Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 1999

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine



June 1999


1, '.Tot*.-,: f"''(Wl


m Environment - a growing priority for Canadian P&P industry Major CSO project to clean up Toronto beaches Y2K and the wastewater treatment industry Treatment of sludge and filter wash-water Water metering solution for Niagara Falls A breakthrough in RGB destruction Evaluating global water resources

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June/July'99 Vol.12 No. 3 Issued June, 1999


Major dewatering and tunnelling project - See page 56

Deadly toxins released on Ontario highway - See page 36






Editorial Comment by Tom Davey


Industry Update


Ladies dominate OWWA/OWMA program


Professional Cards


Water resources are a global concern




BCWWA Conference Report


Product Review


Canada well represented at No Dig '99


Literature Reviews


Cover story - Env. Issues a growing priority for Canadian pulp & paper Industry


Major CSQ system underway In Toronto


Treatment of sludge and filter wash-water


Requirements for stormwater monitoring


A breakthrough In PCB destruction


Deadly toxins released on Ontario highway


Reducing toxic substance emissions


MOE releases Waste Study Report


Water metering solution for Niagara Falls


Sensor catches both low and high flows


Major dewatering and tunnelling project


New methods for neutralizing odours


Hawaiian water reclamation project


Y2K and the wastewater Industry


Sales Manager

Publisher TOM DAVEY



Managing Editor

Sales Representative



Circuiation Manager

Publisher's Assistant



Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Jim Bishop

Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Beak International Inc.

Alan Churcti, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Troughl Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., IW.A.Sc.

Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

CH2M Gore & Storrle Limited

Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Barry Loescher, Pli.D. Philip Analytical

Peter Laughton, IVi.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mali Sales

Second Class Mali

Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750 Printed In Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca. Web site: http://www.esemag.com





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Editorial Comment

Now even our trees are under fire "Cut me down before I kill again"

Trees have long been an

icon of environmental purity, taking in carbon dioxide and exchanging it for life-sustain ing oxygen. But nothing is sacred these days. Our forests might actually be emit ting air pollutants according to an Oregon professor. Dr. Reinold Rasmussen, a 62 year old geologist turned botanist. He embarked on a decades-long study of trees and their emissions and felt that

his suspicions were confirmed after studying the blue hazes which begat the names of Virginia's Blue Ridge Moun tains and Uganda's Blue Valleys. Conventional wisdom held that trees

were not believed to emit significant amounts of hydrocarbons. Indeed, many scientists have long been dismissive of

lakes, forests and the purity of its air. Goldie Hawn,Kurt Russell,Steven Spiel berg, Martin Short and Arnold Schwarzenneger, are among the celebrities who have been drawn to this area to escape the smog of Los Angeles.

While the manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned for

But even in this veritable Eden of

years, they are probably the most ubiq uitous atmospheric chemical on our planet and the main culprit of ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Indeed,

forests and lakes, calibration of the air

some scientists estimate that one CFC

monitoring equipment proved difficult. Terpenes, isoprenes and other chemical emissions from the abundant forests reg

molecule can destroy as many as 100,000 ozone molecules. While a sig nificant minority of scientists remain

istered on the TAGA's sensitive instru

unconvinced about the seriousness of

ments like an atmospheric seismograph. So, perhaps Dr. Rasmussen's work did

global warming, virtually none will dis pute the fact that ozone depletion is ex tremely dangerous to humans, animal life and certain crops. In his quest for Freon-free air. Dr.

not deserve his detractors' scorn.

He is certainly an interesting charac ter. A devotee of Charles Darwin, he

But even in this veritable Eden of forests and

Dr. Rasmussen's claims that some trees

might actually be contributors to the smog problem. Environmental scien tists have always concentrated on indus try and auto emissions as smog sources.

earlier under the trade name Freon.

lakes, calibration of the air monitoring equipment proved difficult.

But I checked around with a few learned

people recently, and found that, yes, trees do give off isoprenes, terpenes and other hydrocarbons. My sources stressed while all plant life imbibes CO,and emits oxygen,trees are unmatched botanical mechanisms

for performing this life-sustaining mira cle. But, it should be noted, even oxy gen is toxic in certain dosages. So much for the childlike mantra environment

friendly. (Surely in physics the ideal should be environment neutral).

One amusing story emerged from discussions on the validity of Dr. Rasmussen's thesis. The Ontario Min

istry of Environment once had a sophis ticated but portable air pollution moni toring vehicle named TAGA (Trace At mospheric Gas Analyzer). They tried to calibrate it at the MOE labs in Rexdale

and in other Toronto-area locations, but

took heart from the fact that his hero had

also inspired disdain and abuse for his findings on evolution. Darwin had been reluctant to publish his findings for many years, probably because he feared the ire of church officials. He acted only after being spurred on by the fact that Wallace, another Englishman, was about to publish his findings on his evo lutionary research in South America. Only then did Darwin publish his Ori gin ofSpecie.s, many years after his his toric voyage on The Beagle. Abuse from many sides was heaped upon Darwin before he rightfully took his place among the greatest scientists of all time. In his experiments with trees. Dr. Rasmussen wrapped certain branches with plastic bags and claimed to capture significant amounts of isoprene and other hydrocarbons- major contributors

the ambient air pollu

to the chemical conditions which cause

tion in the area made

smog. Even when he published his first findings three decades ago, few scien

calibration difficult.

Rasmussen went to heroic lengths to find, then sample,'antique air', such as air which had been trapped in old Japa nese glass floats used by fishermen and so was free from the CFC contamina

tion. Even old wines, where air had been

trapped between the wine and the corks, attracted his attention.

Dr. Rasmussen's work on the smogcreating chemicals from trees has re cently attracted notice in such serious papers as the Wall Street Journal and the Globe & Mail. After literally and figu ratively working in the wilderness for decades, his research is now said to be

impacting on US federal air pollution policies. But air pollution from trees is not exactly a new idea in Washington cir cles. President Reagan, famous for his off-hand comment "if you've seen one redwood, you've seen them all", had once said that trees might emit forms of air pollution. His remark - made many years ago - was dismissed as the rav ings of an industry-driven, anti-environ

The TAGA vehicle was then driven to

tists took notice.

Dorset, a lovely area in Ontario's cottage country,famed for its

sues, he embarked on travels around the

mentalist President.

world. In his quest to curb air pollution he enthusiastically focused on CFCs,the chlorofluorocarbons, which had satu

sponded with a theatre of the absurd, by demonstrating while decked out as trees, each carrying signs which pleaded with

rated the atmosphere ever since they had

the President: Cut me down now -

been introduced some seven decades

before I kill again! â?–

By Tom Davey

Diverted into other air pollution is

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Protesters re


Dear Mr. Davey: RE: Odour and Odour Control article

by Dr. Tahir Khan, published in the May 1999 issue ofES&E. I would like to address several mis

An overview of odour regulations in North America indicates that these regu lations are either nuisance based regu lations, complaint based regulations or ambient odour standard regulations.

represented issues in the above noted

TWAEV standards, on the other hand,


are long term exposure, health based

The author states that "the Ministry of Labour... by setting TWAEV at levels orders of magnitude higher than the odour threshold, is encouraging the public to

standards. I can't see how the TWAEV

and odour threshold levels can be com

work in an environment with levels much

pared in the fashion that the author has proceeded to do. In fact it just proves that our olfactory system detects the

higher than those shown to be injurious

odour at levels much lower than the lev

to health..." The odour threshold value

els associated with adverse health ef

of a compound (unit missing in the ta ble, ppm?)indicates the concentration at which it is detected by the human olfac tory system. By no means does this value represent the concentration at which re

fects. In simple terms, next time you are driving by a farm which has just spread manure, don't hold your breath. It won't kill you! The author offers ten steps for odour control techniques (incidently this ten step method is a classical textbook ex ample of solving ANY problem), with emphasis on determining the composi

lated adverse health effects are observed.

Correction In the article "Odour and odour con

tion of the odour stream. However, ex

trol" on page 48 of our May issue, there is an error in Table 1 - mg/m3 should have appeared under Odour

cept for rare instances in which odours from all sources in a factory are caused by one or two compounds, determining the composition of the odorous emis sions is not helpful and is cost prohibi-

Threshold not M.W.

tive. Often in waste processing facili ties, landfills, sewage treatment plants or manufacturing facilities with several processes, the odorous emissions are what is commonly referred to as a chemical soup with a highly variable composition. Our knowledge of the olfactory in teraction and prediction of the odour properties of a complex mixture is at its infancy. Combined action of many chemicals present even below their de tection threshold may still generate an olfactory perception with an unknown characteristic odour. In other words,one

could spend thousands of dollars and map the chemical composition of the odorous emissions, eliminate one

chemical in the composition and end up with an emission that smells even worse!

More and more experts dealing with odour issues are stepping away from chemical analysis. Last but not least, it is not clear how the author concludes that the increased

number of odour complaints in a study in New Jersey can be related to the in creased health effects. Among several other factors, frequent exposure often creates a sensitized population with de creased annoyance threshold levels and thus more complaints! Nafiseh Pourhassani, P.Eng.

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To paraphrase Samuel Johnson's famous letter to his former patron, Lord Ches terfield, these thanks, had they been more timely, had been perhaps better appreciated (I'm not sure why he was so fond of the pluperfect). I did want to write and thank you and Sandra, however tardily, for featuring our Bayview Glen tunnel-in-tunnel project as the cover story in the May is sue of Environmental Science & Engi neering. The editing and layout flattered

tlp-artjcle. MMM and our client appre Sampling

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I also enjoyed reading your excellent piece on The Invisible Engineers includ ing Dr. Berry's enormous contributions to public health through water treatment projects he directed. Peter Overton, Marshall Macklin Mona^han Limited

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Convention Report

Ladies dominate OWWA/OMWA program Last conference before the millennium

In their last conference before the new millennium, women domi

nated the Ontario Water Works

Association/Ontario Municipal Water Association annual meeting in Ottawa. Margaret Trudeau Kemper cap tivated the audience with her fascinat

ing recounting of her life, before giving a moving account of her late son Michel's impact on her determination to provide safe drinking water in the Third World.

ing much deeper wells. When someone enquired if the pumps used electricity or gasoline engines to draw the well water, she broke

up the audience by energetically leaping off the podium and per forming some quite vigorous comedic miming of the manual pumping systems in Ugandan vil lages. She praised Watercan's efforts to provide safe drinking water in

This is a lady who has traveled the world in luxury, meeting world leaders

Third World countries before

when she was the wife of Canadian

counts of the brutal treatment of

Prime Minister, Pieire Elliot Trudeau,

many village women. Some Judy MacDonald, outgoing 0\NWA Chair, women must cook meals, then enjoys the ever popular Casino Night spon serve their men, often compelled sored by the Ontario Water Works Equipment to approach the table on their Association. ES&E photo. knees As a final humiliation, they are son Michel was swept into a lake by an avalanche late last year while skiing in not allowed to sit at the table with their British Columbia. A mountain climber husbands or sons after cooking and serv ing the meals. Moreover, if the food is herself, she spoke of being with her son not served to the men's satisfaction, the earlier on the stunningly beautiful women servers are often rewarded by a Blackcomb mountain. "Michel," she said, "expansively gestured at the vista swift kick or other violent actions. When a questioner asked about the and said: I'm a Quebecker; why would anyone want to give all this up?" use of birth control measures to control Now, seemingly close to tears, but still populations, she replied sharply that in Uganda, AIDs was a relentless form of controlled, she spoke of her plan to cre ate and dedicate a diinking water well in birth control. She spoke of soldiers rou tinely raping village women,"leaving a Uganda in memory of her son. A more fitting memorial could not be imagined trail of AIDs in their wake". She was not afraid to confront the by this audience whose work had, long awful tragedy in her own life when her ago in Canada, wiped out endemic kill ers such as typhoid and cholera. Some of the papers presented at the

yet repeatedly she has been willing to live under canvas in Ugandan villages in order to build wells in primitive vil lage conditions. This is a most volatile lady who can swiftly change from pa thos to comedy. She spoke movingly of seeing children hideously ravaged by parasites from unsafe drinking water. Quite often,she said,the problems could be remedied simply by drilling deeper wells to prevent contamination of water supplies. Unfortunately, this could not be achieved within their village cultures until Westem technology was brought in. Canadian technical assistance had

proved effective in this regard by drillBy Tom Davey

shocking the audience with her ac

technical sessions, however, left no one

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Convention Report Shortly after Margaret Trudeau Kemper's talk, Maude Barlow gave a brilliant, if dismaying overview of im pending water shortages and problems facing us as we head into the new mil lennium. As Chair of the 65,000 mem ber Council of Canadians,she reviewed

not only existing global freshwater re sources, but also presented an overview of some of the existing and proposed threats to resources around the world,

some in the form of large dams. She cited the Aral Sea basin, shared

by Afghanistan, Iran and five countries of the former Soviet Union, as an ex

ample of severely depleted and polluted natural water resources.

She also

harshly criticized the Three Gorges Dam, now under construction in China

which will displace millions of Chinese when constructed. Constantly and vig orously, she opposed all and any pro posals for Canadians to sell fresh water, be it bottled, shipped, diverted, or sent by pipeline. An abridged version of her Continued overleaf

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Convention Report presentation is contained elsewhere in this issue. While her data gave an illuminat ing and comprehensive picture ofshrink ing and damaged water resources, I will argue the economic rationale of her


paper in a subsequent issue of ES&E. The OWWA/OMWA are to be con

gratulated in bringing two eloquent so cial activists into their often staid annual

meetings. Perhaps this is reflected in the changing composition of OWWA leadership, which, so long a male bas tion, changed radically in recent years. The 1998/1999 Chair was Judy MacDonald, who incidently, took over from Patricia Lachmaniuk. Addressing the an nual dinner on behalf of the Ontario Wa

ter Works Equipment Association was Laurie Lotimer of Lotowater. This speaks volumes of the industiy's willingness to adopt changes. It was appropriate that the last major Ontario water conference in this millennium ended with a surge of activ ism. ES&E plans to publish selected tech nical papers in future issues. OWWA/OMWA 2000 conference

The 2000 joint annual conference will be held in Windsor, Ontario, May 6-10. Contact AWWA at: (416) 252-

'4 Fuller Award winner Howard Shrlmpton (left), Is congratulated by Eric MacDonald, President ofMacVIro, Immediately after the presentation in Ottawa. OWWA 1999 Awards George Warren Fuller Award - Howard Shrimpton, V.P., MacViro; Operator's Meritorious Service Award - Alex

Vukosavljevic, City ofToronto; Norman

Michael J. Provart Environmental

Award - Christian Desjardins, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal. Don Black,retiring OMWA Executive

J. Howard Award - Brian Jobb,Stemson

Director, received tributes for his work.

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Will there be a private drain from public water? An activist speaks out at meeting

Worldwide,the consump tion of fresh water is dou

bling every 20 years more than twice the rate

of the increase in human population. This consumption is placing enormous pressures on aquatic ecosystems. To day, 31 countries are facing water stress and scarcity and over a billion people lack adequate access to clean drinking water. By the year 2025, as much as twothirds of the world's population - predicted to have expanded by an additional 2.6 billion people - will be living in conditions of serious water shortage and onethird will be living in conditions of absolute water scarcity. The UN and the World Bank predict that if we do not change our pat tern of water waste, by 2025 the

near future, water bankruptcy will re sult. In addition to depleting supplies, groundwater mining causes salt water to invade freshwater aquifers, destroy ing them. In some cases, groundwater mining actually permanently reduces the earth's capacity to store water through compaction. In 1998, California's De-

rado River in America are just some of the major rivers that are so dammed, diverted, or overtapped that little or no fresh water reaches its final destination

for significant stretches of time. In fact, the Colorado is so oversubscribed on its

journey through seven US states that there is virtually nothing left to go out to sea.

As well as creating major en vironmental problems, includ ing salinization, overtapping of groundwater and rivers is exac erbating another potential crisis - world food security. Irriga tion for crop production claims 65 percent of all water used by humans; the annual rise in pop ulation means that more water

is needed every year for grain production, a highly water in tensive activity. But the world's burgeoning cities and industries are demanding and taking more

demand for fresh water will rise

by 56 percent more than is cur rently available. Groundwater overpumping and aquifer depletion are now a serious problem in the world's most intensive agricultural ar eas and water is being depleted many times faster than nature can replenish it. In Mexico City, pumping exceeds natural recharge by almost 80 percent every year; at the current rate of extraction, Saudi Arabia will

and more of the water ear

marked for agriculture every year. Eventually, some dry ar eas will not be able to serve both

the needs of farming and those of the ballooning cities. All through Latin America and Asia, massive industrializa

tion is affecting the balance be tween humans and nature in

run out of water in 50 years; current depletion of Africa's nonrecharging aquifers is estimated at 10 billion cubic metres a year; water tables are falling everywhere throughout India; the water table beneath Beijing, the Chi nese capital, has dropped 37 metres over the last four decades; and land beneath

Bangkok has sunk with the massive oveipumping of un derground systems. This means that,

instead of living on water income, we are

irreversibly dimin ishing water capital. At some time in the

By Maude Barlow, The Council of Canadians

partment of Water Resources announced that by 2020, if more supplies are not found, the state will face a shortfall of

water nearly as great as all its towns and cities together use today. Further, the global expansion in min ing and manufacturing is increasing the threat of pollution of these underground water supplies. As developing countries are undergoing rapid industrialization, heavy metals, acids and persistent or ganic pollutants are contaminating the aquifers which provide more than 50 percent of domestic supplies in most Asian countries.

At the same time, overexploitation of the planet's major river systems is threat ening another finite source of water. The Nile in Egypt,the Ganges in South Asia, the Yellow River in China,and the Colo


rural communities. Agribusi ness growing crops for export is claiming more and more of the water once used by family and peas antfarmers for food self-sufficiency, and industry is creeping up the major water systems, drinking them dry as they go. There are over 500 free trade zones op erating in the developing world, claim ing local water sources for the assem bly lines that produce goods for the

Canada's water has been described as 'liquid gold'-but should a renewable resource be hoarded or sold? Photo - Tom Davey

world's consumer elite. Clean water in

the Maquiladora zones of Mexico is so scarce, babies and children drink Coca

Cola and Pepsi instead. During a drought crisis in northern Mexico in 1995,the government cut water supplies to local farmers while ensuring emer gency supplies to the mostly foreigncontrolled industries of the region. The story is perhaps most stark in China where severe grain shortages are Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

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OWWA/OMWA Report expected in the near future because of water depletion and the current shift of limited water resources from agriculture to industry and cities. The resulting de mand for grain in China could exceed the world's available exportable sup plies. While China might be able to sur vive this for a time because of its boom

ing economy and huge trade surpluses, the resulting higher grain prices will cre ate social and political upheaval in most major Third World cities and shake food security of the whole world. Already, as big industrial wells probe the ground ever deeper to tap the remain ing water, millions of Chinese

sphere, we have harnessed and tamed three-quarters of the flow from the world's major rivers to power our cit ies. The world's waterways are also struggling with the full range of mod ern industrial toxic pollution problems. Ninety percent of the developing world's wastewater is still discharged untreated

has been "catastrophic loss of biologi cal diversity" in the Great Lakes of North America, possibly the world's largest freshwater system, according to the Nature Conservancy. (Lake Biakal in Siberia may hold larger volumes of

into local rivers and streams.

All but one of England's 33 major rivers are suffering; some are now less than a third of their original depth. The Thames is threatening to run dry and already larger ships down river are hav ing to restrict their movements to high tides. Development has cut the Rhine River in Europe off from 90 percent of its origi nal flood plains, and over the last 25 years, the Danube's phosphate and nitrate concen

The US, where only two percent of the country's rivers and streams remain free-flowing and undeveloped, has lost over 50 percent of its wetlands and its population of migratory birds and water-

farmers have found their wells

pumped dry. Three hundred Chinese cities are already fac ing severe water shortage. This shortage comes at a

water than the Great Lakes combined -


trations have increased so

badly, the region's fisheries have been all but destroyed.

time when China will see a

population increase in the next 30 years greater than the en tire population of the United

Three-fourths of Poland's riv

States; when conservative es

ers are so contaminated by chemicals, sewage, and agri

timates predict that annual in

cultural runoff that their wa

dustrial water use in China

ter is unfit even for industrial

could grow from 52 billion tons (sic) to 269 billion tons in the same period; and when rising incomes are allowing


millions of Chinese to install

indoor plumbing with show

Eighty percent of China's major rivers are so degraded, they no longer support fish. The number of large dams worldwide has climbed from just xhe building of Egypt's As over 5,000 In 1950 to 38,000 today. wan Dam in 1970 caused the

ers and flush toilets. The World Watch

fowl has been decimated. One billion

Institute predicts that China will be the first country in the world that will have to literally restructure its economy to re spond to water scarcity.

pounds of weed and bug killers are used throughout the United States every year, and much of it runs off into the country's water systems. Nearly 40 percent of US rivers and streams are too dangerous for fishing,swimming or drinking. "We have crashing ecosystems in every river basin in the West," says the Sierra Club.

