Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1998

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

September 1998

Thames Barrier designed for London's fiood surges


Florida will host WEFTEC '98 in Orlando Ontario's air and water quality targets come under fire Respirometry used in optimizing STPs Concrete pipe re-used on coal tar site Controlling odours in drinking water Halton adds two biosolids tanks

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September '98 Vol. 11 No. 4 Issued September, 1998

Pipe rehabilitation

nternationai scientists m BC See page 22

- See page 77




Ad Index


Comment by Tom Davey




Florida hosts WEFTEC '98



80 hosts lAWQ Conference


Datepad Industry Update


Halton adds biosolids tanks


Literature Reviews


Product Review


R&D News

26 29 30 32 36 40

Legal environmental Issues Water supply remediation Drinking water odours Media filters for crypto First ISO 14001 water system Respirometry optimizes STPs


Evaluation of SBR's

46 48

Plants invade our waterways Cover Story - Thames Barrier investment pays off Biosolids management project Ontario air quality under fire Trees used to cap landfill site Concrete pipe re-used on


Reader Feedback


Reader Service Card



Sales Manager




Managing Editor

Sales Representative



Circulation Manager

Publisher's Assistant



Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Jim Bishop

Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Beak international inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought inc.

George V. Crawtord, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Rod Hoime, P.Eng.

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Goodfeliow Consultants Ltd.

Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE

MacViro Consultants

R.V. Anderson Associates

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

64 65 66 67

coal tar site remediation Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An ail Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmenfai officials, waterand wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mall Sales

Second Class Mall

Product Agreement No. 18197 Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 8417271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca. Web site: http://www.esemag.com

68 70 72

Emergency response planning Soivent recovery system Danger in confined spaces


In situ watermain rehab


Watermains protect pubiic health



Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

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Reader Feedback still the invisible profession in a world driven by the low bid", by Tom Davey,

Dear Tom, Flicking through your latest edition re

agement Planning(WMP)process and

minded me that the article I wrote for

Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) and use same to forward to a local news STPs for our major communities along paper The Richmond Review as a com Okanagan Lake within a 50 mile radius ment on the role of the engineer in to of Kelowna, which produce extremely day's society. I also request your permission for high levels of effluent quality. (The per them to reprint the article in their news mitted annual average phosphorus lev els are not to exceed 0.25 mg/L, Total paper if they wish. Phosphorus as P, and our plants come David Crook, P.Eng. Westshore Terminals, Delta, B.C. in between 0.15 and 0.22 mg/L,depend ing on the year, construction work go Dear Tom, ing on,etc.). We are currently construct I especially enjoyed your June 1998 ing our fifth BNR,with probably one to article on Biosphere 2. I was encour two more to come in the next two to four aged by the 1997 article in the Atlantic years. Monthly(quoted in your article)in which my 1992 comments were affirmed. I have enclosed an article describing how a (biological) engineer prevailed

the January issue of ES&E led to a call out of the blue and resulted in a small

but important and complex study of an industrial wastewater plant. My article was about water in Peru.

Once again,just to let you know that in this world of paper bombardment most of which goes straight to the round file without passing go - ES&E actu ally gets read. By far and away,the best in the business...so keep 'em coming. Hugh Tracy, P.Eng., Delcan More response on the low bid Dear Mr.Davey, Re: January 1998 ES&E: The low bid ethos - an accounting design for engi neering disasters. I enjoyed reading the article that you wrote on the above topic so much so that I would like to distribute it in a photo copied form to consulting engineers and municipalities who are not familiar with it. I found your article to be right on the mark as many times I have pointed out the cost-savings on using one of our products only to have the customer go with the low bid at closing. I have lostjobs at the tendering level by very low margins when the valve cli ents end up with will cost them thou sands of dcfllars more to operate over its lifetime.

How can anyone justify such a short sighted decision in today's stringent eco nomic times?

John Palmer, Sales Representative Mueller Canada

Dear Tom, Your June/July ES&E editorial was, un fortunately, far too close to the truth for comfort. You are right. We engineers are our own worst enemies in that we will

not venture a technical opinion unless we are absolutely sure that we have our facts straight and they are defensible. I was intrigued by the Reader Feed back column, in that you appear to be our (the engineers) best advocate, and hit gritty issues, but you are preaching to the converted. One of your readers suggested providing your editorials to the "mainstream media", I would like

to second his suggestion. Just to let you know a bit about what we do here in the Okanagan: We have managed to work closely with local communities through the Waste Man 10

have been able to have them build four

over environmental activists who

• '-4t_

wanted to close a plant down. When we visited Biosphere 2 we noted that there wasn't much "ocean".

The diatoms, photosynthetic algae are

responsible for most of the CO^ fixation of the atmosphere. The activists don't always win (your editorial comments).

One of the items we have strongly promoted in the WMP process is that engineering is creative and that when you select a consultant you should do so on the basis of the ideas in the sub

mitted proposal, with the price being in a separate envelope that is opened only after you have chosen your preferred consultant. If the price is within the budget, you return all the other firms' cost envelopes unopened. Tim Forty, P.Eng., Head of the Municipal Section Pollution Prevention, Penticton, BC Thanks Tim. We have in fact had arti

cles published in the Globe & Mail, the Toronto Sun, the Toronto Star, Eraser Forum, etc., etc. Tom Davey Dear Tom,

What a wonderful,funny, and ultimately tragic editorial comment in the June is sue of ES&E(media scmm).

I thoroughly enjoyed reading it and sharing it. Why don't you send it to the Globe! It certainly deserves a wider readership. Larry Mueller, President Scholastic

Robert McCauIey,Ph.D., Emeritus of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario

"Tom Davey focuses on water contami nation in stark terms in the Editorial

Comment, March 1998 ES&E. Our Great Lakes and oceans continue to be

polluted and 'many saltwater and fresh water aquatic habitats have been ruined by pollution.' It is not that the engineers and scientists have not done their jobs. 'Technical capabilities are already here in abundance. What is missing is a will ingness to spend money on proven en vironmental remediation technology.' "He writes that the consequence of not cleaning water is a repeat of history and 'shows that dirty water has killed or maimed more humans than all the

wars of recorded history.' "Tom concludes that 'the tangible evidence of our deteriorating oceans and waterways are not possibilities but grim portents of what will happen if we do not change our ways and priorities.' In vestigating frozen water on the moon is 'lunacy' when the needs are evident here on earth."

Nels Conroy,1997-1998 President,

Dear Editor,

I would like your permission to repro duce page seven, ES&E Editorial, May 1998, on the subject of "Engineering,

Water Environment Association of

Ontario, writing in the April issue of the WEAO Newsletter.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Industry Update First major drinking water public-private partnership signed by City of Moncton Moncton, New Brunswick has an nounced it has awarded Canada's first

major drinking water public-private partnership to Greater Moncton Water Ltd., a New Brunswick incorporated company owned by USF Canada, Inc. (85%), and The Hardman Group Lim ited (15%). USF Canada is affiliated with United

States Filter Corporation, that manages more than 200 operations and mainte

specialist were unable to identify the fish. Paul Tilley, who owns a fish and aquarium store,immediately recognized the red pacu, a fresh-water tropical fish native to the Amazon Basin.

Tommi-Jean's catch, which had a

large mouth filled with sharp upper teeth, was about 38 centimetres long. Mr.Tilley and ministiy officials are con vinced the pacu outgrew someone's aquarium and was dumped into the river. The fish caught in Professor's Lake was native to South America, and was

likely someone's unwanted aquarium pet, dumped in the lake sometime this

nance contracts in North America. The




Hardman Group, a privately held com pany, is Atlantic Canada's leading inde pendent construction management and real estate development firm. The 20-year agreement, valued at

approximately $85 million(CDN),calls for the financing, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a 27 mil lion gallons per day (4,250 mVh)drink ing water filtration facility. Upon the facility's commissioning, Moncton will purchase the plant and Greater Moncton Water Ltd. will enter into a 20-year lease and license agreement with exclusive rights to sell water to the municipality. The partnership is expected to save area ratepayers approximately $12 mil lion in capital, engineering, and operat ing costs over the term of the agreement. Significant savings were passed di rectly to Moncton through the use of U.S. Filter's Trident water filtration process.

Designed by Touchie Engineering Ltd., the prime engineering consultant, the new facility will also feature the in stallation of a hydroelectric turbine that will utilize excess water in the Turtle

That single fish cost the City of Brampton more than $5,000 in consult ing fees and several thousand dollars in lost revenues from beach admissions

and cancelled programs. Environmental consultants Gartner Lee scoured the 26-hectare lake for four

days with nets, traps and snorkels. The Grand River Conservation Au

thority spent one day using electrical cuiTent to stun fish and bring them to the surface to check for piranhas. No other piranhas were found.

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Piranhas found in Ontario A 12-year-old girl landed the larger cousin of a piranha while fishing in a river in Peterborough, Ontario. Mean while, Professor's Lake in Brampton, Ontario was closed for days after a man caught a red bellied piranha there. The Peterborough girl, Tommi-Jean Russell and her father were not quite sure what she reeled in from the

Otonabee River. "It sure had lots of

teeth," said Tommi-Jean, who has been

fishing since she was two. Three biologists from the Ministry of Natural Resources and an exotic-species




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Industry Update Court orders unique environmental penalties Coretec Inc., formerly PCI Inc., and its former environmental manager Moham med Zadeh, pleaded guilty on August 18,1998 to violations of the Export and Import ofHazardous Waste Regulations in Provincial Court in Mississauga. Judge W. Ross granted the company and its environmental manager dis charges in lieu of convictions on the condition that they fulfill certain orders of the court.

The corporation was ordered to com ply with Environmental Management Systems(EMS)and ISO 14001 environ mental standards, to conduct seminars on waste reduction and pollution prev ention, to contribute $20,000 to the Toronto and Region Conservation Au thority for youth oriented environmen tal education programs, and to contrib ute $10,000 to enforcement of the

In addition, Mohammed Zadeh has

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McMullen,(613)247-1900, Fax:(613)

Canadian reciprocity with California EPA At the Air & Waste Management Asso ciation's Annual Meeting and Exhibition held June 15 in San Diego, Califomia, Secretary Peter Rooney of CalEPA countersigned a memorandum of under standing on the Reciprocity ofPrograms


Easy arsenic removal A new way to remove arsenic from wa ter has been developed that is both costefficient and easily transportable. The

process was developed at Environment Canada's Environmental Technology Centre, in partnership with Zenon Environmental Inc. and the University of Ottawa.

for the Verification of Environmental

Originally developed to remove ar senic from mining effluents and waste-

Technologies. The MOU had been pre viously signed by Christine Stewart,

percent, the process can make drinking

water where it is effective at over 99

Canada's Environment Minister.

water safe. This work can provide hope

Acknowledging the benefits to indus try of reciprocity between similar pro grams for the verification of environ mental technology performance claims.

to communities in countries such as Sri

Minister Stewart and Commissioner

senic is found in rocks in Nova Scotia

Lanka and Bangladesh where arseniccontaminated water is a major concern. In Canada, naturally occurring ar

Canadian Environmental Protection Act

Robert Shinn of New Jersey's Depart

and leaches into water, while in the US

(CEPA). The $30,000 will be paid to

ment of Environmental Protection,

some remote communities in New

the Receiver General of Canada,in trust,

signed an MOU recently to encourage coordinated activities and the exchange of information, and to develop mecha nisms for reciprocal acceptance of veri

Mexico and Arizona have to bring in drinking water by truck because of ar

to be administered by the Regional Director General, Environment Canada,

Ontario Region.



senic in the local water.

