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Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

November 1998


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storage tank options - a special ES&Efocus Consulting engineers face new challenges Management of combined sewer overflows Some surprising Insurance claim statistics Large water treatment system opens in NS Examining aquifer storage options

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ISSN-0835-605X November'98 Vol.11 No. 5

Issued November, 1998


Editorial 7 20


Ad index




industry Update


Literature Reviews


Product Review


R&D News

Consulting Engineering in Canada ES&Es Annual Review


Reader Feedback


Reader Service Card


Sales Manager

Pubiistier TOM DAVEY


Managing Editor

Comment by Tom Davey Examining aquifer storage options



A professional engineer's lament


Environment sits on the back burner

7 Diversity critical for consultants 8 0 3

Hard to find work in Canada? The Western scene Hamilton's historic waterworks

Sales Representative



Circuiation Manager

Publisher's Assistant



Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Jim Bishop

Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Beak International Inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QER Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.


The facts about dual fuel cars


Flow meters affect profits The limits of centrifugal pumps Cover Story - Unique upgrade to EC's Powell River sewage plant Mgmt. of combined sewer overflows

40 42

CH2M Gore & Storrle Limited

Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng.


Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE

MacViro Consultants

R.V. Anderson Associates

46 47

Orlando hosts WEFTEC '98

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

48 49 62 64

The economics of lab accreditation

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmenfal officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publlcafions Mall Sales

Product Agreement No. 181897

Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750

Printed In Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. (13.S.T. extra)

All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 8417271, E-mail: Web site:

Has Europe failed its forests?

Liability insurance claim statistics Environmental noise and vibration Taste and odour control

Focus on Tanks

Keeping your tanks in compliance The future of above ground storage Ontario's new fire code Environmental site assessments

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Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Media myopia reveaied with its focus on poiitioians'eyegiasses

The news media maintains its

preoccupation with trivialities at the expense ofimportant en vironmental news stories right

under their noses. First Reform leader

Preston Manning was lampooned be cause he had undergone laser surgery to eliminate his need for eyeglasses. He also underwent dental surgery, along with a new hairstyle. The result was that he actually looked younger and more photogenic, not such a bad thing for poli

were both former federal Environment

Ministers in the Mulroney Government.

Meanwhile, the news media contin ues its quest for trivialities at the expense

I met Bouchard at the Environment

of real news with undiminished fervour.

Canada awards at the National Gallery in Ottawa and Jean Charest at an AQTE

I was in Vancouver in late June for a con

ference, weeks after the Suharto incident,

conference in Montreal. At the time of

but coincidently held at the Pan Pacific

writing, the two are virtually locked in a dead heat in the polls so their bilin gual mastery and charisma in the ensu ing political debates will be an impor tant factor for Canada. Whatever your politics, it cannot be denied that Charest and Bouchai^d are fonnidable politicians. With such a monumentally important issue as national unity at stake, surely

Hotel where Chretien had earlier shaken

Suharto's hand as ifit were a water pump. This time, the hotel hosted the Intema-

tional Association of Water Quality. Almost 1,500 scientists from around the world,including top environmental sci

the voters deserve better than the un

entists from Asia,Japan, Russia,Europe, India and the Middle East presented and debated their findings in an unprec edented assembly of global environmen

healthy disposition on the part of the

tal talent.

media to focus on such trivialities as the

of the absurdity spectrum when Jean

For the first time in lAWQ's history, there were practical sessions on prob lems facing such industries as forestry, pulp and paper, mining, and other sec

Charest was reconstituted from a Con

tors vital to the environmental and eco

servative to become leader of the Que bec Liberal Party. Shortly afterwards, Charest was actually seen wearing eye

Columbia has seen its fish stocks rav

ticians in an era of 10 second TV video

bites. But quite a lot of ink was spilled, and kilometres of video tape rolled be fore the novelty wore off. As news an chors have their hair styled and wear make-up daily, the TV comments had the taint of hypocrisy. Then the heat shifted to the other end

nomic health of the province. British

glasses for the first time. Now millions of Canadians wear eyeglasses, perhaps the majority do so after they reach 40. But some members of the media, ever

vigilant to interpret things on behalf of us poor,struggling masses with low IQs, actually raised the question of aging when Charest's eyeglasses first appear ed on TV. Charest aging? He might actually be the only politician who has to show his ID when he enters a liquor store!

We have always been impressed with his eloquence in French and English. He also has the charisma Quebecers demand of their leaders. He will soon be going head-to-head with the equally eloquent

wearing of eyeglasses. Discard your eyeglasses, you invite redicule. Start wearing them and you invite another kind of derogatory reference. By contrast, our Federal Prime Min

in Banff National Park because animals

ver, he seems to have had a charisma

while I was there.

bypass many years ago. His clumsy ref

Even wearing my eyeglasses I could not find a single pixel of TV devoted to the greatest concentration ofenvironmen tal scientists in the world, nor a drop of ink spilled on behalf of the conference.

next provincial election in November. Both leaders are political switch hit ters. Much earlier, Bouchard resigned from the Mulroney Cabinet to become leader of the federal Bloc Quebecois. It was the quickest conversion since St. Paul was struck on the way to Damas

RCMP pepper sprayed legitimate pro

It is ironic that Charest and Bouchard

What I did see was a TV report show ing that wildlife was occasionally killed

were attracted to grain spillage along the railway track. It was a moving story but did not merit the numerous repeats I saw

erences to the APEC incident when the

of Commons, he actually became offi cial Leader of the Opposition. Only in Canada you say. The Bloc was later nudged out of this position by the opti cally renovated Preston Manning.

on for almost a week.

'Teflon PM', even though he is equally inept in both official languages. Moreo

ister, Jean Chretien has been called the

and charismatic Lucien Bouchard in the

cus. After he was elected to the House

aged, its forestry products industries suffer, and the price of Vancouver real estate plummet, leading to further shrinkage of the forest industry. This was a great chance for the BC news media to pose serious questions to some of the world's authorities on every type of ecological issue. But I saw zero news reporting on this conference which went

testers, indicates that his sense of humour

might have been surgically removed at the same time as his appendix. Canadians had been pepper sprayed and their protest signs removed from private property so that a bloody tyrant. President Suharto, who brought his own gun-toting thugs to Canada, should not

Jack Norman,for putting on such a mag nificent meeting. Sportingly, he asked: "How can we possibly match this 1998

be embarrassed. These are serious is

conference when it is held in Paris in the

sues, but later Chretien said dismis-

year 2000?" Too bad no Canadian report ers were there to hear this generous trib

sively: "Pepper? I put it on my plate." 'Peppergate' might yet become his po litical epitaph.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

The next Conference President, Denis

B allay ofErance, was moved to congratu late Canada and Conference President,

ute from a real environmental scientist

with an intemational reputation. â?–

Reader Feedback Dear Mr.Davey, Thank you for your editorial series about the neglect of our environmental protec tion infrastructure. I am an engineer em ployed by the Ontario government and

The people of Ontario should send a message to this govemment to spend the money to maintain our roads, sewers, water supply systems, and air pollution control programs. Without them,

it is evident to me that the role and in

Ontario will not have the infrastructure

fluence of government engineers has de clined in recent years. Today, the Min istry of Environment views engineers as little more than big ticket expense items. They are not viewed as professionals who can contribute to improving On

to compete with other jurisdictions for the jobs and industries of the future. Name withheld hy request

tario's environment.

It is interesting to note that the engi neers in the Ministry of Environment are classified lower than their colleagues in the other ministries of the Ontario Pub

lic Service (OPS). This is a reflection of the environment ministry's valuation of its engineers. The Ontario Government's decade-

long drive to de-credentialise profes sional positions has resulted in the de mise ofthe technical expertise within the OPS. We all suffer when policies are made without adequate technical input. Dear Tom, As discussed with you at Water Quality International'98 in Vancouver, this will be my last R&D News submission. I think a short review of the column is ap propriate. The first R&D News draft was sub mitted to Water & Pollution Control in

Directors, I would like to thank you for your very interesting presentation at our Annual Conference in Niagara Falls. We recognize and appreciate that you are a very strong supporter of our in dustry. I hope that you enjoyed the meet

ing and had an opportunity to associate with some of our members and guests. Once again, thank you for your par ticipation. I look forward to meeting with you again in the future. D.C.Ingram,P.Eng., President Consulting Engineers of Ontario

reader requests for 1989 increased sig nificantly, confirming our belief that ES&E was reaching a much broader sci entific and engineering audience. In the 9 1/2 years with Environmen tal Science & Engineering (up to the July, 1998 issue), 1,026 items were pub lished. Requests for additional informa

1980 issue. When Southam sold Water

tion requests are received from the pri

In November, 1988, the CAWPRC

Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer, ES&E's R&D News Editor for nine years, has retired. He was honoured at the opening session of the International Association of Water

Quality Research in Vancouver before some 1,000 people from ai^ound the world. Over 1,400 people ultimately regis tered for the conference. The lAWQ

praised Dr. Eisenhauer for his role as R&D Editor for ES&E, and for his work

with the lAWQ. Peter Laughton (left), R.V. Anderson Associates, and a mem

ber of both lAWQ's Governing Board and ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board, presented the award.


More than two-thirds of the informa

vate sector, and most of these (55%) come from individual consultants or

consulting firms. Approximately one quarter of the requests are received from federal, provincial or municipal govem ment agencies. The remaining 5% are

News is fulfilling the technology trans fer purpose for which it was designed.

R&D News had been launched to

of the Canadian Association on Water

fulfill one of the objectives of the Asso ciation, namely; promoting water qual ity and water pollution research and the practical application of such research.

Quality, I am very pleased to thank you most sincerely. Finally, I should like to add my per sonal thanks and appreciation for your help,cooperation,advice,and friendship over the past twenty years. H.R. Eisenhauer, R&D News Editor, CAWQ

The first submission to ES&E was


tion on 585 items were received from

reviewed the publication results in Water & Pollution Control, as they had emerged over the year. There had been a dramatic reduction in reader requests. It was con cluded that the readership of W&PC had changed and that the magazine no longer reached the scientific and engineering community to the same extent.

made in January, 1989 and you have continued to publish the column ever since. It is interesting to note that the


On behalf of CEO and our Board of

458 individuals.

R&D News to ES&E.


Dear Tom, Re: CEO Annual Conference

October, 1979 and, on your advice as Consulting Editor at the time, was ac cepted for publication in the January, & Pollution Control and you left in late 1987 to launch your own publication. Environmental Science & Engineering, you invited the Association to move

R&D Editor honoured by

received from universities.

It is clear from the number ofrequests we receive and their source that R&D

This success could not have been

achieved without your support and co operation over the years and, on behalf

John Meunier inc. is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. R. Wayne Elliott as a technical repre sentative for the municipal market through our Ontario office. Mr. Wayne Elliott, C.E.T., joins John Meunier inc. with more than 25

years experience in water and wastewater treatment.

John Meunier inc. was established

in 1948 and has been engaged since then in providing advanced technolo gies and equipment in the fields of water and wastewater treatment.

John Meunier

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


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Industry Update

ppm level would come into effect in

working group has presented options for sulphur reductions. Sulphur levels in gasoline now aver age 360 ppm in Canada, among the high


est in the world. Levels in Ontario aver

Sulphur levels In gasoline

be phased in. In 2002, the level would

to be slashed

be lowered to an average of 150 ppm, with a maximum of 200 ppm. The 30

The federal government is introducing regulations to significantly lower the allowable level of sulphur in gasoline sold in Canada. The proposed regula

In 1995, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment endorsed

tions would reduce the sulphur content

a report from a federal-provincial Task

in gasoline to an average level of 30 parts per milhon(ppm)with a maximum of 80 ppm. This is a 90% reduction from average levels today. To reduce the im pact on industry, the requirement would

Force on Cleaner Vehicles and Fuels

which called for a reduction in sulphur

in gasoline. Since then, independent expert scientific panels have reported on the matter, and a federal-provincial

aged 530 ppm in 1997, but levels in other regions of Canada averaged between 260 and 290 ppm. The proposed regulations would bring Canadian gasohne sulphur levels in line with those in California,

lapan and the European Union. It is expected that the petroleum in dustry will have to spend $1.8 billion to meet the new standard, resulting in a I

cent per litre increase to the price of gasoline, or about $20 a year per car.




New stabilizing force hits Canada Armtec, a Division of Jenisys Engi neered Products, has introduced a new

family of soil reinforcement and filtra tion products. Armtec's PWG series geogrids and HS series geotextiles are used in retaining walls, steepened slopes, embankments over soft subgrades and soil stabilization applications. The WMF series of geotextiles are monofilament fabrics, used in critical

filtration and erosion control applica tions where nonwoven needle-punched



geotextiles are not appropriate. Contact Doug Dowry, Geosynthetic Product Manager, Tel: (519) 822-0210, ext. 265, E-mail:

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Fax your resume to: Joel Jacobson (905) 738-5520 or e-maU tAlEI k CNCIN

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


Improved oxygen wastewater treatment More restrictive environmental

regulations have many industries looking for ways to improve their wastewater treatment systems. The use of pure oxygen as an alterna tive to air offers major advantages in the effectiveness of the treatment

liquid is pumped downwards ment vessel. The hood captures through the draft tube, entraining most of the undissolved oxygen oxygen contained under the hood. for reuse by the system, with ad The pumping action of the ditional oxygen requirement sup impeller ensures adequate gas-liq plied through an inlet in the hood. For more information, uid contact and bulk liquid mix ing within the wastewater treat circie repiy card No. 106

and in operating cost-efficiencies. The use of pure oxygen can sig nificantly reduce or eliminate the emissions of VOC(volatile organic compounds), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand)and odours, com pared to air-based systems. Oxygen-based systems, like Praxair's I-SO™ (In-Situ Oxygenation™) mixing unit, combined


with an on-site VPSA (vacuum


pressure swing adsorption) oxygen generating system, are adaptable to both new and upgraded treatment facilities.

Praxair has acquired Liquid V —


Carbonic Industries, making us^ the world's largest supplier of carbon dioxide and a good deal more

Praxair's In-Situ Oxygenator has a 90-h% oxygen utiiization rate.

When used to upgrade an exist ing air-based treatment plant, the ISOWPSA combination can repre sent as little as half the capital costs and use a third less power than the

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Industry Update Citizens want stronger environmental laws

The majority of citizens in the world's most populous countries want sharper teeth in laws to protect the environment, according to an intemational survey con ducted by a polling consortium. Ma jorities in 28 of 30 countries surveyed, ranging from 91 percent in Greece to 54 percent in India, said environmental laws in their countries "don't go far

enough". Only in Nigeria and Finland

do the majority of citizens feel environ mental laws "strike the right balance" or "go too far", according to the survey, which was coordinated by Environics

17 countries, strict laws were the favored

International Ltd. of Toronto.

instrument. Support for economic in centives to reduce industrial pollution was strongest in France, the United States, Germany, and Canada.

More than 35,000 people were polled in person or by telephone: The poll has a margin of error of plus or minus 3 per cent. About 40 percent of respondents in China and 27 percent in India pro vided an environment-related response when asked about the most important problems facing their nation.

Beta from ProMinenf,ingeniously simple,simply genius. ProMinenfs new Beta

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In 17 countries, researchers sought

opinions on the most effective way to reduce industrial pollution. In 15 of the

manufacturing costs. Beta's better price comparison means

Canada reports decreases in discharges to water Releases of 176 reportable pollutants by industrial facilities in Canada decreased

by 14.9 percent in 1996,from 1995 lev els, according to a report released re cently by Environment Canada. Re leases of reportable pollutants dropped to 142,613 metric tons in 1996, a de crease of 25,001 metric tons from 1995,

said the report. National Pollutant Re lease Inventory Summary Report 1996. A total of 1,818 Canadian facilities

filed 6,635 pollution reports in 1996. Facilities reported 12,999 metric tons of pollutants released to surface waters in Canada, a 62.2 percent decrease from mainly to the closure of a mining op

1995 levels. This decrease was due eration in British Columbia.

The Saint John, Saint Lawrence, and Detroit Rivers received the greatest

Why the New Beta Pump from ProMinent gets the Green Light.

amounts of pollutant discharges, the re port states. Lor more information or copies of the report, contact Environ ment Canada, 1-800-668-6767. Ottawa to ban water

exports If provinces agree The federal Environment Minister

Christine Stewart, has announced that Canada will introduce legislation to ban the export of fresh water provided the provinces agree with the initiative.


A Private Member's bill which would

prohibit interbasin transfers of water,has already been introduced in Parliament. On May 13, Bill C-404, An Act to pro hibit the export of water by interbasin transfers, passed Eirst Reading. The moves are in response to the furor generated when it was discovered that the Nova Group had secured a per mit from the Ontario government to draw water from Lake Superior for sale



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try quickly took action and announced on May 14 that the Nova permit had been cancelled. The Ontario Ministry of Environment has also revised its

policy directive to restrict the transfer of water out of Ontario's water basins,

including the portions of the Great Lakes within provincial boundaries.

Environmental Science <& Engineering, November 1998



















Complete mixing gives you the edge As the Biological Nutrient Removal(BNR) process gains popularity in wastewater treatment, the critical role played by mixing becomes even more important. Complete mixing improves the overall process and prevents short circuiting and dead zones. However, the mixing must be strong enough to ensure good distribution of the tank's contents, yet gentle enough to minimize the shearing of the floe. Flygt Submereible Mixere are ideal for BNR applications. Why? Because Flygt Submersibles run at low speed, produce low turbulence, and draw in a minimal anount of air. Moreover, they consume minimal power compared to conventional, long-shaft mixers. Flygt 4600 Series Submersible Mixere are compact, direct-drive units whose principal advantage in BNR applications is flexibility-i.e. the flow can be pointed in any direction to minimize hydraulic losses and maximize the amount of energy utilized for agitation. In anoxic zones, Flygt Banana Blade Mixers are an excellent choice because they provide gentle mixing and outstanding energy efficienq'. Currently, some 90 Flygt Submei'sible Mixere are being used in BNR processes across Canada. If you're thinking about adopting the BNR process in your facilit)', you can rely on Flygt Submersible Mixeix to provide the suspension in your suspended growth process. For more information, call your nearest Flygt representative today.


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Industry Update NS releases first

environment report

Alberta community protects its lakes town and its citizens. In 1997, a

Nova Scotia has released its first "State

of the Environment Report", focussing on air, water and waste resource man

agement. The report was released on July 29, and is the first in a series of planned reports intended to provide a comprehensive picture of the state of Nova Scotia's environment. This first document takes stock of the

province's air and water quality and ex amines waste resource management. An electronic version of the report is avail able on the Department of the Environ ment website at:

Golder acquires Terrain

The Town of Chestermere, Alberta, lo


cated 20 km east of the City of Calgary is a picturesque lake community home to many recreational attractions. Because of the lake's many attrac tions, the quality and protection of the lake's water is of major concern to the

Golder Associates, an earth sciences and

engineering consulting firm, has ex panded its information technology serv ices by completing its purchase of Ter rain Resources Ltd.

team of engineering and adminis trative professionals in the Town of Chestermere took a significant step forward in their goal of con trolling stormwater pollution from entering their lake. A total of seven Lafarge Stormceptor Systems were in stalled within their town, ranging in apphcation from gas stations and strip malls, to residential areas. Southwell Trapp & Associates, Stanley Associates Engineering, and L.E.W. Engineering were the consultants involved in the implemen tation of the Stormceptor Systems. Volker Stevin Contracting, and Car eer Construction handled the installation of the units.

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 112

Terrain, a Canadian-based information

technology firm with offices in Canada,

since March 1997. The acquisition for-

the United States and New Zealand, had

mahzes this alliance and enhances Golder

maintained a strategic alliance with Golder Associates' Canadian operations

Associates' ability to provide Geographic Information Systems(GIS), digital map

ping, image analysis and information management services to clients in min ing,forestry,agriculture, oil and gas,pipe lines and resource management.

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For more Information, circle reply card No. 110 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Difficult-to-access pipes Hard to repair. Expensive to repiace.

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Insituform Technologies specializes in reha bi l itating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard-to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the inside, in most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Extensive independent and internal testing consis tently confirms fhe success of our methods.

We take sole-source responsibility for solving your problem, from the develop ment and manufacturing of proprietary products, to the engineering and installa tion of a solution at your site. Our ISO 9000 quality system assures high quality every step of fhe way.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 111 (See page 25)

Water Treatment System

By James Hannam, P.Eng*

New filtration plant ensures quality water for Halifax region

Thestart-up of the Lake Major

Filtration Plant in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, scheduled for December 1998, should en

sure customers of the Halifax Regional Water Commission(HRWC)of a longterm supply of quality water all yearround. A public-private partnership be tween the HRWC and a private joint venture utilizing a design-build meth odology has enabled the project to go from ground-breaking to start-up in 18 months.

This is a region in which, through out history, people's lives have been in extricably linked with water. Dart mouth's neighbour across the harbour is Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, founded in 1749. The presence of the


Citadel, a fortress built within the Hali

fax City limits and Fort Louisbourg, loeated some 460 km northeast of Dart

mouth, give us a good account of what life was like during the early settlements of Nova Scotia. This city is also the burial site of some 122 victims of the Titanic.