Around the world, the answer to the increase in water demand is to build more dams and river diversions. Even

the earliest civilizations, from the

Roman to the Mayan, built aqueducts and irrigation schemes. But we are now facing water manipulation on a scale that is totally unsustainable. The number of large dams world wide has climbed from just over 5,000 in 1950 to 38,000 today and the number of waterways altered for navigation has grown from fewer than 9,000 in 1900 to almost 500,000. In the northern hemi-

In Canada, wetland loss includes 65

percent of Atlantic coastal marshes, 70 percent of Southern Ontario wetlands, 71 percent of Prairie wetlands, and 80 percent of the Eraser River Delta in Brit ish Columbia. Most major river systems

number of commercially harvested fish to drop by almost two-thirds. After the Pak Mun Dam was built in Thailand, all

150 fish species that had inhabited the Mun River virtually disappeared. Intro duction of non-native species to Victo ria Lake in Africa has all but destroyed the native species population, already imperilled by the dumping of millions of litres of untreated sewage and indus trial waste from the surrounding coun tries.

flows are diverted out of their basins of

Nearly half of the water and sewage treatment systems in Moscow are inef fective or malfunctioning and, accord ing to the Russian Security Council, 75 percent of the Republic's lake and river

origin than in any other country in the world by a considerable margin. There

basin, shared by Afghanistan, Iran, and

have been dammed and more stream

water is unsafe to drink. The Aral Sea five countries of the former Soviet Un

The Aral Sea basin, shared by Afghanistan, Iran, and five countries of the former Soviet Union, was once the world's

fourth largest lake. Excessive river diversions have caused it to lose half its area and three fourths of its volume, while

its surrounding wetlands have shrunk by 85 percent. 16

ion, was once the world's fourth largest lake. Excessive river diversions have caused it to lose half its area and three

fourths of its volume, while its surround

ing wetlands have shrunk by 85 percent. The Aral Sea is one of the planet's great est environmental tragedies; almost all fish and waterfowl species have been Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering. June 1999

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OWWA/OMWA Report decimated and the fisheries have col

lapsed entirely. Millions of "ecological refugees" have fled the area. There is simply no way to overstate the water crisis of the planet today. The World Bank predicts that the wars of the next century will be over water. No piecemeal solution is going to prevent the collapse of whole societies and eco systems. A radical rethinking of our values, priorities and political systems is urgent and still possible. Yet there are forces at work in the world today that, unless challenged, would move the world almost inexorably into a water scarce future.

A striking feature of economic glo balization is the creation of dramatic

inequality; an entrenched underclass is being created between regions and within every society in the world. This deep inequality is dramatically affect ing access of the world's poor to water, the most basic of life's rights. The United Nations says that fully threequarters of the population living under conditions of water stress - amounting to 26 percent of the total world popula tion - are located in developing coun tries. By 2025, low-income countries

Europeans spend $2 billion more on ice cream every year than the estimated total money needed to provide clean water and safe sewage systems

for the world's population. experiencing water stress will amount to 47 percent of the total world population. The differences in quality of life for the people involved on both sides of the water gap are striking. Europeans spend $2 billion more on ice cream every year than the estimated total money needed to provide clean water and safe sewage systems for the world's population. More than five million people, most of them children, die every year from illnesses caused by drinking poor quality water. The global trade in water The water privateers have now set their sights on the mass export of bulk water, by diversion and by supertanker. Turkey's Water Company is construct ing a pipeline that would divert water to the Mediterranean Sea where it would

be sold to Cyprus, Malta, Libya, Israel,

Greece and Egypt. The Nordic Water Company supplies water from Norway to continental Europe by sea in huge floating plastic bags. To deal with droughts in southern European coun tries, the European Commission is look ing into the possibility of tapping into the sources of water-rich countries like

Austria. If its plans to establish a Euro pean Water Network are realized, then Alpine water could be flowing into Spain or Greece rather than Vienna's reservoirs within a decade.

To address England's growing water crisis, some political and corporate lead ers are calling for large-scale exports of water from Scotland, by tanker and pipe line. Already, several English compa nies are exploring the possibility of wa ter exports and Scotland's water author-

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

OWWA/OMWA Report ity has recently sounded out a plan to sell surplus water to Spain, Morocco and the Middle East. In Australia, United

Water International has been given the contract to run the water system of Ad elaide and to develop a 15-year plan to export South Australia's water for com puter software production and irrigation. But nowhere are corporations lining up to trade in water as they are in North America. Several are directly involved with plans to divert massive amounts of Canadian water to water-scarce areas of

Their work proves beyond all doubt that water is not'wasted' by running into the sea. It suggests that the cumulative ef fects of removing water from lakes, riv ers and streams for export by tanker could have large-scale impacts on the coastal and marine environment.

Says respected Canadian water ex pert, Richard Bocking, "We strike a Faustian bargain when moving largescale amounts of water. For power gen eration or irrigation today, we exchange much of the life of a river, its valley and

biological systems, and the way of life of people who are in the way. As the cost of the last 50 years of dam building becomes evident, we can no longer plead that we don't know the conse quences of treating rivers and lakes as plumbing systems." Excerptedfrom an address, given to the Annual Conference of the Ontario Water Works Association/Ontario

Municipal Water Association in Ottawa, May 17. 1999. ES&E will debate the sale of water in subsequent issues.

the United States, Asia and the Middle

Bast by tanker, pipeline, or rerouting of natural river systems. One of the largest proposed diversion projects back on the table for discussion is the Grand Canal - the Great Recy cling and Northern Development Canal which calls for the building of a dike across James Bay at the mouth of Hud son Bay(both of which now flow North) to create a giant freshwater reservoir out ofJames Bay and the twenty rivers flow ing into it. A massive series of dikes, canals, dams, power plants and locks


would divert this water down a canal to

Georgian Bay, where it would be flushed through the Great Lakes and taken to the US sunbelt.

There are now many scientific stud ies that show that large-scale water re moval affects not just the immediate systems, but ecosystems far beyond.

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The Region of Ottawa-Carleton used a very creative PR device when they

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BCWWA Report

Safety competition attracts media coverage 600 delegates attend Vernon meeting

The 1999 British Columbia Water & Waste Asso

ciation Conference in Vernon attracted some 600

delegates as well as 120 attendees to the Technol ogy Transfer meeting held in conjunction with the conference. There were 115 tradeshow booths.

The Safety Competition was the best ever with six teams competing; Coquitlam emerged as the winner. Incoming President, Bob Jones, noted in his report that the event was reported in local newspapers as well as media in the tri-cities area of the lower mainland. He said this coverage not only gave the competitors much needed recognition, it helped raise the profile of the association in the communities. After paying tribute to outgoing President Neal Carley, he Standing (left to right): Phil Wong, WEF Trustee;Inder Singh, Treasurer; Murray McLeod, MSG Director; Doug Neden, AWWA Director; Frank Belfry, WEF Director; and Rick


Corbett, Vice President.

Sitting (left to right): Kevin Ramsay, President-Elect; Bob Jones, President; and Neal Carley, Past-President.


said the BCWWA had launched two major initiatives: the de velopment of a training package for small water system op erators, and the coordination and delivery of BC's water con servation strategy. He also noted the UBC operator school had been scheduled for the week of May 17-21,2000. Awards

Dennis Mitchell (left) receiving the A\N\NA George Fuller Award fromAWWA President Elect, Stephen Garden.

AWWA George Fuller Award BCWWA Victor M. Terry Award BCWWA Stanley S. Copp Award

Dennis Mitchell David Sivyer Peter Turgoose

Canada weil represented at No Dig'99 To upgrade Canada's sewers could cost $45 billion

Canada'strenchles technology

industry was well represented at No Dig '99 in Orlando, with representatives from the Uni versity of Waterloo and the University ofWestem Ontario both accepting 1998 Paper of the Fear Awards. During the opening session, delegates were told that trenchless technology is not a new concept. Brunei's shield tunneling machine in the mid 1800s and pipe jacking in the late 1800s were cited as early examples of TT application. NASST chair,Trent Ralston lamented

that surveys show that TT is not univer sally held in high regard. He believes that bad experiences with some trenchless remediation projects may have soured the

Report by Steve Davey, President, ES&E


perception of some potential customers. To ameliorate this, Mr. Ralston called for

better training of crews and further edu cation of contractors, designers and own ers. As well, he stressed the need to in

crease efforts at public education. Underground pipe maintenance is a huge expense, according to Bob Woodhouse, of CH2M Hill, with a 250 ft.

length costing on average $50,000.00 over 50 years. Sunil Sinha, of the Uni versity of Waterloo, estimated that the total cost to simply upgrade Canada's sewers is a staggering $45 billion. Pipelines have a fairly defined lifespan, delegates were told. At 25 years, spot repairs will be required. (Accord ing to one speaker, surveys show that after only 30 years, a mere 15% of pipes remain intact). At 50 years, relining is needed. At 125 years, the pipeline will need to be replaced. The average age of

America's pipe infrastructure is 42 years. As well as case history reviews,tech nical sessions introduced delegates to such high tech applications as digitally enhanced imaging. For example, until now, reports on internal pipe conditions have relied on operators often spending months re viewing video footage. Quite often, poor lighting or obstructions made it hard to determine whether the operator was seeing actual cracks or other dam age. In short, by relying on only visual interpretation, too many false alarms are raised. To speed up and make the proc ess more effective, researchers are devel

oping software which will digitally analyze the video images taken and show only real cracks and other damage. No Dig 2000 will be held April 9 12, in Anaheim, California. Call (703) 351-5252 for details.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999





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Cover Story

Environmental Issues - a growing priority In Canadian pulp and paper Industry

ThePulp and Paper industry in

Canada is very big business. With over 130 mills across the

nation,from the isolated com

munity of Taylor in northern British Columbia to the village of Liverpool on the eastern shores of Nova Scotia, the

Canadian forest industry remains the largest employer in rural areas of the country. Current statistics suggest that some 320 Canadian towns are largely dependent upon the forest industry (Stats Canada,1997), and Canada produces fully one half and one third, respectively, of the world's newsprint and market pulp. But while the direct and spin-off eco


nomic benefits are vital to the commu

nities and suiTounding areas in which mills are found, these benefits have not come without environmental cost. For

example, decades of virtually untreated effluent discharge into rivers and lakes, extensive log-booming activities, and landfilling of wood wastes created both aesthetic impairment and significant aquatic losses. During the 1960s and 1970s,the rec ognition that changes were required was plainly evident but political reluctance to impose environmental constraints on a key employer made strict enforcement of even the (by comparison) relatively lax regulations of the day less than a main priority. The visions of ugly, float ing mats of dissolved wood fibre, tow ers of foam,and decaying bark deposits on stream and lake beds were not helped by a forest industry that seemed unre sponsive to increasing calls for environ mental change. But significant attention to environ mental issues has occurred in the last 20

years and real, substantive changes are taking place in the health of aquatic communities around mill sites. And

these large steps will continue to occur during the coming years. In this article, we briefly highlight some of the mile stone environmental changes that have taken place in the forest industry and the types of environmental monitoring pro grams that are becoming commonplace

By Rick Hubbard B.Sc., Beak International Incorporated 22

Upcoming air quaiity reguiations will focus on limiting fine particulate matter.

in the industry. In subsequent articles, we will profile specific pieces of legis lation or environmental initiatives that

should have positive influence on envi ronmental protection. Overview of impacts from the forest industry Environmental effects from forest

activities can occur at two locations;

firstly, in the vast tracts of timber hold ings where the trees are harvested, and secondly, at the mill where the process ing takes place. In terms of the wood

secondary priority relative to effluent discharge. So let's briefly review the milestone improvements which have occurred in the forest industry and highlight some emerging issues and trends, a) Effluent treatment Ask the average person to conjure up a picture of a pulp and paper mill and it might well include some of the images described earlier in this article: foam

the removal of large blocks of timber and creation of logging roads, causing wildlife displacement and disturbance,

ing, discoloured effluent, wood chips, and a receiving environment supporting little aquatic life. The fact is that water use is a key requirement of pulp and paper mills and virtually all mills share the common factor that they are found

erosion and siltation of streams and riv

on the shores of rivers, lakes, estuaries

ers, and loss of aesthetic enjoyment for tourists and others confronted by exten

or oceans. Although water conservation measures are being implemented at most

lands, the most obvious effects relate to

mills, water use will continue to be an

sive areas of clear cuts.

At the mill, the effects of untreated

effluent discharge to local waterbodies created several problems: high levels of BOD. (biochemical oxygen demand) lowered dissolved oxygen to critical lev els over large areas; high suspended sol ids loads blanketed stream and lake bot toms and the communities of benthic in

vertebrates were severely impaired. As well, the use of toxic compounds such as dioxins became a major (largely po litical) concern. Pulp and paper mills also create another discharge - air emis sions, which have generally ranked as a

important part of pulp and paper pro duction.

Several advancements have taken

place in terms of effluent treatment. Perhaps the most significant change oc curred in the early 1990s with the fed eral requirement that all mills apply sec ondary treatiuent prior to effluent dis charge. While some mills in Canada had moved forward to secondary treatment in the 1980s, the broad federal regula tion meant that, as of January 1995, all Canadian mills had built activated

sludge basins (ASBs) to provide ex-

Eiivironineiual Science & Engineering, June 1999

Pulp and Paper industry tended treatment of effluent.

Most ASBs include several basic

components including primary clarifiers, secondary clarifiers to encourage biological activity and baffles for foam control. Almost to a mill, secondary treatment has dramatically improved effluent quality by reducing levels of total suspended solids(TSS), biochemi cal oxygen demand (BOD),and colour. Another important change has been the progression of the industry to a Total Chlorine Free (TCP) or Elemen

tal Chlorine Free(ECF)bleaching proc ess. The significant reductions in chlo rine use, which began in the 1980s, are generally having positive results in re ducing dioxin levels in fish. At most mills, dioxin levels in downstream fish are at "non-detectable" amounts, and

when found, are within guidelines es tablished by Health Canada. Monitoring requirements and new trends

At the same time as the requirement for secondaiy treatment was established. Environment Canada, in concert with

the forest products industry, created the Environmental Effects Monitoring pro gram(EEM). The EEM program is prin

cipally a description of the biological quality of the mill's receiving environ ment. The objective of the program is to assess the adequacy of effluent regu lations for protecting fish, fish habitat,

controlled for many years at Canadian mills. Today, fine particles which are less than or equal to 2.5 microns in size (termed PM2.5 - i.e., paniculate matter

and the beneficial uses of fisheries re

ject of new regulations in the US and Canada, which may ultimately lead to additional air emission control require ments for the industry. Two standards are being considered:

sources in the receiving environment. Under this program, all Canadian mills are to monitor both the receiving environment and a background refer ence area every three years; we are now in the middle of Cycle 2 of the program (field work was undertaken either in 1998 or will be done in 1999), with re

ports to be submitted to the government by April 1st, 2000. The program also includes effluent toxicity testing (both acute and sublethal)on fish and daphnia. b)Air emissions In the past 20 years, the industry has significantly reduced its air emissions of greenhouse gases (CO,) total reduced sulphur compounds (TRS), particulates and others. This has been mainly due to improvements in equipment design (i.e., boilers), the increased use of wood waste and biosolids as fuel, and the installation

of pollution control equipment. Particulates

Emissions of particulates have been

of size 2.5) in ambient air are the sub

1) A reference level above which there are demonstrated effects on human

health and/or the environment; and

2)An air quality objective which repre sents the air quality management goal for the protection of the general public and the environment in Canada.

The timing for these changes is not clear but what is evident is that the ad

ditional control of particulates could rep resent a significant and costly engineer ing effort for mills. The phase-in pe riod would likely be over years (for ex ample, in the case of secondary effluent treatment, Environment Canada allowed

a three-year compliance period). It is also not clear whether the new air emis

sion controls will be identical from mill-

to-mill, or whether site-specific limits Continued overleaf

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Pulp and Paper Industry

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might be imposed to address local con

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Greenhouse gases

At the Kyoto Conference held in December 1997, Canada agreed to re duce greenhouse gas emissions by 6% relative to 1990 levels by the first budget

period (2008-2012). The use of cogeneration at a growing number of mills is a positive step to reducing reli ance upon fossil fuels, and savings in CO, emissions should continue to in crease. As a general statement, the greenhouse gas issue should not repre sent an onerous task for the forest in

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c) Woodlands management The management of the hundreds of millions of square kilometres of forest across Canada is another key area of change. There is currently a strong move to utilize an Ecosystem Approach to planning in these areas. A relatively new term "Sustainable Forest Manage ment"(SFM)is being used to describe the approach taken by many forest cor

porations to plan their harvesting and reforestation activities. A large number of forest companies throughout Canada are either considering, or are actively undertaking ISO 14001 certification on their woodland holdings. This progression towards sustainable forest management will result in com prehensive, long-term strategies for not only ensuring constant timber supply,

but also protection of fish and wildlife resources in harvesting areas. On this note, it is interesting that changes to the federal Migratory Birds Convention Act may have implications on the harvest ing schedules in Canada. This Act, which is intended to pro tect most bird species and their nests, stipulates that individuals ai'e prohibited from destroying or disturbing birds with out a permit. Permits are normally is sued for:

a) hunting of migratory game birds (waterfowl); b) scientific studies; and/or c) nuisance birds. In 1997, Environment Canada Contact:

Dagex Inc. 4141 Yonge Street, Suite 307 North York, Ontario, M2P 2A8

Tel:(416)250-7111, 1-800-665-7136 Fax:(416) 250-8111 E-mail: dagex@istar.ca For more information,

circle reply card No. 116

(Ontario Region) for the first time re quired timing restrictions for pipeline construction - construction activities

were not peimitted between May 1 st and July 31 St. In 1998, we saw Environment Canada invoke similar restrictions on

pipeline construction in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. While Environment

soon face similar restrictions.

Things to look for in the coming years On the effluent treatment side, it is

likely that, since the advent of second ary treatment, the industry will be in a monitoring mode for the next several years to assess and evaluate the changes in the receiving environments. The en vironmental effects monitoring program will be the main vehicle for doing this. The "next thing" on the water side would be moving to tertiary treatment and/or

other process changes but these would represent fairly significant investment. In the case of tertiary treatment, the main improvements would occur with nutrients such as phosphorus and, while site-specific situations may benefitfrom such reductions, a close examination of

cost-benefit of implementing tertiary treatment across the nation would cer

tainly be warranted.

It is likely that, since the advent of secondary treatment, the industry will be in a monitoring mode for the next several years... The regulations concerning air emis sions, and specifically the regulations governing particulates, will the "next big thing" for the industry across Canada. Though the timelines for compliance and the specific limits have not been established,the PM 2.5 and PMIO regu lations (intended to limit release of fine particulate matter), will represent for air quality what secondary treatment did for effluent quality. Mills are now gearing up for these regulations, beginning with updated air emission inventories. On the woodlands management side, it is likely that the next five years or so will see continued progress on the con cepts of sustainable forest management, with special attention on developing optimal harvesting patterns to reduce the effects of forest fragmentation in the boreal mixed wood forest, reducing both the direct and indirect effects of logging roads, and on the large issue of incorpo rating meaningful participation of Abo riginal peoples in the industry. For more information, circle reply card No. 117

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Ad Index



Reader Service No.



Reader Service No. 189

ABS Pumps



KMK Gonsultants





KSB Pumps









57 17 58 59


A.O. Smith






Armour Valve


. 165

BNA Bonflglioli


, 262

Makloc Buildings Marsh McBlrney McTlghe MSU MIsslssauga



, 147





, 105

Neo Valves




. 150-155

Cancoppas GH2M Gore & Storrie


, 146

Nortech GSI

Golgate-Palmolive Dagex

18. 24.