Details: http://www.ec.gc.ca/tips/en


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Why do over 200 municipalities in Ontario use the Ontario Clean Water Agency for their water and wastewater services?

Consistent, Reliable Service Open, Responsive Communications Local Customized Attention

Competitive Pricing Almost 5 million people in Ontario depend on the Ontario Clean Water Agency for safe and reliable water and wastewater services.

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Plain and simple, that's the kind of service that adds value for clients. It's fast and efficient. Site-specific, when it needs to be. Open and responsive, always. And It's competitively priced. At OCWA, we're committed to the people we serve.

To discuss the kind of service most meaningful to you, contact OCWA at 1-8G0-667-QCWA. A Client Service Representative will respond promptly to your call.

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Industry Update 1999 Stockholm Water Prize Nominations are now being accepted for

made online at: http://www.siwi.org.

City of Langley leads In water metering

the 1999 Stockholm Water Prize, the

international environmental award pre sented annually in honour of outstand ing achievements in science, engineer

ing, technology, education, or public policy related to protection of the world's water resources. Nominations are due

by October 31,1998. For more information, E-mail: siwi

@siwi.org. Nominations may also be

One municipality stands out as a model of water conservation in Greater Van

couver, a region where people drink, spray and flush more per capita than in any other metropolitan area in Canada. A typical Langley city resident uses nearly 50 percent less water than the Greater Vancouver regional average on

peak summer days. For years, homeowners in Langley city paid a flat rate for a certain volume of water before their meters clicked in

to charge an additional fee for drawing more. A year ago, the bulk rate was eliminated entirely. The city became the only fully metered municipality in the Greater Vancouver water system. Langley city taxpayers do benefit as a result oflower water use. It is estimated

that Langley has been able to delay some costly local water main expansions. Pollutec '98 Over 1,800 exhibitors from some thirty


countries and 50,000 visitors are ex



pected at Pollutec '98, which will be held from November 3-6, 1998, at Lyon Eurexpo (France). Pollutec has attracted a larger number offoreign exhibitors and visitors to each successive show. Numerous countries

have confirmed they will mount a na tional pavilion: Canada, Austria, Ger many,Spain, Sweden,the United King dom, and the United States. For the first time, Pollutec will also


Waste water slurry b


Derrick Flo-LIhe Sere

be welcoming South African and Polish exhibitors. For more information:(416) 929-2562, Fax:(416)929-2564.

Report on sulphur In gasoline now available The final report of the Government Working Group (GWG) on sulphur in gasoline is now available. Sulphur levels in some Canadian gasolines are amongst the highest in the world. High sulphur levels increase emissions of a number of pollutants from vehicles and contribute signifi cantly to air pollution. The GWG developed several op tions, and agreed that action should be taken to reduce the level of sulphur in gasoline in Canada from its current level. To obtain a copy, contact Envi

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Confidential reply to: Environmental Science & Engineering, Fax:(905) 8417271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

II ''

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Industry Update Safer fuel storage sought

Chlorine options study

A campaign to promote safer fuel stor age in BC is underway as a cooperative effort by Environment Canada and Chev

the risk of spills from fuel storage tanks. Chevron Canada is actively lobbying all levels of government to adopt the CCME Codes of Practice into legisla

ron Canada. There are several thousand

tion in BC.

tives to the use of chlorine and chlorin

fuel storage tanks in British Columbia. Releases from these tanks can have a sig nificant impact on the environment, as well as being costly to clean up.

Environment Canada has produced a bulletin indicating support for the Codes of Practice, and encouraging fa cility owners to adopt the codes as mini mum requirements for the design and operation of fuel storage facilities. Details: http://www.ec.gc.ca/tips/en

ated substances in Canada. The largest users of chlorine are the pulp and paper industry and manufacturers of PVC, which is used to make many products including pipe, siding, windows and flooring. Chlorine is also used to make

The Canadian Council of Ministers

of the Environment(CCME) have de

veloped Codes of Practice to minimize

As part of its program to manage chlo rinated substances, Environment

Canada has released a study on alterna

products such as household bleach, re frigerants and several base commodities including caustic soda and hydrochlo ric acid.

SOUND INVESTMENT! Y"investment in open channel flovit measurement is critical, since the accuracy of the total system depends on it. That's why it makes good sense

The report shows there are alterna tives to the use of chlorinated substances

in all of the sectors studied, but the as

sociated costs would be significant. Canadian industry has already started to move away from the use of chlorine and chlorinated substances in its plant op erations. For example,regulations in the pulp and paper industry have already resulted in substantial reductions in the



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US District Court upholds Stormceptor® patents

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The jury found Valley Blox, Inc. willfully infringed United States Patent #5,498,331 and also infringed United States Patent #4,985,148. The patents protect the design of the Stormceptor System, an interceptor designed to re move oil and sedimentfrom stormwater runoff.

CSR Hydro Conduit,the largest pipe and concrete products company in the US,so far has installed more than 1,000

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

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DATE PAD October 1,1998. Membrane Technology For Drinking Water Facilities, Mississauga, ON. Sponsored by Ontario Water Works Association. Contact:(416) 252-7060, Fax:(416) 252-3908. October 2,1998. Instrumentation Test

ing Association workshop: Process Level Measurementfor Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications, Orlando,Florida. Contact:(520)284-5624,Fax:(520)284-

Water Environment Federation's 71st

Annual Conference & Exposition, Orlando, FL. Contact: 1-800-666-0206.

October 6-8, 1998. Recycling Council of Ontario 19th Annual Conference and

Trade Show,Toronto, ON. Contact:(416) 960-1025, Fax:(416)960-8053. October 18-21,1998. 1998 International

Ozone Association Pan American Group Conference, Vancouver, BC. Contact:


Margit Istok,(203) 348-3542, Fax:(203)

October 3-7, 1998. WEFTEC '98 -


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422-2244, Fax:(902)422-6444. October 19-20, 1998. New Thinking The Technology Revolution in Wastewater

Treatment, Disposal and Reuse. Victo ria, BC. Sponsored by Environment Canada and the BC Onsite Sewage Asso ciation. Contact: Lyn Bailey,(250)7488500, Fax:(250)746-1898. October 20-22,1998. National Con

Beta from ProMinenf,ingeniously simple,simply genius...

cept, results in lower manufacturing costs. Beta's better price comparison means you can put a quality Prominent pump any where - affordably.

October 19-20,1998. PPR'98 Workshop - Getting It Togetherfor a Safer Commu nity, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Contact: Sandy Phillips, PPR '98 Program,(902)

Less means more.

ference and Workshops, Edmonton, Alberta. Contact: Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada,(613) 232-4435, Fax:(613) 232-4915. October 22-23, 1998. Rubber Re

cycling '98, Toronto, Ontario. Con tact: The Rubber Association of

Canada,(905) 270-8322, Fax:(905) 270-2640.

October 25-30, 1998. Integrating Public Health, Environment and

Management Standards, Montreal, Quebec. A National Water and Wastewater Forum covering: RESEAU environnement's 2Ist

Wastewater Symposium, (Contact: (514)270-7110);CWWA's 1998 An nual Management Seminar, and the 8th National Conference on Drinking Water,(Contact:(613) 241-5692). October 26-27,1998. Canadian En vironmental Auditing Association,

Why the New Beta Pump from ProMinent gets the Green Ught

Technical Conference, Ottawa, ON. Contact:(905) 567-4705. November 3-6, 1998. Pollutec,


International Exhibition of Environ

mental Equipment, Technology & Services, Lyon, France. Contact: Promosalons (416) 929-2562, Fax: (416)929-2564. November 4-6, 1998. 8th Annual Conference, Exhibits and General


Meeting of The Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Contact:

(416) 535-0240, Fax: (416) 5369892.

November 10-13,1998. 18th Inter

national Symposium of the North American Lake Management Society,


Banff, AB.

Contact: www.bio

logy.ualberta.ca/alms/1998.htm. November 24-25, 1998. Environ

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tario, Toronto, ON. Contact: (416) 327-7721, Fax:(416) 327-1261. March 24-26, 1999. Americana 1999, Pan-American Environmental

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Technology Trade Show and Confer ence, Montreal, QC. Contact:(514) 270-7110, Fax:(514) 270-7154.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Before You Choose A Pipeline Renewal System,

Take A Closer Look. When choosing a liner system to rehabilitate damaged pipelines, looks can be deceiving. You don't always get what you think you've specified. The difference is in the material. With U-Liner®

from CSR Pipeline Systems, you know what you are getting. High Density Polyethylene (HOPE). The original, patented and most successful hardliner system commercialized in the U.S. With more than 5 million feet installed, we have been servicing the sewer, water and industrial markets since 1986. The material does make a difference: 4 Prozm

• U-Liner's smooth seamless wall improves or maintains the host pipe flow capacity. • U-Liner is designed to withstand long-term hydraulic, earth and live loading. • The U-Liner cell classification as per ASTM D-3350(345434 C,D,E) has always remained the same - it has never changed. • U-Liner is environmentally safe... in both the manufacturing and installation processes. There are no volatile organic compounds(VOC)to Pipeline

contaminate the air or water.

• U-Liner is made from greater than 99.5% • U-Liner is the only hardliner product that has Renewal Product polyethylene with less than 0.5% UV stabilizers and passed an independent 10,000 hour Long-Term Buckling Test for structural performance. antioxidants; no polymer or mineral fillers are used. • U-Liner is made from HDPE, which is the only pipeline rehabilitation material stress rated for long-term performance So the next hme you need to rehabihtate your pipeline, specify U-Liner. We'll make sure the only surprises you get by the Plashes Pipe Inshtute (PPI). • HDPE is proven to be extremely resistant to corrosive and are pleasant ones. chemical attack.

Pipeline Systems 800-511-1488

www.csrpipesystems.com/uliner For more information, circle reply card No. 124(See page 25)

Conference Previews

David Brinkley and Universal Studios Included In WEFTEC '98's attractions

The latest in water quality

research, technology, and services will be on display, October

3-7, 1998, in

Orlando, Florida, during WEFTEC '98, North America's largest annual water quality and pollution control conference and exposition. Orlando, which is hosting its first WEFTEC ever, will welcome more than

16,000 of the world's leading experts and 700 exhibiting companies for five days of technical education, information ex

change, and networking opportunities. WEFTEC '98, the 71st edition of the

Water Environment Federation's(WEF) annual meeting, will cover a wide spec trum of today's critical water quality is sues. Eighty-two technical sessions during 14 symposia will provide inno

vative information on utility manage ment, groundwater remediation, water shed management, water reuse, biologi cal monitoring, and much more, from

Orlando has many attractions for delegates'families. Photo - Tom Davey • Management luncheon on October 7. • Facility Operations 1 Preconference workshops will be • Facility Operations II held on October 3 and 4. Subjects in

around the world.

