Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1999

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine


Louisiana beckons WEFTEC '99 delegates Removing colour, Cryptosporidium and Giardia Watermain rehabilitation using cement mortar Be prepared for environmental emergencies Understanding aerobic/anoxic digestion How to keep our infrastructure whole The law and your septic system

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Ad Index








Industry Update


Literature Reviews


Product Review


Professional Cards



Sales Manager




E-mail: steve@esemag.com E-mail: tom@esemag.ccm E-mail: penny@esemag.com Managing Editor Sales Representative SANDRA DAVEY


Circulation Manager

E-mail: denise@esemag.com Publisher's Assistant



E-mail: i<athy@esemag.com

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Jim Bishop

Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Beak international Inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2iVi Gore & Storrie Limited

Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

Goodfeilow Consultants Ltd.

Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. An ail Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mall Sales


August/September '99 Vol. 12 No. 4 Issued September, 1999

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Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration Ho. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Dntarlo, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271, E-mail: esemag@lstar.ca, Web site: http://www.esemag.com

7 10

Editorial Comment by Tom Davey Cover story - Keeping infrastructures whoie


Louisiana beckons for WEFTEC '99


Horizontai scrubber for odour controi


'Down Under' conference

18 20 22 28 32 36 40 42 48 50 53 54

Emergency vapour scrubbing in Chicago Dirty water-bigger than wars Myths and reaiities about the P&P industry The iaw and your septic system Golf course uses spray irrigation Odour controi options for iandfill leachate Major spili averted in raii/truck coliision Understanding aerobic/anoxic digestion Toronto Hydro launches waterfront windmills Toronto to use deep lake water cooling AOLS begins Geomatics Initiative Watermain rehab using cement mortar


Culverts save animals and costs to motorists

57 60 62 64 66

Environmental information technology Fed regs lower levels of sulphur in gasoline Polymer coating could stay corrosion Niagara Region in public/private partnership Membrane technologies in the water industry

68 86

Contaminants from coal-fired electricity Guest comment - Avogadro and recycling





Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999




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Editorial Comment

Should the House of Commons become

an aerobic treatment facility?

Ihave often thought that if under

ground sevi'er and watermain net works were as visible as potholes, the environmental industry might stop being the orphan of provincial and federal funding. Environmental infrastructure is un

derground, and vei"y much out of fund ing mindsets. That is until now. The Sierra Legal Defence Fund has issued a scathing report which states that Cana da's sewage treatment systems are a na tional disgrace. At the time of writing, the Canadian Water &. Wastewater As

sociation was taking action to respond to the accusations. Sierra's simplistic high school type report cards rated mu nicipalities as A, B, C, D, or P. Such rating methodologies have many imper fections, as some lower grades are given on subjective criteria. As H.L. Menken said: "For every complex problem there is a simple an swer - usually the wrong one." Eco systems are delicate entities not easily assessed by simple (but extensively documented) alphabetic ratings. Thor ough ecosystem studies involve a huge array of disciplines including hydrology, toxicology, epidemiology, etiology, lymnology, oceanography, analytical chemistry, and civil engineering - to name a few.

But this scathing criticism might even be a blessing in disguise. Until this report, the public had no concept of how well, or how poorly their municipal en vironmental facilities were performing. It was all too easy for local politicians to keep taxes low by ignoring recommended infrastructure repair and replacement pro tocols, or worse still, letting price be the determining factor for both engineering designers and equipment suppliers on treatment facilities.

hensive asset man


which will continu

ously update the most

By Tom Davey

human excrement, grease, motor oil, paint thinner, antifreeze and other sub stances containing toxic synthetic chemi cals- wouldfdl the main chamber ofthe House of Commons every three-and-ahalfminutes." This led me to the thought that if detention times could be extended

during long-winded debates, there could several national TV channels, gave some be aeration treatment potential here. gut wrenching imagery of untreated The report's other findings are not at sewage which surely should demolish all funny: the political apathy which has made • About 104 billion litres of only par environmental remediation a poor rela tially-treated, fish-killing sewage enters tion in funding. the Georgia Strait every year from one Sierra's second National Sewage Vancouver sewage treatment plant. Report Card, released August 18, •Sewage containing high fecal coliform claimed that many Canadian cities con counts has made the Red River down tinue to dump massivfe amounts of un stream of Winnipeg, one of the most treated sewage into the nation's water degraded water courses in Canada. ways, some in violation of permits that •In Quebec,almost a fifth of the soft clam are supposed to protect the environment. and blue mussel harvesting zones are closed due to municipal sewage pollution. Canada and was also broadcast on

..."water would/?// the main chamber ofthe House of Commons every threeand-a-half minutes It claimed that over one trillion litres

of untreated or partially treated sewage is dumped into Canada's rivers, lakes and oceans each year by some of the 21 cities surveyed. This massive amount of waste would cover the entire 7,800

kilometre length of the Trans-Canada highway to a depth of nearly 20 metres. "Although there has been some sub stantial progress in some cities over the past five years, the lack of discernible progress in many cities is alarming," the new report says. "Of the 21 cities docu mented in this report, five (Victoria,

• More than one third of the cities sur

veyed -8 out of 21 - either violate pro vincial permits or hold no permits. • Only one surveyed city, Calgary, rated an A.

Apart from turning The Commons into a treatment facility, the report says there are legal remedies there to stop the damage caused by preventable pollution sources. "Under The Federal Fisheries

Act, discharge of substances deleterious tofish into fish-bearing waters is a ma jor offence punishable by fines of up to

$1 million and/or imprisonment. Many municipalities are chronic offenders, yet charges are rarely laid," the report says. What I find interesting is that gov ernments say they can ill afford funds to remediate poor, or build new treat ment facilities. Yet the value of lost fish

Saint John, Halifax, St. John's and

catches and shellfish, as well as the

Dawson City) dump a combined total

negative effect on human health, cer tainly outweigh the costs involved in upgrading treatment facilities. I await the CWWA response with in terest. If things are so bad, a great deal

of 365 million litres of untreated sew

As our cover story reports, Winnipeg, for example, has un dertaken a compre agement

cost-effective rehabilitation approach for the overall system at sustainable funding levels. There are many other commend able initiatives which cannot be simply assessed by A,B,C,D,and E report cards. But that being said, the Sierra Report, which made front page news across

age directly into the nation's rivers, lakes and seas every day. Eleven other cities dump an average of 437 million litres of untreated sewage per day thi'ough by passes and combined sewer overflows." These data were presented with an impractical, but quite striking, aquatic metaphor which was exquisitely and ap propriately targeted at the very seat of our senior government. Collectively, "this flow of untreated sewage - water.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

of blame can be laid on Federal, Pro

vincial and Regional agencies for underfunding. If nothing else, the Si erra Report has drawn attention to some serious problems. The professionals in environmental engineering could - for a change - benefit from this negative publicity. ❖

Letters and E-mails

Dear Tom:

I was greatly fascinated by, and generally in agreement with, your editoriai on tree pollution (June issue ES&E). If I have a criticism,it is that you didn't go far enough in your research. It seems highly prob able, at least to me, that trees and other

living organisms do, in fact, emit gases now somewhat ironically, dubbed green house gases. Why gases from such natu ral sources would react any differently in the atmosphere from the same gases that are put there through human intervention is, of course, a very interesting question. The thought does tweak the appetite for some knowledge as to what the natural global burden of these gases really is. All of this however, is to me some

what secondary. In terms of major atmos pheric nuisance and continuing misery,it appears to me that it's hard to beat the woes of that old chestnut, Hayfever. In their attempts to procreate,plants certainly have developed some powerful air con taminants. Ask anybody that suffers from tree pollen, ragweed, or you name it, and I think they may be inclined to dismiss the terpenes and blue haze as somewhat secondary effects. It's hard to worry about global waiTning as one rasps away with

an itchy nose and watery eyes. I believe that, in fact, allergy medication is either the #1 or #1 in sales of pharmaceutical products in the westem world, which sug gests more than a few chronic sufferers from those pesky trees. So I agree with your' thesis that at best, we may strive for environmental neutrality. Alan Church,C.Chem Church & Trought Inc.

new is in the coming, to put it mildly. As we can now drill granite at 500 metres per day, not 50 as in our well at Fort McMurray in 1994, to look for wa ter is not cost-prohibitive. The well at Fort McMurray penetrated 1,100 metres of granite of which 93 metres were porous! The granite oil, like the deep water, is simple chemistry, no contamination at all. How about this for good news? Robert O. Akan Oil & Minerals Ltd.

Re: story by Maude Barlow (June issue, ES&E,pages 14-19). Enclosed you will find information re: 'oil in granite'. If you substitute 'oil' for 'water', you will be surprised! First, all this is so new, that we were

not taught about it at university. Second, granite is porous 'all the way down' and the porosity is either filled with oil or ice cold, 100% clean water. Consequently, we are trying to measure temperature in

E-mail on Low Bid Sitting here at lunch,going over the new issue o^ESSlE. Thought it fitting to send greetings from New York and laud your recent efforts. New layouts, contents, call-out bars for the magazine are a great touch. The ad placement in the mag versus editorial has also made for a bet ter visual effect.

sive drill stem test over a water filled in

Your quote regarding low bid ethos is one of the finest distillations of engineer ing truth since Archimedes. It should go down in the annals or, more immediately,

terval, if we are looking for oil! Regarding the world market for water, we expect to make big profits by finding water! In other words:something

appear as 'quote of the month' in one of those pocket calendars, say for June. Tom Wingfield, P.Eng., MIBS, Pall Corporation, Long Island, NY

the drill holes to an extent never done

before- we do not want to run an expen

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Cover Story

How to keep infrastructures whole City engineers need to know there is a way to protect pubiic safety, manage infrastructure, and minimize social costs

/ n

Sewer Asset Management Programme can help government agencies avoid the consequences of an infrastructure failure.

After decades of funding

Photo courtesy City of Winnipeg.

sewer infrastructure repair

essarily. In Winnipeg, as in most North American cities, investing the taxpay

at a rate less than its deter

er's dollar in the most effective manner

ioration rate and utilizing a management strategy that was geared more towards reacting to failure rather than precluding failure, the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba,approached UMA for an engineering solution that would show how to most effectively invest its shrinking asset management dollars. The city of 660,000 boasts a subter ranean network of some 3,500 kilome tres of wastewater,combined,and storm

sewers, much of it dating from the ear liest part of this century. Although cata strophic failures occur infrequently,they can absorb a very large percentage of repair costs and seriously erode public confidence in system management. Yet repairing infrastructure at the wrong point in its deterioration cycle causes vast sums of money to be spent unnec-

possible is clearly the order of the new millennium.

vides the basis to answer these and other

UMA responded with a comprehen sive asset management strategy that combines sophisticated Geographic In formation Systems(GIS) technology, a system-wide sewer cleaning program, state-of-the-art sewer inspection data compilation techniques, sound eco nomic principles, and a powerful data base engine. Combine this with the po litical will to solve problems effectively and you have the making of a best man agement practice for sewer infrastruc

key infrastructure management queries. In 1998,40 km of Winnipeg's sewer system was inspected and integrated into

ture management.

Key to successful implementation of the strategy is the Sewer Management System(SMS),a complex GIS database application with a very straightforward purpose: to continuously identify the most cost-effective rehabilitation strat

By Brenda Lea Brown UMA Group, Vancouver


What is the potential impact of the fail ure on the public? What level of fund ing will be required to establish a sus tainable infrastructure policy? SMS pro

egy for the entire sewer system. What has to be fixed? What is the optimum time for repair? What are the direct and indirect cost consequences of failure?

the SMS database. The detailed infor mation from within the sewers was ob

tained by specially-trained technicians using remotely operated, high resolu tion, pan-and-tilt CCTV cameras An other 100 km is scheduled for inspec tion in 1999. The remaining combined sewer infrastructure is recommended for

inspection and evaluation over the next

10 years at a cost of approximately $30 million. As the program evolves, the SMS system continuously updates the most cost-effective rehabilitation ap proach for the overall system as well as defining the sustainable funding level that is required to maintain sewer infra structure in the most cost-effective man

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Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1999





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Conference Preview

Louisiana beckons for WEFTEC '99 72nd conference and exhibition

New Orleans wil hostthelarg

Saturday, October 9 'Activated Sludge 'Analytical Techniques for Basic America - WEFTEC '99, Wastewater Operations I October 9-13, 1999. This five-day 'Beneficial Use of Animal Residuals event, the 72nd conference and exhibi Mandatory for the 21st Century tion of the Water Environment Federa 'Biosolids: Current & Emerging Issues tion(WEF),will be packed with techni • Creating a Competitive Utility: cal programs and activities on water A Toolbox for Success quality issues. Some twenty-seven Conference Workshops open the week on Saturday and Sunday, covering timely topics lo help delegates run efficient and cost effective operations.

est water quality conference and exposition in North


• Effective Practices Toolkit for Wastewater Treatment Plant

Operations and Maintenance • Recent Advances in Biosolids

Research: Conditioning, Dewatering, and Beneficial Use • Technical Issues in Biocriteria • Waterbome Infectious

Pathogens in Wastewater Determination of Presence,

Survivability and Risks to

John Briscoe, Senior Water Advisor for The World Bank, will

Wastewater Treatment Plant and

discuss water issues on the global economy during the Opening General Session. Tuesday, WEF's famous Operations Chal lenge event will fill the Exposi

Collection System Workers ' Controlling Nitrogen Discharge at Municipal WWTPs • Analytical Techniques for Basic Wastewater Operations II • Automatic Monitoring &

tion Hall with action.

Paul Simon,former US Sena

Control of Wastewater

tor and author of Tapped Out: The Coming World Crisis in

Treatment Plants

• Evaluation and Application

Water and What We Can Do

of Passive Groundwater

About It, will be Wednesday's

Remediation Systems • The Final Rule to Implement

WEFTEC luncheon featured

speaker. For Industry Day, a full pro gram will be dedicated to the latest industrial water quality issues. Scheduled on Wednesday,October 13, Industry Day'99 provides an opportu nity to attend specific industrial techni cal and regulatory sessions and tour the WEFTEC '99 Exposition. Exposition Preview Day, on Sunday from 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., offers op portunities to visit vendors, make new

Sunday, October 10 • Evaluating Cyanide in Wastewater: Analytical Methods, Fate and Transport, and Water Quality Standards (Half day workshop)

EPA's Office of Water Perform

• How Clean Is Clean?

• Odour and Corrosion Prediction and

ance-based Measurement System (PBMS): Using New Instruments and Technologies Without Prior Approval • New Markets for Your Municipal Wastewater Services: "Looking Beyond the Boundaries" Collection Systems Management, Operations & Maintenance,and Safety Zero Discharge: Can Industry Attain It? Wastewater Microbiology

contacts, and visit old friends. On

Preliminary Technical Program

Wednesday,WEE members can attend the Exposition for free and Non-members can attend the Exposition for only $10!

Monday, October 11 Biological Processes and Kinetics with

Control in Collection Systems • Reconciling Growth and Watershed Protection: Principles, Policies and Payoffs Pre-Conference Workshops • A WET Tale: Toxicity of Complex The following WEF and Water Effluents(A two-day workshop) Environment Research Foundation • Wastewater Microbiology (WERF)conference workshops will be available on Saturday and Sunday, • Assessment and Framing Workshop: Propose and Develop Upset Early October 9 & 10, on a first-come, firstWarning Systems for Biological served basis:

WEF Director and President of

Environmental Science &

Engineering 12

Nutrients I: BNR

Class A Biosolids Methodologies Biosolids Regulation and Privatization Operation and Maintenance Case Histories

• WaterAVastewater Business

Wastewater Management in the Automotive Industry Total Maximum Daily Loads

Information Systems to Access Utility Competitiveness • Wet Weather Water Quality Standards

Strategic Utility Management Issues Continued overleaf

Wastewater Treatment

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AEESP Lecture

Aeration and Oxygen Transfer

Wet Weather Issues

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

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Conference Preview

• Plant O&M:Assessing and Improving Practices

'Instrumentation, Controls and SCADA • Disinfection Case Histories 'Small Communities and Natural

Systems I 'Regulatory Update '99

Tapped Out: The Coming World Crisis in Water and What We Can Do About It, by Paul Simon, Wednesday luncheon's featured speaker. 'Small Communities and Natural

Systems II • International Wastewater Policy and Regulatory Innovations

• Latin American Issues 'International Issues

Tuesday, October 12 'Biological Nutrient Removal 'Nutrients II: Biological Phosphorus

• Tools for Successful Public Paitnership 'Anaerobic Treatment and Biosolids



'Nutrients III: Nitrification and


• Local Issues

Wednesday, October 13 • Biodegradation of Recalcitrant Compounds • Physical-Chemical Treatment Processes


• Pathogens 'Temperature Phased Digestion Process • Selected Topics 'Construction Techniques • Biosolids Processing and Handling 'Wet Weather Issues: I/I 'Management 'Emerging Approaches to Remediation > Wet Weather Issues: CSOs of Hazardous Wastes 'Innovative Approaches to Remediation 'Industrial Biological Waste Treatment 'Industiial Pretreatment Issues Issues 'Watershed Management II 'Pollution Prevention and Toxicity 'Ecosystem Restoration 'Watershed Management I • Partnerships and Benchmarking ' Water Quality Criteria 'Plant O&M: Optimization of ■ Utility Competition Issues Biological Nutrient Removal ' Plant O&M:Process Optimization 'Laboratory Issues ' Information Technology, Modeling 'Management of Odours and VOCs I and GIS 'Natural and Small Community ■ UV Disinfection Treatment Systems Denitrification


• Disinfection Regulatory Issues in

MCR55 Process and technology

• Progress in Anaerobic Digestion • System Optimization • Chemical Industry Wastewater Treatment

• Louisiana Regulatory Issues • Environmental Monitoring and Permitting • Wetlands

• Urban Systems • Changing Workplace Issues • National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation: PartI

• Management of Odours and VOCs 11 • Water Reclamation and ReuseI

• Physical and Chemical Processes • Emerging Technologies • Biological Aerated Filters • Hydrological Tools for System Improvement • Regional Industrial Issues • Perspectives on Nutrient Enrichment for Mississippi River and Gulf of

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Mexico • Environmental Tools

• Management of Odours and VOCs HI


• Small Systems Issues • National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation: Part II

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Odour Control


Horizontal scrubber for odour control

An800cfm scrubberhas been RWDI is pleased to announce that Christopher Drope, M.Eng., P.Eng., has recently joined the firm as a Project Manager/Specialist focusing on Indus trial Processes. His areas of specializa tion include: industrial ventilation design, troubleshooting and optimization; air pollution control systems design and operation; industrial hygiene/health and safety issues; and airborne contaminant surveys. Mr. Drope obtained a Master of Engineering (Industrial Hygiene) in 1993 from the University of Toronto and his B.A.Sc. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Waterloo in 1990. Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc.

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bing the odours. Instead of the random type packing made from highly resistant polypropy lene, a structured packing was chosen

called a Polycube™, also made from polypropylene. Not having a large application, nor a large budget, but stiU needing to remove the obnoxious odours, the municipahty elected to go with a horizontal odourscrubber. This does not require the height needed for effective absorption by verti cal towers.The horizontal scrabber's low

height needs less pumping energy; there is also an additional reduction in the



amount of liquid required for recirculation - two-thirds less recirculated liquid

Polycube developed by Plastlcalr.

for wetting this packing's surface for ef fective contact.

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High profile speakers at'Down Under'conference Governor General addresses OZAWWA Meeting

An impressive aspect of the

Australian Water and Waste-

water Association is the high level support it receives.

AWWA President in Chicago shortly afterwards, had the privilege of sharing the podium with the Governor General and speaking on behalf of all the inter-

The Governor General of Australia, Sir William Deane who is also Patron of the

Association,told the annual convention

operation between existing intemational water associations, and later in the con

ference, he said he was pleased when the broad group of associations that were present agreed to form a new "virtual" association, tentatively titled Water As sociations Worldwide. This entity will

in April, that Australia was the driest in

be better able to share information about

habited continent, but had the smallest

upcoming events (and thus avoid con

population, largely concentrated in cit ies. The recent scare with Cryptosporidium and Giardiasis in Sydney had

reminded everyone how'important water is. He also commented that UN

studies suggest that 1.4 billion people around the world lack safe drinking wa

SUnited Water

flicts), as well as exchange intelligence on new developments and legislation. In Australia, water is state jurisdic tion, not federal, and the federal govemment has been working to resolve dif ferences between states on water shar

ing involving both groundwater and major river systems. This is also tied five to seven million people annually. into State responses to the Australian National Productivity Commission, The City ofAdelaide hosted an open wherein their receiving future grants are ing reception that was attended by the Premier of South Australia, John Olsen, Peter Laughton,Anderson Associates (left), tied into their cooperation on such whose activities that day also included and Rod Holme, Earth Tech (Canada) at issues. For more information, visit the As a tandem parachutejump and attendance AWWA Convention In Adelaide. national delegates. The Australian-bom sociation's web-site: www.awwa.asn.au at the Australian Grand Prix. or E-mail: info@awwa.asn.au. Rod Holme, who ended his term as Rod emphasized the greater need for co ter and that water related diseases kill

at the

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Whether planning a system upgrade or designing a new one, Pall makes it easier by providing filtration systems to meet present and future water treatment requirements while reducing operating costs. What's unique about a Pall system? A choice of filtration membrane technologies, plus a Pall team who evaluates your requirements and finds the best solution for both retrofit and new plant situations. So whatever the process, whatever the problem, wherever in the world, to see the future of water, think Pali, then call {toll free) 1-888-873-7255 or visit our comprehensive site on-line www.pall.com/thefutureofwater

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Water Treatment

Emergency vapour scrubbing In Chicago Vapour protection for world's largest water treatment plant

When Chicago,host city of the 1999 AWWA Confer

ence, decided to upgrade the emergency vapour scrubbing system for the world's largest water treatment plant, USFilter was se lected to provide the systems.

per minute(1,076 mVmin)and serves the chlorine battei^ room where the majority of the chlorine is stored and used.

The design of the three standard size

scrubbers has been proven by full scale testing at a C.A.B.O. certified independ ent testing facility. But the 38,000 cfm system required for the large storage area had never before been built or proven. After award ofthe contract, the 38,000

cfm system was manufactured and shipped to Southwest Reseai^ch Institute in San Antonio, Texas, the lai^gest inde pendent laboratory in the US. The scrub ber was installed at the test site and a spe cial building was erected to conduct fullscale testing to simulate a one ton chlo rine cylinder release during a worst case scenario - an over-temperature fusible plug failure. After complete installation and pre liminary tests, one ton of chlorine was pressurized to 300 psig (20.7 BAR)and

The James W.Jardine Water Purifica

tion Plant is capable of producing more than a billion (US) gallons per day of water for the City of Chicago and outly ing areas. The plant is located downtown on Lake Michigan and is only a few hun dred yai^ds from Navy Pier, a major tour ist destination.

Chlorine, utilized as a disinfectant,

is received and stored in liquid form in one-ton containers.

