practices will come under scrutiny as a result of this tragedy. The Water Environment Association
of Ontario Biosolids Committee is pre paring a communication plan with the objective of ensuring that sound scien tific information on biosolids land ap plication practices are available to the media and to the public. We urgently need watershed planning which takes into account the many fac tors involved in water treatment and dis
tribution. We need engineering teams who have a multi-disciplinary approach to all facets of water treatment. We need
to upgrade and monitor the training and skills of treatment plant operators. Fi nally, we need FUCs,councils, regions and other owners to become aware of
the value of quality in all aspects of water treatment services and purchases. The environmental industry has long been beset with the twin problems of protecting public health while catering to the low bid ethos. For consultants,
manufacturers and laboratories, price has too often been the deciding factor. Yet the life cycle benefits of superior pumps, valves, and piping can last half a century, often more. Both in econom ics and treatment effectiveness, well
designed environmental facilities can yield real savings for years. Amortize any savings from inferior engineering over a decade and savings, if any, are likely to be minuscule. Specify equip ment on quality and you could get reli ability as well as significant savings. Add innovative engineering and you could be saving millions, as well as pro tecting public health. â?&#x2013;
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
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- Sample water may be reintroduced to mainline, therefore, no drain required*. - No moving parts.
- Available as plug and play arrangements, pre-piped and assembled. "Call ProMlnent lor details.
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Drinking Water Treatment
Chlorine has saved countless lives
in iittie more than a 100 years
Thefact that water is a mode of disease transmission, has been
400 B. anthracis
known for only a little more than a hundred years. Waterborne diseases such as typhoid fever and cholera were responsible for taking the lives of hundreds of thousands of peo ple around the World, including North America, at the beginning of the 20th century, so the need to disinfect potable water to preserve human life emerged. By definition, the purpose of disinfec tion of potable water is to destroy patho genic organisms and thereby eliminate
\ \Cf = 10 \
pH 6.88-7.4 \
£ histolytica pH8 —
and prevent water-bome diseases.' Chlorine,in the form of hypochlorites, was first used in 1896, as a temporary relief to typhoid epidemics at the Aus tria-Hungary naval base of Pola in the
Cf = 35
Cf = 6 s
S, dysenteriae ph 7 ).01
Adriatic Sea. As a continuous disinfec
1 2 FAG, ppm
tion treatment, chlorination was first in
troduced in 1905, in Lincoln, England, to eliminate a typhoid fever epidemic, which was traced to the water supply. Shortly after this success, chlorina tion and filtration were introduced in the
Disinfection time versus free avaiiabie chiorine residuai (for 99.6 to 100 percent kiii). Temperature 20 - 29°C, pH as indicated'. start and support a fire.
chemical, which possesses a pungent
The third forai of chlorine, which will be the focus of this article, is sodium
odour and a low surface tension. So
as typhoid, cholera, dysentery and hepa titis A. It is considered by many that the adoption of chlorination has been the most significant advance in public health protection.-
hypochlorite (NaOCl). Sodium hy pochlorite is supplied as a transparent, light-yellow solution of sodium hy pochlorite and water, containing from 9 to 15 percent(more commonly 12.5%) by weight available chlorine. Sodium hypochlorite used for drinking water
Forms of Chlorine
disinfection is similar to household
United States and resulted in the virtual elimination of water-bome diseases such
There are three forms of chlorine
used to disinfect water. Chlorine gas
(Cy contains over 99% pure chlorine and is delivered as a liquid in pressu rized containers. Calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl),)contains 65% available chlo rine by weight,is available in powdered form or in compressed tablets, and re quires special storage to avoid contact with organic material as they can react to generate enough heat and oxygen to
bleach, except it is about double the con centration.
As a reference, adding 0.5 ppm of chlorine to a 10 m by 5 m, by 2 m deep swimming pool requires only 2 cups of household bleach or 1 cup of 12.5% so dium hypochlorite. As a second refer ence, adding 1 ppm ofchlorine to 3.8 mil lion litres(1 million US gallons)requires the addition of only 25 litres(6.7 US gal lons) of 12.5% sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is an alkaline 'White, G.C.The Handbook of Chlorina tion, 2nd Ed. Von Nostrand Reinhold. New York, 1986.
^Leidholdt, R. Chlorine - "Special Agent" for Disinfecting Water. American Water Works Association. Vol. 26. No. 6. Pp 40-43. June 2000.
By Caroline Aiepin, P.Eng., M.Eng., and Michael MoNuity, GET, ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd.
''Chlorine Chemistry Council. The Chlo rination of Drinking Water. A Review of Disinfection Practices and Issues.
Arlington, VA, USA.
dium hypochlorite storage does not present any fire hazard. However, it is quite corrosive and should be kept away from equipment that can be coiToded. Overall, sodium hypochlorite possesses less restrictive storage and handling re quirements than chlorine gas or calcium hypochlorite; the risk is minimized due to the degree of dilution. Sodium hypochlorite is an effective disinfectant and a strong oxidant, which is also used for iron and manganese re moval,taste and odour control, and bio
logical growth control, while maintain ing a safe residual throughout the dis tribution system. Chlorine Effectiveness as a Disinfectant
Water-bome pathogens causing dis ease fall into three general classes: bac teria, such as Escherichia Coli, Salmo nella (typhoid). Vibrio (cholera) and Legionella; viruses, such as Hepatitis A; and parasitic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvitm and Giardia lamblia. Bacteria and viruses contami
nate both surface and groundwater, whereas parasitic protozoa appear pre
dominantly in surface water." All three forms of chlorine, when
added to water, will form hypochlorous Continued overleaf
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
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Drinking Water Treatment acid (HOCl). Hypochlorous acid pen etrates microorganism cell walls and attacks their enzymes. It alters the struc ture of the enzymes, which in turn pre vents reproduction, and causes the death of the organism. For chlorine to disinfect water prop erly, it must react with the water for a certain period of time,referred to as the contact time, t. For
taking into account other factors. Temperature of the water is also an important consideration in regards to disinfection efficiency because it affects
Thus, the removal of these pathogens must be achieved through another means than chlorination. Filtration or alterna tive disinfectants such as chlorine diox
whereas in warmer water, it will tend to
ide and ozone have proven to be effec tive in eliminating these protozoan cysts, and can be used in synergy with chlo
the chlorine residual. Indeed, chlorine
will remain longer in colder water,
As for any disinfection practice, implementing a
most water systems, the re quired contact time is usually in the range of 30 minutes.^ It is directly dependent on the
proper water treatment system that takes into account the raw
disinfectant concentration, C.
water quality (pre-oxidation, coagulation/flocculation, fil tration) prior to disinfection is
For higher disinfectant con
crucial in order to allow chlo
centrations, a lower contact time will be sufficient, and for a lower concentration, a
effectiveness as a disinfectant.
rine to be used to its maximum
Chlorination of drinking
longer contact time will be re quired. This is expressed by
water can create undesirable
by-products such as chlora-
the C X t value, which is a
mines and trihalomethanes
yardstick for evaluating disin fection effectiveness against a specific organism, for a spe cific water pH and tempera
(THMs). Chloramines are
formed when chlorine com
bines with natural nitrogen/ ammonia present in water.
ture, because the effectiveness p., .
of chlorine is influenced by
The chloramine residual limit
onne versus pH dissociation curve.
water pH and temperature. The pH of water plays an important role in regards to chlorine efficiency. Free chlorine is defined as hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion (HOCl -i- 001"). The change of equilibrium between the two species can be observed on the pH curve as the pH changes. The effective ness of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as a disinfectant is far superior to the hy pochlorite ion(OCr). It is therefore ad vantageous to have the pH controlled to optimize the effectiveness of chlorine.
ment. It is essential to maintain a mini
is presently set at 3.0 mg/1 in the Canadian Drinking Water Guide lines; however, the limit is expected to be lowered by Health Canada due to re cent research showing toxicity of
mum chlorine residual level in the
water system to ensure continued pro tection against harmful organisms. Other Considerations/ Synergistic
are formed when chlorine reacts with
Chlorine residual is defined as the amount of chlorine that remains in
water for a period of time after treat
On the other hand, trihalomethanes
humic and fulvic acids which originate from decaying vegetation present in sur
Protozoan cysts like Cryptosporidium and Giardia possess harder shells, making it very difficult for hypochlo rous acid to penetrate the cell wall.
face water. Trihalomethanes are sus
pected carcinogenic substances and must be kept at a minimal concentration Continued on page 20
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Drinking Water Treatment
Chlorine gas- a safe, effective disinfection method for weii water treatment
Chlorination has been said by
many to be the most impor tant public health accom plishment in the last century for its role in preventing major water-
borne diseases in North America. Chlo
H II 11^
rine gas has had a long history of suc
ANALYZER SAMPLE SUPPLY LINE
cessful use in water treatment. For small
water systems, chlorine gas has long been the primary disinfectant source because of its low cost, simple opera tion and stability. Since the majority of small water systems use a groundwater source from wells where the water sup ply is relatively clean, only disinfection with chlorine is required to provide a po table water supply to the distribution
chlorine RESIDUAL ANALYZER
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The operation of chlorine gas systems, properly controlled, safely installed and continuously monitored, offer the user an effective, simple and economical method of disinfection and is effective
against bacteria such as E. coli. Chlorine Requirement The chlorine requirement must be established to meet the disinfection
needs of each well or underground water source. Most well sources will
have a chlorine demand consisting of dissolved metals such as iron and man
ganese, perhaps some organic demand from colour or taste, perhaps an odour from sulphides and perhaps a bacteria demand. The total demand from any or all of these sources may be established in the utility's laboratory or in an inde pendent laboratory. Once the demand is determined and the residual require ments, governed by local regulations, are known, the dosage is established by adding the demand and the residual. The quantity of chlorine required is determined quickly and easily with a simple calculation. The formula used is:
MVh = water flow in cubic metres
g/M^ = chlorine dose in grams per cubic metre (numerically the same as milligrams per litre (mg/L)), g/h = chlorine gas feed require ments in grams per hour. So, assuming a well has a pumping
rate of 400 MVh and requires a dosage of 1 g/M' or 1 mg/L, the chlorine feed rate is 400 grams per hour. A 400 gram per hour continuous feed rate will be available from a cylinder of chlorine containing 68 Kg. This cylin der will last seven days before requir ing replacement, assuming 24 hour op eration of the well pump. In most cases, a well pump operates only when the water demand in the distribution system calls for more water. Well pumps nor mally operate intermittently, controlled by a level in a head tank or system pres sure. A chlorine cylinder used under these conditions will be in use for well
over seven days at a 400 gram per hour intermittent feed rate.
MVh X g/M^ = g/h.
By Gerald F. Connell, Consultant, Capital Controls Co., Inc., Colmar, PA, and Ahron Nahmias, Metcon Sales
& Engineering, Concord, ON 14
Most well systems are provided with 100% standby through the use of an au tomatic switchover system. This pro vides for continuous availability of chlo rine by switching to a standby cylinder when the in-use cylinder is empty. Op erating personnel need not be on-site 24
hours per day nor on weekends,and they can replace the empty cylinder during normal working hours. Installation of Chlorine System Normally, there are two methods used to add chlorine to well water - at
the well pump discharge or into the well suction. Addition into the discharge line requires the use of a booster pump, while addition to the well suction requires some special installation considerations. Either method is effective and can be
easily adapted to the local situation. Installation with a booster pump adds chlorine as a chlorine solution from a
gas feed chlorinator to the discharge line from the well pump,downstream of the well pump check valve, (see Figure 1). The booster pump is used to feed the chlorine solution created at the vacuum
producing ejector by activating the booster pump only when the well pump is started. When the well pump is oper ated, the rate of pumping is constant, the proper chlorine proportion is added with a manual,fixed feed rate gas chlorinator. Installation without a booster pump uses the well pump discharge line pres sure and injects solution back into the well below the pump housing and away from the well casing(see Figure 2). The nature of this type of installation usu ally dictates that the well be shallow. Provision must be made in the install-
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
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Your competitive edgt.
For more information, circle reply card No. 108(See page 25)
Drinking Water Treatment and drained for service. This "corp cock" assembly allows such service.
. INSECT ,
T screens! GAS VACUUM "vTUBING
AUTOWATl SWITCHOVER MODULE
CHLORINE RESIDUAL ANALYZER
4. Automatic switchover is recom
mended to provide 100 % standby. 5. Signals from the system are easily provided to indicate a loss of chlorine in the water system, chlorine leak, and an empty container. These signals can be used to alert the appropriate person
D OUTSDE ANALYZER
AUTOMATIC VALVE SHUT-OFF SYSTEM SAFETY CYLINDER
6. Pressure gauges and pipe strainers are recommended for water supply to the ejector.
CHLORINE SOLUTION LOOP
7. All installations should use a chlorine
gas detector, an automatic container valve operator and a chlorine residual
monitor. The chlorine gas detector alerts
operating personnel to any leak that may occur. The automatic valve operator closes all container valves upon which the operator is mounted and when acti
Figure 2 ation so that a vacuum breaker or anti-
siphon ejector is used in the system. Since the system uses well line pressure, the need for a booster pump is elimi nated and the cost of installation and op eration reduced. A slight loop in the so lution discharge line from the ejector should be provided in the installation to allow the ejector to operate against a "flooded" condition. This prevents er ratic ejector operation. Installation
Some points to consider when install
The PC Pump that Doesn't Devour Spare Parts
ing a gas chlorinator are: 1. All hydraulic conditions such as dis tribution line pressure, booster pump suction and discharge piping size must be thoroughly reviewed. The booster pump must be sized to provide sufficient water flow and pressure for the ejector operation. 2. The chlorination system must take its suction and discharge downstream from the check valve.
3. A corporation cock assembly must be used when the line cannot be isolated
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8. All manufacturer operating and serv icing instructions should be met by the utility. Training on the use of all safety equipment is a must for such items as gas masks and escape masks as well as the Chlorine Institute Emergency Kit. 9. Finally, as a method of providing a record of the quantities of chlorine be ing fed,scales are available that continu ously indicate the amount of chlorine remaining in a container. 10.The manual systems described above are easily converted to automatic pro portioning systems by the insertion of a proportioning valve in the vacuum line. Summary Chlorine gas is the simplest method available for chlorination of water. A
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For the nearest seepex distributor call:
vated by contacts such as a chlorine leak, fire, earthquake, etc. These automatic operators meet fire and building code requirements and eliminate the need for costly scrubbing systems. The chlorine residual monitor allows the utility to ensure that water going to the distribu tion system is properly treated and pro vides assurance of a properly function ing system. In addition, a permanent
large majority of the small systems in the United States use chlorine gas. The safety performance of chlorine gas sys tems over the last 80 to 90 years has been excellent. Since chlorine does not dete
riorate over time, the utility need not concern itself with problems associated with product degradation. Trained lo cal service personnel are readily avail able to assist in start-up, training, and service needs.
For more information, circle reply card No. 109
For more information, circle reply card No. 141 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Emergency air monitoring at toxic fires Who you gonna call? You'll be surprised
During disasters such as the recent Ontario fires at U.S.E.
sary, how can this be done when they won't expose the unit to any suspected
to go into areas of concern. We ask how the regulatory agency that controls the
Hickson in Scarborough,
environment can be so restricted while
and the Plastimet fire in
Hamilton, police and fire officials anx iously awaited the arrival of the Minis try of the Environment. During these events, the air quality that the emergency personnel are fac ing is often suspected of being toxic. Several calls are made to the Ministry
The TAGA units do contain numer
ous expensive pieces of analytical equip ment, but they are only as good as the samples which they extract. The two or three staff members in the unit are not
outfitted with any personal protective equipment, nor are the units themselves positive pressure sealed. Put yourself
of the Environment to
have their Emergency Response Person(ERP) dispatched to the area. When the ERP per son reports in to the po
conducting both investigations and dayto-day control of the environment. Lets get back to the million dollar buses. The three units, apparently, all test for different components of what could be in a fire. So if you are lucky enough to get a unit on site, you might want to know if the unit tests for organics or inorganics before it is sent. So one must
lice or fire command
really know what is burning and what the by-products are before you can request a unit that may be in Kenora
unit, he or she will state
that the Ministry of the
As an Emergency Responder and one who has been to many occur
Environment does not
monitoring. Depending on where your occur rence is, you might get the luxury of having a Level 2 respond(Ham
rences (both Plastimet and U.S.E. Hickson),
ilton area has disbanded
gency response, to is sues such as spills and
we find that there is a
dangerous misconcep tion in the field ofemer
their Level 2). A Level 2 is an officer with some
basic air monitoring equipment. The equipment is not effective as the officer has no personal protective equipment, and thus their hands are tied.
If the situation warrants, the million
dollar air monitoring bus will be dis patched. If you are lucky, one of the three units will be in Toronto. One typi cally might wait 12-14 hours for a re sponse to the scene. These buses, along with the MOE, are not front-line response units. They are typically situated throughout Ontario to conduct air sampling in various re gions. Upon arrival at the scene, you will see the Million Dollar Air Moni
toring Unit, also known as Trace Atmos pheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) unit, parked in an area in which there are no potential toxins. If the MOE is sum
in their place. Would you drive into a plume or another risk area knowing that you, the operator, will take any toxic hit long before the community does? You will see them drive through your neigh bourhood but if there are readings or evi dence of elevated levels, they will be gone before you are. Recently, U.S.E. Hickson in Scar borough (April 09, 2000), sustained a reported 10 million dollar fire which emitted a thick black plume and forced the evacuation of ten homes. At the time
of writing, the MOE had not been on the actual fire site. The local officer who
was very effective in her handling of the fire clean-up had never been trained or outfitted with the basics of personal pro tective equipment other than NFPA level
To be able to get accurate sampling and readings, one must enter the area in which the suspect toxins are present. By not placing properly trained MOE offi cials with proper equipment into the plume or the fallout, we will never get accurate results and be able to make ra
tional decisions for both fire-fighting and evacuations. Police and fire officials must learn
that certain misconceptions can, and will, possibly have caused exposure to chemicals and placed both regulatory agencies and citizens at risk. We at TEAM-1 do not operate mil lion dollar buses, but we do have exten
sively trained personnel who will enter the most toxic of sites and give relative readings for various components. At
D work wear.
both the Plastimet and U.S.E. Hickson
fires, our crews were giving information
nity and the fire officials if the air is
While TEAM-1 crews spent six weeks cleaning up under Level B and
breathable or if an evacuation is neces-
C,the MOE never ventured onto the site
the start of both disasters.
to look at the conditions that made this
The moral of this story? Follow the TAGA unit, you'll be safe. For more information, circle reply card No. 110
moned to the scene to tell the commu
By Mitchell GIbbs, TEAM-1 Environmental Services
site such an environmental issue. The
local officer's reply to all was that they are not HazMat people and don't need
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
to the fire service within two hours of
WEAO's first symposium In the new millennium attracts more than 700 delegates water from the well
quite close to the dead camel. Why didn't anyone move
last 35 years. This could be significantly
no one knew who the
less where corrosion or inferior materi
owner was and, in
that part of the
als are factors. These stark figures tell us that we should be spending about
world, no one would
$895 million per year on infrastructure
take it upon them
replacement-this would be 1.8% of the
selves to move other
estimated asset value," he said. He
noted that this was just to keep the in frastructure in satisfactory working con dition, without considering growth-re lated expenditures, process improve ments, problems,or catch-up funding to make up for deferred spending.