• Current Issues

WEFTEC '98 Symposia

cluded are:

• Natural Systems and Water Reuse

• Wastewater Treatment Research

• International and Public Education

• Municipal Wastewater Treatment • Residuals and Biosolids Management • Collection Systems

Opening General Session speaker David Zach, a futurist, will help attendees examine key trends and cur rent issues that will provide a new per spective on the future of water quality. Award-winning journalist David Brinkley,recently retired from ABC-TV, will address participants at the WEFTEC

• Remediation of Soil and Groundwater • Industrial Issues and Treatment

Technology • Surface Water Quality and Ecology 1 • Surface Water Quality and Ecology 11

Activated sludge Analytical techniques Everglades restoration Integrating emerging technologies Retrofitting urban areas Ultraviolet disinfection

Wastewater microbiology Wastewater rate setting International workshop WERE - Formulating a research program

WERF - Implementation of

For biosolids mixing and storage solutions

biocriteria WERF - Wet weather issues

WERF - Protecting workers' health WERF - Developing strategies

• We can provide a complete storage and mixing system, including:

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• Aquastore® tanks from A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Products Co. • JetMix Vortex® mixing systems for both new and existing biosolids and digester tanks

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For more information, circle reply card No. 166 (See page 25)

trading Application of ultra-clean mercury sampling Brownfields redevelopment Collection system O & M Complying with the Clean Air Act Industrial waste treatment operations Membrane technology Modeling, simulation and analysis On-line analyzers Wastewater microbiology WEFTEC '98 will also offer nine

water and wastewater facility tours, in cluding the Reedy Creek Improvement District Wastewater Treatment Facility, Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Conference Previews which provides all of the utility services to Walt Disney World. Delegates and their families can spend Monday, October 5 at the WEF night at Universal Studios. Normally closed in the evenings, the entertainment facility will be opened exclusively for

Calgary, October 25-28. It will be held jointly with the 20th annual conference

WEFTEC '98 attendees, exhibitors and

of the Canadian Public Works Associa

their guests. Tuesday, October 6 features the pop ular Operations Challenge '98. Two teams from Ontario will be participat ing. Tension and drama fill the air dur ing this annual WEFTEC event, as op erators compete for pride and the right to hoist the trophy awarded to the team demonstrating the best combination of precision, speed and safety. Rhonda Harris, from Texas, a popu lar figure at Canadian conventions, will become president of the Water Environ ment Federation at the awards ceremony

tion, Alberta Chapter.

on October 6.

For more information, call the Water Environment Federation toll-free at 1-

800-666-0206, or (703) 684-2452; e-

mail: confinfo@wef.org. The entire conference technical program is avail

WCWWA will celebrate the big 50 in Calgary The 50th annual conference of the West ern Canada Water & Wastewater Asso

ciation will be held at the Westin Hotel,

This conference offers a choice of six

pre-conference workshops given by lec turers and trainers who are recognized experts in their fields. Workshop topics include computer simulation, particle counting, wastewater treatment tech nologies, laboratory methods and qual ity assurance, as well as safety training in confined space entry and SCB A equip ment. Continuing Education Credits are being offered for all workshops. Partici pants also have a choice offour tours with visits to one of Calgary's water treatment plants, wastewater facilities or public works yards,or to Canmore's new wastewater treatment facility. The combined program includes 82 presentations organized into 20 sessions. The WCWWA session themes include:

Management,source and drinking water

quality; storm water issues; wastewater treatment; water treatment; drinking wa ter distribution systems; demand man agement; and environmental issues. CPWA sessions look at timely topics such as: GIS, pavement & utilities, mu nicipal waste management, waste col lection and treatment as well as plan ning and management. Four panel discussions covering: Value engineering/peer review and QualServe, demand management, mu nicipal waste management, and area ideas, will allow delegates the opportu nity to discuss issues with experts. For the first time, delegates will also have an opportunity to view more of the

latest developments in the water and wastewater treatment fields at a Poster

Session. Results will be displayed on poster boards and authors will be in at tendance to answer questions. There will also be a trade show on October 25 & 26th - ES&E will be at the conference.

For further information, Tel: (403) 283-2003, Fax:(403) 283-2007.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 125 (See page 25)


lAWQ Conference Report

Report by Tom Davey

Vancouver hosted environmental scientists from around the world

TheInternational Association ofWater Quality held

its 19th biennial conference in Vancouver, June

21-26, attracting over 1,400 people from 50 coun tries around the world. Authors from Japan, Korea, the Philippines and China were at home giving, or hearing, presentations from their peers in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, France, Turkey, Germany, Holland, Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries.

Attending some of the 200 sessions, 1 felt the truism that science, music and mathematics are indeed intemational

languages. Such international symposia also have a pro found bonding effect - the goodwill generated by environ mental scientists with a common purpose might profitably be emulated by international trade meetings. Prior to the conference, the LAWQ Goveming Board com prising senior scientists from around the globe, embarked on a trip which included sailing along the Howe Sound amid the snow capped mountains of the Barrier Range before debarking at Squamish in perfect weather. Board members could see the water colour change where saline water met with the fresh water entering the Sound. Delegates returned on a steam passenger train, a rare event these days. The unique trip was an appropriate event for a nation pioneered by the Voyageurs'canoes and the steam trains of Sir John A. MacDonald's dream.

The opening session was officially opened by a tradi tional Indian dance performed by the Squamish Nation, delighting this cosmopolitan audience. Conference presi dent Dr. Jack Norman,just before he went on to emcee the various presentations before a crowd of 1,000, was pre sented with an Indian Talking Stick by Bill Oldham,former environmental professor. University of British Columbia, who had received it from the First Nations' performers. The Stick is an artistically carved totem historically sig nificant to the Squamish people. It will remain part of future events with conference presidents and major event speakers working the Stick to command order, the same

Dr. J. Norman (right), with Dr. Peter Jones, head of Chemi cal Engineering at the University of Sherbrooke, P.O., and President of the Canadian Association on Water Quality, an affiliate of lAWQ, and Denis Baliay. way as a gavel. It is now in France where it will be used for the 20th Conference.

The opening meeting paid a moving tribute to the late Dr. Philip H. Jones, an lAWQ stalwart who had been con ference president when the last lAWQ conference was held in Canada in Toronto in 1980. Dr. Jones had been a profes sor at the University of Toronto before becoming founding professor of a new Environmental Engineering Department at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia. He died, tragically, almost as his first students were graduating. Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer, for many years editor of ES&E's R &D News,received an award for his work in many LAWQ official positions, spanning well over two decades. During the conference Piet Odenaal of Pretoria, South Africa, be came the new President of lAWQ. This conference will be the last under the lAWQ banner. The association is merging with the International Water Services Association and henceforth will be called the In ternational Water Association. The next biennial confer

ence convenes in Paris, Erance. At the conclusion of the

Vancouver conference, Denis Ballay, the next conference president, sportingly asked:"How can we possibly top this conference in the year 2000?" â?–

Environmental Science &

Engineering magazine is on the world wide web. Check us out at

http://www.esemag.com lAWQ's Governing Board enjoying the Howe Sound voyage. 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

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Biosolids Storage

Halton adds two biosolids storage tanks

TheRegion of Halton required

additional storage capacity at

their W.A. Bill Johnson Bio

solids Management Centre,in order to store increased volumes of bio

solids during the winter. In the spring, the stored biosolids would be mixed,

then trucked to and spread on Regional agricultural lands by the Region's con tractor, Terratec Environmental Ltd., as

part of the Region's very successful land application of biosolids program. In 1995,the Region retained Simcoe Engineering Group Limited, to prepare a report recommending the number and design features of the additional tank age required. The provision of two inground, circular concrete tanks with flexible membrane floors and fixed

aluminum dome covers,each with a ca

pacity of 8,200 cubic metres, was rec ommended. The tanks were designed by Simcoe, tendered by the Region and

constructed by Woodbow Lihiited. The two new storage tanks are simi lar in design to the existing eight stor age tanks; however, the new tanks have been provided with fixed aluminum

The tank roof being dropped into position. - Simcoe photo.

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mixer platforms and mixer support posts to allow portable Flygt mixers to be in stalled to mix the tank contents, prior to loading the tanker trucks for transport to the agriculmral areas for field application. The new tanker truck unloading/ loading system is similar to the existing system,consisting of fixed individual unloading/loading platforms on the www.eqwm.com access road,adjacent to the tanks. The tanker trucks unload into the tanks by gravity through the unloading/loading station; they are loaded utilizing the Data Management same station through the use of a port able submersible biosolids loading pump. For the new tanks, the bios olids loading pumps have been in stalled in pump chambers, provided with a common wall with the storage

dome covers, as opposed to the floating membrane covers on the existing tanks. The fixed dome covers provide the re quired odour control and prevent precipi tation from entering the storage tanks. Similar to the existing tanks, each new tank has been provided with five


Individually valved,supemate pip ing (located at selected levels from the tank high liquid level), has been pro vided through the common wall from the storage tank to the pump chamber. The supemate piping design allows the biosolids loading pump to be utilized for the loading of supemate into the

do it ail with EQWin.

And, the familiar Windows environment makes it

powerful and easy-touse. Not only that, it's user-definable too.

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tanker tmcks.

The two new biosolids storage tanks were utilized by the Region dur ing the 1996-1997 operating season and the expected value of the new

protect it, at $1275, EQWin doesn't cost the earth

To order, or for more information, caii(604)684-6550.

Temcor aluminum dome covers was GemTeck

EQWin is developed by GemTeck Environmental Software Ltd. and distributed by Gemcom Software International Inc. "EQ" and "EQWin" are registered trademarks of Teck Corporation.


For more information, circie repiy card No. 127 (See page 25)


For more information, circle reply card No. 128 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Index Company


Reader Service No.


Reader Service No.

71 49

155 105

Hach Hoffman

5 64

114 146

Insituform Technologies Interprovinclal Corrosion

15 12

120 130

JWG Lambourne Env. Milltronics

47 43 16

143 138 121

MSU Mississauga



Munro Concrete Neo Valves NortechGSI OGPA OGPA OGWA Ozonia Parkson PPG Industries ProMlnent Raw Materials Rudi Kovacko & Assoc

75 78 79 17 74 13 9 34 57 18 49 45

159 161 260-265 122 158 118 116 165 173 123 110 140



ABB Action Carbon-Chem

AGL Marketing



Americana/Reseau Anthrafilter

65 49

147 106

Aquabiast Aqua-Flo Aquatic Sciences

49 59 12

108 202 164

Gdn. Env. Auditors Assn




GH2M Gore&Storrie


139 141



170, 171




GSR Hydro Gonduit



Davidson Davis Gontrols Denso Derrick Eco Waste Solutions

49 11 48 14 69

109 169 144 119 153
















Terminal City



Envista Fabricated Plastics Frontenac GEA Gemcom Software Gemite GL&V

39 58 78 33 24 59 21

188 179 167 129 127 201 125

Terratec Trans Environmental

49 66

107 149




VIctaullc Waterlink/Bloclear WGWWA

39 37 56

136 133



WEF Zenon


Gorman-Rupp Greatario



Elsag Bailey



FOR QUICK RESPONSE, FAX BACK TO (905)841-7271 FREE Information Service for Readers





□ Municipal & Government Personnel □ Provincial Government □ Federal Government

□ Consulting engineer/consultant □ Industrial (Please specify area of activity)

Company Name: Address:

City:, Tel: (

Postal Code:

. Prov:.

Fax: (


For more Information on products and services mentioned In this Issue, circle the appropriate numbers below. Please mall or fax (905) 841-7271. Your request will be forwarded to the manufacturer.