The cities of Halifax and Dartmouth are located across from one another on

Pipe laying operation proceeded rapidly with Bar-wrapped Concrete Cylinder Pipe, AWWA C303, installed in trench with gravel bedding. The back hoe performed multiple duties of excavating the trench, laying the bedding material, moving the trench box, lifting the pipe from the right-of-way and placing it into the trench.

world after Plymouth in England. Today the Halifax/Dartmouth area

months when the lake water warms. The

of Atlantic Canada.

only solution was increased chlorina-

A need for full filtration

Atlantic Ocean. Halifax Harbour then

In 1844,the Halifax Water Company started the water supply system for the City of Halifax. The city purchased the system in 1861 and operated it in one form or another until 1944. On January

widens into the Bedford Basin. Halifax

ed from the hazards of the sea, boats of

all sizes have always found this port to be ideal. However, the port was the scene of a tragic explosion in 1917, when a Belgian relief steamer collided with and triggered a fire aboard the French munitions ship, Mont Blanc. This explosion,the largest man-made explosion before the bombing of Hiro

1, 1945, the Halifax Water Commission

was given a mandate to operate and maintain the water supply system after it was ravaged by the demands of two world wars and the neglect of an eco nomic depression. Since then,the Com mission has transformed the water sup ply system into a modern, efficient and financially sound structure providing high-quality water and service to its cus tomers.

shima, caused the death of over 2,000

Until 1996, the Dartmouth Water

Haligonians, leveled most of the north end of the city and damaged much of

Utility ran the water distribution system for the city of Dartmouth. The system pumped water from its supply lake. Lake Major, to an open lake reservoir at Lake Lamont. A treatment facility at

the downtown section. Two decades

later, during World War II, huge convoys heading for Europe formed-up in the Bedford Basin. The port of Halifax soon became the second busiest port in the 'Chief Engineer, Halifax Regional Water Commission 16

Historically, there were problems with bacteria levels during the summer

maintains its role as the economic, in dustrial, educational and cultural centre

a narrow, deep natural harbour off the

and Dartmouth are linked by the Angus L. Macdonald and the A. Murray Mackay bridges, as well as by ferries. Because it is a deep-sea port and since the Bedford Basin is well protect


Lake Lamont chlorinated the water and added lime and associated chemicals for

stabilization. From there it was pumped into the distribution system, which has been in place for approximately 120

tion, with associated deterioration in taste and odour. Then, in the summer

of 1994, a boil order was placed on the Dartmouth water system for several weeks because oflevels of coliform bac

teria. This heightened the need for a full filtration treatment facility, a solution that has an objective to provide potable water that meets the Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. The Dartmouth Water Utility was in the planning stages of a new treatment facility when,in 1996, the Nova Scotia provincial government mandated the amalgamation of the four municipal units operating in the Halifax/Dartmouth met ropolitan area. Within this process the Halifax Water Utility, Dartmouth Water Utility, and the Halifax Water Commis sion combined to form the unified Hali

fax Regional Water Commission. New treatment plant a priority In 1997,the new treatment plant was amongst the first major projects under taken by the HRWC. The Dartmouth distribution system has a current de mand of 10IMGD. The new three-stage Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

the Phoenix Panel System*


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Provides uniform airscour distribution

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AWPs other products and services Filter Audits"'• Real-time Pilot Studies• Filter Optimization • Filter Retrofits

FilterSil® Angular Sands• Filter Media Design • Filter Media Supply • Filter Media Installation For more information, circle reply card No. 113(See page 25)

Water Treatment System, cont' filtration plant, which is being con structed on the shore of Lake Major, about 10 km from downtown Dart

to match the plant's capacity. The pump station will pump water approximately 200 m uphill to the treatment facility.

mouth, has a capacity of 20 IMGD, expandable to 32 IMGD if future de

structed at Mt. Edward, the heart of the

A new 5 MG reservoir has been con

470 m, 1,050 mm diameter raw water

line was installed from the pumping station to the plant site. A 5.75 km,1050 mm diameter treated water line, con

mand warrants.

distribution system, beside an existing

structed under a separate contract, was run from the filtration plant to the base

Three-stage treatment consists of chemical premix/coagulation, upflow

5 MG reservoir. All treated water will

of the Mt. Edward reservoir site. A 500

be pumped through the Lake Major

m,900 mm diameter water main com

clarification, and dual-media filtration.

Treatment Plant to the Mt. Edward res

The filtered water also will be chlorin

ervoirs, then gravity fed to the full dis

pletes the connection to the reservoirs. Public-private partnership

ated. As part of the project, an existing low-lift pump station has been upgraded

tribution network.

In order to accelerate construction,the

In order to feed this filtration plant, a


works and Inland Pacific Waterworks

The Toveko CX sand filter Distributed in Canada by Dagex Inc., the Toveko CX continuous sand filter is an ingenious way of polishing water through sand filtration. Versatility makes Toveko CX sand filters suitable for municipal sewage and industrial wastewater, as well as oil removal and

using the Walter Group as the general Arlft

contractor and CH2M Gore & Storrie

Sand Washing Rinse Water

Screw Drive Sand Washer

drinking water treatment. Easy installation Constructed of 304 stainless steel in standard 1.5

modules, 2.3 m in height, configured in a lateral mode, the Toveko sand filter is easy to install, minimizing space requirements. Filters are site delivered, assembled as a single line of modules ('S' series)or as back-to-back modules(T series) up to 12.0 m^





Controi Panel

Stable filtration

The even surface of the sand layer gives a stable Eff uent

filtration with no risk of short circuits.

Visible monitoring

Efficient purification

of air lift.

These filters provide efficient purification, even at very low flow rates, because of the special positioning of the air lift at the inlet shaft.

Dagex Inc. also custom designs and builds rectangular and circular lamenar style plate settlers, with capacities to 200 per hour. These units can he custom designed to fit your available plant space/tankage space.

Step Screen for superior solids separation Also distributed in Canada by Dagex Inc., the Step Screen system uses the actual solid particles in the cleaning process. This unique method provides higher filtration efficiency than that provided solely by actual slot width. On the step-shaped laminae, where every other lamina is connected to one fixed and one

moveable part, a carpet of solid particles is formed. This gives a high sieving efficiency. Over 2,500 installations worldwide. Here's why: • Minimum wear and tear means minimal maintenance.

• Easy installation-simple to adapt to existing channels.

• Easy to service, tiltable screen and easily replaceable laminae. • Stainless steel construction.

• Self-cleaning system provides a high degree of operation reliability. • Increased flow capacity. • Wide range of models available.


as the prime design consultant. The de sign-build approach ensured the project would be delivered in a set time period for an agreed price. When the designer and builder are on the same team, the


Sand turnover is automatic

Toveko CX filters are designed to cope with any load, whether continuously high or occasionally peaking.

HRWC chose to build the plant through a public-private partnership, awarding a contract to the Atlantic to Pacific(TAP) Group to design, build and commission the Lake Major Filtration Plant and the new reservoir. The TAP Group is a con sortium sponsored by CH2M Water

process moves faster than in the tradi tional approach involving three separate processes: design, competitive bidding, and construction by a different firm. The HRWC financed the facility and will own and operate it. Unlike other common public-private partnerships, this did not involve financing or opera tion. The HRWC had in-house financ

ing capabilities through the Municipal Finance Corporation, the provincial fi nancing agency, and operating experi ence with another treatment plant. Protecting the watershed The existing Dartmouth treatment process pumped water from Lake Ma jor to the treatment facility in town. Much larger in size, the new facility is sited on four hectares near the shore of

the lake, and extra precautions had to be taken to ensure that construction and

operation of the facility did not endan ger the watershed. The developer worked closely with the Nova Scotia Department ofEnviron ment during the permitting process to minimize the impact of construction, developing very detailed design, moni toring and control plans for erosion and sediment control and work site proce dures, including procedures for opera tion, refueling and maintenance of con struction vehicles. Significant buffer

4141 Yonge Street, Suite 307, North York, Ontario M2P 2A8

zones were left around the site itself,

Tel: (416) 250-7111, 1-800-665-7136, Fax; (416) 250-8111

which was cleared of trees.


The plans called for all stormwater 18

For more information, oircie reply card No. 114 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Water Treatment System, cont' to be collected from ditch and pipe sys tems and piped into the lake well down stream of the supply inlet. Particular care was paid to preventing hydrocar bon products from contaminating the soil. Therefore, construction vehicles were to be refueled and maintenance

performed off-site, and small equipment was to be operated using drip pans. There are two main components to the site: the water treatment plant itself and the waste treatment facilities. In

side the plant, the residual sludge from the three-stage water treatment process is de-watered using a mechanical proc ess - an equalization tank, a thickener, and centrifuge-increasing the percent

age of solids from less than 1% to 20%. The sludge is then trucked to freezethaw beds located behind the plant. In an extremely efficient process that takes advantage of repeated freeze-thaw cycles throughout the winter, melted water drains off the sludge, typically re ducing a one-foot thick layer of sludge to a couple of inches by the following spring. Concrete pressure pipe is cost-effective

While design of the treatment plant was underway, the HRWC contracted the consulting engineering firm of CBCL, Ltd. in Halifax, to design most of the 1,050 mm (i.e., all but a small sec tion that would be completed in conjunc tion with the plant) and all of the 900 mm diameter pipe to its specifications. During the pre-design process, CBCL engineers reviewed various pipe materials. Tenders were then called by the Halifax Regional Water Commission for the supply of the pipes and fittings, limiting the different pipe materials to concrete pressure pipe and ductile pipe. Upon tender opening,concrete pressure

pipe was the most cost-effective and met all of the technical criteria as well as the

delivery requirements. The concrete pressure pipe specifi cations required AWWA Bar-Wrapped C-303(pretensioned) concrete pressure

pipe with a gauge 10 steel cylinder. Electrical conductivity throughout the

pipeline was specified in order to be able to monitor the condition of the pipe. Holdfast restrained joints were specified at the points of deflection to ensure sta

bility of pipe sections during installation on the steep slope from Lake Major up to the filtration plant and to provide re straint at the points of deflection. The concrete used in the pipe was to

Installing 42"x36" tee note pipe by Hyprescon in Dartmouth, NS. Photo - HRWC be normal Portland cement concrete

with the addition of 8% by weight of silica fume in the mortar coating to enhance the barrier to chloride-laden

groundwater. Pre-mixed and prebagged mortar grout with additional fly ash was specified to ensure a consist ently high-quality product. The specs required use of watertight, rather than cloth, diapers to lend greater protection to grout in the external joints. Use of a silicone sealer was specified at the in terface of the pipe exterior mortar coat ing and the bell spigot rings to provide

effective delivery schedule to maintain a constant supply of piping. The ease ofjoining concrete pressure pipe also facilitated construction. Pur chase orders were obtained in July, and

by late November 1997 all the pipes and fittings had been supplied,installed and tested successfully, with completion ahead of schedule.

The design of the raw water line and of a small section of the treated water

line to be completed in conjunction with the treatment plant was executed by Porter Dillon Consulting Engineers,

a further barrier to chlorides. In addi

Halifax, in December 1997. By mid-

tion the presence of a skilled field tech nician from the pipe manufacturer was required on site an average of one day a

April 1998 all of these pipes and fittings had been supplied and installed by a design-build subcontractor. Maritime


Pipe laid ahead of schedule Approximately 3.75 km of the 5.75 km treated water line was installed in a

wooded area alongside Lamont and Topsail lakes, which forms part of the current water supply for the Dartmouth area. An old road right of way made this the most efficient and economical

route, avoiding impact on Highway 7, which is a major thoroughfare. Burial depth of the pipe was 1.6 m. Because approximately 2 km of the total had to be installed along the high way, the initial delivery and continuing rates of deliveries were crucial to avoid

disruption to traffic and businesses. The contractors. Dexter Construction of Bedford, Nova Scotia and Amber Con struction of Dartmouth, were very effi

Excavators (1994) Ltd., Goodwood, Nova Scotia.

Meanwhile, pre-construction site work began on the treatment plant in June 1997. The water treatment main

plant has a standard cast-in-place con crete slab foundation, as well as cast-

in-place treatment tanks, which were constructed in fall 1997. Useofpre-cast walls and roof Ts improved the effi ciency and quality of construction, ena

bling quick completion of the structure in spring 1998. The new reservoir was erected in

August 1998. Mechanical and electri cal equipment and wiring were installed in the plant in September and October

pipe manufacturer, Hyprescon, Inc., St.

1998. Performance testing is scheduled for November,and turnover of the plant before year's end. For more information,

Eustache, Quebec, had worked out an

circle reply card No. 115

cient in their installation. They and the

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


Water Resource Management

By Richard S. Wootton*

Aquifer storage recovery - a new water supply and reclaimed water storage alternative

Aquifer Storage Recovery

(ASR)typically refers to the storage of treated drinking water by injection through a well into a suitable aquifer storage zone when excess water is available. The water is recovered from the same

well as needed to meet seasonal, peak, emergency,or long-term water demands (Figure 1). In general, all of the stored water is recovered without the need for re-treatment other than disinfection. ASR reduces or defers the need for

water supply system expansion because it optimizes the use of existing facilities and available water resources by match ing available supply to water demand through underground storage(Figure 2). Typically,the cost to develop additional peak supply capacity is less than half the cost of conventional alternatives such as

expansion of water supply,treatment, or distribution facilities. Capital costs to develop 1 million litres per day(ML/d) of peaking capacity with ASR wells av

cesses, resolution of several technical

and regulatory obstacles, and the dem onstrated cost-effectiveness of ASR.

ASR system recovery capacities range from 4 to more than 400 ML/d and storage volumes range from 150 ML to 8,000 ML. All operational systems are storing treated drinking water; how ever, many systems are being designed to store reclaimed wastewater, untreated

groundwater from other aquifers, and high-quality surface water following

to determine its most useful objectives, overall feasibility, and cost-effective ness. ASR testing programs are usually completed in four steps: 1) Preliminary feasibility assessment using existing information. 2)Field investigations to obtain site-spe cific hydrogeologic data (e.g. coring, geophysical logging, and construction of one or more observation wells). 3) Design, construction, and testing of a full-scale (i.e. fully operational) ASR



ASR offers several applications in addition to seasonal, peak, long-term, and emergency storage (Pyne, 1995): • Reduction of disinfection by-products. • Restoration of groundwater levels.

4)Expansion of the ASR system to meet local or regional needs. Each step proceeds depending on the results and conclusions of the prior step. Omission of initial steps presents a higher risk that the completed facility may not perform as expected. Program duration depends on the number and length of the ASR test cycles but is usu ally two to three years. At the end of the program, assuming that regulatory approval is obtained, the water system has a fully permitted and operational ASR well that can be used for storing and recovering treated water.

• Reduction of land subsidence.

• Maintenance of distribution system flow and pressure. • Improvement of water quality. • Prevention of salt-water intrusion. • Reduction of streamflow diversion environmental effects.

erage $145,000 +/- $73,000. ASR op • Agricultural water supply. erating costs average $6,000 per year per • Nutrient reduction in agricultural ML/d recovery capacity +/- $3,600. runoff. • Enhancement of wellfield production. • Compensation for surface salinity small cost increments to meet increas barrier leakage losses. ing water demands and reducing envi • Reclaimed water storage for reuse. ronmental impacts from surface water • Soil aquifer treatment. diversions, surface storage reservoirs, • Stabilization of aggressive water. and storage tanks. • Hydraulic control of contaminant In the United States, ASR has been plumes. applied successfully at 27 sites and is • Fish hatchery temperature control. being developed at about 50 other sites. Typical ASR Development Program ASR systems are in operation or in de ASR technology has been success velopment in England, Australia, Ku fully applied in a variety of hydrogeowait, and Israel, while several other logic environments and applications. countries are considering ASR applica Application of ASR requires detailed tions. The Mannheim ASR pilot project, evaluation and field testing of each site currently being tested by the Regional Figure 1 RECHARGE Municipality of Waterloo, has involved

ASR also offers the benefits of phas ing water supply development with

Reclaimed Water ASR

In recent years, the application of ASR has been expanded to include stor age of untreated or partially treated sur face water, groundwater from different aquifers, and highly treated wastewater or "reclaimed water." The recovered water can be used to increase raw water

supplies for public purposes, for irriga tion, for industrial process water, or for ecosystem enhancement (i.e. boosting/ maintaining stream baseflow and sur face water levels). Recharge of reclaimed water through Continued overleaf RECOVERY

the construction of the first ASR well in Canada.

The first ASR system began opera tion at Wildwood, New Jersey, in 1969; however, almost all other systems have been implemented since 1983. The rapid implementation of this technology throughout the United States over the past 15 years reflects operational suc



*Senior Hydrogeologist, CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited 20

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Confidence in the worlds best available

waste management tecbnology;


For over 30 years BOVAR Waste Management bas delivered industry

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CONFIDENCE with safe, cost-effective waste management solutions, The Swan Hills Treatment facility utilizes the world's best available technology, employs highly trained personnel, and Implements one of the world's most comprehensive environmental monitoring programs. If has made us a world leader In the treatment of

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Complete liability release

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• Physical/chemical treatment

solidification treatment

other Inorganic compounds are chemically and physically stabilized using waste-specific recipes. Further testing ensures they're no longer hazardous and the resulting Inert materials are

Inorganic liquid wastes are chemically neutralized

• Incineration

• Stahilization and

Solid wastes contaminated with trace metals and

From the moment hazardous waste is loaded at your site, BOVAR accepts complete liability for the safe shipment, treatment and ultimate destruction of hazardous material. Throughout the entire cycle, the waste is tracked by computer reflecting our committment to safety, health, environment and risk management.

stabilized into an inert compound and placed In secure, on-slte landfill cells; liquid effluent Is injected 1800 metres below ground into a stable geological formation. Our business demands CONFIDENCE and we

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Destruction of wastes takes place at one of three high-tech facilities. Organic wastes are Incinerated at temperatures up to 1200°C with a destruction efficiency exceeding 99.9999%; acid gases and partlculates are scrubbed from the resulting flue gases; bottom ash and flyash are stabilized and placed in a secure, on-slte landfill cell.

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For more information, circie reply card No. 116(See page 25)

Water Resource Management, cont'd. recently started recharging highly treated reclaimed water through wells into rela tively shallow sand aquifers containing


fresh water. TIME






Figure 2

Typical ASR Operating Schedule: Water is stored when demand is low and surplus water is available and withdrawn when demand is high.

Many systems will likely follow this precedent because it substantially re duces the high cost of seasonal storage requirements for effluent reuse systems, making it possible for utilities to sell or use all of their effluent instead of just the limited amount available during peak irrigation times. Increasingly, this prac tice is perceived as an excellent water conservation measure, making more ef ficient use of existing water sources be fore developing new sources. Longterm operating systems have gained public acceptance and support based on their proven reliability and protection of public health and the environment. In Ontario, the use of ASR for re

wells is less common than basin re


charge or discharge to surface waters but has recently come to the forefront for aquifer rechai'ge and for seasonal stor age of reclaimed water for reuse. Three long-term operational reclaimed water injection well systems are in US loca tions: Water Factory 21 in southern Cali

Hillsborough County, Florida, re cently received final permits for testing a new ASR system that will seasonally store high-quality reclaimed water in a brackish aquifer and recover this water seasonally from the same wells to meet peak irrigation demands. The Cities of

fornia; El Paso, Texas; and Gainesville,

Scottsdale and Sun Lakes,Arizona, have

claimed water storage may have signifi cant additional economic and environ

mental advantages. Effluent discharge criteria are based on the assimilative

capacity of the receiving river under low flow conditions, which typically occur during the dry summer months. With continuous population growth, the cu-

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Analyzer/5440D Dissolved Oxy gen Sensor is the most ad vanced D.O. system available. Adding the self-contained airblast cleaning system makes it the best performing, low main tenance membrane system ever. Simple menus guide the operator through start-up, cali bration and operation. Circle reply card No. 238

mote facilities. This brochure

describes an automatic dialing/ remote monitoring system that will contact a series of prepro grammed telephone numbers with a voice message when any of the 96 alarms connected to

the system is tripped. Circle reply card No. 237

Optimizing water treatment processes... Ghemtrac Sys tems designs simple-to-use instruments that minimize sys tem failures and allow immedi

ate operator response to proc ess changes. These instru ments include Streaming Cur rent Monitors, Particle Moni tors and Particle Counters.

world's most accurate calibra

tion facilities. Supplied ready for operation and ISO 9001 cer tified.

Circle reply card No. 240

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Mississauga, Ontario L4V1J2 Tel:(905) 678-3388, Fax:(905) 678-0444 22

Circle reply card No. 239

Magnetic Inductive Flowmeters... The Aquaflux 470 Electromagnetic Flowmeter from Krohne provides high measuring accuracy and stabil ity. Every 470 Flowmeter is cali brated exactly in one of the

Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Water Resource Management, cont'd. mulative impact of wastewater disposal to rivers within a watershed could ex

ceed the assimilative capacity of the watershed ecosystem,resulting in devel opment freezes or escalating costs to meet increasingly stringent effluent dis charge criteria. Reclaimed water ASR could involve

injection, underground storage, and re covery of highly treated wastewater through one or more ASR wells. A por tion of the reclaimed water could be in

jected into a deep, confined, hydraulically isolated, brackish aquifer during the summer months when the assimila

tive capacity of the receiving river is typically at its lowest point because of lower streamflow and elevated biologi cal activity. The stored water could be recovered

and discharged directly to the river (i.e. no further treatment required)during the autumn, winter, and spring months when the river's assimilative capacity is typi cally higher because of higher streamflow and lower biological activity. If feasible, this approach would have the following advantages: •Wastewater loading to the river during the most sensitive period would be re

duced and requirements (and costs) of meeting more stringent effluent dis charge criteria during summer months may be reduced. • The municipality may be able to sell some of the recovered water for reuse

(e.g. irrigation, industrial water), provid ing some direct cost recovery for the system. Buying recovered water may be advantageous for large water users if they can purchase the water at reduced prices; however, they would require a water delivery system. • A net environmental benefit may re sult if the municipality chooses to fur ther reduce the wastewater loading to the river during the more sensitive summer months, through seasonal underground storage.

• Some improvement in water quality typically occurs during aquifer storage in a brackish aquifer (e.g. TOC, nutri ents, coliform bacteria, disinfection by products), particularly if the water con tains chlorine (strong oxidant). This improvement would have to be demon strated through testing. • A large subsurface reservoir of re claimed water may be created for longerterm beneficial puiposes such as irriga

tion and industrial water supplies dur ing extended droughts. A system can be designed and operated to recover all of the stored reclaimed water at any time, if required. The feasibility of storing large vol umes of treated drinking water in aqui fers through ASR wells has been dem onstrated at numerous operational facili ties. With appropriate treatment, re claimed water could be stored under

ground using one or more ASR wells constructed on or near a wastewater

treatment plant site. Depending on regu latory requirements and the local hydrogeology,the treatment level required for seasonal storage of reclaimed water in a deep, confined, brackish aquifer may be less than that required for surface dis charge during the summer months. The associated savings in treatment, construction, and operating costs will depend on the required level of treat ment. Fractured limestone aquifers con taining brackish water will probably re quire less treatment for ASR recharge than fine-grained sand aquifers contain ing fresh water. For more information, circle reply card No. 119

The Field Convertible Check Valve The new Series 317 check valves from Victaulic® provide a new dimension in service and adaptability. Grooved ends reduce the weight of the valve making it faster and easier to install. A closure coupling and cap give you quick access to the valve for any required maintenance. This AWWA C-508 valve features a clear flow design and offers positive sealing in either a horizontal or vertical position for pressures up to 175 psi. All accessories are designed for direct mounting in the field. Victaulic provides you with a complete valving package for lift stations. Available in four field convertible trim packages. Contact Victaulic for

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more information. ©1998 Victaulic Company of Canada. Ail rights reserved. Viaaulic is a registered trademark of Victaulic Company of Canada.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

An ISO 9001 certified company e-mail:

For more information, circle reply card No. 120

(See page 25)


Consultants' Forum - an annual ES&E focus

The decay of a once proud profession - a professional engineer's lament

Recently I received a copy of

the 1998 detailed report on "Ontario Engineers Salaries" from Professional Engineers Ontario. Much to my dismay, I found that consulting engineers continue to be mired at the bottom end of the compen sation scale within the engineering pro fession. When I graduated from the University of Toronto, the top students in my engineering class were attracted to the consulting industry at salary lev els that rewarded them for their aca demic achievements and were consist

ent with their promising fu tures in a demanding vocation.

