Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 1999

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

March 1999



Conference Preview - Environmental compliance '99, Americana '99, WEAO, BCW&WA, OWWA/OMWA, & No-Dig '99 Improving water and wastewater operator training Wastewater treatment in the food industry

Restoring Winnipeg's water lifeline Hazardous waste solutions

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February/March'99 Vol. 12 No. 1 Issued March, 1999

g toxic wastes See page 64




Ad Index


Reader Service Card


Product Review

35, 37

Literature Reviews


Industry Update


Professional Cards





Cover Story by Tom Davey Pressure sewers & grinder pumps Restoring Winnipeg's aqueduct Air pollution market expands Can boiiers heip meet air regs?

36 Online wastewater monitoring 38 Food industry wastewater 45 Improving operation efficiency 59 Drinking iron rich water in Waies



Sales Manager




Managing Editor

7 22 24 26 28

Sales Representative



Circulation Manager

Publisher's Assistant



Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Jim Bishop

Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Beak International Inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

62 Our $60 billion infrastructure deficit 64

Hazardous waste incineration

68 Reviewing Canada's PCB industry 72 Reduction of VOC at Superfund site 74 Contaminated groundwater barrier 76

R.V. Anderson wins Award of Merit


One Antarctic threat ruled out

CH2M Gore & Storrle Limited

Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE

Spring Convention Previews

R.V. Anderson Associates

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Puhllcatlons Mall Sales Second Class Mall Product Agreement No. 181897 Registration No. 7750

Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. ((3.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Dntarle, Canada, L4G 3\/6, Tel: {905)727-4666, Fax;(905)841-7271, E-mail: esemag@lstar.ca, Weh site: http://www.esemag.com


Environmental Compliance

11 Americana '99 14 Water Environment Association 16 BO Water & Waste Association

17 Air & Waste Management 17 OWWA/OMWA Joint Conference

19 North American No-Dig '99 19 Energy Efficiency Conference 20 Combustion Canada '99



Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999


Introducing a new advance in on-line

analysis of hardness, alkalinity,

-y ith Hach's new APA 6000

Process Analyzers, it's never

been easier to monitor and control the treatment process. ♦ These

nitrate and

innovative, microprocessor-controlled analyzers have been designed

to reduce the cost and effort of process monitoring and control,

ammonium. offering continuous, on-line analysis for hardness, alkalinity, nitrate

and ammonium. ♦ They're accurate and reliable—self-cleaning, self-priming and self-calibrating. ♦ They're compact and fast— requiring less sample, and less analysis time. ♦ And they're



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Let it rain! The StormceptorÂŽ System fights stormwater pollution at the source! STUDIED IN THE LABORATORY

Engineered to efficiently separate oil and sediment from stormwater flows, Stormceptor protects stored pollutants from scouring with its built-in high flow by-pass. STUDIED IN THE FIELD

With several thousand installations throughout North America, Europe and Australia, Stormceptor provides a tried and tested solution to source pollution problems. TYPICAL INSTALLAnONS

Commercial Parking Lots Industrial Properties Gas Stations Residential Subdivisions

Roads and Highways




Environmental History

Could the historic River Thames be poised to enter a new era?

One of the most famous waterways in the world,the

River Thames, has for cen

turies played a pivotal role in the history of Britain. Claudius de feated the natives in AD 434, built a

bridge, created Londiniiim and intro duced Roman law and engineering to England. The Romans never conquered Scotland, however; instead they built Hadrian's Wall, an engineering master piece of forts and walls which literally marked the end of Rome's expansionism. Much later, William The Conqueror built the Tower of London on the banks

of the Thames, following his victory over Harold in 1066. Well into the 18th

century, it was the Thames, not the roads, which was the main mode of

transportation for Londoners. London has seen countless battles, dating from

The Thames may soon see a renaissance for canal barges. Photo by David Manse!!.

the Roman times to the rockets and

architecture. He died ofa waterbome dis

bombs of WW11. The dockside cranes

ease in 1861 -typhoidfever-when Brit ain was the richest country in the world.

ter. Their work still remains the key stone of modem wastewater technology. In an age when people have walked

once dipped in a silent salute when Winston Churchill's body was borne Dr. Snow's intuition about cholera and even driven cars on the moon as well along the Thames as the great wartime had many scornful detractors. One leg as sent robots to Mars, it is incredible to leader went to his final resting place. end suggests that he took matters into think that pioneers of germ theories and London also has a permanent niche his own hands by breaking the handle wastewater treatment were alive less in the history of drinking water epide of the Broad Street water pump, prevent than a century ago. miology. In 1854, Dr. John Snow, then ing its use by Londoners in that area, The once badly polluted Thames has studying lethal cholera outbreaks in but as the epidemic was already subsid seen great improvement in water qual London, suggested that the epidemic ing, it was difficult to prove the value ity in recent years while London's docks, might be countered by removing the of his actions. It took three more dec once the busiest in the world, declined Broad Street pump from which people ades before the actual cholera bacillus badly in the last three decades. Ambi were drawing their water. Dr. Snow had was identified. But his actions had pro tious plans are afoot which will make noted that the cholera was mostly asso duced an awareness of the crucial imthe dockyard cranes busy again. Brit ciated with water supplied by the ish Waterways(BW) which runs The once badly polluted Thames has seen Southwark and Vauxhall company Britain's 3,200 kilometre canal great Improvement In water quality in which took water from the network, recently took charge of recent years while London's docks, once Thames below a major sewage the dock basins with a mandate to the busiest In the world, declined badly in outfall. He further noted that wa

ter supplied further upstream by the Lambeth Company had eight times fewer deaths from cholera than the

Southwark and Vauxhall company. At that time, the source of the chol

era was a mystery. It was widely be lieved that such diseases were the con

sequences of evil behaviour, making vic tims of the indigent, the poor, the intem perate and the dissolute. Queen Victo ria's husband. Prince Albert, was none of these. He was rich, industrious, ath letic and talented in music, science and

restore them to life.

the last three decades.

portance of separating sewage dis charges from drinking water sources. Another Englishman, Sir Joseph Lister, surgeon and medical scientist, was also subjected to scepticism when he outlined his theories on antiseptic medicine. When he used carbolic acid

during his operations, death rates from infectious complications plummeted. While his germ theory would seem to date from the dark ages, Joseph Lister actually died in 1912,approximately the time when Ardern, Lockett and Fowler

By Tom Davey

were developing the world's first acti vated sludge treatment near Manches

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Like the London docks, the ca nals and barges slumped into serious de cline as the faster delivery times of rail ways and road haulage made them uncompetitive. Now. with British highways often suffering from gridlock, the barges might play an environmental as well as an economic role in moving goods. The recently refurbished flood con trol barriers at the mouth of the Thames

will give the ancient city protection from tidal surges few cities can equal(ES&E cover story, September 1998). As the millennium approaches, the ancient River Thames may now be poised for its renaissance. â?–

Spring Conference Preview

Environmental Management, Compliance, and Best A vallable Technologies '99 April 7-8,1999 Regal Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario Environmental Science & Engineering will present the 7th Annual Environ mental Compliance and Due Dili gence Conference, Workshops and Technologies Exposition, April 7 and 8, 1999.

Ontario's largest conference of envi ronmental compliance strategies, tech nologies and solutions takes place at the Regal Constellation Hotel, near Pearson International Airport, Toronto. The workshops provide a unique en vironmental education and training op portunity for; • Plant managers and engineers. • Environmental managers and co-ordinators.

• Environmental lawyers. • Environmental and engineering consultants. • Environmental auditors.

• Environmental health and safety managers.

• Dangerous materials shippers and supervisors. • Storage tank managers. • Spills and emergency response teams. Workshop participation gives del egates access to some of Canada's lead ing environmental consultants. Some 50 top-notch speakers representing Cana da's leading-edge environmental train ers,lawyers,consultants, managers, ad ministrators, and health & safety prac titioners, are scheduled to participate in "Environmental Compliance '99". Their names will be familiar to you as some who are speakers at conferences costing over $1,000 to attend! Eor a fraction of that amount, you and your colleagues can register for a half-day workshop in which you will have access to these top practitioners - for a frac tion of the cost of their normal consult

ing fees! Discounts for multiple registrations ensure that all members of your team can take part and one company alone sent 16 registrants to attend these work shops recently. Many others arrange group partici pation and involvement for plant man agers, environmental audit teams, 3Rs teams, supeiwisors and environment and

health & safety committee members. Workshop participants benefit not only from the educational workshops, they also receive other educational materials

such as background papers, books, wall posters and more. Eollowing are some of the program highlights: APRIL 7

EMS development, part 2: Environmental aspects review • The environmental review process. • Using review results. Risk Management & Response Environmental Risk Management for Managers and Supervisors • An introduction to risk management. • An integrated model for EMS and risk

Environmental Leadership


Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Reduction, Part 1: New options and opportunities

The regulatory options. Opportunities for municipalities. Opportunities for industry. Identifying and quantifying corporate risk exposure from climate change. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Reduction,Part 2: Strategy and implementation • Developing a long term coiporate strategy.

• The practicalities of getting started. • Emissions trading in practice. Regulation & Compliance Environmental regulation & compliance for supervisors & managers • The new framework for

site assessment- linking ESA to the RSC.

• Decommissioning and remediation. • Record of site condition(RSC)update. • Site-specific risk assessment(SSRA) and the RSC.

• The law, liabilities and the RSC. APRIL 8

Environmental Due Diligence Environmental Due Diligence for Supervisors and Managers • Due diligence - what it means for companies. • Due diligence from the consultant's viewpoint. • Due diligence - the MOE inspector's view.

environmental compliance. • Federal environmental legislation. • Provincial environmental legislation. Environmental regulation & compliance for snpervisors & managers - a continuation • The approvals process and approvals reform.

• Anatomy of an environmental prosecution. Environmental information

management: Document handling for due diligence • Confidentiality and security. • Environmental management systems/ ISO 14000.

• Consultants and subcontractors -

• New enforcement mechanisms under Bill 82.

• New spills reporting requirements. • The waste management system and the new reforms.

• Clean-up of contaminated sites. Environmental Management in practice First steps to EMS development: Initial review & management plan • The ISO 14001 framework.

• Initial environmental review process. • Development planning. • Case histories.

the Record of Site Condition • Phase 1 and Phase II environmental

• Government initiatives.

• • • •

• Hypothetical applications. Site-Specific Risk Assessment and

diligent documentation. • Writing legally-sensitive audit reports, memos and manuals. Regulatory Reform: Focus Sessions Environmental approvals: A practical roadmap for a changing landscape • Approvals - what's new and what's not.

• • • •

AERs, SARs, and approval fees. Air approvals primer. Waste approvals update. Solutions and strategies. Continued on page 11.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999


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Spring Conference Preview

What's the best way A to put a chemical

Environmental ment

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microprocessor con trolled metering which greatly simplifies both operation and function monitoring.

Continuedfrom page 8. Managing Flammable and Combustible Liquids under Ontario's new Fire Code • The new Ontario Fire Code Part 4:

details and implementation schedule. • Part 4 impacts on storage tank management.

• Part4 implications for process safety. • Part4impacts on emergency response planning.

Finii one

Environmental Management Overcoming the obstacles to successful EMS implementation

simpie, quTck,


• Initial and ongoing planning. • Overcoming the obstacles. • Non-conformance & prevention and corrective action.

Auditing within the Environmental Management System • Compliance audits.

W hy purchase a complete IVielering Package?... • Fully assembled and tested

• Internal EMS audits.

• Standardized & economical

• Registration audits.

• Ready for floor/wall mounting • Portable & lightweight • Materials compatibility • Self-filling calibration • No chemical handling • Aesthetically pleasing

Risk Management & Response Spill Prevention for supervisors and managers • Spill prevention. • Planning. • Reporting and alerting. • Assessment.

Spill Prevention for supervisors

• Expert assistance

Packages for any chemical service

and managers • Fate and effects.

• Containment & recovery techniques. • Suddenly there's a spill - what do


you do? 1. Tank oveiTlow.

2. Fire at a chemical storage facility. 3. Truck rollover.

Exhibits and "Best Available

Technologies" sessions Bach registrant also receives FREE access to special lunch-time "Best Avail

able Technologies" sessions designed to showcase advances in environmental

technology, products and services and FREE access to the environmental ex hibit area.

ProMinent is the technological market leader In Chlorine Analyzers and Controllers, Chemical

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

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Spring Conference Preview

Americana '99

March 24-26,1999, Montreal, QC

•Environmental Mgmt.and Norms • Contaminated Site Management - Remediation of Inorganic Contami

Some 400 exhibitors will participate in

- Drinking Water Norms

nants in Soil and Groundwater

Americana '99.

- Private Operation of Water Works in

- Biobarriers, Reactive Barriers

SESSION TOPICS: • Environmental Geomatics

North America

- Risk Analysis


- Reseai'ch and Development - Quality of Drinking Water

- Understanding Climatic Change

• Wastewater

- Review of the Situation and Global

- Industrial Waste Reduction Program - Municipal Water Treatment - Agriculture and the Environment •International Einancing


- Emission Limits and Permit Trading • Drinking Water

- Brownfields

• Solid Waste

- Technological Solutions and Special Waste Management - Reclamation of Waste Matter

- Managing/Designing Sanitary Landfill Sites with the Arrival of the Year 2000

•Environmental Biotechnology - Biotechnology's Contribution to Res toration

- Biorecovery and Biovalorization




•International Markets

- Business Opportunities - Opportunities in the Middle East • Canadian Technologies - Canadian Environment and Energy Technology Showcase •Environment and Economy - Foreign Policy & Sustainable Dev. Contact RESEAU Environnement,

Tel: (514) 270-7110, Fax: (514) 2707154, E-mail: info@americana.org

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• Montreal Tel:(514)737-4817 • Barrie Tel:(705) 436-3900

• Hamilton Tel: (905) 643-4277 • London Tel:(519) 641 -8953

• Winnipeg Tel:(204) 253-2815

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Spring Conference Preview Wiitcr Environment

Standing Out for the Water Environment

Association of

April 11 to 13,1999 Westin Harbour Castle, Toronto

Ontario A


The Water Environment Asso

ciation of Ontario has set out

to produce the most ambitious conference program in its 28 years of operation. Keynote speaker Mike Duffy, award-winning host of CTV's Sunday Edition, will provide an insider's view of the Canadian political system which governs our lives and pro fessions. There will be a tradeshow put on by the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association, the Operations Challenge and a post conference work shop on instrumentation. The technical sessions include:

• Biological nutrient removal and toxicity control. • Managing your utility for the next millennium.

• Industrial wastewater treatment plant process optimization. • Professional Wastewater Operations. •Plant operations in new facilities: ready or not.

Operations Challenge combines the various skills required by modern operators. • Facilities management.


• Sewer use control programs. • New technologies: perfecting the

• Optimizing wastewater treatment Continued overleaf


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Spring Conference Preview

BC Water & Waste Association 27th Annual Conference Vernon, BC - April 25 - 28,1999

This conference takes place at the Best Western Vernon

Lodge. The conference theme is Meeting Our Fiscal and Environmental Challenges. Conference papers include: Monday,April 26 Drinking Water Treatment Technology • Open Basin Pilot Testing of a Large Surface Water Source - Black Mountain

Irrigation District, Kelowna, BC. • Ozone for Water Treatment.

• Development of Membrane Water Treatment in BC.

• Microfiltration in Response to the Threat of Giardia and Ciyptosporidium. Wastewater Collection

• Use of I & I Bug Type Flow Monitor ing Devices. • Linking GIS to Sanitary Sewer Mod elling: The Next Step in Infrastructure Planning. • Odour Control in Wastewater Collec

tion Systems Using Sodium Nitrate Solution.

• Huntington Trunk Sewer Tunnel. Innovative Technology • A New Pollution Prevention Approach

in BC - Municipal Applications. • Practical Experiences from Phasing in the New Cogeneration System at lona. • Onsite Product Performance Stand

ards: A Time of Change. • A Free-Water Surface Constructed

Scene from last year's exciting Operators Safety Competition which will again be a feature in this year's conference in Vernon, BC. ES&E photo - Penny Davey Tertiary Wastewater Treatment, and Low Flow Stream Augmentation. Operations Issues • Cross Connection Control I - Getting Your Program in Place! • Cross Connection Control II - New

Plumbing Code Changes. • Management Techniques for the FirstLine Supervisor. • City of Vancouver's Hydroscope Pilot Project. Ttiesday,April 27 Wastewater Treatment and Disposal

Wetland for Stormwater Management, • District of North Cowichan, Chemai-

Standing Outfor the Water Environment, cont'd,from page 14 plants to improve performance and reduce operating costs.

• Biosolids and organic wastes: management.

• Municipal pollution prevention for stormwater and CSOs.

• Research topics. • WWTPs- capital/design optimization.

• Getting to market- biosolids/organic residual processing. • Collection systems - keeping them flowing. Fears about the legal liabilities of

Y2K will be explored in two highly topical papers. The winning Operations Challenge teams will go on to compete at the 16

nus and Crofton Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

• Biosolids Management Through In strumentation.

• Overcoming Construction Challenges of the Bazan Bay Marine Outfall. • UV Disinfection: The Relationship Between Effluent Quality Criteria and Disinfection Criteria.

...later events include a trip to the Lone Pine Ranch, a trip to Heritage Cabin, line dance instructions, western activities, a Western Night and, ofcourse, the annual banquet.

annual Water Environment Federation

Conference later this year in New Orleans. There is also a second less serious

event when consulting engineers and suppliers are pitted against each other in a 'fun' challenge. The two day Guest Program will in clude trips to the National Ballet

Technology transfer seminars on

April 28 will cover 'Municipal Insights into Trenchless Technology' and 'BC's New Municipal Sewage Regulations'. There will be equipment displays, wine tasting, tours and youth participation. The Partner's Program starts Sunday,

scenes tour, the financial district,

April 25 at 1:15 p.m. with a Golf Tour nament at the Preditor Ridge Golf Re sort. At 7:30 p.m., there is a Meet and

Chinatown, Kensington Market, little Italy, Greektown and the colourful

Greet event at the Vernon Curling Rink hosted by manufacturers, suppliers and

Harbourfront area, renowned as a cul


tural centre for drama, crafts, poetry readings, sailing amenities and many

Other later events include a trip to the Lone Pine Ranch, a trip to Heritage

School for an exclusive behind the

other attractions.

Cabin, line dance instructions, western

Delegates can start the conference with the Sunday Evening Icebreaker.

activities, a Western Night and, of course, the annual banquet. Eor registration information, contact

Eurther conference details from

Sandy Pickett, Fax:(416)502-1786.

the BCWWA,Tel:(604)540-0111,Fax: (604)540-4077.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Spring Conference Preview

OWWA/OMWA 1999 Joint Annual Conference


"Our Water - Our Future"

May 16-19, 1999• Crowne Plaza Hotel, Ottawa

Afterseveral years ofunprec

edented change, the one as surance drinking water treat


impact of Bill 35 on water utilities in Qntario, as case studies of restructuring

shooting, rehabilitation, optimization, source protection policy and provincial

are examined. Qther concurrent ses


ment leaders have is that

sions will include the Research Forum

This conference combines technical

change will continue in the water indus try. The security once enjoyed in pro fessional organizations has been shattered by global realities and the need to become more competitive. In the wake of all this change,the water industry still has to as sure delivery ofdrinking water ofunques tionable quality and sufficient quantity.

and a Distribution Session providing advice on new techniques for today's managers and operators. The second day starts off with the Early Bird Session, in which past suc cesses are contemplated,just before we launch into the future with 'Operating In The New Millennium', the Plenary Session topic. The Tuesday afternoon concurrent

content with the opportunities to net work with peers in the water industry. Social activities include the Sunday evening Meet and Greet, the Monday night Charity Casino, the Tuesday evening banquet, and the Wednesday tours and golf outing. This conference gives you unprec edented exposure to all the latest issues facing our water industry as we prepai-e

sessions feature OWWA/QMWA's first

for the next millennium.

Water Efficiency Session which will demonstrate how cost savings accrue

Monday, May 17 Conference Opening Keynote address: Dr. Jerry Schubel, President, New England Aquarium.

The Consultants Meet and Greet on

Sunday evening, May 15, is a prelude to the largest provincial drinking water con ference in Canada, put on by the Ontario Waterworks Association and the Ontario

Municipal Water Association. On Monday, keynote speaker Dr. Jerry Schubel, a noted visionary, will predict the future of our dwindling water supply. Rod Holme,President of

even after the revenue is lost from re

AWWA, will focus on the future direc

ducing billings; the Treatment and Small Systems Session which will deal with taste and odour control, filtration opti mization and Cryptosporidium treat ment options; and the Groundwater and

tion of the industry. The OMWA Session will explore the

look at the total spectrum of trouble

Source Protection Session which will

Session A - OMWA

• Who will control your Public Water Authority in the new Millennium? • Bill 35 Electricity Competition Act: Implications for Water Utilities. Continued overleaf


Air & Waste

Management Association - Ontario

Section Spring Conference

Process Measurement Control & Environmental Instrumentation

Measurement Instruments

Water Quality Instrumentation

New Rules or No Rules

Air Quality - Regulations, Technology and Legislation in Ontario May 5 - 7,1999 Osgoode Hall Law School York University, Toronto, Ontario Topics will include: • New Approaches to Air Quality Control • Public Education and the Environment

•Area Velocity Flow • Insertion Electromagnetic and Doppler Flow •Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow

•Dissolved Oxygen •Total Suspended Solids

•Ultrasonic Level

• pH Monitoring & Control

•Temperature and Pressure • Fixed and Portable Gas Monitoring

• Residual Chlorine


•Interface Level Monitoring


• Environmental Risk Assessment

• Atmospheric Chemistry • Air Quality Modelling • Control Systems • Monitoring There will also be exhibits and poster

•Waste Water - Portable and Stationary •Sludge •Gas (Sampling Pumps)

1045 South Service Road West, Oakvilie, Ontario, L6L6K3

sessions. For more information contact: Jean-

Yves Urbain, Tel:(416) 445-7022, ext.

• System Solutions •Commissioning and Start-Up

Tel.:(905)847-2740- Fax:(905)827-6984 E-mail: controls@cancoppas.com - URL: http://www.cancoppas.com

2283, or E-mail: "jyurbain@pandr.com Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

For more information, circie reply card No. 133 (See page 25)


Spring Conference Preview •Backwashing and Temperature Effects on Biological Filters. • Utility Restructuring: Chatham-Kent, • Water Demand Forecasting Using Ar tificial Neural Networks. Case Study 1. • Utility Restructuring: Kingston, Case • Characterization of Water Quality Modeling Issues in Water Distribution Study 2. Systems. Session B - Distribution • Water Purveyors Guide to Ontario • Effect of Medium Pressure UV and Plumbing Code. UV/H,0 on Subsequent THM and HAA • Reducing Distribution Losses Using Formation During Drinking Water •AMO Perception ofPublic Water Utili

• Overview of Tastes & Odours in On


tario Drinking Water Supplies. • Utility Response to Water Quality Regulations(A US perspective). Session E - Groundwater and Source Protection

•Implementing Groundwater Protection Policy.

• Rehab and Optimization of Ingersoll

Flow Modulation.


Municipal Well System. •Troubleshooting Well and Pump Main

•Cathodic Protection Program-Region of Ottawa-Carleton Experience.

Tuesday,May 18 - Early Bird Session • Digging Back Into The Future - The

• Groundwater Initiatives of the Prov

• Recent Research Activities on Buried

History of the Waterworks Industry in

ince of Ontario.

Utilities at the National Research Coun


cil of Canada.

Plenary Session • Operating In The New Millennium.

Session C - Research Forum

tenance Issues.

Session F - Water Efficiency

• Capital Expenditure Savings Result ing From A Water Conservation Pro gram in a small Ontario Community. • Dealing with the Revenue Loss Impli

• Factors Affecting the Inactivation of Microbial Surrogates for Giardia and Cryptosporidium when Disinfecting

• Our Structure - Governance Models

with Chlorine Dioxide.


•Simulation of a Weighted Flocculation Process Using a Modified Jar Test Pro

• Our People- Giving them the Tools to do the job. • Our Customers-Unquestionable serv ice delivery.

cations of Water Conservation Programs. • Results of the Water Efficiency Moni toring Charrette. • Economic Savings as a result of a Water Conservation Program. Wednesday, May 19

Session D - Treatment and

- Lemieux Island Filtration Plant/ Fleet


for Ontario's Water Utilities.

• Our Business-A camel or a thorough

• Evaluating Corrosion Control Strate gies to Improve Water Quality in the Halifax Regional Distribution System. •Application of Neural Networks to the Modeling of Water Treatment Particu-

Small Systems • Optimization of Filtration Processes. • Treatment Options for Cryptospori

- Museum of Civilization.

late Removal Processes.


(416) 252-7060, Fax:(416) 252-3908.

Street Pumping Station. For more information: OWWA,Tel:


Effective Sludge Level Detection and Control Through BinMlnder 93fl0^

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Thickener Applications Sceeittlsili OfiriKl I*:

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S440D Dissolved Oxygen Sensor

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It's a Blast!... GLi's Model D63

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thing between you and your re

Analyzer/5440D Dissolved Oxy gen Sensor is the most ad vanced D.O. system available. Adding the self-contained airblast cleaning system makes it the best performing, low main tenance membrane system ever. Simple menus guide the operatorthrough start-up, cali bration and operation. Circle reply card No. 238

Level Detection and Control...

mote facilities. This brochure

describes an automatic dialing/ remote monitoring system that will contact a series of prepro grammed telephone numbers with a voice message when any of the 96 alarms connected to

the system is tripped. Circle reply card No. 237

BinMlnder 9300™ is ideal for:

Magnetic Inductive Flowmeters... The Aquafiux 470 Electromagnetic Flowmeter from Krohne provides high measuring accuracy and stabil ity. Every 470 Flowmeter is cali brated exactly in one of the

Primary & secondary ciarifiers; tanks; stationary & traveling bridge; gravity & DAF thicken

tion facilities. Supplied ready for operation and ISO 9001 cer

ers; reactor ciarifiers.


