Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 2000

Page 1


Science & Engineering Covering Canada's multi-billion dollar a year environmental protection industry since 1988. www.esemag.com

May 2000

storage Tanks & Containment - ES&E's biannual focus How old dumps can pose liabilities for municipalities Designing treatment facilities for a Chinese province Harnessing the awesome power-of the seas Invasive species arrive in ships' ballasts The slow sand filtration aiternative

The Calgary Kosovo connection

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"Over the past several years we have replaced many vertical and submersibles with Gorman-Rupp Self-Priming T-Series pumps." "These Gorman-Rupp Pumps have proven their reliability and greatly cut our maintenance cost," says Graham MacKinnon, Chief Operator/Plant Manager, East River Pollution Abatement Center, Trenton, Nova Scotia. "Not only have I saved in

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Distributors Across Canada For more information, circle reply card No. 102(See page 25)



April/May 2000 Vol. 13 No. 2 issued May, 2000


fuel oir spills. - See page 69




Ad Index


Industry Update


Professional Cards




Date Pad


Literature Reviews

59-64, 73

Product Review

7 10

14 18 20 24 26 28 30 34 37 38

MTBE Special Report - by Tom Davey Cover Story - LaMPs to illuminate plans to restore Great Lakes Fast tracking Thunder Bay water treatment plant The Calgary Kosovo connection Density driven convection technology EDMS systems for BC plant upgrade Harnessing the sea's awesome power Designing an effluent facility in China Old dumps may pose serious liabilities A phased approach to odour issues Invasive species are hot topics Historial dewatering in Kingston New waste destruction system


Slow sand filtration


Shoreline protection for Regina lagoon

76 77 78

Pre-benched system for flooding Funding for the new Canadian EPA






E-mail: steve@esemag.com

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY

E-mail: penny@esemag.com

Sales Representative DEMISE SIMPSON

E-mail: denlse@esemag.com Circulation Manager

Publisher's Assistant



E-mail: kathy@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Stanley Mason, P.Eng. Terminal City Iron Works Alan Church, C.Chem.,QEP.

Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

George V. Crawfoid, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

Church & Trough! Inc.

CH2M Gore & Storrle Limited

Dr. Howanl D. GoorlfellDW

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Earth Tech (Canada) Inc. Peter Laughton, M.Eng.,P.Eng.,DEE

Stantec Global Technolcgles Ltd. Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

R.V. Anderson Associates

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mail Sales

Product Agreement No. 181897

Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

Printed In Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00

for one year, (plus $3.15 GST) USA $45.00 (US)for one year. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6,Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

Using precast concrete products

Storage Tanks & Containment Focus — pages 65 - 74 66 Airport refuelling contamination 67 Low cost modular containment

69 Residential fuel oil spills 72 Simple facts about fibreglass tanks 74 FRP tank erection at a uranium plant bhtiEA




Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

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Special Report

MTBE threatens North American groundwater

Whena60MinutesTV pro

gram recently reported that methyl tertiarybutyl ether might have contaminated thousands of groundwater drinking water sources, it gener ated widespread concern across North America.

MTBE was mandated by the EPA as a gasoline additive to reduce air pollu tion in targeted states and areas. The initiative was announced by the then President, George Bush, as a step for ward in curbing a serious problem which affects human health. While undeniably effective in curbing air pollution, the chemical compound could pose a seri ous threat to humans when it contami

nates drinking water sources from leak ing underground gasoline tanks. The problem is compounded by the mobil ity of MTBE in its migration through soils to groundwaters. MTBE is part of xefonnuiated gaso line, made to boost the amount of oxy gen in gas, causing it to burn more cleanly in automobiles. Such reformu lated fuels typically may contain up to 15 percent of MTBE. For those auto manufacturers using the compound only to boost octane, the MTBE content may only range from two to eight percent. In 1998, a report to the US Environ mental Protection Agency recom mended state and federal action to bet

ter safeguard drinking water supplies from gasoline additives such as MTBE while noting that such additives did help to reduce air pollution. The US EPA classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen and had a draft health advi sory for drinking water of 20 to 40 pg/l or parts per billion (ppb). California state action levels have been established

at 35 ppb. Recent nationwide sampling pro grams conducted by the US Geological Survey have detected MTBE in both groundwater and stormwater. Possible sources of MTBE in shallow groundwater include direct contamination from

leaking storage tanks and indirect con tamination from stormwater flow and

precipitation washing through urban at mospheres. This report was begun in Florida where Charles Vogt, environmental

By Tom Davey

health specialist with the Indian River water supplies raised public and legis County Flealth Department, was quoted lative concern as well as numerous ques as saying that all municipal water sup tions requiring additional research. As plies in the state had been checked for part of California's response to this is MTBE. Indian River County utilities' sue, the Legislature passed State Bill 521 test results in April 1999-long after the introduced by Sen. Richard Mountjoy compound was in use - showed no de (R-San Gabriel). This bill appropriated tectable levels. Mr. Vogt noted that new $500,000 to the University of Califor regulations required gasoline storage nia to assess the risks and benefits to tanks to be both double-walled and cor

human health and the environment of

rosion-resistant. Tanks must also be

MTBE and its combustion by-products found in air, water and soil. Among the

equipped with electronic leak detectors. He added that US federal law also re

numerous items contained in this bill is

quired fuel tank owners to carry insur ance which would cover leakage dam age costs, so removing any financial in centives to hide problems.

the requirement for an analysis of cur rent levels of MTBE in the state's drink

ing water, reservoir, lakes and streams, and particularly in Lake Tahoe.

The Florida standard for MTBE is 35

Meanwhile, the Canadian Water &

parts per billion, based on taste and

Wastewater Association recently re ported that tests in Calgary drinking water found no traces of MTBE. A

spokesman for Calgary Water Works said: "If gasoline companies are using the additive, it doesn't show up on the city's detection systems." He said the absence of MTBE could be because of

stringent buried-tank maintenance re quirements in Alberta, plus the fact that Calgary derives its drinking water from surface sources like lakes and rivers.

Calgary began testing for MTBE in 1997 and reviewed 1996 data. They can odour thresholds, not health concerns. EPA literature describes MTBE as a

'potential' human carcinogen. Studies have yet to be completed to determine if the compound causes cancer in hu mans. The EPA report suggests that were it to be shown to cause cancer in

humans,"the dosage required would be much higher than the levels at which the compound could be tasted or smelled in drinking water." Concerns over the compound were expressed long before 60 Minutes brought it before the public. In the Charnock groundwater sub-basin, (located in the West Los Angeles and Culver City areas, and an important source of drinking water for the cities of Santa Monica and Culver City), the City of Santa Monica sought assistance from the EPA after shutting down a number of its drinking water wells in 1996 due to the presence of increasing

detect MTBE concentrations of as little

as five parts per billion, but, so far, have found none. According to the CWWA newsletter, a spokesman for Shell Canada said his company uses another additive called MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), over MTBE,to enhance octane levels.

From our enquiries, it appears that: • We use almost no MTBE in Canada

except just a small amount on the East and West coasts, and there is little re

quirement for oxygenates here. • Octane boost is obtained mainly by MMT (and reformulation or ethanol), which was almost banned but never

phased out. Had MMT been banned, MTBE might have been used exten sively across Canada. So, in trying to ban MMT,the Cana dian government would have caused an other problem, which,for the most part, we have avoided in Canada. The oil in

levels of MTBE.

dustry was already aware of the MTBE

Because of MTBE's possible health effects and the fact that it is highly

issues when MMT was under review and

soluble in water and difficult to biode-

grade, its potential persistence in surface Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

that was one reason why they were against the ban. Continued overleaf

Special Report

American Petroleum Institute answers ten

frequently asked questions about MTBE In water

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether monly used fuel oxygen

centrations in the range of 20-40 ug/L (20-40 parts per billion) or less in water will likely avert unpleasant taste and

ate. MTBE is more solu

odour effects, and that this concentra

be more significant for BTEX, the MTBE plume width should not be less than the BTEX plume width from the same gasoline release; it will likely be

tion range is about 20,000 to 100,000 times lower than the range of exposure

of MTBE at a site with an older BTEX

(MTBE)is the most com

ble in water than benzene, toluene,

ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and is less biodegradable than BTEX in the

levels in which cancer or noncancer ef

subsurface. There is also field evidence

fects were observed in animal toxicol

of MTBE occuiTing in groundwater at higher concentrations than BTEX. Question #1. Is MTBE a new gaso line compound? MTBE was first blended in gasoline in 1979 to replace lead and to increase octane. Its use has increased rapidly

ogy studies. Such EPA 'advisories' are issued for contaminants not subject to primary drinking water regulation. They are intended for guidance only, are not legally enforceable, and are subject to

over the last decade. In 1988, the first

Question #3. Can MTBE enhance BTEX solubility and transport? Research has shown that cosolvency effects typically arise only when the cosolvent is present in water at 1% or more by volume(Zogorski el a!., 1997).

wintertime oxygenated fuel program was implemented in Denver using 15% MTBE (by volume) to reduce vehicle carbon monoxide emissions. Winter

time oxyfuel programs began in 30 other

revision as new information becomes


non-attainment areas in 1992-93. Re

Therefore, MTBE will not enhance the

formulated gasoline (REG) has 11% MTBE by volume and was introduced

solubility of BTEX unless the concen tration of MTBE in groundwater ex ceeds 10,000 mg/L (10,000 parts per

in ozone non-attainment areas in 1995.

Other oxygenated compounds (for ex ample, the alkyl ethers TAME, ETBE and DIPE, or alcohols like ethanol,

methanol and TBA') have been used in gasolines (Zogorski el al, 1997), and some have been in use as long as or longer than MTBE (Gibbs, 1990). Questions #2. Are MTBE's health

million or 1%). This threshold concen

tration is much higher than frequently reported measurements at field sites, and exceeds the effective solubility of MTBE in water contacted by gasoline with 15% MTBE,shown in a lab study to be about 5,000 mg/L (API, 1991). Question #4. Do MTBE plumes dive

wider. However, a more recent release

plume may create a MTBE plume that is narrower than the older BTEX plume, or very small releases of MTBE may create small MTBE-only plumes due to complete biodegradation of the BTEX. Question #6. Do maximum MTBE concentrations exceed benzene con

centrations at UST (Underground Storage Tank)sites? MTBE is much more soluble than

benzene, is less biodegradable, and can be found in much higher concentrations in gasoline. Therefore, when detected in groundwater, MTBE concentrations typically exceed benzene concentrations found in the same sample. However,in spite of its greater solubility, very high concentrations of MTBE in groundwater do not appear to be common. One survey in California showed MTBE groundwater concentrations exceeding 10,000 ug/L at about 10% of the 245 sites examined (California EPA, 1997). Question#?. Iffound in groundwater, is MTBE necessarily from a UST sys tem?

vice and information on health effects

All dissolved constituents can form

Concentrations of MTBE in groundwater greater than about 30 ug/L origi nate from point sources (e.g., leaking UST systems), whereas lower concen trations may originate from both point sources and non-point sources(Zogorski etai, 1997). Non-point sources include atmospheric washout (precipitation events in which MTBE partitions from the atmosphere) and stormwater that contains fuel residues from roads, park ing lots, etc. (Pankow et al., 1997; Delzer et al., 1996). Groundwater im pacted by these non-point sources is unlikely to exceed 2-20 ug/L. Question #8. Can MTBE be remedi ated in groundwater? The presence of MTBE and other ether oxygenates in groundwater does not prevent the application of conven

(EPA, 1997). It states that MTBE con-

naiTow plumes if the groundwater flow

tional active remedial methods such as

direction remains constant over time.

air stripping, carbon adsorption, and soil vapour extraction (SVE) for gasoline spills but it may increase the cost (Zogorski et al, 1997), depending on Continued overleaf

effects known? There have been extensive studies of

or sink?

the health impacts of MTBE on animals and humans. In a 1993 report, EPA es

0.740, which is even less than the BTEX

MTBE has a specific gravity of compounds. Therefore, as it is less

tablished an inhalation reference con

dense than water, it cannot 'sink'. Dis

centration (RfC)for evaluating chronic

solved constituents which are less dense

noncancer health effects of 3 mg/m' than water can reach deeper ground(EPA, 1993). Recent comprehensive reviews of MTBE's health effects have

been conducted by the National Science and Technology Council and the Health Effects Institute. The National Research

Council has also evaluated those stud

ies. Melnick et al, (1997) provides a summary of all these recent reviews. A drinking water advisory for MTBE was released by EPA in December 1997 to provide consumer acceptability ad

TAME = tertiary-amyl methyl ether DIPE = diisopropyl ether ETBE = ethyl tertiary-butyl ether TBA = tertiary-butyl alcohol

water in response to natural or induced hydraulic gradients and diffuse recharge. The most likely causes for the occur rence of MTBE in deep groundwater are steep vertical gradients caused by ex traction wells which can pull dissolved constituents to greater depths, or cross contamination within or between aqui fers due to poorly sealed wells. Question #5. Can MTBE form nar row plumes?

Aerobic biodegradation can limit the width of BTEX plumes due to the trans verse diffusion of dissolved oxygen into the plume. Because biodegradation will

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 2000

Special Report effluent discharge limits and remedi ation goals. In situ remediation tech nologies such as S VE, groundwater ex traction, and air sparging are limited by the effectiveness of the remediation fluid

(air, water) to contact all types of con taminants including BTEX,MTBE and other gasoline compounds. Question #9. Is biodegradation a treatment alternative for MTBE in remediation effluents?

There are fewer published studies on the biodegradability of MTBE and other ether oxygenates than for petroleum hydrocarbons. Recently, a number of investigators (Salanitro et ai, 1994; Cowan and Park, 1996; Mo era/., 1997; Steffan et al., 1997), have isolated

MTBE degrading cultures and organ isms. API research has also demon strated the effectiveness of bioreactors

(API, 1997a). A MTBE degrading cul ture is being used to biodegrade MTBE contaminated groundwater in fluidized bed reactors (Mosteller et al, 1997).

Question #10. How does MTBE affect the application of Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA)? MTBE is included as a compound of

ProMinent's infelligent new gamma/L Pump

interest in the ASTM 1995 RBCA

callbratable metering pump which has the ahiiity to dispiay continuous feed rate pumped volume, as well as operating status and stroke length.

standard, and that framework is appro priately applied to assessments of po tential MTBE exposures. The fate and transport parameters for MTBE are un derstood sufficiently to use reasonably conservative modelling approaches to estimate its natural attenuation. How

ever, only a few studies have attempted to characterize the in situ biodegrada tion of MTBE (Borden et al, 1997; Schirmer and Barker, 1998; API, 1997b; API 1998). While there is evidence that MTBE

does biodegrade at some gasoline re lease sites, the existing biodegradation database is small at this time and might not be considered adequate to allow rou tine inclusion of a first order biodegra dation rate constant without supporting site specific data. Accordingly,receptor point concentrations can be readily pre

ProMinent introduces tlie fust

Large illuminated LCD display - clear and visible even from awkward angles.

All display Information can easily be called up and viewed via a push button system. Available in 5 different liquid end materials: PR PVC, Acrylic, PIPE, and SS.

Operates In remote controlled applications, ie 0/4-20 mA with user selected assignment. First to display feed rate In l/hr or US gal/hr. Control variant and options can be easily retrofitted at a later date. Feed rates to 32 l/hr and pressures to 234 psi.

dicted and MTBE can be included in the

RBCA process. The noncarcinogenic reference concentration included in the ASTM RBCA standard and the EPA

Drinking Water Advisory value of 2040 ug/L may also be of use in estimat ing acceptable site clean-up levels. Eor further details, visit API's Envi

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ronment, Health & Safety web site: www.api.org/ehs. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 105 (See page 25)

Cover Story

LaMPs to illuminate Canada/US plans to restore the Great Lakes

TheUS Environmental Protec

tion Agency and Environment Canada announced April 27 the release of comprehensive, bi-national plans to protect and restore Lakes Erie, Michigan and Superior. The Lakewide Management Plans(LaMPs) address problems in the entire ecosys tem of each lake, rather than focusing on polluted hot spots. The Lakewide Management Plans outline the environmental status of each

lake, highlight successes,identify prob lems, and propose solutions. Because of the evolving nature of the lakes, the plans will be updated every two years. The release of the LaMPs coincides with the release of the Lake Ontario

Lakewide Management Plan Update and the Lake Huron Initiative Report. "The plans are essentially snapshots of what we know about each lake at this

time. It has become apparent that we cannot solely rely on traditional regula tory activities to solve the lakes' com plex problems," said EPA regional ad ministrator Francis Lyons. "Effective solutions will require a broader ap proach. In fact, some activities will be accomplished more effectively at the community level by private citizens and local governments, while others will require more intemational cooperation." The Great Lakes contain almost 20

percent of the fresh water on the planet and provide drinking water to more than 25 million people in the US and Canada. While there has been a reduction in pol lutants entering the lakes over the last 30 years, complex problems remain. Each lake has its unique concems,but certain problems affect all the lakes contaminated sediments, exotic species, and airborne pollutants. Many of these problems originate outside the Great Lakes basin.

Proposed solutions are as varied as the problems they attempt to solve. There are ongoing attempts to control critical pollutants in wastewater dis charges and clean up local hot spots. New solutions include ballast water con

trols, use of new air pollution models to identify emission sources, pesticide clean sweeps, control of urban and ag ricultural runoff, and promotion of pri vate stewardship of the environment. 10

Photo shows dramatic fall In the level of Georgian Bay at Port McNicol. Georgian Bay is part of Lake Huron. The water level Is usually up to the large flat rocks. Photo - Steve Davey

The plans identify the environmen tal consequences of shoreline develop ment, including loss of wildlife habitat,

of stand alone technical reports that can be obtained for more detailed scientific information.

About one-third of the total popula

and loss of wetlands.

The LaMPs were initiated as part of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agree

tion of the Great Lakes basin resides

ment between the United States and

ronment Canada says. About 12 mil lion people live in the watershed, and the lake provides drinking water for

Canada to restore and maintain water

quality in the Great Lakes. Lake Superior LaMP includes chap ters on the various components of the Lake Superior Binational Program. While earlier stages of the chemical portion of this LaMP have been reported before, this is the first opportunity for the public to view all portions of the LaMP together in a consolidated format. Lake Superior has not experienced the same levels of development, urbani zation and pollution as the other Great Lakes. Because of this uniqueness, the US/Canada Intemational Joint Commis

sion recommended that Lake Superior be designated as a demonstration area. With this designation, discharges and emissions of toxic substances that per sist in the environment and build up in the bodies of humans and wildlife,

known as persistent organic pollutants or POPs, would not be permitted. The Lake Erie LaMP 2000 builds

within the Lake Erie watershed. Envi

about 11 million of these inhabitants.

Lake Michigan is the only Great Lake that is wholly within the borders of the United States. The US Clean Water Act

holds the EPA responsible for creating a LaMP for Lake Michigan. The document examines various pathways by which pollutants may enter the lake, and sug gests actions to be taken over the next 10 to 15 years to prevent additional polluton. Lake Ontario is the smallest ofthe five Great Lakes. Its basin is home to a total

of 7.6 million people in Canada and the United States. The Lake Ontario Update is a 20 page brochure. This is the second annual update on the Lake Ontario Lakewide Management Plan. It describes cooperative binational efforts undertaken to restore and protect Lake Ontario. The Lake Ontario LaMP 2000 report will be available this fall.

Public meetings will be held through

upon the Lake Erie Status Report, which

out the Great Lakes Basin to discuss the

was released in 1999. Besides the full

plans. Contact: Marlene O'Brien, En vironment Canada,(905) 336-4552.

LaMP 2000 report, there are a number

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000













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Drinking Water Treatment

Temporary water treatment plant fast-tracked for Thunder Bay

Residents living in the South

Ward of the City of Thunder Bay's water distribution sys

tem were issued a boil water

advisory in October of 1997, by the Medical Officer of Health. The advi

sory was issued in response to the de tection of Giardia Lamblia cysts in the distribution system. Residents, busi nesses and industry affected by the ad visory were eager to have it lifted as soon as possible. At the time. Acres & Associated was undertaking a Second Opinion Class EA in connection with the future water supply facility requirements for the City's potable water distribution system and upgrading their James Street Pumping Station. The City increased the scope of this work in October 1997 to also include a solution that would lift

the advisory as soon as possible. The City ofThunder Bay's water dis tribution system obtains its potable water from two different sources - one

source serving the South Ward and the other supplying the North Ward. The South Ward obtains its water by a grav ity feed from the Loch Lomond Reser voir which, up to now, was only treated by chlorination prior to distribution. The North Ward obtains its water from Lake

Superior, which is treated at the Bare Point Water Treatment Plant(WTP). In order to accelerate the removal of

the Boil Water Advisory in the South Ward, approval was given by the City to build a temporary WTP at Loch Lomond.

As proposed by Acres & Associated, the temporary facility would utilize microfiltration technology to provide an effective barrier for Giardia and Crytosporidium cysts. Pilot testing of two microfiltration technologies success fully demonstrated the effectiveness of microfiltration to meet the required stan dard of treatment. Subsequent to ten dering, the supply of the microfiltration plant was awarded to Zenon Environ mental Inc. The water treatment proc ess involves the production of treated water by drawing water through Zee

By Dennis Mutt! and Alison Edwards, Acres & Associated Environmental Limited


Installation of temporary water treatment plant at Loch Lomond. Weed'® "Outside-In" hollow fibre micro filtration modules that are immersed in

the raw water being treated. The facil ity will have a peak capacity of 8.5 MIGD and a nominal capacity of 7.5 MIGD. It will be utilized for a period of two years, at which point the capac ity ofthe Bare Point WTP will have been upgraded to allow Lake Superior to be the sole source of potable water for the City of Thunder Bay. The construction and commissioning schedule for the temporary facility was considerably shortened due to political pressures put on the City of Thunder Bay's Engineering Department to have the advisory lifted by the promised date of November 8,1998. The design of the facility, which began in May 1998, con sisted ofthe following main components: • yard piping; • new post-chlorination addition point; • automatic control of chlorination


• standby diesel generator power (600kW)and automation; • control signals required for the microfiltration process including

the James Street Pumping Station was ongoing. The Pumping Station, de signed by Acres & Associated, houses three pumps each rated for 14.7 ML/d to provide a firm capacity of 29.4 ML/d. In the short term it will supplement the Loch Lomond Facility with flow and pressures within the South Ward. The station is also capable of providing "re verse flow" from the storage facilities in the South Ward into the North Ward

to meet high demand fire flows. In the long term, when the entire distribution system is supplied by the Bare Point WTP, the Station will transfer water to

a new, larger reservoir that will be pro vided in the South Ward.

The James Street Pumping Station commissioning was successfully com pleted and turned over to the City in January 1999. The City of Thunder Bay is now in the process of having the design com pleted for the permanent works at the Bare Point WTP.


reservoir level; and

• waste stream handling. The project was carried out at a hec tic pace but the Boil Water Advisory was lifted on the promised date of Novem

2800 Horizontal Split Case Pumps by Fairbanks Morse were supplied by Omega Pumping Solutions. Variable Frequency Drives by Cutler-Hammer were supplied by Applied Products and Systems.

ber 8, 1998.

During the design and construction of the temporary WTP, construction of

For more information,

circie reply card No. 107

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


-mf ^»<2r "^■i--


-"tU ,i- *




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For more information, circle reply card No. 108 (See page 25)

Engineering Chailenge

A Calgary-Kosovo engineering connection A significant contribution is made to NATO living conditions

A Calgary based firm,special

izing in water and wastewater treatment, has made

an important foray into the Balkan marketplace. In doing so, it is making a significant contribution to wards environmental protection in Kosovo and to the living conditions of NATO Peacekeeping Forces stationed in war-torn Kosovo. Waterworks Tech

nologies,of Calgaiy,is in the final stages of installing and commissioning two multi-million dollar sewage treatment plants for the US Army in Kosovo. The plants have been designed with the op tion of dismantling and possible reloca tion, to provide service for small per manent settlements, when the camps are ultimately disbanded. The need and the challenge Last year, when world attention was focused on the ravages of war, Kosovo was seen as an unlikely place for a small Calgary company to seek out opportu nities to do business. Waterworks Tech

nologies edged out six other bidders for the turnkey installation of treatment plants at Giljane and Ferizaj in Kosovo. At the time, the NATO Peacekeep ing Mission was setting up two camps in Southern Kosovo. The Giljane facil ity, code named 'Camp Monteith', was designed to accommodate 4,000 military personnel and 'Camp Bonsteel', at Ferizaj, to accommodate 7,000. Given the tight timeline, the sewage treatment plant design had to be virtually "taken off the shelf" and pre-assembled with out delay, for shipping to locations that Waterworks Technologies staff knew little about.

