Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 1999

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

May 1999




storage tank regs. and options - ES&E's special biannual focus Helicobactor pylori- a threat to drinking water safety? Environmentai monitoring in Vancouver Ontario's iargest jacked sewer tunnel Self-cieaning membrane water treatment Focus on the food processing industry Utilizing ballasted fioc ciarifiers

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Contents ,

â– '



April/May'99 Vol.12 No. 2 Issued May, 1999


Solving a Titanic filtration problem -See page 32




Ad index


Environmental comment by Tom Davey


Reader Service Card







10 14 16 18


Literature Reviews


Product Review



industry Update



Professional Cards


Sterling addresses WEAO Conference Solving garbage problems from tour liners Environmental monitoring in Vancouver Cover story - Ontario's largest jacked pipe tunnel Saving energy in pump lift stations Controiling underground fumes Focus on tbe food processing industry Utilizing ballasted floe clarifiers


Pulsed bed filters' role at tbe movies


Invasive species in the spotligbt

36 38

Helicobactor pylori and public health Low energy costs for leachate treatment


ES&E's conference a great success


Tbe true cost of level measurement


AWWA's Chicago conference


Self-cleaning membrane water treatment


Odour and indoor air quality




Sales Manager




Managing Editor

Sales Representative



Circulation Manager

Publisher's Assistant



Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Jim Bishop

Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Beak international Inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Goodfeliow Consultants Ltd.

Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Environmental Science & Engineering is a hi-monthly business puhiication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An ail Canadian puhiication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage ot Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treat

Tank Focus

52 Reducing benzene emissions

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Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission ot the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. (G.S.T. exfra)

Ail advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca, Weh site: http://www.esemag.com

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Environmental History

Engineers are still the invisible profession Engineers and chemists are vastly under-represented in our culture

In my January 1999 review of The

Interceptor, authored by Richard Hershlag, an American engineer, I noted, in passing, two famous

chemist that I have ever seen represented cinematically and she had to discover a new element and win two Nobel prizes to gain her place on the silver screen. As I wrote in the January issue: "Who

ten giant in Canada's environmental evo lution. While he and his father before

him were born in Ontario, he could trace his roots to the time of William the Con

both of whom combined science and lit

are the heroes in the Hood of books,

queror's rule in England. He is regarded by many as a pioneer consulting engi

erature. These two were mentioned be

films and television programs'?" Who indeed. For example, does the public

first consulting engineering firm. Chip-

authors. Neville Shute and H.G. Wells,

cause 1 felt that few people knew that

neer and he was co-founder of Canada's

both these renowned authors

man and Power.

had scientific as well as literary backgrounds.

founding member of the Asso ciation of Land Surveyors,later serving as president. He was active in drawing up the Bill

One reader wrote that Isaac Asimov should have been in

cluded. Good point. Isaac Asimov is justly renowned as a biochemist and prolific science

which led to the creation of

fiction author - but he is not the

only one. Other esteemed sci entists who combined art and

He was a


science would include Sir

Humphry Davy,an English sci entist honoured by the French even as England and France were at war. Sir Humphry is

what is now Professional Engi neers Ontario, becoming the as sociation's second president in 1923. He traveled widely in his quest for water treatment knowledge and his record of water and wastewater designs throughout Canada was legen dary. When he died in 1929, he was buried in Brockville, On

cathodic protection and the miners' safety lamp. Sir Humphry also wrote poetry and

tario. Fittingly, he was interred with his iron ring, denoting the calling of a professional engi neer, a profession he had served

was a friend of William Words

so well.

worth whom he visited in Eng

Earlier, his path crossed with a young Albert Edward Berry

credited with the invention of

land's renowned Lake District.

Clearly he was a man of culture who had served as a lieutenant as well as a towering figure in in the Royal Engineers during science'. Then there is the great World War I. While stationed Russian composer Borodin who in England, Albert Berry met held a doctorate in chemistry. Ardent who, with Lockett and Few chemists, let alone the gen Dr. Berry at tiis home in St. Marys. Photo - Tom Davey Fowler, was credited with de eral public, are aware that Borodin was know anything of Thomas Keefer veloping the activated sludge treatment a chemist. Yet the great composer was (1821-1915), who once served as chief breakthrough near Manchester, around said to have regarded chemistry more engineer of Montreal's waterworks in the time of the first World War. On his highly than his music. Clearly many 1853, as well as designing waterworks return, he took both Master's and Ph.D. people have bridged what C.R Snow projects in St. Catharines, Quebec City, degrees and worked for the Ontario Ottawa and Hamilton? This Canadian's Department of Health where he became called 'the twin solitudes' of art and sci expertise was recognized far beyond our Director of its Sanitary Engineering Di ence. But the indisputable fact remains that borders. In 1888 he was appointed vision in 1926. Later he became Gen scientists in general, and engineers and President of the American Society of eral Manager and Chief Engineer when Civil Engineers, the first Canadian to be the Ontario Water Resources Commis chemists in particu lar, are vastly under- so honoured. Later in 1888, he was sion was created in 1956. OWRC dis represented in our elected President of the Royal Society solved into what became the Ontario popular culture, es of Canada. One of his drinking water Ministry of the Environment. When Dr. pecially as central pumps was installed in Hamilton in the Berry began his working life, typhoid and cholera were commonplace in figures in books,TV 1850s when cholera was reaching epi demic proportions. This project alone Canada. He became a legend in his day and movies. Mad ame Curie is the only almost certainly saved a significant by ramming through water treatment number of lives-. projects, often over the protests of re Historical records also reveal the ex luctant governments and municipalities. By Tom Davey traordinary Willis Chipman as a forgot His work resulted in countless awards

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Environmental History in the United States and Canada,includ ing the Order of Canada,induction into Engineering Alumni Hall of Distinction, and an honorary degree Doctor of En gineering (Honoris Causa) from the University of Toronto. Like Willis Chipman, Dr. Berry was very active in professional associations. He is still the only person - American

also dabbled in clockmaking, truly a polymath for all seasons. But even as the young Lieutenant Albert Berry was serving in World War

and engineers who are the forgotten he roes of our history. There is a rich legacy of environmental engineering through out the world. Until The Interceptor, this

1, Lieutenant Colonel Nasmith -later to

legacy was nowhere to be found in our depiction of any of the environmental

or Canadian - ever to have become

He held an M.A., Ph.D., D.P.M., and

president of the American Water Works

D.Sc., all from the University ofToronto which was also Dr. Berry's alma mater. Dr. Nasmith also played a major role in

Association and what is now the Water

Environment Eederationl On his retire

ment, he did overseas consulting for the World Health Association in South East

Asia. In spite of all the prodigious achievements which unquestionably saved hundreds of thousands of lives,

he is all but forgotten today, even at the MOE!

Born October 6th, 1894 in a farm

become one of the founders of what is now CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited -

professionals in our contemporary fic

had devised methods of purifying water

tion or cinema. 1 believe the thrust of

on the battlefields of that terrible war.

my review of The Interceptor is incontestably factual.

understanding that the first use of gas warfare by the German Army at Ypres in April 1915, was a combination of chlorine and bromine.

His actions in the field along with technical and practical discussions are recorded in the July 16, 1919 edition of the Medical Record. He was officer

leaving an unmatched legacy of im proved public health through environ mental engineering. 1 once enjoyed a day at Dr. Berry's home in St. Marys where his versatility in the arts and sci ences astounded me. Not only was Dr. Berry a prolific author in his field, he

commanding No. 5 Mobile Laboratory in Erance, which had full supervision of all water purification for the First Ca nadian Army and latterly, the Second British Army in the field. As dirty drink ing water has often been as lethal as enemy weapons throughout military his tory, Dr. Nasmith's contributions un questionably saved the lives of count

loved to embellish his articles with

less British and Canadian soldiers.

quotes from great writers and poets. He was as well a gifted amateur painter who

These are merely a few of the dra matic achievements made by chemists

house near St. Marys, Ontario, he died October 19th, 1984 in London, Ontario,

'Michael Faraday, who was Davy's assistant at the age of 14, went on to become the 'fa ther of electricity'. He was also the first to liquify chlorine. While their contributions be came scientific bookmarks in our history, some acrimony developed later. Thomas Keefer's older half brother Samuel

Keefer(1811-1890), was equally famous. He worked on the first Weliand Canal, designed one of the pioneering link suspension bridges in North America in 1836, and at the age of 30, became the Chief Engineer of the Board of Public Works in the United Provinces. The

Keefer brothers were truly remarkable. A res toration project on Thomas Keefer's Hamil ton pump was featured in the November 1998 issue of ES&E and is also on our Web site at: www.esemag.com

''Dr. Berry's record of being the only person to be elected as president of both the AWWA and WEF organizations, has remained un challenged over several generations. Both

bodies are the largest and oldest of their kind in the world. There is speculation that an American might possibly match his record in the millennium year, Š Copyrights Tom Davey

Letters and E-mails

This is a little late, but 1 have just got a copy of your November 1998 issue. 1 wanted to comment on Tom Davey's edi torial. 1 must agree with just about eve rything you said Tom. It is encouraging to know that this line ofthinking transcends time. 1 am a young (ish) engineer. From time to time 1 have too been caught up in way-too-long exer cises in the criticism without action game and draw energy from people who do act - with intelligence that is! Not everyone has an inclination to speak out so strongly but it is a good sign when someone who can, does so with positive motives and humour.

Sandra Ormonde,Scarborough, ON In your January 1999 Commentary you noted that you could not recall any engi neers playing heroic roles. One role that 1 recall is in the recent movie The Ghost

and the Darkness, in which Val Kilmer

plays the role of Lt. Colonel John Patterson, a British engineer. The movie is based on a true story as recorded in tbe real John Patterson's book.

The Man Eaters of Tsavo. Perhaps you

Dear Tom:

didn't like the movie, but it was refresh

Your editorial comments are always a pleasure to read, but the review of The Interceptor by Richard Herschlag which appears in the current(January 1999) is sue of Environmental Science & Engi neering stands out as a gem in form as

ing to see an engineer in the hero's role in which he was shown build

ing a bridge. Douglas Hill,P.Eng.,Williams Lake,BC Thanks, I will read this book. Meanwhile,

my old friend. Bob Goodlngs, P.Eng.,sug gested I read Ship of Gold in the Deep Blue Sea by Gary Kinder (Random House). I did. This Is a true story of a brilliant engineer/scientist who led a team which salvaged gold from a 133 year-old wreck deep In the Atlantic ocean. With a mere 30 people, he spent $12 million and recovered unprecedented amounts of gold and artifacts from great depths. This feat can be ranked with Nell Armstrong's landing on the moon which

cost $100 billion with over 400,000 peo ple working on the project.

Ship of Gold Is a great read, covering brilliant engineering, legal complexities and heroic actions while conducting deep sea recoveries under hurricane condi

tions. But who has ever heard of'Tommy Thompson', the engineer behind It all?

well as in substance. It deserves an orchid.

Frederick T. Gerson,President,

F.T. Gerson Limited, Consulting Eng. Tom Davey has written a number of out standing editorials on what he terms the low bid ethos in this highly respected magazine (Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine). Tragically, many purchasers of engineering services do not seem to understand that, to quote Tom: The low bid ethos works like afis cal grader, flattening the peaks of ex cellence whilefilling in the potholes of mediocrity. D.C.Ingram,P.Eng., President, Consulting Engineers of Ontario, writing in the March issue of Concrete Pipe Journal.

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WEAO Report

Public policy must be based on sound science WEAO thanked by Ontario Environment Minister

The 28th annual conference of the



Association of Ontario began with CTV's Mike Duffy who took delegates on a humorous trek behind Ottawa's political power structure. Mike had some great anec dotes about various prime ministers and US presidents. Brian Mulroney and his wife were close friends of President and

Mrs. Bush, for example. Conference delegates appreciated his warm wit and political insights. He broke the audience up when he described the Canadian Senate as a taskless thanks.

Norman W. Sterling, Ontario Minis ter of the Environment, gave a strong address predicated on his background as a lawyer,engineer and politician. He said environmental professionals had raised the bar when it came to providing supe rior water and wastewater services.

"Today, I want to challenge you to raise the bar even further... to go beyond internal discussion and make your knowledge part of the public discourse about the environment. You have an

increasingly impoitant role to play as the economy rebounds and environmental concerns return to the foreground. While the environment is a deeply emo tional issue, at its root, ecology is a sci-

By Tom Davey

Conference Chair Deborah Ross, XCG Consultants and Prad Khare, WEF Treasurer.

ence -good public policy must be based ices Improvement Act (Bill 107) were on sound science. Your knowledge is greatly appreciated. not just dry, technical and academic - it "You also helped us rethink our grant is something that benefits us all by pro programs. Some of your members pro tecting our health and environment." vided ideas for building in efficiencies The minister said that WEAO exper which were used in the criteria for our tise covers many facets of the industry, Provincial Water Protection Fund but all had the ability of working to (PWPF). The PWPF, as you are aware, gether to find solutions to many of to is a $200-million program to assist mu day's problems. nicipalities experiencing health or en "I want to acknowledge the role you vironment problems related to water and have already played. Your association's sewage .service. Certainly, you will be thoughtful contributions during consul an increasingly important source of ex tations on the Water and Sewage Serv- pertise for municipalities as they face new servicing challenges. "I hope you will also continue to serve as a resource for the Ministry of the Environment and that you will work in even greater partnership with us in the future. A main point of entry to the ministry is the Environmental Partner ship Branch. This new branch plays an important role in managing our relation ships with our many partners-industries, government and non-government organi zations, and municipalities," he said. "Programs that are offered through the Environmental Partnerships Branch are: the Pollution Prevention Pledge Pro gram and the Provincial Water Protec tion Fund. The sections of the Environ

mental Partnerships Branch are: Clean Production Services. Environmental

The 1998 WEFaward winners were (left) Bob Crane, Region of Hamilton-Wentworth, Hatfield Award, and (right) Peter Nicol, CH2M Gore & Storrie, Bedell Award. 10

Technologies Section, Green Industry Office and Water and Sewage Utilities Transfer. Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

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WEAO Report "In addition to dealing in programs and services, the Branch's Green Indus

try Office is working to help develop and market the water and wastewater indus

try domestically and abroad. This work is meeting with success because of the leading edge work being done by peo ple like yourselves. "As issues get more complicated and the 20-second sound-bite becomes

even more prevalent-it is important that people are out there who have under stood and thought through environment issues. As experts, you must .speak out on these issues so that the tight decisions, based on science, continue to be made.

EC's Pradeep Khare, who is Treas urer of the Water Environment Federa

tion, represented WEF at the conference. In his address he said: "Change is ac celerating at an unbelievable pace. What used to be done in months is being done in days, hours, minutes and even, in some cases, seconds. The emphasis has changed on how we manage the envi

BOD, Suspended Solids and smoke to chronic and persistent pollutants that cause long-term health effects. "We have moved from a sector-based

approach such as types of industries or municipalities, to regional or geo graphical approaches such as watershed and airshed analyses. He cited some changes: • From reactive, end-of-pipe treat ment to proactive, preventive planning. •From prescriptive legislation to out come or objective based legislation. • From government leadership in en vironmental control, to community stew ardship, industry leadership and indus try/government and public partnenships. • Public role in decision-making once virtually non-existent, now as full partners. "Within the context of these trends," he stressed,"there are a number of chal

lenges facing environmental profession als. The top five challenges, from my perspective, facing all of us in the envi


ronmental field include:

He cited the way public focus has moved from traditional pollutants re lated to sickness and short-term prob

1. Privatization or public private partnerships in the wastewater indus try. The aging infrastructure, the lack of public funds and the interests of gov-

lems such as fecal contamination, hiah

ernment.s to find partners is driving the governments towards privatization. Pri vatization will result in loss of public control, higher taxes to meet the cost demands, but will bring some efficiencies and shared risks. It may be applicable in some cases, but it is not a recipe for all situations. 2. Public expectations and involve ment are a major challenge facing all of us in the environmental industry. Al though the need for public involvement cannot be argued with as it brings inclusiveness and better decision-mak

ing, it requires a lot of time commitment up front and slows down the decisionmaking. Environmental engineers and wastewater operators are doers and not very comfortable at public relations. They would rather spend time design ing or operating the plants than attend ing open houses or public meetings. However, this challenge cannot be ig nored. Politicians expect public in volvement before they will approve any project these days. 3.Integrated management. For every project we must consider the effect on all other resources whether it is fish,

wildlife,forests or agriculture. We must also consider air and land issues along with water.

ANNOUNCEMENT Thorburn Penny is pleased to announce the appointment of the following new personnel in our Burlington office.

4. Globalization is the issue facing us over the next several years. We all know that the world is shrinking and becoming interdependent in all aspects. Trade


economic issues are

interlinked. Slight changes in one coun try's economy immediately affect stock markets around the world. Politics are

Robert MacLean has recently joined the company as a Project Manager involved in the study and design of water treat ment facilities. Rob was formerly em ployed by PICA USA Inc., and has a wealth of knowledge in the field of Granular Activated Carbon usage and regeneration. He is a graduate of McGill University. Rob has .several years of ex perience in research and engineering and is a valuable asset to our company.

Ben Kramer has worked in the munici

pal consulting engineering business with Gore and Storrie and Simcoe Engineer ing for almost 25 years. He has special ized in the design and construction of wastewater conveyance systems through out much of Ontario. Ben will act as a

Project Manager responsible for the de sign and construction of municipal infra structure.

We welcome Rob and Ben to the Company and look forward to their involvement with our group. Thorburn Penny has been engaged in the practice of consulting engineer ing and technology management for over ten years. The organization is comprised of environmental and infrastructure specialists and technologists related to water and wastewater. Thorburn Penny is a memTHORBURN PENNY her of the Philip Utilities Management team and provides engineering services Consulting Engineers throughout Canada and North America.


being affected by global issues and po litical treaties. The ecological issues are also being dealt with on a continental and global scale. We have to position our industry not only to be able to deal with this reality, but also take advantage of the opportunity that globalization presents.

5. Most importantly, the challenge is to keep up with the technological leap of the past decades. We must learn to breathe, speak, talk, walk, and live in the computer world. We have to be tak ing advantage of, rather than resist, the tremendous opportunity that technology brings us. What required enormous amounts of manual testing and calcula tion to keep treatment plants running, can now be performed from inside the control room in a remote location with

out lifting our feet. One control room can look after several treatment plants these days." ❖

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

International Report

World needs will drive membrane filtration market The cost of membrane filtration is down

tration (UF), and cross flow micro-


filtration(MF)system sales from $3.7 bil lion in 1997 to $6.1 billion(US)in 2003.


Membrane sales will increase from $900

the next five years", says The Mcllvaine Company. Contact; E-mail: editor@mc ilvainecompany.com.

Total Annual Cost of

and the performance is up. The result is a growth of reverse osmosis(RO), ultrafil-


million to $1.7 billion (US) in the same period. The total annual cost of owning and operating these systems will rise to


$14 billion in 2003 according to a new


report entitled RO, UF, MF World Mar


RO, UF, MF $ Billions

UK demands investment by private water companies


Privately owned water companies in Brit ain are making excessive profits and must


invest up to 8.5 billion pounds(US $14.2




kets 1999-2004.

The ability of reverse osmosis systems to now convert seawater to drinking wa

ter at less than $4/1,000 gallons, is justi fying projects in Florida, California, Sin gapore and many coastal cities around the world. The Mcllvaine Company predicts that this development will measurably af fect population growth. Arid but other wise attractive locations will experience higher immigration rates. Of equal importance is the ability of ultrafiltration and microfiltration mem

branes to remove the organisms from drinking water which have caused major outbreaks of illnesses. As a result, utili-

ties in Paris, France, Kenosha, Wiscon

sin, and many other cities, are replacing sand filter systems with membranes. Membranes are lowering costs and improving the quality of wine,cheese,and the shiny finish on automobiles. The power,semiconductor, and pharmaceuti cal industries are accelerating membrane purchases to produce ultrapure water. "Sales ofchemicals,pumps,fiberglass,

billion) of their own money over the next five years to improve the water environ ment, according to a new government guidance. The guidance is intended to assist the Office of Water Authority set water charge limits. Other improvements outlined in the document include lead-pipe replacement, an initiative establishing secondary treat ment as the minimum requirement for sig nificant coastal discharges in England and Wales, acceleration of a program to im prove sewer outflows that leave solid resi due on river banks and beaches, and a

membranes,and controls will all increase

demand to hasten progress in meeting basic measures of river water quality. Copies of the document are available at:

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The Ego Waste Oxidizer

has approval for use In Ontario by MOEE. The system complements existing recycling pro grams. Under 50 Tons/Day are a specialty with energy recovery encouraged. Services for MOEE Air Permits are also available.

Next Issue ES&E's June issue will cover

the foiiowing topics: • Analytical detection • Biosolids management • Emergency response • Environmental risk

• Flow measurement/metering • Groundwater remediation • Industrial wastewater • Instrumentation 6UTOMATCO


• Oil/water separation


• PCBs

• Pulp and paper industry • Pumps and valves • Removing colour from potable water Environmentally Sound Waste Destruction For; • Residential Waste • Commercial/industrial Waste • Animal Waste • Environment Canada Verified

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• Stormwater & combined sewer overflows

• Water supply development If you would like to submit an article on one

of these subjects, please fax us a brief outline at:(905)841-7271 by May 28,1999. For information on advertising in the issue, contact Penny Davey or Denise Simpson at: (905)727-4666 by June 14,1999. 13

Thermal Oxidation

Canadian waste oxidizer crosses Into US Solving garbage problems from tour liners

Skagway,with a population of 800, is one of the tourist desti

nations for numerous cruise

ships on their way along the coast of Alaska each summer. Up to five ships a day stop in at the southern Alaskan city to let passengers stretch their legs - and more importantly unload a week's worth of garbage. More than 5,000 passengers and crew members come to the city every day. Skagway faced a rapidly filling landfill with no solution in sight. Level ground is an extremely scarce commodity in this moun

The winning proposal came from Eco Waste Solutions Inc. of Burlington, Ontario. A delegation from Skagway visited the Burlington head office and demo site in April of 1997. Tenders were requested for July and the contract was awarded in August. Time, after all, was running out for the community.

90% reduction rate which means the

Tom Carson, of Carson Dorn, said:

land available will be able to handle the years.

Citizens are actively partici pating in recycling programs. "Cardboard is a major part of our garbage," Robert Ward says. "By baling and shipping out card board we can stretch the life span of the program. Community eth ics encourage us to look at recy cling plastics and metals in the

only place to put garbage was in the only flat land remaining. Skagway City Manager, Robert Ward, said the existing landfill was only two years away from capacity when the community


Delivery took place in July of 1998, with the unit fully opera tional by October. Today, the in cinerator easily handles the win

decided to look at alternatives. A common alternative to

to vast tracts of land in eastern

Washington state or Oregon. This process can take up to two weeks. Skagway residents felt that the garbage was their respon sibility and sought to find their own solution.

In January of 1997,Skagway, through the engineering firm of Carson Dom Inc., started a search

for a company that could build a

at the bottom. The Eco Waste unit can

handle up to eight tons per day with a

town's garbage for another 20-30

tainous area, and as a result, the

landfill in Alaska is to transport garbage via barge and then rail

and incinerator was six miles up the Klondike Highway on the edge of a gulley. This forced the overall design to become a four-level vertical plan with loading from the top and the ash removal

ter demand of a full load each


week. Also, garbage from the landfill is trucked to the incinera

tor to be burned. The operation of the unit will be adjusted in the spring to accommodate the an ticipated five loads per week at peak tourist season. Each eight ton cycle takes only 24 hours from loading and firing (8-10 hours), to cooling and emptying. The Eco Waste Oxidizer, as the unit is called, is a batch-mode,

two-stage thermal oxidation sys before the landfill option became Vancouver has become a major port for luxury liners tem for incinerating solid waste. exhausted. Six companies were cruising to Alaska to spot whales. Photo - Tom Davey In the first stage, waste is ignited identified, five of which responded to "We devised a ratings system with the in the combustion chamber by means of the RFP, with questions from residents City to compare the proposals, not nec a gas or oil fired burner. In the Skagway about where the capital would come essarily to find the cheapest system but model, diesel fuel is used. Off-gases from and environmental concerns still one that could handle all the require from the first stage are combusted in the unanswered. ments in a manner that everyone would second stage (afterburner) and then In order to finance the project, the be comfortable with." emitted via a stack. City Council had to ask the citizens to Carson explained that criteria such as The City was recently presented with vote on the incinerator solution and to design, life cycle, process performance the'1998 Southeast Alaska Engineering approach the state of Alaska for a loan. and company experience were used to Project of the Year' Award from the The citizens voted yes to both and were evaluate the systems. A summary of per- American Society of Civil Engineers pleased to get a loan of $2 million to go foiTuance was also requested to show that and the Alaska Society of Professional towards site engineering, the 78 ft. x 8 the company could indeed build a sys Engineers Juneau Chapter for its use of ft. building, the incinerator, waste load tem to fit Skagway's unique conditions. the Oxidizer Unit. ing, ash removal equipment and other Available land was still a question. For more information, sundry costs. The site chosen to house the buildine circle reply card No. 109 safe and reliable incinerator unit


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999





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Sampling and Monitoring

City of Vancouver- landfill environmental monitoring program

The City of Vancouver owns

and operates the Vancouver

Landfill located in Delta, Brit ish Columbia, which is a mu

nicipal solid waste landfill receiving approximately 400,000 tonnes per year of municipal solid waste. The total area of the landfill is 635 hectares of which

approximately 225 hectares has been filled since landfill operations com menced in 1966.