Elect of the Water Environment Fed
Steve Davey, Environmental Science & Engineering Maga
Thefirst WEAO conference of the new millennium was held at the Hamilton Convention
Centre,April 16-18, attracting some 700 registrants. The OPCEA Exhibition and Operations Challenge provided excitement and entertainment to liven up the serious technical papers. Toby Barrett, Parliamentary Assist ant to the Ontario Minister of the Envi
ronment,said:"Over the past two years, Ontario invested some $200 million in
improving water quality, thereby pro tecting human and environmental health, through the Provincial Water Protection Fund. That money has helped dozens of communities upgrade their sewage treatment infrastructure, and ensure clean drinking water for their residents."
Keynote Speaker Marq de Villiers, renowned author, teacher and journal ist, outlined the appalling condition of water resources on a global basis. While we enjoy abundant freshwater along with the technical abilities to treat and
transport it to consumers, many in Third World Countries spend hours every day simply to access water of very poor qual ity. He gave one example ofa dead camel being found in a well in an advanced state of putrefaction. People were drawing (WEAO - Water Environment Associa tion of Ontario OPCEA - Ontario Pollution Gontroi
Photo Report by Tom Davey 18
ture, such as treatment facilities, should
the carcass? Well,
zine (ieft), receives the Bedeii Award from Joe Stowe, Jr.
"With good construction, in-ground infrastructure should last 75 years. Well constructed above-ground infrastruc
eration, Joe Stowe,
Jr., noted ruefully that bottled water is
sold for as much as 500 times more than
the cost of municipal drinking water supplied right inside the house. Many cultures spend many hours a day sim ply finding water fit to drink. "It is clear we are not doing a good job of selling the benefits of environmental engineer ing properly." He also noted, approv ingly, the rapid advance offemale engi neers into the environmental engineer ing professions. Mr.Stowe called on Steve Davey,cofounder of Environmental Science &
Engineering magazine, to accept the Arthur Sidney Bedell Award. He noted that this was a Federation award as well
as the premier award of WEAO. Eldon Wallis, City of Orillia, was awarded the top honour for Operations Excellence, the Hatfield Award.
At a press conference, George Powell,P.Eng., D.E.E., gave some stag gering statistics on infrastructure fund ing deficits. A Senior Vice President of CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited, he was the 1989 President of WEAO.
He said Ontario's water industry is facing difficult choices - either invest ing more in protection of vital infrastruc ture or being reactive to its safekeeping, ultimately resulting in premature infra structure replacement at far higher over all cost. Globally, staggering numbers are emerging on the need for infrastruc ture spending. A1992 Needs Study con ducted for the Ontario Water Services
Secretariat, estimated the province's ex penditures at $19 billion for water and wastewater alone. Responding to the massive future spending estimates, gov ernments at all levels are taking a far more critical look at public infrastruc ture, he noted.
Mr. Powell pointed out that: "While Ontario public drinking water utilities have traditionally been managed on a fee-for-service basis, with accounts
managed to recover the full cost of the service provided, wastewater services have not followed this management ap proach. According to 1994 data, only Continued overleaf
Clockwise from top left: Operations Chaiienge 1st Place team 'Flush In The Pan' from the Regional Municipality of Durham (left to right): Tony Ho, WEAO Presi dent; Rhonda Harris, WEF Past President; John Rammier; Marty Van Heuvei; Duncan Sedgeman (coach); Craig Belfry; Heinz Held, OPCEA President; Rich ard Foreman; Joe Stowe, Jr., WEF President-Eiect. Eidon Wailis (ieft). City of Oriilia, receives the Hatfield Award from Joe Stowe, Jr. and Tony Ho, MOE, WEAO President. Award recipients (ieft to right): Terry Matthews, Zenon; Bob Wiiicocks, Triton Engineering; Greg Jackson, outgoing director; Rosanna Dilabio, Praxair; Peter Nicoi, CH2M Gore & Storrie; Margaret Soares, Mohawk College. Joe Stowe, Jr., and his wife Kay,Joined David Rein, LIMA Engineering (left), for Tuesday's 'apron lunch'. Marie Meunier and At Vivian, US Filter. Operations Safety event team 'The Titrants'(OCWA). George Powell, CG&S, with ES&E Publisher, Tom Davey. Keynote speaker Marq de Viiliers, author of "Water". Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
50% of the total water and sewage ex penditures are being recovered by the
early 1990s, recognized upgrading re quirements estimated at $19 billion
user rate. Ontario's investment in water
spread over 15 years, or $1.3 billion per
and wastewater infrastructure has not
year. Growth-related expenditures, nor mally covered by development charges
Growth-related water and wastewater infrastructure costs in Ontario are esti
kept pace with economic growth. Since the late 1970s,infrastructure growth has
and the house owners, must also be rec
mated at $1 billion annually, based on a 1% growth rate. "In summary, annual capital spend ing on water and wastewater infrastruc
remained static or has declined, as have
ognized. The cost to service a new home
ture should be approximately $2.3 bil
provincial and federal grants to local governments for water systems. Using 1992 as the base year, the province has
with water and wastewater services is
lion. In 1997, the total annual spending
about $8,000 per capita, while develop ment charges for water and wastewater, intended to pay for trunk mains, pump ing stations, reservoirs and treatment fa cilities, are about $5,000 per unit.
between what is being spent and what is needed. The longer the delay,the great er the gap will become," he stressed.
shown a decrease in total annual ex
penditure from 1995 to 1997, of 17%. "The MOE Needs Study back in the
was $971 million -a gap of$1.3 billion
What is Affordable? "The 1999 American Water Works
Association survey of municipalities shows the average Ontario household uses about272 cubic metres of water per
year and pays $397 annually for water and sewage services. Water and wastewater costs represent about 0.7% of household income, far less than the maximum 2% of median household in
come(not including sewerage charges) recommended by the US Environmen tal Protection Agency. Existing esti mates on necessary infrastructure expen ditures would mean a household in
crease of approximately $750 per year, an increase of about $I per household
Why is there excitement in the air about Eaglebrook?
per day from the current rate- most rea sonable in comparison to consumer costs in many other parts of the world. "Integration of our water and wastewater systems into a single unit with full cost recovery of all system costs by the user will provide a financially-sound and
We're continuing to spread our wings - taking the lead as your single source for water coagulation products and
sustainable basis," he concluded.
Drinking Water Treatment
Check out our extensive product range and see why we're attracting so many customers. Wg have it all, including aluminum- and iron-based products for water
Continuedfrom page 12 (Canada: < 100 jig/l)). Using an altemative chemical such as chlorine dioxide for
pre-treatment prior to coagulation/
and wastewater treatment.
fiocculation and filtration will virtually eliminate THM precursors, and inhibit
With expert technical services in regional offices across Canada and the United States, we're up to your specific
THM formation in subsequent chlorination. Chlorine dioxide for pre-oxidation will also greatly reduce chloramines as it
does not combine with ammonia.
So don't expect the buzz about Eaglebrook to stop anytime soon. Future acquisitions and new product development are in the works. Deal with a company that's top flight all the way.
in the raw water,the concentration ofiron
The nature of the pathogens present and manganese,the presence of odorous substances such as hydrogen sulphide, the pH and temperature of the water, and the potential disinfection by-product for mation, are all essential factors to take
Your Single Source^ 20
For more information, circle reply card No. 119 (See page 25)
into account when designing a water treatment system. The final water treat ment system should be designed as a synergy of treatment methods, which considers all of the above factors.
Circle reply card No. 140 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
73rd Annual Conference & Exposition
Attend the Largest Water Quality Conference & Exposition in North America!
Over 34 Hours of Technical
Sessions & Workshops on the il/lost Current Wastewater
Featuring Over 800 Exhibitors,
79 Technicai Sessions on the iatest v/ater
• Municipal Wastewater
quaiity issues, 31 Fuii-day Workshops, 11 Faoiiity Tours, and more including:
• Residuals & Biosolids
• Opening General Session, featuring keynote speaker, Dr. Sylvia Earl, Oceanographer and Marine Biologist
Management • Collection Systems
• WEFTEC Luncheon with Fran Tarkenton
• Remediation of Soil & Groundwoter
• Industry Day - a full day dedicated to
• Industrial Issues & Treatment
• 3-Day International Workshop Package • WEFTEC for Famil ies
Technology • Surface Water Quality &
• WEF's Night at Disneyland
•Management For More Information: Call WEF's Fox on Demand (Select document #4000): 1-800-444-2933 or 1-703-684-2401
• Facility Operations. • Natural Systems, Water Reuse & Small Communities
(If outside the U.S. & Canada)
• Current Issues
• International & Public Education Issues
Call: 1-800-666-0206 or 1-703-684-2452
(If outside the U.S. & Canada) Visit WEF's WEB Site:
anaheim ca Water Environment Federation
73rd Annual Conference & Exposition Anaheim Convention Center • Anaheim, California U.S.A. Conference Dates: October 14-18, 2000 Exposition Dates: October 15-18, 2000
For more information, circle reply card No. 129(See page 25)
ES&E's 2000 Conference and Tradeshow
was voted another great success ■
Environmental Management &
M J Compliance 2000 attracted m ' over 400 delegates and speak-
■ ^ ers to the Regal Constellation Hotel, Toronto,April 26 and 27. Legal, technical and government regulatory specialists addressed crowded sessions, sometimes with standing room only. ES&E's annual Management& Compli ance conferences are some of the larg est privately sponsored environmental conferences in Canada.
Sessions remained full to the very end of the two day conference, while ex perts fielded questions relating to vari ous scenarios. This was an ideal practi cal learning experience for those in industiy, with environmental responsibili ties. It was the 8th consecutive confer
ence organized by Environmental Sci ence & Engineering Magazine, in con junction with Canadian Environmental Regulation & Compliance News. Following are some of the program highlights: • Federal laws and the new Canadian
Environmental Protection Act, 1999.
• Pollution Prevention (P2) Planning requirements under new legislation. •Practical problem-solving for environ mental and plant managers. • Principles and best-practices of Envi ronmental Management. • Environmental detective work: Site Assessments and SSRAs.
Lunches and coffee breaks were served in the tradeshow area, maximizing net working opportunities.
•Environmental regulation and compli ance for supervisors and managers. • Environmental due diligence for su pervisors and managers. • Legal and technical aspects of the de fence of environmental charges. • Integrated environmental and health and safety auditing. • Auditing within an Environmental Management System. • Spill prevention and response for su
pervisors and managers. Once again, exhibitors were very positive about the tradeshow set-up which encouraged high level interfaces between exhibitors' staff and conference
delegates. Eor registration or information on booth space for EC 2001, April 10 -11, please contact Environmental Science & Engineering at: 1-888-254-8769,(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271.
Kevin Dunn, of Jacques Whitford, gave a one-day course on the inner workings of the iSO 14001 Environmental Management System model. 22
Douglas Petrie, of Wiiims & Shier, holds up a weighty copy of the proceedings for his workshop on practical problemsolving for plant managers. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Environmental Management & Compliance 2001 Conference and Tradeshow A unique networking opportunity organized by Environmental Science &
Engineering Magazine and Canadian
Environmental Regulation & Compliance News
I April 10 & 11, 2001 Regal Constellation Hotel Etobicoke (Toronto), Ontario
Organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, and Canadian Environ mental Regulation & Compliance News, Environmental Management & Compliance is designed to be a low cost opportunity for you to network with existing and potential clients.
As the leading event of its kind in Canada for the past eight years, our conference and tradeshow has attracted some 400-500 delegates and speakers each year; all are key specifiers of environmental equipment and services. Call ES&E at (905) 727-4666 or 1-888-2548769 for a complete information package, or to reserve booth space.
Early Bird Special- 8' x 8' Booth space only $595
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #30, Aurora, Ontario L4G 3V6 Tel:(905)727-4666, 1-888-254-8769, Fax:(905) 841-7271 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org â&#x20AC;˘ Web site: www.esemag.com
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
The British Columbia Water & Waste Association had a wide variety of scientific and technical pa
pers on both water and wastewater topics. These few selected abstracts give some idea of the range and depth of this conference: 1) Inactivation of Encysted Parasites using Medium-
Revolutionary Brush System Prevents Algae Build-Up In Clarifiers Called Algae Sweep Automation (ASA),
makes it durable and
maintenance free. And each
system is backed by a five-
continual use at WWTPs
except for brushes, and a one-year warranty on labor.
Developed and manufac tured by the Ford Hall Company,the ASA system attaches to the skimmer arms of circular clarifiers.
Its brushes provide over 50 points of flexibility and adjustment to ensure thorough cleaning of even the most irregular of tank surfaces. When engagedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;
year warranty on parts,
Customer satisfaction is
guaranteed 100 percent. ASA systems can be installed on existing clari fiers, but many engineers have found that it is more efficient and cost-effective
to design them into new or expansion projects. Free Video Demo
it takes less than two
minutes to engage the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;ASA totally elim inates labor and chemical
costs by removing normal algae build-up from all
To receive a free demon stration video of the
ASA system and a list of references, please give us a call at 1 800 928-2070.
Consequently, the average ASA system pays for itself in less than two
Each ASA system is custom designed for its installation and constructed
of stainless steel, which
K. Bircher, Calgon Carbon Corporation D. Degen, City of Kelowna D. Rector, Epcor Water Services Affiliation:
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University Abstract:
The effect of both medium pressure and low pressure ultra violet radiation on encysted Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated using a bench-scale collimated beam ap paratus. Parasite inactivation was determined by infectivity in animal models. The data show that Giardia and Cryptosporidium are readily inactivated by medium-pres sure UV with 2.5 log-units of inactivation of both parasites at UV doses of less than 40 mJ/cm^.
UV was also shown to effectively inactivate the para sites over a wide range of temperatures. Inactivation in a high quality filtered drinking water was the same as in a lab de-ionized water. When compared on the basis of germicidal UV dose, radiation from a conventional low pressure
lamp was found to be equally effective at inactivation of Cryptosporidium as radiation from a medium pressure lamp. UV dose-parasite inactivation curves were developed over a wide range of UV doses to aid in development of design criteria for application in drinking water. 2) Disinfection with Chlorine Dioxide. Author:
Gerald Cowley, B.Sc., P.Eng. Affiliation: Sterling Pulp Chemicals Ltd. Abstract:
A number of methods for controlling disinfection by-prod ucts (DBPs) are being implemented in North America in order to comply with the new US EPA Stage 1 Safe Drink ing Water Act (SDWA). These include the use of granu lated activated carbon (GAC),enhanced coagulation (EC),
years while optimizing clarifier performance and making WWTPs safer places to work.
S. Craik, G. Finch, University of Alberta
of New Brunswick
this patented system of spring-loaded brushes is in throughout the nation.
Pressure Ultraviolet Radiation Drinking Water. Authors:
and also the use of alternative disinfectants. Due to differ
Ford Hall Company, Inc. http://www.fordhall.com P.O. Box 54312
Lexington, Kentucky 40555 1 800 928-2070
ences in water quality across North America, no single ap
proach will fit every location. It is critical, therefore, that Water Utilities have as many options as possible for ad dressing the disinfection versus disinfection by-products di lemma.
One of these options is the use of chlorine dioxide(ClO,). In the past, principally due to its cost, it was used only for odour and taste problems. However, recent studies have confirmed that it is a very effective disinfectant, and that Continued overleaf
For more information, circle reply card No. 122 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Reader Service No.
Acres & Associates
Analytical Technology Inc Analytical Technology Inc Analytical Technology Inc
27 29 31
143 144 145
Reader Service No.
Hertz Equipment Rental 15 International Water Supply.... 46 International Water Supply.... 46
108 259 260
Kee Industrial Products
Azurix North America
Omega Public Works
GH2M Gore & Storrie
Golgate-Palmolive 57 Gons. Engineers of Ontario...47
RAL Engineering Ltd Response Rentals
Eaglebrook Ecodyne Ford Hall Gompany
20 26 24
119 123 122
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
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the concerns about its specific DBFs (chlorite and chlorate), can and are be
ing avoided. This presentation was in tended to provide information to the water treatment community about the use of chlorine dioxide in municipal drinking water treatment.
year of operation. The authors gave an overview of the biological iron and manganese removal
the last five years. These have used a variety of processes ranging from low
process,the application guidelines of the technology, and showed a few installa
to more sophisticated membrane treat ment systems. Selection of the appro priate technology for water treatment
Details of the pilot study, together
3. The First Canadian Biological Man
with the full-scale installation schemat
ganese Removal installation Operat ing Results.
ics and layout were presented. Predicted performance of residual manganese of
less than 0.05 mg/1 was reached with out any chemical addition after the six
Jean Paul Trudel and Paul Williams
Affiliation: Degremont Infilco Limited
weeks required for the biomass devel opment. The fully automatic system operates with very little operator atten
The town of Woodstock, NB,was strug
tion. In addition, the pilot study per
gling with an increasing level of man ganese,since their well water source was affected by the Saint-John river water
formed at Ste-Marie de Beauce where
mechanical content,slow sand filtration,
must consider a number of factors in
cluding raw water quality, performance during piloting, cost, ease of operation and maintenance, and more stringent water quality regulations.
