Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 1999

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

Focus on storage tank regulations and options Canada's consulting engineers feeling optimistic Dramatic rise in membrane technology usage U of T tackles water disinfection concerns

Evaluating aerobic digester operations Treatment of sugar beet wastewater

November 1999

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ISSN-0835-605X October/November '99 Vol. 12 No. 5

Issued November, 1999

Aerobic digesters - size does matter - See page 51






Ad Index


Industry Update




Professional Cards

55, 58, 66-69

Product Review


Literature Reviews

Consultants' Forum



Sales Manager




E-mail: steve@eseniag.com

E-mail: tom@es0mag.com E-mail: penny@esemag.com

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON

E-mail: clenise@esemag.com

Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER

Publisher's Assistant KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

E-mall: kathy@esemag.com

Jim Bishop

Totten Sims Hubickl Associates

Beak International inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

Editoriai Comment by Tom Davey

10 Cover story - Assessing air pollution risks

12 Clement promises tough enforcement 14 Culvert protects environmentally sensitive area 16 U of T tackles disinfection concerns

22 Rise in membrane technologies continues 24 Clean water reduces solid waste volume

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mail Sales


18 Treatment of sugar beet wastewater

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Dr. Howard Goodfeilow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

ConsGlidation - an evolutionary process Low bid fees challenge consultants Boom poses design-build opportunities Meeting the ciients' needs Engineers role in environmental protection The future is bright tor engineering

Second Class Mali

Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com

28 New Canadian trenchless technology 30 The high cost of free drinking water 51 Aerobic digesters - size does matter 70 Green education or indoctrination?

Special Tank Focus; Pages 53-64 Fuel cell and dome containment

3-D glass fabric tank lining technology Lightweight, self-supporting berm liner Flammable & combustible liquid storage Design and fabrication of storage tanks eehIIEA




Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


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Editorial Comment

Please don't save me any more money "I can't afford it," said Otto Preminger

The United States of America

has an astonishing diversity of mountains, lakes, rivers and

deserts. In a single day,one can drive through the snowbound northern states to the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee. Another day's drive reveals lush palm trees and vivid blue ocean at the beaches of the Carolinas, Georgia or Horida. Diversity par excellence. But now a deadening sameness is creeping throughout US interstate high ways as signage proclaims a soulless chant of low, low prices-Sale,.sale, sale - Save, save, save. Factory outlets, sprouting up like rectangular weeds at in tersections, take up the pallid visual as sault proclaiming low prices and sales, like some fiscal tribal rites. Under the

stars, as the intersections flash by, it seems like some giant relay race is tak ing place with a celestial baton of medi ocrity passed on from town to town. In deed, an alien Mr. Spock, sighting these flashing signs across North America, might logically presume they were the scriptures of a widespread religious sect. The emphasis on saving money is so great that copywriters frequently forget to name the manufacturer of the prod uct. Burgers 99 cents, screams one sign while a few miles down the road, an

other sign screeches triumphantly: 89 cent burgers. But even in the land of Thomas Jefferson, not all burgers are created equal. What about cleanliness, hygiene, and service? Long orphaned from these frenzied sales pitches are the words: quality, durability and reputa tion, once the trinity of commerce. There was a time when the very first adjective on new storefronts was qual ity, usually positioned right after the owner's name. As a boy, wandering around the main street of my hometown in England, 1 recall seeing the word qual ity preceding a wide range of goods and

hardware or clothing, invariably, the vendors stressed the quality in products. But in our frenzy to save at any cost, two words-quality and value-have been devalued by a marketing ethos which deems that saving money is a much more attractive option to consumers than the actual value of goods or services. On a recent tiip through the US,I read

facilities can yield real savings for years. Amortize any savings from inferior engi neering over a decade and savings,if any, are likely to be miniscule. Specify equip ment on quality and you could get reli ability as well as significant savings. Add innovative engineering and you could be saving millions.

Robin Cook's book Toxin. Dr. Cook,

tal professionals have usually been ex-

Where such skills and infrastructure are absent,

the results are tragic, the death rates often surpassing the casualties of war. MD who mixes scientific reality with his fiction. Toxin is a fictitious stoiy of how

emplary in protecting the public health. Wherever well engineered treatment facilities and infrastructure are in place,

meat can cause death or serious illness if

both death and disease rates are low.

author of Coma and other novels, is an

contaminated with E. coli Oi57:H7 and not

Where such skills and infrastructure are

cooked thoroughly. Properly butchered, aged and inspected meat is quite safe and I still enjoy burgers in restaurants with a reputation for quality and hygiene. But Toxin posited a horrifying scenario in which carcasses are processed in dubi ous packing plants while government in spectors looked the other way. After read ing this book,I wondered if the focus on low prices had even detracted buyers from the realities of quality . It is ironic that we must go from lit erature to Tinseltown to get some eco nomic common sense. While Hollywood is synonymous with lavish film sets and astronomical salaries, there is one quote

absent, the results are tragic, the death rates often surpassing the casualties of war. But back to economics. No won

can't afford it!" The famous director

der they call it the dismal science. Assessing value Analytical laboratories, some of which can find toxins at parts per quad rillion, are especially vulnerable to the low bid ethos. Their space age technol ogy must be matched with stringent chains of custody and elaborate quality control systems. Over the last decade, many laboratories were started up in re sponse to growing awareness of toxic real estate, biological impacts, and industrial effluents. Some labs were set up with the splendid premise of providing qual ity data that would be legally defensible. Huge investments were made in an ticipation of a genuine need for quality

made his plea after being highly dissatis

environmental data. However, some

fied with the second-rate results of cost-

superbly staffed and equipped labs were repeatedly undercut by poorly equipped labs, with the contracts often going to

which should be inlaid in the entrances to council chambers: "Don't economise

any more," pleaded Otto Preminger, "I

cutting during filmmaking. Who would have thought that economic wisdom could emerge from Hollywood? The environmental industry has been beset with the twin problems of protect ing public health while catering to the low

services. Whether the

bid ethos. For consultants, manufactur

stores were selling meat, fish, game, poultry, footwear.

ers and laboratories, price has too often been the deciding factor. Yet the life cy cle benefits ofsuperior pumps,valves,and piping can last half a century, often more.

By Tom Davey

It must be recorded that environmen

Both in economics and treatment effec

tiveness, well designed environmental

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

the lowest bidder, rather than the best

qualified. The result has been a triumph of price over quality. Environmental labs and consulting engineers might tell clients to go to their video store to see a list of Otto

Preminger's movies. None will be ti tled: The Low Bid Ethos. The basic

script of low bidding does, however, contain all the ingredients for both trag edy and comedy. â?–

Letters and E-mail


Dear Tom:

massive, precise, water-recycling de

I've just read the September 1999 issue

vice, and that the water we've got is all

of Environmental Science & Engineer

we're ever going to have. Getting back to the notion that people may not like to drink "reclaimed sewage water", it

ing, and enjoyed several excellent arti cles. However,my Gneif Comment was

somewhat disappointing, because the exponential signage was lost in the print ing process resulting in an eiTor in my calculations.

1 know from personal experience how you are always upset when rare er rors creep into ES&E. May 1 use this unfortunate event as an opportunity to write more about urine and water?

My original story was about how

should be clear that we are doing so, and we will continue to do so, and we

should encourage our govemments to

better support our treatment facilities, our sewage/water infrastracture, and the scientists and engineers who monitor and maintain them.

J.N. Bishop, President and Chief Operating Officer, Beak International Incorporated

much of our water was once someone's

urine. This pithy notion came about as

Editor's Note:

a result of an article I'd read on how peo

This error with super and subscripts

ple "would not drink reclaimed sewage water". My guest editorial showed how each of us produces 330 x 10^^ mol ecules of urine daily. If this was diluted in all the water in the world [1.4 billion cubic kilometres or 1.4 x 10^' litres(Edi tor's note: not 1.4 x 10'ÂŽ as originally fcr6"{2-29m)


published)], every litre of all the water in the world would contain 23,600 mol

ecules of water that had previously been someone else's urine.

This is forjust one person. Iffive bil lion of us each produced one litre of urine


per day,there would be 1,650 x 10ÂŽ^ mol ecules of urine each day, which if mixed with all the water would give us about

120 x 10'^ molecules of everyone's urine in every litre of water. Since a litre of water contains 330 x 10^' molecules of

water, about one-half is water from the

human urine production for one day. But why stop here? In one year, this

population will produce enough urine that 70% of each litre of water in the world

will be derived from urine. Considering When it comes to conciete piping, who saw length

that this human population(more or less)

isn't important? For diameters from 525mm (21")

has been around for ten years, the per

to 900mm (36") Munro Concrete gives you an

centage rises to 74%. If we consider the urine production of all the people who

extra six inches! What does that mean to you?

Fewer joints, less time and labour to install. Simply put, longer pipe means less work. Less work means more profit.

Just another way we save you time, and money!

have ever been bom over the course of

human history (about 110 billion), and assume an average life space of25 years, the percentage of our water that was once human urine is over 80%.

So far, we have only considered hu mans. If we add the urine production from monkeys, cats, rats, dogs, hogs,

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iguanas, dinosaurs, and so on, the ines capable conclusion is that the water in your bottle or cooler or tap has passed through someone's - or something's kidneys several times before it got to yours.

All of which underscores the fact that

we are blessed with a planet that is a

occurred when an E-mail was tranferred

to one of our Macintoshs for graphics

and layout. Sorry about the confusion. A corrected version may be seen on our web site at: www.esemag.com. Tom Davey

Dear Mr.Davey:

It was interesting to read your article on Margaret Tradeau Kemper (June 1999 issue, page 10). Hopefully, this is not a

repeat of the Bangladeshi experience where the drilling of deep water wells has led to the greatest anthropogenic environmental disaster ever.

M.Wright Dear Mr. Davey:

1 was delighted to learn from Doug McTavish that you are interested in par ticipating in the Year 2000 Conference of the Canadian Society of Civil Engi neering to be held in London,from June 7 to 10, 2000.

On behalf of the Organizing Com mittee, 1 am confirming our invitation to you to be our Keynote Speaker on Thursday, June 8, 2000, at the opening of the Conference. Your presentation will be scheduled for the morning at 8:45 a.m., following the welcome from the City of London. Your outstanding contributions to ward infrastructure improvement,envi ronmental protection and enhancing awareness of engineering accomplish ments,resulted in our desire to have you speak at the Conference. The theme of the Conference is

Building Canadafor the Third Millen nium.

1 look forward to your involvement.

W.Wayne Irwin,P.Eng.,FCSCE Chair, Conference Organizing Committee

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


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Cover Story

Model assesses risk of heavy gas releases

Chemical releases to the air, whether planned or acciden tal, of heavy gas vapours

such as chlorine, ammonia,

benzene, and cyclohexane, are of major concern at industrial facilities due to

their potential occupational health haz ards. One tool that can be effectively used to estimate the on-site concentra

tions of these types of pollutants is the SLAB heavy gas computer model. SLAB is capable of determining the pollutant concentration for ground level evaporating pools, elevated vertical jets (or stacks), horizontal jets and ground based instantaneous releases at specified receptors over various averaging time periods. SLAB is commonly applied for accidental release modelling of heavy gas vapours to the atmosphere,(e.g. US EPA's Risk Management Plan). However, an other often overlooked application is its use as an industrial health and safety plan ning tool to estimate employee exposure

Computer modelling helps assess and reduce the risk of worker exposure near industriai vents, tanks and stacks.

to short-term releases of heavy gases. Canadian ORTECH Environmental,

as a third party to HSP Engineering of

By Tracy Canney,

Cornwall, Ontario, used the SLAB

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heavy gas model to assist a client in es timating employee exposure to a propri etary nitrogen-based, volatile chemical ('contaminant A') during a regularly scheduled maintenance period on a 60

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on the conditions modelled,the client can

used in the model were a stable condi

is an efficient and effective tool for in

tion scenario (stability class F with 1.5 metres per second wind speeds) and a typical condition scenario (stability class B with five metres per second winds).

dustrial facilities that may have poten tial employee exposure to heavy gases. This case study successfully illustrates that SLAB is a useful tool, not only to predict the impacts of accidental releases on the surrounding community,but also as a planning tool in various industrial health and safety issues that are faced by facilities on a daily basis. For more information, circie repiy card No. 112

Both conditions were at an ambient

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receptors, can use this information as a guideline for planning and scheduling maintenance periods on the tower. Based

two sets of meteorological conditions

sure levels were a health risk. The SLAB model was run for three


The client, now armed with the esti mates of the release scenarios at all of the

determine what precautions are necessary for personal safety of employees work ing on the tower. In order to expand to other meteorological conditions and other areas ofconcem at the facility, additional meteorological scenarios and receptor distances could be analyzed. The application of the SLAB model

different emission rates at durations of both one minute and five minutes. The

Davis Controls"

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metre tall tower, located 15 metres

level to contaminant A at various floors

from Flowline.

tower were well below the STEL for

contaminant A. The height of concern

downwind from a low level stack.

The stack periodically released vari ous quantities of contaminant A during venting operations. The client's primary concern was the employees' exposure

switches and transmitters

at ground level, 15 metres, 40 metres, and 60 metres above ground. The results predicted that for all emis sion scenarios, the ground level, 40metre and 60-metre receptors on the

temperature of 10°C. The emission con figuration for the stack in SLAB was a vertical jet release with all of contami nant A released in the vapour phase. Receptors, located on the tower at the heights of the working stages, were set

Environmentai Science & Engineering. November 1999


Confidence in safeguarding our environment

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wastes pose to people and the environment. We embrace and develop our Industry's most advanced technologies. Our destruction efficiencies for organic waste materials exceed 99.9999%.

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New Minister promises tough enforcement 1,000 companies to have EMS by 2003

Ontario's environment minis

ter Tony Clement eloquently outlined plans for his new portfolio at a recent Cana dian Environment Industry Association meeting in Toronto. While new to the position, the minister demonstrated a clear understanding of complex issues, while presenting future initiatives with conviction.

"As we move into the next century, we are witnessing the convergence of three environmental trends: the coming together of public

gence offers unprecedented opportuni ties for resource conservation and envi

ronmental protection." He stressed the importance of partner ships. "We are working with several in dustry organizations to help their mem bers achieve compliance with the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Sys tem. In our current business plan,we have set a goal of 1,000 Ontario companies to have an EMS in place by the year 2003." The minister then went on to com

ment on regulations. "As a result of an extensive investigation, we have re

awareness, techno

cently uncovered weaknesses in our haz

logical advances and the far-reaching de

ardous waste regulations. In response, I announced a six-point action plan to strengthen Ontario's hazardous waste

cisions that must be

made by govern ments," he said, add ing that "this conver-

By Steve Davey, President, ES&E Magazine

regulations and requirements for hazard ous waste facilities in the province. By

to Strengthen Environmental Protection and Enforcement, we have closed loop holes that have, for years, enabled pol luters to violate the law and avoid pen alties imposed on them. Our new law will help reduce that trend. The law clearly identifies a company's environ mental obligations and requirements. And you can be certain that it will be consistently applied. It is fair to those who comply with our laws, but very tough on those who break them." The minister then described the MOE's Provincial Water Protection

Fund which has provided $200 million to help municipalities assume responsi bility for water and sewer facilities; im proved environmental monitoring through a two million dollar investment in new state-of-the-art equipment; and

responding quickly, we will be able to

a $10 million commitmentfor the analy

address a number of inconsistencies

sis of climate change and how it affects

and ensure that our amendments will be

Ontario's environment and its economy.

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Regulations • Ontario's Drive Clean program; • Greenhouse gas emissions from gov ernment operations have been reduced by 32 percent; •$4 million spent to upgrade the minis try's air monitoring network; • New landfill standards to help control methane from solid waste landfill sites;

• The Energy Competition Act, which will allow Ontario to rely on more re newable energy and cleaner technolo gies, resulting in lower electricity costs and reduced emissions that cause smog

and acid rain;

• Taking a tough stand with the United States on transboundary pollution. "From an environmental perspective, these programs represent a strong foun dation. But they should also represent prime business development opportunities for your (the environmental protection) industry. As companies seek out environ mentally friendly alternatives to the old traditional ways, they will look to the environment industry sector for guidance and direction," he concluded. ❖

The Hon. Tony Clement

nificant dent in reducing the emissions that lead to smog. I credit our progress to a unique partnership that involves industry associations, companies, goverrunent agencies and non-government organizations. For example,50 partici pants have now signed Ontario's Smog Accord. That is an excellent indication

of the broad level of support that is out there for our goals," he said, adding that "the Ontario government, for its part, is serious about reducing smog and ad dressing other air issues, and has imple mented a number of measures that, to

gether, will result in real improvements to the quality of the air we breathe." Some examples the minister gave

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Multi-purpose culvert installed In environmentally significant open space

Trafalgar Country Phase I is one of Halton Hills' new com

munities now under develop ment in Georgetown, Ontario. The 478-units residential development is located on 48 hectares in the town's

also an important recharge system for a resident trout population downstream from the railway grade separation. Before construction of the grade separation, a 1200 mm corrugated steel

to and from "Trafalgar Country",should the northern railway line traversing Trafalgar Road be blocked. Water and sanitary sewer services follow the Prin

pipe (CSP) culvert carried the flow of the tributary under the railway embank

munity. The alignment ofPrincess Anne Drive made it necessary to route the tributary through an extended precast concrete culvert under the roadway, be cause of close proximity and orientation of both the tributary and roadway. Construction of a new precast con crete culvert under the railway overpass and Princess Anne Drive held many opportunities for improving aquatic

northwest quadrant. The character of the new community is shaped by an un ment. The CSP culvert was a barrier to named tributary of Black Creek that migratory fish, as fish could not access bisects the community, passing under a the invert of the pipe from the natural railway grade separation marking the bed of the watercourse. southern boundary. The tributary is con Environmental and ecological link tained in an 8.1 hectare valley system, ages identified in the environmental re designated as open space on the devel port, that had to be maintained and en opment plan. hanced, included; Concerns about the development of •Recharge/discharge areas and groundthe site focused on development impact, water contributions to the Black Creek tributary. alignment of the Princess Anne exten sion, hydraulics, stormwater manage • Wetland areas in the bottom of the creek valley and water quality in down ment and groundwater discharge/re charge. Credit Valley Conservation stream reaches of the creek. (CVC) and the Town of Halton Hills • Aquatic habitat connections through Environmental Advisory Committee the CN Rail south embankment. (TEAC)played major roles in determin •Wetland linkage to provincially signifi ing the treatment of the tributary that, cant Hungry Hollow Wetland (down in tum,influenced the engineering of the stream) via Black Creek. culvert structure under the Princess • Wooded corridors through the valley with potential linkage to Environmen Anne extension. CVC and TEAC,(sup ported by the Environmental Study of tally Sensitive Areas west of the site. The extension of Princess Anne the tributary by Gartner Lee Limited), Drive under a new railway grade sepa identified the significance of the tribu tary as seasonal habitat for fish. It is ration at the southern limit of the site was needed to integrate the new com By Derek Guberney and munity with the remainder of George James Steele, Con Cast Pipe,

Guelph, ON

town. The extension also serves as sec

ondary access for emergency vehicles

cess Anne extension into the new com

habitat and fish movement. As there is

no flow in the tributary during the dry summer months, water velocity and fish movement is not an issue. But in the

spring, when the creek is flowing, in troducing a low flow channel into the bottom of the culvert would direct the

water efficiently and possibly allow fish

passage if the velocities were high enough. A single culvert solution, running along the Princess Anne Drive road al lowance to - and under the roadway of a connecting street, was preferred. The entire design concept of the culvert and road crossing, developed by Hans Vierhuis of R.V. Anderson, tied in with

his design of the new railway bridge. The culvert and road alignment was designed to pass between the bridge

piers. Combining the culvert crossing with the road crossing eliminated the need for extensive shoring, which would have been required for a separate cul vert crossing below the railway. Con sequently, construction costs of the crossing were significantly reduced. The extended culvert would also prevent

possible sediment and salt laden runoff from the two road crossings from enter ing the tributary, and runoff would have a chance to infiltrate into the ground before reaching the drainage course. Design of the box culvert first called for non-standard size(4200 mm x 2400 mm)box units. A meandering low flow channel was recommended for the bot

tom of the culvert to direct the flow, re

duce velocity and prevent scouring of the tributary downstream from the cul vert. It was recommended to embed

There are 260 metres of(4.88 m x 2.27 m)Con/Span units. 14

gravel in the culvert floor to roughen the Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


We hove dnxst everything you rieed for yoir field jote Hydrocarbon Test Kit for Soils

channel and improve habitat. Where structural support north of the overpass was not required, an open bottom rectangu

pH/ conductivity salinity

lar culvert was recommended to allow the natural stream

bed to be exposed, allowing groundwater discharge in the

instrument with

area to flow directly into the tributary. Boulders were rec ommended in the tributary bed. Since the design was calling for sections ofopen and closed

cable lengths up to 100 feet YSI Model 63

culvert beds for environmental and structural considerations,

Con Cast offered an altemative to the precast box culvert, that would save the municipality additional costs. Precast con crete Con/Span ai'ches were considered most effective to meet structural and hydraulic engineering requirements, and envi ronmental considerations throughout the length of the tribu tary. Boulders were placed along the natural bed of the stmcture to serve as energy dissipators, thereby slowing the flow of the stream during flood conditions. Slowing the flow also reduces any erosion of the stream downstream from the en closure and allows groundwater discharge and recharge. The contract for the system called for 260 metres of(4.88 m X 2.27 m)Con/Span units with monolithic headwalls and wingwalls. Con-Drain Company (1983) Ltd. was the general con tractor for the entire development, including temporary realignments. The alignment of the box culvert with the two radii, and associated intricate detail, was installed by Con Drain's own forces. Cast-in-place footings for the cul vert were prepared by Toronto Zenith. Installation of all precast concrete drainage products began in September, 1998, and concluded in April, 1999. R.V.Anderson was the consulting engineer for the developer. Law Developments. For more information, circle reply card No. 113


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Environmenud Science & Engineering, November 1999

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Drinking Water

Using drinking water treatment simuiator Students tackle disinfection concerns

In a recent innovative assignment, Civil Engineering students at the University ofToronto pooled their talents to address a growing drink ing water issue. Teams of graduate stu dents used computer simulation to de termine how best to optimize a water treatment plant to meet tough new stand

: SensUivil^p Analvsis





Close Disinfection By^Rrodud Formalion





icentration 200

ards for disinfectant residual and disin

fectant by-product (DBF) concentra tions, while maintaining the mandatory



reduction of indicator microbes.