As part of a new environmental con trol system serving the chemical stor age and handling areas, the City has in stalled four emergency vapour scrubber systems supplied by USFilter's RJ En vironmental Products group. From initial concept through final de sign,RJ Environmental Products has pro vided technical support to the project en gineers, Alvord, Burdick & Howson

released into a flash room and evacuated

thi'ough the scrubber. The testing was witnessed by the City of Chicago; Alvord, Burdick & Howson; Greeley & Hansen; and Scott Company Mechanical Contractors. Under all con

ditions,including a 300 pound per minute (136 kg/min)release ofchlorine, all scrub ber exhaust measurements were less than

L.L.C.,and their subconsultant, Eacilities

1 ppm - five times less than required by

Consultants Ltd.

the Uniform Fire Code.

The new ventilation system includes four emergency scrubbers, one for hydrofluorosilic acid storage and three for chlorine handling and storage. The larg est system is rated at 38,000 cubic feet

The equipment has now been installed. The Jardine Water Filtration Plant was on the AWWA tour schedule June 22.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 121

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testing facility.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

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Potable Water

Larger than AIDS- bigger than wars Dirty water has a lethal record

Unsafedrinking wateris a big

ger killer than all current military strife and more le thal than the AIDS epidemic, says a Canadian engineer. At least 10,000 people a day die from the most basic water-borne diseases because na

tional governments and international aid agencies do not allow local communi ties to manage their own resources, says a study for the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Brian Grover, who runs the joint World Bank-UNDP water and sanitation

program,says:"It is a catastrophe oftruly global proportions, and it is not known. This calamity is larger than the AIDS epidemic. It is bigger than all the wars going on right now." Unsafe water claims three to five million lives a year. More than one billion people drink dirty water every day,or spend hours collecting clean

lage water supplies, with an increase in access to 70 percent of the Third World's rural population in 1994 from 50 percent in 1990. Access in the Third World's rap

idly growing cities remained static at 82 percent. Because of a lack offunds,sev eral governments in Latin America and Bast Asia privatized urban water services, but there is no clear evidence it has im

proved water access for the poor. The study reported that govemmentrun utilities tended to lose at least one-

third, often half of their water supplies to leakage and theft. On average, they charged only 35 percent of their operat ing costs to the consumer. The World Bank and UN Development Program say the world's poor should be consid ered as water consumers, not project beneficiaries, and be charged for at least some of their water to make projects more viable financially. "It's the politi cians who say,'Don't charge the poor',"

At least 10,000 people a day die from the most basic water-borne diseases because national governments and international aid agencies do not allow local communities to manage their own resources....

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water, while nearly three billion people still must defecate in the open air or in unhygienic facilities. More than(US)$100-billion spent on the water and sanitation aid projects sec tors channels too much money through governments and state-owned utilities, the study says. It also accuses interna tional organizations offorcing new tech nology and major public-works projects on countries and cities that cannot af

ford to maintain them.

It recommends more competititon in the supply of water to the world's poor, the introduction of user fees, a phasing out of subsidies when they mostly ben efit the better off, and the ti-ansfer ofcon



trol of water and sanitation projects to local administrations. Called Learning What Works, a World Bank-UNDP report outlines a number of new approaches to water supply in developing countries where costs have been slashed and access

greatly improved when national and state governments become regulators and ad visers, rather than suppliers. In the 1980s, the focus was on vil-

For more information, circle reply card No. 118

Mr. Grover said. "The poor don't say that. They are already paying for water. They are paying in cash and they are paying in misery." In India's most populous state Uttar Pradesh, which is one of its least devel

oped, the World Bank has sponsored a pilot project in which villages elect their own water-management committees, oversee public budgets and pay for 10 percent ofthe cost of new water systems. In each community, the test project spends two-thirds less than the govern ment water board does on salaries and administration. The Uttar Pradesh wa

ter board employs 20,000 people. Param Iyer, team leader for the UNWorld Bank water project in India said of a water project,"I would say they are overstaffed by 500 percent." When vil lage committees took control of the in stallation of water pumps and pipes, construction costs were sharply lowered. The former bureaucrat said the state water board does not have an incentive

to look for the least-cost solution. They are fully subsidized by the government.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

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Pulp & Paper Focus

Myths, markets and realities about the P&P industry A reaction to an overdose of numbers

Ihave chosen the theme of myths

and realities, in reaction to what I

consider an "overdose" of numbers.

Whether about surveys, electoral campaigns, storms or other natural disasters, I believe people give more importance than necessary to numbers. For example, people of my genera tion remember the days when we ate Grandma's apple pie or Uncle Tony's lasagna. Nowadays, we consume 842 calories and X amount of cholesterol!

In choosing the theme of myths and realities, I wanted to move away from this oversimplification by numbers and share with you what I consider to be the fundamental challenges for the pulp and paper industry. Numbers can be reas suring or upsetting, as the case may be. They can also make complex issues look simplistic, even soulless. The pulp and paper industry has often been the sub ject of 'numerical' headlines. I too could use large percentages to highlight: The massive reductions in pollution emissions achieved by our mills; our contribution to Canada's

economy(we are by far the largest con tributor to Canada's balance of trade); or the significant portion of all manu facturing sector capital expenditures accounted for by our industry (one third). Sadly, I could just as easily use very modest figures to describe our stock-price to book-value ratio or de scribe our average annual net profits and return on investment in recent years. But many issues currently being faced by our industry simply cannot be explained by numbers. I will focus on the underlying trends that help shed some light on our industry's current situ ation in the global marketplace. One major issue, and indeed the central one, for our industry is that of sustainability. How can we manage the forest resource and all its values so that present and future generations will be able to ben efit from them equally? Everyone knows that the world's population is constantly growing. Eighty million more people last year we will be six billion by the year 2000.

By Use Lachapelle, Canadian Pulp & Paper Association

But many people fail to realize that the are likely to be more enlightened, less world's consumption of paper is one of subject to demagoguery. Which brings us to the third myth: the economic indicators most closely Pulp and paper is an industry of the past, linked to that of population growth. The question is not so much of being a low-tech, declining business. This is aware that paper consumption will in false,false, andfalse! Despite the pros crease 50% by 2010. The question is pect of a prolonged economic slump, how we, in our industry in Canada, are Canada's forest industry today remains going to respond to this demand with a important and viable. Here, I'll make an exception to my view to both environmental imperatives rule of"no numbers". These particular and economic growth. This brings me to myfirst myth: We numbers are revealing: $52 billion in cut down trees to manufacture paper. sales. Our industry contributes the most This is simply not true. Trees are cut to the country's balance of trade - $32 down to make lumber, construction billion in net exports in 1997 - and is a materials, or furniture, not to make key element of the social fabric of rural paper. It was true many years ago, but communities (350 to be exact, across today, more than 75% of paper is made Canada) and one million employees. As important as they may be, it is of various residual materials: Chips from sawmills and recycled paper from our what is behind these numbers that is the homes and businesses. most interesting. The pulp and paper The second myth is that of the paper industiy is the largest buyer of capital less society. Visionaries of the past equipment, varying in any given year

The pulp and paper industry is the largest buyer of capital equipment, varying in any given year between 25% and 30% of the total capital expenditures in Canadian manufacturing. would have had us get rid of paper alto gether. Reality is quite different. With numbers in hand, we now know that

automation and computers do not reduce paper consumption. Quite the reverse. Office paper consumption has increased six-fold since 1975 and, as computer ized as we are, 95% of all information

is still kept only on a paper base. Our society had the opportunity to use paper's versatility to help it develop. Whether as a catalyst for learning or as a key means of communication, paper has always had a profound influence on our daily lives. This is actually a concept that comes out loud and clear in most conversations

we have with our colleagues in devel oping countries. In their opinion, there is no industry so intimately tied to eco nomic development (new products to sell, export and therefore package, in struction manuals, etc.), and to demo

cratic development. When information circulates, choices


between 25% and 30% of the total capi tal expenditures in Canadian manufac turing. Visit a paper mill. You will see more computer systems than in many modern airplanes. I have the greatest admiration for high technology industries, but I see red when people forget that it is industries like ours that are their biggest custom ers. Who else buys this equipment? Who is the largest user of cellular phones? Yes, you guessed right. But we currently face two main hur dles to keep or augment our market share, which also partly explains why we have experienced difficult economic times over the past few years. Eirst of all, on a global scale our in dustry certainly is one of the most frag mented. The top ten paper and paperboard companies only hold a 20% in ternational market share. You have no

doubt seen the various articles published over the past two years or so on our Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

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Pulp & Paper Focus industry's restructuring efforts, which are a major attempt at addressing the issue of fragmentation. This wind of change demonstrates that the Canadian industry intends to get its financial house in order. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures and alliances are the tools that will enable us to im

prove our cost structure. Through them, we effect massive cost savings, we in troduce new product lines and we posi tion ourselves more strategically on a geographic basis to serve our custom ers better.

Our member companies will keep looking for other ways to increase cost efficiencies. To do so, they will con tinue to focus on their strengths, and look for potential niche markets. Some will likely concentrate on products with higher profit margins. What you will likely not see as much are companies trying to be all things to all customers. That is simply not a winning formula. The second challenge is due to the fact that our industry still manufactures many products that are considered "commodities". As a result, it is sub

ject to stronger fluctuations, depending

One of the institute's projects is to develop what we in the trade call 'closed-circuit technologies' for Canadian mills. The main idea is to concentrate not so much on the treatment at the

end of the process but rather on prevention of pollution and almost perpetual reuse. on economic cycles. Demand is not the problem; it is always growing. The problem is supply, for several reasons. Global capacity has grown too quickly over the past years. This capac ity increase is expected to continue, par ticularly in Asia, which already has one fifth of the world's production. The Asian crisis is a major problem for all of our members and particularly for our Western Canada member companies who export to that area. After the United States, Asia is our largest market, hav ing outdistanced Europe last year as our second export market. But despite the difficulties related to

WWF put pressure on suppressants

the Asian crisis, it has a positive side for us. Due to the upheavals in the Asian financial markets, several projects to boost pulp and paper production capac ity have either been cancelled or delayed indefinitely which,1 must admit,is com forting to us. Certain other factors also affect

Canadian producers' ability to maintain or increase their share of the global mar ket. Here,I am referring to the growing number of environmental regulations at both the federal and provincial levels, with which our industry in Canada must comply and which are among the strict est in the world.

We certainly recognize that to oper ate a truly sustainable industry, the en vironmental values of our forests must

also be factored into the equation. And there is no doubt that today, the envi ronmental side ofour business is vibrant,

important and viable. It has to be. Our customers and our communities have

greater expectations about the environ mental consequences of producing pulp and paper products. That is why this has been a winning decade for pulp and paper operations, with a $7 billion investment in across-

the-board improvements: • Recycling capacity has doubled and Canadian mills continue to use more

Robert Hunter (in light suit), a Greenpeace founder turned journaiist, is seen preparing a story for City TV at the cookout. Photo - Tom Davey

When the World Wildlife Federation staged a 'cookout' outside the Ontario Ministry of the Environment head office in Toronto last year, the media vastly outnumbered members of the public, even though the protest was virtually in the heart of Toronto. A cook made flapjacks and invited people to eat them. People could choose maple syrup or a look-alike dust suppressant made from a by-product of a pulp & paper mill to have on their flapjacks. The demonstra tion was a clever response to an industry spokesperson who had said the dust suppressant was about "as toxic as maple syrup". While I saw few members of the public as I took photos there, the WWF message went out to millions on television. I have no opinion on either position, but noted that the use of such dust suppressants was later harmed by the MOE. TD 24

recycled paper. We are the #1 importer of recycled paper in the world; • The use of water to produce pulp has decreased dramatically; •Toxins have been virtually eliminated from our effluents; and

• Greenhouse-gas emissions have been reduced dramatically, and more than half the energy used by mills today comes from renewable sources. We intend to continue with these

improvements. The Canadian pulp and paper industry funds an excellent re search institute in Pointe-Claire,

Quebec, with nearly 400 researchers. One of the institute's projects is to deContinued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Ad Index



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30 78

140 163

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78 48

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JWC Environmental KMK Consultants KlvlK Consultants

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144 183 184

Azurik AWWA

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Makloc Buildings MCR55 Incorporated

71 14

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Baker Hughes









Canadian Solid Waste Expo Cancoppas

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Nortech GSI □CPA Ozonia Parkson

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300-311 139 105 132

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131 200 201 145

Pall Corporation

Davidson Davis Controls Denso Derrick Donson DTE Industries

78 77 18 46 86 61

165 179 116 159 109 125

Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin



Earth Tech


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Peacock Peacock Purifies



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16, 49

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September 1999

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999


Pulp & Paper Focus velop what we in the trade call 'closedcircuit technologies' for Canadian mills. The main idea is to concentrate not so much on the treatment at the end of the

process but rather on prevention of pol lution and almost perpetual reuse. All these initiatives have but one pur pose; To make the Canadian pulp and paper industry competitive and viable in the future. The challenge of remain ing competitive, both economically and environmentally,is not only the business of employees in the pulp and paper in dustry, it is a team effort, as are all ef forts to improve our environment. Now we come to the fourth myth: Natural resource industries contribute to

the greenhouse gas problem. Wrong. We are actually part of the solution. What is more, our industry was one of the first to deal with the issue of climate

As of the end of last year, our greenhouse-gas emissions had been reduced 19% below 1990 levels.... What is even more interesting is

that we managed these reductions while increasing production... change. Regardless of whether we are personally convinced that human beings

just as important. Twenty percent of greenhouse gases come from the residen

and all their activities have an influence

tial sector or motor vehicles. That is equal to the total quantity of greenhouse gas produced by the manufacmring sector,in cluding our industry. In this respect, Canadian pulp and pa per mills have shown that they were able to take the necessary action. As of the end of last year, our greenhouse-gas

on the planet's climate, the past few years have brought noticeable upheav als and severe climactic phenomena. Developed countries have adopted a

global objective to reduce greenhouse gases that will only be achieved if each participating country meets its own goal. Canada is committed to reductions of about 6% based on the 1990 emissions level.

emissions had been reduced 19% below

1990 levels. What is even more inter

It is the "based on" that is important

esting is that we managed these reduc tions while increasing production and

here. When we calculate from 1990 to

the forest cover in Canada. And here is

the target year of2010,that means an ac

the fifth myth: the most insidious one:

tual reduction of

Canada is destroying itsforests.

25%, considering

Everyone talks about how human ac tivity has dramatically reduced forest ar

that emissions would

have been expected

eas around the world. Well, the situation


to increase consider

Consulting Engineers, Project Managers

ably unless draconian Obviously, only a

in Canada is quite different. According to a recent report by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization,forest cover in Canada actually grew by almost a mil

concerted national

lion hectares between 1990 and 1995.

effort will enable us

We are not losing our forests; we are growing them. That's not an ideal or a perception. It is reality and it is based on independent audits. And we need to continually demonstrate this point to challenge the myths people hear about our products and markets. â?–

Ecological Planners, Landscape Architects

measures are taken.

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to achieve such largescale reductions.

The participation

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tial, but personal commitment will be



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NATIONAL CONFERENCE ''CWHC*CCGD Canadian Waste Management Conference held in conjunction with the Trade Show.

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October 19 & 20,1999

Leading Industry experts will discuss the costs and benefits of the new environmental agenda.

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Register online at www.petroleumshow.com For Information on exhibiting companies call Simon Rose at 1-888-799-2545 (ext. #561) SEE LEADING EXPERTS & LEADING-EDGE TECHNOLOGIES 26

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

T i








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Environmental Law

The law and your septic system

There have been recent and

important changes to the law affecting septic systems in Ontario. The passage of The Services Improvement Act, 1997 and the proclamation of Schedule B to that Act into law on April 6,1998 transferred the regulation of smaller septic systems

Building officials and their inspectors are now charged with enforcement. Although the Building Code Act al lows municipalities to enter agreements with upper tier municipalities or with certain agencies such as conservation

In the words of one

from Part VIII of the Environmental

Protection Act to the Building Code Act (1992). The building code itself has been extensively revised and a new Part 8 has been inserted to regulate the in stallation and operation of septic sys tems. Smaller septic systems are those whose design flow is for less than 10,000 litres a day, and the system is located wholly on the lot of the build ing which the system serves. Formerly, regulatory provisions re lating to septic sewage systems were usually administered and enforced by boards of health of Regional and Dis trict health units. Municipal Chief

municipal official, septics were previously installed by "anyone who knew how to

operate a backhoe".

obtain a licence to be an installer. authorities or health boards to have those

other bodies administer the provisions of the building code as to sewage sys tems, the Province has only mandated that this be done in Northern Ontario. A new section has been added

to the code designating particular North ern health boards and a conservation

By Gary McKay

authority as the responsible bodies.

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In contrast, in the Greater Toronto

Area there has been a steady devolution of the control of septic systems from regional health units to local municipali ties, as part of their overall responsibili ties for building code matters. An additional feature of the legisla tive changes is a new requirement for the testing and licensing of installers of sewage systems. Prior to the enactment of new provisions in Part 2 of the build ing code there was no requirement or regulation of installers of septics. In the words of one municipal official, septics were previously installed by "anyone who knew how to operate a backhoe". Now an examination must be passed to

For more information, circle reply card No. 124 (See page 25)

The new Part 8 of the building code sets out five different classes of septic

systems in a uniform and detailed fash ion. The regulations describe those sys tems and make provision for such mat ters as: clearances of systems from bod ies of water, requirements as to depth and anchorage of septic tanks and hold ing tanks, and standards for operation and maintenance of septic systems. Under the Building Code Act,a Chief Building Official(CBO)has an obliga tion to issue a building permit under Section 8 of the Act, unless specified matters are not met. He or she may refuse to issue a permit if any "apphcable laws" are contravened. "Applicable laws" means any act, regulation, or by-law which prohibits construction unless those laws have been adhered to. Accordingly, a CBO can refuse a building permit if pro visions of the building code pertaining to septic systems are not being met. Some people may be concerned that small septic approvals are generally no longer being handled by health unit staff and are now monitored by municipal building staff. However, the new re quirements of training for inspectors of sewage systems,the requirement for the testing and licensing of installers, and a more regulated regime to govern septics under the building code, should mean our ground and surface waters will be no less protected. Gary McKay is a municipal law lawyer practising in Toronto. This article was produced while he was doing volunteer work for the Canadian Environmental Law Association. He may be reached at: gary.mckay@sympatico.ca.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Concrete Pipe is For Life


That's Heavy Sure concrete pipe weighs a lot - it's as solid as a rock! That's what gives it the durability and longevity it's so well known for. It doesn't deflect. It won't deteriorate. Once you install it, it just stays put, doing the job for which it was intended - for the rest of your natural life, the next generation, and those to come. Ohhh baby... that's heavy. Ontario


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UK scientists heip taokie poiiution '''â– iihiiit

PERC projects in Africa and Antarctica

Instrumentation that allows for

rapid assessment of water quality anywhere in the world, has suc cessfully gone through a rigorous field test in Africa. The equipment, de veloped by a doctorate student, Simon Cole, in conjunction with instrumenta

Another major PERC environmen tal project underway is an interna tional ocean fertilization experiment in Antarctica. During the month-long work in the Southern Ocean, one of

the university's postgraduate research ers and four scientists from Plymouth

tion consultant John

Wood at the University of Plymouth's Environ mental Research Centre

(PERC), southern Eng land, was used during an expedition to Lesotho last summer. It was a six-week

project to map chemical, biological and physical parameters in the river catchment



bathebe National Park

and surrounding moun tains in southern Africa. "The instrumentation

is portable and compu ter controlled and is

able to provide accurate information on the con

centration of key chemi cal parameters, such as nitrate, ammo nia, pH and trace metals," explained research group funded by the National Environmental Research Council and

land and Australia, and will investi

Professor Paul Worsfold, head of the

M Squared Technology, a high-tech nology company. The portability means that a com plete catchment can be mapped rela tively quickly without the need for col lecting samples and transporting them back to a laboratory for analysis. When this information is combined

with biological and geological data, a complete scientific picture of that catchment is instantly available. Then, using a satellite communication link, the information can be transmit ted from remote locations to facilitate

-for Cost-Effective Pumping ABS Pumps Corp. 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit #7 Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5T 1H3 Phone (905) 670-4677 • Fax (905) 670-3709

For more information, circle reply card No. 140

Photo - Alan Chandler

Marine Laboratory (PML), will work closely with other experts from the University of East Anglia (eastern England), the United States, New Zea

a rapid assessment of environmental quality.

By Kofi Akumany! LPS Staff Correspondent

gate global climate change. The team will add iron to the ocean

to encourage the growth of microor ganisms which could remove carbon dioxide from the earth's atmosphere. The PML group will release several tonnes of sulphate into the Southern Ocean and use sulphur hexafluoride gas as a tracer to track the movement of the enriched sea water.

They will then measure changes in carbon dioxide levels that are ex

pected to occur as a result of the en hanced algal growth and they will also determine whether the plankton pro duce other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane.

Contact University of Plymouth, UK, Tel; -1-44 1752 233038/233982.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Glynwed OommMied lo Excellence

Glynwed completes acquisition of IPEX

Toronto-based IPEX Inc., one of North

America's largest pipe systems companies, has been acquired by Glynwed International of Birmingham, England. The deal makes Glynwed - one of Europe's leading pipe systems manufacturers - the world's largest plastic pipe systems company with projected annual sales of $1.7 Billion (CAN).

Glynwed, a publicly traded company hsted on the London Stock Exchange,is also known as the maker of Aga,Raybum and Leisure cooking appliances and other commercial food-service products. Shareholders ap proved the purchase ofIPEX from equity owners Ivaco Inc. and Scepter Holdings Inc. in a deal that will see Ivaco take its proceeds from the sale in cash, while Scepter - led by IPEX CEO Tom Torokvei - will re ceive a combination of cash and shares which win make

Scepter the fourth largest shareholder in Glynwed. "IPEX is an outstandingly successful business. Its acquisition represents a further significant step in the continuing development of our global pipe systems

consumers for nearly four decades." Formed in 1954, IPEX is now the largest manu facturer of plastic pipe and fittings in Canada with approximately 1,500 employees in 14 manufacturing sites and 13 distribution centres across Canada and

55 distribution centres throughout the United States. Under the terms ofthe sale, the company and all of its personnel, under the leadership of Torokvei, will con tinue to operate under the IPEX name. "The combination of our two companies will pro vide an opportunity for aggressive growth by expand ing existing and new product sales and making stra tegic acquisitions," said Torokvei. "The North American market for

operations," said Glynwed CEO Tony Wilson. "Our combined product ranges, geographical positioning and the strength and depth of our management teams, makes us a potent force throughout the world." Product Development Manager, Veso Sobot,

plastie pipe systems is growing rap idly, and the IPEX team will play a leading role in repo sitioning Glynwed to cap ture that market."