Superior signal processing and control features provide maxi mum performance in water and wastewater applications. The

Circle reply card No. 240

Summa Engineering Limited

Summa Enterprises

6423 Northam Drive

Place Grilli, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350 Kirkland, Quebec H9H 5B9

Mississauga, Ontario L4V1J2 Tel: (905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444 18

Circle reply card No. 239

world's most accurate calibra

Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(450) 455-3587 Environmental Scieitce & Engineering, March 1999

Spring Conference Preview

North American No-Dig '99 "Explore The World Of Trenchless Technology"

May 23-26,1999

• Rehabilitating Pipelines. • Designing No Dig Projects. • Designing and Application of Pipe Technologies.

Orange County Convention Centre, Criando, Florida

The North American Society

Social events will include an Ever

glades adventure evening and a golf

for Trenchless Technology

p.m. in the exhibit hall for the first look at state-of-the-art trenchless technology

(NASTT) will host its annual



For conference registration informa tion, contact: Prestige Accommodations, Tel: I-800-32I-6338, (949) 752-7866, Fax:(949)752-7444. Eor exhibit booth

No Dig Conference and Exhi bition May 23-26,1999. NASTT is the

Equipment and trenchless technology processes, displayed and discussed at the

only organization in North America spe cifically and exclusively dedicated to the science and practice of trenchless tech

Exhibition, will come to life on Wednes

information, contact: Trade Associates

day, May 26. Eield demonstrations will

Inc., Tel: 1-800-960-2242 x230,(301) 468-3210 x230. Fax:(301)468-3662.

nology. In the technical sessions,indus try leaders will present the results of in novative trenchless technology research and developments. There will be op portunities to: • Network and exchange ideas on ad vanced technologies and benefits; • Learn about innovative products and services; and

• Gain insights into the construction and rehabilitation of underground infrastruc ture without trenching or environmen tal disruption. NASTT and the No Dig exhibitors invite delegates to join them for the libbon cutting on Sunday, May 23, at 4:00

be held at the Orange County Waste Treatment Plant. Complimentary trans portation will be provided to and from

First Canadian Conference

the field demonstration site and to the

on Energy Efficiency May 18-20, 1999

airport in the afternoon. Casual dress is recommended.

Technical sessions will include:

Natural Resources Canada(NRCan)will

• Knowing your Geology and Local

host the fu'st ever Canadian Conference


on Energy Efficiency at the Ottawa Con vention Centre, May 18-20, 1999.

• Inspecting Pipe and Eield Conditions. • Adopting Innovative Equipment and

"This annual conference will take


stock of what Canada has done in the

• Horizontal Directional Drilling Inno

area of energy efficiency and examine how we can improve our overall per formance in the near future", said Ralph


• Maintaining Natural Gas Services. •Applying No Dig Solutions. • Contracting Eor No Dig Services.

Goodale, Natural Resources Minister.

Continued overleaf

The Field Convertible Check Valve. The new Series 317 check valves from Victaullc - provide a new dimension in service and adaptability. Grooved ends reduce the weight of the valve making it faster and easier to install. A closure coupling and cap give you quick

access to the valve for any required maintenance. This AWWA C-508 valve features a clear flow design and offers positive sealing in either a horizontal or vertical position for pressures up to 175 psi. All accessories are designed for direct mounting in the field, Victaulic provides you with a complete valving package for lift stations. Available in four field convertible trim packages. Contact Victaulic for

An ISO wen 9001 cedilied company An

416-675-5575 Fax: 416-675-5729

more information.


©1998 Victaulic Company oi Canada. All rights reserved. Victaulic is a registered trademaik of Victaulic Company of Canada.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

iCtSluliC \A e-mail: victaulicV'Victaullc.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 25)


Spring Conference Preview "It is an important part of our efforts to address climate change and to achieve Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Pro

• Reducing Emissions and Improving Energy Use from


• Improving Transportation Engines, System and Fuels for

The Canadian Conference on Energy Efficiency, under the

auspices of the Office of Energy Efficiency(GEE), will bring together world-renowned public and private sector partici pants to explore new ways to optimize energy efficiency. The first-ever Canadian National Energy Efficiency Awards will also be presented. Winners must have contrib uted in major and innovative ways to achieve energy effi ciency. Some 50 exhibitors will demonstrate the latest de velopments as well as innovative services and programs tar geted at industry, households and institutions. The GEE assists Canadian industry, business, institutions and households answer the climate change challenge. The Kyoto Protocol calls for Canada to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 6% from 1990 levels by the period spanning

Flare Gases. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions.

• Biomass in Canada's Energy Mix.

Plenary sessions will address the status of Canada's ef forts to meet its Kyoto commitments as well as technology policies and priorities, market drivers for greenhouse gas re duction, and emission trading. For more information contact the CC '99 Coordinator at:

Tel:(613)236-6222, Fax:(613) 236-6850.

DynaSand" Filter

2008 to 2012.

For more information contact: Pierre D'Amour at E-mail:

pdamour@marcon.qc.ca, Emmanuelle Gehin at E-mail: egehin@marcon.qc.ca or Fax:(514) 875-7505.

For over 19 years, both municipalities and industry have chosen Parkson's

DynaSand Filter over ail other filters. It's a clear

Combustion Canada '99

favourite due to its iack

of moving parts, ability to handle plant upsets, and low levels of operator attention and maintenance required,

Combustion and Global Climate Change, Canada's Challenges and Solutions May 26-28,1999

Parkson has the process know-how and experienced staff to support your

Telus Convention Centre, Calgary, Alberta Leading experts from Canada and abroad will present new and innovative concepts and technologies that will have a significant impact on reducing harmful emissions from fossil

filtration needs. We're the world leader in continuous-

fuel combustion. Some of the themes that will be examined

cleaning sand filtration technology, with over


4,000 North American

• Market and Technology Assessment for Greenhouse Gas

instaiiations. Call us.


• How Electric Utilities Can Succeed in the Climate Change Challenge.

PARKSON CORPORATION Represented in Canada by Axel Johnson (Canada) Inc. and its representatives 9050 Ryan Avenue, Dorvai, QC HOP 2M8 Telephone 514-636-8712 Fax 514-636-9718 E-Mail: parksoncanada@compuserve.com

• Industrial Combustion and Greenhouse Gases: the

Consequences and the Challenges. • More Efficient Residential and Commercial Combustion

Systems. • New Inroads into CG,Capture and Sequestration. • The District Energy Solution and Climate Protection.

For more information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 25)

ONE source for the regulatory information you need

^ Health and Safety "o HI

k- Environment


k- Transport ^ CSA Standards ^ CGSB Standards

New Folio Views Software be ginning May

CCiMS 20

For more Information call


or check out our web site

National and Regional


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Services Available

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, March 1999

ABB Water Meters is the first to offer low lead metering products that better protect consumers. In response to the Safe Drinking Water Act, ABB has introduced the first bronze water meter to pass the NSF 6l standards, which prevents the leaching of indirect additives into the nation's drinking water, providing consumers with a water meter that is virtually lead free! In addition to being safer for the consumer, the new low lead meter also carries the

ABB Water Meters, Inc. Your Natural Resource

ABB reputation for dependabihty and engineering excellence. It offers the industry's longest and broadest warranty of 25 years. When you need a steady supply of consumerfriendly metering products, turn to your natural resource - ABB Water Meters, Inc.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 137(See page 25)

Collection Systems

Pressure sewers and grinder pumps Despite their widespread application, there are situations where gravity sewers cannot be used, or may not be the best option

Canadian communities not on septic tanks typically have their sanitary effluent col lected by a gravity sewer sys

tem. Lift stations and forcemains trans

port this effluent to a treatment plant. But despite their widespread apphcation, there are situations where gravity sew ers cannot be used, or may not be the best option. This includes locations

house, the various plumbing fixtures connect to a 113 mm (4.5 inch) outside diameter drain, waste and vent pipe which exits the basement below the frost

line. This pipe discharges into the tank of the grinder pump station (Figure 1). The pump is located in the tank, and op erates on level control. Only the top of the station is visible above grade, creat ing an unobtrusive profile that can be

where: - New residential lots cannot be

serviced without lowering an existing gravity system. - A new development is pro posed beyond existing gravity sewers, but is too small to af ford a full size lift station.

- The water table is high, as in

(2 inch to 4 inch). Because the liquid is being moved by pressure differential instead of elevation differential, it does

not require any particular slope and can be buried just below the frost line. The development of"trenchless" excavation, or directional drilling has dramatically increased the speed and decreased the cost of installation.

Hydraulically, the pressure sewer piping is laid out as a multibranch system without loops. If you look at your hand, your fin gers may be compared to the branches of a grinder pump sys tem. They join at your hand, which may be compared to the forcemain transporting the out put of all the grinder pumps to

lakefront or island communi



Demonstration projects and years of field experience have

- The excavation required for a gravity sewer would be difficult or costly, because of unstable

verified a mathematical model

or, at a park or campsite, a se

which predicts how many grinder pumps will be operat ing in the system at any time. This has been incorporated by the manufacturer we represent,

ries of remote washrooms must

Environment One, into a com

be economically connected to form a sewer system. - The residences provide only seasonal occupancy.

puter program which can model any piping layout. The program

formations, bedrock at the sur

face or hilly teiTain. - The residences ai^e scattered;

calculates the friction head based

on the predicted number of operating pumps and adds the static head. This yields the dis charge pressure required at each

- The area to be serviced is ex

tremely flat, with no visible grade. Canada has an established

population of pressure sewers and grinder pumps. These in


This grinder pump's profile makes it inconspicuous in resi

stallations came about to address one or

more of the design issues mentioned above. Some sites are approaching twenty years in age. They have excel lent operating records, and new units are being added regularly. A review of Ontario locations shows that both the

North and South are well represented. A typical system Let us take a look at a typical pres sure sewer system. Beginning at the

By Richard Jacobs P. Eng. John Brooks Company Mississauga, Ontario


readily disguised. Once the sewage leaves the grinder pump station, it enters a section of pip ing known in the trade as a "lateral" which is typically 31 mm (1-1/4 inch), to provide a non-settling transport velocity of at least 0.6 m/s(2 feet/sec).

The pumps are the positive displacement type, rated for continuous operation at any pressure between a negative and 42m(60 psig or 138 feet). (This is important; centrifu gal pumps would respectively run out and shut off under these conditions.) Typical pipe would be polyvinyl chlo ride or high density polyethylene mate

A redundant check valve and isolation

rial in standard dimension ratio 11 or

valve with extension handle in a protec tive tube known as a "curb stop" must be provided. From the lateral, the sewage enters the pressure sewer, which is much smaller than a typical gravity sewer. The common size range is 50 mm to 100 mm

13.5 wall thickness. A total piping length of 3 to 4 kilometres (2 to 2-1/2 miles) is achievable. The successful operation of grinder pumps in treatment plants of most types has been documented,including aerated lagoons, activated sludge plants, trick-

dential areas.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

ling filters, rotating biological contac tors and constructed wetlands.

Reduced capital cost of new sewer installations

John Brooks Company retained a consulting engineer to prepare the report Cost Analysis ofGP 2000 Low Pressure Sewer System. Four residential devel opments constnacted with gravity sew

mined by the calcula tion (350 1/day per person) x (3 persons per residence) x (16 residences) = 16,800

litres/day. Infiltration is estimated from the formula I = 0.283 x D

X L, where I = infiltra

ers were examined to determine if

tion, D = the pipe di

grinder pumps would have been a real

ameter = 200 mm

istic alternative. One of these (Case D

and L = the pipe length

in the report) was a 12 lot project where

= 230 m.From this the

a lift station was installed. The com

infiltration flow is

parative costs were:

13,000 litres/day, which is 77 percent of the sanitaiy flow, or 44 percent of the com

Lift Station and Gravity Sewer Cost for 12 Lots Cost Per Lot

$144,100.00 $12,008.00




bined flow.

Pressure Sewer Cost

for 12 Lots Cost Per Lot

Figure 1

The infiltration al

$75,900.00 $6,325.00

The cost of the pressure sewer sys tem is only 53 percent of the cost of the gravity system. The report concludes that any small development where a lift station is required will find pressure sew ers and grinder pumps to be a very costeffective alternative. Other projects we are involved with support this finding. Elimination of infiltration

Another development studied in the report(Case A)turned out to be an illu minating study of infiltration, which is defined as surface runoff which enters

the sewer system. This is a completed project, so the infiltration allowance was the one used in design. Consider a 16 lot subdivision with an

area of 11,000 sq. m (2.7 acre), serviced by a gravity sewer 200 mm (8 inch) in diameter and 230 m (759 feet) long. Sanitary effluent production is deter-

lowance almost doubles the design flow, with a predictable effect on capital and operating costs. But a grinder pump sys tem does not need this allowance. It is a

closed system and surface runoff cannot enter it. The writer has observed flowmeter

readings at the outlet of a pressure sewer system where it discharges into the grav ity system of a neighbouring commu nity (where the treatment plant is lo cated). The flowmeter was installed for

billing puiposes. During a half hour pe riod in January, on a warm day when snow melt would be expected, the flow was clearly in the range of 0.9 to 1.6 1/s (14.2 to 25.4 US gpm). This was for 150 connected residences at 3:00 to 3:30 in the afternoon.

Other issues

In Ontario, the Ministry of Environ ment issues Certificates of Authoriza

tion to permit construction of new sew-

age works. They recognize the neces sity for pressure systems, and design re quirements are found in the "Adverse Conditions" section of their publication Guidelines For The Design ofSanitary Sewage Sy.stems. Grinder pumps may be installed close to houses on private property, and be come part of the homes. People are wary of a technology that is new to them, and need to be informed ahead of time when

a retrofit project is proposed for their area - for instance, if a pressure sewer is proposed to replace failing septic tanks. Some jurisdictions wisely reduce the sewage surcharge to compensate the homeowner for what can be perceived as a potential inconvenience and expense. A key issue is whether the unit is re liable. But with 100,000 installations in North America,the service record for

Environment One grinder pumps has been tracked. The average residential user can expect a life of 9-10 years be fore the first service call, and units oc

People are wary of a technology that is new to them, and need to be in formed ahead of time when a retrofit

project is proposed for their area - for instance, if a pressure sewer is pro posed to replace failing septic tanks.

casionally last as long as 17 years. Serv ice is not expensive, especially when di vided by the number of years of opera tion. One owner has hidden the grinder pump under a planter on his patio. The unit has been in place since 1990 and has not required any attention. Acknowledgements 1. Roberts, C.R., (1997) Cost Analysis of GP 2000 Low Pressure Sewer Sys tem. Report by: McElhanney Engineer ing Services, Surrey, BO. 2. information received from W. Horkey, President, Pumps & Systems inc.. Thun der Bay, Ontario. For more information,

circle reply card No. 110

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999



Restoring Winnipeg's iifeiine New lease on life for Shoal Lake Aqueduct

Since 1919, the City of Winni

peg has secured its drinking water from Shoal Lake,located

approximately 155 km east of the city at the Manitoba-Ontario border, through a pipeline system known as the Shoal Lake Aqueduct(Aqueduct). The Aqueduct is constructed of unreinforced cast-in-place concrete over most of its length. The cross-section of the Aqueduct is primarily a horseshoeshaped arch that varies in size depend ing on the Aqueduct's slope, with a typi cal height of about 2.1 metres. As expected,the structure has gradu ally deteriorated over its service life. First, the CG&S and UMA Engineering Ltd. project team conducted an exten sive program for the City of Winnipeg to assess the Aqueduct's condition and determine the necessary rehabilitation measures to extend the operational life for another 50 years. Following the as sessment, the repair work began. The repair program focused on strat egies for rehabilitating defective Aque duct sections identified in the condition-

assessment program. The primary fo cus was on achieving long-term struc tural stability and minimizing water exfiltration and infdtration. Exfiltration

in particular promotes deterioration from sulphate attack, swelling clay pres sures,ice lenses,and freeze-thaw cycles.

Repair work was carried out from 1994 to the fall of 1998, and involved

ballasting, internal, and external repairs.

By Andrew Philip & Don Grandy CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Injecting an arch crack. 24

Further repair work is planned for the winter of 1998 and beyond. Ballasting repairs The potential for floatation, or buoy ancy, is greatest when the Aqueduct is dewatered for inspec tions and repairs. The buoyancy assessment program determined where buoyancy prob lems existed along the Aqueduct and recom Placing ballast material on the top of the Aqueduct. mended appropriate remedial measures. Investigation re been repaired. Repairs consist prima vealed that the most economical and rily of injecting cracks and construction practical way to address the buoyancy joints in the arch and invert slab with a problem was to install a gravel ballast flexible polyurethane resin. Other less layer on top of the Aqueduct. critical internal repairs will be carried Most of these repairs were near the out in other stretches in future years. Manitoba-Ontario border where the External repairs groundwater level is typically above the Locations exhibiting severe arch top of the Aqueduct. cracking with distortions and locations One of three critical areas was bal where the arch walls were severely dete lasted during the 1997-98 winter months, riorated from sulphate attack were iden with work wrapping upjust before spring tified for strengthening. All of the criti thaw. The contractor met the challenges cal areas - just less than 1.7 km of the of winter work by constracting a winter Aqueduct - have been strengthened by road over the bogs and swamps. The re applying an external reinforced shotcrete maining two areas are scheduled for com shell over the existing deteriorated arch. pletion over the next two winters. Following the installation ofintemal shor ing and bracing,deteriorated concrete was Internal repairs Internal repairs were designed to removed using high-pressure water blast ing equipment. Once sound concrete was minimize water exfiltration and infiltra exposed, a reinforcing steel cage was in tion. The 15-km stretch initially identi fied as the most critical and in need of stalled and the shotcreting was completed. For more information, restoration (because of extensive longi circle reply card No. 138 tudinal cracking and faulty joints) has

Shotcreting the external shell. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Ad Index


Page Reader Service No.


Page Reader Service No.

ABB Water Meters, Inc









Industrial Scientific



ABS Action Carbon-Chem

56 56

115 120

Insitu Contractors



ITT Flygt






KMK Consultants



Aquablast Aquarius Aquatic Science

56 34 42

116 172 308

MakLoc Buildings Inc





Make\way Plastics










Bovar Waste Mgmt








78 79


















CH2M Gore & Storrie



Centennial Concrete


Ozonia Parkson

9 20

105 135

Colgate-Palmolive Coigate-Palmolive Consulting Engineers

43 35

157 200-201

Philip Utilities




P.V. Anderson





Sonic Soil Sampling













Davis Controls




Denso Derrick

59 12

163 131
























Trans-Cycle Industries






US Filter



Fabricated Plastics Frontenac

44 60

126 164




Waterloo Barrier





Western Water





Zenon Env.

166 109 101



FREE Information Service for Readers Name:



□ Municipal & Government Personnel

Company Name: .

□ Provincial Government □ Federal Government


□ Consulting engineer/consultant □ Industrial (Please specify area of activity)

City: _

□ Contractors engaged in construction of municipal and industrial waterworks, sewerage and pollution control plants, etc. □ Other: Please be specific


Tel: (




Fax: (


For more information on products and services mentioned in this issue, circle the appropriate numbers below. Please mail or fax (905) 841-7271. Your request will be forwarded to the manufacturer. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115



118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185

I want to receive (continue to receive) Environmentai Science & Engineering magazine.

186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215

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237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253

□ Yes No □ Date:

254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285

286 287

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305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321

March 1999

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338


Air Pollution Report

Air pollution market expands worldwide Utilities spend $12 biiiion operating electrostatic precipitators

Ninety-five percent of the

World Precipitator Sales 1999

2,000 coal-fired power plants around the globe em ploy electrostatic precipi tators for particulate air pollution con trol. The total annual cost is more than

(US)$12 billion. According to a new Mcllvaine report, Electrostatic Precipitator World Mar kets 1999-2004, the largest precipitator market segment is power, followed by the pulp and paper industry and cement. Metals and mining are in fourth place. The fifth largest segment is the chemi cal industry which uses both wet and dry precipitators for acid mist and other pol lutants. Two rapidly growing segments are wood particle driers and paintfin ishing facilities. A large new use of wet

precipitators is to reduce SO,and heavy metals emitted from power plant stacks. The huge annual cost translates into profitable and substantial business for 400 companies supplying parts and seiwices such as plate straightening, electrode replacement, mechanical contracting, emissions testing, consulting, rappers, dust valves, electronics, and insulators.

New precipitator system sales will exceed $1.3 billion in 1999. The larg est suppliers are ABB, Lurgi, FLS, and Mitsubishi. Several Chinese companies have made their way into the top 10. There has been tremendous change in the industry in the last two decades. Two of the historical leaders. Research

Cottrell and Joy Western Precipitation, are now part of other companies. Innovative wet precipitator designs have boosted sales for a number of new

entrants to the precipitator industry. Therefore, despite considerable consoli dation at the top, the number of precipi tator companies around the world has actually increased. The new companies are, for the most part, focusing on tech nology or applications on a worldwide basis, whereas the consolidation is

eliminating regional suppliers. Conse quently, there is a continuing globaliza-

tion of the industry. Many precipitators in the US are old and inefficient. They will need to be rehabilitated and their efficiency im proved to meet tougher emission stand ards. Higher reliability requirements will be demanded in the future deregu lated power industry. Large expendi tures for flue gas conditioning systems and for replacement of internals will be needed.

The top purchasing countries will be China and the US, but there will be ex

penditures in 80 countries and regions. Recovery boiler precipitators will be purchased in Indonesia. Cement pre cipitators will be purchased in Vietnam, and copper smelter precipitators in Chile. India, Turkey, and Poland will increase precipitator expenditures at greater than 7% per annum over the next five years.

The huge annual cost translates into profitable and substantial business for 400 companies.... 26

Reaching purchasers will be difficult for suppliers since much of the expendi ture is in developing countries. This is illustrated by the relationship between Gross National Product and precipitator market potential. The higher the ratio, the higher are precipitator purchases per unit of GNP; China Taiwan











So, in France where the GNP is four

times higher than Taiwan, the precipi tator purchases are less than 10% of those in Taiwan.

Electrostatic Precipitator World Markets 1999-2004, is a three-volume,

1,300 page report accompanied by a computer disk which provides the op portunity to expand the 30,000 forecasts in the report to include specific subcategories in each of 80 countries and regions. For more information, contact: The

Mcllvaine Company, 2970 Maria Avenue, Northbrook, IL 60062, Fax: (847) 272-9673.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Industry Update

Environmental compliance In late November 1998, the Ontario MOE introduced the

Enhanced Environmental Compliance Bill. The proposed amendments will increase penalties for polluting to four or five times the cun^ent levels, allow the ministry to hold on to seized equipment once a conviction is registered, increase the incidents where jail terms can be ordered, and order con victed polluters to make restitution for the environmental damage they have caused. In short, would-be polluters are

New Dimensions

for Environment

on notice.

Environment Minister, Nomi Sterling said:"The dry clean ing associations are interested in working to improve the en vironmental performance of their industry. Three dry clean ing companies - Davlin, Einchdale and Careful - are past recipients of our Pollution Prevention Award,and, barely one year in existence, our battery recycling program has several hundred retailers actively participating. "We have introduced the Smog Program and Drive Clean. But we have also recently been successful in working with the federal government to set stringent national standai^ds to re duce sulphur levels in gasoline. Lowering sulphur emissions will result in major improvements to Ontai'io's air quality. The next phase of our efforts will be to work with our US counter parts to ensure that similai" standards are adopted. "We will also develop emission performance standards for all generators wishing to sell in the Ontario electricity mar ket. Our objective is to ensure consistency with our US coun terparts and I will be raising this matter in an upcoming meet ing with senior environment officials in Massachusetts, Con

Waste Water and

Waste Disposal.

Environment, Waste Water and

Waste Disposal: Water, Sewage, Refuse and


4-8 May 1999 New Munich Trade Fair



Further information from;

necticut and New York."


12th International Trade Fair for


50 Weybright Court Unit 41, Agincourt,


Toronto ON


Canada MIS 5A8

Tel.(416) 291-63 59 Fax (416) 291-0025 E-mail:






What quality standard does your lab meet?

^ Lufthansa

Quality Assurance For Environmental Laboratories • Proficiency testing • ISO 25 accreditation audits

(with accreditation by the Standards Council of Canada) Check our Web site: www.caeal.ca

or call us at:(613) 233-5300 The Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical Laboratories

With over 1,700 exhibitors fr countries, IFAT offers the worl

comprehensive synopsis of pt solutions in the fields of wast

first time, IFAT 99 will also bo p'" ing solutions in the field of wuU" supply. No other trade fair r a better forum for th


For more information, circle reply card No. Ill (See page 25)


and environmental technoloc


For more Information, circle reply card No. 112 (See page 25)

Biogas Utilization

Can boilers help meet air pollution regs In wastewater treatment? - Part II: Alternative approaches to gas utilization In the January issue of ES&E(page 90), the author discussed the production of methane during wastewater treatment aiong with various incineration options. In Part II, various scenarios are reviewed

inciuding cogeneration.