As pai1 of its environmen tal protection program, Van couver has been collecting and analyzing water quality data for more than 20 years. In January 1997, the City converted from a mainframe

based in-house computer da tabase to a personal compu ter based database. Vancou

ver selected Gemcom Soft ware International Inc.'s

improved to allow electronic download ing of the analytical data from the labo ratory, eliminating manual data entry. Nonetheless, a better system was re quired to allow easier data analysis. In 1996, the City issued a request for proposals to develop a personal compu ter based database for storing water qual ity and other environmental monitoring data. The information that the City re-

Two proposals were received to de sign an environmental monitoring data

base. Both proposals exceeded $30,000 and included development of a custom database for Vancouver. After review,

it was determined that further analysis was required. The primary drawbacks of a custom database would be: • Vancouver would need to fund the full

development cost of the database; •the City would need to fund any future upgrades of the system to meet technologi cal or site changes; and • supporting the database would be expensive. An internet search as well

as phone calls with potential suppliers yielded only one suitable off the shelf product, EQWin, developed by Teck Corporation's Jim Melsom, to store and analyze environ mental monitoring data for Teck's mining operations. Environmental monitoring requirements for landfills are very similar to those of

EQWin 98, as an environ mental monitoring database. The landfill's water qual ity monitoring program con sists of sampling 36 surface George Twarog, environmental technician with the City of Van couver, sampling water quality monitoring welis. mines. and groundwater locations EQWin met Vancouver's require from three to twelve times per year. quired included: Each sample is analyzed for up to 30 • water quality parameters from ground- ments without any modifications to the program. Historical data could be eas analytical parameters. Sample data are water wells, surface water sampling lo compared to several standards as well as cations and leachate sampling locations; ily converted to EQWin's data storage format. New data are uploaded into the to background values. Sampling alone • flow and water level data from leach takes up to 30 person days per year, and ate ditches and clean surface water database in a manner similar to that used for the mainframe. Data is downloaded analytical costs exceed $50,000 per year. locations; from the analytical laboratory into a data To allow convenient interpretation of • all sample location coordinates; file. The data file is then configured for water quality data it is important to have • monitoring well construction informa tion (date, geological characteristics, and uploading. A set-up and checking sys a user friendly, reliable and flexible en tem validates the data prior to uploading vironmental database program. hydrogeological characteristics); Prior to 1995, the City of Vancouver •landfill gas quality & quantity data; and to the database. The system is year 2000 compliant in that all date information is stored water quality monitoring data on • composting facility operating data. stored in a yyyy/mm/dd format. The data included new, as well as his a mainframe based computer system. Outputfrom EQWin also meets Van Data was manually entered into a data torical data from the City's mainframe couver's requirements and generates system. Vancouver required that the sys file and then uploaded into the compu user configurable reports with compari ter system. Reporting programs for the tem be flexible enough to allow the ad dition of new parameters and monitor sons to user specified standards. If in system were written in Fortran. There dividual sample data exceed a standard, fore, any analysis other than standai^d tri- ing locations. To allow reporting and analysis of the a flag is displayed adjacent to the value. annual reports required assistance from The system also has graphing and sta computer services staff. Data entry and data, Vancouver required that the sys tem provide convenient output of: tistical functions. Data can be exported checking took up to two days per report for use in other spreadsheet or CIS ap ing session. In 1996, the system was • Raw data. • Specific reports including comparison plication software. The initial cost was approximately one-third of the price of to various standards. By Paul Henderson, P.Eng., • Basic graphs and statistics. a custom designed system. Manager, Landfill Operations For more information, • Export data for spreadsheet programs City of Vancouver Eng. Services circie repiy card No. 111 such as Lotus or Excel. 16

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

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Cover Story

Ontario's largestjacked concrete pipe tunnel Tunnelled under live rail lines to service community

How can a 3,000 mm storm

sewer and a 600 mm sanitary sewer be run across two

major railway lines north of Canada's largest city without building two tunnels?

The answer was to suspend the sani tary sewer from the top of the pipe, while monitoring carefully to ensure deviation of no more than 6 mm at the top of the track above the tunnel during installa tion. Yonge-Bayview Holdings Inc. (YBHI) hired project managers Metrus Development Inc.(MDI) and engineers Marshall Macklin Monaghan

determined that the soil's properties would permitjacked pipe versus pouredin-place. When the sewer-in-sewer de sign was approved by Maureen McCauley, Richmond Hill's Commis sioner of Engineering and Public Works, they were ready to begin. The first step was dewatering, under taken by Atlas Dewatering. A two-tiered system was required to deal with ground

its connections. Specialized pipe design software,PIPECAR, was used to verify the detailed steel design requirements for the pipe. The pipe was produced to CAN/CSA-A257.2-M92 standard.

tunnel, the other below. Because stand

Prior to shipping, a Tylox jacking spacer was glued around the shoulder of each pipe and super seal gasket was used for each spigot. Installation began in June, 1998, with the delivery of the first of 21 sections of pipe, each weighing up to 17 tonnes. In

ard well points are only effective to 5

stallation was in the downstream direc

water at two elevations - one above the

tion, from east to west - a

non-traditional approach but required in this case due to the existing services

(MMM)to work with ConDrain and their manufac

on the west side. Reran

turer, Con Cast Pipe, to de sign and construct the larg est jacked concrete pipe tunnel in Ontario history. The project is located in

custom-built a 12-tonne,

3.6 m diameter by 4 m long shield that allowed for

pneumatic hand mining of the tunnel with a mucking machine removing mate

Richmond Hill some 10 miles north of Toronto.

rial as the tunnel advanced.

The challenges that YBHI, MDI, MMM,geo-

Pipe sections were jacked in behind the liner using jacking pressure of 19 MPa and bentonite sluny to fill

technical consultants Geo-

Canada Ltd., Con-Drain and their subcontractor.

voids and lubricate the

pipe. The installed jacking spacer worked well to

Reran Tunnelling faced were considerable.

With an average of 22 freight trains a day, six GO

minimize rebound and

trains, and four VIA trains, there were limited choices.

Together with CN staff, all were reviewed in light of schedules, feasibility and costs. They were left with two options:jacking of a primary steel liner with a secondary liner to be installed later, orjacking of a con crete pipe. They also had to consider difficult, unstable subsurface conditions.

In the end, the trains' frequency, ground conditions, and CN's mainte nance schedules, plus the need to install the tunnel quickly in advance of CN track maintenance schedules, made

jacking concrete pipe the answer. The team satisfied itself that jacking could work and meet the tight working win dow of opportunity. Geo-Canada Ltd.

By Adolfo Emer, Marshall Macklin Monaghan and Adam Polski, Con Cast Pipe 18

m, Geo-Canada suggested the use of eductors to "vacuum" out the water. The

use of compressed air was ruled out be cause of the relatively shallow nature of this tunnel - less than two pipe diam eters of cover. On-site tiered piezo meters were installed early in the design process to measure water, and shallow and deep settlement points were used to monitor ground movement during tun neling. While this was going on. Con Cast Pipe was preparing the specially de signed 3,000 mm stormwater pipe. To accommodate the sanitary sewer that would be hung from the ceiling, special stainless steel bolts and brackets were

installed and extra care taken to ensure

the strength and integrity of the pipe and

concrete crushing. During the entire opera tion, Con-Drain's survey crew was on site - living in tents - to record any change in track elevation each time a train passed. With an allowed tolerance of 12 mm total settlement, by the time Reran finished the job on July 3, maxi mum settlement at track level was only 6 mm. After grouting the lift holes, the sanitary line was installed and sprayed with Shotcrete for additional protection. "Each of the technical components of this project has been proven in the field, but not to our knowledge brought together in a project of this size and sen sitivity. We therefore appreciate all the more the confidence shown in us by CN and the municipality," said Fred De Gasperis of YBHI,on completion of the project. For more information, circle reply card No. 113

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

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Energy Savings

There are potential energy savings in wastewater pump lift stations

It is an acknowledged fact that electrical energy costs comprise a major portion of the total overall expense of a municipal sewage pump lift station. Considering a life cycle period of 10 to 20 years, it is not

ing far below their peak design flow and may never reach their optimized design.

®EP i

A common 'solution' when consider

ing the control method for pumping equipment is the application of the vari able speed frequency drive unit(VFD). This is generally thought to 'level out' the pumped flow to the downstream


uncommon to find that the amount of



consumed energy in the station comprises up to 30% of the total overall costs. (ITT Flygt: Cost Savings in Sewage Pump Stations, 1984) It is therefore imperative that we minimize the energy demands of the sta tion. We must recognize that the pump ing equipment and the control and VFD drive are the major components of en ergy consumption. To make a positive impact on the overall operating costs of the sewage pump station we must optimize the wire to water efficiency of

area. It has also been credited with re

ducing the adverse effects of transients in the forcemain. Further evaluation of

Figure 1 this consolidated entity, the pump, mo tor and the method of control.

It is not always a simple task to se lect the correct pumping equipment and method of control to meet the varying inflow demands of the sewage lift sta tion. The actual flow realized by a new station in the initial years will not be as great as that projected for future years. Some existing stations are still operat

By Brian A. Hartwick, ITT Flygt, Etobicoke, Ontario

this 'apparent' solution will reveal the hidden costs that may be associated with the application of VFDs and displace some common perceptions. The concept of transporting sewage to the treatment plant incorporates many components within the system. A review of some criteria for sump and forcemain design, along with the sta tion's overall performance, follows. The hydraulic efficiency of the sump must be optimized to effectively trans port all incoming material. As the in-

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For more Information, circle reply card No. 115 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

Energy Savings coming sewage has solids and grit en trained in the flow, the sump dimensions should be calculated to respect bottom velocities which will resuspend solids and remove them from the station on

If you consider the application as shown in Figure 1, any movement to the left or right of the BE? on the per formance causes losses in the unit's hy draulic efficiency.

pump start up.

Affinity Laws This flow is referred to as the peak design flow of the station. In some in stances, it may reflect a projected 10 to 20 year growth expectancy of the sur rounding community feeding, and may not necessarily be reflective of the ini tial years of operation. One method cur rently used for sizing the peak design flow is outlined in the Ontario Ministry of the Environment's Standard Specifi cation for Stihinersible Sewage Pumps.

The transporting of the solids and liq uid within the pipe network requires a velocity that will resuspend settled sol ids and grit to maintain a non clog forcemain. In a domestic sewage application, a general rule of thumb is a velocity exceeding 0.6 m/sec. In the station per formance we will address only the out put capacity (1/sec) versus the input en ergy(kWh)required. This will simplify the calculation of the true energy oper ating cost of the station. Any compro mise in hydraulic performance caused by reducing the speed of the pump drives

Ql/Q2=nl/n2 Hl/H2=(nl/n2)'^2 Given:













Attention to the Affinity Laws of hydraulics will show that as the speed of the pump is lowered,the correspond ing duty point of the pump shifts, fol lowing a parabolic curve of constant efficiency towards the origin(Figure 2).


Parabolic Path of Constant



will be noted.

Normally the capital, operational and maintenance costs of the equipment within a specific life cycle are studied. We will consider only the energy con sumed as it relates to the speed varia tion of the motor drive.

We will also use the concept of Spe cific Energy to evaluate potential energy savings in new and existing sewage lift stations. The proper selection of the pumps and their associated control logic will be discussed. Some basic criteria

for the hydraulic design of the sumps and forcemains will be reviewed to sup port the selection process. In order to appreciate what happens when a pump is in operation we must review some basic principles of hydrau lics. The pump's impeller is a rotating element that transports liquid. The impeller is designed to deliver a speci fied volume of liquid at a certain pres sure. This 'one point' of operation is re ferred to as the Best Efficiency Point (BE?)on the performance curve. The BE? is where the centrifugal pump achieves its maximum hydraulic efficiency, hence the maximum wire to water efficiency.








Figure 2

When a system curve is developed across the VED performance array, the points of intersection move through varying and decreasing efficiencies. The pump will always perform at the inter section of the two curves, hence when

operating at lower speeds, the wire to water efficiency is decreased substan tially, and the specific energy increases. Euthermore the VED adds to the energy calculation 4 or 5 % losses within itself

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ceiving sewage lift station. If the re quirement of the system has a daily cy cle of relatively low flow when com pared to the peak flow, the use of a Vari able Speed Drive for the pump motor will result in constant hydraulic opera tion at less than the optimum efficiency. Relevant also is the expected percent age of flow versus the Peak flow that is actually going to be received at a new Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

• NEW 03 Catclibasin Inserts



For more information, circle reply card No. 116

Energy Savings the sump receives less than 50% of the design flow. 30'/o

When a VFD is in control of this ex

Hs rst

ample, the station and forcemain hy draulics are compromised by low flow outputs. The pumps are also operating at reduced efficiencies ranging from 45 to 60 percent of optimum. Programming must be incorporated to ensure adequate 'line flushing' velocities to the forcemain, whereas, with constant speed pumps, a 'flushing' will occur with the operation of the main pump(s).


1 "t-

. 70%


*'^S| .


0 50


i Xi


100 150 200 250 300


New Lift Station

In the first years of a sewage pump

Figure 3

flow conditions in the initial stages of a sewage lift station's life cycle exists,then we must evaluate the true costs ofthe sys tem considering the actual(or estimated) inflow over the initial years of the project. It is relatively simple to calculate the amount of energy used by a system of pumps in an on/off situation, as a syn chronous speed pump motor is either at full load or no load for a certain length of time. The hydraulic efficiency is con stant at the Peak flow operating point for 100% of the run time. T(h/dav)



station it is not uncommon to have the

station within the first years of opera tion, considering the design criteria stated above for an operational time pe riod of up to 20 years of expansion.

station receiving only 50 to 60 percent of the Peak flow that was calculated for


future requirements. With the introduction of the new


technological advancements in Pulse Width Modulated(PWM)drive units, a

Flow Duration Curve Mature Lift Station

We will now examine a typical flow duration curve for an existing domestic sewage lift station (Figure 4). In this example a Peak flow of 210 1/sec is as sumed. It is notable that the pumps are receiving only 66% of the maximum flow for 50% of the daily pumping time. Also for eight hours in the daily cycle


common solution to accommodate this low flow has been the installation of a

Figure 4

VFD drive unit. The associated energy

In order to calculate the actual

demands that are inherent with the VFD

amount of energy utilized by a VFD operating a pump at reduced hydraulic efficiencies as it adjusts to various in

operating a centrifugal pump may make the extra operating and initial capital costs prohibitive. If we concede that the premise of low

flow conditions we must develop the concept of Specific Energy.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Energy Savings Specific Energy

There are many opportunities for engineering consultants and municipalities to access their existing sewage pump station installations.

Calculation of the simultaneous mul

tiple variables associated with the pumped volume, the incoming flow and the changing hydraulic efficiencies re quires simplification. To calculate the energy costs of a VFD controlled pump unit we derive the function of specific energy (Es). Energy Used Pumped Volume

Sp ecific Energy

P:„ * Time E,=

fia e

station installations. Many pump manu facturers have modern software pack ages to assist in energy calculations. A

The energy savings realized today will be the dollars required to fund the costs of sewage pump station upgrades

great deal of the information required is already available within the records of

and new construction in the future.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 119

the municipalities.

For purposes of our evaluation let us define Es as follows:


Pin = Input Power(kW) Q = Pumped Volume By relating the amount of volume pumped out of the sewage lift station to the amount of energy consumed by the station in kilowatt hours(kWh), and by knowing the costs charged for that en ergy, we will be able to determine the energy costs associated with the opera tion of a VFD in volume per dollar units. Summary Many of today's installations with




VFD controllers have been made to con

trol output flow for process considera tions.

Flowever, there are an even

greater number of energy consuming stations existing that do not necessitate process outflow design considerations.

aste water slurry beinpfed'into a Derrick Flo-Line screening machine.


When considering the output volume from a single pump in a one duplex sta tion, the actual output rarely causes un manageable capacities within the down stream sewage system network. Today's VFD drive boasts an effi ciency level of 95% in transformation of wire to 'motor' efficiency. This cal

ihiands, whj| |)n corpc^

5nt?61: 'BS


ES®)! or effici

culation should be extended to consider


hydraulic energy when operating the pump outside the optimum BEP range. When wire to 'water' efficiency is cal culated for VFD applications, a greater loss than 5% is realized. A third smaller

pump can generate greater efficiency savings and necessitate lower capital costs.

A common statement that VFD con trols reduce transient effects at the most

critical point remains false, as water hammer analysis must be done at the worst case scenario. The worst case

condition is when both pumps are oper

ating at full capacity and a sudden stop (i.e. power outage) occurs. This would

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Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

Kelowna, British Columbia V1Z2T7 Phone: 604-769-3848 Fax: 604-769-5859

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Air Pollution

Toxic fumes in underground passageways Air curtains can provide safety features

How can users be safely evacuated if a fire breaks

out in an underground train corridor or in a road tunnel? Simply by creating an air curtain. The technique consists of blowing air from the ceiling to create a dynamic vault between it and the floor. Combined with a stationary vortex,this virtual vault acts as a barrier which can withstand important differences in pressure while people are being evacuated. It can thus replace two-door air locks. In underground networks, air flows are created to com

pensate for differences in pressure between adjacent areas. When a fire breaks out, smoke moves from the polluted area

to neighboring unpolluted areas under negative pressure, which does not make it easy to safely evacuate passengers. The air curtain system developed by France's Centre

Scientifique et Technique du Bdtiment(CSTB), uses air from the polluted area to push back the polluted front so that fresh air can flow into the coiridor or tunnel.

To prevent smoke from entering, the air curtain must be correctly positioned and the speed of the air jet calculated according to the differences in pressure and the height of the corridor. The behavioral laws for these parameters have been

studied by CSTB researchers, both on models and on a full scale in their Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel as part of the Meteor (Paris Underground), Hole (French Railways), and A86 (highway) projects. Testing an air curtain in the Jutes Verne Ciimatic Wind Tunnel be tween the station and the main hall in the Gare du Nord train station

in Paris. The fuil-scaie model, on two levels, was 26.2 ft. wide.




Underground links for obtaining a highly efficient air curtain

An air curtain consists of an air intake, fans, and an air nozzle. The air nozzle must be obstacle-free, so that the air

jet is not hindered in any way. The air curtain is placed in a section of limited height separating the two adjacent areas and must blow obliquely against the air flow which is to be counteracted. Air is blown across the entire width of the cor

ridor, creating rollers pushing against the ground. The airtightness of this "dynamic door" depends on the speed of the air jet, which in turn depends on the difference in pressure

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and its consistency over the entire width of the comdor. To study different cases on a practical basis, 2.5 to 3-me tre (8.2 to 9.8 ft.) high corridors were built between the two main areas of the Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel. A propel ler of the wind tunnel was used to create the difference in

pressure which needed to be counteracted. A tracer gas (ethane) was then injected upstream of the air curtain, with the efficiency of the hairier determined by comparing the con centration levels measured upstream and downstream. For example, a 3-metre (9.8 ft.) high barrier can counteract pres sures of about 20 Pascal, with an efficiency rate of 95%. In the case of a 2.5-metre (8.2 ft.) high corridor, 40 Pascal can be counteracted with the same degree of efficiency. Researchers are now studying air/water mixtures which would have the advantage of absorbing radiation, thus mak

ing it possible to approach a burning fire or mixtures of sol vents adapted to the type of toxic products released by fire. For more information, circle reply card No. 121 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Ad Index



Reader Service No.

ABS Pumps



AGFA Action Carbon-Chem

15 64

110 144

Air Liqulde



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Food Industry Focus

Ontario's $22.8 billion food industry It is not unusual to see 20%, 30% or more of a municipality's water and sewage capacity dedicated to one food processor

Reliable water and sewage services are essential to the

food processing industry. Safe water is as important to the health and safety offood production, as is affordable waste disposal. Most food processing waste is also compatible with household sewage so municipal in frastructure systems complement the needs of a competitive food industry. Ontario is North America's third larg est food processing jurisdiction behind California and Texas. Some 1600 food

and beverage processors shipped $22.8 billion worth of product in 1996. Al most 60% of Canada's food manufac

turing happens in Ontario. The sector provides 82,000 manufacturing jobs in the province. But what does this mean to munici

pal water and sewage services? Prob ably 95% of Ontario's food processors are linked to municipal water/sewage systems. In 1998, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA)commissioned The Delphi Group and Geomatrix to quantify the impact of municipal water and sewage services on Ontario's food processors. The task was complex. Ontario has over 600 municipal water services, each with their own rate structure. Add to that an

equally diverse rate system for the cor responding sewage treatment systems. One can see the waters cloud as you track this impact across 1,600 food and beverage processing establishments. Interestingly, there usually is a posi tive synergy between food processing in a community,and competitive water and sewage rates. As a general observation, synergies and mutual benefits exist be tween food processors and the munici pal infrastructure. Small town Ontario is peppered with examples of food proc essors who anchor(or partner in the de velopment of) water and sewage serv ices. (Leamington, Dresden and Listowel, where you will find Heinz and

By Phil Dick Phil Dick is an Investment Devel

opment Officer in the Food Indus try Competitiveness Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.


Canadians enjoy an abundance of food but few realize water and wastewater expenses are a significant percentage of processing. two Nabisco plants, respectively, are three of many examples.) In small towns, major food plants bear the finan cial burden of the infrastructure. It is

not unusual to see 20%,30% or more of

a municipality's water and sewage ca pacity dedicated to one food processor. Urban Ontario is not much different.

Take Toronto, for instance. Food and

beverage manufacturing is Toronto's largest industrial employer. In 1997, over 80% of the sewer surcharge agree ments were with food processors. If my estimate is correct, food and beverage processing uses over 10% of Toronto's water capacity and somewhat more of their sewage capacity. This makes food and beverage processing an obvious tar get when capacity is stressed. It is unfair to say that all food and beverage manufacturers are heavy wa ter and sewage service users. But even "low" level users have water and sew

age bills that impact their cost of pro duction. The Water and Sewage Trends Study commissioned by OMAFRA gives us a competitive picture of what water and sewage services mean to food and beverage processors. Water is essen tial to most food production. Like sew age treatment, it represents a significant cost. And because most food processors depend upon reliable municipal services, they are captive to those systems.

It is not unusual to see water and

wastewater costs contribute 2% to 14%

of a food processor's production costs. Primary processing operations like dairy,fruit and vegetable, and meat pro cessing routinely have water and sew age costs between 5% and 15% of their direct production costs. At the high end, this can be more than the plant spends on labour. Added to this are often sig nificant sewage pre-treatment invest ments. Capital investment on waste pretreatment can run into hundreds of thou

sands of dollars for even a small process ing operation. It is not unusual to see a company tie up 20% of its capital in vestment in waste pre-treatment or waste treatment equipment. It is counter-in tuitive to the principle of driving cost out of the system. This type of invest ment is particularly hard on the bottom line, as there is no other return than cost avoidance. Over time, this affects

heightened levels of plant consolida tions; I will touch more on this later.

For confectionery, brewery, soft drink,juice,some bakery and snack food manufacturers, water and sewage treat ment tends to represent 2% to 5% of their production costs. For this group, in line controls, water recirculation and consist

ent water conservation management can pay off for individual processors. Many food processors will target

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Food Industry Focus water and sewage costs for cost control.

Whatlhake Prominent the first ehoiee in water Treatment

High dollar "end of the pipe" capital solutions are not a long-term solution to rising surcharges. Today's industrial management practices are much differ ent than the 1980s. What we know is

that the first 20% of water reductions

for companies new to conservation may be as simple as installing low flow, high


pressure sprays,"deadman" handles on hoses and picking up a squeegee to clean a floor before the hose is turned on. Efficient recirculation of water for heat


ing or cooling can also be cost-effective.

The cost crunch comes in with capital projects. Ten years ago, when I worked as a manager in a major frozen food com

pany, senior management viewed capi tal investment with a three to five year payback as a sound investment. Today, "conservation" or cost avoidance tech

nology investments must do far better. Most companies want a "stand alone" one year payback before they invest in

capital. Now it is rare to see a company invest capital for cost avoidance meas ures with a two or three year payback schedule. The reason for this may be complex. Let us visit a scenario where,


performance, innovation, reiiabiiity and service. (or just ask our clients)

on the part of the food processor, con servation efforts have gone seriously awry.

Water and sewage treatment rates trend up differently than wages or other raw materials. Rates can increase be

yond inflation. What may be a $10 or $20 dollar per year increase to a resi dential user (less than the monthly charge for cable television) can trans late into hundreds of thousands of dol

lars for a food processor. One might suspect that cost avoidance strategies would prevail at such a point. But there is great resistance on the part of food processors to invest their capital in wa ter or sewage conservation projects when rates inflate, given that any invest ment made then becomes a liability. And I hear this from our food processors re peatedly. When a major service user re duces its use, water and sewage services get a budget shortfall, which begs a fur ther rate increase. This scenario will de

rail a capital-based cost savings project. And once stalled, scrutiny reigns. In the past, some processors invested in expensive pre-treatment systems to comply with surcharge bylaws. Many of these systems are DAF systems. Considered state-of-the-art in the '80s,

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Food Industry Focus cial services.

Primary processing operations like dairy, fruit and vegetable, and meat processing routinely have water and sewage costs

Downstream,in the Netherlands, the

Dutch take a more co-operative and consultative approach. According to VROM, the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, one-third of the food and

between 5% and 15% of their direct

production costs. 1,200 ppm, four times the bylaw limit. These same companies are facing fur ther investment to satisfy municipal de mands.