P.Eng., said:"At IPEX we make a full range of infra structure pipe from 1/2"(12 mm)in diameter to 48" (1200 mm) in diameter. Our Canadian-made


products have been bringing clean, safe water to


PEX Inc. 6810 Invader Crescent, Mississauga, Ontario, L5T 2B6 Tel:(905) 795-6114 • Fax:(905)670-1512 For more information, circle reply card No. 141 (See page 25)


Golf course uses spray Irrigation Biomonitoring effluent program in place

Golfers wil be interested to

learn that CH2M Gore &

Storrie is conducting a bio logical monitoring program at one of Ontario's favourite resort golf courses, located along the meandering Nottawasaga River east ofAlliston. The monitoring is taking place at the Green Briar Retirement Community and Notta wasaga Inn Convention and Recrea tional Facility Complex,which includes

sustainable approach to sewage effluent disposal because it allows nutrients to be recycled and used by plants for biomass (i.e. new plant tissue) production. Because of low flow and generally higher water temperatures, summer is considered a stressful time for river

facilities in North America.

river water, with the condition that an

As the facility continues to expand, ways to improve operations-including wastewater treatment plant performance and water use reduction and reuse-con

tinue to be developed. Currently, the entire facility is serviced by the Green Briar Wastewater Treatment Plant

(WWTP), which discharges treated ef fluent to the Nottawasaga River. The Complex has embarked on a plan to spray-irrigate high-quality tertiary

irrigation of effluent is an innovative and

By J. Arnel Fausto, M.Sc., and Steve Black, P.Eng., CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

it may also allow for increased devel opment capacity within the Complex. Higher effluent loadings can occur dur ing the winter and spring, when streamflows are generally higher and colder Evaluating Water Quality The Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment (MOE) has issued a Certificate of Approval to the Complex to sprayirrigate effluent in combination with

known to most avid golfers and vaca tioners, the Complex has received awards as one of the top public golf

wastewater effluent, combined with

Since spray irrigation of effluent will reduce reliance on receiving water as similation capability during the summer,

and stream biota are more tolerant.

two picturesque golf courses. Well-

river water, on its golf courses. Spray

on commercial fertilizers currently in use for turf management.

biota. By diluting the WWTP effluent with river water and subsequently dis charging it to the golf courses during the summer,nutrient uptake by grasses will reduce the loading, particularly of phosphoms,to the Nottawasaga River. Spray irrigation may also reduce dependence

instream biological monitoring (bio monitoring) program be conducted along the Nottawasaga River beside the property. The Complex retained CC&S to develop a biomonitoring protocol aimed at evaluating the long-term and cumulative water quality impacts spe cific to spray irrigation with treated ef fluent on the golf courses. This spring, CC&S began to collect baseline biological infonnation from the golf courses to identify the biological conditions of the river prior to initiating spray irrigation of effluent. Benthic in vertebrates (animals living in the bot tom of streams) will be used as indica tors of chronic water quality conditions. The use of living organisms to moni tor conditions within the environment

is becoming increasingly recognized be cause of the sensitivity of organisms to a range of environmental conditions. Changes in their community structure and species composition over time can be used to provide an integrative index of nutrient loading and eutrophication. The sampling program will provide a biomonitoring record reflecting changes that are directly comparable on a yearly

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In other applications, CC&S ecologists have used biomonitoring to deter mine impacts downstream of sewage treatment plants, contaminant dis charges, and landfill sites, and to ensure that recently built stormwater ponds and treatment wetlands are working as de signed. For more information, circle reply card No. 148

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Emergency Response

Be prepared for environmental emergencies No organization can afford to be unprepared

Suddenly,what seemed impos

sible becomes a reality! You have an environmental emer

gency. The event escalates into a runaway condition. You call 911! The emergency services choose not to enter the area unless there is a rescue. You

call in your response contractor and learn that your own people have more knowledge and expertise than your re tained professionals. Then, out of frus tration, your internal response team with in-house resources stabilizes the event.

voices without challenge and investiga tion. (Check with your insurance com pany's claim department to ensure that your selected contractor provides an ac ceptable service.) An effective Environmental Manage ment System (EMS) provides for re views of an organization's activity, iden tifies gaps and determines the degree of impact that may occur. It can help pre vent many events from occurring in the first place. Eirst-hand advice from the workers and responders who have been

Seven of your people go to the hospital where they spend the night isolated in the morgue because they are believed to be contaminated with chemicals.

Production has come to a halt,

wages must be paid and the in voices are coming in. The advantages of sitespecific training, developing an Environmental Management System (EMS)or adopting the ISO 14000 standard for emer

internal response team members. They can reduce the loss to life, property and the environment by acting in a timely manner, staging and selecting response supplies, personal protective equipment, etc. Preplanning could prevent a rou tine incident from becoming a major emergency.

To obtain the ultimate insight and ca pability required for planning, training and response, effective response teams consist ofindividuals from different dis

ciplines who understand 'the same lan guage'. The most knowledge able persons on the site may be those who know they don't know everything. It is important to understand that every response team and team member has a specific level of confidence and compe tence when responding to an event. Training and practice will require a common sense approach, flexible guidelines and location-specific exercises to develop self-reliance and capability. This will help de

gency response would have paid dividends. Be Prepared for the termine and address the hierar Unexpected! chy of the emergency. Plan for the unexpected. Preparedness may incorpo Community emergency re rate contracting the services of sponse services such as fire de off-site response contractors. partments, may notfeel comfort Decide whether you require a able risking their people by en routine service such as a tering the scene of an incident vacuum truck to pump a con before they are satisfied that a tained spill or an emergency proper 'size-up' has been done. service with response team As the lead agency responsible capability to respond, contain, for your safety and site-safety, retrieve and dispose of spilled the fire department may not even Be ready for the unexpected in emergency response product. Today, many con let you enter your facility. The situations. tracted services are responding fire crews, not being familial" with your on the front line during an event will as emergency responders when routine risks and hazards, may not be able to as help to make informed decisions when service or advice over the phone will sess the situation in a timely manner to developing emergency response plans, suffice. Often there are unjustified prevent escalation or mechanical damage. preventive maintenance plans and stand equipment, increased waste volumes, Contracted responders may not have ard operating procedures. and excessive numbers ofresponders for the understanding,capability,equipment No public or private sector organi the task. This escalation is reflected in and resources to effectively mitigate the zation can afford to be unprepared and the invoices. Eollowing are some ex situation - they may even be learning at unprotected. Your organization should amples: your expense. Contractors may insist be prepared to manage the response ac • Over 40 emergency responders spent on money up front because the insur tivities, provide support to emergency 10 hours to incompletely neutralize a ance company may not honour the in services, access resources and commu partial drum of a 70% nitric acid solu nicate effectively. tion in a closed head drum that had fin Initial response personnel may be on ished reacting prior to neutralization. An By Cliff Holland, the scene or the first to arrive. These experienced response team which treats Spill Management Inc. could include workers, supervisors and Continued overleaf Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999


Emergency Response nitric acid on a daily basis was not al lowed on the site to assist or to take over

until the fire department had completed its task. The response organization was retained to dispose of the several drums at a reasonable cost. This is an example of where the confidence level of the per son in charge is much higher than the competence level. The total invoice in cluded almost fifteen hours of standby and the disposal of five to six drums.

edness and response. The two standards may overlap but they do not mix when it comes to assessing industrial needs. Fire departments are to protect peo ple, property and when possible the en invoice was approximately $20,000.00. vironment. The fire fighter's standard • Recently, a training company handled (NFPA 472)does not challenge the mis one bottle of dried picric acid, one bot leading information of a material safety tle of picric acid solution with dried pic data sheet, nor does the standard pro ric around the cap, a leaking and failing vide the expertise about how to take product on a day-to-day basis. Appar ently, the contractor ignored the own er's advice and chose to suit-up seven people in level'A' disposable suits to do the work. According to the owner the

container of blended acids stored in a

blends of unknown chemicals and de

termine an action plan to mitigate the

centrated vinegar) spilled in an institu tion, cost $15,000.00. A response crew

steel drum, and developed the response protocol for a dip tank containing a con centrated solution of nitric and hydro

member had to be shown how to cor

fluoric acid. These situations were han

rectly use the monitoring equipment by the facilities safety officer. The read

dled as part of routine training programs. The difference between the compa nies is knowledge,experience and train ing. Unfortunately, many experienced responders have retired or moved up the ladder of large corporations. Some newer responders are gaining their ex perience and confidence through NFPA 472 awai^eness,operation and technician level of training. The NFPA training

• Seven litres of 80% acetic acid (con

ings were misinterpreted and the fire crew was called back to the scene where

they were ordered to strip for decontami nation. A vacuum truck was brought in and the volume of waste taken for dis

posal grew to 2,500 litres. • A few gleams of a herbicide/pesticide product were pulled from a disposal bin. The owner of the product, identified the product's stability, misleading informa tion in the material safety data sheet, and level of dress worn to work with this

standard should be viewed as an inter

national competency standard for fire fighters, as the ISO 14001 (4.4.7)stand ard is for industry's emergency prepar-

New President named at

Jacques Whitford Group Jacques Whitford Group is pleased to announce the promo tion of Saleem Dedhar, M.A.Sc., M.B.A., P.Eng., to President and Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Dedhar has been with Jacques Whitford for more than eight years, holding progressively sen ior positions within the organiza tion. He played an Important role in the growth of Environmental Engineering from Jacques Whitford's smallest business

group in 1991 to its largest busi ness group today. Jacques Whitford has been in business since 1972 and is one of the largest consulting firms In Canada with 24 offices in Canada and internationally, and over 680 employees. Our offices outside of Canada include three offices In the northeast

United States, and joint venture offices In Russia, Argentina and the Caribbean.

Jacques Whitford has a track record of growth and expan sion, and is a direct result of the strong foundations put in place by Mr. Jacques, Chief Executive Officer, and his leadership team. Mr. Dedhar's long-term goals for the organization Involve Improving upon those strong foundations and provid ing Innovative solutions for the changing needs of clients. In the short term, the focus will be on ensuring our clients con tinue to receive the quality of professional services they have come to expect from the Jacques Whitford Group.

1^1 34

Mr. Dedhar is located In our Toronto office and

can be reached at Tel: (416) 495-8614 or E-mail: sdedhar@jacqueswhitford.com

situation. NFPA driven, contract re

sponders may not have the expertise to fulfil your needs. Caution: When selecting response

contractors to help minimize your li abilities, be sure they have the equip ment to do thejob,the capability to prob lem-solve worst case scenarios and the

knowledge and training to do the job. Inexperienced teams are demonstrat ing low levels of capability in the fol lowing areas: • Advising clients how to use on-site resources to reduce the impact until they arrive,(most advice is from a guide book or MSDS);

•Assessing actual risks and hazards and preparing for consequential reactions; • Recognizing or verifying ineffective MSDS information;

• Putting thought and effort into work ing clean to minimize decontamination, unwarranted chemical reactions and

high response bills; • Following standard operating proce dures in blind faith;

• Becoming frustrated as they discover that their training has not provided them with the expertise to assess a critical situ ation such as a run-away-reaction. With more organizations developing Environmental Management Systems or adopting the ISO 14000 standards and involving their technical people in emer

gency planning, routine spills are being effectively handled in-house. Person nel are now being trained to document and assess response contractor's activi ties to help reconstruct events, as well as justify invoices. Organizations that have decided to contract or retain the services of an out

side response company should recon sider this process by determining their needs and assessing the capability of the individuals on the contractor's team who

will be showing up to handle an event. For more information, circle reply card No. 149 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Enuiron Ruailab

^& Best s 2000

The 8th Annual Environmental

Conference/Workshops and Tradeshow Ontario's largest and most cost-effective environmental training opportunity

April 26-27, 2000 To be held at the conference and tradeshow facilities of

The Regal Constellation Hotel 900 Dixon Road, Etobicoke, ON

A unique networking opportunity For eight years, Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, and Canadian Environmental Regulation and Compliance News have combined to produce the highly successful Environmental Compliance Conference & Workshops. The annual event has

proved to be of great value to professional people with environmental responsibilities, and those concerned with occupational health and safety Issues.

Environmental Compliance 2000 will also feature Its own Two Day Tradeshow. There are a limited number of booths, so call now for details on exhibiting.

The Regal Constellation Hotel offers first class conference amenities, ample parking, and convenient access to 427 and 401 highways.

We are proud that many Environmental Compliance '99 delegates were repeat attendees - a definite vote of confidence In the quality and value of our speakers. In fact,

this event has become among the best attended environmental conferences In Canada. We hope to see you at Environmental Compliance 2000. A 10% early registration discount or a 10% registration discount to current subscribers of Canadian Environmental Regulation and Compliance News* are available. Please contact us at 1-888-254-8769, (905) 727-4666 or fax:(905) 841-7271 for details.

Call or fax to receive more program details. Special hotel rates have been obtained for both conference and show delegates. *Conference discounts are valid until February 28, 2000, and cannot be combined with the subscriber discount.

Odour Control

Odour control options for landfill leachate Leachate and odour quality changes with the age of landfill

On landfil sites, odours are generated primarily from anaerobic waste decomposi

tion in the form of landfill

gas emissions and offgassing from land fill leachate. Historically, the odours have been a major source of public com plaints. Odour problems typically fol low a seasonal pattem, being most prob lematic during the hot summer months when dry conditions have the effect of concentrating the odour-causing com pounds in the leachate stream. At many landfills, the collected land fill gas and the collected leachate are treated separately. Treatment of landfill gas has been the priority due to its larger impact on public perceptions, quality of life (aesthetics), health,and the environ ment(i.e. due to gases that contribute to global warming). However, leachate that is high in mercaptans, sulphides, Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD),am monia, phosphorus, and heavy metals (as well as other compounds) can also have a serious deleterious effect on pub lic perceptions, aesthetics, health, and the environment.

The potential contamination ofground and surface drinking water supplies, as well as the potential ofinhibiting biologi cal activities and treatment processes in soils, water, and wastewater treatment

plants have caused the treatment of landfill leachate to gain in importance. In addition, the increasing encroachment of urban areas to existing landfill sites has resulted in many regional landfill sites having to comply with progressively more stringent effluent limits. Landfills are classified as either di

rect or indirect leachate dischargers. Di rect dischargers obviously are sites that directly discharge effluent to a natural wa terway, such as a river or a lake. This usually requires on-site leachate treatment systems incorporating physical,chemical, and biological treatment processes to meet effluent water discharge limits. Indirect dischargers are sites that in directly discharge effluent to a natural waterway via a municipal wastewater

Odour control system installed at Glenrldge Quarry landfill site.

treatment facility. This usually incor porates minimal on-site leachate treat ment but requires the indirect discharger to meet the Regional Sewer-Use Bylaw Limits, unless an Overstrength or Com pliance Agreement exists. Research has shown that high strength sanitary landfill leachate (10000 mg/L as COD)can be added to sanitary sewers to approxi mately 4% of the sewer flow volume when the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)incorporates extended aeration and activated sludge treatment(second ary clarifier) processes. Beyond these limits the treatment efficiency of WWTPs can be negatively impacted. How Leachate and Odour Quality changes with the Age of a Landfill Leachate quality tends to vary with the age of the landfill waste and will affect the amount of odour-causing gases that are generated. More specifi cally, there are four biochemical stages that contribute to the eventual produc tion of methane which can affect the


Sulphate reduction also competes with the methanogenesis stage (to form hydrogen sulphide and CO,).These four stages explain the five phases of landfill gas and leachate composition. The five phases and their duration are listed in Table 1.

The ratio of C:N;P in typical waste is about 100:5:1 and helps to promote

microbiological activities. However,the initial low nitrogen content as well as rapid oxygen depletion quickly renders the landfill system anaerobic. Bio chemical Oxygen Demands (BODs), COD, total ammonia, carbon dioxide, total dissolved solids, metals,sulphates,

chlorides, and total phosphorus increase rapidly in concentration while pH and alkalinity drop during phases I and II. In addition to the biochemical reac

tions, this trend is partially due to solubilization of chemical compounds and wash out. By phase III, these chemical concentrations are decreasing and the Continued overleaf

leachate quality significantly. The four stages are hydrolysis(for Table 1 - The Five Phases of Landfill mation of simple sugars Gas and Leachate Composition from cellulose), fermen Duration Phase P hase Name tation(formation of ethanol, acetic acid and other

fatty acids), acetogenesis

By John Sferrazza and John Hibberd, P. Eng. Aquatic Sciences Inc.

tion of methane and CO^).

(formation of acetic acid and CO, from ethanol

and other fatty acids), and methanogenesis (forma



1 to 2 weeks



2 to 3 months



2 to 12 months





1 to 20 years greater than 20 years

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999









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our own. In the past year we've teamed up with local equipment rental companies all across Canada and have added 27 new locations to our

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Odour Control

pH and alkalinity are starting to rise. However, by phase IV there has been a sharp reduction in the previously men tioned chemical concentrations, except for carbon dioxide that has stabilized,

and there is a significant rise in pH, al kalinity, and methane. The final phase V usually shows a sharp drop in con centrations for methane and carbon di

oxide, a constant pH and alkalinity, and an increasing amount of oxygen and ni

Table 2- Odour Control Options Option #


Chemical addition using sodium hypochiorite Chemical addition using hydrogen peroxide Aeration of ieachate with sulphate reduction and pH control prior to discharge Chemical oxidation with sulphate reduction and pH control Physical, chemical, and biological treatment plant

1. [SO_j-"] <1500 mg/L (sewer-use by

• is the least expensive of the five treat ment options. During Phases I to V the concentra The problems with this option are: tion of sulphate in the leachate will drop. phides). • treatment sensitivity to large leachate More specifically, the generation of hy The odour threshold for hydrogen sul loading variations; drogen sulphide as well as other mer- phide gas is 0.0047 ppm; however, con •cannot control pH or heavy metal con captans will be the major sources of centrations of less than 2 ppm are con centrations that may impact downstream odour problems, particularly during sidered inoffensive and non-hazardous. sewage treatment processes; and phases I to III. Option I is an automatic flow pro • can form undesirable chlorination by Treatment Options for controlling portional chemical dosing system. It can products. Hydrogen Sulphide Odours be retrofitted to existing landfill leachate Option 11 is similar to Option I except Table 2 summarizes the treatment systems that discharge to municipal sew that no chlorination by-products are options that are applicable for control ers(indirect discharge). The benefits of formed and it has less tendency to react ling hydrogen sulphide odours. this system are that it; with organics than Option I. Thus, it is A treatability study is required to de • can reduce COD and ammonium con more environmentally friendly than chlo termine the expected performance of this centrations, as well as reduce the for rination but generally more expensive. system. Other options such as leachate mation of hydrogen sulphide; Option III consists of an equaliza treatment for recirculation are not dis • may be applied to indirect discharge tion pond followed by an aeration pond cussed. The following criteria were ap- sites based on a treatability study and and a final settling/discharge pond. The phed to control hydrogen sulphide odours: regulated effluent limits; and main goal is to reduce the formation of law). 2. [S-] <0.3 mg/L (as dissolved sul




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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Odour Control

sulphides by oxidizing them to non-odour • the most costly and labour intensive; forming sulphates. pH control and sul and phate reduction (by precipitation) using • may require significant sludge han lime addition are also suggested. Based dling processes. on a treatability study and regulated ef Conclusions fluent limits, this option may be applied There are many options available for to indirect and direct discharge sites. controlling odours from landfill lea The benefits of this system are that it: chate. For those landfills that are indi •can reduce leachate flow and strength rect dischargers to municipal sewers, variability using the equalization pond; very cost-effective options involving • reduce BOD, COD, ammonium and toxic metal concentrations, as well as re

duce the formation of hydrogen sulphide; • may be applied to indirect and direct discharge sites based on a treatability study and regulated effluent limits. The problems with this option are: • treatment sensitivity due to poor oxy gen transfer efficiencies (depending on bubble size, pH and water temperature); • far more expensive and difficult to control than Options I and II. Option IV is similar to Option III ex cept that the aeration pond is replaced with a chemical oxidant addition stage similar to Option n. Therefore the ti^eatment train includes lime addition (with pH control), equalization pond, chemical oxidation stage, and a final discharge pond. The benefit is that this option is less expen sive and is less sensitive to temperature change and hence easier to control. Option V is the most applicable for those sites that have difficulty meeting sewer discharge limits or wish to dis charge leachate directly to natural sur

chemical oxidant addition or aeration

ponds can be applied on the condition that the leachate quality meets the regu

lated (sewer-use bylaw and certificate of approval) requirements. If these re quirements are not met,then more elabo rate treatment will be required. For landfill sites that wish to directly discharge to natural waterways, usually more elaborate and expensive physical, chemical, and biological treatment proc esses are required to meet effluent dis charge regulations and certificate of ap proval requirements. For more information, circle reply card No. 152

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This option may require lime pretreatment to precipitate out toxic metals that may inhibit biological activity. The benefits of this system are: • reduces VOC, total ammonia, COD,

BOD,TSS,toxic metals, and sulphides; • may be applied to direct and indirect leachate discharge sites;

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The supervisor, as trained by his company's Environmental Management program, was able to identify the haz ard, initiate a clean-up by utilizing his Mobile Emergency Spill Kit, and help minimize the impact of the spill on the

aside like a toy, with wreckage strewn

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hill and started his descent towards some

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reacted immediately by applying the brakes but the sheer momentum carried the locomotive a half-mile further down

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Environmental Products and

The quick action of the first railroad supervisor not only saved the spillage of over fifteen hundred gallons of fuel

Richard Masterton, Ecobec 2000


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Understanding aerobic/anoxic digestion Low costs have meant widespread use of this process