The completed project is improving conditions in Kosovo.

their ability to rebound from toxic events. Suspended growth systems, in cluding extended aeration, have the abil ity to achieve high levels of treatment, although they can be prone to easy up set. The TFEA is a hybrid where the fixed film eliminates the majority of the organic load and absorbs the shock loadings, and the subsequent extended aeration process is fed a partly treated and modulated influent with consistent characteristics.

Plant components consist of the fol lowing elements: 1)Influent screening: An inline coarse screen separates out coarse solids enter ing the treatment system. This is a stain less steel wedge-wire bent screen unit placed ahead of the equalization tank. Removal of these solids decreases the

later extended aeration, the trickling fil ter comprises the biological treatment for the system. The trickling filter is an attached film biological process and in this application is used as a roughing filter to remove 70 - 80% of the soluble

BOD loading. Trickling filter media is comprised of engineered sheets of uPVC glued to form rectangular blocks, which are stacked within a trickling filter tower. The uPVC media in block form presents a very large surface area to volume ra

tio, typically exceeding 30 ft- per ftl Effluent is pumped through a static distributor system, to re-circulate through a trickling filter tower. The tower is supported by beams and galva nized grating over the TF re-circulation tanks below. The trickling filter tank is aerated by means ofsubsurface fine pore

The solution

loading on the biological treatment sys

The treatment facilities, capable of handling 300,000 and 600,000 US gal lons per day (1,000 and 2,000 CMD), are based on the high efficiency Water works Proprietary TFEA Trickling Fil ter/Extended Aeration technology. The process was developed in con junction with the National Research Council of Canada, in order to provide a versatile modular biological treatment system that was cost-effective, compact, easy and inexpensive to operate. Attached film systems, including trickling filters or bio-towers, have long been recognized for their resilience to

tem and reduces downstream mainte

diffusers, which maintain a residual dis

nance problems. 2) Equalization: The equalization tank

solved oxygen level and the contents of the tank are thoroughly mixed. Air vents are provided at the bottom of the tower for natural upward circulation of air through the media within the tower. This, together with dissolved oxygen in the wastewater, provides oxygen for aero bic biological metabolism to take place. A film of biological slime grows on the

shock and variable organic loading, and 14

is sized for a nominal six-hour retention

for the average discharge. The tank is aerated by fine pore subsurface diffusers. This builds up the dissolved oxy gen level in the wastewater to aid in treatment efficiency. It also ensures complete mixing of the wastewater and ensures that the solids are maintained in

filter media wall, until a maximum ef

suspension. Settling of solids could lead to accumulation and stagnation,causing anaerobic and septic conditions; the re sult would be strong odour problems. 3) Trickiing filter (TF): Together with

fective thickness is reached. The slime

then sloughs off into the tanks below. 4) Extended aeration (EA): A portion of the TF re-circulation effluent and

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


E L 1 V E R 1 N G



Baker Process is the name to call for water

and wastewater treatment equipment.



The tried and trusted products from each of these organi zations will continue to be designed, built, and serviced by the personnel who know them best.

New Smyrna Beach Sucess Story The City of New Smyma Beach, Florida, recently com pleted installation of the new, cost-effective nutrientremoval system as part of its management plan for wastewater treatment, reuse and biosolids management.

This innovative system protects receiving streams and watersheds from harmful nitrogen and phosphorus nutri ents using the EIMCO® Bardenpho® process, a method that is both low in cost and minimizes chemical addition.

BMCO Bardenpho System ■ Five-stage, state-of-the-art process

■ Incorporates the Carrousel® denit//?® nitrification/ denitrification process

■ 6.0 mgd capacity with nutrient effluent quality limits of 3 mg/1 of total nitrogen and 1 mg/1 of phosphorus among the strictest in the U.S. ■ Produces reclaimed water for residential and golf course irrigation


■ Produces AWT effluent for discharge into the Indian River during wet weather or when reclaimed water demands are low

■ Low construction cost of $2.69 per gallon of treatment

capacity - significantly below conventional methods employing chemical-based technology ■ Designed by Hartman and Associates, Inc. of Orlando, Florida, the facility also includes effluent filtration,

For more information, circle reply card No. 249 (See page 25)

disinfecting systems, and a residuals management

system meeting EPA Class B standard for biosolids For more information on how our nutrient removal and

water reuse technology can work for you, contact Baker Process or your nearest Baker Process representative.


Baker Process

Municipal Group, 5155 Creekbank Road, MIsslssauga, ON L4W1X2 Tel 905-625-6070 Fax 905-625-3519 Municipal Group, 669 West 200 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101-1020 Tel 801-526-2000 Fax 801-526-2014

Engineering Challenge


111 rfi RAW


effluent"^ I



















w vy













Patent Pending


sloughed slime enters the EA tank, where it is aerated by fine pore subsur face diffusers to ensure adequate oxy gen transfer to degrade the organic mat ter. This portion of the process ensures removal of the remaining 20-30% BOD; this is a polishing step in the treatment. The solids level in the tank is maintained

at an optimum level by recycling sludge from the secondary clarifier using air lift pumps fed by the air blower. 5) Secondary clarification and chlorination: The effluent enters the second

ary clarifier where the biomass settles by gravity. The clarified effluent flows over outlet weirs for chlorination and

discharge. The settled sludge, contain ing active micro-organisms,is partly re cycled to the extended aeration tank to maintain solids level. The balance is

wasted to an aerobic sludge digester and holding tank. 6) Sludge digestion and dewatering: Waste sludge from the aerobic biologi cal process is transferred by airlift pumps to aerobic digesters, where it is treated to reduce volatile organics and

will be used in wet and de-watered form

in agricultural and horticultural appli cations.

8) Electrical: In the absence of electri

cal power, the plants are self powered with diesel generating units. They are designed for future conversion and op eration on the European power fre quency of 50Hz. Installation and performance "The aim," says Een Sukovieff, President of Waterworks Technologies, "is to design a compact high-efficiency treatment system, which can be broken down into sub-units, for shipping in standard transportation containers and assembled on site. We made the right decision to procure and pre-fabricate almost all our equipment and materials here. To have sourced supplies locally from the campsites would have been a nightmare." Local suppliers were non-existent and communications with the outside world were either via a Greek based cel

lular phone system or the intermittent military internet connection. A pre-req-

thickened. It is then de-watered with a

uisite to use of the latter was a 3 1/2 hour

plate and frame sludge press system. 7) Discharge: The plant effluent at Camp Monteith is discharged to a local creek. Effluent at Camp Bonsteel is stored in three existing lagoons, where it will be aerated and used for irrigation and dust abatement purposes. Sludge

wait in line, which did nothing for op erational efficiency. Fortunately the in


stallation of concrete foundations, to

specifications supplied by Waterworks Technologies, had been contracted out locally. Given the typical minus 10° C tem-

perature during installation and a twoweek period of minus 20°, the plants had to be insulated and the piping heat traced. Start-up, which,for a biological process, demands carefully monitoring and a high degree of technical expertise, went off without a hitch, despite the cold January weather. The plants were designed to comply with US Environmental Protection

Agency and US Army Corps of Engi neers specifications, namely: Inlet


BOD 200 mg/L <30 mg/L TSS 200 mg/L <30 mg/L pH 6-9 7-8 They are currently performing well within those limits, with effluent BOD

levels in the 15mg/L range. On-site conditions The on-site Waterworks Technolo

gies crew encountered local working conditions that were a little trying at times. Focussing on getting the job done, they worked 10- 14 hour days, seven days a week. A delay in sourcing a concrete supply for the concrete pads resulted in a one month extension of the

project term. However, they achieved their goal, commissioning the Monteith plant 35 days ahead of schedule and the Bonsteel plant one week early. For more information,

circle reply card No. 109

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

A Brave New World.


And BOVAR is ready for it! We're proud to be a global leader In the destruction of waste.

We're even prouder to be a global leader ready for the future,and ready to meet your needs. Our modern lifestyles create wastes and they can't be ignored. They can't be direct landfilled or treated with half measures.

BOVAR Waste Management Contact us from anywhere in the world for CONFIDENCE in

destruction of your wastes. waste_management@bovar.com (In North America cal l: 1.800.633.5552)

Our Swan Hills Treatment Centre utilizes

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technology in the world with an environmental monitoring program that is unparalleled. And that means confidence for you...and for all of us. Your liability is removed from the moment we take possession of your waste and you get a final certificate of destruction. We're ready for the future and ready to work with you.Because we both know that handling our wastes properly today will mean a cleaner environment for all of us tomorrow.

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 110(See page 25)

Site Remediation

Density driven convection technology Hundreds of thousands of dollars could be saved on toxic site clean-up

Toxic chlorinated solvent spilled by a microprocessormanufacturing firm posed complex groundwater prob

chlorinated solvent, and the companies responsible for the spill had a budget to meet."

After the initial analysis of the soil

toring wells were drilled to determine the extent of contamination in the aqui fer, and to investigate the most effec tive method for remediation. With data

from the monitoring wells, the

lems at the site. The remedial PRESSURIZED

solution had to clean up the site quickly and efficiently to state government standards, as well as economically for the client. The manufacturing firm's own ers wanted to clean up the site as quickly as possible, so they

remediation firm delineated a



TCE(tetrachloroethene) plume covering an area approximately 720,000 sq.ft., about 30 feet un derground in tightly packed soil. The highest concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs),70% of the total mass,


volunteered to handle the situa


tion before government inter

was determined to be in an WATER TABLE

1,800 sq. ft. area. Cordilleran eliminated pump and treat technologies as a vi ety offactors, both physical and GROUT SEAL able option. With these sys financial, when selecting the CONTAMINATED GRAVEL WATER tems, millions of gallons of best system to decontaminate WELL groundwater must be pumped this specific site," said Brad to the surface for cleaning, fil Stephenson, Principal Consult Typica l Density Driven Convection(DDC)Well Construction tration, treatment and storage, ant for Cordilleran Environ prior to discharge to a city mental Consultants, Golden, wastewater treatment system. Several surface, it was clear that further studies Colorado. "The soil sediments were different types of forced air sparging relatively dense, the pollutant was a were needed underground. Sixty moni vention.

"We had to consider a vari


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For more information, circle reply card No. 111 (See page 25)

Solutions for a cleaner planet Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Site Remediation

systems were also analyzed, but none appeared to be cost-effective for this pro ject. High-pressure, forced air sparging involves pumping 100-psi air through pipes or wells below the water table. "Our evaluation indicated that a

remediation system called Density Driven Convection(DDC)would be the

best remedial process for this site," said Stephenson. The DDC system was designed and installed by Wasatch Environmental,

Inc., a groundwater and soil remediation specialist in Salt Lake City, Utah. The environmental engineering firm was founded in 1987 to investigate and re

move petroleum hydrocarbons,chlorin ated solvents, and other hazardous waste

releases. The patented system is an aera tion technology that provides an in situ remediation solution for both confined

and unconfined aquifers.

additional DDC wells.

"This is the first time a DDC system has been used in Colorado, so the state

government was not sure it would be effective," said Stephenson. "But after studying our analysis and statistics from the pilot test well they were comfortable that it would work efficiently." Wasatch systems are custom de signed and engineered to meet specific requirements of a particular site. The system can be designed as a complete grid of wells to aggressively treat an entire plume area, or as a line of wells placed across a plume to act as a barrier to contaminant migration. Since each DDC well decontaminates a large sec tion of the plume area, fewer are re quired to clean the site. "The DDC system is a very efficient way to pull VOCs out of groundwater, since the dirty water keeps moving

Solutions for measurement

& analysis Wastewater

analysis,storage tank measurement

& leak detection MLGs - Magnetic level gauges

High-pressure, forced air sparging involves pumping 100-psi air through pipes or wells

- Local indication - Alarm switches

- Continuous

below the water table.

output - No leaks

Also known as GRC (groundwater recirculation), the technique creates a convection cell beneath the water table.

Air is injected inside the DDC well, pulling contaminated water into the bot tom of the well, where it is air-stripped in situ. The contaminant gas then trav

els up the well casing into the open air if the level of VOCs is below required government standards, or to a vapor treatment system if required. In the case of the Colorado site, the wells are con

around the convection cell loop over and over again," Stephenson says. "All the while it is circulating, it is further va porizing contaminants out of the water." Forced air sparging and pump and

sign allows for VOC treatment of a greater section of the formation,"

is mostly silt and fine sand, which is very difficult to process, but we've already

Stephenson explains. "A large convec

pulled a large quantity of VOCs out of

tion cell sumounds the wellbore which

the aquifer." Unlike most petroleum hydrocar bons, where bioremediation plays a cru cial role, chlorinated solvents are diffi

this chlorinated site. In October of 1999, after a ten-month test, Cordilleran was

convinced that Density Driven Convec tion technology was the best process to remove the VOCs from the tainted

groundwater plume. The remediation

actuated liquid level controls


grained materials, DDC works effi ciently," Stephenson insists. "This site

Cordilleran decided to test the DDC

- Conductance

and groundwater within its radius of in "No matter what the substrate is,

system on a pilot well for nearly a full year to determine if it was suitable for


both systems, according to Stephenson. DDC, however, with its large recircu lation loop, is able to decontaminate soil

whether it's composed of fine or coarse

gradient at the top of the well, separated by a grout seal in the middle."

oxygen meters

soil materials, due to the limitations of

nected by underground piping to one

at the bottom of the well and a positive

Evita - Inline dissolved

treat methods are not effective in fine

common extraction pipe that vents VOCs to the open air. "With the DDC system, the well de

creates a negative groundwater gradient

- No maintenance

- Control panels - Tank leak



O (/) 2200 Bristol Circle

Oakville, ON L6H 5R3 Tel: (905) 829-2000 www.daviscontrols.com

cult to bioremediate. Cordilleran estimates that about 110

gallons of TCE leached into the groundwater, probably two full 55-gallon(US) drums. They expect to pull about 400 lbs. of VOCs per year out of the site. The entire groundwater remediation project is estimated to take three to five years to complete. For more information,

firm immediately began installing 37 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

circle reply card No. 112 For more information, circle reply card No. 113

Engineering Software

Using EDMS systems for $500 million wastewater treatment plant upgrade in BC

The$500 mil ion upgrade to the

Greater Vancouver Regional District's (GVRD) Annacis

Island wastewater treatment

plant near Vancouver led to new levels of complexity for the organization in managing its engineering paper trail specifically, the creation and manage ment of a library to contain the 15,000 new engineering and operations man agement CAD drawings for this enor mous plant. Completed in October 1998,the plant upgrade was an ambitious engineering project. Today,it daily discharges about 440 million litres of treated wastewater

into the Eraser River, one of North

America's largest salmon rivers. One key project was making the engineer ing drawings more accessible to GVRD plant employees during the workday. This meant planning to make plant docu ments accessible - on-line - for opera

staff monitor the running of four 800-kW engines at the cogeneration faciiity controi, at the giant Annacis isiand wastewater treatment piant.

project manager. They did a detailed

tions and maintenance staff on the floor

technical audit of current software ar

at Annacis Island.

chitecture and in-house staff require ments. The FileNET system of EDMS programs was selected to deliver secure access on-line to employees. A major part of the preparation phase was determining the system's index set up and security privileges. Most organi zations use five to 15 index subjects (such as author name, document crea tion date, project name, drawing num ber, etc.), to mark the document for easy retrieval later, but some implement as many as 20 or 30. However, these longer lists increase the time required to catalogue drawings; most organiza tions ultimately scale back their index listings after working with the new sys tem for a few months. Overall, the pre paratory stage of the implementation was completed in four weeks. By planning in advance, the actual

Although the GVRD has been using engineering document management software(EDMS)systems for a number of years to manage its in-house CAD drawing library, the launch of a major engineering project became the catalyst for modernizing the system. Plant man agers saw that making the library avail able on-line at the plant would not only make the drawings more accessible to staff, it had the added bonus of deliver

ing operational and maintenance efficiencies.

"We had been managing our draw ings electronically within the CAD de partment for about eight years," says Mike Kennett, control system supervi sor, operations and maintenance depart ment at the GVRD headquarters, located in Burnaby a few miles from Annacis Island. "But, with the upgraded plant at Annacis Island, it was time to get a sys tem that could improve access in the field and lower management costs." To start the process off, the GVRD brought in external software architecture consultants to work with their in-house

By Adam Wilkins, Yaletown Technology Group, Vancouver, BC 20

installation of the FileNET software took

little time. An important architectural issue was the process of "migrating" thousands of CAD documents into the

new system from the outside consulting engineers who created them. To speed up this process, the GVRD issued a set

onto a CD and a custom utility was de veloped by the software architects to allow the GVRD to import these draw ings, up to one thousand at a time, into the new system using a standard CDROM port. Once the system was set up, em ployee training and residual consulting completed the process. Training ses sions were conducted in-house from a

module set up by the software architects. Engineers received a full-day session, while support staff with limited access received a half-day seminar. Today, the GVRD uses its EDMS system to keep track of all its CAD drawings for the electrical, instrumen tation, civil, mechanical, architectural,

structural, process, plumbing and HVAC systems at Annacis Island. Among the many benefits, GVRD staff can track redlines and latest versions, and keep track of the "one true version" of a docu

ment, always a thorny problem for en gineering administrators. Mike Kennett says the new FileNET system streamlines the work involved in handling the thousands of inquiries to the document library that are made over the course of a year. Typically, it

of standards for the consultants to fol

would take 30 minutes to send some

low to ensure the flow of new drawings they produced was easily transferable in

one out to bring back a printed version from the library. Now, he notes, "We can pull up the required document on a Continued on page 22

the correct format and in Microsoft Ac

cess. The drawings were then loaded

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

PerkinElmer Photovac raises the standard

in portable VOC monitoring. Three-fold,

Meet the premier family of portable VOC detection instruments. For more than 25 years, the world has come to expect great things from PerkinElmer™Photovac™. Not one, but three portable, easy-to-use, rugged, reliable and highly accurate instruments. Designed to perform flawlessly under the harshest conditions, our lightweight Photovac instruments are all you need for any environmental or industrial hygiene application.


The Photovac 2020 FID is best-suited to applications where rapid response is critical. It detects a wide range of VOCs in air, soil or groundwater, including benzene at the OSHA threshold of Ippm.

The Photovac MicroFID™, the world's smallest FID, quickly identifies methane and other alkanes including EPA Method 21 compliance from start to finish.

The Photovac Voyager™ Portable GC is perfect for total field analysis. Lightweight and portable, it's unparalleled for quickly identifying compounds and concentrations accurately. Unparalleled Reliability. Durability. Sensitivity. Portability. The Photovac family raises VOC detection standards by the power of three. For literature, circle reply card No. 144 Get more



For a sales call, circle reply card No. 145


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Engineering Software computer screen in a minute. Savings

Among the many challenges faced by the GVRD

are tremendous."

The new GVRD system is a "distrib uted library" where the drawings are available in multiple on-line locations within the Annacis plant, away from the main repository located at the Burnaby head office. The Annacis Island plant has a number of control stations, each

of which are equipped with master con trols that enable plant employees to manage plant operations from any of the stations. A screen to allow immediate

access to the CAD drawing library was installed at each of these stations, ena

bling fast on-line shop floor access to documentation and helping to keep the plant operating at peak efficiency. Now,employee time is saved by pro viding access to the Burnaby head of fice CAD library directly from the plant floor in Annacis Island. This allows op erations staff to work with the latest

documents quickly and efficiently. An other advantage of the EDMS, says Mike Kennett, is being certain one is looking at the "one true version" of a drawing,and not somebody's unauthor ized update. Being able to track "redlines" quickly on-screen, as they come

were hurdles such as how to implement a system that crosses political boundaries in, not only reduces paper expenses, the "checkout" function helps the GVRD keep close control of all documents that have been issued to contractors for work.

The savings in paper expenses can be considerable. For example, it is esti mated that it would cost the department about $35,000 to copy the 15,000 Annacis Island drawings. Making a complete set available at each of five locations would up the total to $175,000 in copying costs alone, for documents that may go out of date quickly. The potential for savings like these greatly improves the economics of installing an EDMS system. Although the project was successful, its implementation was not without problems. Among the many challenges faced by the GVRD were hurdles such as how to implement a system that crosses political boundaries, how to classify documents better, and what

legacy information and documents can be streamlined with this technology. For most projects, these questions are best addressed before any outside consulting engineering work is commissioned. This will ensure document management and usage costs are kept to a minimum from the start.

For many public projects, Mr. Kennett believes the EDMS should be in place before commissioning, and that the con sulting engineer's systems should be com patible. "Ideally, we'd like the outside consulting engineering firms to be on-line with our EDMS prior to the commission ing phase. This will allow us to manage documents such as technical procedures, redlining of drawings,.servicing require ments and others within our system,right from the start. I'm sure this is the way all future projects will go." For more information,

circle reply card No. 115

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dium Hypochlorite Generators are designed for economical, au tomatic, onsite production of so dium Hypochlorite. individual unit production capacities range from 1 to 2,000 pounds of chlo rine equivalent per day. Produces stable, io\A/ concentration (0.8%) Hypochlorite solution that does not degrade. Production of one 1.0 pound of chlorine equivalent requires 3.5 pounds of salt, 2.5 AC KWH and 15 gallons of water. Circle reply card No. 146

Zon chlorine dioxide generator activates sodium chlorite with

hydrochloric acid to generate chlorine dioxide. Microprocessor control system allows the dosage quantities to be set. High chlo rine dioxide yield with optimal safety and reliability. Pre-wired and pre-piped, housed in a plas tic console ready for installation. Circle reply card No. 147

Ultra Dynamics...Capital's Ultra Dynamics Purifiers provide from 30,000 to 400,000 microwatt seconds per square centimeter of 2537 Angstrom, wavelength of UV energy for positive kill of mi croorganisms. Lamps rated for over 9,000 hours of continuous

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Fuji Ozone Generator...Fuji Electric "Micro-Gap" series ozone generators have an enhanced cooling system which provides high capacity, high concentration, electrically efficient ozone pro duction. Micro-Gap series uti lizes a high precision, stainless steel ground tube with a dielec tric glass lining. This allows ail the heat of the dielectric to be conductlvelv transferred into the

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

li ft


Our customers come in all sizes, too. Whether you're a large, local or small company. Hertz Equipment Rental has the tools for your trade. And since we've added 27 new locations to our family of companies in Canada, you'll have better access to a wider range of

reliable, brand-name equipment. With over 30 years of experience in the rental business we'll help you get the job done. Whether it's in Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario or Saskatchewan. To

contact the Hertz Equipment Rental location nearest you call

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For more information, circle reply card No. 117(See page 25)

Alternative Energy

At last- harnessing the awesome power of the sea to stop global warming

ThreeBritish companies are en

gaged in exploiting Scottish

seas as a renewable source of

electric power. Long-term plans range from generating electricity from the waves to harvesting power from the tides. Pulled constantly by the moon's gravity and warmed by thermal currents, the ocean's energy is created by winds whipping across its surface. The greater the distances involved, the higher and longer the waves will be. Energy is stored in the waves until they reach the shallows and beaches, sometimes with destructive force. If

only two trillion watts of electricity could be harvested from the sea, it would

be the equivalent of twice the world's energy produced from nuclear, oil, gas, and coal-fuelled power stations. One metre of a single North Sea wave front is strong enough to power 50 electric heaters. As a general rule, coastlines with an ocean "fetch" greater than 400 kilometres (250 miles), are

suitable for exploitation. But even greater energy resources are available between latitudes 30 degrees and 60 degrees in the northern and southern hemispheres. Global warming and in ternational conservation agreements to reduce "greenhouse gases" have en couraged industry to investigate how the oceans' powerful energies can be exploited economically. The Inverness-based Wavegen is in stalling its 500-kilowatt (kW) Limpet turbo generator on the Scottish island of Islay to provide electricity for the resi

Wavegen's 500-kilowatt Limpet turbine captures wave energy and converts it into electricity. The technology is to be installed on the Scottish island of Islay to pro vide electricity for the Inner Hebrides. Photo - Wavegen.