Food processors need water and sewer services. And in the bigger pic ture, municipalities need employers who hire the residential users. Because food

processing is a labour-intensive indus try, the multiplier effect it has on the general economy is 6:1. That is six other jobs are created every time one food in dustry job is added. Earlier, I said I would revisit the topic of plant consoli dation. What follows is a situation that

stems from a short-sighted conservation initiative. The results, however, will be

long term. On a recent mission to Holland and

Germany,I met with a leading sugar beet processor. The plant manager led me through a highly automated plant, ca pable of handling 9,500 tonnes of pro duction per day. They did this with 37 employees. In the past 10 years, the plant had shed over 100jobs as it mecha nized. They also spent DM 25 million on a biological digestion unit for direct discharge. I was then informed that the firm's newest plant would process 16,500 tonnes of sugar beets per day using 1 person per shift. The firm would close a smaller plant, shedding another 100 employees in the process. Munici palities in Germany are decoupling their food industry with some startling results. They are regaining water and sewerage capacity, but at the cost of increased so-

beverage processors are direct discharg ers. Municipalities are not too eager to see more food plants leave their systems or undertake overly aggressive sewage control measures. Municipal sewage facilities have major problems when their users deliver too weak a slurry. As I understand, the standard requirement in the Netherlands is 300 ppm COD for delivery to municipal systems. The rea sons for their concern are the same as

they are here. Let us take a look at an Ontario ex

ample which seems headed in the right direction.

The cost of water and wastewater

services is mostly capital investment and maintenance. According to Leo Gohier, Director of Water and Wastewater Serv

ices for Hamilton-Wentworth,380 of the

430 a Hamilton-Wentworth user pays for a cubic metre of water,goes towards dis tribution and infrastructure. On the sew

age side, the cost of distribution infra structure versus the product service is about 350 of every 430. This is a mu nicipality that recognizes the long-term value of maintaining its distribution sys tem. In other words, if every user used one cubic metre of water and produced one cubic metre of waste, 80% of the cost of the service is in the cost of serv

icing the service. And much of that cost Process Measurement Control & Envlronmentailnstrumentatlon

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is in servicing residential users. Hamil ton-Wentworth is moving toward activ ity-based costing, something private in dustry embraced years ago. It is clear that high volume industrial users subsidize residential rates across

Ontario. This may even be true for municipalities with aggressively declin ing block rates. There is only one rea

• Residual Chlorine

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may shed some light on this issue. It is as important to be fair as it is to encour age the conservation of our resources. It would be interesting to see a con servation program which offered true cost to compliant industry - the carrot rather than the big stick approach. Man agement tools like Ontario Ministry of the Environment's Green Production

Unit's "Energy Audit Program", cur-


For more information, circle reply card No. 123 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Food Industry Focus rently help our food processors estab lish benchmarks of water, energy and sewage cost per unit of production. From there, it is a small step to estab lish selection protocols for replacement equipment. These criteria include re duced water consumption, energy effi ciency and reduced waste production, as well as standard productivity criteria. Where possible, water recirculation and re-use is being pursued. Another encouraging development is a pre-pilot test currently being led by

tivity efficiencies to compensate for that in order to protect their bottom line. With the food industry in a growth mode and capacities reaching limits in many municipalities, conservation pro grams focused on the food industry have enormous merit. Before this can take

place, it is crucial to shift the true cost of distribution and maintenance on to low level users who create most of the

cost. Food processors do not mind pay ing their fair share. They also help to bear the burden of cost of development

in many municipalities. Yet when a major industrial water user or sewage producer successfully reduces their own costs, it triggers rate increases. Call it counter-productive or counter-intuitive, the challenge is the same. How can a municipality help their major employ ers stay competitive or launch a success ful water and sewage conservation pro gram if they lack a true differential rate for large scale industrial users? For more information, ciroie reply card No. 167

The Ontario Centre for Environmental

Technology Advancement (OCETA). Its primary objective is energy conser vation, an area greatly impacted by wa ter and sewage use. This brings us back to conservation. It is ultimately a question of rate struc tures. Increasing block rates force the issue, but at the cost of industrial expan sion. We know that food industry pro duction is growing faster than the gen eral economy in Ontario. When the food industry grows, it requires specific in puts. Water and sewage services are es sential. We also know that a healthy food plant doubles production about every eight years, or is forced to make produc-

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Utilizing ballasted floe clarifiers Overcoming a freeze on development

The Town of Lindsay trans

ferred the responsibility for operation of its sanitary sew age collection and treatment system to the Lindsay Board of Water Commissioners in 1997, creating the Lindsay Water and Sewer Commission. Within months of the transfer, the Town

was faced with a freeze on development, imposed by the Ontario Minis try of Environment. The sew age treatment plant had been out ofcompliance both with hydrau lic capacity and effluent quality for the years 1995 and 1996. The main culprit for this situa

meet present and future needs. Negotiations for a new effluent cri teria ensued between the Lindsay Water and Sewer Commission,the Min

istry of Environment and the TrentSevern Waterway. The Trent-Severn Waterway is the controlling authority over the receiving stream, the Scugog River. An agreement was reached, with

treatment. The Commission was now

faced with determining what form of tertiary treatment would be best suited to fulfill its needs in the design of the upgraded treatment plant. Sand or dual media filtration has long been regarded as the most feasible method for tertiary treatment in Ontario. The Commission, because of its experi ence with the ballasted floe clarifiers which had been in

stalled in its recently upgraded potable water treatment plant, made the decision to include the

process in the deliberations for a tertiary treatment system. The

tion was deemed to be above

realization was that once the

normal levels of precipitation for the two years in question. Lindsay's Water Pollution Control Plant is a 'Sutton' proc ess plant, built about 1990. The 'Sutton' process involves ex tended aeration, secondary clarification and final polishing in a lagoon. The Lindsay plant has six polishing lagoons, each 8.8 hectares in size, operating in dual trains. The plant had op erated well within its design pa

biological process at a wastewater plant is complete,further treatment of the effluent stream

has a similarity to the treatment of potable water. Preliminary investigations of the design layouts showed that ballasted f1oc clarifiers re

rameters for the first five or six

years of its life, but effluent quality was beginning to dete riorate because of increasing buildups of biosolids in the pol ishing lagoons. During the warmer summer Sludge recirculation pumps at Lindsay WTR months, ammonia was beginning to the assistance of R.V. Anderson Associ resolulabilize, and decomposition of the ates Ltd., whereby effluent flows could biomass caused an increase in sus be increased to any level desired,so long pended solids concentrations, subse as total loadings expressed in the exist quently increasing total phosphorous ing Certificate ofApproval were not ex levels. Inflow and infiltration conditions ceeded. With a proposed average de in the older sections of town were caus sign flow of 21,500 mVday and a peak ing the plant to exceed its rated hydrau design flow of 30,100 mVday, it was lic capacity. Growth projections within concluded that the plant should be de the Town of Lindsay indicated there signed to achieve the effluent objectives would be an increase in average plant set as 7.4 mg/1 of Biochemical Oxygen hydraulic loading of 14-16% over the Demand (BOD), 7.4 mg/1 of Total Sus next twenty years. As a result, the plant pended Solids (TSS) and 0.15 mg/1 of required additional treatment capacity to Total Phosphorous (TP). Based on the historical performance By R. Wayne Elliott, C.E.T., of the secondary treatment plant, these John Meunier Inc., new criteria could be met by abandon formerly GM, Lindsay Water ing the polishing lagoons as part of the and Sewer Commission treatment train, and employing tertiary


quired approximately one quar ter of the footprint of that re quired by conventional tertiary filters. The prospect of a small footprint requirement was at tractive to the project, as avail able space at the site for new construction was limited, and

reduced capital requirement for building construction was an absolute necessity as the project was being funded solely by the Town of Lindsay. There was no Mu nicipal Assistance Plan(MAP)funding available for the project. It was felt going into the pilot plant stage that the existing secondary plant was capable of meeting the new efflu ent criteria for BOD and TSS. The chal

lenge would be to reduce TP concentra tions to meet the new objectives. The removal of particulate phosphorous could easily be achieved even with con ventional tertiary filters. The removal of reactive phosphorous,or phosphorous still in solution, would be the key to guaranteeing that high rates of TP re moval would be attained on a consist

ent basis. Optimized coagulation and chemical precipitation of reactive phos phorous was deemed a necessity.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

In October 1997, John Meunier Inc.

was mandated by the Commission to commence pilot testing of the second

ary clarifier effluent. The purpose of the tests was to determine if the new efflu

ent criteria could be achieved by means of chemical precipitation using the ballasted floe clarifier.

The ActifloÂŽ ballasted floe clarifier

process involves light floe attaching themselves to microsand grains (130 micron diameter for this tertiary appli cation) through several stages of rapid mixing and flocculation. Anionic, neu tral or cationic polymers are used to at tach the floes to the microsand. The

sand, with floe particles attached, then settles quickly, with the assistance of Lamella settling tubes to reduce parti cle carryover. The sand and floe sludge mixture is continuously pumped to a hydrocyclone where the sand is sepa rated and returned to the process. Sludge is discharged from the hydrocyclone for further treatment or disposal. In a terti ary treatment application, sludge is re turned to the plant inlet headworks. The intake flowrate treated by the Actiflo pilot unit during trials varied between 45 and 75 m''/h with an aver

age of 60 mVh (1,440 mVd). This cor responds to a rise rate of 80 mVmVh. The retention time from inlet to outlet

of the system is approximately eight minutes at a flowrate of 60 m'/h corre

sponding to a rise rate of80 mVmVh. A rise rate of 100 mVmVh was achieved

during testing, and this was only lim ited due to the capacity of the pumps supplying the pilot plant. The TP objective of 0.15 mg/1 was met with alum dosages reaching below 15 mg/1. A low anionic polymer with a high molecular weight was used as a coagulant aid. The polymer dosage was maintained at 0.4 mg/1 for the entire test ing period. Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC)and Pass-100 were also tested as primary coagulants during the trials. Removal rates of BOD, TSS and TP

Tertiary clarifiers under construction at Lindsay WTP. were comparable to that when using average removal of BOD and TSS was alum. 60% and 66% respectively. Turbidity The advantage in performance of removal was 85% and the effluent gener PAC and Pass-100 came when rise rates ally was measured at less than 1 NTU. Based on the results of this pilot surpassed 80 mVmVday. Alum was se study, and the prospect of installing ter lected as the coagulant for the new proc ess in Lindsay as design rise rates would tiary treatment within a footprint much be kept at or below 80 mVmVday, and less than originally anticipated,the Com mission made the decision to proceed to would be the most economical to use. Feme chloride was not used during the the design stage utilizing the ballasted', testing period, as the pilot plant is the floe clarifier for tertiary treatment. The final design includes a double same one used for potable water test train system, with each train having a ing, and staining of the unit was not per nominal capacity of 15,050 mVday and mitted. Subsequent testing was under taken in Ontario and the Province of a hydraulic capacity of 21,500 m3/day. Quebec, and ferric chloride has proven This allows for the passage of the aver to outperform alum, PAC and Pass-100 age design daily flow through one unit in the removal of phosphorous. Ferric in the event that the second unit is taken chloride would be the coagulant of out of service for maintenance. The choice where very low levels of total footprint occupied by the units is ap proximately 84 m^, with a maximum phosphorous must be achieved. depth of about 6m at the settling area. The ballasted tloc clarifier was able Construction of these units is currently to meet the new effluent criteria with underway, with commissioning sched ease. By using alum as the primary co uled for June of 1999. Other upgrades agulant, total phosphorous removal av to the plant process include inlet screen eraged 85% for the testing period, with ing and grit removal, an additional sec TP concentrations as low as 0.03 mg/1. ondary clarifier and ultra violet (UV) The average removal of reactive phos phorous was estimated to be 91%. The disinfection. The ballasted floe clarifier can be

considered as an efficient treatment

The ballasted floe clarifier can be considered

as an efficient treatment process for the removal

of biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and total phosphorous in wastewater effluent streams. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

process for the removal of biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and total phosphorous in wastewater effluent streams. The process provides operating staff and design consultants with another valuable option when deal ing with ever more stringent effluent criteria at wastewater plants. For more information, circle reply card No. 125



Pulsed bed filters played vital role at the movies

The movie Titanic was a spec

This huge model of the Titanic was floated in the water tank. Photo - Merie W. Wallace

tacular production with stateof-the-art special effects which included an eight-acre tank containing(US) 17 million gallons

visited the site in early July, 1996. The filter equipment was shipped the week of August 26. Filter start-up occurred in mid-October.

enabled the Canadian born director to

convincingly capture the anguish of the sinking liner, earning 11 Oscars for the epic production, tying the movie with The tank's use as an aquatic set has not ended with the completion of James Cameron's masterpiece. Fox Studios filming tank and filtration system are being used by other filmmakers. Tomor row Never Dies, In Dreams, and Deep

water clean for the film. Raw water was

The water tank held the huge model of the ship and for filming purposes,the water needed to have visual clarity to a depth of 30 feet. The units performed well, almost too well, reported Bill Simpson, USFilter field service technician on the project. "The operators told me they could see

drawn from the Pacific Ocean into an

clear to the bottom of the tank -that the

the current British TV mini-series

equalization basin where it was mixed

filtrate was almost too clean."

Horatio Hornblower

of water.

Big Tank The tank was part of a 40-acre oceanfront studio in Rosarito Beach, Mexico.

Hydro-ClearÂŽ pulsed bed sand filters supplied by USFilter's Zimpro kept the

with chemical flocculants. The flow was

Since introducing this filter system

then directed to the filters where it

to the water and wastewater market,

passed through a bed of fine grain sand which removed small particles and tur bidity.

Zimpro Products has in stalled over 525 filter sys

The filter is a model KK 12 x 25 (6

cells), designed for a flow rate of(US) 6,000 gallons per minute. Each cell con tains a shallow bed of fine grain sand, and a unique underdrain design that per mits periodic "pulsing" of the filter bed to dislodge trapped solids and prolong filter runs between backwashes.

Quick Turnaround In the film-making business time is money, so the project called for ex tremely quick turnaround. Hydro-Clear filter Product Manager Neil Niemeyer 32

Ben Hiir's record of most Oscars won.

Blue Sea were all filmed there, as was

For more information, circie repiy card No. 126

tems for raw water, storm

water, municipal and in dustrial wastewater, and water reuse.

The Movie

The sinking of the Ti tanic was a tragedy of awesome proportions. James Cameron's epic film, now on video, cap tured the drama and pa thos of the shipwrecked passengers and crew. Water clarity on the set

Filter ceils under construction.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS The issue of zebra mussels

is attracting increasing attention from municipalities, utilities, government agencies and industries around the Great Lakes.

One solution involves the use

We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on this subject. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control the spread of zebra mussels.

of JAVEX-12™sodium

If you'd like to discuss this

hypochiorite, which kills the

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For current project □ For future project □ For research purposes □ Your name Title

Organization Address

Postal Code

Phone; {


Mall to: Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc., 6400 Northwest Dr., Mississauga, ON, L4V 1K1

Phone: (905) 678-3707, Fax: (905) 678-0898, E-mail: javex-12info@colpal.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 157 (See page 25)

Water Resources

Invasive species in the spotiight Problems increase with frequency cf ocean crossings product in the United States is lost to foreign plant pests each year. From a

financial perspective, the direct loss of product represents only one fraction of the money spent on the problem of in vasive species. Major monetary invest ments have been made to research and

develop methods to control these pests through prevention, eradication or elimi nation strategies. One in five of all biological control projects economically control the target invader(Simberloff 1996). Cument con trol methods often involve the use of in

secticides or herbicides; however, the

pest organism is much easier to deal with if it is found within a small area or de

tected when the population is very small. Hormone based insecticides are prov ing to be more useful but more research Low water levels of Ontario's Georgian Bay this spring revealed widespread colo

is still needed. Mechanical methods are

nies of zebra mussels. Photo - Steve Davey

also used to control nuisance plants; however, these methods are indiscrimi nate and do not provide any protection to native species. Biological control,the use of a natural enemy to keep the pest under control, has gained more wide spread acceptance but still requires re

Specieshave invaded new habi

tats ever since humans started

moving around the globe. In fact, every inhabited region of the earth has benefited from deliberate

introductions from an economic or aes

thetic perspective. For example, intro ductions of European plants and animals for agricultural purposes occuired during the colonization of North America. Un

fortunately, these same areas also expe rienced major problems when unwanted intruders, associated with the deliberate

introduction, exploited the environment to the detriment of other species. The problems encountered with in vasive species have increased with the frequency of ocean crossings. Not sur prising, since the World Resources In stitute (1999) estimates that over 3,000

aquatic species are moving around the globe daily in the ballast tanks of ships. Global trade inevitably opens up major opportunities for invasive species and presents the current dilemma: How do we eliminate the transfer of invasive spe cies while maintaining our financial, biological and ecological integrity? Invasive species impact the natural

By Barb Crosbie, M.Sc., Environmental Scientist, Aquatic Sciences Inc.


environment through exploitation, com petition, predation, hybridization, dis ease and displacement of native species. Various invaders have devastated farms,

forests, impeded waterways, fouled lakes and ponds, affected human health and replaced native species(Simberloff 1996). In terms of the threat they pose to global biodiversity, invading species rank second only to habitat loss, two


that 87 nonindigenous aquatic species

Predation on non-target species, hy bridization with similar native species and movement of the control organisms from the original area ofintroduction has occurred and these impacts need to be evaluated. The use of natural pathogens to control invasive species has also been investigated; however, research is re quired to determine the impacts on nontarget organisms. Regardless of the con trol technique used, quantitative moni toring is required to determine the suc

have been introduced into the Great

cess of the treatment.

Lakes in this century alone. In fact, the percentage of introduced species con tributing to the Canadian species' pool is 28%. In the San Franciso Bay area, another aquatic system plagued by in vading species, the rate of invasions has increased from one in every 36 weeks in the 1850s to one in every 12 weeks in the past decade. The cost to deal with the problems caused by invaders now runs into bil lions of dollars, not including the im pacts on native species or costs associ ated with introduced pathogens. One fourth of the agricultural gross national

The large number of invasive species impacting the natural environment has resulted in the creation of strategies to prevent future introductions and to remediate and restore the previous dam age. The Convention on Biological Di versity (1992) recognized the threat of introduced species and called upon par ticipating nations to control or eradicate alien species that pose a threat to hu man or ecosystem health. An executive order issued by US President Bill Clinton outlined, in February, the direc tion the country will take to deal with the problem of invasive species.

factors that cannot be viewed as mutu

ally exclusive. Over several thousand species have been introduced since European settle ment, with 15% of these becoming in vaders, causing widespread problems (Simberloff 1996). It has been estimated

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

Water Resources

The state of the union address indi

cated that an Invasive Species Council (ISC) made up of the Secretaries of Defense, the Interior, the Treasury, Agriculture, Commerce,Transportation and the Administrator of the Environ

mental Protection Agency is to be formed. The ISC will provide national leadership regarding invasive species and oversee the activities of the associ ated committees.

In addition, the ISC will oversee in

ternational projects, planning activities, the formation of the information shar

ing network and the Invasive Species Management Plan(ISMP). The ISC will review existing approaches to invasive species management, identify research needs, develop science-based risk as sessments and identify the legal authori ties and actions required to deal with specific issues. The ISC will be respon sible for updating the ISMP biennially and reporting on the success in achiev ing the specified goals and objectives. Lastly, the ISC will identify personnel,

fence to regulate the movement of spe cies through trade, transport, tourism, aquaculture, agriculture, forestry, game farming, horticulture, pet trade, recrea tion, tourism and travel.

On the global stage, the International Marine Organization, involving 156 nations, has been developing regulations to control ballast water discharge in an attempt to reduce the number of aquatic invaders. The Canadian and US gov ernments engaged in a ballast water con trol program in 1990 that required the exchange or filtration of ballast water prior to entering port. Many other pro grams aimed at increasing the under standing of the problems associated with invasive species have been implemented worldwide. Most of these programs work towards prevention, education and control of invasive species; however, this new executive order combines the

much needed funding with a strong fo cus on strategies that work towards pre vention and preservation of the natural environment.

resources and additional levels of coor

dination required to continue to meet the goals and objectives. President Clinton ordered that an

ISMP be completed by August 2000 and that an advisory committee be estab lished who will recommend plans and actions at local, tribal, state, regional and ecosystem-based levels to meet the goals and objectives. The ISMP is a much needed tool that will help minimize,and hopefully in some cases eliminate, the economic,ecological and human health impacts that invasive species impose. The proactive approach encouraged by this order will act as a first line of de

The 9th International Zebra Mussel

and Aquatic Nuisance Species Confer ence which was held April, 1999, was


an international forum on the research,

outreach and technological develop ments concerning the biology, ecology, control and management of invasive species. The work presented at this con ference focused on the impacts of aquatic nuisance species on freshwater and marine environments. ES&E plans to report on various conference findings in later issues.

For more information, circle reply card No. 128





definitive, industpy-approved

JET APPARATUS FROM STOCK ELMRIDGE manufactures and stocks Jet Eductors and Ejectors for use witfi water, steam, compressed air and otfier motive fiuids. Appiications include:

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rC8ll1-800-510CPPA(2772)^' lor these tree boolilets. Your Information Resource

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For more information, circle reply card No. 129

Drinking Water

Helicobactor pylori threatens public health Bacteria may lurk in water pipe fiim lori to survive in water, but the bacte

rium was not reproducible using stand ard culturing techniques. However,they were definitely viable. Dr. Rita Colwell has shown that simi

lar bacteria, once ingested, could resus citate and produce infection in human volunteers. To my knowledge, I do not believe that this feeding of human vol unteers has been conducted with H. py lori.

West, et al, 1992, has also demon

strated the survival of H. pylori in water under varying physical and chemi cal conditions. They concluded that H. pylori could survive in water for pro longed periods under a range of physi cal variables. The results indicate that

Researchers at Robert Gordon

University in Aberdeen, say

that a bacterium, Helico

bactor pylori, has been impli cated in a variety of gastrointestinal dis eases. Half of the people older than 50 years of age in developed countries carry the bacterium in their guts, with an even larger proportion of people affected in Third World countries, say the scientists in a paper published by the Londonbased New Scientist magazine. Several animals may harbour the mi cro-organism, but so far no one has found a reservoir in the environment.

Donald Reid and his Scottish colleagues


reservoir of infection.

Helicobactor pylori is a gram-nega

In 1991, Klein, et al, provided evi

tive, curved or spiral bacterium that lives in the semipermeable mucous layer of

for H. pylori in infection in Peruvian

the stomach. It has an unusual survival


mechanism that allows it to live in a very acidic environment. H. pylori has the ability to biodegrade urea and produce ammonia abundantly, which, in turn,

Based on my own knowledge of the survival of pathogens in biofilm,I would agree with Dr. Reid that H. pylori is highly likely to survive in the matrix of

raises the pH in the immediate vicinity

a nutrient-rich biofilm.

dence of a water source as a risk factor

Poor sanitary practices, including non-potable water, may be part of the cause of the high frequency of occurrence in Third World countries.

Helicobactor pylori might

thrive in biofilms. These form when mi

cro-organisms colonize surfaces such as the insides of water pipes, often surround

ing themselves with a sticky protective fdm. "Biofilms occur naturally in all water distribution systems," Reid says. Helicobactor pylori is a bacterium found to play a major role in the cause

of chronic gastric inflammation and, in some cases, stomach cancer. Chronic

gastritis, which some people have en dured for years, has been completely eliminated and the gastric mucous has returned to a pristine state with the eradi cation of H.pylori in the system (Blaser, 1992).

By Garry Palmateer, M.Sc., GAP EnviroMicroblal Services Inc.


survival of H. pylori in environmental (natural) water may act as a potential


of the bacteria.

The prevalence of these bacteria in human infections in developed coun tries, such as Canada and the USA, is

0.5 to 1.0 percent per year in children, and approximately 50 percent in 60 year old adults. However, in developing countries, most persons are infected by H. pylori by the age of ten. Poor sanitary practices, including non-potable water, may be part of the cause of the high frequency of occur rence in Third World countries.

Shahamat,etal, 1993,demonstrated

the survival of H. pylori in water as culturable up to 48 hours and, in some cases,for 20 to 30 days. Using tritiumlabelled substrates, they showed H. py-

Blaser, J.M. 1992. Helicobactor pylori: its role in disease. Clin. Infect. DIs. 15: 386-393.

Klein, P., Graham, D., Galllorer, A.,

Opekum, A., and Smith, E. 1991. Wa ter source as risk factor for Helicobactor

pylori infection in Peruvian children. The Lancet. 337: 1503-1506.

Shahamat, M., Mai, U., Paszko-Kolva, 0., Kessel, M., and Colwell, R. 1993.

Use ofautoradiography to assess viabil ity of Helicobactor pylori in water. J. AppI. Environ. MIcroblal. 59: 1231-1235.

West, A., Mlllan, M., and Tompkins, E. 1992. Effect of physical environment on survival of Helicobactor pylori. J. Clln: Pathol. 45:228-231.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 168

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999


are Canadian-made,,.