It has been suggested that boilers can meet the air discharge regula

tions without any special require ments. All plants require heating of different forms in the winter and the difficulties with an incin erator seem to be made worse be

cause of cyclical operation in the winter. Systems have been de signed where boiler use is maxi mized even when there is no'ben eficial' use of heat in the summer. In order to avoid boiler overheat

ing, the systems have been pro vided with air to water heat ex

changers which dissipate heat di rectly to the atmosphere outside

of the buildings. With proper control of sludge feed and heat ing, the operation over 24 hours will maximize the beneficial use

This form of operation has been pro vided to the exclusion of any waste gas burner at some plants. While this ap proach may be practical, the lack of any form of'emergency'burner makes it im possible to fully comply with the B105 Gas Code. Also, it is pretty well essen tial to provide two boilers when one boiler can be justified in a digestion sys tem at a smaller plant. Cogeneration Systems Methane gas has been burned for

engine also provides adequate destruc tion efficiency for the gas. Cogeneration using methane gas has been tried at some plants with differing degrees of success. It has only been since the mid-1980s that parallel elec trical generation was feasible for small systems, and it has been even more re cently that Hydro will pay a reasonable rate to buy power back from a cogenera tion system owner. Digester produced gas is used to drive gas turbines or en gine generators to generate elec trical power, with the latter be ing more realistic on smaller scales. Cost is recovered in two

ways either by simply displacing the equivalent hydro supplied electricity (cogeneration) or by reducing electrical demand costs by reducing the surge loads on hydro supplies (peak shaving). An engine provides approxi mately 35% of the input energy as electrical power and it is diffi cult to justify the low efficiency unless some of the other 'waste'

energy is also recaptured. The two largest heat losses are from the engine block and from the

of the heat in sludge heating and will waste heat only when re muffler. Block heat can be used quired. as a source to heat the sludge and At some plants, beneficial op replace the boilers. Muffler heat eration can be incorporated into exchangers allow for an addi the design in the summer where tional heat capture which may there are large open air water bring the total energy capture to storage tanks such as filters. Liq possibly 60% overall efficiency. uid temperatures are such that hu Radiant heat within the room can midity control can be a problem in these facilities. Dissipation of Close up of open flare burner showing stainless steel be moved around if the engine is located within a larger building surplus heat into the filter area Incinerator and natural gas pilot gas supply. structure. can help to control humidity. beneficial mechanical uses at plants for Difficulties with cogeneration sys Other areas of plants such as under many years. Large methane burning en tems relate to the blending of the sup ground tunnels and galleries can also be gines have been used at the Humber ply and demand requirements for heat cool in the summer and heat can be ab plant in Metro Toronto to operate aera and electricity to plant demands. Sludge sorbed with some benefit. tion blowers for a number of years. In heating and electrical energy production this case the engines do not run electri must pretty well coincide unless the hy By Bob Wiilcocks cal generators but power blowers di dro supply provide a reasonable return Acres and Associated rectly. This defers the need for electri for energy which they buy. An ideal situ Environmental Ltd. ation would be a reverse reading meter This paper was presented at the cal power for the blowers and one ex pects that the system was installed us which allows 100% electrical energy 1998 Conference of the Water ing this approach because it was not cost savings to be recovered when the Environment Association of possible to operate parallel electrical system is running. This allows the en Ontario systems with Hydro until recently. The gine to run when the sludge or other sys-


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Biogas Utilization terns need heat without sacrificing on electricity. New PLC control systems and computers allow much more con trol flexibility than was possible even 10 years ago. As was the case with the use of boiler

heating systems, systems such as the Pickard plant in Ottawa were designed to allow for cogeneration to replace the waste gas burner. A waste gas burner was provided for an interim period to allow for the cogeneration system to be

Alternatives such as the boiler unit heater,

the cogeneration system and the radiant heaters all meet Ministry efficiency requirements while providing for the safe destruction of surplus gas.


High Efficiency Radiant Heaters There have been high efficiency ra diant gas heaters on the market for a few years which have been used where openflame burners would not be appropriate. An example is in poultry barns where dust would create serious problems for an open flame burner. Very recently a manufacturer of these 'chicken barn'

heaters adapted them for digester pro duced methane and these have been in stalled at the Hamilton Woodward

Avenue plant in Ontario, to dissipate all excess digester produced gas into a nearby water plant filter gallery. Gas is piped to the water plant and is used to heat the gallery and to control humidity in the summer and winter.

It is understood that this approach was taken instead of providing a large waste gas incinerator installation at this facility. It makes more sense for ben eficial re-use than to waste the energy and replace it with natural gas or other purchased energy. It has been suggested that the cost of these units would allow

them to be used in other wastewater

plants to dissipate digester gas at a substantially lower cost,even if they had to be installed outside. Their destruction

which seldom is required. If one looks at the design of the new style open flare, it is fairly obvious that the operating problems of the enclosed flare are not present. If there is some way to improve efficiency, then the en closed flare system is clearly not the best approach. As was noted above, waste gas systems are required by the Code for emergency burning of waste gas. In most cases, the largest volume of gas is burned in the boiler and, with some plan ning and with possibly some additional heat exchangers, all digester gas could be burned in the boilers.

In discussion with the manufacturer

it was pointed out that the destruction efficiency of90% at the design flow rat ing can be increased by slowing the gas flow through the burner flame. A 98% efficiency can be attained if the rate of gas flow is reduced to 10% of the de sign. While this seems to be a signifi cant derating factor, the actual implica tions may not be that significant at a specific plant for a number of reasons as discussed below.

Taking the example plant which gen erates waste gas at a daily volume of

burner could be called upon if a cata strophic failure of the digestion system was imminent.

To summarize the implications in our example plant; • The difference in cost between a 50 mm burner and a 150 mm burner is not


• The 150 mm burner provides 98% de struction efficiency when the rate of gas flow is regulated to 10% of its rating; the system does not have similar oper ating concerns as the enclosed flare which is being replaced. •The cost of the new burner is less than

50% of the cost of a replacement en closed flare. This cost ratio is out of the

normal range because the enclosed flare could reuse the existing high pressure natural gas line and the control panel. For a new installation the cost of the

burner as compared to the enclosed flare would be in the 20-30% range, depend ing on whether or not there is a high pres sure natural gas supply available. The flare requires a high pressure supply. • It is relatively easy to make the neces sary other changes to the system to al low the flare to be retained as an emer

efficiency is high enough to meet Ontario Ministry of the Environment require

2500 mVd, the waste gas burner could be sized at 50 mm. If the diameter is



increased to 150 mm,and the same vol

At the example plant, an amendment to the existing C of A was granted by the Ministry to permit the installation of the new replacement flare. With some common sense, the open flare burner provides a reliable form of emergency burner capacity, meeting

What about the open flare? Alternatives such as the boiler unit

heater, the cogeneration system and the radiant heaters all meet Ministry effi ciency requirements while providing for the safe destruction of surplus gas. Where no other system is provided as a waste gas burner, these systems could not comply with the B105 Code. As soon as a burner is required, there is a requirement for a C of A and the Minis try is looking for their 98% destruction efficiency unless the system is so small than common sense allows them to ac

cept a burner with a 90% efficiency

ume is regulated over the entire day, then the 10% rate is attained and the destruc

tion efficiency increases to 98%. The best part is that the capital cost differ ential may be <$10,000 between the two burner costs and the cost of the burner

package may be 20-30% of the enclosed flare cost. If other changes are made to the system to maximize boiler use, then the burner would be seldom used except possibly for monthly testing. If one is concerned about the real

emergency burner capacity, then a two stage gas regulator system could be pro vided so that the full capacity of the

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

gency burner.

both the MOB and B105 Cas Code re

quirements at a reasonable initial cost. It does not come with the inhei^ent weak

nesses of the enclosed flare systems which still have a role to play in large plants or in landfill applications where continuous burning is required. For more information,

circle reply card No. 113


Product and Service Showcase Oily Water Pump

Oil-Water Separator

Concrete Pipe

Design Manual

The Megator Sliding Shoe Pump is an extremely versatile positive displacement pump for environmental, marine, mining and industrial applications. The pump is self-priming, can operate under dry suc tion and can handle liquids of any vis cosity to a maximum at which pumping is economically feasible. This unique pumping design offers extremely low emulsification of oily/water mixtures.

The TECHNO-SELECT oil-water sepa rator uses a unique and reliable differen tial gravity valve to ensure maintenancefree disposal of separated oils without any trace of water. In most applications, ef fluents under 10 ppm are produced. Made of polypropylene or carbon steel, this OWS handles flow rates from 5 to

Circle reply card No. 245

5,000 GPM. It offers a solid 30-year warranty on the OWS body and coalescent plates. Nortech GSI Inc. Circle reply card No. 246

Environmental drilling

Sludge disposal

Nortech GSI Inc.

The new updated version is available now from the OCPA. This indispensable manual offers the most current

information on the design, manufacture, application and installation of precast concrete drainage systems. Get your FREE copy and read aU about it!



concrete pipe association

llhe oho hoice

of o lifehme

Circle reply card No. 247

Getting the red out with PIpePac


Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. provides envi ronmental drilling services by using proven methods of drilling boreholes that are both versa tile and cost-effec

tive. Utilizing a 2" standard split-spoon sampler,our crews can drill inside and out side buildings and install monitors for water or soil gas. Our crews can also be equipped with portable hollow & solid stem augers. Geotechnical services are also provided using portable SPT units and concrete coring equipment for road & con crete testing. Sonic Soil Sampling Inc. Circle reply card No. 248

Separators & Interceptors for the removal of oil, grease and solids from wastewater

A FluosolidsÂŽ Combustion System is ideal for disposal of most biological wastes, noxious liquid and semi-solid wastes. Fluid-bed reactors offer greater flexibility, fuel economy, lower mainte nance and are more compact than other types of combustion. The system can be used for combustion of refinery wastes, activated sludge, pulping waste and other organic wastes. GL&V Process Equipment Group Circle reply card No. 249

PipePac is a software that has merged 3EB (Three-Edge-Bearing),SAMM (Spangler & Marston Method of pipe design),CAPE (Cost Analysis of Pipe Envelope), and LCA (Life Cycle Analysis). Merging of the programs into one application has resulted in a uniform interface, a single database for each project, simplified use, reduced data entry, minimized errors, and standardized design process. OCPA

Inlet StormceptorÂŽ system

Sedlment/sollds detection

Circle repTy card No. 250

The Inlet Storm

ceptor System employs the same principles of op eration as the well

known In-line in-

terceptors. Developed to treat runoff from an

For the economical treatment of indus trial and commercial wastewater. Treat

ment applications include: industrial facilities; process wastewater; floor washing; parts washing;compressor con densate. Automotive repair shops and food processing/preparation facilities are also available. Proceptor

Circle reply card No. 251 30

area of up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the internal by-pass function, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from storm-

water runoff remains trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. There are cuixently more than 2,500 units in place throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 252

Based on 32 bit digital signal microproc essor technology and Entech Design's unique filtering and tracking software, BinMinder 9300 offers the very latest in blanket level and sediment level detec

tion. Systems accept one to four sensor inputs for economical continuous moni toring of four vessels by a single proces sor. A full complement of system out puts is onboard, and local operation is handled by means of a membrane switch control panel with full function LCD dis play. Summa Engineering Circle reply card No. 253

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Product and Service Showcase New metering pump

Latest technologies for aggressive chemicals

Two channel controller


new Sigma HK packed-plunger metering pump is capable of ac curately dosing very small quan

ProMinent offers the latest and most cost-

effective materials to handle your corro sive chemicals. Whatever the chemical

is that you need to meter. ProMinent will have a safe and dependable system for you. The piping system will be arranged to keep the required space as compact as possible but will still allow easy mainte nance. ProMinent Fluid Controls

tities of neat

ProMinent Fluid Controls have intro


duced a new 2-channel controller in a sin


high pressures, ranging from 10 ml/lrour at 4640 psi(32 bar), up to a maxi mum flow rate of480 gallons(1575 1/hr) per day. The pump features a special PTFE ring packing with integral selftensioning packing spring, virtually eliminating leakage. Material of con struction





ceramic. ProMinent Fluid Controls

gle housing. It is available with pH/chlorine or pFl/ORP measurement. The unit is custom configurable through an identcode and can be ordered with two limit

relays, proportional pump control outputs and isolated 4-20 mA for each measured

parameter. It also has two digital inputs, one used as a pause function for the con trol action and one to monitor sample water flow. ProMinent Fluid Controls

Circle reply card No. 254

Circle reply card No. 255

Circle reply card No. 256

New calibration/verification module

FX-1000p - chlorine analyzer

Explosion proof pumps

Three important features enable the FXlOOOp to operate with a drift-free signal:

ICE-PIC"" LaiiDration/Verification Mod

a constant buffer solution feed rate; a

ule, designed to quickly verify calibra tion of the company's 1720C and 1720D Process Turbidimeters. Using the com pact. lightweight ICE-PIC Module, op erators can now perform a typical verifi

constant water flow into the cell unit; and

cation in 40 seconds or less. With Hach

process turbidimeters. there is no need to stop or divert sample flow. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 257

in a more accurate reading. The distilled white vinegar buffer solution and .scrub ber balls, work together to keep the cell clean. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 258

The explosion proof Dia-Vac" pumps are widely used in hazardous atmospheres within the petroleum, refinery, chemical, utility, and pharmaceutical industries. These economical leak-free diaphragm gaseous sampling pumps can be custom designed and built for your specific ap plications. The ADI moisture resistant head is machined with a reduced sealing surface not allowing liquid to interfere with the sealing of the valve disc or pump performance. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 259

5-[n-1 test strip

New grooved-end AWWA

PlantPRO™ Trash Pumps

Hach Company has introduced the new

a gold and copper electrode for chlorine residual measurement. A reliable clean

ing system is also incorporated to keep the electrodes free of dirt, which results

check valve

Hach's newest all-in-one test strip is de signed for fast and dependable on-site testing for five key water quality param eters-Total Chlorine (0-10), Free Chlo rine (0-10), Total Hardness (0-25 gpg or 0-425 ppm)Total Alkalinity (0-240) and pH (6.2 - 8.4 pH). Each test strip allows the user to conduct five important water tests simultaneously in about 60 seconds. In a compact, easy-to-open, plastic con tainer, these strips can accompany you anywhere in the field. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 260

Victaulic's new Series 317 grooved-end AWWA check valve for water and waste-

water services is easily installed with Victaulic grooved couplings, transition couplings or flange adapters; it features a unique coupling-cap assembly that facilitates access for reduced mainte

nance downtime. Used in combination

with the grooved-end Victaulic plug valve, it provides a complete grooved valve package for lift stations. Victaulic Circle reply card No. 261

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

PlantPRO'"''' Trash Pumps offer high quality, premium performance at a price that won't bust your budget! All of our pumps are made of heavy duty cast aluminum with cast iron replaceable wear parts. Both 3" and 4" models are avail able. USABIueBook

Circle reply card No. 262 31

Product and Service Showcase Wedco stormwater catch basin High density polyethylene: Superior resist ance to tnost chemicals and acids, especially road salt. Proven material. Corrosion free.

Life expectancy of 25 years. Flexible Installation: For existing installa tions, pipe can be placed at exact height by using a cradle adapter. Rotating top cone al lows variable positioning of rectangular man hole opening. Rectangular opening is off-cen tre to allow for more precise alignment with

Stormwater management

Canadian enviroOSH


High-capacity, open bottom Cultec Recharger™ chatTtbers provide


and much higher infiltrative capa bility. Less area

and OSH legisla tion exactly as it appears in origi nal legal sources complete with il

greater storage

and less crushed

lustrations, charts

lower cost. Total height 75", total weight 152 lbs. 1 1/2" X 1 1/2" x 1/8" angled stainless steel reinforcing band for more rigidity, in stalled midway in the cylinder. A four-season testing program was conducted by Quebec City in co-operation with Laval University, Wedco Moulded Products and SETRAInc. Make-Way Plastics Ltd.

stone are required with Recharger stormwater management systems. Recharger HD far exceeds any H-20 wheel load requirement for instal lation under paved, trafficked areas. Cultec chambers effectively serve envi ronmentally sensitive areas while making valuable land available for parking lots, athletic fields and other applications. Make-Way Plastics Ltd.

and high resolu tion graphics. Topics include: environmental protection, workplace health and safety, transport of dangerous goods, workers compensation, WHMIS, etc. National, regional, plus Standards

Circle reply card No. 263

Circle reply card No. 264

Circle reply card No. 265

Bitumen & butyl tape systems

Landfill gas compressors

Pre-packaged sewage lift

the curb or sidewalk.

Lightweight: Does not requre heavy equip ment to tnanoeuvre. Faster installation at a

and WCB collections available on CD-

ROM (using Folio Views) and www. CCOHS


This 6' X 6' above-ground lift station is shipped with pumps, motors, controls, valves and piping all pre-engineered, pre tested and ready for immediate hook-up. The tough fiberglass enclosure is corro

disbonding. Dense North America Inc.

A full complement of Ro-Flo rotary slid ing vane type gas compressors is avail able to suit your specific digester gas handling needs. Offered in single or twostage configurations, these compressors are uniquely designed to provide ex tended operating life while handling a variety of dirty, corrosive gas mixtures. For convenience, the Ro-Flo compressor can be factory equipped. Pencon Equipment Company

blends with its surroundings. The pan els are removable for easy maintenance. Inside, Gorman-Rupp T Series self-priming centrifugal sewage pumps give de pendable performance. Gorman-Rupp Company

Circle reply card No. 266

Circle reply card No. 267

Circle reply card No. 268

ABS expands range of


sewage pumps


Packaged Sewage Pumping System

Denso's bitumen and butyl tapes are cold applied, with excellent adhesion to pipe and self. No special equipment is re quired. They meet AWWA standards and are compatible with common pipe coat ings. Their flexibility provides extra pro tection at vulnerable areas and they pro vide excellent resistance to cathodic

Pumps for use in sewage generally have large solids passages - typi cally 80-100 mm. However, a large solids passage alone

will not

ensure against blockage. The ABS CB (Contra Block) hydraulic sys tem consists of an open single or multiblade impeller which has a waved shearing inlet together with a bottom plate on which a spiral groove is cast. This starts at the centre and runs to the

outside of the bottom plate. ABS Pumps

Circle reply card No. 269


sion, mildew and weather-resistant, and

Surface deten tion/retention of stormwater has been the standard

practice for years. Since


ground space is often scarce and

its value high, un derground con struction is be

coming a more common approach. Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) is used for these facilities. The benefits are low cost, high strength and easy installation. Videos and a work book are available. Armtec

Circle reply card No. 270

Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Packaged Submersible Pumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 271

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Product and Service Showcase Ultrasonic Flow Meter

Environmental Management Software

American Sigma recently expanded its impressive line-up of flow meters with the Sigma 970 Permanent Ultrasonic Flow Meter. Highly accurate and reli able, the 970 flow meter is so easy to pro gram it can be done without a manual. The large visual display allows the user to easily determine the system's current status or review a user defined flow his

tory in graphical format. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 272

Environmental Monitoring

Envista Technologies is a scientific soft ware company with products to address the issues of environmental management. The Envista product provides managers, geoscientists and engineers with a pow erful tool for maintaining and tracking regulatory compliance as well as envi ronmental and geosciences information. Envista creates a corporate data standard and ensures that data is complete and consistent. Envista Technologies Circle reply card No. 273

HS generation & corrosion analysis software available

Controlling hydrogen sulfide problems

U.S. Filter/Davis Process has developed BIOXIDE® as a means to eliminate the

odour,coiTOsion and safety problems as sociated with hydrogen sulfide in sew age. BIOXIDE® achieves sewage odour control naturally, rather than chemically. As a result, it both removes dissolved

hydrogen sulfide and prevents its forma tion. U.S. Filter/Davis Process

Circle reply card No. 274

Conveyor screening belt



Concrete Pipe Association

Aquatic Sciences biological experience ranges from the collection of baseline environmental data to impact assessment, biomonitoring and fisheries studies. Their toxicology lab is presently serving MISA compliance needs. In addition to standard toxicity testing, the laboratory completes advanced toxicity identifica tion evaluations for clients with more

complex effluent streams. Aquatic Sciences

A software program from the American Concrete Pipe Association significantly reduces the time and cost involved in pre dicting hydrogen sulfide generation and its effects on concrete pipe sanitary sew ers. The Hydrogen Sulfide software(HS) also determines outflow sulfide concen

trations and the resulting corrosion rate and life factor. This program is avail able for IBM-compatible systems run ning on a DOS platform. Cost for mem bers is $30, non-members pay $60. AGFA

Circle reply card No. 275

Circle reply card No. 276

the belt to be increased and additional

fluid to be processed. Derrick Corporation

Circle reply card No. 277

Centrifugal Blowers

Fiberglass Tanks

Clemmer Technologies Inc. manufac tures and markets fiberglass tanks from premium resins in both single and dou ble wall construction featuring: • Above ground horizontal and vertical configurations. • Underground models to ULC S615 or customer specifications. • Custom designed to meet specific re quirements. Call one of Clemmer's in dustry experts to help you with your stor age solution. Ciemmer Technologies

The Derrick Flo-Line Scalper™ is an in clined conveyor screening belt driven by a 1 hp, variable speed motor. The unit works to increase solids recovery from industrial and wastewater process flows, while reducing wastewater treatment costs. As solids loading increases, the variable speed motor allows the speed of

MUNRO ConaKeSdiidci^ iromMtinro! 1-800-461-5632 www.munroconcrete.com

Circle reply card No. 278 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Circle reply card No. 279

Lamson Multi-stage and Turbotron Cen trifugal Blowers provide clean, dry and oil-free air/gas at variable flow rates, with volumes up to 50,000 CFM. The blow ers are dependable, trouble-free and quiet, with a very high-efficiency design. Installation is easy and no maintenance is required. The housings are made of heavy duty cast iron. Pencon Equipment Co. Circle reply card No. 280 33

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, oail ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Compact ozone generator

STX70 SewerGuard^

Dissolved air flotators


3 t..?


•0 - 999 PPM H,S • Up to 300 hours continuous datalogging • Sealed, water tight enclosure • CoiTosion resistant

• Ideal for odor control monitoring

Ozonia's range of standardized compact ozone generator units, the OZAT®, take advantage of the latest technological de velopments, including "Advanced Tech nology" dielectrics. It is a very compact unit capable of producing extremely high ozone concentrations (up to 15% from oxygen -5% from air), and it offers cli ents inexpensive hi-tech equipment for the economical production of ozone. It reduces or eliminates the need for costly chemical oxidants and disinfectants. The

applications for ozone are numerous, in cluding drinking water installations, waste treatment plants, swimming pools and aqua culture. Ozonia For more information,

Industrial Scientific introduces the

STX70 SewerGuard'''''', designed exclu sively for the waste water treatment in dustry for monitoring hydrogen sulfide gas concentrations in manholes, wet wells and lift stations. The Sewer-

Guard'^'^' houses an STX70 H,S monitor in a water tight, corrosion resistant Peli can candying case to protect the instru ment from the extensive damage caused by wet, highly con'osive hydrogen sulfide environments. For additional informa

tion on the STX70 SewerGuard''''", con

tact Industrial Scientific Corporation

AQUARIUS has a complete line of Dis solved Air Flotators: circular, rectangu lar with and without lamella. They can be used for: the separation offats and sol ids in the food processing industry; re covery of oil, greases and valuable chemicals in the petroleum, chemicals and metals industries; fiber recovery and deinking in the pulp and paper industry; process water clarification in all indus tries; and sludge thickening, especially on backwash water. For small applica tions, the flotators are all pre-piped skid mounted. On large installations, acces

at 1-800-DETECTS (338-3287) or

sories can be assembled in a concrete res

1-412-788-4353. Industrial Scientific

ervoir. AQUARIUS For more information, circle reply card No. 172

For more information,

circle reply card No. 170

circle reply card No. 171

Membrane technology in Industry

Southam's Environmental and

SPIRACONE sludge blanket clarifiers

OH&S Legislation on CD Be

you can't

afford to be <

Chemical plants, hydrocarbon producers, pulp and paper mills, utility plants, etc., are no longer continually regenerating their ion exchange systems, thanks to Zenon membrane technology; it takes multiple stage treatment systems and re places all but one with a single step, mem brane based process which delivers con sistent 18 meg-ohm water with virtually no waste and with 10 percent of the chemical requirements. Zenon's process, which replaces filters, clarifiers and ion exchange beds, occupies a much smaller footprint than conventional technology and, when combined with its modular de

sign, the Zenon system is ideal for retro fit and incremental upgrades. Zenon For more information, circle reply card No. 173 34

The General Filter SPIRACONE, an

Get the most complete, accurate and upto-date compilation of environmental, health & safety and workers' compensa tion acts, regulations and guidelines on one convenient CD. Make simple or complex queries, perform keyword searches,"hotlink" to other pieces of leg islation and much more!

/ six bimonthly updates per year. / easy-to-use FolioViews search software.

/ flexibility of choosing only the service you need: National, Ontario, Western or Eastern Canada.

Southam Environmental Group For more information, circle reply card No. 174

upflow sludge blanket clarifier, combines mixing, flocculation and sedimentation in a single treatment basin for maximum treated water production in minimal space. Raw water and chemicals are hydraulically mixed, then passed upward through distinct zones for reactionflocculation, clarification, and sludge re moval. Hydraulic mixing eliminates mechanical mixers, while its conical shape eliminates scrapers. The unit's compact size reduces cost by minimiz ing land requirements, and the mixer-less and scraper-less design minimizes main tenance. USFilter

For more information,

circle reply card No. 175

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

A "Solutton" for ZEBRA MUSSELS

Zebra Mussels

Odour Control

To help Gontroi zebra mussels,

Treating odours with Sodium Hy pochlorite (JAVEX-12) is

one solution involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite,

detailed in a technical bulletin.

\A/hich kills the larvae. We are con

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air

sulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept informed of the latest Information, please con tact us.

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

collection needs.

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 201

Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 200

StrainPress® SludgeCleaner Parkson's StrainPress® SludgeGleaner removes the nonorganic solids from sludge that may settle or float In downstream processes(plas tics, papers and rags). It saves on the high maintenance costs of digest ers, belt presses, pumps, pipes, heat exchangers and centrifuges. It Im proves compost and soil amendment sludge disposal techniques. Benefits Include no plugging In sludge han dling systems, cleaner compost/ sludge, reduced odours, and low operator attention. Parkson Corp. Circle reply card No. 202



CEO's 1999 Directory Now Available!