(Northern Ireland), expects to begin feeding electricity to the island's grid within a year. Wavegen turbines in stalled in the Azores are now supplying 400 kW of electricity to the islanders. The installation was backed with Euro

pean Union funding and the company is developing a machine that will float on the sea to generate electricity. Queen's University Professor Trevor Whittaker, who researched the tech

nology for the initial trials, said: "Lim pet is the culmination of 20 years of research that has been carried out at the

university. It is very satisfying to be

dents of the Inner Hebrides islands.

associated with its first commercial de

Consisting of a collector and oscillating water column, the Limpet uses wave power to force air up through the col lection chamber,spinning the pneumatic

velopment which will contribute to 'clean' energy and reduce the depend ence on fossil fuels and the pollution they cause." Islay is also the location for two of Ocean Power Delivery's wave-energy converters being installed under the 1999 Scottish Renewable Obligation bill in 2001. Called Pelamis and tested by London's City University, the 375 kW units are similar to a floating "sausage" 12 metres in length and 3.5 metres in

turbine. It is driven in the same direc

tion regardless of the air flow, sucking the air down and creating electricity as the waves subside.

The company, which has been con ducting successful experiments on the island for the past 10 years in collabo ration with Queen's University, Belfast

diameter. Inside are 10 steel drums con

By Jim Kelsey, LPS Special Correspondent 24

nected by hydraulic hinges which pump fluid back and forth as the "sausage" oscillates on the waves. Fluid pressure

is used to drive the generators. Pelamis will create more than 2.5 million kilo

watts of electricity annually, enough to power 150 to 200 homes. The company is planning much larger units with a 700megawatt (MW) capacity capable of supplying enough electricity for a small city. A company called the Engineering Business exploits the moon's pull on tidal streams to create electricity. The company's active water column genera tor (AWCC) is similar to an upsidedown coffee cup sliding up and down a vertical metal pole. Positioned in the offshore seabed, the cup remains below the surface with its large angled wings protruding from either side. The tidal current pushes the cup down, trapping air that is squeezed out through a pipe to the surface.

Rushing upwards at high speed, the air passes through a turbine which does the same job as a windmill, turning movement into electricity. When the cup reaches the bottom of the pole, the wings flip over to be forced upwards by the tidal current sucking air in and gen erating a continuous power supply for the turbine.

For more information. Web site: www.wave2en.c0.uk.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Ad Index



Reader Service No.

ABB Pumps



AGRA ADI International Inc

57 39

160 121

Analytical Technology Inc Analytical Technology Inc Analytical Technology Inc

45 47 49

162 163 164

Anthrafilter A.O. Smith

55 71

250 302



Reader Service No.

GDT Corporation Gorman-Rupp

39 3

138 102

Greatario Hach Harold Marcus Heath Consultants

66 5 38 29

298 103 131 171-173

23 33 55 11 27 58

117 125 256 106 119 245

22 48 77


40, 41 21

135 144, 145







Baker Hughes Blorem Technologies

15 32

249 150

Hertz Equipment Rental Insltuform Technologies International Water Supply ITT Flygt KSB Pumps MakLoc Buildings Inc





Century Group



CH2M Gore & Storrie



Mueller Canada OCPA

Clemmer Technologies Glemmer Technologies Glemmer Technologies Colgate Palmollve Golgate-Palmollve

65 67 69 35 58

295 296 297 126 240-242

Pall Corporation PerklnElmer Instruments ProMinent

141 156



RAL Engineering Ltd Response Rentals

56 55

170 251 258

Columbian Steel Tank Go



RTS Plastics Inc


Con Cast Pipe



Sanitherm Engineering



Consolidated GIroux Davidson Env Davis Controls Denso Diverse Plastic Tanks Donson DTE Industries

37 55 19 46 67 72 70

130 255 113 165 299 306 304

Smith & Loveless



Eaglebrook Earth Canada Corp Ecodyne Ford Hall Company

13 18 36 76

108 Ill 128 154






Terratec Urecon

55 58

252 246

VIctaulic Waterline Environmental WEE WESALtd

31 74 75 47


ZCL Composites Inc






Zenon Environmental

151 168 167

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May 2000 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

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Effluent Treatment

Designing the first primary effiuent faciiity in China's most popuious province

Lockerbie Stanley has signed a contract to supply engineering services and all major me chanical, electrical, instru

mentation and control system equip ment, as well as installation for the first

primary effluent treatment facility in China's most populous province of Jiangsu. The plant is located in the coastal city of Lianyungang, which has a population of 600,000 people. This is Lockerbie Stanley's ninth project in China over a period of five years. Because of the fact that the province has committed itself to improve the en vironment for its people and that this facility is the first one to be installed in the province, the project has generated great interest. The plant will be built on the site of an existing fish farm that will be relocated in order to install the treat

ment plant. Typical ground elevations at the site are in the range of 2.7 to 3.5 m and the climate is considered sub


By J.R. Hitchmough, P. Eng, Lockerbie Stanley Inc.

Lockerbie Stanley has made numer ous visits to China to pursue the project. After being selected from a short list of

the pump stations moving the sewage to the treatment plant. At the treatment plant, the effluent

three, the contract was awarded in De

from the various sources will come to

cember 1999. A delegation from China recently came to Canada to verify the companies'capabilities and to visit sev eral North American operating and manufacturing facilities. The delegation included technical personnel from the design institute and city as well as sen ior city and provincial government offi

gether in a single inlet pipe and pass through three climber type coarse screens of 325,000mVd total hydraulic capacity. Debris will be removed me chanically from the face of the screens and discharged onto a common belt conveyor, which will convey the debris away for further processing. The screened water will pass into the sump of a lift pump station where four sub mersible pumps,three operating and one standby, will transfer the effluent up to an aerated grit chamber. The sump will also contain four, submersible type, by


The first phase of the project will be a primary treatment facility designed to treat 100,000 mVd of municipal efflu ent. The second phase of the project will add a secondary treatment facility, of equal capacity, after primary treatment. A future addition of a third phase is planned that will be a parallel, near iden tical primary and secondary facility, also

with a design capacity of 100,000mVd. The North China Municipal Engi neering Design and Research Institute with whom Lockerbie Stanley is work ing will design the sanitary sewer col lection system. Lockerbie Stanley is supplying pumps and screens for five of

pass pumps, of 200,000m-Vd combined capacity, which will divert flows greater than the design treatment capacity of the plant to the river. The intake pump sta tion and coarse screen structures will be

designed for a hydraulic capacity of 325,000 m-Vd.

The aerated grit chamber will remove grit and any oil and grease present from the effluent. Two identical rectangular chambers, each designed to handle 65,000 mVd of effluent, will oper

ate in parallel. Each chamber will


be aerated. Floating solids will be removed from each chamber by a travelling skimmer and discharged


from each chamber to a common

scum collector screw conveyor. The scouring action generated by the aeration system will produce low detritus content grit. Settleable solids will be directed by the sloped side walls of the chambers




to the bottom of each chamber

from where they will be removed through the suction line of a grit pump. The grit pump will be mounted on a single travelling bridge spanning both chambers.

M H I N L fl N 0


Each chamber will have its own

grit removal pump. The grit pumps will transfer the grit to a single sand water separa tor. The grit will settle to the bot

I N D I n



tom and be dewatered on an in







CafBR* aueai Wei.-

clined screw as it is removed from

the separator by the inclined screw and discharged to a grit box for eventual disposal off-site.

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 2000

Effluent Treatment

will be returned by gravity to the inlet of the primary clarifiers. Scum will be removed at both the primary clarifiers and the thickeners and discharged to

The effluent from the grit chambers will flow by gravity through four fine step screens, three operating and one standby, arranged in parallel. The total hydraulic capacity of the three screens will be 130,000 mVd. Screenings from all screens will be collected on a single compactor screw conveyor. The com pacted screenings will be discharged to a collection box for disposal.

dedicated scum collection boxes at these

locations for eventual disposal. Two dewatering lines will be pro vided, each capable of handling the to tal sludge feed of 11 mVh. from the two

Major Suppliers

After the fine screens, the

effluent will flow by gravity to two 40m-diameter primary clarifiers, arranged in parallel. Each clarifier will be designed for a maximum hydraulic ca


cake will be discharged from either cen trifuge onto a common shaftless screw sludge collection conveyor. The sludge cake will be transferred from the col

lection conveyor onto another conveyor for disposal. To achieve the required sludge sol ids from the centrifuge, polymer must be added. The selected polymer system will be a dry feed system and will use a three-step tank sys tem for polymer preparation.

C1arifiers/Th icken ers:

KSB Pumps Conpura Westech Engineering

pacity of 65,000mTd. The

Centrifuges: Low voltage MCC:

Babco Electric / Cutler Hammer

supernatant from both clarifi


Endress -i- Hauser

ers will flow back to a com




The three chambers will be

Alfa Laval

solution, at 0.5% concentra tion, will be metered to one or

mon collection chamber and

be discharged to the river in the first phase of the project. Sludge from both primary clarifiers will flow by gravity to a central sludge sump from where it will be pumped by one of two submersible sludge pumps to two 8m-diameter gravity thickeners located next to the dewatering building. Supernatant from the two thickeners

thickeners. Each line will consist of one

sludge cutter, one progressive cavity sludge feed pump and one decanter cen trifuge. The piping will be designed such that the equipment can be used in terchangeably between the two lines. Thickened primary sludge at 4% will be treated with polymer to produce a dewatered sludge cake of 20-24%. This

used for preparation, ripening and dosing respectively. The system will be controlled by means of a programmable logic controller. The polymer

more alternative addition points in the centrifuge feed system, as required, by one of two hydraulic diaphragm pumps. The second pump will be a standby unit. Lockerbie Stanley Inc., a Design Build Company, is owned by Lockerbie & Hole Contracting Limited, and Stantec Consulting Ltd. Circle reply card No. 118

KSB Submersible Pumps and Mixers Quality Engineered Machines. Reliable, Low Maintenance • Sewage and Wastewater transportation and purification • Irrigation and Drainage stations

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Enviroijineiilal Science & Engineering, May 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 119 (See page 25)


Landfill Discharge

How old dumps can pose a liability to municipalities and their technical staff

In 1999,the City of Kingston, Ontario, was convicted

on seven charges for allowing the discharge of a del eterious substance from a landfdl into water frequented

by fish. Along with the conviction came a $120,000 fine and a remediation order. There was a personal convic tion issued to the municipality's environmental engineer, who received a suspended sentence. This charge and subsequent conviction came as a sur prise to the City. The landfill had been closed for 25 years, and had a Certificate of Approval from the Ministry of the Environment for closure of the landfill. Since closure, the

landfill had been converted to a municipal golf course. Like every other municipality, the City of Kingston thought the matter had been properly addressed. Although the charges are currently being appealed,there are many lessons to be learned from the Kingston experi ence so that other municipalities do not find themselves be ing prosecuted. In the Kingston case the charges were laid under the fed eral Fisheries Act rather than the Environmental Protection

Act (EPA) or the Ontario Water Resources Act(OWRA).

Why? Because it is much easier to prove a violation under the Fisheries Act than under the EPA. Under the EPA, one

would need to demonstrate impairment to the environment, i.e. that the fish are being harmed (or likely to be harmed) and that the cause of this impairment is from a discharge

Photo of the site showing its current use as a goif course. may enter a water that fish inhabit. This is a subtle but very significant difference. For example, in those court deci sions a deposit of a teaspoon of oil into the Pacific Ocean might be enough to convict under the Fisheries Act, because it is easy to demonstrate that oil is deleterious to fish, and that the ocean is frequented by fish. Once that is proven, the municipality, in order to avoid conviction, would have to show that it acted with due diligence to prevent the re lease of the deleterious substance. The Fisheries Act does

not consider that fish may not inhabit the area where the substance was deposited, nor that the material is rapidly di luted. These same factors would need to be considered un

der an EPA or OWRA charge, making it is much more oner ous to demonstrate that the oil may impair the environment and, therefore, succeed in a prosecution. Another unusual element of the Fisheries Act is the

Surface water sampling.

under control of the party in question. It is sometimes very difficult to prove both these issues and thereby succeed in a prosecution. Some courts have found under the Fisheries Act, on the

other hand, one has only to demonstrate that the substance in question will be deleterious to fish, and that the substance

'bounty sharing' clause. Under the Fisheries Act, fines up to one million dollars per conviction can be levied, with half the fine being shared with the party filing the charge. In the Kingston case, the initial charge came from a private citi zen and the court ordered the amount of $60,000 be paid to the informant. The puipose of the 'bounty sharing' under the Fisheries Act is to encourage citizens [ie. the public] to be 'watch dogs'. Whether or not the proceeds from the fine provided an incentive in this case is unknown, however, we do know that in the US,some environmental organizations have sustained themselves by bringing environmental of fenders before the courts.

Do other municipalities need to worry? Yes indeed. Closed landfills probably exist in the 'backyard' of every municipality. According to the Ontario Ministry of the En vironment, there are approximately 4,000 waste disposal sites in the Province. About two thirds of these sites are

'K. Howard,N. Eyles, S. Livingston. Municipal Landfilling Practice and Its Impact on Groundwater Resources In and Around Urban Toronto, Canada, in Hydrogeology Journal, Vol.4, No. 1, 1996.

By D. Malcolm, P. Eng., and S. Rose, P.Eng., Malroz Engineering Inc. 28

closed 'landfills', many of them closed prior to 1971 when the MOE required Certificates of Approval for the opera tion of a waste disposal site. Many older sites were located in river valleys or in swamps close to waterways. For instance, 20 waste dis posal sites have been identified in a 60 km- stretch of the lower Don Valley'. Zwick's landfill in Belleville and Rennie Street dump in Hamilton are two more examples of waste Envlronmentai Science & Engineering, May 2000

Landfill Discharge

We Deliver The Latest

disposal sites located adjacent to waterways. Virtually every municipality has old dump sites operated and closed long before environmental protective measures were employed. A good possibility exists that some of these dumps are dis charging a deleterious substance that may find its way to a

Technology In Railroad Environmental Collection Systems



Compliance with an MOE Certificate of Approval is not enough to protect municipalities against charges from either private citizens, environmental groups or the MOE.


Companies today want the latest technology. They wantfast, reliable service and a working partner with a commitment to total customer satisfaction. Centuiy delivers on commitments. Discover why today's railroads and industiy choose Centuryfor their

So what do environmental professionals need to do? There is no magic bullet. Due diligence may involve the following actions: identify the location of the dumps and landfills within your municipality, characterize their dis charges, and conduct toxicity tests on discharges to deter

railroad environmental containment needs.

mine if these are deleterious to fish, and then consider if

further study or action is warranted. Before doing so, how ever, you may wish to seek legal advice. Compliance with an MOE Certificate of Approval is not enough to protect municipalities against charges from ei ther private citizens, environmental groups or the MOE. Malroz assisted the City of Kingston with technical expertise during the trial.


1-800-527-5232, Ext. 147

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Odour Control

Phased approach to solving odour issues can yieid huge cost savings for piants

Undesirableodours pose a sig

sources identified in Phase 1 are sam

nificant environmental issue

pled and analyzed to determine the

for industrial facilities and

odour emission rate and the emission

are associated with an esti

rate of specific contaminants present in the discharge. The odour-testing pro gram is based on acquiring samples from the most significant sources. Samples of stack gas are collected in Tedlar sam ple bags using a predilution procedure, which involves diluting the stack gas with purified nitrogen as the sample is

mated 50% of complaints to environ mental regulatory agencies such as the Ontario Ministry of Environment. Widespread misunderstanding of how industrial odours should be handled

often leads to great expense, and to or ders or convictions under environmen

tal legislation. It can result in civil law suits, not to mention a poor corporate reputation in the community. These re sults could be avoided or substantially alleviated by taking a phased approach to assessing, defining and solving indi vidual odour issues as they occur. The aim is to ensure that the problem is clearly understood and solutions are developed to address the root cause of


odour is.sues and their sources and is con

ducted at the facility over a period ofsev eral days. The objective is to become fa miliar with the odour issue, evaluate po tential factors contributing to off-site odours, and to identify a list of signifi Scott Henderson at the control panel. cant odour sources for subsequent sam pling and modelling. Included in the first An odour panel, which involves par phase is a review of odour complaints ticipants with average odour sensitivi records, stack emissions data and facility ties, uses a dynamic dilution olfactomprocesses. All possible sources of odour eter to evaluate the odour samples. The from processes are identified and the sur panel is representative of the general rounding area is surveyed to assess the population. The odour panel utilizes a ternary port system operated in a forced relative odour impact from the plant. Other steps include; identification of choice mode, with a descending series emission sources that warrant sampling of known dilutions introduced simulta and modelling; evaluation of building neously to all participants. When sig nalled, the panel members respond to influences that may contribute to inef fective dispersion of stack emissions; each sample by indicating whether the and determination of appropriate proc odour is detectable. Panel responses are ess/production conditions for subse processed using regression analysis to quent odour testing in cooperation with determine the odour threshold value plant personnel. (OTV)of the sample. The OTV is the Chemical constituent point at which, statistically, 50% of the odour sampling panel could detect the odour (effective The second phase involves chemical dilution to 50% response). An odour constituent and odour sampling. The emission rate is the product of the meas

Services Ltd. 30

odorous emission.

Although it is not always possible to develop a coirelation between odour and specific contaminants, a company im proves its credibility by demonstrating clear knowledge of the components of the discharge during discussions with

odour emissions. This can be done

Evaluation of odour issues

Lehder Environmental

sion rate. Emission rates and concen

trations are then compared to the odour testing results to determine whether spe cific components are contributing to the

Emissions modelling The third phase of the staged ap proach involves modelling of measured

The first phase of this approach in volves a qualitative evaluation of the

Scott Henderson, B.E.S., E.R.S.,

cific substances to determine the emis

concerned citizens.

the emission.

By Sid Lethbridge, P.Eng. and

industrial hygiene reports and discus sions with facility personnel. The sources may be sampled for these spe

ured OTV and the effluent flow rate.

Specific contaminants are identified for each emission source using available test data, material safety data sheets (MSDSs), formulation specifications.

mathematically, using computer pro grams,or physically, using a scale model of the facility in a wind tunnel. Lehder has undertaken projects with both physi cal and mathematical modelling tech niques. The approach taken depends greatly on where the receptors are lo cated in relation to the facility. Finding a solution The fourth phase involves develop ing a solution. The information gath ered during the first three phases is as sessed in conjunction with a control technology review to develop odour abatement solutions.

Case study This strategic phased approach was applied to an odour evaluation for a manufacturing facility located in Cali fornia. The plant had been identified in a number of odour emission complaints from employees of neighboring indus trial and commercial facilities. There

were two similar manufacturing lines at the plant, each with five unit operations (described as operations A,B,C,D,and E)and associated emissions. Management of the facility believed that poor dispersion of emissions from Operation B might be the problem be cause that operation was specifically mentioned in the complaints. Lehder was asked to review the situation and

comment on proposed changes to en hance the dispersion characteristics of the Operation B's stacks. Continued on page 32

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

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For more information, circle reply card No. 123(See page 25)

Odour Control

An initial survey indicated that the majority of complaints came from commercial/industrial neighbours to the north and east of the facility. Ambient odours attributable to the facil

ity were present at levels likely to cause complaints and each unit operation had unique odour characteristics. The survey revealed that the discharge from Operation A was the major contributor to off-site odour. Odours from Operation B were detectable off-site but were not considered offensive.

In the second phase, odour testing was conducted for several discharges and process locations. During the sub sequent Phase 3 impact assessment stage, odour emissions data was used for wind tunnel modelling of the facility. Results of the overall odour evaluation led to the conclu

sion that Operation A stacks were the largest contributors to ground level odour. The rooftop penthouses located over this process also contributed. The compound or compounds which contributed to the odour were unknown. Additional conclu

sions were that the other odour sources present at the facility had significantly less impact on the community and that the impact of odour from Operation A could be reduced through improved stack design and increased height of discharge. In the fourth phase of solution development, it was rec ommended that the facility identify the compound(s) giv ing rise to the odour generated by Operation A. If feasible, the facility should eliminate or reduce the emissions of the compound(s)through pollution prevention principles. It was recommended that the rain caps be removed from Opera tion A stacks to improve dispersion and improvements be made to internal ventilation to eliminate odorous exhaust

from the penthouse louvers. Also recommended was the

Participants at the odour panei.

installation of taller stacks on Operation A to allow the ef fluent to exit the building envelope. Subsequent investigations identified the compound that was the major contributor to odorous emissions from Op eration A. The compound was generated by the decompo sition of a raw material in the process. Based upon the find ings of these studies, the client undertook a significant trial, reducing the amount of this raw material used in the proc ess through material substitution. The puipose was to dem onstrate that a reduction in raw material could reduce the

odour emissions without adversely affecting the manufac turing process. This trial was monitored through two further odour evalu ations. The first was conducted after a 57% reduction in

raw material and the second following the total elimination from the process. Based on the results of the second odour evaluation, it was concluded that the elimination of the raw material re

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duced odorous emissions from Operation A by approxi mately 70% from those measured in the first trial. There remained a distinctive odour from Operation A and the spe cific compound(s) that contributed to it could not be deter mined without further investigation. The cost of any fur ther investigation to define the source of odour had to be evaluated against the cost of implementing solutions that improve dispersion. It was also concluded that the ground level impact of odour from Operation A could be reduced through increased height of discharge to 50 feet above the roof, or use of eductors to positively draw gases from Operation A and dis charge from a height of about 20 feet above the roof. A follow-up ambient odour evaluation was conducted the following year. The purpose was to provide a qualitative measure of the improvements implemented at the plant and to determine if further actions were required to continue to proactively address odour issues. From this evaluation, it was concluded that ambient odour levels were improved sig nificantly from previous site evaluations. This improvement was attributable to raising the Operation A discharges to 50 feet above the roof and removing the rain caps. Ambient odour attributable to Operation A was detect able off property during the survey. The current major con tributor to this ambient odour was fugitive emissions from Operation A discharging through the louvers. The fugitive emissions were due in part to inefficient draw from the proc ess through the vent stacks. For more information, circle reply card No. 124 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

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Invasive Species

Ballast water and hydrilla are hot topics Report from Aquatic Nuisance Species & Zebra Mussel Conference

The 10th International Aquatic

Nuisance Species and Zebra Mussel Conference returned

to Canadian soil this year, be ing held at the Westin Harbour Castle Hotel in Toronto in February. This year's name change, which placed more emphasis on aquatic nuisance species(ANS)in general, and less

that adult mussels were observed at den

sities of 6,000/m- in 1998. This year, it was reported that over 75% of these adults survived the winter of 1998/99,

and spawned successfully during the

on the zebra mussel, the ANS

"poster child", was reflected in the wide range of topics discussed. Conference attendees were able to

zebra or quagga mus.sels. The only way to positively determine which species of mussel is invading the harbour is to per form genetic analysis. Although they look similar and infest areas together, zebra mussels and quagga mussels are not genetically related. The ex perts were hoping to learn, during this conference, which species of mussel was invading Duluth-Supe rior harbour. Unfortunately, not enough tissue was available for analysis, and the species responsi

choose from a variety of sessions, ranging from zebra mussel control alternatives to purple loosestrife

ble for this infestation remains a

eradication methods.

was ballast water, as it continues


The hot topic at the conference to be identified as the weak link in

The main focus of the confer

the prevention of new aquatic nui sance species introductions. Man datory ballast water exchange has been proposed, but ship owners and operators have many opera tional and safety concerns with open water ballast exchange. The

ence, however, remained on the

zebra mussel problem, which con tinues to affect industries and mu

nicipalities in Canada, the US and Europe. As the title of the mussel control sessions No Silver Bullet:

Tools in the Toolbox indicated, a

alternative to ballast water ex 100% foolproof method of pre venting zebra mussels from enter change, ballast water treatment, ing and fouling industrial water has its own obstacles and concerns. Installation of on-board treatment supply systems has yet to be dis covered. Several promising non- Hydrilla wrapped around a boat propeller - what to systems would require extensive expect if and when it gets to Canadian waterways. chemical technologies, such as and expensive retrofitting of older Photo - Alison M. Fox, PhD,Assistant Professor, Agronomy plasma pulse technology, ultravio Dept., University of Florida. vessels, and plans for new vessels would require redesign. The treat let radiation and cathodic protec ment of ballast water through an on tion continue to be developed and re 1999 reproductive season. This grow shore system presents additional chal ported. Alternative chemical treatment ing infestation may indicate that the ze strategies, such as molluscicide and bra mussel has adapted to Lake Supe lenges as there are numerous ozone, also continue to be investigated rior conditions and is poised to invade deballasting configurations unique to one of the deepest and coldest of the each vessel. Research with on-shore fil and refined. Zebra mussels continue to spread Great Lakes. tration systems has shown promise, and throughout North America, adapting to There is an alternative explanation to modifications to a demonstration project various water conditions as the invasion the mussel's appearance in the Duluth- were discussed at the conference. One area of ballast water exchange continues. The Duluth-Superior harbour Superior harbour. Researchers have yet in Lake Superior is a perfect example to determine if the mussels infesting the that has been somewhat overlooked is harbour are actually zebra mussels. the role of mud in introducing ANS to of the mussels' adaptability. It was be the Great Lakes system. When ships lieved that this harbour was not at risk Qiiagga mussels, wbich are almost iden

for dense mussel infestation due to un

tical to zebra mussels, and have the same

ballast, sediment is taken in with the

favourable environmental conditions

such as cold water temperatures and low

impacts as zebra mussels, are much more tolerant to deeper and colder wa

sediment settles out to form mud in the

calcium levels. Small numbers of mus

ter than zebra mussels. First introduced

bottom of the ballast water chambers.

sels were observed initially in 1989, but the population did not flourish.

into North America around 1992 in Port

Organisms survive in this mud, pro tected from changes in water character istics, such as salinity and thennal shock. These organisms can be transferred at any time during a deballasting operation and introduced to a receptive waterbody. The build-up of mud in ballast tanks can be easily controlled by implemen-

However, at the 1999 Zebra Mussel Conference in Duluth, it was revealed

By Darlene Suddard, Aquatic Sciences inc. 34

Colborne, Ontario, quagga mus.sels have spread throughout Lake Erie, and are spreading into Lake Ontario. Experts, who had the opportunity to examine some mussels from the Duluth-

Superior harbour at the 1999 conference, were divided as to whether they were

ballast water and,during the voyage,this

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Invasive Species tation of a regular flushing program. Flushing differs from ballast exchange. While a vessel is loaded, a small amount

of water is pumped into the ballast chambers to take advantage of the gen tle rolling motion of the ship, which resuspends sediment that has accumulated in the bottom of the tank. The water is

pumped out, taking the re-suspended material with it. Not only does this pre vent the mud build-up that provides pro tection for organisms, it also has a main tenance purpose, keeping the drain holes clear in the tank, allowing for more ef ficient deballasting. Preventing the mud build-up also has an economic advantage for ship own ers, as ships without regular flushing programs can be carrying between 50 and 200 tons of mud or undetectable/

unpumpable slurry. This would repre sent an equivalent loss in cargo capac ity. Removal of this dead weight would increase the amount of cargo a ship could carry, thus increasing the profit ability of each voyage. Flushing will not be beneficial to a vessel that is already carrying a signifi


Photo shows accumulation of mud in the bottom of a ballast tank.


organisms can burrow into this mud and survive when the tank is emptied. When ballast is once again taken on, the organisms can re-enter the water column and be introduced to a new area when the vessel deballasts.

cant amount of mud in its ballast tanks.

lations would be required prior to regu lar implementation of a flushing program. All parties involved in the shipping industry realize the severe ecological impact of ANS and recognize the role their industry plays in the introduction of new ANS. As a result, all parties feel

Manual cleaning of significant accumu-

it is in their best interest to work together

to address the ANS problem and find a solution.