This paper reviewed considerations for process selection in water treatment. Case studies were presented from projects in British Columbia,the US,the Caribbean and Australia. Many of the issues facing other jurisdictions are
level rise, due to a new dam constructed
iron and manganese can reach 14 and 2 mg/1 respectively, was briefly presented. 4) Selection of Appropriate Technol
downstream. Pilot tests were conducted
ogy for Water Treatment.
ventional filtration, ozonation, mem
with conventional physical chemical processes and one biological process. The town retained the biological proc
branes and slow sand filtration. Project
Brian Johnson, P.Eng. and Reno Fiorante, P.Eng. Affiliation: Stantec Consulting Ltd.
examples were provided to demonstrate the application of the technology for different source water quality.
ess because there is no need for chemi
cals, the footprint is smaller and operat ing costs are lower. The full-scale unit
similar to British Columbia. Different water treatment processes were re
viewed including direct filtration, con
5) Parallel - Series: A New Kind of Pump Station for High Head
was installed in the Fall of 1998 and the
A number of water treatment plants have
paper presented the results of the first
been constructed in British Columbia in
Author: Richard Jacobs, P.Eng.
Portable plant. Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20
gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wtierever additional or improved water is needed.
Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the fvlonoplant
produces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.
For complete information, contact: Ecodyne Limited 4475 Corporate Drive Burlington, Ontario L7L 5T9 Telephone:(905) 332-1404 Toll Free: 1-888-EGODYNE
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WE MAKE WATER WORK WORLDWIDE
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Affiliation: John Brooks Company Limited
in the water and wastewater sector.
• Why the self-priming pump is an ad vantageous design for sewage lift sta
The Gorman-Rupp Company, a manu facturer of self-priming sewage lift sta tions active in Canada, found that they were receiving more and more inquir ies for pump stations with a high total dynamic head, in excess of 30 metres. Investigation of the need for heads of this magnitude uncovered the cause - a steep system curve resulting from either a relatively small forcemain di ameter, or a high value of equivalent length. The situations responsible in cluded: infill development adding one or more pump stations to a system, ret rofit of a pump station for a higher ca pacity while re-using the existing forcemain, and connecting scattered effluent sources through a long forcemain to a rural treatment plant. This presentation reviewed the fol lowing material, to explain the nature ofthe special pumping station developed by Gorman-Rupp to address this need: •What a self-priming pump is, and how
• Definition of parallel and series pump operation. • What a "Parallel-Series" station is and
how it works. Patent position. • How pump curves and system curves relate to the "Parallel-Series" concept. •The benefits obtainable from a "Paral
This presentation was intended to provide engineers and operators with information on a viable (though rela tively new)technology, which employs self-priming pumps to generate total heads of up to 60 metres in lift station service.
6) Oil Grit Separators for Pavement Drainage - What are the benefits?
numbers of proprietary methods used to remove pollutants from stormwater and pavement drainage. Authorities have been calling for the treatment of stormwater to help prevent degradation of aquatic habitat, and now, manufacturers are responding with a number of prod ucts specifically designed for oil and grit removal from relatively small flows. These products are now starting to be specified in municipal standards al though no protocol has yet been estab lished for their acceptance. This presentation reviewed the con cepts involved in oil and grit removal, some water quality requirements for habitat protection, and applications where oil/grit separators are useful. It reviewed pollutant removal efficiencies of oil/grit separators and compared them to estimated values for other standard
Bruce Kenning, P.Eng. Gary Minton, P.E., Ph.D. Affiliation:
ference, or a full list of the abstracts,
For more information about the con contact: British Columbia Water and
Reid Crowther & Partners Ltd.
Waste Association (BCWWA), 342-17
Resource Planning Associates
Fawcett Road, Coquitlam, BC, V3K 6V2, Tel: (604) 540-0111, Fax: (604)
•Where self-priming pumps are applied
Recent years have seen a surge in the
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Pulp & Paper Industry Focus
A new look at the forest industry and global warming
New analyses now suggest that cutting and replanting a climax forest may actually
benefit the environment,
provided the wood goes to long-lasting uses such as houses and furniture.
The main ingredient of wood, cellu lose, is a sugar polymer comprising oxy gen, hydrogen, and carbon constituents, freely available even though trees are sessile organisms that cannot forage as ani mals can. Water pro vides hydrogen and oxygen; air supplies carbon dioxide, CO,. The tree's genome tells
The time of lockup varies with the tree species. A spruce in a boreal forest may live for sixty years, a coastal Sequoia sempervirens for two millennia. At maturity, a tree stops binding carbon. At its death - whether quickly by fire or slowly by disease - its carbon is un locked to the air, and the cycle restarts. The trouble with this exquisitely bal anced system began with an old, old
and Venus- whose surface is as hot as a
self-clean oven - perhaps one day will be twins in climate, as well as in size.
To control CO,, scientists are mak ing sober proposals that ten years ago would have been considered science fic
tion. These use a concept called carbon
sequestration technology, or sucking carbon away from the air where it can not tum up the heat. Researchers from Norway, Switzerland, and the US have re
wood. Sunlight pro vides the power and much power is needed. A growing tree extracts huge volumes of mate
cently proposed inject ing CO,into sub-ocean wells, pumping it into dry oil wells on land, or bubbling it through the abyssal depths to create a kind of giant soda. One suggestion is more mundane: plant trees. A professor offorest ecology at the Univer sity of British Colum
rial from its environ
bia, Dr. Hamish Kim-
ment. Willows, for ex
mins,specializes in how forest ecosystems work, in both the pristine state and in response to human disturbance. Among other techniques. Dr. Kimmins analyzes forests by means of their car bon budget. "Any ecosystem," says Dr. Kimmins, "has a maximum quantity of carbon it
it how to assemble its raw
ample,drink water from the soil, duct it through roots and trunk, and 'wick' it into the
atmosphere as water vapour. This is not a small-scale operation. On a summer day when its biological processes run quickly, a mature willow may breathe tonnes of water into the air. Conserva
tion engineers in flood-prone areas, of ten plant willows rather than build dams. Similarly, the conifers in a climax for est extract millions of cubic metres of
carbon dioxide from the air, and lock it
up as wood. CO, seems harmless enough. It's a
natural' product of human respiration, and non-toxic in normal concentrations.
To understand why CO, has become a modern pollutant, scientists look back to Earth a hundred thousand years ago, when our biosphere's carbon budget was in equilibrium. Limestone, made of small sea-creatures' shells, stored carbon
until tectonic forces exposed it and let it weather. Earth's forests were also car
story -the meddling ofH. sapiens. Coal and oil, those naturally occurring car bon sinks, made wonderful fuel; we ex
tracted them to heat our buildings and power our vehicles. Later we used them as feedstocks for synthetic materials in cluding plastics, fabrics, and even phar maceuticals.
Fossil fuels have undeniably im proved our daily lives. They have also yielded a major, unintentional by-product: gigatonnes of carbon dioxide, re leased into the air at rates unprecedented since immense volcanic eruptions mil lions of years ago. This is unfortunate, because atmospheric CO, has another property. It is transparent to sunlight striking through it to the ground, but nearly opaque to re-radiated infrared try ing to escape back into space. The net energy transfer accumulates energy, in exorably heating the Earth.
Industries that generate a lot of CO^,
bon sinks. As they grew, they bound
such as the oil and automotive sectors,
atmospheric CO^ into wood and held it
naturally baulk at any call to curtail their carbon output, often proposing further studies. But globally, science is rapidly reaching consensus on global warming: it's here. And unless we stop it. Earth
there until they died.
By William ilisey Atkinson 28
can store. Just as cars have different
sizes of gas tank, various forests differ in their capacity for holding carbon. When a forest reaches old-growth stage, its carbon tank is full and it is in equi librium. It takes from the atmosphere only as much carbon as it returns." When an old-growth forest is har vested, Dr. Kimmins says, its carbon tank is emptied. Second-growth stands that arise to replace the old-growth then bind carbon for several hundred years, until carbon equilibrium is re-estab lished. Whether or not this benefits the
environment depends on what happens to the harvested wood.
"If the trees go to short-term uses such as toilet paper," Dr. Kimmins says, "their carbon returns to the atmosphere within a few weeks and there is no net
removal of CO^. But if the harvested wood goes to longer-lasting uses, its carbon remains locked away from the
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Pulp & Paper Industry Focus dimensions: how wide an area is affected, how deep into the
A spruce in a boreal forest may live for sixty years, a coastal Sequoia sempervirens for two millennia. At maturity, a tree stops binding carbon. At its death - whether quickly by fire or slowly by disease - its carbon is unlocked to the air, and the cycle restarts. air while replacement saplings bind new carbon. This cre ates a net atmospheric removal of CO,. Long-lasting uses for wood include furniture, which may endure for hundreds of years, and building structures. From construction to teardown, the average LFS house lasts 65 years, and even then its wood may continue to function as a
biosphere the disruption goes, the time it takes an affected area to regain its biological productivity, and the area's eco logical significance. The computer model rates resource re movals from coastal rainforest as more significant than boreal forest, and much more significant than northem barrens. He says the extent to which wood products are recycled in Canada, depends on use and region. "Warehouse pallets are made from low-grade wood. If individual planks are replaced as they wear out, a pallet may last for years. In big cities, a pallet that's worn beyond repair goes to a recycling facility that extracts the nails, then chips the wood for re use as fibreboard. Outside the cities, worn-out pallets usu ally go straight to landfill." If such considerations sound mundane,consider the num
bers. Last year the US imported(US)$20 billion worth of lumber from Canadian forests. That's fifteen megatonnes
of carbon withheld from the air.
"In anaerobic landfill, wood breaks down at three per cent or less per year," says Jamie Meil, Vice-President of the Athena Institute in Ottawa. "At these decay rates, it might not release all its stored carbon for a century or more." Alternatively, notes Dr. Kimmins, wood from a demol ished house could be used as a feedstock to generate engine fuels such as methanol. This would place no more carbon into the air than allowing the wood to decay naturally. At the same time, it would displace its BTU equivalent in fos
"Obviously, the best thing for us to do would be to have everyone leave our forests alone and cycle to work," Dr. Kimmins says. "But since we aren't likely to do this in large
to the environment."
numbers, it makes sense to maximize our forests' carbon ca
pacity by periodically skimming off their bound carbon. Har vesting lumber makes the forest a more efficient carbon sink." Adds Mr. Meil; "In the bigger picture, the bad image that wood products often get from eco-activists is rarely de served. Building with wood can show a real commitment
Mr. Meil's institute, a spinoff from the R&D agency Forintek, looks at the broader context of wood use in build
Bill Atkinson is a science writer in North Vancouver.
ings. What demands would a proposed design make on the environment? How much of this eco-load stems from the
creation of building materials, and how much over a build ing's effective life? To what degree does this eco-load de pend on what happens to materials when a building is torn down? In constructing a computer model that addresses these issues, Mr. Meil and his associates have unearthed some interesting facts. "Wood is less environmentally dismptive than many or most building materials," observes Mr Meil. "That is our inescap able conclusion. When you consider raw-resource consump tion, energy spent on extraction, transportation, and manufac turing, global warming potential, and generated wastes, wood
emerges as a clean, ecologically responsible material." In resource extraction, the Athena model considers four
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Pulp & Paper industry Focus
Auger Monster saves reams at paper mill
TheHaverhill paperboard recy
cling facility in Massachusetts is saving on maintenance as well as raw material costs.
After replacing an inadequate bar screen, an Auger Monster dramati cally reduced maintenance time and costs and allowed significant vol umes of paper wastes that would have otherwise gone down the drain into the public sewer system to be returned to production. The Haverhill plant produces some 380 tons a day of paperboard from 100% recycled paper. The plant produces rolled and flat paper-
ids are composed of paper fibre from the paper making process and other un wanted solids such as plastics, wood, boots, and rags. According to Opera tions Eneineer,Chris Manzer,the recov-
solids and chemicals from the
ground-up solids and leaves them in the flow stream. The cleaned sol ids are removed and sent to the in cinerator.
Design modifications were made to the Auger Monster to han dle the exceptionally heavy waste flows at the plant. This included double stacking the cutters to re duce the number of cutting edges, and upgrading to a 7.5 hp motor. The modified Auger Monster
board for cereal boxes and other
packaging products. With a produc tion volume of some 130,000 tons a
year, the recycled raw material gen
Auger Monster helps Haverhill Paperboard recycle paper waste.
erates an enormous amount of wastes.
ery efficiency. The Auger Monster, designed by JWC Environmental to entirely replace the bar screen, now grinds the large sol ids, washes the usable paper fibre, fine
was installed in the Fall of 1999 and
has been working exceptionally well since. According to Manzer,
ery system continually clogged with
it has resulted in a dramatic reduction
debris that the bar screen could not re
lection area where, prior to installation of the Auger Monster,a bar screen sepa
move, and the screen had to be manu
in maintenance requirements,from one man-hour a day to about one man-hour
ally cleared during system shutdown,
rated solids from the water. These sol
which lowered water and fibre recov
These wastes are directed to a col
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Pulp & Paper Industry Focus
Sixty percent of Canadian forests to be certified by 2003
Canadian forestry companies
are being certified for sustain able forest management at a much faster rate than origi nally forecast, Lise Lachapelle, presi dent of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association told the annual convention of the Northern Forest Products Asso
ciation, April 7, in Prince George, BC. Already, Canada has over 12 million hectares of forest certified to one of the
thi-ee leading standards,including Cana da's CSA. Much of that happened in 1999 "Xhis is more than double what
we predicted two years ago and accounts for 10 percent of Canada's managed for ests," she said. In British Columbia alone, almost
every major producer has been certified under one of the standards or is work
ing towards that goal. A year ago, none were certified. By 2003, 60 percent of Canada's managed forests will be certi fied under CSA, ISO 14001 or Forest
Stewardship Council. Already, 20 divi
ing momentum not just for marketing
sions of nine different Canadian forest
reasons, but because certification is be
companies have been certified under the
ing viewed as an important benchmark for assuring good business practices. Certification also provides transpar ency and accountability to the public, something the forestry industry wants. "Canadians are counting on us to be good
ISO 14001 standard of the international
Organization for Standardization. "Canada," said Lachapelle,"is work ing through international forums to en sure mutual recognition among accepted standards, like CSA, which was devel
stewai'ds of Canada's forests. Certifica
oped by the Canadian Standard Asso ciation in a transparent process with multi-stakeholder input. The goal of obtaining mutual recognition is to en sure an open marketplace and preserve the credibility of all major certification
tion is going to be a major part of how we keep that tmst and build on it," she said. The forest industry has enthusiasti cally embraced sustainable forest man agement. Audits by international organi zations like the Organization for Eco nomic Cooperation and Development
standards. There is no room for a dou
ble standard or a shifting standard that can be manipulated by any special in terests to suit their particular agenda," said Lachapelle. "As an industry, we support the principle of equivalency." The Canadian Pulp and Paper Asso ciation president said certification for sustainable forest management is gain
have found that Canada's forests are
expanding, not contracting. Land that is being harvested is also being regen erated promptly. The over 60 million hectares ofregenerated forest now grow ing will be a central focus of Canadian forestry in the 21st century. ❖
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Solutions for measurement
& analysis Wastewater
Investigating the fate of ECDs in sewage biosoiids
Endocrine disrupting com
pounds(ECDs)are the latest fashionable trace organic con taminants that concern many people. Broadly speaking, ECDs are compounds that in "sufficiently high concentrations" can affect human, ani
mal and fish hormonal systems result ing in reproductive disorders, sexual
features and cancers. ECDs include both natural and man-made chemicals such
& leak detection
as cortisone, testosterone, 17-b oestra-
diol, dioxins, DDT, DDE, alkyphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol, etc. The concern with ECDs as the latest envi
presumably had not been exposed to 4NP. Varying quantities of sewage biosolids, filtered-sterilized biosolids supernatant were added to selected soil samples to further study how biodegra dation rates of4-NP may be affected by a biosolids application program. Dr. Topp reported that 4-NP miner alized rapidly in soils without a lag pe riod. The degradation rates were not affected by the soil properties. Since the degradation rates in the two soils ob tained from Canadian Arctic were simi
lar to the rates in the other soils. Dr. Topp concluded that the microorganisms re
ronmental contaminants came to scien
- Magnetic level
tists' attention when English research
sponsible for the biodegradation are ubiquitous. 4-NP was not mineralized
ers noticed that some of the male fish
in soils, which had been sterilized by
caught in the rivers downstream of wastewater treatment plants displayed
eralization was achieved through bio
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Nonylphenol ethoxylates(NPEs)are a major class of non-ionic surfactant.
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The concern with ECDs as the
ionic surfactants are used by textile and
latest environmental contaminants
pulp and paper industries. NPEs can be biodegraded under both aerobic and
came to scientists' attention when
anaerobic conditions. Under anaerobic
down to form 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) which is more persistent, lipophilic and more toxic than the parent compounds.
tion effects were removed when the
Dr. Ed Topp, a senior scientist with Agriculture Canada recently completed a laboratory study to measure the per sistence and biodegradation of 4-NP in soils. 4-NP was added to soil samples to an equivalent concentration of 5 ug/ g; the soil samples were then incubated
samples were agitated to promote oxy
nadian STPs. In 1995, Environment
Canada added NPEs and 4-NP to the
second Priority Substances List for as
under aerobic conditions for various
lengths of time to study biodegradation rates. The soil used contained various
percentages of sand, silt, clay and pH and can be divided into major groups known as silt loam, sandy loam and loam. Two of the soil samples were obtained from the Canadian Arctic and
For more information, circle reply card No. 128
mental Protection Act.
g)in biosolids had been reported in Ca
treatment plants displayed
sessment under the Canadian Environ
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Oakvilte, 0NL6H 5R3 Tel:(905) 829-2000
rivers downstream of wastewater
The study further reported that bio degradation rates were not affected by the presence of sewage biosolids up to 1 mg of sewage biosolids/g of soil. Bio degradation rates are affected at higher concentrations of sewage biosolids present in the soil(50% v/v); the inhibi
to 13 ug/L (average 2.3 ug/L) in efflu ent and 8 to 850 ug/g (average 226 ug/
2200 Bristol Circle
English researchers noticed that some of the male fish caught in the
4-NP concentrations varied between 0.4
- Control panels
logical activities. Half-life varied be tween 4.5 days to 16.7 days for the six different types of soils studied.