Aerobic digestion is used

linity through denitrification. cated by the increase from five moles widely to stabilize waste A review of the fundamental biologi of O3 per mole of biomass in Eq (1) to sludge produced in waste- cal reactions involved is important. One seven moles of O^ per mole of biomass water treatment plants. It of the operating problems experienced in Eq (3). Acidity in the form of nitric has been used historically because of its with the conventional aerobic digestion acid (HNO3) is also produced, which operational simplicity and the relatively process is depletion of alkalinity due to will consume some of the alkalinity pro low cost of the facilities required to im duced in Eq (1). If sufficient alkalinity nitrification of released ammonia-nitro plement it in comparison to alternative gen and the conesponding decrease in is available in the feed sludge to main processes such as anaerobic digestion. reactor pH. The decreased pH results tain near neutral pH values, or an exter Disadvantages of conventional aerobic in reduced biological reaction rates and nal source of alkalinity is provided, ni digestion processes include relatively decreased digester sludge stabilization trification can proceed to completion as high energy costs and the relatively poor efficiency. If nitrification does not indicated in Eq (3) (Anderson and reduction in pathogens that occur as the occur, the overall reaction within the Mavinic, 1984). More often, however, temperature of the digester decreases digester is as follows: the alkalinity concentration of the feed during cold weather. Table 1 summa sludge is relatively low and complete CjH^OjN -H 5 Oj^4 CO,-H H,0 -t rizes some of the principal advantages NH.HCO,(1)" nitrification cannot occur(Mavinic and and disadvantages of the conventional where C^H^G^N represents the typical Koers, 1982). aerobic digestion process. composition of biomass. One mole of Some of the ammonia-nitrogen pro Recently, however, options have alkalinity (in the form of ammonium duced (as a result of the destruction of been developed to improve the perform bicarbonate, NH^HCOj)is produced in biomass according to Eq (1))is nitrified ance of the conventional aerobic diges this reaction per mole of ammonia- (according to Eq (2)) utilizing the alka tion process. These include aerobic/an nitrogen released during digestion. This linity produced during the digestion oxic operation, pre-thickening of the occurs because ammonia-nitrogen is a process. However,because nitrification feed sludge, and staged operation of the weak base with a pK of approximately ofthe released ammonia-nitrogen results aerobic digester units. Aerobic/anoxic 9.3. At neutral pH,it ionizes to produce in a net destruction of alkalinity, not all operation allows both nitrification and ammonium ion (NH^"). The ammonium of the ammonia-nitrogen can be nitri denitrification to occur, reducing both ion combines with bicarbonate(HCOj) fied. the alkalinity consumption and the en to form ammonium bicarbonate. This results because depletion of the ergy requirements of the process. PreIf nitrification occurs in the aerobic produced alkalinity causes a depression thickening of the feed sludge allows digester, the ammonia-nitrogen is con of the digester pH, which inhibits nitri auto-heating of the aerobic digester, verted to nitrate-nitrogen, as follows: fication. thereby increasing the temperature dur NH^ + 2 O,^ NO3 + 2 H* + H,0(2) Theoretically, according to the stoiing cold weather operation. Thicken Two moles of acidity are produced chiometry described above, one-half of ing also improves pathogen reduction by in this reaction, as indicated by the two the released ammonia-nitrogen can be allowing longer SRTs to be maintained. moles of hydrogen ions produced. This nitrified before the alkalinity produced Staged operation provides a bioreactor occurs because one mole of ammonia by the release of ammonia-nitrogen is configuration that is more plug flow in (which is a base) is consumed and one fully consumed. This reaction is illus nature, thereby improving digestion ef mole of nitric acid(HNO3)is produced trated, as follows: ficiency and pathogen destruction. which ionizes at neutral pHs. Overall, 2 C5H30,N + 12 O3^ 10 CO3 + Aerobic/Anoxic Operation the reaction becomes: 5 H,0 + NH^ -I- NO3(4) When compared to conventional CjH^OjN + 7 O3^5 COj+ 3H3O 4Importantly, sludge stabilization can aerobic digestion,the aerobic/anoxic di HNO3(3) be inhibited by the decrease in the di gestion process is reported to provide a Process oxygen requirements are in gester pH (Mavinic and Koers, 1982; variety of process opportunities. These creased if nitrification occurs, as indi Anderson and Mavinic, 1984). include:

• reduced energy costs by cyclic opera tion of the aeration equipment •reduced heat loss in winter due to lower

total air flows through the digester • maintenance of the digester contents at a higher pH by the recovery of alka-

By Glen T. Daigger, CH2M Hill, Elena Bailey, Enviroquip, George Crawford and Irwin Osinga, CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited 42

Table 1 - Advantages and Disadvantages of the Conventional Aerobic Digestion Process Disadvantages


• Simple to Implement

• High Energy Costs

• Modest Capital Requirements

• Reduced Efficiency During Cold

• Simple to Operate

• Alkalinity Depletion via Nitrification Can Lead to Reduced Efficiency


• Poor Pathogen Reduction Efficiency, Necessitating Longer SRTs Environmental Science

Engineering, September 1999


A suggested improvement to the aerobic digestion process is incorpora tion of an anoxic operating period into the overall aerobic digestion cycle (Matzuda, Ide, and Fujii, 1988; Peddle and Mavinic, 1990; Hoa and Kim, 1990; Hao,Kim,and Al-Ghusian, 1991). Dur ing the anoxic period, nitrate-nitrogen produced during the preceding aerobic period is used as a terminal electron ac

Option A: Winter Operating Mode Feed Sludge



Digested Blosollds Thickener

Aerobic Digester


Supernatant Feed Sludge (WAS)'

Option B: Summer Operating Mode

i Digested Biosollds

ceptor. The acidity, HNO3, produced


Aerobic Digester

during nitrification is removed as a re sult of this reaction. Supernatant

The reaction which occurs during the anoxic phase is as follows:

CjH^OjN -H 4 NO3 + H3O -> 5 CO3 + 2 N3+ 4 H3O (5) No oxygen is consumed during this reaction. Moreover, alkalinity is pro duced, rather than consumed. This al

kalinity can be used to nitrify the am monia-nitrogen released as a result of biomass destruction. If the length of the aerobic and anoxic periods can be con trolled so that all of the nitrate-nitrogen formed during the aerobic phase is re duced during the anoxic phase,then the overall reaction becomes:

+ 5.75 O3 5 COj+ 2 4 H3O (6)


Aerobic/anoxic operation offers sev eral advantages in comparison to the conventional, aerobic digestion process. Comparison of Eq (3) with Eq (6) re veals the following advantages for the aerobic/anoxic digestion process: 1. Process oxygen requirements are re duced from seven moles of per mole of biomass to 5.75 moles of per mole of biomass, a 17% reduction in process oxygen requirements. 2. No alkalinity is consumed in the over all reaction. The alkalinity produced in the destruction of biomass(Eq (1)) and in denitrification (Eq (4)) is just suffi cient to provide the alkalinity needed for nitrification(Eq (2)). Because no alka linity is consumed,the pH ofthe digester

Figure 1: Seasonal Aerobic Digestion Operating

will be maintained near neutral.

3. Nitrogen removal is achieved as all of the ammonia-nitrogen released as a result of biomass destruction is con

verted to niti-ogen gas via denitrification. Digester Temperature Control Through Pre- and Post-Thickening The oxidation of biomass results in

operate at low temperature during win tertime conditions(Mavinic and Koers, 1979). This occurs for two reasons. First, conventional aerobic digesters are often not insulated to retain heat which

is produced through the oxidation of biodegradable organic matter. Secondly, many conventional aerobic digesters are

the release ofits heat ofcombustion(ap proximately 3.5 kcal/g VSS destroyed)

fed relatively dilute feed sludges. This is done because temperature elevation, into the environment(Kambhu and An which would be a benefit during win drews, 1969; Matsch and Dmevich, tertime operation, can cause operating 1977; Jewell and Kabrick, 1980). This problems during warm weather. means that, for example, if the feed Temperature elevation to beyond sludge VSS concentration is 1%(10,000 about 30 or 35°C can cause excessive mg/L)and 30 percent of the volatile sus pended solids are destroyed in the aero bic digester, sufficient heat is liberated to raise the digested sludge temperature by 10.5°C if all of this heat is conserved in the digester. If the feed sludge VSS concentration is 2% and the other assumptions are met, then the temperature rise would be 21°C. The heat of combustion of destroyed biomass is used in the autothermal ther-

mophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) process to increase the temperature of a feed sludge (which is typically 10 to

25°C) to the thermophilic temperature range(50 to 60°C)(US EPA, 1990). In spite of the potential for tempera ture elevation, many aerobic digesters

In spite of the potential for temperature elevation, many aerobic digesters operate at low temperature during wintertime conditions....conventional aerobic digesters are often not insulated to retain heat which is

produced through the oxidation of biodegradable organic matter. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

foaming in the digester. This occurs because the microoganisms in the feed sludge are mesophilic and temperature elevation beyond the mesophilic tem perature range can cause cell lysis which releases dissolved organic materials into solution. The released organic materi als include proteins and other com pounds which can act as surfactants, thereby causing foaming. Feeding di lute sludges limits the digester tempera ture rise.

The maintenance of a relatively high digester suspended solids concentration is potentially advantageous because it reduces the aerobic digester volume re quired to achieve the design solids resi dence time (SRT). Thickening of the feed sludge to achieve this high digester suspended solids concentration also offers the potential for increasing the digester temperature during wintertime operating conditions, as discussed above.

However, temperature elevation to above the mesophilic temperature range must be avoided during summertime operation to avoid excessive foaming. These conflicting requirements can be met by providing two aerobic digester operating modes. During the winter the aerobic digester Continued on page 46 43









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feed sludge is thickened before it is added to the aerobic digester. (See Fig ure 1). Pre-tbickening of the sludge minimizes the mass of water added to

the digester, thereby allowing the beat ofcombustion of destroyed organic mat ter to produce the maximum possible

digesting sludge temperature increase. Insulation can also be added to the di

gester) or by modification (of an exist ing digester), it should be possible to control digester temperature to a desired value. The successful operation of the ATAD process, for example, demon strates the practicality of this concept. The pre-tbickening operating mode could result in excessive temperature el evation during summertime operating

Conceptually, this aerobic/ anoxic summertime option is similar to the activated

sludge process....

gester, and an oxygen transfer system

conditions when ambient beat losses are

thickened. The result is that a much

can be selected to minimize ambient

significantly reduced. As illustrated in Figure 1, during this operating period, aerobic digester feed sludge is not pre-

higher mass of water is added to the di gester, which limits the digester tem

losses. Through the selection of appro priate design facilities (for a new di




perature increase.

During the summer period, high di gester suspended solids concentration is maintained by removing aerobic di gester contents, thickening the digest ing sludge, and returning the thickened sludge solids to the aerobic digester. This allows the same digesting sludge concentration to be maintained, result

ing in maintenance of the same digester SRT as in the wintertime.

The aerobic digester summertime operating mode illustrated in Figure 1 allows a relatively high digesting sludge suspended solids concentration to be maintained. This allows a relatively small

digester to be provided, while also allow ing excessive heat to he removed from the reactor in the thickener supernatant.

Conceptually, this aerobic/anoxic summertime option is similar to the ac tivated sludge process where a relatively dilute feed sludge stream is added to a biological reactor. Biological reactor contents flow to a liquid/solids separa tion unit process(in the case of the acti vated sludge process a clarifier), and thickened sludge is returned to the bio logical reactor to increase the reactor

Waste wa


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biomass concentration and allow the

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ture to be maintained and controlled


during summer and winter operation, and improve sludge stabilization. 2. Stable operation can be achieved by the monitoring of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, and by control of the duration of the aerated and anoxic operating times. 3.Thickening prior to digestion can con trol the minimum-desired digestion tem peratures during winter operation. Postthickening with return of the thickened

..-iL..,..:. ..



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1. Use of the aerobic/anoxic digestion process,compared to aerobic digestion, can reduce energy costs, allow tempera


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solids can control the maximum-desired

Phone:416-250-7111 or 1-800-665-7136 Fax:416-250-8111

For more information, circle reply card No. 159 (See page 25)

digestion temperatures during summer operation. For more information,

circle reply card No. 160 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

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mixing of fluids to produce low shear rapid homogeneous,low energy mixing. It's not unusual to cut energy costs in half and even more when compared to traditional rotary mixers. Get the full story on this dramatically more efficient new technology simply by calling Peacock. And don't forget. Peacock also provides industry with side entry and portable rotary and static mixers. The widest range of options from any supplier in Canada.

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Toronto Hydro launches waterfront windmills Wind power is the world's fastest growing energy source

Toronto Hydro has announced that it will install two water

front windmills to give green power directly to Toronto cus tomers for the first time in its 88-year history. Toronto Hydro President and CEO John Brooks said: "Toronto Hydro and the Toronto Renewable Energy Co-opera tive(TREC)will install two windmills on Toronto's waterfront. These are the first such windmills to be built in a downtown

urban setting in North America." Each wind turbine will provide 1,400 megawatt hours per turbine of energy enough to power 250-300 households per year. The capital cost per wind tur bine is approximately $1.2 million. The Government of Canada, through the Technology Early Action Measures component of the Climate Change Action Fund, is providing TREC with $330,000 to install one wind turbine on Toronto's waterfront. Environment

Canada is also providing $98,500 to

TREC for the purchase of green energy

nitrous oxide(NO^)per year-the main

for its Toronto offices and laboratories.

two wind turbines, in two different

ingredients in acid rain, smog and ground-level ozone. It would take approximately 157,300 trees more than 25 years to absorb the

locations on Toronto's waterfront. Pro

same amount of CO^.

Under the terms of the joint venture, Toronto Hydro and TREC will install

posed sites include the Ashbridges Bay Sewage Treatment Plant in Toronto's

Wind energy The use of wind energy has been

east-end, and the R.L. Clark Water

recorded as far back as 5000 B.C. The

Filtration Plant in Toronto's west-end.

'Dutch windmill', on which modern

A final decision about the sites is ex

water pumpers are based,first appeared in the 12th century A.D. By the 1700s, windmills were a commonplace sight in Europe. In North America, the farm

pected in a few months. "This project represents the first time a Canadian co-op has been formed to de velop renewable energy," said TREC General Manager Bryan Young. "Once implemented, our members will receive a kilowatt hour credit for the energy which their share ofthe turbine produces, making this the largest net metering agreement of its kind in North America." Each wind turbine will displace 1.4 million kilograms of carbon dioxide

(CO^), 8,400 kilograms of sulphur dioxide (SO,^) and 5,600 kilograms of

windmill has been in use for the last

hundred years. Electric wind turbine generators be gan operating in the late 1970s. There are now tens of thousands of these sys tems installed and operating worldwide. According to the Washington-based WorldWatch Institute, wind power is the world's fastest growing energy source. Worldwide wind power capacity in creased by 32% to 4,912 megawatts


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In the last decade, costs for wind-generated electricity have dropped from $0.30 per kilowatt-hour to $0.07 per kilowatt-hour.


during 1995 and grew by an additional 1,200 megawatts during 1996. According to the Canadian Wind En ergy Association,Canada meets less than 1% of its power needs with wind energy, while Denmark meets 8% and plans to meet 50% of its needs through offshore wind power development by 2050. By 2000, Canada will have 130 mW of developed wind power. In 1999, despite a significant wind resource, On tario has 1 mW of developed wind

metric tonnes were released into the at

graduated from the University of West-

mosphere in 1994 as a result of fossil fuel burning,cement manufacturing and gas flaring,compared to 93 million met

em Ontario with a B.E.Sc. in Mechani


ric tonnes of carbon a century ago.

In 1990, according to Natural Re sources Canada, the burning of fossil fuels accounted for approximately 98%

of Canada's CO,emissions. Globally, statistics show that more carbon is being released into the atmos phere today than ever before. By some estimates, approximately 6.2 billion

RWDI is pleased to announce that Terrence Harding, B.E.Sc., P.Eng., has recently joined our Environmental Group as a Noise and Acoustics Specialist. He brings 12 years of previous experience in noise and acoustics work to RWDI. He

cal Engineering in 1986. Mr. Harding's background in studies of environmental noise, mechanical system noise and

In the last decade, costs for wind-

Every year, the City ofToronto emits

vibration, and architectural acoustics will

generated electricity have dropped from

27 million metric tonnes of CO,. Cities

add welcome expertise to RWDFs busy Environmental Group.

$0.30 per kilowatt-hour to $0.07 per

the size of Newmarket or Belleville emit


roughly 399,000 metric tonnes of CO, into the atmosphere. In larger cities, such as Brampton or Windsor,total CO, emissions can be as high as two million metric tonnes, according to cunent con sumption data. For more information, circle reply card No. 169

CO,emissions Carbon dioxide is produced from natural sources and as a result of human

activity. It is in the air we breathe, and one of the ways it gets there is when fos sil fuels like coal, gasoline and natural gas are burned to produce electricity.

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«NUARY 25-27,2000 George R. Brown Convention Center • Houston.TX

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email at langford@undergroundinfo.com or see our website at vvww.undergroundinfo.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

For more information, oiroie reply card No. 170 (See page 25)


Innovative Water Scheme

Toronto to use deep lake water cooling Will reduce CO , CFCs and energy costs

The idea of using cold deep

water for cooling has in trigued scientists and engi neers for more than 30 years. Deep cold lake or seawater has long been recognized as a valuable energy resource. In Toronto, the concept of using Lake Ontario cold water instead of mechanical cooling has been under


I wmsim SSSH

BilH I

active discussion since about 1981. In

the early 1980s,this concept was widely

T^nto City Centr

circulated under the name "FREE-

COOL", which was considered an

overly ambitious project with an esti mated cost over $600 million. The cur

rent proposal, known as Deep Lake Water Cooling(DLWC)Project is more modest and considered as economically and financially viable at an estimated cost of $80 to 100 million.

The attraction of the DLWC ap proach has been based on the financial savings which are apparently available, and significant improvements to the en vironment from reductions in CO, and elimination ofsome of the ozone deplet ing CFCs(chlorofluorocarbons) used in conventional chillers. These improve ments have taken on greater significance






with Canada's commitment to the 1992

Rio Conference, the 1993 Toronto



I Urban CO,Reduction Plans, and Cana da's recent commitment to the Kyoto Conference on Global Warming. The proposal is being undertaken as INTAKE STRUCTURE Ž70m DEPTH a partnership project between City of Toronto Water Supply and Toronto Dis chillers. required) that would provide a cooling trict Heating Corporation (TDHC). The plan is to construct a new 2,250 capacity of40,000 tons of refrigeration. TDHC, a public body established by mm diameter intake for the City's Island The Class Environmental Assess provincial statute, provides heat to most Filtration Plant, that is long enough ment of the City's DLWC project was of the major buildings in downtown (about 2.6 km)to reach a depth of 70 m completed in May 1998. A predesign Toronto. TDHC also provides chilled where the water is permanently at ap study to confinn technical feasibility and water for air conditioning large build proximately 4°Celcius. Additionally, an project viability will be carried out this ings. In September 1997, the former energy transfer loop will be constructed year followed by detailed design, con Metropolitan Toronto Council author between the City's John Street Pump struction and implementation, antici ized staff to negotiate an energy trans ing Station and TDHC's cooling plant pated by the year 2001. fer agreement with TDHC. The purpose at the Metro Toronto Convention Cen The City of Toronto and its citizens of this agreement is to allow TDHC to tre (MTCC). The cold City water will will benefit by gaining a new intake for make use of the deep cold Lake Ontario pass through the heat exchanger at the Island Filtration Plant which will water, using City of Toronto Water Sup MTCC where it will chill TDHC water replace aging near-shore intakes and ply infrastructure, to chill the TDHC that is distributed to downtown build access potentially a higher quality raw water rather than conventional electric ings for cooling purposes. The City water source. The citizens will also ben water will then be returned to the John efit financially through the user fee(en By Abhay Tadwalkar, P. Eng., Street Pumping Station for normal dis ergy transfer fee) to be paid by TDHC Project Manager, Deep Lake tribution. The project is designed to and from reduced energy use within the Water Cooling Project match design flow of the Island Filtra City. All capital costs of this work, inCity of Toronto tion Plant(so that no plant expansion is Continued overleaf


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

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Global water solutions.

Innovative Water Scheme

eluding additional operating costs, will be borne by TDHC. The City of Toronto will maintain full ownership and control of the water supply system at all times and has taken every possi ble measure to ensure the integrity and safety of the potable water supply. A similar project is underway at Comell University,Town ofIthaca, New York, where Lake Cayuga's deep cold water will be used to cool University and Ithaca City School District buildings at an estimated cost of US$55 million.

This project involves provision of 20,000 tons of refrigeration by install ing 1,600 mm (63") diameter, 3.2 km long intake at a depth of approximately 75 m (250 ft). The environmental im pact study for this project is complete. Construction work is planned for this year with the cooling system scheduled to begin operation by the year 2000. Another DLWC project is being con sidered by Monroe County Water Au thority and Xerox in Rochester, New York.This project involves provision of 20,400 tons of refrigeration by installing 1,600 mm (63") diameter,6 km long in take at a depth of approximately 72 m (240 ft) in Lake Ontario. The estimated

The City of Toronto will maintain full ownership and control of the water supply system at all times and has taken every possible measure to ensure the integrity and safety of the potable water supply. cost of this project is US$130 million. For a water utility to consider a DLWC project, it is essential to have proximity to a deep lake source. In addition, ap propriate water supply infrastructure must be in place or planned. In most cases, such a project is likely to be initi ated by an agency with primary business in heating/cooling; therefore public/pri vate partnership may be inevitable. While operational and financial feasibility is important, protection of water quality would be the paramount factor for water utilities for considera

tion of a DLWC project. In addition, water utilities must be vigilant about full recovery of additional capital and oper ating costs, contract duration, user fees, etc., and must be cognizant of the po

tential for water supply operation to be governed by "other" demands rather than drinking water quality and quan tity demands. Other considerations for Deep Lake Water Cooling systems include factors such as the need for supplemental(con ventional)cooling systems. Where wa ter is used for drinking purposes after energy transfer, there is a need to en sure the integrity of water quality. For once flow through systems, there is a need to assess the near-shore lake warm

ing effects. Despite these factors, it is evident that the use of deep lake water as a renewable resource for cooling is a concept whose time has come. For more information, circle reply card No. 173

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Co-op Students Program

AOLS begins Geomatics Initiative

The Association of Ontario

Land Surveyors(AOLS) has reached agreement with Ontario's Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) to start the longawaited Geomatics Initiative, created to

provide opportunities for students pres ently studying, or graduates in the dis cipline of geomatics. The AOLS and MNR are natural

partners for the initiative as both organi zations have a need for highly skilled graduates in geomatics. The Natural Resources Information Branch (NRIB) handles the Ministry's geomatics re quirements, and is the first participant in the AOLS program. Environmental engineers and con sultants could find great value in geo matics, a scientific term referring to the integrated approach of measurement, analysis and management of spatial data. This data comes from many sources,in cluding earth-orbiting satellites, air and sea-borne sensors and ground based in struments. Geomatic data is processed and interpreted using computer software

ceive earnings to offset their educational

and hardware. Geomatics has applica tions in environmental studies, legal boundary surveys, planning, engineer ing, navigation, geology, geophysics, oceanography, agriculture, land devel opment,land ownership and tourism. All participants in the Geomatics Ini tiative program stand to reap huge short and long-term benefits. Co-op students entering the program

The MNR has agreed to participate in the AOLS program because the admin istrative responsibilities will reside with the AOLS,colleges and universities. Public and private sector participants, that include government ministries and municipalities will be able to access On tario's top co-op students and graduate

for a four-month work term will receive


practical skills, specialized knowledge, and on-the-job experience before gradu ation. They will receive credits towards completion of their academic program, and earnings to offset educational ex

Funding sources such as federal and provincial job creation programs and industry sponsors will benefit through enhancing job creation programs. By providing opportunities for co-op stu dents and graduate interns, they will as sist with the support needed to firmly establish the geomatics discipline. The AOLS is the only Ontario-based professional body that is considering inclusion of practitioners in the geo graphic information management field.


Internship graduates will acquire practical skills, knowledge and experi ence through a one to two year work term. In addition, they will acquire skills developed towards the more senior level planning and analysis, and/or entry level management in the area of geomatics. Their assignments will fulfill a required step towards professional accreditation, and at the same time, they will also re



For more information, contact the

Association of Ontario Land Surveyors at: 1-800-268-0718, or E-mail:






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Watermain Rehabilitation

Watermain rehab using cement mortar Why rehabilitate oid, uniined cast iron pipe?