The other issue that stirred much in terest at the conference and in the me

dia, was the proximity of the invasive plant species hydrilla to the lower Great Lakes. Hydrilla is a fast-growing, adaptContinued overleaf


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 126 (See page 25)


Invasive Species able plant that has plagued Florida waters since its introduction by the aqua rium trade in 1959. Hydrilla,(//yr/nV/a verticillata (L.F.) Royle)is native to the warmer regions of Asia and is known to

as Kenora and Kapuskasing could be come infested with hydrilla. The most important vector of hydrilla dispersal to new waters appears to be the transportation of plant fragments by

US biologists as "the perfect aquatic

recreational boaters in boat motors and

weed" as it is highly adaptable to a vari ety of conditions. The Great Lakes and associated tributaries are at a high risk of infestation by hydrilla. In Poland and the Soviet Union, hydrilla occurs near the 50° north latitude, which suggests

on trailers. A single node is sufficient to propagate an entire population, as male and female flowers grow on the same plant. Once established, boat traf fic continues to enhance dispersal by fragmenting plants. Hydrilla grows very rapidly, up to 2.5 cm per day, and can

that in Ontario, waterbodies as far north


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grow at a depth of 15 m. Once the plant nears the water surface, the stem

branches profusely,forming dense mats at the water surface. These dense mats

of hydrilla negatively impact native aquatic plants by blocking sunlight, which excludes native submersed plants such as pondweeds and eelgrass. Dense hydrilla mats also accelerate the filling of water bodies, cause wide fluctuations in levels of dissolved oxy gen, pH and temperature, and reduce animal diversity and stunt sport-fishing populations. Navigation of waterways can be significantly impacted, as hydrilla will wrap around propellers and stall motors. If cottage country in Ontario alone were to be infested with hydrilla, the economic impact on real estate val ues, tourism and user groups would be staggering. The costs associated with managing the hydrilla problem are very high. In the US,hydrilla is managed through four different methods: herbicides, grass caip, insects and mechanical removal. Currently, most of the herbicides used in the US for aquatic plant control are not approved for use in Canada. Grass carp, which uproot vegetation during feeding and spawning, have been used with some success to control aquatic vegetation. However, the carp are non specific herbivores and would nega tively impact desirable native aquatic species in addition to the hydrilla. In sects, which preferentially feed on hydrilla have been introduced in Florida and are showing some promise in keep ing infestations under control. The use of insect control is still approached with caution.


Mechanical removal remains the

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most common, and most expensive method of removing hydrilla infesta tions. The cost itself(up to US $1,000 per acre) is prohibitive, and because the process fragments plants,the spread and establishment of the plant is enhanced. The most effective way to slow or stop the spread of hydrilla into the Great Lakes system, and Ontario's cottage country, is through aggressive public education campaigns aimed at boaters, as they have been identified as the most important dispersal vector. No one can predict when this ANS might invade the Great Lakes system, however, biologists agree that when and if hydrilla enters the Great Lakes, it will find conditions


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to its liking. For more information, circle reply card No. 127 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


An historical dewatering project

The Kingston Marine Museum

in Ontario, was built in 1891.

A major problem - how to pump 13 million litres of water out of the Marine Museum dry dock - was solved by modern submer

sible pumping technology. ITT Flygt has loaned the Museum three BIBO

2250 electric submersible pumps,com plete with hoses and Flygt's on-site dewatering expertise. A single BIBO 2250 can pump 1501/s at a height of 28 metres. These pumps, specifically de signed for the toughest mine or construc tion drainage applications, posed no problems for the dock dewatering. According to an 1896 paper, the dock was designed to provide for the repair ing of craft on the Great Lakes. In 1889,

,5 ,«'

Thirteen million litres later, the ancient drydock is revealed.

the Government of Canada commenced

ing the dimensions of the dock, it was judged that they should exceed, by a

the construction of the dry dock at King

small amount, those of the locks on the

ston, which was completed in 1892. The plans and specifications, excepting the details of the pumping plant and engine house, were prepared by Dr. Henry F. Perley, M.Can.Soc.C.E. In the paper, it states: "In determin-

Welland canal, so that any vessel which could pass through them could be ad mitted to the dock, and a length of 280

to admit some paddle-wheel steamers plying on Lake Ontario, and it was in creased to 55 ft., such change involving the widening of the body of the dock, increasing the size of the caisson and the

ft. on the floor, and 48 ft. width of en

dimensions of the caisson chamber."

trance was adopted. During construc tion, representations were made,that the

width of the entrance was not sufficient

For more information,

circle reply card No. 129



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Medical / Hazardous Wastes


New Canadian system destroys municipal and industrial wastes


Today, Harold Marcus Ltd. is pleased to service a wide variety of your waste transportation require ments throughout Canada and the USA. This growth can be attributed to our commitment to performance, expertise and dependability.

Aunique Canadian system that

The system is especially suited to small municipal needs.

With a strong emphasis on mainte nance and cleanliness, our custom

ers are assured of having the most modern "user friendly" fleet of stain less, fiberglass tankers. Vac tankers, vans, dumps, roll-offs, pneumatics and walking floors the industry has to offer.

destroys dangerous medical waste and non-recyclable municipal and industrial waste cost-effectively, has been granted a United States patent. The patent was announced in Toronto, March 7, 2000,

by Frank D. Sherman,President of Eco Waste Solutions Inc. of Burlington, Ontario.

From maintenance to safety and training,from operations to manage ment, the Marcus team of experi enced professionals looks forward to meeting your present and future waste transportation requirements.

"This system delivers an environmentally-responsible waste manage ment process with emissions that are odourless and clear. Rigorous, inde pendent scientific testing has shown that their dioxin and furan concentrations are

only one tenth of allowable EPA lim its," says Mr. Sherman. Eco Waste's double-burn process re duces waste volumes by 90 percent, yielding inert by-products recyclable ash, colourless/odourless exhaust, and

The peace of mind you will enjoy by selecting Marcus comes from our company's tireless pursuit of excel

thermal energy that can be converted into electricity or used to heat buildings. Designed for on-site operation, the ba sic system is configured in two steel modules,one for each phase of the bum. Each module is roughly the size of a dumpster. This means the system can be readily transported to different sites. The configuration for medical waste

lence in all facets of the waste trans

contains a third module, which houses

portation business.

scrubbers to complete the destruction of the toxic heavy metals and chlorinated gases found in the waste streams. Frank Sherman, an engineer, and Executive Vice President Lucy Casacia, a metallurgist, developed the Eco Waste process system which is especially

Phone:(519) 695-3734 Fax:(519)695-2249 R.R. #3

Bothwell, Ontario NOP ICO For more information, circle reply card No. 131

suited to small municipal needs and has proved particularly useful in isolated lo cations where garbage processing onsite is necessary. Phase One of the two-stage process consists of a slow, starved-air burn at about 1,000°F in the first module, where

the garbage is reduced to ash and va pours over 8-10 hours. That is hot enough to get rid of pathogenic and all other waste materials but leave glass and metals intact for harvesting and recy cling. Phase Two,a flash fire in the sec ond chamber - two seconds at 1,850°F

- obliterates the vapours and toxins. The whole computer-driven process takes about 12 hours, from loading, to cleaning, to preparing for the next load. Different garbage bums in different ways. The computer monitors and controls each bum,keeping it consistent automatically and producing the most complete bum, the cleanest outcome. It is the waste man

agement equivalent of cmise control on a car producing the best gas mileage. The system can take on a wide range of solid and liquid wastes- body fluids, bandages, gauze, needles, plastic, live biological materials and such residen tial, commercial, and industrial refuse

as tires (which are gasified rather than converted to liquid), motor oil, coolants, dye, and paint sludge. It is at its most cost-effective dealing with up to 50 tons a day, equivalent to about 10 garbage tmckloads of solids that have up to 60 percent moisture content. For more information,

circle reply card No. 132

Environmental Science

Engineering, May 2000

AWWA Conference Preview

AWWA holds annual conference and exposition in Denver, June 10-15, 2000 International Distribution Research Symposium: Opening the door to the 21st century Bringing the world together on distribution system research and technology. Infrastructure needs assessments are estimated at more

than $1 trillion in the US alone over the next 20 years. Simi lar needs exist in all developed countries, and much of the need is in distribution systems. Monday,June 12 The Future of Customer Service in a High Tech World Customer service is being transformed by leading-edge technologies. High-tech trends such as digital agents, arti

ficial intelligence, and data mining will in the very near fu ture affect how we deal with customers.

Joint American Water Works AssociationAVater Environment Federation Technical Session

This first joint effort focuses on watershed management issues of interest to both the drinking water and wastewater communities.

Wednesday, June 14 An open forum tackles a controversial issue: Is the Future ofDrinking Water in a Bottle? An all-new plenary session, open to all conference attendees, about meeting consumer demand for safe drink ing water.



Details: AWWA Phone:(303)794-7711,Fax:(303)7951989.

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Flood Control

Flood control and debris protection In BC

Anew resort vil age in British

Columbia, Whistler Creekside, will be a smaller, more laid-back alternative to near

by Whistler Village. The emphasis is on preserving and, where necessary, re storing the natural beauty of the area. Located at the original heart of Whis tler, the site is on the Whistler Creek al luvial fan, a flood and debris flow haz

ard zone. Development would not have been possible without the work com pleted by Kerr Wood Leidal Associates Ltd.(KWL). In 1998, Intrawest Corporation con tracted KWL to complete flood and de bris flow protection work on Whistler Creek, based on an earlier KWL design concept which was scheduled in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of work on the creek above Highway 99 and was

completed in October 1999 at a cost of about $5 million. Phase 2 work, below

Lake Placid Road and the highway, is scheduled for completion in 2000. The project's objectives were to pro vide a high standard of flood and debris

flow protection while improving fish and wildlife habitats and creating a visu ally-attractive creek corridor that harmo nizes with Whistler Creekside and its

natural setting. The Phase 1 creek works consisted of:

•Debris Barriers-constmcting primary and secondary debris barriers upstream of the development. Design and con struction of the primary debris barrier represented a major challenge. To at tain a debris storage volume of 24,000


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cubic metres, the primary barrier is about 12.5 metres high. It consists of rugged structural steel grillage support ed by mass concrete abutments. The steel grillage is sized to withstand the impact of a boulder two metres in di ameter traveling at a velocity of up to five metres per second. During a major

KWL developed the design concept and standards for this project and led a team of consultants that included:

EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd.- geotechnical design. Gygax Engineering Associates - detailed structural design. Cascade Environmental Resource Group Ltd.- habitat protection. Stevenson & Associates Landscape Architects - landscape design and landscaping.

Atlantic Industries Ltd.- bridge design assistance.

debris flow, most debris would be con tained within a bedrock ravine behind

the primary debris barrier, protecting the Whistler Creekside development. A secondary debris barrier, of simi lar construction but much smaller scale,

is located approximately 60 metres downstream of the primary barrier. The secondary debris barrier is designed to arrest smaller sediment surges that pass through the primary barrier. Both struc tures are designed to withstand debris surges up to 400 cubic metres, traveling at six metres per second. • Creek Channel Works - extensively upgrading the creek channel from the skier bridge to Lake Placid Road. Over 600 metres of creek channel was up graded to provide a high level of pro tection against erosion. Angular rock riprap was used in many locations, with grouting in critical areas. For fisheries

and aesthetic enhancement, several

pools and rock steps were created to pro vide a cascading step-pool sequence adjacent to the development area. • New Bridges - replacing the old wooden skier bridge and constructing a new bridge at Lake Placid Road. Two new bridges were constructed of corru gated steel, concrete, and stone. Both structures are designed to pass the 200year flood. The new skier bridge is not only an integral part of the World Cup ski run, but also provides access for maintenance of the secondary debris barrier located upstream of it. •Landscaping-planting trees and other vegetation along the creek banks and creek corridor to restore excavated land

and to improve the creekside wildlife habitat.

A secondary floodway from the bot tom of the ski run to the Whistler Creek

channel upstream of Lake Placid Road will be constructed at the same time as

the future Legends Hotel. This floodway, which will pass under the hotel, will provide additional flood protection to Whistler Creekside, in the unlikely event that the creek overflows.

Budget and Schedules Construction commenced in April 1999, as soon as snow conditions per mitted. Due to weather conditions and

fisheries restrictions, which allowed

creek work only between mid July and mid September, the project had to be completed quickly. Despite the tight scheduling requirements, the project was completed on time and on budget.

Circle reply card No. 134

at the lowest cost of Whether planning a system upgrade or designing a new one, Pail makes it easier by providing filtration systems to meet present and future water treatment requirements while reducing operating costs. What's unique about a Pall system? A choice of filtration membrane technologies, plus a Pall team who evaluates your requirements and finds the best solution for both retrofit and new plant situations. So whatever the process, whatever the problem, wherever in the world, to see the future of water, think Pall, then call (toll-free) 1.516.484.5400 or visit our comprehensive site on-line www.pall.com/thefutureofwater

PALL o o

www.pall,com/thefuture of w^ater For more information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 25)

Drinking Water Treatment

The slow sand filtration alternative Water treatment for small systems flow,it must then be partially drained and the schmutzdecke scrapped off and discarded or stored for cleaning and recy cling. Filter 'runs' of one to several months are typical. Over time the sand bed depth is reduced from the scrapings and new or recycled sand must be refilled into the box. The major advantages of slow sand filters are: • Effective treatment for turbidity, bacteria, and greater than 4 log removal of cysts. • No pre-treatment chemicals. • No backwashing. • No automation required. • A failure to clean the filter will result in loss of production but no loss of quality. The major disadvantages of conventional slow sand fil ters are:

Filter under construction.

In the late 1980s and the early 1990s there was a grow

ing emphasis on appropriate technology for small water treatment systems. Entire workshops and semi nars were dedicated to advancing the knowledge that small systems had to be simple and affordable to operate. This lesson was learned the hard way in countless sad cases of complicated mechanical and chemical systems which no local staff could maintain and operate efficiently. Unfortunately, it appears today the principle of appro priate technology has become a casualty of the headlong rush to high technology. However, more and more authori ties are asking who is going to pay for these plants with high annual operating costs and when their obsolescence sets in, a period now measured in a few years, rather than a few decades. This inevitably leads to a search for a simpler, more cost-effective, and more durable solution to the small

communities'servicing needs. Maybe the search should start with our lessons of the past and improve on the systems to make them more adaptable to today's and tomorrow's water quality needs but equally durable and simple to operate. Conventional slow sand filtration

The traditional slow sand filter is basically a box full of sand. Figure 1.1 shows a cross section of a 'conventional' filter. Water enters the filter compartment above the media and flows down through the sand and, in time, will form a thin biological layer called a schmutzdecke. The combination of physical strain ing and biological treatment will effec tively remove turbidity, bacteria and will remove in excess of four log of Giardia cysts and Ciyptosporidium oocysts. As the bed plugs up,the water level will rise over the sand. As it approaches an es tablished upper level, usually the over-

• Raw water turbidity must generally be low. • Raw water must not have high algae counts. • Colour removal is fair to poor. • Unpredictable filter run times necessitate lengthy pilot studies.

• Need for a conservative design in the event of high algae results in very large filters. Several conventional slow sand filter plants exist in Ontario and British Columbia. A small plant in Serpent River, Ontario, has been operating since 1987 with results as indicated in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. The filters provide excellent turbidity removal and pro vide the community with a safe and low maintenance treat ment system. A pilot study was required and determined that the filters needed to be larger than initially expected. Finally the plant does not always remove colour to below the Province of Ontario aesthetic guidelines despite the fact that the Serpent River raw water quality is relatively good compared to most surface water sources. Improving the slow sand process In summary, the shortcomings of the conventional slow sand filtration process are: • Short filter runs or need for very large filters if raw water has high turbidity or algae. • Fair to poor colour removal. • Lengthy pilot study is often required to predict fdter run time.

A number of enhancements have been studied to improve


Overflow Schmutzdecke


Sand Filter Effluent

By Robert A. LeCraw, P. Eng., RAL Engineering Ltd. 42


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Drinking Water Treatment moderate turbidity. The results of the pilot study with respect to turbidity and colour are presented in Figures 4-1 n Raw


@ Treated 3 IZ


and 4-2.

The significant result in this study is the performance of the roughing filter. Despite the fluctuations in the raw water turbidity from 1.5 to 10 NTU, the roughing filter effluent remained consistently below 0.8 NTU. Also col our was removed to below 5 NTU over the four month pe riod of the study at a relatively short empty-bed contact time of 15 minutes. Finally, the filtration rate of the slow sand was 0.3 m/hr., more than double the rate used at Serpent River, even with the much poorer raw water quality. The real world

Figure 2.1 Serpent River WTP - Turbidity 30.0-<



jZ. 15.0

The Multi-Stage process has been developed to incorpo rate these enhancements. When the raw water is high in organics, pre-ozonation is added to oxidize the long chain molecules making them readily removable in the biological Multi-Stage filters. The filter configuration is illustrated in Figure 5-1. The plant consists of: Stage 1 Roughing Filter Stage 2 Slow Sand Filter Stage 3 Granular Activated Carbon Contactor The roughing filter is cleaned once every one to six months by down-flushing with the water over the entire fil ter bed. Occasionally a high rate up-wash is implemented Continued overleaf

■ Raw

Figure 2.2 Serpent River WTP - Colour

BRou^ing 3 1-

B Carbon

the performance of slow sand filters both in their ability to remove naturally occurring organics(NOM)and in ex tending their filter run times and/or to simplify the cleaning process. These include: • Pre-ozonation.

• Chemical pre-treatment including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation.

Figure 4-1 Sturgeon Lake Pilot - Turbidity

• Filter fabric addition both on the sand medium and sus

pended in the feed water. • Roughing filters ahead of the slow sand units. • Activated carbon following slow sand. The author reviewed these options and chose to pursue the development of roughing filters together with GAG con tactors and, eventually, added pre-ozonation as an enhance ment for highly coloured water. Chemical pre-treatment can produce good results and has been implemented in Brit ish Columbia but it did not seem to meet the objective of reducing the complexity involved with operating a plant with chemicals. The fabric option is fascinating and may have some application but to date a practical method of remov ing the fabric and cleaning has seemingly not yet been found. Pilot study To test the proposed enhancements, a pilot study was carried out in 1993 at Sturgeon Lake, Ontario, approximately 120 km northeast of Toronto.

The raw water source is not suitable for a conventional


IB Roughing BSand

B Carbon


o 10.0-'

Figure 4-2 Sturgeon Lake Pilot - Colour

slow sand process due to high algae, moderate colour and Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


Drinking Water Treatment TABLE 5.1 LOCATION














Cat Lake First Nation






Pic River First Nation







Sheshegvyaning FN North Spirit Lake FN Wapekeka



















for a more thorough cleaning. The slow sand filter is cleaned using a hydraulic wet harrow method. Water is directed over the filter bed to a collection trough while the surface is sprayed with a high-pressure hose to dislodge the accumu lated schmutzdecke. This is required approximately once every two to twelve months depending on raw water qual ity. In over five years of operation the final GAC contactor has not required cleaning. The multi-stage filter process has been installed in five Northern Ontario communities. A summary of the existing installations is presented in Table 5.1.








Plants under construction in the summer of 2000 are:

• Brunswick House First Nation - Capacity 180 mVd; • Park Hotel and Resort, North of Peterborough - Capacity



85 mVd; and


• Clarke County, Virginia, USA - Capacity 480 mVd.


Figure 5-1 MuIti-Stage Filtration

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The Park Hotel facility, an upscale resort, will utilize preozonation to achieve a very high quality of water both from a health and an aesthetic perspective. Summary Enhancement to the slow sand process has significantly extended the range of raw water quality that can be treated without sacrificing the simplicity of operation. The rough ing filter is capable of removing high levels of turbidity and algae and can be cleaned with a simple backflushing. Slow sand filters can be operated at higher hydraulic load ing rates due to the high quality of water being applied from the roughing filter. The hydraulic wet harrow method of cleaning is simple and requires little time. Very little sand is lost during cleaning, therefore there does not need to be an allowance for loss of bed depth. Filter boxes can be kept

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shallower and reduce costs.

The activated carbon contactor is effective at removing colour but carbon life limits this option alone to low to moderate coloured waters. However, pre-ozonation will effectively oxidize the long chain colour molecules and al low the biological processes that follow to remove the col our and the ozone by-products. The enhanced slow sand filter alternative offers the ad

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vantage of simple operation and low operating costs which must he balanced against the size of the filters and some times the higher initial capital costs. For communities with a population of less than 1,500, the enhanced slow sand filtration option can he a practical and very effective alter native.

For more information, circle reply card No. 136 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Wastewater Lagoon

City of Reglna installs shoreline protection system as new lagoon Is constructed

Stantec Consulting Ltd. was re

tained to design a new sewage lagoon for the City of Regina. The planned dimensions of this lagoon were about 450 m in length by 170 m in width. The exterior slopes of the lagoon cell

tors; price, installation, and flexibility. Consequently, the Geoweb Cellular Confinement System, manufactured by

Presto Geosystems® of Appleton, Wis.,

were to be constructed at 4:1 and

structed in the early 1960s. The first phase consisted of a primary and sec ondary treatment operation, complete with a series of lagoons. These lagoons contain the secondary effluent from the sewage treatment opera tion. All lagoons utilize the na tive soil, which is a Regina Clay,

the interior at a 3:1 slope. The lagoon was to be oriented in an

as the containment medium.

east to west direction. Due to the

constructed without erosion con

The original lagoons were

average winds expected in Regina and based on previous experience, a shoreline protection system was required to accommodate the

trol measures in place. Some post construction solu tions created challenges for the treatment plant operations crew. wave action. The concrete rubble areas, placed on the top three metres of the In order to adapt to the chal slopes, were difficult to access lenging elements, Stantec ConRaking the concrete into the geoweb and applying a and permitted extensive growth suiting Ltd. recommended a so broom finish. of vegetation. Poured in place lution based on a number of facwas selected for its performance history concrete sections were expensive to in By James McGeary and stall and cracked extensively. The and ease of construction. Douglas Lowry, P.Eng., The City of Regina Wastewater cracked concrete sections, because they Armtec Construction Products Continued overleaf Treatment Plant was initially con


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Wastewater Lagoon were not restrained, tended to slide

downslope and the poured in place con crete also allowed growth of vegetation through the cracks. Alternative solutions were consid

ered when the design of Lagoon 2A was undertaken.