□ Contractors engaged in construction of municipal and industrial waterworks, sewerage and pollution control plants, etc. □ Other; Please be specific

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202

Iwant to receive (continue to receive) Environmental Science & Engineering magazine.

203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270

□ Yes No □ Date:

271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321


322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338

September 1998

339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


Spills Liability

By Donna S.K. Shier*

Spills, sewers and stormwater:A legal opinion on environmental Issues - Part II long-standing interim memorandum of understanding to administer and enforce

In part I(June ES&E), Donna Shier discussed iiability for spiils and clean-up; prosecutions and

Fisheries Act fish habitat management

defences; the Environmentai Protection Act, the Ontario Water Resources Act, Fisheries Act, and

provisions, after its demand for compen sation was refused.

In effect, responsibility for fresh water fish habitat management has been downloaded to municipalities and con servation authorities - without any cor responding transfer of money or re sources. This means higher user fees for developers, increased delays in ap

In part 1 , I promised to discuss municipai sewer use by-laws.

some new regulatory initiatives

relevant to water and wastewater

and stormwater system approvals and management. The Ontario govern ment has floated rafts of new regulatory proposals, not least being a proposed new Municipal Act which may be intro duced in the legislature this fall. Space limitations require me to chose only two items of interest. These are: the MOE's

proposals for permit-by-rule and ap proval exemptions (SARs and AERs); and the federal-provincial fisheries man agement shenanigans which our Willms & Shier newsletter dubbed the "Surf and Turf Wars".

Proposed Standardized Approval Regulations and Approval Exemption Regulations The current provincial government and its predecessors worked on ways to reduce the approval burden on develop ers, municipalities and industries, as well as on MOE staff.

One way to do this is to reduce the number of activities that require certifi cates of approval. In 1996, the MOE introduced Bill 57 to reform the ap proval process by authorizing regula tions that would allow wider approval exemptions. Recently MOE introduced its discussion papers on draft Standard ized Approval Regulations (SARs)and draft Approval Exemption Regulations (AERs). Generally, the effect will be to transfer responsibility for regulating and monitoring many activities to munici palities. In the case of SARs, propo nents will have to have designs certified by private engineering consultants in or der to avoid having to go through for mal certificate of approval requirements. The proposed SARs include propos*Donna S.K. Shier, a partner at Willms & Shier, is certified as an Environmentai

Law Specialist by the Law Society of Upper Canada. She gave this report May 14, 1998, at a Stormceptor Canada Inc. seminar. 26

provals, and a drastic decrease in moni

ments if all conditions are met:

toring and enforcement. The fish habitat management provi sions of the Fisheries Act, in s. 35, pro hibit any work in or around water that

• Modifications to existing municipal and industrial water and sewage works

dismption or destruction offish habitat."

als to exempt the following activities from Certificate of Approval Require

will result in the "harmful alteration,

that currently operate under a Certificate Section 35(2) authorizes the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans of Approval (where environmental im (DEO)to impose conditions on this type pact will not increase). of work. DEO has published fish habi • Establishment or alteration of watermains or sewers under ss. 52 and 53 of tat management policies, to guide au the Ontario Water Resources Act, but thorities in approving work around fish habitat. These policies are designed to does not apply to works draining storm water from industrial lands.

avoid the loss of fish habitat, by assess

• Spill containment and stormwater management works at electrical trans

ing the potential impact of the damage, and imposing mitigation or compensa tion measures where appropriate. For eight years MNR administered

former stations.

• Water and sewage pumping stations and forcemains, not including works which would be part of industrial sew age works. Proposed Approval Exemption Reg ulations for sewage and water, would provide outright exemptions for listed activities including: •Construction, alteration or replacement of watermain, storm and sanitary sewer appurtenances such as valve and meter chambers, fire hydrants, catch basins and maintenance holes.

• Replacement of approved watermains and sewers(so long as replacements are of same size and performance charac teristics and at same location). •Construction, alteration or replacement of residential/commercial stormwater

management facilities in or on rooftops, parking lots or pipes which discharge to municipal sewers. Fisheries Act; Fish Habitat

Management Effective September 18,1997,on one month's notice, Ontario's Ministry of Natural Resources(MNR)terminated a

and enforced these fish habitat manage

ment provisions,in conjunction with the small local DEO contingent in Burling ton and the cooperation of local conser vation authorities. While final approval of compensation agreements was left to DEO officials, most of the evaluation

and approval work was handled by the provincial and local authorities. As of last September, Ontario's MNR repudi ated the agreement and its minister told DEO to take full responsibility for the exercise of its constitutional jurisdiction over fisheries. When MNR repudiated its delegated authority, that left conser vation authorities withoutjurisdiction they had been acting under authority delegated to them by MNR,with no di rect link to DEO.

Unless or until DEO makes alterna

tive arrangements, many developers'

requests for permission to alter fish habi tat, including mitigation and compensa tion agreements, must be processed by DFO's Burlington staff. At the time the Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

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Spills Liability, contv MNR repudiated the agreement, DFO had no Ontario enforcement staff. MNR

conservation officers, designated under the Fisheries Act, had enforced the fish

habitat management provisions. At that time, Gerry Swanson, Direc tor General of Habitat Management and Environmental Science for DFO told us

that the government still expected these provincial officers to enforce the Fish eries Act, implying a sort of designated moral obligation. By December 1997 DFO had brought a token enforcement group into Ontario and provided some interim funding for limited administra tive activities.

Insiders say DFO is trying to restrict its role to salt-water fisheries, leaving the provinces to manage their own fresh water. This view skates over the Great

Lakes (international waters), which re ceive much of Ontario's water. So far

Ottawa has provided only minimal ad ditional resources to DFO in Ontario,

and has not announced any intention to transfer money to provincial or local agencies for provincial fish manage

Conservation authorities' user fees for development applications will likely have to Increase.

transfer payments - and lost. Up until now, impact on develop ment, water quality and fisheries has been local. Since the MNR stepped out, conservation authorities have actively sought liaison with the DFO. In Decem

ties(who fund the conservation authori

ties) will not appear on the restructur ing balance sheet. Conservation authori ties' user fees for development applica tions will likely have to increase. Since DFO plans to enter into custom agree

ment. Meanwhile, Ontario has ruth

ber DFO issued a "comfort letter" stat

ments with individual local authorities,

lessly cut back on regulatory activities. In addition, the province is increasing

ing, in essence, that it will respect any

administration could vary from water shed to watershed according to availabil ity of resources and local politics. Enforcement of fish habitat protec tion provisions will suffer. As many as

delegation of authority previously made

responsibilities of municipalities with

between MNR and individual conserva

out adequate offset funding or resources. Some critics argue that the province was playing poker with the feds over

tion authorities. Many conservation au thorities, with logistical support from Conservation Ontario, are negotiating individual agreements with DFO to clarify local authority and responsibility.

New Sewer By-Law coming Ten years after the last Model Sewer Use By-Law was published,the MOE posted a new draft for public comment. The Proposed 1998 Model Sewer Use ByLaw was posted on the electronic Envi ronmental Registry on June 16, 1998. When finalized, the new model by law will replace the Model Sewer Use By-Law (August 1988), itself replacing the 1975 original. According to the MOE, improve ments in the 1998 draft include: "a sim

plified modular format; more stringent limits for cadmium, lead and mercury; proposed new limits for ten organics; a new approach for stormwater require ments;incorporation of pollution preven tion in the storm sewer section; use of a

new sampling and analytical protocol based on the MISA Industrial Sampling and Analytical Protocol; and new moni toring requirements for dischargers." The Proposed 1998 Model Sewer Use By-Law is available on the Intemet at http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/ en v_reg/documents/a/pa8e0029.pdf 28

And DFO has also allocated some fund

ing for training programs - necessary since many of the more complex files were formerly dealt with by MNR staff. Nonetheless, until the individual

agreements have been negotiated, uncer tainty reigns. Some larger, urban water sheds conservation authorities have staff

resources and experience in dealing with fish habitat management issues. In many watersheds, however,fish habitat expertise remains locked inside MNR, where experienced staff are now han dling other MNR business. This wrangling runs contrary to the "one-window" planning approach that provincial and local authorities and the development industry have been work ing on. In some cases, stormwater man agement works approvals may have to undergo review by six different agen cies: local municipalities, upper tier municipalities, conservation authorities, MOE, MNR (for Public Lands Act and Lakes and Rivers Improvement Act is sues), and the DFO.

180 MNR officials had enforcement

authority under the Fisheries Act. Con servation authorities have neither au

thority nor the resources to charge and prosecute offenders. Although their staff will be helpful in reporting some prob lems, it is difficult to envision a few

DFO officers in Ontario having a sig nificant enforcement presence. 1 said at the outset that 1 was not go ing to discuss orders. Orders are most common under the Environmental Protection Act and the Ontario Water

Resources Act. But there is one thing 1 want to mention. The EPA's statutory

framework for orders for cleaning up contamination was expanded several years ago. It permits orders by the MOE to provide alternate water supplies where existing water supplies are damaged or endangered. There is no "reasonable foreseeability" as a precondition for li ability for these orders. And 1 know of no legal impediment making a munici pality immune from this sort of order. This just adds to the already heavy onus on municipalities to establish and

maintain the management systems they require to protect the services they

The extra burden on local municipali


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Drinking Water

By Michael McMuflin, P.Eng.

Potable water supply remediation at Harvey Elementary School, New Brunswick

TheHarvey Elementary School

presence of excessive concentrations of

this is not a toxic concentration, it is

arsenic,fluoride, and uranium. ADI Intemational Inc., ofFredericton, NB,was

maximum which was established by

linked to the well pumps' motor start ers, are used for injection of sulfuric acid for lowering pH upstream of the first filter, and sodium hydroxide for increasing pH downstream of the third filter. The metering pumps are linked to the on/off operation of the well pumps, via an auxiliary contact at the

retained by the Department of Educa tion to provide a treatment plant to re

Health Canada due to the risk of dental

motor starter (i.e., chemical addition

fluorosis, or mottling of teeth. A well-

duce these elements to below the maxi

known fluoride removal media - acti

mum allowable concentrations per the Canadian Drinking Water

vated alumina - was tested, and proven

only occurs when water is flowing through the system). Since this is a groundwater source, the water quality - and chemical require ment - should not change significantly on a day to day basis, although the op

groundwater supply has been subject to an interdiction by the New Brunswick Depart

centration from over 120 pg/L to less than 0.5 pg/L (the drinking water limit is 100 pg/L). The fluoride concentration in the

ment of Health for some time due to the

school water exceeded 4 mg/L; although more than double the recommended

Guidelines. Methods for arsenic and uranium removal in clude membrane filtra

•y-v •



tion, lime softening, and filtration through adsorp-


The entire treatment

tive media. Membrane

filtration was tried before

in Harvey, with limited success; this technology is also relatively expen

) -y' r

sive and labour-intensive.

Lime softening is not ap plicable for small flows such as required at the school. The third option - adsorptive media filtra

in a 2.5m x L5m area of

unused storage space. The filters will operate approximately three through" of arsenic or fluoride occurs.