The demand for NPEs in Canada was estimated at 4.1 kilotonsin 1990. Non-
conditions, NPEs would be broken
autoclaving, thus confirming that min
gen transfer. Dr. Topp also observed that degradation rates became slower as the temperature decreased, and with the soil being either too dry or too moist. Based on the laboratory results, it was felt that the soil conditions during a nor mal Canadian growing season would be conducive to the biodegradation of 4NP in sewage biosolids. Eor further information, contact;
Janice Patterson, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture,Food and Rural Affairs,Tel: (519) 826-4109, E-mail:jpatters@oma fra.gov.on.ca.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Cleaner water for 2000 Olympics In Sydney
Humeceptor™ oil and sediment interceptors have
been used in the construction of the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games facilities at Homebush Bay, as well as the equestrian centre at Horsley Park, to treat stormwater run-off from roadways and car parking areas. Leighton Contractors installed five Humeceptors in the construction of the rail link at Homebush Bay, while Thiess Contractors completed the southern car park with a total of four Humeceptors. The civil works for the equestrian cen tre were completed using one Humeceptor installed by Daracon Engineering. Humeceptor reduces the impact of stormwater run-off from roadways and car park areas, removing up to 97.8% of free oils and up to 80% of total suspended solids. Its patented internal high flow by-pass prevents infrequent high storm flows from scouring and re-suspending previously trapped pollutants, flushing them into creeks and rivers downstream.
Numerous independent field studies have proven its ef fective performance and ability to capture and retain sedi ment particles with diameters of less than 100 microns. Recent Australian research (Ball 1996 and Drapper 1999) has shown that sediment washed from vehicular pavements is typically less than 100 microns in diameter. It is this fine sediment which is a priority to remove because it adsorbs toxicants such as trace metals and smothers in-stream aquatic habitats. Other types of pollutant traps typically capture a majority of the coarser sediment (larger than 150 microns) making them ineffective for treating the problem. Because of the tight construction schedule for the Olym-
pic project, speed of installation was another important as pect of the specification. Humeceptor is a precast concrete device which can be readily installed on-site, similar to ac cess chambers. Once the hole is excavated, the device can
be installed within an hour or two of delivery to site. For the designer, the low headloss through Humeceptor with a K value of 1.3, reduces the impact of installing a pollutant trap within the drainage system and minimizes the risk of upstream flooding, particularly when used in retrofit applications. For more information, circle reply card No. 208
By Gavin Heitman, CSR Humes, Australia
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For more information, circle reply card No. 158 (See page 25)
Big Pipe wili open up phase 1 deveiopment lands in Milton, Ontario
Ground has been broken on
the first phase of Halton Region's ambitious plan to open up development in the
Milton, Ontario, area in accordance with
the Halton Urban Structure Program (HUSP). This program was initiated in the late 80s with the objective of plan ning orderly and responsible growth within the Region. Between 1989 and 1994 numerous studies were carried out under the envi ronmental assessment framework to en
sure that all social, economic, environ mental and technical Issues were ad
dressed in developing the plan, which later underwent numerous reviews and refinements.
Funding has been secured for the first phase of the plan which includes design and construction of major trunk water and wastewater mains along Regional Road 25 (formerly Highway 25) from Oakville to Milton. The trunk mains are
now collectively known as "The Big Pipe", and are a $30 million component of the total $98 million infrastructure
cost for the first phase. The HUSP planning process carried out by the Region over the past ten years has led to the identification and associ
ated phasing of developable land within the Milton and North Oakville areas.
The first phase of development is re ferred to as the Milton Southeast Devel
opment Area. To allow this first phase of development to proceed, the plan identified'a need for a new trunk water
main along the Regional Road 25 corri dor, from a new Zone 5 pumping sta tion at Upper Middle Road in Oakville, to Derry Road at the south end of the existing built-up area in Milton. In addition, the need for a trunk
wastewater main within the Regional Road 25 corridor was identified to con
vey wastewater from the new develop ment area in Milton, southerly beyond Upper Middle Road, for ultimate treat ment at an expanded Mid-Halton wastewater treatment plant along the QEW highway. This work is being funded by the developers, not by existing taxpay-
By Wayne Concessi, P. Eng. Dillon Consulting Limited
Trunk water and wastewater main construction aiong Regionai Road 25. Photo - Jeff Williams, Dillon
ers, and there will be no new debt load to lected to carry out the design/build as the Region. signment. A $75,000 honorarium was The Region required that the first paid to the unsuccessful teams. phase of HUSP be quickly implemented The D'Orazio-Walter Joint Venture to meet immediate development needs. team members and their associated work They also required some assurance that assignments are as follows; costs would not increase, since up-front 1. D'Orazio Infrastructure Group - to funding was provided by the benefitting construct 15.5 km of 900 mm diameter trunk water main and 15.5 km of 825 developers. The Region looked at vari ous alternative service delivery methods mm to 2400 mm diameter wastewater to meet these objectives. Ultimately, a trunk sewer and force main; design/build approach was selected for 2. Walter Construction Canada Ltd.- to the major trunk mains, with the expec construct an 1,100 L/s sewage pumping tation that this component (being the station north of Lower Baseline Road; largest component of the first phase) 3. Greater Toronto Consulting Group could meet the tight schedule under this (comprising Dillon Consulting Ltd., method of service delivery and that the Acres and Associated Ltd. and R.V. work would be done for a fixed price, Anderson Associates Ltd.)-to carry out i.e. no surprises. all design, approvals and Quality Assur The Region utilized a two-step proc ance/Quality Control functions. ess for identifying, evaluating and se The Region indicated that the selec lecting the team to design and construct tion of the preferred team was based on the trunk mains. The first step involved a superior design, on the handling of the a request for Expressions of Interest environmental, traffic, and public com
(EOI)from interested teams. Nine EOI
munications issues, and on the team's
submissions were received by the Re gion outlining project understanding, qualifications and innovation that each could bring to the project. The second step involved short-listing the nine sub
past experience. In putting a winning proposal to gether, the D'Orazio-Walter Joint Ven
missions to three, for more detailed de
sign/build proposals. The detailed pro posals were received and reviewed by the Region in February 1999, and the D'Orazio-Walter Joint Venture was se
ture carried out an extensive review of
the project background and carefully considered the Region's requirements for this project. On this basis, a design was developed which was innovative, but at the same time met the Region's design criteria and standards, and also
Environmental Science & Engineering. June 2000
met all scheduling requirements. Several of these proposal and post-proposal innovations are briefly described: 1) Value Engineering -The Joint Venture recognized the impor tance of including a Value Engi neering(VB)step at the proposal stage to ensure a competitive bid, and to provide added value to the Region early on in the process. After award of the project, an ad ditional Value Engineering Work shop was held, with the full par ticipation of Region of Halton design and operations staff. This
length and diameter of the force main,as well as the preferred site for the pump station.
A detailed review of the tun
nel vs. pumping station schemes by the D'Orazio-Walter Joint
Sixteen Mile Creek
termain Crossing nnel)
Proposed vvastewater Trunk Main
Venture confirmed that the Proposed Wastewater Pumping Station
pumping station option was pre ferred. However,two significant changes to this option were sug gested to reduce the overall cost and to improve system operation. The first change was to move the proposed pumping station site from privately-owned agri
ised Trunk wralermain
(Hatton Waste Management Site) BURLINGTON OAKVILLE
ZoneSPum^^ Upper Middle Rd
cultural land, several kilometres
allowed further refinement of the
project with buy-in by all, and demonstrated further value added LAKE ONTARIO
during the final design stage. 2)Pumping Station-There were several items considered in the
• Proposed Wastewater Trunk Main ~^
Proposed Trunk Watermain
VE session related to the pro posed sewage pumping station. In the Request For Proposal, the
Region indicated that a prior as-
HALTON DESIGN/BUILD - TRUN K WATER
to the north, to property already owned by the Region (the Halton Waste Management Site). There was ample space available on the site and existing landscaping pro vided a buffer to visually screen the pumping station from Re gional Road 25. This revised lo
AND WASTEWATER MAINS("BIG PIPE")
cation also reduced the overall
courtesy of Region of Halton and Dillon,
sessment had been carried out to compare the cost of a gravity tunnel through the Trafalgar Moraine, versus a pump station/force main combination. On the
basis of this prior analysis, the pumping station/force main combination was preferred and the Region had developed this option to the point of specifying the
project cost by eliminating the need to purchase property and by replac ing a section of deep sewer with less costly, shallow force main. Continued overleaf
heIiln... HiMi a □ OS
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
For more information, circie reply card No. 130
(See page 25)
The second change was to re configure the pumping station from the Region's wet well/dry well standard to submersible. This change simplified maintenance requirements, improved worker safety and reduced overall cost. 3)Sixteen Mile Creek Tunnel-In addi tion to the benefits derived from the
Value Engineering session, it was also noted by the Joint Venture that creative means of crossing a major branch of Six teen Mile Creek just south of Derry Road would be required. In consulta tion with the Halton Region Conserva tion Authority, the Joint Venture agreed to tunnel this crossing (at higher cost than open cut construction), leaving the creek and its banks intact and avoiding the environmental impacts which can occur with open cut construction at a sensitive creek crossing. Further, by
Avoidance - Subsequent to contract
MNR "no construction" window from
have continued to pursue innovative ways of implementing the project and adding value to the Region. When the proposal for this project was originally
April I to June 15,is not invoked, avoid ing a potential conflict with an already very tight construction schedule. 4) Partnering Workshop - The Region of Halton has been very progressive in pursuing a Design/Build approach for the design and construction of the ma jor trunk water and wastewater mains along Regional Road 25. Consistent with this progressive approach, a two day partnering workshop was held after selection of the preferred Design/Build team to foster team-building and coop eration among all parties to the agree ment.
Key decision-makers were nomi nated to attend this facilitated session in
cluding staff from all of the Region de partments involved, as well as repre sentatives of the contractors, the consult
ITT Flygt - pump supplier Hyprescon Inc. - watermain and sewer forcemain supplier Hanson Pipe and Products Canada inc. - gravity sewer, maintenance holes and watermain valve cham
tunneling this crossing rather than us ing open cut construction, the HRCA/
ing engineers, the suppliers and the de velopers. A Partnering Agreement was signed by all parties at the conclusion of the session which confirmed and fos
tered a mutual understanding of the roles and responsibilities of all parties. 5)Environmentally Sensitive Area(ESA)
award, the Joint Venture team members
submitted, the contract limits for the
wastewater trunk sewer were Derry Road to the north and Upper Middle Road to the south.
The downstream portion of trunk sewer between Upper Middle Road and the Mid-Halton Sewage Treatment Plant had been previously designed by others and had already been tendered for con struction. However, it was noted that this wastewater trunk sewer was to con
tinue south of Upper Middle Road through an ESA within the Fourteen Mile Creek Valley. This routing required both a multi-barrel syphon under the main branch ofFourteen Mile Creek and
an above-grade crossing of a major tributary of the creek. The environmen tal implications of this routing, as well as the potential maintenance problems associated with the multi-barrel syphon, prompted the D'Orazio-Walter Joint Venture to re-assess other alternatives
for this downstream trunk sewer.
Drinking water disinfection and continuous on-line chlorine monitoring C/itonne
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Sodium Hypochlorite Feed Systems, including: • ProMinent metering pumps • Flow monitoring for loss of cliemical alarming, etc. • Pre-engineered and pre-fabricated pump panels • Storage tanks
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SALES AND ENGINEERING LIMITED lyiETi SALES S. ENGINEERING LIMITED,,
15 Connie Ores., Units, Concord, Ontario, L4K 1L3 • Tel; (905) 738-2355, Fax:(905) 738-5520 E-mail: email@example.com • Web site: www.metconeng.com
For more information, circle reply card No. 132 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
The re-assessment resulted in a pro posal to the Region to re-route the trunk wastewater main around the ESA by staying within the Regional Road 25 right-of-way, thereby also avoiding the need for both the multi-barrel siphon and the above-grade crossing of the tribu tary watercourse. This was achieved at lower total cost than the tendered cost
for the original routing through the ESA. Due to the value added, the Region agreed to extend the original D'OrazioWalter Joint Venture contract to a point south of Upper Middle Road to include the proposed re-routed section of wastewater trunk main.
Project Status Construction began on the trunk water and wastewater mains north of
Dundas Street (through the Elighway 407/Regional Road 25 interchange) on January 24, 2000. With concurrent de sign and construction, coordination of several field crews and by working closely with review agencies and regu latory authorities to obtain the required approvals and permits, project comple tion is anticipated in the Fall of 2000. For more information, circle reply card No. 209
RWDI ENVIRONMENTAL OPPORTUNITIES ROWAN WILLIAMS DAVIES & IRWIN INC.(RWDI)is a consulting engineering firm specializing in environmental air quality engineering, wind engineering, the microclimate, noise, acoustics and vibration, and industrial process flows. We are a firm of over 180 professional and support staff, with offices in Guelph, Ontario, and Calgary, Alberta, Canada, servicing an international clientele. Due to continued growth, we are looking for consultants, project coordinators, field technologists, and project engineers/scientists for our environmental area. Experience working in a consulting environment using practical ap plications and problem solving skills, excellent communication, com puter, and analytical capabilities, a professional engineering accredita tion or the ability to obtain professional designation (for engineering positions only) is required. Please forward a resume and cover letter in confidence to:
Human Resources Co-ordinator
Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. 650 Woodlawn Road West
Web site: www.rwdi.com
Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIK 1B8 Only those selectedfor an interview will be contacted. RWDI endorses and practices the principles ofequal opportunity employment.
CG&S CH2/M Gore & Storrie Limited
EnvironWipnlal Engineers, Planners, and Scientists CG&S provides innovative, practical, and sustainable solutions for public and private
sector clients in the fields of Water, Wastewater, Site Management, Waste Management, Ecosystem Management, and Management & Information Systems. www.ch2m.com
255 Consumers Road, Toronto, Ontario M2J 5B6
Tel:(416) 499-9000 Fax:(416) 499-4687 General Inquiries: (416) 499-0090 ext. 307 or firstname.lastname@example.org Waterloo
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
For more information, circle reply card No. 133 (See page 25)
Why you can get rough running pumps More attention to sump design is needed
Pumpsump design is often an aspectthatis notgiven
the attention that it deserves. Flow that arrives at
a pump inlet badly skewed or distributed can result in uneven loading on the impeller, rough running and a drop in performance. Surface or submerged vortices may be sufficiently developed that an air core is drawn into the pump. When this happens, the impeller encounters a low pressure pocket that causes the pump to vibrate and, subsequently, the bearings to wear out. If the vortex is se vere, cavitation damage is sometimes visible on the blades. Despite the advances in numerical modelling, it is still not sufficiently developed to simulate the flow conditions By Graham K. Holder, Eng., LaSalie Consulting Group Inc.
in a pump well. Flows are fully 3-D and highly complex and are best investigated in a physical model. Model tests should ideally be carried out at the design
stage so as to ensure satisfactory performance of the pumps over the range of expected operations. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. The LaSalle Consulting Group have model tested many poor layouts over the years that have exhibited problems.
A physical model, at a Froude scale of between 1/4 and 1/20, depending on the size of the prototype, is constructed in the laboratory. The area around the pumps,as well as the pumps themselves, are made of clear plexiglas so as to visu ally follow the flows to the pumps. The pumps have no mechanical parts and flows are simulated using a siphon principle. Tests are first carried out to identify a "worst case" sce
nario of pump operation. This normally occurs at mini mum operation level when approach velocities are high and submergence minimal. Flows are often turbulent around the pumps and surface vortices form more readily at the low level. Occasionally though, higher levels generate
greater mass movement in the pump well and a risk of vor KMK CONSULTANTS LIMITED
tex formation also. Both these conditions are checked in
Consulling Engineers, Project Managers Ecological Planners, Landscape Architects
the model, with the flow being followed with injections of red dye tracer. Zero pitch propellers (vortimeters),installed at the pump impellers, are used to identify any pre-rotation
KMK DESIGN BUILD LTD. Design Building of Municipal and Industrial Infrastructure
Brampton (905) 459-4780 Pickering (905)837-0314
or swirl that, if severe, could affect pump performance.
Following identification of a "worst case" scenario, modi
Kitchener (519)743-6111 Cobalt (705)679-5979
fications to the flow boundaries are made and then the flow
conditions re-checked in the model. This "cut and try" ap
For more information, circle reply card No. 146
proach is used until a satisfactory solution is obtained. While this method may appear somewhat arduous,it normally goes quite quickly. We rely heavily on the wide range of prob
(See page 25)
lems that we have dealt with (over 50 model studies) and
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Dedkated to developing practical solutions to a community's servicing needs.
For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Designing Environmental dr Energy Solutions MacViro Consultants Inc.is a growth company and is seeking to fill the following career-chal lenging and rewarding positions:
Senior Water and Wastewater Engineer(s) 1
with a minimum of seven(7) years of relevant experience in the municipal sector. Candidates
will be able to demonstrate substantial proc ess and detail design experience. Must have a P.Eng. designation. The position(s) have dis tinct potential for candidates to attain the roles of Practice or Business Leader in their relevant
discipline. • Intermediate Water and Wastewater
Engineer(s) with a minimum of three(3) years of experience. Successful candidates will have
relevant experience in planning, approvals, de sign and contract administration.
• Electrical / Automation Design Engineer with a minimum of three(3) years experience in detailed design of electrical / control / pro gramming in the water and wastewater fields. • Environmental Site Assessment and
A vortex from the surface enters the pump.
Remediation Specialists - (2 positions) En vironmental Scientists. Engineers or Technolo gists with at least five(5) years experience for the senior position and at least two (2) years experience for the intermediate position in en vironmental site assessment and remediation.
solutions found on earlier projects. On finding a satisfactory modification for the "worst case"
scenario, a final series of tests is made where the full range of water levels and pump operations are verified on the model.
As each pump well is site specific, a model test should be conducted at the design stage in each case. However, as
a guide to the designer, a good preliminary layout should include the following features: • bellmouth near to sump floor; C = 1/3 to 1/2 D where D = bellmouth diameter; • pump close to back wall
tto backwall distance = 3/4 D; • flat sump floor; • sump width = 2 D; • pump submergence S > 1 1/2 D; • long approach from upstream obstruction: L > 4 D; • velocity of approach < 0.3 m/s;
• maximum angle of divergence between intake and pump bays 20°. Features to avoid are:
• undersized penstocks or gates that create jets; • abrupt changes in flow direction that lead to flow separa
• Landflll Design Engineer - Engineer with at least five(5) years experience in the design of landfill sites.