Geosynthetic Materials Geosynthetics have evolved into a very diverse and important group of construction materials during the past 35 years. They are produced from a range of base polymers, most notably: poly ester, polyethylene and polypropylene. These polymers are characterized by their high llexibility, low weight, high strength and outstanding durability. Through the evolution of geosynthetic products, their form and construction has been adapted to meet a number of specific functions: filtration, drainage, separation, confinement and the reten tion and reinforcement of soil.

Geosynthetics were first incorporated into major soil stabilization projects in the early 1970s when both woven and non-woven geotextiles were used as key components in roadbase stabilization and erosion control projects. Today, geosynthetic products include an exten sive range of woven and non woven geo textiles, geogrids, geomembranes, geonets and geocells. Geocells have evolved from a co

operative development effort between the Presto Products Company and the US Army Corps of Engineers. The con cept behind geocells is relatively sim ple. High Density Polyethylene strips are ultrasonically welded at specific in

tervals in order to form a panel of three dimensional honeycomb cells. The standard plan dimension of cells is 203 mm X 244 mm. Installed in expanded form, these panels are then infilled with a project specific infill material to com plete the system. Geocell systems are available in a variety of pre-engineered cell dimensions and depths. The selec tion of the appropriate configuration is site specific. Geocells were originally developed to provide load support to military vehi cles travelling over soils of low shear strength, such as sand. Additional appli cations that have since been developed include soil retention in gravity and geogrid reinforced retaining walls and erosion protection in channel linings and slope pro tection. The infill material may be a struc tural fill, vegetated topsoil or concrete. The potential value of geocells as a means of providing permanent protec

was to eliminate the potential for ero sion of the native soil immediately be neath the infill material.

Design Stantec Consulting Ltd. worked with Armtec Construction Products to deter

mine the stake anchor requirements sat isfying a design factor of safety of 1.50 against down slope sliding of the sys tem. To fully cover the freeboard area of the lagoon side slopes, the geocell system was designed for a 2.44 m slope

length. The slope angle was 18.4° on all sides of the lagoon. The coefficient of friction between the nonwoven geo textile and the high plasticity clay was estimated to be 0.44. The design depth of concrete infill was 100 mm, match

ing the geocell depth. Assuming a unit weight of 23.7 kN/

m'for concrete infill, the net downslope driving force was calculated to be 0.12 kN/m% equating to a destabilizing force

tion from the erosive forces of wind and

of 0.29 kN/linear metre for the 2.44 m

precipitation was first recognized in the early 1980s. Today,the state of the prac tice for geocell systems in slope protec tion and channel lining applications in

long slope. Therefore, the required re sisting force of the stake anchor system had to exceed 0.29 kN/m. J-pin re-bar

cludes the use of Kevlar® tensile tendons

slope .spacing of 813 mm and a horizon tal spacing of 610 mm, in conjunction with coated polyester tendons inserted at the same 813 downslope spacing, pro vided a sliding resistance of 0.4kN/m.

to assist in distributing the down slope driving forces to the stable subgrade and pre-engineered perforations to improve drainage and infill material retention. In addition to the geocell confine ment system, a 200-gram per square metre (grab tensile strength - 670 N MARV) nonwoven geotextile was uti lized immediately below the geocell, in

anchors, 610 mm x 13 mm, on a down

Construction The initial task was to excavate the

new lagoon. The preliminary excavation was completed in a period of six weeks, with the berms being constructed from

intimate contact with the native soil.

material that was excavated in order to

The function of this engineered fabric

expose the lagoon bottom. Prior to geo-

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EnvironineiUal Science & Engineering, May 2000

Wastewater Lagoon cell installation, the 3:1 internal slopes were compacted to 98 percent Standard Proctor Dry Density, using sheepsfoot compaction equipment. Since the geocell system was only to cover the slope in the wave vulnerable area, an area equal in size to the area of expanded geocell was excavated to a depth of 100 mm. This allowed the geocell to be re cessed into the slope and, therefore, sit flush with the balance of the slope. The coated polyester tendon material

in place by several temporary J-pins. The initial geocell panel was placed into the previously excavated 100 mm depression and expanded. Dimensional control was established by checking the perimeter width of the pane!(6.0 metres).

was field measured and cut to the re

pins installed at three cell increments on the lagoon perimeter and at 813 mm in crements down the slope length. These J-pins engaged only the tendon material

quired length, approximately 50 percent greater than the 6.0 m length of the geocell panels. Individual tendons were then inserted through factory-drilled holes in the collapsed geocell panels. The tendons were then tied off at strate

gic points along the length of the geocell panels in order to create a composite unit. Prior to placement of any geocell panels, a 200-gram per square metre geotextile was installed on the prepared slope surface in the area to be covered by the geocell system. The function of this nonwoven, needle-punched geo textile was to prevent the loss of any of the subgrade soil. The nonwoven, engi neered construction fabric was retained


Once this dimension was established, J

shaped anchor pins, 13 mm x 610 mm were driven into the ground until the top of the J pin fully engaged the tendon. The panel was then expanded to its final 2.44 m X 6.0 m dimensions with additional J-

and were driven flush with the native soil.

Once the initial panel was installed, subsequent panels were installed in a similar manner around the entire lagoon perimeter. Adjacent panel edges were stapled together in order to maintain di mensional control of the edge cells un til the placement of concrete was com plete. The concrete infill material was a 10 MPa ready mix product. Location of the slope protection system relative to the top of slope allowed the concrete to be placed directly from the truck us ing the standard truck-mounted chute.

Filling of geocells is best done from the top of the slope down, particularly when concrete is the infill material. This

permits easy raking of the concrete into the lower cells and reduces the forces at

tempting to drive the entire system down the slope. Vibration ofthe concrete in geo cell systems is not required and on this project, the final surface texture was achieved using a coarse broom. The rough surface finish provides additional traction on the slope for maintenance workers. The erosion control system for La goon 2A, which utilizes a multi-tendoned geocell system with concrete infill, has been in use for almost three years. Relative to the systems used on earlier lagoon slopes, results have been favor able. The initial installation cost of the

system, while more than the cost of dumping concrete rubble, was similar to poured in place concrete. In terms of performance, access to the lagoon floor for cleaning is safe and easy. Maintenance on the slopes, pri marily vegetation control, has been dra matically reduced. As the geocell sys tem is inherently flexible, cracking of the concrete infill is non-existent.

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Industry Update

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Fed benchmarks for dioxins and furans Dioxins and furans are highly toxic car cinogenic substances that do not break down in the environment for many years. The federal government has published new levels of Quantification (LoQ) to serve as a benchmark in the development of targets and timelines for Canada wide standards, which will target virtual elimi nation of releases from priority sectors, including: municipal incinerators, resi dential wood combustion,iron sintering, steel manufacturing, and the combustion of salt laden wood. Contact: www.ec.gc. ca/dioxin/english/index.htm. Ontario has new lab Ontario has a new environmental labo

ratory - Sentinel Laboratories Limited, which will provide both routine and nonroutine analytical testing in support of

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Industry Update

Safety-Kleen submits landfill security plan

nical advisors to the Township of Moore and the Walpole Island First Nation. When the reviews are complete,the com pany will present final details of the plan to the local commu nity, through information publications and a public forum. Safety-Kleen's Lambton Facility is Ontario's only inte grated treatment and disposal centre, serving more than 1,500 hazardous waste generators. With secure landfill, high-tem perature incineration,transportation and project management capabilities, the facility employs over 200 people.

CPPA joins Plastics Pipe Institute The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) is now a division of the Plastics Pipe Institute(PPI). The CPPA is the fifth division of PPI,joining the existing Municipal & Industrial Division, the Conduit Division, the High Tem

Safety-Kleen Ltd. has submitted to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), its plan to permanently seal off the inward seepage of water and naturally occurring meth ane gas into the bottom of an empty sub-cell of its Lambton hazardous waste landfill near Sarnia, Ontario.

The company's environmental security plan calls for the installation of a thick liner, constructed of compacted natu ral clay, in the unused section of the landfill, referred to as

Sub-cell 3. Since discovery of seepage last September, the sub-cell has remained isolated from waste management ac tivities and has been subjected to intensive study by inde pendent subsurface and groundwater consultants, includ ing specialists from the universities of Western Ontario and

perature Plastics Division and the Fuel Gas Division. It has retained its identity and offers even more technical resources to specifiers worldwide. The CPPA is an organization of manufacturers, raw mate

rial suppliers and designers and manufacturers of equipment involved in the production and application ofcorrugated poly ethylene pipe.

The Plastics Pipe Institute broadens opportunities for its members by working to develop markets for polyethylene and other plastics-based piping systems. Membership includes manufacturers of plastics pipe, fittings/valves; plastic materi als for piping; metallic fittings for plastic piping and equip ment for fabricating,joining or installing plastics piping. Contact: www.cppa-info.org


"This solution restores Sub-cell 3 to the same high level of environmental security that naturally existed before the


seepage occurred," said Rick Reilly, Regional Vice-Presi

dent. "The landfill site's natural ability to securely contain hazardous waste remains firmly intact and continues to be measured in terms of hundreds, to thousands of years of environmental protection. Detailed design of the liner is underway and will be reviewed with the MOE prior to con

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struction," he said.

The investigation concluded that the seepage is the re sult of a combination of factors, which caused a shearing of the native clay below the sub-cell excavation, as it centred over a localized rise in the underlying bedrock and an asso

ciated pocket of pressurized water and gas. As the weight of the overlying clay till was reduced during excavation, natural pressures from the bedrock aquifer created a path way for water and gas to seep upward into the bottom of the unused sub-cell.

In addition to the MOE's evaluation, the environmental

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- Erratum -

In the Febmary/March issue ofES&E,the story Montreal, the capital of water consumption, reported that the city used 1,350 cubic metres per person, per day, compared with 519 cubic metres used daily by Torontonians, and 250 cubic metres used daily by the citizens of Saskatoon. While we believe the numbers cited are correct, the words

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"cubic metres" were used instead of "litres". ES&E


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610-917-0991'Fax 610-917-0992

Quebec readers. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


For more information, circle reply card No. 164 (See page 25)

Industry Update

Toughest-ever jail wcUey resources pluiiuh/g Wilier si{pf)ly, Iratismissiou mid Irealmenl

Environmental consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

sentence awarded

wuslewaier coUeclton mid Ireulnieiit

Acres &



elecliiail eiigineeriii^i'. iiislrunieiilulion mid coulrols

The co-owner of a former Etobicoke

municijud infnislructure serrices

geo-environmental incestigafions and site remediation

plating company has received the long est prison term ever handed down for

environmental assessments and planning

an environmental offence in Ontario.

solid waste mid hazardous materials management

environmental health and safety

Environmental Limited

Emedio Perilli, co-owner of Majestic

525-21 Four Seasons Place, Toronto, Ontario M9B 6JB•Tel(416)622-9502•Fax(416)622-6249

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Corporation was fined a total of

failing to notify the Ontario Ministry of the Environment of the spill. The spill occurred on May 20, 1997. The Minis try launched an investigation after re ceiving reports of dead fish and discol


Creating Quality Solutions ngetber

The ALTECH Group

oured water in Etobicoke Creek. The

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creek was closed off by the local health department. The court determined that Mr. Perilli

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Tel:(4Ki)467-5555 Fax:(416)467-9824




Etobicoke Creek. The spill killed thou sands of fish, many weighing as much as seven kilograms, and harmed the creek's water quality. Majestic Plating $240,000 for the same offence. Mr. Perilli was also fined $5,000 for


(613) 822-1052

Plating Corporation, was sentenced to nine months in Jail for his part in the discharge of cyanide and metals into

intentionally discharged plating waste containing high levels of cyanide and metals,into a stomi sewer that discharges into the creek. At the time. Majestic Plat

ing Corporation was going out of busi ness and its plating baths and tanks had

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

been sold to a Waterloo company.

cx>nsu[ting engineers, architects, technology managers

Texas city tests new product for RGB degradation

fValer, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

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Tests conducted by Austin, Texas, mu nicipally-owned electric company claim

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a rapid degradation ofPCBs using a bioproduct developed by Micro-Bac Inter

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national Inc. The utility had, over the course of several years, accumulated a substantial amount of waste transformer

oil and sludge containing the PCB com

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the Arochior-1254 created problems with respect to disposing of the waste oil and sludge. City officials were in need of a low-cost option for degrading the PCBs in the oil and sludge so that the material could then be disposed of in full accordance with federal, state, and

local regulations. The utility's analytical laboratory evaluated the effectiveness of two sepa rate bioremediation products available from Micro-Bac. At weekly intervals, each of the samples were analyzed for PCBs using EPA method 608. The re sults of this study are as follows: Over a 3-week period, Micro-Bac's

EnvironiiieiiUil Science & Enftineeriiig. May 2000

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Tel. 1705) 444-2565

EMail: lnfo@cctatham.com

Web: www.cctatham.com

Water granting flowed to PM's riding The Prime Minister's riding of St. Maurice received some $200,000 in

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

grants for the construction of a water fountain display with a sound and light

Environmental Engineers, Planners and Scientists 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

show called Les Grand Eaux de

phone(416)499-9000 fax (416)499-4687 direct dial(416)499-0090 + ext.

Shawinigan, to be located in the St. Maurice River in Shawinigan-Sud. "The show will explore the region's history as the logging capital of Quebec through

Barrie • Calgary • London • Ottawa • Thorold Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo

music and sound. It is modelled after Les

Grands Eaux de Versailles, a popular

Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc.

tourist attraction in Versailles, France."

Dredging (since 1971)

officials said.

Jean Chretien stated that he helped Heritage Shawinigan and the City of Shawinigan-Sud in obtaining the

$200,000 grant from Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions, a federal agency. "1 support projects in my riding that help create jobs and make the area very attractive," said the PM. The Quebec government is also contrib uting a $200,000 grant.

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Surrey customers pay for what they use In BC,Surrey city council has approved a pay-by-flow sewer system for residen tial customers currently on the metered water system. Started in December,the metered water system now has about

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100 customers who volunteered to be on

the plan. The city sewer and water plan ning manager says residents on the payby-flow water system will automatically


watering or car washing, thus will not enter the system. A public opinion poll conducted through a telephone survey, found most Surrey residents believe that

• Environment

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Vancouver • Yellowknife • Calgaty • Winnipeg • Windsor • Chatham Condon • Cambridge • Toronto • Ottawa • Iqaluit • Fredericton Moncton • Halifax • Poti Hawkesbur)' • Sydney • International 100 Sheppard Avenue Bast, Toronto, Ontario M2N 6NS (416) 229A646

mated from a customer's water use.

and 20% will be used outdoors for lawn

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be put on the pay-by-flow sewer system. The sewer discharge will be esti Sewer charges will be 80% of a custom er's water usage on the basis that about 80% of the water will go in the sewer

• Infrastructure


Duke Engineering n& Services (Canada), Inc.

water meters encourage water conser

vation as people only pay for the water they use. When asked if they think wa ter meters are a fair way to charge for water, 78% of those polled said yes. Eiivimiiinenwl Science & Engineering, May 2000

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Industry Update

Can showering be risky?


Most people would think that the only dangerous thing about showering might be slipping on the soap. Not so, accord ing to a Memorial University grad stu dent's study. Showering in water with high concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs)poses a greater health risk than drinking it, according to a risk assess

SINCE 1981



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ferent pathways - ingestion, inhalation

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Telephone: 519-681-0571 Fax: 519-681-7150

in the shower, and absorption - through which THMs could affect human health. The research was based on the aver





Gartner Lee Limited


"We look forward to providing our clients with environmentai science and engineering services from our new office in Montreai. Give us a caii." Menno R. Speyer, M.Sc., Manager of Montreal Operations Tel:(514) 697-1115 Email: mspeyer@gartnerlee.com Website: www.gartnerlee.com

Geomatrix Consultants Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists I Industrial Wafer/Wastewater Treatment

We have moved!

■ Wosfe Minimization/Wastewater Reuse/Recycle

Our new address is:

■ Treatment System Upgrade/Optimization

Suite No. 1\465 Phillip Street Waterloo, Ontario N2L 6C7

■ Treatment System Design and Construction ■ ISO 14000 ■ Environmenfo/ Monogemenf Sysfems

Tel:(519)886 * 7500 Fax:(519)886 •

HGC ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics

Howe Gastmeier Chapnik


Noise Vibration and Acoustics 2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 1, Suite 203 Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1P7 (905) 826-4044, Fax 826-4940 www.hgo8ngineering.com

age person drinking two litres of water and taking one shower-for 10, 15, and 20 minutes - a day. What was found was a significant contribution to human health risk by inhaling steam and by absorption in the shower of water with high levels of THMs, which is similar to previously published findings. A pro fessor at Memorial University who was involved in the three-year case study, warned that while the study is scientific, it is based on a very limited sampling. The long-term plan is to come up with more effective remedial measures and a

more cost-effective treatment plant for eliminating THMs.

Consulting Engineers applaud infrastructure commitment in Budget 2000 The Association of Consulting Engi neers of Canada(ACEC)applauded the federal government for its 6-year budget commitment to infrastructure and rec

ommends that pre-construction activity begin immediately to promote a smooth launch of the national program later this year.

ACEC congratulated the federal gov

ernment for its six-year $3.65 billion


investment in the rehabilitation and de

velopment of Canada's physical infra Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design

structure announced in last October's

Speech from the Throne.

Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 1G5

Tel;(905)522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031



"While the commitment of these dol

lars is important, it is essential that preconstruction activity such as planning and design, environmental approvals and land acquisition begin immediately ifconstruction is to begin later this year," commented ACEC President Tim Page, Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Industry Update following the release of the Budget. "Infrastructure is an important physical asset that, like a home, needs to be prop erly managed to retain its value. "The budget commitment will ulti mately help to improve Canada's ailing physical infrastructure and in turn, strengthen our economy and productiv ity, improve our environment and help

MacViroEnergy Solutions

Designing Environmental

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in f/ie Environment MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3



E-Mail: 103700.2767@connpuserve.com

to make our roads safer and our drink

ing water cleaner," he added. Wet scrubber and oxidizer

joined to reduce emissions in cement manufacturing Combining a wet scrubber to capture sulphur dioxide and an oxidizer to re duce odours is a first for a cement plant. Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems has been selected by Holnam Inc. to provide this unique combination at their cement manufacturing plant in Dundee, Michi gan. Holnam selected Enviro-Chem after five years of research which fo cused on finding the best technology to control odours, sulphur dioxide, and minimize the plume emitting from the plant's main stack. Construction was expected to begin in early 2000 with

•environmental site assessments


•risk assessment/management

Engineering inc.

•site remediation

Kingston Ottawa

•waste management

(613)548-3446 (613)521-8258


Marshall Macklin


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, MIsslssauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca

operations starting by the end of the year. The DynaWave Wet Scrubber utilizes


a limestone slurry reagent to remove the

sulphur dioxide gases generated in the production of cement when present in the raw product. After the gases pass through the scrubber, they will continue onward through an oxidizer which will destroy hydrocarbons coming from the oily compounds within the cement rock mined at the plant's quarry. As such rock is heated in the plant's kiln, odorous hydrocarbons are emitted. Such hydro



A Chemex labs Alberta / Novamann International Partnership

Analytics Inc

Comprehensive Environmental Testing National Service

Certified/Accredited Source Emissions

Occupational Health Rush Analysis



5540 McAdam Road

2021-41 Avenue N.E.

Mississauga, ON L4ZiPI Tel:(905)890-2555 Fax:(905)890-0370

Calgary. AB T2E6P2 Tel:(403)291-3077 Fax:(403)291-9468 ■



9420 Cdte de l.iesse

9331-48th Street

Lachine.QC H8T lAI

Edmonton. AB T6B2R4

Tel r(514)636-6218 Fax:(514)631-9814




Toll Free: East (800) 563-6266


carbons will be reduced 95% and test

ing indicates the odours will be elimi


nated. An additional benefit is that the

exhaust plume,caused by hydrocarbons,

qua Guard' Screen • Bioiae' System • IWnaSand' Filter

' A:

Lamella Gravity Settler • StrainPress SludgeCleaner

will be noticeably reduced. Contact: www.enviro-chem.com.

9050 RYAN AVENUE,DORVAL,QUEBEC H9P 2m8 TELEPHONE 514-636-8712 FAX 514-636-9718


Concrete Precasters Association of Ontario

An Axel Jolinson Inc. Company


launch brochure A new CPA brochure outlines the mem

bership makeup of the Association, its


research and development activities since it was established in 1991, and its role as a communicator between mem

bers and government. With its producer members representing over 90% of the septic tank market, the CPA is the voice of septic tank manufacturers in Ontario. Contact: cpaont@bel.auracom.com. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


"IdJUk ike the mmI kmwiedcf^aixie ^aied- teamd. in the IndudiMfr, PkiUp^ Anali^iicai id- commUied ia codi mediae pAiKj/Lamd wJule' didi Ipc44dinx^ an kUjU and cudtamed, dedAUce-. Valerie Geldart, Sales Manager

1-800-263-9040 ext.275 or vaierle_geldart@phillp-serv.com Internet: www.phllipanalytical.com


Industry Update


ECS awarded Tennessee


Aerobic Landfill project



Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Monor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. L1W 3W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fox: 905-831-0531

Stantec Consulting Ltd. Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety

Environmental Control Systems, Inc. was awarded a $650,000 contract Janu ary 13, by Williamson County,Tennes see, to implement its patented Aerobic Landfill technology at the county's 7acre Subtitle D Landfill near Franklin.

ECS's method promotes the aerobic degradation of organic waste fractions in situ, whereby indigenous bacteria within the garbage become more active and consume, over a shorter period of time than under anaerobic conditions,


♦ Environmental Engineering ♦ Ventilation Assessment & Design

♦ Occupational Health and Safety ♦ Indoor Air Quality ♦ HS&E Compliance Audits

♦ Air Poilution Control

much of the organic wastes. Under these conditions, the company says the production of methane and volatile or ganic compounds, are reduced by more

♦ Clean Air Teotinologies ♦ EMS Audits 7070 Mississauga Road, Suite 160, Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 7G2 Canada Tel:(905)858-4424• Fax:(905)858-4426• Website: www.stantec.com

than 90%. In addition, the heat that is

naturally generated by this process(up to 60° C), will evaporate much of the

"A leader m providing innovative

moisture in the leachate to the atmos

phere. As a result, the 160,000 (US) gallons of leachate that the landfill gen

automation solutions to our customers." We offer a compiefe range of products & services In the areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SGADA • Gomputer/Metwork Services • Service Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive. Mississauga, ON L4V1J2 Tel: (905) 678-3388, Fax: (905) 678-0444

erates each month will be eliminated

or recycled into the landfill in turn, sav

ing over $0.5 million (US) dollars in off-site leachate treatment costs over

Summa Enterprises, Place Griili, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350, Kirkiand, QC H9H 5B9

Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587

two years.

This project will provide valuable information to advance this technology beyond the aerobic degradation phase. Although not planned for this landfill

THORBURN PENNY Consulting Engineers

at this time, "aerobic" landfills can be

•Supervisory Controi & Data Acquisition Systems

Water Resources

• Instrumentation & Controls

Water Pollution Controi

•Environmental Planning

Water Supply

Environmental Audits

more safely mined since many associ ated hazards will have been reduced.

Once the mined materials are recycled, the landfill can be refurbished to ac

BURLINGTON: (905)634-9494



OTTAWA: (613) 247-0111



Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management• Environmental Assessment


Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA


cept wastes, filled again, and the aero bic landfill/mining process applied re peatedly. In this manner, new landfill sitings can be avoided while, at the same time, providing an environmen tally-friendly solution to long-term solid waste disposal. Contact: www.duesouth.net/~ecsi.