Arsenic absorbing fiiter. Pilot testing was car ried out by ADI using its proprietary capable of reducing fluoride to approxi mately 0.4 mg/L. After review of pilot adsorptive media (Media G2 - US Pat ent Pending). Media G2 is the result of test data, approval for installation in the several years' research and development school was granted by the New Bruns by ADI. It is highly efficient in arsenic wick Department of Health. The fullremoval, inexpensive, and extremely scale treatment plant consists of pH ad easy to use(making it ideal for locations justment followed by filtration through such as the Harvey school, where highly Media G2 and activated alumina, and trained plant operators are unavailable). re-adjustment of pH to its original value. Three 600 mm diameter ERP filter This media proved able to reduce the arsenic concentration in the school wa vessels are piped in series. The first two ter supply from approximately 700 (ig/ contain Media G2, and the third contains L to 4|ig/L (the current Health Canada activated alumina. A contact time of 15 limit for arsenic in drinking water is 25 minutes is required for Media G2 to ef ficiently adsorb the arsenic and uranium. pg/L). The treatment involves decreas ing the pH of the water to 5.5 (from its As a conservative design, the combined original 7.5-8.0), and passing it through volume of the two G2 filters allows a a pressure filter containing Media G2. 30 minute contact time. The third ves In addition to removing arsenic, this sel, containing activated alumina, pro vides a 15-minute contact time, which is sufficient for fluoride removal.

Solenoid-driven metering pumps.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


"breakthrough" occurs, the media will be regen erated using a simple acid/caustic rinse proce dure which takes only 3-

deemed most worthy of investigation at this loca

*ADI Limited, Fredericton, NB

plant, sized for treating a 40 litre/minute flow (plus 100% "safety factor") fits

months before "break

tion - was therefore

treatment also reduces the uranium con

erator can, of course, make adjustments as nec

4 hours.

The volume of waste

regenerant solution produced is only 1/ 1000th of the volume of water treated, and this waste is made non-hazardous

(i.e., will pass both Canadian and US leachate tests) simply by pH adjustment. A further reduction in waste production can be achieved simply by allowing the solids in the waste to settle and pump ing the supernatant back to the filter in let. The dried solids in the sludge amount to approximately 1 kg for every 100 m'of treated water. Both the dried

solids and the G2 media itself also pass leachate tests, and are non-hazardous.

The plant is able to treat the entire school water supply for much less than the cost of the bottled water which has

been used for drinking for the past sev eral years. For more information, circle reply card No. 102 29

Drinking Water

How to control earthy-musty odours in drinking water

Thepresence ofa taste or odour

in drinking water is regarded as offensive. Odours usually cause the majority of con sumer complaints and are most often the result of natural biological processes in

the water sources. This article will

briefly focus on the nature of some of these odour compounds, the methods used to remove these substances, and the costs of these removal methods. It is

important to recognize that complete odour removal at all times may not be feasible due to the very high costs. Con sequently, the level of service provided to the customers must be carefully ex amined and defined, bearing in mind the associated costs, to ensure that every one has the same expectations for the water quality. Odour in water

Of the innumerable array of organic compounds that are produced in nature, the compounds that have been most rou tinely identified as causing odour prob lems in water are:

• Geosmin (trans-1, 10-dimethyl-trans9 decalol)

• MIB (2-methylisobomeol) • Mucidone (3-isobutyl, 6-ethyl, a-pyrone) •TCA (2,3,6-trichloroanisole) •IPMP (2-isopropyl-3-methoxy pyrazine) •IBMP (2-isobutyl-3-methoxy pyrazine) Geosmin and MIB have been identi

fied as metabolites of actinomycetes and certain blue-green algae. These are the two compounds most frequently identi fied as causing an earthy-musty odour in water. At least 31 strains of blue-

green algae have been shown to produce these two compounds. Mucidone was isolated from a culture of streptomyces following an episode of taste and odour. It was originally thought to have an in tense earthy or musty odour, but upon purification, has a mild musty or fruity odour.

microorganisms but is also produced by actinomycetes. IBMP has been isolated from bell peppers and likely occurs in water supplies. Consumer complaints The intensity of the odour, a change in intensity, or the character of the odour(s) can determine the number of consumer complaints. Of these several different conditions that give rise to cus tomer odour complaints, we will only ad dress the odour intensity in this article. Figure 1 illustrates the response of humans to the odour produced by the range of MIB concentrations often found in surface water systems. It has been shown that the range of odour thresholds exhibited by a human popu lation forms a normal or Gaussian dis

tribution that has a concentration range

*Hargrave & Burdick, Environmental Inc.,

gram per litre) to protect the suscepti ble consumers. This is an extremely low concentration.

To put this in perspective, if you treated 1.0 million litres of water per day

for a year by reducing the MIB in the water from 10 ng/L to O.I ng/L this would amount to less than 4 grams of MIB removed per year. Figure 1 - Human Response to IVIIB Cumulative Percent of

Human Population Concentration

IVIIB (ng/L)

Threshold Odour

Offensive Odour

1 10 100

10 50 95

2 15 30

of more than 200:1.

This is why a few very sensitive cus tomers will detect and complain of an off-odour in the water, while most peo ple are unaware of any problem. For an individual, the intensity of an odour progresses from the just noticeable threshold odour to continually more objectionable sensations as the concen tration of the odour compound increases in the water. Figure 1 also shows the

As the concentration of an earthymusty compound becomes progres sively lower,the removal becomes much more difficult and expensive. Therefore, from a practical standpoint of operations and costs, the objective is to provide wa

level where the odour is offensive

It is very important to carefully se lect an appropriate level of service that

enough to cause complaints. The Guidelinesfor Canadian Drink ing Water Quality(GCDWQ)and some European regulators advocate that the maximum allowable standard for odour

compounds should be 1/100 of the av erage threshold odour concentration in order to protect the most sensitive con sumers. The average threshold odour concentration is where 50% of the popu lation can just detect an odour. On this

ter that has little or no offensive odour to

most of the population most of the time. Defining an appropriate level of service and treatment

tries to balance the customer's desire for little or no odour and an affordable

method of treatment. Figure 2is an ex ample of defining the level of service. This table relates the duration of an

odour event,the degree ofimpact on the consumers and the action required to limit or control the odour problem. In a previous article(ES&E - January 1996), we defined three treatment strategies, as

Figure 2- Treatment Strategies and Customer Service Levels Action

Effect on the Population


unacceptable if there are even a few complaints every month


Many consecutive

unacceptable if more than 10% of


days several times

customers can detect an odour

Duration of Odour Problem Continuous

Every day of the year


TCA has a musty odour and has been detected in chlorinated water supplies. IPMP and IBMP have very intense musty odours. IPMP is a product of soil

basis, the concentration of MIB could not be more than about 0.1 ng/L (nano-

every year



A few days every

unacceptable if more than 25%


of customers can detect an odour

A few days every few years

customers can detect an odour

likely acceptable even if 95% of


1 or II



Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

By W.J. Hargrave and C.R. Burdick* follows; activated carbon (BAG). of service. Possible fluctuations in in • Action I, the only response to these Considerations when selecting terest rates, Canadian/US exchange episode(s) is usually to optimize the technologies rates, and rate of inflation are risks that existing treatment processes. Water quality considerations such as should be considered when selecting an • Action II, requires the spending of the removal of other organics are im alternative because they will have vary capital and operating dollars to set up a portant because they can reduce the ing impacts on the different altematives. specific treatment program for odour re effectiveness ofthe odour treatment techSome alternatives will have high moval. This will be processes that fixed costs that must be carried Flgure 3- Costs for Various Treatment Strategies. are not capital intensive, can be during periods when there are no Action Approximate stopped and started as necessary, odour episodes and this imposes Level Treatment Description Cost per IVIL and have a wide response range to an undesirable financial risk. Fig various odour causing substances. 1 Optimize Existing Plant $1 to $3 ure 3 indicates the approximate Examples of these treatment proc costs per million litres of water Optimize Existing Plant with $5 to $30 esses would be oxidation using po PAC Feed produced for various odour re tassium permanganate, chlorine, moval technologies. The range of III GAC Filter Caps with 3 year $6 to $13 chorine dioxide, and adsorption replacement costs are due to different design using powdered activated carbon criteria and plant capacities. III GAC Filter Caps with 1 year $9 to $28 (PAC). replacement Operation considerations such •Action III, requires more exten as the degree of complexity and Post-Filter GAC Contactors III $27 to $40 sive treatment systems because of with 3 year replacement reliability of the system are impor the requirement for continuous op tant. Usually the complexity of III Post-Filter Ozone with BAC $40 to $230 eration and higher removal effici Contactors operations will increase with in encies. These circumstances may creased level of service and opera warrant more capital dollar intensive so nology. Also it is important that the tech tion and maintenance time will be lutions such as adsorption using filter nology selected for odour removal does needed to maintain the reliability of the caps(replacing filter media with GAC), not compromise the disinfection process. treatment system. Materials handling is beds ofgranular activated carbon(GAC) Financial considerations such as the another important aspect that will vary or oxidation using ozone combined with capital costs and annual operating costs with alternatives. adsorption using beds of biologically are linked to achieving a desired level Circle reply card No. 103

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 104 (See page 25)


Drinking Water

By Elmer O. Sommerfeld\ and Ron G. Mondoux^

Removal of Cryptosporidlum by granular media filters: They can and do!

Much ofthe talk today goes round

and round


whether or not granular media filters are capable of effectively preventing the passage of Giardia Lamblia and Cryptosporidium into potable water distribution systems. They can and do. What seems to get lost in the talk is that many of the same principles that apply to granular media fil ters also apply to other types of filters, including many membrane filter types.

this is known. Viable units of Giardia

program is a comprehensive evaluation

Lamblia are the size often removed by a granular media filter operated at so-so efficiency. Typically, granular media filters should be expected to remove units greater than 10 microns. Reduc ing the number of particles in the 2-10 micron range to single digits or low dou-

of the treatment train and its attendant

hardware. AWI's Filter Audit™ accounts

for everything down to the seemingly insignificant, as does a financial audit. To start at the real beginning requires a thorough analysis and interpretation of the raw water's chemistry. Develop ing filtration for contami nants often goes beyond chemical coagulation, flocculation, settling, and clari fication. Determination of

the particle size distribution

When service flow rates

in the water to be filtered is

are increased beyond a cer tain point, contaminant breakthrough will occur re gardless of the filter type.

a must. Compact portable membrane filters and port

able particle counters quick ly establish the efficiency of

Let a filter reach its solids

the chemical treatment pro


holding capacity and break through will occur without regard for granules or mem branes. Plugging a filter just means its neighboring filter(s) take on an additional service load, or total produc



tion is reduced. Choose the

Assessing the filterability of the contaminants permits design of a granular media bed and filtration procedure. It is now a proven fact that highly angular sand pro duces water of lower NTUs

and has a higher solids hold ing capacity than round sand, all other things being equal. Consciously choos ing sand shape, effective size, and uniformity coeffi cient is one of those seemingly small things, but one which helps in keeping the Crypto out of consumers' taps. On-site pilot testing can develop the

wrong granular media or The 32'X 62'filter shown was originally built with a duai-paraiieimembrane material/pore iaterai ceramic block underdrain design. A stainless steel panel opening and either effluent with punched slots was Installed over each block to delete the quality will be compromised need for a gravel base beneath the filter sand and filter coal. or intolerable headlosses Open areas of the punched slots were engineered based on will result. Inefficient clean

measurements of backwash mal-distrlbutlon.

ing of a granular media bed or reusable membrane reduces the capacity of the next filter run. And the list goes on. The science of water treatment/puri fication has not yet defined the mini mum number of viable units of Giardia

Lamblia or Cryptosporidium that con stitute a health risk. Those of us over

45, who grew up in small population centres, well remember the number of times the "stomach flu" made the rounds

in our schools. It seems the symptoms of that mysterious "stomach flu" are the same as those of a mild infection from

Cryptosporidium. Could it be ... ? And yet, those of normal health recovered in a matter of days. That is still the case today in mild infections from Crypto sporidium. While the science is not definitive,

^AWI, Calgary, AB ^AWI, Burlington, ON 32

ble digits requires optimization, and that usually means rehabilitation. In reha bilitation, optimization means every thing in the treatment train will be brought up to today's standards. The key word is everything. As the size of particles gets smaller, their number increases. So,reducing the number of these particles greatly reduces the risk of passing sufficient numbers of viable Cryptosporidium units to re sult in ill health in humans.