The assignment marked a new ap proach by Dr. Robert Andrews and his



research associate, Ron Hofmann, to

address real-world problems in the class room. According to Dr. Andrews,"the students were called upon to develop an optimal water treatment process train while taking into account both opera tional and regulatory constraints."








[A2]Raw Water Influent Temperature(deg C)

The students used a water treatment

simulation program called WatPro (de veloped by Enviromega Inc.) for their assignment. The software allowed the students to easily modify the point of disinfectant addition,change the type of disinfectant or coagulant, and to add or modify unit processes in their assess

proposed in the USA for the Stage II Disinfectant/Disinfection By-Froduct Rule. The objective of the assignment was to evaluate potential treatment sce

pathogen control. They could move the point of disinfectant application to any in the treatment train to investigate the

ment. Research on DBF formation com

narios, and then recommend the modi

and contact times. Various disinfectants

pleted by Dr. Andrews and his graduate students has been incorporated into the

fications that would be required for proc ess operations and in order to achieve the requirements, while still maintain ing effective microbial control. The problem was presented so that there was no easy solution. The given raw water quality was challenging, and the existing treatment train poorly suited for meeting the new DBF regulations. In fact, there was no "right" answer. The students would be forced to accept some trade-offs, having tojustify them as they would in real life. For example, should the clear well be over-designed in case

could be examined to balance DBF for

model, such that WatFro is state-of-the-

art. For example, models for by-prod uct formation when using chlorine di oxide as the primary disinfectant have just recently been added to the model. "WatFro represents a unique platform in which to integrate research that has been funded by many organizations, and com pleted by graduate students at the Uni versity ofToronto," said Frof. Andrews. For the assignment, student teams assumed the role of consulting firms. The aspiring engineers were required to prepare a report addressing the concems of a municipality faced with stringent new limits on total trihalomethanes

(TTHMs)and haloacetic acids(HAAs). The criteria would be similar to those

By Hugh Monteith, Enviromega Inc., Robert C. Andrews and Ronald

Hofmann, University of Toronto Dept. of Civil Engineering

The model shows how trihalomethanes rise to unacceptable levels with increasing water temperatures.

mation with Giardia and virus control.

The assignment forced the students to draw on everything that they had leamed in the lecture portion of their physical/ chemical treatment course in order to

solve the problem. Ingenuity shone through the student reports, from the choice of names for their consulting firm to the approaches used to meet the needs of their client

municipalities. The report receiving top marks was prepared by a team using the name La Vie de I'Fau, while the second-

chlorine doses had to be varied in un

place team called themselves "Freshly

commonly warm weather, or would use of an alternative disinfectant, such as chlorine dioxide, solve the problem? Good judgement, guided by the predic tions of the software, was required. The range of treatment alternatives that could be explored was very broad. Students learned how adding baffles to the contact basins increased the hydrau

Modeled Waters Inc.".

lic residence times, which in turn low ered the disinfectant concentration

needed to provide the required level of 16

trade-offs between disinfectant demand

In their assessments, the students re

alized they could only optimize the dis infection performance, given the qual ity of the raw water and plant configu ration, by switching from chlorine to chlorine dioxide as the primary disin fectant. They also recognized that the

dosage of ClO^ would need to change with seasonal raw water temperatures. It wasn't that simple a solution, however, as the teams discovered that they still

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Drinking Water had to find a way to achieve the required microbial reductions by increasing the disinfection parameter Ct(contact time * residual disinfection concentration in

each unit process). To ensure the re quired level of microbial inactivation

by Prof. Andrews.


Through the use of teaching aids such as the WatPro treatment plant simula tor, graduates of the Environmental En gineering program in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of

Simulation allowed the students to

test a variety of process options in a short interval of time, allowing them to quickly determine strategies which

was achieved, the team recommended

could, or could not, be considered as viable alternatives. As well,the students

addition of chloramine to the clear well

determined that many different factors

as the secondary disinfectant, and the use of baffling in a clear well to elevate the Ct disinfection parameter. The student response to the assign ment was very enthusiastic. It presented an opportunity to creatively apply the theories that they were learning in the classroom, with the ability to immedi ately see the outcome. The students also appreciated the insight that they gained

needed to be evaluated,from raw water

Toronto will have much better under

standing of the complex problems faced by water treatment facilities, and poten

quality, to the removal of organic DBP pre-cursor material, to the required con tact time in order to ensure adequate dis

tial solutions to these concerns.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 115




Simulation allowed the

students to test a variety

of process options in a short interval of time,

allowing them to

quickly determine aste wa


strategies which could,

errlck FI6>i


trig fed into a ing machine

or could not, be considered as viable

idemands, whichi jjon corporatjS


o control B.O.D."

aerhand) discharges atment.costs, ha§ iedJor efficientTs

into how different treatment processes are related. They learned, for example, that lowering the pH for enhanced co agulation also results in less THM for mation, and that if chlorine were being



applied, the lower pH would also result in more Giardia and viruses being inac tivated due to the greater proportion of hypochlorous acid relative to hypochlo-


rite. Such relationships between treat

ment processes are very difficult to ex plain in the classroom. A computer model gives the students an immediate cause-and-effect response across the entire treatment train. Prof. Andrews


stated that "the overall quality of the re ports was excellent, and that the students were able to grasp and solve difficult real-life engineering problems by using

PHONE:[716] 683-9010 FAX:[716] 683-4991

the model in the classroom." A similar,

but less intensive assignment, is also given to fourth year students that are taught an introductory treatment course

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


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For more information, circle reply card No. 116 (See page 25)


Wastewater Treatment

Treatment of wastewater containing Saponin

The sugar beet industry is one

of the largest water consum ers among the food process ing industries. Consequently,


Settling Ponds Secondary

Biological Filters


it generates large amounts of highly con taminated waste waters and solid wastes.

These may cause various environmen tal problems, such as contamination of underground water and surface water bodies. In order to avoid contamination

of natural water resources, treatment of


Grit Tank

Biological Filters

\^rimary Giarifiers

wastewater from beet processing is re quired prior to disposal.

treatment and other wastewater treat

ment processes. Even a small amount ofSaponin in effluent is toxic to fish and gives a specific and very unpleasant taste and odour to water, so it is important to control the concentration of Saponin in both treatment influent and effluent.

This article presents results of the theoretical, pilot- and full-scale studies conducted by the author in association with the Environmental Protection

Laboratory of the Kiev Civil Engineer ing Institute(Ukraine)and various sugar beet factories in Ukraine and Russia.

It provides general information on Saponin and its characteristics, environ mental concerns associated with

Saponin, foaming problems, impact of Saponin on activated sludge and attached growth process, and pre-treatment by flotation.

Characteristics of

Saponin Saponins are sur-

By V. Saknenko, Ph.D., P.Eng. R.V. Anderson Associates 18

Tertiary Treatment Ponds Flotation Tank


Treatment of wastewater from the

sugar beet processing is a complex and expensive process. It often includes anaerobic and aerobic processes with two or even three stages to achieve the required quality of effluent. Very high concentrations of organic contaminants and suspended solids are among the well-known reasons for such a complex ity. Another less known reason, is the presence of Saponin in the wastewater. Saponin is a contaminant specific to this industry. It is a natural surfaceactive substance present in the sugar beet and released during the beet processing. The presence of Saponin in wastewater impacts the efficiency of biological

Holding Ponds


Pumping Station


Flotation Tank

Ttiickened Overflow

Treatment Unit



Final Ponds

Figure 1 - Simplified Diagram of the Chervonoznamenka Sugar Beet Factory Wastewater Treatment Plant.

face-active substances that can be found

in more than 1000 different plants and even in some marine animals, such as

sea slug and starfish. Etymologically Saponin means soap-like (Latin Sapo soap). Saponins are high molecular complex organic non-ammonia sub stances that belong to glycosides, and they are divided into neutral (steroid) and acidic (triterpenoid). Most often a few Saponins can be found in plants and the amounts vary from traces to 68 per cent. Saponin is an extremely surfaceactive substance, and even 0.0005% so

lution of Saponin can cause foaming (Kirichenko, 1976). Approximately 0.1 to 0.8 percent of Saponins can be found in the sugar beet. The amount of Saponin depends on the variety of sugar beet, area of cultivation, time of harvesting, length of storage and condition of the beets {Nagomaya, 1967) Saponin content in raw juice, wastewaters and solid wastes can vaiy widely from one factory to another. Saponin is released from the sugar beet mainly dur ing the beet transportation, washing, slic ing and diffusion processes. The negative impact of Saponin on the sugar beet processing is a well-rec ognized phenomenon. A survey among the sugar companies in Europe and the USA conducted by Hallanoro (1990) revealed that 62 percent of sugar com panies experience foam problems asso

ciated with beet fluming (hydro-trans portation) and washing; 92 percent with extraction, and 46 percent - with juice purification. Foaming in sugar processing causes sugar losses and wors ens the quality of the sugar produced. Foaming also decreases the actual capacity of the sugar factory and results in additional expenses associated with the costs of antifoamers and defoamers. Environmental Concerns

In spite of documented negative im pacts of Saponin on sugar beet process

ing, environmental concerns associated with the presence of Saponin in wastewater and solid wastes from sugar beet processing are not generally well rec ognized. The presence of Saponin in wastewater and solid wastes, however,

has a significant negative impact on wastewater treatment. If it not removed

from wastewater prior to disposal, it can cause contamination of the natural water resources.

Saponin is toxic to fish and other water inhabitants. It significantly slows down the natural processes of purifica tion in water bodies {Kraizman, 1958; Zagrodski, 1973; Zamfir, 1972), adversely affects taste and causes odour in underground and surface waters {Kraizman, 1958). The maximum al lowable concentration of Saponin in water bodies was determined to be 0.2

mg/L {Kraizman, 1958; Zamfir, 1972).

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Wastewater Treatment

Therefore, special measures should be

rake the foam to the foam-collecting lots. After spontaneous suppressing, foam in the form of an extremely con

of biological processes, along with a very poor treatment quahty;one ofthe reasons for such a poor performance was the pres ence of Saponin in the wastewater. Studies conducted by Gumbatova, (1977); Kraiznian, (1958); and Zamfir, (1972)identified that Saponin has a sig nificant negative impact on biological processes. The maximum allowable concentration of Saponin in the influent to biological treatment was determined to be 10 mg/L, with a requirement for an adaptation of microorganisms to Saponin. These studies, however, were conducted in laboratory scale, and dy namic conditions occurring in a real bio logical treatment process were not inves tigated. In order to investigate the im pact of Saponin on the biological treat ment process under dynamic conditions, special studies were conducted by the author using continuous flow reactors. Activated Sludge Process The impact of Saponin on the acti vated sludge process was studied on a ^\\olflow-through reactor. The facility consisted of an aeration tank with an hy

centrated thickened overflow (BODj

draulic retention time of six hours and a

taken to assure sufficient removal of

Saponin during wastewater treatment to prevent contamination of the under ground water and surface water bodies. Foaming Problems Foaming is one of the most visible problems caused by the presence of Saponin in wastewater and a serious problem in sugar beet processing. Because of its high surface activity, Saponin can form abundant quantities of a very stable foam. In some cases, the problem could be so significant that the foam could roll off the surface of

flumes; treatment facilities and spread on to large areas. It could also compli cate plant operations, maintenance and even access to the treatment facilities.

At some sugar beet factories in Ukraine and Russia, the author wit

nessed such problematic situations that special foam-collecting lots were con structed, and bulldozers were used to

could be as high as 10,000 mg/L and secondary clarifier with an hydraulic re concentration of Saponin -500 mg/L or higher) was directed into the common collector-mixing tank and then to thebiological treatment facilities. Various approaches can be under taken in order to prevent the excessive foaming in various wastewaters from the sugar beet processing. They can be clas sified as: temporary measures - to pre vent or reduce foaming by applying antiformers or defoamers, and perma nent measures-to remove Saponin from wastewater by using physical or chemi cal treatment technologies. Using antifoamers and defoamers only temporarily solves the foaming problem. They do not remove Saponin from the wastewater, but rather carry it out further, causing various problems at

tention time of 1.5 hours. The system included continuous recycling of return sludge(RAS)and periodical wasting of excess sludge (WAS). The study was conducted with municipal wastewater without Saponin and with the addition of 2, 5 and 10 mg/L of Saponin. Aera tion was provided at a constant rate of 30 mVm^.hr,through a ceramic fine bub ble diffuser.

Parallel with the pilot reactor, a con trol reactor was operated with munici pal wastewater only. It provided stable treatment with about 85 percent of the

BODj removal at a Mixed Liquor Sus pended Solids(MLSS)concentration of 1,400 mg/L and a sludge volume index of 130 mL/g. Performance of the pilot system during the start-up periods for each experiment (without Saponin in wastewater) was identical to the per formance of the control facility. During the experiment, it was re vealed that an addition of 2 mg/L of Saponin did not affect the system sig nificantly. The sludge volume index increased only slightly - to 180 mL/g, and MLSS declined to 1,300 mg/L, re

sulting in the decline of the BOD^ re-

City of Toronto Western Beaches Tunnel update

other treatment facilities or contamina tion of the natural water resources. Al

ternatively, by employing permanent measures to remove Saponin from the system,the problem could be solved per petually, and the total cost of wastewater treatment could be substantially reduced. Impact on Biological Wastewater Treatment

Studies conducted at various waste-

water treatment plants at sugar beet fac tories in Ukraine revealed serious prob lems associated with the operation of aeration tanks and biofilters. Most prob lems were related to frequent upsetting

consisting of three large shafts (each approximately 26 m in diameter and 35 m to 40 m deep) and a connecting tun nel(3 m in diameter and 3.7 km long); • a pumping station located in the large shaft at Battery Park,situated at the east ern end of the tunnel;

• interception chambers and dropshafts to direct flow from 10 existing sewers into the storage system; • an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection sys tem for treatment of the effluent prior to discharge to Lake Ontario. The design/build team for the project comprises: Prime Contractor -

Excavation of the Cowan Avenue large shaft mid-way into the project.

McNally-Frontier Joint Venture Burlington, Ontario,(905)637-7070 Engineering Services -

Photo - Kalloon Photography

Acres International Limited/Acres &

The June issue of ES&E featured

Toronto, Ontario,(416)622-9502

an important CSO and stormwater control project being con structed along the Westem Beaches area in the City of Toronto. It includes the following major components:

•an 85,000 m^ capacity storage system.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Associated Joint Venture Mechanical Subcontractor -

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Millgrove, Ontario,(905) 689-7242 Electrical Subcontractor -

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Wastewater Treatment

moval by approximately five percent. However, the increase of Saponin con centration in the wastewater to 5 mg/L resulted in a negative effect of Saponin on the biological treatment, which was noticed on the third day. The sludge vol ume index increased to 220 mL/g,MLSS

Table 1. Flotation Pre-Treatment - Performance Parameter

Saponin, mg/L











mg/L Influent














declined to 1,200 mg/L, and the BOD^ removal declined to 70 percent. On the sixth day of operation, the system was completely upset. The sludge volume index increased to 530 mL/g, MLSS de

clined to 310 mg/L, and the BODj re moval declined to as low as 10 percent. Another experiment, with 10 mg/L ofSaponin in wastewater,indicated even faster upset of the aeration system. On the third day of operation, the sludge volume index increased to 640 mg/L, MLSS decreased to as low as 190 mg/

L, and the BOD^ removal declined to 12 percent. This MLSS decline during the experiments can be explained by worsening of the settleability of the sludge. The MLSS,therefore,could not be kept in the aeration tank at a desir able concentration,even with a constant

feet of Saponin than activated sludge systems. This phenomenon can be ex plained by a substantially lesser impact of Saponin on aeration in the attached growth process. No problems were experienced in the treatment of wastewater with up to 6 mg/L of Saponin. However, higher concentrations of Saponin in wastewater had a significant negative impact on the biological filtra tion, causing deterioration of final ef fluent quality and upsets in the biofiltration process. Wastewater Pre-Treatment

In order to eliminate problems with biological treatment of wastewaters con taining Saponin various pre-treatment options were investigated. They in cluded chemical coagulation, electrical coagulation and flotation. Chemical and electrical coagulation were found to be very effective. High quality treatment was achieved by elec trical coagulation with aluminum elec

return sludge rate. Results of the pilot study revealed that Saponin has a significant negative impact on the flow-through activated sludge process, causing an increase of the sludge volume index, decline of the trodes. The reaction time of three min MLSS and BOD removal. A complete utes resulted in 87 percent removal of upset of the system could be caused by Saponin (from 150 to 20 mg/L) and 83 the presence of Saponin in wastewater percent of Chemical Oxygen Demand in a concentration as low as 5 mg/L. (COD)removal(from 2,400 to 400 mg/ Under the conditions of the pilot experi L). Considering the large volume of

two flotation tanks (48 m^ of effective volume each which were operated in se ries), and then to the pumping station. The thickened overflow from the flota tion tanks was collected and directed to

the treatment unit. Municipal wastewater, at a rate of 1,100 mVday, after grit removal and primary sedimentation, was also directed to the pumping sta tion. Combined flows from the sugar beet factory and municipal wastewater were pumped to the biological filters. Tertiary wastewater treatment was pro vided in biological tertiary ponds, and, after chlorination, effluent was dis

charged to the final ponds. Prior to implementation of the pre liminary flotation treatment, the Cher vonoznamenka WWTP had a long his tory of noncompliance with required effluent criteria. Biological filters were used mainly for the municipal wastewater treatment, as even a relatively small portion of the sugar beet factory wastewater, resulting in an over 6 mg/L increase in the concentration of Saponin in the biofilter influent, had a toxic im


costs. So, based on evaluation of the

pact on the biological film. Implementation offlotation provided effective pre-treatment of the sugar beet factory wastewater. As can be seen from the data in Table 1, flotation provided not only effective removal of Saponin, but also general pre-treatment of wastewater. Removal of the organic contaminants, suspended solids and

Another study on the impact of Saponin on the attached growth process

capital, operations, maintenance and

HjS, as well as effective saturation of

lifetime costs, flotation was selected as

was conducted on full-scale biofilters

a preferred pre-treatment process. Two

at a sugar beet factory wastewater treatment Plant (Chervonoznamenka WWTP). The configuration of the treat ment plant allowed variations in the pro

flotation tanks were constructed at the

wastewater with oxygen were very im portant factors contributing to the fur ther effective biological treatment of this

ment, the maximum allowable concen

wastewater, however, the cost of this

tration of Saponin in wastewater for the activated sludge process was determined to be 2 mg/L. Attached Growth Process -

type of pre-treatment was prohibitive. Flotation provided the required effi ciency of pre-treatment and also had sig nificantly lower capital and operation

portion of the municipal and sugar beet factory wastewaters pumped to the biofilters. Changing the volume of the sugar beet factory wastewater in the to tal wastewater flow to the biofilter al

lowed the concentration of Saponin in the plant influent to be changed. Operation of the biological filters with various proportions of the sugar beet factory wastewater in the influent revealed that the biological filters are much more resistant to the negative ef20

Chervonoznamenka WWTP to provide pre-treatment of the sugar beet factory wastewater prior to treatment, com bined with municipal wastewater in the biological fdters. The overall simpli fied flow diagram of that treatment plant is depicted in Figure 1. Wastewater from the sugar beet fac tory was pumped to the settling ponds, and later to holding ponds, where the whole volume of wastewater generated during a 110-day sugar beet processing season had accumulated. After that, the

wastewater, at a constant rate of approxi mately 1,200 mVday, was directed to

difficult to treat wastewater.

With pre-treatment by flotation, the one-stage biological treatment on the biofilters went on without any problems, providing a very high quality of treat

ment. The BODj of the final effluent was about 3 mg/1, suspended solids -2 mg/1, and Saponin - 0.6 mg/L. Such good quality final effluent allowed the use of one of the ponds for fish farming and reuse of the effluent for sugar beet transportation and washing. References available on request. For more information, circle reply card No. 128

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


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Drinking Water

Rise in membrane technoiogies continues Now they "permeate" water industry

The continuing rise in the use of membrane tech

nologies for municipal drinking water treatment can be described as nothing short of a revolution. Before the 1990s, membranes were considered a

"boutique" process, generally used for reverse osmosis(RO) desalting plants and specialized nanofiltration (NF) appli cations. For surface water treatment, where large-pore ultrafiltration(UF)and microfiltration(MF)membrane proc esses are most effective, high capital and operating costs meant that UF/MF technologies were applicable only to small projects. Times have changed and technologies have evolved. Fuelled by recent regulatory changes demanding increased drinking water quality, the cumulative capacity of UF/MF plants has increased from below 50 ML/d in 1994 to nearly 1,000 ML/d in 1999. In fact, individual plants are now be ing developed with capacities of more than 150 ML/d. This exponential growth can be attributed to several fac tors, most significantly the development of the hollow-fi bre membrane and the now-strong competition among mem brane equipment suppliers. Competition has driven costs down and provided owners and engineers with favourable economics for new membrane plants.

Computer rendering of Ontario's latest membrane facility designed by CG&S, the 10 MUd Parry Sound WTP (now under construction).