TEL:(905)668-9363•WHITBY• Fax:(905)668-0221 E-mail: tsh@tsh.ca Web site: www.tsh.ca



Ontario Manitoba

Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Northern Terrltories

& Internationally

Erratum in ES&E's Directory issue (page 57), Ford Hall's telephone number was shown Incorrectly. The area code has also changed. Please update your files with the correct listing shown below.

Environmental Engineering Water & Wastewater Engineering


Site Assessment & Remediation

RO. Box 54312, Lexington, KY

Hydrogeology Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Urban Drainage

40555 USA

Ford Hall Company Inc. Visit our website at www.umagroup.com


(800) 928-2070 Fax:(859) 624-3320 Contact: Scott Perry, National Sales Director

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Industry Update —








• Industrial/Municipal Wastewater Management


• Watershed and Stormwater Management


• Drinking Water Quaiity and Treatment Vancouver (604)990-0582 Kitchener (519)741-5774 Toronto area (905)891-2400 Kingston (613)542-5888 www.xcg.commail@xcg.com


nth rafliter Media & Coal Ltd.


TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617


• Hydrogeoiogy investigation /Modeiiing • Environmentai Site Assessment/Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmentai Management Systems

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 250 Classifieds

Continuous Emissions Monitors and dozens of other

"For Cost Effective Pumping"



instruments for air quality.

^espouse mtals' 800-242-3910


ABS has the most comprehensive range on the market.

A company in the Cardo Group

Sales & Service

• Sewage Pumps - Subniersilile & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemicai Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps


ABS Pumps Corporation. 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Missis.sauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905)670-4677. Fax:(905)67t)-,T709, Web: www.ab.spumps.coni Caiifor the Representative nearest you

For more information, circle reply card No. 253


For more information,

circie reply card No. 251 CORP.






TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting [ina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning

Biosollds and Waste Utilization • Liquid and Dewatered Appiication.

For more information, circle reply card No. 254

• Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.


Mall — P.O. Box 60069

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2


Location — W.A. Johnson Resource


Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakville, Ont. L9T 2X5



• Monitoring Wells • Recovery Wells

Phone:(905) 878-2800/Fax: (905) 878-7332

• Municipal Well Drilling .Industrial Well Driillng »Construction Driiling • Well Testing and Rehabilitation

• Gas Extraction Weils

• Deep Monitoring Well Specialists

For more information, circle reply card No. 252

R.K. Ml (Bust Place)

147 North Street West



Waterloo, Ontario

(519) 664-1422

Davidson "Since 1900"

(519) 357-1960

For more information, circle reply card No. 255

Engineer Wastewater Treatment RAL Engineering Ltd. is an engineering firm providing services in water and wastewater treatment. Tlie company is seeking a Wastewater Treatment Engi neer with a minimum of five years expe






rience. The successful candidate will be


a self starter with strong English com

After Hours Emergency Pager:(705) 734-3277

munication skills.

Reply to: RAL Engineering Ltd. 482 Queen St., Newmarket,ON L3Y 2H4

342 Bayvievv Drive, Box 310,

Tel:(705) 733-0111, Fax:(705)721-0138

Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

E-mail: iws@iws.ca, Web site: www.iws.ca

E-mail: ral@ralen2.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

For more information, circie reply card No. 256 55

Industry Update / Date Pad Ontario welcomes US Court decision on

transboundary air pollution

5th World Congress on Integrated Resources! Management


Ontario's new Environment Minister, Dan Newman, welcomed a recent deci

sion by the US Court of Appeals sup porting a Rule by the US Environmen tal Protection Agency, requiring a number of states and the District of

Columbia to reduce emissions ofsmogcausing pollutants. Ontario has made presentations to the court in support of USEPA's decision. "With more than half

of our smog originating from US sources, we had a vital interest in the

US Court of Appeals decision," he said. EPA's Rule, issued on September 1998, called on 23 US jurisdictions to revise their State Implementation Plans (SIP) to address the regional transport of ground-level ozone,a key component of smog. The SIP call required that measures be in place by May 2003 to reduce emissions of ozone-forming ni

R'2000, the 5th World Congress on In tegrated Resources Management, and

France, will be on hand to officially open

the EnviroTech 2000 Canada trade

Three leading themes of the 5th World Congress are: Public - Private Partnerships. Energy, air, water, waste and land resources management, as well as current global environmental trends surrounding these issues, will be dis cussed at the Congress sessions and workshops. During the five-day event,the confer ence will host over 350 presentations and keynote speakers. Contact: Dalo Keliar, Tel: (905) 470-0123, E-mail: keliar

show, will take place June 5-9, 2000, at the Toronto Convention Centre.

The Congress' opening ceremony will be conducted jointly with the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) organization as the World En vironment Day, June 5, 2000, is on the first day of the R'2000 Congress. Mad ame Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel, Di rector of the Division ofTechnology,In dustry and Economics of the United Nations Environment Program; Paris,


@oak.net. Web: www.rrr2000.com.

trogen oxides (NOjj).

spondent in the case, siding with envi ronmental groups and other downwind states. The province was granted inter-

June 7-10,2000. Canadian Society of Civil Engineering 6th Environmental Engineering Specialty Conference, London, ON. Web site: www.engga.uwo.ca/civil/csce.htm. June 11-15, 2000. American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Expo sition - Step Up To The Future, Innovation for the New Millennium, Denver, CO. Web site: www.awwa.org/ace2000. June 18-22, 2000. Air & Waste Manage

venor status. A written brief was sub

ment Association, 93rd Annual Conference


mitted to the court on July 16,and an oral presentation was made on November 9. The US Court ofAppeals issued its deci sion on the challenge March 3, 2000.

& Exhibition, Salt Lake City, Utah. Con tact: Mercedes de la Cruz, Tel: (301) 4935500, Fax: (301) 493-5705, E-mail: delacruz@ejkrau.se.com.

July 3-7, 2000. Paris 2000, 1st World Con gress of the International Water Association (IWA),Paris, FR. Web site: www.aghtm.org, E-mail: aghtm@aahtm.ora.

Ontario Premier Mike Harris an

nounced the province's intention to sup port the USEPA position following ac tion by eight states to challenge the SIP call. In February 1999, Ontario filed a motion for leave to intervene as a re

June 21-23, 2000. 53rd Canadian Water Resources Association Annual Conference:

Science Meets Policy, Saskatoon, SK. Tel/ Fax: (519) 885-1426, Web site: www. cwra.ca.

June 27-30, 2000. International Pulp Bleaching Conference, Halifax, NS. Con tact: Glen D. Black, Pulp and Paper Tech nical Association of Canada,Tel:(514)3926967, Fax:(514)392-0369, Web site: www.

MULTI-STAGE FILTER PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANT for SMALL SYSTEMS Enhanced Multi-Stage Slow Sand Filtration Package Plant. No coagulant, coagulant aide, or pH chemicals required. No chemical cleaning or chemical wastewater disposal. No costly membranes to replace. No moving parts. Treats a wide range of raw water quality. Greater than 4 log removal of Glardia and Cryptosporldlum. Removes high colour and organlcs with pre-ozonatlon option. Simple cleaning technique produces less than 0.5% washwater. Operating cost is a fraction of membrane or conventional filters. Meets all government guidelines for filtration of surface waters.

Phone (905) 853-0626 482 Queen Street, Newmarket,ON. L3Y 2H4 ENGINEERING



Fax: email: web:

(905) 853-8807

ral(g raleng.com www.raleng.com

Dedicated to developing practical solutions to a community's servicing needs.

For more information, circle reply card No. 170 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Unfortunately, we don't live in

a perfect world. That's why you




strength and dependable performance that's delivered

with every load of precast concrete pipe. Only precast concrete pipe gives you the

size and strength class

choices you need for virtually any installation situation —

from a deep fill to just under the pavement. And precast concrete pipe is offered in a

wide variety of shapes and joint configurations for greater design versatility and reliability. Combine that with

engineered fittings and spe

cials, and it's easy to see why precast concrete pipe is the perfect pipe system for an imperfect world. For information

or the ACPA

member nearest you, visit our

website at www.concrete-pipe.org.

0 American

Concrete Pipe Association 222 W. Las Colinas Blvd, Suite 641 Irving, TX 75039

:#'2beo;rAmerican .ConcFetevPipe Associatjon

(972) 506-7216 Fax:(972) 506-7682 E-mail: info@concrete-pipe.org

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. CYANIDI REMOVAl

Cyanide Removal

Water and Wastewater Tanks

Using sodium hypochiorite (JAVEX-12) to effectiveiy and quickly remove cyanide wastes

IS09001 manufacturer of factory-

is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

coated, bolted steel tanks for all MMBL4M

ages, equipment, as well as stor age, safety and tiandling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive

stages of water treatment. Tanks for digesters, clarifiers, aeration, waste holding, equalization, potable water, etc. Capacities from 4,000 to 2.4 million gallons. Columbian's Trico-Bond 478 coating resists cor rosion over a wide pH range. For extra exterior corrosion protection, Columbian offers our Z-Bond 493

system. Specifications and draw ings on diskette or our web site. Columbian Steel Tank Company

Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 240

Circle reply card No. 244

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS

Zebra Mussels To help control zebra mussels, one

Hazardous materials

storage Chem-Loc Buildings are uniquely designed and manufactured by MakLoc Buildings Inc. to provide safety, security, segrega

solution involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochiorite, which kills the larvae. We are con


sulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this prob lem, or be kept informed of the lat est information, please contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmollve Canada Inc. Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 241


Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

at: www.urecon.com.

collection needs.

Circle reply card No. 242


Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 246

Alternative combustion

Membrane technology for


industrial wastewater ZENON's ZenoGem'® bioreactor

Eco Waste Solutions'Thermal Waste


Urecon pre-insulated pipe Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocable® heat tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insulated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140'C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page

detailed in a technical bulletin.


terials. Since 1971, multi national oil and gas companies, the Armed Forces, Govern ment agencies, municipalities and golf courses have chosen Chem-Loc as their economical solution. Tel: 1-888-774-7792, Web site: www.makioc.com. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circle reply card No. 245

Odour Control

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochiorite (JAVEX-12) is Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochiorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air

to WloiliTF-jiyiroujiVc'iUal Ck.-inup • TliroitgU Dlspo.'iarorNfui-rco'clabJc Waste .

tion, and secondary con tainment of hazardous ma

Oxidizer Units are designed to proc ess the complete disposal of all types of municipal solid waste, biomedical, industrial, pathological, and labora tory waste and by-products. The Oxidizer System uses a combustion/ oxidation process to change solid waste material into a gaseous mate rial and residual ash by-product. Metals and glass are not melted down. This ensures clean stack

emission levels and allows for recy cling. Eco Waste Solutions Circle reply card No. 243

system can retrofit any existing wastewater treatment facility, im mediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The system in corporates immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass retention, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge. ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 247

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Product and Service Showcase Spring 2000 Catalogue

Self-cleaning dissolved

Dredging Equipment

oxygen system

i â– sTs'

Free 4-colour Hertz catalogue featuring over 1,200 used equipment items for sale. Equipment ranges from air compressors to earthmoving, material handling, aerial, trucks, and much more! All equipment is listed by make, model, serial number, price, and location. The Spring 2000 catalogue includes information on lowrate financing program as well as details on rental purcha.se option. Hertz Circle reply card No. 184

an RS-232 output, optional HARTÂŽ com munication capability and is provided with four field-configurable relays.

The Aquamaster is a specialized piece of dredging equipment. It is self-propelled and has two stabilizers along with two spuds. The hydraulic boom can be fitted with a 14" cutting sheer for tree cutting under water, a clam bucket for sludge or a debris bucket. It is powered by a 671 detroit die.sel with 238 hp and can dig to a depth of approximately 25 feet.

GLI International, Inc.

Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc.

The Model D5.3 is a full-featured, easy to u.se, Dissolved Oxygen Analyzer of fering a second sensor input to enable independent monitoring and control of two GLI membrane sensors. It includes

Multi-stage filter for small systems

The MS Filter is a solution to a small

system's water treatment needs that is simple and inexpensive to operate. There are no pre-treatment chemicals, no mem branes to replace, and yet treatment per formance equals or exceeds membrane or conventional processes. The plant is ideal for serviced populations of less than 1,500. RAL Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 187

Circle reply card No. 185

Circle reply card No. 186

Dense Petroleum Tapes

Potable water - Portable plant

Proven worldwide for well over 1 GO years, Denso Petroleum Tapes offer the best, most economical, long-term corrosion protection for all above and below ground metal surfaces. Requiring only minimum surface preparation and environmentally responsible, Denso Petroleum Tape is the solution to your corrosion problems in any corrosive environment. For applications in mines, mills, refineries, steel mills, pulp & paper, oil & gas, and the waterworks industry. The answer is Denso!

Portable XRF Analyzer

Circle reply card No. 188

Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Standard sizes treat from 20 gpm to 500 gpm. Each Monoplant contains flash mixing, flocculation, clarification, and filtration systems. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 189

Upgrade Now

Odour Control ODOU CONTRO


XRF analyzers are available for i/i siiii

and ex situ analysis for up to 25 metals in soils and sediments NITON



Method 6200.


analyzers detect all eight RCRA metals plus most CERCLA metals, at levels to

10-15 ppm. The TOOSeries, weighing under 3 lbs., is one of the least expensive and most portable commercially avail able XRF. Niton XRF analyzers meet de tection limits required by EPA lead labo ratory accreditation program for lead in soil. Elemental Controls Limited

Circle reply card No. 190

PipePac 2000 is now available. The new version includes advances such as a new

32 bit operating system for quicker runtime; better help .screens; upgrades to the Life Cycle Analysis; and LIVE up dates to cape's pipe costing tables. Call the Ontario Concrete Pipe As.sociation (905) 631-9696. for your free copy or if you have Access 2000 or 2000 Runtime, download PipePac 2000 from www. ocpa.com. OCPA Circle reply card No. 191

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is detailed in a techni cal bulletin. Systems are discussed that dispense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air collection needs. Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 192 59

Product and Service Showcase Groundwater Remediation

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Acid neutralization system

June 26-29, 2000 The Inlet Storm

ceptor System employs the same principles of op

PHIK Green Turtle Technologies Ltd, intro duces PHIX™, an innovative acid neu tralization system capable of treating a continuous stream of acidic wastewater

eration as the wellknown In-line In-


terceptors. Developed to treat run■'


The Waterloo Jn Situ Course » ^ ^ " -V ^

Monitored Natural Attenuation and

off from an area of

with no chemical dispensing required. PHIX™ was designed to ensure a trou ble free, low maintenance operation with virtually no electronics. This unique process(patent pending)does not require mixing, reagent preparation, an agitated mixing tank, or a pH controller for rea gent dispensing. Servicing simply in volves periodic refill of the neutralizing media. Green l\irtle Technologies Ltd. Circle reply card No. 193

up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the inter nal by-pass function, ensuring that all

Transportation Services

Landfill gas compressors

Centrifugal Blowers

Today, Harold Marcus Ltd. is pleased to service a wide variety of your transpor tation requirements throughout Canada and the United States....a growth attrib uted to our commitment to performance, expertise and dependability. From main tenance to safety and training, from op erations to management, the team of ex perienced professionals looks forward to meeting your present and future transpor

A full complement of Ro-Flo rotary slid ing vane type gas compressors is avail able to suit your specific digester gas handling needs. Offered in single or twostage configurations, these compressors are uniquely designed to provide ex tended operating life while handling a variety of dirty, corrosive gas mixtures. For convenience, the Ro-Flo compressor can be factory equipped. Peucon Equipment Company Circle reply card No. 197

Lamson Multi-stage and Turbotron Cen trifugal Blowers provide clean, dry and oil-free air/gas at variable flow rates, with volumes up to 50,000 CFM. The blow ers are dependable, trouble-free and quiet, with a very high-efficiency design. Installation is easy and no maintenance is required. The housings are made of heavy duty cast iron. Pencon Equipment Co.

tation needs. Harold Marcus

Circle reply card No. 196

sediment and oil removed from storm-

water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 2,500 units in place throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 194

Noise control panel systems

For over four decades, Eckel has been a

leader in the design, development, and manufacture of high-quality, dependable sound control products and systems, in cluding: sophisticated anechoic chambers for research and product testing; noise con trol enclosures for equipment and machin ery sound isolation/modification; and preengineered, versatile, sound-absorbing panels for treating room/area acoustics. Eckel Industries

Circle reply card No. 199 60

In Situ Remediation of Groundwater

A combination of classroom and field

activities including demonstration of in novative site investigation techniques and remediation at the renowned Borden Re

search Aquifer. Waterloo Educational Services Inc.

Circle reply card No. 195

Circle reply card No. 198

The Con/Soan Advantage


• Fully engineered and custom-designed to your site requirements • Saves weeks off con.struction schedules


www.concastpipe.com Circle reply card No. 200

• Long life cycle and low maintenance • Carries heavy loads at low stress levels Your only precast choice for your next project. CON/SPAN CANADA

Circle reply card No. 201 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Product and Service Showcase AGRA Resource Catalog

Concrete Pipe Handbook

Environmental Monitoring

ACPA's Resource

Catalog contains a complete list of publications, tech nical documents

and other materials

used by engineers, consultants, agency and government of ficials, and others to

The latest edition of the Concrete Pipe Handbook,a comprehensive collection of theories, formulas and aids for designing concrete pipe systems, is available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. Now in its fifth printing, the handbook has been updated to include information on Standard Installation using Indirect De sign. American Concrete Pipe Assoc.

Circle reply card No. 202

gain a better under standing of drainage products and their applications. The 48-page catalog in cludes an alphabetical listing of manuals, ACPA's Design Data series, videos, soft ware and other design/application re source materials. Free upon request to ACPA, www.concrete-pipe.org. American Concrete Pipe Association Circle reply card No. 203

Package Wastewater Plants


Adapted to Your Needs

Vour Single Source

Aquatic Sciences biological experience ranges from the collection of baseline en vironmental data to impact assessment, biomonitoring and fisheries studies. Their toxicology lab is presently serving MISA compliance needs. In addition to stand ard toxicity testing, the laboratory com pletes advanced toxicity identification evaluations for clients with more com

plex effluent streams. Aquatic Sciences Circle reply card No. 204

6EAGLEBROOr Your Single Source

Odor & Corrosion Control tnhancing Primary Treatment to

One Simple Solution For Tmp

Reduce Costs and

Major Problents. fmproue Treatment.

We have supplied Package Sewage Treat ment Plants worldwide. The Package Plant concept is a low cost, odourless plant, achieving a high degree of treat ment. It is economical, easy to install and operate, reliable, fulfills regulatory requirements and is ideal for any loca tion unable to connect to municipal sewer systems. Saiiitherm Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 205



www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 206

www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 207

Smart Positioners

New Compact Transducers

Membrane technology for

Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT)

Controlling Odor And Corrosion With Iron Sails.

With Iron Salts.

industrial wastewater

The ABB Sesycon TZID-C Smart Positioners provide fast, sensitive and accurate positioning of a pneumatic sin gle or double acting actuator, rotary or linear motion. Actuator controlled by I/P module with a 3/3-way valve. Ana log 4-20 mA set point signal, and HART communications. For control of modu

lating globe, butterfly or ball valves, dampers, louvers or gates. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 208

ProMinent is pleased to introduce the DMT,a new generation of transducer that enhances the Dulcometer product range. The DMTs are designed as compact measuring transducers featuring two-con ductor technology for pH,redox,conduc tivity, and temperature measurement. The DMT transducers have a wide ap plication spectmm including process con trol engineering, pharmaceuticals, water

ZENON's ZenoGemÂŽ bioreactor system can retrofit any existing wastewater treat ment facility, immediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The sys tem incorporates immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass reten tion, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge.

and wastewater treatment. ProMinent

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Circle reply card No. 209

Circle reply card No. 210 61

Product and Service Showcase Biological Wastewater

Servo Motors & Amplifiers


Two new agitators from ITT

Davis Controls Ltd. introduces

the easy-to-use MR-C brushless servo system from Mitsubishi Electronics, a



economical alter

Eco Process & Equipment Int'l. is a proc ess equipment manufacturer who has de veloped,through a ten-year R&D program, as a "technology company" specializing in biological wastewater treatment processes. Although our main process technology is Sequencing Batch Reactor(SBR), we also offer Aerated Lagoon with coarse or fine bubble diffusers and Trickling Filter plas tic media. Eco Process & Equipment Circle reply card No. 211

Bioton Biological Oxidation System

native to 5-pha.se or microstepping drives. The compact size and low cost of this new series of

servo motors and amplifiers virtually eliminates the requirement for stepper drives, making it ideal for applications in the semiconductor manufacturing, food and packaging, inserter/mounter, and textile industries, among others.

The new 4610 and 4620 stainless steel, direct drive, submersible mixers from

ITT Flygt now cover an even wider range of capacity requirements. The new mix ers are designed so that they can be fitted to a cantilever bar, a guide bar, or mounted on the floor. As opposed to con ventional mixers, the 4610 and 4620 have

Circle reply card No. 212

practically no shaft overhang, which vir tually eliminates traditional mixer prob lems. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 213

TOC Measurements

New Laser Nephelometer

Davis Controls Ltd.

Applying new technology in la

This 4-page bro -

chure features the

ser detection and

BiotonÂŽ Biologi

fiber optics, the


cal Oxidation Sys


tem. The Bioton

System is used in a variety of indus

elometer enables

drinking water

utilized in over 100 installations around

Hach Company offers a new laboratory test for determining total organic carbon (TOC) content of drinking water and wastewater. This simple method is an ideal alternative to out-sourced analysis

the world and offers low maintenance and

for treatment facilities that would ben

operating costs. It is an environmentally friendly technology, thus no chemicals or supplemental fuels are required. Web

efit from on-site and on-demand TOC

tries for the control of odours and

volatile organic compounds. This technology has been

site: www.biotonbiofilters.com

Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems Circle reply card No. 214

Environmental and OH&S

legislation on CD

Get the most complete, accurate, and upto-date compilation of environmental, health & safety, and workers' compensa tion acts, regulations and guidelines on one convenient CD. It includes: Six bi

monthly updates per year; easy-to-use FolioViews search software;flexibility of choosing only the service you need National, Ontario, Western or Eastern

Canada; available in print or CD. Southam Information Products Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 217 62

new FilterTrak

660 Laser Neph

readings. The test is ideal for use in drinking water as a process control tool for those facilities required to remove organic material. Hach Company

and wastewater utilities to moni

tor water quality with greater accuracy, reliability and economy than ever before. The new in strument operates with 150 times greater sensitivity-than a conventional turbidimeter, and it is optimized to measure tur bidity in the range of 0 to 1 NTU. Hach Company

Circle reply card No. 216

Circle reply card No. 215

Modular biofilter system

Dissolved Sulfide Monitor w


ATI's new Series A15/81 Dissolved

Sulfide Monitor provides an on-line in strument for continuously measuring even very low levels of dissolved hydro gen sulfide in water or wastewater. Meas urements may be made from a few PPB up to 20 PPM,with standard outputs and alarms that may be used to control chemi cal feed .systems or provide alarms in the event of process problems. Analytical Technology,Inc. Circle reply card No. 218

BASYS''"''' modular biofilter system, de stroys VOCs, H,S and odours. Modular and available in five sizes, it is designed for maximum odour/VOC removal with

minimal operating costs over a wide range of airflow volumes, and is up to 75% cheaper to operate than chemical scrubbers. Biofiltration is a proven, reliable, safe, and cost-effective technology that works at pumping stations, WWTP and industrial facilities. Biorem Technologies Circle reply card No. 219

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Product and Service Showcase Self-priming pumps

Photovac^" saves time

Solids/corrosive liquids pumps

with field analysis Because GormanA new brochure

Rupp centrifugal pumps are selfpriming, they can be mounted high and dry at floor level, with only

that highlights portable detection and monitoring instrumentation is



from PerkinElmer

the suction line

Instruments. The

down in the liq

Photovac family of analytical in struments,includ

ing the Photovac 2020 PID, the MicroFID'"''*', and the Voyager'"'^' portable gas chromatograph(GC),offers superior detection, monitoring, and identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

uid. Service or

maintenance can be performed quickly and simply with common hand tools and without having to pull the pump. There are no long drive shafts to install and align, no hoists or cranes required, and no need for service personnel to enter the sump. Gorman-Rupp

Circle reply card No. 221

PerkinElmer Instruments

Circle reply card No. 220

Thermal Desorbers

Permanent leak detection

The new Turbothermal desorbers

from PerkinElmer re

tech® 9800 XT

duces laboratories'

Series is the only

operating costs of



advanced locator

analysis by offering

a flexible, easy-touse system that produces accurate, repro ducible results for the full range of sam ple handling requirements. A graphical user interface with touch-screen provides easy access to important information, in cluding visual displays of the thermal desorbers' operation, the setpoints, and current conditions of temperature and



Permalog® units are deployed through out the distribution system to provide continuous surveying of leakage. Easily installed on pipe fittings, they are retained in place by a strong magnet and are bat tery-powered for up to 10 years. Log gers are immersion-tested to 1P68 and will continue to operate even in flooded chambers. No maintenance is required.