• Intermediate Municipal Infrastructure Design and Construction Engineer with a minimum of five (5) years experience. Suc cessful candidates will have relevant experi ence in planning, approvals, design and con struction.
• Construction Inspector with a minimum of five (5) years experience in the construction of municipal infrastructure projects as well as water and wastewater facilities.
MacViro is a leading firm of consulting engineers specializing in environment and energy solutions. The company offers interesting work, advance ment opportunity, competitive salaries, benefits, and an opportunity for bonuses. Please send resumes via mail; fax or e-mail to the attention of:
Elle-Mai Saar, Administration Secretary
tion and flow instabilities;
MacVh'o Consultants Inc.
• rapidly diverging passages (flow separation and instabili
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• steep slopes (flow separation and instabilities);
• skew flow that causes flow concentrations.
For more information, circie reply card No. 135 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
US drinking water and wastewater systems face huge funding shortfalls
USFilter Folded Flow™ DAF technology Is a WEF award-winner
The United States' 54,000 drinking water systems and 16,000 wastewater systems face staggering infrastructure
funding needs of nearly $1 trillion over the next 20 years and a shortfall of a half of a trillion dollars, according to Clean and Safe Waterfor the 21st Century. The figures were released by the Water In frastructure Network(WIN). Although America's drinking water and waste-
water systems spend $23 billion per year for infrastructure, they face an annual shortfall of another $23 billion to replace aging facilities and comply with exist ing and future federal water regulations, the report says. WIN is calling on the federal govern ment to make investment in the critical
drinking water and wastewater infrastracture a national priority. Failure to meet these clean and safe water investment
needs of the next 20 years risks reversing the public health, economic and environ mental gains of the last three decades. "The benefits of drinking water and
The Folded Flow™ dissolved air
flotation system, developed by USFilter's Envirex Products, won
the 1999 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environ ment Federation. The award fol lows demonstration of enhanced
liquid-solid separation efficiency in several commercial applica tions.
Conventional dissolved air flo
The award-winning Foided Fiow™ DAF unit by
tation separation tanks introduce
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raw wastewater to one end of the tank and remove clarified effluent from
the opposite end. In the Folded Flow dissolved air flotation system, inlet and outlet are at the same end of the rectan
gular tank. Says Envirex Products research and development director Peter Petit, "This simple change in geometry dramatically
enhances dissolved air flotation liquidsolid separation efficiency. Hydraulic loading can be increased by a factor of two to three times while maintaining effluent quality. Equipment footprint is correspondingly reduced." For details, contact Daniel Lalor, Tel:(414)547-0141.
WIN. "Yet local governments and rate payers mustfund 90 percent of clean and
portation systems,fight crime, and pro
safe water infrastructure costs while
emment should not make communities
wastewater infrastructure to the nation's
grappling with competing needs to edu
well-being cannot be overstated," says
cate children, maintain roads and trans-
choose between providing safe and clean water and funding other necessary community programs. Nor should fami lies be forced to pay unaffordable water
ivcUer resourcesp/unntng water supply, trausmissiou and treatment
Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in
rates. Better solutions are needed."
Without a significantly enhanced fed eral role in providing assistance to drink ing water and wastewater infrastructure,
wastewater collection and treatment
electrical engineering, instrumentation and controls
municipal infrastructure services
solid waste and hazardous materials management
geo-environmental investigations and site remediation environmental assessments and planning environmental health and safety
525-21 Four Seasons Place, Toronto, Ontario MOB 6J8•Tel(416)622-9502•Fax(416)622-6249 4342 Queen Street, Niagara Falls, Ontario L2E 6W1•Tel(005)374-4470•Fax(905)374-8365
Four decades of excellence in infrastructure planning Ex engineering
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critical investments will not occur, the
report notes. According to WIN, there are a number of possible solutions. These include grants, trust funds,loans, and incentives for private investment. "So,the question is not whether the fed eral government should take more re sponsibility for drinking water and wastewater improvements," says WIN, "but how?"
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sidered from across Ontario, and the
City of Brantford was found to have dis played impressive diversion rates through recycling, source reduction, re use and composting.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consuming engineers, architects, technology managers
forests Almost half of Canada's land area is
Water, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies
covered by forests and wise use of this resource has importance on a global scale. According to the Timber Harvest ing indicator bulletin in the National
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local timber supply shortages have been reported. The bulletin also shows that the annual area successfully regenerated to commercial species has increased 23% since 1991,largely due to increased planting efforts in the 198Gs. Although the total area affected by
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the 1980s, consecutive years of insect defoliation have had a considerable im
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pact on forest ecosystems in the Atlan tic Maritime and Boreal Shield Eco-
zones. Forest fires - another important element in forest change- were particu larly severe in 1994 and 1995 when an average of 6.37 million hectares burned
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- close to four times the area burned in 1993.
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Mercury as the silvery stuff in the bot tom of the thermometer can become an
airbome toxin that travels long distances in the atmosphere before finally com ing down to earth through precipitation or dry deposition. An Environment Canada team has been studying airborne mercury at Esther, in southeastern Al berta, as part of a national research pro gram to investigate airborne mercury in different regions of Canada.
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The research aims to better under
stand where the mercury comes from, where it ends up, and how it moves through the air. Research findings so far show that air masses reaching the monitoring site from the east or south, which have spent more time over the continent, tend to bring higher mercury concentrations than air masses arriving from the west, which have traveled rap idly from the northeast Pacific to the site. The air masses which have spent more time over the continent have had a great er time to accumulate mercury emis
CH2IVI Gore & Storrie Limited
Environmental Engineers, Planners and Scientists 255 Consumers Road, Toronto, Ontario M2J 5B6
phone:(416) 499-9000, fax:(416) 499-4687 direct dial: (416) 499-0090 -b ext. Barrle • Calgary • Ottawa • Thorold Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo
Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc. Dredging (since 1971)
sions from Canada and the US. Two
other findings were that forest fire smoke is associated with higher mercury
• Dewaterlng • Pumping • Weed Harvester •Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction
concentrations at Esther, and that emis
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sions of mercury from the soil were an important source, especially in the spring.
Tel: (506) 684-5821 E-mail: email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Fax:(506) 684-1915 Web site: www.GIROUXiNC.com 41
Industry Update Water rates manual
in partnership with
National Research Council Canada
Crechem Technologies Inc.
The Ontario Water Works Association
has published its 1999 Survey ofMunici pal Water Rates & Operations Bench marking in Ontario. The report contains the results of responses from 115 mu nicipal water systems in Ontario. These systems serve about seven million peo ple, along with industrial, commercial
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the extent of the responses, OWWA feels that this report truly represents a crosssection of the present practices in Ontario regarding rates and other opera tional parameters. The report, now in its seventh edi tion, can provide all involved in the water supply business, with information valuable to their organizations includ ing: operations, suppliers, consultants, regulators, and financial managers. Call the OWWA office at:(416)252-7060 to order, at a cost of $ 100.
Hershel Guttman receives
George Fuller Award
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Hershel Guttman to be the recipient of the highest AWWA Section honour, the George Warren Fuller Award. The George Warren Fuller Award is presented to Hershel as a member of the Association, for his distinguished serv ice to the water supply profession over the last 30 years. The award commemo rates the sound engineering skill, the brilliant diplomatic talent, and the con structive leadership of George Warren Fuller, and is given to members in this
a Section of the American Water Works
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This award was officially presented to Hershel at the June 2000 Annual Con ference held in Denver.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Stanley Mason, P.Eng., and Bill Boriase, P.Eng., join ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board
Limited bgc engineering inc.
"As a strategic alliance member, Gartner Lee offers more comprehensive services to its clients
The President of Terminal City Iron Works Ltd., Stanley Mason,P.Eng., has joined ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board. Stan has often been helpful to ES&E in the past and he and I have met
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a Member of ^ivironmental
Sfeve Morison, Gartner Lee Limited
Manager - Alberta and Northern Canada Tel:(867) 633-6474, firstname.lastname@example.org
at conferences on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. He is a Past President of
Geomatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists, and Environmental Scientists
EACE, a position he took over from Quebec's Pat Bourgeois in 1979.(FACE
We have moved!
is now called the Canadian Water &
Our new address is:
'Industrial Woter/Wosfewoter Treofmenf
■ Wasfe Minimization/Wostewafer Reuse/Recycle
Wastewater Association). Stan is a
■ Treatment System Upgrode/Optimizafion
former Chair of the BCW&WA and
Suite No. 1\465 Phillip Street
numbers among his many distinctions,
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 6C7
■ Treatment System Design and Construction ■ ISO 14000 - Environmental Management Systems
the AWWA's Fuller Award.
HOC ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics
Howe Gastmeier Chapnik
Noise Vibration and Acoustics 2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 1, Suite 203 Mississauga, Ontario L5N1P7 (905) 826-4044, Fax 826-4940 www.hgcengin8ering.com LIMITED
Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design
Hydromantis,Inc. Bill Boriase, P.Eng.
Photo - Steve Davey
Bill Boriase, P.Eng., has been em ployed by the City of Winnipeg, Water and Waste Departmentfor over 30 years. As Manager of Wastewater Services, he has overall responsibility for the City's
wastewater collection, wastewater treat
Ifydrogeological Consultants and
1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 1G5
» Design and supervision of groundwater exploration programs » New munidpal well design » Assessment of groundwater/surface water interaction
Groundwater Supply Specialists
ment and biosolids disposal programs, flood control and land drainage works. Bill received his undergraduate and post graduate education at the Univer sity of Manitoba, and he is an active
► Groundwater protection
11 Years and
» Artificial rectiarge ' Hydrogeology studies and groundwater Impact assessments • Lanijflll monitoring and impact assessment
' Well maintenance, retiabilitalion, performance improvement Mail:
P.O. Box 451, Paris, Ontario N3L 3T5
Office: 326 Grand River St. North
Paris. Ontario N3L 4A5
member in the Water Environment Fed
eration (WEE), the Western Canada
Phone: (519) 442-2066
' Well construction
' Video inspection services
' Performance testing of wells and pumps Fax: (519) 442-7242
Water and Wastewater Association
(WCWWA)and the Water Environment Association of Ontario (WEAO). He presently serves on the WEE Board of Directors representing Western Canada. He is a frequent and welcome visitor at 5S and other Ontario gatherings:
MacViro Designing Environmental ^ Energy Solutions Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment
I am honoured that these two distin
guished Western engineers have agreed to serve on our Board.
Tom Davey Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
MacViro Consultants Inc.
90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R SMS
Fax: (905) 475-5994
GL&V acquires Environmental Equipment & Systems, Inc.
'environmental site assessments
GL&V/Dorr-Oliver Inc. has acquired the assets of Environmental Equipment
& Systems, Inc. The company is being integrated directly into GL&V/Dorr-
Oliver Inc., a member of GL&V's Proc
ess Group whose technology and equip ment platform is targeted to diversified
industrial markets such as chemicals,
pulp and paper, mining, mineral process ing, metallurgy and the environment. These new operations will contribute sales of some $3 million annually to
CONSULTINQ ENGINEERS • SURVEYORS • PUVNNERS
Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources
Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, ThomhIII, ON L3T 7N4
CPPA Increases on-line
Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055
A Chemex Labs Alberta / Novamann International Partnership
Comprehensive Environmental Testing National Service
5540 McAdam Road
2021-41 Avenue N.E.
Mississ^ga, ON L4Z IPI
Calgary, AB T2E 6P2
Edmonton 9331 -48th Street
9420 C6te de Liesse
Occupational Health Rush Analysis
Lachine.QC H8T lAI
Edmonton. AB T6B2R4
Toll Free: East (800)563-6266
information The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe As sociation has updated its web site to give more information about polyethylene pipe. The site, www.cppa-info.org, an swers the most basic questions about the
pipe and gives visitors up to date infor mation on research and CPPA news.
The redesigned web site provides several easy to access pages featuring background information on the CPPA, a dozen technical booklets and case
studies written on corrugated polyethy
lene pipe. One of these pages is dedi cated to understanding HDPE pipe. Written in a question and answer for mat, this page contains statistics, quotes from users, colour photos, and links to pipe manufacturers, and the technical
• Aqua Guard' Screen • Biolac' System • DynaSand' Filter • Lamella Gravity Settler • StramPress SludgeCleaner 9050 RYAN AVENUE, DORVAL, QUEBEC H9P 2m8 TELEPHONE 514-636-8712 FAX 514-636-9718
An Axel Johnson Inc. Companv » ;
Can garbage collection ONTARIO• BRITISH COLUMBIA •QUEBEC • NOVA SCOTIA PENNSYLVANIA • NEWFOUNDLAND • ALBERTA
make streets dirtier? A recent University of Florida study of a 100-home subdivision in Gainesville,
Florida, has found that on some days,
Ike tke mail kmudedifecMe- 6eilei teami in the mdniifuf., Pkiiip. Anaiifiicai U.cammiUed to- pAoaidmtf- coit e^ectiue anaii^iicai pntxyiami udule iidi jflcwUncj, on kkjA (juaUti^ and cwiiamen- ieniuce.
the amount of litter on the streets more
Valerie Geldart, Sales Manager 1-800-263-9040 ext. 275 or email@example.com Internet: www.philipanalytical.com
than doubled after garbage trucks came through. Researchers with the university's Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous
Waste Management, said that much of the litter was spilled when cans were emptied into garbage trucks. Homeown ers were partly to blame, overstuffing garbage cans and failing to use bags,the
CIVIL/ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING' CONSULTANTS WATER SUPPLY' POLLUTION CONTROL • DRAINAGE SCADA • ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES • ENERGY AUDITS
SIMCOE ENGINEERING GROUP LIMITEG
Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Monor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. L1W 3W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fex; 905-831-0531
Even paperless e-commerce might play a role. One of the biggest litter problems was the foam plastic 'peanut' packing used in the shipping of compu ter equipment.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Industry Update ACPA names new Chairman for 2000
Stantec Consulting Ltd. ^
Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety
♦ Environmental Engineering ♦ Ventilation Assessment & Design
♦ Occupational Health and Safety ♦ indoor Air Quality ♦ HS&E Compliance Audits
♦ Air Pollution Control
♦ Gisan AirTectinoiogies ♦ EMS Audits 7070 Mississauga Road, Suite 160, Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 7G2 Canada Tel:(905)858-4424• Fax:(905)858-4426 • Website: www.stantec.com
"A leader\n providing innovative automation solutions to our customers. We offer a compiete range of products & services in tlie areas of: • Systems Integration • Process instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services •Service
liy'iiiA'/'n IJ /A' 4''/
/' ; I' .
i* ^ U 't Lm" ijh'.H /
fishtUlJ j ihit ilhif'
i n'" ^ „///
Adrian Driver, president of CSR Hydro Conduit Corporation, has been named
Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V1J2 Tel:(905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444
the new chairman of the board of the
Summa Enterprises, Place Griili, 3539 Blvd. St. Ctiaries, #350, Kirkiand, QC H9H 5B9
Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587
COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE
American Concrete Pipe Association (ACPA). As president of the Pipe and Concrete Products Division of CSR
Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste IVIanagement• Environmental Assessment
America Inc., Driver heads the largest
Site Assessment & Remediation •SCADA
precast concrete pipe manufacturer in
TEL:(905)668-9363• WHITBY• Fax:(905)668-0221
the US. CSR America Inc. is headquar tered in West Palm Beach, Florida.
In discussing his goals as ACPA's
BARBIE • BRACEBRiDGE • COBOURG • KINGSTON • LONDON OTTAWA • SAULT STE. MARIE • ST. CATHARINES • WATERLOO
Web site: w\A/w.tsh.ca
new chairman, Driver said he will fo
cus on growing the available "pie" for EARTH AND WATER SECTOR
precast concrete pipe products, as well as increasing the size of the market. Ontario
Could silver carp solve algae problem?
United States as part of a two-year study to see if the fish can solve perennial water quality problems. Silver carp are closely related to the now widely used green carp, a species that eats half ofits own weight in weeds daily. A research biologist has said that
Site Assessment & Remediation
Hydrogeology Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Urban Drainage
Scientists in southern Alberta think they may have a solution to the blue-green algae that foul rural ponds and small town drinking water storage reservoirs most summers. Alberta Agriculture re ports that 3,000 algae-eating silver carp have been imported from the southern
Environmental Engineering Water & Wastewater Engineering
Visit our website at www.umagroup.com
Environmental Consultants and Engineers ♦ Environmental Engineering
♦ Hydrogeology & Hydrology
♦ Industrial Hygiene, Occupational Health & Safety
♦ Environmental Control
♦ Solid, Liquid & Hazardous Waste Management
♦ Site Remediation/Rehabilitation
Brownfields Redevelopment ♦ Groundwater Control and
♦ Property Assessment
Construction Dewatering Design
♦ Environmental Management Systems
3108 CARP ROAD, P.O. BOX 430, CARP, ONTARIO KOA 1L0 Telephone: 613-839-3053
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Facsimile: 613-839-5376 WEBSITE: www.wesa.ca
A Belter Environmeni For Business
OFFICES LOCATED IN: CARP - GATINEAU - KINGSTON - KITCHENER -EL SALVADOR
the sterilized fish will be confined to
ponds inside a greenhouse at Lethbridge Community College for at least a year in order to find out if they do two things: survive Alberta winters and feed on the
type of algae common in the province. Experiments with silver carp in Eng land and several parts of Europe have shown mixed results. In some areas the
fish did as hoped while in other regions they failed miserably.
^XCC xc VJ
ENVIRONfVlENTAL ENGINEERING SPECIALISTS
• Industrial/ Municipal Wastewater Management • Watershed and Stormwater Management • Drinking Wafer Quality and Treatment
Vancouver (604)990-0582 Kitchener (519)741-5774 Toronto area (905)891-2400 Kingston (613)542-5888 email@example.com
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
• Hydrogeology investigation /Modelling
• Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmental Management Systems
August 29-31, 2000. FITMA 2000 - Inter national Fair of Environmental Technolo
gies; RESOL - International Exhibition of Technologies for Public Cleaning and Solid Waste; SETMA - Seminar of Environmen
tal Technologies, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Further information: Tel: (21) 537-4338, Fax; (21) 537-7991, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Web site: www.fagga.com.br. September 20-22, 2000. Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Midwest Branch,Annual Conference and Trade Show,
Thunder Bay,ON. Contact: Ajoy Chatterjee, Tel: (807) 475-2558, Fax: (807) 475-9186, E-mail: email@example.com. September 25-28, 2000. 22nd Canadian Waste Management Conference & Interna
New CEPA now law New rules for controlling toxic sub stances were announced by Environment Minister David Anderson,April 4,2000, who said the Canadian Environmental
Protection Act(CEPA)is now law.