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Leachate Treatment

Multi-Stage evaporation process Low energy costs for leachate treatment

For years, scientists and engi

jacket heat from the internal combustion engine is utilized to efficiently and ef fectively drive the AutoFlash process. pressure and temperature in order to This energy source is the only heat re achieve the very high efficiency of quired. With the exception of volatile organic evaporation. Non ideal operating con ditions will cause instability in the compounds (VOCs), the manufacturer claims that the system effectively re stages. When the system is not operat ing in a stable condition, no progress moves 99.5% of ammonia, salts, heavy (separation of distillate from leachate) metals, BOD and COD. Based on over 20 years of experi is achieved (See diagram). only require 50 to 70 kWh/ml ence, the AutoFlash system requires The Atlantis AutoFlash process in approximately 1 1/2 man hours per day, The unfortunate pait of this dramatic corporates a static, self-regulating de improvement in efficiency is the fact that vice separating each stage from the next. based on a five day work week, for the fulfillment of all operating and mainte Multiple Stage Flash units are extremely This proprietary device allows the ben efit of evaporation to be available to the nance requirements. The simplicity of difficult to operate under ideal condi wastewater industry with absolutely no operating and control makes AutoFlash tions and virtually impossible to oper ideally suited for remote SCADA moni ate if there are any fluctuations in the operational difficulties. Even more important is the fact that toring from other manned locations. heat energy or in the characteristics The manufacturer states that, based (temperature, concentration, flow rate) the low-grade, reject, waste heat can be of the mother fluid. In reality, each stage used for driving the evaporation process. upon offerings made in recent weeks,the This quality of waste heat is so low, it is total amortized capital cost including op operates at a different pressure and tem regarded as being available free of cost. erating & maintenance is less than 2.5 perature. Fuither, the AutoFlash system is well cents/gallon ($6.60/m' Cdn). The first stage would typically be 90° Some important design parameters to C operating at half an atmosphere of applied on a landfill application gener pressure. The last stage would typically ating electiicity where the reject, water consider: neers have recognized the ef ficiency of multi-stage, flash evaporation. In very general terms, it takes approximately 700 kWh/ m^ of heat energy to cause water to evapo rate. This very high number is based on a single stage situation which would be analogous to a kettle on a stove. The Mul tiple Stage Flash process, when incoiporating 15 stages (approximately), would

be operating at 35° C at l/20th or l/25th

of an atmosphere. Each progressive stage would operate at slightly lower


H ¥


Japan External Trade Organization

In conjunction with New Earth '99 - Global Environment Technology Show

liii 181 University Avenua Suite 600. Toronto, ON MSH3M7

contact: Christine Hueng tel: (416)861-0000x231 f«x:(416)861-9666

hyangci^toronto.jetro.org 1 Race Vilie-Mfrie Suite 1506. Montreal, PQ;;: H3B 285 contact: Marina Srzeski tel: (514)879-5817 fax:(514) 879-5618

inbrzealct(3>iTiIink.net , ';l

INTEX Osaka, Japan '

October 20th - 23rd, 1999 Your chance to meet buyers and importers of environmental products in Japan, one of the largest and fastest-growing eco-business markets in the world

60,000-1- expected attendance

World Trade Centra

660. 999.(^nada Placa.

Vancouver. BC V6C SEia contact: Gayle Oyama tel: (604) 684-4174 fax:(604)684-6877


Environmental protection and pollution abatement Energy conservation and new-energy products Waste treatment and recycling Global environmental monitoring and measuring

" i i' l'% ill®''k w 38

For more information, circle reply card No. 131 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Leachate Treatment

• On leachate applications, the unit energy consumption for an AutoFlash system generally runs

drives the AutoFlash to voluUURCTWMTBHUT HUT DtCHANSU


metrically reduce the leachate quantities. The ultimate disposal

between 180 to 200 kWh/m^ of

of the concentrated leachate could

leachate. This, of course, should

either be through recycling or al ternate methods,including incin

be waste heat or heat from di 1tTITA0100NMN8R

rectly firing a boiler with landfill




4. The waste heat from whatever

• Energy consumption for all

source could attract an AutoFlash

other utilities for an AutoFlash

hazardous waste treatment facil

Advanced Leachate Treatment

ity (volumetric reduction) due to the low costs of evaporation, and

System would run between 8 and 12kWh/m-h These other utilities

the ease with which AutoFlash

would include: vacuum pumps, transfer pumps, cooling towers and other equipment driven by electric motors. These compo nents could be supplied internally if the generation of electricity was, in fact, part of the specific project.

can be stopped and started. 5. AutoFlash technology has uni versal applications in the chemi cal process field,food industry as well as the desalination of (100% Q)





The Atlantis AutoFlash was

first successfully used on a fullCON^WmATi

There are several AutoFlash

applications to consider: 1. The simple volumetric reduc tion of leachate (96%+) through utilization of AutoFlash, resulting in lower trucking costs. 2. Volumetric reduction of leachate

through utilization of AutoFlash, and recycling the concentrated leachate

scale basis in 1979. Several in stallations have utilized landfill


through the landfill mass. 3. Co-generation, whereby the landfill gas drives an engine to create electric

gas. According to the manufac turer, the history of operating ex periences in many countries has dem onstrated the reliability of this unique, cost-effective, and proprietary system. For more information,

ity, and the waste heat from the engine

circle reply card No. 132



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management, Envista's powerful software is the only tool you need Envxsta streamlines the efforts of

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999


For more information, circle reply card No. 133 (See page 25)


Conference Update

ES&E's Conference and Tradeshow

was a great success

TheEnvironmental Compliance '99 Conference attracted over

400 delegates and speakers at the Constellation Hotel near

Toronto Pearson Airport, April 7 and 8. Legal, technical and government regu latory specialists addressed crowded sessions,sometimes with standing room only. Extra seating had to be brought in. ES&E's Environmental Compliance conferences are now believed to be the

largest privately sponsored environmen tal conferences in Canada.

It was a measure of the quality of the papers that sessions remained packed to the very end of the two day conference, while experts fielded questions relating to various scenarios. This was a practi cal learning experience for people in in dustry, with environmental responsibili ties. It was the seventh consecutive con

ference organized by Environmental Sci ence & Engineering Magazine, in con junction with Canadian Environmental Regulation & Compliance News. The papers presented included:

nmen ES&E's Managing Editor, Sandra Davey, directs a delegate to the sessions. The tradeshow exhibitors expressed satisfaction with the quality and volume of confer ence delegates, so a tradeshow wilt be a part of our next conference in 2000. • Spill Prevention for supervisors and

Record of Site Condition

Environmental Due Diligence for supervisors and managers


For the first time, a small Table Top

• Greenhou.se Gas Emissions Reduction

Environmental information

Tradeshow was introduced to the Com

• Environmental regulation and compliance for supervisors and

management: Document handling for due diligence Environmental approvals: A practical roadmap for a changing landscape Managing flammable and combustible liquid under Ontario's

pliance series and was an unqualified success. Exhibitors expressed enthusi asm at the quality of the audiences and


• First steps to EMS development: Initial revew and management plan • Environmental Risk Management for managers and supervisors • Site-Specific Risk Assessment and the

Photo Report by Tom Davey

new Fire Code

Overcoming the obstacles to successful EMS implementation Auditing within the Environmental Management System

Kara Clairman, a lawyer at Tory Tory DesLauriers Binnington.... 40

the interest shown in the exhibits. As

one exhibitor noted: "When delegates ai-e paying over $600 to attend, this alone is tangible evidence of a quality audi ence with specifying power." For the Millennium Year, ES&E Magazine and CER&CNplan to expand the tradeshow component of this annual conference. ❖

....presented legal complexities with clarity to a large audience.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Conference Update



i i-mm

5 ''inrfe 1,



ES&E's first Tradeshow was a successful adjunct to the conference which drew over 400 delegates and speakers.





Environmental Drilling Services:

• split-spoon sampling inside & outside buildings • installation of monitors for

water & soil gas


• portable hollow & solid stem auger units • geoteohnioal SPT & concrete coring services • crews routinely fly to other cities & remote sites


Sonic Soil Sampling Inc.

The Aquatic Sciences Inc. website displays a wide range of Environmental Analytical Services for utilities, industries and municipalities. Link to e-mail for specific enquiries.

668 Millway Avenue, Units 15 & 16

Toronto Head Office:

Concord, ON L4K3V2

lei:(905)660-0501, Fax:(905) 660-7143 Toil Free Fax:(888) 251-7445 E-mail: sonlcss@idirect.com

Aquatic Sciences Inc.

Web site: www.sonicsoil.com Vancouver Field Office: 447 - 1027 Davie Street

Vancouver, BC V6E 4L2 PO Box 2205, 250 Mortindale Road, St. Cothorines, ON L2R 7R8 905-641-0941 Telephone 905-641-1825 Facsimile www.aquaticsciences.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)

Phone:(604) 685-1904 Fax:(604) 685-1880

For more information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 25)


The true cost of ownership A forgotten factor in liquid ievei measurement?


expensive than in other industries. Tech nical advance may also increase costs dramatically, if, because of lack of spare parts, an instrument must be replaced in stead of repaired. One factor not con sidered in the study is the risk of owner ship, i.e. the follow-up costs of an in

Purchase price 30%

Wl \ Engineering 5%

strument failure in a critical situation

such as overspill or pump protection

installation and


Commissioning 20%

1 ownership 1

Cost of

Maintenance 6%


Repair 30%


Training 3%


Unknown ???

Figure 1: The initial purchase price is only 25% to 30% of the real cost of owner

Overthe years,level measure


ment has become an impor

tant factor in the control and

monitoring of modem indus trial processing plants. Whether for liq uids or solids, its area of use is-basically the same: checking the level in storage tanks and reactors, protection against overspill, protection against blockage or empty running of pumps,crushers, con veyor belts, etc. A potential user, confronted with a particular measurement problem, is of fered a wide variety of solutions from a large number of manufacturers. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that af

purchase, engineering, installation and commissioning, maintenance, repair and training were analysed for several proc ess instruments and actuators over a life

cycle time of 15 years. For process in strumentation, which on average repre sents over 60% of the hardware invest

ment in a chemical plant, the initial pur chase price is typically only 25% to 30% of the true cost of ownership. Repair and maintenance make the

Clearly, there is much to be gained for both users and manufacturers by looking at the costs of ownership. In addition to a competitive price, there fore, the following basic criteria are vi tal to the purchase decision: • Long-term reliability under the specified operating conditions. • Flexibility to adapt to changing applications. • Simple installation, with the ability to fit on existing process connections. • Ease of calibration.

• Ability to withstand wear and tear. • Standard versions with long-term availability of spares. In an age where cutting costs has become one of the predominant occu pations of industry, it is very easy to make purchase price the sole buying criterion. This is very short-sighted,

most substantial contribution to the vari

since the real cost (and risk) of owner

able costs and, due to process conditions and a more difficult working environ ment, are on average some 20% more

ship is often several times greater. For more information, circle reply card No. 136

ter clarification of the technical suitabil

ity of the possible measurement meth ods, price is the major factor when choosing between solutions and ven dors. In reality, this is a poor criterion, because as Figure 1 shows, when the total cost of ownership is considered, initial purchase price is only the tip of the iceberg. Costs and risks of ownership The fact that users seldom look be

yond the price of purchase is due to the nebulous nature of any follow-up costs. A recent study by a chemical company, however, showed how some of these

costs can be quantified. The costs of

By Dr. Peter G. Berrie, Endress+Hauser GmbH+Co, Maulburg

Storage tank fitted with ![/Iicropilot transmitter for continuous level measurement and Liquiphant FaiiSafe for overspill protection. Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

Water Environment Federation* Preserving&Enhancing the GbjbalWnerEnvironment

Water Environment Federation 72nd Annual Conference & Exposition

Attend the Largest Water Quality Conference & Exposition in North America! Featuring over 700 Exhibitors, 80 Technical Sessions, Full-day Workshops, Facility Tours, and more, including: • Opening General Session featuring keynote speaker John Briscoe, Senior Advisor at the World Bank

• NEW!Industry Day - a full day dedicated to Industrial Issues

• WEFTEC Luncheon with Paul Simon, former United States Senator from Illinois and 1988 Democratic Presidential Candidate

• WEF Member Appreciation Day

For More Information: E-mail: confinfo@wef.org Call WEF's Fax on Demand

(Select document U 4000): 1-800-444-2933 or 1-703-684-2401/rouJs/c/e the u.s.scanac/a Call: 1-800-666-0206 or 1-703-684-2452 if outside the U.S. & Canada

Visit WEF's WEB Site: http://www.wef.org

For more Information, circle reply card No. 137(See page 25)


A\N\NA Annual Conference and Exposition June 20-24, 1999

Lakeside Center at McCormick Place, Chicago, Illinois

Chicago. Big, bold and brash, yet ful of excite

ment. Chicago is also a seat of learning, culture and commerce. Unlike many Great Lakes cities, Chicago kept developers away from Lake Michi gan - the result is miles of golden sands contrasting with the deep blue of the lake. Canada's Rod Holme will end his successful term as AWWA President at the 1999 Confer

ence. AWWA has planned the biggest, boldest and most exciting event in the drinking water industry with the 1999 AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition. This year's event promises to be better than ever. AWWA is expecting to top last year's attendance of more than 12,000 attendees. A comprehensive technical program addresses the most pressing issues facing the industry. Some 80 tech

nical sessions will take place over four days, with expert papers on water treatment and distribution, regulations,tech

nology, and public information. In addition, 11 in-depth workshops have been designed to educate you and your staff. More than 500 exhibiting companies utilizing 1,000 booths are expected to show the latest products, break through technologies, and new services that can solve com plex water treatment challenges.

As the Chicago area features some of the largest and most sophisticated water treatment facilities in the US,four plants

will be on the tour list. The Third Annual Attendee Recep

Chicago's spectacular waterfront retains access to beaches.

tion will be sponsored by exhibitors and the Water Industry Luncheon will feature the hilarious writer Dave Barry. For

Photo - Tom Davey

sports buffs there is the Golf Tournament to benefit Water

For People, the 5K RunAValk, and the always popular Pipe Tapping Contest. AWWA has organized 12 tours to show off the best that

Chicago has, including shopping on the Magnificent Mile,

a boat cruise on Lake Michigan, an architecture tour, a mu seum tour, and even a musical tour. They offer a great op portunity to get away from it all and enjoy the city with family or friends. For registration information, please call AWWA at: 1-800-926-7337, or visit www.awwa.org

■ Densoclad and Densopol Bitumen Tapes Coid applied tapes ranging from 20 mils up to 80 mils in thickness.

■ Denso Protal 7000 Liquid Epoxies A wide range of brush and spray applied epoxies for pipeline applications. ■ Denso Petrolatum Tapes Coid applied tapes for protection of pipe, valves and fittings. ■ Densotherm Bitumen Tape Hot applied for above or below ground pipeline protection.

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With over 110 years of experience, Denso is known around the world for quality products and service. Contact Denso North America inc. at(905)940-8255 for a complete literature package or a no-cost on-site evaluation of your application. 44



75 Shields Court, Unit 3 Markham, ON, Canada, L3R 9T4

15 Woodstock Drive

Sherwood Park, AB, Canada, T8A 4C4

Tel:(905) 940-8255, Fax:(905) 940-8258

Tel:(403) 910-1717, Fax:(403) 449-5300

For more information, circle reply card No. 138 (See page 25)


A Member of Winn & Coales International

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

June 20 - 24, 1999 Lakeside Center at McCormick Place

The Exposition: One-Stop Shopping for Drinking Water Professionals If you're in the market for anything related to drinking water, you'll find it

Chicago, Illinois

here. We'll have more than 500

Come to ChicagoJune 20 through June 24. The drinking water industry will be there and so should you!

exhibitors showcasing their products

Chicago. Big, bold, and full of excitement. That's why we're having the biggest, boldest, and most exciting event in the drinking water industry in this spectacular city. Make sure you're there

and sendees. See what's new and meet

face-to-face with supphers. Test-drive the latest equipment and technology, and learn what it can do for you.

for the 1999 AWWA Annual Conference

and Exposition as we make our mark on the Windy City. This year's event promis es to be bigger and better than ever. We're expecting more than 12,000 dele gates and there are plenty of reasons why you should be one of them...

A Comprehensive Technical Program Take your pick from more than 80 tech nical sessions and 11 in-depth work shops that will provide insightful train ing, discussion, and information on the latest procedures, technologies, and

For complete conference information, visit our Web A World-Class Drinking

site at www.awwa.org.

Water Event For many, the real value of the AWWA Annual Conference is the chance to

meet colleagues and share ideas with others from around the world. If you


can only attend one event in 1999,

We've got the

make it the AWWA Annual Conference

most compre

and Exposition.


American Water Works Association

6666 West Quincy Avenue

hensive tech

Denver, CO 80235

nical program addressing the

Telephone:(303) 794-7711 Fax:(303) 794-3951

most pressing

issues facing the industry. You'll get real-world solu tions that you can put to work in your day-to-day operations. For more information, circie repiy card No. 153(See page 25)

Advanced Water Treatment

Self-cleaning membrane water treatment A quantum leap forward in drinking water treatment? wash must contain some chlorine to pre vent bacterial/fungus growth on the membrane. Because the process of membrane filtration is purely physical and unlike slow sand processes, reliable and accurate pilot work can be relatively limited in duration while still allowing for accurate design work. Modern synthetic chemical mem branes resist chemicals and growth of biofilms better than those of the recent

past. Periodic treatment with aggressive cleaning chemicals is needed but even so, membrane plants usually require much reduced operator skill and atten tion when compared to regular(chemi cal) plants. Membrane plants also have very small "footprints" and so are much less costly to house.

Small communities have tradi

A severe limitation of micro- and ul-

Northern surface water is no easy alternative to the search for well water.

tionally had difficulty pro viding enough clean water for

ible yellow-brown colour from tannins; and the water is very soft, requiring the use of expensive extra chemicals. It takes a highly skilled operator several hours a day to operate a plant consist ently well through all seasons of the year

tra-filtration is that these processes do not remove organic materials which are dis solved in the water. Coloured substances

face water from lakes or rivers in the

commercial attention and can command

caused by leaf and other vegetable mat ter decay are not removed. Chlorine is added for disinfection and for protection of the water quality in water mains and in storage; it acts on the organics and can form excessive amounts of by-products. The organics can be removed by adding

accepted way requires plant and chemi cals and a skilled operator's attention; without good treatment surface water can be unsafe due to the presence of harmful bacteria and cysts. The search for good well water can be very unproductive for communities

very high salaries.

flocculants but this creates a need for

their citizens' needs. Wells of

ten produce insufficient quantities and the quality may be poor due to cracks in underlying rock layers or chemicals picked up underground. Treating sur

on the hard rock of the Canadian Shield.

Water often is just "not there" and, when it is, it frequently turns out to be unsafe due to fissured rock and/or unusable

because of sulfur, methane, iron and/or

manganese content. These contami nants are expensive to remove so the search for wells can come to resemble a

costly lottery. The question arises "Why not use the plentiful surface water in Shield country?" Northern surface water is no easy al ternative to the search for well water. This is because it is hard to treat with

regular alum-based processes. The water gets very cold, slowing floe for mation in winter; there is often very vis-

By Tony Edmonds, Ontario Ministry of Environment 46

and all weather conditions. All too of

ten operators with these skills attract

Traditional slow sand filtration

avoids much of the operator skill prob lem. By allowing a biologically active layer to form on top of a sand bed filter and passing raw water slowly through this, acceptable treatment occurs with out chemicals. This treatment is easy to operate but requires much increased capital investment for very large area tanks and heated buildings to house them. Water with algae, clay, or colour with over 10 or so units, can be difficult

or impossible to treat this way. Longterm (four season) expensive pilot work is, therefore, usual to assure treatability of any supply. Membrane Technology Membrane treatment is now begin ning to compete economically with regular conventional technology. Mi

regular chemical skills and a place for disposing of a contaminated waste stream. In addition,flocculant use short

ens membrane life and thereby adds in another way to O&M costs. Specially formulated membranes can be manufactured which filter out the

coloured organics. These much "tighter" nanofdtration membranes require higher pressure to drive water or permeate through them, rather than through fine pores in them. These membranes can not be operated like micro- or ultra-fil tration membranes because they cannot be backwashed effectively. This is be cause water only passes slowly through the membranes even under quite high pressure. Also it is hard to devise con figurations which will withstand high pressures in either flow direction on the

cro- and ultra-filtration membranes can

membrane. As a result nanofdtration has

be manufactured with small uniform

been commonly used with previously cleaned-up water as a polishing filter. Vigorous and frequent chemical clean ing of the membranes, with its attend ant disposal problem, has been required

pores which can "size-exclude" almost all bacteria and cysts. Backwashing is required with these membranes at fre quent intervals so as to prevent plugging with small particles. Often the back

even for this limited use.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Advanced Water Treatment

New Approach Newer nanofiltration membranes combine improved mechanical strength with greater permeability. This has ex tended the range of economic applications by making me chanical cleaning of membranes possible and by making the membrane area and equipment size smaller. One innovative company has combined the new mem branes and mechanical cleaning in a tubular configuration. Membranes in straw-like rigid tubular form are airanged in perforated metal support tubes. These support tubes are ar ranged parallel between end plates of a cylindrical container in what resembles the shell and tubes of a common heat ex

changer. By carefully designing the tube headers the water path is made to traverse all the tubes in the shell in series.

The process is specially suited to use in communities which are faced with

problems of treating highly coloured and moderately turbid water. In operation, the raw water, without any form of pretreatment, is fed under pressure to the membrane. Veloci ties which ensure turbulent conditions are maintained to help avoid the build-up of deposits on the membrane. Water enters into the initial tube and on through each of the tubes to a discharge point. Clean colourless permeate water passes to the shell and is discharged from it by gravity flow. The colour organics and particles are both retained and dis charged in the stream issuing from the tube discharge point. Some of this discharge is discarded to waste and some re cycled. Every few hours a foam ball swab is carried into the water flow where it brushes over and dislodges deposits on the membrane surface. This brushing action allows ac cumulated particles and debris to be re-suspended and dis charged in the waste stream. PCI Membrane Systems and Scottish Water,the publiclyowned Scottish water utility, have jointly developed this technology to supply small isolated communities in Scot land. Today, over ten production plants are in operation, supplying remote communities there with treated surface water. On checking, the composition of the Scottish raw water was found to be similar to typical Canadian Shield surface water. The Ontario Ministry of Environment then arranged a partnership to test the technology with Health Canada, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, and with a community with an interest in adopting the process- the Wahta Mohawk First Nation, located near Bala, Ontario.

During the 17 week trial in the summer/fall of 1998 at Wahta, a PCI pilot unit was subjected to a series of severe stress tests. These were devised jointly by PCI, their On tario agents Omega Public Works, the project consulting engineer D. Kamanga,then ofIFNA 3-DN Engineering, and staff of the Ontario Ministry of Environment, Drinking Water, Wastewater and Watershed Standards Section. Dur

ing the pilot operation, day-to-day operation was undertaken by janitorial staff at Wahta who had no previous water treat ment training. The quality of the raw water at Wahta was poor, with Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

colour in the 40 to 50 TCU range and turbidities around two NTU, with occasional excursions to higher values. Perme ate or filtered water quality was excellent throughout, with colour in the under five TCU range and turbidities in the 0.1 NTU range. These quality variables remained in the excel lent range, except immediately after lengthy shutdowns caused by power outages and other incidents. Testing was also done for bacterial quality and excellent results obtained even without use of a disinfectant. During a performance challenge with live clostridium spores, a log removal of over 6.5 was observed. Organic carbon levels were also reduced to about a quarter of levels in the raw water and by-product formation potential with chlorine was greatly reduced. During the trial mechanical cleaning cycles were devised which should maintain membrane performance for months before requiring chemical cleaning. At the con clusion of the trial, membrane cleaning with soap resulted in full restoration of the membrane permeability after allow ance was made for temperature and pressure effects. In conclusion, the pilot filter, operated by very briefly trained staff, performed near faultlessly. The process can be recommended for consideration for use in more remote

small communities where handling and transporting chemi cals is an issue. The process is specially suited to use in communities which are faced with problems of treating highly coloured and moderately turbid water and which would prefer not to have to rely on skilled operators for regular plant operation. A full report is available from Omega Public Works,Fax: (519) 332-0702, or from the author. E-mail: edmondto® ene.gov.on.ca.

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© 1995 Phillips Driscopipe,

Brantford, Ontario N3S 792 Tel: (519) 754-1366, Fax:(519) 754-4576

a division of Phillips Petroleum Company

Offices also in Quebec and Nova Scotia


For more information, circle reply card No. 154 (See page 25)

Air Pollution and Health

Odour and odour control Significant work has been done on the effects of odour on indoor air quality ir pollution has been univer sally recognized as a major cause of global atmospheric .perturbations impacting earth planet by smog, acid rain, ozone, ozone hole, and global warming. An other important impact of air pollution, which is of concern for public health, is emission of odours which predomi nantly originate from small molecules with high vapour pressure and low boil ing points and molecular weights 150


and lower.