Ontario's key annual reference direc tory for the province's consulting en gineering Industry Is now available! Published by the Consulting Engi neers of Ontario, the 1999 Directory provides detailed corporate profile Information and selection criteria for

the extensive CEO membership. Listings include: geographic loca tions; fields of technical specializa tion; types of service offered and typi cal projects; key personnel & contact Information. Price - $75.00. CEO

Circle reply card No. 203

The N-Pump

Eckoustic® Functional

The new N-Pump's performance Is distinguished by Improved efficiency, using breakthrough technology,com bined with non-clogging perform ance. The design of the hydraulic ends of the N-Pump Improves the flow of liquids which greatly reduces the risk of clogging, especially when pumping liquids with high solids or fibrous content, such as sewage, and, because of the high pumping efficiency, reduced maintenance costs are achieved. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 204

Panels Eckoustic® Functional Panels

(EFPs) provide a more comfortable acoustic environment. By reducing noise levels, thereby lessening worker fatigue, EFPs promote safety and help Improve productiv ity. EFPs can quickly add sound absorption to compressor rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms. In administrative areas, work can be

carried out more efficiently with EFPs providing acoustic control. Eckel Industries

Circle reply card No. 205



•nnN(; h ii

High quality plastic piping

Hazardous materials



Fabricated Plastics Limited offers

For optimum storage and con

industry a full spectrum of high qual ity, corrosion resistant, plastic piping systems, designed and fabricated for a wide range of conditions and tem peratures. End-users now have a choice of a variety of materials from solid FRPto thermoplastic-lined FRP. Lining choices include: PVC, CPVC, PP, PVDF, E-CTFE, FEP, PFA, and TEFZEL. Our 10-page brochure outlines material selection and prop erties, joining methods and dimen

tainment of hazardous materi

sional details. Fabricated Plastics

Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

als, the Ghem-Loc Building can be an economical solution. Deal

directly with this established manufacturer and their In-house

design team for a custom de signed building. The Ghem-Loc building complies with Canadian and US Building and Fire Codes and features all steel construction. Gptional features range from fire suppression systems to customized door sizes, partitions and hoisting equipment. Since 1971, Chem-Loc has been chosen for reliable, eco nomical hazardous materials storage. MakLoc Buildings inc. Circle reply card No. 207


Wastewater Treatment

Online wastewater process monitoring Six municipal wastewater treatment plants in New York State were examined to determine whether using process audit and electrical submetering techniques would be an effective way to identify energy conservation opportunities.

Municipalities are respon

sible for running their wastewater


facilities efficiently for the benefit of their residents, businesses, and

industiies. The challenge is to identify available energy conservation opportu nities(ECOs) within the plants and take the necessaiy steps to seize those oppor tunities. CG&S has developed an inno vative program to meet this challenge. CG&S examined six municipal wastewater treatment plants in New

for identifying ECOs at existing facili ties. Recommendations

Several maintenance and housekeep ing items were identified at the six plants. Common problems included pumps with inoperable or worn backflow prevention valves, inappropriate valve or gate settings, and worn pumps.

were operating well within their efflu ent discharge requirements and provid ing good to excellent treatment levels. The project combined process audit, energy audit, and electrical submetering techniques to identify low-capital-cost ways to improve plant performance and energy efficiency. This approach has several advan tages:

•The effects of energy conservation rec ommendations on treatment perform ance are easier to anticipate when real-time process performance

York State to detennine whether

using process audit and elec trical submetering tech niques would be an effective way to identify energy con servation opportunities. It is a simple approach measure what you have, what you are using, and the performance

data are available. Measured electrical con

sumption data on a processby-process basis are needed to determine the

potential energy savings associated with imple menting ECOs. Using a single power-draw

achieved, and then make

measurement may over

decisions on improving performance efficiency

estimate or underesti

mate the potential sav ings. • Real-time process and performance data are

based on the results. A combination of

techniques The three-year study was sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and De velopment Authority (NYSERDA), the Empire State Electric Research Corporation, and the Electric Power Re

needed to evaluate the theo retical versus achievable en

search Institute. A combination of tech

niques-some developed by CG&S spe cialists in plant analysis technologies was used to obtain real-time process and electrical consumption data. The ulti mate goal was to find ways to optimize treatment efficiency and reduce operat ing costs. Recommendations ranged from minor operational changes and housekeeping activities to major capi tal upgrades. The results indicate that the audit approach is an appropriate tool

By Linda Ferguson, P.Eng., CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Operating procedure changes were rec ommended at some plants, including changes to pump control strategies and solids-handling procedures. Excess capacity in one or more unit processes was found to contribute to increased energy consumption at some sites. Excess blower capacity resulted from upgrades from coarse- to fine-bub ble aeration, excess aeration basin vol ume, and excess solids stabilization

capacity. Recommendations included removing basins from seiwice and down sizing equipment. Lessons learned

The plants included within this study 36

ergy savings associated with im plementing ECOs. The data can also indicate ways to increase the achievable savings. •Discrepancies or unexpected results in the data indicate areas for improved per formance that are missed using more tra ditional approaches. The audit approach,a systematic and rigorous methodology for obtaining ac curate performance information, is an appropriate tool for identifying ECOs at existing wastewater treatment facilities. Online process data, equipment per formance characteristics, and electrical

submetering information are required to predict the benefits of implementing en ergy conservation measures on plant performance. For more information,

circle reply card No. 124

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Proven water and process fluid treatment systems

CbBBicil Testiov Ssiutioos


Our 530 page all color mail-or

Ecodyne offers a broad range of en gineered systems to make water suit able for use, recycle or discharge. Available are proprietary designs In clarifiers and filters; lamellas; hot process softeners; oil coalescers, Ion exchange; reverse osmosis and deaerators - any of which can be combined in exactly the right way to provide the most suitable water treat ment process. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 208

facturers - everything you need to keep your water and wastewater systems running smoothly. Simply pick up the phone for ex pert technical advice and same day shipping to anywhere In

New VWRbrand Solutions

Sludge Dryer


The SludgeMASTERÂŽ IRC dehydra tion system is a complete sludge handling system which dehydrates sludge with heat. In a typical dehy dration application, 2,000 pounds of wet siudge at 18 percent solids are reduced to less than 500 pounds of dry solids at 90 percent. The heat processing also transforms the

der catalog, has over 12,000 Items from more than 400 manu

Canada. USABIueBook

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VWR Canlab is pleased to announce Ktl'


1- •

the release of a new solutions cata

logue containing atomic absorption standards, pH buffers and a large se lection of reagents prepared in ac cordance with EPA, ASTM, APHA and AOAC standard testing methods. VWRbrand solutions are NIST trace

able where applicable and all prod ucts are expiry dated. Custom manu facturing services are available. For

biosoiids into useful soil amendment. U.S. Fllter/Davis

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more details contact us at 800-932-

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5000 or visit our Web site: www.vwr canlab.com VWR Canlab

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Geotextlles for civil

Design Data 41

engineering applications Manhole Flotation


Available from coast to coast in

for Civil EnBlncering AppileMloi

Canada, Armtec woven and non-

woven geotextiles are manufactured from polypropylene, to the highest in dustry standards. With this compre hensive line, Armtec is able to pro vide a full range of geotextile prod ucts to suit every application, from

Preventing manhole flotation Design Data 41 from the American Concrete Pipe Association aids en gineers in the proper design of man holes to prevent flotation. Design methods, using basic soil mechan ics to determine if a manhole is sus

ceptible to flotation, are presented for the engineer. The effects of the man hole configuration and surrounding soil conditions are taken into consid

erosion control and soil stabilization, to chip seal and asphalt overlay ap plications. Armtec

eration with the analysis. Cost for Association members is $3.00; nonmembers, $6.00.

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Circle reply card No. 213

Come to I FAT 99 oam the world ew dimensionsfor

isposai and the envirdnmeh


UunMi Ui tMtfC

Trade Show IFAT 99 which takes place in Munich, Germany, May 4-8, is a comprehen sive fair for practical solutions to problems in all fields of waste dis posal and environment technology. The main emphasis lies in the dis posal and recycling of solid refuse and in the treatment of wastewater

and sewage sludge. For the first time, IFAT also presents problem solutions in water extraction and sup ply. UnlLInk Circle reply card No. 214

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999


Environmental Risk Information Services Ltd.

Southam launches new database service that targets environmental problems! EcoLog ERIS (Environmental Risk Information Service) helps buyers and developers spot contamination problems on commercial and in dustrial properties in Ontario. The service -first of its kind In Canadascreens key federal, provincial and private sector databases and pre pares a detailed assessment report for a property and its neighbouring sites within a 350-metre radius. Southam Environment Group Circle reply card No. 215


Food Industry Focus

Wastewater treatability in the food and beverage Industry Treatment at the end of pipe is not cost-effective.


astewater treatment is a

plications to reduce and/or recycle wa

concern in most indus

ter and treat wastewater streams.

wastewater service delivery, and the pro vincial down loading offunding for some

Pressure on the Food and

of these services, there is much more

Beverage Industry The food and beverage industry is traditionally a user of large volumes of water. In addition to water as a compo nent of many products, it is a conven ient, clean, and a relatively inexpensive

pressure on the municipality to cover its real costs of operation. With the in volvement of private/public partnerships encouraged,there will be a further move to rising costs for these services. It is not suiprising, then, that munici palities are entering into structured pro grams of raising water rates. As well,

trial sectors, however,

the food and beverage industry is potentially more concerned than most. With the pressure from mu nicipalities of rising water charges and the application of sewer bylaw stand ards, the cost of water and wastewater

measurably impacts the overall cost of production. At the same time,it is a fact

resource. Because food materials are

easily moved or quickly dissolved in water, it becomes an easily available solvent and method for conducting cleanups and other production needs. Since the company is only cleaning food debris, it is not generally considered hazardous by the generator. It is some times difficult for company staff to fully understand the impact of putting the

that many countries in the world have adapted to water costs that are two and three times the costs in Canada. As

water costs rise to reflect the require ments for infrastructure renewal, the

food and beverage industry in Canada must respond with new technology ap-

water into the sewer.

By Alex Keen, President and

With the rising costs of municipal in frastructure support, both for water and


municipalities are, perhaps, more ag

gressive at establishing surcharges for over-strength discharges. Obviously, the cost to food compa nies, then, is twofold, namely, rising water charges and increases in wastewater surcharges. Finally, in some cases where residential and commercial devel

opment is restricted by the capacity of municipal wastewater treatment, the Continued on page 42

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Water Supply and Distribution

Tunnels and Underground Works

Solid Waste Management

Water Resources Engineering

Residuals Management

Systems Analysis Modelling

Process Control

Air Management

Industrial Services

Environmental Planning

Energy Management

Environmental Laboratory

Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal

Environmental Site Characterization/Reconciliation

180 King Street South, Suite 600

255 Consumers Road

555 - 4th Avenue SW. Suite 1500

Waterloo, Ontario N2J 1P8

North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

tel; (519) 579-3500 fax: (519) 579-8986 direct dial:(519) 579-3501 + ext.

tel:(416)499-9000 fax:(416)499-4687 direct dial:(416)499-0090 + ext.

Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7 tel: (403) 237-9300 fax: (403)237-7715 direct dial:(403) 237-5691 + ext.






London • Ottawa • Thorold • Vancouver

For more information, circle reply card No. 153 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Comlna iccn tc an underoavement



SINCE t986, THE FIRST AND BEST HIGH CAPACITY CHAMBER AVAILABLE! Most Cost Effective Design Save on Labor/Tlme/Land Area

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Eliminates the High Maintenance and Liability Displayed by Ponds and Reclaims Land for Other Uses

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#1=SAFETY! QUALITY! PERFORMANCE! Low Profile, High Volume Design, Recharger 330 is 30.5" high, yet stores more water than pipe over 40" high. Use only 622 Recharger 330 chambers and store over 40,000 cu. ft. of stormwater. Available in regular gauge for non-traffic; heavy gauge for traf ficked areas. For use under municipal parking lots, rest areas, ath letic fields, parks, highway side and medians, etc... CULTEC offers a full line of CONTACTOR™ and RECHARGER™

chambers ranging in sizes from 12" high to 30.5" high; and our rrewesf chamber, FIELD DRAIN®panel is only 8.5" high.

"We stand behind our products so you can drive over them." Recharger 330 specifically designed for trafficked applications.

Don't Lose Ground... CULTEC-Your Wisest Choice.

CULTEC, INC. 878 Federal Road Brookfield, CT 06804 _ _ 203-775-4416 Phone ■ 203-775-1462 Fax

Made with up to 75%

recycled materials

In Canada contact:

Make-Way Plastics Ltd. 110 Wellington Street, Exeter, ON NOM 1S2 Tel:(519)235-3606, Fax:(519)235-0191 Toll Free: 1-800-894-4430

For more information, circle reply card No. 154(See page 25)


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We're the world's largest manufacturer of water and wastewater treatment systems. But we're also your neighbors. Chances are, there are USFilter people and products hard at work in your own hometown. With technologies and services


ranging from intakes to disinfection, USFilter offers many solutions to help you meet your surface water goals and requirements. Contact lls for our potable water treatment capabilities brochure. 508.347.4526 phone 508.347.7049 fax



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For more information, circle reply card No. 299(See page 25)




CenTROL filters are



conventional gravity



More than


filters in a cluster customers world

arrangement. A sin gle control column normally serves four

The economy of the All

cells; all four cells

central operating platform. The compact arrangement of the CenTROL packs as much filter area as possible into a smaller building space. The central control column is prefabricated, reducing installation costs. CenTROL furnishes its own backwash water supply so

plants is famous among budget makers. How ever, it's their performance under harsh condi tions that's legendary among operators. Now you can have the industry's most comprehen sive selection of technologically advanced process options, at a price you can afford. U.S. Filter/Davco 800.841.1550 phone

pumping and maintenance costs are reduced,

912.228.0312 fax www.usfilrer.com


can be observed and controlle

resulting in lower long-term operating costs.

wide use Hydro-

Climate''"' field-erected

Clear® filters for


Circle reply card No. 291

U.S. Filter/General Filter Products

508.347.4526 phone

508.347.7049 fax

tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse,

stormwater, pri mary effluent, and industrial treatment. The filter features a unic|ue underdrain

system and a shallow bed of single-media, fine-grained sand that permit the filter surface to be "pulsed" or regenerated periodically, pro-longing filter runs and keeping the filter online, despite unpredictable changes in solids loadings and characteristics. These innovations also allow the filter to be back-

www.water,usfi lter.com


Circle reply card No. 290



washed efficiently with significantly less power and water than required with other types of filters. U.S. Filter/Zimpro 800.826.1476 phone 715.355.3335 fax w ww.usfi 11er.com

Circle reply card No. 292



This efficient, reliable system for biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater is a complete mix, closed loop reactor process, consisting of one, two or three independently aerated channels. It is wellsuited for both conventional activated sludge Proven in more than 700 installations across

all countries and markets, the high perfor mance of CMF Microfiltration is now ideal —

and affordable — for water reuse applications. It has become an accepted replacement for

and extended

air treatment modes. The

process is driven by the Mammoth Rotor'^aerator, one of the simplest, most effective devices for mixing and aerating wastewater.


effluent values of

0.72 mg/1 TN and I mg/1 BOD/SS/P — achieved without

tertiary filters or chemicals — are not

unexpected for this nutrient removal process. Orbal'' Sim-Pre'" is a series of complete mix reactors in a single basin with internal recycle. The process is

flexible, easy to operate, energy-efficient,


More than 4,000 individual Mammoth Rotors

processing treatment for both municipal and

are performing successfully in more than

and tolerant of wide flow and load swings. U.S. Filter/Envirex 414.547.0141 phone

industrial wastewater reuse. CMF technology is well-suited to applications where water is discharged into sensitive environments, for

1,300 installations across the United States.

414.547.4120 fax

U.S. Filter/Zimpro





715.355.3335 fax

recycling/recharging applications, and For spray irrigation of food crops, Unique in-situ integrity testing validates removal down to

800.826.1476 phone


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two-tenths of a micron, or about two hundred

times finer than a single human hair. U.S. Filter/Memcor 800.636.2674 phone


410.561.3017 fax

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ALKA-PRO" 300 SERIES ALKA-PRO® 300 Series continuously monitors biological activity at critical ^ Mm'r.

locations in a waste-

water treatment plant, allowing operators to detect and correct upset conditions long before they would become evident by any other available test. ALKA-PRO 300 Series

automatically controls process equipment,

providing accurate real-time evaluation of the plant's bacteria metabolism and biomass health. The benefits are improved effluent quality with reduced chemical costs and process power. LfS. Filter/Davis Process 941.355.2971 phone 94 1.35 1.4756 fax Circle reply card No. 296




provide a cost-effective, trouble-free way to eliminate other

odors and


of all

types in municipal and industrial applications. This patented scrub bing technology uses an integral packed bed, sump and recirculation system. These systems significantly reduce chemical consumption rates

and provide exceptional system flexibility. Scrubber vessels, constructed of rotationally molded high-density crosslinked polyethylene, are extremely durable, seamless and mainte nance-free. POLY-STAGE'^' Air Scrubbers,

This multi-stage packaged odor control system

provides the highest guaranteed performance (99+ 9^) for odor and acid gas removal. Our

patented design utilizes multiple gas absorp tion stages for premium scrubber performance and optimum chemical utilization. Each LO/PRO'" wet scrubber of premium-grade FRP vinylester resin arrives at the jobsite completely factory-assembled and of singlepiece construction, substantially minimizing installation costs. Typical gases treated include

hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, other reduced

guaranteed against failure for five years.

sulfides, hydrofluoric acid, hydro-chloric acid, and ammonia at air flow rates up to 24,500 cfm. U.S. Filter/RJ Environmental

U.S. Filter/Davis Process 941.355.2971 phone

619.455.7688 phone

941.351.4756 fax


when used according to specifications, are

Circle reply card No. 297

619.455.7689 fax

Circle reply card No. 298

Food Industry Focus

Wastewater treatability in the food and beverage industry Continuedfrom page 38 municipality may not allow overstrength agreements because it unfairly restricts the ability to approve new resi dential or commercial development

ment-at-source solutions. Production is

usually a combination of high strength washouts and cleanups, combined with high-volume uses of water with low lev-

which results in more tax revenue.

Pollution Prevention is the Key Particularly in the food industry, treat ment at the end ofpipe is not cost-effec

tive. The company must review practices upstream and practise pollution preven tion or control at the source if it is going to find a cost-effective way to use water. Because water use is such a major com ponent of production costs,ranging from 2%-14%, this will be the secret to being more competitive in the future. Implementing water recycling and reduction strategies has a two-pronged effect. Not only does it reduce munici pal water charges, but it also reduces the cost of treatment and/or recycling equip ment since hydraulic flow is the most influential factor in the cost.

There are a number of features of the

food and beverage industry that make it practical to investigate smaller, treat-

First Step is Characterization The first step is a complete charac terization of wastewater from process operations in terms of flow rates and contaminant concentrations. Not only will this identify the process operations that contribute contaminants, it will help quantify the impact. This is especially important in developing a source con trol strategy. For example, with a quan titative analysis, controls at one or two operations can be calculated to determine if that is all that is needed to achieve com

pliance. The results of the characteriza tion will provide the data to: • Assess the potential for wastewater minimization through water reduction and/or reuse.

•Identify upstream options to minimize the contaminant concentrations and

loadings. The characterization is essential for

"Can food processing be environmen tally friendly?" els of contamination. To combine these streams is to increase the cost of treat

ment by diluting the high-strength con taminants in the larger volume of water.


providing a sound basis for the devel opment of an overall treatment strategy that includes changes in procedures, treatment options at source, and any re quirements for final treatment. Inexpen sive options are the first consideration such as changes in procedure, water re duction opportunities, rerouting ofsew ers to contain high strength streams, etc. Embrace Technology Improvements With the easy to implement options completed, the baseline is set for finan cially rationalizing equipment-based improvements. The most cost-effective option is to ensure existing control equipment is optimized. For example, wastewater interceptors provide the cheapest form of separation of food materials that float or settle such as fats,

oils and greases. However, flow rates through the interceptor often exceed the design capacity. Reducing or treating part of the flow upstream may be the secret to optimizing the existing inter ceptor for better performance on the rest of the effluent. In most situations further treatment is

www.aquaticsciences.com The Aquatic Sciences Inc. website displays a wide range of Environnnental Analytical Services for utilities, industries and municipalities. Link to e-mail for specific enquiries.

Aquatic Sciences Inc. PO Box 2205, 250 Mortindoie Road, St. Cothcrines, ON L2R 7R8

905-641-0941 Telephone 905-641-1825 Facsimile v/ww.oquaticsciences.com


For more information, circle reply card No. 308 (See page 25)

required if discharge standards are to be achieved. In particulai; there is not a good method of treatment for the soluble Bio

chemical Oxygen Demand(BOD)com ponent of the wastewater. It is this pa rameter that causes the most problems for companies and creates financial hardship in terms of the sewer surcharges admin istered by the municipalities. The chal lenge, then, is to find new technological approaches that deal with the problem of BOD and are priced at a level that can demonstrate paybacks based on reducContinued overleaf Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS The issue of zebra mussels

Is attracting Increasing attention from municipalities, utilities, government agencies and Industries around the Great Lakes. One solution Involves the use

of JAVEX-12™sodlum

We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on this subject. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control the spread of zebra mussels.

hypochlorlte, which kills the

If you'd like to discuss this current problem, or be kept

zebra mussel larvae.

Informed of the latest

Information, please fill out tf


Yes, please keep me Informed on the use of JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorlte for controlling zebra mussels. For current project □ For future project □ For research purposes D Your name Title

Organization Address

Postal Code

Phone; (


Mail to: Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc., 6400 Northwest Dr., Mississauga, ON, L4V 1K1 Phone: (905) 678-3707, Fax: (905) 678-0898, E-mail: javex-12info@colpal.com

For more Information, circle reply card No. 157 (See page 25)

" ©

Food Industry Focus tions in water charges and wastewater surcharges. Membrane-based separations have been used in some industry process op erations for some time, especially in the dairy or brewing industries. They have yet to gain acceptance in terms of treat ing waste waters. The challenge in ap plication involves understanding the components of the waste process stream and the impact on membrane fouling in combination with the factors that maxi

mize flow rate through the membranes. Membranes have specific impact on streams that have high BOD due to high total dissolved solids(TDS)such as sug ars from confectionery products, juice manufacturing, and beverages. Mem brane separations are ideal treatment options upstream where they can some times provide an extra payback in terms of reduced water usage. Biological oxidation on a small scale is a more difficult problem. Most large food manufacturers with the room will

install conventional biological systems. This approach requires the space and the scale of operation to support it, and it is expensive in capital and operating costs. Packaged biological treatment systems

such as the CMS RotoDisc, the Zorch

Sequencing Batch Reactors or the ALTECH System HydroKlean provide new, down-scaled options for installa tion of biotreatment with a small pack age inside the plant. With easy opera tion, the capital cost of such a plant can be compared to the elimination of the

municipal wastewater surcharge and a payback analysis can be performed. Payback Options There are a number offactors that can

have an impact on technology payback calculations, including: Elimination ofBylaw Surcharge. Bylaw surcharges are often between $50,000 to $200,000. As these are di rect costs to food companies and are likely to increase rather than decrease, they become an important part of the payback calculation for new equipment. As an added incentive, several munici

palities offer a program that repays a portion of the capital back, based on past surcharges paid. Reduction of Water Charges. Reduction in water usage through projects such as better collection ofrinse waters, separating clean water streams from dirty ones, and the potential use of

MacViro Consultants Inc.

membranes - all can easily reduce wa ter consumption by 30%-50%. At ap proximately $0.95 per cubic metre (in cluding water and sewer charge), this could amount to significant savings at low capital cost and have the added ben efit of reducing the hydraulic flow and cost of final treatment.

Reduced Waste Transport Costs. The food industry generally has lower cost waste disposal options be cause the waste streams are generally considered to have some nutrient value

where disposal options can include land

application,livestock feed,composting, etc. However, many water streams are very dilute with BOD contaminants and the cost of haulage becomes expensive. Membrane applications have provided attractive pay backs by simply concen trating the waste and reducing haulage by as much as 80%. There are substantial opportunities in the food industry to manage water and wastewater to reduce costs. It is a mat

ter of carefully evaluating treatment at the source in combination with newer,

lower cost technology applications. For more information,

circle reply card No. 158



^ Your complete source for Sid Gillespie

Eric MacDonald


President & CEO

ft '

Sid Gillespie is pleased to announce that Eric MacDonald succeeded him as President and CEO of MacViro Con

\ ©bDuqSI

sultants Inc., effective February 15, 1999. Eric is well-known to the engineering consulting

industry and brings exemplary credentials in both corporate and project management. His current practice of EAD MacDonald Inc. will become a wholly-owned subsidiary




of MacViro and as such, continue to service clients in


strategic engineering and management. Eric has conveyed a vision of the future of MacViro which is based on first-

class client service and a profile of leadership in its field of technology. Sid will continue as Chairman of the Boaid and provide day-to-day support to Eric.


e-mail:fabcotor@istar.ca TORONTO 2175ATe5k*iRcad,Mopfepbrcrtc^,Ontario,CorodolifiA 1T3 Fhooe(905)832-06(X),IbBFreeFox l-8(X)-668-8415 EDMONTON 12938 • 148th Sfreet, Edmonton, Afcerta T5i 2H8 Phone (403) 451-0238, Fox (403) 455-4816 VANCOUVER 9511 • 194A Street, Surrey, B.C. V4N 4G4 Phone (604) 8820766, Fox (604) 882-1432


16 Ronald Drive, AAontreol VNfesf, FQ H4X 1 ^^8

Phone (514) 369-6600, Fox (514) 369-5736

For more information, circle reply card No. 126 (See page 25)

Plant Operations

Improving operation efficiency Since 1993 a certain amount of training is mandatory, and operators must now be licensed to operate water and wastewater facilities.

The need for successful train

ing programs stems from requirements to protect public health and the desire to pro


tect the environment-both of which are

driven by various forms of legislation. Since 1993 a certain amount of training is mandatory, and operators must now be licensed to operate water and wastewater facilities. The last two decades


have seen significant changes, particu larly in the way that facilities are man aged and operated. The most signifi cant impacts have come about as a re sult oftwo major forces in the water and wastewater industry: • the move to use private contract op erators; and,


• development and use of computerbased technology for plant automation, process monitoring and information management.

In addition, the economy has placed significant constraints on fiscal spend ing of municipalities across the coun try. Consequently, a great deal of focus is now being placed on municipalities which operate water and wastewater systems to provide the same or improved levels of service for the same or, even in some cases, reduced costs.

Training programs have generally re volved around part-time study at com munity colleges, one to five day semi nars and workshops on basic technical skills, on-the-job training (OJT) by a more senior experienced operator, and distance learning. Forward planning to determine the specific needs of an or ganization,its future goals and the needs of its personnel was not carried out to any great length. With the progressive development of more stringent environ mental regulations, in particular dis charge criteria for wastewater treatment

plants, and the overwhelming need to reduce spending in the public sector, it is imperative that a more focused ap proach is brought to the training of op erators.