The new Act is designed to provide strong protection for the environment and for human health through sciencebased pollution prevention strategies. It incorporates current scientific under standing about the impact of toxic sub stances and pollutants on the environ ment and health, and places a new em
tional Trade Show, Halifax, NS. Contact:
The Nova Scotia Environmental Industry Association (NSEIA), Tel:(902)463-3538, Fax:(902)463-3511, Conference Web site: www.cwmc.ns.ca.
September 26-28, 2000. Enviro-Pro Expo Mexico 2000, Mexico City, Mexico. Spon sored by Air & Waste Management Association. Contact: Mercedes de la Cruz,
Tel: (301) 493-5500, Fax: (301) 493-5705, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. September 27-30, 2000. 10th Annual National Composting Conference- The Fu ture Starts Here...Compost! Edmonton,AB. Sponsored by The Composting Council of Canada,Olds College Composting Technol ogy Centre, and The City of Edmonton. Contact: Susan Antler, The Composting Council of Canada, Tel: (416) 535-0240, E-mail: email@example.com. Web site: www. compost.org.
October 11-13, 2000. Rubber Recycling 2000-A World of Opportunity, Toronto, ON. Sponsored by The Rubber Association of Canada, and Scrap Tire Management Coun
phasis on public accountability and transparency. The new CEPA was ap proved by Parliament in September 1999, and gives the Government of Canada stronger powers and new tools. The new law emphasizes the impor tance of preventing pollution rather than cleaning it up after the fact. It explic itly acknowledges that the protection of the environment is essential to the well-
being of Canadians,and that the primary purpose of this Act is to contribute to sustainable development through pollu tion prevention.
"For Cost Effective Pumping" A company in the Cardo Group
^BS has the most Comprehensive range on the market. Sales & Service
• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps
ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905)670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you
For more information, circle reply card No. 256
77 ORCHARD ROAD
High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment
Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 257
cil. Contact: Tel:(905)270-8322,Fax:(905)
270-2640, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. October 23-26, 2000. ISWA International Symposium on Waste Management in Asian Cities, Hong Kong. Contact: www.hong kongwma.org.hk/iswa.htm.
INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD.
October 26-28, 2000. The Canadian Envi ronmental Auditing Association (CEAA), 10th Anniversary Technical Meetings and Annual General Conference, Calgary, AB. Contact: CEAA, Tel: (905) 814-1274, Web
342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,
Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5
WELL AND PUMP MAINTENANCE 1-800-461-9636
After Hours Emergency Pager:(705)734-3277 Tel:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705)721-0138 E-mail: email@example.com. Web site: www.iws.ca
For more information, circle reply card No. 259 —
QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL CARBON - GARNET - ILWIENITE REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
Media & Coal Ltd.
20 SHARP ROAD. R.R.#6, BRANTFORD,ONTARIO N3T5L8
For more information, circle reply card No. 261 46
INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD. MONTREAL
GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 65 Years
342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5
Tel:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705)721-0138 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Web site: www.iws.ca
For more information, circle reply card No. 260 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Literature Review For Information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Directory 2000 - special "25th Anniversary Edition"
Dijreet«»ry SOOO SPECIftL 251'1 AHNIVEnSftflY EDITIDH
Response Rentals Ltd. rents, sells, and repairs instruments for environ mental monitoring and sampling and for industrial hygiene applications. Response Rentals also offers port
Ontario's key annual reference direc tory for tfie province's consulting en gineering industry is now available. Pubiisfied by the Consulting Engi neers of Ontario, the 2000 Directory "25th Anniversary Edition", provides detailed corporate profile information
able instruments for cieanroom moni
and selection criteria for the exten I \ pyrn
sive CEO membership. Price is $75, plus GST. Visit our web site at: www.ceo.on.ca.
Consulting Engineers of Ontario Circle reply card No. 150 7W OfTOU.Gutoe TO COMSULVUG tHGINeenS OF ONIMrO
Urecon pre-lnsulated pipe TED.PIE
Urecon pre-insuiated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocabie® heat tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insuiated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page
Installation Practices For
Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe and Fittings Brvugfil lo ysu by ibc CPPA,** a ronprolil irxlijstty irade association deciKted is
providing unbiescd. ncn-bfanded in'ormaiior aboul lh« use and
insial'aiion ot coragsled psiyethyisre pipe. Yo'j' hloTiation Rjsotifce
toring and certification. Equipment may be rented on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. Ail instruments are meticulously maintained and cali brated before they are sent to a cus tomer. Most ship overnight for nextday delivery. Visit our web site at: www.responserentais.com. Response Rentals Ltd. Circle reply card No. 151
CPPA Installation Guide
This pocket-sized booklet provides information on handling and instal lation of corrugated polyethylene pipe and fittings in nonpressure ap plications including most storm sew ers, culverts, and subdrainage sys tems. The booklet is available by calling the CPPA at: 1-800-510CPPA (2772), or by visiting the web site at www.cppa-info.org. Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe
Circle reply card No. 153
Circle reply card No. 152
Membrane technology for
Pump selection software
industrial wastewater ZENON's ZenoGem® bloreactor
ABSEL, a pump selection software program developed by pump manu facturer, ABS Pumps, and offered free, significantly streamlines the pump selection process by enabling pump specifiers and users to automaticaiiy caicuiate friction loss in a system. By automating extensive, time-consuming caicuiations, ABSEL helps to ensure the appropriate se lection of an ABS pump to achieve optimum system operating efficiency. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 155
system can retrofit any existing wastewater treatment facility, im mediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The system in corporates immersed membrane technology, which assures hiomass retention, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge. ZENON Environmental Inc.
ABSEL ABS Selection Program Users' Manual
Circle reply card No. 154
Package Plant A major step towards a highly efficient clarifica tion process, Actlflo® package plants are units engineered to provide a compact modular system in response to an ever growing demand for a high performance water treatment process. Typical applications are in municipal (water and wastewater) and industrial (process water). John Meunler Froducts/USFIiter
Wkm Tim's imm'i
Emergency Response Team-1 Environmental Services
offer an extensive compliment of equipment and dedicated crew. TRUE multiple response facilities.
4t d«<Ualr4 en
•TKlic cMltlpU mpiAU bdUtin. • CMtnocd(o EoUk. Flic
ind loduitiy ferItxd lad auiircmposuc. • Rcpld:< h«ttr
(OutcrioV only Mobile DwocD-cUei)
IVilaiajt Acidraty HmSS! iviHt SfWy equipped louUons.
Contracted to police, fire and indus try for land and marine response. Rapid 24 hour response (Ontario's only Mobile Decon Trailer). Opera tor of The Emergency Service Train ing Academy with three fully equip ped locations.
fiorth AmertC* Wlti* ftesf/onse
Circle reply card No. 157
Circle reply card No. 156
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Product and Service Showcase Denso Petrolatum Tapes
Centennial Conotte Pipe & Products tnc
Stomceptor ® Every Stormceptor stormwater quality treatment system sold by Centennial Con crete Pipe & Products Inc. includes onsite installation inspection by Centennial, as well as initial clean out and first year inspection service by Minotaur Guardian
Circle reply card No. 160
fer all Stormceptor owners ongoing in spection and cleanout service at competi tive prices to ensure Stormceptors are op erating at maximum efficiency. Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products Circle reply card No. 161
Proven worldwide for well over 100 years, Denso Petrolatum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible,Denso Petrolatum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. Eor applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso! Circle reply card No. 162
use 6000 converter
Filtration and polishing units
Ecodyne custom-designed Lamella Clarifiers, the unit process of choice for a wide variety of applications, are fully assem bled and factory painted, have individu ally removable FRP plates and adjustable effluent weir plates. Ecodyne Limited
Service Limited. Minotaur will also of
The use 6000 sig
For oily water problems, the so
nal converter from
Danfoss eliminates the
lution is found in RPyyiM Filtration
protocols when uti lizing a dissolved oxygen sensor in
moves both emul
aeration tanks. De
signed to be easily mounted with the EVITA® Oxy dis solved oxygen sensor,this CE,C-tick and UL-approved converter compensates for temperature, barometric pressure, humid ity, and salinity. It operates in tempera tures ranging from -40°C to -r70°C with ± 0.1° accuracy.
sified and free-
The Transtor is ideal for minimizing the cost of urban and regional transfer by mini mizing capital and site development costs, and by flexible routing to maximize trailer utilization. The main lid accepts material from almost any type of collection vehi cle - rear, front and side loading. The Transtor cycles into any open top trailer in 45 seconds using the tractor's wet kit or through an optional on-site power pack. HauI-AII Equipment Systems
floating oils in water.
singly or combined, may be used alone or with other filtration systems and can be designed to fit the specific needs of our customers. RPA creates no waste and
through on-site centrifugation, both the RPA is regenerated and the oils are re covered. Visit our website at www.
Circle reply card No. 163
Circle reply card No. 164
earthcanada.com. Earth Canada Corp. Circle reply card No. 165
Concrete Pipe Handbook
AGRA Resource Catalog
Precast Concrete Box Culvert
Davis Controls Limited
f BOXCAR Soft
ware from the
gain a better under standing of drainage products and their applications. The 48-page catalog in cludes an alphabetical listing of manuals, ACPA's Design Data series, videos, soft ware and other design/application re source materials. Free upon request to ACPA, www.concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association
crete Pipe Asso ciation can help engineers signifi cantly reduce de sign time and costly over-designs on projects using precast concrete box sections. The Win dows-based CD-ROM provides complete structural analysis for loads due to box weight,soil weight, intemal gravity fluid weight, live loads and user specified sur charge loads. Structural design methods conform to standards set by AASHTO. American Concrete Pipe Association
Circle reply card No. 167
Circle reply card No. 168
used by engineers, consultants, agency and govemment of ficials, and others to
The latest edition of the Concrete Pipe Handbook,a comprehensive collection of theories, formulas and aids for designing concrete pipe systems, is available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. Now in its fifth printing, the handbook has been updated to include information on Standard Installation using Indirect De sign. American Concrete Pipe Assoc. Circle reply card No. 166
Design Software available
Catalog contains a complete list of publications, tech and other materials
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Product and Service Showcase Liquid level control
Sollds/corroslve liquids pumps
Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Packaged Submersible Pumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 169
Gorman-Rupp's Electronic Pressure Switch has been designed to control the operation of your Gorman-Rupp pack aged pumping station or control. The EPS 2000 is incredibly accurate, reliable and simple to operate. The unit comes with pinpoint precision Start/Stop set points for one to eight pumps, or it can be used to control up to six pumps while monitoring the wet well with high and low water alarms. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 170
Gorman-Rupp T Series'''''' pumps are de signed for economical,trouble-free opera tion in handling solids-laden liquids and slurries. Pumps feature a large volute de sign which allows them to reprime auto matically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with liq uid and a completely dry suction line. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 171
EIMCO FlexKlear速 Inclined
Design Data 41
Packaged sewage pumping system
Features: Hinged plates can be nic hedPlateSetfler
Flocculation and clarification com
shifted to shed ac
bined in a single
lightweight corru gated stainless steel plates; ported launders dampen irregular
force uniform flow; rugged, modular stainless steel support system speeds in stallation; adapts easily to rectangular or square basins; combines readily with Trac-Vac""" sludge collectors; pilot plant
times; gentle tur bine mixing for optimum particle growth; heavyduty mechanism;superior dual drivehead design for maximum service life; proper support for mechanism and operational loads; pilot plant available. Baker Process
Circle reply card No. 173
available. Baker Process
Circle reply card No. 172
Design Data 41 from ACPA aids engineers in the proper design of manholes to pre vent flotation. Design methods, using ba sic soil mechanics to determine if a man
hole is susceptible to flotation, are pre sented for the engineer. The effects of the manhole configuration and surrounding soil conditions are taken into considera
tion with the analysis. American Concrete Pipe Association
Circle reply card No. 174
Prevent algae bulld-up
Inlet Stormceptor速 system
Membrane technology for Industrial wastewater
The Inlet Storm
ceptor System em ploys the same principles of op eration as the wellknown In-line In-
i Ford Hall Company is the manufacturer of the Algae Sweep Automation debris control system. The custom-designed, stainless steel, spring loaded system is for use on primary clarifiers, secondary clarifiers and thickeners, whether they be domed,covered, or open to the elements. Patented since 1989,FMC has nearly 1,000 units installed in the US and Canada. Free
demonstration video available upon re quest. Ford Hall Company,Inc. Circle reply card No. 175
terceptors. Develoff from an area of
up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the inter nal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-
water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are currently more than 2,500 units in place throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 176
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
ZENON's ZenoGem'速 bioreactor system can retrofit any existing wastewater treat ment facility, immediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The sys tem incorporates immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass reten tion, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge. ZENON Environmental Inc.
Circle reply card No. 177 49
Product and Service Showcase Electrochemical meters
Hach Company has introduced two new sension electrochemical meter products for professional laboratory and field-test ing, both with multi-parameter capabil ity. The sension 156 (portable multi-pa rameter meter)and sension378(benchtop multi-parameter meter) both offer three lest combinations: pH/Conductivity, pH/ Dissolved Oxygen,and pH/Conductivity/ Dissolved Oxygen. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 178
Large digester covers
In-house total-lead testing
Effective process control
Hach Company offers a new laboratory test for determining total organic carbon (TOC) content of drinking water and wastewater. This simple method is an ideal alternative to out-sourced analysis
trained technicians. Staff members fol
efit from on-site and on-demand TOC
low step-by-step instructions for sample digestion and a simplified, anodic strip ping voltammetry technique to obtain
readings. The test is ideal for use in drinking water as a process control tool for those facilities required to remove organic material. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 179
Submersible pumping/mixing have
sign features external stiffeners and a clear uncluttered interior surface for minimum maintenance. Photo shows a
70'(21 m) gasholder recently being in stalled. Sizes to 110'(33.5 m) are oper ating; larger are available. GL&V/Dorr-Oliver
Circle reply card No. 181
Efficient, precise activation of liquid polymer
Circle reply card No. 180
N-Pump series feature new hydraulic end design
making submers ible pumps since
The N-Pump se ries from Flygt
1948, when we
features a new
hydraulic end de sign for efficient,
world's first sub
steel or stainless steel. This modern de
measurements,in-house, without invest
ment in expensive equipment or highly-
for treatment facilities that would ben
GL&V/Dorr-Oliver is the leading sup plier of large primary and secondary(gas holder) digester covers manufactured of
The Hach Scanning Analyzer HSA-1000 provides low parts-per-billion(PPB)lead
mersible designed for pumping con taminated water.
reliable and trou
ble-free pumping over long duty pe
Over the years,
riods. The result:
our name has come to stand for efficient,
improved opera tional economy which can dramatically reduce the total life cost of your installation. N-Pumps maintain a high level of pumping effi ciency, even in fluids with a high solids and fibrous content, thanks to an opentype self-cleaning impeller. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 183
versatile products of the highest quality and we have remained at the forefront of
development. Our designs, patents, and technical innovations have made us the
world's leading manufacturer ofsubmers ible pumping/mixing equipment and fluid handling technology. ITT Flygt
Circle reply card No. 182
Water particle counting system
The solution to your containment challenge
The IBR Water
Particle Counting System (WPCS) represents
breakthrough technology for particle counters in the water treat
The Model 560 Liquid Polymer Process ing Module is an advanced, highly effec tive system for instantaneously activat ing liquid polymer emulsions and solu tions. Completely pre-piped and pre wired in an industrial-duty, compact package, the fully automatic unit utilizes Acrison's performance-proven, control led shear activation chamber for precise and undui m polymer activation. Metcon
Circle reply card No, 184 50
ment industry. With resolution of
better than 9%,the IBR 400 sensor does
not require count matching. Individual calibration to ASTM F658, combined
with high resolution optics, ensures count correlation. This eliminates the need to
change calibration points in order to force counters to match. Metcon
Circle reply card No. 185
A Kentain liner can restore life to
an old tank, which
started to leak.
Kentain uses only the highest qual ity PVC materi als, with proven durability, high resistance to chemical attack and pinhole free. Each seam of the single piece Kentain liner is electroni cally welded for a complete homogenous weld. All seams are completed at the state-of-the-art plant in Kitchener, On tario. Kentain Products Ltd.
Circle reply card No. 186
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Product and Service Showcase Trenchless Technology
Total residual chlorine monitor
ATI's new Model A15/79 monitor meas
ATI's new Series A15/81 Dissolved
Insituform Technologies' proprietary trenchless technologies make it possible to reconstruct underground sewers and other pipes without digging or disruption. The Insituform速', NuPipe速,Paltem速, and
Tite Liner速 processes are used by waste-
ures Total Residual Chlorine using a gas phase measurement method that elimi nates any contact between the sample and the sensor, greatly reducing maintenance requirements. In operation, the sample is reacted with buffer and potassium iodide
water, gas, and industrial customers
in accordance with EPA recommended
worldwide. For more information, visit
methods. The result is" a system that is simple to operate and immune to common sample fouling problems. ATI Inc. Circle reply card No. 188
Suifide Monitor provides an on-line in strument for continuously measuring even very low levels of dissolved hydro gen suifide in water or wastewater. Meas urements may be made from a few PPB up to 20 PPM. with standard outputs and alarms that may be used to control chemi cal feed systems or provide alarms in the event of process problems. Analytical Technology, Inc. Circle reply card No. 189
Personal gas detection
our website at: www.insituform.com.
Insituform Technologies, Inc. Circle reply card No. 187
Oil in water monitor
Dissolved Suifide Monitor
For industrial and municipal measure ments of hydrocarbons in water, Arjay offers the FluoroCheck 2000. Using the selective and accurate technology offluo rescence, this instrument has been de
signed for quick and easy readings with its automatic sample read feature. Once the unit has been initiated to your site through a simple calibration, prepared samples are inserted into the unit and the rest is taken care of automatically. Arjay Engineering Ltd.