Immediate concerns

Odours have been a major cause of public complaints in North America. Surveys of the public living near indus tries, especially manufacturing facilities with industrial source emissions, indi

cate that odour can cause physical, men tal and physiological stresses on hu mans. These typically take the form of nausea, headache, loss of appetite, im paired respiratory functions and, in some cases, allergies. Most of the odorous compounds are released from natural biological activi ties or common industrial processes, namely surface coating, chemical and allied products, metal and petroleum re fineries, pulp and paper, fuel combus tion,food processing and waste disposal and recycling. Table 1 shows some of these compounds, their molecular weights, odour and odour thresholds and time weighted average exposure values (TWAEV). The TWAEV is the average

Table 1. Odour Threshold and Personal Exposure Limit of Common Odorous Compounds Name


Hydrogen sulfide Carbon disulfide

Dimethyl sulfide Dimethyl disulfide Dimethyl trisulflde Methanethiol

Allyl mercaptan (CH2=CHCH2SH) Amyl mercaptan Benzyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan Phenyl mercaptan Propyl mercaptan Thiocresol

Sulfur Compounds Rotten egg 76 Disagree, sweet 62 Rotten cabbage 34

threshold values. Table 1 shows that the TWAEV val

ues are two to five orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding odour

By Dr. Tahir R. Khan, V.P., Chemical Emission

Management Services

14 31


48 74

Sulfide, pungent






104 124

Unpleasant, putrid Unpleasant, strong Decayed,cabbage Putrid, garlic Unpleasant Skunk,rancid






62 110 76 124

0.0008 0.0013 0.0016 0.0005


(CH3C6H4SH) Ammonia & Nitrogen Compounds 17 Pungent 0.0266 Methyl amine 32 Fishy, pungent 0.0252 DImethylamine 45 Fishy 0.0846 Trimethylamine 59 Fishypungent 0.0008 3-methylindole (Skatole) 131 Feces 4.0E-5 (C6H3C(CH3)CHNH) n-Butyl amine 73 Sour,ammonia 0.239 Diisopropyl amine Fishy 0.537 101 Ethyl amine 0.497 45 Ammonical Pyridine 79 Pungent 2.13 Ammonia

17 13 18 14 NA NA 20 18 16

Propanoic acid

Volatile Fatty Acids Biting 60 Vinegar 74 Rancid,pungent



Butanoic acid





Pentanoic acid





3-methyl butanoic acid






58 72

Sweet,minty Sweet,acetone

47.5 0.737








Formic acid Acetic acid







Butanone(MEK) 2-pentanone(MPK) Benzothiozole C6H4SCHN

Other Compounds Penetrating






Green sweet Medicinal

verse health effects have been reported at these trace levels (odour thresholds). The National Academy of Science Com mittee on Odour survey in 1979, and a follow up ten years later, showed that odour health effects are issues of public concern. For instance. New Jersey re ported 369 new odour complaints in

mankind, can detect trace quantities. It

0.0007 0.0243


is instructive to note, however, that ad

the most sensitive instrument known to


0.0001 0.0062

tively small in amines. The low odour detection thresholds



threshold values; the difference is rela

are not unexpected as the nose, being

Odour Threshold

Sulfide Sulfide


of airborne concentrations of a chemi

cal or biological agent to which a worker can be safely exposed in a work day or a work week - Ministry of Labour, On tario Regulation 65486. TWAEVs are included for comparison with odour



1989; of these 104 were referred for in






vestigation and 309 were resolved with appropriate action. The Ministry of Labour on the other hand, by setting TWAEVs at levels or ders of magnitude higher than the odour threshold values, is encouraging the public to work in an environment with levels much higher than those shown to be injurious to health, for a period of Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

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ENVIRONMENTAL Science & Engineering Magazine 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3V6

erating sales leads. You can forget writing letters. Our Product Cards enable direct contact between your customer and you! With them, you can

Product & Service Information


For more information, fill in and mail the cards describe your product line and include drawings or photographs. that are of interest to you and pass the rest to They will be sent to over 19,000 environmental professionals across others in your company. Canada,as well as hundreds given out at shows and seminars. You can make it easy for your customers to contact you - we make it easy for you to contact them.

Targeting your prospects!! ES&E Product Cards will be sent to municipal,regional and government engineers, consulting engineers and industrial managers with environmental responsibilities. Remember, clients will respond directly to you via the self-addressed card. This simplifies the vital client contact interface and helps build up relationships. Remember too, while the environmental market is already huge, its potential is enormous. To book your cards, simply fax in this form. We will contact you to finalize the details.

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220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6 Tel: (905) 727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271 E-mail: esemag@istar.ca Web site address: www.esemag.com

Air Pollution and Health

way. It seeks to eliminate the causes of pollution rather than treating the sys tems, reflecting a major shift in empha sis from "control" to "prevent". P2 first looks at processes, practices, materials and products that could prevent or mini mize the creation of pollution and waste. The most compelling benefits that are likely to be gained from P2 include: • lower production costs • use resources, materials and energy more efficiently • limit future liability • avoid or reduce clean-up costs • effective protection of the environment • lower waste management costs • enhance corporate image and community relations. Some of the typical parameters of existing processes that can be pursued

eight hours a day, five days a week and even more.

Significant work has been done on the effects of odour (trace compounds) on indoor air quality. These studies have demonstrated that at least a small por tion of the population, infants and the aged, becomes increasingly susceptible to other diseases or the worsening of ex isting diseases. There are two major problems with these exposures: 1. Sensitization. As sensitivity devel ops to one chemical, it often spreads to related substances as well. So, if, for instance, an individual lives downstream

from a petroleum manufacturing facil ity or works in a gas station, he or she becomes sensitive to numerous house

hold products of a similar nature, such as floor waxes, cleaning agents, pol include: • Modify/change process chemistry or ishes, varnishes and perfumes. 2. Olfactory Fatigue. This phenomenon replace materials generating odour with occurs when people with a normal sense odourless or low odour-generating of smell suffer from decreased percep chemicals. tion of odour intensity when exposed • Reduce the flow rate of the gas gener continually to the stimulus. An aspect ating odour. of olfactory fatigue, which is of more concern, is occupa A biofilter

4. Determine if the odorant concentra

tions, operating volumetric discharge rates and temperature of the operating stream can be reduced to minimize over all odorant emissions.

5. Determine how to capture the odour generating fumes. 6. Evaluate the viable odour control tech

nologies available, select the control tech nologies that have distinct advantages for the process system involved. 7. Complete a preliminary design to size the appropriate equipment system. 8. Based on the preliminary design, de termine the capital investment and op erating costs involved for the viable technologies being considered. Select the most cost-effective technology. 9. Review the proposed control scheme and preliminary design documents with the regulatory agencies and public sec tor personnel involved. 10. Finalize the design documents. In practical terms there are two types of air pollutants; gases (odour) and particulate matter. Paiticulate matter re leased in the form of aerosols and mists

is easily removed and is not normally considered as an odour problem. A brief description of bio logical gas cleaning taken

tional anosmia or habituation

when a person, after pro longed exposure, develops a higher threshold tolerance to the odour and feels normal in a contaminated environment. A



from an Environment Canada Fresh and/or

Organic bed material

recycled water


TWAEVs is beyond the scope of this article, but it is impor tant that this subject be scru tinized. It is hard to imagine that odorous compounds, from an industrial source such


Open plenum



as a petroleum refinery or a chemical plant, which enter into the receptor bloodstream much more easily by breathing than any other route, can benefit the body and not cause harm ful effects.

Pollution (odour) prevention It has been universally recognized that identification and elimination or

minimization of the source - pollution prevention (P2)- must be the first pri ority in any pollution control exercise. P2 is a proactive approach. The reac tive end-of-the pipe approaches allow waste to be generated unchecked and control measures implemented only af ter waste has been generated. These ap proaches are no longer preferred. Pollution Prevention aims at reduc

ing risks to human health and the envi ronment in a fundamentally different 50

Treated gas

RIter bed





study is provided here. Biological Gas Cleaning Technologies Three main categories of biological gas cleaning(BGC) technologies have been devel oped and successfully used in the industry. These are biofilters, bioscrubbers and

trickling filters. The latter two are improved versions of • Reduce the operating temperature of the process. Odours become intense at high temperatures. • Enclose the operation that generates odour. Fugitive emissions release odours and contaminate the environment.

Odour control technologies It is important to define the compo sition of the odour stream so that an ef ficient and cost-effective control meas

ure can be designed. The following steps define the systematic approach to reduce odour and design control measures: 1. Determine sources of the odorant.

2. Define and determine the composi tion of odour being generated. 3. Change, modify or improve the oper ating steps in the process to minimize emission.

biofilters. Biofiltration Biofiltration is an effective technol

ogy for removing relatively low levels of highly odorous compounds and VOCs in gas streams and can be in stalled and operated at a very modest cost. It is not very common in Canada and the US,perhaps because of marginal success in some applications, or it has not attracted attention due to low cost.

Biofiltration involves conditioning of odorous air by removing particles, ad justing humidity, modifying temperature and finally passing through a filter one metre thick which is composed of a va riety of materials,such as compost,peat, bark, soil, sand, heather, volcanic ash or a mixture of these and other materials.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Air Pollution and Health

The microorganisms present on the hy drous layer of these materials (biofilm) metabolize odorous compounds and break them down to carbon dioxide and

water as final products. For efficient operation of a biofilter, the system must address the following requirements: • It must have uniform distribution of

odorous gas to prevent short circuiting. •It must provide a suitable environment for microorganisms to thrive. • It should have significant buffering capacity to prevent acidification due to build up of sulfate from the breakdown ofsulfur compounds. The material must have the capacity to absorb water to maintain a hydrous film over it. • The material should have optimal adsorptive capacity to aid the removal process.

• The material should be highly porous to minimize system head loss.

Many organic compounds such as BTEX, aldehydes, acids, alcohols, mercaptans, amides, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are good candidates for removal. monly used for VOC removal. Trickling filters The trickling filter is a more special ized version of the biofilter. In this sys tem,as opposed to biofiltration in which filter material is relied on to provide nu trients for microorganisms and a buff ering solution to neutralize acidic me tabolized products, water containing nu trients and neutralizing chemicals is con tinually supplied to the top of an inert filter bed in opposing direction to the

Biofiltration works best for biode

gradable water-soluble compounds at relatively low concentrations less than 1%. Other recommended system pa rameters are:

1. pH between 7 and 8. 2. Pore volume of greater than 80%. 3. Total organic matter content, measured as a loss on ignition, of more than 55%. 4. Surface load of up to 300 m3 h-1 of off gas per m2 (16 scfm ft-2)of filter without excessive back pressure. For these parameters a blend of po rous materials and materials with highly


control. 100% RH must be maintained

The advantages of biological gas cleaning include but are not limited to the following: 1. Simplicity is the main feature. Dis

posal of spent biofilter is safe and easy. 2. Compounds generating offending transferred to other media, but actually

odours from:

Bioscrubbing In bioscrubbing, odorous compounds

a. Pulp and paper mills - VOCs and TRS are good targets, but the technology is not fully developed and demonstrated. b. Wood products - VOCs emitted from wood processing press vents are easy to control, although terpenes require longer

in air are adsorbed or dissolved in water

residence time. Drier vent emissions

by passing the air counter current to water spray in an empty column or in a column packed with some inert mate

fore biofiltration.

air-water contact time. Water contain

5. Biofilters are not applicable to high concentrations. ❖


pounds, i.e. carbon dioxide and water. 3. It is less expensive to build and oper ate compared to other technologies. It is economical for biodegradable and soluble compounds at concentrations < 3g HC/m3 . For insoluble compounds, bioscrubbers offer lower costs when the

ing scrubbed gases is transferred to a holding tank, where microorganisms in water degrade contaminants with or without aeration. The system is corn-

biofilter works by destroying the con taminant.

broken down and reduced to safe com

concentration is <lgHC/m3. 4. It is a proven technology to remove odours from municipal waste treatment, rendering, food processing and munici pal composting. 5. It has also been used for controlling

rial. The latter is used to increase the

at all times.

4. Solvents are not recovered, as a

smells are not masked or concentrated and

A mixture of soil and/or sand, which are


terial unstable.

2. Biofilters, whose nutrient intake and

Advantages and disadvantages

reactive surface area have been chosen.

good adsorbent porous materials, and sludge, yard waste and solid waste com posts, which have a greater concentra tion and diversity of microbial popula tion, is widely used. Many organic compounds such as BTEX, aldehydes, acids, alcohols, mercaptans, amides, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are good candidates for

There are, however,limitations to the

use of biological gas cleaning: 1. A disadvantage ofcomposts and other organic rich materials is that they de compose with time and become com pacted. This creates undesirable changes in the physical properties re lated especially to airflow resistance and active adsorbing sites, making the ma

humidity are maintained, suffer from biomass build up. 3. Solubility is a critical factor for the breakdown of odorous compounds. Biofilters fail due to improper humidity

movement of the odorous air. The bed

is inert, since nutrients and neutralizing solution are supplied from the trickling system outside the filter bed.

• The material should be stable and not

decompose into a compact mass.

off the contaminated sites.

need cooling and particle removal be c. Surface coating - VOC emissions at low concentration levels from processes like printing, painting, varnishing, and lacquering can be effectively removed. d. Site remediation - Sites contaminated

with petroleum products are good can didates. It is applied to gases stripped

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Lisa M.Longhouse, GET The Board of Directors of the Ontario Con

crete Pipe Association(OCPA)is pleased to announce that Lisa M.Longhouse,GET, has joined the Association as Assistant Director, effective January 4, 1999. Lisa has a back ground in consulting engineering, most re cently with the firm ofThorbum Penny. Lisa will assist with the operations of the OCPA and the association's marketing activities. Incorporated since 1957, the OCPA is a nonprofit industry association. Through its membership,the OCPA promotes high stand ards of business practice and product qual ity, and provides technical information to consultants, regulators, contractors and edu cators. Sponsorship of research and devel opment initiatives has yielded improvements in materials, precision manufacturing and product quality control. Ontario Concrete Pipe Association,5045 South Service Road,First Floor, Burlington, Ontario, L7L5Y7.Tel:(905)631-9696. 51

Tank Focus

Economical benzene emission reduction Oil and gas industry has been put on notice to either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face regulations

Benzene has recently been classified as a 'toxic' com

pound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act

(CEPA). The Alberta Energy and Utili ties Board(AEUB),subsequent to its deteiTnination that glycol dehydrators rep resent a disproportionate single source of benzene emissions, has introduced

in that it requires immediate capital ex penditure." DualTank became interested and proactively involved in attempting to fur ther enhance emission reduction, odour

elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units after one of our cli ents advised us that they had noticed benefits after connecting a typical Tank-

quirement, negligible installation cost and time, no soil or product contamina tion in case of primary tank leakage, virtually no maintenance or reclamation, and no excavation, dike or liner require ment. At the same time, the heated sec

ondary containment system prevents liq uid freezing and accidental spillage con tamination.

specific reporting, monitoring and emission guidelines for im mediate implementation in their

DualTank's distinctive inter

nal baffle system provides maximum external surface area contact for excellent benzene

Informational Letter IL-97-4.

Effective January 1, 1999, oil and gas industry officials have been put on notice to ei ther clean up excessive emis sions voluntarily, in staged re ductions to the lowest practi cally achievable levels possible, or face government imposed regulations,facility shutdowns, and/or fines. These require

\ â– VrV.Mv

emission reduction and the

elimination of odours and visual

plumes. In addition, increased vol ume of saleable condensate is

recovered - an advantage that will drastically shorten the pay out period of the installed DualTank system. The first 'combined' proto type was installed and tested in December, 1998, at an Enerplus

ments are music to the ears of

the general public and environ mental groups, but not exactly good news for some company executives and facility opera

Resources site. Test results in

dicated 91% benzene emission


reduction and 25% condensate

recovery (consisting of 10%


Glycol dehydration units are normally designed on the basis of specific inlet gas analyses and outlet requirements. The inherent problem with these ini tial design parameters is that they are usually only temporary. In addition, as these parameters change, without proper dehy operational adjustments, the ef Typical DualTank condensation/storage unit. ficiency of the unit is drastically de Safe unit to a dehydration facility. creased, resulting in excessive contami Relying on the basic 'KISS' princi nant emissions causing air and soil pol ple we conceived a 'uni-package' con lution. densation and storage tank assembly by Because the hazards of dehy emis simply adding an integral roof-mounted sions were not known in the past, ac condensation component, complete with cording to Rod Sikora, REng.(Pollution unique internal circular baffle system Control Coordinator, Culf Canada Ltd.), design, to our previously developed "there presently exists a limited choice "aboveground, heated, dual-contain of readily available and economically ment" TankSafe storage tank concept. viable solutions for this contamination

The 'combined' tank unit consists of

dilemma. In addition, the problem is now compounded for some companies

an extremely large, uninsulated surface area (for cooling) and excessive inter nal volume (for increased retention

By Reinhard Schuetz, REng., President, DualTank Corp., Calgary

time), neither of which require seasonal or operational adjustments. The concept also allows for year-round installation convenience, about 50% less area re


benzene). An unexpected, but wel comed, suiprise occurred when it was discovered that the in stalled 15 barrel DualTank unit

was condensing liquids at a greater rate than anticipated. However, replacement with a larger tank is not a problem since an added bonus of

DualTank is its 'uni-package' design that allows for quick installation and reloca tion. The original prototype was in stalled and operational in about two hours.

In a subsequent Culf Canada test site installation. Rod Sikora confirms that

"based on our February 1999 test data results indicating 98% benzene emission reduction and 70% condensate recovery (27% of which being benzene), as well as the elimination of the visual plume and odour, we ai^e definitely very pleased with DualTank's overall performance to date and are seriously considering addi tional installations."

For more Information, circle reply card No. 156

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

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RO. Box 1 057, Claresholm, Alberta TOL OTO

1 51 Halifax St., Moncton, New Brunswick El C 9R6

Toll Free: 800-265-8840 Fax: (519) 884-6623

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For more information, circie reply card No. 146(See page 25)

Tank Focus

Polyethylene tanks used in corrosion control

For years, the people of Jacksonville, Florida had to

live with naturally hard water.


While this was a nuisance for

residents, the hard water presented a much greater problem for the city's water department. Because hard water is aggressive, it potentially could pick up minerals and concentrations of lead and copper from the plumbing. To meet the Lead and Copper Comosion Rule mandated by the EPA for po table water, the City of Jacksonville ran


tests in 260 homes. These tests revealed no abnormal levels of metals in the

drinking water. However,they did show unusually high levels of calcium at the point of use. According to city engi neers, this problem needed to be ad dressed to prevent flow problems and control corrosion inside the pipes. The City, working with the Orlando, Florida consulting engineering firm Barnes, Ferland & Associates, Inc., de termined that the best solution was to

adjust the pH of the water by adding caustic soda. In this process, a 50% so-

Installation at Jacksonville, Florida.

dium hydroxide solution is injected into the water. This raises the pH, removes calcium and produces a chemical bar rier on the inside of the pipes. Within the City's municipal water system grid, there are 24 different feedpoint locations

"The Engineered jj

Difference in Tanks

with a total of sixteen 6,500 gallon polyethylene tanks and three 2,000 gal lon polyethylene tanks manufactured by Snyder-Crown Industrial Products, headquaitered in Lincoln, Nebraska. The (Continued)

DuaiTank simply the most environmentally responsible emission reduction and dual-containment condensation/storage tanks available

Our mission at Diverse

Piastic Tanks is to provide our customers with the

buik storage, processing and transportation tank soiutions which exceed

their safety and perform ance requirements at the iowest possibie cost. We offer our customers a fuii range of product designs, including ciosed or open top verticai tanks in flat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, containment tanks and a

compiete iine of"UN"approved int. Bpik Containers(iBCs). We do this by distributing the Snyder industries iine of tanks which, when all is considered, Snyder has the most advantages in buik storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the widest selection of sizes up to 22,000 gal lons and with over 40 years of manufacturing experience, Snyder offers superior quality and tank design in every product they manufacture. Visit our web site at: www.diversepiastics.com or contact us directly for a copy of our product catalogue.


This product is based on TankSafe's aboveground, heated, dual-containment storage tank design with the addition of a unique roof-mounted condensation unit to address the need for emission reduction

and liquid recovery. This economical, effective and versatile tank design is available in standard 15, 30, 50 and 100 BBL sizes. Testing of this new product also indicates substantial

elimination of odors and visual plumes.

DuaiTank Corp. Diverse Plastic Tanks

#208, 3112- 11th Street N.E.

Calgary, Alberta T2E 7J1

3190 Ridgeway Drive, Unit 22, Mississauga, ON L5L 5S8 Tei: (905) 607-5189, Fax:(905)607-9835

Ph:(403)291-3937 • Fx:(403)291-5125




For more information, circle reply card No. 147 (See page 25)


Email: dualtank@tanksafe.com WebSite: www.tanksafe.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 148 (See page 25)

Tank Focus

Self-supporting berm liner is lightweight yet durable since the wall folds down inwards when

the liner lasts longer. It is also available

driven over. Eyelet patches on the cor

in Arctic Fabric, a chemical resistant

ners allow the berm to be held down

fabric for use in temperatures as low as -25° F(-32° C), as well as Chem Fabric for use in regular temperatures. SHI manufactures a range of second ary containment products to help indus try meet strict government environmen tal protection regulations worldwide. For more information,

with stakes on soft ground. SHI say that it is cost-efficient com pared to air-inflated or frame-supported berm liners, has low maintenance, and

permits easy cleaning and storing for reuse. Simple and inexpensive to repair, the product provides optional track belt ing for driving vehicles to ensure that

circie reply card No. 158

The new self-supporting Insta-Berm™, made of industrial strength fabrics, can be used for chemical containment.


Made by SEI Industries of Delta, EC, the liner is lightweight, easy to use, and durable. The frameless Insta-Berm can be in

stantly deployed by one person without the use of tools. Flexible struts that hold

up the walls of the berm liner contain a rigid foam inside. This holds walls up when full, yet collapses easily when moving a vehicle into the container, or folding up for storage. There is no gate

Polyethylene tanks, cont'd. system that Barnes, Ferland & Associ ates designed also includes concrete con tainment facilities, chemical feed pumps and a control system for the process. A Storage Challenge Storing a caustic solution like sodium hydroxide was a challenge within the budget constraints of the project. Poly ethylene tanks were specified because they could withstand the chemical and environmental demand of the project within the budget. Charlie Stevens, the process engineer for the City who oversees the project, said,"Since the system was installed, we haven't had any problems. We expect to get at least 15 years of use out of the

Aquastore® glass-fused-to-steel tanks are fiill oftechnological advances. Oiu"protective Edgecoaf™ process double coats sheet edges. Glass97™ with titanium dioxide offers a tougher

water contact surface for potable water. And bolted construction is

cost effective, while eliminating the;

environmental problems of fieldwelding and painting. Clearly, you should contact your Aquastore dealer for flill infonnation on sales,installation and service.:


Because the caustic soda has a rela

tively high freezing point of 55° F, the storage tanks are insulated and have a heat tracing system to maintain the caus tic at 100° F. The tanks also contain in

tegrally molded-in SUMO® (Snyder Unitized Molded Outlet)fittings. These

Z^o®o©R^DTn>[] ENGINEERED STORAGE PRODUCTS COMPANY 345 Harvestore Drive, DeKalb, Illinois 60115 815-756-1551 Phone, 815-756-7821 Fax www.aquastore.com

allow full use of the tank contents and

Aquastore is a registered trademark of A.O. Smith Corporation, Edgecoat and Giass97 are trademarks of A.O. Smith Corpor^ion;;

eliminate residue that would otherwise

collect at the bottom. The City of Jacksonville is also currently consider ing polyethylene tanks for use in dechlorination systems for wastewater. For more information, circle reply card No. 127 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

flOUn-STORE' Tanks

For more information, circie reply card No. 149 (See page 25)


Underground Storage Tanks

Complying with tank regulations Case studies illustrate the status across Canada

There is a need to consult not

only underground storage tank (UST) regulations, but also with the local municipal fire department and provincial authorities who have jurisdiction to determine the current site specific requirements for UST removal/abandonment, remedia

tion, and reporting. This is because most provinces have recently changed, or are currently changing the rules for tank pulls, and the Guidelines for Clean-up

During 1998, XCG provided consulting services for the removal of gasoline and diesel fuel USTs at various sites across

British Columbia, including Victoria. According to the CCME-1993 docu ment, any UST containing motive fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel must be removed, replaced or upgraded with acceptable leak-detection, spill-contain ment, and overfill protection devices within five years of the CCME-1993 Code being officially adopted by the

cumently being installed in terms of cor rosion protection, leak detection, and spill prevention. In each case, the USTs were found to be in good condition with minimal subsurface impacts. All con firmation soil samples were below the commercial land use standards in the BC

MOELP Contaminated Sites Regula tion, April 1997. No further actions were required. Case Study 2: Bunker C Fuel Oil UST at an Industrial Plant in

Winnipeg, Manitoba During early 1998, we were requested to conduct updated Environmental Compliance Au

at Contaminated Sites. Four

case studies are presented, illus trating the status in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario in the summer/fall

dits for a number offacilities for

of 1998.

a national client. One of the fa

Case Study 1: Gasoline UST

cilities located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, was found to have an

Removal - Victoria, BC According to an official at the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks(MOELP),the

abandoned UST located below the concrete floor of the facil

ity maintenance shop. This UST was approximately 22,750

Province of British Columbia is

the least regulated province in


litres in size, constructed of

Canada in terms of UST use and

steel and was historically used

management. Compliance with respect to USTs in BC is regu lated by the Provincial Fire Code (virtually identical to the

to store "Bunker C" fuel oil for

fuel source was converted to

National Fire Code of Canada

natural gas.