By Vincent Nazareth, Steve McMInn and Peter Laughton, Anderson Operations Inc., Toronto

A changing workforce The technological revolution is changing the composition of the opera tions workforce. A significant number of senior experienced operators will leave the workforce over the next five

years. In some cases this demographic change is seen as an opportunity to re duce staff complements but there is also concern that this will result in compe tency gaps.

The issue here is the departure from the organization of a wealth of practical experience, which is going to prove very difficult to replace. In addition, the ex perienced operator will no longer be there to provide on-the-job training for younger, less experienced staff. These demographic changes in the workforce, coupled with the need for operators to have a more diverse range of skills will mean that b-aining approaches for util ity operators will need to undergo sig nificant changes, in terms of approach, content and delivery methods. Striving for efficiency Operation and maintenance of water


trol philosophy, condition and age of equipment, and experience and skill of the staff.

Cost reduction strategies will gener ally address these three principal areas and changes could include the follow ing: installation of new equipment; im plementation of new or upgraded con trol and automation systems; and modi fications to operational and control phi losophies. The physical changes adopted, will need to be supported by training in re gard to the operation and maintenance of the new equipment. Generally this is pro vided by the supplier and,in most cases, tends to deal more with maintenance than

with operation. Training in relation to automation systems is usually of longer duration and will include participation of operators in the commissioning process. Process control changes will generally be covered by the consultant, usually in a classroom environment.

The downside of all this training stems from the fact that there is usually no evaluation of whether the intended

and wastewater facilities account for a

skills have been transferred. In the case

significant portion of a municipality's annual budget. Three prime components of the operation and maintenance budget are: personnel - 25 to 45%; energy - 20

of process control philosophy modifi

to 30 %; and chemical - 5 to 15%.

These percentages will vary accord ing to degree of treatment, design, de gree of automation, operation and con

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

cations, experience has shown that the facilities will function well while oper ating in situations normal mode. How ever, when things start to go wrong, the process has been known to suffer be cause the operator will not have been Continued overleaf 45

Plant Operations given enough hands-on training, espe cially in scenarios when things are not going according to the "text book" plan. This represents a failure to fully trans fer the knowledge and skills required by the operator. In the final analysis, the operator must have the confidence to practically apply the skills learned. The sustained success of any optimi zation measures will not be possible if the operator has not been trained prop erly. This is recognized by the CCP Method of Optimization which con cludes its three-stage approach with Comprehensive Technical Assistance. But it is not sufficient to train only when changes are made or when new facili ties are added; there are other driving forces which arise not only from obli gations but also from the potential ben efits that will be realized. It is impor tant to realize that benefits from train

ing can be ascribed to both employer and employee and,therefore, training needs should be reviewed both from an own

er's perspective, and from that of the operator.

From the owners' perspective, if they have limited funds, the value of a well

planned training program may not be

readily apparent. Apart from the advan tage of being able to comply with man datory licensing regulations, a well ex ecuted training program will result in better, more efficient operations, pro ducing the following benefits: Improved Compliance. For wastewater treatment facilities this means

meeting effluent discharge criteria for the plant more consistently. Lower Operating Costs. A highly skilled and motivated workforce will

increase the efficiency of the plant. Re duced costs will be realized from better

process control and more effective use of chemicals and equipment. Enhanced Emergency Response. Well trained operators are better equipped to deal with emergency situations such as loss of power, spills, process upsets and high flows. Protecting Assets. Water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastmc-

ture represent a sizeable investment for municipalities. Well trained staff will be able to protect the investment and help realize the full useful life of equip

provision of services to the public. Well trained operators will improve this and the operators will be better equipped to recognize and address increasing pub lic demands.

Proper training will also provide ben efits from an operator's perspective. Professional development will provide greater opportunities for advancement along the operator's career path and im proved morale as the individual sees the results of being empowered with the knowledge. In addition to career devel opment, other benefits to the operator include:

Job Satisfaction. Operators who have participated in a focused training pro gram will have a broader knowledge and will be better equipped to handle their jobs. This will lead to a greater sense of achievement and, ultimately, better job satisfaction.

Self-Esteem and Confidence Training. Proper training will increase self-esteem and will instill greater confidence. Op erators will be able to make informed,

ment and facilities.

knowledgeable decisions in their dayto-day responsibilities.

Improved Service Delivery. The chief responsibility of a municipality is the

efit to both parties, include:

Some results which will be of ben

Potable water.

Portable plant. Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembied into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever additional or improved water is needed. Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant produces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact: ^

Ecodyne Limited 4475 Corporate Drive Burlington, Ontario L7L 5T9 Telephone:(905) 332-1404 Toll Free: 1-888-EGODYNE

Fax:(905) 332-6726

^ Internet: info@ecodyne.com


111 MfiFMCN

11 M. A member of The Marmon Group of companies


For more information, circle reply card No. 159 (See page 25)


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Plant Operations

The planning exercise should cover a reasonable time-frame of five to seven yeai"s to make sure that we develop training programs to take us to where we want to be in the future. Improved Safety Records. Safety training, including successfully writing examinations, will increase both aware

ness and knowledge, which will result in less safety related incidents. Enhanced Morale. Improvement in job satisfaction, self-esteem and self-confi

dence will ultimately lead to greater morale and better team spirit. As new plants are built and existing ones are upgraded, more stringent dis charge criteria may be applied. In sen sitive areas, changes to discharge limits are likely to come into effect. In some cases, it may be necessary to install new processes or additional tankage. In oth ers, compliance may be achieved by op timization. In both scenarios, enhanced

training, specific to the changes, will be required to ensure that the goals are achieved and that the desired effects are maintained.

Assessing training objectives The availability offunds for training is usually limited and therefore it is im perative that whatever funds are avail able are well spent. An important and vital step which is often ignored is the carrying out of a planning stage in which the needs of the program are assessed prior to developing detailed objectives for the program. When developing a plan for training, a much broader per spective must be reviewed. It is not suf ficient to merely address immediate needs. The planning exercise should

cific requirements of the program. How ever, the short-term training needs will require use of delivery methods which are readily available at the time. There may not be time to customize instmction prior to delivery. As part of the planning process the following should be considered: • assessment of current operator skill levels to determine the "gap" that needs to be filled by the program to reach the five to seven year objective, • alignment of skill levels with salary/ wage levels within the organizational structure,

• development of a career path for the various staff categories. The planning process needs to be re visited on a regular basis to ensure that the program remains consistent with an organization's objectives. For more information, circie repiy card No. 160

AO Specialists in Water Supply and Sanitation for Health

the training program. "Big-Picture-Plan ning" will uncover short-term needs, medium-term needs and the longer-term needs. This provides an opportunity to

Associates in Rural Development, Inc., an international firm providing techni cal services in development assistance, is looking for water supply and sanita tion sector specialists in areas relating to: water and sanitation systems engi neering; community participation; health and hygiene education; water quality analysis and laboratory systems; epidemiology; health and water-borne disease statistics; and training program design. International experience required and good command of at least one foreign language(Spanish, Russian, French pre

review which avenues ai'e best-suited and


cover a reasonable time-frame of five

to seven years to make sure that we de velop training programs to take us to where we want to be in the future.

An assessment of the objectives the organization intends to achieve at the end of the planning period must be under taken and these will become the focus of

most cost-effective to deliver the train

ing in the medium to long term. One of the more valuable planning outcomes is that the training modules for the medium and long term may allow for incorporation of customized instimction, specially designed to address spe

Please send full curriculum vitae

(CV) to: RAM/OCR, ARD, Inc., P.O. Box 1397, Burlington, VT 05402; Fax to RAM/OCR at:(802)658-4247; or Email to: rmohammed@ardinc.com with

copy to: dread@ardinc.com

Environmental Science tfe Engineering, March 1999

-for Cost-Ejfective Pumping ABS Pumps Corp. 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit #7 Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5T 1H3 Phone (905) 670-4677 • Fax (905) 670-3709

For more information, circie repiy card No. 161

Industry Update lishes The City of Toronto Privatization



Screenings positively discharged

(T/sludge (2)-stones/grit (3)-screenings



Sludge Offload

W W I I????: '/ //////////////////////////////,





4 grate Sludge Receiving Hopper

Reporfi on a quarterly basis, covering: •Strategic government intelligence on pri vatization considerations;

• Analysis of privatization initiatives in Canadian and US municipalities; • Future privatization initiatives under consideration;

• Updates on former and cun^ent privati zation initiatives in other municipalities; • An outline of the political and bureau cratic players involved in privatization; •Political analysis of the relevant privati

Self-cleaning fine screen

zation environment;

(6, 3, 1 mm & finer) for

• Intelligence on interested bidders and

water, wastewater, sludge.

Models for tank/channel;

Screw Press

then' efforts; and • Related labour relations and other chal

stainless steel design; high high open area; automatic operation; high reliability; easy installation

lenges; • Privatization efforts by school boards and other government agencies.

Master i

tolerance to sand/gravel;



Snyfifin ftfi


For further information, contact: Mu


-Hi "G" vibrating & rotating screens for jparation Equipment sludge/sand/grit/stones separation/washing; Water/Wastewater Treatment Systems -Screw, Wash k Piston Presses for washing/ Telephone: (416) 250-7111 dewalering/conveying of screenings; Facsimile: (416) 250-81J1 -Bagging System for sanitary holding & E-mail: dagex@istar.ca disposal of dewatered solids

nicipal Government Consulting Group at: (416)226-4949, Fax:(416) 226-9045. Canadian wins 1998 Volvo

environmental prize

For more information, circle reply card No. 307(See page 25) The Montreal 2000 Electric

Vehicles Projecta first In Canada

despite having some of the most strict regulations against air pollution. In Que bec,road transportation is responsible for

about 70% of NO^ emissions, over 35% of VOC emissions, and 40% of greenhouse-gas emissions. It is also responsi ble for 60% of cai'bon-monoxide (CO)

Dr. David Schindler, Killam Memorial


Professor of Ecology at the University of

A reduction in greenhouse gas emis sions could be a major factor in slowing climate change. Furthermore, the use of electric vehicles will make it possible to reduce CO, emissions by more than 3.8 tonnes per vehicle per year. Contact: CEVEQ,Tel:(450)431-5744.

Alberta in Edmonton, was named 1998 co-winner of the Volvo Environment

Prize. The intemational award is given annually by Volvo to recognize outstand ing contributions to understanding or pro tecting the environment. Dr. Schindler shares the 1998 Prize with Malin

Falkenmark, Professor of Applied and Intemational Hydrology at the Swedish

The City of Toronto Privatization Report

Natural Science Research Council.

Dr. Schindler's pioneering work has revealed the danger to water supplies of

Photo - T. Davey

The recently amalgamated City of Toronto currently manages an annual budget ofsome $6 billion on behalf of its

The Montreal 2000 Electric Vehicles

2.4 mllhon residents. The new Council,

Project was signed January 25th,to bring together organizations with commercial

under the leadership of Mayor Mel Lastman and Budget ChiefTom Jakobek, has publicly stated its determination to invite private sector partners to consider alternative service delivery methods in all budget areas. According to most observ ers, the privatization opportunities out lined by City Council are substantially more aggressive than other jurisdictions. Municipal Government Consulting pub-

addition of other toxins to water supplies, and has earned him a host of global

Florida's Vero Beach police are already using Bombardier electric vehicles.

or institutional vehicle fleets that are in

terested in acquiring one or more ofsome forty electric vehicles for regular use in their fleets.

As with mostlarge cities, Montreal has to contend with urban smog caused by

nitrogen-oxide (NOj,) and volatile-or ganic-compound (VOC) emissions, this 48

overfertilization, acidification, and the

awairis. Professor Falkenmark's work in

relating water quality to human life and health, particularly in developing coun tries, has eamed her intemational recog nition. Volvo Envir-onment Prize laureates are

chosen by an independent Prize Commit tee, supported by a Scientific Committee ofleading, globally recognized,scientists.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Industry Update

US Navy combats air treatment problem

Ainley & Associates Limited Consulting Engineers and Planners

The US Navy and other propellant manu facturers have a requirement to heat(an neal)propellants in order for them to func tion properly. In this process, niti'oglycerine(NG)and other energetic materials are released to the atmosphere. Currently,

Water Supply and Sewage Treatment Environmental Assessments - Roads and Bridges Structural Engineering - Land Use Planning Our expertise covers a// aspects of C/v/t, Murv'cpa/ end Enwronmentat Engineering and Land Use P/anning

there is no BACT (Best Available Con trol Technology) to prevent these emis sions from being discharged dnectly into the envnonment.



COLL/AJGWOOD (70S/ 445-'34SJ

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The Indian Head Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center invited

Purifies® Environmental Technologies Inc. to submit a concept for an air pollu tion control system. The challenge was to drastically reduce NG and other gase

Environmental and OHS professionals providing quality consulting, scientific & engineering services • • •

engineering and scientific studies management systems and audit capability Ptiase I & 11 investigations and remediation

225 Sheppard Ave. W. North York, Ont. M2N 1N2

Tel;(416) 226-0148 Fax:(416) 226-2931

ous emissions in a safe manner. The

London, Ontario based company pro posed and demonstrated a solution to this

problem using a Photo-Cat® air treatment system, similar to systems already in use with US industry and the Korean military. An added benefit of this type of solution is that the process air can be close-looped, eliminating the requirement for a continu ous supply of freshly conditioned air. This added irmovation is said to provide a significant reduction in energy con sumption with cost savings with the anneahng process. Subsequently, Purifies was awarded a sole source contract by the Naval Surface Warfare Center for the design, engineer ing and technical supportfor the full-scale portion of the Military Construction Project(MILCON)Air Pollution Control System. The MILCON requUes an air treatment capacity in excess of 12,000 cfm to a stringent set of requirements. Contact; www.purifics.com Sea will win over UK coastal

defences, say MPs A committee of UK MPs has suggested

that paids of the British coast at risk of flooding should be abandoned to the sea. The Commons agriculture committee said



R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

Environmental and Infrastrnctnre Specialists Planning and Management Design and Construction Operations and Optimization Water, Wastewater, Transportation, Urban Development and Telecommunication Technologies Toronto(416)497-8600 E-mail: willowdale(^rvanderson.com Web Site: www.rvanderson.com Welland; Ottawa; Sudbury (Dennis); London; Moncton (Touchie); Fredericton (Touchie);

Charlottetown (Atlantech); Bombay, India(PHE Consultants)


Environmental professionals working with industry to improve water quality


Aquatic Contaminant Remediation

Environmental Audits

Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wostewoter Engineering

Toxicity Testing

Environmental Engineering Stormwoter Management impact Assessments

PO Box 2205,250 Martindaie Road, St. Cattnarines, Ontario, Canada L2R 7R8 Pti; (905)641-0941 Fax: (905)641-1825 www.aquatic.com Branch Office: PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T7H8 Ph:(519) 383-7822




that to continue to build ever higher de fences to keep out the rising sea is no


longer an option, and retreat to new posi tions inland should begin immediately in some places. People who are forced to abandon homes and fields for the general good of the community should be compensated



by the government. Any vendors of the 1.3 million properties classified as at risk from flooding, should be forced, by law, to disclose the danger to potential pur

Technologies Inc.

biopiles, landfarming bioslurry reactor processes biological laboratory services

Specializing in the design, development, and implementation of bioremediation systems

• focusing on degradation of plasticizers, TPH, POP, BTEX, PAHs in soil

biofilters for odour control

Wellington Rd.#34, RR#3, Guelph, Ontario N1H 6H9 Phone:(800) 353-2087,(519)767-9100 Fax:(519)767-1824


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999


Industry Update While recommendations delighted environmental groups, they angered farm


ers and landowners, who said the MPs had

oversimplified the issue.

Consulting Engineers

"It is time to declare an end to the cen-

Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering Collingwood


Tel.(705)444-2565 EMail: iiifo@cctatham.com

Tel.(705)645-7756 Web: wviw.cctatham.com

tuiies-old war with the sea and seek a

peaceful accommodation with our former enemy," the report says, "It is better to plan a pohcy of managed realignment (of the coast) than to suffer the consequences of a deluded belief that we can maintain

P^ieciftcRiskAs es mait(39^)

indefinitely, an unbreachabie Maginot line of towering sea waUs and flood defences."

Model ing

• Human Hedthand Ecologies Site

• Environmentd FcteartdFood Chan

'• DetemimisticandProbabilistic(MonteCarto.l



Turning London sludge into watts Sludge from London, England is to be burned to generate enough electricity to power 19,000 homes through a project just completed by the Thames Water com pany. Wastewater from almost five miiiion Londoners is bandied by two treat

• Environmenta ImpactarxtRemedichonAnayas

• Integrated Rift Management

• Scientific Peer Reniav

• Oa/dopmentofSieSpeaficRemediaCriteria

'• RiftComnunicdion/ExpertTestimony

forSpeOficChemcasandCcniplexChemicsl Mixtures CANTOX ENVIRONMENTAL INC.

2233 Argentia Road, Suite 308, Mtsassauga,ON L5N 2X7,Tel;(90S)542-2900 Fax:(905)542-1011 E-mail; esigal@canloxenvironmental.com. Intaind: http://wvw.cantoxenvironmental.ccHn • Vancouver • Cdgary • Misassauga • Hdifat •' Nav Jersey

ment works sited beside the River

Thames. Sewage sludge was tradition ally disposed of at sea but this will come to an end shoitiy when a new European

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental Engineers,Planners and Scientists

Union directive is introduced.

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Thames Water instigated a wide-rang ing independent study of the future op tions for sludge disposal and the constmction of the two high-technology sludge-

phone(416)499-9000 fax (416)499-4687 direct dial (416)499-0090 + ext. Barrie • Calgary • London • Ottawa • Thorold Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo

powered generator stations was staited in 1994.

Consolidated Giroux Environment Inc. Dredging (since 1971)

Building work was completed early in 1998 and since then the plants have un dergone a tough commissioning process.

• Dewatering • Pumping • Weed Harvester •Tailings relocation • Hazardous Waste Reduction

Contact: www.thames-water.com

•High Speed Decanter Centrifuges

portable ozone water

Tel:(506)684-5821 E-mail: cgiroux@nb.sympatico.ca

Fax:(506)684-1915 Web site: www.GIROUXINC.com


treatment unit Praxair, Inc. has introduced a new mo

bile pilot system for evaluation of ozonebased water treatment solutions directly

Toronto • Ottawa

at the customer's site. The unit allows

London • Hamilton Vancouver • Victoria

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• Stormwater Management

Praxalr Introduces

Corporate Office:

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Praxair to process a customer's effluent or process water samples under "real-hfe" operating conditions with different ozone technologies at less cost than conventional methods. The unit also allows examina

tion of more operating parameters in a shorter time frame, minimizes testing er rors due to mishandling samples while eliminating the cost of shipping samples to laboratories.


• Communities

Praxair expects companies in the met als, food processing, pulp and paper, tex

• Environment

• Facilities

tile and chemical industries to use the new unit to evaluate ozone as a solution for

Cambridge • Winds ir • Ottawa • Halifax Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg • Yellowknife • Vancouver • International M2N 6N5 (416) 229-4646 100 Sheppard Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario Toronto



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water treatment applications such as dis infecting, purifying, colour removal, low ering toxins and COD levels. The pilot system is capable of treating

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Industry Update up to 26,600 litres of water per day with ozone. In addition, the system can add

•> Transportation Planning Traffic Engineering Environmental Planning Municipal Engineering Road (S Bridge Design

carbon dioxide to the water stream for

pH control. Customers can lease the portable sys

Transportation and

tem for a nominal fee, which includes

Environmental Consultants

portable liquid oxygen and cai'bon diox ide from Praxair.

Contact: www.praxair.com




Teh 14161490-8887 Fax: 1416' 490-8376

Tel: (604)654-1945 Fax:(604) 654-1551

Canada to support US EPA in lawsuit Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy and Environment Minister Christine

Duke Engineering &Services(Canada),Inc. A Duke Energy Company


Stewart, announced February 11,support


of the US Environmental Protection

• Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

Agency (EPA) in its court fight for an aggressive smog reduction program. The

nitrogen oxide(NOj^)emissions reduction

• Fractured Rock Hydrogeology • Environmental Management and Compliance • Flydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling

program, starting in 2003, will apply to

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District of Columbia. It will have sig Energy and Environmental Research Corp.

nificant health benefits for Canadians in

Specialists in Air Science and Engineering

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' Source testing, monitoring & approvals. • Emissions inventories & computational modeling.

Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

Canada will seek to participate in the court challenge that the EPA is facing from over 70 entities including the states of Michigan, Ohio and other midwest states as an amicus curiae or friend of the

court. In so doing, Canada plans to join 24 parties that are coming together to sup port the EPA, including environmental and health groups and a coalition of New England states with whom Canadian provinces are already partners in the acid

• NOx/SOx emission reduction/control.

• APCD & process performance verification. • Air toxics measurement & control. • Odour studies

EER Canada 58 - 127! Denison St.. Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B5 Tel:(905)946-1732 • Fax:(905)946-8680 • Email: airemissions@eercanada.com



rain issue.


This is an important issue for Canada because the petitioners are challenging the EPA and contending that pollution does

not tr'avel across boundaries and cause

comes from the US and causes smog. The Government of Canada has been


4 —

TEM - PLM - PCM - SEM - Flame AA - Graphite Furnace

health damage. Between 30 and 50 per cent of pollution that is damaging the health of Canadians living in Ontario and Quebec, and as much as 90% of the pol lution in New Brtinswick and Nova Scotia


GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.

Microbiology Laboratory & Consulting ATP' ""ices

a strrtng advocate of the aggressive US

NOj^ reduction program. Last March,the Canadian government intervened for mally in the EPA rulemaking process as the only government outside the US to support the aggressive US program pro posal. Again in June, Canada formally intervened on the issue of Michigan's air pollution crossing into Canada. In October 1998, all provincial and territorial Ministers of Energy and Envi ronment, gave Minister Stewart the ap proval to work towar-d an ozone agree ment with the US to reduce air pollution

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that harms the health of Canadians.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999


Industry Update ♦ Industrial Water/ Wastewater Treatment ♦ Waste Minimization

C3eomat:rix Consuf-tantis

♦ Wasteiwater Reuse/Recycle

Engineers, Geologists, and Environmental Scientists

Treatment System Upgrade/ Optimization

Announcing Our Newest Office:

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• Air Pollution Control

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polluting BO waters An Environment Canada study says that

airborne pollutants from Asia are believed to be a major source of contamination in fish stocks offour British Columbia lakes. Tests on turbot show concentrations ofthe

pesticide toxapbene in quantities well above the acceptable limits for full-time fish predators such as osprey and otter, although they are still considered safe for human consumption. The study, part ofthe seven-year Eraser River Action Plan,suggests airborne pol lutants such as DDT and toxapbene(both banned in Canada,but still used in devel

oping countries for agriculture and mos quito control), as well as banned PCBs, can be found throughout the province. The major source of the airborne pol lutants is bebeved to be Asia, the study

Noise Vibration and Acoustics


Chemicals from Asia

said. The Eraser River watershed research

shows that lakes located high in the moun tains are at greatest risk, because the pol lutants fall to earth with rain or snow and

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ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics

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leach into fresh-water lakes in summer.

Report projects pump market at $22 billion by 2003


An Asian economic recovery wiU help

push worldwide pump sales to more than Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design

year, including pumps, parts and drivers will be US $39 billion, according to a new report entitled Pumps: World Market 1999-2004, produced by the Mcllvaine Company and distributed by the Hydrau

Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers

lic Institute.

1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 1G5

Tel:(905)522-0012 Fax:(905)522-0031

US $22 biUion m 2003. Total sales in that

Highlighted conclusions of the report











Brampton Picketing



Kitchener w

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(905) 459-4780 (905) 837-0314 (519) 743-6111 (519) 659-4465 (705) 679-5979

Celebrating 40 Years Consulting Engineers, Project Managers Eooiogicai Planners, Landscape Architects Internet Site: http://www.kmk.on.Ga

• The Asian market wiU grow fastest de spite the financial crisis. The United States will remain the largest purchaser over the next five years, but China wiU experience the largest growth rate. • The three top companies will gamer more than a 19 percent market share and the top 25 companies will capture 50 per cent of the market.

E-mall: kmk@kmk.on.ca.

• Over 500 niche players wiU continue to maintain leadership by region or appbcation.


Consultants specializing in:

Odour Evaluations

Dispersion Modeling Compliance Stack Testing

II 52

(519) 336-4101

Process Assessments by FTIR mroehlerfSlehder.com


• Growth in sealless pumps wiU far ex ceed the average for all pump types. • Innovations in design to reduce energy consumption and bfe cycle costs will pay dividends for progressive suppbers. • Recently improved industry profitabil ity will be retained as better managed companies take advantage of industry growth. • Important industry trends include

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Industry Update wastewater reclamation and reuse,com

bined cycle power generation, paper re cycling, and leak prevention. The reportincludes over 30,000 pump forecasts, with over one milhon support ing facts and figures, covering centrifu gal,rotary,reciprocating,seaUess and sub mersible pumps. Growth projections for specific indus tries are based on a 25-yeai- comprehen sive information gathering process by The Mcllvaine Company. Potential market and identifiable targets are linked allow ing a urrique pump purchaser analysis in cluding O.E.M. groups such as wastewater, scrubber, and cleanroom equip ment manufacturers.

Lotowater ltd.

Mail: P.O. Box 451, Paris, Ontario N3L 3T5

Design and supervision of groundwater exploration programs New municipal well design Assessment of groundwater/surface water interaction Groundwater protection Artificial recharge Hydrogeology studies and groundwater impact assessments Landfill monitoring and impact assessment Well maintenance, rehabilitation, performance improvement

Office: 149 Golf Links Road, Paris, Ontario Pticne:(519)442-2086 Fax:(519)442-7242 e-mail: lwafer@worldctiaf.com

Video inspection services Performance testing of wells and pumps

Hydrogeological Consultants and Groundwater Supply Specialists

Celebrating 10 Years

Well construction

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Speciaiizing in the Environment

Pumps: World Market 1999-2004 is

available for $4,900 from The Hydrauhc Institute, Fax:(973) 267-7772.

MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994 E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.com

IJC to investigate water use, diversion & removal policies The United States and Canadian federal

governments have asked the Intemational Joint Commission(UC)to examine and report on the use, diversion and removal of waters along the common border. The governments noted that "boundary water resources continue to be the subject of ever-increasing demands in the light of expanding populations", and that "pro posals to use, divert and remove greater amounts ofsuch waters can be expected." A February 1999 media release re ported that the requestfrom governments comes in the wake of proposals to export water overseas from Canada and litiga tion involving the export of water from Canada to the United States. Both gov ernments ai^e concemed that existing man agement principles and conservation measures may be inadequate to ensure future sustainable use of shared waters.

•environmental site assessments


•risk assessment/management

Engineering Inc.

•site remediation

Kingston Ottawa

■ waste management

(613)548-3446 (613)521-8258


Marshall Macklin


Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, MIsslssauga, Whilby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East. Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca

M a;>^a m

The DC wiU examine,report upon and provide recommendations on: •Existing and potential consumptive uses of water;

• Existing and potential diversions of water in and out of the transboundary basins,including withdrawals of water for


A Chemex Labs Alberta / Novamann international Partnership

Ana\yX]cs Inc



Comprehensive Environmental Testing National Service


5540 McAdam Road

2021-41 Avenue N.E.

Mlssiss^ga, ON L4Z IPI. Tel:(905)890-2555 Fax:(905)890-0370

Calgary, AS T26 6P2

Quebec Lachine.QC H8TIAI

Edmonton 9331 - 48th Street Edmonton, AB T6B2R4

Tel:(514)636-6218 Fax:(5l4)631-9814

Tel 1(403)465-9877 Fax:(403)466-3332

9420 C6te de Liesse

Source Emissions

Occupational Health

Rush Analysis

Tel:(403)291-3077 Fax:(403)291-9468

Toll Free: East (800)563-6266



• The cumulative effects of existing and potential diversions and removals of water,including removals in bulk for ex



• The current laws and pohcies that may affect the sustainability of the water re sources in boundary and transboundary


(m& tk& the

JmMidedcjealde' Aaled- teami ipi the mduiimj,, iA^


More information may be found on the Commission's web site: www.ijc.org Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Valerie Geldart, Sales Manager 1-800-263-9040 ext.275 or valerie_geldart@phillp-serv.com Internet: www.philJpanalytical.com


Industry Update Hershel Guttman elected VP of AWWA




A Pollution Control

Tel: (403) 254-3301

A Wastewater Treatment

Fax:(403) 254-3333

A Water Treatment www.reld-crowther.com

Hershel Guttman was elected Vice Presi dent of the vVnerican Water Works Asso

ciation (AWWA) at the Association's 1999 winter board meeting in San Antonio,Texas. He takes office June 24, 1999. Ml". Guttman is a Principal of R.V. Anderson Associates Limited(RVA),and Director ofthe firm's municipal water and wastewater section.

Removal of Lead, PCBs

ASBESTOS Environmental Hazards

seiwed on 20 association and section com

mittees and provided leadership as Chan-

• Demolition of commercial, institutional & industrial buildings

for 1 i of them.

• Soil ciean-up - Removal underground storage tanks - USTs • Moid, fungus & micro-biological decontamination • Bird, bat, animal feces cleaning - Disease - Histopiasnosis • Pharmaceutical - UFFi - Mercury - Fleavy Metals - Chemicals • Environmental & FIEPA cleaning of buildings and facilities • Excellent M.O.L. Health & Safety Record

France aims to reduce

automotive noise by 50% Between now and the year 2002,the limit imposed by European Union legislation on levels of external noise from automo

Restoration Environmental Contractors Ltd. "Proud Owners of The Markham Waxers Junior 'A'Hockey Club"

tive vehicles may be reduced to 71 dB, which imphes a reduction of 50%. There are four sources of noise and

10 Stalwart Industrial Drive, Unit 5, Gormley, Ontario LOFI 1G0

vibration from automotive vehicles: noise

1-800-894-4924 Web Site: www.inforamp.net/~r8stcon Tel:(905) 888-0066

Hershel has been active in AWWA and a member for over two decades. He has

E-Mail: restcon@lnforamp.net Fax:(905) 888-0071

from the road, whose irregularities cause the tires to vibrate; noise created by the air inlets in the engine compartment and by the exhaust at the tail pipe; noise of the ahfiow ai'ound the vehicle which be

comes turbulent at highway speeds; and finally, the noise generated by the power


unit, the source of noise connected with



Consulting Engineers & Architect

combustion which generates vibrations from the oscillating motions of the pis tons - connecting rods - crankshaft as sembly. The PSA Peugeot-Citroen group has for several years, been caiTying out ex

1815 Ironstone Monor. Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. LIW 3W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fax; 905-831-0531

tensive research in the field of acoustics


and vibration in automotive vehicles. Sig nificant progress has been accomplished with models such as the Peugeot406,and

Environmental Consultants


1090 W. Render Street, Suite 720 Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6E 2N7 (604) 669-6681, Fax:(604) 669-6682

Specializing In: •Landfill Gas Management•Solid Waste Management• Landfill Design •Site Assessment• Compliance Audits•Site Remediation •Project Management

the Citroen Xantia with its HDI diesel

engine, whose acoustic perfoiinance ap proaches that of a gasoline engine. With the help of the Mega CtM)soft ware,Renault's engineers can put together a virtual hut very reahstic representation of an engine, showing the noise and perfonnance curves resulting from the caicniations.

"A leader\n providing innovative

Studies are being undeitaken to reduce the noise radiated by the power unit so as

automation solutions to our customers."

to reduce the excitation at the base. The

We offer a complefe range of producfs & services in fhe areas of: • Systems Integration • Process Instrumentation • Control Panels • Programmable Logic Controllers • MMI/SCADA • Computer/Network Services • Service Summa Engineering Limited 6423 Northam Drive. Mississauga, ON L4V1J2 Tel: (905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444


Summa Enterprises, Place Grilli, 3539 Blvd. St. Charles, #350, Kirkland, QC H9H 589 Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax;(514) 455-3587

noise generated by the shocks in the vari ous mechanical elements of the engine is being studied. Reducing the noise from the engine and the exhaust brings to attention other noises that were previously inaudible. Gradnaiiy,the sources of noise previously

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, March 1999

Industry Update considered to be secondaiy(transmission shaft, gearbox, etc.), ai^e being made the subject of constant attention. Today, acoustic engineers are opening up new fields of investigation, such as the aero dynamic excitation of the vehicle, vibra tions from the road wheels, or fan noise.

The 'silent design' approach is being widely adopted. Alternative fuels will also have a big future in urban applications. The French designed and built Agora bus, which runs on compressed natural gas, won the 1998 Golden Decibel trophy for its low noise emissions.

Contact: FTPO,Fax:(312)222-1237.

The drinking water message in A Civil Action The basis for the movie A Civil Action, is

the sequence of events surrounding a real occumence ofgroundwater contamination

Real-time flood alert system provides vital lead time Intense rainfall from Tropical Storm

warnings are very regional in scale. The flood alert system utilizes com puter modeling that combines topography, land use, an advanced radar system and rain and stream gauges to track the

Frances, which blew into the Houston area

in September '98, provided the first test of the Rice University/Texas Medical Center Flood Alert System, which is now fully operational. "Ifthe Brays watershed

amount of rainfall and rttnoff over time.

Using six-minute radar- estimates of

had received about one more inch ofrain fall in one hour,the Texas Medical Center

rainfall amounts,the radar estimates were

would have been in serious tr'ouble," said

calibrated with actual rainfall amounts

Philip Bedient, professor and chair ofen vironmental science and engineering. "This was a good test for the system, and

from past stor-ms. Acomputer system was

it worked well."

The flood alert system gives lead time - an extra two to three hours of warning. More than 70 percent offlash flood warn ings ar-e issued with less than one hour of lead time and half of the warnings issued provide no lead time whatsoever. In ad

then developed that uses the radar- num bers to predict peak flows in the bayou. The system takes into account how the region's geography reacts to the rainfall. By only looking at rain gauges, one can not always accurately predict flows in the

bayou. The radar provides the big pic ture, showing how much rain is coming, and where and when.

dition, the US National Weather Ser'vice

Contact: E-mail: um-au@rice.edu

in Woburn,Massachusetts. The film con

tains powerful images of courtroom drama,legal maneuvering,family trauma,

THORBURN PENNY Consulting Engineers

corporate indifference and scientific un

•Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems

certainty. The movie may prompt cinema audiences to ask:"What about my drink ing water?" "How do I know tlrat my well is safe?" "Is there an old abandoned dump in my community?" "Good questions, especially because

• Instrumentation & Controls

Environmental Audits Water Resources Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

Water Supply



(905)634-9494 (418) 361-6135

OTTAWA: (613) 247-0111

the drinking water for over 140 million Americans comes from wells. A Civil


Action is providing a great public serwice if it prompts citizens to think about water resources and the environment," says Andrew Stone, Executive Director of the American Ground Water Trxtst. "Citizens

should ask questions about the safety of their drinking water, whether supplied by a utility or from a private well. Chances ar^e that their drinking water is perfectly



COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management• Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t o 11 e n Sims h u b 1ck1 associates



44 Ye

WWRDROP Engineering Inc.

"Water contamination, such as por trayed in A Civil Action, is very rare in any of the nation's 15 million private wells and there ar-e now strict testing requir-ements for all utility water supplies. We

• Environmental Assessment

understand far more about 'cause and ef

• Site Remediation

• Chemicoi ond Process Engineering • Hydrology and Hydrogeology

fect' than we did 20 years ago. However, we need to be vigilant and act responsi bly to ensure that groundwater continues

«Solid Waste Monogement

• Municipal and industrial Water

Winnipeg•Toronto• Saskatoon •Thunder Boy• Asio• Africa

A multidisciplinnry Engineering, Environmentol and Information Technologies firm, offering expertise in:

• Asbestos Abatement


and Waste Water Treotment Lliil.tasiructure.Ren.e.wjii


Engineering P xcellence

Phone:(204)956-0980 Fax:(204)957-5389

E-mail: winnipeg(@wardrop.com Web Site: www.wardrop.com

to be America's 'source of choice' for

drirrking water. Ifcitizens have questions about their drinking water, they should call their water utility or water well con



The American Ground Water Trust is

a national, non-profit, member supported groundwater education organization. For groundwater information visit:


• Industrial/Municipal Wastewater Management • Waterstied and Stormwater Management • Drinking Water Quality and Treatment

Vancouver (604)990-0582 Kitchener (519)741-5774 Toronto area (905)891-2400 Kingston (613)542-5888 www.xcg.commail@xcg.com

www.agwt.org Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

• Hydrogeology Investigation /Modelling • Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmental Management Systems



r Technical Sales & Distributors Wanted-|

"For Cost Effective Pumping" company in the Cardo Group

Activated Carbon (Granular/Pellet)

^BS has the most Comprehensive range on the market.

• For Water / Air Purification

Sales & Service

• For induslriai Process & Recovery

• Sewage Pumps - Submersible & Dry Pit • Portable Dewateriiig Pumps • Mixers - Submersible & Conventional • Aerators - Submersible • Submersible Grinder Pumps

• Best Price Guaranteed

• Effluent Pumps • Stock & Process Pumps - PPI • Chemical Pumps • Canned Motor Pumps ABS Pumps Corporation, 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit 7, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1H3 Phone: 1-800-988-2610 or(905)670-4677, Fax:(905) 670-3709, Web: www.abspumps.com Callfor the Representative nearest you

^ction Carbon-Chem Inc. www.carbonactivated.com

505-7E Queensway E., Mississauga,ON L5A 4B4 Tel:(905) 272-8220, Fax:(905) 272-2977

For more information,

For more information, circle reply card No. 115

circle reply card No. 120 - FILTER MEDIA










TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services




Media & Coal Ltd.

Waste Water Treatment


TEL:(519)751-108Q FAX:(519)751-0617

Sponge Jet Cleaning




For more information,

For more information, circle reply card No. 116

circle reply card No. 121

Cronitech On-Site Wastewater Treatment Using Blofilm Advanced Secondary Treatment: BOD < 15 mg/L;IBS < 15 mg/L;

communities, ideal for hotels, restaurants


and rest areas.


F.Coliform < 50,000 UCF/100 ml.

Solves many problems of odours, drainage and contamination in older leaching fields.

Installs Into underground pre-cast concrete tanks with remote control unit and

compressor box.

Applications for single dwellings up to small

Approved by the Quebec Ministry of Environment(MEF)and Environmental Technology Verification (ETV Canada).

CRONITECH ENVIRONNEIVIENT INC., 59 Centre St., Magog, QC J1X 5B6 Tel: (819) 843-7070 • Fax:(819) 843-3845 • E-mail: bioflim@cronitech.ca

Blosollds and Waste Utilization • Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes. Mali — P.O. Box 60069

Oakville, Ontario L6IVI 3H2

For more information, circle reply card No. 117

Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakville, Ont. L9T 2X5

Phone:(905) 878-2800/Fax: (905) 878-7332


For more information, circle reply card No. 122



• MonitoringWells

• Municipal Well Drilling • Industrial Well Drilling •Construction Drilling • Well Testing and Rehabilitation

»Recovery Wells • Gas Extraction Wells

• Deep Monitoring Weil Specialists R.R. #1 (Bast Place) Waterloo, Ontario (519) 664-1422


Erratum In ES&E's Directory issue (page 60), H2Fiow's web site was shown incor

147 North Street West

rectly. Please update your flies with the correct listing shown heiow.

Wingham,Ontario Dmndson "Since 1900"

(519) 357-1960

For more information, circle reply card No. 118

WIOUJ !0 U I f M t N T

INSITU I Contractors I Inc.

Remedial Groundwater Control and Treatment

Construction Dewatering

• well decommissioning • dual phase extraction • vapour extraction • wellpoint systems • product recovery Insitu Groundwater Contractors • pump tests

7 Momicello Cres.

Guelph.ON Canada NIG2M1 phone:(519) 763-0700. fax:(519)763-6684

For more information, circle reply card No. 119 56

I H (.


80 Cariauren Rd., #24, Woodbridge, ON L4L 7Z5 (905)264-2188 Fax:(905)264-2062 E-mail: h2flow@idirect.com Web Site: www.h2flow.com

Contact: Michael Albanese, Application Engineer Water and wastewater treatment equipment special izing in screening, filtration, separation, clarification, grinding, sludge mixing and dewatering, aeration, biological treatment, floatation, DAF, sequencing batch reactors (SBR), UV disinfection. Municipal and industrial treatment. Package treatment plant units, lime feeders, vacuum sewage systems, oil/ water separators.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Industry Update The Town of New

who form a private sector consortium, presented the most acceptable proposal,

Tecumseth to proceed with water supply project

and were the lowest bidder.

The Town of New Tecumseth has formed

million project consists of the following:

a Public-Private Partnership with SNC Lavalin Inc. and Con-Drain Company (1983)Ltd. to design and construct a new 57 km water transmission pipeline from Collingwood to Alhston, Ontario. The Town had previously completed an Environmental Assessment Study that identified the surface water supply source from Collingwood as the pre

SNC/Con Drain will provide $2.9M in

vincial grant;the Town ofNew Tecumseth will supply $7M in equity financing to be recovered from development chaiges; and the Town of Colhngwood Public Utilities Commission will provide an additional

ferred solution.

$1.3M, also in equity financing. As out

The financing structure for this $27.3

debt financing; the Province of Ontario

will provide $11.IM in debtfinancing and an additional $5M in the form of a pro

This pipeline project has become a pri ority for the Town of New Tecumseth in order for it to meet future water supply needs, specifically those of the Alliston

lined in the Environmental Assessment

industrial area and Honda of Canada

of up to $.60/m\

Manufacturing. As well, local commu nities have expressed an interest in and a need for additional water.

An extensive process was undertaken by the Town in developing this project, including a Request for Strategy, a Re quest for Expression of Interest, and fi nally, a Request for Proposals from four short-hsted consortia. SNC Lavalin Inc.

and Con-Drain Company (1983) Ltd.,

Study, the proposal initially requires the Town to accept 6,000m-^ of water per day which will see rates targeted in a range The Town of New Tecumseth retained

the Ontario Clean Water Agency to man age the proposal process for the water transmission pipeline, and continue man aging the project, to completion. For further information contact: Ster

ling W. Zeran, Town Manager, Town of New Tecumseth at (705) 435-6219, or

John Carter, Project Manager, Ontario Clean Water Agency at(416) 314-4617.

Hershel Guttman, M.Eng., P.Eng, Elected VP of American Water Works Association

Guide to water reuse

system released The Canada Mortgage and Housing Cor poration (CMHC) Research Division, has released a research publication An Application Guidefor Water Reuse Sys tems (1998). The main focus of this report, devel oped by Totten Sims Hubicki Associates for CMHC,is aimed at residential reuse

applications. It is intended for those in volved in the analysis, design, specifi cation and operation of water reuse sys tems, and for those who wish to become

familiar with current developments in innovative water treatment systems and broaden their knowledge of water reuse problems and their solutions. Two other publications in the same field of study that may also be of inter est are: Innovative Residential Water

and Wastewater Management (1998) arid Regulatory Barriers to On-site Water Reuse (1997). To obtain copies of these publica tions, contact the Canadian Housing Information Centre (CHIC) at: (613) 748-2367. These publications are free in Canada.

Announcement Mr. Wm. Nordick, Presi

Hershel Guttman was elected Vice

President of the American Water

Works Association (AWWA) at the Association's 1999 winter board

meeting in San Antonio, Texas. He takes office June 24, 1999.

dent of Centennial Con

crete Pipe and Products Inc., is pleased to an nounce the appointment of Mr. Mark Sabine,

Mr. Guttman is a Principal of R.V. Anderson Associates Limited (RVA), and Director of the firm's municipal

C.E.T., to the position of Technical Marketing

water and wastewater section.



joined RVA as a Senior Engineer in 1978 and is a Registered Professional Engineer in Ontario and Licensed Professional Engineer in New Brunswick. He has a Masters in Environmental Engineering and has presented numerous papers on water supply issues. Hershel has been active in AWWA and a member for over two decades. He has served on 20 association and section

committees and provided leadership as Chair for 11 of them. He is a Director of the Ontario Water Works Association, a section of AWWA. A former OWWA Chair, Hershel initiated a

section self-assessment effort and led the task force to reorganize the section to meet the challenges of the 21st century. He also serves on AWWA's Canadian Affairs Committee and the Water

for People Canada Board. RVA has been engaged in the practice of consulting engineering and technology management for over 50 years. The organization comprises environmental and infrastructure specialists for technologies related to water, wastewater, transportation, urban development and telecommunications. For more information on the firm and employment oppor tunities, please visit RVA's Web site at www.rvanderson.com. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

With this appointment, Mark brings fourteen years of related industry ex perience in quality control, product design, sales and marketing. This position will focus on pro viding Municipalities and Civil Engineering firms with modem design packages and value-added en gineering altematives,including any technical sup port that may be necessary to enhance municipal infrastructure design. Mark is available by con tacting Centennial Concrete Pipe and Products Inc. toll-free at: (888) 888-3222 or on-line at: msabine@cenpipe.com Congratulations Mark and good luck.

Centennial Concrete Pipe & Products Inc.


Industry Update

BC makes progress in environmental management Biitish Columbia is making measurable progress in managing its environment according to a just-released Report Card rating its ability to reach envii-onmental

goals. Preparedby the Ministry of Envi ronment, Lands and PaiLs, the report is in response to the 1995 Auditor General's Report recommending increasing the ac countability of government by develop ing methods to measure performance.

Twelve envkonmental indicators used

to measure the government's performance included: protected areas, sohd waste dis posal, fine paiticulates in the air, ozone depletion, the presence of greenhouse

gases, water quahty,groundwater supply, species at risk in general, forest species at risk, and the range of toxic contami nants in animals and fish.

Groundwater protection is one of three areas recognized as needing more sus tained effort. Of the 124 water bodies used as

sources for drinking water, nine were rated as excellent, 44 good, 62 fan", five borderline, and four were poor.

Asthma "puffers" without

A suiwey of 600,000 wells used for drinking water showed that 47 percent

CFCs Metered-dose inhalers (MDI), often

suffered from lower water levels in 1995,

called "puffers" by asthma patients, have traditionally contained ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), as propellant. Temporary exemptions were given

compared with about 26 percent in 1965.

under the Montreal Protocol on Sub

stances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in order to allow for a continued supply of CFCs as alternatives were developed. Parties to the Protocol were, however,

asked to develop transition strategies. On July 15,Environment Canada pub lished an Initial Transition Strategy which aims to ensure that there is an orderly re placement of existing MDls with CFCfree altematives. This document was pre pared in cooperation with Health Canada. One of the principles of the strategy is that the health of asthma patients must be safeguarded. Canada's Initial Transition Strategy is expected to reduce the use of CFCs in MDls by 60 percent by 2001, with a complete phase-out by 2005.

Water supply and food production Over the next 25 years, water could be come an increasingly contentious issue worldwide because ofshortages expected in many areas, according to a study fi nanced by the US and Japan. Some 1.3 billion people worldwide lack access to clean supplies of water, and water short ages will pose the single greatest threat to food production and human health, wams the study. In an effort to improve water manage ment, the Consultative Croup of Interna tional Agricultural Research has compiled

Jt's a dirty job and the OCPA has the effective new system to do it. The OGER (Oil/Grit Extraction Reservoir) is an off-line oil and grit separator that removes sediment and free oil from urban stormwater. Oil and sediment are

separated before re-entiy into the sewer system or stormwater management

a massive electronic world water and cli

facility. Trapped oil and

mate atlas. The atlas provides maps of every country, allowing the user to call up information on rainfall and hours of sunshine, temperature averages, and soil types in their home ai'eas.

sediment can be removed

easily during regular maintenance.

Performance improves, saving considerable time and money. Get the OGER on your side. It's a giant advance in stormwater treatment.


o 58

5045 South Service Road,

Concrete Pipe

First Floor, Burlington, Ont. L7L 5Y7


(905)631-9696 Fax:(905)631-1905

The choice of a lifetime


For more information, circle reply card No. 162 (See page 25)

Worldwide,about 80% of water use is

dedicated to agriculture. Demand is in creasing,so that water scarcity, not short age of land, is likely to be the biggest impediment to food production in devel oping countries. Some 25% ofthe world's population is expected to face severe water scarcity in the next 25 years.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Drinking Water

Drinking iron rich water in Wales

The spa -an ancient spring in Snowdonia with a Victorian pump room and bath house - is believed to have been

discovered by soldiers of the 20th Ro man Legion. Visitors can take samples of the water for themselves, straight from the well, which is protected to ob

POINT or imofAT No 2 PttA4i:SWJUJU>S TAPi: \SH llATI

viate the risk of contamination.


The site has a production facility of one million sachets every 70 hours. Story by Albert Evans, Photo - Mike Pattison

Lime softening In Manitoba USFilter is supplying almost all the wa ter treatment plant process equipment to Manitoba Water Services for a new mu

nicipal water plant at Morden. USFilter received the order from Gateway Con struction in Manitoba to provide lime softening process equipment. The system consists of two 34-foot

The World Spa Federation has recog nized that the naturally iron-rich spa water from Trefriw, Conwy, North Wales, has the highest chalebeate-iron in solution - known in the world. It

pours from the rock in a natural solu tion that can be readily absorbed (after filtering) by the body and offers an ex cellent alternative to those people who

active ingredients are 6.3 milligrams Fe2+(clinically proven up to 40 percent bio-availability) compared with ap proximately five to 15 percent from food and manufactured iron preparations. Because the iron in the product is al ready in solution, the iron does not have to be dissolved in the gut before it can be absorbed and then used. It enters the

diameter General Filter CONTRAFLO® solids contact clarifiers, two 12-foot di

ameter(3.65 m)recarbonation basins, a

pair of nine-foot wide (2.64 m),33-foot long (10.05 m) three-cell Rectangular Steel Gravity Filters, and two 12-foot diameter (3.65 m)Zimpro WHM bulk feed storage silos for lime and soda ash. This project also includes Wallace & Tiernan chemical feed equipment, and Control Systems instrumentation and

cannot tolerate iron in tablet form. Iron

blood stream in about 30 minutes.

is crucial for the proper functioning of the human body. Under the Spatone Iron-i- label - a registered medicine in Germany - the only licensed spa water medicine in the world is used specifically for the pre vention of iron-deficiency anaemia. The

Sold in sachet form,one packet a day will provide the entire average daily re quirement of iron for men, women and children, or the average extra quantity of iron needed during pregnancy. Spatone Iron-i- is said to be safe for long-


term use for those whose diet is lacking.



is expected to begin operation in the spring of 1999. USFilter is represented on this project by Mequipco, Calgary,


■ Densoclad and Densopol Bitumen Tapes

Cold applied tapes ranging from 20 mils up to 80 mils

Reid Crowther Engineering,of Win

nipeg designed the 315 m% plant which

^ b ...

in tfilckness.

■ Denso Protal 7000 Liquid Epoxies

A wide range of brush and spray appiied epoxies for pipeline applications. Brush application on iie-in with Prolai 7000

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Cold appiied tapes for protection of pipe, valves and fittings. ■ Densotherm Bitumen Tape

Hot appiied for above or below ground pipeline protection. Find Out More

With over 110 years of experience, Denso is known around the world for quality products and service. Contact Denso North America Inc. at (905)940-8255 for a complete literature package or a no-cost on-slte evaluation of your application. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Cold applied Densopol 60 Bitumen Tape. DENSO NORTH AMERICA INC. Toronto:


75 Shields Court, Unit 3 Markham, ON, Canada, L3R 9T4

15 Woodstock Drive

Sherwood Park, AB, Canada, T8A4C4

Tel: (905) 940-8255, Fax:(905) 940-8258

Tel:(403) 910-1717, Fax:(403) 449-5300


A Member of Winn & Coales International

For more information, circle reply card No. 163 (See page 25)


Industry Update

New septic regs in Ontario

the Mechanical Physics Section at the

quality. Although different scientific ap

Regulations affecting the design and con struction of smaller on-site sewage sys

Institute from 1967 to 1990. He is now

tems were transferred to the Ontario

Montreal, and also teaches at the Uni

Building Code on April 6, 1998. Since then, the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing has received many questions about these regulations. The Ministry is releasing a series of newsletters to answer frequently asked questions about sewage systems in the Ontario Building Code. Infoimation can also be found by visiting the Housing Development and Building Branch's homepage at: http://obc.mmah/gov.on.ca

versity of British Columbia, Vancouver. The two scientists are being recog nized for their breakthrough research

proaches were used,basic knowledge on this subject had accumulated slowly. Now, Miles and May have provided a basic understanding of the process by developing a theory that starts from an analysis of the forces acting upon the

Adjunct Professor at McGill University,

Canadians receive

prestigious Marcus Waiienberg prize H.M. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, presented the fifteenth Marcus Wallen berg Prize to Canadians Keith B. Miles and W. Donald May, in Stockholm last October.