. 112


, 116



Davis Gontrols





Ill 148 167






, 164




, 174




, 133





, 136

10 6




, 157

Seepex Stormceptor

Ecodyne Ford Hall Gompany

40. 29.

, 134



. 237-240

, 120






, 175

Twin Bridges


Fryston Gorman-Rupp

56. 21.

, 126




, 114

UV Systems Technology





. 171




Harold Marcus Ltd


, 149

Waterloo Barrier






. 145




ITT Flygt Japan External Trade

3. 33.

. 102




. 125





. 177

Zenon Env.

KMK Gonsultants


. 141



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/ want to receive (continue to receive) Environmentai Science & Engineering magazine.

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237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253

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271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304


305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321

June 1999

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338


Special ES&E Report

Major CSO project to clean up Toronto beaches Concept of Storing sewage flows proven in other cities

Environmentaldejavu? Almost

the Windy City's famed Tunnel And

two decades ago Toronto

Reservoir Plan. TARP has 160 km of

beaches were closed to swim

deep underground tunnels and three

mers as temperatures soared in the nineties. I responded with an article for The Toronto Sun at the request of editor Barbara Amiel, now the wife of Conrad Black. I wrote: "The

massive reservoirs, which can contain

as much as 40 billion gallons without having to discharge into a river or lake. Chicago's beaches, needless to say, re mained open July 4,

Sewer Overflow (CSO) system which should help clean up Toronto's beaches is well underway. The concept of storing sewage flows for subsequent treatment is well proven and has been utilized by many other cit ies in Europe and North America. Ear lier, storage facilities (detention tanks)

hottest summer in 30 years had

which were constructed in

resulted in ideal conditions for


1989 and 1994 at Toronto's

bacterial growth along the vari ous shorelines, where pockets of stagnant water have accumu


Eastern Beaches, did result

children of Hare *1^ Krishna


New contest today!

The more things change the more they stay the same. As of July 4, ten of Toronto's 19 beaches were closed at some

time. The worst hit, those closest to the Humber River in

the City's West End and High land Creek in the City's East End, had been closed since

June 11, up to 70% of the time.

In response, The Toronto Sun has produced a masterly review of the beach pollution which has closed the major ity of the City's beaches. This comprehensive cover age must have surprised those who think The Sun is

in reasonable improvements in water quality.


win cash and

The under-construction

system runs along the Toronto lakefront from Parkside east to Strachan

Avenue. The entire system will ultimately have an over all capacity of 85,000 cubic metres for storage which al


lows for the retention of stormwater and combined

sewer overflows up to the twoyear storm level. Hydraulically, the system will be able to handle flows up to a fiveyear storm event but the in creased flow would be released to the lake at three locations

■ What Ifamiltoii and

instead of the original ten. These discharges will be at the location of the large shafts, two

Chicago did: Pages 4-S ■ VVhat wciil wrong and lheS2 5ii fix: Pages 25-30 ■ 11 s liino to clean up uui

act; Editorial, Comment not a serious paper. Unlike much newspaper coverage of environmental issues. The Sun's July 4 spread contained some serious tech when America celebrated its national nical data on E. coll, a refreshing change holiday, while many Torontonians had from sensational headlines, which often to celebrate their Canada Day three days earlier on signposted beaches. lack scientific substance. Sun writers included a review of Chicago's environ But the Mega City technical staff mental progress, which described TARP, have not been idle. A huae Combined

of which are east of the beach

area. The smaller existing sew ers are directed to discharge into the tunnel through a series of drop shafts at each intercept location. Existing outfalls at these locations will normally be closed off. They can be re-opened and flows isolated from the tunnel if

maintenance of the tunnel is required.

The project at a glance This CSO storage tunnel was approved in 1992 and is on target to reduce clo sures of West End beaches by 75% by the year 2001. The massive project involves an in frastructure system to intercept some 2.9 million cubic metres of sewage a year

constructed to direct water from exist

ing sewer systems into a storage tunnel 4.0 kilometres long, and drilled three metres in diameter in shale rock about

nel for at least 10 hours to allow solids

50 metres below ground. Three combination storage/intercep

to settle before being pumped through the UV facility before discharge into

tion shafts, some 30 metres in diameter,

Lake Ontario.

from 10 storm and combined sewer out

are being constructed at Battery Park,

lets running from High Park to Exhibi

Cowan Avenue and Glendale Avenue.

tion Place.

An ultraviolet disinfection facility is designed to eliminate bacteria contami

Seven interception shafts are being 26

nation. The tunnel system will have a storage capacity of85,000 cubic metres. Sewage will be detained in the tun

The tunnel will be flushed and the

water pumped into the main sewage treatment plant at Ashbridges Bay for full treatment.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Special ES&E Report Pumping Systems All flows which enter the system will be collected within the tunnel and large shafts up to the two-year storm as noted previously. Following storm events, the quiescence within the system will allow sediments to settle, separating sus pended solids from clearer liquid. Then, following a period of approximately 810 hours, pumping from the system will

Interceptor Sewer ..

Queen St. W.

start. Legend # Drop Shaft

As the solids are expected to collect at the lower extremities of the Strachan

Storage Shaft

shaft, these will be pumped first through

□ Storage Shaft and Pump Station Existing Outfall Sewer Inteicepted

a forcemain which follows a box cul

Flow Direction

vert from Strachan and Lakeshore to

Strachan and King Street. At this loca tion, the forcemain will discharge into the mid-Toronto interceptor (MTI) sewer from where gravity flow exists to the Main Treatment Plant (MTP) at Ashbridges Bay. Because of limitations on the capacity of the MTP influent works, the rate of flow for discharge to the plant will be restricted to 3001/s. The underground pumping station will use two submersible 250 hp pumps supplied

By Tom Davey, Publisher


Lake Ontano



by KSB Pumps. The variable speed pumps are controlled to maintain spe cific flows.

As pumping continues, online sen sors (turbidity and suspended-solids meters) on the pump discharge piping will determine that clearer water is

being pumped and this will initiate a

change in the pump discharge location. Clearer liquid can be discharged back to Lake Ontario as long as it meets spe cific criteria and as long as it is disin fected during the summer bathing period from May to September. To provide disinfection, the pumpConlinued overleaf

KSB Submersible Pumps and Mixers Quality Engineered Machines. Reiiable, Low Maintenance • Sewage and Wastewater transportation and purification • Irrigation and Drainage stations

•Water supply and cooling water pumping stations • Flood control and Storm water handling

Special Material and Construction for highly abrasive and corrosive media



KSB Pumps Inc.

65 Queen Street West, suite 405 Toronto ON

Canada M5H 2M5

Tel.: (416) 868- 9049 • Fax: (416) 868-9406 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

For more information, circle reply card No. 118 (See page 25)


Special ES&E Report ing station has a UV disinfection cham ber. The proposed supplier of the sys tem is UltraGuard from British Colum

bia. During non-bathing periods,treated discharges can go to the lake without disinfection. During periods oflake dis charge, the maximum flow rate will be increased to 500 1/s.

Complexities of the design of the pumping system relate to the substan tial range in possible heads which each pump will see during the emptying proc ess. Assuming that the system is full,

the pumps will initially start and dis charge through the forcemain to the MTI. Total system head at this time will be less than 10 metres, made up of ap proximately 5 metres of static lift and 5 metres of friction head. If the system is full, and discharge is made to the lake, total head drops to less than 5 metres and, even at minimum speeds, there would be concern over pump run-out. As the Certificate of Approval(C of A) is very stringent on maximum dis charge rates to either the lake or the MTI,


Advancements in UV lamp and System Design mean significant benefits for the user: More Efficient High-Intensity UV Lamp • Peipetiial plasma ready state means instant response to 'flow surge' events. • Power use reduced by 85% compared to High-Intensity Med-Pressure Lamps. • Infinitely variable UV Lamp and Power Controller.

• More germicidal UV output per kW. • Fewer UV lamps needed.

Patented reactor chamber surrounds each lamp • Delivers the more intense UV light more effectively by bringing

the control offlow with head using vari

able speed is the predominant control requirement. Even with one pump run ning, there is difficulty in controlling the discharge to the MTI,although it is now estimated that one pump can be re stricted to an output of 240 1/s as com pared to the maximum of 300 1/s. As levels drop in the shaft, which re flects diminishing levels in the three large shafts, the first duty pump speed will be regulated so that the discharge does not exceed 300 1/s. By the time the system has dropped 10 metres and assuming that discharge is still to the MTI, the second pump can start. Lim ited information suggests that, by the time the level is lowered even a small

amount,the liquid will clarify to a point where lake discharge is possible. As discharge valves close to the forcemain and open for lake discharge in response to turbidity measurement on the discharge, the control system will

adjust the rate of flow and pump speed. It is now expected that the shaft system will be drained substantially in the lake discharge mode until the levels get down to close to the tunnel level, at which

point, solids may migrate along the tun nel requiring changes back and forth be tween the two discharge points. As the system is emptied, assuming solids are being pumped to the MTI,the maximum head on the pumps will have increased to 65 metres, of which close to 50 metres are within the shafts as

static lift. Again at the bottom, it may

the contaminants to the UV source.

• Reactor induced turbulence ensures more partiele surface area exposure to germicidal UV. • Reactor Chamber delivers higher quality disinfection (even in murky fluids with higher solids loading) System Features. • Patented Flow Balanced Weir/Lower Hydraulic Headloss/ Even Velocity Profile throughout channel. • Automated Dose Pacing to suit varying flow/waste characteristics.

By The Numbers Toronto's system of managing wastewater involves some mind-boggling statistics:

•475 billion litres treated annually •9.5 billion litres stormwater untreated

•4.5 billion litres partially treated •4 treatment plants •45 pumping stations •5 detention tunnels/tanks

• Automated cleaning/

•36 stormwater ponds •463,300 service connections • 120,000 maintenance fioles •4,143 km sanitary sewer lines •4,533 km storm sewer lines

Less maintenance. • Environment/

operator friendly. • Smaller footprint.

• 1,301 km combined sewers • 2,632 storm sewer outfalls •79 combined sewer outfalls • 371 km watercourses

UV Systems Technology Inc.

2800 Ingleton Avenue, Burnaby, B.C., Canada V5C 6C7 Tel:(604)451-1069, Fax:(604)451-1072

Web Site: http://www.ultraguard.com • E-mail: info@ultraguard.com


For more information, circie reply card No. 119 (See page 25)

•$151 million 1999 operating costs •$182 million 1999 capital costs • 1,071 full-time employees Source: Toronto Sun

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Special ES&E Report not be possible to sustain the maximum rate of flow. Treatment System Effluent discharges during the bathing season will be disinfected with ultraviolet light. With regard to the design parameters of the UV, considerable discussion occurred. Limited sampling revealed that existing outfalls had limited solids levels and there was not a substantial

amount of organic matter included in the waste. Even af ter 15 days, a sample had not gone septic. Sampling also showed that the solids settled quickly and the resultant transmissivity of UV light through the liquid was relatively high, i.e., between 30 and 50. To be conservative,the UV system was selected to meet a maximum TSS level of 50 mgl while providing for an effluent E. coli level of <1000/100 ml. The design is based on transmissivity levels of 30 but the selected system will allow for reduced UV intensity when transmission oflight is determined by sensors to be better than 30. Until 1998, the Mega City was called Metropolitan Toronto and comprised six cities and boroughs. There were many predictions that amalgamation would be disastrous but Mel Eastman,it is generally conceded,has done a great job as the first Mega City Mayor. Technical engineering staff, too, have generally adapted well to the complex chal lenges posed by amalgamation such as the huge CSO project. ❖

Revolutionary Brush System Prevents Algae Build-Up in Clarifiers Called Algae Sweep

makes it durable and

Automation (ASA), this patented system of

system is backed by a five-

spring-loaded brushes is in

year warranty on parts,

continual use at WWTPs

except for brushes, and a one-year warranty on labor.

throughout the nation. Developed and manufac tured by the Ford Hall Company, the ASA system

Environmental Business

Opportunities Conference Toronto, September 9, 1999 Meet "one on one" with Mayors, Deputy Mayors and Environment Department Heads from 13 Chinese cities with opportunities in 20 specific environmental projects involving:

attaches to the skimmer arms of circular clarifiers.

fiers, but many engineers

Its brushes provide over 50 points of flexibility and adjustment to ensure thorough cleaning of even the most irregular of tank surfaces. When engaged— minutes to engage the system—ASA totally elim

Dust and SO^ emission control

Solid waste treatment

costs by removing normal algae build-up from all

Wastewater treatment

effluent surfaces.

For detailed information or to identify your Chinese counterpart, please contact: Twin Bridges Inc. Tel:(416) 369-9125

have found that it is more efficient and cost-effective

to design them into new or expansion projects. Free Video Demo

it takes less than two

Atmospheric monitoring

Pre-registered trade attendance only.

Customer satisfaction is

guaranteed 100 percent. ASA systems can be installed on existing clari

Opportunity to choose your meeting partner among the key decision makers prior to the conference. Conference is co-sponsored by the Chinese Mayors'Association. Presentation on government loans and support will be featured at lunch time.

maintenance free. And each

inates labor and chemical

To receive a free demon stration video of the

ASA system and a list of references, please give us a call at 1 800 928-2070.

Consequently, the average ASA system pays for itself in less than two

years while optimizing clarifier performance and making WWTPs safer places to work. Each ASA system is custom designed for its installation and constructed

of stainless steel, which

Ford Hall Company, Inc. http;//www.fordhall.com P.O. Box 54312

Lexington, Kentucky 40555 1 800 928-2070

E-mail: tbi@idirect.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

For more information, circle reply card No. 120 (See page 25)

Drinking Water Quality

Treatment of sludge and filter wash-water Removing the threat of recycling cysts

Surface water often contains pathogenic bacteria that

may be harmful to human health. In North America, more and more microorganisms are being found Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium,for example. We still remember widespread contaminations such as the one that

Figure 2

occurred in Milwaukee in 1993 when 400,000 cases of infec

tion were reported. More recently, there have been cases re ported in Sydney, Australia. Surface water, therefore, requires multi-stage treatment starting with coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation,fol lowed by filtration using dual- or even multi-media filters, and finally disinfection, in order to satisfy officially-control

Legend: 1. Raw water; 2. Reactor; 3. Modules; 4. Troughs; 5. Treated water; 6. Scraper; 7. Sludge recycling; 8. Sludge extraction

led health standards.

Today, the target standards require a reduction of at least four log(99.99%)in the treatment of surface water before it is distributed into the drinking water system of urban communi ties, but these targets may be revised upwards. However,even ifthe multi-stage treatment ofsurface water produces adequate drinking water,a major problem still remains-the final desti nation of the sludge and thefilter wash-water. In large and medium-sized urban centres, conventional treatment of the sludge by thickening (if the water is too di luted) and dewatering reduces its volume prior to discharge. Filter wash-water, however,can no longer be sent to the head end without treatment because of the danger of recycling the cysts trapped in the filters and concentrated in the washwater.

So water must be collected in an intermediate tank which

must be equipped with a clarifier to separate the recirculated "clarified water", possibly after being disinfected, from the bottom sludge which is sent to the thickener. This solution requires the construction and management of large, complex tanks. (Figure 1)

ener and the sludge is more concentrated. (Figure 2) In addi tion, the tank used to store the filter wash-water can be re

duced to the size needed for storage purposes and does not require a special shape. This solution has been chosen by various water treatment companies in the UK. The Purton Water Treatment Works in

Bristol treats 173,000 mVday(45 MOD)and is comprised of a pre-ozonation step,followed by coagulation-sedimentation, sand filtration, post-ozonation, filtration through activated charcoal and post-chlorination. Wash-water from the sand and activated charcoal filters is

collected in three storage/agitator tanks with a capacity of875

m^ and later shows an average concentration of less than I gr/ L of suspended matter. It is then pumped by three pumps,each with a capacity of 110 m%our (two in operation plus one on standby), into a Densadeg with a lamellar surface of 15 m^. When it exits the Densadeg, the thickened sludge has a weight concentration of4-6% and the clarified water contains less than 10 mg/L of suspended matter (turbidity <5 NTU). This water is then retumed to the plant head-end to minimize the amount dischaiged into the receiving water. (Figure 3).

Figure 1 - tank with a surface intake device

Figure 3


--J- . Supernatant Wash-water





Depending on the type of sludge leaving the clarifier, it can be sent either to a storage tank (i.e. sludge from a flotation unit or a Densadeg)or to a wash-water collecting tank where it is mixed with the wash-water and sent to a Densadeg thick ener. This last solution has the added advantage of reducing the size of the tank that stores the sludge prior to dewatering, because the sludge exiting the Densadeg can reach 4-6% con



I H)

1 ; —Turbidity(NTU) | .






A N 11

January 1995

centration instead of the 2-3% obtained with a conventional thickener.

The Densadeg offers an innovative solution to the treat ment of the wash-water. By combining a reactor "enriched" by recirculation with a sludge thickening zone and a lameller sedimentation and supernatant water collection zone, it pro vides significant savings in investment costs and safer opera tion; the clarified water is clearer than in a traditional thick-

By Jacques Moles, Degremont S.A. and Jean-Yves Sergei, Degremont infiico, Canada 30

The thickened sludge is then dehydrated in filter presses prior to burial.

In addition to being a more ecologically sound solution for the combined treatment of the sludge and filter wash-water in a drinking water treatment plant, this altemative solution has significant advantages in terms of the amount of land used (it is more compact and saves space), capital costs and opera tions management. It also reduces the danger of discharging sludge that contains harmful microorganisms into the receiv ing water. For more information, circle reply card No. 122 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors & Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressors & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at discharge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as


sewage aeration, combustion, drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 90 years.

Si'BTR Environmental


HOFFMAN Industries of Canada Limited

58 Bertal Road, Toronto, Ontario, MBM 4M4, Tel(416)763-4681 Fax:(416)763-0440 email: hoffman.can@btrinc.com, website: www.hoffmanair.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 145(See page 25)

15 â–ĄF

International Exhibition ENVIRDNIvlENTAL

1M1, Miller Freeman • a Cuiied tvews & Media ciiinpnny


In association with:



Energies 99

An official Canadian pavilion will be organised once again. Be there !