To accomplish removal of such fine particulate often requires treatment train rehabilitation, rather than just filter re habilitation. Little is to be gained from rehabilitating a filter if the contaminants to be removed are not rendered filter

able by some chemical pretreatment pro gram. The entire process cannot be sus tained if parts of the train cannot keep up with those rehabilitated. So,the first step in any rehabilitation

data needed to choose a mono-medium

or dual media bed, specifications of the media chosen, and media depths. Old media bed designs, using granular ma terial larger than could be fluidized dur ing backwash, compromised effective bed size because of retained particulate. This condition produced invisible chan neling, which is little more than nature's way of increasing the rate of filtration without you knowing it. A more effec tive bed is one that can be fluidized to

the correct degree during backwashing, thereby providing a cleaned filter bed close to 100% of its original capacity. Service flow rates are site-specific, plain and simple. Original plant designs used different criteria than criteria perContinued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


state of the

Art Dewatering Technology Delivers the Driest Solids at the Lowest Cost Advances in centrifugal technology

have made Westfalia Separator's complete line of high solids decanters the most efficient and cost effective dewatering process available today. No matter what

type of sludge you're dewatering - from aerobically digested sludge to zinc oxide our decanters outperform belt filter presses or plate and h-ame presses. Important features include:

• Stainless steel construction with tungsten

carbide hard surfacing for reliable, long term operation and low maintenance

• Fully-enclosed continuous operation for complete process containment and low operator exposure to VOCs • Patented high torque 2-gear drive and Hy-Flex bearings for highest "G"s and driest solids

• Continuous computer controlled

pressure discharge operation requires Uttle operator attention. For more information about how we can

help you solve your sludge dewatering problems call 1-905-319-3900.

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For more Information, circle reply card No. 129(See page 25)

Drinking Water, conr tinent today. Technology has provided instruments capable of measuring much smaller particulate that the regulator says must be removed. The outstand ing plant design of a decade ago may not be capable of producing the quality needed today. Rehabilitation, therefore, must take that "good old plant" and make it better than new. And its being done every day at a cost well below new plant price or conversion to membrane filtration. The beauty of rehabilitation of existing processes and hardware is continuing flat-line operating costs as compared to the cost of regular mem brane replacement. Complete rehabilitation of the re moval process is comprised of three equal parts: chemical pretreatment (i.e. making contaminants filterable), filtra tion (i.e. media selection, bed specifi cations, and operating procedures), and sustainability. Sustainability begs an answer to these questions. How can the media bed be cleaned to very nearly 100% of its rehabilitated design at the conclusion of each filtration cycle? Is air scour a fit? How is better cleaning accomplished

with less water? Answer these questions correctly and the concern goes away over shrinking effective bed size, mudballs, channeling, dead spots, and me dia migration/gravel mounding. If the filter underdrain in use per forms well elsewhere, but poorly in the plant in need of rehabilitation, then it too must undergo work that will remove its in situ deficiencies, regardless of the manufacturer's original claims. Assum ing pumps provide adequate volumes of backwash water, the underdrain must be

capable of distributing water within a fraction of zero mal-distribution. It's

simple! Mal-distribution results in some areas of the bed getting more water than others, resulting in different localized cleaning efficiencies. So what? So watch the effluent quality deteriorate

It is an interesting phenomenon that was grappled with for years, but is now understood. Media and support bed migration is a never-ending work in pro gress, and in some instances the move ment can be measured after each back

wash cycle. The late J.B. Hambley, P.Eng., founder ofAWI,agonized over these and other thorny treatment issues, but found the answers to gravel mounding/migra tion and mal-distribution. He developed a series of orifice formulas that pre vented mal-distribution in underdrain

headers and laterals. Designing a highly efficient air scour delivery system is a science of its own. Hambley made air

scour an integral part of his Flexscour™ Stainless Steel Filter Underdrain, but left the choice to use it or not with the cli

over time. If the filter in need of rehabilitation

still has the old style multiple layers of support gravel, watch seemingly insig nificant levels of mal-distribution pro duce gravel migration, gravel mounding, and loss of media into the underdrain

through a supposedly impenetrable gravel bed.


ent. A further rehabilitation advance

ment is a stainless steel device, the AWI

Phoenix Panel System that makes many block and false-bottom filters gravelfree while also mitigating mal-distribu tion of the existing underdrain. For more information,

circie repiy card No. 131


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Frank Murphy, Public Works and Wastewater Foreman for the town of

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maintenance costs associated with

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the old pumps. Due to infiltration of sand our sewage is quite abrasive. We were spending around $6,000.00 old vertical drive pumps with two 6" Gorman-Rupp T Series. Since the on each pump just to keep them operating. We haven't done a thing T Series are above the hquid being pumped they ehminate the headaches to these Gorman-Rupps. "As a matter of fact, this station associated with confined spaces. "With the old pumps, clogs were a major problem because of the strict regulations deahng with con-

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and have ordered more pumps for

"This was my first experience using self-primers. These GormanRupps have out-performed all my expectations. I'm glad I chose the T Series—they're definitely the right pumps for the job." The next time you need a wastewater pump that will get the job done, contact your Gorman-Rupp distributor.


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Drinking Water

First major water distribution system in North America is ISO 14001 registered

Thereis a new standard in envi

•Are you meeting all legal requirements, bylaws, and industry standards? •Can you demonstrate that the environ mental management system is continu ISO 9001,the international standard for ally improving? quality, and the British environmental To remain registered, the organiza management systems standard BS7750. tion must be audited at least annually Organizations are developing sophis by the certified registrar. All registrars ticated, proactive Environmental Man are certified by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) of agement Systems (EMS) and register ing them under ISO 14001 to establish Geneva, Switzerland. Registration of a water system is par"due diligence" and to build goodwill with clients and the public. Meeting ISO 14001 standards demonstrates that the organiza tion is working beyond legal compliance. It also can help the organization reach a higher level of operational excellence. On April 16,1998, the envi ronmental management system of the water treatment plants ronmental stewardship for or ganizations. ISO 14001 was bom,in 1996, of two parents,

(WTP)of Lakeview and Lome


portant feature of registration under ISO 14001 is that every statement in the company policy must be satisfied in the system.

Step 2: Planning The planning phase began with the identification of all environmental as

pects and impacts related to the opera tion of the water system. The challenge faced by OCWA in this identification process was the wide scope of work. Over 80 aspects with their associated impacts were identified. Using a documented proce dure, all the environmental as

pects and related impacts were rated and ranked and the signifi cant aspects were identified. The four areas considered for

establishing ranking criteria were:

• Severity of health or safety impact to employees or the pub

Park and the main distribution


system in the Region of Peel, Ontario, was registered under first registration of a major

• Probability of occurrence; • Consumer/public concern; • OCWA corporate strategic/ economic concern (including

North American water distribu


ISO 14001. This marked the

tion system under ISO 14001. This successful registration was accomplished in three months of intensive work by the opera

OCWA's first ISO 14001

EMS cycle identified seven sig nificant aspects. The seven sig nificant aspects/impacts and an tor, the Ontario Clean Water Brian Lane, SGS International Certificate Services, presents outline of the objective and tar Agency (OCWA). A strong certificate of registration to David McCully, Operations gets for each aspect are: EMS foundation,including spe l\/lanager, Lakeview/Lorne Park WTP and Sharon Gray, 1. Contamination ofthe Water cific environmental programs, OCWA Central Area Vice President. Supply was in place before the work on the reg ticularly challenging since the entire Objective - take all practical measures istration process began. operation is related to the environment to minimize the possibility of contami To succeed in the registration, all the and public health. In addition, the legal nation of the water supply and to be pre requirements of the published standard framework for operations is complex. pared for immediate action in the event must be met. A certified registrar au Step 1: Establishing of suspected contamination. dits the facility pursuing registration to Environmental Policy Target - no contamination of the determine if the requirements have been Establishing the EMS for the water water supply that could threaten the adequately addressed/met. All the re system for the Region ofPeel began with health of water users at any time. quirements are essential but the core the establishment of a realistic and 2. Accidental Release of Chlorine Gas requirements ensure that an organization achievable Environmental Policy. The Objective - take all practical steps to answer the following questions: policy was compatible with OCWA's minimize the risk of a significant release •Do you understand all the environmen overall operational goals and it met the of chlorine gas to the environment. tal aspects and related impacts at the specific requirements set out in the ISO Target - no release of chlorine gas to facility and are you acting to address 14001 standard. Developed by an in the environment, that would pose a risk these? ternal group of technical and environ to any person, at any time. mental professionals, OCWA's Environ 3. Accidental Release ofSulphur mental Policy was approved by its Board Dioxide 'Manager Compliance and Research of Directors in 1995. It is posted at all Objective - take all practical steps to ^Advisor, Compliance OCWA facilities and staff are trained in minimize the risk of a significant release ''Research Assistant Ontario Ciean Water Agency the significance of the Policy. Am im of sulphur dioxide to the environment. 36

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

By Dr. L. Moore\ Y. Macabuag^, and P. Beveridge^ Target - no release of sulphur dioxide to the environment, that would pose a risk to any person, at any time. 4. Accidental Mixing ofLiquid

5. Sustainable Water Practices

Target - establish a numeric goal by

Objective - develop and implement a program for water conservation and public education in collaboration with


Chemicals Upon Delivery Objective - Minimize risk of accidental mixing. Target- no delivery to the wrong hold ing tank. Due to the other responsible parties involved with this aspect,OCWA has since enhanced its relationship with its suppliers and neighbours. An effec tive communication program provides these interested parties with awareness of procedures for relevant impacts. These first four significant aspects stood out from the other 80, using the ranking system that we devised. We felt though that we had to also ensure that our Environmental Policy was being fully met and that undue attention was not being paid to the negative environ mental aspects. A common oversight in EMS development is to only focus on the negative aspects and impacts. Just as important are the positive ones. The last three significant aspects for this water system were drawn from OCWA's Environmental Policy:

the Region of Peel.

Following the development of objec tives and targets for each significant as pect, Environmental Action Plans were established to ensure that the objectives and targets are met. All legal and policy requirements, including Certificates of Approval and bylaws were also identified in the plan ning phase. This helped OCWA to de termine necessary actions required to maintain environmental compliance,di rection of applicable legislation and pos sible partnerships in responsible envi ronmental management with regulating and industry bodies. Step 3: Implementation and Operation Intrinsic to the EMS is identifying the organization's operations and activities

Target - develop a program with a nu meric goal by the end of 1998 in close collaboration with the Region of Peel and to implement the program in 1999 to meet the numeric goal.