MF & UF Cumulative Capacity in Municipal Water Systems 1000

â– D


s u

MF + UF600

CO Q. <0

O a>







ÂŁ 3












UF/MF membrane treatment has grown exponentially In the 1990s.

coming more common in water-reclamation-type projects. For our neighbours to the south, one of the recent develop ments is the emerging membrane market for indirect pota ble reuse applications such as surface supply augmentation (SSA) and groundwater recharge (GR). In short, the learn ing curve is flattening out for designers of treatment plants who want to incorporate membrane processes. Membrane suppliers are also responding technically, rounding out their product mix to meet highly competitive environments and specific treatment needs. In fact, the se crecy surrounding the development of new membrane prod ucts is akin more to James Bond movie plots rather than the traditionally slower-paced municipal equipment supply in dustry. With increased competition and as the technology continues to develop, it is becoming even more important for owners and consultants to identify differentiators be tween one membrane and another. Technical issues such as

membrane-fibre integrity, chlorine resistance, nominal pore Concurrently, confidence levels in the engineering and design of membrane plants have increased. Gone are the days when only the best (that is, easy to treat) surface wa ters were evaluated for membrane applications and the proc ess was "membranes only". Designs for treatment plants now include membranes coupled with other traditional proc esses such as taste and odour control, colour removal (en hanced coagulation), iron and manganese removal, arsenic removal, and pH adjustment. Integrated systems that may include UF/MF membrane pre-treatment for tighter NF or RO membranes are also be-

By Martin Gravel, P.Eng., CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited 22

sizes (microfiltration to ultrafiltration), and immersed or

pressurized system design can sometimes conflict with cost issues such as warranty, performance guarantees, and mem brane-module replacement costs. The increasing complexity and diversity of membrane technology selection can be a minefield for those who lack specialized engineering resources and hands-on experience. The CG&S approach has been to select membrane equip ment based on an evaluated-bid basis that also takes into

account all operational costs over a 20-year period. Finally, there is nothing more satisfying for membrane products buyers than testing out the technology beforehand; a dem onstration or pilot program is the safety blanket for any suc cessful application.

For more information, circle reply card No. 131 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Ca^ «t \nveswe***




AIR LIQUIDE will show you



how It all fits together.



Colour Removal ft


- // to l@






em> B&O





A For more information, circle reply card No. 132(See page 25)

International Report

Bolivian solid waste management scheme

In December 1998 I spent a week

in the City of Cochabamba, Bolivia, working with EMSA, a municipal solid waste utility. My most important finding is that in Cochabamba, the provision of safe, noninfectious municipal drinking water would reduce the volume of municipal solid waste and improve both health and dietfor the average wage eamer. It would be better to allocate scarce municipal funds to provide safe municipal drinking water

than to divert non-toxic and inert container

materials (mostly plastic and glass). The City of Cochabamba is approxi mately 100 square kilometres and has a population of approximately 600,000. Tap water must be boiled before drink

ing. The lack of clean safe drinking wa ter impacts waste management, as bot tled beverages, usually in plastic contain ers marked "descartable" (disposable), are a convenient if expensive altemative to boiling municipal tap water. This high volume waste affects both the collection

and disposal management cost of Cochabamba's Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)system. MSW Composition - Cochabamba and Toronto

There are significant differences be tween the MSW waste stream in Cocha bamba and Toronto which reflect differ

ences in culture and economic develop ment. Table 1 shows the percentage of each potentially recyclable and reusable waste in relation to total potentially re cyclable and reusable waste and illus trates one of the most significant differ ences between the two cities.


Cochabamba, plastic and glass (mostly beverage containers) taken together are approximately 63% of potentially recy clable and reusable waste; the percent age in Toronto is 28.4%. Plastic alone

in Cochabamba represents approxi mately 45% of reusable and recyclable waste, whereas in Toronto the percent age is only 17%. Activity Based Costing(ABC) Staff of the City ofToronto have used

A new subdivision on the urban periphery. Note the water service to the left, con sisting of a well and pump, which provide water for about 100 residences.

rial will not reduce system operating

Plastic costs more than thirteen times as

costs by the amount of the estimated ABC cost impact of the material because

much to collect per tonne as the fully commingled waste stream. Plastic, and

of fixed costs. Rather ABC, when ap

disposable plastic containers, as a large and growing percentage of Cochabam ba's waste, will continue to have a major impact on the cost ofBMSA's operations. High volume,inert plastic containers also have a major impact on reducing avail able landfill capacity. Table 2 shows that in Bolivia, recy

plied in the manner shown in Table 2, indicates that lower density materials,

ifincreased or decreased in quantity, are most likely to have the greatest impact on total system cost. If high volume container wastes are removed, system redesign can produce system cost reduc tions. For example, beverage container wastes in the City of Toronto have been shown to occupy approximately half the volume of all "blue box" container

wastes. If removed through deposit re turn, collection frequency, costs and en

vironmental impacts of curbside recy

prior to collection. Like many South American cities, diversion of recyclable materials occurs at the landfill by scav

Plastic represents a large and grow ing proportion of potentially reusable

to the average collection cost per tonne for the collection of all wastes together.

and recyclable waste because, without Continued overleaf

engers who, in Cochabamba, reside on the landfill. EMSA has the cost of col

lecting low density containers without the benefit of the revenue from this waste.

Table 1 - Potentially Recyclable & Reusable Materials by Material as Percentage of Total Potentially Reusable & Recyclable Materials Material

rial volumes and densities of the differ

ent components of MSW on total sys tem costs. Removing a particular mate-


reason, the curbside separation of these materials is impractical because the most valuable materials would be scavenged

cling programs can be reduced. Table 2 shows the impact of relative container density on garbage collection costs in Cochabamba, as indicated by ABC. It also indicates that, ofthe poten tially recyclable materials,from an ABC standpoint,only paper and glass are close

a form of "Activity Based Costing" (ABC)to evaluate the impact of mate

By George Wheeler, City of Toronto

clable materials are valuable in relation to collection costs and incomes. For this



Paper (excluding toilet paper)









Metal and Tin Cans









Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Ad Index



Reader Service No.

ABS Pumps



Horseshoe Carbons



A.O. Smith



Air Liquide Canada



Interprovincial Corrosion ITT Flygt

53 3

149 102




John Meunier





JWG Environmental





KMK Consultants






KMK Consultants









GH2M Gore & Storrie








Makloc Buildings









Nortech GSI







Davis Controls














Diverse Plastics







DIE industries




Earth Tech


Ecodyne Engineering Link Geneq

33 49 15


Reader Service No.












Terminal City








Urecon Ltd



136 147 142







Waterloo Barrier








Greatario Hach

64 5

127 103












Zenon Environmental

FOR QUICK RESPONSE, FAX BACK TO (905)841-7271 FREE Information Service for Readers




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November 1999

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


International Report Table 2 - Impact of Relative Container Density on Existing Garbage Coiiection Cost Density (Tonnes/M3)


Average Density (all waste)

Density Ratio













Metal Cans








Collection Cost/Tonne

Collection Cost/Tonne



by Material


$15 $15 $15 $15 $15

$19.95 $199.5 $150 $66 $15

$50** $200 $1100*** $200 $30-68****


*The Material value is from EMSA's Study, ** Paper cardboard value only. ***Value from US â– EMSA's Study did not provide a separate value for aluminum. ***'Depending on tfie colour and quality.

boiling, Cochabamba's municipal water cannot be safely consumed. Soft drinks and bottled water are ubiquitous in Cochabamba because of their conven

ience compared to boiling water. Ven dors sell these beverages from sidewalk stalls everywhere. Homeowners in many neighbourhoods operate small businesses selling bottled water, soft drinks and other merchandise. Other Beneflts of Safe Water

Ironically, oftwo of the contributions which the West has to offer the devel

oping world, safe and inexpensive mu nicipal drinking water and a private market distribution network for the soft

drink industry, only the latter compara tively more expensive system has been firmly established in Cochabamba. Providing a safe municipal drinking water system in Cochabamba would have several environmental, public health and economic benefits. For the

waste management system, high volume beverage container waste, which is ex pensive to collect, process and landfill, would be reduced. Waste management, including litter and street cleaning costs,

Want to know why we're stirring up the waters in our industry? Because as your single source for water coagulation products and chemistry, there's no need to go anywhere else.

also would be reduced. Gastrointestinal

illness would be substantially reduced resulting in significantly improved pub lic health. The use of bottled beverages as a method of distributing potable drinking fluids is not sustainable and, if the private distribution system collapses or if incomes fall precipitously, as they

Our extensive range of products, including aluminumand iron-based chemicals for water and wastewater

treatment, means we can provide the right solution for your specific needs. And with comprehensive technical services from regional offices across Canada

and the United States, we've got the expertise and experience to back it up.

have from time to time in Latin America,

the altemative of a safe municipal drink ing water system may be unavailable.

Watch for the ripples to extend even further with new product development and future acquisitions to provide you with the right product where and when you need it. As the industry leader, Eaglebrook is prepared to make a few waves.

However,Canadians and countries at

a similar level of developmentfirst pro vided low cost public infrastructurebased services (water distribution, street

cars, etc.)and then evolved to greater and greater levels of private consumption. If the existing public infrastructure is main




I -800-428-33 M

Matteson. liiinois

Your Single Source


For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)

tained, Canadians could, when and if re

quired, shift back to a greater reliance on tap water (or public transit) without any public health impacts and with reduced

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

International Report environmental impacts. Presently, in Cochabamba there is no safe alternative

public infrastructure to rely upon. Residents of Cochabamba,not need

ing to rely on bottled drinks, would have a greater proportion of incomes to de vote to consumption of food - an im portant concern in a country where in

Tot^l Chioririe lyion^ibring

andi^tefihg Equipment. From the Experts in Chemical Metering, Measurement and Controi Systems

comes are a tenth or less than in Canada.

According to Richard Lewontin,the sin gle most significant factor resulting in improved public health and increased longevity in the 1890s in Britain was the increase in the average industrial wage

which permitted working class families to spend more on food (Biology as Ide ology; The Doctrine of DNA, R. C. Lewontin, Anansi Press, 1991). If poor Bolivians spent less to obtain potable drinking fluids, as they would if they received safe municipal drinking water, they would have more to spend on food. This magazine (February 1989) has compared the cost of providing munici pal tap water to the cost of other potable fluids, demonsti'ating that the provision of tap water is a major public benefit pro vided at a very low cost. The compari son is even more important in Bolivia, where the ratio of the cost of a 300 milli-

litre beverage to average weekly income is approximately one to 100, while in Canada it is approximately one to 1,000. If a Bolivian worker, earning an average wage, consumed three bever ages a day to partly satisfy potable fluid needs,21% of their weekly salary would be used for this purpose. Clearly, this is not possible. Instead, the Bolivian worker must boil unsafe tap water, or worse, drink this water unboiled. Boil ing water is an inconvenient, expensive and energy intensive way to treat water. By contrast,the Canadian worker,earn ing an average wage, can satisfy all po table water needs from safe municipal drinking water for pennies a day.



The discussion above suggests that

ProMinent provides; e ComplBte Chemical Metering «Water Treatment


e Quality Metering Pumps & Controlleis e Engineered Specifications

it is worthwhile to examine Cocha-

«P&ID Controllers

bamba's public works infrastructure and operating expenditures comprehen sively, at a minimum examining the in ter-related impacts,costs and benefits of

Computerized Hydraulic Modelling 0 Complete Skid

MSW, water, wastewater and sewage. This more complete evaluation would also include an estimate of the total pub lic expense of providing safe tap water compared to the existing public expense (including purchase prices of beverages and waste management costs)of distrib uting potable drinking fluids in dispos able beverage containers. ❖ Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


Packages - Detailed Drawings 1 Chemical Design

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Tel:(519) 836-5692 Fax:(519) 836-5226



www.prominent.ca Prailiiaiii LISA RIDC Park West

136 Industry Dr. Pittsburgh, PA




Tel:(412) 787-2484 Fax:(412)787-0704 www.pfc-amer.com


For more information, circie repiy card No. 133 (See page 25)


Trenchless Technology

How a pipe dream technology became a reality Canadian firm develops new trenchless technology

Anew trenchless technology

has been announced by

Third party ASTM F1216 testing was done on randomly removed sections of

liner. Generally pressure systems are labeled as Blueliner, while gravity sys

Duratron for contractors en

installed liner which confirmed a 50-

tems are labeled as Greenliner.

year design life. This Canadian technology is pro tected by patent in the USA and has been recently allowed in Germany, France and the UK, with patents pending in

The idea came about in 1994 when Duratron's technical staff looked at butt

gaging in day-to-day pipe re placement and maintenance work. The concept is simple enough for construc tion and maintenance people to use it effectively. Once installed it is consid ered structurally independent from the original aged pipe. Other qualities in clude equal flow capacity, corrosion re sistance, compliance to standards and environmental safety.

[Mil The Clearwater Group

other countries.

Briefly, the system is described as a processed structural replacement pipe for use in water, gas, and sewage lines marketed under the trade name Dura-

Mike O'Connor,P.Eng., President and CEO of BCA - The Clearwater Group, is pleased to announce that Richard B.Johnson has recently

joined their corporate group as VP of Sales and Marketing, Wastewater'Treatment Systems.

fusing PVC virgin resin pipe and using it as a slipliner through a maintenance hole or insertion pit. Once perfected it was decided to experiment with heating the butt fused sections and expand it in side a larger diameter pipe. Although it had limited success with expansion it was encouraging enough to develop a model for testing PVC behaviour at el evated temperatures. A literature search revealed little information for PVC at

temperatures over 60° C (140° F) other than glass transition and extrusion temperamres. An independent engineer was hired to work under a confidentiality agreement and developed a plan. After months of work using Instron

The Clearwater Group has an enviable record of accomplishments in the field of

testing equipment, control samples and

Water Treatment and Rick's focus will be

able to gather enough data to locate and develop a safe window for expansion. This exercise proved to be the key to enlarging heavy walled PVC pipe con sistently without failure. A computer model and program was also developed to assist in processing the hner within this window expansion criteria.

modified hot water baths, Duratron was

to create a similarly well-respected Wastewater Treatment Division.

Rick will be introducing the GEO-FORM "high rate" RBC which, combined with other Clearwater technologies, will enable his group to best meet our customers' needs. RCK JOHNSON


"I am very pleased and excited to be associated with a Company with such a solid foundation that has been growing at over 50% per yearfor the pastfour years."

Additional testing and trial installa tions were completed and documented in 1995. The first watermain renewal

contract award was started in the sum mer of 1996 for the National Research

Centre in Ottawa, followed by other Ontario installations in Scarborough,



Burlington, Ontario L7L 5Y7 Tel:(905)634-3946 Fax:(905)634-4634

Windsor and Caledonia. A modified

version was developed for gravity sys tems to include full lining and point re pairs. In 1997 spot repair projects were successfully completed for Scarbor ough, Richmond Hill and the private sector.

Connecting valves and fittings DuraUner has an advantage for recon necting components such as hydrants, valves and fittings. When the liner is

processed, the outlet ends are further expanded within a sizing gauge assem bly to make it the same outside diam eter as the original iron pipe. This al lows the contractor to use off-the-shelf

waterworks fittings to recormect the sys tem. New services and branch tees can 28

For more information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Trenchless Technology also be installed at a later time using a simple device to expose and size the


liner for direct connection. With this EXIST C1 PIPE

concept there is no need for the owner to stock special fittings or adaptors to make the necessary transitions. The ultimate challenge MTO Highway 400 culverts


\ A—




^ O





In the summer of 1998, Duratron was


awarded a large Ministry of Transpor CUT/CHAMFER C I. PIPE

tation Ontario culvert rehab contract, in

volving over 100 culverts ranging in sizes from 10" to 30" diameter.

Each culvert was unique in that they varied in size and materials, including corrugated steel pipe (CSP), concrete and cast iron. Some had open ends, oth ers were connected to catch basins be tween the centre median and shoulder

of Hwy 400. All had problems with joint separation, infiltration and structural damage. In many situations video in spection reports were inconclusive as to size, length and condition, thus requir ing detailed reassessment before work could be completed. Full lining and transition repairs within varying pipe sizes would be difficult if not impossi ble to achieve with single sized liners.


Fortunately for Duratron the new Greenliner concept allowed the use of heavier walled liner pipe that could be expanded to fit and mold to suit a twosize change. For example a 12" CSP 10" concrete, 12" cast iron and back to

10" concrete culvert pipe was lined us ing an expanded 8" diameter liner to ac commodate all the above sizes. In another situation where a CSP cul

vert was badly crushed at an open end, the damaged piece was removed and ex


tended using Standard DR 35 PVC sewer pipe and in turn moulded to the internal Greenliner, making it continuous. Licensing and marketing The new Duraliner concept was introduced last year to the Canadian membership of the Center for Advance ment of Trenchless Technology and the Centre d'Fxpertise et de Recherche en Infrastructure Urbaine.

For more information,

circie reply card No. 137

Leading Edge In UJater Leak Detection

The MK5 Ground Microphone combines a new, high sensitivity sensor with proven ease of use. This enabies ieaks to be de

tected over a greater distance, with back ground noise more easiiy suppressed. The operator now has greater assurance of a ieak condition. An optionai hand-held probe is available for use on fittings or in soft ground applications. Circle reply card No. 250

Aquaiog® 80 (AQ80) is a system for localising leakage in water distribution networks without the requirement to set up defined, flow-based zones. Building on the established reputation of Palmer Environmentai's Aquaiog® 40 system, AQ80 has been designed to be used cost-effectively as a survey tool. For permanent monitoring for system leakage, inquire about the new Permalog. Circle reply card No. 251

Sales - Service - Rental



Leakage detection staff require a high per formance correlator with a robust design for intensive field use. MicroCorr 6 offers

superior correlation technology whilst re taining the ease-of-use of previous MicroCorr models. New,faster electronics

are combined with APS (Assisted Filter Se lection) to enable the user to detect ieaks quickly, even on plastic pipes. When ail the "easy" ieaks have been found, reduce leak age still further with MicroCorr 6. Circle reply card No. 252

Heath Consultants Limited

2085 Piper Lane, London, Ontario, N5V 3S5 • Tel: 1-888-432-8422, Fax:(519) 453-2182 Web Site: www.heathltd.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

E-mail: sales@heathltd.com


Water Metering

The high cost of free water In physics there's no free lunch

In the last few months, social

have already expressed their concem for national resources by encouraging

water they would have attacked the greatest threat to the degradation of this precious natural resource long ago: the unmetered tap. Seventy-one percent of municipal governments have resisted charging citizens directly for water and wastewater management. Where charges are levied, they cover only 65 percent of

fishermen to annihilate cod stocks and

the true cost of water. The balance comes

lumber companies to splinter forests, it is hard to suppress a gasp of

from lot levies, transfers from higher lev-

activists and Parliament have informed us that Canada's water

is a precious national resource that needs the protection ofconcemed public caretakers. Given that these caretakers


How do these

Inspector Clouseaus of natural resources plan to make a mess of water?

Saying that government has a plan may be an exaggeration. What seems to be coming out of Ottawa and the provinces are the stirrings of a property grab. The value of water exports is rising. Ottawa expresses concern, in

what as consumers become more famil

iar with the pricing scheme... unmetered customers have no incentive to use

water efficiently because the per unit price is zero." In their study of Denton, Texas for the summer months between 1981 and

1985, economists Julie Hewitt and

Michael Hanemann found that for every 10 percent increase in water prices, de mand fell by 16 percent, after tak ing into account all other factors that might influence demand. Perhaps these findings explain why the average Torontonian, who is forced to pay for his or her water, uses 171 litres a day, whereas the average Quebec resi dent, who does not pay directly for water, uses 411 litres of wa

ter a day. It may also explain why the average Canadian uses 350 litres of water a day, whereas the French, who charge 95 percent of the true cost of water, get along with 150 litres a day.

forms us that we must not allow

private companies to take this public resource and sell it abroad. Once firmly under government control, government will then al Whether these statistics im low this precious resource to flow press the politicians is not clear. Being a water commissar is fun. abroad after water export compa nies pay the same sort of natural You control a resource and get to tell people what is good for them. resource levy that natural gas and User fees make the responsibil oil companies pay. Quebec seems to be leading ity for conserving water in part a the way. Quebec has about 2,000 Follo wing water meter installation, consumption rates citizen's decision. Such demo cratic solutions are always a hard cubic kilometres of high quality inevitably fall. Photo - Steve Davey sell on any Parliament Hill. fresh water sitting in under ground aquifers. That is equal to the els of govemment, cross-subsidies from Reference flow of the Montmorency Falls for 1,810 charges on business users, and munici Filip Palda, Home on the Urban Range: years. One tenth of this water is close pal debt. Even part of the 65 percent of An Idea Map for Reforming the City(Van to towns. Under Quebec law, any water the costs that we do pay comes in a charge couver: Fraser Institute, 1999). under private property belongs to the that imposes no restraint: the flat rate. owner of that property. In the last year, Charging a user fee for water would Editorial Submissions the Quebec government has floated a turn all citizens into good conservation Environmental Science & Engi white paper suggesting that government ists. A fee forces the user to ask whether neering magazine welcomes sub take control of this water from private he or she really needs to hose down the missions from consultants,indus property owners, without compensation. car a third time this week, or to stay tries, municipalities, laboratories, The reason to worry about govern those extra 10 minutes in the shower. and site remediation specialists, ment's interest in water is that govern In Canada, those with meters use, on ideally, articles should be in the ments in Canada have a record of allow average,40 percent less water than their 1,500 words range. Photos, draw ings, and artwork are also wel ing natural resources to be over-ex fellows who pay a flat rate. As econo come but ES&E cannot assume ploited and wasted. If governments mist Harry Kitchen explains, "In part, responsibility for original photos. were really concerned about preserving this decline is psychological, but,in part, All submissions, without excep it is an economic response as consum tion, are subject to editorial revi ers optimize their consumption once By Filip Palda, Professor, Ecole Nationale d'Administration

volume-based rates are introduced. The

Publique, Montreal, and Senior

usual pattern is for water use to fall sub stantially immediately following meter

Fellow of The Fraser Institute


For our author's guidelines, please Fax enquiries to Kathleen Carignan,(905)841-7271.

installation, and then to rebound some 30

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999



The Dawn of a New Era Terminal City, like many manufactur ing companies today, has been chal lenged by the global economy. In or der to compete in today's market with outjeopardizing quality, service or de livery, restructuring is required. Terminal City has serviced the mu nicipal waterworks industry for 93 years, and will continue to serve it for many years to come.