By D.C. Ingram, P. Eng. President Consulting Engineers of Ontario

•Do it once-be ultra conservative with

the design. • Do not suggest innovative measures to reduce capital costs if it means that the scope of up-front engineering must

tive consulting engineering services. Is there any real value in dominance be increased. of price in selecting engineering serv ices? Absolutely not! If thejob requires •Do not consider innovative approaches a professional engineer then it deserves to reduce life cycle costs. one selected on the basis of experience, •Do not make any value added sugges qualifications, and the best approach to tions, no matter what their merits are, if provide value to the client. Price as the they require an increase in engineering controlling factor in the selection proc fees. ess simply means short-term gain for •Do not assign the senior, most experi long-term pain. The lowest up-front enced engineers in your office to the project. The project cannot afford that level of cost.

Qualification Based Selec tion (QBS)is not a unique or innovative approach. Most people, when selecting a doc tor, lawyer or other profes

What has caused this relative decline in income scales and a

threatened decay of a once proud and honoured profes sion?

The simple answer is that

sional advisor, are far more

the salaries and benefits in the

interested in qualifications than they are in price. Many knowledgeable clients select engineers on this preferred basis. Of particular note, con sulting engineers and archi tects selected for federallyfunded projects in the US,

industry mirror the fortunes of the companies that make up the industry. More and more, market conditions and the

competitive supply and de mand forces compel those companies to sell their serv

must be chosen on the basis

ices on the basis of lowest

price. Technical excellence, proven past performance and a track record of dedicated personal service now seem to have little value. Today with many clients, in both the public and pri vate sectors, price is the only significant factor in the selection criteria. Obtain

ing professional engineering services,in the eyes of the unenlightened, is the same basic process as buying any com modity,i.e., get three or four quotes and zero in on the cheapest. In the municipal sector,for example, politicians, whose long-term vision fre quently does not extend beyond the next election, are often demanding pricebased selection policies. Municipal en gineers, who understand the value of sound engineering, are required to pur chase the cheapest consulting engineer ing services. It is comparable to buying library books by the kilogram. Even fruit and vegetables are examined for quality before the purchase, but that is frequently not the case these days with sophisticated, highly technical, innova24

price for engineering services means the cheapest quality of services and prob ably an off-the-shelf solution, whether or not it meets the real project needs.

Tom Davey has written a number of outstanding editorials on the low bid ethos in this highly respected magazine. Tragically, many purchasers of engineer ing services do not seem to understand that, to quote Tom, "the low bid ethos works like a fiscal grader,flattening the peaks of excellence while filling in the potholes of mediocrity". The sad reality of the low bid mind set is that innovation, value engineer ing and project specific, cost-effective solutions are lost. The consulting engi neer, adapting to the price pressures in the marketplace, will necessarily refocus his studies or designs on the most expedient solution. If he doesn't, he won't get the job. With the emphasis on low price, to win the project the engineer must adopt the following approaches:

of their qualifications. In 1972, the Brooks Act mandated this ap proach, supporting that selection of the lowest bidder was not in the long-term public interest. Since then, more than 75% of the US states have adopted simi lar processes. Consequently, the con sulting engineering industry in the US is strong, flourishing and continues to attract and reward the best engineering talent.

Quahfication Based Selection is sup ported in Canada by many professional organizations and client groups,includ ing the American Public Works Asso ciation, the Municipal Engineers Asso ciation, Professional Engineers Ontario and certainly Consulting Engineers of Ontario. QBS as a process, offers the highest value to the client and fair re muneration to the engineer. The proc ess establishes a foundation for the en

gineer and his client to work together in a professional partnership. And yet, in Ontario today, many clients, blinded by Continued on page 29

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Index Company


Reader Service No.

Action Carbon-Chem Americana/Reseau Anthrafilter Anthratech Western Inc

50 36 50 17








Bovar Waste Mgmt



Can-Am CH2M Gore & Storrie

34 28

132 122

Ciemmer Technologies









Danatec Davidson Denso Derrick DIE

80 50 66 10 77

151 130 157 105 150

Ecodyne Elmridge

30 38

124 233





Reader Service No.

King Metal



KMK Consultants



127 113

Levitt Safety Levitt Safety

65 65

171 172


Nortech GSI Northern Steel □CPA Ozonia Parkson Plastics Canada PPG Industries

79 67 43 9 58 77 58

260-265 143 136 104 188 149 189



106, 107

ProMinent Raw Materials Restoration RTS Canbar R.V. Anderson

12 50 50 70 31

108 131 198 145

Security Insurance Stormceptor

39 6

232 103


Summa TCI

22 5

237-240 152

Fanshawe College





Frontline Gemcom Software Golder Associates Greatario Hazco Services

34 48 29 71 65

158 141 123 146 170




Thorburn Penny








Insituform Technologies ITT Flygt

15 13

Ill 109

14 72 2

110 147 101


Waterlink/Bioclear ZCL Zenon


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


Consultants' Forum

Jumping the curve In water infrastructure


dustry is poised for transition. It needs the last push to launch its new course. How did we

get here? Who put us on the launching pad to make us have to jump the curve? We did, by following our founders. While we were busy designing and building some of the finest infrastruc ture in the world, a generation grew up that has not yet seen the value we put into their lives - the re sult of great engineering. They just use it and believe that it was always there and that it is a birthright enshrined in the con stitution. Turn on the tap and they get clean water. Flush the toilet and poof the waste matter disappears. They don't have to take it out for the honey wagon to pick up as they do their gar bage. Compare this to the transpor tation engineering sector. With

By Paul da Siiva, P.Eng. President, CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd.

• Both industry and the public sector in Canada want one-stop shopping with no risk.

The Ontario government, long a • The international marketplace wants leader in environmental regulatory de one-stop shopping also. velopment to improve our living stand •A very limited number offirms have the ards, has become a low-key player in combined financial,engineering,and op the environmental protection orchestra. erational management strength and expe In fact, they threw away some of their rience to meet the demands expected. instruments. The Municipal Industrial The main problem lies here in Canada-no risk and lower costs

are not synonymous. Public works can still be financed by municipalities more effectively than by the private sector. The jury is out on whether the pri vate sector can provide lower life cycle costs if their contracts are only short term,i.e., less than 25 years. Operations might be a cinch, but designing and main taining will be targeted at the precise length of the operating contractjust like the automobile five-year warrantees we are all

S5-v. •- ^

out Toronto's 407 and other

familiar with. This could leave

projects like the PEI link, this privileged generation would sit

municipalities with higher than today's operating and mainte

in traffic for half their adult lives

nance costs after short-term con

and develop a severe case of road-rage.

tracts tied to Design/Build con

The educational, financial


Toron to's Main Treatment Plant. Photo - CG&S

and legal professions weren't so busy. And to make a difference they joined the political races to improve our towns and cities. Few engineers made the time to do this; we were having the time of our lives, doing what we loved best, de signing great infrastructure for future generations. Will we have to wait until it crumbles into dust, shutting off the clean water, backing up those efficient flushes onto floors before the hue and

cry will get it the attention it needs? None of us will live that long! The politicians are faced with the di lemma-how do they use the dwindling resources they now have? Competing are education, health and social services

- oh yes, and the environment. "What can we do to maximize the visibility of our spending?" must be their most fre quently asked question. Otherwise,look for a new career. Being educators, ac countants and lawyers, will the environ ment get their attention? Not unless they have a local problem. 26

Strategy for Abatement is a historical milestone left unfinished on the dusty shelves of environmental regulation. The next major milestone target was scheduled for the year 2017- Non-toxic effluent. Funding has dwindled to the point that, now,larger municipalities get to bear the full costs of environmental

protection. Either we get more environmental engineers into politics, or we will have to devise some other strategy to get attention...sabotage??? Terrorists use that effectively. Recently, our learned colleagues in the industry got together at The Interna tional Association for Consulting Engi neers(FIDIC),annual conference in Ed monton, and also in Ottawa at Industry Canada's sponsored look at winning in the international infrastructure market

place-a virtual El Dorado for engineer ing firms. The essence of their conclusions was


As we sit on that launching pad, two important changes can trigger the push for the environmental engineer ing industry to jump the curve: 1. The Federal and Provincial Govern

ments can introduce legislation that will drive the municipalities to partner with the private sector for infrastructure fi nancing, owning and operating. 2. The municipalities can start to part ner with the industry to insure the risks and share the rewards jointly so that the engineering teams are driven to optimize the designs and reduce the capital and operating costs. The first will lead to Canadians gain ing valuable domestic experience to pen etrate the international marketplace for environmental infrastructure.

The second will allow the partners to agree on sharing rewards/risks and help municipalities do more with less. A potential opportunity derived from the partnerships formed will be to effec tively team to attack the international marketplace. ❖

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Consultants' Forum

Diversity - the critical factor for today's consultants

Diversity will be a critical strength as engineering and

By Hal Hamilton, President & CEO Goider Associates Corporation

earth science firms move

into a period of heightened economic uncertainty. Profitability will depend on our capacity to serve geo graphically diverse clients and provide a wide range of services across differ ent markets. It is a formula that has

changes. For example, while the environmen tal site remediation market in North

America is stable or slightly declining, it is growing in Europe. Because of our geographic diversity, and the fact we have developed a solid reputation inter nationally, we have the ability to dedi cate people to capturing the European opportunities.

economy. It's simple. The greater our ability to provide the services the client needs,the more likely we are to be cho sen for the job. Companies with nar row service offerings or little market sector diversity will be vulnerable in a slowing economy. With Golder's blend of engineering and earth science services combined

proven itself time and time again in with the geographic and industrial mar tough times. ket diversity, we can assist clients in min From a global perspective, the engi ing, civil infrastructure, oil and gas, land neering and environmental sciences development,manufacturing,forestry,ag service sector is over-supriculture, waste management, and water resources. No more plied. Because of this, corpo A breadth of service offerings is aiso rate growth rates and profit than 20 percent of our revenue important in succeeding in a difficuit margins are declining. Re economy, it's simple. The greater our ability is derived from any one mar gional exceptions exist, but on ket sector. That means we can to provide the services the client needs, the shift emphasis from resources a global scale are relatively small. As a result of this over-

more likely we are to be chosen for the job.

supply, we are seeing more industry consolidation and greater atten tion to cost management. Part of Golder's growth strategy dur ing this period of economic decline in volves investment in global expansion. We have grown dramatically worldwide over the past 25 years, and continually look at opportunities for international growth. This geographic diversity gives us the flexibility to capitalize on market


The advantages of geographic diver sity multiply in good economic times. For instance. Southeast Asian econo

mies are depressed now, but will come back stronger than ever. When that hap pens, established global firms will be well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities. A breadth of service offerings is also important in succeeding in a difficult

to construction to manufactur

ing as opportunities arise, and as our clients' priorities change. Many of today's companies have decided to expand internationally. I be lieve now, more than ever, is the right time to do this. But it takes time and

commitment,and must be recognized as a long-term investment. I am extremely pleased Goider began this investment process 25 years ago. In the months ahead,I have no doubt it will pay off. â?&#x2013;

Associates in Rurai Deveiopment, inc.(ARD,Inc.), an international consulting firm providing technical advisory services, is seeking experienced candidates for potential short- and long-term international assignments with skills in the following areas:

Water Conservation

Citizen Monitoring Techniques

Integrated Water Resource Management Freshwater Resource Management (biological) Aquatic Resources Governance and Natural Resource Management Policy Development & Implementation Stakeholder Group Awareness Participation Planning & Go-management Institutional Capacity Strengthening Conflict/Dispute Resolution

Marine Resen/es Coral Reef Preservation & Rehabilitation

Communications and Outreach

Integrated Coastal Planning/Management(ICM) Endangered Species Resource Monitoring Irrigation Management Hydro Power Water Supply

SanitationA/Vastewater Treatment Watershed Management Saltwater Resources (biological, reef)

Impact Surveys (for communication/outreach) Legal and Regulatory Issues Integrated Coastal Management Shrimp Mariculture Mangrove Systems

Pollution Prevention

Social & Gender Issues

International Waters

Training Tourism Impact on Water Resources Urbanization Impact

Water Quality Monitoring & Maintenance Biodiversity Conservation


Water User Groups Flood Management Environmental Monitoring

Candidates must have at least five years of-reiated experience. Advanced degrees and significant relevant experience are preferred. Good working knowledge of French, Spanish, or other foreign language is desired. Please send CV with cover indicating area of expertise and a brief (1/4 page) synopsis of experience pertinent to areas listed above to: GKT/RAM/DR ARD, Inc., P.O. Box 1397, Burlington, VT 05401 â&#x20AC;˘ E-mail: Fax: 802-658-4247 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


Consultants' Forum

Hard to find work In Canada, eh?

Canadian consulting engineers

By Douglas G. Langley Vice President, Deican Corporation

have historically fared well in

international markets. Our

high standard of living, a world class post-secondary educational system, and our quest for adventure and challenge have served us in good stead. However, the international market has changed dramatically in recent years. Success may be elusive unless a longterm international marketing plan has been carefully crafted and implemented. I have had the good fortune of work ing in several dozen countries over the past three decades where I have wit nessed project horror stories and real successes. This has taught me that risk can be minimized by following prudent business practices. Delcan management made a strate gic decision in the '60s to become a glo bal engineering firm. This long-term commitment has resulted in more than

half the firm's present fees being derived

intemationally. These projects are finan cially attractive as unique niches are exploited in less competitive areas than encountered domestically. The weak domestic municipal engi neering market has forced many Cana dian firms to pursue intemational oppor tunities. Many firms are jumping right in and chasing international opportuni

panies. Plug into this network of peers. Targeted countries must be identified before significant funds are allocated to international marketing. Spend more time researching the market as the in vestment will pay off in the long run. Develop a check list of competitive fac tors. Do you have a local agent, engi neering partner,legal representative and contractor? Are you familiar with the tax laws, especially withholding taxes? Understand the economic and political

ties with reckless abandon. Their sin

environment. What about local build

gle biggest shortcoming is their lack of

ing codes? Canadian consulting engi neers frequently underestimate local engineering skills. A reputable local engineering partner is a necessity in most competitive situations. Use your partner's staff to create a more competi

market focus. The USA market should

be investigated initially where the risks are usually smallest. Forget about the exotic destinations unless you have $100,000 to throw to the wind!

The recently created Environmental Exporters Council in Ottawa(CEIA)of fers a variety of programs aimed at im proving the export success of Canadian environmental goods and service com

tive offering. Understand the local culture and

above all be empathetic. I remember attending a meeting of govemment en vironmental officials in Ankara,Turkey

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Water Supply and Distribution

Tunnels and Underground Works

Solid Waste Management

Water Resources Engineering

Residuals Management

Systems Analysis Modelling

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Energy Management

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Consultants' Forum in 1972. About 20 ministry staff listened to the translator as I described Canadian

environmental assessment practices. The purpose of my meeting was to col lect existing meteorological records which would be used in an air disper sion model to assess the atmospheric impacts of a proposed pulp mill. A four inch stack of paper containing the data was guarded carefully by the Director while he expounded in Turkish on the significance of air inversions. When I asked for a copy of the data he apolo gized saying that it would not be avail able until the next day and would I mind returning then. It had not crossed my mind that his ministry did not have a copy machine. When I returned to col lect the data, I discovered that all 300

pages had been manually transcribed overnight! Design/build projects have been one of the fastest growing areas globally with the demand for new infrastructure

in emerging economies. Bringing fi nancing to these projects is frequently necessary. This is a challenge for most firms. There are a number of financing concepts which can be heavily levered to your advantage. Become familiar

with them. Design/build assignments, although not without risk, are worth pursuing as the low Canadian dollar pro vides a competitive advantage against our American and European competi tion.

In summary,chose one or two target countries. Develop and stick to your marketing plan. Anticipate one to two The decay ofa once proud profession -A professional engineer's lament continuedfrom page 24 possible short-term savings, ignore the long term and view QBS as a radical, self-serving procedure. Earlier this year, for the fourth year in a row, Canada was ranked first in the world on the United Nations Human

Development Index. Toronto and other Canadian cities are frequently rated at the top of surveys that rank quality of life in the cities of the world. Engineer ing is often considered to be the "invis ible" profession,just as many of the in frastructure assets that contribute to our

high quality of life are also hidden from day-to-day view. Clearly, if one stops to think at all about the importance of

years before signing a contract then de liver added value above your client's

expectations. Following these simple strategies should result in a steady stream of profitable projects for many years. If you have success in one coun try, lever your presence there and build a sustainable business. And above all

stay focused. â?&#x2013; reliable power supplies, clean water, ef ficient waste disposal and effective transportation and communications sys tems, the major contributions of engi neers to our society cannot be denied. Canadian consulting engineers cur rently rank fourth in the world in terms of revenues derived from the export of engineering services, an important con tribution to Canada's trade programs. If clients continue to treat consulting en gineering services as a commodity in our home market, it will be difficult to re

tain that hard-earned position. Over the long term,the sustainability of our consulting engineering industry and its contribution to our quality of life will be threatened as we exchange ex cellence, professionalism and public service for the lowest bid. â?&#x2013;

Golder Associates is helping WE BELIEVE BOTH INDUSTRY AND NATURE SHOULD WIN! , Golder Associates

its clients maintain the balance between

industrial development and the environment. With innovative

services like environmental risk

assessment,remote sensing and GIS modelling, plus traditional services,such as surface and

groundwater management, strategic planning and biological assessments,site assessment and remediation,and environmental

impact analysis, Golder Associates has the expertise that clients have trusted for over 35 years. With the integrated team of environmental and geotechnical

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

environmental needs.

For more information, circle reply card No. 123 (See page 25)


Consultants' Forum

The Western scene - challenges and opportunities abound In equal measure

Much ofthe design work in

ByA. Warren Wilson, Ph.D., P.Eng.

major wastewater treat ment projects has passed its peak in Western Canada with projects moving either into the construction or commissioning

tailed design for upgrading of the origi nal 1989 BNR retrofit at Bonnybrook is nearing completion, with construction

phases. This includes the $650 million

scheduled for 1999 and 2000.

Annacis and Lulu plants for the Greater Vancouver Regional District which are scheduled for completion in 1999. Both plants use the Trickling Filter/Solids Contact(TF/SC) process. Most larger centres in the interior of British Columbia and Alberta have gone or are going to Biological Nutrient Re moval(BNR)technology. In addition, the H.M.Weir plant in Saskatoon, has recently been upgraded to BNR technol ogy. A BNR retrofit to the last remain ing chemical phosphorus removal por tion of Calgary's Bonnybrook WWTP was completed earlier this year, making the Bonnybrook plant the largest cold climate BNR plant in the world. De-

Both the Red Deer and Lethbridge plants are in the midst of construction

Raid Crowther & Partners

for BNR retrofits. The Edmonton Gold

Bar plant is doing a staged program to implement BNR. Other wastewater treatment projects under way include Prince Albert in Saskatchewan as well

as an assortment of upgrades/expansions for several smaller municipalities. Future wastewater treatment projects include upgrading of Edmonton's Capi tal Region Plant, plants at Kamloops and Vemon in the interior of British Colum

bia, and various smaller projects relat ing to performance enhancements and/ or capacity improvements at several communities. The next major greenfield

plant in Western Canada likely will be constructed at Calgary's Pine Creek site during the latter part of the first decade of the next millennium. The Pine Creek

plant will be the third wastewater treat ment plant in Calgary to serve the needs of that rapidly growing city. On the water treatment side, major projects are on the horizon for Winni peg, Vancouver and eventually in Vic toria; however, the latter two may take some time to come to fruition pending budget approvals. Vancouver is explor ing alternative project delivery systems and may choose to use a Design/Build/ Operate approach. Winnipeg is pres ently considering project implementa tion strategies and may choose some form of Private/Public partnership. The Winnipeg project is presently in the conceptual design stage, having completed one year of a pilot program. The treatment process train under con sideration at this time includes coagula-

Potable water.

Portable plant. Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever additional or improved water is needed. Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant produces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact: Ecodyne Limited 4475 Corporate Drive Burlington, Ontario L7L 5T9 Telephone:(905) 332-1404 Toll Free: 1-888-EGODYNE

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For more information, circle reply card No. 124 (See page 25)


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Consultants' Forum To fill the current gap in design work, many consulting engineering firms are looking to markets in the United States and overseas. The risks are high. Such initiatives take a significant planning effort and commitment of resources and

usually involve making alliances with local engineering firms. There is activity in Design/Build (D/B) projects but, for the most part, these are mostly for smaller communi ties. Cochrane, Alberta implemented a new water treatment plant project using a Design/Build/Operate approach. Dau phin, Manitoba chose to implement their new water treatment plant as a D/B project. The new Jasper Townsite wastewater treatment plant may go D/B and communities in the interior of B.C. are

Aerial photo of Calgary's 500,000 m^/d Bonnybrook WWTP. tion/flocculation, dissolved air flotation, advancing to the point where it is becom ozonation, granular activated carbon fil ing more economical and it is expected tration with secondary disinfection by that more small and medium sized com chloramination. munities will seriously consider this proc Advances in the application of water ess. Communities are becoming more treatment technology are continuing. cognizant of the public health risks asso Dissolved air flotation plants have been ciated with parasitic organisms such as Glardia and Cryptosporldlum and are installed at Gillam, Manitoba and Cas tor, Alberta. Membrane technology is considering enhanced treatment.

Alan R. Perks, P.Eng., elected President of the Canadian Society for Civil Enginering Alan R. Perks was elected President

of the Canadian Society for Givii Engineering at the Society's annual meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. After a long career in private and public sector engineering organiza tions, Mr. Perks joined R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. in 1991

and is currently Ottawa Regional Manager. He is a Registered Pro fessional Engineer in Ontario and he specializes in the areas of water resources, environmental and municipal engineering and in technology management. Alan Perks has played a leading role in important CSCE initia tives. He is a founding member of the Society's Sustainable Development Committee. He has made outstanding contributions to CSCE's International Affairs Committee as Liaison Officer for

China, as Vice-Chair and through two terms as Chair of the Committee. As Vice-Chair of the CSCE Generai Administration

Committee, Alan Perks was involved in various aspects of the Society's restructuring. Among his achievements as CSCE's Senior Vice-President, Mr. Perks was a key contributorto the Society's Continuing Education Program. In 1996, Mr. Perks was named a Fellow of CSCE in recognition of his significant contributions to the practice and pro fession of civil engineering and his voiunteer service to the CSCE. Alan Perks is very active in a number of volunteer roles includ ing that of Technical Advisor to the World Meteorological Organi zation in Geneva, Switzerland, and to the Canadian technical pres ence working on water resource issues as part of the Middle East

considering their options in this regard. There are a handful of plants in Westem Canada that are contract operated and these also tend to be for smaller

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By Bill Hjelholt*

Consultants' Forum

Hamilton's historic waterworks steam

engines now restored to mint condition

In the 1850s in Hamilton,Ontario, cholera was reaching epidemic proportions. In 1854 alone, 552 of the City's 14,000 inhabitants perished from cholera. Like most North American cities, Hamilton lacked both

sewer and water systems, and suffered from contaminated drinking water. The vision of the City led to a remark able feat of engineering. The

Jokinen of UMA suggested the City con sider a partnering approach. UMA En gineering Ltd. would work with Spantec Constructors Ltd., also a UMA Group company. The work required would be ascertained as the disassembly and in vestigation proceeded, and the tasks would respond to site conditions. Prioritization was required as goals

new waterworks were de

signed not only to save lives, but to proclaim that Hamilton was a forward thinking city. Housed in a spectacular Italianate stone edifice, the huge pair of walking-beam steam engines was completed in 1859. Each delivered 60,000

gallons offresh water per hour to a reservoir over two miles

up the escarpment, a rise of some 190 feet. These steam waterworks are the last intact

in North America and among the finest in the world. Now a National Historic

Site, the City of Hamilton and Public Works Canada turned

to UMA Engineering Ltd. to conserve and restore the en

cylinders, clad in oak and brass, lifted 14 ton walking beams 30 feet long. At the opposite end, 22 ton flywheels helped drive the main water pumps. No steel was used; machinery was either cast or forged iron. The daring design featured a complex series of auxiliary pumps,cam shafts and valve gears, and an impressive network of air vessels, water, steam, and condensate

pipes. Before proceeding, a com prehensive investigation of conditions was conducted.