(1990)). No other regulations have been officially adopted as policy by the BC government.

out-of-service but remained in

heating purposes. The UST was utilized up to 1979 when the

Until 1994, this UST was

suggest that parties who own or

place due to its location in the facility and the structural im pact to the building that might

use USTs refer to the CCME

occur if the UST were to be re

Environmental Code of Practice

moved. XCG's original Envi ronmental Compliance Audit of the same facility in 1993 deter

However, the MOELP does

for Underground Storage Tank Systems Containing Petroleum

mined that the UST was non-

Products and Allied Petroleum

Products, 1993 edition(CCME1993 Code). According to the Purging of underground storage tank with dry ice. Intemet(www.ee.gc.ca/tips/en),there is governing jurisdiction. The time for removal ranges between two and five a lobby underway urging the BC gov ernment to adopt the CCME-1993 Code. years depending upon the age of the UST in question. Although,the MOELP XCG has been involved with UST removal projects for a national truck in BC has not yet officially adopted rental firm that operates on-site private the CCME-1993 Code,the client wanted fuel outlets at many of their facilities. to be proactive in removing the USTs from service, to ensure future compli ance with respect to UST regulations. By Richard J. Rush, Senior

Partner, and D. Grant Walsom,

Environmental Engineer, XCG Consultants Ltd., Kitchener, Ontario 56

The USTs at the Victoria site were

single wall steel tanks with no cathodic protection or leak prevention/detection appurtenances. These USTs were infe rior systems to the new UST systems

compliant with Section 24 of Manitoba Regulation 97/88R entitled Storage and Handling ofGaso line and Associated Products Regula tion. We recommended in 1993 that the

UST either be removed or approved for abandonment in-place. In 1994, XCG's client filed an appli cation with Manitoba Environment to

abandon the UST in-place. Prior to fully abandoning the tank, a subsurface inves tigation was conducted to confirm that the UST was not creating any subsur face impacts. The investigation revealed that some impacts were contained within the bedding materials around the UST;

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Underground Storage Tanks Case Study 3: Diesel, Xylene, and

however, the surrounding native soils were clay and silt and did not display any evidence of impacts. Based on these testing results, Manitoba Environment

During the course of the 1998 Environ mental Compliance Audit of this facil ity, XCG contacted Manitoba Environ

Varsol USTs at a Chemical Plant in

ment for a comment on the UST aban

During the Environmental Compli

stated in a letter that no further investi

donment at the subject facility. Mani toba Environment stated that all require

ing facility in late 1997, we identified

ments were met and considered the file

three USTs.

gations or future remediation was re quired. Once this letter was received by the client, the UST was emptied of any residual product and purged of va pour prior to filling the UST with a con crete slurry material. This work was completed by a qualified contractor who submitted the required report to Mani

Nisku,Alberta ance Audit of a chemical manufactur

One of the USTs was 36,400 litres in

to be closed.

We concluded in 1998 that the aban

doned UST was now in compliance with Manitoba Regulation 97/88R and no further actions with respect to the UST were required.

size and used to contain xylene, while the other two USTs were 25,000 litres in size and used to contain varsol and diesel. These three steel USTs were in

Continued overleaf

toba Environment, once the work was

completed. According to Section 24 of Manitoba Regulation 97/88R, in order to abandon a tank in-place a number of criteria are needed to be met which include:

• written approval of the application for abandonment in-place from Manitoba Environment,

• system is emptied of product and purged of any flammable vapours, • system is filled with inert material, such as sand, gravel or concrete slurry, • soil is tested and any contamination detected is cleaned up to the satisfac tion of the environmental officer.

Each of these requirements was met.

Wony free underground


storage Never worry about corrosion again!

O'Connor Associates is pleased to announce that Monika Dobson, M.Sc., has recently joined our Toronto (Oakville) office as an air quality specialist. She brings to O'Connor Associates nearly 20 years of environmen tal consulting experience in the fields of air dispersion modelling, visual opacity deter mination and air quality assessments. Ms. Dobson's comprehensive skills will comple ment O'Connor's expertise in the fields of environmental engineering, site assessment and remediation, environmental auditing, and health and ecological risk assessments.

ZCL tanfa never rust. They are constructed of corrosion resistant inateritils, and unlike steel tanks-they will not corrode over time. That's one less major tiling for you to worry about! Rust means leaks, and leaks li'om storage tanks can ctuse untold diunage to tlie environment, Dam^e that could end up costing you thousands of dollars in clean-up costs. ZCL Prezerver™ double wall storage tanks protect you and the emiron-

ment in two "fail safe" ways-First by providing you with an extremely durable and rust/troo/secondary contained storage tank ... a maintenancefree storage system! Secondly,ZCL Prezen'cr'" System (a total secondaiy contained hquid storage and handling system) provides you with a comprehensive 10 year enhanced warranty r

, .i I EIUHAMCEI completewitlia$2.0milliontlurdparti'habiliti'protection, Ivifarrami

including site clean-up defense costs!

Contact Monika Dobson at

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For More Info Call Toll Free

1 800 661-8265 o'connon niiocinTEi

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999


For more information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 25)


Underground Storage Tanks stalled near the plant building in 1980

3. Contaminated soil around the tank

and their use ceased in 1995 due to a

must be remediated.

based on the site assessment results. The

change in the chemical manufacturing process. Section 4.10.3 of the Alberta Fire Code addresses the Removed of Underground Storage Tanks.

4. Vapours must be purged from the tank and piping. 5. Piping must be removed.

One of the conditions of this Code

ceptable inert fill (such as concrete). Since the specific clean-up guidelines

CCME guideline for m&p-xylene in soil is 20 ppm, whereas the Draft Alberta guideline is 10 ppm. It was determined from AEP person nel that the most probable Alberta guide line, expected to be adopted in 1998,for m&p-xylene would be 10 ppm. On this basis, once the three tanks were emp tied and purged of vapours, the xylene tank was removed, along with a small

requires the removal of a UST that has not been used for two years. Thus, the three tanks were not in compliance, and approval was given by the owner to re move the tanks immediately. We deter mined that the structural integrity of the building would be compromised if two of the USTs nearest to the foundation,

were removed. Through consultation with the Nisku Fire Chief who was re

sponsible for administering the Fire Code, it was decided that the two USTs

could be abandoned in place, following the guidelines of the Alberta Fire Code, Section This required princi pally that: 1. An application be filed stating why it is impracticable to remove the tank. 2. The tanks must be emptied of prod uct and sludge.

6. The tank must be filled with an ac

are not stated in the Fire Code, we con

sulted with a representative of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP)in or

der to determine the applicable soil clean-up guidelines. The current soil clean-up guidelines for Alberta were published in draft form in 1994 and ti tled, Remediation Guidelines for Petro leum Storage Tank Sites. As this site contained a "petroleum" tank (diesel fuel), and chemical USTs (xylene and varsol), AEP recommended that XCG use both the draft 1994 Alberta Guide

lines for Petroleum Storage Tank Sites, and also the 1993 CCME soil clean-up guidelines. This presented a slight problem since the two guidelines had different clean up guidelines for m&p-xylene, which

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One of the tanks was a steel Bunker

C fuel oil UST,associated with a boiler,

and the other was a steel gasoline UST that had been used for fuelling the com pany's trucks. Therefore, both the Gaso line Handling Act and Code (for the gasoline tank) and the Energy Act and

To further complicate this compli


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An environmental audit of a chemi

cal manufacturing plant in Toronto re vealed that two old underground fuel storage tanks (USTs) were on-site, but had not been used for several years.

related Fuel Oil Code (for the fuel oil tank) had to be consulted.

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pleted to the satisfaction of all parties and a copy of the report was submitted to the Nisku Fire Department, as re quired. A Closure Report was also sub mitted to the Petroleum Tank Manage ment Association of Alberta, as required. In February 1999, XCG contacted a rep

Case Study 4: Two USTs at an Industrial Property, Toronto, ON

Fax:(416)748-5913 • Plastic Flame Coating

For more information, circle reply card No. 150(See page 25)

activities on-site. This work was com

in 1999.

42 Taber Road, Rexdale, Ontario Tel: (416) 748-5443 .Neoprene Canada M9W3A8

samples were collected around the base and sides of the remaining two USTs. All samples met the 10 ppm xylenes guideline, and all other CCME and Alberta Draft guidelines values. The two tanks being abandoned inplace were assessed by a geotechnical engineer who specified a light weight inert grout material for filling the tanks. A report was written documenting all

resentative of AEP to determine when

c"Ss .zinc Rich

amount of odorous soil, confirmation

the Alberta Soil Guidelines will be up dated. This process was underway and is expected to be completed some time


Clarifiers, Pipe, Tanks, Structural

turned out to be the critical parameter,


Greatario Engineered Storage Systems P.O. Box 3613, Guelph, Ontario, NIH 6P1 Tel:(519) 763-5933, Fax:(519) 763-0293

ance assessment,both the Ga.soline Han

dling Code (GHC) and Fuel Oil Code (FOC) are in the process of being re vised to more closely reflect the site remediation requirements of the 1997 MOE Guidelines for Use at Contami

nated Sites and the spill reporting re quirements of Part X of the Environmen tal Protection Act.

Continued overleaf


For more information, circle reply card No. 152 (See page 25)

Environinenlal Science & Enf^iiieering. May 1999

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Anaerobic Digestion Plant 31-Glass Fused to Steel Tanks

Literature Requests Welcomed!

For more information, circie repiy card No. 159(See page 25)

Underground Storage Tanks In regard to tank removal requirements, it was clear that both the GHC (Subsection 8(108) as amended January 31, 1996, and FOC (Section 5)) require USTs to be removed if out-of-use for more than two years. Thus, these tanks were out of compliance and needed to be removed. For the gasoline UST removal/remediation, Section 12 of the current GHC requires the following action when fa cilities are being permanently closed/decommissioned: • Notify the Fuel Safety Division (FSD) of the Technical Standards and Safety Authority(TSSA),the Ministry of the Environment(MOE)and local municipality, 30 days prior to discontinuance of use of the facility. • Remove all equipment within 90 days of discontinuance of use.

• Have prepared by an engineer, or hydrogeologist, quali fied in site remediation, a report delineating on-site and offsite contamination, and recommending the corrective ac tion to be taken.

•If contamination is identified, if the Director requests, the owner or operator of the UST must submit a report pre pared by a qualified engineer or hydrogeologist, confirm ing that the corrective action has been completed to the ex tent required by Standard GH13,(both on- and off-site). Standard GHl3 in the current GHC refers to "Interim Guide

lines for Assessment and Management of Petroleum Con taminated Sites in Ontario, August 1993." It is recognized that these Interim Guidelines are out of date, and proposed revisions to the GHC include replacing the Interim Guideline reference with a more up-to-date Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Petro

leum Contamination at Operating Petroleum Handling Fa cilities in Ontario. This will provide guidelines for site in vestigation and remediation including procedures for sam pling, analyses, and preparing a Site Specific Risk Assess ment(SSRA)and Risk Management Plan, more in line with the MOE Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario. In the proposed revision, reporting is still required to the FSD and municipality regarding discontinuation, and again within 90 days of removal of equipment. However, MOE notification is only required if contamination is caus ing, or likely to cause an adverse affect, as defined by the Environmental Protection Act.

Notice of the proposed amendments was posted to the Environmental Bill of Rights Registry (EBR) on January 13, 1998, under the Registry Number: RL8E0001.P). It has since been removed but further information may be ob tained by contacting FSD of TSSA at www.tssa.org. Fortunately for the owner of the subject case study site, no contamination was encountered, confirmation samples taken from the excavation showed that the site met MOE

Table B Guidelines for industrial land use, and the gasoline UST decommissioning was completed without incident. Regarding the Bunker C fuel oil UST, the current Fuel Oil Code(R.R.0.1990, Reg.329, Clause 5)requires that the owner:

a) Remove any product from the tank and connected piping. b) Remove the tank and piping from the ground. c)Purge the piping of combustible vapours and permanently seal the ends of the piping by capping or plugging. d) Where the soil around the tank is contaminated with oil from the tank, remove such soil.

All tanks are not created


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e) Fill the tank hole to grade level with clean fill. Normally, for heating and stationary power source fuel tank removals,the MOE is only notified if there is evidence of an adverse affect on the environment (including off-site impacts). There is a proposed revised draft of the Fuel Oil Code (December 1997), which if adopted will require more spe cific actions when a fuel oil UST is removed. Specifically, if a leak is confirmed or where contamination is encoun

tered, the owner, operator, or user will be required to take immediate corrective action including: a) Report the "spill" in accordance with Part X of the On tario EPA.

b) Notify the EDS of all leaks and discovery of contamina tion by calling the MOE Spills Action Centre (1-800-2686060). Continued

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Phone: (905) 827-5333• Fax (905) 827-0203 www.plasticscanada.com

For more information, circie repiy card No. 164 (See page 25)

CELEBRATING 40 YEARS For more information, circle reply card No. 230 (See page 25)

Industry Update

AWWA publishes handbook on the use of chlorine

It covers all current practices, regu lations, and operating situations regard ing the addition of chlorine and ammo


nia to water. In addition, the handbook

Recovery • Recycling • Re-integration

details chemical reactions, safety prac tices, and equipment. The author is Gerald F. Connell, of Capital Controls, a recognized expert on the subject.

5th World Congress and Trade Show

June 5-9, 2000 Toronto Convention Centre • Toronto • Canada

The Toll Free order line is 1-800-926-

7337, Fax:(303) 347-0804.

Victoria target of lawsuit

In response to the increasing need for information about chlorine, chlorine

compounds, and their regulation, the American Water Works Association has

published The Chlorination/Chloramination Handbook. It compiles all the latest information and regulations on the

Labour and environment groups are turning to the courts to force Victoria to stop flushing thousands of tonnes of raw sewage into the ocean. The Allied Workers Union launched a private pros ecution in Provincial Court and is charg ing Victoria with breaking the federal Fisheries Act and the Waste Manage ment Act by flushing untreated sewage from more than 250,000 people into A lawyer with the Sierra Legal De fence Fund said the suit was filed now

treatment systems.

because Victoria has been stalling on its commitment to find a sewage treatment plant site. Violation of the Act carries

Complying with tank regulations,

penalties of up to $1 million a day. The City has resisted attempts to force treat

use of chlorine and ammonia in water


c) Do everything practical to prevent, eliminate, and ameliorate adverse affects, or the likelihood of adverse affects.

Where contamination exists, the

owner or operator will be required to im plement a plan "to eliminate or amelio rate the exceedance" or whatever meas

ures are required by the Director. The contamination management plan must be submitted to the Director within

30 days of implementation. Where required by the Director, the owner or operator will be required to

ment, maintaining that research has shown the flushing action of tides and currents disperses the sewage without affecting the environment. A biologist for the Sierra Legal Defence Fund said the effects of the

sewage cover a wide area and the dis charge includes heavy metals and toxic organics. The City is permitted to dump 185,000 cubic metres of waste a day, an amount equal to the contents of 56 Olympic size pools.

on- and off-site contamination;

ii) A report, confirming that the soil and groundwater contamination has been cleaned up. Again, as with the gasoline tank at the case study site, there was no evi dence of contamination around the Bun ker C tank. All confirmation soil sam

ples met the Table B Clean-up Guide lines for industrial land use, and no fur

ther action was required. The November 1998 ES&E issue car

ried a review of storage tank issues by the authors.

For more information, circle reply card No. 169


Event on


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social issues by addressing all relevant materials, products, processes and resources.

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submit to the Director:

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oped by researchers at the US Depart ment of Energy's Idaho National Engi neering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The patented well design ac commodates simultaneous gas sampling and groundwater sampling in the same borehole, a process that until now re quired complex well-within-a-well so lutions.

your abstract now! Contact address: Maria Buehler Tel:-b41 1 3864444 Fax:-b41 1 386 44 45

For more information contact:

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

http://www.RRR2000.com For more information,

circle reply card No. 165

Industry Update

New infrared technology to "fingerprint" emissions from industry stacks A new technology that effectively "fin gerprints" gases generated by industrial processes has been introduced by Lehder Environmental Services, Sarnia, Ontario.

Called extractive Fourier

Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR),the advanced technology is used in the field to monitor emissions.

Any gas that absorbs infrared light can accurately be identified and its con centration can be measured using the system. FTIR is said to offer signifi cant cost-saving advantages for indus try because it is an all-in-one system that can replace several traditional methods of monitoring emissions. Extractive FTIR monitoring first in volves continuous removal of gas from a stack or duct. Then particulate matter is filtered out and the gas is analyzed on site by an FTIR spectrometer. The moni toring system can be used to assess the impact of changes in a company's pro duction process or to measure environ mental emissions.

Another cost advantage is the ability of the FTIR system to quickly gather

data and provide reports while changes are actually occurring in the production process. Getting results on a real-time basis allows companies to make fast and money-saving decisions on minute changes and modifications that will optimize their production processes. Brian Froese, Manufacturing Engi neer at Meridian Magnesium Products in Strathroy, Ontario, said: "The FTIR provided Meridian with sulphur

instantaneous and detailed reports that the FTIR monitoring system can pro vide. "The system also provides a per manent record which can be analyzed in the future to identify and measure other contaminants or process gases that were not identified during the initial test ing period," he said. Analysis of gases using FTIR is based on the selective and consistent

absorption of infrared light by these gases. The quantity of infrared light absorbed by a gas sample indicates its concentration. In effect, the infrared

hexafluoride/carbon dioxide (SFij/CQ,) absorption characteristics of a specific gas concentration ratios and helped us optimize our process with real-time readouts. Prior to optimizing the proc

gas are a "fingerprint" for that gas. For more information, contact E-mail: mdenomme@lehder.com

ess, the readouts showed several corro

sive gases created from the SF|,/CO, mixture and a reduction of the coiTOsive

gases afterwards. Meridian will benefit from this analysis with a significant cost

savings in terms of reduced SF^ con sumption and a potential increase in equipment life." A Lehder spokesman said an indus try conducting production trials can make efficient and environmentally sound evaluations on the basis of the

Plastic innovations Sydel, a French industrial computing company, has begun marketing its pat ented Dibop machine that sorts plastic bottles for recycling by type of plastic. According to an item in the AutomateNow supplement to the February issue of Canadian Packaging, the machine can handle 12,000 bottles per hour with a 98% accuracy.

21-24 SEPTEMBER 99

15 â–ĄF

International Exhibitign ENVIRONMENTAL


U I P M E N T,



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Fax: Exhibitors:


Rosemarle Ojalvo Tel: (519) 433 0531 - Fax: (519) 433 0811 e-mail: ro@ocimktg.com

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 162 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Industry Update

Michigan imports waste from Ontario Michigan's Department of Environmental Quality has re leased its annual report of waste imports. The report indi cates that the state imported 2.5 million cubic yards of waste from Canada in fiscal 1998, more than from any other jurisdiction and up 5.2% from fiscal 1997. Although the report does not break down Canada's contributions by province, Dave Dempsey. Michigan Environmental Coun cil, says that virtually all of Michigan's imported Cana dian waste originates in Ontario. For more information, contact Dave Dempsey at: davemec@voyager.net

NS gets bill for water testing Nova Scotians hooked up to municipal water will soon pay more. The Nova Scotia Environment Department is getting out of the water testing business, leaving munici palities with a $140,000 tab. The Department took sam ples from water utilities, usually once or twice weekly, but will stop doing that at the end of March. The General Manager of the Halifax Regional Water Commission,said samples from 20 locations in Halifax's Pockwock water supply are tested twice a week for a total of 40 samples, while about 20 samples are taken from Dartmouth's Lake Major system once a week in the winter and twice a week in the summer. He also said that someone on staff can

probably do the sampling, but there will be an extra cost of about $50,000 to have the testing done. Canadians consulted on draft NPA to

help protect the oceans A Draft National Programme ofAction for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (NPA) was released in March, for a 60-day consultation period to seek the views of Canadians. The draft proposes national and regional programs to protect human health, the environment and to prevent, reduce and control landbased activities that contribute to the degradation of the marine environment.

The draft NPA has been prepared through the collabo rative effort of the federal, provincial and territorial gov ernments, and was co-led by Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. This initiative recognizes that there are important regional variations for the Arctic, Pacific, St. Lawrence and Atlantic regions which necessi tate a regional approach and benefit from an overall Na tional Programme of Action. Contact: Environment Canada's Green Lane,

www.ec.gc.ca or Fisheries & Oceans Canada website: www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Con Cast Pipe achieves ISO 9002 registration Con Cast Pipe has announced its ISO 9002 Registration. The Con Cast Pipe Quality System evolved over a period of two years. With the full support of senior management, a team of department representatives created a detailed manual of policy and procedure. Written to meet the ISO 9002 standard, the Quality Assurance Manual also pro vides the flexibility required for a system to evolve in an environment of rapid growth and development. Contact: www.concastpipe.com For more information, circle reply card No. 161 Environmeutal Science & Engineering. May 1999

Revolutionary Brush System Prevents Algae Bulld-Up In Clarlflers Called Algae Sweep Automation (ASA),

makes it durable and maintenance free. And each

this patented system of spring-loaded brushes is in

system is backed by a five-

continual use at WWTPs

except for brushes, and a one-year warranty on labor.

throughout the nation. Developed and manufac tured by the Ford Hall Company, the ASA system attaches to the skimmer arms of circular clarifiers.

Its brushes provide over 50 points of flexibility and adjustment to ensure thorough cleaning of even the most irregular of tank surfaces. When engaged—

year warranty on parts,

Customer satisfaction is

guaranteed 100 percent. ASA systems can be installed on existing clari fiers, but many engineers have found that it is more efficient and cost-effective

to design them into new or expansion projects. Free Video Demo

it takes less than two

minutes to engage the system—ASA totally elim inates labor and chemical

costs by removing normal algae build-up from all

To receive a free demon stration video of the

ASA system and a list of references, please give us a call at 1 800 928-2070.

effluent surfaces.

Consequently, the average ASA system pays for itself in less than two

years while optimizing clarifier performance and making WWTPs safer places to work. Each ASA system is custom designed for its installation and constructed

of stainless steel, which

Ford Hall Company, Inc. http://www.fordhall.com P.O. Box 54312

Lexington, Kentucky 40555 1 800 928-2070

For more information, circle reply card No. 163 (See page 25)


"For Cost Effective Pumping" A company In the Cardo Group

^BS has the most comprehensive range on the market. Sales & Service

• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewatering Pumps • Mixers - Siibtnersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps • Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Putnps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps





Media & Coal Ltd.

ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7. Mississauga, Ontario L5T IH3


Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or (905)670-4677, Fax:(905)670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617


For more information,

For more information, circie repiy card No. 141

circie reply card No. 140





Rctluated Carbon (Granular*Pellet*Paiiidered)

L1S6K9 • For Water / Air Purification

TEL;(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

tino High Pressure Water Jetting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

• For Groundwator Romodiation

•For industrial Process & Recovery

•Express Deiivery & Competitive Pricing • Quality and Reliability

Waste Water Treatment


Sponge Jet Cleaning

^ction Carbon-Chem Inc.

For more information, circie reply card No. 142

505-7E Queensway E., Mississauga,ON L5A 4B4 Canada

Tel:(905) 272-8220, Fax:(905) 272-2977


Distributors Are Wanted


For more information,



• Monitoring Wells • Recovery Weils

• Municipal Well Drilling • Industrial Well Drilling

• Gas Extraction Wells

•Construction Drilling

•Deep Monitoring Well Specialists R.R- #1 (Bast Place) Waterloo, Ontario

(519) 664-1422

circle repiy card No. 144

• Well Testing and Rehabilitation 1-800-663-3849


147 North Street West

Wingham,Ontario Davidson "Since 1900"


(519) 357-1960

Biosollds and Waste Utilization

For more information, circie repiy card No. 143

• Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.

Date Pad

Mall — P.O. Box 60069

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2

May 16-19, 1999. OWWA-OMWA

8557, E-mail: NASTTtSBostrom.com

1999 Joint Annual Conference, Ottawa,

May 26, 1999. Ontario Water Works Association Spring Workshop: Plant Operation Distribution and Mainte nance, Mississauga, ON. Contact: Tel:

ON. Contact: OWWA,Tel:(416) 2527060, Fax:(416) 252-3908.

May 16-20,1999. Bio '99 International Biotechnology Meeting and Exhibition, (416) 252-7060, Fax:(416) 252-3908. Seattle, Washington. Contact: Tel:(202) May 26-28,1999. Combustion Canada 857-0244, Fax:(202) 331-8132. '99, Calgary, AB. Contact the CC '99 Coordinator, Tel:(613) 236-6222, Fax: May 18-20, 1999. Canadian Confer ence on Energy Efficiency, hosted by (613) 236-6850. Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON. June 10-11,1999. Techniques for Con Contact: Tel: 1-800-342-7146. sequence Modeling and Risk Assess May 20,1999. Reseau Environnement ment, a two-day course presented by 22nd Regional Conference, Rimouski, Major Industrial Accidents Council of QC. Contact: Robert Dumont, Tel: Canada(MIACC),Toronto, ON. Con (418) 724-3134, Eax: (418) 724-3284, tact: Tel: (613) 232-4435, Fax: (613) 232-4915, E-mail: geninfo@miacc.ca E-mail: robert.dumont@ville.rimou ski.qc.ca June 20-24,1999. AWWA Annual Con May 23-26, 1999. North American ference and Exposition, Chicago, IE. No-Dig '99, Orlando, Florida. Contact: Contact the AWWA at: Tel: 1-800-926Tel: (3I2) 644-0828, Fax: (312) 644- 7337, or Web site: www.awwa.org 64

Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakville, Ont. L9T 2X5

Phone: (905) 878-2800/Fax; (905) 878-7332

For more information,

circle repiy card No. 145

June 20-24,1999. Air & Waste Man

agement Association 92nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, St. Louis, Mis

souri. "contact: Tel: 1-800-270-3444, Fax:(412) 232-3450. June 22-25,1999. Canadian Water Re sources Association 52nd Annual Con

ference, featuring: Municipal Drinking Water Challenge, Wolfville, NS. Con tact: Catriona Moir,Tel:(902)424-3617, Fax:(902)424-0503,E-mail: moirkm® gov.ns.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. n juooM


nRl/fTT/AU.POmiÂŁR lUvnFOi/uvr;


The economic advantages of HOPE pipe


A new structural anti-fouling product offering excellent resistance to ma rine growth, THOR-FLEX SR Is a polymer alloy formulated using the latest In low surface energy chemis try that eliminates chemicals com monly used to prevent fouling. Re

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association's (CPPA) new brochure focuses on the structural and cost

savings advantages of corrugated high density polyethylene pipe. Leading the Underground Revolution highlights current statistics and Infor mation on the strength, cost-

cent test results at the Buffalo Re

search Centre for Blosurfaces

showed superior resistance to zebra mussel infestation compared to a variety of antl-foulinq coatings.

effectiveness, ease of installation


Circie reply card No. 171

and adaptability of polyethylene pipe. CPPA

A division of Thordon Bearings Inc. Circie reply card No. 170

Cyanide Removal

Odour Control

Using sodium hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes


detailed in a technical bulletin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air

is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

ages, equipment,as well as stor age, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive

A "ScAitksn" ft)r


collection needs.