CH I consider exhibiting and wish to receive an exhibitor fiie. Name:

CH I wish to visit the exhibition and to receive an invitation. |P9/120| First name:





Zip code:. ,

Country: Fax:

Tel.: Exhibitors:


Rosemarle Ojaivo Tel: (519) 433 0531 - Fax: (519) 433 C811 e-mail: ro@ocimktg,com

Promosalons Canada

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Tel: (416) 929 25 62 - Fax: (416) 929 25 64 e-mail: info@promosalons.com

For more Information, circle reply card No. 123 (See page 25)



Testing requirements forstormwater monitoring A review of Best Management Practices

Therehas been much discussion

lately about the need for test ing and verification of storm water Best Management Prac tices (BMPs). Numerous testing and verification programs have evolved in recent years throughout North America. These include Environmental Technol

ogy Verification, Environmental Tech nology Evaluation Center, and Strategic Envirotechnology Partnership. These programs are a direct result of the prolif eration of new environmental technolo

gies which naturally raises questions re garding their performance. This has, in turn,led to greater scrutiny ofstormwater monitoring in general. The issues being debated include the validity of field testing, laboratory testing, and the need for "independ ent" field monitoring. Eield monitoring has drawbacks. Some automatic

operate under anything but controlled conditions. Accordingly,field perform ance varies based on numerous factors

pended Solids removal) without any supporting information regarding land use, pollutant loading, and site condi

including climate, site conditions, land

tions. These factors directly influence

use, water temperature, interaction of pollutants, particle size distribution and

the performance of a BMP and must be

variability of particle size distribution with rainfall intensity and flocculation. None of these can be properly accounted for in laboratory testing. Similarly, stormwater related engi neering calculations and computer modeling are based on numerous as sumptions that over-simplify the pollut ant removal process (e.g. discrete parti cle settling). Computer modeling is ex-

effectiveness. These factors must also

taken into account when reporting the be considered when determining the usefulness of a BMP for water quality enhancement and when comparing dif ferent BMP technologies. In a sense, it

is important to normalize the results based on site-specific conditions in or der to compare apples to apples. Another issue that is commonly de bated is the need for independent moni toring. Independent moni toring refers to third party monitoring that is not paid for directly by the manufacturer or proponent of the BMP. Many proponents of pro prietary BMPs choose con sultants to perform field monitoring to determine per

samplers are less than ideal formance estimates. Con since they may be prone to sultant monitoring that is failure or may not take rep paid for by the proponent is resentative samples due to Testing and verification programs are necessary to properly seen to be less credible than equipment limitations and understand the function of innovative technologies. agency testing. While it can pollutant characteristics (oil coating, composition alterations). tremely useful in assessing the hydro- not be contested that there are good con Manual sampling is expensive, requires logical factors for design and provides sultants and bad consultants, this atti planning level performance estimates tude perpetuates a negative opinion experience and still requires an estima about engineering consultants in gen tion of flowrate. Strecker(1998) noted for BMPs. These performance esti eral. A preferable solution would be to a study in Wisconsin which determined mates, however, are limited by the un that the error in flow measurements us derlying assumptions in each model/ accredit consultants to perform field monitoring and provide a list of approved ing 23 different techniques was easily calculation. Eield monitoring can be used to aug consultants who may be retained for pro in the order of+25% over a range of 50 storms(Waschbusch and Owens, 1998) ment laboratory testing and engineering ponent testing. It is apparent that there are many pit compared to a calibrated Palmer-Bowlus calculations. If the field monitoring in flume. The error for individual storms dicates better or worse performance than falls associated with performance test ing and the reporting of performance was even greater. laboratory testing and theoretical calcu lations, then this data must be given con results. Accordingly, an independent Although field monitoring is prob lematic, it is a necessary part of the siderable weight because it represents evaluation of a technology must be con evaluation process. The alternative "real world" conditions. There are many ducted, that considers all relevant data would be to accept laboratory testing or site-specific variables which will affect concerning that technology (field moni engineering calculations/computer the results of a single field study. There toring, laboratory testing, computer fore, numerous field studies must be modeling), in order to provide a fair as modeling alone. Both of these alterna tives, while useful, provide limited data conducted under different climate, land sessment of performance. upon which to make a decision. usage, and pollutant loading conditions This four-step process (laboratory, theoretical/computer, field monitoring, Laboratory testing provides initial to determine the full range of BMP per independent evaluations), provides de performance results under controlled formance. This underscores a prevalent problem signers and regulators alike with a level conditions. Actual BMP installations with the current way in which field tests of confidence to appropriately apply a given technology for stormwater quality. are summarized. Typically, BMP per By Graham Bryant, P.Eng. For more information, formance is provided in the form of a Stormceptor Canada Inc. summary number (e.g. % Total Sus circle reply card No. 124 32

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Water Supply and Distribution

Tunnels and Underground Works

Solid Waste Management

Water Resources Engineering

Residuals Management

Systems Analysis Modelling

Process Control

Air Management

Industrial Services

Environmental Planning

Energy Management

Environmental Laboratory

Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal

Environmental Site Characterization/Reconciliation



180 King Street South, Suite 600 Waterloo, Ontario N2J 1P8 tel: (519) 579-3500 fax;(519) 579-8986 direct dial: (519) 579-3501 + ext.

255 Consumers Road

555 - 4th Avenue SW, Suite 1500

North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7 tel: (403) 237-9300 fax: (403)237-7715 direct dial: (403) 237-5691 +ext.



tel:(416)499-9000 fax:(416)499-4687 direct dial:(416)499-0090 + ext. London • Ottawa • Thorold


For more information, circle reply card No. 146(See page 25)

INTEX Osaka, Japan • October 20-23, 1999 • Over 60,


JEIEO Japan External Trade Organization

www.environmentjapan.org ,

Exhibiting at this show is your chance to meet buyers and importers of environmental products in Japan, one of the

r'/ world's largest and fastest growing eco-business markets.

'^WlWELCOHEiUPPLIffiOf: - Environmental protection and pollution abatement ^■

' - Energy conservation and new-energy products -Waste treatment and recycling

Jetro Toronto

Jetro Montreal

Contact: Christine Huang

Contact: Marina Brzeski

Contact: Gayle Oyama

Tel: (416) 861-0000 x231

Tel: (514) 879-5617 x231

Tel: (604) 684-4147

Fax:(416) 861-9666

Fax:(514) 879-5618

Fax:(604) 684-6877




Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Jetro Vancouver

For more information, circle reply card No. 142 See page 25)


PCB Update

Breakthrough in PCB destruction? An outline of a biochemical option

An integrated biochemical process has been developed for the biological destruc

tion of 1260/1254 Aroclor

PCBs and other chlorinated organics. It involves the use and application of surfactants, enzyme augmentation and bacterial and fungi bioaugmentation. The process, developed by HobbsMiller-Maat Inc.(HMM), microbiolo-

gists, chemists and engineers, during the last three years, has now been success fully implemented at pilot and full scale for the biological destruction of PCBs (Aroclor 1260/1254)in soils and in PCB contaminated oils.

Biological treatment of soils con taminated with organic compounds is a technology that has been developed and commercialized in the last 10 years. Biological treatment has been achieved using indigenous bacteria (those found in the soil) and has been augmented with the addition of specifically cultured bac teria strains by techniques commonly referred to as bioaugmentation. These approaches have proven to be successful in many cases, especially in the degradation of short to medium chain hydrocarbons. Use of these tech niques for longer chain hydrocarbons and/or chlorinated organics was severely limited due to the inability of the con taminates to hydrolyze and penetrate the bacteria cell wall and undergo metabolization by intracellular enzymes pro duced by bacteria. The biological mech anism responsible for the degradation of the contaminants using fungi was found to be substantially different than that of bacteria as earlier described.

Fungi produce enzymes, which break down the chemical bonds in an organic molecule, but with an important differ ence. Fungal enzymes may be both non specific and extra cellular.


they are non-spe cific, they work to break up a wide range of bonds, in cluding complex, non repeating, or-

By Derk Maat, M.Eng., P.Eng. Chief Engineer, Hobbs-Miiler-Maat Inc.


Installation of 60 mil liner, drainage layer, and forced air aeration system In engi neered bioplle. ganic structures. Because the enzymes are extra cellular, the fungi need only be in close proximity to the contaminant to be effective.

The ability of fungi to break down complex organics has been understood for centuries. In the 1970s significant studies were conducted in conjunction with coal liquification research to un derstand the mechanisms by which fungi degrade PCBs and coal tars. For more than a decade,fungi have also been stud ied as highly potent agents for the remediation of contaminated soils. HMM has combined the scientific

knowledge base for bacteria enzymes and fungi into an integrated biotreatment process for the biodegradation of PCBs and other chlorinated organics. The first stage of treatment in the process is the application of the HMM developed surfactants to pretreat the soil. The team of bio experts has developed hydrocarbon specific proprietary biode gradable organic non-solvent based surfactants that are used to "prepare" the soils for enzyme and microbial treat ment. The surfactants begin to break the absorptive bond between the soil parti cles and contaminant molecules,thereby allowing the contaminant to emulsify into the water added as part of the sur factant solution. The development of expertise in the extraction of bacterial and fungal enzymes has led HMM to

select, extract concentrates and apply enzymes to contaminated soils. The enzymes used as part of the sec ond stage treatment process are ex tracted from a wide range of bacteria and fungi known to degrade long chain hy drocarbons and chlorinated organics. The enzymes are produced in biofermentation reactions, using 27 different fungi strains and 25 different bacterial strains. The enzymes are extracted by means of an automatic biochemical

process. This process dissolves the bac terial cell wall and cytoplasmic mem branes in fungi, thereby releasing the enzymes.

The enzymes classed as oxygenesses utilize oxygen to break the long chain bonds in hydrocarbon based chlorinated organic molecules. The resulting shorter chain molecules are then degraded and mineralized by the multi strain bacteria and fungi that HMM has selected to com plete the biodegradation process. The enzymes act as a "key" to unlock the chlo rinated organic degradation process. The third stage of the treatment proc ess involves the application of selected bacterial and fungi strains to the soil to complete the degradation and minerali zation of the PCBs to carbon dioxide, water, and chlorides.

HMM microbiologist Leo Sanders and Dr. Clarence Bough have a combined 60 years of experience in the field of bac-

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

PCB Update terial and fungal strain selection and culturing. They have developed a combi nation of 50 bacterial and fungal strains which co-metabolize, degrade and min eralize targeted contaminants, PCBs in this case, to their final end products. Both macronutrients, N (P) and micronutrients (amino acids, vitamins)


biocell where soils are fully contained in lined and tarped biocells complete with forced-air piped aeration systems. The engineered biopiles are designed and constructed to facilitate repeat in oculations of HMM bioproducts, with out biocell disruption. Process control of and monitoring of internal biocell reactions is achieved via off gas moni toring and internal probes to increase temperature and moisture to ensure op biocell leachate and off gases are col

XCG is pleased to announce that Rob Booth, M.Eng., P.Eng., has joined the com pany as Associate and Director of Site Assessment, Auditing and Remediation. Rob has overtwentyyears of environmen tal engineering experience in contami nated groundwater, domestic water and

mediate metabolites are found which

lected, contained, monitored and recir

wastewater treatment, contaminated soil

may increase soil toxicity.

culated for treatment if necessary. The complete engineered biochemi cal system, including the bioproducts, bioaugmentation process and engi neered biocell protocols, is now known as the HMM "Engineered Microzyme Process". The process has been specifi cally developed for the biological deg radation of PCBs pesticides and other recalcitrant toxic organic compounds listed in Time magazine as the globe's "Dirty Dozen" of organic toxic com pounds. For more information, circle reply card No. 169

remediation, technology research and de velopment and technology evaluation. His expertise wi l l complement the site remediation scientists and engineers in our offices in Kitchener, Mississauga, Kingston, Vancouver, the USA and Spain. XCG is an environmental engineering specialty company focusing on site as

are also added in repeat applications to the process to catalyze and stimulate the biological degradation mechanisms. The addition of significant dosages of micro organisms ensures that no inter

The use of the HMM surfactants, en

zymes and micro organisms using both selected strains of bacteria and fungi, has enabled HMM to treat not only soil but also "free product" hydrocarbon oils and solvents containing PCBs and other chlorinated organics. The application protocols for biologi cal processes developed by HMM for PCBs and other chlorinated compounds have been engineered by HMM's found ing partner Derk Z. Maat. The application protocol for PCB biodegradation utilizes engineered



timum conditions at all times. All

sessment, remediation, brownfields devel

opment, risk assessment, hydrogeological investigations, groundwater modelling, treatment plant operations, industrial and municipal wastewater treatment, and watershed and stormwater management. Rob is located in our Kitchener office

and can be reached at: (519) 741-5774, or E-mail: robbooth@xcg.com.





What quality standard does your lab meet? SEALANT

Check our Web site: www.caeal.ca

or call us at:(613)233-5300 Quality Assurance For Environmental Laboratories

• Proficiency testing • ISO/IEC Guide 25 accreditation audits

(with accreditation by the Standards Council of Canada) The Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical Laboratories For more information, circle reply card No. 147 (See page 25)



A LOW PERMEABILITY CONTAINMENT WALL FOR GROUNDWATER POLLUTION CONTROL □ rapid, clean installation □ minimal chemical diffusion

□ excellent quality assurance/control □ long service life

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For more information, circle reply card No. 188 (See page 25)

Hazardous Wastes

Deadly toxins released on Hwy. 403 Teams battle extreme heat for 15 hours fully loaded tractor-trailer


from the US was involved

in a multiple vehicle acci dent on Ontario's 403 High way, June 8th at about 7:30 a.m. The truck appeared to be no different from any of the other thousands of trucks that travel the 403 each day. The fact that this unit had several warning placards properly placed on the truck concerned officials.

ammonium hydroxide, batteries, sodium nitrate, ethanol, chloroform, ethylene oxide, pyridine, and pentachlorophenol, werejust some of the materials on board. Given the information derived from

the shipping papers it was determined that reaction and Lower Explosive Lim its(LEL) were the main concerns. The condition of the drums was unknown.

tainer for decontamination.

The Initial Entry Crew de parted the scene and entered


trailer had 40 placard holders and some 20 actual placards in place.

the decontamination unit. The

digital disk was printed off in colour. Police,fire, and insur

Ontario Provincial Police

ance personnel viewed the photos and a plan of attack

were on site within minutes of

the five vehicle pile up. The rig was upright and moder ately out of position on the highway but several pools of liquid were forming beneath the truck. Some approaching

was formed.

The Burlington Fire De partment stood down their HazMat Teams and became

support services to the private HazMat Team. Safety Kleen was contacted to bring a 3,500-gallon vac truck to the site to pump the decontamina tion water and any firefight ers' runoff. Halton Regional

OPP officers were overcome

by fumes or vapours and sub sequently sent to the local hos pital. Burlington Fire Depart ment(BFD)Hazardous Mate

rials Crews were dispatched to the site and set up for a Haz

Police issued an evacuation to

nearby businesses as the situ

ardous Materials Incident.



ward, causing several drums to be com pressed, thus losing their lids. Three large cardboard type totes were also shifted from their containment pallets. One of the large totes had lost its integ rity and allowed a white powder to es cape its confines. Several shots were taken using the digital camera and the disk was placed into a Tupperware con


ation was still unstable and

Goods Officers then made the

great potential for reaction was still present. Wearing Level A suits, the

decision to close the highway in both directions for what

would be approximately 9.5 hrs, a major decision as this highway is a main route be tween such major cities as Are your sewers protected against this? Hamilton and Toronto. Also of concern was the fact that large OPP also called in TEAM-1 Environ

mental who responded with a six man crew and Ontario's only privately oper ated Mobile Decontamination Unit.

Upon arrival(17 minutes from OPP call in) TEAM-1 replaced the Fire Service two pool decontamination system with their fully contained Decon trailer. Shipping papers were accessed and studied by all parties. The concern was the mixed load of toxic waste bound for

a disposal site. Some of the contents read like a recipe for disaster had they mixed together. Mercury, sulfuric acid,

By Mitchell Gibbs, Manager, Emergency Services, TEAM-1 Environmental 36

sacs of oxidizers were also on board.

Using a Sony digital camera and other devices such as photo ionization, LEL meters and O, meters, the BFD HazMat crew approached the rear of the trailer. A support crew from the BFD was stationed 35 feet away upwind, wearing chemical protective clothing, supplied by TEAM-1, and manning an attack line for fire suppression. The rear door was opened a 1/4 inch to allow in sertion of the air monitoring probes. The explosive atmosphere had a reading of 5% and the volatile organic vapours were at 60 ppm. This illustrated that some form of release had taken place. The doors were then fully opened to reveal that the entire load had shifted for

team re-entered the trailer. It

was determined that this op eration would be a lengthy one. Each of the 64 drums on

board had to be handled and inspected for integrity. Several had their lids popped off and their contents exposed. The OPP would not allow the trailer to

be moved until all spillage and other related issues had been dealt with.

As the temperature on the highway reached 103°E,it was apparent that many relief shifts would be required. The Burlington Fire Department brought in a canteen truck with plenty of food and liquids. Ambulance personnel were sta tioned nearby and put into action as clean-up personnel required attention due to heat stress. It was estimated that

the trailer temperature would be in the 130° range. When combined with gastight, fully encapsulated level A suits, the discomfort levels were acute. Nor-

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Hazardous Wastes

mally the crew looks to the decontami nation trailer as a place to cool down. Instead they found 18 engineered showerheads were discharging 160° water because the hoses had been lying on hot pavement. A flat bed tow truck was brought in to facilitate the unloading of the sacs of oxidizer, thus allowing some room to deal with the drums. The levels of danger dropped as the job progressed. Once the readings of air quality and product famil



iarization became comfortable, the lev

els of protection were dropped to Level B. Later, arrangements were made with Safety Kleen to complete the recovery op eration at their secure location in Halton. Once the site was determined to be

safe and secure, the investigation and recovery of the other damaged vehicles took place. OPP heavy truck officers investigated and assessed the damage to the tractor and trailer. The tractor alone

sustained some $20,000 damage. The load was secured under the di

rection of the OPP Dangerous Goods Officers and other officials. TEAM-1

contacted the Ontario MOE to get a "Directors Order" to allow the transport by the non-approved vehicles carrying waste to the secure site. Under the direction and escort of the

OPP and the Halton Regional police, the convoy of response vehicles was taken to the secure site for unloading. Once the load was positioned at the Safety Kleen licensed hazardous waste

TEAM-1 relief crew gets briefed on progress by initial entry crew members.

processing facility it was discovered that a substantial amount of mercury had spilled. TEAM-1 crew entered the trailer and transferred the contents drum by drum to another trailer. Using special ized vacuums, the mercury was recov ered and repacked into approved contain

was completed at 11 p.m. the same day. OPP,Transport Canada and the MOE are continuing their respective investiga tions on the Dangerous Goods transport ing of this load oftoxic waste. The driver was charged with careless driving. For more information,

ers. Given the heat of the trailer it was

circie reply card No. 170

necessary that SCBA be used again. The trailer was washed out using Mercon mercury treatment solutions and dried. The oxidizer powder was also re packed and placed onto the second trailer for transport to a waste disposal facility. The project, which began at 7:30 a.m..

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www.daviscontrois.coni 2200 Bristol Circle. Oakville, ON LBH 5R3 Tel:(905) 829-2000 Fax:(905) 829-2630• Montreal Tel:(514) 737-4817 Fax:(514)737-9948 • Hamilton Tel: (905) 643-4277 Fax:(905) 643-6353• Barrie Tel:(705) 436-3900 Fax:(705) 436-3939• London Tel:(519)641-8953





(416) 499-4421 Fax: (416) 499-0816

(514)333-8555 Fax:(514)333-4662

(519)336-3006 Fax:(519) 344-0607

(902)469-4400 Fax:(902) 463-1010

Sudbury (705) 673-8900 Fax: (705) 673-8806

For more information, circle reply card No. 190 (See page 25)

Fax:(519)641-7967• Winnipeg Tel:(204) 253-2815 Fax:(204) 253-2851 • Calgary Tel: (403) 255-5035 Fax:(403) 255-5077 • Vancouver

Tel: (604) 298-9101 Fax:(604)298-9102

For more information, circle reply card No. 174


Hazardous Wastes


ARET achieves reductions

but more action urged


A RET,introduced in 1994, is a voluntary program to re

substances including lead, arsenic and benzene. But voluntary efforts have fallen short for other substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs).

duce or eliminate releases of Today, Harold Marcus Ltd. is toxic substances. Partici pleased to service a wide variety of Under the new Canadian Environ your waste transportation require pants in ARET (Accelerated Reduction and Elimination of Toxics) represent mental Protection Act(CEPA),the Gov ments throughout Canada and the ernment of Canada will have two years nine major industry sectors and govern USA. This growth can be attributed ment. The goal is a 90% reduction of to develop control measures for toxic

to our commitment to performance,

30 persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic

substances and eighteen months to im

expertise and dependability.

(PBT)substances, and a 50% reduction of another 87 toxic substances by the year 2000. The 1997 results in the report Envi ronmental Leaders3(ELS), show that the 303 facilities participating in ARET have

plement them. This means companies will be required to act more quickly

reduced their overall toxic substance

emissions by 24,090 tonnes, a 64% de crease from base-year levels. Participants

since deadlines for taking action to pre vent pollution from toxic substances are included in the Bill. It will also be easier

...the 303 facilities

participating in ARET

have committed to a further reduction of

5,172 tonnes by the year 2000.

With a strong emphasis on mainte nance and cleanliness, our custom

ers are assured of having the most modem "user friendly" fleet of stain less, fiberglass tankers, Vac tankers,

Ofthe 303 participating facilities, 118 reached or surpasses their reduction goals three years ahead of schedule. Overall reduction targets have been met for 50

have reduced their overall toxic substance

emissions by 24,090 tonnes, a 64% decrease

vans, dumps, roll-offs, pneumatics and walking floors the industry has

from base-year levels.

to offer. to access relevant environmental infor

From maintenance to safety and training,from operations to manage ment, the Marcus team of experi

enced professionals looks forward to meeting your present and future waste transportation requirements.



mation through a new environmental registry available on the Internet. Other measures, such as making the National Pollutant Release Inventory mandatory, will ensure Canadians have access to upto-date information about pollution in their communities so they can make in formed environmental choices.



The peace of mind you will enjoy by selecting Marcus comes from our company's tireless pursuit of excel lence in all facets of the waste trans

portation business.