Under the direction of marine

engineer and steam expert Alex Harbour, over 55 non

destructive access points were opened,by removing accesso ries such as gauges, relief valves and lubrication ports. Fibre optic video inspection took advantage of holes as small as 1/2" to peer into ma chinery that had been sealed for 140 years. Over 16 hours of video tape recorded the en tire interior of the machinery. Armed with new knowl

edge, UMA developed the plan of action. A key princi ple in the conservation of his torically significant structures,

gines and pumping facility. The challenge was stagger ing. For example, the south is that the minimum interven engine had been seized since tion that safely conserves the 1938 - 60 years! The lowest artefact is the best solution. levels of the pumphouse Shawn Selway, a heritage flooded continuously and cor millwright, developed the rosion was rampant. As the Intervention Manifest, a sys site operates as the Hamilton The walking beam of the newly restored steam engine. tem of obtaining consent for Museum of Steam and Technology overwhelmed the available budget. any task that altered or destroyed his (HMST),it would continue to take visi- Costs would be charged as the work pro toric material, while simultaneously tors throughout construction. The ceeded, to an upset price. UMA's pro documenting the task, rationale, and his waterworks were designated artefacts; posal was accepted in the fall of 1997. toric material affected. This key project every bolt and gasket were to be treated Over 140 years earlier, the city held management tool garnered the input of as museum pieces. The budget; a design competition for the original various experts and stakeholders while $300,000 total for consulting and con waterworks. Prominent Canadian engi facilitating the progress of the work. struction. neer Thomas Keefer was engaged to The video inspections revealed huge Not surprisingly, the procurement judge submissions. Although an Ameri carbuncles of gnarled rust in most loca process for such a unique project was can engineer won the competition, tions, and standing water inside several less than straightforward. It was envi Keefer convinced the City to award him pieces of equipment. Master Conser sioned,however,as a traditional project, the contract. Construction proceeded in vator Martin Weaver oversaw a process with the engineer developing contract 1857 with a budget of $600,000. of water-blasting, selecting 10,000 psi documents for competitive bids. Eric The design utilized state-of-the-art to remove the rust without harming the compound steam engines, boosting two intact iron. Then a treatment of tannic cylinders to make efficient use of higher acid was used to convert active corro 'Senior Project Manager, UMA Engineering Ltd. steam pressures. At one end, the steam sion to stable oxides, followed by the Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


Consultants' Forum, com' installation of a refrigerated air drying system to prevent rust by super-dehumidification of the air inside the waterworks.

Alex Barbour applied a penetrating fluid developed for North Sea oil rigs to help release seized surfaces. Spantec Constructors' millwrights performed the work with Shawn Selway supervising. The walking beam would be used as a lever, to apply measured loads with 5ton chain hoists. A deceptively simple technique of disconnecting the numer ous possible sources of seizure from the walking beam to isolate one at a time allowed Alex to independently test each component. After daily doses of pen etrating fluid for three weeks, the steam cylinders were freed. The main water pump resisted. Small hydraulic jacks were brought to site, and Shawn Selway crawled inside the water pump, where a flange was found that could support the jacks. Carefully metering the force,they were able to free the pump. "The biggest day in HMST history," according to curator Ian Kerr-Wilson, was celebrated by barring the engine for the first time in 60 years. Barring is manually tuming the entire works by ap

K I /It j


plying a large pry-bar to special sockets in the flywheel. In its operating days, barring the en gine was part of its painstaking start-up routine. The operators fed steam and barred the engine through repeated false starts. Once in motion, the engine peaked at 15 RPM. This may seein slow, but the engine stroke was eight feet! Rods and linkages hurtled up and down, the enormous flywheel turned and the

walking beam pivoted to and fro in a symphony of motion, attended by gasps and hisses of expanding steam. UMA's next task restored motion to

tlie engine. The intricate restoration proc ess included forging a new brass flywheel bearing. Alex Harbour reviewed the work and pronounced the engine fit. A one of a kind electric drive system using state-ofthe-art DC motor technology was de signed, fabricated and installed. ❖

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Engineering Division of Philip Utilities We are pleased to announce ourforthcoming relocation to our new headquarters in Burlington, Ontario. Located on the third floor ofa new office building at Appleby Line and the QEW, we will have more than 15,000 square feet to service our Canadian and

American clients. We welcome you to attend our open house in

the new year but in the interim, please feel free to drop in anytime. Currently, we have over 130 people in our engineering division with offices in Toronto, Ottawa, New Jersey, Atlanta and Florida. As of December 29, 1998, our new address and telephone numbers will be as follows: 5045 South Service Road

Burlington, Ontario, Canada sB^eiSâ&#x201E;˘

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Engineering Services specializes in delivering engineering expertise to municipalities and industry for water and wastewater infrastructure management and construction. The Division also provides full turnkey services for the planning, design and implementation of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems. OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

Contract operations lead the way in providing clients with sound innovative economic strategies for the management of the operation of water and wastewater facilities for industry and the public sector. UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE

Underground Infrastructure provides water and wastewater pipeline rehabilitation and renovation services to municipalities and industry using state-of-the-art trenchless technologies. RESIDUALS MANAGEMENT

Residuals Management are forerunners in residuals and biosolids management in North America. The Residuals Management Group specializes in sludge dewatering and biosolids management.



A Full Service Water and

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more information, visit our web site

at www.phi l iputi l For more information, circie repiy card No. 133(See page 25)

Third Biennial Event


Pan-American Environmental

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March 24-26,1999 Montreal, Canada!

j Americana 99 will include: I





David Laskin, President of TCI Inc. is pleased to an nounce Paul Hebert as Vice President of Business De

200'''^"'''^' conferences ^^reign delegations

velopment. Paul has been involved in the environmen

tal business for seventeen years and for the past ten years has worked with clients requiring PCB remediation and disposal options. Paul will focus on market development for TCI's new PCB treatment and metal recycling facility in

Gatewayto tor the


Kirkland Lake, Ontario. When asked about his new

role with TCI,Paul replied,"It is a pleasure to he asso ciated with such an energetic and progressive team."

Americana 99 is the premier event on the latest environmental technologies in the Americas

Contact Paul Hebert at Tel: (450) 458-1903, Fax: (450)458-2760.

For information:

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For more information, circle reply card No. 165

Tel.:(514) 270-7110 Fax:(514) 270-7154

Organized by: RESEAii Envlronnement


(Environmental Network)

For more information, circle reply card No. 150 (See page 25)

The British Columbia Water & Waste Association (BCWWA) What Is the BCWWA? The British Columbia Water & Waste Association (BCWWA) is the

Any and all professionals who want to keep abreast ofthis critical area of

umbrella organization representing over 3,000 professionals working in the water and waste industry in B.C. and the Yukon. The Association's objec

♦ Civil & environmental engineers

Who can loin the BCWWA? environmental engineering are welcome and encouraged to join, including:

♦ water supply

♦ wastewater

♦solid waste


The BCWWA is the B.C. section of the American Water Works

♦ networking with peers and experts in your field ♦career opportunities

♦seminars and workshops for professional growth ♦opportunities tor Operator Certlticatton ♦ reduced conference and seminar tees

♦discounts on technical literature and promotions ♦ access to current and relevant technical intormatbn

♦an opportunity to contribute to regional, national or international Issues through technical committees

Join the BCWWA today! B.C.Water & Waste Association

Annual Conference

The BCWWA's 73nnual Conference & Exhibition is the largest gathering

342 -17 Fawcett Road

in BC of professionals devoted solely to the water and waste fields,i,

Coquitlam, BC V3K 6V2 Tel:(604)540-0111 Fax:(604)540-4077

This is the perfect op!>orttmi:y for you to hear teclinical presentations,

review the l|i!j^|^dis, afiS rier#r|,>yithiyie:|sver4i^ profe^ph4?'-^qj|®l':fqihis:4nfd

email: bcwwa@bcwwa.op

ftJpAlay MM

Water Environment Federatioo


♦ Educators ♦ Operators

Benefits of memhership:

Association (AWWA)and the member association for the Water Environment Federation (WEF).

Why hecome a memher of the BCWWA? With increasing populations and the accompanying environmental issues, Water & Waste is one of the fastest growing fields in engineering today. The demand for higher quality water is growing rapidly, and the need for efficient and cost-effective waste disposal is equally critical. The BCWWA is committed to ensuring that its membership is aware of the latest developments in the Water and Wastewater Industry. Becoming a member of BCWWA is an easy and inexpensive way to remain knowl edgeable about this rapidly changing field.

♦ Consulting engineers

♦Sales professionals ♦ Technicians

tives are to advance the knowledge in all fields related to:

For more information, circle reply card No. 117 (See page 25)


Amerioan Water Works Association:

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Air Pollution

Facts about dual fuel cars As conventional cars are a significant

source of CO^,Volvo put a fleet offive cylinder cars equipped with separate compressed dual-fuel natural gas (CNG) and gasoline tanks at the dis posal ofindividualjournalists for a day long field trip to Biosphere 2. There was no discernible difference in auto

motive performance in the drive from Phoenix to the Biosphere 2 in March.

Europe, Italy, Sweden and the United IGngdom are among the coun tries with a high number of, or a grow ing interest in CNG vehicles, and the number of these vehicles is also rising rapidly in Japan. CNG gives off significantly less

results in significantly lower total emis sions per kilometre of carbon monox ide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, and lower emissions of carbon diox ide. Total emissions are estimated on

the basis of the entire life of the fuel, from extraction and refinement to dis

tribution and combustion. The gas is compressed to 200 bars when used as vehicle fuel (CNG). Refills can be done at commercial stations or by us ing overnight domestic compressors. Biogas waste such as household refuse. Un

like natural gas, it must first be proc essed since it contains only 50-60%

COj than gasoline or diesel powered

methane. The remainder consists of

cars or trucks, so the dual-fuel concept could play a role in reducing global warming.

carbon dioxide. After purification, the

Methane Methane is obtained either from the

earth in the form of natural gas, which is a fossil fuel, or from organic mate rial in the form of biogas. Natural gas Natural gas contains 90-98% meth

concentration of methane is 95-98%.

Compared with natural gas, biogas has the advantage that the carbon dioxide which is formed in combustion is part of the natural ecocycle and does not add to the greenhouse effect. It actually reduces it, since the methane would otherwise leak into the air from

combustible compounds, which means

landfills, sewage plants and manure heaps. As yet, biogas is only produced on

that it can be used as a fuel almost di

a small scale. Interest is on the in

rectly from the source. There are vast reserves in around ninety different countries, and we are still finding more

crease, however, because it is a way of harnessing the methane instead of re leasing it into the atmosphere,it is read ily available locally and it is unusually clean. In Goteborg, Sweden, for ex ample,it has been estimated that suffi cient biogas could be obtained from waste to power the city's entire bus

ane. The remainder consists of other

than we use. Vehicles that run on natu

ral gas have been available for some time and there are about a million of

them on the roads today - mainly cars - in about forty countries. Compared with gasoline, natural gas Natural gas and biogas.

Total environmental Impact^'(emisslons/km) compared with petrol. Index.


Biogas is extracted from organic



the"CPPAv for

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Environmental Impact of extraction, refinement, distribution and combustion in the Volvo S70 and V70 Bi-Fuel.

Hydrocarbons not including methane.

For more Information, Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

circle reply card No. 134

Flow Meters

Flow meter testing: When farm profits depend on accuracy

Toafarmer,wateris a more pre

northern California since 1978. West-

view the meter's original test sheets with the farmer to verify the calibration lev

side has more than 140 vertical flow

els. Yet in some cases, the farmer will

of agricultural water measurement sys

meters in sizes ranging from 6" - 16". They rely on these meters to accurately

tems, it is vital for farmers or water dis

account for the water that each farmer

still want the meter tested. At that point, Westside will send the meter to an ap proved flow testing facility. If the me ter passes the test, the farmer is re

cious commodity than gold, and just as carefully measured.

Since flow meters are the heart

Tehama Colusa Canal to farmers in

tricts, to periodically test meters to ensure aceuracy. However, finding reliable testing can become the pri mary challenge. Any number of problems can

assured. However,if the meter tests show that the meter is inaccurate,the

unit is repaired or replaced and sent back to the field.

For testing, Westside sends their meters to Water Specialties in Porterville, California because they are the only final-form wet calibra tion testing facility in the US that can accurately test almost any flow me ter ever made. With the capability to test meters from 2" up to 72", their testing facility meets the American Water Works Association testing standards and is approved by the

cause a flow meter to slow and be come inaccurate: normal wear over

time, debris on the propeller, and silt or sand clogging the bearings. Ad ditionally, objects can block the flow of water through a pipe. A piece of wood that was not cleared before

season start-up could damage the propeller. There might be a change in line size between when the meter was ordered and installed. If the

meter is mounted in a slightly smaller size pipe than originally cali

National Institute of Standards and

Technology. Such flow testing thoroughly checks the meter's accuracy. Dur

brated for, the calibration will be off

and can result in rather large inaccu racies.

When the meters are not accurate,

farmers may be charged for too much or too little water - a situation unac

ceptable to either the farmer or the district. In any case, the end result is

uses for sprinkler,furrow irrigation, and

downtime while the meter is removed


and tested.

Occasionally, meters are tested when a farmer suspects that he's being charged

The Westside Water District in Will

iams, California has been delivering ir rigation water from Shasta Dam via the

ing the test, a known volume of wa ter from a 124,000-gallon capacity reservoir either gravity flows or is pumped through the meter's flow tube via a series of permanently-installed pipes. The pipes are spaced to allow a straight run after each meter to settle any disturbance the flow meter may cause. Finally, the water flows into

for water he has not used. To avoid un

another calibrated tank where it is meas

necessary downtime, Westside will re-

ured and compared against the meter's totalizer. The technician then deter

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On a propeller meter, the turn

down range is usually 10:1 from minimum to maximum flow. The


meter should have a performance described as a + percentage of ac tual flow throughout that range. Testing takes place at maximum,in


termediate, and minimum flow



ranges. Those tests must fall within a ± range. On a prop meter, that



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anywhere along that curve from minimum to maximum flow. De

pending on the results,the meters are recalibrated to assure future accurate

metering in the field. ❖ 38

For more information, circle reply card No. 233 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

John Spencer, RE.

Resou^e Engineering Inc^-

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How high can a self-priming pump lift? How does a seif-priming pump prime?

Onedefinition ofa self-prim

ing pump is "a pump that lifts liquid to its suction without the aid of an exter

nal priming device". Otherwise, a selfpriming pump performs like a standard centrifugal, and has a similar curve. Fig ure 1 shows a section of a self-priming

pump for solids handling service. DISCHARGE FLANGE

reduced the local pressure to full vacuum. We now have unbalanced pressures in a closed system - 101 kPa at the suction inlet, 0 kPa at the pump. Figure 2 illus trates this.

The higher pressure at the suction in let forces liquid up into the suction line, displacing the air, which is pushed into the pump. Air mixes with the liquid put in the pump casing before startup, and air and liquid pass through the impel ler to the discharge side of the pump casing, where be




cause oftheir differ

ent densities, they separate. Liquid falls to the bottom

of the casing, to be COVER" PLATE



directed back to the

impeller. Air rises through the pump discharge connec

their special characteristics to move po table water and its byproducts. In a sewage collection system, self-

priming pumps are well suited for lift sta tion service. The hquid to be pumped is below grade, but the pump can lift it, and send it through kilometres of forcemain. Once the sewage reaches the treatment plant, self-priming "raw sewage" pumps provide hft to sedimentation or other treat ment. Self-priming pumps are also in stalled on a variety of sludge services up to eight percent concentration. Leachate wells in landfill sites are an

other area where self-priming pumps may be applied. There is a static lift on the suction side. The atmosphere in the wet well is noxious, and leachate has attacked

the cable seals of submersible pumps,re sulting in unforeseen failures. Self-priming pumps are installed in water applications. In raw water service, water is drawn from a natural basin such

as a lake or river. The ability to lift on the

tion. It reaches an

suction side is convenient, and unlike a

air release valve and

vertical mrbine pump, the self-primer's bearings are not in the liquid, so are not subject to wear from solids found in natu ral waters. Filter backwash sludge is a service which suits the self-primer. And the distribution system can employ selfpriming pumps,where the ability to lift is

is returned to the

Figure 1. A Self-Priming Pump for Solids Handling Service. sump via a vent hne. Once all the air has been exhausted How high can a self-priming pump from the system, the self-priming pump lift? The value published by the manu facturer we represent [Gorman-Rupp begins to operate like any other centrifu Company] is 7.6 metres of water, or 25 gal pump. It will do so even when the duty cycle is over-in our ex feet which is adequate for most applica tions. When selecting a self-primer, no ample, when the level in the "margin of safety" on the lift should be lift station wet well has been ATMOSPHEMC needed. If a pump is published as having lowered to the pump "off" a 7.6 metre capability, it will lift 7.6 me level. The control system tres. This is because Gorman-Rupp has tums the pump off, but this already stated the lift conservatively. does not mean all the liquid will drain from the pump and How does the pump work? How does a self-priming pump prime? suction line. There is a check Suppose we have a self-priming pump on valve in the pump casing. sewage lift station service that is about to When the pump stops, this 0 kPa valve closes,and prevents any be commissioned. The contractor has Absolute filled the pump casing with water (this is liquid falling back. Next cy only done at commissioning or after the cle, the pump does not have pump has been drained), and the signal to reprime, but starts pump 101 kPa ing immediately. to start the pump is given. The wet well is being acted on by at Where self-priming Absolute pumps are applied mospheric pressure. So the absolute pres Self-priming pumps are sure at the inlet to the suction pipe is ap used in sewage collection sys proximately 101 kPa (14.7 Psi). But in side the pump, a spinning impeller has tems, and treatment plants. They are also found in landfill sites. Water plants and distri Figure 2. How a Self-Priming Pump works during *John Brooks Pump Division bution systems make use of the Priming Cycle. Mississauga, Ontario 40

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

By Richard Jacobs, P.Eng.* useful, whether that lift is from the clear

and minimum static head. The use of a

is a pump quantity and is obtained from

well or a reservoir.

spreadsheet/chart program,e.g. Microsoft Excel, takes some time initially, but the

the manufacturer's curve.

results are worth it.

from the duty point at the intersection of the pump curve and the system curve for new pipe and minimum static head. This will be at the maximum flow the pump

Why would I use a self-priming pump? Self-priming pumps have a number of benefits to offer the water/wastewater user;

• Self-priming pumps are capable of pumping from a sump, of lifting liquid without the aid of external priming de vices.

Next the pump curve can be added to the plot. In design, the desired flow is known, and it is customary to select a pump to give this flow at the maximum static head, and for old pipe. This be comes the operating point, which will be

• With self-priming pumps,pumping equip ment is not in the wet

well. Every major piece of the pumping station - pumps, driv

Once this has been done, read down

should ever attain. Ensure that at this flow, the NPSH available exceeds the NPSH

required by whatever margin is custom ary. Ifthis is done,the designer has taken a rational approach to prevent the pump from "mnning out" on its curve and cavitation will be unlikely. Checking reprime lift is straightfor ward. The distance between the centre

with its costs and

line of the pump suction connection and grade, and between grade and the pump "on" level are computed. They are added and compared to the published reprime hft. The reprime lift should be greater

potential hazards, is

than the sum ofthe other two dimensions.


If it is,the lift is acceptable, and the pump will prime. Vortexing is a condition which occurs when liquid level above the suction pipe inlet is inadequate. Air is drawn down into the liquid and enters the suction pipe. This condition is highly dependent on the velocity of the liquid as it enters the suc tion pipe. This is why many suction lines

ers, valves, controls -

is accessible for inspec tion and repair. •Confined space entiy,

• Self-priming pumps are quick and easy to maintain. The Gorman

Rupp "T" Series are the pumps used in the WBAO andWEFTEC

Self-Priming Pumps in Lift Station Service. Operations Challenge. The fastest teams are disassembling and achievable at some pump speed. Again, reassembling the pumps in four minutes. with a spreadsheet/chart program it is have a "bell" or increaser at their inlet; possible to lay in one speed from the velocity is decreased, and the required •Self-priming pumps are driven by stand ard horizontal electric motors. Standard manufacturer's curve, then produce height of liquid cover over the end of the curves for other speeds using the affinity suction pipe is reduced. The required liq motors are inexpensive to buy, are uni uid depth, or submergence, to prevent versally available and quickly rewound laws. Now the curves for NPSH available vortexing is given in a chart published by or replaced. and NPSH required can be added. The Gorman-Rupp, which is available on re Designing a system Designing a system with self-priming first is a characteristic of the system, and quest. For more information, pumps is similar to designing with other can be plotted as a function offlow(sam circle reply card No. 137 ple calculations available). The second kinds of pumps. The steps are: 1. Obtain a dimension drawing or sketch. 2. Plot the system curve(s). System Curves Old Pipe System Curves - New Pipe 3. Plot the pump curve. 4.CheckNPSH.


5. Check reprime lift. 6. Check for adequate submergence. Erom the dimension drawings, it should be possible to compute the maxi


mum and minimum static head. From

1650 RPM

friction tables and the total equivalent length of the piping system, the friction

1550 RPM

head as a function of flow can be calcu lated and added to the maximum and


minimum static head. The most popular formula for calculating friction is the Hazen & Williams equation, which in cludes a "roughness coefficient"(really a

at Maximum Flow


smoothness coefficient), for which val

ues are published for various types and ages of pipe. It is pmdent to plot curves for both old and new pipe, and maximum





FIott (USgpm]

Designing a System with Seif-Priming Pumps.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


Advanced Treatment Plant

Unique upgrade to sewage plant in Poweii River, British Coiumbia

The District of Powell River's

facility for sewage treatment was considered an eyesore by local residents and businesses

and was producing strong odours. The plant faced significant inflow and infil tration (I&I) challenges from the aging collection system and, like many other plants of the same age, was nearing its capacity. The original facility had been built in the early 1970s near the waterfront in Powell River to take advantage of the hillside topography of the town and al low for a primarily gravity based col lection system. This feature now cre ated a significant hurdle for the replace ment of the plant. One possible loca tion for a new plant was approximately 3 km away and at an elevation of 70 metre rise above the current end of the

Installation of drum screen during construction of Headworks building.

collect system. Hill, Murray and Associates, of Vic toria, BC, has designed and built a unique and affordable upgrade of the original plant that avoided the costs of new land acquisition and forcemain con struction associated with relocating the plant.