Canada Inc.

Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 172

Circle reply card No. 173

Zebra Mussels

Influent Cleaning System

To help control zebra mussels,

The BioGuard Influent Cleaning Sys tem is a combination of three unique

one solution involves the use of

mechanicai devices which removes

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite, which kills the larvae.

contact us.

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 174


terial from the trash, and returns the

biological matter to the plant flow, while It simultaneously dewaters the accumulated trash. The BioGuard


Influent Cleaning System >;PAHKSOSCOKPOKATlOti

System Is completely closed,to mini mize odours and Insect problems, and protect operating personnel from exposure to wastes containing pathogenic organisms. Parkson Circle reply card No. 175

Flexible expansion joints

Hazardous materials

Pipelines crossing unstable terrain such as faults, swamps or landfills, all suffer some degree of vulnerabil ity to damage from ground motion. FLEX-TEND flexible expansion joints provide pipeline protection from the stresses produced by these forces with their ability to deflect up to 30 degrees In any direction, while simul taneously expanding or contracting. They are available in sizes from 3


inches to 36 Inches and can be used

on either ductile Iron, steel or PVC


the suspended soiids from a wastewater treatment plant's Incoming stream, separates the organic ma

We are

consulting with experts to estab lish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. It you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept informed of the latest information, please


Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is

pipelines. Terminal City Ironworks Circle reply card No. 176

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

For optimum storage and con tainment of hazardous materi

als, the Chem-Loc Building can be an economical solution. Deal

directly with this established manufacturer and their In-house

design team for a custom de signed building. The Chem-Loc building compiles with Canadian and US Building and Fire Codes and features all steel construction. Optional features range from fire suppression systems to customized door sizes, partitions and hoisting equipment. Since 1971, Chem-Loc has been chosen for reliable, eco nomical hazardous materials storage. MakLoc Buildings Inc. Circle reply card No. 177


Literature Review For Information on advertising in this section call ES&Ea\(905)727-4666. """((ip-and Chinical Ttstiog Solutieat

New VWRbrand Solutions



Our 530 page all color mall-or der catalog, has over 12,000

VWR Canlab is pleased to announce the release of a new solutions cata

Items from more than 400 manu

logue containing atomic absorption standards, pH buffers and a large se lection of reagents prepared In ac

facturers - everything you need to keep your water and wastewater systems running smoothly. Simply pick up the phone for ex pert technical advice and same day shipping to anywhere In

cordance with EPA, ASTM, APHA

and AOAC standard testing methods. VWRbrand solutions are NIST trace

able where applicable and all prod ucts are expiry dated. Custom manu facturing services are available. For

Canada. USABIueBook

Circle reply card No. 179

more details contact us at 800-9325000 or visit our Web site: www.vwr yhVWRCanUb

canlab.com VWR Canlab

Circle reply card No. 178

A piping solution the taxpayers will love

Proven water and process fluid treatment systems A piping

Ecodyne offers a broad range of en gineered systems to make water suit able for use, recycle or discharge. Available are proprietary designs In


the taxpayers will love.

all, It Installs three to five times faster than alternative systems and keeps saving you money every time It needs service. Any joint can be accessed easily, because all the sealing elements are outside the pipe and not trapped between pipe ends as with flanged systems. VIctaullc Circle reply card No. 181

clarlflers and filters; lamellas; ot proc ess softeners; oil coalescers. Ion

exchange; reverse osmosis and deaerators - any of which can be combined In exactly the right way to provide the most suitable water treat ment process. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 180

Latest addition of the Pipe

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Handbook now available


The latest addition of the Concrete

Pipe Handbook, a comprehensive aids for designing concrete pipe sys tems, Is now available from the American Concrete Pipe Associa tion. Now In Its fifth printing, the 1998 handbook has been updated to In clude Information on Standard Instal

lation, based on work done by the American Society of Civil Engineers, In conjunction with the Association. *

Case Study - VOC/Odour Control

DioiuBicsl Oxidfltiun Sy>t

collection of theories, formulas and

coNCsieTe pips

Use the VIctaullc grooved-end pip ing system In your wafer and wastewater treatment plants. After


BlotonÂŽ, an air phase biological oxi dation system, offers low cost solu tion for VOC/odour problems at In dustrial wastewater treatment plants. No costly chemicals or supplemen tal fuels required. Bloton offers a compact, totally enclosed design with an automatic moisture control sys tem. Over 100 worldwide Installa tions. Monsanto Enviro-Chem

Systems Circle reply card No. 183


Circle reply card No. 182

Responsible waste management

Wastewater recovery and processing Through utilizing the Derrick "FloLlne" screening unit design, high fluid DERRICK cove*ir>M

capacities can be effectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher sollds/partlculate removal.

WASTE WATER nicovlRY k PRoeiiiiNa

Destruction efficiencies exceed

99.9999% at Its two rotary Incinera tors which have a 43,000 tonne an

The Derrick "Flo-Line"

screening unit can also be easily In stalled into an existing facility due to the unique compact unit design. The "Flo-Llne" can also be custom de

signed to meet your Industry's spe cific requirements. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 184


BOVAR's Swan Flllls Treatment Cen

tre is North America's only fully Inte grated waste management facility.


nual capacity. Upon approval, waste Is transported from your site. In spected and sampled to verify con formance and treated according to physical and chemical characteris tics. Treatment residues are tested

for conformance to end disposal cri teria. Bovar Waste Management Circle reply card No. 185

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Full range of processing equipment from IFF

Ultra Sonic Cleaned Micro Strainer

Single source responsi bility saves time and money. We have man

The USCMS 2619 ultra sonic cleaned

micro strainer pro vides highly efficient solids-liquid sepa ration of particles

ufacturers and contrac

tors with experienced "hands-on" approach to get thejob done suc cessfully, on time and on budget. Complete range of process equip ment built to specifica

as small as 50 mi

crons. Self-cleaning through the action of mechanically gener ated ultrasound. A

tions for environmen

compact and effi

tal and water industries

including kettles, stills, tanks, and specialized filter equipment, for pharmaceutical, food dairy, beverage, water trades.


cient solution for

straining solids from highly charged liq uids.

Applications include: Preventing fine nozzle from clogging; reducing total .settleable solids(TSS); protecting mem brane type filters; recovering fibers. Industrial users: Pulp and Paper: Food Processing: Chemical and Pharma ceutical; Automotive, Metallurgical. Textile, etc.

For more

information, circle reply

System REITHER Designed for siihinicron panicles, aerosols and variable gas flows

Aquarius Services & Technologies For more information, circle reply card No, 187

ALTECH designs and manufactures a patented design venturi scrubber. System REITHER, that offers a small footprint, high efficiency, high reliability and an adjustable throat to accommodate vary ing gas flow loading. Collection effici encies of greater than 99% are achiev able for particulate less than 3 pm in di ameter. System REITHER has applica tion in a broad array of industries includ ing chemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper,smelting, metal plating and finish ing, steel, etc. Please call for more infor mation!

ALTECH Technology Systems Inc. For more information,

circle reply card No. 188

card No. 186

Prevent algae build-up

Power Activated Carbon

in clarifiers

(PAC)feed system

The N-Pump

The Algae Sweep Automation™ System (ASA) is a unique system of springloaded brushes that attaches to the skim mer arm of a circular clarifer. Its brushes

have over 50 points of flexibility and ad justment to ensure thorough sweeping of all weir, baffle, launder, and spillway sur faces, no matter how irregular any of those surfaces may be. ASA virtually eliminates the labour and chemical costs

associated with controlling algae and debris. Consequently, the ASA system usually pays for itself in less than two

years while optimizing clarifier perform ance and making WWTPs safer places to work.

Ford Hall Company,Inc. For more information,

circle reply card No. 189

Packaged .system for existing and new facilities. Minimal field assembly and piping required. Suitable for flow pac ing into pressurized water source. Units are mostly assembled and are cost-effec tive with your Bulk Bag PAC supply. Features include: Compact design and sturdy construction; continuous opera tion; small footprint; no carbon dust; no handling of carbon slurry; elimination of slurry tank, mixer, metering pumps; and greatly reduced mess and maintenance. IVIetcon Sales & Engineering Limited For more information,

circle reply card No, 190 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

The new N-Pump's performance is distingui.shed by improved efficiency, using breakthrough technology,combined with non-clogging performance. The design of the hydraulic ends of the N-Pump im proves the flow of liquids which greatly reduces the risk of clogging, especially when pumping liquids with high solids or fibrous content, such as sewage, and, becau.se of the high pumping efficiency, reduced maintenance costs are achieved.

All motors in the N-series pumps are squirrel cage induction units, specially designed and manufactured by Flygt for use in submersible pumps. ITT Flygt For more information,

circle reply card No. 191 67

Product and Service Showcase The new Bono


The Bello Zon®

Zon® ozone gen erators

Pollution Solution

CDVa Chlorine Dioxide Generators

Ozone Generators

CDVa from Pro


Minent Fluid Con

ProMinent Fluid

trols is a safe, pre cise and simple to operate chlorine di oxide generator. The CDVa employs high-precision

Controls combine

high performance with ease of op eration and safety, all in a highly compact unit. They run under a vacuum - a system which eliminates the danger of ozone leakage and the need for an air compres sor. A PLC monitors all system functions and parameters electronically and dis plays any operating errors. Ozone ca pacities range from 40 to 720 grams/h. ProMinent Fluid Controls

Circle reply card No. 192

The Con/Span Advantage


ProMinent meter

ing pumps to feed diluted solutions ofso dium chloride and hydrochloric acid into the reactor where they form a chlorine

• Saves weeks off construction schedules

• Long life cycle and low maintenance • Carries heavy loads at low stress levels Your only precast choicefor your next project. CON/SPAN CANADA

Circle reply card No. 195

Tank solutions

dual-containment enclosure concept

complete with a unique roof-mounted condensation unit. Suitable for storage

water flow.

of a variety of liquid products, this envi ronmentally responsible alternative to typical diked tanks provides reduced emissions, odours, visual plumes, instal

ProMinent Fluid Controls

lation time and more. DualTank Corp.

dioxide solution, which is injected di rectly into the water to be treated. The generator operates proportionately to

Circle reply card No. 193

Circle reply card No. 194

The Ultimate Round The

Fiberglass Tanks

Clock Watchdog


• Fully engineered and custom-designed to your site requirements

DualTank's combination condensation/

storage tank design is based on TankSafe's successful aboveground, heated,

24 hour/365 days per year, Site-Guard monitors the tanks, sumps and piping of your system, reporting once a day on the conditions of the site. In the event of a

fuel leak from the system, you are cov ered up to $2 million per tank for clean

up and replacement. Available with Clemmer underground steel and fiber glass storage tank systems. Clemmer Technologies Circle reply card No. 196

Single step primary wastewater treatment system

Clemmer Technologies Inc. manufac tures and markets fiberglass tanks from premium resins in both single and dou ble wall construction featuring:

• Above ground horizontal and vertical configurations. • Underground models to ULC S615 or customer specifications. • Custom designed to meet specific re quirements. Call one of Clemmer's in dustry experts to help you with your stor age solution. Clemmer Technologies Circle reply card No. 197

HS generation & corrosion analysis software available



Concrete Pipe Association

Diverse Plastic Tanks offer a full range of product designs, including closed or open top vertical tanks in flat or cone bottom styles, horizontal tanks, contain ment tanks and a complete line of"UN" approved intermediate bulk containers. (IBCs). They distribute the Snyder In dustries line of tanks which have many advantages for bulk storage, processing and transportation tanks. With the wid est selection of sizes up to 22,000 gal lons. Diverse Plastic Tanks

Circle reply card No. 198 68

The MASKO-ZOLL system is available in sizes to process wastewater from small towns to cities. Key features include: Grit removal, solids removal and dewatering; primary clarification; not affected by hy draulic shock, toxic materials or tempera ture; simple operation and minimal main tenance; no odour or spillage; easy to ret rofit to wastewater headworks; decreased

footprint. Western Water Group Circle reply card No. 199

A software program from the American Concrete Pipe Association significantly reduces the time and cost involved in pre dicting hydrogen sulfide generation and its effects on concrete pipe sanitary sew ers. The Hydrogen Sulfide software(HS) also determines outflow sulfide concen

trations and the resulting corrosion rate and life factor. This program is avail able for IBM-compatible systems run ning on a DOS platform. Cost for mem bers is $30, non-members pay $60. AGFA

Circle reply card No. 200 Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 1999

Product and Service Showcase ABS expands range of

Petrolatum tape

Iron and manganese removal

sewage pumps

Pumps for use in sewage generally have large solids passages - typi cally 80-100 mm. However, a large solids passage Denso's innovative petrolatum tape, Color Tape,does not require initial primer application, and is UV stable. This prod uct is ideal for above ground applications. To enhance appeal, it is manufactured in a variety of colours,including white, grey and blue, and provides long-term corro sion protection to above and below ground pipes,flanges, valves and related

alone will not

ensure against blockage. The ABS CB (Contra Block) hydraulic sys tem consists of an open single or multiblade impeller which has a waved shear ing inlet together with a bottom plate on which a spiral groove is cast. This starts at the centre and runs to the outside of

the bottom plate. ABS Pumps

steel surfaces. Dense North America

Circle reply card No. 202

Circle reply card No. 201

Trace oxygen analyzer

Fiberglass oil, grease and solids separation


Zenon's ZeeWeed® membranes are de

signed and guaranteed to operate with both low and high levels of solids, with out membrane clogging, need of high backwash cycles or detrimental effects on the membrane flux. This process that combines oxidation with microfiltration, allows for the treatment of well water

contaminated with high levels of Fe and Mn.The result is a high quality effluent, with minimal use of chemicals, and re

duced sludge volumes. Zenon

Circle reply card No. 203

Explosion proof pumps

it r

For the economical treatment of indus trial and commercial wastewater. Treat

ment applications include: industrial facilities; process wastewater; floor washing; parts washing; compressor con densate. Automotive repair shops and food processing/preparation facilities are also available. Stormceptor Circle reply card No. 204

Protect your boiler feed system from cor rosion with the RTT Analytical 2010 Trace Oxygen Analyzer. Automatic rang ing allows direct reading from 0 ppb to 20 ppm DO. The user friendly software offers great features such as auto calibra tion, self-diagnostics, fault tolerance and two 4-20 mA outputs. The unique gal vanic cell of the 2010 is separated from the sample by an easy-to-replace oxygen permeable PTFE membrane. True zero readings are achieved. Nortech GSI Inc. Circle reply card No. 205

The explosion proof Dia-Vac® pumps are widely used in hazardous atmospheres within the petroleum, refinery, chemical, utility, and pharmaceutical industries. These economical leak-free diaphragm gaseous sampling pumps can be custom designed and built for your specific ap plications. The ADI moisture resistant head is machined with a reduced sealing surface not allowing liquid to interfere with the sealing of the valve disc or pump performance. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Management

Environmental drilling



Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. provides envi ronmental drilling services by using proven methods of drilling boreholes that are both versa

Envista Technologies is a scientific soft ware company with products to address the issues of environmental management. The Envista product provides managers, geoscientists and engineers with a pow erful tool for maintaining and tracking regulatory compliance as well as envi ronmental and geosciences information. Envista creates a corporate data standard and ensures that data is complete and consistent. Envista Technologies Circle reply card No. 207

MUNRO Concrete Solutions from Munro!

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

1-800-461-5632 www.munroconcrete.com

Circle reply card No. 208

tile and cost-effec sowcj,--

tive. Utilizing a 2" standard split-spoon sampler,our crews can drill inside and out side buildings and install monitors for water or soil gas. Our crews can also be equipped with portable hollow & solid stem augers. Geotechnical services are also provided using portable SPT units and concrete coring equipment for road & con crete testing. Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. Circle reply card No. 209 69

Product and Service Showcase Oil/water separator

Ozone analyzer

PlantPRO™ Trash Pumps

The model 400 UV Absorption Ozone Analyzer from Advanced Pollution In strumentation(API)measures low ranges (0-100 ppb to 0-10 ppm) of ozone in ambient air. Through a valve switching mechanism, which every four seconds alternates measurement between sample stream and a sample scrubbed for ozone, an unbiased True Ozone reading is ob

PlantPRO"' Trash Pumps offer high quality, premium performance at a price that won't bust your budget! All of our pumps are made of heavy duty cast aluminum with cast iron replaceable wear parts. Both 3" and 4" models are avail

tained. Nortech GSI Inc.

able. USABIueBook


is a high perform ance


separator capable of achieving dis charge of free oil concentrations

mandated by codes and regula tions across the country. Based on the principle of enhanced differential grav ity separation, the ALGOSEP uses the unique EMULSEP filaments to promote coalescence of hydrocarbons in your wastewater. Four models are available

ranging from 15 gpm to 250 gpm. Nortech GSI Inc.

Circle reply card No. 210

TErrrCOR'Aluminum Domes

Circle reply card No. 211

Circle reply card No. 212

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Sediment/solids detection




The Inlet Storm-

I ■"*"

ceptor System employs the same principles of op eration as the well

For more than thirty years Temcor has

known In-line in

been competitively producing aluminum

terceptors. De veloped to treat

Domes, Roofs and Covers for Potable

Water and Wastewater applications in a wide variety of climates, successfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum prod ucts are lightweight, corrosion resistant, and maintenance free which translates to

longer life and lower maintenance costs. Aluminum doesn't rust like steel, doesn't

spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 213

TOP for self-cleaning pump

runoff from an

area of up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber, even during peak tlows. There are currently more than 2,500 units in place throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 214

Leak free piping system


tions, to eliminate "dead zones" and

promote controlled fluid flow while pumping. TOP is available as a stand ardized, prefabricated component to sim plify construction of new or retrofit pump stations. Either way, the convergent de sign of the sump floor, reduces residual fluid volume and ensures that retained

solids are collected beneath the pumps suctions, ready to be pumped away. ITT Elygt Canada Circle reply card No. 216 70

blanket level and sediment level detec

tion. Systems accept one to four sensor inputs for economical continuous moni toring of four ves.sels by a single proces sor. A full complement of system out puts is onboard, and local operation is handled by means of a membrane switch control panel with full function LCD dis play. Summa Engineering

Circle reply card No. 215

New Aquastore Brochure

Sandale Utility

The new TOP in

corporates a unique sump floor design, with hydraulically optimized pump discharge connec

Based on 32 bit digital signal microproc essor technology and Entech Design's unique filtering and tracking software, BinMinder 9300 offers the very latest in



specializes in Driscopipe leak free piping sys tems, an afford

able polyethylene pipe which out performs steel pipe in almost every category. Driscopipe piping sys tems are ideal for oil, gas, potable water, industrial, municipal, mining and telecommunications. This piping sys tem has exceptional strength even when buried at depths of over 100 feet, and is corrosion resistant.

Sandale Utility Products

Circle reply card No. 217

A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Products Company offers a new eight-page bro chure on its glass-fused-to-steel Aquastore® tanks for municipal and industrial water storage. The brochure explains the manufacturing process and the advan tages of bolted assembly. Other topics include the benefits of glass coating and the company's proprietary Edgecoat™ process and Glass97^^' potable water coating system. A.O. Smith Circle reply card No. 218

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Product and Service Showcase Oil-Water Separators

Raco Verbatim...

Getting the red out with PipePac

CostMCing 01t/Wat«r

Circle reply card No. 219

ciently remove solids and oil droplets(not chemically emulsified or dissolved) as small as twenty microns with unique MPak® designed multiple-angle plates that are virtually self-cleaning. ZCL Composites Circle reply card No. 220

PipePac is a software that has merged 3EB (Three-Edge-Bearing),SAMM (Spangler & Marston Method of pipe design),CAPE (Cost Analysis of Pipe Envelope), and LCA (Life Cycle Analysis). Merging of the programs into one application has resulted in a uniform interface, a single database for each project, simplified use, reduced data entry, minimized eiTors, and standardized design process. OCPA Circle reply card No. 221

Chemical Storage Tanks

Membrane technology

Compact ozone generator units

The best thing between you and your re mote facilities. This brochure describes

an automatic dialing/remote monitoring system that will contact a series of pre programmed telephone numbers with a voice me.ssage when any of the 96 alarms connected to the system is tripped. Summa Engineering Limited

High-efficiency Greentank™ Oil-Water Separators reduce oil contamination to as low as ten parts per million. They effi

^' I

Circle reply card No. 222

Chemical plants, hydrocarbon producers, pulp and paper mills, utility plants, etc., are no longer continually regenerating their ion exchange systems, thanks to Zenon membrane technology; it takes multiple stage treatment systems and re places all but one with a single step, mem brane based process which delivers con sistent 18 meg-ohm water with virtually no waste and with 10 percent of the chemical requirements. Zenon Circle reply card No. 223

Environmental Monitoring

Closed-Pipe Magmeter

Plastics Canada, a division of Pepco Ltd.. is the first company in Canada able to offer the coveted Underwriters Labora

tories Inc. (UL) certification for cross-

linked polyethylene above ground tanks, to be used for the bulk storage of chemi cals. The UL certification comes after

more than two years of testing to dem onstrate the structural integrity and chemical compatibility of the tanks. Plastics Canada

Ozonia's range of standardized compact ozone generator units, the OZAT®, take advantage of the latest technological de velopments, including "Advanced Tech nology" dielectrics. It is a very compact unit capable of producing extremely high ozone concentrations (up to 15% from oxygen - 5% from air), and it offers cli ents inexpensive hi-tech equipment for the economical production of ozone. Ozonia

Circle reply card No. 224

Tailings and waste rock disposal


Associates PasteTec Aquatic Sciences biological experience ranges from the collection of baseline environmental data to impact assessment, biomonitoring and fisheries studies. Their toxicology lab is presently serving MISA compliance needs. In addition to standard toxicity testing, the laboratory completes advanced toxicity identifica tion evaluations for clients with more

complex effluent streams. Aquatic Sciences Circle reply card No. 225

The UniMag from ISCO is a breakthrough in magmeter technology. Its leading de sign eliminates electrode fouling, vibra tion-related effects and liner malfunction.

The UniMag is the plant operator's friend featuring unique interchangeable sensors which allow simple and fast on-site re placement with no need for recalibration. The UniMag installs on pipes of 2 to 80 inches in diameter and provides unequaled accuracy. Nortech GSI Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Circle reply card No. 226

Based in Sudbury, Ontario, Golder Paste Technology, Ltd. (Golder PasteTec), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Golder As sociates, offers full engineering, procure ment, construction management and commissioning services to the mining industry for the design and construction management of tailings paste production systems. Paste technology has recently emerged as a cost-effective and techni cally competent alternative to traditional backfill methods. Golder Associates

Circle reply card No. 227 71

Industry Update

Aquatic chemists share

Ainley & Associates Limited

1999 Stockholm Water Prize Professors James J. Morgan from the US

Consulting Engineers and Planners

and Werner Stumm from Switzerland

Water Supply and Sewage Treatment Environmental Assessments - Roads and Bridges Structurai Engineering - Land Use Pianning

have been accorded the prestigious $150,000 Stockholm Water Prize for 1999. Their far-reaching research

Our expertise covers a// aspects of C/vff, Mun/cipai and Environmentai Engineering and Land Use Pianning COLUNGWOCX3 (/OS) 443-S*St ntx (rasj 443-093e



{sw .fee-4^43 nvr few see- rtee

few 333- r053

achievements in aquatic chemistry have improved the understanding of chemi cal and physical processes in the water

FAX fete) ess-tere

environment and led to the development of better techniques to treat drinking


water and wastewater.

Environmental and OHS professionals providing quality consuiting, scientific & engineering services • engineering and scientific studies . management systems and audit capability • Phase I & II investigations and remediation

225 Sheppard Ave W. North York, Ont. M2N 1N2

Tel: (416) 226-0148 Fax:(416)226-2931




Professors Morgan and Stumm also made important, fundamental discover ies in the chemical processes in soil and water that helped validate the concept of acid rain and shed new light on the transport of metals and other substances in the water environment.