Phone:(519)695-3734 Fax:(519)695-2249



Tel:(905)457-5145 Fax:(905)457-1730 Http://www.frontenac-env.com sales@frontenac-env.com service @frontenac-env.com

R.R. #3

ARET and similar programs have shown that in many cases,reducing pol lution can be achieved more quickly through voluntary measures than through regulations. In some sectors, however, regulation is more effective because it ensures full compliance and a level playing field for all companies. The Government of Canada is cur

rently developing a policy framework for future voluntary environmental agreements. It will include specific de sign criteria, and consequences for not meeting targets and timelines. The policy framework will also ensure that there is public participation, and verifi cation of results.

The EL3 report is available on the Green Lane, Environment Canada's Internet site at: www.ec.gc.ca/aret/el3.

Bothwell, Ontario NOP ICO For more information,

For more information,

circle reply card No. 149

circle reply card No. 175

Hazardous Wastes

MOE releases Waste Study Report

A report profiling Ontario's waste management industry was recently released by the MOE's Green Industry

Office. Economic and MarketAssessment

ofthe Ontario Waste Management Indus try, was prepared for the Ministry in No vember, 1998 by TCI Convergence Lim ited. It deals primarily with industrial and hazardous waste management. It provides a general overview of the size and struc ture of the industry and an overview of opportunities for Ontario-based firms in both domestic and international markets.

Highlights • The Ontario waste management in dustry earned $1.28 billion in 1995(43% of total Canadian waste management industry revenues). There were 385 Ontario companies in this subsector in 1995,employing 6,624 people. The vast majority of companies in this sector (81%)are small and medium sized, with less than 65 employees. • The report includes information on domestic market opportunities in indus trial waste streams, with key stakeholders that waste companies could contact ifthey wish to pursue these opportunities. In general, mai'ket opportunities exist where problematic waste streams are found,and where waste streams have been tradition

ally dealt with off-site. • International market opportunities for Ontario waste companies are strong in South America and Asia (China, India). The US remains the most promising mar

R'2000 Recovery • Recycling • Re-integration 5th World Congress and Trade Show

ket for environmental products and serv ices, including waste management com panies. Small companies in paiticular are experiencing difficulty in capitalizing fully on export market opportunities due to specific barriers to entry. • There has been a trend to industry

June 5-9, 2000 Toronto Convention Centre •Toronto • Canada

consolidation, and a shift from end-of-

pipe treatment to pollution prevention. The sector will continue to be comprised of a few very large companies and many smaller firms with niche products and services; medium sized companies will be acquisition targets. Companies need to develop closer relationships with cus tomers,and position themselves as add ing value through innovative methods of waste prevention or re-use. Environ mental success stories are not well

known and the general public has a poor perception of this sector of the environ ment industry. • Major challenges facing the industry include: accessing investment and loan funds, especially smaller companies who report difficulty raising capital for start-up or expansion; low investment in R&D for new technologies; lack of


I Comprehensive




to iDe held for the

sufficient waste in some markets for use

as raw material; lack of business exper tise and experience; and the fragmented nature of the industry. For further information on the report or to obtain a copy,contact Nora Curland, Creen Industry Office, Tel: (416) 3147912, Fax:(416) 314-7919, or E-mail: gurlanno@ene.gov.on.ca.

For biosolids mixing and storage solutions • We can provide a complete storage and mixing system,including:

in North America R'2000 will cover

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social Issues by addressing all relevant materials, products, processes and resources.


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Fax:+41 1 38644 45


Tel:(519) 763-5933, Fax:(519) 763-0293

For more information, circle reply card No. 171 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 166

Hazardous Wastes

Fibrous material used to clean up oil spills A chemically treated fibrous ma terial that removes oil from water

has been developed at the Univer sity of Wales' award-winning BioComposites Centre in Bangor, Wales. The photo shows a small sample (one gram) of softwood fibre during laboratory tests. The


beaker of water had contained 25 millilitres of coloured oil that were

removed by the fibre.

herbicides then enter the atmosphere, and can come back to earth in various forms of precipitation. Environment Canada scientists have been studying the entry of herbicides into the atmosphere, seeking ways to prevent it. At a site in southern Alberta, researchers from the Na

tional Water Research Institute, and Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, tested six herbicides commonly used in prai rie agriculture: two were soil-incorporated herbicides and four had been applied directly to the crop. They found that losses to the atmosphere ranged from 1.5 percent for the soil-incorporated style, and about 4.5% for those applied directly to the crop.

The treated fibre, based on Photo - Mike Pattison

wood or plant fibre (both welltried oil absorbers), has the ca-

pacity to take up at least 25 times its own weight in oil,


although, in their natural state the fibres are not selective and will readily pick up both oil and water. The selectivity of the fibre is important; even small traces of oil in large volumes of water can be detected and removed.

KMK CONSULTANTS LIMITED Consulting Engineers, Project Managers

Tests have shown that the new material cleans up sea water so

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well that no oil content can be detected afterwards. Unlike untreated fibre, the treated fibre never sinks in water which

helps its use and recovery. It can be made for approximately $1,200 a tonne, considerably less than the cost of synthetic alternatives. Contact: www.bc.bango.ac.uk

Pollution Is just blowing In the wind


When the prairie wind picks up upper layers of dusty soil and cairies it off, it also carries away some herbicides. These

For more information, circle reply card No. 189

Potable water.

Portable plant. Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever additional or improved water is needed. Each Monopiant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. *. Conservatively designed, the Monopiant produces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact: Ecodyne Limited 4475 Corporate Drive Burlington, Ontario L7L 5T9 Telephone:(905)332-1404 Toll Free: 1-888-ECODYNE

Fax:(905) 332-6726 Internet: info@ecodyne.com

ft.A member of The Marmon Group of companies


For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Water Meters

Turnkey water metering solution for Niagara Falls Canada's largest single water metering installation project to date

The City of Niagara Falls, Ontario,



Schlumberger Resource Management Services a ma jor contract to supply and install a largescale water metering management so lution. This project will include the in stallation of 24,500 water meters with

remote-read capabilities. The focus of the program will be on the installation of water meters in residential homes,

with some changeouts occurring in the commercial and industrial sector. The

project began in June and is expected to be completed by the end of 1999. It could be the largest single-order water meter installation contract in Canadian history. As part of its Water Wise water effi ciency program, the City of Niagara Falls has been considering the issue of residential metering for a number of years, both as a means of ensuring fair and equitable billing, and as a tool for using water resources more efficiently. Continuing with the Canada-wide trend of integrated supply and installation projects, the City sought responses from bidders in March of this year, and Schlumberger Resource Management Services won the project. The contract calls for the company to handle all aspects of the project; this includes meter sizing, selection, supply and installation; recruitment and train

ing of field technicians and service per sonnel; plus all customer contact and ap-

A field technician safely installs aT-10 ProRead water meter in a household in the

City of Niagara Fails. pointment administration. During the installation and commissioning phase, the company will also assume responsi bility for the collection and validation of all billing information. For all residential applications in the City of Niagara Falls, Schlumberger in tends fitting its latest-generation T-10 ProRead water meters in the basements

of customers' premises, with an associ ated remote-read device placed on the outside of the premises. Meter readers will subsequently be able to obtain wa ter consumption data without inconven

iencing customers, simply by interrogat ing the remote-read device with a hand held computer. The handheld comput ers are PC9300 units, which have been

jointly developed by Schlumberger and DAP Technologies of Canada, specifi cally for walk-by meter reading appli cations in cold climates. The entire me

ter reading process, including the pro cessing of all billing information and the assignation of walk-by routes, will be managed by Schlumberger's EZ RouteMAPS software.

Circle reply card No. 158

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Cold applied Densopol 60 Bitumen Tape. DENSO NORTH AMERICA INC. Toronto:


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For more information, circle reply card No. 133 (See page 25)


Flow Monitoring

Sensor catches both low and high flows Radar enters the open channel marketplace

Monitoring volumetric flow in conduits that are less

than full - open channel flow - has always been difficult. Throw municipal or industrial waste into the mix and measurement

hence, loss of important data. Our company has now developed a revolutionary means of measuring ve locity in open channels. The new non-

flowmeter marketplace to provide accu

contact radar flowmeter,Flo-Dar, meas

on the material's dielectric constant.

ures both the velocity and level of the media from a single sensor mounted

Any material that has a dielectric con stant greater than two, such as water, crude oil, or ammonia will easily reflect radar signals. The higher the dielectric constant of the material, the more sig

becomes even more problematic. The two most popular techniques to measure open channel flow are:

above the flow.

1) Mechanical restrictions.

"Radio Detection and Raneins" (Gen-

Radar is an acronym for the phrase

2) Area/Velocity.

rate, non-contact flow measurement. A

basic principle of radar is its ability to reflect off the surface of materials based

nal that is reflected and avail

able for processing. On the other hand, radar signals tend to pass through materials that

The nature of a flow-meas

uring restriction - usually a flume or weir - only allows the flow rate to be measured

have a dielectric constant less

over a narrow band of flow

than two, such as air, vapour, certain gases, or foam.

rates. Storm flows or low-

flow conditions usually fall outside the measuring range of a typical flume. The cost of the civil work to build large flumes during plant construc tion can be high and retrofit ting flow-monitoring equip

Radar flowmeters deter

mine the velocity of the flow in a manner similar to the way police radar guns measure the velocity of an automobile. A radar beam is transmitted from the sensor's "horn" to a

ment to such sites is even

known location on the flow

more expensive.

surface. This transmitted beam interacts with the fluid

The most versatile tech

and reflects back a portion of the transmitted signal. The portion of the signal that is reflected back is at a slightly different frequency than that

nique for calculating volumet ric flow (Q)is to use the 'sim ple' equation Flow (Q) = Cross-Sectional Area (A) x

Mean Velocity(V). To get the values for A and V, however,

which was transmitted. For

is not so simple. The crosssectional area depends on an accurate knowledge of the level of the media, usually de termined by a pressure sensor or by a non-contact ultrasonic A revolutionary way of measuring veiocity and levei.

instance, the frequency is slightly higher if the flow is coming toward the beam and slightly lower if the flow is going away from the beam. The reflected signals that re turn to the radar horn are de


Within the last 20 years, technology has improved and an active measure ment of velocity is now possible using a variety of submerged sensors: electro magnetic, ultrasonic Doppler and ultra sonic transit time, to name the more

popular ones. Unfortunately, using sub merged sensors in sanitary or industrial sewers creates many problems. Instal lation is difficult, dirty and dangerous; and even when successfully completed, there is the likelihood of 'ragging' and

By Lawrence B. Marsh, President and CEO

Marsh-McBlrney, Inc. 42

erally credited to Sir Robert WatsonWatt). Originally developed for mili tary use just prior to World War II, ra dar devices are rapidly becoming part of our everyday lives. Examples include Doppler radar weather forecasting, re mote security devices, and radar guns used by the police to measure an auto mobile's speed. Over the next several years, it is expected that collision-avoid ance radar devices will be standard

equipment in most automobiles. In recent years, radar has seen tre mendous growth in industrial applica tions where precise level measurement is required. Today, radar-based flow sensors are entering the open channel

tected and compared with the transmit ted frequency. The resulting frequency shift is a direct measure of both the ve

locity and direction of the flow particles from which the signal was reflected. In all open channels, the flow veloc ity varies throughout the cross-section. These "velocity contour lines" extend to the surface of the flow. In other words,

a fingerprint of the flow profile exists on the flow surface itself. By measur ing a portion of this fingerprint, and ap plying a rather complex algorithm, the radar flowmeter can determine the av

erage velocity of the flow stream to an accuracy ofÂą5% or better. Like all flow measuring devices, the highest accuracy

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Flow Monitoring is achieved when the flow is stable and

unaffected by bends and obstructions. The non-contact nature of the radar

even when completely flooded, utiliz ing an on-board pressure sensor that

tion are controlled by government regu latory bodies such as the FCC in the United States and Industry Canada in

takes over from the ultrasonic level sen

flow medium. Also, radar flowmeters

sor during submergence. A patented method of allowing the radar horn to continue measuring the velocity while submerged is under development. Industrial radar devices are just as

can operate from above existing chan

safe in the hands of consumers as such

C&M Environmental is the Canadian

nels without the need for flumes or

everyday devices as televisions, micro wave ovens, and cellular phones. All

distributor of Marsh-McBirney, Inc.

open channel flowmeter is attractive to new users. The user no longer has to worry about periodic maintenance,sen sor fouling or the caustic nature of the

weirs, and without any limitation on the minimum or maximum flow range. Accurate signals can be detected over a wide range of distances and Flo-Dar is capable of measuring flow velocities with only a minimum amount of surface disturbance.

Canada. Manufacturers of industrial radar devices obtain a license for their

manufacture and use, thereby eliminat ing the need for individual users to ob tain licenses.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 159

devices that emit electromaanetic radia





Radar flowmeters can

operate from above existing channels without the need for *>, <ir

flumes or weirs, and

without any limitation aste water slurry being fed into a errick Flo-Line screening machine.


on the flow range.... A


patented method of allowing the radar horn

emands <-wlTrch ^^are on corporati

to continue measuring


and) discharge

the velocity while

nt-costs, have


submerged is under

ent to ^ -


ion, witnover 40 l.ÂĽ,iO'.43M


xperience, is nov^? I.,!.. -â–

IS equif:meM,techM

Flo-Dar's non-contact nature gives it great versatility; it can be used for vari ous measuring applications including industrial effluents, raw sewage or in fluent to treatment plants, all of which can be too harsh or dangerous for close work in confined spaces or deep man holes. Once installed, the sensor can be removed from the surface without en

tering the manhole. Low flow conditions are well suited

for Flo-Dar, as it can 'see' and measure



the movement of surface water as shal

1 586 Griffiths Place

4141 Yonge St., Suite 307 North York, Ontario M2P 2A8

low as 2mm (0.1 inch).

Surcharging will not harm the Flo-

Kelowna, British Columbia V1Z2T7 Phone: 604-769-3848 Fax: 604-769-5859

Phone: 416-250-7111 or 1-800-665-7136 Fax:416-250-8111

Dar sensor; and it will continue to work Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

For more Information, circle reply card No. 136 (See page 25)


Industry Update Bulletins available on

Ainley & Associates Limited


Landfill Gas Utilization Canada currently has 33 landfill sites with gas recovery capturing systems that are destroying over 6 Mt of carbon di

Consulting Engineers and Planners

Water Supply and Sewage Treatment Environmental Assessments - Roads and Bridges Structural Engineering - Land Use Planning

oxide(CO^)equivalent annually. Of the

Oi/r expertise co\rers a// aspects of CMi Manicpai and

33 landfill sites, 13 utilize the gas for electricity generation or direct heating. Currently, over 82 MW of electricity is produced from landfill gas in Canada, which is enough electrical power to meet

Enwronmentai Engineer/ng and Land Use P/anning COLU/X^WOOD (70SJ 44S-S4Sf



(8W 966-4843

FAX (rosj 445-0968

rSfSJ 388-n>S9 FAX (6f3J 883- rsr3

mx f6/3J 966-rf63


the needs of over 50,000 homes.

Six of these facilities are highlighted

Environmental and OHS professionals providing quality consulting, scientific & engineering services

in a series of technical bulletins from Environment Canada:

engineering and scientific studies

225 Sheppard Ave. W.

management systems and audit capability Pfiase I & II investigations and remediation

North York, Ont. M2N 1N2

Tel;(416) 226-0148 Fax:(416)226-2931




R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Clover Bar Landfill Gas to Energy Project, Edmonton,Alberta. Here,land fill gas is fed to an existing electrical generating station providing 0.9% of the fuel and producing about 6 MW of elec tricity. (Annual greenhouse gas reduc

tion: 182,0001 CO,equivalent). Lachenaie Landfill Gas to Energy

consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

Water, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

Project, Lachenaie, Quebec. The

landfill gas from a private iandflii is used to produce 4 MW of electricity. (An nual GHG reduction: 250,000 t CO, equivalent). Complexe Environnemental de SaintMichel Landfill Gas to Energy Project, Montreal, Quebec. This project pro duces 25 MW of electricity from a

For employment and project development opportunities visit our web site: www.rvanderson.com

Toronto(416)497-8600 E-mail: Toronto@RVAnderson.com Wetland Ottawa Sudbuty London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay. India

Environmental professionals working with industry to improve water quality


landfill in the centre of urban Montreal.

(Annual GHG reduction: i.i million Biology

Aquatic Contaminant Remediation

Environmental Audits

Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Toxicity Testing

tonnes CO,equivalent). Keele Valley Landfill Gas to Energy Project, Toronto, Ontario. The largest landfill gas utilization facility in Canada produces 30 MW of electricity for the

Environmental Engineering Stormwoter Management impact Assessments

PO Box 2205,250 Marlindaie Road, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2R 7R8

Ph: (905)641-0941

Fax; (905)641-1825


Branch Office: PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T7H8 Ph:(519) 383-7822

Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering Creating Value through Service and innovation Vancouver



780.451.7666 www.ae.ca










Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Munloipal Engineering Colllngwood Tel.(705)444.2565 EMail; lnfo@cctatham.com

Orillia Tel.(705)325-1753

Bracebridge Tel.(705) 645-7756

City of Toronto using a combined-cy cle process. (Annual CHC reduction: over 1 million tonne CO,equivalent). Jackman Landfill Site, Langley, EC. In this innovative installation, landfill gas feeds a boiler to generate heat for a greenhouse during the winter and cool summer evenings while the carbon di oxide generated in the boiler is used to enhance plant growth. (Annual GHC reduction: 18,0001 CO,equivalent). Port Mann Landfill Gas to Energy Project, Surrey, EC. Landfill gas is uti lized as fuel for waiiboard manufactur

ing at Georgia Pacific Canada Inc. (Annual CHC reduction: 40,000 t CO, equivalent). To obtain a copy of the six bulletins, please contact Environment Canada's Enquiry Centre at: 1-800-668-6767, or

Web: www.cctatham.com

visit Environment Canada's Green Lane:

www.ee.go.ca/nopp/ifg/buiietin 44

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Industry Update

Three government levels commit funding to clean up Sydney Tar Ponds

• Human Hcdth and Ecdogicd Ste SpeaficR)Sk Assessment iSSRAi

The Government of Canada, the Prov

• Envircrmentd FdeandFood Chan

Modelling •Toxicology Evduaion'Ha:ardAssessnait

• OaermniisticandProbabilisticiMonteCado)

Ri^ Assessment Modelling • im^rated Ri^ Management • Development of Ste Specific Ranecfcal Criteria for^ceoficChemtcalsandCcmplerChemiCcI Mixtures

ince of Nova Scotia and the Cape Breton Regional Municipality reaffirmed in May,their commitment to cleaning up the toxic Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Oven sites. The three levels of government

• Environments Impact and RemediationAnefyss • Soentific fter Reviav

• Risk Communicaion/Expert Testimony


2233 Argentla Road,Suite 308, MiSGlSBauga, ON LSN 2X7,Tel;(905)542-2900 Fax:(905)542-1011 E-mail: e9gal@cailoxenvironmenlal.com Interna. hl(p:/Awvw.can!oxenvironmentd.com • Vancouver • Cdgay • Missssaiga • Haifa • Nev Jersey

announced that $62 million has been set aside for the start of remediation and the

work of the Joint Action Group (JAG). The announcement was made by

^ CG&S CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Christine S. Stewart, Federal Minister of the Environment, Clifford Fluskilson,

Environmental Engineers, Planners and Scientists 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Nova Scotia Minister of Transportation and Public Works and CBRM Mayor

phone(416)499-9000 fax (416)499-4687 direct dial (416)499-0090 + ext.

David Muise.

The $37.9 million federal portion of

Barrie • Calgary • London • Ottawa • Thorold

this funding allocation follows the suc cessful conclusion of cost-share nego tiations amongst the three levels of gov ernment for a three-year funding for mula. It outlines how the activities and

projects already recommended by JAG will be supported.

Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo

Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc.


Dredging (since 1971)

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester • Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction

The Province of Nova Scotia is com

mitting $21.4 million in funding over the next three years. Cape Breton Regional Municipality will work towards the remediation of the Muggah Creek site and ridding the Sydney area of ongoing negativity. They will participate in the

•High Speed Decanter Centrifuges

Tel: (506) 684-5821 E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca

Fax:(506) 684-1915 Web site: www.GIROUXING.com

Toronto • Ottawa

landfill leachate containment and sewer


collector projects.