PerkinElmer Instruments

Heath Consultants Limited

Circle reply card No. 223

Circle reply card No. 224

Actiflo® Package Plant

Escalator® Fine Screen

A major step towards a highly efficient

clarification process, Actiflo® package plants are units engineered to provide a compact modular system in response to an ever-growing demand for a high per formance water treatment process. Typi cal applications are in municipal (water and wastewater) and industrial (process water). John Meunier Products/USEilter

Pipe & cable locating system Equipped with the most productive features you re quire, the Metro-

Matrix family of


Gonnan-Rupp T Series pumps are de signed for economical, trouble-free opera tion in handling solids-laden liquids and slunies. Pumps feature a large volute de sign which allows them to reprime auto matically in a completely open system without the need for suction or discharge check valves. And they can do it with the pump casing only partially filled with liq uid and a completely dry suction line. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 222

A fine screening step type screen unit, the Escalator® gives continuous fine .screen ing for channel type applications with very few moving parts below the water level. Product is used in open channels where fine screening is required. The unit can readily be installed in new or existing channels with a minimum of civil works.

The screen has aperture sizes of 1/4" (6 mm)or 1/8"(3 mm)in any direction.

Continuous Gain

Adjustment'''' and Manual Gain control. Take control of all your locates with the rugged and highly accurate 9800 XT se ries. Designed for production locating, it exhibits enhanced sensitivity and un complicated line identification. Heath Consultants Limited

Circle reply card No. 225

HYDROVEX® Flushing Tanks

A stainless steel tank designed to rotate

eccentrically on its axis, the Hydrovex® is used to flush out sediments from

retention tanks and equalization basins. The tanks produce a powerful, high celerity, high amplitude wave. Cleans flushways that can measure up to 67m (210') in length and 9m (30') in width in terms of the required volume of water. Minimum maintenance.

John Meunier Products/USEilter

John Meunier Products/USEilter

Circle reply card No. 227

Circle reply card No. 228

Circle reply card No. 226 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


both Real-Time


Product and Service Showcase Filtration systems for arsenic, lead, and copper

Century HOPE Enviropans

Flowline Level catalogue This four-colour,

130-page cata logue provides a comprehensive overview of the

complete range of Flowline prod ucts, including


ADI Media G2 is a unique filter media capable of extremely efficient adsorption of arsenic, lead, copper, and other met als. It has been successfully used with arsenic concentrations up to 700 ppb, providing consistent reductions to less than 3 ppb. Lead and copper reductions of over 98% are also typical. ADI Group Circle reply card No. 229

fittings. Introductions for each product grouping contain helpful reference infor mation, such as a glossary of terms and application specifics and recommenda tions. Instructions for accessing the Flowline Level Superstore on the internet are also provided. Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 230

The Century Group Inc. is a leading manufacturer of railroad spill collection systems in North America. The Century HOPE Enviropan is manufactured out of the most advanced high-density poly ethylene, producing superior chemical resistance, durability, and unparalleled railroad spill protection. It features a state-of-the-art closed drain system and is an easy and economical system to in stall. Century Group Inc. Circle reply card No. 231

The tough just got tougher!

The best keeps getting better

FAST® retrofit package

Armtec introduces Bridge-Plate® which

BOSS sewer pipe is a coirugated ther moplastic pipe manufactured from high density polyethylene (HOPE). Engi neered for gravity flow systems, BOSS pipe is available in standard 4-metre lengths in sizes from 100 mm to 900 mm nominal inside diameter. The corrugated exterior provides excellent pipe stiffness


they claim is the strongest corrugation available in the bridge market today. It is available in arch and box shapes, 3.5 times stronger than structural plate, more than 10 times stiffer than structural plate, and claimed to be the strongest and stiffest product on the market. Armtec built

level transmitters, level switches, flow switches, controllers, and

the first Super-Span® bridge in the world and is taking bridge market to new

flection available in all sizes of BOSS

heights. Armtec

2000 and POLYTITE. Armtec

characteristics, with 320 kPa at 5% de

Smith & Loveless' Modular FAST retro

fit package offers flow capacity expan sion and/or nitrification/denitrification

options for existing WWTPs - without expanding or building a new plant. The modular FAST fixed-film process offers the primary benefits of simplicity and increased surface area for attached bac

terial growth, which increases the sludge age to capably treat high and fluctuating BOD levels. Smith & Loveless, Inc.

Circle reply card No. 232

Circle reply card No. 233

Circle reply card No. 234

Level interface control systems

Prevent algae build-up

Tanks meet ISO 9002

Royce Instrument Corporation has added

The Algae Sweep Automation™ System (ASA)is a unique system ofspring-loaded

two new Interface Level Detectors to

their lineup. The Model 2110 and Model

brushes that attaches to the skimmer arm

2120 Point Level Interface instruments

of a circular- clarifer. Its bmshes have over

are optical point level detection systems for the control of blankets in several ap plications. The two instruments are the newest additions to the industry's most

50 points of flexibility and adjustment to ensure thorough sweeping of all weir, baf fle, launder, and spillway surfaces. ASA virtually eliminates the labour and chemi cal costs associated with controlling algae and debris. Ford Hall Company,Inc.

extensive line of interface level monitor

ing devices available. Cancoppas

Circle reply card No. 235 64

Circle reply card No. 236

RTS polyethylene tanks are Ontario manu factured to strict ISO 9002 quality guide lines to ensure years of customer satisfac tion. Impact-resistant, non-corrosive,onepiece seamless linear polyethylene con struction allows RTS tanks to be used for

the storage of most industrial chemicals including a wide range of herbicides and fertilizers; they are made using food grade approval resin to ensure safe storage of potable water. RTS Plastics Inc. Circle reply card No. 237

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Contents Spill prevention during aircraft refuelling By llmar Simanovskis Modular containment promises utility and adaptability with low costs By Reed Margulis Fuel oil spills can ruin a life-iong investment By Dec Doran Fibreglass tanks - the plain and simple facts By Richard Murphy Erection of large FRP tanks for a solvent extraction process at a uranium plant

Silos Skybound 66

67 saskatOhewS#

69 72 74

KMK CONSULTANTS LIMITED Consulting Engineers, Project Managers Ecological Planners, Landscape Architects

KMK DESIGN BUILD LTD. Design Building of Municipal and industrial infrastructure

Brampton Pickering Kitchener London Cobalt

in Saskatchewan

(905)4594780 (905)837-0314 (519)743-6111 (519)6594465 (705)679-5979

Silos are just one of our specialties at Clemmer Technologies. We're the

to help you determine the best solution for the job, no matter where In this

experts In storage

great country you

containment tanks

happen to be. So whether you need

offering a vast array of products In any material you

silos in Saskatchewan

require. We offer

on Prince Edward

field fabrication,

custom manufacturing, and on-slte consultation

or pressure vessels Island, you need Clemmer Technologies to make It happen!

There are no limits to what we can achieve.


E-mail: kmk@kmk.on.oa

CELEBRATING 40 YEARS For more information, circle reply card No. 261 (See page 25)

Clemmer lechrx^ies Itx. PO. Bo. 130. Woterloo, OmorloNJJ 4AI

Clemmer Technologies Inc. PO Bo. 1057. Cloresholm, AlbcrloTOL OTO

Toll Free: 800-265-8840 Fox: 15191 884-6623

Toll Free: 800-661-2851 Fo.: (403) 625-4230 Toll Free: 888-258-8166 Fa.:(5061 859-7112

MFM-Clemmer 151 Holilo. Si.. Monoon. New Brunswick EIC 9R6

For more information, circle reply card No. 295 (See page 25)

Storage Tanks and Containment

Spills prevention during aircraft refuelling

Consolidated Aviation Fuel ing

all stormwater collected from the air

of Toronto is the airport fuel ling operations company for

in the environment, it was felt that ad

the Pearson International Fuel

ditional onsite protection was prudent

port site is treated prior to discharge

Facilities Corporation. As part of the current Pearson In ternational Airport redevelop ment project, Consolidated was required to relocate its fa cilities to make way for the

rated into the building foundation drain system to protect groundwater and detect hydrocarbon leaks from a high pressure fuel pipeline next to the building. The groundwater collected from the area is

monitored for hydrocarbon content, and the Stormceptor provides emergency storage capacity if a fuel leak should occur in the vicinity of the building. All the Stormceptors are also equipped with oil level

new terminal construction.

Simcoe Engineering Group Limited, as the design con sultants, selected Stormceptor as part of the environmen sensors. These are con nected into the building tal protection system for the management system, allow fuelling vehicle parking areas ing for continuous monitor of the new facility. ing and emergency alarming. Aircraft fuelling opera tions are performed both by Aircraft fuelling operations are performed by large tankers and This stormwater manage ment concept provides a large tankers and smaller smaller fuel cars. fuel cars. Due to the nature of this op because of the nature of the operation. high level of detection and control, preventing offsite contamination. This eration, there always exists a poten This was achieved through the instal provides improved risk management tial for fuel spills to occur. Although lation of a model 4000 Stormceptor. Two model 750 Stormceptors were for Consolidated Aviation Fuelling. By llmar Simanovskis, P.Eng., For more information, also used in the employee parking Simcoe Engineering area. One of these units was incorpo circle reply card No. 157

For all your storage solutions Aquastore ®

- Glass fused to steel Tanks for Potable water, Wastewater Leacfiate Storage, Industrial Water Storage



JetMix ®

- Mixing Systems for both new or existing steel and concrete tanks

Flat and Geodesic Aluminum Covers

GREATARIO ENGINEERED STORAGE SYSTEMS P.O. Box 399, County Rd. 4, Innerkip, Ontario, NOJ IMO Tel:(519)469-8169 • Fax:(519)469-8157• E-mail: sgregory@greatarioengsys.com 66

For more information, circle reply card No. 298 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

storage Tanks and Containment

Modular containment promises utility and adaptability with low costs

Aboveground containment

systems have advanced to higher levels of versatility and price/performance with the introduction of modularity in their design, fabrication and installation. Among advantages reported for prefab ricated modular tanks,including second ary containment, are lower costs, and rapid availability and shipmentfor emer gency storage, spill containment and site remediation. In addition, these systems can be easily customized from standard components into almost any right angle configuration for irregularly-shaped ar eas; 'L', T and 'S' shapes are typical. They bolt together quickly with


standard hand tools and can be knocked

down for relocation or compact storage. When disassembled, the steel compo-

Tanker truck loading wastewater into a five foot higf), haif-miiiion gallon (US) modular tank.

By Reed Margulis, President, ModuTank Incorporated

nents of a 300,000-gallon tank can be stored on pallets in an 8 foot x 10 foot space. Modular tanks are equipped with

"The Engineered Difference in Tanks"

various types of corrosion and chemi cal resistant flexible membrane liners for

Continued overleaf

Steel Sighted

Our mission at Diverse

in Samia

Plastic Tanks is to provide our customers with the

bulk storage, processing and transportation tank Michtg

solutions which exceed

their safety and perform ance requirements at the lowest possible cost. We offer our customers a full range of product designs, including closed or open top vertical tanks in flat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, containment tanks and a complete line of"UN" approved Int. Bulk Containers(IBGs). We do this by distributing the Snyder Industries line of tanks which, when all Is considered, Snyder has the most advantages in bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the widest selection of sizes up to 22,000 gal lons and with over 40 years of manufacturing experience, Snyder offers superior quality and tank design in every product they manufacture. Visit our web site at: www.diverseplastics.com or contact us directly for a copy of our product catalogue.

Diverse Plastic Tanks

SARNIA Pennsylvania

Steel tanks are just one of our specialties at Clemmer Technologies. We're the experts in


great country you


happen to be. So whether you

tanks offering a vast array of

For more information, circle reply card No. 299 (See page 25)

need steel in

products in any material

Sarnia or a field tank in

you require. We offer

Frobisher Bay, you need Clemmer Technologies to make it happen!

field fabrication, custom

manufacturing, and on-

There are no limits to what we can achieve.

'lemmer Clemmer Teehnologies Inc.


matter where in this


3190 Ridgeway Drive, Unit 22, Mississauga, ON L5L 5S8 Tel:(905) 607-5189, Fax:(905) 607-9835 tanks@diverseplastics.com

site consultation to help you determine the best solution for the job, no

Clemmer Technologiei Inc.


RO. BoÂŤ 130, WolerloQ, Ontario N2J 4A1

RO. 80. 1057, Clorosholm, Alberto TOLOTO

151 Halifax Si., Monclon, New Bronswiclr E1C 9B6

Toll Free: 800-265-8840 Fox:(519)884-6623

Toll Free: 800-661-2851 Fox: (403) 625-4230

Toll Free: 888-258-8166 Fox:(506) 859-7112

For more information, circle reply card No. 296 (See page 25)

Storage Tanks and Containment the storage and handling of virtually all liquids, hazardous wastes and sludges. Among available application-spe

fitting them with appropriate liners. Modular tanks from 250 to millions of

gallons accept inlet/outlet piping,sumps and other product handling plumbing equipment, as well as floating covers. Leak detection can also be incorporated through geotextile or drainage net lay ers between the tank's primary and sec ondary liners. Squaring the circle Modular storage systems are not new; many oftoday's typical round tanks are designed and installed with modu-

cific flexible membrane liners are XR-

5, Hypalon, PVC, HDPE and potable water grade polypropylene. Most often the appropriate liner is precut, some times seam-welded at the shop to the exact dimensions of the tank, and deliv

ered with its metal components in one package. These systems may also be resized by adding or subtracting panels and re

Your Coast-to-Coast

Supplier of Underground Storage Tanks


lar curved panels which are repeatedly bolted or welded together in sequence. What is new is modularity as a total de sign concept unique to the rectilinear tank whose standardized parts can be configured to site patterns. Tank installation can be completed on prepared, compacted ground,free of depressions and sharp objects, or on con crete or asphalt beds as environmental regulations mandate. For example, as sembled as an 'L,' a tank could be cor

nered around obstructions. Modularity serves almost any asymmetrical con figuration that is compatible with the available space. Modularity also means accessibility - tanks that go most everywhere and fit anywhere,indoors or out. Hand-carried through doorways, hatches or windows, modular components bolt together rap idly in hard-to reach locations like base ments, tunnels, upper floors, laborato ries, rooftops and utility areas. Modu lar tanks could be the sensible alterna

tive to breaking through walls to retro fit plant interiors with additional stor age capacity. This was demonstrated when install

ing storage for fuel oil and hydraulic fluid in a salt mine chamber 2,500 feet

Canada's Ultimate 'Site Risk' Reducer Coast to coast, ZCL fiberglass tanks offer the ultimate in site risk management. Made of 100% resin and fiberglass rein forced plastic,ZCL tanks will not rust inside or out!This is a key factor when comparing ZCL fiberglass tanks to other storage tanks made from steel. Repair or relining due to corrosion is never required because ZCL tanks are simply not susceptible to rust. Even after years of reliable,trouble-free service,

Double Your Risk Management with the ZCL Douhie-Wail Prezerver™

give you perhaps the safest state-of-the-art

secondary contain ment on the market, A true

360° doublewall tank, offers twice tlie

risk management of any single-


wall tank.In the

unlikely event that there Is a breach In the primary wall, the secondary wall is designed to contain your product and prevent a spill into the

eliminating the expense of heavy crane equipment rental when installing or removing. Ideal for the safe storage of all fuel types and most hazardous liquids,ZCL tanks are also available in cost-effective multi<ompartment designs that can store two or more products in the same tank. Capacities range from


An amazing 3-D glass fabric technology called Parabeam® adds incredible wall

strength and creates a defined interstitial space (sandwich core) to accommodate your choice of monitoring methods including pressure, vacuum,drj' and wet (hydrostatic) monitoring, of both walls.

2.500L -100,000L.



tor in tank installation is that of trans


loads - 32,000 Ibs./axle),ZCL tanks are lighter and easier to handle than steel,

Discover how to reduce site risk,

together assembly in the deep site, thus averting the hazards of welding fumes trapped in poorly ventilated spaces. Savings in time and applications An often underappreciated cost fac

wall Prezerver™ tanks

Designed to withstand the heavy weight of all road vehicles (H-20 axle

caii us today to discuss your particuiar needs

the mine's elevator and tunnel for bolt-

ULC listed, ZCL's double-

ZCL tanks can be recertified and re-used!

below ground level. Hand-carried com ponents for two 10,000 gallon modular tanks with covers were transported via



For more information, circie reply card No. 300 (See page 25)

portation. In the case of modular rec tangular tanks, all components are strap ped to standard skids - each weighing approximately 3,000 lbs. - for site de livery by commercial flat bed trucks. Heavy duty containment systems have met extremely hostile weather conditions on the North Slope of the Alaskan pipe line, and were successfully erected on tight deadlines in mid-winter at the Hali fax and Montreal aiiports. In a challeng ing North American installation, a mil lion gallon (US) tank for emergency containment was shipped the next day and was operational within three days. Modular rectangular containment systems are believed to be nearing full partnership with conventional round tanks as facilities for hazardous materi

als containment, handling and treatment. For more information, circle reply card No. 301 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

storage Tanks & Containment

Get Carried Away With Our Containment Systems

Fuel oil spills can ruin a life-long

' Large selection of tanks and containment systems ' Custom IBC Design Fabrications


Oil spil s are a significant

' Designed for Powders and Liquids ' U.N. Approved for Worldwide Transportation of Dangerous Goods(Up to 1.9 S.G.)

source of pollution, espe cially in rural areas. A fuel tank leak or oil spill can cause extensive soil and groundwater contamination resulting in expensive clean-up costs. A five litre spill can contaminate one million gallons of potable water to the extent that petro

• 5 Gallons - 14,000 Gallons

Learn more about our extensive product line and customized solutions for liquid & powder handling and storage. To discuss your company's needs:

leum odours can make the water unfit

for consumption. The number of residential fuel oil



leaks and spills has increased in recent For more i nformation, circie repiy card No. 258(See page 25) years and has the potential to become much larger as tanks and oil lines reach fail suddenly, and without warning, as a result of internal the end of their lifespan. Tanks can last a long time but not corrosion. forever. The likelihood of an oil leak occurring increases when storage tanks and fuel oil lines are over 30 years old What can be done to minimize the risk of a spill? Stor age tanks, oil lines and entire heating systems should be or have not been properly maintained. When purchasing an inspected periodically by a qualified service person. Many older home, determining the age and condition of a fuel oil spills occur each year as a result of tank supports failing tank can be difficult. Unless the tank is tagged or there is a which can damage the tank on impact or result in damage record of a tank change, the tank may be as old as the house. or complete separation of the fuel oil supply line or filter According to recent statistics, hundreds of residential fuel Continued overleaf oil spills occur every year in Ontario and the numbers could

Fibreglass Found in Fredericton

Clean-ups are expensive. Many oil spills could be avoided through regular inspection and maintenance.

be in the thousands nationwide. Depending on specific site conditions, the costs of cleaning up these spills can range anywhere from a few thousand dollars to several hundred thousand dollars.

Residential heating oil spills occur for a number of dif ferent reasons. Defective or missing vent whistles and bro ken or damaged fuel level gauges are the two main reasons for tank overfills and oil spills in basements during fuel oil deliveries. Copper fuel oil lines installed under concrete floors can corrode and cause significant pollution problems. Leaking underground oil lines are difficult to detect and can

Fibreglass tanks are just one of our specialties at Clemmer Technologies. We're the experts in

country you


happen to be. So

tanks offering a vast array of

whether you need fibreglass in

products in any material you require. We offer field fabrication, custom

manufacturing, and on-

Fredericton or steel in

Squamish, you need Clemmer Technologies to make it happen!

There are no limits to what we can achieve.

go unnoticed for many years. If condensation accumulates

dZlemmer Clemm«f Technologies Inc

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

you determine the best solution for the job, no matter where in this great


on the inside of a tank over a period of time, the tank can

By Dec Doran, Oil Spill Control Services

site consultation to help

PO. Bo« 130, Wolerioo. Onlorio N2J 4A)

Toll Free: 800-76S-3840 Fo>: |SI9)884-6623

Clemmer Techt^loflies Inc. PO Bo. 1057, Cloreiholm. Alberto TOLOTO TolIFree 800-661-2851 Fo.:|403) 625-4230

MFM-Clemmer 151 HolKo.Si., Mo«dor>. New Brunswick EIC 98 Tod Free; 888-258-B166 Fo*; (506)859-7112

For more Information, circle reply card No. 297 (See page 25)

rDTE INDUSTRIES LIMITED Since 1951 DTE Industries Limited has been supplying the Petroleum, Petro chemical, Agricultural, Forestry, Mining, Heating, Contracting & Engineering fields with quality Storage tanks.

Customer satisfaction is our number #1 priority...

Offering Steel & Plastic Jacketed Tanks from 227 to 100,000 litres (50 gal. to 25,000 gal.)

Advantages to you the customer are:

•We have are own fleet of trucks and ship from Vancouver to Halifax

•Competitive pricing - Lease or Buy option available •5 year or 30 year warranties available •Superior Quality Products & Services for over 48 years

Let us show you how we can provide security & valuefor your money Plant tours are available by contacting our Engineering department

DTE Industries Limited

For aboveground and underground applications. We meet all ULC and UL specifications. Other models available: •Bench Tanks •Fuel Oil Tanks

•Farm Utility Tanks •Oil/Water separators •Custom Fabrication available

69 Comstock Rd. Scarborough, ON 1-800-387-1400 • Tel. 416-757-6278 • Fax. 416-757-5579 www.dteindustries.com


Aboveground Vertical

Aboveground Horizontal

Single Wall Tank ': '"TiJ




For more information, circle reply card No. 304(See page 25)


Storage Tanks and Containment assembly. Plastic fill or vent pipes must never be used as they can break or shat

line, consideration should be given to moving the tank or protecting the expo

ter in cold weather.


Cracked or broken fuel level

When tanks are located near

wells, rivers, or lakes, a spill contain

gauges should be repaired immedi ately and defective vent whistles should be replaced. Small oil stains

the tank to minimize the migration of any spilled oil.

under tanks could indicate a loose line

What can be done to minimize the

connection or problems with seams or welds. Dampness along the bottom of a tank could indicate bigger prob

financial effects of residential heating oil spills? Clearly, not all residential heat ing oil spills are caused by driver emor or oil company negligence and the re

lems and this condition should be fur

ment device should be installed under

sponsibility for cleaning up a spill could be the sole responsibility of the home owner. Some insurance policies specifi cally exclude pollution coverage for leaks or spills from residential heating oil tanks. Homeowners should check

with their agent or insurance company to see if there is pollution coverage be cause sooner or later it's going to hap pen again, and someone will have to pay. For more information, circle reply card No. 303

ther investigated. Stained soils or dead grass below fill pipes could in dicate chronic environmental prob lems. To reduce the possibility of in ternal corrosion, oil tanks should be

filled at the end of each heating sea son. Installing used oil tanks should be avoided as the history and true con dition of the tank will likely be un



To prevent "overpressurization" of a tank, the vent pipe must be large enough to safely vent the tank while it is being filled. Insufficient venting could cause the fuel level gauge to "pop" out of the tank as it is being filled or oil could back up through the fill pipe and spill on the ground. Removing oil tanks from basements and leaving the fill and vent pipes in the wall has caused many basements to be accidentally filled with oil. Always no tify the fuel oil distributor when tanks are removed and cancel future oil de

liveries. Documenting this is always a good idea. For outside storage tanks, the tank must be on a solid footing to avoid a tank rollover. If there is a danger of ice or snow falling on the tank or fuel oil

Aquastore* glass-fiised-to-steel tanks are full oftechnological advances. Our protective Edgecoat™ process double coats sheet edges. Glass97™ with titanium dioxide offers a tougher water contact surface for potable water. And bolted construction is

cost effective, while eliminating the environmental problems of field-

Target your

welding and painting. Clearly,you should contact your Aquastore dealer for full information on sales,installation and service.

environmental risks! ERIS, Environmental Risk Information Services, is a database service that helps environmental professionals spot conta mination problems on any property. This service - the first of its kind in

Canada - screens key federal, provincial and private databases and prepares a detailed information report for a prop erty and its neighbouring sites. Call for

ENGINEERED STORAGE PRODUCTS COMPANY 345 Harvestore Drive, DeKalb, Illinois 60115 815-756-1551 Phone, 815-756-7821 Fax wvvw.aquastore.com Aquastore is a registered trademark of A.O. Smith Corporation.