Photos courtesy Hill-Murray and ZENON Environmental.

The renamed Westview Water Rec

lamation Facility has an upgraded de sign flow of 1 US mgd(3800 m^)with a 2 X peaking factor. The facility provides tertiary quality wastewater treatment us ing a combination of technologies, in cluding a ZENON Environmental Inc.

patented ZenoGem™ Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) system, for the over 10,000 people of the community. The plant receives influent wastewater into the new Headworks building, built within the borders ofexisting prop erty. Trash is removed with two ML SCS 50 screw screens, supplied by ProAqua Engineering. Within the existing British Columbia Ministry of the Envi ronment regulations, there is an allow ance for the provision of a primary by pass of flows in excess of 2 x Dry Weather Elow, (ie. Flows associated with I&I) if the community agrees to

pacity drum screens, built by PRA Manufacturing of Nanaimo, BC, in a parallel channel to the MBR feed sys

In the tanks, two of the four treatment channels were fitted with ZenoCem™

to the main flow for MBR treatment

MBR systems during a live change over performed through the drier summer months. Each channel has a capacity to treat over 750,000 US gpd (2850 m'). Combined, this capacity equals two times dry weather flow. The Zeno Cem™ Membrane Bioreactor system combines biological treatment with hol

while filtrate is later blended with the

low fibre membrane ultrafiltration for

main plant's outflow. This mechanism for dealing with I&I flows has proven very cost-effective. The existing Process Control build ing was upgraded with a 600 volt, three phase electrical power supply system. The original facility's blowers were re

municipal wastewater treatment. The MBR system also includes full nitrifi

tem, to treat stormwater overflow dur

ing wet weather events. Panels with 37micron screens filter out suspended sol ids and reduce overall biochemical oxy gen demand from the filtrate. The con centrated reject water is directed back

cation and denitrification. In more con

ventional sewage treatment systems, solids retention time(SRT)and hydrau lic retention time(HRT)are linked.

The ZenoCem™ system decouples

gal blowers were installed to add extra capacity for the MBR process. The ex terior of the building was renovated to

the link by actively separating water with the membrane system, leaving the solids and pathogens behind. This proc ess can treat significantly more volume

wound and three new Lamson centrifu

match the new Headworks and Treat

of wastewater in the same size tank as a

ment buildings. The original concrete treatment tanks were seismically upgraded and enclosed by a new two-story building. The exte rior of the Treatment building has been designed to look like a 1920s style boat-

result of significantly reduced HRT. Typically, existing municipal treatment system's tankage may be upgraded to treat four times its original capacity. SRTs of over 50 days are normal as the

address the I&I issues over time. To

house to blend in with the waterfront

meet this requirement the plant was fit ted with two 1.5 US mgd (5700 m')ca-

location. Both the Treatment building and the Headworks building were con structed using prefabricated concrete panels from Advanced Building Sys

operates between 13,000 and 16,000 mg/L. Total sludge volume produced is also reduced significantly because of the long SRT, and odour is significantly re duced as the plant acts both in an aero bic treatment capacity as well as in an


Hill, Murray & Associates Inc. 42

tems Inc. of Kelowna, BC.

MESS concentration in the bioreactor

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

By Trevor T. Hill, P.Eng.* aerobic digester capacity. Treated water is disinfected with UV radiation

from a Trojan Technologies Inc. unit before discharging to an ocean outfall. A dual channel, rotary sludge dewatering press from Fournier Industries Inc. of Black Lake, Quebec,is installed in a portion of the Headworks building. The Fournier press has some unique ability to press activated sludges to 2025% dryness. This equipment, com bined with biofilters for odour control, completes the total on-site treatment

collection system. The plant can be expanded to accom modate increased wastewater volumes

in the future when needed. Space for an additional trash auger and another drum screen has been included in the

number of years and the impact on the taxpayer is minimized. In addition, this increased capacity can be accommodated within the existing footprint negating any requirements for additional land. Hill-Murray's leadership in waste-

Headworks building. Two additional

water treatment and reclamation facili

MBR treatment channels can be built in

ties resulted in a 1997 Minister's Envi

the reserve tanks in the Treatment build

ronmental Award for its contribution to

ing. The "just-in-time" concept of fu ture upgrades means that capital costs for new equipment can be spread over a

the protection of BC's environment. For more information, circie repiy card No. 135


Treated water quality is produced at less than 5 mg/L BOD and TSS; turbid ity is less than 0.1 NTU while faecal col-

iform counts are less than 25 CFU per 100 mL. When stormwater overflow from the drum screens is blended with

this high-quality effluent, the quality of the combined flow continues to meet the

plant's secondary treatment requirement at all flows.

The project, representing the largest MBR plant of Its kind In Canada, has breathed new life Into the

old plant. A suite of proprietary software and technology called SMARlF'^ works in

concert with the programmable logic controller that operates the plant. The SMARV^ system, short for Systems Monitoring and Remote Telemetry, was developed by the Canadian Wastewater Corporation (CWC), a wholly-owned operations division of Hill-Murray. The system can monitor and control the op erations of the plant locally and re motely, allowing CWC to respond im mediately to control operating param

It's a dirty job and the OCPA has the effective new system to do it. The OGER (Oil/Grit Extraction

Reservoir) is an off-line oil and grit separator that removes sediment and free oil from urban stormwater. Oil and sediment are

separated before re-entry into the sewer system ot

eters, usually without a visit from a trained municipal operator. From breaking ground in November 1997, the upgraded plant was commis sioned in just eight months in July 1998. The project, representing the largest MBR plant of its kind in Canada, has

breathed new life into the old plant. With the MBR upgrade,this facility has

stormwater management

facility. Trapped oil and sediment can be removed

easily during regular maintenance.

Performance improves, saving considerable time and money. Get the OGER on your side. It's a giant advance in stormwater treatment.

the capacity to handle all flows from the


sewered areas of the District of Powell

River which were served by the origi nal facility. The MBR upgrade also be gins to address challenges associated with inflow and infiltration in the aging



concrete pipe association of o lifetime

Ithe cho o ice

6299 Airport Road, Suite 508, MIssissauga. Onf. L4V 1N3 (905)677-1010 Fox (905) 677-1007

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 136 (See page 25)


Combined Sewer Systems

Vortex valves for stormwater regulation: a classic solution to a recent dilemma

Stormwater flows have histori

When the flow exceeds the capacity of

cally been considered as harm

the VHV, the water level rises in the


Recent studies have

catch basin. This static water head will

shown that these flows cannot

create a throttling effect in the vortex valve, thus limiting the flow to the mu nicipal sewer. A central air core is cre ated in the orifice. This air core par tially blocks off this orifice, thus dimin ishing the discharged flowrate

be dismissed as easily. Chebbo (1992) and Marsalek et al,(1997) have shown that stormwater is a source of diffuse

pollution with a high source of sus pended solids(SS), adsorbed hydrocar bons(HC)and nutrient loads(N,P,etc.). All these factors influence the quality of the receiving body of water. Since 1994,the USEPAhas enforced

stringent new rules concerning storm

Furthermore,the volume of the catch

Figure 1. View ofthe Vertical Hydrove)^

basin is used as a retention chamber to


dampen the effect of the incoming run

the city's combined sewer pipe diameter could be a good solution if money and

water. Here,in Canada, the same move

inconvenience were not an issue.

toward legislation is being felt. Some municipalities require that stormwater flowrates are controlled and perhaps

• Separating the storm sewerfrom the combined sewer system. Likewise, the city could invest in separate storm sew ers, but again at a high cost. • Controlling the runoff entering the combined sewer. By controlling the flow of runoff waters actually accessing the combined sewer system, the flow con ditions in the sewer system can be lim ited to an acceptable maximum while the catch basin system is retaining the in coming surface runoff. This is the op tion that is used by many cities. Principle of the Vertical

even treated. This article covers the uti

lization of the Hydrovex® Vortex Valve (VHV)as a means to control and regu late stormwater flowrates.

Combined sewer design Combined sewers are designed to receive both sanitary flows and stormwater flows. As always, a com promise between efficiency and costs must be achieved. A pipe designed for a smaller flow will only be able to ad mit sanitary flows. On the other hand, an infinitely large pipe could receive all flows(combined and storm)but at a very substantial cost. Modern engineering practice dictates the design parameters for such a sewer to be both economi

cally feasible and able to transport com

Hydrovex® Valve The vortex flow regulator design is based on the fluid mechanics principle of the forced vortex. The operation of the regulator depends on the upstream head. Up to a certain static water head, the unit orifice will regulate the flow.

off waters in the combined sewer. Al

though the concept is quite simple, over 12 years of research have been carried out, and still continue, in order to fur

ther improve performance. A typical unit of the VHV is shown in Figure 1, whereas Figure 2 shows a typical in stallation of a VHV in a catch basin.

Made of long-lasting stainless steel, the VHV is easy to install. This device simply needs to be inserted in the outlet pipe of the manhole. Two rubber Orings ensure the stability and water tight ness of the installation. Orifice flow versus vortex flow

The efficiency of the vortex valve is better understood when comparing the hydraulic performances of orifice flow and vortex flow.

Orificeflow. For a given water head(H), only a given section of area(A )will let a given flowrate of water (Q) pass through, The value of A^ is calculated with Equation 1.


bined flows.

A^ =

Whenever peak storm flows are encountered,the capacity of the ex isting sewer systems might be at tained.



(Eq. 1)


where C^, is known as the coeffi cient of contraction. This coeffi

These excessive wet

cient is equal to 0.61 for most ap plications(Munson et al., 1990). Vortex Flow. These same general equations apply for a vortex flow

weather flow conditions created in

the sewer system may lead to hy draulic surcharge of the pipes and even flooding of house or industry basements. Finally, these sewers



in a vortex valve. As stated earlier,

will then overflow and soil the re

an air core is created at the centre

ceiving waters.

of the outlet orifice. This air core


Possible alternatives


Different alternatives can be en



John Meunier inc., Montreal 44

partially blocks off the orifice, thus

lowering the C^. This renders the total area of the


•Installing larger sewerpipes to ac cept the larger flows. Upgrading 'Regional Manager (Ontario and Maritimes), ^Project Engineer, ^Product Manager,


vortex valve orifice many times larger than the equivalent orifice, usually from four to six times larger. Table 1 shows the comparison for

Figure 2. Typicalinstallation ofa Vertical Hydrovex!^ an orifice for vortex and orifice flow. Valve.

It can easily be seen that the oriEnvironmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

By R. Rivet\ J. Cigana^, M.Couture^ fice of a vortex valve will never block

Compared performance of a VHV regulator and

in a stormwater application as it is al most eight inches in diameter. On the other hand, the opening of the orifice flow is only 1 5/8 inches in diameter. It is liable to be blocked by any small ele

an orifice plate of the same diameter 14

ment, i.e. leaves, dirt, wood, etc., that

might enter the storm sewer. Figure 3 shows graphically the dif ference in discharge between the orifice eter. It can be seen from this figure that for a constant head(H)the vortex flow regulator will discharge 4-6 times less flowrate than a orifice plate with the

. h (ft) VHV



. h (ft) orifice





TI «3 a>

flow and the vortex flow of same diam






4 2 0

same diameter.

Examples of application • New developments. A new urban de




































velopment is proposed in a municipal ity. The new storm sewers will dis

Figure 3. Flow Curve of VHV versus Orifice Plate ofsame diameter.

charge into a larger interceptor carrying combined sewers. The addition of this

new neighborhood would flood the in terceptor. How can the municipality achieve this development without com

promising water quality by raw sewage overflowing into the river? The municipality

the downstream interceptor. •Parking lots. Parking lots are a prime source of urban runoff because of the

cates the volume of water that is stored

large impervious surfaces they cover.

in a round manhole of 36 inches. This

Table 1. Comparison of vortex and orifice flow

volume remains in the man

for Q=0.2 cfs and H=8 ft.

hole and thus creates capacity in the sewer system.

Orifice Flow (C^ =0.61)

Vortex Flow (C^ = 0.17)

Diameter = 1 5/8 inches

Diameter = 7 3/4 inches

decided to install Vertical

Hydrovex® Valves in the out let pipe of new and existing catch basins.

to retain stormwater directly in the man hole of the parking lot. Table 3 indi


Possible blockage

No blockage

Possible maintenance to clean and maintenance

Little to no maintenance

This dramatically reduced flowrates entering the inter ceptor. Table 2 shows the impact of re stricting the incoming stormwater

Vertical Hydrovex® valves have shown, over the years, their efficiency in controlling stormwater flows. Moreover,

These storm sewers very quickly receive the full volume of rain falling upon the

their precision and sturdiness have been proven many times over. Stringent stormwater legislation has

flowrates to the combined sewer. This

parking lot. Once this rain has reached

made this device an economical alter

city, like many other municipalities, now has an ordinance specifying the degree offlow control to be performed for every new development. This way, runoff from new developments does not flood

the storm sewer it then,just as quickly, reaches the interceptor where it might contribute to its flooding and overflow ing of raw sewage. The alternative that is preferred by many municipalities is

native to the rehabilitation of sewers,es

Table 2. Effect of the installation of 22 Hydrovex® VHV Regulators in a typical city.

Storm Sewer

I\ion Controlled Storm Flow

VHV Controlled Storm Flow

%0f Flow Reduction

22 CB @ 2.5 CFS

22 VHV @ 0.2 CFS


max. per Catch Basin

max. per VHV unit

pecially in the case of new developments and parking lots. References available. For more information,

circle reply card No. 139

Table 3. Volume of water retained in function of the water head Manhole Diameter


Volume of water retained in the manhole


35 cu.ft.


42 cu.ft. 49 cu.ft.


New environmental trade show On April 7 & 8, ES&E will launch a trade show in conjunction with its long established Environmental Compliance Workshops. ES&E has hosted the highly successful compliance workshops for over five years. See our ad on page 73. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998




Report by Steve Davey

Sun shone on 16,677 delegates at WEFTEC

Orlando,Florida,thetheme park capitalofthe world, provided an excellent opportunity for delegates to combine the learning and networking opportuni

ties of WEFTEC, with unmatched entertainment

opportunities for accompanying families. Some 16,677 delegates attended the 1998 Water Environ ment Federation Conference and Exposition in Orlando, where the weather was unsurprisingly perfect. Conference organizers put together the much appreciated "WEFTEC for Families" program. This two part event, had children touring the tradeshow, and learning from an interac tive display, which showed each step of the wastewater col lection and treatment process. Reserving Universal Studios for an evening gave delegates and families a unique opportunity to experience this spec tacular attraction, with only a fraction of the usual crowds. For one evening at least, many were able to forget middle age and relive some of the excitement of their younger years. Those who attended will not soon forget the experience of such rides as "Back to the Future, Jaws, Kongfrontation, Twister, Earthquake and Terminator 3D". Financial Status

Coming back from the future to reality, WEE directors faced a prodigious array of tough decisions at two lengthy board meetings.

Left to right: Geordie Gauid, Barry Orr, Mike Wemyss, and Gary Burrows of the winning 'Royal Flush'team . ZeeWeed membranes directly into an existing aeration tank or clarifier. The ZenoGem process achieves better than terti ary treatment effluent quality in a single step and can be adapted to meet low BOD, COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus effluent requirements. The Innovative Technology Awards recognize products or services that use new ideas, methods, alterations or unique changes from existing systems in four categories: collection systems,instrumentation, process equipment,and solids han dling and disposal. London team wins Division 2 in Operations Challenge The City of London's 'Royal Flush' beat twenty-six other teams to capture first place overall in the Division 2 category

of WEF's annual Operations Challenge. The City of Toron to's 'Highlanders'came 5th overall in the Division 1 competi tion, in which eleven teams competed. The hands-on competition consisted of five events (proc ess control, laboratory, maintenance, safety, and collection systems), each designed to test the diverse skills required for the operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment fa cilities, their collection systems, and laboratories. BCWWA member chosen as new treasurer

ES&E President Steve Davey and family were among the 20,000 peopie who enjoyed the evening at Universai Studios organized by WEE.

After much discussion,the Board approved a$19,938,300.00 (US)budgetfor the upcoming year. Expenses of$19,741,100.00 will allow a Commitment to Reserves of $195,000.00. The Federation's reserve fund now stands at over five million dol

lars, which is in keeping with US government guidelines. ZENON wins top water quality award ZENON Environmental Systems won a WEE Innovative Technology Award in the Process Category. They have used membrane technologies to develop a hol low fibre microfiltration membrane, which allows for cost-

effective upgrading of conventional wastewater treatment plants. Any existing wastewater treatment plant can be up graded at low cost into a ZenoGemÂŽ process by lowering the 46

Prad Khare, BC Ministry of the Environment, took over as WEE Treasurer at WEFTEC'98. Prad has served for many

years on the executive of the BCWWA and this new appoint ment is testimony to a job well done. Canadian to serve on WEE Committee

Rhonda Harris, the new WEE president, has invited Peter Nicol of CG&S to serve on the Constitution & Bylaws Man agement Committee. Together with the City of Winnipeg's Bill Borlase, Peter organized the highly successful Great Canadian Icebreaker, which attracted over 250 people to a unique night spot called Blazing Pianos. An annual event held before the start of WEFTEC,the Icebreaker event gives Canadian attendees the chance to meet and network with colleagues from home. Steve Davey is President ofES&E, a Director of the Water Environment Federation, and a Past President of the Water Environment Association of Ontario. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Forestry Management

Has Europe failed its forests? the amount of protected forest area, the standards of production and the national environmental, social and cultural poli cies applied to forests. Some 90 questions ranging from the quality of each country's data to the qual ity of forestry management training and education were posed. The UK is fourth from the bottom for forestry manage ment among European countries. "The UK has virtually no natural for ests left, and some ecosystem types have entirely disappeared. Forest cover is low and most British 'forests' are actually plantations. Despite widespread forest loss, only 2.5 percent of the remaining area is under strict protection," says the WWF report. "Britain also has the worst score in

This beautiful scene was shot in Scotland where only 1% of the old growth Caledo nian forest remains. Photo - Kathleen Carlgnan

Old-growth forests have

almost disappeared from Europe. They now amount to less than two percent of

tered patches. In one WWF project, its staff sur veyed forests in 15 countries. The cri teria they used were levels of pollution.

Europe for pollution, measured by an nual per-capita emissions of carbon di oxide, sulphur, nitrogen and volatile or ganic compounds," says the WWF. Spain, Belgium and Denmark scored worse than the UK for forestry manage ment. ❖

woodland. In the remainder, natural

forest has been replaced by commercial plantations of single types of tree, often fast-growing conifers. The loss of traditional habitat has undermined

native plant and animal populations. Director-general of the Worldwide


Fund for Nature (WWF), Dr. Claude

Martin says: "The problem is political inertia. The year after the 1992 Rio sum mit on the environment, Europe's gov ernments met in Helsinki to sign up to a pan-European process of sustainable forestry management, maintaining bio diversity and setting up networks of pro tected areas.

"With rare exceptions like Finland, they have done little to deliver on those promises. Indeed, Europe's ministries of forestry do not even have the means of measuring how badly they are doing," he stressed.

A few pockets of Europe's original woodlands remain,including about one percent of the Caledonian forest in Scot land. On the border of Greece and Bul

garia, the Rodhopi forest contains the last patch of Europe's original wild

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woodland which covered most of the continent before the rise of the Roman



empire. The traditional Mediterranean forest


in Spain has been reduced to three scat Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

For more information, circie reply card No. 142

(See page 25)


Environmental Laboratories

The ECO-nomics of lab accreditation

The Vancouver-based Cantest environmental laboratories

tiple accreditations from different sources. All that is required is a scope extension under the existing PALCAN

accredited under the Stand


Laboratories is one of 78

ards Council of Canada's Program for

The Standards Council is a Crown

the Accreditation of Laboratories -

corporation with an extensive accredi

Canada(PALCAN). Since 1994, PALCAN accreditation

tation track record, while CAEAL is a

for this type of lab has been carried out in partnership with the Canadian Asso ciation for Environmental Analytical Laboratories (CAEAL). Accreditation is a means of providing peace of mind

to customers - and ultimately, to any one who values a healthy environment.

voluntary non-profit association of pri vate sector and government labs and individuals interested in environmental

analysis. Under their partnership agree ment, the Standards Council grants ac creditation based on lab audits and pro ficiency testing carried out by CAEAL. About half of CAEAL's 190 mem

done, in conjunction with its partners, enables us to deal with one agency for all our accreditation requirements," says Don Enns,president of Cantest Labora

ber labs have already been accredited or are in the process of accreditation, and 165 are participating in proficiency test ing. Environmental labs represent about 40 percent of all labs accredited by the


Standards Council.

"What the Standards Council has

PALCAN accredits laboratories un

dertaking a broad variety of tests. As a result, environmental analytical labs can diversify their activities-into pesticide residue testing or milk analysis, for instance - without having to seek mul

ber labs provide assessors for site au dits as volunteers. This means very ef ficient assessment and very high qual ity at a low cost. Fees for the assess ments have been going down for the last three years." PALCAlN accreditation is based upon the predominant intemational laboratory accreditation guide,ISO/IEC Guide 25, General Requirementsfor the Compe tence of Calibration and Testing Labo ratories. This enables the Standards

Council to conclude mutual recognition agreements with other accreditation bodies worldwide,including US organi zations like the American Association

for Laboratory Accreditation and the National Institute for Standards and

Technology. These agreements give accredited labs heightened acceptance in other countries. Cantest,for instance,

Rick Wilson, executive director of

has facilities in Washington state and in

CAEAL, says that: "The amount of laboratory work that is requiring ac creditation is increasing, and participa tion by our members in accreditation procedures is going up. CAEAL mem-

British Columbia, and is able to send


All You Need for Environmental Quality Data Management

work back and forth across the border.

And of course, there is also evidence

that the accreditation process has im proved quality in the laboratories. A study by CAEAL, based on its profi ciency testing,found that accredited labs provide better quality information than their non-accredited counterparts and have fewer unsatisfactory results. â?&#x2013;

New ACPA president named

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For more information, circle reply card No. 141 (See page 25)


John Duffy, former ACPA staff mem ber, has been named the new president of the American Concrete Pipe Associa tion. A 1968 graduate of the Catholic University of America in Washington, DC, with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering, Mr. Duffy was employed by ACPA from 1974 through 1993. For the past five years, Mr. Duffy has been employed in the biotechnology arena, primarily involved with bioremediation of petroleum products.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Professional Llabllllty

By Peter R. Matson, B.A., C.A.I.B.