London • Hamilton Vancouver • Victoria

JAG volunteers have donated more

than 35,000 hours since 1996.

Specializing in;

• Drainage Planning

The federal-provincial-municipal funding announced will support the con tinued work of the Joint Action Group

• IVfller & Wastewater Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

Corporate Office: 133 Vl^nford Drive

• Industrial Treatment

• environmental Impact

Toronto, Ontario M3C 1K1

• Slormwaler Management

• Environmental Planning

Secretariat, further studies and assess

Tel: (416)441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

ment, and early remediation work. First trees lived 370 million years ago A team of international botanists con


cluded the earliest known tree was an


extinct plant that lived about 370 mil lion years ago. Called Archaeopteris, the plant had the same structure as mod ern trees but it took millions of years for it to evolve into the mighty giants that fill forests today. Earlier botanical evidence of the first tree was based on leaves and wood bits in fossil rocks.

In a report in the science Journal Nature, Brigitte Meyer-Berthaud of the University of Montpellier in France and colleagues in the United States and Ger many, described how they found 150 fossilized examples of the extinct plant in three locations in Morocco.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

• Infrastructure

• Communities

• Environment

• Facilities

Vancourer • Yellowknife • Calgary • Winnipeg • Windsor Chatham • Ijondon • Cambridge • Toronto • Ottawa • Icjaluit Fredericton • Halt/ax • Port Hawikesbuiy • Sydney • International 100 Sheppard Avenue Hast, Toronto, Ontario A/2A' 6i\5 (416) 229-4646

Lea Associates

Transportation and Environmental

Consultants www.lea.ca

❖ Transportation Planning ❖ Traffic Engineering Environmental Planning Municipal Engineering Road & Bridge Design loronto


Tei: (4161490-8887

Tel: (604)654-1945 Fax: (604)654-1551



Industry Update ACPA names new officers

Duke Engineering &Services(Canada),Inc.


for 1999

A Duke Energy Company Ottawa

• Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

(613) 232-2525

• Fractured Rock Hydrogeology • Environmental Management and Compliance • Hydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling

(905) 513-9400

• Site Remediation


Calgary (403) 262-4885

• Risk Assessment






A ^


Larry Johnson, president of JohnsonBateman Company,has been named the new chairman of the board of the Ameri

can Concrete Pipe Association(ACPA). Johnson assumed the fiscal 1999 chair

TEM - PLM - PCM - SEM - Flame AA - Graphite Furnace

manship at ACPA's 91 st annual conven tion in Amelia Island, Florida, March 22-25, 1999. Three other officers were

GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.

Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting ATP" Wces

also appointed at the meeting: • Adrian Driver, CSR Hydro Conduit Corporation, Houston,Texas(vice chair

Microbial Training Consulting Services

* Cryptosporidium & Giardia * Microorganism Identification * Rapid E.coli recreational water

man of the board).


• Vince Bussio, Geneva Pipe Company,

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Telephone: 519-681 -0571 Fax: 519-681-7150

Orem, Utah (treasurer).

• William T. "Pete" DeLay, ShermanDixie Concrete Products, Nashville,

Tennessee (secretary). Mr. Johnson succeeds William L.

...linking our health


Quinien, president of Choctaw, Inc., Memphis,Tennessee, as the head of the 92-year old association. As chainnan, Johnson is following in the footsteps of his grandfather, Elmer Johnson, who

with how we manage



our environment.


was ACPA chairman in 1947.

www.cantoxgartnerlee.com Markham

St. Catharines







Bridgewater NJ

Could solvents pose a

danger to the unborn? Geomatrix Cansult;ant:s Engineers, Geologists,and Environmental Scientists We have moved!

I Industrial Water/Wostewater Treatment

Our new address is:

■ Wasfe /vl/nim/zaf/on/Wosfewafer Reuse/Recycle ■ Treofment System Upgrade/Optimization

Suite No. 1\465 Phillip Street

■ Treatment System Design and Construction

Waterloo, Ontario N2L 6C7

Tel:(519)886•7500 Fox:(519)886•7419

■ ISO 14000- Environmental Management Systems



...solutions through clean air technology Tel: (905) 858-4424 Fax:(905) 858-4426 E-mail: info@goodfell.com

7070 Mississauga Road, Suite 160 Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 7G2, Canada Website: www.goodfell.com

• Air Pollution Control

• Cccupational Health and Safety • Indoor Air Quality • HS&E Compliance Audits

• Clean Air Tectinologies

• EMS Audits

• Environmental Engineering • Ventilation Assessment & Design


Pregnant photo developers, hair dress ers, medical lab technicians and graphic artists exposed to organic solvents in their workplace are four times more likely to give birth to babies with major birth defects, according to a new study. Researchers at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children, reported that pregnant women in a number of other occupations which expose them to such chemicals also face increased risk of miscarriages. They are also more likely to give birth to premature babies or children with low birth weight. Considered far more serious than

smoking or drinking for pregnant women, the findings appear as a main research piece in The Journal of the American Medical Association. It is

believed to be the first study to prove Environmental Science & Engineering. June 1999

Industry Update expectant women are adversely affected by workplace solvents. The study examined 250 pregnant women employed as factory workers, lab technicians, professional artists or graphic designers, printing industry workers, chemists, painters, veterinary technicians, dry cleaning workers or funeral home employees,over a ten year period. "The most important woman-domi nated occupations with potential chemi cal exposures are health care, clothing and textile industries," says Dr. Sohail Khattak, of the hospital's clinical phar macology and toxicology division. The organic solvents women are commonly exposed to include more than 150 types of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, trichloroethylene, xylene, vinyl

Noise Vibration and Acoustics ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics

Howe Gastmeier Chapnik

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 1, Suite 203 Mississauga, Ontario L5N1P7 (905)826-4044, Fax 826-4940 www.hgcengineering.com LIMITED

Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design

Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 1G5

Tel:(905)522-0012 Fax:(905)522-0031


chloride, acetone, and related com

pounds. They are found in paint and paint thinners, lab chemicals, industrial glues, hair sprays and hair dyes, clean ing fluids and inks. "Smoking, though found to be asso ciated with low birth weight, has not been linked to miscarriage or birth de

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment

fects," said Dr. Khattak.

MacViro Consultants inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994 E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.com

$1.4 million Reseach Chair studies environment A new $1.4 million Industrial Research

'environmental site assessments

Chair has been established at Trent Uni

versity in Peterborough. The chairholder, Dr. Peter Dillon, will study the effects of acid gas emissions and the


•risk assessment/management

Engineering Inc.

•site remediation

influence of climate stresses on water

Kingston Ottawa


•waste management

(613)548-3446 (613)521-8258


Ontario Power Generation has com

mitted $540,000 over the next three

years, with an option for two more years, for a possible total of $884,000. The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada(NSERC) will provide matching support. Four key areas will be studied: • Historical data will be analyzed to es


Marshall Macklin



Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby

tablish a baseline from which to detect

80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4

the impacts of current and future emis

Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca



• Representative lakes and rivers in cen tral Ontario will be sampled to identify

chemical and biological changes over the three to five year study period. • The influence on water quality of pe

M a xxa m

riodic climate events such as El Nino will be studied.

• Dissolved organic carbon(DOC)lev els will be studied.

Contact: Trent University,(705)7481303.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

ly 1 1 cs

Comprehensive Environmental Testing National Service

Certified/Accredited Source Emissions

Occupational Health^

Rush Analysis

A Chemex Labs Alberta / Novamann International Partnership Calgary

Ontario 5540 McAdam Road

2021-41 Avenue N.E.

Mississauga. ON L4Z IPI Te!:(905)890-2555 Fax:(905)890-0370

Calgary. AB T2E 6P2 Tel :(403)291-3077


Fax 1(403)291-9468



9420 Cflte de Lresse

9331 -48th Street Edmonton, AB T6B2R4

Lachine.QC H8TIA1




Tel; (403)465-9877


Toll Free: East fSOO) 563 -6266

West (800) 386-7247


Industry Update Environment Canada


technology licensed to Japan PHILIP SERVICES

^iik(me the' the mo4i kH(Uidedc^eaMe ialeA^ teami- Ut the mdiiAi/uf: IQK kiCfU qi4aidif^ and cudiamen' de/iiUc&. Valerie Geldart, Sales Manager 1-800-263-9040 ext.275 or valerle_geldart@phllip-serv.coni Internet: www.philipanalytical.com

Creative. Innovative.


ented Microwave-Assisted Process




MAP,developed by Canadian scien tist Dr. Jocelyn Pare, uses microwaves to enhance biological, chemical, and physical processes. Conventional tech nologies used for gas-phase extraction are based upon chemical equilibrium


A Pollution Control

Tel: (403) 254-3301

A Wastewater Treatment

Fax: (403) 254-3333

A technology transfer agreement has been announced by Environment Canada and Shimadzu Corporation of Japan. A license agreement provides Shimadzu Corp., a leader in innovative laboratory analytical instruments, the rights to internationally manufacture and market equipment using revolutionary gas-phase extraction technology devel oped at Environment Canada - the pat

A Water Treatment



processes that require long periods of


time and significant amounts of energy.


The MAP process is a new method of gas-phase extraction that reduces the extraction time to as little as a few sec

onds, and is chai-acterized by the fact that SIMCOE ENGINEERING GRGUP LIMITED

Consulting Engineers & Architect

This agreement will make soivent-

1815 Ironstone Monor, Suite #10. Pickering, Ont. L1W 3W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fox: 905-831-0531

Environment Canada has been licens

automation solutions to our customers."

ing MAP technology in a number ofcoun tries, including Canada,the United States, France, Japan and China, and continues to actively solicit new licensees. Contact

We offer a complete range of products & services In the areas of: •Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services •Service Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, OI\l L4V 1J2

Summa Enterprises, Place Griili, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350, Kirkland, QC H9H 589

Tei: (905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444

Tei:(514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587

iate matter and ozone are more worri

.Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems

Environmental Audits

.Instrumentation & Controls

Water Pollution Control

some than first thought. Particuiate matter, the tiny particles suspended in the air, are smaller than the eye can see and can go deep into our lungs. Along with ground-level ozone, particuiate matter is a key component of smog. Under the auspices of the Canadian

Water Resources

Water Supply

BURLINGTON: (905)634-9494


(416) 361-6135

Dr. Pare, Tei:(613)990-9122.

Standards for cleaner air Health effects associated with particu-

THORBURN PENNY Consulting Engineers


iess determination of volatile and semi-

volatile organic compounds in solid and water samples readily available to any analytical laboratory around the world.

"A leader \r\ providing innovative

• Environmental Planning

no toxic solvents are used.

OTTAWA: (613)247-0111

Council of the Ministers of the Environ




ment(CCME), a process is underway to set standards for particuiate matter and ozone. A document prepared for consul tation will help focus discussions on pro posals for these Canada-wide Standards. The discussion document was distributed to stakeholders for feedback at a work

t o 11 e n


sims h u bicki




shop held in May 1999. Their input will he considered by the Development Com mittee in preparing its recommendation to the Council of Ministers.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Industry Update New CEO Chairman

supports Value Based Selection Mark Mitchell, P.Eng., Vice-President of Keen Engineering Co. Ltd., was elected to a one-year term as Chairman of the Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO), May 20, 1999. Addressing the CEO Annual Confer ence, he said: "Endorsement of the re

cently published CEO consultant selec

piloting airplanes and almost three times as dangerous as driving a cab, the Mi

tional pollutants, including 20 toxic sub stances. Anyone can access the infor mation from NPRI yearly reports and in

ami researchers found.

Solid-waste workers are also injured at a rate five to seven times higher than the average of other types of work, with

electronic format such as an on-line

query of the database. From now on, these reports will in clude information on a total of 246 sub

stances that are released into air, water and land, as well as those that are trans-

feiTed for disposal, treatment and recy cling. NPRI will be expanded again next year to include reporting of persistent,

52.7 injuries for every 100 workers, most frequently back injuries and lacerations. The only riskier jobs are fishing, with 178 deaths for every 100,000 workers, and timber cutting, with 156 per 100,000.

tion document will be our number one

bio-accumulative and toxic substances

focus. Within this publication, CEO

of concern such as dioxins and furans.

supports,for the first time, Value Based

NPRI can be accessed through: www.

held over the summer of 1998 show that

Selection(VBS)which recognizes price

npri-inrp.com or contact Francois

as an element in the selection criteria, but


23.6 percent of all vehicles undergoing a simple idle emissions test exceeded the limits of either hydrocarbon or carbon

strongly emphasizes that price should not dominate the selection process." Other members elected to the execu

tive were: Vice-Chairman, Robert M.

Martin, P.Eng.; Treasurer, Norm

Huggins, P.Eng.; and Secretary, David Wills, P.Eng.

Garbage poses high risks

monoxide emissions. The results also

to collectors University of Miami researchers have found that solid-waste workers in

reveal that 9.7 percent of vehicles showed visible signs of tampering with emissions control systems. The figures

Florida hold the third riskiest job in the

are similar to those from previous years.

The British Columbia Water and Waste

Association (BCWWA) presented its 1999 Industrial Waste Award to Lafarge

stopped or slow-moving garbage trucks make garbage collection riskier than

Waste Award

The 1998 summer was the most suc

United States. Their data includes 90

deaths for every 100,000 garbage work ers a year, nearly twice the national av erage for workers. Impatient motorists who dash around

Lafarge receives Industrial

Emissions clinics' results Vehicle emissions inspection clinics

cessful year in the 13-year Environment Canada clinics program, where vehicle owners can have emissions tested with "no fees and no fines". Over 4,600 ve hicles were tested last summer in clin ics held all across Canada.

Canada Inc.'s Construction Materials

Group, BC Division, during the 27th ENVIRONMENTAL DIVISION

Annual Conference of the BCWWA in

Vemon, BC on April 26, 1999. Lafarge's ready mix concrete opera

• Environmental Engineering • Water & Wastewater Engineering

Ontario Manitoba

tions in the BC Division earned this award for enhancements for the Kent Avenue Concrete Plant in Vancouver,


• Site Assessment & Remediation

• Hydrogeology

Alberta British Columbia

including: the development of a stormwater management plan for the plant site, improved installations for collect ing stormwater, and specialized on-site treatment of collected process water. The ready mix concrete trucks sta

• Waste Management • Urban Drainage

Northern Territories

& Internationally Visit our website at www.umagroutt.com

T-4 Years of

\WRDROP Engineering Inc.

tioned at the Kent Avenue Plant also

Winnipeg•Toronto•Soskotoon•Thuniler Boy•Asia•Africa


have the Lafarge-developed "EnviroTank" installed. The "EnviroTank" is a

portable system that allows the truck op erator to collect wash out water at job sites where a government approved wash out area is not available. When in

use, the "EnviroTank" will eliminate


A multidisciplinary Engineering, Environmental and Information Technologies firm, offering expertise In: .Environttienfal Assesstiient

> Chemical and Process Engineering

.Site Remediation

> Nydroiogy and Hydrogeolagy • Municipai and Industrial Water

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wash out water releases to storm and sewer drains. The collected wash out ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SPECIALISTS

water is returned for reuse or treatment

• Industrial/Municipal Wastewater Management

at the plant site. XCG CONSULTANTS LTD.

Accessing pollutant data Canadians will be able to get even more

information about pollution with the

expansion of the National Pollutant Re lease Inventory (NPRI), as companies are now required to report on 73 addi

• Watershed and Stormwater Management

• Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Vancouver Kitchener Toronto area Kingston www.xcg.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

(604) 990-0582 (519)741-5774 (905) 891-2400 (613)542-5888 mail@xcg,com

• Hydrogeology Investigation /Modelling • Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning

• Environmental Management Systems

Industry Update

Bottled water not always as clean as advertised A US study released in March, 1999, indicated that bottled water is not nec

essarily any healthier than most water taken directly from household taps. The Natural Resources Defense Council

(NRDC)study examined 103 brands of domestic and imported bottled water available in the United States. It found

that in at least one sample, 33 percent

purity guidelines used by the industry, state-purity standards, or, in some cases,

25 and 40 percent of bottled waters are repackaged municipal tap water which may or may not have been subjected to


additional treatment.

of the tested brands exceeded bacterial-

The NRDC said sales of bottled

water have tripled in the last 10 years in the US,in part due to some advertising that hinted, sometimes misleadingly, that the water comes from pure sources such as springs. In fact, the study shows that between

"People can drink what they want, but if they are going to spend up to 10,000 times more per (US) gallon for bottled water as opposed to what comes from the tap, they have a right to know what is in the water, where it is from, and that it is absolutely pure," said Erik Olson, NRDC's senior attorney and the report's lead author. The International Bottled Water




Association (IBWA), representing an in dustry that sells Americans an estimated 3.4 billion US gallons (12.8 billion li tres) of bottled water each year, dis missed the NRDC report as an attempt


^ Biosolids and Waste Utilization


• Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.




to "scare consumers".

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2

"For the past 37 years, there have been no confirmed reports in the US of

Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

illness or disease linked to bottled

Media & Coal Ltd. Mail — P.O. Box 60069



TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617


water," the IBWA said in a statement,

Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakvllle, Ont. L9T 2X5

For more information, circle reply card No. 160

Phone:(905) 878-2800/Fax: (905) 878-7332

For more information, circle reply card No. 161

"For Cost Effective Pumping' ABS has the most comprehensive range on the market.

A company in the Cardo Group

Sales & Service

• Sewage Pumps - Submersible Sl Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905)670-4677, Fax:(905) 670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

noting that a raft of both internal and external safeguards exist, aimed at guar anteeing product purity. The NRDC study did find that most of the water tested was relatively free of contaminants and was of high qual ity, posing no threat to healthy people. But it also found that bacteria in a small

amount of bottled water samples could prove a risk to people with weakened immune systems such as AIDS patients, the elderly, or people undergoing chemotherapy treatment.

Meteorology's top honour

For more information, circle reply card No. 162






TEL: (905) 619-3009 FAX: (905) 619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning

entist at Environment Canada.

For more information, circle reply card No. 163 Davidson

rbnvironn nvironmental



• Monitoring Wells • Recovery Wells

• Municipal Well Drilling

• Industrial Well Drilling • Construction Drilling

• Gas Extraction Wells

• Deep Monitoring Well Specialists

(519) 664-1422

• Well Testing and Rehabilitation 1-800-663-3849 Davidson "Since 1900"

147 North Street West

Wingham. Ontario (519) 357-1960

For more information, circle reply card No. 164 50

Cited for his involvement in educa

tion, research and groundbreaking work in boundary layer flow over topography. Dr. Taylor's research has been important to the advancement of models for wind


R.R, #I (Bast Place) Waterloo, Ontario

The Patterson Distinguished Service Medal was awarded by the Atmospheric Environment Service to Dr. Peter Taylor of York University at the recent Cana dian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society Congress in Montreal. Dr. Taylor is Professor of Atmospheric Sci ence and Applied Mathematics at York University, and a former research sci

energy and weather prediction. The Patterson Distinguished Service Medal has been presented since 1954 and is named for eminent meteorologist Dr. John Patterson. It is considered the pre eminent award recognizing outstanding contribution to work in meteorology in Canada.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Product and Service Showcase Transportation Services

Pumps for extreme requirements

Today, Harold Marcus Ltd. is pleased to service a wide variety of your transpor tation requirements throughout Canada and the United States....a growth attrib uted to our commitment to performance, expertise and dependability. From main tenance to safety and training, from op erations to management, the team of ex perienced professionals looks forward to tneeting your present and future transpor

Circle reply card No. 191

The Amarex KRT pump meets all re quirements for the erection, replacement, or extension of pumping stations. It has been designated for wet-well installa tions. Dry-well installations can be real ized by means of the Sewatec series of fered by KSB. So, no matter which field of application, KSB will be in the posi tion to offer an optimum solution at a fair price,coupled with the most suitable sew age hydraulics. KSB Pumps Circle reply card No. 192

less money. Advancements in UV lamp and equipment design mean significant benefits for the user: More germicidal UV output, less energy consumption, fewer UV lamps needed, less maintenance, smaller footprint, automated power pac ing to suit varying flow/waste characteris tics, lower water head requirement, auto mated cleaning system, environment/op erator friendly. UV Systems Technology Circle reply card No. 193

Centrifugal blowers

Responsible waste management

Zebra Mussels

tation needs. Harold Marcus

Water/wastewater disinfection

More water/wastewater disinfection for

C lu u s. S.