All legal and policy requirements, including Certificates ofApproval and bylaws were also identified In the planning phase. 6. Development of an Energy Saving Program Objective-improve and implement pro

that are associated with the identified


Target- reduce energy costs relative to the 1997 base.

7. Development of a Waste Reduction Program Objective - develop and implement program.

significant environmental aspects, poli cies, regulations and their related objec tives and targets. This dictates what specific actions and operational controls are required. OCWA established cor porate and facility environmental manContinued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

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Drinking Water, cont' agement representatives and a support team to ensure that all required proce dures were in place and up-to-date and that sufficient training and awareness was being provided to facility staff. This step also required a review of our communication with external stake

holders to ensure that all required com munication was taking place. A range of administrative requirements also had to be met for this step, including an ef fective procedure for controlling all EMS documents. As a final part of this step, our existing contingency plan had to be revised slightly to give due atten tion to the seven significant aspects. Step 4: Checking and

once a valid suggestion was made. This process of identifying the need for ac tion and then taking the action is the main engine of continuous improvement in ISO 14001.

A critical part of this step was the development of a comprehensive audit protocol to check on every requirement ofISO 14001 and the OCWA procedures

To speed this integration many informai sessions are heid with staff to

review new procedures or to expiain how parts of the system work.

Corrective Action

This step included regularly sched uled monitoring and measurement of the key characteristics of the water system's operations and activities that can have a significant impact on the environment. As part of this step a system was estab lished to make it easy for staff to iden tify any situation where the EMS, or indeed environmental performance, could be improved. This system in cluded the provision of quick action

by senior management. This is another ai^ea that contributes to continuous im

provement for the EMS and meets the requirement that a commitment to con tinuous improvement be demonstrated. Conclusion OCWA's measure of success for the

ISO I400I registration is the extent to which it contributes to operational ex cellence. The staff and management at the water system agree that this contri bution is being made and is increasing month by month as the EMS becomes more integrated into the regular work schedules. To speed this integration many informal sessions are held with staff to review new procedures or to explain how parts of the system work. There are also scheduled sessions each

to meet ISO 14001 and then conducting this audit. We used a team of three spe cifically trained and expert staff for this work on the "internal system audit". These audits are now scheduled semi-

annually. Step 5: Management Review Upon completion of the audit, step five was a review of the whole system

month to review a major procedure re lated to the registration. Our registrars will be back for a check audit next April. ISO 14001 registration of the water system in the Region of Peel was chal lenging but it is now providing real con tributions to operational excellence. For more information, circle reply card No. 135

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

St. Lawrence Vision 2000

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to continue The federal and Quebec governments have signed an agreement to continue joint efforts under the St. Lawrence


Vision 2000 Action Plan until 2003.

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The protection of public health, the protection of the health of ecosystems

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and the involvement of communities in

improving access to the St. Lawrence are the three major objectives for the next five years. To support these objec tives, the governments of Canada and Quebec will devote $123 million and

$116 million, respectively, for a total

environmental data.

► Effective compliance management. ' Reduced costs for

reporting to regulators and management

budget of $239 million. Some 200 individuals were involved

in planning Phase III. They included officials from eight federal and three provincial departments, as well as rep resentatives of the St. Lawrence Vision

2000 Consultative Committee, Area of Prime Concern (ZIP) committees and Strategies Saint-Laurent. The focus in

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Optimization of sewage treatment piant performance using respirometry

During the 1990s, the major

Figure 1. Total Biochemical Oxygen Uptake

thrust in the management of waste treatment plants in Ontario has been towards the

optimization of their performance. Based on a need to produce higher qual ity effluents in terms of reduced bio

chemical oxygen demand (BODj) and suspended solids (SS), as well as the

necessity to eliminate effluent toxicity, operators and engineers responsible for the waste treatment processes have had


to seek new and innovative methods and

technologies. As communities grow, the demand on their pollution control plants to treat elevated loadings of domestic waste in creases. Since funding for expansion is often limited, the need to optimize the treatment performance of the existing facilities is of the utmost importance. In addition, as a result of industries

that have been established in many com munities, it is not uncommon for pollu tion control plants, that were originally designed to treat primarily domestic sewage, to now have to deal with more complex wastes. In some instances,spe cific organic or inorganic chemicals in herent to the industrial waste stream may be inhibitory to the biomass comprising the activated sludge. In other circum stances, some of the chemicals may be biodegradable; however, they are fre quently mixed with biocides to enhance their shelf life. This also creates a det

rimental impact on the biomass of the activated sludge.

Time (hours)

Respirometry In general, respirometric devices are used to measure the total biochemical

oxygen uptake(TBOU) and biochemi cal oxygen uptake rate(BOUR)exerted by a microbial population. Under aero

bic conditions, these microorganisms consume oxygen proportional to the amount of organic carbon and biomass in the reactor. The expression:

Organic Carbon + Biomass + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + New

Biomass, describes this relationship. As the reaction proceeds in the respirometer reactor, the carbon dioxide


set at the start of the test.

This change in pressure is detected by the system and an equal amount of oxygen is delivered to the reactor, bring ing it back to equilibrium. The oxygen



" ■' "7





limax » 0.037



« 0.032

tress from the industrial wastes that are

received through the Ingersoll Sanitary Sewage Collection System (ISSCS).

actor, the carbon dioxide evolved dur

ing microbial respiration is adsorbed, creating a pressure differential (nega tive) relative to the reference pressure

Figure 2. Mohod curve

A series of studies, conducted from

September 1993 to November 1994, showed that the two plants at the Ingersoll Pollution Control Centre peri odically suffered severe inhibitory dis

by-product leaves the mixed solution and collects in the reactor head space. As the produced carbon dioxide is pro portional to the oxygen consumed, no change in the head space pressure oc curs. However, by placing a strong al kali(KOH)in the head space of the re




One of the results ofthese studies was the establishment of new limits on the amount of each industrial waste that can


O.Snmax" 0.010

be safely introduced to each plant with out causing an unacceptable inhibitory impact on their biomass. *GAP EnviroMicrobial Services

(Based on a presentation to Regional Directors Meeting, MOE, S.W. Regional Laboratory, London, Ont.) 40


Ks - 15.818 1


Sc tt 90.000 1









Subsfrate tn mg/L SCOO

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

By G. Palmateer, M.Sc.* supplied is computed as a function of time and stored for future analysis. Respirometric analysis alone can pro vide the plant operator with total bio chemical oxygen uptake (TBOU) (Figure 1)and the biochemical oxygen uptake rate(BOUR)information on the treatment plant biomass. Using indi vidual industrial waste samples as feed with the treatment plant biomass pro vides a qualitative assessment of the treatability, or inhibitory nature of the

which is dependent on the basic plant design and the types of wastes received. The efficiency of substrate removal is determined by the size,flow, aeration rate, return activated sludge cycle rate, etc., of the plant. These are some of the variables that contribute to and affect the

biomass growth rate. However, these variables, to a great extent, are set in 1/ 2/


Applying the information from the respirometric analysis to a mathemati cal modeling procedure produces the biokinetic constants that provide quan titative data on the treatability or the in hibitory impact of a specific waste to the biomass. If a waste is inhibitory at a specific concentration, but biodegrad

wastes this is complicated by the poten tial inhibitory impact that these wastes may have on the biomass. The continuous growth rate of the biomass on a specific substrate in any treatment plant, domestic or industrial, can be assessed using biokinetic growth equations.

The Monod equation for non-lnhlbltory wastes: p = pmax . S /(Ks + S) is graphicaiiy iilustrated in Figure 2. The Haldane equation for use with inhibitory wastes as defined by: p = pmax . S /(Ks + S + S2/Ki) is graphicaiiy iilustrated in Figure 3.

These two equations are used as required to produce the biokinetic constants: 1/ The Specific Growth Rate (p-/ h). 2/ The Maximum Specific Growth Rate (pmax - / h). 3/ The Saturation Constant,(Ks), is the substrate concentration that produces one-haif the maximum growth rate as solubie chemicai oxygen demand (SCOD mg/L) 4/ The inhibition Constant (Ki) Is the concentration of inhibitory substrate as SCOD mg/L. 5/ The criticai specific growth rate (pc / h) 6/ The criticai substrate concentration (Sc - SCOD)

able at a lower level, the safe introduc

tory rate can be established. Sustainable Biomass Growth

7/ 8/ 9/

Continuous sustainable biomass

growth is essential to the proper opera tion of any treatment plant. Biomass growth is dependent on several factors, some of which are addressed by the de sign and operation of the facility. How ever, the most important factor, the wastes received, is dependent on the material discharged by the contributors to the sanitary sewage collection system. The microorganisms comprising the biomass in any plant require food and oxygen. Food, in the form of soluble organic carbon (substrate) is available from the domestic sewage and oxygen is provided by the aeration system of the plant. All plants operate with different levels of efficiency of substrate removal.

receives both domestic and industrial

The substrate concentration

The critical specific growth rate inhibitory (pel) The critical substrate concentration inhibitory (Sci)

hibitory impact on the biomass. Sustained reproduction of the bio mass microorganisms in a plant receiv ing only domestic waste is relatively simple compared to a plant that receives

To provide the information required in these modeling functions,respiromet ric tests to measure the oxygen con sumption over a test period similar to that of the treatment plant are performed. At the start and end of each respiromet ric test the total chemical oxygen de mand (TCOD), the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and the total suspended solids (TSS) are measured.

both domestic and industrial wastes. A

These data are used in either the Monod

major problem sometimes experienced by a plant receiving only domestic waste, is having enough food to main tain sustained growth. In a plant that

or Haldane equations to produce the re

concrete when the plant is built. For continued sustainable biomass growth, the variable of concern is the major vari able to any plant receiving industrial waste, that is, wastes that have an in

sults to determine the nature of, and the

corresponding limits for, the waste in volved. These biokinetic constants are used

Figure 3. Haidane curve 1






to determine the allowable limits of 1




iimax "0.048


wastes being discharged to a treatment plant. In the case of non-inhibitory wastes, the values pc and Sc indicate the level of substrate, as SCOD,that can be


effectively treated. Any waste above this level will pass through the plant untreated and will usnally show up as an unacceptably high level of BOD. For inhibitory wastes, these constants, with the additional constant Ki, will not only

^ a 0,0306



0.5'iimax <" 0.024

indicate the level of substrate that can

/ 0.011

be treated, but more importantly, they will show the level at which the plant will be over stressed and go into a shock



= 25.805 1

Sd a 94.603


i 190





&ib9^rato in mg/L SCOD


Ki a 347.261

load condition, at which time a biomass


washout could occur.


For more information,

circie repiy card No. 137 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


Wastewater Treatment

D. Nolasco\ D. Irvine^, M. Manoharan^, E. Giroux^

Evaluation & optimization of design/ operation of sequencing batch reactors

TheSequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) is an activated sludge treatment system that is oper

ated on a fill and draw basis

Lakes Region. In this program, completed in Febru cation and perform ance of75 municipal SBR plants in On

ary clarifier is eliminated. In general, the operation of an SBR,shown in Fig

tario and in the US



Great Lakes Region were compiled and


information was ob

selected facilities.



concerns and



for optimization


The information


October 1997, Environment Canada's

evaluation was used

Great Lakes 2000 Cleanup Fund (GL2000CUF),the Water Environment

to identify opportu

Association of Ontario (WEAO), and

optimize the design and operation of SBRs.