After almost a century in the water works manufacturing industry. Termi nal City Iron Works Ltd. closes its iron foundry operation on November 26, 1999. The foundry was introduced into the Terminal City operation in 1910 when the company moved to its cur rent location at 1909 Franklin Street in

Vancouver, British Columbia.

John Meunier

USFntmr John Meunier Inc. is pleased to announce the appointment ofAllen Vivian to the position of Regional Manager, Water and Wastewater Sales. Mr. Vivian's responsibilities will include the marketing and sales of John Meunier products and USFilter products in Ontario. Mr. Vivian brings over 25 years experience in the manufacturing and sales of related products in the water and wastewater fields.

John Meunier and USFilter supply state-of-the-art technologies and services from one end of the treatment process to the other - literally from the intake pipe to the discharge or recycle point.

With a pattern shop and machine shop, the iron foundry completed the

John Meunier inc.

start to finish manufacturing process at one site. Not only did the foundry en able Terminal City to have total con trol over quality and product develop ment, but it generated employment, thus stimulating the economy. Terminal City will source its more common large volume waterworks fit

Tel;(705) 329-4502, Fax:(705) 329-4502 E-mail: avivian@bconnex.net

tings globally. It will keep all T.C. pat terns for supply of special castings or smaller volume products. This makes customer access to special fittings the same as before the foundry closure.

With the present on-site CNC equipped machine shop, final assem bly and testing of all T.C. fire hydrants and gate valves will remain under Terminal City's control.

All patterns and coreboxes neces sary for casting specialty supplied fit tings will be stored at Terminal City and sent to the local foundry ready for manufacturing.

Quality control of all products and procedures will be maintained through Terminal City's certified ISO-9002 Quality Assurance System. For quality, semce and reliability, look to Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.

Process Measurement Control & Environmental Instrumentation Measurement Instruments

•Area Velocity Flow •Insertion Electromagnetic and Doppler Flow •Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow • Ultrasonic Level

•Temperature and Pressure • Fixed and Portable Gas Monitoring


Water Quality Instrumentation • Dissolved Oxygen •Total Suspended Solids • Interface Level Monitoring • pH Monitoring & Control • Residual Chlorine


•Waste Water - Portable and Stationary •Sludge Gas(Sampling Pumps)

•System Solutions •Commissioning and Start-Up

for all your waterworks requirements.

Terminal City Iron Works Ltd. Tel:(604) 253-7525 Fax:(604) 253-6365

1045 South Service Road West, Oakville, Ontario, L6L6K3

Tel.:(905)847-2740 - Fax:(905)827-6984 -mail: controls@cancoppas.com - URL: http://www.cancoppas.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

For more information, circle reply card No. 168 (See page 25)


'T.CV waterwdrkslirt are Canadian-made,,.

100% Solving problems in the waterworks fitting industry is a Terminal City tradition.


-Push Joint D.I.


- MechanicalJoint D.I

Terminal City provides you with access to technical product data through factory consultation.

Terminal City provides you with a complete fitting line%

Compact Ductile Iron-AWWA C153, 4 inch through 16 inch; DITYT® or DIMECH®

Ductile Iron and Grey Iron-AWWA ClIO, 4 inch through 24 inch; TYTON Mechanical Joint to 30 inch

Ductile Iron and Grey Iron—ANSI BIG.I, 3 inch through 30 inch; Flanged Fittings Terminal City also provides a variety of "Special" fittings for specific installation needs. One "Special" will do the work of two or more standard fittings.

Make the Right Connection...CALL

WORKS LTD. C n&wUtUli Manufacturers of Waterworks Fittings, Gate Valves and Fire Hydrants 1909FranklinStreet, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1


Web site: www.tciw-bc.com

Phone (604)253-7525 •

E-maii: tciw@direct.ca

For more information, circie repiy card No. 141 (See page 25)

FAX (604)253-6365

Industry Update NSFI awards first full

system certification The National Sanitation Foundation

International (NSFI) has awarded its

first comprehensive drinking water treatment membrane system certifica tion to Pall Water Processing. Under NSFI's Standard 61 Listing, the Pall Macroza^*^ Drinking Water Microfiltration(PMDM)family of systems is receiving a certification verifying that all materials coming in contact with drinking water meet current toxicology requirements of this Standard for drink ing water treatment. The NSFI award to the PMDM fam

ily of systems is the first and only certi fication to date in which all components of a membrane drinking water system have been certified together, as opposed to the typical fibre or single module cer tification. Contact: www.pall.com.

Trout and sewage effluent are compatible In Windsor

The Little River Pollution Control Plant was commissioned in 1965. Plant

River ecosystem is non-toxic. The City is currently implementing

expansions were completed in 1974 and 1993. Construction of the aquatic bio monitoring facility (i.e. fish tank) was completed in 1998 in cooperation with

a similar initiative at the Lou Romano

the Great Lakes Institute for Environmen

tal Research (GLIER). The fish tank has two compartments housing rainbow trout and large mouth bass separately. Treated water from the plant is si

Water Reclamation Plant (formerly West Windsor Pollution Control Plant) to create a similar aquatic habitat. Contact: Kit Woods,(519)253-7111.

Water use and treatment In Canada A report by the World Commission on Water for the 21st Century, says that

phoned into the fish tank, through the two compartments and through an out

Canada has the lowest water prices in

let. "Unlike more technical forms of

the industrial world, with consumers

testing, the monitoring by environmen tally sensitive fish takes place uninter

ing covers only a fraction of the 40,000

paying an average of 46.5 cents per cu bic litre - about one-quarter the Euro pean average. Canadian water prices are less than municipal water services in Botswana and Uganda,two of the poor

chemicals used in the Great Lakes

est countries in the world.

rupted around the clock," said Dr. Doug Haffner of GLIER. Conventional test

basin, but the contaminant consumption recorded by the fish covers everything. At this aquatic biomonitoring facil ity, trout and bass were placed in the tanks to test effluent integrity before dis

Excellent results are being attained at The Aquatic Biomonitoring Facility at the Little River Pollution Control Plant,

charge to the Little River. These fish require near pristine conditions in their natural habitat. When they remain healthy while in captivity, it gives as

in Windsor, Ontario.

surance that the discharge to the Little

In Quebec, it costs about a billion

dollars per year to purify, treat and dis tribute potable water. This year, 130 municipalities in the Province will par ticipate in RESEAU environnement's water awareness program, a 30% par ticipation hike over last year. Quebec has one of the highest water consump tion rates in the industrialized world, with daily consumption of around 800

Potable water.

Portable plant. Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever additional or improved water is needed. Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant produces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact:


Ecodyne Limited 4475 Corporate Drive Burlington, Ontario L7L 5T9 Telephone:(905)332-1404 Toll Free: 1-888-ECODYNE

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11 L A member of The Maimon Group of companies Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1999



For more information, circle reply card No. 136 (See page 25)



litres per person. In Quebec,5% of water is used by the mining and agricultural sectors, 46% is consumed by the manufacturing indus tries and 49% is used by municipalities. Winnipeg residents with low immune systems were being warned to boil their drinking water in June, following tests for a recurring annual pai'asite in the lake that supplies the city's water. While there were no positive tests for Ciyptosporklium in Shoal Lake since a lowlevel reading in Februai'y, the city issued the warning because of the potential for the organism. Other major cities that rely on lakes for drinking water also issue the same precautionary notices. Ever since Ciyptosporidiiim became an infection that doctors must report to provincial health authorities, there have been eight cases but none in Winnipeg. Bottled water is not necessarily safe from crypto, according to a circular re leased by city waste and water officials.

beneficial use applications. The bio solids drying and pelletizing facility will be built by USF Canada, a subsidiary of USFilter's Operating Services group, which plans to sign a 15-year contract to manage and market the manufactured biosolids pellets. Expected to process about 25,000 dry metric tons per year, the facility will uti lize an indirect drying method designed and manufactured by Segher's Better


Technology, a multinational company with global product applications. This technology is viewed as a cost-effective, environmentally superior approach. The new facility, when combined with the city's biosolids direct-land ap plication program, will replace the cur rent practice of incinerating biosolids at Toronto's Main Wastewater Treatment Plant. This is consistent with Toronto's

new beneficial use strategy.


w —


KMK CONSULTANTS LIMITED Consulting Engineers, Project Managers Ecological Planners, Landscape Architects

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$22.5 million biosolids


reuse system for Toronto Toronto has selected USFilter to design and build a $22.5 million (Cdn) bio solids management facility that will create all-natural, low-nitrogen content fertilizer pellets suitable for a variety of





For more information, circle reply card No. 140

"For Cost Effective Pumping" A company in the Cardo Group

ABS has the most Comprehensive range on the market. Sales & Service

• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps

ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississaiiga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone; 1-800-988-2610 or (905) 670-4677, Fax:(905) 670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest yon

For more information, circle reply card No. 162



Media & Coal Ltd.


TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617



For more information, circle reply card No. 160



Biosolids and Waste Utilization




TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting Una Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 163

• Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.


Mall — P.O. Box 60069

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2 Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

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For more information,

circle reply card No. 161 34

For more information, circle reply card No. 164 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Industry Update Stantec receives 1999 CCE

Calgary Stampede reins in oil spills

award for Goodfellow

EFSOP® Stantec has been named recipient of a 1999 Canadian Consulting Engineering Award of Merit for its complete instal lation of two permanent Goodfellow EFSOP® systems at ASW Sheerness in Kent, UK. The project involved three phases including system installation, closed loop control system, and neural network application. It is claimed to be the first application of a closed loop and neural network prediction model based on online analysis of off-gas for a pro duction furnace. In addition to its envi ronmental benefits, the Sheerness instal

lation represents significant operating cost savings to the client. The award was presented at a ceremony in Toronto. The proprietary Goodfellow technol ogy is designed to optimize the steelmaking process and reduce contaminant emissions from electric arc furnaces.

Original research development for the technology was carried out at the CoSteel Lasco plant in Whitby, Ontario, co-partnered by Co-Steel, Natural Re

A Calgary Stormceptor System installation protects famous trout rishing rivers.

The Calgary Exhibition & Stampede,famous for its rodeo and exhibition, recently installed a Lafarge Stonuceptor"^ System. With the volume and variety of activity on their site, the Calgary Exhibition & Stampede Environmental Committee saw the value of having a means to deal with the potential discharge of pollutants. These pollutants could make their way through their stormwater system to the river adjacent to the Stampede grounds. The Elbow River transports fresh water from the Rocky Mountains into the City of Calgary, then discharges to the Bow River, which is known for its world famous trout fishing. A STC-5000 Stormceptor was installed, treating parking lot drainage that dis charges directly to the Elbow River. Gerry McHugh, Stampede Trades Superin tendent, said: "The Lafarge Stormceptor System has proved to be an effective means of separating and containing hydrocarbons and sediment from stormwater, as it progresses into the river system."

For more information, circle reply card No. 165

sources Canada, and the Ontario Minis

try of Environment and Energy. The technology has previously been recognized on numerous occasions, in cluding the 1998 Financial Post Envi

Environmenlal consulting engineers and scientists specializing in

U'cfli'r ivsoiirccs pUmuing u'dli'r siipp/)\ ininsim'ssion and Ifvcdnienl

ronment Award for Business and the

irasli'irciler col/cclioii and livalinenl

1998 Environmental Technology Veri

tdi'cfncal entiinec'n'n(>. inslriinicntation and controls

fication Award.

Dr. Howard Goodfellow, Vice Presi

dent, Stantec Global Technologies Ltd.,

Acres &



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Environmental Science & Eni>ineering, November 1999


225 Sheppard Ave. W. North York, Ont. M2N 1N2

Tel;(416) 226-0148 Fax:(416) 226-2931


Industry Update

Spiralling population growth

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

threatens world water

Some 2.8 billion people, or 35% of the projected world population of 8 billion,

tVater, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

will face serious water shortages by 2025, according to a report from The

For employment and project development opportunities visit our web site: www.rvanderson.com

Johns Hopkins University School of

Toronto(416)497-8600 E-mail: Toronto@RVAnderson.com

Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland.

Welland Ottawa Sudbuty London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay,India

The report says,to avoid catastrophe, "it is important to act now" to reduce population growth, conserve water, re duce pollution, and better manage sup ply and demand. By 2025, according to Solutionsfor a Water-short World, one in every three people will live in coun

Environmental professionals working with industry to improve water quality


Environmental Audits

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Environmental Engineering Stormwater Ivtanagement Impact Assessments

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tries short of water.

Already,31 countries face water stress or water scarcity. By 2025, population growth will push another 17 countries, including India and China, onto the list. According to the report, a country faces water stress when annual water supplies

drop below 1700 mVperson, and waterscarce countries have annual water sup

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plies of less than 1000 m^/person. The report says the situation is worst in developing countries where an esti mated 95% of the world's 80 million











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babies are bom each year. Don Himichsen, lead author of the

report and a United Nations Population Fund consultant, says:"Populations are growing rapidly in many of these coun tries. At the same time, per capita use of water must increase to grow enough food, for better personal health and hy giene, and to supply growing cities and industries. Meanwhile,there is no more freshwater on earth than there was 2000

years ago when the population was 3% of its current size." While the situation is most serious

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mated 54% of ail accessible freshwater

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

in 1996;population growth over the next 30 years is expected to raise the number to 70% according to the report. Agriculture is the biggest polluter,

Environmental Engineers, Planners and Scientists

even more than industries and munici


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phone(416)499-9000 fax (416)499-4687 direct dial (416)499-0090 + ext. Barrie - Calgary - London • Ottawa • Thorold Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo


in developing countiies, water shortages are a global threat. Even in the United States where there is plenty of water on a national basis, in some areas,"people are depleting groundwater reserves at a 25% greater rate than nature can replen ish," Hinrichsen says. People across the world used an esti

palities, according to Hopkins research ers. "In virtually every country where agricultural fertilizers and pesticides are used, they have contaminated groundwater aquifers and surface waters," the report states.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Industry Update Researchers found that in develop ing countries, on average,90-95% of all domestic wastewater and 75% of all in

dustrial wastewater is discharged into

Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc.


Dredging (since 1971)

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester • Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction

surface waters without treatment. In

dia's 14 major rivers are badly polluted, and more than three-quarters of China's 50,000 km of major rivers are unable to support fish, the report says. For more information, contact

Stephen Goldstein at Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs, Baltimore, MD,E-mail: PopRepts@wel chlink.welch.jhu.edu.

Researchers develop lead-free steel Researchers at the University of Pitts burgh's School of Engineering have de veloped a lead-free alternative to 12L14, a free machining steel commonly used throughout the world. The new steel

resulted from research by Anthony J. DeArdo and C.Isaac Garcia, professors of materials science and engineering. They used tin to replace the lead which is added to steel to make it easier

•High Speed Decanter Centrifuges

Tel: (506) 684-5821 E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca

market for 12L14 steel is between two

New ferry leaves dirty wake British Columbia's newest ferry has been leaving a trail of untreated sewage behind it, due to problems with its onboard toilet system. Clay Suddaby, spokesman for B.C. Eerries, says the corporation's new fast ferry has been discharging sewage after only primary treatment - simply churning it up with

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Duke Engineering n& Services(Canada),Inc. A Duke Energy Company


Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

Fractured Rock Hydrogeoiogy Environmental Management and Compliance Hydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling Site Remediation

• Risk Assessment

(613) 232-2525 Toronto

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water and air. Chemical sterilization of

the waste has been delayed by technical difficulties since the ferry began opera tion in July. The problem should now have been corrected.

Vancouver • Victoria

Specializing in;

HaiTis Steel, said the company is encour aged by the test results to date. The and three million tons per year, and the worldwide potential market is $1 billionplus for the lead-free steel. Contact: www.pitt.edu

London • Hamilton


(BAMPRI), which is affiliated with the

Milton Harris, chairman and CEO of

Toronto • Ottawa


to machine. The new product, which they term green steel, not only eliminates an environmental hazard, but it may also offer cost savings. The researchers' work was conducted through the Basic Metals Processing Research Institute School of Engineering's Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Late last year, USS/KOBE Steel Company melted a full production heat of 200 tons without problems. The new steel is presently being tested, and

Fax:(506) 684-1915 Web site: www.GIROUXINC.com



TEM - PLM - PCM - SEM - Flame AA - Graphite Furnace

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


Industry Update

GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.^ Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting


Microbial Training Consulting Services Respirometry

* Cryptosporidium & Giardia * Microorganism Identification * Rapid E.coli recreational water

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Teleptione: 519-681-0571 Fax: 519-681-7150

Washing machine saves water and energy A washing machine which significantly reduces energy and water use in Cana dian households, without compromising performance, has received a National Energy Efficiency Award. The Whirlpool/Inglis/Kenmore Resource Saver washer was selected by an expert panel to receive the award at Canada's first









"Our waste management team has assisted our clients with strategic planning, approvals, design, investi gations, monitoring and remediation for over 25 years." Glenn Reynolds, Director Tel:(905) 477-8400 ext. 215, E-mall: greynolds@gartnerlee.com Website: www.gartnerlee.com

National Energy Efficiency Conference, held May 20. The Resource Saver system delivers six, fresh water spray rinses during the rinse cycle, using a maximum of 103 litres of water for each load. Many tra ditional washers repeatedly fill up and drain during the rinse cycle using a maximum of 217 litres of water.

A sensor precisely controls the water temperature for both colour-safe and delicate fabrics. With water tem

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nuclear accident Environment Canada's special technol ogy was called into action in the hours following the September 30 accident at Japan's Tokaimura radiochemicai plant. The long range transport and dispersion computer model at the Canadian Mete orological Centre in Dorvai can predict the track of radioactive clouds around

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HOC ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics

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Ontario water crisis looms An international symposium in Atlanta

Noise Vibration and Acoustics

on weather extremes was told that

water systems in parts of Southern Ontario are stretched to the limit, yet politicians won't admit the danger pub licly and residents don't realize their vulnerability. "The Grand River Basin, a densely populated watershed west of Toronto,is experiencing drought comparable to that

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Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design

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Grand River Conservation Authority. "Politicians continue to project 40% population growth over the next 20 years without considering where the water will come from," she said. "As rainfall short

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of the i930s," said Lorrie Minshali of the


age continues into the second and third year, the combination of low reservoir levels, low groundwater levels, and deEnvironmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Industry Update creased groundwater discharge, com bine to create a crisis in water supply." Several participants noted that most urban-dwellers seem to have poor con servation ethics and fail to recognize the natural variability of water supply. Jacinthe Lacroix of the Quebec gov ernment suggested that Canadians should have to pay a reasonable price for the water they use. "If you put in a dollar sign, people start to think."

Consulting Engineers, Pianners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905) 475-7270 E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.com

Safety information readily

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•risk assessment/management

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nology for a new drinking water plant to be built along the Waikato River in New Zealand.


Watercare Services Ltd., the water awarded the contract to a consortium

'IriJltk one ike the Pkdif^Anaiifiioalu.

composed of McConnell Smith & Beca


authority responsible for the project,

kn(>uded(:ieaMe- dalM- teami m ike mdudi/uj,, ieAoice.

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ZENON to be the supplier of its mem brane filtration system, for a portion of the contract valued at approximately $7 million.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


Industry Update


Manitoba Lung Association presents



Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Monor, Suite #10, Pickering. Ont. LIW JW9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fox: 905-831-0531

"A/eac/er in providing innovative automation solutions to our customers." We offer a complete range of products & services in the areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services •Service Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V 1J2 Tel:(905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444

Summa Enterprises, Place Grilli, 3539 Blvd. St, Charles, #350, Kirkland, QC H9H 589

environmental award Isobord Enterprises was presented with the "Salute to Clean Air Industry" award by the Manitoba Lung Association on September 1, 1999, during the compa ny's grand opening ceremonies for its Elie manufacturing facility. The award was presented to the company for its straw recycling efforts that help to re duce air pollution caused by stubble burning. Following the ceremony,a display of products made with Isobord™, includ ing a desk, vases, bowls, shelves, and flooring products, were available for viewing.

Tel:(514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587

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pared to a refrigerator in reverse. Centre manager, Sue Falch-Lovesey explains: "It is essentially a heat pump, such as those used in refrigerators, but one in which the cooling process takes place in the mud of the salt marsh. What we have is an evaporator extracting heat from the mud. The heat is then trans ferred to a condenser that releases the



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heat. There is enough heat generated in this way to run the undernoor heating

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On the roof of the centre is an array of photothermal cells which also use the refrigerator principle to generate heat, which is transferred to a condenser, thus warming water in the building. Next to the photothermal cells are photovoltaic cells which will provide the centre with a small amount of electricity. E-mail: abrsfI@smtp.ntrust.org.uk

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


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Consultants' Forum

Optimism now mixed with a sense of purpose

Don Ingram

Robert Fleeton

Eric MacDonald

Consulting engineers were at the forefront in the development of remedial projects when diseases ravaged our urban communities. The profession faces new and daunting challenges as we approach the millennium. Consultants were invited to give their perspectives on how their profession will face the forces of change in the 21st century. Here are some of their responses. 1

Vic Morris

Stephen G. Nutt

Laird Smith


Tom Williams

Consolidation - an evolutionary process in the consulting engineering industry By Eric MacDonald, P.Eng., President, MacViro Consultants Inc.