BOVAR's Swan

A "SolutKHi for

H r* r irrii

Hills Treatment


ill f fTa

Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Com pressor and Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at dis charge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air and gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as sewage aera tion, combustion drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, cooling and pneumatic conveying for more than 90 years. Hoffman Industries of Canada

To help control zebra mussels,

Centre is North

one solution in

America's only fully integrated

JAVEX-12 so

waste management

dium hypochlo-

volves the use of

facility. Destruc

rite, which kills

tion efficiencies

the larvae. We are

exceed 99.9999%

at its two rotai7 in cinerators which have a 43,000 tonne an

nual capacity. Upon approval, waste is transported from your site, inspected and sampled to verify conformance and treated according to physical and chemical char acteristics. Treatment residues are tested

for conformance to end disposal criteria. Bovar Waste Management

consulting with experts to estab lish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept informed of the latest information, please contact us. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 196

Circle reply card No. 195

Circle reply card No. 194

Noise control panel systems

Electrochemical testing

in lower wear rates and thrust loads. Also

For over four decades, Eckel has been a

Analysts looking for more dependable in strumentation for electrochemical testing

shown are close-coupled pumps and the exclusive "plug-in" drive shaft that allows for easy replacement of the pump "wet

leader in the design, development, and manufacture of high-quality, dependable sound control products and systems, in cluding: sophisticated anechoic chambers for research and product testing; noise con trol enclosures for equipment and machin ery sound isolation/modification; and preengineered, versatile, sound-absorbing panels for treating room/area acoustics.

Advantages of seepex pumps

The ADV brochure illustrates the unique geometries of seepex pumps which result

end". Other features include: sealed and

lubricated universal joints with reliable, replaceable bushings; improved rotor sur faces; harder rotor coatings; molded-tosize, shrink compensated stators; stator retensioning device and a patented run dry protection device, seepex Inc. Circle reply card No. 197

Eckel Industries

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Circle reply card No. 198

will welcome the introduction of

sensION™ - a brand new family of ultra-reliable, precision-engineered meters and electrodes for testing water, wastewater, ultrapure water, and aqueous solu tions. The meters, manufactured exclu

sively by Hach, are available in a variety of affordable models to accommodate pH, pH/ISE, conductivity, and dissolved oxy gen analysis. Fryston Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 199 51

Product and Service Showcase Self-priming centrifugal pump

Economical interface levei

Air-driven diaphragm pump


The Royce Model 2505 provides all the capability found on previous models in the 2500 Series. It has a digital display corresponding to the type of interface the operator has selected to monitor. This includes a variety of interfaces required in the waste treatment industry. Program ming and profile di.splay are accessible through the Royce Hand-Held Terminal. Cancoppas Limited

Circle reply card No. 200

Gorman-Rupp portable, engine-driven, self-priming centrifugal pumps are ideal for standby and emergency cleanup ap plications. Pumps can handle up to 3" diameter solids, depending on model. Pumps to suit other applications are also available. Optional wheel kit provides portability for easy access to the job site. Pumps are available with gasoline or diesel engines. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 201

New acid neutralization

Inlet StormceptorÂŽ system

Air-driven diaphragm pumps have an ex tra-thick pump casing for handling heavy sludges and solids. Pumps will handle high solids content up to 70%. Pumps are available in 1 1/2" to 4" (40 mm to

100 mm)sizes, capacities to 170 gpm (11 Ips), heads to 200'(61 m). They will han dle up to 3"(76 mm)solids. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 202

High capacity pacing valves

system The Inlet Storm

Stormceptor developed an in

ceptor System em ploys the.same prin ciples of operation

novative acid neutralization

In-line interceptors.

Canada Inc. has

as the well-known

Developed to treat

system capable of treating a continuous



acidic wastewater with no chemical dis

runofffrom an area


of up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Storm

pensing required. The system was de signed to ensure a trouble free, low main tenance operation with virtually no elec tronics. This unique process (patent pending) does not require mixing, rea gent preparation, an agitated mixing tank, or a pH controller for reagent dispens ing. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 203

ceptor has inherited the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and

M S and mercaptan scavenging

Advanced fluidized composting

oil removed from stormwater runoff re

mains trapped within the storage cham ber, even during peak flows. There are currently more than 2,500 units in place throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 204

Recognizing the expanding needs of ever larger water/wastewater treatment centers, Chlorinators Incorporated, Stuart, Florida, introduces two new high

capacity pacing valves with 1000 or 2000 PFD capacities to supplement their fast selling REGAL'^^' SMARTVALVE™ line. The high capacity models are avail able along witb the original model 7000 with 10 to 500 PPD.

Chlorinators Incorporated

Circle reply card No. 205

Trident water treatment


ULFilter's patented AFC technology rep resents state-of-the-art wastewater treat

USFilter Gas Technology Products an nounces the release of a new hydrogen sulfide (H,S) and light mercaptan scav

enger system called Sulfur-Rite^'^'. The process employs a solid, iron-based ma terial which reacts with H,S and mer captan sulfur to form environmentally safe iron pyrite (fool's gold). The spent product may be sent to any sanitary landfill or may be applied to land as a fertilizer. USFilter

Circle reply card No. 206 52

ment. A proprietary combination of thermophilic biological treatment with a sol ids separation and chemical treatment step enables AFC to treat highly concen trated organic waste and/or sludge streams with a fraction of the residual

sludge generated in other aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. AFC ac commodates high COD loadings at el evated temperatures and maintains excel lent stability. USFilter

Circle reply card No. 207

Trident plants effectively treat a variety of source-waters. The technology re moves turbidity, suspended solids, col our, iron, manganese, odour, taste, Giardia lambia and Cryplosporidium - at a lower capital cost than conventional sys tems, in a smaller space, and at higher flow rates per unit area. Trident utilizes the Adsorption Clarifier^''' for one-step flocculation and clarification. USFilter

Circle reply card No. 208 Environmentcd Science

Engineering, June 1999

Product and Service Showcase Effective backwash process

Demand based control for wastewater disinfection

Quality pumps for municipalities 'H .


■>*V •*,-!».

The General Filter MULTIWASH® Proc ess uses sustained simultaneous air and

water backwash to keep filter media clean and eliminate fouling with biological sol ids or chemical precipitates. Vigorous

scouring action effectively cleans the full

Stranco's field-proven High Resolution Redox (HRR) technology reliably meas ures oxidative strength, which is an ac curate predictor of disinfection rate and dechlorination, and can effectively moni tor and control the anoxic zone in BNR

processes. Strantrol HRR accurately con

media bed, lengthening filter runs. Longer

trols chlorination and dechlorination to

filter runs minimize backwash water re

quirements, resulting in reduced backwash

match the ever-changing organic and am monia loads, regardless of flow.

wastewater filtration. USFilter


Cornell Pump Company has been setting the standard for premium quality, effi cient end suction centrifugal pumps for the municipal marketplace since 1946. The products are engineered to be rug ged, durable and dependable and each Cornell pump is backed by an industry leading two-year warranty. Cornell pumps can be found hard at work for raw water intake, water processing, pressure boosting, energy recovery, wastewater process, and DAF systems. Indachem

Circle reply card No. 209

Circle reply card No. 210

Circle reply card No. 211

Tanks and silos

Internal floating covers save

Env. management tools

you money

Hydrocarbon evaporation from fixed roof storage tanks wastes your valuable product and pollutes the environment. An

years to come with the minimum of main tenance. Donson Engineering Circle reply card No. 212

exposed liquid surface is the simplest, most economical answer. The Ultraflote® Internal Cover forms a vapour-tight seal that traps a saturated layer of vapour over the surface of the liquid. A rim plate around the periphery is mechanically sealed to the deck skin and projects 4-6 inches into the liquid to positively seal and isolate the trapped vapour. Donson Engineering Circle reply card No. 213

The Envista family of products offers powerful software for environmental in formation management. Envista prod ucts are configured to fit specific work environments so operational and manage ment teams can store, track and manage information and stay on top of environ mental data and regulatory requirements. Streamlined data analysis provides the entire organization with access to timely information. Envista Technologies Circle reply card No. 214

The Con/Span Advantage

ABS expands range of

New Aquastore Brochure

internal floating For industrial and municipal waste, po table water and bulk storage, the Permastore® system has proven itself as a world beater for cost, quality and longevity. Re placing concrete and painted steel tanks as the preferred method of construction, early structures are still giving excellent service and will continue to do so for

roof to cover the

sewage pumps

Pumps for use in sewage generally have large solids passages - typi cally 80-100 mm. However, a large solids passage alone will not

• Fully engineered and custom-designed to your site requirements • Saves weeks off construction schedules

• Long life cycle and low maintenance • Carries heavy loads at low stress levels Your only precast choice for your next project. CON/SPAN CANADA

Circle reply card No. 215

ensure against blockage. The ABS CB (Contra Block) hydraulic sys tem consists of an open single or multiblade impeller which has a waved shear ing inlet together with a bottom plate on which a spiral groove is cast. This starts at the centre and runs to the outside of

the bottom plate. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 216

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999


A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Products Company offers a new eight-page bro chure on its glass-fused-to-steel Aquastore® tanks for municipal and industrial water storage. The brochure explains the manufacturing process and the advan tages of bolted assembly. Other topics include the benefits of glass coating and the company's proprietary Edgecoat™ process and Glass97™ potable water coating system. A.O. Smith Circle reply card No. 217 53

Product and Service Showcase TOP for self-cleaning pump

Ozone analyzer

stations The new TOP in

corporates a unique sump floor design, with hydraulically optimized pump discharge connec tions, to eliminate "dead zones" and

promote controlled fluid flow while pumping. TOP is available as a stand ardized, prefabricated component to sim plify construction of new or retrofit pump stations. Either way, the convergent de sign of the sump floor, reduces residual fluid volume and ensures that retained

solids are collected beneath the pumps suctions, ready to be pumped away. ITT Flygt Canada Circle reply card No. 218

Bitumen & butyl tape systems

The model 400 UV Absorption Ozone Analyzer from Advanced Pollution In strumentation(API)measures low ranges (0-100 ppb to 0-10 ppm) of ozone in ambient air. Through a valve switching mechanism, which every four seconds alternates measurement between sample stream and a sample scrubbed for ozone, an unbiased True Ozone reading is ob

MUNRO Concrete Solutions from Munro!

1-800-461-5632 www.munroconcrete.com

tained. Nortech GSI Inc.

Circle reply card No. 219

Circle reply card No. 220

Trace oxygen analyzer

Lamella clarifiers


disbonding. Denso North America Inc.

Protect your boiler feed system from cor rosion with the RTT Analytical 2010 Trace Oxygen Analyzer. Automatic rang ing allows direct reading from 0 ppb to 20 ppm DO. The user friendly software offers great features such as auto calibra tion,.self-diagnostics, fault tolerance and two 4-20 mA outputs. The unique gal vanic cell of the 2010 is separated from the sample by an easy-to-replace oxygen permeable PTFE membrane. True zero readings are achieved. Nortech GSI Inc.

automated plants or in upgraded instal lations where space may not he available for a standard clarifier. Units are usually fully assembled, minimizing erection costs and time. Ecodyne Limited

Circle reply card No. 221

Circle reply card No. 222

Circle reply card No. 223

Modular headworks system

Continuous sludge dewatering

Membrane technology for

Denso's bitumen and butyl tapes are cold applied, with excellent adhesion to pipe and self. No special equipment is re quired. They meet AWWA standards and are compatible with common pipe coat ings. Their flexibility provides extra pro tection at vulnerable areas and they pro vide excellent resistance to cathodic

^ JWC Environ-

Ecodyne custom design each lamella clarifier to meet the specific service needs of their clients. Use of a lamella clarifier reduces maintenance to a minimum.

There are no moving parts. Its compact ness allows the unit to be located in new,

industrial wastewater

' ! mental's Auger Monster'^'"' modu lar


system won a WEF Innovative

Technology Award - Process

Huber-RotamatÂŽ equipment for continu

Equipment Cat egory. The tech nology combines the high flow capabili

ous dewatering offers; continuous opera tion method adjusted to suit each indi vidual sewage treatment works; no filter

ties of a traditional bar screen with the

cloths or belts but stainless steel sieve ar

capture rate of a fine screen, while leav ing essential organics in the waste stream. The new Auger Monster systems are de signed to reduce the high maintenance of bar screens while eliminating the mess of unwashed screenings. JWC Environmental

Circle reply card No. 224 54

eas which are corrosion and maintenance-

free; self-cleaning sieve areas due to the rotating operation method and automatic backwash; compact machine, little space required; discharge directly into disposal containers; slowly running machines,thus no abrasion or noise. Dagex Inc. Circle reply card No. 225

ZENON's ZenoGemÂŽ bioreactor system can retrofit any existing wastewater treat ment facility, immediately increasing capacity by up to four times. The sys tem incorporates immersed membrane technology, which assures biomass reten tion, resulting in a high quality effluent, suitable for direct reuse or discharge. ZENON Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 226

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

Product and Service Showcase Prevent algae build-up

The N-Pump The design of the hydraulic ends of the N-Pump im proves the flow of liquids which greatly reduces the risk of clog ging, especially when pumping liquids with high

The Algae Sweep Automation™ System (ASA)is a unique system of spring-loaded brushes that attaches to the skimmer ann of a circular ciarifer. Its brushes have over

50 points of flexibility and adjustment to ensure thorough sweeping of ail weir, baf fle, launder, and spillway surfaces. ASA virtually eliminates the labour and chemi cal costs associated with controlling algae and debris. Ford Hall Company,Inc.

Circle reply card No. 227

solids or fibrous

content, such as sewage, and, because of the high pumping efficiency, reduced maintenance costs are achieved. All

motors in the N-series pumps are squir rel cage induction units, specially de signed and manufactured by Flygt for use in submersible pumps. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 228

World's highest flow progressing cavity pump The

Armour Valve Ltd, treatment of water and

wastewater. Check, Con trol, Isolation Valves and Accessories. Bemiad Flow i 4

Control, Regulation and Metering; CMB Wolverine AWWA Butterfly; Polyjet Regulators and Energy Dissipaters; Stafsjo Knife pling Valves; RDC Air Cylinders; Mastergear Manual Gears; Castell Inter locks; Protego Flame Amestors and Tank Relief Valves. Armour Valve Ltd.

The new Polytron IR from Draeger is ideal for moni

toring combusti ble gases. It uses a revolutionary non-focusing op tical system in combination with many field-proven components to establish a higher level of safety for your facility. Standard features of the Polytron IR include high signal stability, optimized sensitivity towards most common hydrocarbons, bi-direc tional digital data communication via RS 485 and HART protocol(4-20 ma is also standard). Wilier Engineering Limited Circle reply card No. 229

Polymer preparation system


Moyno® IKl500progressing

A leader in valves for the

Gate Valves; SchuF Sam


Lowest cost of ownership for gas detection system


cavity pump has the capabil ity to generate flow rates up to 4,000 gpm, making it the world's highest flow pro gressing cavity pump, ideal for high flow, positive dis placement pumping applica tions, according to Peacock, Inc. The new pump effi ciently handles abrasive flu ids, as well as solids-laden

slurries and sludges. It is an extension of Moyno's popular 2000 progressing cavity pump product line and features a crowned gear universal joint drive train for long, reliable pump life. Peacock,Inc.

ProMinent's new user-friendly .self-pro moting Ultromat plant delivers ready-touse polymer solutions automatically, safely and continuously. The powder(or liquid polymer) is first fed into a wetting assembly before entering a triple com partment tank where it is mixed,aged and stored. The Ultromat AT delivers accu

rate polymer concentrations between 0.05% to 1.0% and capacities from 400 1/h to 8,000 1/h. ProMinent

Circle reply card No. 230

Circle reply card No. 231

Circle reply card No. 232

TEnTDdR"Aluminum Domes

Compact ozone generator units

PlantPRO™ Trash Pumps

For more than thirty years Temcor has been competitively producing aluminum Domes, Roofs and Covers for Potable

Water and Wastewater applications in a wide variety of climates, successfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum prod ucts are lightweight, corrosion resistant, and maintenance free which translates to

longer life and lower maintenance costs. Aluminum doesn't rust like steel, doesn't

spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 233

Ozonia's range of standardized compact

ozone generator units, the OZAT®, take advantage of the latest technological de velopments, including "Advanced Tech nology" dielectrics. It is a very compact unit capable of producing extremely high ozone concentrations (up to 15% from oxygen - 5% from air), and it offers cli ents inexpensive hi-tech equipment for the economical production of ozone. Ozonia

Environrnenlal Science & Engineering, June 1999

Circle reply card No. 234

PlantPRO™' Trash Pumps offer high quality, premium performance at a price that won't bust your budget! All of our pumps are made of heavy duty cast aluminum with cast iron replaceable wear parts. Both 3" and 4" models are avail able. USABlueBook

Circle reply card No. 235 55

Collection Systems

Major dewatering and tunnelling project Challenging soil and dewatering problems overcome

A four kilometre expansion

of a trunk sewer in Barrie,

Ontario, requiring both tunnelling and open cut methods, is nearing completion; sewer diameters range from 825 mm to 1200 mm. The trunk sewer will service new

development, while enabling existing subdivisions to get off septic systems. Hewitt's Creek Management Inc. and the

City of Barrie shared costs on the $5 million project, with no federal or pro vincial funding. The Atlas Corporation was the dewatering contractor and a well point system was used to draw down to six metres, with a sewer range between 1011 metres in depth. Typically,there were 2-3 metres between well points in a staged system (stepped). Due to native soil conditions, well points were run on both sides of the valley to drain off water in some areas.

An Atlas Corporation eductor system was also used to dewater a tunnel run

ning under the road,70 feet below grade. The whole project had to be dewatered due to the depth of the valley and the close proximity to Lake Simcoe. Andy

By Kathleen Carignan

Environmental considerations were a major factor in the project which required tunnelling and open cut. Photo - Mark Munro

Ingriselli, The Atlas Corporation, said this was the most challenging project he had seen in years. Filter sand was installed with well

points to prevent removal of sand and sediment with the water, which was fur

ther pumped through enviro-bags to fil ter again before discharging into the ex isting creek.

of Tectonic Infrastructure Inc., was the

From alkalinity to zinc — HacKs direct-reading instruments, single-dose reagents, clear


While tunnelling under a creek, soil difficulties were encountered, so the

instructions, and proven methods make water testing convenient. m Test Kits. Over 200 single- and multiple-parameter water testing kits ■ Portable and Laboratory Instruments. Reliable colorimetric, pH,ISE, and tuibidimetric instruments that provide accurate results ■ Process Systems. Complete on-line systems to monitor turbidity, pH, chloride, hardness, silica and more HACH

Fryston Canada Inc. 7370 Bramalea Road, Suite 30

IVIississauga, ON LBS 1N6 Tel:(905)612-0566 Toll Free: 1-800-387-7503

Fax:(905)612-0575 E-mail:fryston@fryston.Dom site: www.frysfon.com

Significant efforts to protect existing environmental conditions were applied throughout the project. Trees were re planted in finished areas. Seals on pumps were redesigned and oiled with purity oil (a food oil made by Petro Canada) to avoid any contamination. Bryan Richardson, P.Eng., President of Richardson Engineering Ltd. was a consultant on the project, and Guy Acri,

project required an open cut section. When tunnelling under the road at ap proximately 70 feet deep, conditions made pipejacking impossible so the con tractor had to tunnel the remaining length by rib and lag method. Since 22 m of 1200 mm jacking pipe had already been installed, 825 mm pipe with a reduced bell diameter was manufactured to fit

inside the existing pipe and the remain der of the ran was installed after tunnel

ling was completed. Munro Concrete Products responded by constructing a special pipe insert. Munro Concrete Products supplied all of the concrete pipe which ranged from 825 mm to 1200 mm with strengths from lOOD to 220D.

For more information, circle reply card No. 127 56

For more information, circle reply card No. 126 (See page 25)

Environmentat Science & Engineering, June 1999

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. The economic advantages of HOPE pipe


Our 530 page all color mail-or der catalog, has over 12,000

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association's (GPPA) new brochure

items from more than 400 manu

focuses on the structural and cost

facturers - everything you need to keep your water and wastewater systems running smoothly. Simply pick up the phone for ex pert technical advice and same day shipping to anywhere In

savings advantages of corrugated high density polyethyiene pipe. Leading the Underground Revolution highlights current statistics and infor

Canada. USABIueBook

mation on the strength, costeffectiveness, ease of installation and adaptability of polyethylene pipe.