Keith Miles, B.Sc., of Montreal,

into the fundamental mechanisms of

materials in a refiner and leads to the

wood chip refining and for their devel opment of the concept of refining inten sity. This concept has provided a major impetus to the manufacture of mechani cal and other high yield pulps with im proved quality and reduced energy con sumption. The impressive rate of development of chip refining over the last 25 years

fundamental equations that govern the flow of material within and through the refiner. Contact: www.mwp.org

has resulted in a tremendous increase in

which gives municipalities private sec tor-like opportunities for electrical utili ties, also could have the potential to change the way in which water is pro vided. The Act provides for options for utility operation and may affect water utility governance. The Act is considered by the Ontario Municipal Water Association(OMWA) to be significant to the water industry and they have had a report prepared on the topic. Contact OMWA at:(519)8886402, Fax:(519)725-5987.

production capacity of this so-called thermo-mechanical pulp. This has im proved the quality of newsprint and magazine paper as well as several pa per board grades while decreasing their cost to produce. Characteristics for this type of pulp include high electric power consumption and high pulp yield from

joined the Pulp and Paper Research In

the wood raw material.

stitute of Canada in 1968 and is now

A great deal of research has focused on finding ways to minimize the energy costs while maximizing the product

Senior Research Scientist at the Insti

tute. Donald May, B.Sc., was Head of

Philip Utilities Management Corporation


PENN State

Ontario's Electricity Competition Act may affect water utilities Ontario's Electricity Competition Act,

Do You Need?



The Pennsylvania State University


WASTEWATER BIOLOGY Penn State Courses Now Available In Canada For additional information about these or special in-house courses, please contact: PUMC, Training & Development, 700 Woodward Ave., Hamilton, Ontario, L8H 6P4, Phone (905) 312-7604, or Fax (905)545-2314, or see us on the Web @ www.philiputilities.com

^ W '





Spring 1999 Program Schedule: St. John, NB,April 12 - 15

Vancouver, BC,May 10 - 13

Toronto, ON,June 7-10

Courses iu each Program are:

FRONTENAC (All prices include GST)

Day - I: The Microlife(7 hrs.- $249)

Day - 2: Activated Sludge (7 hrs.- $249) Day - 3: Settleabilty Problems(4 hrs. - $169)& Nitrification (3 hrs.- $129) Day - 4: Sludge Dewatering(4 hrs.- $169)& BOD Metabohsm(3 hrs.-$I29)


Tel:(905)457-5145 Fax (905)457-1730 Http://www.frontenac-en v.com

Note: All courses subject to minimum registration. 60

For more information, ciroie repiy card No. 165 (See page 25)

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 164

Date Pad

March 24-26,1999. Americana 1999, Pan-American Environmental Technol

The Future is Now, Toronto, ON. Con tact: Fatima Lawson, Tel: 1-800-669-

ogy Trade Show and Conference, Montreal, QC. Contact: Tel;(514)2707110, Fax:(514) 270-7154.

4939, ext. 283, Fax:(416)506-8631.

April 7-8 1999. Environmental Com pliance and Best Available Technologies

Contact: Elizabeth Muckle-Jeffs, Tel: 1800-868-8776, Fax:(613) 732-3386.

April 26-30,1999. Ninth International Zebra Mussel and Aquatic Nuisance Species Conference, Duluth, Minnesota.

Too Muc

'99,The 7th Armual Environmental Con

ference & Workshops - Now With Its

May 3-5,1999. First NSF Intemational

Own Tradeshow! The Constellation

Conference on Indoor Air Health: Im

Hotel, Etobicoke, ON. Contact ES&E: Tel: 1-888-254-8769, or (905) 727-

pacts, Issues and Solutions, Denver, Colorado. Contact: Wendy Raeder,Tel: (734) 769-8010, ext. 205, Fax: (734)

4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, Web site: www.esemag.com.

April 11-13,1999. Water Environment Association of Ontario Annual Confer

ence, Toronto, ON. Contact: Sandy Pickett,Tel:(416)502-1440,Fax:(416) 502-1786.


May 4-8 1999. IFAT 99 - 12th Intema tional Trade Fair for environment,

wastewater and waste diposal: water, sewage, refuse and recycling. Munich, Germany. Contact: Barbara Blackburn, Tel: (416) 291-6359, Fax: (416) 291-

April 12-15,1999. Philip Utilities and


Penn State Wastewater Biology Courses, St. John, NB. May 10-13,1999. Van couver, BC. Contact: PUMC,Tel:(905) 312-7604, Fax:(905)545-2314.

May 5-7,1999. Air & Waste Manage

April 18-21,1999. 1999 International Environmental Conference & Exhibit,

ment Association - Ontario Section

Spring Conference,Toronto, ON. Con tact: Jean-Yves Urbain, Tel:(416)445-

7022 ext. 2283, or E-mail: "jyurbain@ pandr.com

sponsored by the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, and cosponsored by the Pulp and Paper Tech

May 11-13,1999. The Institute of Elec trical and Electronics Engineers Inter national Symposium on Electronics and

nical Association of Canada, Nashville,

the Environment, Danvers, Massachu setts. Contact: Tel:(732)562-3875,Fax: (732)981-1203.

Tennessee. Contact: Tel: 1-800-4469431.

April 19-24,1999. HANNOVER FAIR '99, Hannover, Germany. Contact: Tel: I-800-727-4I83, Fax:(416) 364-6557.

April 22-23,1999. Canadian Pollution Prevention Roundtable - Innovators in

Pollution Prevention, Vancouver, BC. Contact: Tel: 1-800-667-9790, Fax: (519) 337-3486.

April 22-24, 1999. Ontario Ground Water Association 47th Annual Conven

May 16-19, 1999. OWWA-OMWA

With up-front estimates and pre-installation inspection, Munro Kor N'SeaF manholes

give you: • A pipe gasket which allows for

settlement with less possibility of pipe shear at the manhole; • Zero leakage at the point of pipe entry; less flow loss in the sewer;

• Immediate backfilling with no need for your workers

May 16-20,1999. Bio'99 International Biotechnology Meeting and Exhibition, Seattle, Washington. Contact: Tel:(202) 857-0244, Fax:(202) 331-8132.

no lost time.

It means your team plays at low risk and with

And that means savings for you!

May 18-20, 1999. Canadian Confer ence on Energy Efficiency, hosted by Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON. Contact: Tel: 1-800-342-7146.

Association 27th Annual Conference, Vemon, BC. Contact: Tel: (604) 5400111, Fax:(604)540-4077.


to re-enter the manhole.

Contact: Tel:(519)869-8933,Fax:(519)

April 25-28,1999. BC Water & Waste

Munro's Pre-Benched

1999 Joint Annual Conference, Ottawa, ON. Contact: OWWA,Tel:(416) 2527060, Fax:(416) 252-3908.

tion and Trade Show, London, ON. 869-8940.

Get your team off the bench and into the game faster with

May 23-26, 1999. North American No-Dig '99, Orlando, Florida. Contact: Tel: (312) 644-0828, Fax: (312) 6448557, E-mail: NASTT@Bostrom.com

May 26-28,1999. Combustion Canada April 25-30,1999. CORROSION/99, '99, Calgary, AB. Contact the CC '99 Coordinator, Tel:(613) 236-6222, Fax: (613) 236-6850.


June 20-24,1999. Air & Waste Man agement Association 92nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, St. Louis, Mis

Another Concrete Solution from Munro!

Prevention Association's Health &

souri. Contact: Tel: 1-800-270-3444,


Safety Conference & Trade Show '99-

Fax:(412) 232-3450.

NACE Intemational's 54th Annual Con

ference and Exhibition, San Antonio,

Texas. Contact: Tel: (281) 228-6223, Fax:(281) 228-6300.

April 26-28,1999. Industrial Accident

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

For more information, circle reply card No. 140


The understated costs of infrastructure The existing infrastructure deficit is in the order of$60 biliion

Consider the harbours in St.

public debate on our

John's, Halifax, Saint John

cient capacity for current use, and im proved safety standards.

and Victoria where untreated

At different times since its founda

sewage is discharged. These and others are well-known and widely deplored examples of inadequate infra

tion in 1925,the Association of Consult

true costs to the tax

ing Engineers of Canada (ACEC) has championed the cause oflong-term sti'ategies and policies for infrastructure re

payer should become amply evident and politicians will hope fully pay more than lip service to this issue. The existing infrastructure deficit is the gap between the investment required to maintain or upgrade existing infra structure to acceptable standards and the amount actually invested. CuiTently, it is in the order of $60 billion, without even taking into consideration the an cillary costs. In order to capture the overall scope

structure in Canada.

For several reasons over the past 1015 years, governments at all levels have given low priority to the upgrading of essential infrastructure such as roads,

wastewater management and natural hazard controls, opting instead for "Band-Aid" solutions most often imple mented as a result of politics, public pressure or tragedy. For the most part, these essential infrastructure compo nents are between 25 and 35 years old, and several of them are older. The defi

ciencies are a result of several factors,

including normal wear and tear, insuffi-

By Bob Lorimer, P.Eng., Chair, Association of Consuiting Engineers of Canada

newal. Road fatalities, disease and other

injuries and losses confirm ACEC's con cerns, more so since a large portion of these avoidable tragedies is directly at tributable to deteriorating infrastructure. The costs go beyond those of the materials and labour required to renew such installations, and are often under stated, if stated at all, when the issue is

publicly discussed. Chief among these understated costs are health care, lost

wages, property damage and insurance. As professionals whose prime respon sibility is the health and safety ofthe com munity, we are in a unique position to comment on infrastructure issues and make recommendations to the relevant

authorities. At least, we can stimulate

1 =1



infrastructure deficit.

With discussion, the

of this mounting problem, perhaps some perspectives on the situation would be appropriate. A study by the National Institute for Scientific Research conducted in Que bec revealed that, although 75% of mu nicipalities have water distribution in spection and evaluation programs in place, the status and performance of more than 30% of the water transporta tion systems are unknown to municipal managers. Moreover, some 20% of the water conduits are more than 50 years old, while roughly 10% of the systems surveyed are in dire need of repair. The study also revealed that the public gen erally believes the life expectancy of existing underground installations to be anywhere between 250 and 700 years! ACEC is one of several business,




A LOW PERMEABILITY CONTAINMENT WALL FOR GROUNDWATER POLLUTION CONTROL □ rapid, clean Installation □ minimal chemical diffusion

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Tel: (519) 856-1352 62

Fax: (519) 856-2503

For more information, circle reply card No. 166 (See page 25)

professional and municipal groups cur rently making representations to govern ment on the issue of a permanent infra structure revitalization policy. Our job is to point out to our politicians that com mitting public funds annually to essen tial services helps reduce the burden on other essential support systems. This, in turn, creates economic growth thi^ough increased efficiency, but more impor tantly, through the improvement of the community's health and safety. "The quality of Canada's infrastruc ture is a direct indication of our envi

ronmental and economic vitality. When we fail to maintain these basic services,

we are failing our citizens and our fu ture." These words were penned by the National Liberal Task Force on Munici

pal Infrastructure, May 31st, 1990. ❖ Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999


They've re-equipped the pumping station in Lachenaie, Quebec,

with the new N-Pump series from Flygt. And Supervisor Jean-Guy Raymond is noticing some big savings in his monthly maintenance costs. "No more clogging and having to clean the station out every two weeks. That's very important for us. Now we just do a simple maintenance check to make sure everything's working fine," says Jean-Guy.

Introducing the new N-Pump


Find out what else

Jean-Guy and other operators have to say about the new N-Pump design. For more information, or to order

your free copy of the N-Pump video visit www.ittflygt.ca

The patented design of the new N-Pump's impeller combines higher pumping efficiencies with clog-resistant characteristics.

All the new N-Pumps feature a unique hydraulic design


which maintains peak pumping performance over longer

operational periods - especially in fluids with a high waste or solids content. The result: better efficiency in

ITT Industries

handling wastewater; less maintenance and lower costs.

Engineered for life

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For more information, circle reply card No. 142(See page 25)

PCB Focus

Hazardous waste incineration A viable and environmentally sound option ficient to restrict the evaluation to com

bustion efficiency as might be the case in a power boiler. An equally important aspect of incineration is the ability to remove pollutants that can be produced during the combustion process and those that are constituents of the waste mate

rial. Pollutants may also arise as a re sult of incomplete combustion while others are formed in the post combus tion zone where conditions may be favorable to synthesis and recombina tion reactions. Pollutants in the flue gas stream include the well-known inor

ganic compounds such as hydrogen chloride, sulphur oxides and oxides of nitrogen but of more concern from a health and environmental perspective are organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metal emissions, particularly heavy metals.

Test proved the BOVAR system exceeded regulatory requirements.

Millions of tonnes ofPCBs

and other industrial waste

materials are produced in North America each year. A significant amount of this is classi

Thus the common measurement of

thalpy, energy levels and psychometry. performance is expressed in terms ofthe Subject to chemical equilibrium, the Destruction and Removal Efficiency following general reactions will occur (ORE) for a designated component in during incineration of waste materials: the waste. DRE is usually expressed as • All hydrogen converts to water vapor. a percentage. The standard of perform

fied as hazardous waste for which in


ance for incinerators used for hazardous

cineration is the preferred means of

•All carbon conveits to carbon dioxide,

treatment from both an environmental


and economic perspective. Incineration poses a number of decided advantages over disposal technologies:

• All chloride (halogen) converts to hy drogen chloride, HCl,(Halogen acid). • All sulphur converts to sulphur dioxide. •Alkali metals convert to the hydroxide

waste treatment that has been adopted by all major environmental protection agencies, such as Environment Canada,

• The volume of hazardous waste is

greatly reduced by incineration. • Toxic compounds are converted into less harmful compounds. The performance of incinerators can be predicted and measured on a continu


• Non alkali metals convert to oxides.

In assessing the performance of a hazardous waste incinerator it is not suf

Alberta Environmental Protection and the US EPA is 99.9999%. It is also cus

tomary to establish additional emission criteria including particulate matter, acid gases such as hydrogen chloride,carbon monoxide and pollutants of concern Continued overleaf


ous basis.

Incineration is an engineering proc ess that uses thermal decomposition in a highly oxidative environment to de compose organic molecules into simple compounds, predominantly carbon di oxide and water. A necessary property

Liquids Sludge

of the waste material is that it be com

bustible. The incineration of organic compounds is well understood and the end result can be predicted by basic thermodynamic concepts including en-

Collision Scrubber

Separator Shredder


By H.B Krenkel, Operations Manager, Swan Hills Treatment

Combustion Condenser/


Centre and

A. Wakeiin, Sensor Environmental Services Ltd.


H Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

The 7th Annual Environmental Conference &

Workshops - Now With Its Own Tradeshow! The most cost-effective networking opportunity of 1999

April 7 & 8,1999


To be held at the conference and tradeshow facilities


The Constellation Hotel

900 Dixon Road, Etobicoke, ON For the first time, Environmental Compliance '99 will also feature its own Two Day Tradeshow with some 25 booths. To receive an exhibitor kit, please contact us at: 1-888-254-8769

Luncheon Sessions - FREE Admission Visitors to the tradeshow are invited to attend the special luncheon workshops at no charge. For free admission to the tradeshow, and for the free workshops, please fill in the registration form below and fax this page to ES&E. Your badge can be picked up at the registration desk at the show. April 7,1999 - noon to 1:30 p.m. April 8,1999 - noon to 1:30 p.m. • Computer Applications in Environmental Mgmt. • Site Remediation • Emissions Monitoring • Monitoring • Wastewater Treatment Technologies • Wastewater Treatment Complete or attach business card and Fax in this page to register for your complimentary PASS to the tradeshow and the FREE lunchtime workshops(not valid for conference sessions). Your badge can be picked up at the registration desk. Name:



Company: Address:


April 7 & 8,1999 Province:

Postal Code:

Business Phone: i

Produced by:

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine Tel:(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271

Tradeshow open 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. daily The Constellation Hotel

900 Dixon Road, Etobicoke, ON

PCB Focus

such as poly chlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and poly chlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs). BOVAR Waste Management oper ates one of the most modern hazardous waste incinerators in North America.

The facility located near Swan Hills, Alberta has conclusively demonstrated an operational performance that is su perior to the regulatory requirements. This is the result of careful attention to

the understanding of incineration proc esses, design and operating protocols. Prior to receiving an Operating Approval from Alberta Environmental Protection, BOVAR was required to demonstrate the performance of the in

cinerator and its associated air pollution control devices through a series of test burns. These tests proved conclusively that the system exceeded the regulatory requirements. In order to monitor the performance of the incinerator on an ongoing basis, a number of instruments continuously monitor stack emissions. The param eters monitored are oxygen (O,),carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxicle (CO,),

hydrogen chloride(HCl), sulphur diox ide(SO,),oxides of nitrogen(NOx)and total hydrocaiBons(THC). Oxygen,car bon monoxide, carbon dioxide and to

tal hydrocarbons provide measures of combustion efficiency. The mainte nance of high oxygen and low carbon monoxide levels are regulatory require ments that must be maintained at all

have the waste characterized by labora tory analysis. The analysis of the waste must quantify the heating value, halo gen content, and priority pollutants such as poly chlorinated biphenyl(PCB)and inorganic compounds such as heavy met als. This information allows the opera tor to establish the operating parameters that will achieve the necessary combus tion conditions required to destroy the waste. The most important operating parameters for proper incineration are temperature, residence time, oxygen availability and turbulence or mixing. During incineration, waste is com

sis on heavy metals and condensed or ganic compounds on particulate matter. Duplication the key to superior performauce

busted with air and, while the theoreti

tion products or flue gas ai^e then cleaned in two stages of gas scrubbing in which caustic is employed to remove acid gases and particulate matter is primarily re moved by a fabric filter baghouse fol lowed by a high energy scmbber. In ad

cal quantity of air can be calculated and supplied, it is necessary to provide ex cess air in order to achieve complete burning. Depending on the physical and chemical properties of the waste,excess air is supplied in amounts that range from 5% above the stoichiometric amount to more than 200% of the stoi

chiometric quantity. In addition to predicting and manag ing combustion, the identification and control of emissions from incineration

is a subject of intense debate. Emissions can be considered to be inorganic gas discharges, organic gas discharges and particulate discharges. Inorganic gas discharges include car-

feeds if a variant condition is observed. In addition to these continuous measure

ments, BOVAR is required to test the incinerator on an annual basis to dem onstrate that the incinerator continues to

perform as intended and with the emis sion criteria. This is refen'ed to as Com

pliance Testing and is conducted by an independent third party. The following describes the technol ogy employed in the BOVAR incinera tor at the Swan Hills Treatment Centre

and the performance as measured dur ing a typical Compliance Test. The technological keys to performance levels In order to specify the appropriate operating parameters, it is necessary to 66

characteristics of the waste. The combus

dition to these features, the BOVAR in

cinerator employs a dioxin and furan con trol process that is proprietaiy. These design features, coupled with the adherence to stringent operating protocols, result in a level of perform ance that BOVAR claims is equal to or better than any other hazardous waste incinerator in the world. The results re

ported during the 1998 Compliance Test are compared with the regulatory re quirements in Table 1.

Table 1 - Regulated Emission Limits and Actuai Performance Recorded during the 1998 Annual Compliance Test Contaminant

Regulatory Requirement

Stack Survey Averages

% of Regulatory Requirement

ORE (calculated on PCB)




Total particulate Hydrogen Chloride Sulphur dioxide Carbon Monoxide

20 mg/m^ 75 mg/m^ 325 mg/m® 57 mg/m^

6.2 mg/m® 3.9 mg/m' Less than 3 mg/m^ 1 mg/m®



0.5 ng/m®

0.079 ng/m^


times. Process interlocks will automati

cally shut off waste feeds if these pa rameters deviate from prescribed values. Similarly, the measurement of HC1 and SO,provide an accurate measure of the performance of the inorganic scrubbing system. These instruments will also bring about the termination of waste

A feature of the BOVAR Waste Man

agement incinerator is that each ofthe unit operations (combustion, acid gas scrub bing and particulate removal) is dupli cated. Combustion is carried out in a pri mary combustion zone(the kiln) and in a secondary combustion zone (the Second ary Combustion Chamber). This ensures a high degree of combustion efficiency regai'dless of the physical and chemical

31% 5.2% 0.9%

Toxicity Equivalent

bon dioxide, acidic gases such as HCl and SO, and CO. Emission limits for all of these except carbon dioxide are imposed on incinerator operators. The limits imposed by Alberta Environmen tal Protection are shown in Table 1.

Organic gas discharges may result from incomplete combustion of the waste material or from reactive compounds formed during the combustion process. The focus in recent years had been di rected towai'd minimizing the emission of cyclic compounds in general and dioxins and furans in particular. Particulate emissions include both

organic and inorganic matter with empha-

The values reported are calculated on a dry basis comected to 11% oxygen at 25°Cand 101.325 kPa.

The PCDD/PCDE Toxicity Equiva lent is calculated in accordance with an

internationally recognized formula that is based upon the toxicity ofspecific con geners as compared to 2,3,7,8 PCDD. As the data supports, the BOVAR Waste Management incinerator clearly surpasses the regulatory requirements in all areas. These levels of performance are the result of both good design and good operating practice. For more information, circle reply card No. 143

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999






• Air & Water Quality • Instrumentation & Control

Environmental Technologies Process Equipment Hazardous Materials Management

Pollution Monitoring & Control

Automation Systems

Wastewater Treatment

and much more...

Plant Operations & Maintenance

REGISTER TODAY FREE & SAVE the $ 10.00 onsite


registration fee. For more information, call (416)385-2030

JOB FUNCTION (Check one) □ Corporate Management

or toll free 1-888-823-7469

Complete this form and MAIL or FAX to: ENVIROTECH CANADA '99 do Conexsys Toronto, P.O Box 386, Station B, Etobicoke, Ontario M9W SL4 FAX:(416)740-2580. if you pre-register, your badge will be mailed to you in advance of the Show. Photocopy form for additional names. Pre-registration deadline is April 23, 1999. PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY...incomplete information will delay your Show badge.







□ Engineering & Operations Management/Plant Manager □ Maintenance, Operations & Production Engineering

□ Pulp. Paper, Wood □ Rubber, Plastic

□ Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing □ Lab/Hospital

□ Pharmaceutical □ Construction

□ Other

□ Identify/Specify Needs POSTAL CODE

□ Utilities □ Automotive □ Textile

□ Water, Wastewater □ Chemical, Petrochemical



□ Other

PRINCIPAL BUSINESS (Check one) □ Consulting/Engineering □ Food, Beverage, Tobacco □ Oil, Gas, Mining

□ Evaluate/Recommend CITY

□ Operator

□ Government

D Authorize/Approve


□ Quality Control/Assurance □ Design Engineering/R & D □ Regulatory

□ No Role


For more information, circle reply card No. 144 (See page 25)


□ □ □ □ □ □ □

$1 - $49,900 $50,000 • $99,999 $100,000-$499,999 $500,000 - $999,999 $1,000,000 - $4,999,999 $5,000,000 - $9,999,999 $10 Million and Over

PCB Update

Reviewing the Canadian PCB industry The key for generators is to select a facility or service company that can provide as much of a total package as possible.

PCBs have not been sold in

Canada since 1976, yet we find ourselves with many stoi^age sites still active through

out Canada. Often, the PCB waste has

been stored for 10 years or more in metal drums that have begun deteriorating, posing yet another thi-eat of leaking into the environment. The intent of the stor

age regulations and indeed the genera tors of PCB waste, was that by putting the waste into proper drums or other containers and placing them into modi fied storage containers, the risks of a mishap would he reduced. Now, after

Hills Treatment Centre was not allowed to receive PCB waste from outside Alberta until 1995.

Different technologies began to de velop and become available to generators. For example, mobile technologies for the treatment of transformers came on line,

then mobile treatment of hghting ballasts. There was even talk about installing mo bile incineration units on a temporary basis at strategic locations throughout Eastern Canada to rid ourselves of this

containers, which usually are sea con tainers, ai^e subject to msting out. In order to understand why this situ ation exists, it is important that one un derstands the disposal options available to PCB generators from the point at which the ban was put in place to the current day options. In 1976, there were virtually no op tions for disposal of high level PCB waste in Canada. European incineration

persistent and very pubhc problem. In fact, the reason that everyone was focusing on mobile or transportable so lutions, was because the public had a tre mendous fear of PCBs, especially after they saw PCB liquid spilled on the Trans-Canada Highway near Kenora, Ontario. The subsequent cleaning ef fort frankly would have scared the hell out of anybody. Men dressed in white suits and respirators were all over the place and parts of the Trans-Canada highway were being dug up, almost as though a nuclear accident had occurred. Then again in 1988,a fire broke out in

facilities received thousands of tonnes

a PCB warehouse in St. Basile le Grand,

all this time, even the bottoms of these

In order to understand why this situation exists, it is important that one understands the disposal options available to PCB generators from the point at which the ban was put in place to the current day options.

waste. The key now for generators is to select a facility or service company that can provide as much of a total package as possible in a safe, effective and costefficient manner, all the while limiting the potential overall liability. There is no standard,for example,for the amount ofinsurance that a provider ofPCB serv ices must maintain in order to receive

an approval from governmental authori ties. Insurance coverage ranges from $2,000,000 to $14,000,000 for the same type of service. When involved in clean ing up a PCB spill or other incident of any magnitude, one must ask if $2,000,000 is sufficient. The following is a list of other sig nificant elements that generators should take into consideration before deciding how best to deal with their PCB waste

in order to minimize the potential liabil ity and risk. After all, regardless of the quantity of waste to be disposed of, the effect of one's company name appear ing in newspapers because there has been an incident involving their PCBs is the same - something that must be avoided at all cost.