Unlined castiron pipe wasthe material of choice for water

distribution systems from the beginning of this century to the late 1960s. The City of Toronto, for example, began lining large diam eter pipe in the late 1960s, and moved to small diameter pipe shortly thereaf ter. By the early 1970s watermain reha bilitation using cement mortar lining was underway in eamest. The first projects were confined to primarily lining the pipe only and the projects were much smaller in scope than what we see now. As the process became more refined and the ad vantages more and more appai'ent, its use grew. The scope has now

Cement mortar lining solution Provided the structural integrity of the existing pipe is adequate, one of the most effective ways of rehabilitating old unlined cast iron pipe is the cement mortar lining process. Most water dis tribution systems still provide very good service with no need for replacement but carrying capacity has been severely re duced due to a variety of factors. One major factor is the corrosion of steel. Corrosion is an electrochemical

process requiring an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte. A section of steel watermain pipe will provide an excel-

at 3mm to 5mm. This allows the ce

ment to fill any voids left by the removal of the grafitised tubercules and to en sure that there will be no small holes or

thin areas that might become a source

After cleaning, the interior surface of the pipe will be moist and very humid. This wet sur face provides an ideal medium that promotes a strong bond be tween the cement and the pipe. Durability ofcement is promoted by hydration, the chemical reac

vation of the system,including in stallation of new valves, hydrants and complete restoration. As the contractors become more experi enced,rates of production have in creased dramatically, once again lowering prices.

tion between cement and water

that will continue making the ce ment mortar stronger, denser,and

In 1998,146,000 metres oflin

ing were tendered. The total ten

der price was $14,754,331.00. The average cost was $101.00 per

more resistant to deterioration as

time progresses. Cement is also a safe and accepted water con

metre. This work was all com

pleted within the City ofToronto. So why has the City spent so much time,effort, and money on cement relining? What is the problem and what exactly is being done to rec tify the problem? The City, like many municipalities, was faced with some of the following prob Water main before cement mortar rehabilitation. lems in their ageing pipes. From a technical point of view, age lent anode and cathode, and the moist ing pipes produce a severe reduction in environment in this pipe will provide a pipe hydraulic carrying capacity, experi more than acceptable electrolyte. Elec ence aggressive coiTosive build-up, re trical currents flow from anode to cath sulting in encrustation and tuberculation, ode and in the resulting reaction, iron is as well as leakage, water loss and infil oxidized and precipitates what we call tration. With regard to quality control rust. As the corrosion process occurs, and protection of the public, ageing pipes the inside of the pipe will develop pits, create the problems of reduced water resulting in the formation of tubercules. quality, increased bacteriological growth This corroded material, in combina within the distribution system and the tion with mineral deposits, is known as decline in pipe material performance encrustation and tuberculation. A low which results in unpleasant taste, offen pH (that is water with a pH level less sive odour, poor colour and turbidity. than seven)is called acidic and this will promote the corrosion process. A high pH (one that is greater than seven) is By Shaun McKaigue


13, an environment that prevents the cor rosion process. The material consist ency is now assured by using a preblended and pre-bagged product. The material thickness is generally specified

of isolated comosion.

increased to include a total reno

Fer-Pal Construction Ltd.

So what happens when the cement is applied to the wall of the pre-cleaned pipe? The cement mortar is a high al kalinity material, which will provide a pH level at the wall of the pipe of 12 to

tainment material that is low in

cost and readily available. Can the present cement product be improved? Probably yes. Fly ash can be added to increase pumpability, finish long-term strength and increase chloride-ion ingress. Silica fume greatly decreases per meability and chloride-ion in gress and also increases electrical resis tivity, thereby reducing the electro chemical reaction of corrosion.

The rehabilitation process The process begins by excavating to the main. This is done at strategic loca tions to minimize disruption of service and traffic. Small pits(1.5 metres to 2.5 metres in size) are dug at optimum dis tances of around 150 metres apart. The following are major advantages of this method compared to traditional replace ment methods: material application can be applied to pipeline materials such as cast iron, steel or ductile iron; the pipe line can be rehabilitated while in place;

alkaline and this environment will in

the residential areas where rehabilitation

hibit the corrosion process.

is taking place are supplied with water Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Watermain Rehabilitation

There will be an increase in hydraulic carrying capacity; improved fire flow from hydrants, which can reduce insurance rates for municipalities... and fire protection via a temporary by pass system.

There is minimal disruption of serv ices and traffic because of the small ex

cavation pits that are used to access the pipe. Individual water services do not have to be excavated at each residence, unlike traditional replacement methods.

tion of red (rusty) water; extension of watermain life; curtailing of coliform bacteria regrowth; savings in the cost of chemical treatment; stabilization of chlorine residuals; clean, clear water,

te reduce the threat to water safety. Municipalities really cannot afford not to rehabilitate. Consider this option very carefully in the future planning of pro tection for our very valuable infrastruc ture. It may be unseen and, therefore, not seem like a priority in the budgetary process, but it will become an issue for each and every municipality before long.

free of odour, poor colour, unpleasant

Condensed from a presentation at the Markham 'No-Dig' seminar, March 1999.

taste, and turbidity; resistance to chemi cal attack; and encasement of lead joints

circle reply card No. 174

For more information,

The method facilitates an overall clean

liness of the project, as opposed to the excavation of the entire road section.

This process also affords the opportunity to replace valves and hydrants, and re pair service boxes at the same time. Sub

stantial economic savings for municipali ties can be realized with savings of about one third of the cost of replacement. As a result of cement mortar relin-

ing, there are many benefits that can be realized. There will be an increase in

hydraulic carrying capacity; improved fire flow from hydrants, which can re duce insurance rates for municipalities; reduced pumping costs; savings in the cost of energy to pump water; elimina

Brian Controls renamed Peacock Instrumentation Peacock has announced that its Brian Controls Divison will be renamed Pea cock Instrumentation Division.

The change in the division's name is designed to further reinforce to the market that its Brian Controls unit is

an operating division of Peacock, in 1995, Brian Controls, then a unit of

Axel Johnson Canada, was merged with the instrumentation unit of Peacock's industrial Products Divi

sion, creating a separate instrumen tation Division that has, until now, operated as Brian Controls.

The intent of the merger was to fur ther develop and expand Peacock's instrumentation capabilities, products and services. The Brian Controls

operation, established in 1956, con sisted of a national network of sales offices and calibration and service

laboratories. Since the merger. Pea

But You Should See Ours Fishing for a new idea? Cast your eyes in our direction. Each application is custom designed and manufactured to your site requirements. Our efficient precast design includes wingwalls, saving weeks off construction by allowing for immediate backfill and cover, and headwalls accommodating concrete barrier or steel

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cock has consolidated Brian Controls

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treal, Mississauga and Edmonton. For more information,

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circle reply card No. 185 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

For more information, circle reply card No. 145 (See page 25)


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Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal

Environmental Site Characterization/Reconciliation




180 King Street South, Suite 600 Waterloo, Ontario N2J 1P8 tel: (519)579-3500 fax:(519)579-8986 direct dial:(519) 579-3501 + ext.

255 Consumers Road

555 - 4th Avenue SW, Suite 1500

North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7 tel: (403)237-9300 fax: (403)237-7715 direct dial: (403)237-5691 + ext.

tel:(416)499-9000 fax:(416)499-4687 direct dial:(416)499-0090 + ext.

Barrie • London • Ottawa • Thorold


For more information, circle reply card No. 146 (See page 25)


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Monitoring & Controi

Using Information technology to measure, monitor and report on environmental performance

Businesses around the world are coming under increasing pressure to reduce or elimi nate the environmental im

pacts of their operations. In order to ac complish these goals, they need to im plement effective environmental man agement systems (EMS) to measure, monitor and report on the environmen tal aspects relating to their activities, products and services.

developing criteria for environmental performance evaluation(EPE),evaluat ing the use of various environmental per formance indicators(EPIs),and design ing standard reporting frameworks. These organizations include the ISO,

use, non-product output and pollutant releases. In time, companies can be ex pected not only to use EPIs to bench mark their performance internally, but also to compare their performance against that of other companies on a

the World Business Council for Sustain

sectoral or other basis.

able Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute, to name just a few. The ISO is nearing completion of

As voluntary environmental perform ance benchmarking gains acceptance, governments may begin to mandate per

a new standard,ISO 14031, Environmen

formance standards and benchmarks for

legislative or other purposes such as tal management - Environmental per Organization for Standardization (ISO) formance evaluation - Guidelines, that taxation. In fact, Danish companies are required by law to produce annual en published the ISO 14001 standard setting sets out guidelines for the process of en vironmental reports containing both out the requirements for an EMS. This vironmental perfoimance evaluation. These developments are setting the qualitative and quantitative information, voluntary standard provides businesses with an internationally-recognized and stage for a standardized metrics system known as "Green Accounts",some com accepted framework for implementing that should allow businesses to manage ponents of which will be publicly dis and maintaining a cradle-to-grave system their environmental performance in a closed. The government of the Nether lands is also mandating public environ more sustainable manner and to com for environmental management. How pare this performance against targets and mental reporting, and similar legislation ever, the standard contains no environ is proposed by the governments of New mental performance requirements, and over time. For example, common EPI design Zealand and Sweden. implementing and maintaining such an Perhaps also in the not-too-distant principles are gaining widespread ac EMS is not sufficient in and of itself. future, we will see standardized envi According to the tried and true adage, ceptance,such as comparability,reliabil ity, understandability, relevance, etc. ronmental reports that follow generally "you can't manage what you can't meas Specific indicators are being developed accepted environmental accounting ure." Therefore, to improve their envi Continued overleaf ronmental performance, businesses need in such key areas as material and energy to measure and monitor this performance. And, to ensure accountability, they will Figure 1: Integrated Performance Evaluation Information System need to report on the results to the appro Reports priate stakeholders. information System Data Sources Environmental performance Environmental In the fall of 1996, the International




Data can be manipulated once a company's unique numbering systems for its performance indicators are "mapped" to a generic set of data


data can

identifiers embedded in the information

measures and


In time, all businesses whose activi

ties have environmental impacts will be required, whether by regulation, inter national trade or public pressure,to track and report on their environmental per formance. To be meaningful to stake holders, the information reported will need to be comparable, such that stake holders will be able to compare an indi vidual company's performance against industry best practices and other agreedupon benchmarks. In fact, a global framework for such an environmental performance measure ment, monitoring and reporting system

Indicators Financial data


performance measurement


is already emerging. A number of com panies and organizations around the world are currently engaged in this area.

journals by direct input or by electronic




Environmental rules are used to

Large amounts of data can be "scaled" to the appropriate measurement level. Scaling can involve splitting up or subcategorizing data for reporting or other purposes, grouping data together

generate highly

based on common characteristics of


(EPE) reports


recorded in


customized and

Intelligent reports

reports based on Generally Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP) Green taxes Environmental

Individual data components, or


consolidating and combining data from different sources or systems for broadbased performance information.

Financial reports Integrated per formance reports

t Data Warehousing

By Glenna Ford, BA, LLB, Chief Operating Officer, GreenWare Environmental

Through the use of the Internet and scaleable SQL client server technology, performance within a company and across industry sectors can be compared and benchmarked against best practices.

Systems Inc. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999


Monitoring & Control principles and practices(GAAP)for the environment. In these reports, environ mental information will be presented in a timely,comparable,and consistent for mat similar to the way in which finan cial information appears today, such that standardized environmental reporting may take its place beside financial re porting as a decision-making tool for investors, communities and consumers. In fact, in March 1999 the Global

Reporting Initiative, a multi-stakeholder group convened by the Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Econo mies (CERES), released draft Sustainability Reporting Guidelines for com ment and pilot testing. These guidelines

14001 EMS model by businesses world wide (and of the EMAS standard in

Europe) have led to an understanding that environmental performance infor mation can be used as a management tool to set targets and to monitor pro gress towairis these targets in order to improve performance. Furthermore, based on the corporate experience with compliance reporting, many have iden tified increased environmental disclo

sure as a means of improving environ mental performance. What is clearly lacking, however, is agreement on how to standardize environmental perform ance metrics and reports. New technology to meet new

include environmental, social and eco

nomic aspects. Final release is targeted for early in the year 2000. Shift from regulatory compliance to broader environmental

performance metrics Environmental performance metrics and reporting systems traditionally have been driven by localized regulatory compliance. The overall result has been a serious lack of international harmoni

zation in this area. In recent years, ac ceptance and implementation of the ISO

information demands

■ Developed largely in response to

range of performance indicators, new technology will be required to meet the demands of environmental performance measurement, monitoring and reporting in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

This technology will include flexible "gateway" software that can integrate data from many different sources, and manipulate this data through the use of a common data identification system. Such a system will involve the applica tion of sophisticated information filters or screening processes and the use of expert rules to generate highly custom ized and intelligent reports. These re

ports will be automatically generated from the data in the system, and will be driven by specific management objec tives and targets for environmental per

market demand, most environmental


software products were focused until recently on local compliance monitor ing and reporting issues. These prod ucts were developed in response to the patchwork of regulations and other le gal requirements that companies were required to comply with. As the empha sis shifts from compliance metrics and reporting to environmental sustainability metrics and reports based on a broad

Similarly, as performance bench marking becomes a more common prac

tice, powerful "data warehousing" soft ware that uses scaleable sequential query language (SQL) client server technol ogy over the Internet to process large amounts of data also will be needed.

This technology will allow businesses to compare their performance across any number of their own facilities or opera-


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Monitoring & Control tional units, and across all companies within an industry sector. To the extent considered useful, comparisons also could be made between different indus

tries and countries. Initially serving as an internal management tool, this "next generation" technology eventually will

Such reporting could improve our understanding of how these activities are affecting the condition of the environment..

use the Internet to store vast amounts of data so as to enable stakeholders around the world to access this information and

extemal stakeholders such as local com

to compare the appropriate performance

munities in their activities.

data sets.

In a step in this direction, the Depart ment of Environment and Transport and the Regions in the UK publishes air pollution bulletins from automatic moni toring sites that are updated hourly. Ontario's Ministry of the Environment also publishes an air quality index for selected sites around the province, up dated several times daily. Such reporting could improve our un derstanding of how these activities are affecting the condition of the environ ment, and could result in a more open and interactive dialogue between com panies and their stakeholders. (World Resources Institute, Perspectives, "Sustainability Rulers: Measuring Corporate Environmental & Social Performance," Janet Ranganathan,

At the same time as businesses are

becoming more accustomed to provid ing information about their activities on the Intemet, the public is also becoming more adept at using the Intemet for col lecting and disseminating this informa tion. In other words,"the increasing use of the Internet and other information

technology is becoming a major force in driving the demand and supply of in formation on business performance." For example, when air quality advis ories are issued on hot summer days, companies could be required by govemments to upload their emissions data onto the Intemet. By placing such in formation in the public domain, these companies would be directly involving

May 1998.) The balanced scorecard - A model

for integrated business sustainability metrics Eventually, businesses will be able to integrate their environmental, finan cial and other performance information to provide stakeholders with a more complete and accurate picture of their performance. (See Figure 1) The re sult will be a comprehensive,"balanced scorecard" approach to performance measurement, monitoring and reporting that provides comprehensive sustain ability metrics consisting of both "lead" and "lag" indicators. This should result in improved decision-making both for environmental and for overall business

sustainability. For more information,

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

For more information, circle reply card No. 147 (See page 25)


Air Pollution

Fed rags will lower levels of sulphur In gas Could prevent over 2,100 premature deaths

New regulations under the Canadian Environmental

What are the current levels of sulphur in gasoline?

Protection Act have been

In 1998, the average Canadian level was about 350 ppm, among the highest in the industrialized world. At 530 ppm, Ontario has the highest average level in Canada. A 1996 international survey found the following levels of sulphur in gasoline:

approved, setting a limit of 30 parts-per-million of sulphur content in gasoline starting January 1,2005. The regulation was scheduled to be published in Canada Gazette, Part II, in June, 1999.

It is estimated that over 20 years,low sulphur gasoline will prevent over 2,100 premature deaths, 93,000 incidences of bronchitis in children,five million other health related incidents such as asthma

attacks, and 11 million acute respiratory symptoms such as coughs, pneumonia and croup. In 1998, the average Cana dian level ofsulphur in gasoline was 350 parts per million(ppm),among the high est in the industrialized world.

Sulphur occurs naturally in petro leum products and causes increased emissions of sulphur dioxide and sul phate particles, both of which contrib ute to air pollution. Sulphur also de creases the efficiency of emission con-



430 ppm

Latin America 600 ppm United States 310 ppm Britain 340 ppm Europe (excluding Britain), Asia (excluding Japan) and Australia 160 to 230 ppm Car manufacturers see high sulphur levels as an impediment to the introduc tion of low emission vehicles and the next generation of fuel efficient engines. These new engines will help reduce the pollutants that contribute to climate change.

trol systems in vehicles, resulting in higher emissions of other pollutants such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds. The new regulations will be phased in. In 2002, sulphur levels in gasoline produced or imported into Canada must meet an average of 150 ppm. The phasein period will help the refining industry adjust to these new re quirements while maintaining the health and environmental

benefits of lower sulphur gaso line. It will also provide inde pendent distributors of gasoline with access to competitive sources of supply. The United States Environ



â– ' mm ilL EDc-B c

mental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its proposed rule on May I, 1999 to reduce sulphur levels in gasoline from current average levels of about 330 ppm to 30 ppm, to be phased in, starting in 2004. Other



Canada initiatives to address

clean air include Sulphur in Diesel Regulations, Benzene in Gasoline Regulations, Strategic Options Process for Power Plants, and the proposed Gaso line and Gasoline Blend Dis

pensing Flow Rate Regulations. Gas pumping regs will

substance under the Canadian Environ mental Protection Act and volatile or

ganic compounds (VOCs), a major con tributor to the formation of urban smog. These proposed regulations will reduce both pollutants. The Priority Substances List Assessment Report for Benzene (1993) indicates that refueling emissions are responsible for about 6% of the daily intake of benzene by adult Canadians. Fast flow rates increase both the like

lihood of spillage and the amount of fuel vapours released from a vehicle's fuel tank during refueling. The proposed regulations, in combination with on board refueling vapour recovery systems being introduced on new Canadian vehi cles, will reduce these emissions by 95%. The proposed regulations will elimi nate the spillage of gasoline and gaso line blends by an average of nearly two million litres per year in the 2001-2020 period. This reduction in fuel spillage represents an annual decrease of almost 1,500 tonnes of VOCs, including 15 tonnes of benzene, and annual fuel sav

ings to Canadian consumers of about $I


air pollutants The proposed Gasoline and Gasoline Blend Dispensing 60

Flow Rate Regulations will limit the flow of gasoline to a maximum of 38 litres per minute when refueling vehi cles, cutting down on the release of gaso line vapours and limiting the environ mental damage associated with spilled gasoline. Refueling of vehicles releases ben zene, a known carcinogen and a toxic


For more Information,

circle reply card No. 177

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

rDTE INDUSTRIES LIMITED Since 1951 DTE Industries Limited has been supplying the Petroleum, Petro chemical, Agricultural, Forestry, Mining, Heating, Contracting & Engineering fields with quality Storage tanks.

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Hazardous Solvent Elimination

Polymer coating could stay corrosion with environmental benefits

Anew coating material that

involves removing a smaU volatile mol using an organo-tin or organo-titanate emits virtually no volatile ecule and evaporating an organic solvent. catalyst to form a material that can be organic compounds(VOCs) The small molecule and solvent usually either a powder or liquid at room tem during application could re evaporate into the atmosphere,becoming perature. Once applied to a surface, the place conventional solvent-based paints pollutants. But the new Georgia Tech coating is cured using heat or ultravio and anti-corrosion coatings in a wide process removes and captures that small let light to rearrange the cyclic polymer range of uses. Based on a durable poly molecule during the manufacturing proc to a linear and cross-linked structure. ester material, the new coating can be ess- and does not require a solvent. "The properties of these molecules tailored to provide the specific proper "Our coating molecules are applied to can be changed by altering not only the ties required by different applications. Developed by a research team at the ....such a coating could also reduce the amount of Georgia Institute of Technology, the environmentally-undesirable ethylene glycol used for patented ultra-low VOC coating would aircraft de-icing. meet new environmental regulations expected to severely limit VOC emis backbone of the polymer, but also the sion from paints and other coatings. a surface, and with light or heat and a suit In addition to the coating's environ able catalyst,re-arranged to form a strong, side groups of the polymer," Eckert mental attractiveness, the novel process durable coating without any need for sol added. "We have been able to make used to produce it also offers formulators vents or any need for removal ofthe small structural changes and get virtually any a high degree of flexibility in selecting molecules," Dr. Charles Eckert, from melting point we would like." the resulting properties ofthe coating. The Georgia Tech,explained. "This leaves us The research team has worked with the work was described at the recent meeting with a virtually zero VOC paint." US Air Force and Atlanta-based Delta Air Using novel chemical processes, the Lines on potential aerospace applications. of the American Chemical Society. Conventional polyester coatings are researchers produce cyclic polyester oliBy altering the surface properties,the cross-linked and cured in a process that gomer molecules that are polymerized researchers believe they could produce Announcement

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited The appointment of Mr. Don Kemp as an associate of the firm is announced

by K.A. Morrison,P.Eng., president. Mr. Kempjoined the prac tice in early 1999, and brings over 18 years ofex perience in consulting en gineering. He has a Bach elor of Applied Science degree in Civil Engineer ing and a Master of Ap plied Science degree in Environmental Engineering, both from the University of Toronto. He is a senior project manager, working on wa ter and wastewater projects in Ontario and the Atlantic Provinces. R.V.Anderson Associates Limited is an environmental and

infrastructure engineering and technology management firm, specializing in water, wastewater, transportation, ur ban development, energy and telecommunications, founded in 1948, with a staff complement of over 175.

Stantec Consulting Ltd. is a rapidly growing professional consulting firm that provides a broad range of engineering, technical, and design services to public and private sector clients across North America and internationally through 2,000 employees operating out of more than 40 different locations. We are a recognized leader in environmental con

sulting who believes in results through empowering our staff. Due to considerable growth opportunities, we have started an Environmental team in Toronto and wish to hire a senior engineer to take a key role in developing this market. Ifyou are aforward-thinker and have the exper tise requiredfor this challenging position, we would like you to consider thefollowing opening:


(Ref #99-24) Environment Join our team as an experienced professional in environmental engineer ing and assume the responsibility for project management of water and wastewater treatment facilities design. You are a results oriented indi vidual who excels in a multi-disciplined environment. Your excellent communication skills, strong problem solving abilities, keen personal initiative, and proven traek record of managing and implementing envi ronmental projects is the key to this position. You possess strong leader ship skills and the ability to work in a team environment. Current regis tration with PEO along with a minimum of 10 years experience are re quirements for this senior position. In addition to this challenging position, we offer a competitive compen sation package and the opportunity to work and advance in an expanding and dynamic team environment. Interested candidates should forward, in confidence, a resume and covering letter to: Mr. R. Waite, P.Eng., Manager, Water and Wastewater STANTEC CONSULTING LTD.