Edgecoat and Glass97 are trademarks of A.O. Smith CorporatiortV -§

a free brochure For more information, ECO LOG

call 1-800-268-7742 ext. 2105 or visit



For more information, circle reply card No. 137

nounaSTORE Tanks

For more information, circle reply card No. 302 (See page 25)


storage Tanks and Containment

Fibreglass tanks-the plain and simple facts

Introducedin 1963,fibreglas tanks

presented a rust-immune alterna tive to steel. Since then,fibreglass tank usage has grown remarkably. Over 15 years ago,some major oil com panies in Canada embarked on a stor age tank replacement program and fi breglass tanks were their preferred choice.

Fibreglass tanks are lightweight and strong. When properly installed, they are engineered to withstand truck H-20 axle loading of 32,000 pounds per axle. The standai'd tanks' integral rib/tank in terface for added tank strength allows burial to a depth of seven feet in wet or dry soil conditions. Additional burial depths can be accommodated through applied design criteria. Fibreglass tanks are often exhumed, tested, re-certified by the manufacturer

Installation of fibreglass tanks is simple and economical.

Fibreglass tanks are designed to store petroleum products, potable and waste water, most chemicals,fuel oil at temper and re-installed in new locations, even atures not exceeding 150°F, brine, con after many years of reliable underground densate, and other hazardous liquids. Fi fuel storage-some as much as 20 years. breglass is also used in the manufacture Why?-The non-con^oding nature of fi of septic or sewage holding tanks, oil/wa breglass tanks. ter sepai-ators, and custom manufactured Fibreglass must meet stringent per above or below ground tanks. Manufac formance standards - all tanks are sub turing methods include chop hoop fila jected to rigorous factory testing. They ment winding, resin transfer molding meet or exceed Underwriters' Labora (RTM), spray-up and hand lay-up. tories of Canada performance standards Typical applications include: for underground fibreglass storage • Water treatment chemicals. tanks. • Airport de-icing (glycol storage). • Irrigation systems collection. • Refinery runoff. By Richard Murphy, • Road treatment chemicals. ZCL Composites Inc. • Agriculture, aquaculture, food, and

H Low Cost, Long Life Low Maintenance

mm Rapid Installation

electronic industries.

• Paint manufacturing. Fibreglass tanks are manufactured in either single wall or 360 degrees dou ble wall. With legislation requiring sec ondary containment, tank owners have opted for the fibreglass double wall tank, which can be monitored in four differ

ent ways: pressure, vacuum,hydrostatic and dry probe sensor methods. Installation offibreglass tanks is sim ple and economical. They require clean and free-flowing pea gravel or crushed stone. This backfill material is self-con-

solidating, doesn't settle and requires 30% less material than if compacted sand is used.

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 305


■ CONTRACTING LIMITED IS the exclusive source for Permastore tanks and

silos in Canada, supplying integrated design, construction and warranty programs. 191 Booth Rd. North Bay, Ontario, Canada, PIA4K3


Tel:(705) 474-4759, Fax:(705)474-904! E-Mail: camg@donson.com

Glass-Fused-to-Steel Tanks and Silos offer

the complete storage solution. Over 40,000 tanks installed in 70 countries Excellent corrosion resistance

Modular construction growth — capacity Easily relocated after years of use Custom roof components


For more Information, circle reply card No. 306 (See page 25)


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Product and Service Showcase TEnrCO'R'Aluminum Domes

Tank solutions

Low cost AutoFlash

evaporation process The AutoFlash is

a time-proven evaporation sys tem with the capa bility of using low-grade, reject,

For more than thirty years Temcor has been competitively producing aluminum Domes, Roofs and Covers for Potable

Water and Wastewater applications in a wide variety of climates, successfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum prod ucts are lightweight, corrosion resistant, and maintenance free which translates to

longer life and lower maintenance costs. Aluminum doesn't rust like steel, doesn't

spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems

Diverse Plastic Tanks offer a full range of product designs, including closed or open top vertical tanks in flat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, contain ment tanks and a complete line of "UN" approved intermediate bulk containers. (IBCs). They distribute the Snyder In dustries line of tanks which have many advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the wid est selection of sizes up to 22,000 gal lons. Diverse Plastic Tanks

Circle reply card No. 175

Circle reply card No. 176

New Aquastore Brochure

Underground double wall jacketed tanks

A.O.Smith Engineered Storage Products Company offers a new eight-page bro chure on its glass-fused-to-steel AquastoreÂŽ tanks for municipal and industrial water storage. The brochure explains the manufacturing process and the advan tages of bolted assembly. Other topics include the benefits of glass coating and

the company's proprietary Edgecoat™ process and Glass97™ potable water coating system. A.O.Smith Circle reply card No. 178

Superior corrosion protection and secondaiy containment; inner tank can be compartmentalized; total compatibility with petroleum fuels, as well as a wide range of chemicals; sand, pea gravel or crushed stone may be used for backfill; globally recognized third-party approv als; flat and dished end caps.


Mobile refuelling

When fuels are required in small quanti ties, to fill construction machinery on various sites, truck-mounted tanks with hold-down straps and internal baffles to avoid dangerous load shifts are provided in warning red enamel. Special venting device, fill cap and labels are included. Capacities are 454-4540 litres(100-1000 gallons). Also available in doublewall vacuum-monitored version for added

Circle reply card No. 179

safety margin. DTE Industries Limited Circle reply card No. 180

ULC listed storage tanks

ASME pressure vessels

DTE Industries Limited

Self Dyked Tanks

waste heat as the

only source of en ergy for phase separation. This exclusive feature makes evaporation a very viable treatment method for TDS (total dissolved solids), over 4,500 milli grams per litre. The proprietary,self-regu lating device causes the AutoFlash to be able to operate outside of steady state con ditions in a highly stable manner. Donson Engineering Circle reply card No. 177

ground iCIemmer

double wall tanks

are the economi cal and environ

mentally friendly storage system of today. They are transportable and come in all sizes

and styles to meet fuel or chemical

All tanks are ULC labeled.

Clemmer Technologies fabricated ULC Liquid Storage Tanks are available in fiberglass, steel or a combination of both, in capacities from 1300 litres to 100,000 litres and beyond. Above ground, under ground, single wall, double wall, fire

Waterline Environmental Services

rated and more are available.

storage require ments.


storage systems receive a positive re sponse from banks,insurance companies, landlords, and local approval authorities.

Circle reply card No. 181

Clemmer Technologies Circle reply card No. 182

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Clemmer Technologies is a full service steel and fiberglass manufacturer of stor age systems based out of Waterloo, Ontario, with two additional manufactur

ing facilities in Alberta. We are an ASME U-stamp certified shop and offer a full line of pressure vessels that meet the most stringent code specifications. Field proven with thousands of installations. Clemmer Technologies Circle reply card No. 183 73

storage Tanks and Containment

Erection of large FRP tanks for a solvent extraction process at a uranium plant

Perhaps one of the most inhos

support. The difficulties in this task were im

pitable and inaccessible places

in North America, McClean

mediately apparent. From the engineer ing point of view, it is rarely desirable to build tanks from component pieces. Given the problems of delivering the product to the job site, however, the op timum solution was to build in parts and

Lake is tucked into the north

west corner of Saskatchewan, where it borders the Northwest Territories. Bat

tered by Arctic weather and accessed by air or a rough dirt road north of La Ronge, McClean Lake is some 3,000

to assemble on location.

kilometres northwest of Toronto. The task of Fabricated Plastics Lim

ited (FABCO), was to build the follow ing FRP tanks, all to be used in the sol vent extraction process for uranium processing: • Rectangular tank 9.5 m (31.2 ft.) long X 4.0 m (13.2 ft.) wide x 2.5 m (8.2 ft.) deep. • Rectangular tank 6.93 m (22.7 ft.) long X 1.95 m (6.4 ft.) wide x 1.2 m (4 ft.) deep. • Rectangular tank 7.4 m (24.3 ft.) long X 3.46 m (11.35 ft.) wide x 1.2 m (4 ft.) deep. • Rectangular tank supplied in shippable pieces, which, when field assembled would be 6.5 m (21.3 ft.) long x 5.0 m (16.4 ft.) wide x 2.5 m (8.2 ft.) deep. • Cylindrical tank with a domed head and flat bottom supplied in shippable oblated sections, which, when field

erected, would measure 6.0 m (19.7 ft.) diameter x 10.8 m (35.4 ft.) height. • Cylindrical tank 3.0 m (10 ft.) diam eter X 4.0 m (13.2 ft.) high with agitator

Rectangular tanks of such large di mensions necessarily produce deflection numbers that, if improperly designed, destroy the tank's integrity. Added to the problem of dimensions, extra stress was placed on the tank sidewalk by the placement of large and heavy pumps. Armen Seropian, senior design en gineer, headed the team for the detail design, calculations, CAD drawing and shop specifications used for this project. FABCO's design specified a total com bined maximum wall deflection for the

rectangular tanks of 5/16" (7.9 mm). To provide a superior construction and long-lasting performance in the cor rosive service, FABCO chose to build

the rectangular tank using a Monolithic integral lamination construction, which reduced the number of secondary bond ing joints in the tanks. The large cylindrical tank, made in sections, was done according to oblating techniques FABCO uses for large diam eter tanks. This technique allows a six meter diameter tank wall section x 4.0

Waterline Environmental Services Inc.

provides a wide range of "hands-on"

m high to be oblated to a shippable di mension of approximately 3.0 m wide x 4.0 m high x 7.62 m long. This construction and technique has been used by FABCO since 1978 to build tanks of unshippable diameters and solves the problem of field fabrication of large vessels. In addition to the normal Q.A. proc ess governing the manufacture of these tanks, the rectangular tanks were hydro static tested and the design deflection specified was met without complica tions.

The vessels were shipped on trucks

environmental services. We seek to

to Saskatoon for furtherance to McClean

function as the working right hand


to those responsible for the environmental interest of their

©■ULCtank testing

customer or organization.

■ Supply and installation of standard size and custom designed double

wall aboveground storage tanks

■ Soil removal and site remediation

On anfval at McClean Lake, FABCO

personnel were surprised to find that in late September, the temperature had plummeted to -35 °C and the strong wind and heavy snow had reduced visibility to near zero. Temporary watei-proof and heated shelters were erected.


allowed the critical FRP jointing work to be done in a dry and warm (65 - 70°F)

■ Soil testing


■ Underground tank removal

The long proven erection procedures for oblated tanks were efficiently fol lowed and the extraordinary cooperation of the site personnel allowed all the work to be completed in three weeks. For more information, circle reply card No. 307

■ Emergency generator numbers ■ Monitor wells

Waterline Environmental Services Inc.

4151 Morris Drive, Unit 4, Burlington, ON L7L 5L5 ■ Tel: 905-333-6604 Fax: 905-333-0368 E-mail: waterline@idirect.com


Elevated cylindrical tank 3.0 m (10 ft.) diameter X 4.0 m (13.2 ft.) high.

For more information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

Water Environment Federation' ^

Pivstirviuji & Enlxtncing the O'lnhal Water Envimmnent

Plant Operations St intenance: DoubleTree Jantzen Beach

Portland, Oregon U.S.A.* June 18 - 20,2000 Specifically Designed for: • Municipat and Industrial Plant Operations and IVIaintenance Personnel

• Consulting and Design Engineers • Industrial Treatment Staff

• Regulatory Personnel • Community Planners • Equipment Manufacturers Held jointly with the Pacific Northwest Pollution Control Association.

For more information about these Specialty Conferences or any of WEF's products and services, visit www.wef.org or cail 1-800-666-0206 (or +1-703-684-2452 outside U.S.A. and Canada). E-mail confinfo@wef.org or caii WEF's Fax-on-Demand at 1-800-444-2933 or +1-703-684-2401 (select document #9905 for Plant Operations and select document #3000 for Watershed)

Hotel Vancouver• Vancouver, British Columbia

July 8-12,2000 4

Specifically Designedfor: • Biologists • Civil and Environmental Engineers -'-fc

• Consultants • Educators

• Environmentalists

• Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliers • Government Officials

• Hydrologists • Lawmakers

• Public Works Officials

• Regulators • Soil and Erosion Control Specialists • Wastewater Managers

• Water Suppliers • Wetland Research Scientists

Held in cooperation with the British Columbia Water and Wastes Association.

For more information, circle reply card No. 168(See page 25)

Flood Control

Pre-benched concrete pipe system used to mitigate basement flooding

Specially modified precast concrete pipe is an ideal

application where low flow is a major servicing consideration. The Bowie Avenue sanitai^ sewer detention tank and collection system in the City of Toronto is one such application of precast concrete pipe modified with a low flow channel. There have been very few such installations in Canada and this was the first of its

Revolutionary Brush System Prevents Algae Build-Up in Ciarifiers Called Algae Sweep Automation (ASA),

makes it durable and maintenance free. And each

this patented system of spring-loaded brushes is in

system is backed by a five-

continual use at WWTPs

except for brushes, and a one-year warranty on labor.

throughout the nation. Developed and manufac tured by the Ford Hall Company, the ASA system attaches to the skimmer arms of circular ciarifiers.

Its brushes provide over 50 points of flexibility and adjustment to ensure thorough cleaning of even the most irregular of tank surfaces. When engaged—

year warranty on parts,

Customer satisfaction is

inates labor and chemical

costs by removing normal algae build-up from all

Most of the time, the tank serves as a sani

tary sewer. The tank drains

have found that it is more

that connects with

the combined sewer.

to design them into new or

When the combined

expansion projects. Free Video Demo

To receive a free demon stration video of the

ASA system and a list of references, please give us a call at 1 800 928-2070.

for itself in less than two

of stainless steel, which

detention tank and

collection system.

efficient and cost-effective

Consequently, the average ASA system pays

installation and constructed

served as both the

through a flap gate

effluent surfaces.

years while optimizing clarifier performance and making WWTPs safer places to work. Each ASA system is custom designed for its

mentation. The 1050

mm diameter precast concrete pipe, speci fied for the project,

guaranteed 100 percent. ASA systems can be installed on existing ciari fiers, but many engineers

it takes less than two

minutes to engage the system—ASA totally elim

kind for Con Cast Pipe. The requirement for the unique sanitary sewer system resulted from basement flooding problems, due to repeated backing ups of an existing combined stormwater and sani tary sewer. Grade requirements of the sanitary sewer be low Bowie Avenue called for a system that would serve as both a detention tank and collection system with a low flow channel. The channel was required to increase the velocity of sanitary sewage during times of low flow to avoid sedi

Ford Hall Company, Inc. http://www.fordhall.com P.O. Box 54312

Lexington, Kentucky 40555 1 800 928-2070

Casting of 250 mm low flow channel in 1050 mm diameterprecastconcrete pipe.

sewer surcharges. the flap gate closes,thereby isolating the tank from the down stream section. It is sized to accommodate sanitaiy flows from houses connected to the sewer for the duration of a

10-year storm. As the surcharge decreases, the flap gate can open and receive stored flow. Low flow channels are commonly constructed on site, in the field. The extra concrete benching works to create the channel tend to be laborious and time consuming, and there

fore costly to the project. But,if the work is specified as prebenched at the concrete pipe plant, savings can be realized as the benching is undertaken in a controlled environment by craftsmen skilled in benching work of all kinds. If the plant is ISO-registered, as is Con Cast Pipe, the quality of the prebenching work and specified concrete pipe is assured. Casting time for the 250 mm diameter low flow channel took five days for 37 pieces of 1050 mm diameter 65-D pipe. The PVC (SDR-35) pipe was cut lengthways and bolted to the invert of the concrete pipe. Pre-benching required a secondaiy pour of concrete to embed the PVC channel. On site,

installation of the pre-benched pipe took four days(approxi mately 12 pipe per day)in very poor January/Februaiy weather conditions. The total length of the pipe run was 90 metres. For more Information, circle reply card No. 155

By Jason Spencer, B.Sc.,(Hons), Con Cast Pipe For more information, circle reply card No. 154 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


More funding to implement the new Canadian Environmental Protection Act

Environment Minister David

dian Environmental Protection Act

millennium," said Minister Anderson.

Act shows that we are taking this respon sibility seriously." Funding for this initiative was pro vided for in the 1999 federal budget and is, therefore, built into the existing fis

(CEPA). The new Act, which provides the government with stronger powers to protect the environment and human health, has received Royal Assent and has been proclaimed. "The funding provides the govern

"The funding for implementation of the

cal framework. â?–

Anderson says that $72 mil lion in new funding will help implement the renewed Cana

"The new CEPA is tangible evidence of the government's commitment to make environmental protection one of our top priorities as we enter the new

Concrete Pipe.

ment with the resources needed to tackle the increased workload that will result

from the additional powers and respon sibilities included in the new CEPA," he said.

The new $72 million funding is in addition to $40 million announced ear lier in 1999, to conduct scientific re search into toxic substances that harm

human health and the environment, in

cluding endocrine disruptors. Pollution prevention is the corner stone of the Canadian Environmental

Protection Act. Under the legislation, all substances currently in use in Canada will be categorized to determine if they are toxic. CEPA also establishes strict dead

lines for controlling toxic substances,

and requires the virtual elimination of the most dangerous toxic substances. Of the $72 million announced Sep tember 14,1999, $9.7 million over the next five years has been allocated to ac celerate the categorization, screening and assessment of new and existing sub stances,including the 23,000 substances currently in use in Canada.

Joined For Life. Today's concrete pipe industry is committed to producing superior products. Forget that old rumour that joints leak. For a generation,

Atotal of $57.6 million has been ear

marked for managing and controlling toxic substances, including identifying management options, and developing and maintaining control instruments. The funding improves the balance be

manufacturers across the board have

been using gaskets second to none in the industry. So joints in concrete pipe stay together forever. And that's

tween resources allocated to assess and control toxic substances. An additional

$4.7 million will be used to track progress.

a commitment that lasts a lifetime.

The Minister said the legislation pro vides Environment Canada enforcement

officers with significant new powers to deal with polluters who break the law.


It will also help Canada meet several of

Concrete Pipe

its intemational environmental obliga


tions, and provides a right-to-sue if the federal government fails to enforce


The choice of a lifetime 5045 South Service Roud. First Floor, litirlinglon, Oni, L7L SY7 1905)631-9696 Fax: 1905)631-1905 www.ocpa.com

OfE,.Hamilton Kent 77 Carlingview Drive, Toronto Ontario M9W 5E6 1-800-268-8479 lax 416-674-6960


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000

For more information, circle reply card No. 156 (See page 25)



Precast concrete drainage products used for high profile mixed-use development

Round and el iptical concrete

pipe now service Bradley Gardens, a highly visible mixed-use development in the Georgetown area of the Town of Halton Hills, Ontario. Precast concrete

products were used for the stormwater quality and quantity management sys tem that channels the flow of stormwater

Existing storm sewers and sanitary sewers adjacent to the site were at el evations that determined the grade of the buried pipe needed to drain the site. In some locations, the installations were

restricted to shallow bury. Circular con crete pipe was used to withstand loads from collector roads, and elliptical pipe at the outlet to the pond. Elliptical pipe

outfall to the stormwater management pond was connected to the round con crete pipe with a 2400 mm x 1800 mm box manhole. The consulting engineer had originally considered a long run of elliptical pipe over a distance of approxi mately 468 metres, but decided to use a heavier class of round concrete pipe with additional cover to accommodate an ac

from the site to a cold water fish

cess road into the site.

ery. Concrete products supplied to the site meet stringent provin

built on-site in case the down

A sewage pump station was

cial and national standards, as

stream sanitary sewers being con structed by the Region of Halton were not commissioned by the

well as certification through the Plant Prequalification Program of the Ontario concrete pipe indus try. The contractor, Drexler Con struction Limited, prefers the use

time the new construction on the

efficiencies related to installation.

site was occupied and generating wastewater flows. The pump sta tion was constructed using pre cast concrete manhole compo nents. It may never be commis

Bradley Gardens is a 22 ha.

sioned if the downstream sewers

of concrete in sizes 450 mm di

ameter and larger because of

mixed-use site of houses,located

are constructed on schedule.

The need for soil recharge of the Dominion Seed operation. resulted in specially designed The site was the last major agricul Today's concrete pipe Is designed to last more than 100 catchbasins used to collect storm tural enterprise near the centre of years. water at the rear of the residen Georgetown, and is remembered tial units. Stormwater is chan for the fields of flowers harvested for carries the flow that discharges into an neled into a swale and then into catchbulbs and seeds. The planning process on-site stormwater management pond basins where it enters the infiltration gal concluded with the approval of a mixed- located adjacent to a major highway in leries consisting of 250 mm diameter use development by Parallax Develop tersection. perforated pipe, geotextile socks, and ment Corporation that included me The stormwater management plan for clear stone. These galleries are located dium- and high-density residential, ma the site had to address quality and quan at the base of the catchbasins and in jor retail, commercial, a school, and tity issues for post-development flows stalled parallel to the base. A second parkland areas. for one in five and 100-year storms via outlet pipe is located above the infiltra Servicing of the site presented inter overland flow routes. The pond includes tion galleries on the proper slope to con esting challenges for the consulting en 3,063 m'of permanent pool storage be nect with the stormwater collection sys gineer, KMK Consultants of Brampton, low the elevation of 251.52 m and 985 tem. These pipes collect stormwater Ontario. The topography of the site m^ of storage capacity above the 251.52 flow in heavy rainfall events. Storm slopes gently to the southwest with an metre elevation. Discharges from the water generated by light rainfall is held average grade of 1.5% to 2%. Underly pond are controlled by a single control in the catchbasins and directed into the ing soils were not well drained in many structure with two orifice plates outlet- infiltration galleries where the water is locations, making it difficult to meet a ting to the receiving sewer. An emer returned to the soil. The stormwater requirement of development set by gency 15.2 metre wide overflow weir is management pond has also been de Credit Valley Conservation for storm also in place, in case of blockage of signed to retain rainfall so that it can water infiltration. The water supply of either of the outlets. infiltrate into soil. the Georgetown area is generated by Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products By servicing the development with deep wells, and it is important to include supplied all of the precast concrete prod precast concrete products, there were soil recharge techniques in any new de ucts. It offers a 100 year warranty on all immediate savings to the developer in velopment. its concrete pipe and associated products. the cost of materials and time, and con Round concrete pipe used for the struction was able to continue beyond By Roy P. Hylkema, P.Eng., stormwater management system ranged December into January 2000, despite on lands that were once the home

KMK Consultants Limited and

Eugenio Favaro,(0. Tech.), Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products Inc. 78

from 450 mm to 1200 mm in diameter.

winter weather conditions. The site was

The 20.9 metres of elliptical pipe was 1090 mm x 1725 mm in rise and span. The elliptical pipe used for the storm

ready for the 2000 construction season. For more information, circie repiy card No. 308

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 2000


W -So

■• <i j,' • '

We move 'em. At Con Cast Pipe, nothing stands In the way of delivering customer satisfaction. If that Involves clearing a mountain or 360°' two, we're up to the challenge. Because taking a complete SERVICE approach - what we call 360° service - Is the bedrock of our business.

We don't just manufacture the best precast concrete products, we build strong Industry teams - working closely with engineers, contractors and developers to provide the best solutions. Up and down the line at our advanced production facility, nobody does It better. From administration to manufacturing to shipping, we're focused on the success of your project. Call us and let's talk details about your next job. We're ready to move heaven and earth to make It happen.



299 Brock Road South, R.R.#3 Guelph, Ontario N1H 6H9 1 800 668-PIPE www.concastpipe.com

For more information, oircie reply card No. 309 (See page 25)

//il Construction Products

fiSTTERT More than 120 years of experience in provlcling engineering solutions to the Canadian infrastructure market

750 mm BOSS'POLY-TITE is now CSA ceitlflecl

for storm and sanitary sewer applications. Your economical choice

in the large diameter sanitary sewer market.

For more information, contact the nearest sales office or visit us on the web at www.armtec.com or www.big-o.com

HEAD OFFICE:Cueiph, Ontario • Telephone:(519)822-0210 • Fax:(519)822-1160 SALES OFFICES:

Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Caigary, iethbridge, Grande Prairie, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, ThunderBay, Sudhuiy London, Gueiph, Toronto, Peterborough, Ottawa, Mohtreai, OuebecCity, Sackviiie, St. John'sandBishop'sFaiis. For more information, circle reply card No. 310(See page 25)