Circle reply card No. 180


Circle reply card No. 181

Trash removal and dewatering

Controlling contaminated groundwater

design of steel sheet piling featuring joints that can be sealed after the

The StrainPress SludgeCleaner is the first closed system which both screens and then compacts trash from sludge. It screens trash from primary, secondary, return, waste, or digested sludge, septage, as well as

sheets have been driven into the

from concentrated scums. The re

ground. The product was developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo and has patent/patent pending status in several countries. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills as sisted in the development of the product

sulting StrainPress sludge output is cleaner and more aesthetically pleasing, and can be used for ferti lizer, composting, or soil improve ment. The screenings are dry and can also be disposed of with other plant wastes to landfills at reduced disposal costs. Parkson Circle reply card No. 183

Waterloo Barrier is a low permeabil ity cutoff wali for groundwater con tainment and control.

It is a new



Waterloo Barrier Inc.

Circle reply card No. 182

Wastewater recovery and processing


Through utilizing the Derrick "FloLine" screening unit design, high fluid capacities can be effectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher solids/particulafe removal. The Derrick "Flo-Line"


screening unit can also be easily in stalled into an existing facility due to the unique compact unit design. The


The ZENON Membrane

Technology Prize The ZENON Membrane Technology Prize is awarded in recognition of advances in understanding the use of membrane technology for the so lution of water/wastewater manage ment problems. The recipient of the award will receive US $10,000 in rec ognition of their work. For further information visit ZENON's web page at: www.zenonenv.com.

"Flo-Line" can also be custom de

ZENON Environmental Inc.

signed to meet your industry's spe cific requirements. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 184

Circle reply card No. 185

Alternative combustion

Hazardous materials


storage For optimum storage and con

Eco Waste Solutions'Thermal Waste

CoiKi-ilitiltni: to !-.Âťvxn-nninciM.il <.!vMuin> Throjij'.U r)i!.pns.ll id Npn-rccyclabic

The ZENQN Membrane Technology Prize

Oxidizer Units are designed to proc ess the complete disposal of all types of municipal solid waste, biomedical, industrial, pathological, and labora tory waste and by-products. The Oxidizer System uses a combustion/ oxidation process to change solid waste material into a gaseous mate rial and residual ash by-product. Metals and glass are not melted down. This ensures clean stack

emission levels and allows for recy cling. Eco Waste Solutions Circle reply card No. 186

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

tainment of hazardous materi

als, the Chem-Loc Building can be an economical solution. Deal

directly with this established manufacturer and their in-house

design team for a custom de signed building. The Chem-Loc building complies with Canadian and US Building and Fire Codes and features all steel construction. Optional features range from fire suppression systems to customized door sizes, partitions and hoisting equipment. Since 1971, Chem-Loc has been chosen for reliable, eco nomical hazardous materials storage. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circle reply card No. 187


Odour Control

France develops new methods for the trapping or neutralizing of odours

A number of French compa

3-D Odour Cartography

nies are now working to first identify the chemical char

qualitative and quantitative analysis of

acteristics of odours and

the diffuse odours on industrial sites. To

then to find ways of reducing or neu tralizing them. "An odour that is less intense at the

source but that lasts longer creates greater discomfort," explains Lionel

The first task of EOG is to make a

this end, an industrial site is broken up into units, and a special olfactory refer ence system is prepared. A panel of ol factory experts visits the site, unit by unit, to make their observations in ac

Pourtier, director of EOG, a French re

cordance with cument European stand

search and consultancy firm specializ ing in olfactometric studies used to con trol the propagation of unpleasant

ards(NF X 43-103 and ISO 5492).


EOG has developed a range of diag nostic and quantification techniques to be used for diffuse smells. One of these

is an olfactory impact forecast tool based on a model that shows the atmospheric dispersion of odours. This enables EOG to propose a strategy aimed at reducing the level of odorous emissions by simu lating the effects of the atmospheric

Using the same procedure, the panel of olfactory experts then studies the situ ation from outside the site premises. This allows them to identify the main units responsible for the olfactory pol lution in the locally affected environ ment, with the data collected displayed on a 3-D mapping system. The results serve as a basis on which to prepare an action plan that will eliminate the main

changes that are forecast.

sources of undesirable odours.

Using this technique,EOG has set up an environment observatory around the

wastewater treatment plant of Acheres, which handles the wastewater equiva lent of a population of 8.2 million. The activity of the plant, which is one of the largest in Europe, has been the cause of olfactory discomfort for the inhabitants of eight neighboring districts. In 1992, EOG began to collect and correlate data on the operation of the sewage plant and on the concentrations of odorous chemical compounds pro duced at source. Other studies were

conducted on the ambient meteorologi cal conditions and the olfactory discom fort suffered by the local population. A special Minitel online service and a toll-free phone number were placed at the disposal of the local population. A number of solutions were implemented as a result, with measures to optimize plant management and to modify its lay out, for example by placing a cover on a sludge treatment tank. These meas ures brought about a 30% decrease in

McTighe Industries purchased by Billion international Group

nDis[ CDDTRoi m[[ SYsnms

David Billion, native of Sioux Falls, SD and president of Billion International Group, has acquired McTlghe Indus tries as a complement to his interests In the automotive Industry. This acquisition will continue McTlghe Industries' strong presence In the oil-water separator Industry. McTlghe Industries has over 25 years of experience In the oil-water separator Industry. McTlghe has been able to remain a leader due to Its top quality product and excellent customer service.

McTlghe has built a solid reputation for providing high performance, maintenance friendly oil-water separators. McTlghe separators Incorporate proven design technology with the use of corrugated plates for coalescing oil. We also have an enhanced Petro Pak™ coalescer for obtain


practical efficient solution to noise reduction needs. High Performance Combined with Economy • Outstanding sound absorption • Reduction of reverberation & background noise • Simple installation • Easy maintenance & durability

ECKEL INDUSTRIES OF CANADA LIMITED 15 Allison Ave., Morrlsburg, Ontario KOC 1X0

(613)543-2967 Fax;(613)543-4173 1-800-563-3574 CAN./USA Web Site: http://www.eckel.ca/eckel E-mall: eckel@eckel.ca For more information, circle reply card No. 157 (See page 25)

ing effluent qualities of 10 ppm or less. We offer separa tors for above and below grade Installations, double wall construction, automatic oil and/or water discharge systems, and three-phase separation. In addition to quality products, McTlghe Industries prides Itself on satisfying the customer-from the specifying engi neer to the maintenance personnel who work with Its equip ment.

For more Information contact: Jeremy Morrison, Engineering Sales Manager, at: 1-888-776-0581.

McTighe industries A Division of Billion International Group 2100 North KlmbalUP.O. Box 928 Mitchell, SD 57301-0928

(605) 996-1162, Toll Free: 1-888-776-0581 Fax:(605) 996-1908. Web site: www.mctlghe.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 148 (See page 25)

Odour Control

the olfactory discomfort affecting the surrounding districts. Odour Neutralization

ECU, developed by the French chemical companies Elf Atochem and Delta AIC, possesses a number of antiodour compounds that act directly on malodorous molecules via derivatives of

In the case of plants treating municipal or industrial wastewaters, unpleasant odours often come from the tanks used to treat and store

sludge. By incorporating a water-soluble compound ... with the effluent, hydrogen sulfide

undecylenic acid. Their positive impact

content is cut from 90% to 33%...

on malodorous effluents has been dem

onstrated on many occasions. Unde cylenic acid is a fatty acid with eleven carbon atoms and a terminal double

bond obtained by steam cracking castor oil. Delta AIC develops and sells a range of formulations based on this acid and

containing hydrophilic compounds that can be mixed directly with water, lipophilic compounds to be associated with emulsions, or oil-based products and industrial soaps designed to clean and deodorize floors.

For its on-site use, the French engi neering company Planiff takes over and installs the necessary equipment. To process liquid effluents, odour control products are injected using a dosimetric piston pump, which meters the quantity to be incoiporated. The treatment is ho mogenized by the natural turbulence of

the effluent.

central France, Planiff mixed ECU

For the treatment of the gas effluents, or the air in general, the deodorizing product is dispersed by means of an ul trasonic spray system which produces fine droplets of regular size (between five and ten microns in diameter), or by using a high pressure air-mist generator which disseminates particles with diam eters ranging between two and five mi

products with the organic matter that forms the compost base, and treated the gases generated at the various stages of production by air-misting. In general, the EC 11 -based system is set up in ma turing and storage areas, inside bio-reactor stacks, and near loading hoppers

crons. A crown of nozzles around a fan, for instance, will ensure concentrated

dispersion of the deodorizing products, while several sprayers distributed around the area to be treated will ensure

broad dispersion. To reduce the odours caused by the composting of domestic waste at the Montceau Creusot Recycling plant in

Access Handles

Liting Davits Vent Pipes

or shaker screens.

In the case of plants treating munici pal or industrial wastewaters, unpleas ant odours often come from the tanks

used to treat and store sludge. By in corporating a water-soluble compound from the EC 11 product range with the effluent, hydrogen sulfide content is cut from 90% to 33%, while methylmercaptan is reduced from 92% to 45%.

Circle reply card No. 176

MacViroEnergy Solutions

Designing Environmental

Access Hatches

MacViro Consultants Inc. is seeking the following

Lifting Hooks

additions to its staff: ljh7TT4l

Liquid Level Regulator Holders

I• Project Manager with a minimum of three years direct experience managing multi-discipline projects in the water and sewage fields. Must be a P.Eng.

Safety Chains Railing Systems

Satety Landings Trash Baskets

Fail Arrest Systems Ladders

Climbing Rungs

Guide Bars

!• Electrical Design Engineer with a minimum of three years experience in detailed design of electrical and mechanical systems in the water and sewage fields. Must be a P.Eng. • Project Coordinator with a minimum of five years experience managing civil and/or multi-discipline engineering projects. Must be a P.Eng. or C.E.T.

Sump Grates

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MacViro is a leading firm of consulting engineers specializing in environment and energy. The company offers interesting work, competitive salaries, benefits, and an opportunity for bonuses. Please send resumes to:

Mr. Eric A.D. MacDonald, President

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? Fax; 905 823-4947

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Fax: (905)475-5994


For more Information, circle reply card No. 167 (See page 25)

For more Information, circle reply card No. 168 (See page 25)

Wastewater and Irrigation

Hawaii chooses design - buiid Water reclamation for irrigation and industry

Sometime in the millennium

year, treated wastewater from the Honouliuli treatment plant in Hawaii will be recycled for irrigation and as high purity water for local industry. This innovative approach will be made possible by a 20-year public-pri vate partnership between the City of Honolulu and USFilter's Operating

Services group that includes designing, building, financing, owning and oper ating a 12 million (US) gallon-per-day (1890 mVh) water reclamation facility on a site adjacent to the Honouliuli plant. Says Honolulu Mayor Jeremy Harris: "The partnership eliminates the need for our community to spend millions of dol lars to build treatment facilities neces

sary to meet a federal consent decree; secondly, it enables us to preserve lim ited potable water resources through the stringent treatment and reuse of wastewater."

USFilter will spearhead the multifac-

eted water reclama

tion project, which in volves accepting up to 13 (US) mgd (2050

m^/h)of secondary ef fluent from the Hono

uliuli plant in order to produce 12 mgd for beneficial reuse. The

company will also be responsible for mar keting and distributing the water to the city and to commercial and industrial users.

The agreement includes a provision in which USFilter will guarantee the per formance and maintenance of the treat

ment facility and related equipment throughout the 20-year period. The new facility will utilize fine-me dia filtration, microfiltration and reverse

osmosis processes supplied to treat sec ondary effluent now discharged into the Pacific Ocean. These processes will generate two grades of water. One grade


is a high-purity water that will be sold to power and petro-refining companies at nearby Campbell Industrial Park. The other grade will be utilized for irriga tion purposes. The city will purchase

approximately (US)6 mgd (950 m-''/h) for irrigation needs, freeing up a com parable amount of potable water for resi dential needs. The agreement is valued at(US)$140 million. For more information, circle reply card No. 140

Metering Pumps For WATER OR WASTE



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Dartmouth (902) 468-5599 Montreal(514) 366-5900 Mississaugo (905) 812-7100 Edmonton (780) 438-1122 Coigory (403) 250-7000 Vancouver (604)552-3185 Fort St. John (250) 785-6627 UM-w.pcacock.ca



For more information, circie reply card No. 143 (See page 25)

Wastewater Treatment

What you should know before year 2000 Potential legal liabilities examined

No one knows just exactly

how catastrophic the Year 2000("Y2K")problem will be; what is known is that the

expense will be enormous. The poten tial cost of the inability of computers and any logic imbedded device, such as memory chips, to differentiate between the Year 1900 and the Year 2000 and to

make accurate calculations is currently estimated at US $600 billion.

damage will occur that day. Over the years, some computer programmers re alized that there would be a Year 2000

problem, but still used two digit year formats and wrote additional computer code, varying with each programmer,to tell the computer or logic device to set a pivot date sometime in the next century, other than year 2000. Accordingly,com puters may treat any year up to the pivot date(estimated in the industry to be usu

While a claim in nuisance

is now statute barred, a claim

that the utility was negligent in failing to correct a Y2K prob

world wars.

After "00/00/00" is reached, no one

knows how the two digit calendar imbedded logic devices will react. Cau tion abounds; the US aviation authority is grounding all planes, about 50% of planes in America, that cannot guaran tee they are Y2K compliant. Myth: All damage will occur Jauuary1,2000 The majority of the expected dam age will occur on January 1, 2000 (known as the "pivot date") but not all

lem before "00" rolled around

arguably would not be statute ban-ed. A claimant could be ex

ally 15 to 20 years into the next cen tury) as being in the next century but once the pivot date is reached the com puter will treat that as its Year 2000 and start calculating as if it has just begun calculating from year 0, or Year 1900, all over again. Myth: Litigatiou will uot start uutil damage has heeu suffered There are already 15 reported cases in the United States dealing with Year 2000 issues. The majority are class ac tions, claiming that software designers

Willms & Shier

pected to argue that the munici pality and utility had an obliga tion to anyone accessing their systems to prevent the systems from harming others. By failing to meet that obligation,the municipality and util ity can be found liable for any damage that its customers or neighbours suffered because of a Y2K problem. In addition, there can be a claim

against the utility for a violation of the Environmental Protection Act(EPA).

and manufacturers have failed to create

The EPA prohibits all persons,includ ing corporations and municipalities in the Province of Ontario, from discharging a contaminant or causing or permitting the discharge of a contaminant into the natu ral environment that causes or is likely to

software that can accurately differenti

cause an adverse effect.

ate the Year 2000 and the Year 1900.

One case has already been decided in court and it apportioned liability against the designer of the software. What you should kuow: Claims agaiust a muuicipality Assuming that a distribution system fails because of a Y2K problem and damage occurs, can a claimant succeed in law against a municipality for result ing damage? Claims can be expected under the tort of nuisance, the tort of

By Cynthia R.C. Sefton and Murdoch R. Martyn, Outerbridge Miller Sefton

of a local boaid;

c)an officer, employee or agent of a municipality or local board.

The insurance industry esti mates that this date changeover and resulting damage will be the third most expensive event in human history after the two The technologically depend ent providers of wastewater serv ices may not be immune to the Y2K problem. With their enor mously complex distribution systems, the potential for wide spread damage and consequen tially expensive lawsuits, should the systems fail, is immense. We outline below some myths about the millennium bug and what you should know about le gal issues before 01/01/00. Myth: Damage can only affect computers Computers will not be the only af fected machines. Any logic imbedded device, such as machinery and medical equipment,can be at risk. These devices until just a few years ago invariably had internal calenders using a two digit year format; this was cheaper to make than one with a four digit year format.

limit municipal liability under the tort of nuisance for the escape of water and sewage. Section 331.2(1) of the Mu nicipal Act now states that: "No pro ceeding based on nuisance, in connec tion with the escape of water or sewage from sewage works or waterworks, shall be commenced against, a) a municipality or local board; b) a member of a municipal council or

negligence and for violation of the Environmental Protection Act for es

capes of water and sewage. Changes to the Municipal Act, pro claimed in force December 1, 1996,

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999

A contaminant is defined as mean

ing "any solid, liquid, gas, odour, heat, sound, vibration, radiation or combina

tion of any of them resulting directly or indirectly from human activities that may cause an adverse effect". Both water and sewage have been found to be contaminants by the Courts. Both the Province and "any other person" have the right to compensation for loss or damage incurred as a direct result of the spill of a contaminant or pollutant that causes or is likely to cause an adverse effect and this right to com pensation is from the owner of the pol lutant and the person having control of the pollutant. 61

Wastewater Treatment

The onus is then upon the owner of the contaminant/pollutant to establish that they took all reasonable steps to pre vent the spill of the pollutant or that it was caused by the direct interference of a third party. When the claim comes in: Is there

insurance coverage? The insurance industry is not address ing the Y2K issue in tandem. Many in surance companies, and certainly most reinsurance companies, are explicitly excluding coverage for damage result ing from Y2K problems. Other insurance companies, how ever, are not making the exclusions be cause they consider that the resulting damage from date problems will fall under other coverage paragraphs in the insurance policies; no one knows for certain that a Court will read a Y2K ex

clusion clause as barring all claims for insurance coverage. These insurers also see market share opportunities in the present climate of fierce inter-insurance company competition. When the claims come in, there also will be a scramble to review when and

how the system failed and when the failed computer or logic imbedded de vice was installed; it may have been in stalled early this decade, and insurance companies recognize that the insurance policies historically in place will be re lied on as a source of coverage against the insurance companies. This is much like the recent battles where historical in-

When the claims come in, there also will be a scramble to review when and how the

system failed and when the failed computer or logic imbedded device was installed. surance policies without environmental exclusions (dating back decades) were dredged up in environmental litigation. Class action lawsuits in Ontario If there is a massive failure of a waste

water system when Y2K occurs, there may very well be mass tort claims brought under Ontario's Class Proceed ings Act. This law permits one person to be a representative of all persons who were affected by the system failure. It is designed to promote efficiency by al lowing one person to bring an action on behalf of many. The law has a rarely used provision that also permits a de fendant facing multiple claims to con solidate the plaintiffs' actions into a class proceeding. Preparing for Y2K: Creating one problem but causing another? An obvious technological concern for anyone preparing for Y2K is that by solving that problem, another problem may be created. Many computer pro grams are not bought outright, rather, they are bought under licence. By

m Armour Valve Ltd. A leader in valves for the treatment

of water and wastewater. Check, Control, Isolation Valves and Accessories.

changing the computer code without ob taining the permission of the grantor of the computer licence, the licence agree ment may be violated, exposing the util ity to claims for copyright infringement and breach of contract. A review of the

original software agreement, and any subsequent agreements,should be made prior to modifying the system's software to determine whether the original soft ware manufacturer's permission is needed prior to modification Conclusion: Protecting the municipality and utility from claims The elements of due diligence are straightforward but require commitment of time and dollars, planning and fol low-through: • Develop a Y2K policy. Ensure that it is followed.

• Write it down. Documentation is nec

essary both as a check on what has been done, and as proof in court, if necessary. Without consistent and clear documenta

tion it is difficult to prove due diligence. •If changes need to be made to the com puter systems' software, review the original software agreement, and any subsequent agreements, to determine whether the original software manufac turer's permission is needed prior to modification.

• Plan emergency response. Contin gency planning for emergencies is es sential. Everyone should know theirjob in an emergency and everyone should know how to reach someone in author

Bermad Flow Control, Regulation and Metering CMS Wolverine AWWA Butterfly Polyjet Regulators and Energy Dissipaters Stafsjo - a leader in the supply of

ity at all times. • Review the insurance policies in place over the last several years. Whenever

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based on an event which took place in the past, it is worthwhile to thoroughly ex amine any policies that may have been in effect over the lifetime of the computer chip which caused the wrong to take place. Some policies covered any event or occurrence which took place during the lifetime of the policy, and even though the policy may now be expired, the in surer may have some obligation to re spond and defend the claim. ❖

SchuF Sampling Valves RDC Air Cylinders Mastergear Manual Gears Castell Interlocks

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For more information, circie reply card No. 165 (See page 25)

faced with a civil claim for a Y2K matter

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1999


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^3 rights ft