Mergers and acquisitions of business entities have

been going on through the ages. This process of companiesjoining each other is because they are looking for some or all of the following benefits: • Increase in earnings per share. • Increase in market price of the stock. • Increase in sales. • Increase in assets.

However, consulting engineering firms are normally looking for only two

industry in the last few years. Why is this happening? The industry has been over stressed because of a consultant se

lection process that weighs heavily on low engineering fees rather than good quality work. As this intense price com petition continues, consulting engineer ing firms are realizing minimal profits, leading to relatively low salaries and sac rifices in staff benefits, training and de velopment opportunities. These market pressures are forcing a rationalization or consolidation of the industry. This con solidation process will reduce the number ofcompanies vying for their market share and thereby assist in the solution to the 'low bid ethics', for example.

of these - an increase in sales and an

There is a second factor, which is

increase in earnings per share. Mergers and acquisitions have been

contributing to the consolidation proc ess and that is the increasing need for specialists in many areas and the need

occurring at an increasing rate in our 42

to keep their utilization at an acceptable level. This has not driven the consoli

dation process in the engineering indus try to the same degree that it has in the accounting profession where we are now down to the big four. This seems to be a lesser factor because of the consulting

engineer's ability to create and manage a consortium selected for each project. The consolidation process is good for our industry because it can create a'winwin' situation for both small and large consulting firms due to reduced compe tition; this gives the consolidated com pany a better profit margin and the abil ity to access new service areas with a broader geographic coverage. Should we not expect that this con solidation process will continue and per haps even become more intense in the coming years? ❖

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

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Consultants' Forum

Low bid fees challenge consulting profession An industry full of talent and promise constrained by low profitability By Don Ingram, P.Eng., President, Consulting Engineers of Ontario

Aswe approach a new millen

nium,it is clear that the mar

ket vision for Canada's con

sulting engineers is the best that our industry has experienced in this decade. Our firms are busy. Many have diversified into exciting new ventures. Finally, government seems to be pay ing some attention to our concerns over infrastructure renewal in Canada. Al

though enrollment in many construc tion-related disciplines has declined, we are starting to hire new graduates again, bringing a much-needed new generation into our firms. We will encounter stiff

competition in the hiring markets, be cause students find internet marketing and robotic controls much sexier than

reinforced concrete design, but it sure is great to be back in the game.

term sustainability of our businesses, Based Selection(QBS). In the past year, through training of our employees, re to promote that position, CEO has pub lished two important documents: search on new technologies and finan • Guidelines for Establishing Quality cial re-investment. We price our serv Assurance Systems in Consulting En ices at levels that are well below other gineering Firms. professions. Our governing body. Pro fessional Engineers Ontario, publishes • Guidelines for the Selection of Con sulting Engineers. as a guide, a Schedule of Fees for Engi However, strongly we may believe neering Services. Many of our member in and support QBS,I would like to sug companies feel compelled,in a competi tive marketplace,to set fees that are well gest that now is the time for the mem below those rates. bers of our industry to look in their col If we don't provide adequate returns lective mirrors and reflect on a truism: for our shareholders, we will not be able that we are primarily responsible for the to grow and develop our companies and state of our industry. "I have seen the enemy, and the enemy is us!" keep up with increasing quality stand From my vantage point, "low-ball ards demanded by our clients and our selves. We will not be able to attract ing" of prices on proposals is flagrant. I the top graduates from our colleges and see the results of too many proposals where the low price is 25% or more be universities. We know that our Human Resources practices fall short of other low the next lowest price; where the low industries. We are experiencing a "brain price is less than half of the median drain" not only to the United States, but price; where the low price is much be also to other, more financially success- low what the client expected to pay.

This last decade of the 90s has seen

incredible change in our industry. Tech nical advances have continued at an ex

ponential rate. Recently, with many of our colleagues, I attended the Canadian Consulting Engineering awards dinner in Toronto. My emotions traversed a spectrum from excitement, to amaze ment, to pride as the broad accomplish ments and technical excellence of the

entrants were presented. Outsourcing by governments at all levels has created new opportunities and new responsibilities for consulting en gineers. Privatization of selected pub lic works assets to relieve government debt has now started in Ontario, with the

sale this year of Highway 407. Globali zation is an accepted fact in the engi neering world. Foreign companies are showing much greater interest in Cana dian markets, particularly in possible privatization projects, but Canadian companies are also competing very suc cessfully in offshore markets, achieving successes that greatly exceed our rela tive size.

The future of our industry looks promising, but one major concern con tinues to threaten that future. We are

simply not generating returns for our shareholders, in many cases employees of the industry, that will ensure the long 44

The frequency of low pricing can only be explained by firms setting their targets low enough to ensure that they get the job. The problem is not created by a few low cost service providers. It is caused by many firms who are willing to price at marginal levels to win the job.... ful sectors. Many of the leaders in our industry are nearing retirement age. Will we be able to replace them? Why are we facing this dilemma? We are an industry full of talent and prom ise, in a booming economy, yet con strained by low profitability. Too often we choose to blame our clients for this

situation because many have adopted price-dominated selection processes, models that reward a bidder for offer

ing the lowest price and ignore qualifi cations, experience, quality etc. Asso ciations such as Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO) and the Association of Consulting Engineers of Canada strive to change this approach because we truly believe that the client receives the highest value through Qualifications

Estimating mistakes do occur. There are situations where the scope is ambigu ous or simply vague and the engineer, because of time pressures, must guess the true intent of the client. But the fre

quency of low pricing can only be ex plained by firms setting their targets low enough to ensure that they get the job. The problem is not created by a few low cost service providers. It is caused by many firms who are willing to price at marginal levels to win the job. In this respect, it is time for our in dustry to start acting like the profession als that we are. We owe the highest pos sible value of service to our clients, as well as a fair return to the shareholders

in our companies. Now is the time to decide if we can develop a solution for

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Consultants' Forum

this problem and for each of us to de cide if we are going to be part of that solution. For example; • Does your firm have a stated pricing policy, known by all the professionals with fee-setting responsibilities, that

MacViro celebrates 10th anniversary

demands a fair return for the value that

you provide to the client? •Are you willing to walk away from an assignment that requires that you sacri fice quality in order to meet the fee ex pectations of a client? • Do you look at the quality of your cli ents, avoiding those that want to pur chase your services on the basis oflow est fee?

• Are the senior partners in your firm personally involved in pricing deci sions?

• Would the practices of your firm con tribute to an industry solution? Our consulting engineering firms are envied throughout the world for their talented people and leading edge skills. Let's start to manage our businesses with the same degree of professional judg ment that we apply to our technical serv ices. This must include a level of return

that ensures the sustainability of a wor thy profession. ❖

MacViro celebrated its 10th anniversary at its Markham,Ontario office. Scores of clients and fellow consultants enjoyed the hospitality including ES&E. Pictured above (left to right): Eric MacDonald,President; Sid Gillespie, Chair man; Don Cousens, Mayor of the Town of Markham; and Bill Fisch, Chair man of York Region,jointly cutting the cake.

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Consultants' Forum

Economic boom for design-build firms Infrastructure opportunities in population centres By Robert Fleeton, REng., President, KMK Consultants Limited

Asthe currenteconomic boom

in Ontario continues, we see

both real population growth and the lateral expansion of the Greater Toronto Area. Reasonable

interest rates encourage investment in manufacturing and mortgages. We also see our municipal councils taking more notice of the increasing public pressure on issues such as the recurring taste and odour problems associated with Lake Ontario, pressure for cleanup of the beaches,and addressing odour problems associated with wastewater treatment in

populated areas. In recent years we can also see that the Provincially initiated and funded schemes such as the York-Durham

sewer system, and the South Peel sys tem are at capacity after 35 years ofcon tinuing growth.

This all points to the need for new infrastmcture and is reflected in the capi tal works budgets of the major popula tion centres in Southern Ontario. Thus,

while business generally is good for con sulting firms, the traditional methods of project delivery are changing. With the squeeze on tax dollars at all levels, no longer can municipalities count on Pro vincial funding for water or wastewater infrastructure, and local government is itself challenged by the development industry if it is thought that development

charges are out ofline with the real need. Thus, while there is a high volume of potential work, fiscal restraint results in consulting firms being asked to deliver designs in ever shorter time frames, and with a higher level of accountability for design completeness. For smaller com munities it is this same shortage ofcapital

needed to expand or upgrade facilities that will stifle growth in raral Ontario. The challenge facing the consulting industry, then, is in how to facilitate

project delivery that is timely,affordable and practical in the long term. As this is the essence of consulting engineering, the profession should be up to the task. Fortunately, price competition is be coming less of an issue as major clients have learned that proven record of de livery of cost-effective solutions and rea sonable fee schedules is the way to suc cessful completion of projects. How

ever, many municipalities are now also looking at design-build and its deriva tives, as a way to solve project delivery problems, particularly where the total cost needs to be known prior to major expenditure on detail design. Should design-build become a sub stantial portion of the water and wastewater industry it will have a greater po tential to marginalize small to medium sized firms than has price competition or competition from mega-firms. While successful contractors will only want to deal with firms that they believe can be

innovative, they will demand total con trol of the project in return for financial risk. This is not in the best long-term interest of design firms.


Conversely,it is in the interest of en gineering firms and clients that the pro fessional firm take a more leading role

in design-build consortia than has been the recent trend.

The competitive bidding process on traditional detail designs can result in a number of bids within a very tight range, but design-build projects can produce

spreads of 30 to 50%. While some of Jeff Radley

Rodger McKinley

this can be attributed to the construction

Eric MacDonald,President of MacViro Consultants Inc., is pleased to announce

that Jeff Radley, M.Sc., REng., will be joining the firm as Practice Leader of the Water and Wastewater Treatment Business Unit. A graduate from the University of Toronto (B.Sc., and M.Sc.), Jeff has fulfilled the roles of project manager and lead design engineer on a wide range of major water and sewage projects across Canada and overseas. In the consulting industry, he is regarded as one of Canada's leading process engineers.

wastewater plants and pumping stations.

MacViro 46

of winning and recouping the cost of the competition. Taking a lead role, with as sociated risk, in design-build offers the potential to increase margins that,in tum, will allow better remuneration to staff,

MacViro is a consulting engineering company specializing in designing

Designing Environmental ir Energy Solutions

viations from the terms of reference, a

substantial portion of the spread must be attributable to the different designs incorporated. Design-build is design competition that requires only our best people to be involved in order to have the best chance

Eric is also pleased to announce that Rodger McKinley, REng., has been appointed Practice Leader of the Power and Automation Business Unit. Rodger graduated from the Technical University of Nova Scotia and has many years of experience in the design of electrical and automation systems for water and

environmental and energy solutions.

risk associated with partial design,or de

and investment in productivity through the appropriate hardware, and in staff training. Consultants taking a lead role also gives some assurance to clients that the traditional values of the consultant

are less likely to be compromised. â?– Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999



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Consultants' Forum

The true measure ofconsulting engineering Meeting client's needs By Stephen G. Nutt, M.Eng., P.Eng., and Tom Williams, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. XCG Consultants Ltd.

Aswe race (headlong?) into the 21st Century, all discus

sion seems to revolve around

change. The focus of the Consultants' Forum in this esteemed

publication is change in the consulting engineering industry. Reflecting on a career in this industry, one wonders how much consulting engineering has really changed! Certainly,the technology that we use every day to deliver engineering services has changed. Personal comput

sions before they are even constructed. But some things have not changed! Consulting engineers must continue to educate their clients on the difference

between price and value. The low price bid mentality has been the bane of the consulting engineering business for many years and continues to plague us. Consulting engineers must continue to educate the public on their remarkable contributions to society. As this publi cation has repeatedly noted, the many contributions of consulting engineers to our society's health and well-being are too frequently ignored. Perhaps most importantly, consulting engineers must continue to deliver solutions that are cost-

ers, the Internet and CADD have re

effective and that meet the client's needs.

placed the slide-rule (does anyone re

What have changed are the needs

member how to use one?), mail, and the drafting board. We can perform millions of calculations in milliseconds,commu

nicate the results at light speed, and see the results of our designs in three dimen

developments. Meeting the client's needs meant completing the design and construction of the facility in a manner that was cost-effective,environmentally

sound, and protected the public. Today, redevelopment of sites contaminated by years of industrial activities - Brownfield Sites- is becoming common. The consulting engineer is a partner in these projects. The consulting engineer must understand the process required during redevelopment of contaminated sites and work as part of a team to meet the client's needs. We now use tools such as

site-specific risk assessments, groundwater treatment technologies, and soil remediation technologies to cost-effec tively allow the redevelopment of con taminated sites that, previously, would have remained vacant eyesores.

of our clients!

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

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Consultants' Forum

infrastructure construction was readily available. Meeting the client's needs meant completing the design and con struction of a facility that would be costeffective, provide adequate capacity for future growth, and would treat the wa ter or wastewater to the required level. Fiscal restraints have had a direct im

pact on our client's needs. Today, our clients require innovative solutions that maximize the value of their existing fa cilities while providing the level of serv icing needed for the growing commu nity. We have been able to demonstrate that many of the facilities built in the past have the capability to provide serv ice well beyond their original design, extending their life, and providing a low cost solution for our clients.

Technologically,our industry,like the society of which we are a part, has changed dramatically and will continue to change. But, the essence of consult ing engineering is unchanged. To suc ceed, we must continue to recognize our client's needs and respond to them with new and innovative solutions. More

importantly, we must continue to dehver value to our clients and to the public. Those that do, will succeed. Those that do not, will fail. ❖

Opportunities and chalienges By James V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng.,

Canada'sconsulting engineers SENES Consultants Limited

face many exciting opportu nities/challenges at home and abroad in the next century, especially with respect to the environ ment, but we must get organized to maxi mize our contribution for a fair retum.

As noted by others (e.g. Tom Davey and Don Ingram of ES&E November 1998), times have changed for consult ants and often not for the better. Not

noted as much is our own contribution

to the problems and we must recognize these in building for the future: a) Competitive Bidding on the Basis of Price Only - How can elected repre sentatives do otherwise when they are so advised by our own people? Fortu nately, Qualification Based Selection (QBS) with comprehensive scope of

universities are graduating more stu dents and the environmental agencies are retiring staff early, both of which results in more consultants. We must

work with the training facilities to iden tify areas of need and advise students of realistic opportunities. c) Not Involved Enough in Identifying and Prioritizing Society's Needs Traditionally, we have waited to be asked to participate after the political de cision-making, instead of getting in volved at the front end.

d)Failure to Promote the Real Value of Our Services - Our profession recog nizes this and such actions as the pro posed Professional Engineers Ontario separation of regulatory and promo tional activities should help. Our basic services to ensure a sound and cost-ef

fective infrastructure to society are es sential and each of us must take the time

ing used to ensure work is done in the

and effort to get the message across to politicians at all levels, industry, regu latory authorities, and the public at large.

client's best interests.

These issues must be addressed with

work specifications, is increasingly be

b) Over Supply of Consultants - The

Continued overleaf




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Consultants' Forum

respect to our role in environmental protection. In the early days, the environment may have taken second place to re source development(as required by society as a whole), but this has changed in recent years. The degree and extent of environmental concerns, of course, varies with the project, but generally requires multidisciplinary analyses. The engineer's basic training is ideal to lead and co-ordinate the work, namely: 1. Analysis of problems/identification of all components. 2. Basic understanding of the major components and many of the other related disciplines. 3. Ability to listen and to work with others including a com plex variety of clients: the legal profession,other disciplines, interest groups, and, I believe now, the general public. 4. Consideration of alternatives with respect to local and global conditions. 5. Identification of specific impacts. 6. Identification of mitigating measures. 7. Evaluation of Pros and Cons.

8. Ability to present the full picture with recommendations in a clear,fair, unbiased and non-emotional manner(i.e."pro fessional"). As well as the necessary writing skills, con tinuing development is required for verbal presentations. I have been impressed by the excellent training being pro vided in this respect at Canadian universities. In summary,I believe the future is challenging, exciting and full of promise for consulting engineers with respect to the environment. We address our problems, keep our ex pertise up-to-date and expand as required and lead as we are so well equipped to do. ❖

Consulting engineers of the future

In1970,1commenced my career as a consulting engi By Laird Smith, P.Eng., Vice President, Azurix N.A.

neer with a well-respected environmental consulting firm in Toronto. Iworked with brilliant men who pro vided a constructive learning environment. While I did learn all about engineering, it was not without a price. Some of the cardinal rules for an engineer in training at that time were:

• You could be sent anywhere at any time without notice; • There were no limits to the number of hours you worked on any given day;

• There were no overtime payments, employer contributions to unemployment or Canada Pension; and • Certainly no perks.

Management staff, owners, and junior engineers worked side by side and only much later in life did 1realize that the owners and management staff were, in fact, remunerated in a significantly different way than the rank and file engi neers of the company.

The consulting engineering fraternity had two factions the owners and the workers. As with most engineers at that

time, experience provided the opportunity to move to dif ferent companies and/or establish a new company in your chosen area of expertise. The one thing that has remained constant throughout this period is the ability of engineers to provide a high level of service. In the 1970s and 1980s, a plethora of newly established engineering firms appeared. The overriding reason that this

phenomenon occurred was that engineers wanted control of their own destiny and the ability to be remunerated for their efforts. Since that time, the great majority of consult

ing engineering companies have changed totally. All of the significant large consultants are now either publicly held or



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tinue in specific areas of expertise, transition to these new dynamic companies has not been easy. Innovative thinking and new approaches linking co-op eratively with other disciplines are providing full turnkey service. As the millennium approaches, the transition is now towards larger, multidimensional and full service organiza tions. Engineers must now become part of a team, working along side of accountants, financial analysts, risk manag ers, developers and lawyers. This is a profound change for an entity that was formerly singularly driven. While all of the other disciplines are needed in the new marketplace, engineering will be essential. The ability to transform ideas onto paper and ultimately to bricks and mortar belongs to those who practise engineering. Like it or not the changes have occurred and the engineers of the future must be part of a global theatre. For those who have decided to play a part,I would encourage you to recognize the new order of doing business. Without sounding Orwellian, consulting engineering will never be the same again and we must learn to adjust to the new realities of life. ❖

For more information, circle reply card No. 152

(See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Wastewater Treatment

Aerobic digesters - size does matter Reviewing the Fort Frances wastewater treatment plant

Fort Frances is a picturesque town of 9,000, located on the

Rainy River between Thunder Bay and Winnipeg. In 1998,

the Town's wastewater facility was ex panded and Azurix North America,for merly Philip Utilities Management Cor poration (PUMC), assumed the opera tion. As assumption of operating re sponsibilities coincided with the com pletion of the expansion, Azurix was heavily involved in the commissioning


of the new facilities.

The plant incorporates state-of-theart grit removal equipment, extended aeration basins with jet mixing,covered secondary sedimentation tanks with chain and flight collectors, and ultravio let disinfection. The upgrades also in cluded the construction of new solids treatment facilities. These included the



Azurik evaluated all proposed solutions and recommended that a second larger digester be Installed.

installation of a gravity belt thickener and the conversion of an old anaerobic

digester to aerobic digestion using jet aeration. The volume of the anaerobic

digester was insufficient to provide the necessary solids residence time for aero bic digestion without pre-thickening the waste activated sludge to between 5% and 7%. Therefore the designers of the upgrades incorporated pre-thickening, using the gravity belt thickener as an in tegral part of digester operation. Foaming and odour problems Soon after start-up, operations staff found that loading the aerobic digester with thickened waste sludge resulted in elevated digester temperatures and im mediate generation of huge volumes of

offsite of unstabilized sludge until the problem could be diagnosed and a solu tion implemented. At the request of the town, Azurix staff performed an analysis of the foam generation problem,and incorporated in its review comments and recommenda

tions of the facility designer. One cause of foaming is elevated di gester temperature, caused by the exo thermic nature of the biological activity. Operations staff observed that load ing the digester at rates approaching design resulted in increases in digester temperature to beyond the acceptable range for mesophilic bacteria (40°C). Digester temperatures in excess of50°C

self-heating nature of aerobic digesters subjected to high volatile solids loading rates. It has been estimated that 25 kcal/

L of heat energy is released in the aero bic digestion of primary and secondary sludges (between 2 and 5 percent sol ids). This is sufficient to heat digester contents to within the thermophilic range if a) the reactor is insulated and b) sufficiently high oxygen transfer efficiencies can be obtained so that strip ping of the heat does not occur. Both of these conditions existed at Fort Frances.

Due to the cold winters, the design ers had provided for tank wall insula tion and a fibreglass cover. And the use of a jet mixing system had dramatically

thick, brown foam. The foam blanket

were recorded, which is well into the

reduced the amount of air that was be

on the liquid surface exceeded four me

thermophilic range. The potential for this to happen, and the need to design for this contingency is explained in various design texts, in cluding the WEF Manual of Practice

ing fed to the tank, thus maintaining the

tres, and overflowed out of the tank onto

the surrounding tarmac. In addition to the foam, odour generation from the di gester was significant, and operations staff spent a great deal of time trying to address complaints from surrounding residents.