Liability insurance statistics contain some surprising numbers for engineers

Some profes ionals, including

design professionals, whether they provide architectural, en gineering or environmental

services, feel there are few claims in

general brought against their profession. They also believe there are fewer claims that could be classified as substantial or serious in nature. Whilst there are no statistics avail

able in Canada which provide an over view of liability claims against design professionals, individual insurer analy sis can provide valuable insight into general trends and analysis of relative risk by discipline and project type. One such study completed by DPIC Com panies Inc. whose Canadian Head

ties and hotels. Lower risk projects in clude colleges and universities, road and highways and commercial/industrial projects. Of course, when analyzing risk, in addition to discipline and project type, one should consider other deter minates ofrisk including client selection, contractor selection, scope of services, contract language, professional expertise and staff training, to name a few. Other interesting data emanating from our analysis are the common or most frequent sources of law-suits against design professionals and the

Bodily injury claims account for less than 10% of total claims dollars paid as evidenced by this study. A study released by ECS/Reliance noted that environmental claims are gen erally infrequent due to a number of rea sons. Generally these are: 1. Many types of environmental projects are so closely regulated that the system requires numerous reviews of a consult ant's work before it is accepted. This results in what some environmental con

sultants have called "continuous peer review".

Office is in Toronto, reveals some inter

The discovery of environmental impairment may not surface quickly. This is particularly true when compared to design

esting data and, at the very least, a gen

errors which occur in the

2. Environmental professionals are risk managers by virtue of their profession. They are engaged in a risky business and generally know how to handle risk. 3. Contract forms used by environmen tal professionals more often than not

design professions.

contain risk allocation clauses and me

eral indication of the historic causes of

claims, brought against design profes sionals.

In their study, DPIC measured rela tive risk by discipline and project type where fee dollars were compared to paid claims dollars. This methodology was used because every dollar of fee repre sents a unit of risk exposure. One might argue that this relative analysis is not completely empirical in nature but it does provide "food for thought" when studying this area of claims activity. Consider the following: • Structural engineers are more apt than other design professionals to experience

diation clauses which tend to discour

types of damages most likely to result. Perhaps not surprisingly, owners and or

age broad-based claims. 4. The laws which may apply are new

clients account for over 50% of all

and case law is limited.

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5. The discovery of environmental im pairment may not surface quickly. This is particularly true when compared to design errors which occur in the design professions. 6. The environmental industry is rela tively new. The more direct exposures resulting from a pollution type project or study to Continued overleaf

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precipitation of sparingly soluble sulfide solids. University of W^aterloo scientists K.R. Waybrant, D.W. Blowes and C.J. Ptacek undertook batch tests using simu lated mine drainage. The results, re

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Scientists at the Institut de recherche en

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

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Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Wastewater recovery and processing


Flowline Liquid Intelligence Fiowiine's newest "Liquid inteiiigence" cataiogue features a compre

Through utilizing the Derrick "FioLine" screening unit design, high fiuid capacities can be effectiveiy handied at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overaii units required and higher soiids/particulate

hensive collection of state-of-the-art

level and flow products. Renowned for their revolutionary thermoplastic design, Flowline products are feature packed and process proven, offering outstanding durability at an affordabie price. This 100-page, four-coiour cataiogue showcases everything

removai. The Derrick "Fio-Line" WASTE WATER RECOVEAY ft PROCIItiNO

VWfj^and ChiaUal Testing Solutions AFWASmbwali'tHCMin

screening unit can also be easily in stalled into an existing faciiity due to the unique compact unit design. The

from Fiowiine's new LevelLinkâ&#x201E;˘Tank

"Fio-Line" can aiso be custom de

Management System to level

signed to meet your industry's spe cific requirements. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 180

switches and transmitters for a fuli

range of appiications. Davis Controls

Circle reply card No. 181

New VWRbrand Solutions

Oil and sediment removed



VWR Caniab is pieased to announce

Stormceptor is a poiiution prevention device that efficiently removes oil and sediment from stormwater, and pre vents nonpolnt-source pollution from reaching our waterways. Storm ceptor is unique in the market be cause it will not release trapped pol lutants between servicing, even In periods of peak water flow. It Is preenglneered for traffic loading and can be used In a wide variety of applica tions. There are currentiy more than 2,000 units in place throughout North America. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 183

the reiease of a new soiutions cata

logue containing atomic absorption standards, pH buffers and a iarge se lection of reagents prepared in ac cordance with EPA, ASTM, APHA and AOAC standard testing methods. VWRbrand solutions are NiST trace

able where applicable and all prod ucts are expiry dated. Custom manu facturing services are avaiiabie. For more details contact us at 800-9325000 or visit our Web site: www.vwr ^yWRConlob VWR Caniab

Circle reply card No. 182


Our 530 page all color mail-or der catalog, has over 12,000 items from more than 400 manu

facturers - everything you need to keep your water and wastewater systems running smoothly. Simply pick up the phone for ex pert technical advice and same day shipping to anywhere in Canada. USABIueBook

Circle reply card No. 184


Storage and containment systems RTS/Canbar, an ISO 9002 facility, specializes in rote mouided poiyethylene products. Full time engineer ing staff, state-of-the-art equipment, and a fuli fabrication facility provide the products and service for buik storage and distribution of liquids and powders. Vertical storage tanks, open top tanks, containment tanks, Intermediate Bulk Containers(IBGs), and custom products provide the solutions. RTS/Canbar Inc.

Circle reply card No. 185

CPPA Standard

Specification (100-97) lor Comigated PotyetbTleiis(PE) Pipe For Stonn Sewer l^licstioas Sroigtil to ycu by tlK CPCA. a iW'protii jnCisky tiÂť4i asuctaikir OKkots)to uRCiiMf. n^vniea ntwmiiot abnti iv oa: a\]

iitsaiidioi of coT'u^SM

Yak kJormatun Rtaeua

New specification for pipe

CPPA releases new

use in storm sewer

specification for pipe

applications The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) has issued the new specification: CPPA Standard Specification for Corrugated Poiyethylene Pipe for Storm Sewer Ap plications. This specification covers requirements and test methods for corrugated polyethylene pipe and fit tings in nominal diameters of 75mm to 1500mm (3" to 60") with either a smooth or corrugated interior. This specification provides for soil tight, silt tight, and watertight joints. CPPA Circle reply card No. 186

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

use in storm and

sanitary sewer applications The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) has Issued two new specifications: CPPA Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe for Storm Drainage Appii cations and CPPA Standard

Specification for Corrugated Poiyethyiene Pipe for Sanitary Sewer Appiications. Copies are available from the CPPA. CPPA

Circle reply card No. 187


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Water chlorination becomes easier and safer

Influent Cleaning System The BioGuard Influent Gleaning Sys tem is a combination of three unique


-fittlpringtln^ Systems

water is treated with chlorine as the

the suspended soiids from a wastewater treatment piant's incoming stream, separates the organic materiai from the trash, and returns the bioiogicai matter to the piant flow, while it simuitaneousiy dewaters the

preferred method of sanitizing and disinfecting. With such widespread use, it is important that the method of chlorination be easy and safe. PPG industries, inc. has managed to do both with its calcium hypochiorite chlorinating system. The inno vative system, consisting of a pat

accumulated trash. The BioGuard


Influent Cleaning System KSONCoarORWKJN

System is completely dosed,to mini mize odours and insect problems, and protect operating personnel from exposure to wastes containing pathogenic organisms. Parkson Circle reply card No. 188

Rc.volutiomtnj Difference

Centrifuges of Industrial waste water

Responsible waste management

Westfaiia decanter centrifuges are

BOVAR's Swan Hills Treatment Cen

constructed with ail stainless steel

tre is North America's only fully inte grated waste management facility. Destruction efficiencies exceed

99.9999% at its two rotary incinera tors which have a 43,000 tonne an nual capacity. Upon approval, waste is transported from your site, in spected and sampled to verify con formance and treated according to physical and chemical characteris

ids. GEA Process

tics. Treatment residues are tested

Technology Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 190

for conformance to end disposal cri teria. Bovar Waste Management Circle reply card No. 191

COj Water Treatment Systems



.Ca»»o»j Dioxide Waii* TdlATMEHt !>T5irM4

Nondlsruptlve pipe

Praxair's new brochure, "Carbon Dioxide Water Treatment Systems"

Insitiifonnis your sourcefor

details the advantages of using COj


to treat process, effluent and drinking waters. This safe, effective, economi cal and environmentaiiy-responsibie method of controlling pH levels in alkaline waters is applicable to ail treatment areas, including basins, holding ponds, pipelines, sumps, pressurized vessels and tanks in the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemi cal and petroleum industries, as well as municipal facilities. Praxair Circle reply card No. 192



...m- -s"

handling eKperts



Do you have a water-handling appli cation? if so, Fiygt has the pumps, mixers and expertise to get the job done. Whether it be for municipal, industrial, mining or construction site applications, this guide will give you a quick overview of our main product lines.



Extensive documentation is

available for each series including 03000 pumps; BIG -i- BLUE pumps; mixers/agitators; BiBO pumps; cast iron pumps; ready pumps;5500 slurry pumps; Stainless steel pumps; gen erator sets; controls; station equip ment; rentals; parts and service; en gineering support. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 194

Insituform Technologies specializes in rehabilitating pressure and grav ity pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard-toreach places. Using our advanced technologies, we repair pipes from the inside, in most cases without man-entry or excavation. Our solu tions, which are proven nondlsruptlve and cost-effective, address many of your most serious pipe problems. Insituform Technologies Circle reply card No. 193

Quality pumping systems

The water handling experts The water

alternative to chlorine gas cylinders and sodium hypochiorite.

wastewater treatment

contact surfaces and tungsten car bide hard surfacing for reliable, longterm operation and low maintenance. The units feature fully enclosed de sign for complete process contain ment and low operator exposure. The patented high torque 2-gear drive and Hy-fiex bearings allow for the highest "G"s and the driest soi

ented chiorinator and tablets, is an

PPG Industries, Inc. Circle reply card No. 189

Centrifuges for Industrial for the treatment

Today, 98 percent of US drinking

mechanicai devices which removes





Gorman-Rupp has been manufactur ing pumps since 1933. The seifpriming centrifugal T Series pumps were introduced nearly 35 years ago. Now, the same quality can be found in a complete line of submersible pumps. The J Series submersible pumps come in 3" to 12" discharge sizes, capacities to 9500 gpm, heads to 265 feet, and from 6.2 to 174 hp. These pumps are designed specifi cally for sewage handling. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 195

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Product and Service Showcase Petrolatum tape

New metering pump

Niton 700 series multi

element spectrum analyzer Niton 700 series XRF multi-ele

ment analyzers meet the demand

The beta pump from ProMinent is a newly developed solenoid metering pump which features the latest electronic technology. The beta is available in two

Denso has introduced an innovative pet rolatum tape, Color Tape, a product that does not require initial primer applica tion, and is UV stable. This product is ideal for above ground applications. To enhance appeal, it is manufactured in a variety of colours, including white, grey and blue, and provides long-term corro sion protection to above and below ground pipes, flanges, valves and related

pacities up to 20 1/h for the beta/4a and 32 1/h for the beta/5a, at pressures up to 253 psig. A triple LED display indicates pump status in a traffic light fashion. Two adjustment knobs easily set stroke length and stroke frequency.

steel surfaces. Denso North America

ProMinent Fluid Controls

versions: beta/4a and beta/5a, with ca

Circle reply card No. 200

Circle reply card No. 201

Chemical Storage Tanks

PlantPRO™ Trash Pumps

ing requirements of a wide variety of applications industrial hygiene, site assessment, site remediation,

and compliance testing. Choose from a variety of instru ments that determine metal contaminant

concentrations with lab-like precision in the field. Analyze up to 25 elements in cluding all eight RCRA metals in less than two minutes. Levitt-Instruments

Circle reply card No. 202

Environmental Management Software

Plastics Canada,a division ofPepco Ltd., is the first company in Canada able to

Envista Technologies is a scientific soft ware company with products to address

offer the coveted Underwriters Labora

the issues ofenvironmental management. The Envista product provides managers, geoscientists and engineers with a pow erful tool for maintaining and tracking

tories Inc. (UL) certification for crosslinked polyethylene above ground tanks, to be used for the bulk storage of chemi

more than two years of testing to dem onstrate the structural integrity and chemical compatibility of the tanks.

PlantPRO™ Trash Pumps offer high quality, premium performance at a price that won't bust your budget! All of our pumps are made of heavy duty cast aluminum with cast iron replaceable wear parts. Both 3" and 4" models are avail

Plastics Canada

able. USABlueBook

Circle reply card No. 203

Circle reply card No. 204

regulatory compliance as well as envi ronmental and geosciences information. Envista creates a corporate data standard and ensures that data is complete and consistent. Envista Technologies Circle reply card No. 205

Jet Aeration

Packaged wastewater

Water & wastewater services

cals. The UL certification comes after

treatment The Bioclear® wastewater treat

ment plant offers SBR technology to communities

The MTS large-scale eductor technology with two-phase jet nozzles supplies at mospheric oxygen to biological effluent treatment processes. Over 750 systems are installed worldwide for biological wastewater treatment, equalization and aerobic digestion, and industrial mixing applications. Benefits include greater oxygenation capacity, reduced energy costs, superior mixing,independent con trol of oxygen transfer and mixing and reduced VOC emissions.

Waterlink/Mass Transfer Systems Circle reply card No. 206



people (or 9,000 to 250,000 gpd). Below-ground construction

makes the plant practically invisible, reduces odours, and is ideal for remote, cold weather loca

tions. High quality effluent can be re used for fire protection and irrigation. Waterlink/Bioclear Technology Circle reply card No. 207

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

r\Ontario Clean Water Agency Agence Ontarienne Des Eaux

The Ontario Clean Water Agency is in business to provide reliable and costeffective water and wastewater services.

OCWA currently operates more than 400 facilities in Ontario, making it the larg est operator of water and wastewater services in Canada. We are the industry

leader in project management,infrastruc ture development, the formation of pub lic/private partnerships, and above all, operations and maintenance. For more information, call 1-800-667-OCWA, or visit our Website at: OCWA

Circle reply card No. 208 59

Product and Service Showcase Used oil storage

TEI7TCQRÂŽ Aluminum Domes

Self-contained water treatment units

For more than thirty years Temcor has been competitively producing aluminum

Myers Waste Oil Storage system is an above-ground contained tank system en gineered to provide long-term safe and reliable storage of used oil and other en vironmentally hazardous petroleum prod ucts. The Myers system was the first ULC listed system in the marketplace. As a result of continued development,it now includes a complete line of products that provide ideal storage solutions for just about any industrial application. King Metal Fabricators Circle reply card No. 209

Domes, Roofs and Covers for Potable

Water and Wastewater applications in a wide variety of climates, successfully protecting your investment against the elements. Temcor's all aluminum prod ucts are lightweight, corrosion resistant, and maintenance free which translates to

longer life and lower maintenance costs. Aluminum doesn't rust like steel, doesn't

Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units

easily transported and quickly installed. Standard sizes treat from 20 gpm to 500 gpm. Each Monoplant contains clarifi

spall like concrete and doesn't degrade with ultraviolet light like fibreglass. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 210

cation, filtration, chemical feed and grav

Ultrasonic Flow Meter

Oily Water Pump

Oil-Water Separator

American Sigma recently expanded its impressive line-up of flow meters with the Sigma 970 Permanent Ultrasonic Flow Meter. Highly accurate and reli able,the 970 flow meter is so easy to pro gram it can be done without a manual. The large visual display allows the user to easily determine the system's current

The TECHNO-SELECT oil-water sepa

tory in graphical format.

The Megator Sliding Shoe Pump is an extremely versatile positive displacement pump for environmental, marine, mining and industrial applications. The pump is self-priming, can operate under dry suc tion and can handle liquids of any vis cosity to a maximum at which pumping is economically feasible. This unique pumping design offers extremely low emulsification of oily/water mixtures.

Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Nortech GSI Inc.

ced plates. Nortech GSI Inc. Circle reply card No. 214

status or review a user defined flow his

Circle reply card No. 212

Circle reply card No. 213

Concrete Pipe Design Manual

Ozone Analyzer

ity backwash systems. Effluent turbid ity is less than 1 JTU. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 211

rator uses a unique and reliable differen tial gravity valve to ensure maintenancefree disposal of separated oils without any trace of water. In most applications, ef fluents under 10 ppm are produced. Made of polypropylene or carbon steel, this OWS handles flow rates from 5 to

5,000 GPM. It offers a solid 30-year warranty on the OWS body and coales

Washing and pressing of screenings A

The new updated version is available now from the OCPA. This indispensable manual offers the most current

information on the design, manufacture, application and installation of precast concrete drainage systems. Get your FREE copy and read all about it!



concrete pipe Gssoclofion of a lifetime

llhe choice

Circle reply card No. 215 60

The Model 400 UV Absorption Ozone Analyzer from Advanced Pollution In strumentation(API)measures low ranges (0-100 ppb to 0-10 ppm) of ozone in ambient air. Through a valve switching mechanism, which every four seconds alternates measurement between sample stream and a sample scrubbed for ozone, an unbiased True Ozone reading is ob tained. Nortech GSI Inc.

With the Hydropress HPSFW Wash Press,the volume and mass of screenings are reduced, as are waste-handling costs. Odours are controlled and hygiene is improved in the screening area. The HPSFW has an additional axial bearing to absorb the pressing forces which pre vents bearing damage in the gear. Water is injected through the screwshaft which guarantees optimal washing results. Dagex Inc. Circle reply card No. 217

Circle reply card No. 216 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Product and Service Showcase A reliable and simple sampler

Fiberglass Tanks

Above Ground Tanks

Clemmer Technologies Inc. manufac tures and markets fiberglass tanks from premium resins in both single and dou ble wall construction featuring:

Clemmer's above ground Vac-U-Test® tanks offer the ultimate in leak protection. Clemmer provides 24 hour remote moni toring ofthese steel, horizontal tanks with

American Sigma has introduced the 900 Lite Auto

matic Sampler to serve the most ba

sic sampling re quirements. It >

combines the reli

ability of today's samplers with the simplified operation of past samplers. Representative samples are guaranteed with Sigma's proven peristaltic pump design. Choose a com pact or standard size base with the same controller to fit your bottle size and space requirements. This sampler is so easy to operate, you just buy it and use it. Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 218

PCB disposal TCI's

• Above ground horizontal and vertical configurations. • Underground models to ULC S615 or customer specifications.

• Custom designed to meet specific re quirements. Call one of Clemmer's in dustry experts to help you with your stor age solution. Clemmer Technologies Circle reply card No. 219

an audible/visible alarm. Double wall con

struction eliminates the need for expen sive dyking systems. All Vac-U-Test® tanks are shipped under full vacuum en suring the integrity ofthe primary and sec ondary tanks- your leak protection starts as soon the tank arrives on your job site! Clemmer Technologies Circle reply card No. 220

Above ground storage

Drip-free dry disconnect hose coupling assembiy

The H Seal above ground horizontal dou ble-wall storage tank is certified by the

drip-free dry disconnect hose coupling assembly for safer, cleaner and faster transfer of process fluids. The Dry Link™ assembly eliminates exposure to


(askarel) process provides segre gated 20,000 sq. ft. building with steel-lined inte

rior; custom-de-

signed four-story Victaulic has introduced the world's first

stainless steel

degreaser which accommodates

any size transformer or PCB article; con

Underwriter Laboratories of Canada

tinually recyled, non-ozone depleting solvent and regenerative, two-stage car bon filtration system; core/coil chopping process and four-stage bathing system

(ULC S-601 Primary - vacuum monitor ing available) and (ULC S-653 Second ary contained system). The H Seal tanks

toxic chemicals, hazardous fluids and

can hold from 1,000 - 90,000 litres. Cus

nects can leak as much as 15 cc of fluid

which cleans metals to non-detectable

tom sizes and coatings are also available, as are tank mounting fueling systems.

Circle reply card No. 222

after each transfer, requiring catch con tainers and time-consuming cleanup. Victaulic Company of Canada Circle reply card No. 223

TOP for self-cleaning pump

Leachate pump with 5-year



levels. TCI Inc.

Circle reply card No. 221

Northern Steel

their fumes. Conventional dry discon

The new TOP in

corporates a unique sump floor design, with hydraulically optimized pump discharge connec

Professional liability Security Insurance stafffocus entirely on professional liability claims. These hands-on professionals know the crucial liability issues facing environmental firms, and they continue to lead the in dustry in using altemative dispute reso lution techniques to resolve claims. Standard policies feature: No pollution exclusion; coverage for asbestos expo sure;coverage for site remediation work; and worldwide coverage. Security Insurance Co. of Hartford Circle reply card No. 224

tions, to eliminate "dead zones" and

promote controlled fluid flow while pumping. TOP is available as a stand ardized, prefabricated component to sim

plify construction of new or retrofit pump stations. Either way, the convergent de sign of the sump floor, reduces residual

The industry's first controllerless pneu matic leachate pump, the AP-4 AutoPump, now has a market-leading 5-Year Warranty. The AP-4 was the first controllerless pneumatic pump used on a landfill back in 1988. It allows fluid extraction in wells with I.D.'s as small as

solids are collected beneath the pumps suctions, ready to be pumped away.

4", handles flow rates as high as 16 GPM, and depths over 300 feet. The pumps are "timer free" resulting in less training and

ITT Flygt Canada

site visits. Nortech GSI Inc.

fluid volume and ensures that retained

Circle reply card No. 225

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Circle reply card No. 226 61

Noise & Vibration Control

Assessing and controlling environmental noise and vibration

Environmentalnoise and vibra

tion are of particular concern when industrial facilities are

located in close proximity to sensitive land uses such as residential

developments. When planning new plants or processes, it is often wise to consider the potential impact of noise and vibration at your neighbours' prop erty. These are issues which can be a source of considerable annoyance and complaints. In many states and provinces, guide lines for acceptable impacts have been developed, either by government or through industry standards. For exam ple, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board(ABUB)has developed industry guidelines in that province. In Ontario,


the assessment of noise and vibration is covered in the Environmental Protection

Act. The Ministry of the Environment (MOE)requires assessment through the process of obtaining a Certificate of Approval under Section 9 of that Act. It is the responsibility of the industry to adhere to these guidelines with regard to impacts at any nearby residences or residentially zoned lands, even if they are presently vacant. If developers wish

Anechoic test chamber.