1) Does the service provider have a closure plan for the facility? If so, how does the closure plan cover the PCB waste at the facility? It is im portant to understand what happens to your waste if a company is unable to fulfill the terms of the contract. In some

cases, there is a bond or letter of credit

in place to ensure that, should the owner of the facility close the doors due to financial difficulty or any other reason, the waste in inventory is disposed of with the funds available under the secu

of PCB waste, shipped to them by sea blocked the export of PCB waste. This was as a result of waste being shipped

Quebec, causing the evacuation of ap proximately 4,000 residents who again watched pohce,firefighters and pubhc au thorities wander through their neighbour

back to Canada from England after longshoremen refused to offload a ship

hoods dressed in full-face masks. Who wouldn't be scared? Because of these

containing PCB waste destined for an incineration facility in England. This action by Environment Canada

until 1989, when Environment Canada

and build facilities that could properly

events, Canadians agreed that PCB ma terial needed to be disposed of but would only allow mobile or temporary technolo gies to be installed in their region. Today, the NIMBY(not in my back yard)syndrome has worn off and finally

treat or dispose ofPCB waste within our

we have a number of fixed facilities in

own borders. In fact, Bovar's Swan

Canada available to generators of PCB

was in effect a call to Canadian indus

try to develop their own technologies

rity instrument. It is also important to see this in writ ing and ensure that there is little chance ofthe waste returning to the original gen erator. One must be careful when told:

"We take title of the waste from the mo

ment your waste is on the truck." In many cases the provider of disposal services doesn't have their own transportation,so who takes title? Generators ofPCB waste

have cradle-to-grave responsibihty and, should the service provider become in solvent,the waste can be retumed if there is no such financial assurance.

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

Pre-Engineered Pump and Monitoring Packages Metcon offers a variety of pre-engineered, fabricated metering and control packages, as well as design and fabrication of custom systems.

Packaged panels are corrosion resistant, preengineered, pre-packaged, completely selfcontained package with chemical metering pumps, all necessary piping, appurtenances and fittings assembled and tested by Metcon. Chemical metering pumps, instruments and all piping, fittings and accessories are mounted on a white polypropylene panel, drilled for convenient horizontal or vertical mounting.

Pre-mounted packages are a cost-effective way ofensuring reliable operating systems. A variety of process control/monitoring packages for measurement and pumping of chemicals is available.

Features Union connections for ease of maintenance.

Compact design and sturdy construction. Chemical resistance and durability. Pre-engineered for different chemical requirements. Convenient, easy, and fast installation. Minimal time for start up. Fully enclosed panels available. Single pump, multi pump, stand by/duty arrangement. SALES & ENGINEERING LIMITED

Inexpensive monitoring and control packages. Panels for existing pump installations.

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776 Corydon Ave., #759, VUnnipeg, MB R3M 0Y1 - Tel: (204) 895-8487, Fax:(204) 896-6606, E-mail: metcon@ican.net For more information, circle reply card No. 306 (See page 25)

PCB Update 2)How does the service provider han dle waste tracking to ensure that waste from different generators can be identified for the entire time that it is in their care?

Again there ai'e no govemment stand ards for tracking waste while the serv ice provider is handling it. Some facili ties dismantle electrical equipment into small components. It is important that the generator is certain that after this process every component has indeed been recycled or disposed of properly. Some facilities use manual log sys tems to record the waste that is being

each component of the waste has gone. 3) What happens to these different components of electrical equipment? There are many components that need to be dealt with. Electrical equip ment may have residual liquids inside even though the equipment has been drained. Transformers, for example, contain wood, paper insulation, copper, steel, ceramic bushings,etc. It is of pai^amount importance for the generator to ensure that all components ai"e dealt with in a manner that minimizes liability.

porous residuals and other debris sent to be incinerated at the only fully inte grated incineration facility in Swan Hills, Albeita? If the facility includes incineration of porous materials regard less of PCB concentration, how is the

Are the ceramics, which in most cases are contaminated, sent to landfill

site monitored for fugitive emissions? What type of measures are in effect to prevent environmental contamination, i.e. liner systems under the flooring and steel containment areas? What type of air and water sampling takes place to ensure that the surrounding area is pro tected and that generators will not find themselves with liability issues down the

received and others use more reliable

or are they sent for qualified PCB in

road? How is the health of the workers

computer controlled bar-coding systems which eliminates the possibility of in correctly transcribing numbers or letters from one page to another. At the end of the day,the generator must know where

cineration? Do the metals go to smelt

used in new or refurbished transfoim-

monitored and protected? If the facility handles lead shielded cable, is this op eration done in an enclosed sepaiute ai^ea with proper ventilation? Are the work

ers? Are the metals recycled? Are the

ers monitored for lead contamination in

ers or to scrap dealers or, as in some cases, are they shipped overseas to be

their bloodstream?

At the end of the day, the generator must know where each component of the waste has gone.

4)What are the sampling procedures for material once it has been decon taminated?

As in the cases mentioned above,

there is no industiy-wide standard for the sampling protocol of material once it has been decontaminated. One must



> Efficient information management - so you can

spend less time managing, more time understanding

James N. Bishop BEAK International Incorporated is pleased to announce the appointment of James N. Bishop to the position of Chief Operating Officer. Concurrently, Mr. Bishop continues in his role as VP, Ex ecutive Consulting, Corporate Environ mental Services, assisting clients in meet ing their environmental mandates and pro viding expert testimony in related legal

environmental data.

Effective compliance management. • Reduced costs for

reporting to regulators and management


Mr. Bishop has acquired over 30 years of experience In the evaluation of environ mental impacts. Prior to joining BEAK in 1997, Mr. Bishop was Vice President of

^ Consistency in environmental protocol and procedure.

â–ş Configured to your operatio,

MDS Environmental Services Ltd. (19951997), Vice President of Environment Pro tection Laboratories, Inc. (1990-1994),

> Reduced potential for

and Director of the Water Resources


Branch of the Ontario Ministry of the En vironment (1984-1989).


He has served on the Technical Advi



For more information, circle reply card No. 147 (See page 25)

sory Board of Environmental Science & Engineering since the magazine was launched early in 1988.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

PCB Update understand the frequency of samples,the location from which samples are re moved and the manner in which sam

ples are taken. This perhaps is the area where facilities can most easily cut cor ners if they chose to. One can take sam ples from strategic locations or with a strategic sampling protocol to ensure either the success or failure of a sam

ple. While it is not being suggested that

facilities falsify samples, if a sample is not taken correctly or in the coiTect lo cation, the risk of the facility sending contaminated metals back into the en

vironment is significantly increased. Also, does the facility take samples using hexane wipes or do they use dry wipes? The difference in the results us ing hexane wipes is far more accurate and can be as much as seven times

higher than the results with dry wipes. While the CCME guidelines explain the proper recommended procedure for sampling, it is not always applied the same way from one facility to another. Overall, it is indeed a good thing that more options are now available to gen erators for the disposal of PCB waste.

Kirkland Lake facility, there now exists over capacity in the marketplace for the treatment of electrical equipment, which will no doubt translate into savings for generators. With the options available today in Canada for the disposal and treatment of PCB material, there is no excuse for Canadians to hold this waste

in inventory with the associated mount ing risk of aging storage sites. The generator should be looking at using a company that offers the most turn-key operation possible. For exam ple, does the company operate its own transportation fleet or does it sub-con tract transportation? This is especially important when the generator is shipping liquids. Is there a potential for a truck carrying liquid waste from previous stops coming onto your property and

spilling PCBs on your site? If this were to happen, what is the chain of respon sibility? Would you have to wait for each company in the chain of responsi bility to respond? Can the company also offer site services with their own per sonnel? Again you want the responsi bility to be with the company you hire for the job and want the least number of sub-contractors possible. These are by no means the only items that a generator should consider. When deciding which option to use one must be diligent and ensure that the environ ment that we live in is protected for our selves and for future generations.

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 146

...there is no industry-wide standard for the sampling protocol of material once it has been decontaminated.

In fact, with the recent addition ofTCTs



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• split-spoon sampling inside & outside buildings • Installation of monitors for

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Site Remediation

New photocatalytic process provides 99.9+% reduction of VOC at Superfund site

Anew photocatalytic process, said to offer marked eco

nomic advantages, is claim ed to have demonstrated

consistent, 99.9+% reduction of a vola

tile organic compound(VOC)from soil vapours and groundwater at the Stamina Mills Superfund site in North Smithfield, Rhode Island. It is now undergo ing independent evaluation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technol ogy Evaluation (SITE) program. The proprietary Adsorption Integrated Reac

tion(A-I-R-2000™)process, developed by KSE, Inc. of Amherst, Massachu setts, has been licensed exclusively worldwide to Trojan Technologies, Inc. of London, Ontario. The VOC contamination derived

from the 1969 spill of an unknown quan tity of trichloroethene(TCE)at a textile mill formerly located at the site. El evated TCE, above the maximum con

The A-I-R-2000™ Process has demonstrated consistent, 99.9-h % reduction of a

voiatiie organic compound(VOC)from soil vapours and groundwater at the Stamina Miiis Superfund site in North Smithfieid, Rhode island.

taminant level(MCL)of5 ppb for drink ing water, was measured in 1979 at a well 800 feet away, and was noted by EPA in 1988 to have migrated as far as 1,200 feet. Concentrations as high as 290,000 ppb were found in groundwater at the spill area. EnSafe Inc. of Memphis,Tennessee, supervising contractor for remedial de sign and remediation at the site, began a dual-phase treatment of soil vapours and groundwater with the AIR 2000 unit last May. Craig A. Wise, EnSafe's VP.

first four months of operation indicate that the technology is not only perform ing well, with low electiicity usage of 15 to 20 amps for the entire system, and high pollutant destruction efficiency, but it also does not appear that there is deg radation of the photocatalyst over time." Gallardo explained that the absence of observed degradation was very sig nificant, since it indicated a departure

of remediation services said:"We meas

from what had been seen in numerous

ured TCE destruction efficiency at 99.98% in May; 99.99% in June; 99.93% in July; and 99.99% in August. Now we're looking forward to the EPA SITE program, not only to further con firm the capability for TCE reduction from soil vapours, but also to gain ac ceptance for use of the technology on groundwater via air stripping." Vince Gallardo, EPA chemical engi neer in the SITE program, said he had reason to be optimistic about the proc ess even though evaluation data were still preliminary.

other studies of photocatalysis. EnSafe's Craig Wise said the eco nomic advantages offered by the A-I-R2000 Process were revealed during the technology evaluation phase. "We started work on designing a sys tem based on the EPA technology se lection of soil vapour extraction and activated carbon adsorption, with ultra violet peroxidation of groundwater," he

"While the data that have been col

lected have not undergone a rigorous re view of the sampling and analytical pro cedures to ensure that they are credible, and that the conclusions dr^awn from the 72

results are scientifically sound," he cau tioned,"the unvalidated results from the

remembered. "But when we determined that the bulk of the TCE was below the

water table in the top of the weathered portion of bedrock, and realized that vapour extraction of that mass would also require pumping groundwater, we began to think differently." Wise added that during a treatability study on the UV peroxidation of the

groundwater, another concern emerged. "While the UV peroxidation was shown to work, we could see it was go ing to be very expensive, because of the presence of naturally-occurring metals like iron and manganese," he explained. "When you added the hydrogen perox ide to bleach out the organic of interest, it was also consumed by oxidation of the metals, driving up the cost consid erably. We were also very concerned about the disposal or reactivation costs associated with activated carbon adsorp tion, given it was going to take 7-10 lbs. of carbon per lb. of TCE, and we were estimating a total TCE mass of 15,000 lbs. in the source area. So we began an active search for alternative approaches." The A-I-R 2000 Process consists es

sentially of adsorption of VOCs onto a UV light-activated proprietary cata lyst, for breakdown to carbon dioxide and water, and also to hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a small amount of chlorine gas when the VOCs are chlorinated. With a maximum internal operating tem perature of I25°E, it is claimed to be a low-energy system when compared to other catalytic technologies that feature thermal catalytic equipment. For more information, circle reply card No. 150

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999


Confidence in safeguarding our environment

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BOVAR's cradle-to-grave approach minimizes the risks hazardous wastes pose to people and the environment. We embrace and develop our Industry's most advanced technologies. Our destruction efficiencies • for.organic waste materials exceed 99.9999%.

BOVAR haSjSafely processed over 200 million kilograms and :2,000 typpS of hazardous waste since 1987. With exceptional

vtranspoitatlon records, unsurpassed tracking and monitoring systems,

animpen reporting to our community and customers, BOVAR «earns complete confidence.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 145(See page 25)

Contaminent Control

Control of contaminated groundwater Using sealable joint steei sheet piling, contaminants are prevented from moving off site.

Low permeability containment walls are increasingly used in groundwater pollution control

and remediation. Contain

struction of small scale, closed test cells,

or they were found to be insufficiently watertight. Hydraulic testing of proto type sealable joint sheet piling in numer

ment enclosures minimize or eliminate

ous closed cells at CFB Borden and an

the need for contaminant plume control by groundwater pumping and water treatment. Contaminants are prevented from moving off site while site control

industrial site near Sarnia, Ontario, in

activities, such as source removal and

plume remediation, are canied out in the

dicated that bulk wall hydraulic conduc tivities of 10"^ to lO"'" cm/sec could be

achieved; this was well below the 10"' cm/sec limit normally required by regu latory agencies for vertical barriers at

isolated subsurface environ ment inside the walled enclo sure.

New passive and semi-pas sive treatment technologies for the interception and in situ treatment of groundwater con taminants provide alternatives to conventional pump-andtreat approaches. In systems

ing, any loose soil remaining in the cav ity is jetted clean with pressurized wa ter. A sealant injection line is then low ered to the base of the open cavity and a low permeability grout is emplaced from bottom to top. Potential leak paths thi'ough the Bar rier are limited to the sealed joints and, therefore, thejoints are the focus of qual ity assurance and quality control proce dures(QA/QC). The vertical alignment of piles is monitored during driving, and the flushing and probing of the sealable cavi ties provides documentation regarding the ability to inject sealant the full length of the cavity. Records of grout vol ume, pumping time and start ing depth provide assurance that the entire cavity has been

such as these, containment


walls can be used to direct

Several types of sealants have been developed to meet specific project requirements. These include clay based grouts such as bentonite and attapulgite, cement based grouts modified with expand ing agents, epoxy polymers, urethane polymers and inflat able mechanical packers. Grout selection is governed by the required service life of the installation, chemical compat ibility with groundwater con

plumes into subsurface treat ment zones containing reac tive media. This article de

scribes the development and recent applications of sealable joint steel sheet piling for groundwater containment wall construction. Waterloo Barrier

The Waterloo BarrierÂŽ is a

steel sheet piling system that incorporates a sealable cavity at each interlocking joint(Fig ure 1). It was developed in the late 1980s by researchers at the University of Waterloo for the purpose of construct The Barrier was driven to refusal through stiff to hard soils ing secure test cells for con comprised of a mixture ofsand, day and gravel using a cranetrolled releases of DNAPL

mounted vibratory hammer.

chemicals to a shallow sand aquifer at

contaminated sites. A roll-formed,

Canadian Forces Base Borden near

manufactured version of the sealable

Alliston, Ontario.

sheet piling became commercially avail

Several available containment wall

technologies were investigated and found to be cost-prohibitive for the con-

By R.J. Jowett, Waterloo Barrier Inc., D. Smyth, University of Waterloo, D. Lee, AECL,and C. Creber, Dow Chemical Canada Inc.


able in late 1993 and is now in use at more than 25 contaminated sites in North America.

Standard pile driving equipment and techniques are used to install the Bar rier. A foot-plate at the base of the sealable cavity displaces soil laterally as the steel sheets are driven into the

ground, preventing the build-up ofcom pacted soil within the cavity. After driv

taminants, and whether or not

the piling has to be removed from the ground after site cleanup. The Waterloo Barrier has

proven its versatility in differ ing geological conditions and in a wide variety of applications. However, as with all steel sheet pile walls, the Bar rier is not suitable for use in extremely dense or rocky soils, and in densely populated urban areas the noise and vi bration from pile driving equipment may be a concern. Typical applications in clude containment to limit offsite migra tion or protect waterways,the construc tion of subsurface in situ treatment sys tems, and structural support and dewatering for the excavation of con-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

rial. During construction, the Barrier

Figure 1


functions as a structural wall as the

clinoptilolite is installed in an excavated, temporary sheet pile enclosure. The upgradient side of the enclosure is then removed to open the reactive curtain to groundwater flow. The downgradient Barrier remains in place as an imperme able cut-off wall to prevent ingress of surface or groundwater into the reactive


medium. The curtain-and-wall in situ treat

ment system was designed with the aid of three dimensional numerical model

ling and then tested in the laboratory. It offers a cost advantage and also a higher degree of hydraulic control and moni toring than alternative methods.


The Waterloo BarrierÂŽ system showing interlocking steel sheet piling and modified joint with the seaiable cavity. taminated soils. Two examples of Canadian projects are described in more detail.

surface reactive curtain of granular clinoptilolite oriented perpendicular to groundwater flow and backed by a

Dow Chemical Canada Landfill Site

Waterloo Barrier containment wall

Sarnia, Ontario

sealed to the underlying bedrock (Fig ure 2). A passive tile drain maintains a uniform hydraulic head across the reac tive media. Monitoring and control is performed at two adjustable weirs allow-

A Waterloo Barrier containment wall

system totalling approximately 16,000 square metres was completed at this in active disposal facility in the summer of 1997. Past disposal activities at the landfill resulted in lateral migration of contamination from the landfill through fissures in weathered clay, and pooling at the top of unweathered consolidated clay at various depths up to 6 metres.


Waterloo Barrier seaiable joint steel sheet piling has demonstrated its ability to limit the migration of groundwater from contaminated sites, thereby reduc ing the impact to adjoining property or waterways. Installation is clean and rapid with minimal site disturbance and no excavation of contaminated soils;

Curtain of Reactive Media Waterioo Barrier Cutoff Wall -Level Control Manhole

The Waterloo Barrier was installed to

prevent future migration of contaminants beyond the limits of the property. The Barrier was driven to refusal through stiff to hard soils comprised of a mixture of sand, clay and gravel using a cranemounted vibratory hammer. A diesel hammer was then used to key the wall into the dense clay formation. Final depths of the wall range up to 7.3 metres. A proprietary organic polymer manu factured by Dow was selected to seal the joints because of its low permeability, elasticity and resistance to chemical deg radation. Subsequent phases of work at


Wall & Curtain

Plume Mitigation

Figure 2

the site entailed excavation of contami

ing the capture zone to be manipulated. Shallow uncontaminated groundwater

however, its use may be subject to limi tations in certain geotechnical environ

nated soils on the down-gradient side of the Barrier and replacement of the con

will be diverted around the treatment



The construction of irregular layouts with the Barrier, for example as in sub surface in situ treatment systems,can be easily achieved. Significant advantages of the Barrier are its predictable hydrau

taminated soil with clean material.

AECL Eacility Chalk River, Ontario A novel wall-and-curtain system has

been designed to intercept and treat a

strontium-90("'Sr) plume situated in the lower half of a 12 metre thick sandy aquifer. The system incorporates a sub

Clinoptilolite is a hydrated aluminosilicate mineral (zeolite) that removes

the '"'Sr from solution by sorption and retains it for an extended time. The re

active curtain is predicted to have an operating life of more than 20 years and could be rejuvenated for longer service

lic performance and documentable QA/

with the addition of new reactive mate-

circie repiy card No. 151

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

QC during the construction process. For more information,


Combined Sewer Overflow

R V. Anderson wins an Award of Merit During severe storm events the estimated 650 kiiometres of combined sewers in the Region of Hamilton-Wentworth receive sewage fiows that overwheim the trunk sewer and treatment plant faciiities.

The Main / King Combined

the environmental assessment, prelimi

at the 1998 Canadian Consulting Engi neering Awards presentations in Edmon ton, Alberta. One of the largest facili

the environment during all storm events. The Award of Merit for this project recognizes the challenges that were met to successfully complete the design and construction of this $22 million project. The small 2 1/2-hectare park site avail able to construct the tank complicated the severe time and budget constraints.

ties of its kind in Canada, this buried

An expressway with on-off ramps on

storage tank is designed to capture com bined sewage overflows dur ing a rainfall event that is oth erwise being discharged and conUibuting to the pollution in

three sides and a railway on the other

Construction logistics were consid ered during the design. A digital terrain model was developed to esti mate the size ofstockpiles that could be expected during the

Sewer Overflow Storage Tank, designed by R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

was recognized with the Award of Merit

nary and detailed design, approvals and tendering in less than 12 months. The contractor, Kenaiden Construction, was

awarded the project and proceeded to complete the fast-track project, meeting all deadlines required by the funding program.

excavation work. The final

Hamilton Harbour on Lake

cut-fiU calculations identified


the need to temporarily store

During severe storm events

some of the excavated materi

the estimated 650 kilometres

als on finished sections of the

of combined sewers in the Re

tank while other portions were being constmcted. The design,

gion of Hamilton-Wentworth receive sewage flows that

therefore, provided for this ex

overwhelm the trunk sewer

tra loading on key roof areas.

and treatment plant facilities, resulting in overloading at the plant and throughout the sewer system. The historical

low for speedier construction were a modular design to fa

Other considerations to al

cilitate the re-use offorms and

scaffolding during construc tion, and the design of a spe

relief measure has been to

open a number of control gates and overflow the excess sewage directly into Hamilton Harbour. Over the years this has contributed to the pollu tion that has disrupted plant

cial concrete mix with low

and fish life and caused beach closures

surround the site, creating difficult traf

in the area waterways. The new combined sewage overflow

fic control and access conditions. It was

storage tank is 75,000-m^ in size and de signed to contain the sewage overflow

nicipal landfill until 1927. People scav enging for relics, and managing hazard ous soil conditions, were just some of

from all but the one or two largest an nual storm events for two of the major drainage areas in the Hamilton system. Even in the most extreme storm events

when the tank capacity is exceeded, it still provides the benefits of containing

also discovered the site had been a mu

crete to pour, the need to design a facil ity that was conducive to fast-track con struction was essential.

struction efforts that went into this

The project team, the client repre sentatives and governmental agencies made extraordinary efforts to complete

unique project. For more information, circle reply card No. 123

As a result of the time constraints to

meet the requirements of the CanadaOntario Infrastructure Works Eunding program, only one full summer period was available to construct 85% of the

portion that usually carries the heaviest pollutant load. The tank contains fea

project. With as much as 150,000-m^

in the tank, preventing their release to

By Reg Andres, P.Eng., R.V. Anderson Associates


keep the tank clean and odour free, with no components of the system in contact with the sewage stored in the tank. The tank is now operating under ground and the site has been restored as a city park. No great monument is vis ible on the surface as this large facility silently provides a key improvement to the water quality of Hamilton Harbour. The award received for this project is an appreciated recognition of the crea tive and innovative engineering and con

the hurdles that needed to be overcome.

the "first flush" of a storm flow, that

tures to retain solids that settle or float

shrinkage and high workabil ity characteristics to accommo date large continuous pours. One of the design features of the tank is a tipping bucket cleaning system located in an easy access gallery for the system operators. This provides for a simple and effective operation to

of soil excavation and 25,000-m^ ofcon

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

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See us at our website at www.tci-pcb.com For more Information, circle reply card No. 310(See page 25)


One threat of Antarctic collapse ruled out

John Anderson,profes or ofgeol

ogy and geophysics at Rice Uni versity, and graduate student Stephanie Shipp, have been studying how the West Antarctic Ice

els predicted." Professor Anderson has made 20 vis

Sheet slides across the bed of rock or

its to Antarctica over the past 28 years to study the structure, movement and erosion of this icy continent. There is a lai^ge range of uncertainty

sediment beneath it, a mechanism be

in trying to predict how much the ice

lieved to be one that could lead to break

sheets will contribute to sea level rise over

down of the ice sheet. The sliding al

the next century as Earth's climate warms. Reports published by an international government panel estimate a rise in sea level by 2100 that varies in range from

lows it to accelerate, become thinner and

eventually float off the sea floor. This phenomenon is known as ice sheet col lapse, which could raise the world's sea

20 centimetr^es, which is minimal and the

age into the ocean occurs. To get a more accurate prediction of future behavior of the ice sheet, scien

tists look at a variety of complex fac tors, including temperature, precipita tion, the ice sheet system, and climate change and its direct impact on surface oceans. The most predictable impact of global warming is that of expansion of the oceans as surface waters become warmer. Scientists also want to under

stand those complexities over a 100-200 year scenario.

level and threaten to flood coastal areas.

present rate, to 96 centimetres. The West

Other mechanisms that have been

To test the plausibihty of this mecha nism,Rice geologists have been examin ing the geological record ofthe ice sheet's behaviour during the past 20,000 yeai's. "The evidence we have today shows that this was not an important mecha nism in the past," Anderson says. "The evidence suggests that the recent retreat

Antarctic Ice Sheet is believed to be the

tied to a rapid retreat of the ice include melting under the ice from warm ocean

Island would not survive, South Louisi

of the ice sheet has been slower and more

ana would be flooded, and Bangladesh

continuous than previously thought. So this portion of the ice sheet appears to be more stable than some previous mod

would be under water." To date, re search has focussed on the Ross Sea,

most likely source of this rise, but there is still debate concerning the ice sheet's stability and those mechanisms that could cause the ice sheet to melt.

"If this extreme prediction comes true," Anderson says,'Texas's Galveston

where 50 percent of the ice sheet drain


"The undermelting now seems to take on greater importance," Anderson says, "now that the ice sliding across a bed of deforming sediment is played down by our results." In visits to Antarctica this year; Pro fessor Anderson and his team of graduate and undergraduate students will focus on other factors that could lead to collapse.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1999

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