The inability to control the rate of foam generation and the strong odours forced the operators to cease operation of the digester, forcing the trucking

By Robert Poisson, P.Eng. and Bill De Angells, P. Eng., Azurix North America

maximum amount of heat.

following; "Increasing feed sludge con centrations by thickening will result in longer solids retention times with subsequent increased levels of volatile

Based on the above, it quickly be came apparent that the volume of the existing digester was inadequate to ac cept the volatile solids loading that was generated by the treatment plant. While capable of providing the necessary sol ids retention time to meet MOE sludge stabilization guidelines, the volume was

solids destruction, and will reduce the

too small to handle the amount of heat

No. 8, 1992 Edition, which states the

frequency of supematent decanting. Be

generated and the digester was going

cautious because a solids concentration

autothermal. Several solutions were

that is too high can lead the process to attempt to go autothermal..." (our emphasis).

proposed by the designers,including the construction of a second,larger digester and one novel suggestion to re-use an Continued overleaf

The term "autothermal" refers to the

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


Wastewater Treatment

old anaerobic sludge heat exchanger to

cardia filaments exists at the same

remove excess heat and restore mes-

MCRT,the filaments will be more con

ophilic operating conditions.

based on the fact that, while elevated tem

centrated in a plant with a smaller aera tion tank volume and resulting higher MUSS concentration. The more highly concentrated filaments have a greater tendency to foam, because the aeration rate per unit volume is higher, facilitat ing transfer of filaments to the water

perature was one probable cause of the

surface. In addition, recent research in

excessive foaming, there were several other contributing factors, all of which were related to the size of the digester.

threshold of Nocardia-Xikt filaments is

On behalf of the Town, and as con

tract operators of the facility, Azurix evaluated all of the proposed solutions and recommended that a second, larger digester be installed. This decision was

Other factors influence foam

generation The elevated digester temperatures contributed to foaming by causing ex cessive cell lysis, and the subsequent release of proteins and other compounds that can act as surfactants,leading to the foaming problem. However, foaming of aerobic digesters also occurs at nor mal mesophilic operating temperatures, and can be caused by several factors, including: a) High organic loading rates, b) Overaeration, c) Filamentous Bacteria, including Nocardia. All of these factors are exacerbated

by using smaller tank sizes. For exam ple, for a given mass of volatile solids, the use of smaller tanks necessarily means higher organic loading rates than would occur if a larger tank were used. Similarly, for a given oxygen require ment,the use of smaller tanks necessar ily results in more intense aeration than would occur in a larger tank. With respect to Nocardia, Azurix operations staff suspected that it was a contributing factor to the digester foam ing issue during its abbreviated operat ing period(May - July, 1998). Samples submitted to McMaster University for filament analysis indicated very few Type 02IN filaments and many Nocar dia ssp filaments. Recommendations from the University were to dispose of as much foam as possible, spray remain ing foam with hypochlorite solution, and skim off as much foam as possible from the aerobic digester. But does tank size matter when it

comes to Nocardia growth? Apparently, yes! Researchers have observed that: "Although mixed liquor suspended sol ids (MUSS)concentration is linked di rectly to Mean Cell Residence Time (MCRT),the same MCRT can result in significantly different MUSS concentra tions, depending on aeration tank vol ume. Assuming the same mass of No 52

dicates that a minimum concentration or

Implementation Increasing the total volume available for digestion meant that pre-thickening was no longer required to achieve an equivalent solids retention time. Based on an unthickened waste activated sludge concentration, it was determined that a

total digester volume of some 2,016 m' would be required. Considering the vol

ume of the existing digester as 760 m^ a new digester volume of 1,256 m^ volume

required for foam production. Thus,ac tivated sludge systems operated at high

was required. Based upon all ofthe above information, a proposal was prepared for a 50 ft. diameter digester of28 ft. height.

MLSS concentrations should be more

Constraction commenced in the Fall of

susceptible to Nocardia foam produc tion than systems operated at the same

1998 and was completed in the spring of 1999, with commissioning following substantial completion. An economical solution was adopted in the form of a glass-lined,covered and

MCRT but with lower MLSS concen

tration caused by a larger aeration tank volume." While these comments were made

insulated steel tank, mounted on a rein

with respect to aeration tanks in activated sludge systems,the logic is easily trans ferred to aerobic digesters, which are simply activated sludge systems oper ated primarily in the endogenous mode.

forced slab on grade, adjacent to the existing unit. As no increase in sludge mass was anticipated, and jet aeration was proposed,the existing blowers were


isting digester and the new one. In or der to make maximum use of existing equipment, piping to the existing grav ity belt thickener was reworked to al low post-thickening of digested sludge and reduced haulage volumes. All waste activated sludge is pumped to the new digester, overflows by gravity to the existing digester, then is pumped to the gravity belt thickener. Summary Since commissioning of the new di gester, operations staff have reported the following: a) Foaming has ceased to be an issue. b) Digester operating temperatures are now in the mesophilic range. c)Volatile solids destruction has reduced the volume of sludge for final disposal. d) Odour generation from the existing digester has ceased. e)Dewaterability of the digested sludge product has improved. f) The stabilized biosolids product satisfies MOE requirements for benefi

It became evident that the elevated

temperatures, while contributing to foam production, were probably not the sole cause in this particular case. Foams caused by surfactants(whether biologi cal surfactants resulting from cell lysis, or from chemical discharges to the sew age collection system) are usually not thick and stable. Operators reported that the foam produced on the surface of the digester was very thick and did not sub side significantly after aeration was stopped. Therefore, other causative fac tors related to the relatively concentrated volume of the digester may also have contributed to the foam production issue. In consideration of all factors,Azurix recommended the construction of addi

tional aerobic digester capacity, based upon our view that this course of action would address the existing operational concems and provide for reliable longterm operation and maintenance. A new, larger aerobic digester was deemed to provide the following: a) Reduced foam generation potential. b) Increased on-site storage ability to address short-term haulage interraptions. c)Process unit redundancy,allowing the ability to take one unit out of service for short periods for maintenance. d)Improved process reliability, based on the historic operating experience of many similar installations. e)A stabilized end product suitable for beneficial use applications locally.

deemed to be sufficient for both the ex

cial use.

No additional blower capacity,thick ening,foam or odour control equipment was installed as part of this project. All of the operational problems, including the excessive foam and odours, were

resolved simply by installing additional volumetric capacity, proving that in the case of aerobic digester design,size does indeed matter.

For more information, circle reply card No. 156

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

54 Fuel cell and dome containment

56 59 60 62

Fabric tank lining technology Lightweight, self-supporting berm liner Flammable & combustible liquid storage Design and fabrication of storage tanks


Portable liquid storage for fuel or hazardous liquids

The Proven Protectors In The Fight Against Pipeline Corrosion »5>


Environmentally safe liquid storage for fuel, or other hazardous liquids. Is Available in a complete line of sizes, shapes and weights.

now manufactured in Canada to withstand Canadian weather conditions and meet Underwriters' Laboratories Standards.

Made to strict standards of

The Wyevale Fuel Cell meets ULC/0RD-C142.16-1994:

chemistry, production control, testing and certification. Plus many other industry related products!


STOCK ■ FAST DELIVERY ■ COAST-TO-COAST Interprovincial Corrosion Control Company Limited 930 Sheldon Court, Burlington, ON, Canada L7L 5K6 Regional Offices: Montreal, Quebec & Calgary, Alberta International Corrosion Control mc. P.O. Box 441, Lewiston, N.Y., USA, 14092

Phone:(905)634-7751 ■ Fax:(905)333-4313

•Two hour fire test.

• Ballistic test to 30 caliber steel jacket shell. • I mpact test-5 tonne at 1.5 metres.

The Wyevale Fuel Cell design: •3/16" custom built 500 gallon steel inner tank. • 1" solid fibreglass insulation. • 1" airspace. • Interior of concrete outer shell is finished with three coats of epoxy paint. • Exterior is a three coat maintenance free, attractive factory finish. The Wyevale Fuel Cell is portable and simple to install or relocate. A key feature of the original new design of the Wyevale Fuel Cell is its sealed top which can be removed, if necessary, to replace or repair the inner steel tank.

Website: www.Rustrol.com ■ Email: contact@Rustrol.com

Wyevale Containment Ltd.



Since 1957

For more information, circle reply card No. 149 (See page 25)

P.O. Box 38, Wyevale, ON LOL 2T0 Tel:(705) 322-2845, Fax:(705) 322-0522 E-mail: wyevale.concrete@sympatlco.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 150 (See page 25)

Storage Tanks and Containment

New fuel celland dome containmentsystems Wyevale Containment, Ltd. has intro duced two new above ground fuel con tainment storage systems. The Wyevale Fuel Cell and the Wyevale Fuel Dome were designed in Canada, and both units are certified by the Underwriters' Labo ratories of Canada, each with its own

ULC number for its specific category. Solid precast concrete secondary containment protects the fuel tank and

extends its normal life by many years. The containers reduce evaporative loss and the dangerous vapour 'footprint' that accompanies some other designs. The fuel containment design helps to elimi nate the problem of water and debris en tering the tank area, diminishing main tenance workloads. The Containment Fuel Cell is thor

oughly insulated and manufactured in

The Wyevale Fuel Dome (left) and the Wyevale Fuel Cell(right)Installed on site.

two pieces,to enable the inner steel tank to be removed for repair or replacement, if necessary. The Fuel Dome is a sealed, self-con

tained dike system which can serve as a lower-priced alternative for certain instal lations.

The Wyevale Fuel Cell and the Fuel Dome each have a capacity of 2,270 li tres (500 imperial gallons). Both units are manufactured in two sections in or

Worry free underground storage

der to facilitate servicing or replacing the primary tanks. In order to be certified by Underwrit ers' Laboratories of Canada, secondary containment devices go through rigorous testing to certify that they meet Canadian and other standards (the ULC is a divi sion of UL based in the United States). ULC tests on the Fuel Cell were side

Never worry about corrosion again! ZCL tanks never rust. They ai'e constracted of corrosion resistant materials, and unlike steel tanks-they will not corrode over time. That's one less major thing for you to wony about! Rust means leaks, and leaks from stor^e tanks can cause untold damage to the environment. Damage that could end up costing you thousands of dollars in clean-up costs. ZCL Prezerver™ double wall storage tanks protect you and the environ ment in two "fail safe" ways-First by providing you with an extremely durable and rustproofsecondary contained storage tank ... a maintenancefree storage system!

Secondly,ZCL Prezerver'" System (a total secondary contained liquid storage and handling system) provides you with a comprehensive 10 year 'enhanced' warranty l

impact, fire, and 30 calibre ballistic. The Fuel Cell side impact test in volved the impact of a five tonne weight. This test was actually performed twice due to a difficulty recording the first at tempt.

The flame test involved setting a pro pane fire around the test unit. In gen eral terms,the auditors were looking for the rate of temperature change inside the container. The ULC auditor stopped this test after two hours because the tempera ture inside the tank had not exceeded

complete with a $2.0 mihion tlihd party liability protection, f8«RRAir^

35°C (95°F). The fail temperature for this test is 50°C (122°F), 15°C higher than the highest temperature reached

including site clean-up defense costs!

inside the test unit. The tests for the Fuel Dome included

For More Info Call Toll Free

1 800 661-8265 COMPOSITES INC


For more Information, circle reply card No. 155 (See page 25)

buoyancy,impermeabihty and structural integrity. Circle reply card No. 153

By Victor Campbell, President, Wyevale Containment Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Product and Service Showcase Bolted liquid storage tanks

Glass-fused-to-steel tanks

A four-page bro

A.O. Smith Engi neered Storage

chure from A.O.

Smith Engineered Storage Products Co. displays a broad range of liquid storage tank applications.

Products Co. of

fers a new eightpage brochure on its glass-fused-tosteel AquastoreÂŽ tanks. The Aquastore product line

Included are a

general introduc tion about the range of bolted tanks, en gineering and design standards and a dia gram showing tanks in municipal and industrial water processes and treatment systems The captioned photography ex plains ground reservoir storage tanks, open top tanks, tanks on structures and standpipes. A.O.Smith

for municipal and industrial water stor age. The brochure explains the manu facturing process and the advantages of bolted assembly. Other topics include the benefits of glass coating and the compa ny's proprietary Edgecoat^'" process and Glass97™ potable water coating system.

Circle reply card No. 175

Circle reply card No. 176

Storage for liquids

Cathodic protection/corrosion

is well established

A.O. Smith

AutoFlash evaporation system offers high efficiency The AutoFlash is

a time-proven evaporation sys tem with the capa bility of using low-grade, reject, waste heat, as the

only source ofen ergy for phase separation. This exclusive feature makes evaporation a very viable treatment method for TDS (total dissolved solids), both organic and inorganic. The proprietary, self-regulat ing device allows the evaporator to oper ate outside of steady state condition in a highly stable manner. Donson Engineering

Circle reply card No. 177

TEfTTCQR* Aluminum Domes


For more than thirty years Temcor has been competitively producing aluminum Environmentally safe storage for fuel or other hazardous liquids, is now manufac

Interprovincial Corrosion Control, the

Water and Wastewater applications in a

tured in Canada to withstand Canadian

Canadian Distributor of the MAXMAG

weather conditions and meet Under

wide variety of climates, successfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum prod ucts are lightweight, coiTosion resistant,

with three coats of epoxy paint; exterior

Magnesium Anode, offers customized services throughout the process of ca thodic protection/corrosion control, in cluding initial surveys,system design,en gineering services, follow-up monitoring and system maintenance. The MAXMAG

has a three-coat maintenance-free, attrac

is manufactured to meet ASTM Standard

writers' Laboratories standard ORD-

C142.16-1994. The Wyevale Fuel Cell design: 500 gallon steel inner tank; inte rior of concrete outer shell is finished

tive factory finish. Wyevale Containment Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 178

Tank solutions

Domes, Roofs and Covers for Potable

B843-93, Grade MIC.

Interprovincial Corrosion Control Circle reply card No. 179

Underground double wall jacketed tanks

and maintenance free which translates to

longer life and lower maintenance costs. Aluminum doesn't rust like steel, doesn't

spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 180

Mobile refuelling

Diverse Plastic Tanks offer a full range of product designs, including closed or open top vertical tanks in flat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, contain ment tanks and a complete line of"UN" approved intermediate bulk containers. (IBCs). They distribute the Snyder In dustries line of tanks which have many advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the wid est selection of sizes up to 22,000 gal

Superior corrosion protection and sec ondary containment; inner tank can be compartmentalized; total compatibility with petroleum fuels, as well as a wide range of chemicals; sand, pea gravel or crushed stone may be used for backfill; globally recognized third-party approv als; flat and dished end caps.

hold-down straps and internal baffles to avoid dangerous load shifts are provided in warning red enamel. Special venting device, fill cap and labels are included. Capacities are 454-4540 litres(100-1000 gallons). Also available in doublewall

lons. Diverse Plastic Tanks

DTE Industries Limited

safety margin. DTE Industries Limited

Circle reply card No. 181

When fuels are required in small quanti ties, to fill construction machinery on

Circle reply card No. 182

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

various sites, truck-mounted tanks with

vacuum-monitored version for added

Circle reply card No. 183 55

storage Tanks and Containment

New 3-D glass fabric tank lining technology Secondary containment has corrosion protection and ieak detection

With today's emphasis on

leak detection and spill prevention, there are a growing number of au thorities implementing statutes and codes that make it mandatory for tank owners to install some type ofsecondary containment system. There are products and solutions available that may do the minimum that these laws suggest, but do they really protect the tank owner from the potentially high costs of cleaning up

ground storage tank or, in the case of an above ground storage tank,the tank floor. The matrix is then top-coated with a layer of 100 percent sohds epoxy specifically formulated to provide corrosion resistance against the cargoes stored. The fabric in the matrix, which is constructed from E-

glass yam into the 3-D glass fabric that is trademarked as PARABEAM™ world

wide, was developed in Europe in 1989. This 3-D glass fabric consists of two identical parallel fabric decks(upper and

derived from four factors:

1) over 45,000 vertical pile threads per square foot; 2) capillary forces during and after im pregnation with a resin system; 3)firmness with which the vertical piles are woven into the fabric planes; and 4)E-glass composition of the fabric. When the 3-D glass fabric is impreg nated with this epoxy it expands and then begins to cure; a continuous cavity is formed between the upper and lower

contaminated soils?

decks of the laminate. A cross-sec

Storage tank owners and opera tors need to be aware of the poten tial liability that may arise in the course of managing hazardous liq uid storage tank facilities. Often, liabilities occur as a result of spills or leaks, particularly if the hazard ous cargo escapes off-site, pollutes an aquifer, or causes a fire hazard. When problems like these arise, the liabilities, damages and enforce ment penalties can be astonishing. Until recently,tank owners who opted to install an impermeable

tional view of this cured fabric/

liner, coat the interior, or to rework the bottoms rather than replace them with a double-wall tank, had

resin matrix looks somewhat like

that of the girders of a bridge. While the lower deck is tightly adhered to the tank wall or floor,

the upper deck is flooded with an epoxy top-coat. This process leaves an interstitial space, which can be continually monitored by a number of standard leak-detection


The upper and lower decks of this system are impermeable. In the event of a leak in the interior

surface, the interstice will contain

the product so that a monitor can detect the leak and sound an alarm.

to accept one important fact. They A magnified side view ofa section ofa 3-D iaminate. Similarly, water entering the inter stitial space from outside the tank did not have the added assurance will be contained inside the space so that that would have come from installing lower planes) woven integrally and me tanks with secondary containment and chanically together by means of vertical it can be detected and appropriate steps taken. continuous leak detection -that is, dou pile threads. There is a pre-set intersti tial space between the two deck surfaces In underground tanks,the technology ble-wall tanks. provides a 360° double wall with an in With the 3-D glass fabric tank lining or planes. The 3-D glass fabric is avail system, a relatively new technology, able in interstitial space thicknesses rang terstitial space that combines high ing from three to seventeen millimetres strength and an appropriate degree of tank owners can transform their exist bending stiffness. The 3-D glass fabricing single-wall tanks into double-wall (0.12 to 0.67 inch). All surfaces of the 3-D glass fabric epoxy system is non-corrosive. tanks with secondary containment and have a silane sizing that makes them Leak-detection options continuous leak detection, without re Many permanent leak-detection tech working or replacing their single-wall compatible with the specially formu storage tanks. lated epoxy resin system and allows the niques can be applied with this 3-D lin How does this technology work? resin system to saturate the fabric. Dur ing to provide continuous leak detection. This tank conversion technology con ing the wetting-out process, the fabric In practice, the most common leak-detec sists of a composite matrix of 100 per has an inherent rebounding property, tion techniques that can be employed in cent solids epoxy and 3 mm thick three- called spring resilience, that forces the clude hydrostatic, air pressure, vacuum, dimensional (3-D) glass fabric that is upper deck to spring back from the lower or electronic liquid sensing. Continuous bonded to the inside wall of an underdeck to a height dictated by the length air pressure is the most reliable and costof the vertical pile threads. The vertical effective method employed to date. pile threads look like a multiple series Mechanical properties By Derek Bolianatz, of miniature I-beam columns, distribut Besides its leak detection capabili Parabeam.Distribution NA, ing loads and providing excellent me ties, the fast-curing 3D-Laminate has Mike O'Donoghue, Ph.D., and chanical properties. several properties not found in standard Ron Garrett, The spring resilience and compresfiberglass mat laminates. These include: ICI Devoe Coatings sive strength of the 3-D glass fabric is •The majority of the woven E-glass fab56

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

storage Tanks and Containment ric is at the extreme surfaces of the 3D-

Laminate, which is separated by the cap illary support columns, giving the lami nate high tensile strength and good flexural modulus.

• The interstitial space also helps by safely absorbing impacts that would oth erwise cause fractures or holidays in standard tank lining, therefore protect ing the substrate from contact with the corrosive cargoes stored. Getting the right resin PARABEAM™ 3-D glass fabrics are easy to use with most thermosetting res ins; particularly good results can be achieved with isophthalic polyester, vi nyl ester, or epoxy resins. However,it is widely known and demonstrated by im

formed only by qualified applicators. When the new advanced hybrid cycloaliphatic (AHC) epoxies are applied in conjunction with 3-D glass fabric, the initial application of the tinted AHC epoxy is 20 to 30 mils WFT. This is fol lowed immediately by placing the threemillimetre 3-D glass fabric on to this wet ted area. The epoxy must be worked up into the 3-D glass fabric and any air trapped beneath the lower deck should be removed and wrinkles eliminated.

The 3-D glass fabric is laid down in parallel courses with edges butted to gether but not overlapping. After each parallel course is rolled out, a speciallydesigned seam material known as PHOENIX TAPE is applied, uniformly

mersion test data, that certain resins de

wetted, and rolled out over the butted

liver better corrosion resistance and struc

seams of the 3-D glass fabric. This ma terial is required to seal off the joints of the 3-D glass fabric, creating a homo geneous 3D-lining. Additional epoxy is sprayed on this first layer as required,

tural performance than others; therefore it is important to select an appropriate resin for the application at hand. Converting to a double-wall tank Before applying any lining, a tank's condition and integrity must be carefully determined and the tank must be cleaned

and prepared according to applicable codes and standards. This work and the

lining application itself must be per

to ensure proper wet-out.

The application then needs sufficient time to cure so that it can be inspected. Then,any anomalies,protruding strands, rough edges,seams,clips and projections are either ground or sanded smooth, pre

"The Engineered Difference in Tanks"

paring the surface for the next step. The entire surface of the tank is swept clean and vacuumed. After all prep work and

touch up has been completed,the topcoat can be applied. The topcoat is also a 100% solids epoxy resin formulated to

be compatible with the cargo stored in the tank. This top coat is applied to a nominal thickness of 100 mils.

The final stage of the installation is a pressure test of the interstitial space us ing the air and soap bubble method. The applicator will then reconnect the pip ing,install the leak detection system,and perform a precision leak test in order to verify the tank's tightness. Quality as surance guidelines are followed at every step of the installation process and are reviewed completely prior to putting the tank into service again. Many tanks have already been con verted from single-wall to double-wall in North America using this technology. In addition, several major oil companies are finalizing plans for long-term na tional programs to upgrade their tanks using the 3-D glass fabric/epoxy resin technology. For more information, circie repiy card No. 118

Silos Sic/bound In Saskatchewan

Our mission at Diverse

Plastic Tanks is to provide our customers with the

bulk storage, processing and transportation tank

:'A 1-ti .,.

solutions which exceed


their safety and perform ance requirements at the lowest possible cost. We offer our customers a full range of product designs, including closed or open top vertical tanks in fiat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, containment tanks and a complete line of"UN"approved Int. Bulk Containers(IBCs). We do this by distributing the Snyder Industries line of tanks which, when all is considered, Snyder has the most advantages in bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the widest selection of sizes up to 22,000 gal lons and with over 40 years of manufacturing experience, Snyder offers superior quality and tank design in every product they manufacture. Visit our web site at: www.diversepiastics.com or contact us directly for a copy of our product catalogue.