Now available - six sensor monitors that
The McTighe oil/water separator will produce an effluent quality of less than 10 PPM offree oil. Standard sizes range from 10 GPM to 4,500 GPM. Separa tors are available in both above ground and below ground models. Arjay Engineering Ltd.
Circle reply card No. 191
include the selective monitoring of electrochemical sensors and the safety of broad range gas monitoring - all in one! Enmet introduces the Target portable. Concentration display, audio and visual alarms, long battery life, and rugged. Also available with data logging, remote display unit, and built-in pump. Arjay Engineering Ltd.
Circle reply card No. 192
Circle reply card No. 190
Low cost AutoFlash
Skid mounted systems
evaporation process The AutoFlash is
a time-proven evaporation sys tem with the capability of using low-grade, reject, waste heat as the
Scitngi Ftom BioseVdf.
www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 193
only source of en ergy for phase separation. This exclusive feature makes evaporation a very viable treatment method for TDS (total dissolved solids), over 4,500 milli grams per litre. The proprietary, self-regu lating device causes the AutoFlash to be able to operate outside ofsteady state con ditions in a highly stable manner. Donson Engineering Circle reply card No. 194
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
GDT Corporation has introduced a pack aged skid mounted water and wastewater treatment system. Applications include ozone and oxygen dissolution and CO,, VOC and Radon stripping. The patented GDT'm process is modular and can sup port small and large scale treatment ap plications. Pictured is the front and back of a compact (only 4 ft.- of floor space) system with oxygen and ozone generators mounted on the skid. GDT Corporation Circle reply card No. 195 51
Product and Service Showcase Spring 2000 Catalogue
Pumps for extreme requirements
li Free 4-coiour Hertz catalogue featuring over 1,200 used equipment items for sale. Equipment ranges from air compressors to earthmoving, material handling, aerial, trucks, and much more! Ail equipment is listed by make, model, serial number, price, and location. The Spring 2000 catalogue includes information on lowrate financing program as well as details on rental purchase option. Hertz
Circle reply card No. 196
Multi-stage filter for small systems
The Amarex KRT pump meets all re quirements for the erection, replacement, or extension of pumping stations. It has been designated for wet-well installa tions. Dry-well installations can be real ized by means of the Sewatec series of fered by KSB. So, no matter which field of application, KSB will be in the posi tion to offer an optimum solution at a fair price,coupled with the most suitable sew age hydraulics. KSB Pumps Circle reply card No. 197
Dissolved oxygen system Âť
The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required: easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.
Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 198
MiOX water disinfection
The MS Filter is a solution to a small
system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no mem branes to replace, and yet treatment per formance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced populations of less than 1,500. RAL Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 199
Compact ozone generator units
The Model 9200 is the first dissolved oxy gen analyzer available with two automatic self-cleaning methods. The Royce Instru ment Corporation Patented Electro chemical Self-Cleaning all but eliminates biological fouling. The system can be sup plied with a field proven Air or Water Jet Self-Cleaning. Together they produce un paralleled performance. The Model 9200 system also includes the only on screen graphical trending for both DO and Tem perature. Cancoppas Limited Circle reply card No. 200
Safe Drinking Water? by hypochlorination
MIOX products are based on a propri etary membraneless electrolytic cell that produces a liquid stream of mixed oxidants that are extremely effective in dis infecting water. The electrolytic cell uses sodium chloride, water, and electricity to generate the oxidant solution. This solu tion is collected in a tank and continu
ally injected into water at rates appropri ate to treatment objectives. Omega Public Works
Circle reply card No. 201
Safe Drinking Water? by chlorine dioxide ProMinent's Bello Zon chlorine di
oxide generator produces a chlo rine-free, chlorine dioxide solution,
Ozonia's range of standardized compact ozone generator units, the OZATÂŽ, take advantage of the latest technological de velopments, including "Advanced Tech nology" dielectrics. They are ideal for; Ozone oxidation; up to 15% concentration and higher(from oxygen);chemical proc ess oxidation; groundwater oxidation; re cycle process water; wastewater oxidation; sterilize DI water. Pilot units are avail able. Ozonia
Circle reply card No. 202 52
ProMinent offers a simple and reliable chlorine disinfection program for pota ble water. Dulcometer sensors provide precise continuous monitoring of chlo rine residual (free or total), and FID con trol via high-precision metering pumps to maintain a safe chlorine residual. Fea
tures include reagent-free sensor technol ogy, menu-driven display, alarm contacts for upset conditions, and automatic fault diagnostic. ProMinent Fluid Controls
Circle reply card No. 203
ramines and chlorophenols. Chlorine dioxide disinfection is effective at low
concentrations,over a wide pH range,and provides a long-lasting residual. The Bello Zon generates and injects ClO,in stantaneously and proportionally into the water stream by means of high-precision metering pumps. ProMinent Fluid Controls
Circle reply card No. 204 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Ferric sulphate reduces odour complaints Iron-based coagulant has no impact on UV system count of less than 150 per 100 ml of ef fluent. In the first year of operation the Lakeshore West plant met its treatment objectives. The operating staff at OCWA was satisfied with the plant ex cept for the solids handling/dewatering system, and the odour that was gener ated by the process. Designed to have waste activated sludge sent to the primary clarifiers, sol ids from the primary clarifiers were pumped into aerated sludge holding tanks. The operators had the capability to stop the air in the sludge holding tanks, allow sludge to settle, and then decant the supernatant. This process would create a thicker sludge before being sent to the centrifuge for dewater ing. It was hoped that this process would result in less sludge being processed, and The Lakeshore West Pollution Control Plant with average daiiy treatment capacity a drier cake being formed. Unfortu nately, the sludge did not decant very of 5,400 rrf/day. well and the sludge going to the centri fuge did not dewater as expected. The ville lagoon system. Control Plant near Kingsville, Operational in 1998, the plant was process also created a significant odour, Ontario, was able to signifi designed for an average daily treatment which resulted in several complaints cantly reduce odour com capacity of 5,400 mVday. The conven from the community. Even an on-site plaints as a result of the handling and tional activated sludge process consists scrubbing system could not eliminate the dewatering of the treatment plant's of coarse screening, grit removal, pri complaints. solids. As part of OCWA's'Continuous Im mary sedimentation, fine bubble aera provement Program' the operating staff This was achieved by converting tion, secondary sedimentation and ultra violet(UV) disinfection. Disinfection at the plant began investigating alterna from alum to ferric sulphate for phos phorus control. Ferric sulphate mini is required from May 1 until October 31, tives to the current treatment program mized the odour released from the plant and there are no tertiary filters. The that would reduce the odour being gen Ontario Clean Water Agency(OCWA) erated from the solids handling process, by precipitating out the dissolved sul and increase the solids content of the has the operating contract for the facil phides and reducing the amount of hy drogen sulphide gas produced. This was ity that was built at a cost of $22.1 dewatered sludge. Eaglebrook was contacted about the million. accomplished while maintaining efflu When the Lakeshore West plant be use of iron-based coagulants to control ent quality and generating cost savings of 13.1% over the alum program. gan operating, aluminum sulphate odour and increase solids content. The use of an iron-based coagulant (alum) was used to control the level of OCWA already had extensive experi had no impact on the UV disinfection phosphorus in the effluent of the plant. ence using iron-based coagulants. Op system; moreover, the units were The plant was designed to meet a Total erating staff at the plant believed that switching from an aluminum-based co cleaned fewer times while using ferric Phosphorus level of 0.8 mg/L, Sus pended Solids of 10 mg/L, BOD^ of 10 agulant to an iron-based coagulant sulphate. Continued overleaf The plant was constructed to solve mg/L, and an E. co///fecal coiiform the pollution problems originating from malfunctioning septic systems in the Table 1 lakeshore area of the Township of
The Lakeshore West Pollution
Ferric Sulphate Program
Suspended Solids (mg/L) Total Phosphorus (mg/L) E. coli/coliform (#/100 ml) Odour Complaints (#)
Gosfield South, and to alleviate the ex
isting capacity limitations of the Kings-
By Elvino Azevedo and John Merritt, Ontario Clean Water Agency, and Jim Allen, Eaglebrook, Inc.
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
would provide better results. Ferric sul phate was selected as the most appro priate coagulant because it has the same handling and storage characteristics as alum; moreover, staff already had ex tensive operating experience in the use of ferric sulphate. A trial was planned for May 1999 and Eaglebrook supplied a temporary stor age trailer, which was connected to the chemical feed system. The use of a tem porary storage trailer allowed the plant to run the trial without having to remove the existing alum from the storage tank, and to expedite the trial. The initial dosage was 100 mg/L of the ferric sulphate solution. This was subsequently lowered to 80 mg/L as the trial progressed. The initial observations were not important because it would take anywhere from three to six weeks to see any significant change in the sludge characteristics, although the op erators did indicate that the odour was
reduced around the plant. This is a result of the ferric iron re
acting with the dissolved sulphides, which forms an insoluble precipitate. This prevents the formation of hydro gen sulphide gas, which is easily identi-
No fouling of UV disinfection system.
fled by its rotten egg smell. Staff at the plant were asked to moni tor the normal operating parameters to ensure that they were treating the
radiation, many people believe that the use of an iron-based coagulant with an UV disinfection system is incompat
wastewater at the same level as when
ible. OCWA, however, had extensive
operating with alum. The monitoring of the UV disinfection system was of critical importance.
experience with UV disinfection, as well as coagulation. It had already operat ed plants in Stratford, Espanola and
Because iron absorbs ultra violet
SEALABLE Eric A.D. MacDonald, President, is pleased to announce that Sunil Kumar, MBA,P.Eng., has joined MacViro Con sultants Inc. as Business Manager of the Energy Solutions Group. Sunil graduated in mechanical engineering from the University of Toronto and has 19 years experience in the energy and environmental fields, working with organiza tions in the industrial, institutional, utilities and govern ment sectors. His capabilities include: energy audits, fea sibility studies, economic evaluations, project engineer ing, cogeneration projects, environmental guidelines de velopment, and project development. MacViro is a multi-discipline firm of consulting engi neers offering a complete range of services in the environ mental and energy fields. The recruitment of Sunil is an initiative to expand the energy services of MacViro, rec ognizing the deregulation of the electricity industry.
MacViro Designing Environmental isr Energy Solutions 54
A LOW PERMEABILITY CONTAINMENT WALL FOR GROUNDWATER POLLUTION CONTROL □ rapid, clean Installation □ minimal chemical diffusion
□ excellent quality assurance/control □ long service life
WATERLOO BARRIER INC. RO. Box 385, Rockwood, Ontario, Canada NOB 2K0
Tel: (519) 856-1352
Fax: (519) 856-2503
For more information, circle reply card No. 215 (See page 25)
Wallaceburg under similar conditions to those in the Lakeshore West plant. After the first month, staff experienced no fouling, and the concern subsided. Once the iron had worked its way throughout the sludge in the plant, staff noticed a sharp decrease in odour when handling the sludge. In addition, they were able to dewater the sludge to greater than 30% solids without any problems. While using alum, they were only able to dewater for one week in May 1998. The frequency and number of odour complaints forced them to abandon that program, and they went back to hauling liquid sludge. From June to December 1998, the average concen tration of the sludge in the holding tanks
resents savings of 13.1% over the alum treatment costs.
A single solution does not exist for reducing or eliminating odour from wastewater treatment plants. There are many forces at work in a waste stream
and local environment. The challenge is for plant operators and chemical sup pliers to work together to determine the most appropriate product or technology application. Circle reply card No. 113
Cut Railing Costs up to 50% Kee Klamp' Slip-on Pipe Fittings
was 1.8% solids. After the switch to fer
ric sulphate, the concentration of the sludge in the holding tank from June to December 1999 was 2.9% solids. The treatment statistics from the two
different coagulant programs were com pared. The period for the alum program ran from May 1998 to December 1998. The ferric sulphate program statistics are from May 1999 to December 1999. The statistics in Table 1 are averages of data collected monthly. From May 1998 until April 1999, while using alum, the Lakeshore West plant had an average flow of 3,760 mV day. The cost of using alum for phos
phorus control was $26.40 per million litres. From May 1999 until April 2000 the plant treated an average flow of
3,982 mVday,using ferric sulphate. The
' Strong, malleable cast-iron pipe fittings exceed OSHA standards
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treatment cost of using ferric sulphate
was $22.93 per million litres. This rep
For more information, circle reply card No. 114
Denso Pipeline Ceatings The Single-Source Solution for Pipeline Coatings.
In business for over 115 years and with manufactur Petrolatum Tape Systems
ing plants worldwide, Denso is recognized as the global leader in corrosion prevention. For additional information and/
Denso DENSO NORTH AMERICA INC.
assistance call Denso at 416-291-3435.
Bitumen & Butyl Tape Systems
90 Ironside Crescent,
15 Woodstock Drive, Stierwood Park,
Unit 12, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada MIX 1M3 Tei: (416) 291-3435 Fax: (416)291-0898
AB, Canada ISA 4C4
Tel: (780) 910-1717 Fax: (780)449-5300
Protal Pipeline Coatings
A Member of Winn & Coales International
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
For more Information, circle reply card No. 112 (See page 25)
Unique V-box channel CSO facility built with CON/SPAN system
R.V. Anderson Associates Limited
master plan for the City of (RVA) was retained in 1998 to conduct St. Thomas' water pollution a Class Environmental Assessment of control plant was completed the proposed undertaking, and to pre in 1996. It identified the need for an in pare the detailed design of the CSO line combined sewer overflow (CSO) facility. facility, upstream of the WPCP, to re During the design phase, RVA staff duce the frequency of overflows into found that the proposed twin sewer pipe Mill Creek. The CSO facility was de system was not a simple solution. The signed to reduce potential health haz control system for the twin sewers ards, as well as the adverse effects of would be complex since dry weather
anchorage of the pipes to a concrete base, would be necessary, and the cost would be significant. To overcome these design con straints, RVA staff proposed an alterna tive to the concept of the twinned sewer
pipe system. The alternative design called for a cast-in-place concrete base channel with precast CON/SPAN units to form the walls and roof. This design would solve the problems inherent in the twin configuration. The inlet and outlet chambers would be significantly smaller than the chambers required by a twinned pipe alternative. RVA also expected that the capital and operating cost for the CON/SPAN system would be signifi cantly less than that of the twin pipe configuration. The facility was designed to allow the normal dry weather flow to pass unim peded at a velocity that is adequate to maintain self-cleansing conditions. The side slopes on the concrete channel are 1.5 horizontal to I vertical which is steep
enough to minimize the accumulation of solids. Provisions were made to ac
cess the structure for inspection and maintenance. Outflow is throttled to the
Precast units being instaiied on the cast-in-piace concrete base channei.
the discharge of combined sewage, on aquatic life, recreational uses, and wa ter supplies within Kettle Creek and Lake Erie. In addition, the facility would provide 90% capture of wet weather flows,allow a substantial reduc
tion of the total by-pass events, and eliminate secondary by-pass events
flows should be conveyed through only one of the two pipelines to maintain selfcleansing conditions. To accomplish this, the control system would require four automatic sluice gates to fill and drain the sewers in sequence (i.e., at each end of both sewers). In addition, the inverts of the 3,000 mm pipes would
rated capacity of the WPCP (45.5 mil lion L/day) using two motorized sluice gates. It is expected that this facility will be filled, on average, four times each year. One overflow weir to Mill Creek is housed in the outlet chamber.
The City invited tenders for the con struction of both alternatives. Tenders
received by the City clearly favoured the structure recommended by RVA, as the bid was $376,000 less than the low bid
within the St. Thomas WPCP.
have to be benched to maintain self-
for the twin pipe alternative. St. Tho mas contractor, Elgin Construction, was
In 1997, this Ontario city reviewed the sizing for the new facility to deter
cleansing velocities during low flow pe
the successful bidder. Its staff worked
with the support group at CON/SPAN Canada and Con Cast Pipe, Guelph, Ontario, to develop the solution consist ing of 6,100 mm x 1,500 mm units for the cast-in-place V-channel base. The project was a unique application of the precast units, and one of the largest of its kind produced at Con Cast Pipe, one
mine the minimum level of overflow
Each of the twin sewers would have
control set by the Ontario Ministry of
at least one local sewer connected to it,
Environment's Combined Sewer Over
making self-cleansing difficult, as local sewers had to be picked up on both sides of the CSO facility. Eurthermore, since the storage facility would be located within the floodplain of Mill Creek, the proposed earth cover over the pipes was
flow policy. The resulting report rec ommended 4,000 m^ of storage. The conceptual design for the facility in cluded two parallel(3,000 mm diameter) sewers with a length of 280 metres.
limited, and would not be sufficient to
By Dave Metcalfe and Enrico Stradiotto,
Con Cast Pipe 56
counter the buoyant force on the pipes, if the creek flooded the valley when the sewers were not flowing full. Encase ment of the pipes in concrete collars, or
offive licensees of CON/SPAN Canada.
Once site construction got under way in June 1999, production of the 114 pieces commenced after Con Cast Pipe staff had prepared an area specifically engineered for pouring the units. The
Environmentai Science & Engineering, June 2000
first pour took place on June 15, and by June 21, the crew was pouring two units per day. In total, the plant produced 109 standard units, two short length units, two maintenance
hole tee units, and one field closure unit. All of these units
were produced according to contract documents and details specified in structural design and shop drawings supplied by CON/SPAN Canada. Measurements for the closure unit were taken in the field to determine the exact dimensions.
MIOX for Municipal Water Systems
Each of the standard units weighed 13,910 kg.
• Powerful - disinfects/inactivates nearly all bacteria, viruses and parasites that pose possible health problems.
The cast-in-place channel was ready to receive the units
• Safe - eliminates storage, transport, and mixing/handling of chlorine, caustic acids and other chemicals.
In total, the plant produced 109 standard units, two short length
Gentle - eliminates taste and odour associated with chlorine use.
The above has been realized at West Perth P.U.C.
units, two maintenance hole tee units, and one field closure unit. by early September, and they began to arrive on site two at a time. As the delivery trucks arrived, the units were offloaded by Higgs Construction of St. Thomas,and set im mediately into place. When conditions were right, units were being installed at a rate of one every twenty minutes. The new facility was commissioned in January, 2000. The contract cost of the project was approximately $2.2
Information for this article was provided by Hans Vierhuis, P.Eng., and Ken Coiiicott, P.Eng., R.V. Anderson Associates Limited, and John Dewancker, P.Eng., City of St. Thomas.