• Manufacturing facilities • Quarries or gravel pits • Pile driving • Oil and gas pipeline compressor stations

• Stamping plants, foundries or forges • Grain driers or feed mills

to re-zone lands near sources of noise

• Rail sorting yards • Concrete and asphalt plants

and vibration to a residential use, it is

• Landfill sites and transfer stations

their responsibility to ensure that suffi cient levels of mitigation are provided. This may include providing controls at the source (noise mitigation hardware

• Power generation and co-generation

such as silencers, mufflers and enclo sures)as well as at the residences(berms,

barrier walls, building construction). Generally, the authorities suggest a preventative approach, ensuring that environmental conflicts are identified

and minimized at the earliest possible stage of an industrial expansion or a resi dential development proposal. The MOE provides noise pollution control (NFC) documents which contain crite ria for allowable levels of noise and vi

bration and guidelines for assessment and control. Sources of Noise and Vibration

Typical sources of environmental noise and vibration include:

• Road, rail and air traffic

• Subways and streetcars *HGC Engineering 62

Assessment and Control

• Industrial fans and dust collectors


• Electrical transformer stations

• Scrap metal yards • Rifle or artillery ranges Monitoring When determining the feasibility of a new project, monitoring of environ mental noise and vibration is often per formed to determine the existing acous tical environment (the ambient). Ac ceptability criteria are often based on the levels of ambient noise which exist at a

receptor before the construction of a new process or facility. If complaint situations arise with ex isting equipment, an investigation in cluding a site visit and monitoring is generally a good first step towards reso lution. An experienced noise and vibra tion engineering consultant will advise if the criteria are exceeded and provide recommendations and specifications for any control measures which may be ap propriate.

For planned industrial sources near residences or planned residential devel opments near industrial sources of noise and vibration, the criteria can be fairly restrictive. People have a lower toler ance for particular identifiable station ary sources of noise than for noise from road traffic which they tend to accept as a necessary byproduct of our mobile so ciety. In these cases, the authorities rec ommend a cooperative approach be tween the developer and the industry to investigate means of control. In many cases, source controls such as exhaust fans and process ventilation may be less expensive than extensive attenuation measures within the devel

opment. The identification and imple mentation of proper control measures at the planning stage can significantly re duce both costs and conflicts in the long term.

Sound Intensity Probe for Accurate Sound Power Measurements

Sound intensity measurement tech niques utilize a sound intensity probe and real time spectral analysis which provides a number of advantages over traditional pressure measurement tech niques. Traditional methods require that the source be located in an expensive anechoic test chamber to eliminate re verberation and interference from other

sources. This is impractical for large permanent structures and equipment

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

By Bill Gastmeier, MASc., P.Eng.* such as large engines which must be operated in situ. The sound intensity probe has two phase matched microphones to measure both sound pressure and velocity. Ori enting the probe geometrically around an object can effectively eliminate out side interference. This unique measur ing technique allows engineering grade accuracy for measurements performed in the field to the latest ISO, ANSI and

EEC standards. Accurate sound power determination is effective in solving noise problems and designing effective mitigation measures. Advanced Acoustical Modelling Techniques In spaces where sound quality is de sired or out ofdoors over large distances, sophisticated modelling of sound propa gation from the source to receptor is re quired. Modelling in a room requires mathematical ray tracing analysis and reverberation calculations which depend on volume, shape and the acoustical characteristics of the surfaces.

Sound passing between spaces is de termined by modelling the complex sound transmission characteristics of the

demising partitions. Acoustical proper ties of materials are determined through measurements following ASTM and ISO standards. A software package has been developed that can model transmis sion losses of several layers of material. This has been essential in the design of constructions for residential housing units and noise attenuating enclosures, materials and lagging systems for indus trial equipment and piping. With regard to propagation in the out-

Sound intensity measurements being taken of an industrial ventilation exhaust. door environment, such factors as hemi the case of extremely sensitive spaces spherical spreading, ground and air ab such as research establishments, by sorption, effects of barriers and struc floating entire buildings on resilient iso tures and meteorological conditions lation systems. must all be considered. HGC have de Gas turbine engine exhaust systems veloped an in-house software package may be controlled through the use of which combines all these elements us large absorptive silencers. Ventilation ing various propagation models. equipment and process exhausts are con Design of Effective Noise and trolled by using reactive or absorptive Vibration Control Measures

The measurements and modelling identify the significant sources and the required mitigation performance. Air borne noise sources are often control

led with enclosures or lagging systems. Outdoor propagation can be controlled through berms/barrier walls and build ing facade components. Ground bom vibration is controlled through founda tion design, equipment isolation and,in

silencers or mufflers. Vibration isola

tion can be implemented for machines, equipment or entire buildings. HGC Engineering have developed an integrated approach to noise and vibra tion assessment and control which pin points the source, models the path of transmission and identifies the most ef

fective and efficient mitigation tech niques. For more information, circle reply card No. 156 Announcment David Laskin, President ofTOi Inc.

is pleased to announce Paul Hebert as Vice President of Business De

velopment. Paul has been involved in the environmental business for

seventeen years and for the past ten years has worked with clients requir ing PCB remediation and disposal options. Paul will focus on market devel

opment for TGI's new PCB treatment and metal recycling facility in Kirkiand Lake, Ontario. When asked about his new role with TGI, Paul re

plied, "It is a pleasure to be associ ated with such an energetic and pro gressive team." Contact Paul Hebert at Tei:(450) 458-1903, Fax:(450) 458-2760. Ray Tracing Analysis. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


Drinking Water

By Tony Edmonds, C.Chem.

Iodine In municipal drinking water treatment- useful tool or a curiosity?

Iodinein solution asiodine(O),that is as elemental iodine, has been an

accepted water disinfectant for many years. Iodine can be added by using a pre-prepared saturated iodine solution or by addition of chlorine to water previously dosed with iodide salts. Effectively treating potentially contami

taste objection to iodine use. Also, the equipment used in the above locations for iodine addition appeared simple,ro bust, easy to control and only of modest cost. However, in all the above loca

numerically quantifiable performance related parameter. Since mains which are overgrown and partly blocked by deposits show greater resistance to water flow, hydraulic resistance meas

tions, all the water supplied was iodi-

urement was selected as the parameter

nated from a set start date. In this type of situation, direct comparisons of sys

of choice.

nated brackish water in field conditions

tem behaviour with and without iodine

range for suitable health protection

by "hypoiodide" pill addition is well known to the public and extensively tested and proven by the military. US parks and many small private well sources routinely use iodine as the main

are difficult to separate from other changes due to factors such as seasonal water composition changes. Since the potential for cost savings was so large,the Ontario Ministry of the Environment(MOE)took the initiative to investigate the effectiveness ofiodine for distribution system rehabilitation. To do a valid investigation required the owners of a distribution system as a part ner for MOE. Tay Township kindly vol unteered in 1996 to provide the Port McNicoll distribution system as test area for the iodine application; this offer was


The resulting slight taste/odour

change, which is different from that of chlorine, is reasonably well tolerated. However, the cost of iodine is higher than that of chlorine or hypochlorite and the difficulties associated with handling iodine, which is a solid, appear to have discouraged widespread use. Recently, some persistent coliform contamination problems with the (unfiltered) chlorinated municipal water supplies at Gander, and at Botwood, Newfoundland, were reported to have been resolved using combinations of

measures. Surprisingly, there were no

long term epidemiological studies of a large population exposed to iodine(O). As a consequence Ministry toxicologists advised that, though they assessed the health risk of water containing iodine at 0.1 mg/L as slight, altemative non-iodinated supplies should be made available to the population. Tay personnel agreed to do this by fitting a publicly accessi ble tap upstream of the iodine injection equipment. Citizens were also fully in formed on how to reduce their iodine

intake to compensate for iodine in the water.

Since mains which are

small amounts of iodine with chlorine

overgrown and partly blocked by deposits show greater resistance to water flow, hydraulic

as disinfectant. In addition,reports from

resistance measurement

the Canadian Forces Base at Borden,

was selected as the

Ontario,suggested that use ofthis mixed iodine/chlorine disinfectant over many years has eased maintenance of a much oversized and antiquated distribution

parameter of choice.


The next problem issue was to ar

made subject to citizen assent and with the permission of the Medical Officer for Simcoe County. (Tay covered much

The Simcoe Medical Officer offered

assent and followed up to support the activity through participation with Tay and the MOE in planning publication of announcements and by having staff at tend public meetings in Port McNicoll to explain the plans and allay unneces sary fears. Public response was judged acceptably positive in part probably because the treatment was a possible alternative to a costly and disruptive water main replacement program. Measurements of"baseline" hydrau

The principal effects observed at Borden are that a more persistent re

of the direct costs of the trial over 1996

lic main resistance were made at six lo

and 1997 and the MOE and Iodine Tech

cations in Port McNicoll and at a con

sidual was detectable and hardened de

nologies the remaining costs.) On investigation,the MOE found that

trol location in Victoria Harbour by min istry staff during early summer, 1996. Flows from fu-e hydrants were measured with a magnetic flow meter and data logger while a sensitive differential pres sure gauge connected to hose outlets at pairs of upstream houses was used to

posits on the pipe walls appear to be softened enough so high velocity flush ing at 1 to 1.5 m/s appeared capable of washing them out. No significant taste or odour changes occurred as iodine lev els were held at around 0.1 mg/L. The potential value of a chemical mix which could help delay or avoid pigging and lining or replacement of water mains is very large; in Ontario it is cer

tainly in the eight figure range in $/year depending on the level of effectiveness.

the Victoria Harbour/Port McNicoll

water distribution system provided a potentially ideal test area. This is be cause iodine could be injected in the trunk main separating the communities, both of which are supplied from the same conventional plant in Victoria Harbour. Tracking changes in a com munity which is receiving iodinated water relative to another community which receives identically the same

indicate flow resistance.

Injection of iodine was planned to occur over 90 days during spring and summer of 1996 using equipment pur chased by Tay from Iodine Technologies Inc. (Iodine Technologies is the Ontario company which supplied iodine equip ment to Borden, Gander and Botwood.)

Furthermore, the combination of chlo

treated water but without iodine, allows

rine and much smaller amounts of io

for the elimination of factors related to

dine removes the economic and odour/

seasonal and treatment differences.

The hardware installed included a chlo

To carry out a study in a scientifically valid manner required selection of a

rine booster station and an iodine addi-

'Ontario Ministry of the Environment 64

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

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Drinking Water, cont' tion station about 400 yards downstream of the iodine injection location on the

in fall 1997 at the remaining four acces

trunk main.

sible McNicoll sites and the Victoria

no plans by MOE to do so. Iodine Technologies remains inter ested in treating water with iodine in

These installations were fitted by Simcoe Engineering who acted under contract to Tay. Difficulties were expe

Harbour site, no significant improve ment was noted. A very slight slowing of the rate of deterioration of pipe con

ing up on reasons for effectiveness of

dition in the iodine treated sections rela

the iodine treatment in three locations

rienced with control of the addition of

tive to that in the non-treated areas may

but not in a fourth.

iodine due to very low water velocities

have been detected.

more difficult conditions and in follow

The cooperation and assistance of the very professional operators

and the trial had to be aban-

doned for a year. from the Ontario Clean What was observed? Little or no trace of the During 1997 iodine in hoped for freeing up of pipe deposits was noted Water Agency in Victoria jection was re-established Harbour and the enthusias during routine summertime flushing from using a saturator and a tic support provided by Tay fire hydrants. positive displacement Township management pump. The pump was opand staff during this project erated on a flow paced basis by using A local citizens' opinion survey ran is gratefully acknowledged as are the signals from an existing turbine type by Tay in November also suggested lit persistent efforts of the volunteer "Port" water meter and compensation was ef tle or no water quality change as per citizen monitoring panel. fectively made for the very low water ceived by the general public. Attempts In addition, the work of the ministry velocities with this set-up. Iodine levels to swab mains in Port McNicoll by ex Laboratory Services Branch staff is were monitored intensively by MOB us perienced A-1 Hydrant staff immedi gratefully acknowledged. Lab staff de ing a newly developed and precise ately after the iodine addition period vised the required new and precise ana plasma/mass spectrometry-based analyti were also unsuccessful indicating that lytical procedures for trace amounts of cal method specially devised for the trial. sufficient softening of deposits for easy iodine and its by-products and also ac In all, the system ran reliably with mechanical cleaning had not occurred. cepted the burden of routine monitor iodine levels held constant in the 100 to On the basis of the results, Tay has ing when on-site methods had been 120 microgram/L range for over 90 days started a program to replace the most found unacceptable. over a period of about four months. break-prone sections of the Port Mc By no means the least notable con Attempts to have a citizen monitoring Nicoll water mains system. The MOE tribution to the successful completion of team use an on-site colourimetric iodine Water and Wastewater Optimization the project was the commitment and per measuring method as described in Section which coordinated and carried sistence of the Iodine Technologies staff Standard Methods proved unsuitable for out the scientific assessment has con who,among other activities, spent many use at these low concentrations. cluded that further work on a iodineuncomfortable hours "underground" What was observed? Little or no chlorine combined disinfectant for main and,later,followed through profession trace of the hoped for freeing up of pipe rehabilitation is not presently merited. ally and without excuses at the final deposits was noted during routine sum Potential use of the mixed disinfectant analysis of this project. mertime flushing from fire hydrants. On in clearing persistent coliform contami Eor more information, contact Tony retesting the mains hydraulic resistance nation remains to be tested, but there are Edmonds,(416) 235-5816.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 143 (See page 25)


Focus on Storage Tanks

By Richard J. Rush^ and Susan L. Sefton^

When are those underground storage tanks out of compliance? s more and more Phase 1


Environmental Site Assess

ments (ESAs) and Environ

mental Compliance Audits are being undertaken for a variety of business reasons, more situations are

being identified which require interpre tation of what constitutes compliance and "due diligence" with respect to un derground storage tanks (USTs). Dur ing the 1990s the regulations relating to fuel storage tanks have changed in most provinces, as have the Guidelines for Soil and Groundwater Clean-up. It is a never-ending task for environ mental site assessors, compliance audi tors, and industry in general, to stay abreast of the current regulations and guidelines related to USTs. The follow ing examples have been selected from recent XCG project experience to illus trate the complexities that can be en countered, with respect to upgrading requirements for two of the most com mon types of UST installations. These should be read, remembering that in Ontario, USTs containing motive fuel (gasoline and associated products), must comply with the Gasoline Handling Act and Code, whereas USTs containing heating and stationary power source fu els must comply with tihe Fuel Oil Code of the Energy Act. The key in all prov inces is to verify which regulation ap plies to the specific type of tank, and the tank's contents at the subject site. Case Study 1: Upgrading Requirements for Gasoline USTs at

Private Outlets (Federal Sites, Ontario and Quebec) This case study summarizes the find ings of a Fuel Storage Tank Upgrade Study at a federal institution in the King ston area,in Ontario. It shows the stepby-step method needed to decide: Is the UST in compliance? and: What should

Removal of a typical fibreglass underground storage tank from a service station. ently contains gasoline. The piping con nected to the UST was registered as be ing single-walled steel. The tank sys tem was used to supply fuel to vehicles by way of a dispensing unit. Fuel Storage Tank Upgrades The guidelines that govem UST up grades at federal sites were set by an order in council by the Department of the Environment stating that the Cana dian Environmental Protection Act has annexed the Technical Guidelines for

Underground Storage Tank Systems Containing Petroleum Products and Al lied Petroleum Products which was pub lished by the Canadian Council of Min isters of the Environment(CCME) in March 1993. In this case study,"Code" means the above-mentioned technical

guidelines and "Environment Canada" means the Environmental Protection

Service of the Department of the Envi ronment.

Features that are suggested in the Code and which were not incorporated be done with it? in the subject tank system consisted of: Fuel Storage Tank Features • A spill containment device at the fill The tank was registered as a 9,000 pipe (Code Section 5.7.2). litre double-walled fibreglass-reinforced '• Leak detection (Code Sections 4.10, plastic(FRP)underground storage tank. 4.11,4.12, and 4.13). According to the tank registration cer • Overfill protection (Code Section tificate, it was installed in 1990 and pres- 5.7.1). • Cathodic protection on the piping ^Senior Partner, XCG Consultants Ltd. (Code Sections 4.9 and 5.4.2). •A dispenser sump(Code Section 5.7.3). ^ Environmental Site Assessor, XCG, Kingston, Ontario XCG concluded, through some pre


liminary cost analysis, that upgrading the tank with an interstitial leak detec

tion system would be most cost-effec tive if the tank system integrity was good. Another option would have been to establish leak detection by installing monitoring wells around the tank nest and testing the water or vapour sample monthly (see Sections 4.10.8,4.12, and 4.13 in the Code). The cost for imple menting leak detection with monitoring wells often is very close to, or exceeds the cost of replacing the tank with an aboveground storage tank (AST) of equal size, and, therefore, the pros and cons should be carefully considered. XCG's client decided that they would replace the tank with a new storage tank that met the Code if the precision leak test failed. A failed precision leak test would indicate a potential leakage into the surrounding soil and groundwater that should be reported to Environment Canada. Reporting should be followed by actions suggested by Environment Canada to verify, stop, clean-up, and mitigate the impact of a leak (Section 6.7 in the Code).

To determine the integrity of the tank and piping, XCG had the tank piping precision leak tested. Leak testing is per formed after sealing all fill, extraction, and vent pipes at various locations. A vacuum is then applied to the tank or piping for two hours of monitoring to Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

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Focus on Storage Tanks record any loss of vacuum over that pe riod. In the event that leakage is de tected,diagnostic equipment can be used to assist in determining the location of

XCG recommended upgrading the tank with interstitial monitoring. This requires excavating to the top ofthe tank and identifying it as either a FRP tank

the leak.

with brine-solution filled interstitial

The tank and piping precision leak tests passed, which indicated that the tank and piping were not leaking. With good integrity established, XCG con cluded that it was worthwhile to upgrade the tank system, assuming that the in tegrity of the tank interstitial space was good. To determine if the piping was cathodically protected (cathodic protection is suggested in Section 5.4.2 of the Code), XCG had the piping tested. The tank did not need cathodic protection to meet the guidelines because it was a FRP tank. The purpose of the cathodic protection test on the piping was to determine the piping corrosive condition. The test in volves determining the electrical poten tial between the buried steel piping and a copper/copper sulphate reference cell

space, or with an empty interstitial space. If the interstitial space contains

that is in contact with the soil surround

ing the piping. Unprotected steel nor mally has a potential difference in the range of -450 to -600 millivolts when compared to the reference cell. Pro tected steel will show a greater poten

brine, the tank will have a brine reser

voir at the top that may need filling and a testing mechanism float assembly will be needed. If the interstitial space is empty, it will be necessary to find an appropriate port in the top of the tank and feed through this port an electronic sensor that senses water and fuel in the

bottom of the interstitial space cavity. After the sensing/testing mechanisms are in place,they will require attachment to a remote alarm and interlock system to meet the guidelines set out in the Code. A precision leak test should be con ducted within 30 days of upgrade com pletion because of the subsurface exca vation in order to comply with the regu lations (Section 5.5.3 of the Code). Also, after upgrades that involve sub surface excavation, the revised as-built

drawings should be submitted to the appropriate federal department(Section 5.5.4 of the Code). The cost to replace the tank and re

tial difference. In order for the tank to

move the old tank would have been

be considered adequately protected, it must show a potential difference of at

slightly less than the cost of upgrading the existing tank with monitoring wells, assuming that no soil or groundwater

least -850 millivolts.

The test on the piping showed that the steel was unprotected, which indi cated that a cathodic protection system should be installed on the piping for it to meet the guidelines set out in the Code.

contamination was found. In this case,

the cost of upgrading the existing tank with interstitial monitoring was the least expensive option available to the client that would meet the guidelines set out

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in the Code. The client was also made aware that

tank replacement would have the fol lowing significant advantages over tank upgrading: i) The new tank would be expected to last about eight years longer than the upgraded tank, since the existing tank was about eight years old; and ii) Use of a new AST rather than an older UST would reduce the environmental risk.

Due to the age of the tank and rec ommended replacement of the tank at age 25, serious consideration should be given to tank replacement. This UST site is a federal site, but the

assessment proeess would be similar for tanks under provincial jurisdiction. In Ontario,fuel USTs at private out lets are governed by the Ontario Fire Code O.Reg. 388/97 under the Fire Pro tection and Prevention Act, 1997, and

the Gasoline Handling Code (GHC) under the Gasoline Handling Act O.Reg. 521/93 and its amendments O.Reg.447/ 96; and municipal by-laws that incor porate the Fire Code. In addition, in March 1995, the Ministry of Consumer and Commercial Relations (MCCR)

now Technical Standards and Safety Authority(TSSA)provided some inter pretation ofthe Gasoline Handling Code by issuing Administrative Clarifications. Regarding tank replacement, gaso line USTs installed prior to May 1,1974, had to be pulled by December 31,1996, unless provided with equipment referred to in Section (5) of the Gasoline Han dling Code. The following upgrades were re quired by December 31, 1996, if the UST was not removed:

a)Regarding spill containment at the fill pipe, the spill containment device must be liquid tight, fitted to the fill inlet of the tank, be fitted with a water-tight cover designed to be closed at all times except during filling operations, and be designed to catch, contain, and evacu ate a minimum of 15 litres of product. b)Regarding dispenser sump/spill con tainment,the dispenser sump should be designed and installed to catch, and con tain any product leaking from inside the dispensing device while product is be ing dispensed or during maintenance. c)Regarding overfill protection, an au tomatic shut-off device or sensing de vice is required to close a valve in the fill pipe when the tank volume reaches 95% of its capacity. The device must

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Focus on Storage Tanks be designed to reduce the possibility of overfilling a storage tank to the point of leakage or spillage into the environment. The devices may be one of four types,

Table A - Schedule for Upgrading Existing Underground Tank Systems Containing Heating or Stationary Power Source Fuels Age of Tank System in Years from Date of Installation

as specified in the Underwriters' Labo

Remove or Upgrade, underground tanks and piping and add approved leak detection, corrosion protection, spill containment, and overfill protection device

ratories of Canada Standard UCL/ORD

- C58.15 - 1992 Overfill Protection De vices for Flammable Liquid Storage

25 and more, or unknown lOto 19


d)Regarding corrosion protection, steel USTs installed prior to May 1,1974,that did not have cathodic protection, re quired monitoring wells and impressed current cathodic protection by Decem ber 31, 1996. The piping cannot be gal vanized steel, and must have corrosion

protection (an impressed current ca thodic protection system tested and cer tified by an NACE-certified person or by an engineer) where the piping is in direct contact with backfill. Corrosion

protection systems for underground tanks must be tested and certified to be

in working order by a NACE-certified person at least every two years, and records of this must be retained by the

Oto 9

The Quebec regulations indicate that when you have a reason to suspect a leak in a tank based on dip records, odours, or any other reason, you have to perform a pressure leak test on the tank and pip ing (Article 267 of the PPR). Case Study 2: Upgrading Requirements for Diesel USTs associated with a Standby Generator (in Ontario)

A few months ago the fuel supplier to one of XCG's clients refused to con

tinue delivering diesel fuel,claiming that the UST was not in compliance with "the regulations" since it did not have a spill containment fill box.


e)Regarding leak detection systems, un derground tank systems which have pressure pipe line using submersible pumps must be installed with a moni

toring system which automatically shuts off a product dispensing line when a leak is detected in a fuel line and which acti

vates an alarm to the facility's attend ant. There must be posted instructions in the event the alarm is activated.

f) An underground storage tank which is out-of-service for more than two years or not intended for reuse, must be re

moved (including piping) along with any contaminated soil. In Quebec, the regulation that govems upgrades for USTs containing mo tive fuels is the Petroleum Products Regu lation(PPR)753-91,amended August 14, 1991, and February 28, 1996. The PPR is administered in Quebec by the Minis try of Natural Resources(MNR). Article 260.2 provides a schedule of removal dates. For example, an ownerused gasoline UST installed after July 12, 1976, must be removed by January 1, 2001, according to Article 260.2. Article 101 covers USTs that have

cathodic protection or are fibreglass. Investigation of tank compliance was made simpler by the PPR, by requiring registration of all tanks containing pe troleum products. The registration cer tificate must be kept attached to the UST fill pipe.