Diverse Plastic Tanks

Silos are just one of our specialties at Clemmer Technologies. We're the



For more information, circie repiy card No. 119 (See page 25)

no matter where in this

experts in storage

great country you

containment tanks

happen to be. So whether you need

offering a vast array of products in any material you require. We offer field fabrication,

custom manufacturing, and on-site consultation

silos in Saskatchewan

or pressure vessels on Prince Edward

Island, you need Clemmer Technologies to make it happen!

There are no limits to what we can achieve.

3190 Ridgeway Drive, Unit 22, Mississauga, ON L5L 5S8 Tel:(905) 607-5189, Fax:(905) 607-9835 tanks@diverseplastics.com

to help you determine the best solution for the job,

iCIemmer Cfemmc Techi>ologies Inc.

Cleninic' Technologies Inc.


PO. Box 130, V/oieiloo, OniarioN2J 4A1 Toll Free: 800-265.8840 Fox: 15191 884-6623

RO. Sox 1057, Cloresholm, Alberto TOtOTO Toll Free: 800-661-2851 Fox: |403t 625-4230

151 Holifox Si.. Monclon. New Brunswick E1C 9R6 Toll Free: 888-258-8166 Fox: [506] 859-7112

For more information, circle reply card No. 120

(See page 25)

Product and Service Showcase ULC listed storage tanks

Field fabrication

Clemmer Technologies Inc. offers field fabrication for steel storage tanks in Canada. We have previously worked with the major oil companies, chemical manufacturers,agricultural,food and pet rochemical companies for new tank fab rication, tank repair, re-certification, painting, lining, floating roof and many other variations. Clemmer Technologies Circle reply card No. 195

Centrifugal blowers Sir

Clemmer Technologies fabricated ULC Liquid Storage Tanks are available in fiberglass, steel or a combination of both, in capacities from 1300 litres to 100,000 litres and beyond. Above ground, under ground, single wall, double wall, fire rated and more are available.

Clemmer Technologies Circle reply card No. 196

Oil-Water Separators

ASME pressure vessels

Clemmer Technologies is a full service steel and fiberglass manufacturer of stor age systems based out of Waterloo, Ontario, with two additional manufactur ing facibties in Alberta. We are an ASME U-stamp certified shop and offer a full line of pressure vessels that meet the most stringent code specifications. Field proven with thousands of installations. Clemmer Technologies

Circle reply card No. 197

Portable Spill Buddy

W t


CoMlMcIng OH/Watar Separarten

Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Com pressor and Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at dis cbarge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air and gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as sewage aera tion, combustion drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, cooling and pneumatic conveying for more than 90 years. Hoffman Industries of Canada

Circle reply card No. 198

ClOjfor taste & odour control

High-efficiency Greentank™ Oil-Water Separators reduce oil contamination to as low as ten parts per million. They effi ciently remove solids and oil droplets(not chemically emulsified or dissolved) as small as twenty microns with unique MPak® designed multiple-angle plates that are virtually self-cleaning. ZCL Composites Circle reply card No. 199

Bono Zon® ozone system

Because of their


Bello Zon® plants are suited to many applications. Apartfrom highly effective disinfec

tion, long-term protection against bacte ria in the distribution network is provided for. Moreover, chlorine dioxide helps to remove odour and taste from water

(breaking down phenols, algal metabolic products, etc.) As chlorine dioxide does not react with ammonia, less is needed than when chlorine is used.

Metcon Sales & Engineering

Circle reply card No. 201 58

work in a two inch well, its on-board bat

tery provides many hours of operation equivalent to a 55 gallon drum of prod uct. The Spill Buddy will pump at a rate of 0.7 gpm (2.6 1/min) skimming the floating phase down to a sheen. Nortech GSI

Circle reply card No. 200

Versatile ozone generators

The advances of

compact form, simple operation and high safety standards,

The portable Spill Buddy is a portable pump with water interface detector for product only recovery. Small enough to

fered by the new


Bono Zon

Bono Zon® ozone generators are

Bono Zon® ozone

available in care

generating system

fully selected ca pacities ranging

can be summed

up in a few words: a significantly in

from 10-600 gO,/


sions. In addition


generating capac ity, even greater operating safety, and all this in a highly compact unit. Ozone generating capac

ity now ranges from 40 to 720 g Oj/h. The increase in capacity is the reason why the system is so compact. Metcon Sales & Engineering

Circle reply card No. 202

h standard ver

to single-circuit systems, custom

ized multi-circuit systems can also be supplied, for example, for treating sev eral swimming-pool circuits. All genera tors are equipped with stored-program control (logic and monitoring systems). Faults in the ozonizer and peripheral equipment can be easily localized. Metcon Sales & Engineering Circle reply card No. 203

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

storage Tanks and Containment

Self-supporting berm liner is lightweight The Insta-Berm is available in Arctic Fabric, a chemical

resistant fabric for use in temperatures as low as -25°F(-32°C), as well as Chem Fabric, for use in regular temperatures.

Circle reply card No. 123

Fibreglass Found in Fredericton ■iiswtkr


The self-supporting Insta-Berm™ from SEX

Insta-Berm was the basis for the design of this custom sec ondary containment system for two large tankers.

Fibreglass tanks are just one of our specialties at Clemmer Technologies. We're the experts in

Industries Ltd., is made of industrial strength fabrics for chemical containment, is lightweight, easy to use and durable. The frameless design Insta-Berm can be instantly de

ployed by one person without the use of any tools. The flexible struts that hold up the walls of the berm liner con

country you


happen to be. So whether you need fibreglass in

field fabrication, custom

driven over.

manufacturing, and on-

Eyelet patches on the comers allow the berm to be held

solution for the job, no matter where in this great


tanks offering a vast array of products in any material you require. We offer

tain a rigid foam inside, that holds the walls up when it is full, yet collapse easily when moving a vehicle into the con tainer, or folding the Insta-Berm up for storage. There is no gate on the device since the wall folds down inwards when

site consultation to help you determine the best

Fredericton or steel in

Squamish, you need Clemmer Technologies to make it happen!

down with stakes on soft ground. There are no limits to what we can achieve.

Other features include:

• said to be more cost-efficient compared to air-inflated or frame-supported berm liners; • low maintenance with easy cleaning and storing for reuse; • simple and inexpensive to repair; • optional Track Belting for driving vehicles inside, ensures that the liner lasts longer.

llemmer Clemmer Technologies Inc.

Clemmer Technologies Inc.

RO. Boi 130, V/oterloo, Onlorlo N2J 4A1

Toll Free; 800-265-0840 Fox: (519) 884-6623


RO. Bo« 1057, Clorcsholm, Alberto TCLOTO

Toll Free: 300-661-2851 Fox; (403) 625-4230

MFM-C 151 Ho

Toll Frei

For more Information, circle reply card No. 122



Is the exclusive source for Permastor^tanks and silos in Canada, supplying integrated design, construction and warranty programs. 191 Booth Rd. North Bay, Ontario,

Your competitive advantage for

Canada, PIA4K3

PERNASTORE Glass-Fused-to-Steel

Tel: (705) 474-4759, Fax: (705) 474-9041 E-Mail: camg@donson.com

Storage Tanks and Silos. Low Cost, Long Life, Low Maintenance

Rapid Installation, Over 40,000 Tanks Installed in 70 Countries, Excellent Corrosion Resistance.

Biosolids Storage, Anaerobic Digester Covers and Tanks, Aeration Tanks, Clarifier Tank Shells, Potable Water Standpipes and Resevoirs, Industrial Waste Storage and Process Tankage

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

For more Information, circle reply card No. 121 (See page 25)


storage Tanks and Containment

Flammable and combustible liquid storage Regulations and facts about Y2K compatibility

Existing regulatory mandates,

draft regulations, regulatory trends and the acceptance of changing technologies in the storage tank industry, are indicative of change to the storage methods for flam mable and combustible liquids at the beginning of the new millennium. The regulatory changes contemplated and already in draft form will af fect storage methods for the entire range of users,from the bulk storage plant to the stor age of furnace fuel by the

preted as an exemption from Subsection 4.1.6 Spill Control and Drainage Sys

being a minimum basis for their regula tions. It should be noted that although

tems, which is referenced in Clause

Part 4 of the NFC does not include a

Secondary containment under a per formance mandate would in fact have to meet Subsection 4.1.6. ULC listed

tanks with integral secondary contain ment would then be required to be in-

The existing NFC Part4 also includes exemptions for particular sites and uses; among these are pri Installation Code for

Oil Burning Equipment,

■- ■™ CAN/CSA-B139 (B139), and the Transportation of Flamma ble and Combustible Liquids.

On the national scene we

have the National Fire Code,


CSA-B139 Installation Code

The Installation Code for

for Oil Burning Equipment

Oil Burning Equipment CS A-

and CGSB-43.146 Portable

B139 is in final draft form and

Tanks for the Transportation of Dangerous Goods, all slated for revision prior to the

is expected to be published late 1999 or early 2000. B139 has undergone extensive revi

end of 2001.

sion and is written in a new

National Fire Code


The National Fire Code of

Canada(NFC)is scheduled to be rewritten by the year 2001. A shghtly changed format is being considered with the in troduction of performance based regulation rather than the definitive method of today. While performance based codes do permit greater access to innovative solutions, they also tend to introduce a greater Permatank" U/G double wall tank ULC/ORD C-58. reliance on the interpretive skills of the stalled in a manner that would ensure field inspectors, an issue that is already the conditions of Clause be com problematic using the definitive venue. plied with:"a spill offlammable or com Secondary containment for above bustible liquids,including water used for ground storage tanks would be one of fire fighting purposes,shall be prevented from flowing outside of the spill area the more contentious issues under a per formance based mandate. The present and from reaching waterways, sewer code, Subsection 4.3.7 Secondary Con systems and potable water sources..." tainment for Above Ground Storage The methods used to prevent this Tanks, Clause, basically ac would be up to the discretion of the site cepts ULC listed tanks with integral sec designer and would be directly related ondary containment and a maximum to site location and layout. Essentially individual volume of 50,000 litres as

there would be containment for an al

"conforming" to the requirements of secondary containment of the code. This definitive statement is liberally inter

ready contained tank and economically it might be better to use a single wall


amount of time available.

vate farms and installations


By Elson G. Fernandes, Mgr., Technical Services, Ciemmer Technologies inc

mandate for bringing existing installa tions up to date, most Territorial and Provincial regulations do include this mandate, with specific limits on the

tank in a traditional dike.

The NFC is not in itself a mandatory regulation; it is subject to acceptance by Federal,Territorial and Provincial regu latory agencies, the NFC requirements

The new format results in

B139 having two distinct mandatory sections for stor age tanks, the main body of the document relating to equipment installation, in cluding above ground storage tanks up to a maximum capac ity of 2500 litres, and Appen dix D, covering all other stor age tank sizes, both above ground and underground. The intent of the new format is related to the desire of the CSA Committee to transfer all

responsibility for the regulation of the tankage in Appendix D to the NFC. Appendix D of B139 includes retrofit requirements, intended to be adopted and enforced, by regulatory agencies at their discretion, with suggested time limits for the updating of existing equipment to the new B139 specifications. Any decision to enforce the retrofit requirements would place a financial burden on aU installa tions using oil heating appliances, includ ing the private homeowner. Since fuel oil storage for heating ap pliances and emergency generation of electrical energy is one of the last areas where storage tanks have not been regu lated based on environmental impact, it

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

storage Tanks and Containment is expected that the suggested upgrade schedules will be accepted by the regulatory authorities. Changing technology in storage tanks The creation of a North American bloc in the global marketplace is resulting in a mandate driven by the market place to harmonize product standards. Underwriters' Labo ratories Incorporated (ULI), the US equivalent of ULC in storage tank standards, ULC and the storage tank industry have formed technical committees to address tank stand ards harmonization.

The first harmonized standard is in final draft form and addresses the combination of the Protected Tank under UL-

2085, the ULI standard, and the Protected Tank Assembly under ULC-655, the ULC standard. The protected tank is fire rated, impact resistant and resistant to bullet penetra tion of the primary tank using small arms weaponry. The Steel Tank Institute membership use the Fireguard'ÂŽ design consisting of a steel inner tank, a lightweight cement insu lating layer and a steel outer tank. A working group, established under the ULC-S600A committee on steel storage tanks,is developing the first draft based on the harmonization of UL-1746, the ULI standard

for corrosion protection of underground tanks, and ULCS603.1,the ULC document addressing corrosion protection of underground tanks by cathodic protection only. The re sult will be a document addressing corrosion protection of underground tanks using several different methods of cor rosion protection. These corrosion protection measures would include, re

inforced and un-reinforced heavy duty coatings .070 inches

FireguarcP protected tank ULC-S655.

liquids stored in the tanks? 3. Is it possible to remove the tanks and retrofit the entire

dike or is it more economical to put a double bottom in the existing tanks and retrofit the dike around the tanks? 4. Can the corrective measures be taken to retrofit the site

within the economic funding available to do the work? 5. Where the flammable and combustible liquids are motor or heating fuels, is it more advantageous to discontinue storage?

6. For those contemplating the addition of new storage, per haps it is now much more economical to retum to under ground storage?

For more information, circie reply card No. 124

to .100 inches thick, with or without additional cathodic

protection, lighter duty coatings .012 inches to .016 inches thick with additional cathodic protection, and steel tankage that is fully enclosed in a non-metallic secondary tank pro viding secondary containment as well as corrosion protec tion for the steel tank. A common example of this would be

Steel Sighted in Sarnla

the Permatank'ÂŽ.

The creation of a North American bloc in

the global marketplace is resulting in a mandate driven by the marketplace to harmonize product standards.



SARNIA Pconsylvania

Steel tanks are just one of our specialties at Clemmer Technologies. We're the experts in

In addition, the first meeting of a selected taskforce in cluding personnel from ULC, ULI, Canadian and USA in dustry, and the regulatory faction,is meeting in October 1999 to set up the harmonization of Canadian and USA standards


for all flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks un


der the ULI/ULC listing mandate. Y2K Compatibility Where the installation falls under the jurisdiction of the NFC, a Territorial or Provincial Fire Code, and the installa

tion consists of above ground tankage, a study of the site should be made to determine the following: 1. For installations utilizing above ground storage tanks of double wall design or with integral secondary containment, can site work be performed that would satisfy Section 4.1.6

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

matter where in this

great country you

happen to be. So

tanks offering a vast array of products in any material you require. We offer field fabrication, custom manufacturing, and on-

|| whether you need steel in Sarnia or a field tank in

Frobisher Bay, you need Clemmer Technologies to make it happen!

There are no limits to what we can achieve.

of the NFC?

2. For installations utilizing traditional dikes, do the exist ing dike walls and floor meet the NFC requirement of a maximum permeation rate of 10-6 cm per second over a 72 hour period and are they made of materials resistant to the

site consultation to help you determine the best solution for the job, no

Clemmer Clemmer Technologies Inc. RO. Bon 130, Woterloo, Onlotio N2J 4A1

Clemmer Technologies IrK. RO. Box 1057, Cloreiholm, Alberto TOL OTO

MFM-Clemmer 151 HoIiloxSl., Monclon. New Brurnvhck EIC 9fi6

Toll Free: 800-265-884CI Fox: 15191 884-6623

Toll Free: 800-661-2851 Fox;(4031 625-4230

Toll Free: 888-258-8166 Fo. (506) 859-7112

For more information, circie reply card No. 125 (See page 25)

storage Tanks and Containment

Design and fabrication of large storage tanks Designed and delivered to Ontario puip miii in short order

A contract to build two large

storage tanks for a pulp mill in northern Ontario posed a major challenge with diffi cult problems which had to be overcome before it was completed. A pulp mill ordered two FRP (fiberglass-reinforced plastic) vessels, both 30 ft. in diameter and 60 ft. high, to store liquid chlorine dioxide for use in a new bleaching process. But the dimensions of the tanks(each slated to hold 310,000 US gallons), would have made them much too large to be shipped fully assembled.

insisting must be used in the production of any paper they buy." Oblating Segments The production method recom mended by FABCO's engineering de partment was for each tank to be built by molding both the top and bottom components in semicircular halves, and filament winding the shell in five cylin drical sections - after which the parts would be shipped to the mill and bond ed together on site to complete their

Their size also ruled out fila

ment winding them on site be cause of sub zero weather when

the order was placed. The bit terly cold conditions would have made it virtually impossi ble to maintain temperatures high enough for winding and curing the tank laminates.

to 1976 when we made 20 ft. diameter tanks whose walls were oblated for de

livery to the mid-western United States. And over the years we have built tanks of varying diameters up to 26 ft. using the same technique." Design Features Senior design engineer Armen Seropian outlined some ofthe design conditions that had to be met, pointing out that the storage tanks were engineered to withstand both positive and negative pressures. "During their operation," he said, "the walls would be sub

Fabricated Plastics Limited's

controlled atmosphere of its plant in Maple, Ontario) in components small enough to be shipped by road to the mill. There they could be housed in a heated enclosure during the assembly and installation of

assembled to counteract the vacuum stress."

the tanks.

lation that it had to be com

"We have used the method of

oblating shells before," said Sablinskas. "Our experience in that area dates back

jected to positive pressure when full, and have a tendency to col lapse when the liquid was be ing drawn out. We had to de sign them to withstand both forces. For example, ribs were strapped on after the shells were

(FABCO) solution was to fab ricate them in sections (in the

The most demanding re quirement of the contract, how ever, was the customer's stipu

Each truck could then carry two shell sections(one of each configuration), and only five vehicles would be needed for the shipment instead of ten.


"These particular storage tanks were ideally suited to hoop winding," he continued, "mainly because of their low axial loading. And because the plant is located in a zero seis mic zone, we had no seismic

pleted in only 11 weeks instead The 30 foot diameter by 60 foot high chlorine dioxide stor load to contend with. On the age tanks were field erected. of approximately 30 weeks nor other hand, wind loading could mally required for a project of its size. assembly. have been a factor in the design but did FABCO's president,Don Sablinskas, The fact that the shell sections would not impose any restrictions in this ap explained that the pulp and paper indus all be 30 ft. in diameter, however, meant plication because of the tanks'relatively try has been under tremendous pressure they would still be too large to ship by large diameter-to-height ratio. to eliminate hazardous elemental chlo road or rail in their cylindrical shape. "We wanted to use hoop winding also rine from the production of paper, which The solution recommended by the en because it allowed us to minimize the was the reason for the urgency of this gineering staff was to partially oblate thickness of the laminate. Reducing the particular job. them to "squeeze" them into a configu thickness,in tum,minimized the stresses "In the past," he stated,"chlorine has ration narrow enough to fit on the de created when the shell was oblated for been used extensively in the bleaching livery trucks. delivery. And we selected a vinyl ester process. Now, a much better alterna All the sections were oblated into resin, one with a high degree of flex tive is to bleach the product by generat oval shapes and as a space and cost sav ibility, to further reduce the stresses." ing chlorine dioxide through sodium ing feature, it was decided to squeeze Joint Requirements chlorate directly at the mill. It's a more five of the sections (half the total Because the field joints were to be environmentally friendly process, and number)intofigure 8 shapes that could butt-and-strap type, it was a little more one that some customers in Europe are fit inside the other five oblated to ovals. Continued overleaf 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

fDTE INDUSTRIES LIMITED Since 1951 DTE Industries Limited has been supplying the Petroleum, Petro chemical, Agricultural, Forestry, Mining, Heating, Contracting & Engineering fields with quality Storage tanks.

Customer satisfaction is our number #1 priority... Advantages to you the customer are:

•We have are own fleet of trucks and ship from Vancouver to Halifax

•Competitive pricing - Lease or Buy option available •5 year or 30 year warranties available •Superior Quality Products & Services for over 48 years

Let us show you how we can provide security & valuefor your money Plant tours are available by contacting our Engineering department

DTE Industries Limited 69 Comstock Rd. Scarborough, ON 1-800-387-1400 • Tel. 416-757-6278 • Fax. 416-757-5579 www.dteindustries.Gom

Offering Steel & Plastic Jacketed Tanks from 227 to 100,000 litres (50 gal. to 25,000 gal.)

For aboveground and underground applications. We meet all ULC and UL specifications. Other models available:

•Bench Tanks •Fuel Oil Tanks

•Farm Utility Tanks •Oil/Water separators •Custom Fabrication available

For more information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)


Aboveground Vertical

1 Aboveground Horizontal >

Wall Tank




4 FiRKUaro

storage Tanks and Containment difficult to design them than it would have been for bell-and-spigot type. They had to be designed to withstand the actual hydrostatic and axial loads in their precise locations in the shell. The most critical joint to design was the 4 1/2 ft.-high vertical portion of the bottom section - the joint formed when the two halves of the base were bonded

together. That vertical joint is the most heavily loaded area on the whole tank. Lam Woo, FABCO's engineering man ager, pointed out that the top and bot tom sections ofeach tank were made by hand layup (not filament wound), with a balsa wood core incorporated in the top for both structural strength and in

n Erecting first section and tank top in the


fieid under harsh winter conditions.