Professor Stumm. 74, Professor Emeritus of the Federal Institute of

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

Technology in Zurich. Switzerland, and Professor Morgan, 66, the Goidberger Professor of Environmentai Engineer

Water, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies

ing Science at the California Institute of

For employment and project development opportunities

Technology in Pasadena, US, met at Harvard University in 1960.

visit our web site: www.rvanderson.com

The $150,000 Stockholm Water

Toronto(416)497-8600 E-mail; Toronto@RVAnderson.com

Wetland Ottawa Sudbuiy London Moncton Fredericton Charlottetown Bombay,India

Prize,founded in 1990, is presented an nually to an institution, organization, individual or company that has made a substantial contribution to the preserva tion, enhancement or avaiiabiiity of the

Environmental professionals working with industry to improve water quality


world's water resources. Biology Environmental Audits

Toxicity Testing

Environmental Engineering Stormwater tvlanagement

Aquatic Contaminant Remediation Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Edmonton's new recycling plant opens

Impact Assessments

Edmonton's new $12 miiiion Materials

PO Box 2205,250 l^artindale Road, St. Cathiarines, Ontario, Canada L2R 7R8 Pti: (905)641-0941 Fax: (905)641-1825 www.aquatic.com

Recovery Facility(MRP)was officially opened on March 30. Approved by

Brancti Office: PO Box 86, Sarnla, Ontario, Canada N7T7H8 Pti: (519) 383-7822

Edmonton City Council in 1994, the

MRP is a public-private business part nership. The plant is owned by the City

Environmental, Transportation & Industrial Engineering Creating Value through Service and Innovation Vancouver

604.293.1411 www.ae.ca









and was built by Browning Ferns Indus tries which will also operate the facility for 10 years. The MRP will process 30,000 tonnes

of recyciabies per year from Edmonton's new Blue Bag program and the 19 com munity depots. It will use a mix of

Specialists in a compretnenslve range of

manual and automated mechanical proc esses and will employ 46 people. The MRF will operate in conjunction with the planned co-composter. To gether, the new facilities will make Ed monton the first major city in Canada to

Environmental and Municipal Engineering

exceed the national waste reduction tar


get of 50 percent diversion from iandfiii Colllngwood Tel.(705)444-2565 EMail: info@cctatham.com

Orillia Tel.(705)525-1753

Bracebridge Tel.(705) 645-7756 Web: www.cctatham.com

by the year 2000. Contact Connie Boyce, Waste Man

agement Branch, Tel:(403)496-5407. 72

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1999

Industry Update No dioxins in Plastimet

groundwater No dioxins have turned up in the ground-


• HumanHcdthandEcologicalSite

• Envircnmantel FaeandFood Chan


water beneath the former Plastimet fire


• DaermmisicandProbabiiiaictMonieCarloi

•Toxicology Evduaion'MazadAssessmert

Risk Assessment Moddling

site in Hamilton, Ontario, according to


the preliminary test results of the sub surface of the Wellington Street North


• Environmenta impactand RemediaionAnayss


• Saailific Peer Re/iav

• Devac^^nent of Ste specific RemediaCntena forSpeoiicClieniicalsandCompleiChemica Mixtures

• Risk Communica>on''ExpertTestimony


2233 Argentia Road,Suite308, Misi^uga.ON L5N2X7Jel:(905)542-2900 Fax:(905)542-1011


E-mail: esigal@can!oxenvironmental com. Interne! hltp://wwwcanloxenvironmentc!.com

Tests have found heavy metal con

• Vancouver • Calgay • Missssauga • Metifax • Nav Jersey

tamination in the southwest area of the

property, which was the home for four decades, until 1990, of Urasco, a metal

smelting firm. The metals, lead, nickel,

CH2M Gore <S Storrie Limited

zinc and cadmium, were found in con

Environmental Engineers, Planners and Scientists

centrations exceeding MOE guidelines. Groundwater was found to be contami

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

nated with Total Petroleum Hydrocar bons(TPH)but only near the fuel tank,

phone(416)499-9000 fax (416)499-4687 direct dial (416)499-0090 + ext.

which is buried in the southwest corner

Barrle • Calgary • London * Ottawa • Thorold

of the property. The groundwater flows

Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo

northwest through the property. Plastimet caught fire in July 1997. Its

stockpile of polyvinyl chloride plastic

Consolidated Giroux Environment inc.

released dioxins, benzene and other con

Dredging (since 1971)

taminants into the air and water. The

preliminary test information was gath ered by Mississauga-based Golder and Associates which was hired by the Pro vincial Environment Ministry to deter mine the clean-up needed for the site. More testing will be done. A report out lining options for cleaning up the sub surface was expected by April. Golder

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester • Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction •High Speed Decanter Centrifuges

Tel: (506) 684-5821 E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca

Toronto • Ottawa

and Associates obtained its initial results


from 12 pits and eight monitoring wells dug on the site.


Laval won't pay In 1999 The Quebec City of Laval is refusing to assume the operational costs of its brand new wastewater treatment plant for 1999. The City does not want to pay the $5.3 million needed to operate its

Fax:(506) 684-1915 Web site: www.GIROUXINC.com

London • Hamilton Vancouver • Victoria

Specializing in;

• Drainage Pianning

• IVofer S Wastewater Systems

• Hydro-technical Services

• ladustrial Treatment

• environmental Impact

Toronto, Ontario M3C IKI

• Stormwater Management

• Environmental Planning

Fax: (416) 441-4131


facility as long as the "nauseating odours" produced by the plant inconven

Corporate Office: 133 Wynford Drive Tet: (416) 44t'4111


• Communities


• Facilities

ience Laval residents.

The Minister of Municipal Affairs claims that the odour problem was re solved in December. A press officer for the Ministry stated that all municipali ties which benefitted from a government program to build wastewater treatment facilities must assume all operational



• London





• Halifax

Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg * Yellowknife • Vancouver • International 100 Sheppard Avenue Fast, Toronto, Ontario M2N 6N5 (dl6) 229-4646

costs once a pilot stage for a new facil ity is over.

Laval's plant, built at a cost of $104 million, opened August, 1998. Its pilot testing stage finished January 2, 1999. The City was to begin assuming the op

Lea Associates

Transportation and Environmental Consultants

❖ Transportation Planning ❖ Traffic Engineering ❖ Environmental Planning Municipal Engineering Road & Bridge Design

erational costs as of that time in line with



the agreement between the City and the

Tel: (4161490-8887 Fax:(416^ 490-8376

Tel: (604)654-1945


Fax:(604) 654-1551


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999


Industry Update

Duke Engineering & Services(Canada),Inc. A Duke Energy Company

Climate change report



Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

(905) 513-9400

Site Remediation

Calgary (403) 262-4885

basin. These findings appear in a report


recently published by Environment

SINCE 1981

Canada's Ontario Region as its contri bution to the Canada Country Study on





TEM - PLM - PCM - SEM - Flame AA - Graphite Furnace ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 50 Queen Street West Suite 201

•Site Assessment/Auditing

Brainpton. Ontario L6X 4H3

•Site Remediation, Phase III

(905) 796-1 199

•Air/Water Quality •Expert Testimony/Litigation Support •Health & Safety •Training & Seminars •Waste Management


For more information, visit our website at wwvv.ermcan.com

GAP EnviroMicrobial Services IncT^

olAic^, 4


Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting


* Microblal Training * Consulting Services

Cryptosporidium & Giardia Microorganism Identification Rapid E.coli recreational water

If global warming takes place, it might Lakes, in some places as much as one metre or more by the latter part of the next century. It could also affect the health of people, as well as wildlife and aquatic populations, in the Great Lakes


• Risk Assessment


lower the water levels in the Great

(613) 232-2525

Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Environmental Management and Compliance Hydrogeologlc/Performance Assessment Modeling

focusses on water

climate change. The report,Adapting to Climate Vari ability and Change in Ontario, Volume IV, suggests that low water levels and

reduced water flow may affect many industrial sectors, including: • urban water infrastructure - by neces sitating work on water intake pipes and water treatment plants to account for receding shorelines and possible decline in water quality; • water industries - by increasing the likelihood of shortages of groundwater; •recreation - by compromising the aes thetic quality of many beaches. The study suggested that water and its shortages could become a continen tal issue for North America in the next

century, with conflicting demands for water likely to intensify between indus tries and regions. Pressures could mount as heavily populated drier areas seek to divert water from the Great Lakes.

* Respirometry Environment Minister

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, Ontario. N6E1P5 Telephone: 519-681-0571 Fax: 519-681-7150

issues warning Canada's Environment Minister,



Gartner Lee Limited

Christine Stewart, has issued a warning that polluters who do not voluntarily reduce emissions of 18 recently listed toxic substances, may have to be regu


"Gartner Lee provides environmental solutions for industry and government across Canada's North. Give


us a call for an introduction to our northern team."

Protection Act(CEPA),the Ministers of

Leslie Gomm, P. Eng., Ph.D., Senior Environmental Engineer Tel:(867)633-6474 ext. 24, Email: igomm@gartneriee.com Website: http://www.gartneriee.com

Under the Canadian Environmental Environment and Health have the au

thority to declare substances "toxic" fol lowing a scientific assessment. Sub stances must be added to CEPA's List

♦ Industrial Water/ Wastewater Treatment

Geoma'trix Cansult:ant:s Engineers, Geologists, and Environmental Scientists Announcing Our Newest Office: 871 Victoria North, Suite 201

Kitchener, Ontario N2B 3S4 Tel;(519) 741-3618 Fax:(519) 741-3621 74

of Toxic Substances(Schedule 1) before the Government of Canada can regulate them.

♦ Waste Minimization

Wastewater Reuse/Recycle Treatment System Upgrade/ Optimization Treatment System Design and Construction

Ray Stickney, C.E.T, Jeff Chambers, P. Eng., Bill Malyk, M. Eng., P. Eng., Dave Ellis, Project Engineer

An additional 18 substances have been declared toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. These

substances were published March 17, 1999 in Canada Gazette Part II, and

include: Inorganic arsenic compounds; Benzidine; Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Industry Update (DEHP); Inorganic cadmium com

pounds; Chlorinated wastewater efflu


ents (CWWE); Hexavalent chromium


...solutions through clean air technology

compounds; Creosote-impregnated waste materials from creosote-contami

nated sites; 3.3-Dichlorobenzidine; 1.2Dichloroethane (DCE); Dichloromethane; Effluents from pulp mills us

ing bleaching; Hexachlorobenzene (HCB); Inorganic fluorides; Refractory ceramic fibre (RCF); Oxidic, sulphidic and soluble inorganic nickel com pounds; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocar bons (PAHs); Tetrachloroethylene; and Trichloroethylene (TCE). By acting voluntarily to prevent pol lution, polluters have the flexibility to adopt processes and practices that fit their individual production needs and circumstances. "Pollution prevention is the approach we are emphasizing in the

Tel:(905) 858-4424 Eax:(905) 858-4426 E-mail: info@goodfeil.com

7070 Mississauga Road, Suite 160 Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 7G2, Canada Website: www.goodfeli.com

• Air Poiiution Control

• Occupational Health and Safety • indoor Air Quality • HS&E Compliance Audits

• Clean Air Technologies

• Environmentai Engineering • Ventiiation Assessment & Design

EMS Audits

Noise Vibration and Acoustics 2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 1, Suite 203 Mississauga, Ontario L5N1P7 (905) 826-4044, Fax 826-4940 www.hgcengineering.com

ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics

Howe Gastmeier Chapnik


renewed CEPA," the Minister noted,

"but if we don't see comprehensive re sults, I am prepared to use the CEPA to regulate further reductions in releases of

Experts at wastewater process audits, process oprimization, and process design


toxic substances."

Contact: www.ec.gc.ca/aret

Consulting Engineers

Air LIqulde Canada to 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 1G5 Tel:(905) 322-0012 Fax:(905)522-0031 info@hydromantis.com

invest in Alberta Air Liquide Canada is investing over $150 million for the construction of an

industrial gases and utilities complex at Scotford,just northeast of Edmonton,to primarily supply, on a long-term basis. Shell Chemicals Canada's new mono-

ethylene glycol facility which is cur rently under construction. The complex will include three inte grated facilities: • an air separation plant with a capacity of approximately 1,000 tonnes per day of oxygen to supply gaseous oxygen and nitrogen; • a cogeneration plant with a capacity of 200 tonnes of steam per hour and 80 megawatts of electricity to supply Shell Chemicals Canada's(steam and electric ity) and Air Liquide's (electricity)facili ties, as well as to supply power to the Alberta grid; and • a 300 tonne-per-day carbon dioxide plant to recover, purify and liquefy raw byproduct carbon dioxide from Shell Chemicals Canada's new plant. In addition. Air Liquide will produce oxygen, nitrogen, argon and carbon di oxide in liquid form to meet the grow ing demand of the market in Western Canada. The start-up of the plant is

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacVIro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905) 475-7270 • Fax:(905) 475-5994 E-Maii: 103700.2787@compuserve.com

•environmentai site assessments


•risk assessment/management

Engineering inc.

•site remediation

Kingston Ottawa

slated for the summer of 2000.

Contact: Nathalie Hamel,(514)846-

•waste management

(613)548-3446 (613)521-8258



Marshall Macklin



Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca



Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999


Industry Update

A Chemex Labs Albeita / Novamann International Partnership 1

Analytics Inc

Comprehensive Environmental Testing National Service

Certified/Accredited Source Emissions

Occupational Health Rush Analysis

Ontario 5540 McAdam Road

2021-41 Avenue N.E.

Mississauga. ON L4Z 1PI

Calgary, AB T2E 6P2

Tel;(905)890-2555 .

Tel ;(403)291-3077




ABB Announcement

Low lead water meters



9420 Cdtede Liesse

Lachine.QC H8T lAl

9331 •48th Street Edmonton. AB T6B 2R4

The US Congress through the passing of the Safe Drinking Water Act,empow

Tel:(514)636-6218 Faxi(SI4)631-9814

Tel:(403)465-9877 Fax:(403)466-3332

ered the Environmental Protection

Toll Free: East (800)563-6266

Agency to subcontract with the National

West(800) 386-7247

Sanitation Foundation (NSF)for a test

ing procedure to ensure that equipment put into the public water distribution system, did not leach harmful chemicals


into the water stream. PHILIP SERVICES

This standard is known as NSF61

"Witk <me the- the hmudeJ/jeaJde doled,team4, m the- mddHAin-if; '. He , ■ , ;(m hu^ ciidolitid' and cnAlam0i denoice.

health effects standard for indirect ad

ditives. The testing protocol for me chanical devices in the NSF61 standard

Valerie Geldart, Sales Manager

was finalized in 1997 and ABB Water

Meters Inc. has recently received the first approval for a bronze water meter made from a low lead alloy called Sebiloyll. Sebiloyll replaces all but 0.15% lead in the alloy with Selenium

1-800-263>9040 ext 275 or valerie_geldart@phillp-serv.com internet: wiArw.phillpanaiytical.com


Creative. Innovative.

and Bismuth, NSF61 tests for numer ous harmful contaminants and has de


termined that our C700 5/8" low lead meters are safe for installation in the


A Pollution Control

Tel: (403) 254-3301

A Wastewater Treatment

Fax:(403) 254-3333

water distribution system,

A Water Treatment

ABB has reached a settlement in an


ongoing lawsuit in California against the major water meter manufacturers related to California's Proposition 65 and Lead


in Water Meters, In this settlement,ABB

has agreed to stop selling the traditional alloy Water Meters into the State of Cali


fornia in the affected sizes 5/8" - 3/4",

To the best of our knowledge, the vol SIMCQE ErVGINEERING GROUP LIMITED

ume to area ratio of the wetted main case

Consulting Engineers & Architect

to water is sufficient in sizes larger than 3/4" to prevent leaching of lead in lev els which exceed NSF61 or Proposition

1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10, Pickering. Ont. UW 3W9 • Tel; 905-831-1715 Fox; 905-831-0531



65 requirements when using the tradi tional alloy bodies,

Environmental Consultants

ABB Water Meters Inc. is now of

1090 W, Pander Street, Suite 720 Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6E 2N7

(604) 669-6681, Fax:(604)669-6682 Specializing in:

fering the new Sebiloyll alloy meters in sizes 5/8" X 1/2", 5/8" x 3/4", 3/4" x 3/4" and 3/4" x 1" as an alternative to

the traditional alloy. The C700 with Sebiloyll alloy fully

• Landfill Gas Management• Solid Waste Management• Landfill Design •Site Assessment•Compliance Audits•Site Remediation

complies to NSF61, Proposition 65,

• Project Management


requirements. This meter does cost more than the traditional alloy as the raw material cost is higher, it must he cast with pure ingot without regrind and has longer machining cycle time as the ma

"A leader \n providing innovative automation solutions to our customers." We offer a complefe range of products & services in the areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service

terial is more dense and harder to ma chine,

ABB also offers 5/8" - 3/4" AWWA Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive, Mississauga, ON L4V1J2 Tel:(905) 678-3388, Fax: (905) 678-0444


Summa Enterprises, Place Grilli, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350, Kirkland, QG H9H 5B9 Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587

C700 polymer case water meters with no lead. Call: 1-800-670-5368,

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

Industry Update ETV certificates awarded at Americana '99 During Americana 1999, the Honour able Christine S. Stewart, Minister of the Environment, awarded verification cer

tificates to seven companies under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)Program: • RPA - Earth (Canada) Corporation, Environmental Applied Research Tech nology House. RPA is a reuseable


The Ontario Environmental Training Consortium (OETC), under a contract from the Ministry, currently provides a number of administrative services to the

Certification Program. These include setting exam dates, marking exams, re viewing application forms, classifying facilities, issuing renewals and licence

upgrades, and maintaining records. The overall responsibility for.the pro gram rests with the Ministry, which sets the standards for the program based on those adopted by the Association of Boards of Certification (ABC). Almost all provinces and states with operator certification programs use the ABC model.

THORBURN PENNY Consulting Engineers


• Decontaksolv™ - Sanexen Services Environmentaux Inc. Decontaksolv re duces PCB concentrations of materials from contaminated transformers.

• Depocrete™ - Cancrete Environmen tal Solutions Inc. The Depocrete Stabilization/Solidification System is applied to solids and sludges contain ing petroleum hydrocarbons,low levels of BTEX (<400 ppm)or heavy metals.

•Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems

Environmental Audits Water Resources

•Instrumentation & Controls

Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

Water Supply







• A.I.R. 2000™ - Trojan Technologies


Inc. The A.I.R. 2000 Process achieves

Water Supply•System Gptimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management• Environmental Assessment


at least 99% destruction of chlorinated

hydrocarbons (TCE) from the effluent of a soil vapour extraction system when

OTTAWA: (613) 247-0111

MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t o 11 e n


the influent concentrations are below

TEL:(905)668-9363• WHITBY•Fax:(905)668-0221

h u b 10 k 1

300 ppmv.



• A.C.T. - International Landmark En vironmental Inc. Licensee. A.C.T. sorbs

organic liquids. • Soil-Sement® - Midwest Industrial

Supply Inc. Soil-Sement achieves at least 95% suppressant efficiency on fu gitive dust.

IHIKf Ontario



Environmental Engineering Water & Wastewater Engineering Site Assessment & Remediation

• Georemediation''''^' - Environmental


Management Solutions (EMS) Inc.,

British Columbia

Harbour Remediation & Transfer

Northern Territories


Waste Management Urban Drainage

& Internationally

(HR&T)Inc. The Georemediation proc


Visit our website at www.umasrouD.com

ess reduces levels of contaminants in soils and sediments.

Contact: ETV Canada Inc., E-mail: jmcmullen@terrachoice.ca

d-d-Years of

^^\RDROP Engineering Ine. Winnipeg•Toronto•Soskotoon•Thunder Boy•Asia•Afrito

Certification under review Ontario Ministry of the Environment is currently reviewing several approaches to find more effective ways to deliver operator certification programs, while ensuring that the needs of operators, municipalities and the public are met.

P ngineering F xcellence

A multldisclpllnory Enginoering, Envlronmonlol and Information Technologlos firm, offering expertise in: •Site Remediation

• Chemlcol and Process Engineering • Hydrology and Hydrogeoiogy

•Solid Waste Management

• Municipal and Industrial Water

• Asbestos Abatement

end Waste Weter Treotment > Infrastructure Renewal

• Environmental Assessment

«Air Qunlity

Phone:(204)956-0980 Fox:(204)957-5389

E-mail: winnipeg@wardrop.com Web Site: www.wardrop.com

The MOE initiated the review fol

lowing a presentation by the Ontario


Water Works Association(OWWA)and

• Industrial/ Municipal Wastewater Management

the Water Environment Association of


Ontario (WEAO). The proposal in volves the transfer of the Operator Cer tification Program from the Ministry to an independent board elected by certi fied operators. The board would be to tally independent of the Ministry, the

Vancouver (604)990-0582 Kitchener (519)741-5774 Toronto area (905) 891 -2400 Kingston (613)542-5888 www.xcg.commall@xcg.com

• Watershed and Stormwater Management • Drinking Water Quality and Treatment

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1999

• Hydrogeoiogy investigation /Modelling

• Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmental Management Systems


Industry Update primitive treatment systems and the oc

Arjay Engineering Ltd. honoured by

casional addition of treatment chemicals

Canadian Airlines Foundation

by inexperienced staff.

uct lines: the Claritek Sus

pended Solids Monitor, and the HydroSense Oil-In-Water Monitor. The ppm Oil-InWater Monitor spai'ked par ticular interest in China where environmental issues con

cerning water resources are pressing. A trade show in May of 1998 and a return trip to install a trial with China

Petroleum unit in July, 1998, Left to right: Peter Feng, Sales, China; Greg Reeves, have proved positive and Arjay General Manager; Chuan Jia Hou, Distributor; were the basis of the award and Jung Hao Huan, Sales Manager, China at Can- from the Canadian Airlines Foundation. Am's open house. The Foundation was set up Arjay Engineering Ltd. of Mississauga, to encourage small business in Canada Ontario, has been honoured with a na through export activity. An executive panel from Canadian Airlines, Sheraton tional award for its export efforts. The firm specializes in level controls Hotels, the Royal Bank, and the Cham ber of Commerce participates in the se for process monitoring and environmen tal controls. It also manufactures gas de lection of over 200 entries. After inter tection equipment promoted thi'ough its views and site visits, 11 national winners subsidiary, Enmet Canada Ltd. from across Canada were recognized at a Over the last few years, Arjay has had ceremony in Calgary with a $6,000 travel the opportunity to develop two new prod award to further promote their company.

Water problems for NS strip mines A Thorburn Mining site in Nova Scotia has been the source of several complaints about water problems and seven have been attributed to mining activity, says a Nova Scotia Environment Department spokeswoman. At the Thorbum site, the company pro vided an alternative water supply and most of the problems have been resolved, said the Department spokeswoman. She added that the company has offered to provide another water source, comply with hydrogeologists' recommendations or submit to binding arbitration. One resident who lives about 100 me

tres away from a strip coal mine being run by Thorbum Mining Ltd. said that after the mining began, water levels dropped and his well became contami nated with bacteria. The company in stalled a sterilizer and promised all equip ment would be maintained. "I want my well fixed," the resident said. "What they did was put a couple of machines in my house that's stopping the problem, but the well is still contaminated."

Thorbum Mining, in a submission to the Environment Department, says the company will have an independent party 78

investigate complaints. If the water loss is the company's fault, an altemative wa ter supply will be provided or other ac tion will be taken.

Quebec drinking water problems

Yugoslavian conflict imperils water environment The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia is en dangering water resources. Ground water is especially vulnerable to the effects of the military campaign, according to Ser bian hydrogeologist Momir Komatina. "The pollution of water resources in the wide area of NATO bombing is not dam aging just for our country but for the Bal kans and a part of South Europe as well, especially for the countries in the Black Sea area."

Serbia is a major source of under ground water for Europe, said Branka Jovanovic, a leader of the Yugoslavian New Green Party. The destruction offuel and chemical reserves also is of major concern. Substantial quantities of naph tha reportedly have been burned in the bombing, releasing derivatives that can poison water, air and soil. Source: Water Environment Federation

Waste Inter X '99, Miami, November 16-18,1999 Miami-based Waste Internationale, Inc.

has appointed CANEX Consulting Group of Maple, QntaiJo, as its official Cana dian representative for the Waste Inter X '99 Expo & Conference. Waste Inter X provides a forum for Canadian compa nies to showcase their products, technol ogy and services to key decision-makers

In response to questions about why eight or nine projects to modernize the prov ince's drinking water regulations have failed over the last ten years, a Ministry

and end-users in South and Central

official commented that: "We have run

Miami Beach Convention Center from

into walls..." Attempts to improve water quality were all halted at the Treasury Council level, which felt that the projects would require too high of a financial in vestment by the province. A source at the Ministry of Health and Social Services indicated that to bring Quebec's water treatment plants to the same level as those in Ontario or the

United States, would require $450 to $750 million, a sum which the Treasury has refused to pay. Some changes that the Environment Ministry may require in the future include having Quebec cities disinfect their drink ing water even if they draw their raw water from a source judged to be unpol luted. The Ministry has also expressed concern over communities which rely on

America, the Caribbean and the South east US.

Waste Inter X '99 will be held at the

November 16-18, 1999,and will focus on:

Solid waste management and recycling; municipal/industrial waste water treat ment; potable water treatment; hazardous/ chemical waste; air quality and pollution; medical waste; environmental protection; site remediation; and demolition.

In previous years. Waste Inter X has brought some 300 exhibitors and 4,000 visitors. Exhibitors included government agencies, manufacturers, consulting en gineers, waste contractors, local repre sentatives and distributors, and media contacts.

A complete exhibitor's package is available by contacting John M.Calderon at CANEX, Tel: (905) 303-8501, Fax: (905) 303-9084, Web site: www.waste interx.com

Environmental Science tfe Engineering, May 1999

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