P.O. Box 70, Camlachie, ON,NGN lEO Tel:(519)899-2530 • Fax:(519)899-2531
For more information, circle reply card No. 115
For more information, circle reply card No. 116
The Workhorse SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE
For water disinfection, wastewater treatment,odour
control, cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.
COLGATE-PALMOUVE CANADA INC Professional Products Division 6400 Northwest Drive
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4V 1K1 Tel: (905)678-2051 Fax:(905)678-0898 E-mail: email@example.com
Web site: www.colgate.c^javex Plant Locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto,Edmonton
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
For more information, circle reply card No. 117 (See page 25)
Reliance on existing environmental assessments in property transactions
Theconcerns offinancial insti
tutions in the last few years over potential environmental
financial liabilities have made
Phase I assessments mandatory in most commercial and industrial real estate
transactions. Therefore, much (if not most) of this type of property has had Phase I and even Phase II Environmen
tal Site Assessments (ESA) performed on it.
Phase I ESA refers to a record search
and site investigation to identify areas of potential environmental liability with no sampling or testing. Phase II ESA refers to the next step which includes intrusive testing, sampling and analysis to conclusively identify if a problem exists and assist in quanti fying the extent of the problem. In many transactions, the pur chaser and their real estate and legal advisors will be provided with a pre vious Phase I report which the ven dor may wish to utilize and not in cur the additional cost of redoing the Phase I ESA. While this may ap pear reasonable, it is extremely im portant that the existing ESA be care fully evaluated and professionally re viewed prior to relying on it. Technical Quality of Existing Reports Firstly, it is important to realize that there is a CSA standard for Phase I as
sessments (CSA Standard Z768-94). This standard was not published until April 1994. Many of the existing Phase I reports may pre-date its publication and may not contain essential information. Secondly, and this surprises many real estate specialists, there is no inde pendent body which actually reviews the quality of reports, compliance with the CSA standard, or completeness of the
obvious and significant omissions. Of more concern to non-profession als evaluating reports, are subtle or mi nor deficiencies which may also be sig nificant. For example, many firms uti lize the Insurance Advisory Organiza tion(lAO)plans held in public libraries
one to two thousand dollars to be per petually "on the hook" for the report. The validity of this type of disclaimer or limitation of liability has been upheld by a relatively recent court case in On tario, which involved a property sale.
to obtain historical information concern
report, the nature of the firm perform ing the Environmental Site Assessment should be considered before relying on the report. Many firms are extremely small, often one person sole practition ers who may or may not be insured. Once again, since engineers, geoscientists, hydrogeologists, chemists, and technologists may perform this work (particularly Phase I assessments), there is no uniform professional li censing, vigilance, or insurance. Membership in bodies such as the Professional Engineers or the Asso
ing the property. This is a copyright in fringement and frequently the plans held by public libraries are incomplete. Re ports held in libraries never include the written inspection reports, which should accompany the plans. If this becomes an issue in litigation, it is questionable whether a Phase I report which relies on
ciated Environmental Site Assessors
of Canada (AESAC) may provide some protection and insurance, but this should be confirmed. Unless a
firm has the financial ability or in surance to stand behind a report, re liance on the report may be ill-ad
vised. Possible Solutions to the
copyright material, would be admissible. Phase II investigations are even more variable in quality as there is no univer sally accepted standard format or docu ment. A properly performed Phase II assessment report may require not only engineers but also chemists, hydrogeologists, and geologists to reach appro priate conclusions. The reports are very site specific and often require interpre tation skills not actually available to the fimr which pertbrmed the Phase II work. Legal and Insurance Considerations The use of disclaimers or statements
time. These limitations have been
By Robert Thomas, P.Eng.,
rightly incorporated to limit the liabil ity of the firm who produced the report. It is obviously unreasonable to expect a firm which received fees of the order of
using a properly qualified and insured firm. However, because of the cost, and
because in many cases the environmen tal reports are perfectly acceptable, there are other more economical ways to re duce liability but still ensure that the mortgage and the property transfer will not fail on an environmental issue. One method is to ensure the vendor
been followed. Our review of numer
Phase I and/or Phase II work from scratch
provides all environmental reports per taining to the property and have them reviewed by a competent firm to deter mine if they meet the appropriate stand
ous Phase I reports indicates frequent
I report states that it was done "in com pliance with", "in general compliance with", or "to provide the information required by" CSA Standard Z768-94, there is no guarantee that this has,in fact,
The most foolproof and most expen sive way to ensure that the environmen tal work on a site is adequate for transfer and mortgaging purposes, is to redo the
of limitations is almost universal in ESA
reports today. These generally limit the use of the report to a specific purpose or state that only specifically named parties may rely on the report. Other limitations may include a time limita tion so that the report is not relied on if changes to the site or tenant occur over
Phase I work. Therefore,even if a Phase
Even if there is no disclaimer on the
ards of care. The cost of a review of a
Phase I or Phase II report with a cover ing letter is rarely more than a few hun dred dollars. In the event the report is found adequate but contains a disclaimer regarding its use, the original firm who performed the ESA should be ap proached to extend reliance to the pur-
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Regulations pared in advance. We recommend talk ing to a firm with a local presence to establish a rapport so the cost of a re
insurance (including pollution cover age). • Current listing or acceptance by the
If the firm will not extend this reliance,
view and a time-frame is agreed upon
financial institution who will be ad
a re-assessment by a second firm may
vancing the mortgage(most have some
be in order.
type of list or will accept a limited
acceptable and can be relied on with a
For your own protection and to en sure that the mortgagor is satisfied with the report, one should ensure the con sulting firm undertaking the review
small amount of additional work or com
meets certain minimum standards.
chaser and/or the mortgagor. This is
usually available but may require an in expensive confirmatory visit to the site.
The experience of Pinchin Environ mental is that most Phase I ESAs are
range of firms). • Sufficient staff to be able to promptly review and (if necessary) undertake to redo the Phase I or Phase II work.
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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
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Evolution of lagoon effluent enhancement to meet stringent effluent criteria
Articlesin ES&E magazine as
well as papers at technical conferences have provided an insight into the use of open air intermittent sand filters to en hance effluent quality from facultative lagoons. In Ontario, this is known ge netically as the New Hamburg process, as it was first applied in the early 1980s in New Hamburg in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. It is known from pa pers presented that similar technology has been applied in other jurisdictions. Effluents from facultative lagoon cells can have problems with elevated ammonia and hydrogen sulphide (H,S) levels in the spring, after the ice comes off, until aerobic conditions return. In
the summer, algae blooms elevate sus pended solids levels in the effluent and, as blooms die off in the late Fall, there
Aerial view ofDundaik lagoon system following 1984 expansion. Photo - Bob Willcocks
can be an increase in BOD levels. Both
conditions make the effluent unaccept
cause ambient liquid temperatures fall
able under the Ontario surface water
to less than 4Â°C. This is the lowest vi
quality objectives. The addition of the
through nitrification. Exposure to oxy gen also removes the H,S. The media acts as a physical barrier to the migra
able temperature for maintaining nitri fication, established in pilot testing at McMaster University. Depending upon the location in Ontario, the original treat ment and storage requirement of 180 days has been reduced to a three or four month storage period, effectively in creasing the 'capacity' of the same la goon volume by 33 - 50%. This article discusses a project de signed to be constructed during 2000 to provide a different form offiltration sys
tion of effluent solids into the final ef
tem which can allow for winter dis
need to retain effluent for the coldest
charge of lagoon effluent, potentially shortening the retention period to as lit tle as two months while allowing for continuous discharge for the balance of the year, if necessary. The limitation to two months may not apply in cases where temperatures are more moderate. In this particular case, an effluent total ammonia criterion which requires nitri fication has not been applied by the Ministry. As is discussed below, the primary focus for effluent improvement is phos phorous along with overall reductions
winter months when the nitrification
in BOD and TSS. The new criterion
treatment could not be maintained be-
accepts unionized ammonia as the win ter ammonia requirement, while dis charge in the summer regulates the total
intermittent sand filter as an add-on ef
fluent treatment was designed to address these issues. The intermittent sand fil
ter exposes lagoon effluent to open air to provide oxygen and to coarse sand media to provide a growth site for bac teria which promotes the conversion of ammonia in the effluent to nitrate
The Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment has accepted the process as a la goon enhancement which allows for continuous discharge of effluent which has been accepted as Best Available Technology (BAT). With this enhance ment, some projects allow for continu ous effluent discharge for an extended period instead of the twice yearly sea sonal discharge which requires a 180day retention period. The limiting fac tor to the process was established as the
By R. Willcocks, P. Eng., Triton Engineering Services Ltd.
ammonia which also meets the union
ized requirement. 60
Background In 1984,Triton Engineering designed a 'post-aeration' lagoon system for the Village of Dundalk which is located some 125-km northwest of Toronto. The
facultative lagoon system was also ex panded to a four-cell system to provide 180 days of retention at an increased design flow. There were allowances made in the lagoon volume calculations for sludge retention and to allow for a carryover volume. Alum is added to the raw wastewater at the pumping station for phosphorous treatment. The lagoons generally operate in a four-cell series pattern although cell number three acts as a bypass receptor for the pumping sta tion, so it receives raw wastewater dur
ing wet weather conditions or during power failures. The sewer system is prone to elevated I/I flows leading to relatively weak wastewater during wet ter periods. As far as is known,the post-aeration system in Dundalk was unique in Ontario and not, perhaps, replicated at any other location. The Ministry had concerns related to elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide which could be discharged from a la goon during winter discharge. This sys tem was installed before the New Ham
burg system was accepted as a standard design approach. In a New Hamburg system there is no discharge during the
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
Lagoon Effluent coldest months and when there is, the exposure to oxygen also treats the hy drogen sulphide. As lagoons typically nitrify throughout the summer, the ma jor proportion of the lagoon effluent which is discharged during the Fall is nitrified. Discharge of winter effluent
The Ministry's Southwest Region provided new effluent criteria which saw a general lowering of the effluent pa rameters of BOD,SS and phosphorous levels. With respect to effluent ammo nia concentrations, discharges in the winter have to meet the unionized am
can reflect increased levels of ammonia
monia criterion and not a total ammo
and,as both ammonia and hydrogen sul phide are toxic to aquatic organisms,
nia criterion which is an important dif ference from the typical approach. A continuous discharge lagoon in Niagaraon-the-Lake is the only other project
there is a need to treat for these or to
prevent them from forming. In Dundalk, ammonia was not con
sidered to be a primary concern because there is an intermittent flow municipal drain which acts as the mixing zone be fore effluent reaches the Grand River. The 1984 work focussed on the re
moval of hydrogen sulphide, although there was some discussion whether an
elevated dissolved oxygen level in the effluent would also serve to strip am monia as well. Since the lagoons were expanded and the post aeration cell was installed, the system has been generally drained over the entire winter and fill
ing of the lagoons starts in the spring. The effluent has been generally well within the 1984 Approval parameters. System operating problems arose as the result ofincreased flows during sum mer and Fall wet years. There have been occasions when the lagoons are full be fore the prescribed start of the discharge period. The Ministry directed that the municipality evaluate alternative means to increase the lagoon capacity. During dry years, there is an abundance of stor age capacity.
loWLEDGE Storm Sewer Specification
which has a similar effluent criterion as far as we know. The effluent criteria
also requires that an objective of 4 mgl of dissolved oxygen(DO)be maintained in the discharge. This is provided by the post-aeration cell.
Structural Design Method
Chemical & Ahrasion Resistance
The effluent criteria can be rational
ized because the receiving watercourse is an intermittent flowing municipal drain which discharges into the upper Grand River some distance away. The drain is considered to be a mixing zone with limited natural flow, essentially being a dry ditch for much of the year. This Region of the Ministry has ac cepted the dry ditch effluent discharge criteria for a number of years. When effluent is being discharged, which is non-toxic to organic life in the stream, there is a perceived improvement in quality within the stream or ditch. Flow sustains aquatic life which would oth erwise disappear as the stream dries up
Whatever you need te know
about specifying, designing
from natural runoff.
The background of applying the un ionized component of ammonia in the winter relates directly to the toxicity is
Process Selection and Effluent
sue of ammonia and not to the combined
Requirements The Class EA for the project re viewed available treatment options and the selected preferred technical alterna tive was the addition of a post lagoon filter to improve effluent quality and to increase overall capacity without in creasing lagoon volume. The limita tions of the New Hamburg process with respect to minimum operating tempera tures did not permit a sufficiently large capacity increase due to ambient winter temperatures in Dundalk. To allow for increased capacity, the lagoon system has to provide an effluent which can be discharged during the summer. The de sign allows for a total ammonia crite rion but effluent phosphorous levels became the primary constituent of concem. Because lagoons nitrify during the summer through natural processes, the new treatment system did not require an open air filter to provide nitrification.
effects of oxygen demand and toxicity. Under winter temperature and pH con ditions, meeting of the unionized crite ria can allow for total ammonia concen
trations to be as high as 16 mgl. In a large receiving body such as Lake Ontario or in the case of the dry ditch receiver, the potential for toxicity to af fect marine life is substantially reduced, especially during the winter. In Niagaraon-the-Lake, the upper limit was estab lished at 20 mgl, at which point ammo nia treatment is brought on line to lower the ammonia level. In that particular installation a physical-chemical treat ment process is used for treatment as opposed to filtration. Chemical addi tion precipitates the phosphorous which
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The Dundalk design allows for con tinuous discharge at times of the year when it is necessary to lower levels in Continued overleaf
Environmental Science & Engineering, June 2000
^ CbII800-510-CPPA(Z77Z) Your Information Resource For more information, circle reply card No. 159
Lagoon Effluent the lagoon. The de.sign also allows for an increase in the design capacity with out an increase in lagoon volume. Mod elling of the system considered the volu metric storage requirements during a wet year such as occuiTed during 1996. By allowing for a specific rate of discharge based on the filter capacity, net fill vol umes were calculated per month. It was necessary to size the effluent treatment system to ensure that the lagoon volume storage requirements were not exceeded while still considering that discharge during the coldest months may not be possible. In most years, there will not be a need to strictly control the system although there will be always a need to maintain an adequate buffer. In the de sign year condition, it has been assumed that there will be two months when dis
charge is not necessaiy Description of Project Dundalk has the claim of being the highest municipality above sea level in Southern Ontario, and, being south of Owen Sound, is squarely within the snowbelt region. Accordingly it became essential to consider a filtration system
which could be housed in a building. The project includes a modified dual train package water treatment filtration unit(manufactured by Napier Reid)fol lowing the aeration cell which is housed in a building. The selection of this type of filter was based on the need to con
sider the impacts of such things as fraz zle ice which can develop in water which is at or slightly below freezing level but which does not freeze because of kinetic
energy. Some heat is added by aeration using diffused air and, as the filter will be housed in a building, further loss of heat is limited. The process will oper ate on batch cycles and with mechani cal pump backwashing, there is more potential to prevent and/or remove fraz zle ice. The basic safeguard against freezing is that it will not be necessary to operate the filter under the coldest temperature conditions.
equipment. Filter backwash water is pumped to the lagoons for retreatment and the source of the backwash water is
stored effluent following the filter. In cases of very large algae blooms, there can be algaecide added to the influent pumping chamber or even the aeration cell.
The focus of this treatment process is a lower effluent phosphorous level. To allow for lower effluent phosphorous levels, chemical is added before filtra tion in the form of alum or alum sup
plemented with polymer addition dur ing colder temperatures. Potential Benefits of Process
components to the typical water filtra
As noted, the effluent parameter of most concern is the phosphorous which requires low effluent suspended solids levels to ensure compliance with concen trations of 0.3 mgl or less. While ammo nia is generally regulated between I and 3 mgl for design objectives in the sum mer and winter respectively, there can be
tion unit. This includes mechanical
a case made to focus on the unionized
The filter module includes similar
pumping for backwashing, an air scour for media surface cleaning to remove algae, and separate backwash handling
Michael Hrlbljan Appointed as Vice-President and Director of A&A Bill Chisholm, President of Acres & Associated
Environmental Limited (A&A), is pleased to an nounce that the A&A Board recently appointed Michael Hrlbljan as Vice-President and Director of the Company. Michael will work with our Division Managers in the management and direction of all of A&A's initiatives, including water, wastewater, municipal infrastructure, waste management, elec
ammonia criteria in the winter. With the
presence of the post aeration cell, there is a demonstrated control provided for effluent hydrogen sulphide levels. The Ministry's Southwest Region has been requiring elevated Dissolved Oxy gen (DO) levels in the effluents from treatment works to mitigate oxygen de mand on the receiver which may have a very low natural DO level. A facility operator at a plant which has this same effluent criteria commented that the best
place to catch fish on the Thames River in the middle of the summer is around
trical, instrumentation & controls and environmen
the outfalls from the three plants which he supervises. In this Region, the New Hamburg systems which are installed have also been required to provide aera
tal assessment. Michael will also continue his role
tion to increase effluent DO levels.
as Manager of the wastewater division.
The major benefit of this approaeh over New Hamburg systems is the con tinued operation for longer periods in the winter. While the water filter provides limited potential for nitrification on the media, the lowering of effluent sus pended solids levels and phosphorous concentrations may be the more appro priate approach in some cases if winter ammonia discharges are considered in terms of the unionized component only. This would compare to the fact that the New Hamburg filter process does not specifically treat for phosphorous lev
Michael obtained both his Bachelor's and Mas
ter's Degrees from McMaster University. He first graduated in 1985 with his Baccalaureate in Chemical Engineering, followed by his Master's in Environ mental Engineering in 1992, specializing in biological nutrient removal, proc ess optimization and computer control. He has more than 16 years experience in the technical direction and management of wastewater, water and SCADA and controls projects. During this time period, Michael has had increasing responsibilities in engineering design, construction, operations, project man agement and corporate affairs. Acres & Associated Environmental provides a full range of environmental engineering and management services from its offices in Toronto and Niagara Falls. A&A is supported by a combined staff of more than 1,000 from its affili ated companies - Acres International Limited and Associated Engineering Group.
els and relies on seasonal or continual
Tel; (416) 622-9502
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