"The corner knuckle area of the

molded base,by the way,is 4 1/2 inches thick," he said,"which is a good indica tion of how much strength had to be built into the part. The filament wound shell sections are much thinner, of course, the

Fiiament winding a 30 foot diametersheii

upper three sections being about 7/8 inch thick and the lower two approx imately 1 1/6 inches thick." Assembly of the Tanks The method devised for assembling the top, bottom and shell components of each tank was to first bond together the two halves of the dished top. The completed dome was then raised so that the first shell segment could be slid into position beneath it for assembly. The top was then lowered onto the shell so that the two parts could be strapped to gether (on both the inside and outside of the components). In order to align the two parts, how-


ever, it was necessary to attach 16 pairs of FRP clips around the circumference of the shell to serve as guides - to en sure the dome would drop precisely into place for bonding. An FRP strap was bonded on be tween the clips to hold the parts in place while the joint was laid up. And once the strap had cured, the clips were re moved.

After the first joints had cured, the joined sections were again raised for a second shell to be positioned below them and joined to them - a procedure that was repeated until the shell was

For biosolids mixing and storage solutions • Aquastore® tanks from A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Products Co.

• JetMix Vortex® mixing systems for both new and existing biosolids and digester tanks.

sembled base.

Computer Assistance To help the team in the design of the tanks, FABCO made use of Superlam, a laminate analysis software program, and Mathcad, an engineering software program which allows a fabricator to "fine tune" a design and quickly prove its accuracy. An outside consultant was also called in to verify the design team's


As part of its quality control, FABCO's engineering department is sued laminating charts to keep close check on the assembly phase of the project. The firm's senior design engineer also specified that hydrostatic straingauge testing must be carried out, after the tanks were completed, to quantify the design values and make sure the joint laminates were adequate. Such tests took two days to complete

covers for new or existing steel and


concrete tanks.

Recipient of INNOVATIVE

for each tank, with water fed into it in


stages, the water level being raised in 10 ft. increments and a strain-gauge reading taken at each level - until the

For more information, call:


Greatario Engineered Storage Systems P.O. Box 3613, Guelph, Ontario, NIH 6P1 Tel:(519)763-5933, Fax:(519)763-0293


complete and finally joined to the as


• We can provide a complete storage and mixing system,including:

• TEnTCOR® flat and geodesic aluminum

Obiated and nested tank sections being received at site.

For more information, circle reply card No. 127 (See page 25)

tank was filled.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science <& Engineering, November 1999

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Urecon pre-lnsulated pipe Urecon pre-insulated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without ThermocableŽ heat tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insulated hot water district heating pipe suitable for sen/ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page at: www.urecon.com.

Urecon Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 185

Influent Cleaning System The BioGuard influent Cleaning Sys tem is a combination of three unique mechanical devices which removes

the suspended solids from a wastewater treatment plant's incoming stream, separates the organic ma terial from the trash, and returns the biological matter to the plant flow, while it simultaneously dewaters the

Hazardous materials

storage For optimum storage and con tainment of hazardous materi

als, the Chem-Loc Building can be an economical solution. Deal

directly with this established manufacturer and their in-house

design team for a custom de signed building. The Chem-Loc building compiles with Canadian and US Building and Fire Codes and features ail steel construction. Optional features range from fire suppression systems to customized door sizes, partitions and hoisting equipment. Since 1971, Chem-Loc has been chosen for reliable, eco nomical hazardous materials storage. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circle reply card No. 186



Practices For Corrugated Polyet'hyreh'e PipeandFlttlngs Brought to you tjy the CPPA," a non-profit ioduslry liade associaiion ttedic^ed to

providing unbiased, rcn-branded information atioul the use and

polyethylene pipe.

accumulated trash. The BioGuard


Influent Cleaning System K PABKSaN CORPORATION-.-

S8 R V


System is completely closed,to mini mize odours and insect problems, and protect operating personnel from exposure to wastes containing pathogenic organisms. Parkson Circle reply card No. 187

Your Intofm^ion Resource


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Hbihi np*

Cradle-to-grave processing


BOVAR's Swan HIiis Treatment Cen

Our 530 page all color mail-or der catalog, has over 12,000

tre Is Canada's preferred facility in solving hazardous waste problems. We have safely processed more than 225 million kilograms and 2,000 types of hazardous waste since opening in 1987. Hazardous organic

items from more than 400 manu

facturers - everything you need to keep your water and wastewater systems running smoothly. Simply pick up the phone for ex pert technical advice and same day shipping to anywhere in

waste materials are treated at one

of three processing facilities at BOVAR's Treatment Centre.

BOVAR Waste Management Circle reply card No. 189

Wastewater recovery and processing


Through utilizing the Derrick "FloLine" screening unit design, high fluid capacities can be effectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher solids/particuiate removal.


CPPA Installation Guide

This pocket-sized booklet provides information on handling and instal lation of corrugated poiyethyiene pipe and fittings in nonpressure ap plications including most storm sew ers, culverts, and subdrainage sys tems. The booklet is available by calling the CPPA at: 1-800-510CPPA (2772), or by visiting the web site at www.cppa-info.org. Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe

The Derrick "Flo-Line"

screening unit can also be easily in stalled into an existing facility due to the unique compact unit design. The

Canada. USABIueBook

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The ZENON Membrane

Technology Prize I

The ZENON Membrane

Technology Prize The ZENON Membrane Technology Prize is awarded in recognition of advances in understanding the use of membrane technology tor the so lution of water/wastewater manage ment problems. The recipient of the award will receive US $10,000 in rec ognition of their work. For further information visit ZENON's web page at: www.zenonenv.com.

"Flo-Line" can also be custom de

ZENON Environmental Inc.

signed to meet your industry's spe cific requirements. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 191

Circle reply card No. 192

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


Product and Service Showcase Acid neutralization system

"MSDS World"


PHIi Green Turtle Technologies Ltd. intro duces PHIX™, an innovative acid neu tralization system capable of treating a continuous stream of acidic wastewater

PHIX™ was designed to ensure a trou ble free,low maintenance operation with virtually no electronics. This unique process(patent pending)does not require mixing, reagent preparation, an agitated mixing tank, or a pH controller for rea gent dispensing. Servicing simply in volves periodic refill of the neutralizing media. Green Turtle Technologies Ltd. Circle reply card No. 210

At Lehder, a new division has been formed called "MSDS World", which


with no chemical dispensing required.

Concrete Solutions from Munro!

1-800-461-5632 www.munroconcrete.com

authors, catalogues and indexes Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS)for distribu tion via the internet, intranet or CD.

MSDS World has a strong team ofindus trial hygienists, biologists, technologists and information management specialists with extensive experience in authoring and delivering MSDSs. Lehder Environmental Services

Regulatory requirement updates

Circle reply card No. 211

Circle reply card No. 212

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Getting the red out with PipePac

The Inlet Storm

ceptor System em ploys the same prin ciples of operation as the weU-known

Lehder has developed Supplier MSDS Manager software which can be custom ized and used to manage MSDSs and al lows viewing/printing of supplier MSDSs throughout a network environment; pro duces notification letters to suppliers re questing updated MSDSs on a required frequency; and creates custom reports outlining products containing NPRI in gredients, WHMIS classifications. Lehder Environmental Services

Circle reply card No. 213

Concrete Pipe Design Manual



In-line interceptors. Developed to treat mnoff hom an area of up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Storm

ceptor has inherited the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from stormwater runoff re

mains trapped within the storage cham ber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 2,500 units in place throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 214

PiantPRO™ Trash Pumps

ocpa llhe cho


concrete pipe association

choice of a lifetime

Circle reply card No. 216 66

Membrane technology for

ZENON's ZenoGem® bioreactor system

quality, premium performance at a price that won't bust your budget! All of our pumps are made of heavy duty cast aluminum with cast iron replaceable wear parts. Both 3" and 4" models are avail

can retrofit any existing wastewater treat ment facility, immediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The sys tem incorporates immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass reten tion, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge.

able. USABIueBook

ZENON Environmental Inc.

manual offers the most current

Get your FREE copy and read all about it!

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industrial wastewater

The new updated version is available now from the OCPA. This indispensame

information on the design, manufacture, application and installation of precast concrete drainage systems.

PipePac is a software that has merged 3EB (Three-Edge-Bearing),SAMM(Spangler & Marston Method of pipe design),CAPE (Cost Analysis of Pipe Envelope), and LCA (Life Cycle Analysis). Merging of the programs into one application has resulted in a uniform interface, a single database for each project, simplified use, reduced data entry, minimized errors, and standardized design process. OCPA

PiantPRO™ Trash Pumps offer high

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Product and Service Showcase eaglebrook* Your Singh Source

eaglebrook* Vour S/ng/e Source

Odor & Corrosion Control Enhancing Primary Treatment to

Reduce Costs and

One Simple

EAGLEBROOK' Your Single Source

fmprooe Treatment.

Enhanced Primary

With Iron Salts.

Major Problems.

Controlling Odor


Treatment (CEPT)

Solution For Two

And Corrosion


With Iron Salts.




www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 219

Circle reply card No. 220

www.eaglebrook.net Circle reply card No. 221

Software update

pH monitoring system

Sludge retention time system

The new EC310


Process pH Moni toring System combines


new electrode de

signs and a pow

Recent software upgrade to the Hach DR/4000 UV-VIS Scanning Spectrophotometer provides pre-programed cali brations and language-selectable user prompting for new Hach water quality tests. Version 2.33 allows direct readout

in concentration of chlorine dioxide, us

ing the DPD/Glycine method, as well as high range total nitrogen, high range to tal phosphorus, and high range reactive phosphorus, each using self-contained

erful new control

ler to provide re liable, full-time

pH monitoring with lab-quality accuracy. The latest in Hach's line of pH monitor ing systems, the new EC310 is ideal for monitoring water in virtually any appli cation, from wastewater and industrial

process water to municipal drinking water and ultra-pure water. Hach

Circle reply card No. 223

Test'N Tube™ Reagent Vials. Hach Circle reply card No. 222

Submersible aspirating

The new Model 7700 SRT (Sludge Re tention Time)Control System, is a com plete package, which will accurately and reliably control the wasting, optimizing performance of an activated sludge sys tem. The controller can accommodate

any wasting strategies that your plant cur rently employs and allow you to control this strategy. Each control unit will be supplied with control algorithms that can be customized for each installation.

Cancoppas Limited Circle reply card No. 224

Sediment/solids detection




Based on 32 bit digital signal microproc essor technology and Entech Design's unique filtering and tracking software, BinMinder 9300 offers the very latest in

Built upon years of intensive research,

blanket level and sediment level detec

the Hurricane''" Submersible Aerator/

tion. Systems accept one to four sensor inputs for economical continuous moni toring of four vessels by a single proces sor. A full complement of system out puts is onboard, and local operation is handled by means of a membrane switch control panel with full function LCD dis play. Summa Engineering Circle reply card No. 226

Mixer offers unmatched ruggedness,

quality and serviceability. This 360° radially mixing system incorporates new, unique air diffusers designed for high oxygenating efficiency and thorough mixing over a wide area. Frontenac Environmental

Circle reply card No. 225

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

M^edc loducthv




m The Aquaflux 470 Electromagnetic Flowmeter from Krohne provides high meas uring accuracy and stability. Every 470 Flowmeter is calibrated exactly in one of the world's most accurate calibration fa

cilities. Supplied ready for operation and ISO 9001 certified.

Summa Engineering

Circle reply card No. 227 67

Product and Service Showcase AIR LIQUIDE




Are you puzzled

Do you need oxy gen for your waste


Are you puzzled about...

water treatment

plant? Maybe you

...the treatment of effluents with high BOD loads, a need to drastically reduce VOCs and odours, ways to improve sludge settling, reducing energy con sumption and optimizing operating costs? Oxygen solutions from Air Liquide may be what you're looking for. Talk to one of our representatives and let Air Liquide show you how it all fits together. Air Liquide Circle reply card No. 228

Water level logger/probe

would hke to use

oxygen as a feed gas for your ozone generator? Be it our on-site tech

nology, or our numerous cylinder distri bution centres and liquid plants located across North America, let Air Liquide

...lowering pH without using hazardous chemicals, reducing aluminum residuals in your water, eliminating sodium hypochloiite scaling from your WTP pip ing? Carbon Dioxide solutions from Air Liquide may be what you're looking for.

provide you with the right mode of sup ply for your oxygen needs. Air Liquide Circle reply card No. 229

Talk to one of our representatives and let Air Liquide show you how it all fits to gether. Air Liquide Circle reply card No. 230

The Engineering Link

Metering pumps & controllers

Canada's Premier Engineering Link Peacock has a full

on the Net

line of Milton

Roy and LMI me tering pumps and Liquitron meter ing pump control lers - for a full PLMI

In-Situ's TROLL4000 is a fully submers ible probe which measures and records water level and temperature during aqui fer testing and long-term monitoring of surface and groundwater. Its outside di ameter of 1.5 inches allows easy access

We are proud to be Canada's comprehen sive Engineering Link web site on the Net

to 2-inch wells. Customization of linear, logarithmic or event-based data collec tion schedules is accomplished via Win-

dedicated to highlighting Canada's pro fessional engineering, planning and architectural firms to suppliers and pro

dows®-based software running on a com

spective clients. The Engineering Link www.theengineeringlink.net

puter. Geneq

Circle reply card No. 231

Circle reply card No. 232

Photocatalytic treatment

Pump selection software

range of applica tions. A metering pump is only as good as the de sign of the whole system. Peacock can help you select the right metering pump for your particular environment from the pumps known for their performance and reUability. Peacock

Circle reply card No. 233

Lamella clarifiers

ABSEL, a pump selection software

i ABSEL ABS Selection Program Users'Manual

Purifies® core product, Photo-Cat'", is a fully automated photocatalytic treatment system that detoxifies or purifies air, water and in-situ soil. Photo-Cat® sys tems destroy organic contaminants at the source with no generated waste, thus eliminating the associated liability. It is claimed to be the most significant devel opment in the water purification indus try in the last 15-20 years. Purifies Environmental Technologies

Circle reply card No. 234 68

program devel oped by pump manufacturer, ABS Pumps, and offered free, sig nificantly stream lines the pump se-

lection process by enabling pump specifiers and users to automatically cal culate friction loss in a system. By auto mating extensive,time-consuming calcu lations, ABSEL helps to ensure the ap propriate selection of an ABS pump to achieve optimum system operating effi ciency. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 235

Ecodyne custom design each lamella clarifier to meetthe specific service needs of their clients. Use of a lamella clarifier reduces maintenance to a minimum.

There are no moving parts. Its compact ness allows the unit to be located in new,

automated plants or in upgraded instal lations where space may not be available for a standard clarifier. Units are usually fully assembled, minimizing erection costs and time. Ecodyne Limited

Circle reply card No. 236 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999

Product and Service Showcase EIMCO FlexKlear® inclined

piate settiers Features; Hinged plates can be

EiMCO Reactor-Ciarifier® soiids-oontact ciarifiers


velocities, en

available. Baker Process

dential or hght in dustrial applica tions, the Flygt Packaged Pump System is fully

bined in a single tank;


recirculated 8-15

times; gentle tur bine mixing for optimum particle growth; heavyduty mechanism;superior dual drivehead design for maximum service life; proper support for mechanism and operational loads; pilot plant available. Baker Process

Circle reply card No. 238

Circle reply card No. 237

Bovar's solution to waste

effluents in resi

Flocculation and clarification com

cumulated solids;

force uniform flow; rugged, modular stainless steel support system speeds in stallation; adapts easily to rectangular or square basins; combines readily with Trac-Vac™ sludge collectors; pilot plant

Designed to han dle sewage and


shifted to shed ac

hghtweight corru gated stainless steel plates; ported launders dampen irregular

Packaged pump system

Measurement of gas velocity

equipped with a pump and a basin, ready for easy in stallation. Avail

able with one or two pumps, these preassembled pump stations require little maintenance and, if needed, can easily be serviced by Flygt branches and re gional distributors. The system may be equipped to meet the demands of indi vidual apphcations. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 239

Global water solutions

and volumetric flow With more than


30 years of expe rience, Bovar Waste Manage



ment offers one of the most effective

solutions by using Best Available Demonstrated

Technology. Since the Swan Hills Treatment

Centre opened in 1987, it has become a trusted industry leader in the safe, afford able destruction ofPCBs from across the

country. It has almost completely de stroyed all of Alberta's PCB stockpiles. Bovar Waste Management Circle reply card No. 240

Pleated backwash filters

FLOWSIC 107 is the newest addition to


SICK AG's proven line of non-contact ultrasonic flow rate analyzers. This lat

We are now a member ofthe Azurix fam

est advancement's ultrasonic transducers

ily! We used to be known as PUMC.

are smaller and mounted to a single

Now we are Azurix North America, part of an expanding global enterprise. We own, operate and manage water and wastewater facilities, provide water and wastewater services, and develop and

probe, greatly simplifying planning and installation. Titanium transducers require no purge air and are ideal for very con taminated gas streams. It is much more representative of actual gas flow than sin gle point monitors. AMKO Systems Circle reply card No. 241

manage water resources. Azurix North America

Circle reply card No. 242

Trace metal analyzer

Personal dosimeter

The PDV5000 is a portable trace element analyzer based on the anodic stripping voltammetry technique. Designed for

The PiezOptic Personal Dosimeter Sys tem is a breakthrough in the detection and precise meastuement of hazardous sub stances such as formaldehyde or hydrazine. Styrene, glutaraldehyde,ozone and nitrogen dioxide are also measured on the spot with specific dosimeter badges. Formaldehyde is measured in the range of 0.2 to 4.0 ppm and hydrazine, from 5 to 100 ppb. Nortech GSI Circle reply card No. 245

Septra™ back wash


manufactured by Pall Corporation,

provide efficient removal of con taminants from

liquid process streams using fewer filter ele

ments and a more compact system than

is typically required in water and chemi cal process applications. Pall's patented crescent-shaped pleat design provides ten times the surface area of standard cylin drical filter cartridges of camparable length and diameter. Pall Corporation Circle reply card No. 243

cost-effective field use, it can measure

concentrations of a wide range of ele ments including cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and many more down to the 5 to 10 ppb range. Visit our web site sales blitz at: www.nortechgsi.com for more details. Nortech GSI

Circle reply card No. 244 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999


Public Perception

Green education or indoctrination? Teaching children about the environment

A geography textbook claims

that "humanity is becoming a super-malignancy on the face of the planet." Our pop ulation, it says, is growing like cancer cells on our fragile planet. Ifthis is what passes for "sci ence" in schools today,then con temporary education may be in worse straits than you imagined. In a basic model of educa

tion one might expect, at the very least, progress through the grades from mastery of basic skills to some facility with criti cal thinking skills, including analysis of arguments and evaluation of their merit. This

would be something close to the dictionary definition of educa tion, which is "the systematic development or training of the mind." But the content of en

to conclude after his textbook informs

him: "In the western world particularly there have been many examples of greedy and thoughtless use of re sources," as "human beings continue to pollute the environment in many ways

ment to global warming - has more to do with fear-mongering than it does with "systematic development" of young minds. It suggests that educators are betraying the public's trust that their schools are kept free of political propa ganda and indoctrination. What is worse, many of these "lessons" are being taught from a very early age, before children have had a chance to

develop their critical thinking skills.

Students internalize

shibboleths of political environmentalism like "humans are

destroying the environment," "growth is polluting," and "technology is harmful" as if they were the logical equiva lents of 2 + 2 = 4.

Parents, educators, business leaders, and politicians should be worried about this kind of

"education". The move away from science towards advocacy dian schools is more often emo and politically correct rhetoric tionally-laden propaganda than comes at great cost. First, many science. Environmental education Can m odern lifestyles be maintained to serve succeeding young people carry the burden of being unnecessarily pessi should provide students with a generations while protecting the environment? mistic about the future health of balance of perspectives and an opportunity to exercise their critical in the pursuit of an affluent lifestyle." the planet. Second, while children are learning the media-hyped misinforma thinking skills. Unfortunately for Ca And, "the only way to improve condi tions in developing nations is for the rich tion known as environmentalism, they nadian children, the environmental edu to change their priorities away from eco are not acquiring the tools that will help cation in today's schools seldom pro them figure out for themselves how to vides them with this opportunity. nomic growth." A few examples outline the problem. What are children supposed to think evaluate complex environmental issues. A government-sponsored group called about technology when they read:"Most Finally, future policy making will be in the Green Team routinely makes class pollution problems can be traced to ma jeopardy when an entire generation of room presentations which are filled with chines. Machines have other negative Canadians is not taught to think criti statements such as: "To make plastic, aspects. They use up energy at a great cally about important scientific issues they mix [oil] with six to ten of the dead rate, they often provide a substitute for or to question special interest group propaganda. liest chemicals known to human beings, healthy physical activity, and they con The Eraser Institute recently released they mix it to make plastic [sic]." The tribute to the unemployment problem." What children are not learning in a new book, Facts Not Fear: Teaching clear message that plastics are danger Children About the Environment. The ous and polluting substances is never these lessons is how "affluence" has re balanced by a discussion of the count duced infant mortality, increased life Canadian edition provides parents, less ways in which plastics have im expectancy, and improved health care. teachers, and children with accurate in proved our standard of living. Is it fair In addition to heavily discounting the formation to effectively address chil to expect an 8-year-old to come away many benefits that come from technol dren's concerns about the health of the with a reasoned perspective about envi ogy and economic growth, textbooks planet. In simple, non-technical lan ronmental concerns after listening to this miss the important point that when it guage,authors Michael Sanera and Jane presentation? comes to improving environmental qual Shaw explain the myths and facts con What is a 14-year-old boy supposed ity, economic growth and technology cerning many major environmental top can be part of the solution. ics including air quality, global warm By Laura Jones, Director of The unbalanced approach that is ing, world population, endangered spe Environment Studies, commonly used when discussing issues cies, forest use, and ozone. The Eraser Institute Details:(604)688-0221, ext. 580. -from resource use and waste manage vironmental education in Cana


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1999



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