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

2002-1700 Langstaff Road Concord, ON L4K 3S3 Fax: 905-761-6101, E-mail: rwaite@stantec.com

Committed to the principles ofEmployment Equity, we thank all candidates, however, only those selectedfor an interview will be contacted. Visit www.stanlec.com to learn more about our

organization and other career opportunities.


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Solvent Elimination

a coating that would make aircraft less susceptible to icing. In addition to im proving flight safety, such a coating

JET APPARATUS FROM STOCK ELMRIDGE manufactures and stocks Jet Eductors and Ejectors for use with water, steam, compressed air and other motive fiuids. Appiications inciude: • PUMPING • EVACUATING

could also reduce the amount of envi


ronmentally-undesirable ethylene glycol used for aircraft de-icing. Eliminating the hazardous solvent from the coatings could also make them


easier to use and reduce the amount of


equipment and ventilation now required to protect workers, Eckert noted. This could produce large cost savings for air craft operators and others using large quantities of coatings. A solvent-less coating also provides an important logistical benefit: a reduc tion in the volume of product that must be handled. In existing paints and coat ings, solvents significantly increase the volume ofproduct. Containers ofthe new coating would include only the polyester material, an issue important to military


users and others who would be able to

reduce transportation and storage costs. Early test results on aluminum and iron alloy substrates show the coating has the desired hardness and durability, though


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For more information, circle reply card No.128 (See page 25)

Environmental Science &

Engineering magazine is on the world wide web. Check us out at

additional research must be done to show

long-term properties on larger surfaces. For more information, circle reply card No. 135


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down straps and intemal baffles to avoid dangerous load shifts are provided in warning red enamel. Special venting device,fdl cap and labels are included. Capacities are 454-4540 litres (100-1000 gallons). Also available in doublewall vacuum-monitored version for added safety margin. Pumps in hand-operated and 12-volt electric models to suit any application can be supplied. DTE Industries Limited Circle reply card No. 220

and Wastewater applications in a wide variety of climates, suc cessfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum products are lightweight, corrosion resistant, and maintenance free which translates to longer life and lower mainte nance costs. Aluminum doesn't rust like steel,)doesn't spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 221

Membrane technology for industrial wastewater

Environmental Monitoring

ZENON's ZenoGem® bioreactor

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discharge. ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 222

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Covers for Potable Water

Aquatic Sciences bio logical experience ranges from the collection of baseline environmental

data to impact assess ment, biomonitoring and fisheries studies. Their

toxicology lab is pres ently serving MISA compliance needs. In

addition to standard toxicity testing, the laboratory completes ad vanced toxicity identification evaluations for clients with more complex effluent streams. Aquatic Sciences Circle reply card No. 223 63

Taste and Odour Removal

Niagara Region enters Pubiic/Private Partnership Five year P3 for activated carbon managennent

Following their Best Practices Guidelines to better manage the

use of activated carbon for taste and odour removal from drink

Process Flow Diagram Horseshoe Carbons Reactivation Facility

ing water, the Regional Municipality of Niagara Public Works entered into a Public/Private Partnership (P3) with

Bagging of Spent Carbon

Horseshoe Carbons, Inc.

The process identified eight inter ested parties, of which five were selected to submit detailed proposals for a fiveyear activated carbon management pro gram. Operations Manager Sal lannello explained the Region's interest in the program: "We have used both powder and granular activated carbon and moni tored taste and odour reduction since

N Transport of Bags

Š Water Plant Fi ters 1








to Reactivation Facility



Finished Products

1993. We would like to replace the car bon annually but the costs are too high. We felt this approach would allow us to



obtain a comprehensive service at the lowest possible cost." The Region's experience with acti


vated carbon led them to the conclusion


that a longer contract would allow for more innovative proposals, translating into savings for the Region. Granular carbon with a three-year life cycle was identified as the best practical alterna tive.

Horseshoe Carbons, a joint venture between Azurix Corporation and PICA (Produits Industriel et Charbons Actif) was awarded the contract. In fact, the

company was indirectly formed as a re sult of the Region's efforts to find inno vative solutions to carbon management. In early 1997, the Region held a twoday session where they entertained car-

By R. Laird Smith, P.Eng., Senior VP, Engineering Services, Azurix Corp.

Byproducts bon management presentations from carbon suppliers and engineering/serv ice providers. "I presented carbon re activation at that time on behalf ofPICA

but I also learned about the other pre senters. We saw some definite synergies with Azurix and it was not long before we had teamed-up on theproject," said Robert MacLean of Horseshoe Carbons.

In-house reactivation, as practised in Cincinnati, Ohio, Manchester, New

Hampshire and Buffalo Pound, Sas katchewan, has been used by munici palities with large carbon volumes and relatively short service lives. For Niagara, their turnover could notjustify the construction of a dedicated facility

Environmental Science & world wide web. Check us out at


The cost of building and financing the facility was left to Horseshoe Carbons. The Region will benefit from a fixed price over the 5-year term and will pay Horseshoe Carbons in 60 monthly installments. Horseshoe is scheduled to

commission Canada's first potable wa ter custom reactivation facility for granular activated carbons in Hamilton by January 2000. This type of long-term partnership for taste and odour control using virgin and reactivated granular carbon in com bination will no doubt spawn interest among other municipalities. In Niagara, the Region was able to reduce costs by over 25% when compared to their 1998 figures. According to MacLean,the effective ness of reactivated carbon for taste and

Engineering magazine is on the www.esemag.com

so a P3 was the next best alternative.

odour control, when compared to vir gin carbon, should be as good as 98%: "In Ontario and most of Quebec, be cause the level of inorganic loading on spent carbons is typically quite low, re activation is very effective in recover ing the carbon's original capacity." For more information, circie reply card No. 136

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Alternative Disinfection Methods Metcon supplies a complete line of alternative disinfection methods for

process water, waste treatment and

water treatment in the municipal or industrial marketplace. Potable water Wastewater Process water

Cryptosporidium inactivation Slime and algae control Taste and odour Zebra mussel control

Metal finishing wastes, cyanide, chromium removal

Cooling water Food processing Bleaching: textiles, paper, food

Chlorination Cl^, NaOCI • Ozone O,

•Potassium Permanganate KMnO^ • Ultraviolet UV

• Chlorine Dioxide ClO,

• Chloramination NH3 Dechlorination Canadian Environmental Protection Act

classifies "chlorinated wastewater effluents as toxic substances".

Key to successful dechlorination: Chlorination/ Dechlorination


• Effectively controlled chlorine and reducing agent feed system • Rapid reaction and good immediate mixing • Accurate flow measurement

Complete Metcon systems can include: • On-site generators • Gas feeding systems • Pre-engineered metering pump panels • Chlorine residual analyzers • Control and instrumentation

• Proper location and reliable chlorine residual analyzer • Flexible and dedicated controller


• Start up, eommissioning and service 15 Connie Ores., #3, Concottl, ON L4K1L3'Tel:(905) 738-2355, Fax;(905) 738-5520, E-mail: metcon@m8tcaneng.com For more information, circle reply card No. 130(See page 25)

Water Treatment

Enhanced membrane microfiltration Removing colour, Cryptosporidium & Giardia

A 5,200 mVd enhanced colour

removal membrane microfiltration water treatment

plant in the Town of Sioux Lookout is believed to be the first plant of this type in full production in Ontario. The design-build process utilized pro duced an estimated saving of $500,000. In 1997 the Town began an Environ mental Assessment to determine the best

'''yi ■•->^4



altemative for upgrading their existing water treatment facility. At that time the potable water was taken from Pelican Lake via the Doc Moberly Pumping Sta tion. The water was then screened, but not filtered, chlorinated and fluoride added prior to distribution. This treatment

process was in violation of MOE Policy 15-14 which states that surface water must receive a minimum treatment offilttation

and disinfection. During the environmen-

By Marcus Firman, GET and Paula Steel, P.Eng. KMK Consultants Limited

High lift vertical turbine pumps. tal assessment process both Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in the raw and treated water and, as a result, the

Water Advisory in April of 1997. A common method of disinfecting drinking water is to dose with chlorine,

Medical Officer of Health issued a Boil

however research has shown that Gia-


For water disinfection,


wastewater treatment, odour

control, cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.


COLGATE-PALMOUVE CANADA INC Professional Products Division 6400 Northwest Drive

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4V 1K1 Tel: (905)678-2051 Fax: (905) 678-0898 E-mail: javex-12info@colpal.com Plant Locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton


For more Information, circle reply card No. 131 (See page 25)

Environmental Science <& Engineering, September 1999

Water Treatment

rdia and Cryptosporidium are both highly resistant to chlorine. Further

Town of Sioux Lookout Water Treatment Plant

more, due to their small size, Giardia

7 Day Moving Average

Raw and Treated Turbidity and Colour Data

cysts(8 to 12 microns) and particularly Cryptosporidium oocysts (4 to 5 mi crons)can be difficult to remove in typi cal filtration processes. This difficulty arises because this type of contamina tion is generally linked with an event, such as spring run off, when oocyst con centrations can be extremely high, re quiring better than 4 log removal to pre vent system breakthrough. As a result, the environmental study recommended that the existing pump ing station be upgraded to a low lift

55 50


Raw Colour


0.8 40 0.7 35

g 0.6



$ 0.5




H 0.4

Raw Turbidity 0.3



Treated Coiour

Treated Turbidity




station and that a new microfiltration

5 0


membrane plant be constructed.









Treatment Process

The upgraded Town of Sioux Look out Water Treatment Plant is designed to meet a raw water maximum day de mand of 5,200 mVd. Raw water is drawn from the existing water intake

ment plant. The low lift pumps are ver tical turbines. Model 8W-7000, manu

factured by Fairbanks Morse Pumps,

structure located in Pelican Lake before

entering the Doc Moberly Pumping

dosed with alum to provide coagulation and sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH to enhance the treatment process. The

and are rated for 31.5 L/s each.

water then enters one of the two floccu-

Following an equipment preselection and evaluation process, the ZeeWeed

lation basins, each equipped with vari able speed paddle mixers. From each

Station which has now been converted

enhanced colour removal membrane

flocculation chamber the water is dis

to a low lift station. The raw water is

microfiltration system by Zenon Envi

tributed to Zeeweed basins. In total

screened and then pumped to the new

ronmental Inc. was selected.

membrane microfiltration water treat-

water enters the treatment plant and is

there are four basins, each containing Continued overleaf


Engineering Inc.

Thfi name for exoBl lence. worldwide

Wardrop is a multidisciplinary engineering, environmentai, and information technoiogy consulting firm, actively engaged in projects across Canada and internationally. Infrastructure Renewal

• Landfills

Environmental Audits/Remediation

• Land Development

Water Supply/Treatment

• Bridges and Structures

Sewage Collectlon/rreatment Water Resources

• Industrial/Commercial Buildings • Transportation

Drainage and Flood Control

• Roads and Airports





400 - 386 Broadway, Winnipeg, MB R3C 4M8 PHONE: 204-956-0980

FAX: 204-957-5389

E-MAIL: winnipeg@wardrop,com SASKATOON

:03 - 2121 AirpoiT Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7L 6W5 •HONE: 306-244-4712

FAX: 306-244-4754

i-MAiL: saskatoon@wardrop.com TORONTO

6725 Airport Road, 6tlT Floor, Misslssauga, ON L4V 1V2

PHONE: 905-673-3788

FAX: 905-673-8007

P-MAII • tornntniawnrrlrnp r.nru THUNDER BAY

725 Hewltson Street, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 6B5 PHONE: 807-345-5453

FAX: 807-345-8708

E-MAIL: thunderbay@wardrop,com

INTERNET; www.wardrop.com

For more information, circie repiy card No. 133

(See page 25)

Parkson's BiOLAC System is a cost-effective solution to municipal and industrial aeration requirements. Our moving aeration chains optimize the system's process, mixing and oxygen transfer capability. Our fine-bubble membrane diffusers offer better oxygen transfer, thus saving 33-50% energy as compared to static tubes. The natural movement of the diffusers across the basin ensures

optimal oxygen dispersion.

>IPARKSON CORPORATION Represented in Canada by Axel Johnson (Canada) Inc. and its representatives 9050 Ryan Avenue, Dorvai, QC HOP 2M8 Telephone 514-636-8712 Fax 514-636-9718 E-IVIail: parksoncanada@canipuserve.coni

For more information, circie repiy card No. 132 (See page 25)

Air Pollution

Low cost reductions In emissions Contaminants from coal-fired electricity threaten health

Large reductions in air pol utants which damage human health, cause acid rain and smog,and con tribute to climate change, can be made at a low cost, according to a report released by the Ontario

Clean Air Alliance(OCCA).

The report, Emissions Reduction Study for the Ontario Clean Air Alliance, is the first attempt to measure the cost of a strategy to reduce a broad range of air pollutants gener ated by coal-fired electricity plants in Ontario. "We have found that the price of dramatically reducing three dozen air pollutants is small," said Jack Gibbons, of the OCCA. The study found that reductions in health-threat ening air pollutants of up to 83% could be purchased for a 3% increase in the cost of electricity. He stressed that large reductions in air pollution would cost the average house hold $1.86 a month. "Cleaner air is on sale for the price of a cup of coffee and a donut," he said. The study analyzed the financial and environmental im pacts of using natural gas instead of coal to generate elec tricity. The study found that switching fuels would cut emis sions of damaging acid rain-causing sulphur dioxide which also damages lungs. Reducing sulphur dioxide emissions by 83% from recent levels would also reduce other air pol lutants. (Table 1)

Enhanced membrane microfiltration, cont'd. two Zeeweed cassettes. The membranes will filter out any object larger than 0.1 microns, which provides a barrier to the Cryptosporidium oocysts which are in the range of 4 to 5 microns.

Permeate pumps, supplied by Zenon, create a low pressure vacuum in the membranes which draws the water, or permeate, through the membranes. The treated water is then again pH adjusted, chlorinated, fluoride added and then stored in clear-

wells. The high lift pumps then provide potable water to the distribution system and standpipe, as required. The high lift pumps are vertical turbines. Model lOM,also manufactured by Fairbanks Morse Pumps, and are rated for 30.1 L/s each. The Sioux Lookout design and build project was awarded to KMK Design Build Ltd. at a price significantly less than the engi neering budget. The engineer's estimate was $6,400,000; KMK's was $5,900,(KX).

BCMK Design Build's approach is to provide a fully bondable design team who designs projects and then obtains pricing from bona fide contractors, suppliers and sub-trades, providing clients with a complete package to undertake the works. Plant Performance

To date, the plant is performing extremely well, exceeding all Ontario Drinking Water Objectives. Parameters of particu lar note are colour reduction from greater than 50 True Colour Units(TCU)to less than 2 TCU and tiihalomethanes(THMs)

reduced from levels as high as approximately 200 pg/L before construction of the plant to less than 30 pg/L. Currently data is being collected for a follow up article detailing the performance of the water treatment plant and should be ready for publication early next year. For more Information, circle reply card No. 137

air pollutants by 83% reduction In sulphur dioxide emissions.

Table 1 - Reduction of





causes cancer

nitrogen oxides


smog, acid rain



causes cancer



causes cancer, nerve toxin

carbon dioxide


ciimate change



nerve toxin



causes cancer

causes cancer

"The Ontario Medical Association calls air pollution a public health crisis in Ontario. There are 38 different air pollutants emitted by coal-fired electricity. We can start to clean this up now by switching from coal to natural gas and by investing in energy efficiency," said Dr. David Suzuki, the guest speaker at the release of the study. The electricity sector in Ontario is a major air polluter. It is responsible for 16% of Ontario-generated sulphur di oxide, 10% of mercury, 12% of nitrogen oxides, and 18% of carbon dioxide emitted in Ontario.

"This study has identified a common sense approach to improved public health," said Dr. Suzuki. "These air pol lutants make people sick. They increase asthma suffering, prompt cardiac and respiratory illness, reduce everyone's lung function, and over time they increase cancer risk," he said. "Air pollution is responsible for 6,000 premature deaths a year in Ontario alone." The study shows that the cost of obtaining reductions in the health risks of these dangerous air pollutants would be

$1.82 billion over a 17-year period (1998 to 2014). This includes both building new gas-fired generating plants and operating them,compared to continuing to operate the more polluting coal plants. "New rules are being drawn up at Queen's Park for a restructured electricity sector in Ontario. Now is the time for the Harris Government to make sure that Ontario's new

electricity market is a clean electricity market by mandat ing an achievable, affordable 83% reduction in key air pol lutants," said Dr. Suzuki.

"To be specific. Premier Harris should establish legally binding limits to reduce Ontario's total domestic and im ported electricity-related sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases and toxic air pollution emissions," he said.

Mr. Gibbons said: "Unfortunately, it appears that the Ontario Government is only considering regulations for two of the 38 electricity air pollutants. Even in these two cases -sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides-there is no promise that the limits will reduce the current level of emissions."

The study was funded by Ontario Hydro, Environment Canada,the Commission for Environmental Cooperation,the Independent Power Producers Society of Ontario,the Ontario Natural Gas Association, the Municipal Electric Association, AES Kingston, Canadians Niagara Power, and Great Lakes Power. The pollution reductions discussed are achievable

under the study's scenario of a 90% reduction in the existing legal cap on sulphur dioxide which applies to Ontario Hydro.

For more Information, circle reply card No. 134 68

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

December 1-2, 1999 The International Centre, Toronto, Ontario^

rS||... is a must attend for Owners/Executive Management, Waste & Recycling Managers, Municipal Waste Managers, Purchasers, gste Generators, Fleet Maintenance Supervisors, Mechanics,

Drivers and Equipment Operators.. J


Canada's Only National Trade Show,showcasing theJS

collection, hauling, recycling, composting and disposal industry. See the largest selections In...

Waste & Recycling Collection Trucks, Trailers,

Waste Processing/Recycling Services & Equipment; Landfill Management Services & Equipment xtensive Waste Handling related products, services, technologies & innovations

For further information on exhibiting or attending, please call i 6

I -800-787-9328 OR visit our website at www.exposition.com SWANA


Management Association

50.110 wA5:c ^SOClMlpsC N'OSrn AMERICA


The Composting Cotmcil of Canada Le Conseil Canadian du compostage

Canada's magazine on collection, hauling, pmcessing & disposal


Produced and managed by: CONTACT EXPOSITION MANAGEMENT INC. • Showing You the Way to Success!

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666.


Cyanide Removal


Using sodium hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickiy remove cyanide wastes

detaiied in a technical bulietin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air

is detaiied. Bulietin reviews dos

ages, equipment, as well as stor age, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmollve

A "St^ution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS

Odour Control

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is

collection needs.

Contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Coigate-Palmolive

Canada Inc.

Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 200

Circle reply card No. 201

Zebra Mussels

The economic advantages of HOPE pipe

To help control zebra mussels,one JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite,

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association's(OPPA) new brochure

which kills the larvae. We are con

focuses on the structural and cost

sulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this prob lem, or be kept Informed of the lat est information, please contact: www.colgate.ca/javex Colgate-Palmollve Canada Inc.

savings advantages of corrugated high density polyethylene pipe. Leading the Underground Revolution highlights current statistics and Infor mation on the strength, cost-

solution involves the use of

effectiveness, ease of installation

and adaptability of polyethylene pipe. CPPA

Circle reply card No. 203

Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 202

Wastewater recovery and processing



Our 530 page all color mail-or der catalog, has over 12,000

Through utilizing the Derrick "FloLlne" screening unit design, high fluid capacities can be effectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher solids/partlculate

items from more than 400 manu

facturers - everything you need to keep your water and wastewater systems running smoothly. Simply pick up the phone for ex pert technical advice and same day shipping to anywhere in

removal. The Derrick "Flo-Line" WASTE WATER RKCeVERY ft PReCiSSINQ

screening unit can also be easily In stalled into an existing facility due to the unique compact unit design. The

Canada. USABIueBook

"Flo-Line" can also be custom de

signed to meet your industry's spe cific requirements. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 204

Circle reply card No. 205

Encyclopedia of

Titles In Environmental

SdlNCE Spectra 1lliljt!lilifPilil&


Environmental Science

Our catalogue features informative and exciting books and journals dedi cated to the study of environmental science. Request the catalogue and receive a free Issue of our beautifully Illustrated magazine Science Spec

and Engineering

tra. Visit our web site and place an order online at: www.gbhap.com to receive 10% off all books. The Gordon and Breach

Publishing Group Circle reply card No. 206

Encyclopedia of Enni'onmental Science and

Ensineerins ieiiatyc


A comprehensive reference guide containing contributions from leading international authorities and cover

ing all aspects of environmental sci ence and engineering. For more in formation request our brochure or visit our web site at: www.gbhap.com and browse our special offers. Place orders online and receive 10% off all books. The Gordon and Breach

Publishing Group Circle reply card No. 207


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Forestry Suppliers catalogue

Hazardous materials

Environmental professionals worldwide turn to Forestry Suppliers, Inc. for quality soil sampling and water monitoring equip ment and supplies, inside our environ mental catalogue, the Environmental Source, you'll find a large seiecfion of qual ity products ail backed by technical sup port before and after the sale, friendly cusfomer service, competitive prices, and prompt shipments. To get your FREE catalogue, phone,fax,or E-mail our Cafaiogue Request Department todayi Phone: (601) 354-3565, Fax: (601) 355-5126, www.forestry-suppiiers.com, E-mail: fsi@forestry-suppiiers.com.

storage For optimum storage and con

Forestry Suppliers, inc. Circle reply card No. 208

tainment of tiazardous materi

als, ttie Ctiem-Loc Building can be an economical solution. Deal

directly with this established manufacturer and their in-house

design team for a custom de signed building. TheChem-Loc building compiles with Canadian and US Building and Fire Codes and features ail steel construction. Optional features range from fire suppression systems to customized door sizes, partitions and hoisting equipment. Since 1971, Chem-Loc has been chosen for reliable, eco nomical hazardous materials storage. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circle reply card No. 209

Potable water and sewage

Disinfection using sea water


SANiLEC systems come in a com plete range of sizes from compact, skid mounted units that produce 10 pounds of chlorine equivalent per day, to muiti-ceil systems that can generate 2400-f pounds daily. Cus tom designed SANiLEC systems are also available to provide hundreds of thousands of pounds per day of chlo rine equivalent. Most important, all SANiLEC systems are safe, costeffective and easy to operate. Exceltec International Corp. Circle reply card No. 211

The SANiLEC process requires nothing more than salt, water and electricity. And it is so flexible, you can produce as much or as little so dium hypochiorite as you need whenever you need it. To begin the process, salt is dissolved with sof tened water to form a concentrated brine solution. This solution is then

diluted and passed through the SANiLEC cell.