September 30, 2003 September 30, 2004 September 30, 2005 September 30, 2006

20 to 24

Upon inspecting the facility, and re viewing the regulations, it was verified

is about to change. A revised version of the Fuel Oil Code is expected to be passed either later in 1998 or early 1999. The proposed regulation, as it is pres ently written,indicates that there will be several changes related to existing and new USTs containing heating and sta tionary power source fuels. This cov

ers diesel, gasoline, kerosene, or pro pane fuelled boilers, generators,and fur naces amongst other things. Some of the changes proposed for existing USTs are: •Except as provided in Clause, existing underground tank systems shall be upgraded in accordance with the terms outlined in Table A, or removed. Clause states that:

that a diesel UST associated with a

standby generator is regulated under the Fuel Oil Code of the Energy Act. This UST is not covered by the Gasoline Handling Act and Code O.Reg. 521/93 and its amendments O.Reg. 447/96, which does require that USTs for "gaso line and associated products" have spill containment fill boxes.

The current Fuel Oil Code (1990) does not require a spill containment fill box. However, it was learned that this

(a) Existing single wall steel under ground tank systems with a capacity greater than 5,000 litres and 25 years old or more, or of unknown age, and not cathodically protected shall be withdrawn from service and removed

by September 30, 2001. (b) Existing single wall steel under ground tank systems with a capacity less than or equal to 5,000 litres and 25 years old or more, or of unknown age, and not cathodically protected

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 146 (See page 25)


Focus on Storage Tanks water monitoring wells and vapour moni low vapour pressure of diesel fuel. toring systems are both considered to • Groundwater monitoring wells may be provide level 2 protection, provided that applicable to the site in this example, they ai'e applicable to the contents of the but the depth to groundwater and sev UST, are properly designed, and the site eral other features of the site would first have to be checked. geology is suitable for these systems. For new USTs associated with boil • The only other device or method that is expressly mentioned in the proposed ers, generators, furnaces, and the like, • Level 2 leak detection is defined as a Fuel Oil Code is the monitoring of the the proposed revised Fuel Oil Code will device or method that is capable of de interstitial space ofa doubled walled UST, have requirements more closely tecting a leak of 0.76 L/h with a prob if present. Vapour monitoring systems are matched to the Gasoline Handling Act, ability of detection of 0.95 and a prob ability of false alarm of 0.05. Ground- not applicable in this situation due to the including: • Overfill protection devices will be re quired. • Spill containment devices will be re ZCL underground storage tanks are con quired. structed of corrosion resistant materials, •Steel USTs and piping will be required and unlike steel tanks - never rust. That's to be equipped with either an impressed one less thing you'll woriy about! Rust current corrosion protection system or cathodically protected in conformance means leaks, and leaks from storage tanks shall be withdrawn from service and

removed by September 30, 2003. • USTs greater than 5,000 litres in size (the UST in this example is 9.092 litres or 2,000 Imp. Gallons), shall be preci sion leak tested annually, until level 2leak detection is installed and operational.

can cause untold damage to the environ ment, and it could end up costing you thousands of dollars in clean-up costs. ZCL Prezerver™ double wall storage tanks protect you and the environment in two "fail safe" ways. First by providing you with an extremely durable and rust proof secondary contained storage tank that can be monitored in several econom

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•The owner or operator of an UST will be required to maintain records for not less than five years of the following: cathodic protection measurements; im pressed current system checks;line leak detection system tests; leak-detection equipment tests and checks; precision leak test results and inspections; and tests, or maintenance checks.

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Focus on Storage Tanks

Containment and above ground storage tanks - past, present and future

So,somehow some strange per son - must have been an insur

ance assessor - managed to convince you that it was much cheaper and a whole lot safer for the en vironment if you would simply replace those underground tanks with above ground tanks. Performance Criteria y/iri-rEST,

The performance criteria for second ary containment that currently exists in all regulatory documentation incorpo rates the phrase: being capable of con taining any spills ofthe product as well as the liquids usedforfirefighting proc esses, by preventing these liquidsfrom reaching waterways, sewer systems and potable water sources. The Past

Back in the good old days when en vironmental contamination had to do

with odorous body secretions, generally associated with the unwashed and the

outhouse, containment as it related to tanks was a four letter word.

The dyke was always associated with large tanks located above ground; its primary purpose had nothing to do with tank leakage, it was just thought to be a good way to contain product for a short period of time in the advent of cata strophic failure during a fire. Prior to 1972 the basic dyke design criteria in

Model 1570Above Ground Vacuum Monitored Double Wallfueling system, equipped with normal and emergency venting, a Model RFLM-1 fill limiting device, a flll/splll collector and, a dispenser with an under dispenser sump. What's missing? Bol lards around the tank to prevent accidental vehicular Impact. It's the lawl

some economic loss cut-off period was reached. The tanks were generally in spected once every ten years and the bottom replaced or repaired if required. The dyke outlasted the outhouse by a couple of generations, since there wasn't any official requirement to ret rofit these things to a water tight stand ing until the late 1980s.

dicated construction should result in a

The Present

basic liquid tight - some regulations simply using the word impermeable unit, impervious to gasoline.

Containment today takes many forms; they are all referred to as second ary containment systems. The word 'dyke' has disappeared from regulatory jargon. Secondary containment is now specified as being manufactured from

Construction materials included ex

isting natural formation, earth, steel or concrete. Maintaining the dyke liquid tight, although called for, was looked on as generally impossible once the tanks were in place; there was of course no enforcement. Besides, it was accepted that the rules only related to possible fire hazard in below ground level structures adjacent to tank farms, which was only a problem if the installation was close to inhabited buildings.

materials that are not flammable or com

bustible, and that have a permeation rate not greater than 10"ÂŽ cm per second over a 72 hour period, presumably to the liq uids being stored within the contain ment. The permeation is extended to the entire construction procedure and is re quired to be maintained for the life of the installation.

'Manager, R&D and Quality Control

There are requirements that existing dykes be brought up to the present stand ards for secondary containment over limited periods of time. Generally the retrofit is accomplished by the use of a geo membrane material with a gravel or sand bed, under and over the geo mem

Clemmer Industries

brane, or the reconstruction of the in

Environmental contamination was

not an issue; leaks were basically unde tected since most failures were in the

bottom of vertical tanks. Leakage was permitted to soak into the ground until


stallation using other materials. Secondary containment is allowed to take many forms: Single Tanks, not addressed in the classification double wall 50,000 L ca pacity or less: The containment is re quired to contain a minimum of 110% of the volume of the tank. Should the

tank have a capacity of50,000 L or less, the secondary containment may be con structed as an integral part of the tank, referred to as Contained Tank Assem

blies, provided the containment walls extend to more than 50% of the intended

height of the stored liquid. Single Tanks, classed as double wall and ofa maximum capacity of50,000 L: They are considered to be contained, provided the containment has a capac ity of 100% of stored liquid. In addi tion, the secondai"y containment walls, where the tank is horizontal, must cover 100% of the surface of the tank heads

and a minimum of 300 degrees of the surface of the tank shell, and where the tank is vertical, 100% of the tank bot

tom and extend to within 6" of the top of the tank shell area.

Multiple tanks in a single contain ment: The requirement is that the sec ondary containment volume is equal to 100% of the volume of the largest tank in the group plus 10% of the volume of

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

Elson G. Fernandes*

the largest tank, or 10% of the aggre gate volume of the remaining tanks whichever is greater. There are, of course, further limita

tions based on placement in relation to property lines, buildings on the same site and other tankage.

fill limiting device is a float switch,com mon to the warning device or electronic shut off systems, or the mechanical shut off type,there is no method to determine the operational condition of the system immediately prior to each and every fill

tained tank assembly, that allows over fill into the environment and obviously has no provisions to contain firefighting liquids,is not going to meet the perform


additional site work.

ance criteria of even the existing defini tion of secondary containment without

The solution is a retrofit process re quiring a redesign of existing above

Contentious issues remain around the

performance of Single Tanks, with ei ther integral double wall secondary con tainment or contained tank assemblies

with secondary containment of 110%

capacity, actually being the equivalent of the secondary containment definition. Although the regulatory agencies do,for the present, accept them as such. In addressing Single Tanks with in tegral secondary containment it is nec essary to look at their limitations. The

double wall tank has a single advantage over other designs because the space between the walls is in effect required

Future regulatory requirements are being written using performance based criteria...

In other words, fill limiting devices may prevent the overfilling of a tank, but the overfill process is almost inevi table at some time during the life of the tank. In the double wall tank or con

to be vacuum monitored, a means of indicating a leak in either the inner tank

tained tank assembly using a tight fill process, the overfill goes directly into the environment, generally escaping through the above ground tank emer

or the outer containment. The contained

gency vent.

tank assembly, on the other hand, gen erally has no facilities to determine whether the outer containment leaks, other than at time of manufacture; the

ground sites that does not have that beautifully designed and retrofitted old-

fashioned wonder, the dyke. The retro fit process results in a site layout, in ad dition to that done for existing double wall and contained tank assemblies, that can accommodate the pooling and con tainment of any spilled product or firefighting liquids on the existing site. Alternatively, a separation system can be designed that would result in the en trapment of the hazardous components of the liquids concerned. The time to think about it is now; you might have as much as eight years and as httle as five. It either takes a whole lot of

The Future

Future regulatory requirements are being written using performance based criteria, i.e. the double wall tank or con

extra land or some super separation tech nology. Care to guess at what price? For more information, circle reply card No. 154

only monitoring capable of being per formed in the field is for a leak into the New features and tank sizes available!

secondary containment from the pri mary tank. In both designs a fill limiting device

is a regulatory requirement. The fill lim iting devices are, in contained tank as semblies, selected by the tank manufac

turer, and in all other circumstances by the installation contractor. In either

event it is not likely that the manufac turer or contractor may know the exact tank filling method. Yes, the choice of shut off fill limiting devices, of the me chanical or electronic type, is very de pendent on the method used to fill the

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Where a hand held nozzle fill opera tion is being used, a shut off fill limit ing device in the fill line should not be used, as they often result in back splash on the person holding the nozzle. Where a mechanical shut off fill limiting de vice is used with a tight fill operation, the rate offill and the flow pressure must be communicated to the fuel supplier so that his equipment capabilities do not exceed those of the fill limiting device. The remaining choice, warning de vices, can handle all types of fill meth ods, but they rely on the human element since they do not shut off the fill line. And,if this isn't enough, whether the

foremost ULC-listed contained used oil

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

storage system call, fax or write us today.

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Manufactured by: King Metal Fabricators Ltd.

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Tel: (902)434-7110 Fax:(902)434-9478 E-mall:

For more information, circle reply card No. 148 (See page 25)


Focus on Storage Tanks r

Upgraded Ontario fire ruies extend powers, reguiation of storage tanks

Changesintroduced bythe new

Ontario fire prevention legis lation, including the new Fire Code, have significant impli

cations for non-fuel businesses and for

industry. The new Fire Protection and Preven

tion Act, 1997 (FPPA), clarifies and strengthens the emergency and investi gation powers of fire officials. How ever, the most significant change affect ing industrial facilities is the phasing-in of comprehensive regulation of tanks and systems for flammable and combus tible liquids, which include industrial process chemicals such as solvents. For merly, only tanks and systems for mo tive fuels and heating fuels were com prehensively regulated (under Gasoline Handling Act and Energy Act codes).

• permits fire officials to enter without - lands and premises for the purposes of assessing fire safety; - lands and premises where a fire has occurred;

- lands and premises where the fire official believes there is a substance

or device that is likely to cause a fire. • permits firefighters or other authorized persons without a warrant to enter lands, or lands or premises adjacent to a fire or emergency for firefighting, res cue or emergency services; •permits firefighters or other authorized persons without a warrant to enter lands or premises adjacent to lands and premises on which there is "a serious threat to the health and safety of any person or the quality of the natural en-

Under Part 4 of the new Fire Code,

flammable and combustible liquid stor age facilities will be subject to specific materials,installation, maintenance and

operational standards. Application of these provisions to existing installations will be phased in over several years. The new fire rules were established under the Fire Protection and Preven

tion Act, 1997, which became law on October 29, 1997 and the new Ontario

Fire Code(O.Reg. 388/97) which came

safety" to inciude "safety from the risk that a fire, if started, would

seriously endanger the health and safety of any person or the quality of the natural environment

4 of the Fire Code governing flamma ble and combustible liquid storage tanks and systems came into force on August

for any use that can be made of it".

21, 1998.

Act, 1997 The FPPA, which repeals and re places the Fire Marshals Act, is the

framework for fire prevention authori ties and powers in Ontario. The FPPA: •requires every municipality to provide, or make arrangements for, fire protec tion services and a program offire safety and prevention (public education); •explicitly recognizes automatic aid(by adjacent municipalities) and mutual aid

vironment", for the purpose of remov ing or reducing the threat; • where the threat to life is deemed to be

immediate, a fire official may take other measures (such as the reported seizure by fire officials of the Equitrade pre mises in Hamilton, in an effort to pre vent another Plastimet-like occurrence); • authorizes an inspector to order the owner or occupant of land or premises to "take any measure necessary to en sure fire safety", including:


- demolition or structural alteration of

*P. Douglas Petrle is an environmental lawyer and partner In Wlllms & Shier,

- removal of fire hazards,

a building,

fire, if started, would seriously endan ger the health and safety of any person

or the quality of the natural environment for any use that can be made of it". This definition is similar to the definition of "adverse effect" in the Environmental

Protection Act (EPA), and may facili tate cooperation between fire and envi ronmental officials.

A fire safety order is subject to re view by the Fire Marshal and subsequent appeal to the Fire Safety Commission. In the interests of public safety, the Fire Marshal or the Fire Safety Commission may refuse to stay an order during the review or appeal. Part 4 - Storage Tanks Part 4 of the Fire Code is entitled

"Flammable and Combustible Liquids". It closes the comprehensive regulation gap for storage tanks containing indus trial process liquids(raw material inputs, solvents, waste liquids, etc.), that were not govenred by the Energy Act and Fuel Oil Code nor the Gasoline Handling Act and Gasoline Handling Code. While most of its provisions are iden tical to Part 4 of the National Fire Code

of Canada, 1995(NFC), Ontario's new Fire Code adopts national and consen sus industry standards that are more upto-date (April 30,1997). The standards adopted in the NFC are of 1993 vintage. Arg'/ablv, Ontario's new Fire Code now serves as a definitive statement of best

management practices that can be ob served across Canada for due diligence purposes.

The Ontario Fire Code also requires spill clean-ups to comply with Part X (Spills) of the EPA. Part X sets out com prehensive provisions for owners and controllers of spilled substances to clean up contamination, ameliorate adverse ef fects and restore the natural environment.

Barristers and Solicitors, in Toronto, and

- installation and use of equipment to

the author of Storage Tanks In Ontario: The Guide to Environmental Regulation and Compliance, published by Templegate Information Services.

- halting production activities, and - other fire safety activities, includ ing preparing a fire safety plan, and


For the purposes of inspections and orders, the FPPA defines "fire safety" to include "safety from the risk that a

New Fire Code -

...the FPPA defines "fire

into force on November 21, 1997. Part

Fire Protection and Prevention

remedying contraventions of the Fire Code.

a warrant onto:

contain hazardous materials,

Exemptions Part 4 does not apply to the follow ing: • airports, piers and wharves regulated under federal law;

• transportation of flammable and com-

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

By P. Douglas Petrie* bustible liquids governed by the federal and provincial dan gerous goods legislation; • pipeline transfers subject to the Energy Act; • underground areas to which the Occupational Health and Safety Act and its regulations apply; • hydrocarbon-burning appliances regulated by the Energy

For information about the Fire Code, contact local fire

officials or the Office of the Fire Mai'shal at(416)325-3100.

Circle reply card No. 161

All tanks are not oreated


• aerosol products covered under Subsection 3.2.5 of the National Fire Code;

• storage of flammable and combustible liquids on farms "for individual farm use"; and

• storage, handling, transportation and use of liquids regu lated under the Gasoline Handling Act or the Energy Act. Compliance Equivalency Strict compliance with the Ontario Fire Code can be ex cused where a "proposal for compliance equivalency",signed by a professional engineer or architect, is approved by a local Chief Fire Official. The proposal must provide for materials, design and standards that are equal to or more protective than the applicable standard set out in the Fire Code. Application and Phase-In For Existing Facilities

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Part 4 of the Fire Code covers all new installations, ef

fective August 21, 1998. For existing facilities, the provisions of Part 4 of the Fire Code are being phased-in over four years, in three distinct phases. A fourth phase, setting standards for tank location including mandatory spacing and setbacks, will affect ex isting facilities only when tanks are replaced or relocated. The first phase of Part 4 took effect August 21, 1998. The second phase takes effect two years later, on August 21, 2000. The third phase takes effect on August 21, 2002. Each phase increases the compliance requirements for existing installations, with the most capital or construction intensive matters coming in the later years. The phase-in provisions are detailed and complex. How ever, the standards are generally well-established and widely known in the storage tank industry. Qual i ty


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998

For more Information, circle reply card No. 150 (See page 25)


Focus on Storage Tanks

By David Hopkins*

Environmental site assessments -

precautions yield dividends

Phase I Environmental Site

Assessments (ESAs) are increasingly becoming an integral part of real estate transactions. Our company, Burnside Environmental, has completed numer ous Phase I ESAs throughout Ontario. Staff members who conduct the field in

spections have at least ten years experi ence and as a result are quickly able to identify visual signs of environmental concern. Where underground storage tanks are suspected, we usually recom mend the use of geophysical techniques to assist in locating these tanks. Precautions taken during the Phase I ESA consistently yield dividends in terms of project completion on-time and on-budget. ESAs typically consist of a desktop Abandoned fuel tank surrounded by contaminated soil. review of historical information includ ing City Archives, aerial photographs order to evaluate the soil conditions, had allowed the developer to more reliably and fire insurance plans. In addition, already been completed for the site by estimate the costs involved in pursuing regulatory agencies are contacted and another consultant. Burnside reviewed the development. Also, construction could have proceeded in an orderly man the Phase I report and met with the de asked to search their files for any infor mation regarding the subject site. An veloper on-site in order to develop a ner knowing that an area of impacted important part of the ESA is a visual site work plan for additional investigations. soil would have to be dealt with. During our brief visual inspection, a A geophysical survey was performed inspection. Whenever possible, knowl on the former industrial site and as indi edgeable persons at the subject site are 10,000-gallon (45,000 litre) under asked to fill out a questionnaire dealing ground bunker C tank was discovered cated above, an additional tank was lo cated. Also, the survey lo with potential environmen cated various areas of bur tal concerns. Based on a visual inspection, a geophysical survey ied metal and other debris. The goal of the Phase I was recommended, which located a second tank on Since the development was ESA is to identify environ another portion of the site. The presence of these two residential in nature, any mental concerns and alert tanks resulted in additional costs for the developer... fill which appeared aespotential purchasers to fu ture liabilities. A number

of organizations have developed stand ards for the performance of Phase I ESAs. Unfortunately there is no regu lation governing practitioners. As a re sult, the quality of work can vary widely. Many purchasers look at a Phase I ESA as a nuisance rather than a potential ben efit and as a result have a low-price point of view, resulting in a lower quality product. Burnside was recently retained by a developer in southwestern Ontario to

in the central portion of the site. There was no mention that a tank might exist in the report. Based on a visual inspection, a geo physical survey was recommended, which located a second tank on another

portion of the site. The presence of these two tanks resulted in additional costs for

the developer and delayed construction at the site considerably as a result of the

thetically unacceptable was removed. The use of geophysics was of great benefit in enabling the de veloper to assess the volumes of soil that had to be removed off site and the

amount of fill that had to be brought in to bring the site up to grade. One of the main lessons learned by the owner in this project was the impor tance of putting forth extra effort during the initial stages of the project to estab

additional excavation for contaminated

lish conditions at the site. Numerous

material that was required.

"surprises" were encountered during our investigation that should have been iden tified by a thorough Phase I ESA.

address environmental concerns associ

The bunker C tank should have been

ated with developing a residential sub division on former industrial lands. A

quickly identified during the initial site inspection performed as part of the

Phase I ESA which included a number

Phase I ESA. In fact, a Fire Insurance

of test pits, which were excavated in

Plan included in the Phase I ESA iden

completed and the developer is consid ering a similar site in a nearby neigh

tifies fuel storage in the area where the


'Burnside Environmental (A Division of R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited)

tank was uncovered. Identification of


this tank in the Phase I ESA would have

Construction of houses has now been

For more information, circle reply card No. 153

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1998


Self-Cleaning System

Very Low Turbidity

I Filter Breakthrough Monitor I

The Turbi-Tech sensor uses


on-line meas

enough filter

urement of suspended solids or turbidits







blanket level interface in

to monitor performance

settling tanks. Using a single gap pulsed infrared

most continuousl\

rugged conditions. Under the control

The robust system 715 is designed for spotchecking the sludge

The RTT Analytical turbidity monitor is

a unique self-cleaning inechanisin allowing the continuous

Portable Detector

of the 7100 Turbi-Tech


drift. A range of O-iONTU


w ith a resolution of O.OiNTU

changing concentration of suspended solids as the

is selectable for monitoring final potable water and pre venting Cryptosporidlum

self-cleaning is done at pre-programmed inter\'als. keeping maintenance at a minimum and freeing the operator. Its low range (90 deg. scattered light) covers 0-50mg/l or 0-500mg/l and the high range (light attenuation) includes 0-4.000mg/l or 0-20.000ing/l. The Turbi-Tech Is made for the toughest applicatloiis.Try It !



sensor is lowered into the tank. When the

sludge interface is reached, an unmistakable audible signal is heard. The sensor is reel

invasion. The monitor uses a

Circle reply card No. 260


novel solid reference standard

mounted and the cable is marked in meters for

making calibration of span and zero simple and quick.

easy determination of the sludge interface depth. The 715 is fast, accurate and ine.xpensive.

Circle reply card No. 261

Circle reply card No. 262


• Mixed liquor SS monitoring • Final effluent compliance • Filter breakthrough

• Pulp and paper • Dairy industry • Brewing and distilling

• Biomass control

• Potable water treatment





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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 1998  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 1998