Exceltec International Corp. Circle reply card No. 210

Trash removal and dewatering The StrainPress SiudgeCieaner is the first closed system which both

The ZENON Membrane

I Technology Prize

screens and then compacts trash

from concentrated scums. The re


TH0fJ-niV5R 57RlCTl«-U.P0D^fER ArnifOVUSG hfAlU\£PRODVaS

sulting StrainPress sludge output is cleaner and more aesthetically pleasing, and can be used for ferti lizer, composting, or soil improve ment. The screenings are dry and can also be disposed of with other plant wastes to landfills at reduced disposal costs. Parkson Circle reply card No. 212

at: www.zenonenv.com.

ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 213

Anti-Zebra Mussel Coating A new structural anti-fouiing product offering excellent resistance to ma rine growth, THOR-FLEX SR is a poiymer alloy formulated using the latest in low surface energy chemis try that eliminates chemicals com monly used to prevent fouling. Re cent test results at the Buffalo Re search Centre for Biosurfaces

showed superior resistance to zebra mussel infestation compared to a variety of anti-fouiing coatings.

Technology Prize The ZENON Membrane Technology Prize is awarded in recognition of advances in understanding the use of membrane technology for the so lution of water/wastewater manage ment problems. The recipient of the award will receive US $10,000 in rec ognition of their work. For further information visit ZENON's web page

from sludge, it screens trash from primary, secondary, return, waste, or digested sludge, septage, as well as


The ZENON Membrane

Urecon pre-lnsulated pipe


Urecon pre-insuiated pipe has been used across Canada for shallow bury freeze protection since 1972(with or without Thermocabie® heat tracing). Other applications include: central chilled water pipe, industrial, mining, etc. We also distribute Logstor Ror (Denmark) pre-insuiated hot water district heating pipe suitable for serv ice up to 140°C (with or without leak alarm system). Visit our web page at: www.urecon.com.


Urecon Ltd.

A division of Thordon Bearings Inc. Circle reply card No. 214

Circle reply card No. 215

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999


Product and Service Showcase Reduce polymer use by 25%

High efficiency chlorlnation

ThePolyBlendDP Series is a family of dry polymer feed systems for


The Water Champ submersible che mical induction

system represents

use in water and

Are you puzzled

ment. Systems also feature liquid polymer feed ca pability for cus tomers who may

about... ...the treatment of effluents with high BOD loads, a need to drastically reduce VOCs and odours, ways to improve sludge settling, reducing energy con sumption and optimizing operating costs? Oxygen solutions from Air Liquide may be what you're looking for. Talk to one of our representatives and let Air Liquide show you how it all fits together.

from one form of polymer to another. The DP Series typically reduces polymer con sumption 25%or more while substantially improving polymer performance in terms of sludge dryness, solids capture, water clarity, drainage/retention, or any other

Air Liquide

measure. Indachem

Circle reply card No. 224


need to switch

Circle reply card No. 225

-WinT4ET^ÂťEli' The two main characteristics of domes

water treatment

tic sewage are Biochemical Oxygen De mand (BOD)and Total Suspended Sol ids (TSS) which are to be 250 mg/1 re spectively. The graph shows the treat ment levels of the BOD and TSS using a septic tank, a secondary treatment device,

plant? Maybe you

or a Whitewater. The Whitewater can

would like to use

achieve tertiary treatment levels. Make-Way Plastics Ltd.

Oxygen Do you need oxy gen for your waste

oxygen as a feed gas for your ozone generator? Be it

The Whitewater has the capabilities to treat domestic sewage to:

our on-site tech


less than 10 mg/l

TSS less than 10 mg/l Nitrate less than 5 mg/l

nology, or our numerous cylinder distri bution centres and liquid plants located across North America, let Air Liquide provide you with the right mode of sup ply for your oxygen needs. Air Liquide

ward when com

pared to conven tional


feed chlorlnation

systems. This new concept replaces wastewater treatment technology intro duced back in the early 1920s. With a Water Champ,an injector, injector pump, diffuser, mechanical mixer, filter and

strainer are no longer required. It also eliminates the use of valuable potable water previously required in the chlorination/dechlorination process. Indachem Circle reply card No. 226

Dally Sewage Flow DAILY SEWAGE FLOW Model No.

DF 50 FF



Cu. Metres




450 lbs

DF 60 FF



550 lbs

DF 75 FF



750 lbs

1,200 lbs 1,300 lbs




DF150 FF

1,250 2,500


2XDF150 3XDF150 4XDF150

3,750 5,000


3,000 lbs


4,500 lbs


6,000 lbs

Larger Flow Rate Whitewater Plants There are available single tankage Whitewater systems for flows greater than 5,000 imp. gals, per day up to and including 300,000 imp. gals, per day.

Make-Way Plastics Ltd. 1-800-894-4430

Circle reply card No. 227

Circle reply card No. 228

Circle reply card No. 229

The Engineering Link

New Warrlck product guide


Canada's Premier Engineering Link

Davis Controls

on the Net


dedicated to highlighting Canada's pro fessional engineering, planning and architectural firms to suppliers and pro spective clients. The Engineering Link www.theengineeringlink.net Circle reply card No. 230



Selection Guide



A' in the Standard Meth

the availability of a new Product Warrick

Controls. This

ods for the evaluation

36-page cata logue offers a complete guide to selecting liquid level control systems, from product selection and application tips to system component information and sensitivity data. Each product de scription provides complete specifica tions as well as wiring schematics.

of the sludge volume


We are proud to be Canada's comprehen sive Engineering Link web site on the Net


meter is a laboratory instrument inspired by the method and ;j| specifications given

Ltd. announces



a major step for

wastewater treat

Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 231

index (SVI). It con sists of a motor, ^ mounted on a 2 litre

cyhnder, that actuates a low-speed stirring mechanism, which limits the interferences associated with

floe bridging and wall effects. Compar ing the stirred SVI (SSVI) to the SVI helps determine the causes of sludge bulking. MCR 55 Process & Technology Circle reply card No. 232

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Product and Service Showcase Personal gas dosimeter


Sharp Testers

Smart Meter

New microprocessor-based pH pocket testers use the innovative "cloth junc tion" to eliminate reading errors due to junction




clogging. By simply pulling out 2 mm of "cloth" you have a new and clean junc

The PiezOptic Personal Dosimeter System is a breakthrough in the detection and pre cise measmement of hazardous substances.

Need a low cost port able meter with no frills? We have it.

SMI00 pH meter has a range of 0.0 to 14.0 pH with 0.1 pH resolution and a long-life cloth junction. SM500 redox meter has a

The system consists of small passive dosi meter badges and a generic reader capable of providing extremely accurate and precise on-the-spot measurements. There is no need to send the badge to an external laboratory for analysis. Badges are presently available for styrene, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, ozone, hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide.

tion. Three models

range of +!- 1000

offer accuracies go ing from 0.2 pH to 0.02 pH. High accuracy conductivity and TDS pocket testers are also available, with automatic temperature compensa tion(ATC)provided by a sensor mounted in a stainless steel housing.

ries Conductivity and 400 Series TDS meters both come in two ranges and of fer ATC with 1 point calibration and large easy-to-read display. All meters are sup plied with their own probe and carry a 2 Year Warranty. Nortech GSI Inc.

Nortech GSI Inc.

Nortech GSI Inc.

mV with a 1 mV resolution. The 300 Se

Circle reply card No. 235

Circle reply card No. 233

Circle reply card No. 234

PipePac Software

Concrete Pipe Handbook

PipePac Software from the American Concrete Pipe Association offers inte grated analysis using three independent programs for D-load ealculations(3BB), estimating the material costs of pipe and cost of the materials specified over the design life of the program (LCA). American Concrete Pipe Assoc. Circle reply card No. 236

The latest edition of the Concrete Pipe Handbook,a comprehensive collection of theories, formulas and aids for designing concrete pipe systems, is available from the American Concrete Pipe Association. Now in its fifth printing, the handbook has been updated to include information on Standard Installation using Indirect Design. American Concrete Kpe Assoc. Circle reply card No. 237

Concrete Pipe Design Manual

T'Series centrifugal pumps

Liquid level control

Self-priming is the superior solution for several reasons: High and dry mounting for fast and easy service and mainte nance; clogging is kept to a minimum, so downtime is virtually eliminated; serv ice is simple,fast, economical; automatic priming means dependable performance. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 240

Gorman-Rupp's Electronic Pressure Switch has been designed to control the operation of your Gorman-Rupp pack aged pumping station or control. The EPS 2000 is incredibly accurate,reliable and simple to operate. The unit comes with pinpoint precision Start/Stop set points for one to eight pumps, or it can be used to control up to six pumps while monitoring the wet well with high and low water alarms. Gorman-Rupp Circle reply card No. 241

embedment zones (CAPE) and the real

The Concrete Pipe Design Manual, now in its 12th printing by the American Con crete Pipe Association, includes all the technical data and design aids engineers need when specifying concrete pipe. Hundreds of tables and charts cover the

hydraulics of sewers and culverts, live loads and earth loads, supporting strengths and supplemental design data. American Concrete Pipe Assoc.

Circle reply card No. 239

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Design Data 41

Design Data41 from ACPA aids engineers in the proper design of manholes to pre vent flotation. Design methods, using ba sic soil mechanics to determine if a man

hole is susceptible to flotation, are pre sented for the engineer. The effects of the manhole configuration and surrotinding soil conditions are taken into considera

tion with the analysis. American Concrete Pipe Assoc. Circle reply card No. 238


Product and Service Showcase The Con/Span Advantage

Bitumen & butyl tape systems


• Fully engineered and custom-designed to your site requirements • Saves weeks off construction schedules


www.concastpipe.com Circle reply card No. 242

Env. management topis

• Long life cycle and low maintenance • Carries heavy loads at low stress levels Your only precast choicefor your next project.

Denso's bitumen and butyl tapes are cold applied, with excellent adhesion to pipe and self. No special equipment is re quired. They meet AWWA standards and are compatible with common pipe coat ings. Their flexibihty provides extra pro tection at vulnerable areas and they pro vide excellent resistance to cathodic

disbonding. Denso North America Inc.


Circle reply card No. 243

Circle reply card No. 244

Advantages of seepex pumps

Lamella clarlflers

The ADV brochure illustrates the unique geometries ofseepex pumps which result The Envista family of products offers powerful software for environmental in formation management. Envista prod ucts are configured to fit specific work environments so operational and manage ment teams can store, track and manage information and stay on top of environ mental data and regulatory requirements. Streamlined data analysis provides the entire organization with access to timely information. Envista Technologies Circle reply card No. 245

Separators & Interceptors for the removal of oil, grease and

in lower wear rates and thrust loads. Also

Ecodyne custom design each lamella clarifier to meet the specific service needs

shown are close-coupled pumps and the exclusive "plug-in" drive shaft that allows for easy replacement of the pump "wet

reduces maintenance to a minimum.

of their clients. Use of a lamella claiifier

end". Other features include; sealed and

There are no moving parts. Its compact

lubricated universal joints with reliable, replaceable bushings;improved rotor sur faces; harder rotor coatings; molded-tosize, shrink compensated stators; stator retensioning device and a patented mn dry protection device, seepex Inc. Circle reply card No. 246

automated plants or in upgraded instal lations where space may not be available for a standard clarifier. Units are usually fully assembled, minimizing erection costs and time. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 247

Inlet Stormceptor® system

PlantPRO™ Trash Pumps

ness allows the unit to be located in new,

The Inlet Storm

solids from wastewater

ceptor System employs the same principles of operation as the well known In-line in-

terceptors. De-

^ w For the economical treatment of indus trial and commercial wastewater. Treat

ment applications include: industrial facilities; process wastewater; floor washing; parts washing;compressor con densate. Automotive repair shops and food processing/preparation facilities are also available. Preceptor

Circle reply card No. 248 74

veloped to treat

runoff from an

area of up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are currently more than 2,500 units in place throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 249

PlantPRO™ Trash Pumps offer high quality, premium performance at a price that won't bust your budget! All of our pumps are made of heavy duty cast aluminum with cast iron replaceable wear parts. Both 3" and 4" models are avail able. USABlueBook

Circle reply card No. 250

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Product and Service Showcase Thermoplastic ball valves

Environmental drilling




Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. provides envi ronmental drilling services by using proven methods of drilling boreholes



is a unique low cost sequencing batch

that are both versa tile and cost-effec

tive. Utilizing a 2" standard split-spoon

NeoValves introduces its new line of

1/2" to 4". They are equipped with re movable spanner device and a special thread design to prevent accidental loos ening during disassembly of union nut. The "ultra compact" design is able to meet all types of commercial and indus trial applications. NeoValves Circle reply card No. 251

sampler,our crews can drill inside and out side buildings and install monitors for water or soil gas. Our crews can also be equipped with portable hollow & solid stem augers. Geotechnical services are also provided using portable SPT units and concrete coring equipment for road & con crete testing. Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. Circle reply card No. 252

Sand Filter

PACT® System

PVC-VX Series Union End Ball Valve


process. Its efflu ent surpasses 10/ 10 requirements, without sludge recycling or separate clarification. In addition, biological ni trogen and phosphorus are removed at no additional cost. The result is a simple five-phase cycle, microprocessor-regu lated process for optimum energy usage and proper organism selection. USFiiter Jet Tech Products

Circle reply card No. 253

New CMF-S Technology

The Hydro-Clear® Sand Filter by USFiiter Zimpro Products contains

a unique underdrain system and a 10-inch(250mm)deep bed of single graded, fine sand media. These fea tures allow the filter surface to be

regenerated periodically with a simple air pump, prolonging filter runs and keep ing the filter on-line, despite unpredict able changes in solids characteristics and solids loadings. USFiiter Zimpro Products

Circle reply card No. 254

USFiiter Zimpro Products offers the PACT® (powdered activated carbon treatment)sys tem to treat a variety ofwastewaters,includ ing landfill leachate, highly contaminated surface- and groundwater, and industrial wastewater. The PACT system combines biological treatment and carbon adsorption into a single,synergistic treatment step. The system can control colour and odour, COD and priority organics, and costs for dispos ing of wastewater treatment residuals. USFiiter Zimpro Products Circle reply card No. 255

USFiiter Corporation introduces a sub

merged microfiltration system designed for very large drinking water apphcations. The new Memcor CMF-S continuous

microfiltration system was created to com pete in large scale (>20 MOD)surface water treatment plant process evaluations. This system provides 6-log removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, easily meet ing the new and future drinking water regu lations. USFiiter

Circle reply card No. 256

Muffin Monster® technology

Compact ozone generator units


As a result of valu

able input from customers,the lat

est design reduces

Are you puzzled Ozonia's range of standardized compact

ozone generator units, the OZAT®, take advantage of the latest technological de velopments, including "Advanced Tech nology" dielectrics. They are ideal for: Ozone oxidation; up to 15% concentration and higher(from oxygen);chemical proc ess oxidation; groundwater oxidation; re cycle process water; wastewater oxidation; sterilize DI water. Pilot units are avail able. Ozonia

Circle reply card No. 257

maintenance from hours to minutes


and repair time by

...lowering pH without using hazardous chemicals, reducing aluminum residuals in your water, eliminating sodium hypochlorite scaling from your WTP pip ing? Carbon Dioxide solutions from Air Liquide may be what you're looking for. Talk to one of our representatives and let Air Liquide show you how it all fits

The Muffin Mon

together. Air Liquide

Circle reply card No. 258

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

as much as 50%.

ster® shears, cuts and tears materials

of various sizes,

shapes and hard nesses, always providing the finest grind in the industry. The wide selection of cut ters provides superior cutting effectiveness for specific applications. JWC Environmental

Circle reply card No. 259


Product and Service Showcase Metering pumps & controllers

New from Peacock -

fiowguard pulsation dampers


Peacock has a full line of Milton

ALTOP We've re-engineered cylinders! A cylinder, regu lator, and shut-off valve combined into one.


ALTOP oxygen and acetylene cyl inders are ideal

for any maintenance shop. Talk to an Air Liquide representative and let us show you how: Safety + Simplicity + Control = Savings. Air Liquide Circle reply card No. 260

SRT Control System

The Royce Model 7700 is a complete monitoring and control package with two complete insitu solids density systems, a portable solids calibration system, and a controller. It continuously monitors the

Roy and LMI me tering pumps and Liquitron meter ing pump control

Flowguard pulsa tion dampers op erate with high efficiency. Their simple concept

lers - for a full

and construction

range of applica tions. A metering pump is only as good as the de sign of the whole system. Peacock can help you select the right metering pump for your particular their performance and reliability.


Circle reply card No. 261

Circle reply card No. 262

BNA clutch brakes

Tankage systems

Bonfiglioli North America BNA has in troduced a series ofclutch brakes that are

concentration of solids in the aeration ba

surface area for increased heat dissi

waste sludge flow,coupled with a unique control algorithm to provide a feedback for automatic or manual return/wasting rate, or complete Sludge Retention Time control. Cancoppas Limited

pations. These units are designed to com pensate for increases in the air gap due to wear, thus eliminating the need for ongoing maintenance and adjustment. BNA Bonfiglioli North America

Circle reply card No. 264

Underground double wall jacketed tanks

Circle reply card No. 265

The Ultraflote Ultradome trade mark is

Concrete Solutions from Munro!

now available in the Batten Quad Seal design. Ultraflote, established in 1972,is an international leader in the design, manu facture and installation of geodesic domes and flat covers. Ultraflote's attention to detail has been instrumental in the success

1-800-461-5632 www.munroconcrete.oom

DTE Industries Limited


Permastore has produced high quality Glass-Fused-to-Steel bolted tankage sys tems for over 30 years. The company's improved vertical seam and choice of glass coatings, combined with strong engineering design support offers the water and wastewater industry maximum tankage flexibility. Donson Engineering & Contracting

Geodesic domes & flat covers


Circle reply card No. 266




sin, the concentration of return solids and

Superior corrosion protection and sec ondary containment; inner tank can be compartmentalized; total compatibility with petroleum fuels, as well as a wide range of chemicals; sand, pea gravel or crushed stone may be used for backfill; globally recognized third-party approv als; flat and dished end caps.

available non

housings and membrane in any one of 10 different types of rubber, or a PTFE (Teflon) bellows or diaphragm.

environment from the pumps known for

compact, totally enclosed units for fre quent clutch and braking cycles. They are easily installed and feature a large

Circle reply card No. 263

make them eco

nomically priced and easy to main tain. They are

Circle reply card No. 267

of deahng with difficult apphcations re quiring specific engineering and constmction know-how and experience. Donson Engineering & Contracting Circle reply card No. 268

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Industry Update

Sid Dutton, P.Eng., 1916-1999

Award winning Environmental Engineer and WW II Veteran Sidney C. Dutton, born in a working class home in Man

chester, England, in 1916, was to

play a prominent role in Canadian

environmental engineering. As head of the Waste Treatment Department of Proctor & Redfem Limited, now Earth

Tech (Canada), he was responsible for many municipal and industrial treatment facilities. Two of the projects under his direction won national awards.

As a scholarship boy he went on to attain a first class honours degree in Civil Engineering at Victoria University, Manchester. Later, during World War If, he rose to become a Captain in the British Royal Engineers, seeing service in North Africa, the Middle East, Italy and Greece.

After emigrating to Canada follow ing the war, Sid spent the majority of his professional life with Proctor & Redfem and was very active in profes sional associations. He was a Past Presi dent of the Water Environment Associa

tion of Ontario and a Bedell awardee, a fellow of the(UK)Institute of Civil En

gineering,the American Society ofCivil Engineering and the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering. For over ten years he was a tmstee of the Gurkha Welfare Appeal(Canada). After visiting Nepal, after retirement, he

wrote how the famed Gurkhas, after

service in the British Army, were much respected when they retired to their na tive villages. He suggested that villag ers' respect to veterans would be valu able in implementing any aid programs. His work with the Gurkhas led to a meet

the mercury problem at the source by targeting dentists, pharmacists and hos pitals. Dentist practices in particular are responsible for at least 27% of mercury emissions. The Quebec government committed in 1998 to reduce by half the mercury emissions in the province.

ing with Prince Charles. Source: CWWA Newsletter Syd never married and is survived by his nephews and niece. He died August Canadian Society for 3, at the age of 82. A memorial service Chemistry appointments was held on Saturday,August 21,at First The Canadian Society for Chemistry Unitarian Congregation, Toronto. (CSC) have announced the election of Steve Davey, Director, Water Judith C.Poe, MCIC,as their President Environment Association of Ontario for 1999-2000. She holds an A.R.C.S.,

Ministry targets mercury discharges A billion tonnes of wastewater flows

through Montreal's Riviere-des-Prairies treatment plant every year. This volume means that the facility is incapable of treating most of the 300 kilograms of mercury that it receives annually from the city's sewers. The toxic mercury is discharged into the St. Lawrence River or incinerated with the sewage plant sludge. Incineration creates its own environ

mental problems, as the mercury is re leased to the atmosphere and travels with the wind to be deposited in lakes and rivers throughout the province. Montreal's public health officials em phasize that the mercury poses no sig nificant danger to the city's population. However, the environmental con cerns are real and the Montreal Urban

Community, together with Quebec's Ministry ofEnvironment, want to reduce

M.Sc. and D.I.C.from Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, is a bioinorganic chemist and a specialist in the pedagogy of chemistry in the Department of Chem istry and Erindale College, University of Toronto.

Gordon Thomson,FCIC,is the new Chair of the Chemical Institute of

Canada for 1999-2000. He graduated from the University of British Colum bia in 1964 with a B.A.Sc. in Chemical

Engineering. He joined Imperial Oil Limited,from which he retired in 1996.

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1-800-695-3659 in U.S. and Canada

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seepex inc.

seepex Inc.

2200 Bristol Circle, Oakville, ON L6H 5R3

169 Dufferin St. South,#18

18462 Blvd. Gouin Quest

Tel:(905)829-2000 Fax:(905) 829-2630

Alliston, Ontario, L9R 1E6

Pierrefonds, Quebec, H9K 1A7

• Montreal Tel:(514) 737-4817

• Hamilton Tel:(905)643-4277

Phone:(705)434-0611 Fax:(705)434-0620

Phone:(514) 620-3007

•Barrie Tel:(705) 436-3900

• London Tel:(519)641-8953


•Winnipeg Tel:(204) 253-2815

• Calgary Tel:(403) 255-5035

•Vancouver Tel:(604) 298-9101

For more information, circie repiy card No. 178 (See page 25)

For more information,

circle repiy card No. 179

Industry Update

Vehicle muffler uses mineral aggregates to reduce pollution 60% to 90% have an exothermic effect. As a result,


the filtering aspects of the muffler per form well even at low temperatures. Moreover,the self-regenerating compo nents increase the service life of the muffler. No modification to the exhaust line

I t Inlet tube

is necessary. The muffler can be adapted to all types of motor vehicles (light ve hicles, tmcks, utility vehicles, buses,

Metallic wool

Metallic wool

Outlet tube





Mineral aggregate

A French company, CLARO Interna tional, has patented a pollution control muffler which filters pollutant gases and bums, then traps exhaust particles using treated mineral aggregates. Thanks to the active ingredient of this innovative tech

nology, pollution from highway vehicles could be cut between 60% and 90%.

CLARO's pollution control muffler relies on the interaction of several com-

ponents. A steel wool barrier within the muffler enables particle diffraction, while a mixture of mineral aggregates taken from metamorphic rocks and treated by oven drying,increases poros ity and optimizes the neutralization of toxic gases. A second steel wool disc at

the rear of the muffler then keeps the aggregates and exhaust particles inside the filter. The treated mineral aggregates

constmction equipment), and functions with either gasoline or diesel fuel. CLARO is claimed to be the only pol lution control muffler that can befitted on vehicles without catalytic converters. Motorists owning vehicles of this type can now bring their cars into compli ance with pollution control standards and contribute to the protection of the environment.

The company is looking for North American distributors, installers, indus

trial and financial partners, with a view to setting up joint ventures. Contact: French Technology Press Office, Fax:(312) 222-1237.

"For Cost Effective Pumping" company in the cardSGrSuT

Comprehensive range on the market. Sales & Service


• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps



ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905)670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com


Callfor the Representative nearest yon



For more information, circle reply card No. 163

Media & Coal Ltd.


TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617




For more information,



TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services jy


Biosollds and Waste Utilization

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information, circle reply card No. 164

• Liquid and Dewatered Appiication. • Digester and Lagoon Cieaning. • Contract Faciiity Operations. • Spiiis Response & Industrial Wastes.


Mail — P.O. Box 60069

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2 Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakvllle, Ont. L9T 2X5

Phone:(905) 878-2800/Fax: (905) 878-7332



• MoDitoring Wells • Recovery Wells • Gas Extraction Wells •Deep Monitoring Well Specialists

•Municipal Well Drilling •Industrial Well Drilling •Construction Drilling • Well Testing and Rehabilitation

R.R. #1 (Bast Place) Waterloo, Ontario

(519) 664-1422

For more information,

circle reply card No. 162 78


circle reply card No. 161




Davidson "Since 1909"

147 North Street West

Wingham,Ontario (519) 357-1960

For more information, circle reply card No. 165 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Industry Update

Fluoride warning in Peel Region Parents should watch young children brush their teeth to make sure they don't swallow too much fluoridated toothpaste, say Peel Region health officials. Concerns about fluoride in drinking water have prompted Peel to ask its health officials and the prov ince to review all infomiation relating to water fluoridation.

"Current recommendations support fluoridating the Region's water supply, but we are always open to reviewing new in formation and making recommendations

GL&V Process Equipment Group requires a

Wastewater Process Equipment Sales and Support Specialist GL&V Environmental Sales Division requires a highly motivated candidate with a proven record of success in representation of process equipment to clients, and a keen interest in the area of wastewater treatment processes. Duties will include travel to client loca tions, preparation of specifications and proposals, liaison with estimating, engineering and field services departments, and management of GL&V's relationship with our cli ents in this marketplace. Candidates will have three to eight years related experience, a degree (or equivalent) in a relevant engineering discipline, and fluency in the English language. Fluency in French

based on what is best for the residents of

would be an asset.

Peel," said Peel's acting health officer. When used properly, the fluoride that is

This position offers both technical and managerial challenge, an enviable location in the heart of Ontario's vacation land, a competitive salary with comprehensive benefit pack age, and the opportunity to grow in a dynamic, expanding company.

added to Peel's water is an effective

method of controlling dental decay, the acting health officer said. But it's impor tant to avoid excess exposure from multi ple sources. Peel Health will report back to the city once it receives recommendations from

the Health Ministry. Health Canada rec ommends municipalities have between 0.8 and 1 part per million of fluoride in their water supplies and Peel's water sup ply falls within these guidelines. Source: CWWA Newsletter

Contact: Ken Smith at GL&V, 174 West Street S., Orillia, ON, L3V 4E4, Fax: (705) 325-2347, E-mail: ksmith@peg.glv.com.

Certified and Accredited

ACCUTEST Laboratories Full-Service Environmental Laboratory Water • Sewage • Leachate • Soil • Concrete • Wipes

Agricultural Analytical Services Ottawa (613)727-5692

Kingston (613)634-9307

Services Electronic transfer of data

Extended opening hours Rapid turnaround

Farm Soils • Livestock Feed



(* for specific tests) MTO Approved

Toll-free (888)271-TEST

Web Site www.accutestiabs.com

Ainley & Associates Limited Consulting Engineers and Planners

Water Supply and Sewage Treatment Environmental Assessments - Roads and Bridges Structural Engineering - Land Use Planning Our expertise coders a// aspects of Cm/, Munic/pa/ and Envtronmentat Engineer/rrg and Land Use j



BELL£l//LL£ (SW 866-4243 fvVf(6W 966- T163

/yiX frOSJ 'f45-09e8

OTTAWA f6f3J 322- tOS2 FAX (6/3) 822-1523



Environmental and OHS professionals providing quality consulting, scientific & engineering services • engineering and scientific studies • management systems and audit capability . Phase i & ii investigations and remediation

225 Sheppard Ave. W. North York, Ont. M2N 1N2

Tel;(416)226-0148 Fax:(416)226-2931






R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, architects, technology managers


Water, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

Tel:(905)457-5145 Fax;(905)457-1730 Http://www.frontenac-env.com

For employment and project development opportunities

sales@frontenac-env.com service @frontenac-env.com

visit our web site: www.rvanderson.com

Toronto(416)497-8600 E-mail; Toronto@RVAnderson.com Welland Ottawa Sudbury London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay.India

For more information,

circle reply card No. 180


Industry Update

Environmental professionals working with industry to


improve water quality

Greenpeace serves 'no public benefit' says taxman


Aquatic Contaminant Remediation

Environmental Audits

Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Toxiclty Testing

Environmental Engineering Stormwater Management Impact Assessments

PO Box 2205,250 Irtartindale Road, St. Cattiarines, Ontario, Canada L2R 7R8 Pti: {905)641-0941 Fax; (905)641-1825 www.aquatic.com

Branch Office: PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T7H8 Ph:(519)383-7822

Revenue Canada has refused to recog nize the Greenpeace Environmental Foundation as a charity. Its activities have'no public benefit' and its lobbying to close polluting industries could send people 'into poverty', says the taxman. Without charitable status, Green

Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering Creating Value through Service and Innovation V Vancouver



604.293.141:1: : :

780.451:7666 www.ae.ca

a : Calgary ; 403-262^4500:

Saskatoon :306.653.4969

Toronto • : 416.622:9502




peace cannot offer tax receipts to its donors. In order to be a charity, Rev enue Canada says an organization must provide some benefit to the public. Carl Juneau, assistant director of the charities division, wrote: "At the least,

the possibility of countervailing detri ment to the public has to be entertained and competing interests weighed. For example, closing down a polluting mill may make for a cleaner town and a healthier population,but it may also pro pel that population into poverty." The ruling comes as Greenpeace resumed its activism on the West Coast in an effort

Specialists in a comprelnensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Collingwood



Tel.(705)444-2565 EMail; lnfo@cctatham.com


Tel.(705)645-7756 Web: www.cctatham.com

to curtail logging. Greenpeace was bom in Vancouver and registered as a charity in 1976. It became renowned for its risk-taking publicity events. After federal officials raised concems about its activities, its charitable status was revoked in 1989.

The Greenpeace Canada Charitable Foundation was then formed - a group that was to be separate from Greenpeace. But according to court records obtained by John Duncan, the Reform MP from BC,the federal charities division found

the group's activities "have not complied with the law."

Funding received for two wastewater centres

College d'Aifred of the University of Gueiph has received a $845,000 grant from the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade's Strategic

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental Engineers,Planners and Scientists 255 Consumers Road, North York. Ontario M2J 5B6

phone(416)499-9000 fax (416)499-4687 direct dial(416)499-0090 + ext.

Skills Investment Fund for a wastewater

management centre for innovation, re search and training.

Barrie - Calgary • London • Ottawa • Thorold

The Ontario Rural Wastewater Cen

Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo

tre will feature sites located in Gueiph and Alfred, and outreach training serv

Consolidated GIroux Environment inc. Dredging (since 1971)

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester •Tailings reiocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction •High Speed Decanter Centrifuges

Tel:(506) 684-5821 E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca 80

ices at the Baxter Conservation Area of

the Rideau Valley Conservation Author ity. They will offer extensive and var ied skills training to an estimated 1,000 students per year. Students will ieam how to install and maintain on-site m-

Fax:(506) 684-1915 Web site: www.GiROUXiNC.com

rai wastewater treatment systems for use in subdivisions, agri-food processing plants, farms and other areas.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Industry Update The centres also will focus on inno

nologies in collaboration with the pri


vate sector.


vation and research, and test new tech

Contact: University of Guelph,(519) 824-4120, ext. 6982.

Feds invest $3.7 M to

reduce greenhouse gases

Toronto • Ottawa London • Hamilton Vancouver • Victoria

Specializing in;

• Drainage Planning

• Wafer & Wastewater Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

• Industrial Treatment

• Environmental Impact

• Stormwater Management

• Environmental Planning

Corporate Office: 133 Wynford Drive Toronto, Ontario M3C 1K1

Tel: (416) 441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

Three Canadian companies will receive

more than $3.7 million in federal gov ernment funding for projects that will capitalize on Canada's technological strengths in alternative transportation technologies. The projects announced are: • Stuait Energy Systems Inc. of Toronto will develop a consumer-friendly appli ance that refuels hydrogen-powered fuelcell vehicles. Ford Motor Company, a project partner,expects its P2000fuel-cell vehicles to be on the market by 2004.


• Infrastructure

• Communities

• Environment

• Facilities


Vancouver • Ytllowknife • Calgary • Winnipeg • Windsor Chatham • l^ndon • Cambridge • Toronto • Ottawa • Jqaluit Fredericton • Halifax • Port Hawkesbury • Sydney • International 100 Sheppard Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario A12N 6NS (416) 229-4646

Transportation Planning Traffic Engineering Environmental Planning ❖ Municipal Engineering Road & Bridge Design

• BC Gas International Inc. will take

Canada's natural-gas fuel-injection tech nology to Romania's Dacia Automobiles and Romgaz. These firms will test a fleet offive bi-fuel vehicles, and,if suc cessful, will mass produce the vehicles for sale in Romania and abroad.

•In a technology transfer project,YugoTech Inc. of Mississauga will convert

Transportation and Environmental

Consultants www.ea.ca

30 to 45 auto-rickshaws in Pakistan to

Toronto Tel: (4161490-8887

Tel: (604)654-1945

Fax:(416* 490-8376

Fax:(604)654-1551 ^


Duke Engineering Services(Canada),Inc. A Duke Energy Company

demonstrate a gasoline to natural gas technology developed in collaboration

Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Environmental Management and Compliance Hydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling Site Remediation

• Risk Assessment


(613) 232-2525 Toronto

(905) 513-9400

Calgary (403) 262-4885




with Environment Canada. The three-

wheeled auto-rickshaws are a mainstay of transportation in Pakistan's urban ar eas, and many other parts of Asia. How ever, they use leaded gasoline and run on two-stroke engines. The engines are very noisy, pollute and emit large


TEM - PLM - PCM - SEM - Flame AA - Graphite Furnace

GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.

amounts of CO^. The demonstration project alone will reduce carbon dioxide by about 76


Microbiology Laboratory & Consuiting


tonnes, as well as reduce lead, benzene,

particulate matter and other pollutants. By fitting 220,000 auto-rickshaws with the technology, there would be a sav ings each year of 370,000 metric tonnes

Microbial Training Consulting Services Respirometry 1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Telephone: 519-681-0571 Fax: 519-681-7150

* Gryptosporidium & Giardia * Microorganism Identification * Rapid E.coli recreational water

of carbon dioxide.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999


Industry Update


...linking our health

Improving water quality a top priority for Chinese

with how we manage



our environment.

Home to more than 1.3 billion peo ple, China's available water resources are below the world average. China's


water situation has been described as

www.cantoxgartnerlee.com Markham

St. Catharines







Bridgewater NJ

(3eamat:pix Consultants

contaminated, and most of that water

Engineers, Geologists, and Environmental Scientists

is concentrated south of the Yangtze

'Industrial Water/Wasfewater Treatment

We hove moved!

■ Waste Minimizafion/Wastewater Reuse/Recycle

Our new address is:

■ Treatment System Upgrade/Optimization

Suite No. 1\465 Phillip Street

In southern China, one-third of the

■ ISO 14000 - Environmental Management Systems


Tel:(519)886•7500 Fax:(519)886•7419


...solutions through clean air technology 7070 Mississauga Road, Suite 160 Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 7G2, Canada Website: www.goodfeil.com

lei: (905) 858-4424 Fax:(905) 858-4426 E-mail: info@goodfeii.com

• Air Pollution Control

• Occupational Health and Safety • indoor Air Quality • HS&E Compiiance Audits

• Clean Air Technologies

• Environmental Engineering • Ventilation Assessment & Design

EMS Audits

Noise Vibration and Acoustics

HGC Noise Vibration Acoustics

Howe Gastmeier Chapnik

country's population lives under the threat of floods, while in northern China, residents of 479 cities live with

water shortages. The Chinese government has ac knowledged that an already serious problem of surface water pollution in Chinese cities is worsening continu ally. In the late 1980s, economic losses attributable to water pollution were estimated to be at least(US)$3.6 billion annually. Coastal pollution levels around Guangzhou and Shang hai were twice as high as state stand ards allow; 80% of rivers running through cities were polluted; and 86% of rivers exceeded state standards for

at least one water quality parameter.

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 1, Suite 203 Mississauga, Ontario L5N1P7 (905) 826-4044, Fax 826-4940 www.hgcengineerlng.com


River, which has 7.5 times more wa

ter per square kilometre than the area north of the river.

■ Treatment System Design and Construction

Waterloo, Ontario N2L 6C7

precarious at best, cataclysmic at worst. To make matters worse, only about one-third of the country's water supply is exploitable, or not seriously

Urban air quality report


Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design

Many Canadian cities continue to ex perience periods of unacceptable air quality, though there appears to have been some improvement in the past 20 years according to the latest National Environmental Indicator Bulletin, Ur

Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 1G5

Tel:(905)522-0012 Fax:(905)522-0031


ban Air Quality. Between 1980 and 1996, the number of days on which ground-level ozone exceeded the Na tional Air Quality Objective decreased by 50 percent. The highest number of these days is found in the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor, while the lowest number is in the Prairies. The Indicator Bulle

tin also presents preliminary trends on inhalable particulate matter and on benzene. There has been a decrease

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacVIro Consultants Inc. 90AllstateParkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3

(905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994

E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.com


in these trends as well, though recent studies suggest that there are health benefits to be gained in reducing ex posure to these pollutants to levels well below those currently observed in Canada.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999


AMA membenship ^esyou flie key. who wants to he on the

outside when all the good stuff is on the inside? Not members of the yVmerican \C^ter Worhs /\ssociation.

They know AWWA membership means having a hey to unloch the best drinking water resources publications, conferences, access to current regulatory and compliance issues resources that can help make their work easier, their

organization more efficient, and their customers more satisfied. The value of these resources is more than twice the amount of annual

membership dues. So if you're looking for a way to stay on top of drinking water issues and unlock your potential, join AWWA and get your own key to success. 1-800-926-7337 www.awwa.org


American Water

Works Association Dedicated to Safe Drinking Water

Industry Update

What goes up... •environmental site assessments


•risk assessment/management

Engineering inc.

•site remediation

Kingston Ottawa

(613)548-3446 (613)521-8258

What goes up must come down, but the question is: where does it come down? It may seem that the water vapour pumped into the air by Prairie crops must fall as rain on nearby fields. Environment

•waste management

Canada scientists have now confirmed


that, because of mobility in the atmos phere, more than 90 percent of the water that falls as rain on the Prairies is actually blown into the region, mostly from the

Marshall Macklin

Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

However, it is the energy released by


the condensation of some of the water


vapourfrom the crops that helps to power strong atmospheric updrafts. These may generate showers and thunderstorms. Through this feedback,a wet period may lead to further rainy weather and a drought may extend itself as well.

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhili, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca


Eaglebrook buys Alcan's M


A Qiemex Labs Alberta / Novamann International Partnership

/^Analytics ,„c Comprehensive Environmental Testing National Service

Certified/Accredited Source Emissions


Ontario 5540 McAdam Road .




9420 C6te de Liesse ;

9331-48th Street Edmonton, AB T6B2R4

Lachine.QC H8TIA1


Occupational Health

2021-4! Avenue N.E.

Mississauga, ON L4Z IPl " Calgary, AB T2E6P2 Te!;(905)890-2555 Tel:(403)291-3077 Fax:(905)890-0370 , Fax:(403)291-9468


Rush Analysis

Tel:(403)465-9877 Fax:(403)466-3332

Toll Free: East (800) 563-6266

V)/est (800) 386-7247


North-American aluminum

sulphate business Eaglebrook, Inc. has bought Alcan Aluminium Limited's North-American

aluminum sulphate business. This was the second acquisition in the last six months for Eaglebrook of an aluminum based inorganic chemicals company. Eaglebrook is committed to becoming the most diversified coagulant supplier to the water treatment industry within North America. "This transaction with Alcan further demonstrates our commitment to


PUdlp'AnaUfilcai H cmtmiMed to-

co-di e^ectiite cmaitfiical deno-ice.

Valerie Geldart, Sales Manager 1-800-263-9040 ext. 275 or valerle_geldart@phllip-serv.com Internet: www.phllipanalytical.com


Creative. Innovative.



▲ Pollution Control Tel: (403) 254-3301

▲ Wastewater Treatment

Fax: (403) 254-3333

▲ Water Treatment



be a leader in coagulation chemistry," said Eaglebrook's President,Bill Wowchuk in Matteson, Illinois.

Eaglebrook is a leader in the North American marketing of iron and alumi num-based chemicals for wastewater,po table water and pulp and paper industiies.

Lightning knocks out pumping station Thunderstorms triggered a record-setting spill in Toronto's west end, dumping 636,000 litres of raw sewage into Lake Ontario over the weekend following Canada Day. E. coil counts soared five fold the next day at nearby Amos Waites beach -which had been posted unsafe for swimming even before the incident. Some 636 cubic metres of sanitary sewage overflowed into a storm sewer and into the lake immediately below the City of Toronto's Mimico pumping station. The 15 1/2 hour incident occurred after


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thunderstorms repeatedly knocked out power to three pumps, "confusing" de vices designed to trip an emergency gen erator into action.


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999

Date Pad

October 5-7,1999. 20 20 Vision,Pathways to the Future, The Recycling Council of

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Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V 1J2 Tel:(905) 678-3388, Fax:(905)678-0444

Summa Enterprises, Place Grilli, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350, KIrkland, QC H9H 5B9 Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587

site: www.instrument.org October 14-15,1999. Canadian Water Law Conference, Vancouver, BC. Contact Tel: (206) 567-4490, or 1-800-854-8009, Fax: (206)567-5058.

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October 17-20, 1999. Western Canada

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October 20-23,1999. Environment Japan '99, in conjunction with New Earth '99-

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October 24-26, 1999. Atlantic Canada Water Works Association Conference, St. John's, Newfoundland. Contact Tom

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November 3-5, 1999. The 9th Annual

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November 22-24,1999. 'Infrastructures in Urban Areas', Montreal, Quebec. Contact the Centre for Expertise and Research on Infrastructures in Urban areas(CERIU),Fax:

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December 4-5, 1999. Northern Territories Water and Waste Association Conference.

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January 31 - February 4, 2000. 86th Annual Meeting of the Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec. Contact: Rob Wood,Tel:(514)3926967, Fax:(514)392-0369.

April 9-12,2000. 'No-Dig 2000', sponsored by The North American Society for Trenchless Technology(NASTT), Anaheim, California. Contact: John Hemphill, Tel: (703) 351-5252,Fax: (703) 351-5261, E-

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Guest Comment

A vogadro, urine and eternal recycling Urine is mostly water with a bunch of other things... on which I don't want to dwell

Iwas reading about people's at itudes towards drink

ing water, and came across the following statement:

"Many people, when interviewed, say that they would not drink reclaimed sewage water". I was glad I was sitting down when I read that, lest I was bowled over by this revelation. However, it started me thinking about the like lihood that most of us are probably drinking reclaimed sew age water every day, whether we like it or not. This led me

to try to prove to myself that we do indeed drink reclaimed

sewage water, and to estimate the amount. First, here's why I think it is likely. One eight ounce

glass of water (based on the US ounce, which is l/16th of a pint), is equivalent to about 240 ml. According to most health authorities, we're supposed to drink eight glasses of water a day. This is corroborated nicely by the value of 1.5 to 2 litres consumed per person per day, the amount used by Health Canada and MOE (sp.) to calculate MACs (Maxi mum Acceptable Concentration) for various parameters in drinking water.

Low Cost, Long Life

As a chemist who works with biologists,Iknow that if we drink that much liquid we will eventually have to get rid

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of it. To find out how much,Imade inquiries to colleagues who have devoted much time to the consumption of liq uids, and the best estimate is that we all urinate about 1.5

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litres a day. However, some of us are smaller than others, and others are just more dainty or bladder challenged, soI settled on a conservative estimate of one litre of urine per person per day. What exactly is urine? It is mostly water with a bunch of

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other things generally referred to as bodily wastes, on whichI don't want to dwell. Avogadro (bom in 1776, the year of the US' Declaration of Independence) detennined that one mole of anything contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms or molecules. Thus, one mole of hydrogen is 1 gram, and one mole of oxygen is 16 grams, so one mole of water is 18 grams, or 18 mL. Also, 18 grams (or mL) of mine, which is mostly water, contains about 6.02 X 1,023 molecules of water, so one litre of urine contains 55 times this amount, or 330 x 1,023 molecules of water. This means that each one of us passes about 330x 1,023 molecules of water, in the form of urine, each day. If we could dilute this one litre of urine in all the water

on the planet, we would be diluting 330 x 1,023 molecules .v,

, /

of water that was once someone's urine in 1.4 billion cubic kilometres of water. This is all the water there is: salt water,


ice, groundwater, atmospheric water, water in plants, oceans, lakes, rivers, and bottled water. This is 1.4 x 1018 (or 1.4 billion billion) litres of water. Once the litre of urine was diluted in all this water, every litre of all the water in the world would contain 236 x 105 molecules of urine, or about 24 million molecules of what was someone's urine.


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Isn't chemistry fun? There are some five billion people on earth, and they all probably urinate about one litre per day. If this was mixed with all the other water, there would be 120 quadrillion molecules of every one's urine in every litre of water.

Finally, while this sounds like a lot, if we convert it to a concentration format,

it is 3.6 parts per billion. There is no Canadian drinking water guideline for urine at present.

By Jim Bishop, BEAK International inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1999




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