'Hydromantis, Inc., Hamilton, ON ^SBR Technologies, South Bend, IN ^Ontario Ministry of the Environment



Design and operating

compiled during this

SBRs in Canada and in the US Great


Decant (effluent)

tained from plant op erators, equipment suppliers and through visits to 12

were performing. For this reason, in

the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE)sponsored a program to evalu ate and document the performance of



documented. The

more efficient and more controllable

than any other biological system, par ticularly for "small flow systems". However, there was little well-docu mented evidence on how existing SBRs


ary 1998, the appli

(i.e., batch mode). Since SBRs use a single tank for waste stabilization and solids separation, the need for a second

ure 1, consists of five distinct periods (fill, react, settle, decant, and idle), which comprise one complete reactor cycle. There are several SBR-type sys tems that are able to perform these cy cles while continuously or semi-continuously feeding influent to the reactor. Supporters of SBR treatment tech nology promote it as less expensive,



nities and methods to




Figure 1: Example of an SBR cycle Several observations can be made

The concerns recorded were ranked,

based on their frequency of occurrence and their impact on operating costs, plant capacity and effluent limit com pliance. A total of 20 concerns were compiled. A summary of concerns and recommendations is shown in Table 1.

Figure 2 Unit construction cost as a function of plant capacity Comparison between SBR evaluation and EPA figures

from the list of concerns compiled: • Lack of proper operator training has the largest impact on operating costs and effluent quality. • Many of the concems found during this evaluation are not SBR-specific and could apply to any type of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. • Effluent data from the plants evaluated show that, in spite of these concems the plants met, and in many cases exceeded, their effluent criteria.


Effluent quality Examples of plants meeting stringent

SBR Evaluation

□ EPA Industrial SBR plants


effluent criteria in Canada and the US

A EPA Municipal SBRs 92

Great Lakes States are shown in Table

EPA Municipal SBRs 83

^ $3,000

2. Many of the facilities shown in Ta ble 2 are operating at flows below their

EPA cent, flow ASP

EPA continuous flow ASP^

design capacity. However, to compen

EPA municipal SBRs 9^

^ $2,000

sate for the low flows and reduce en

ergy expenditures and equipment main



SBR evaiuat on

tenance costs, some of these facilities

EPA industrial

are being operated with part of the SBRs

SBR eq'n

out of service.

Costs 10000







Evaluations performed in the 1980s indicated that SBRs are a cost-effective

Continued overleaf Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Si li. cf-

*.- •

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-4 .. •

Through team management, we are able to reduce the time required to conduct solids removal operations. Every detail is streamlined from the regulatory paperwork to the inspection, design and execution of your operation. Our experience with a variety of industry partners, clients and waste management situations, allows us to offer comprehensive bio-solids management options. By forming a strategic partnership, together we can identify innovative, cost-effective solutions to meet the

specific requirements o^your situation.

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r more information, circie repiy card No. 138(See page 25)


Wastewater Treatment, corn' wastewater treatment technology. Other

Table 2

literature sources indicate that SBR sys tems are likely to be extremely cost-ef

Examples of plants meeting stringent effluent criteria In Great Lakes Region

fective over a wide range offlows. Un fortunately, limited historical data have been compiled comparing the cost of SBRs with other types of activated sludge treatment systems. Clearly, the lack of need for an external secondary clarifier and retum sludge pumping sys tem offers potential savings in construc tion costs. In addition, primary clarifi cation is not normally employed (none










[mg/L] [mg/L] [mg/L] [mg/L] [mg/L]



New Freedom, 4100/














Garden Spot,

































Soaring Eagle, 760/















17 of the facilities evaluated was com

Catawba is.,








pared to cost estimates provided in the









of the 75 plants evaluated had primary clarifiers).

Construction cost data submitted by

Flltr. Cbem. Add'n

literature. The results of this cost com









parison are shown in Figure 2. Typical costs for continuous flow municipal activated sludge plants (ASPs) were used in this comparison.







































Two levels oftreatment were considered:

Table 1 - List of concerns and related recommendations

• advanced wastewater treatment with Concern


nutrient removal

Operators do not have formal training on SBR operation/process control

Develop SBR operator training programs to complement traditional training with SBR-specific concepts.

(BOD/SS/TP/TN= 10/10/3/5), and • advanced secondary treatment with

Mechanical equipment (e.g., air valves, solenoid valves, decanter arms) located outdoors may freeze or malfunction in

Specify proper heating, insulation, and operation and maintenance procedures to protect exposed equipment from the elements (e.g., using heat tracing, cold weather grease).

(BOD/SS/TP/TN = 25/25/3/5).

Select decanters that meet the treatment

quirements, respectively. Most SBR plants evaluated met the most stringent

the winter.

Decanters are not always adequate for specific treatment requirements (e.g., decanters unable to reduce the discharge of floating material or grease which clog

objectives taking into account the effluent quality required, type of downstream processes, and the available budget.

sand filters and cover UV-disinfection

A large percentage of SBRs use aerobic digesters for sludge treatment, if biological phosphorus removal is performed, a considerable portion of the P removed in the WAS may return to the SBRs if the digesters are not properly operated. 44

of these two limits.

Construction costs recorded during between EPA cost values for industrial

implement the use of online or portable DO monitors to control blower operation.

inadequate design of pre-treatment Design pre-treatment systems taking into systems (e.g, bar screens, comminutors) account operating conditions (e.g., if the may cause accumulation of floating and plant is going to be part-time staffed, select coarse material in the SBRs,flow self-cleaning pre-treatment units). metering inaccuracies, and other potential problems.

SBRs are supplied without a specific sludge age control strategy.

The upper and lower limits of this range ('EPA continuous flow ASPs') represent the unit costs for the most and less stringent of these two effluent re

this evaluation ('SBR evaluation') fit

lamps). Lack of proper aeration control reduces potential energy savings.

nutrient removal

Provide adequate sludge age control strategies (e.g., if sludge age control is based on mixed liquor concentrations, the supplier or consultant should provide the target concentration). Automatic SRI control could be implemented with the use of online suspended solids monitors. Assess the impact of aerobic digester operation on P removal and investigate optimum operating strategies for the SBR aerobic digestion treatment system.

SBRs (with flows corrected to equiva lent oxygen demand; 'EPA industrial') and those from actual SBR facilities re

ported by EPA ('EPA municipal SBRs 92'). Also, SBR evaluation costs re

corded matched very closely those pro posed for municipal SBR facilities in 1983('EPA Municipal SBRs 83'). The values reported from all sources were actualized to 1998 values using published construction cost indexes. From the cost analysis, the construc tion cost differences between SBRs and

continuous flow ASPs are significant. However, this comparison should only be used as an indication of the relative construction costs of SBRs and continu

ous flow ASPs. Local conditions, wastewater influent characteristics, ef fluent requirements, operation and maintenance and equipment costs are Continued on page 49

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

$3.9 billion market forecast for sedimentation and

centrifugation equipment


Next year $3.9(US)billion will be spent for the purchase of new equipment to separate solids from liquids using sedi mentation and centrifugation technolo gies. These revenues are dispersed among 5,000 product,industry, and geo graphical segments. The markets are distinctly different for clarifiers, cyclones, dissolved air flo tation, disk centrifuges, decanter centri fuges, and basket centrifuges. The mar kets are growing most rapidly in the developing countries. The Mcllvaine Company in "Sedi mentation & Centrifugation World Mar kets 1996-2000", predicts that the big three, US,Japan,and Germany will only account for 25 percent of the total or ders in 1999. While these three coun

tries will purchase 45% of chemical in dustry sedimentation and centiifugation equipment, the share will only be 32% for municipal wastewater, 28% for power, and 13% for mining. Contact: Mcllvaine Company, Tel:

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• Dissolved Oxygen •Total Suspended Solids •Interface Level Monitoring f pH Monitoring & Control •Residual Chlorine



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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

For more information, circie repiy card No. 140 (See page 25)


Invasive Species

Plants and mussels Invading our waterways

The number of areas that are

experiencing infestations of non-indigenous plants contin ues to rise. Invasive species, such as Eurasian water milfoil {Myriophyllum spicatum) and Purple loose strife {Lythrum salicaria), out-compete the native plant forms and often result in extremely dense monocultures of exotics. Research indicates that a high density of exotic plants reduces the bio diversity by eliminating or stressing many species at all trophic levels, thus changing the entire structure of the



The thick, dense strands reduce light levels, increase the pH and enhance nu trient recycling which can result in an oxia. High densities of plants interfere with navigation, construction of flood control projects, and recreational activi ties. Controlling these non-indigenous species can involve nutrient manage ment, biological control, mechanical re moval, or chemical applications which *Aquatic Sciences Inc., St. Catharines

Purple loosestrife Invading the banks of a small stream near Waterford, Ontario. act either selectively or non-selectively. aquatic system, assisting in control of Nutrient management is a strategy water quality conditions so that oppor employed which will control or improve tunistic species do not colonize the aquatic environment. A nutrient man water quality conditions so that non-in

digenous species cannot exploit the en vironment. Nutrient inputs of phospho rus and nitrogen are monitored to con trol the concentrations entering the

agement program is presently not use ful in many applications as current nu

trient inputs have been minimized far below acceptable levels and non-indig-

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited is Expanding to Serve Our Clients Paul da Silva, president of CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited, welcomes the following industry leaders to the Water and Environmental teams in our Vancouver, Calgary, and Ottawa offices. Kim Stephens, P.Eng. Kim brings his 25 years of consuiting experience in poiicy deveiopment and master pianning for iocai governments to CG&S ciients across Canada. He is currently a member of a B.C. working group that has deveioped a provinciai strategy document entitied "A Water Conservation Strategy for B.C." An industry ieader, Kim has presented numerous conference papers on water suppiy and wet-

Lawrence Benjamin, P.Eng.

Bill Hayes, P.Eng.

A recognized authority in the

A truly muitifaceted individual. Bill brings to CG&S over 25 years of experience in

fieid of water treatment,

Lawrence brings over 30 years of extensive experi ence in technoiogicai innovation to CG&S ciients. Lawrence's work

in deveioping and appiying a limestone contactor process to treat coloured water in northern B.C. led to the Schreyer Award. He is currently Chairman of the B.C. Water & Wastewater Association Drinking Water Quality Committee.

weather issues.

Dave Van Vllet, P.Eng. With over 20 years in the

Scott Hall, P.Eng. Scott brings our ciients 10 years of experience in industrial and municipal

construction industry, Dave's extensive water and

wastewater project experi ence includes process mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation construction contracts. Specializing in multimillion dollar design-build projects, Dave adds his expertise to this growing sector of CG&S

wastewater treatment

operations, specializing in process troubleshooting and optimization. He has extensive knowledge in the practical application of mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation and control systems to life cycle costing improvements in process operations.

CG&S CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited


environmental and

solid waste management services, public works, transportation, land development, and municipal services. He has directed national and international projects and specializes in the assessment and remediation of industrial sites, including chlor-alkaii and sodium chlorate plants.


Please contact Kim, Lawrence, and Bill in Vancouver; Scott in Ottawa; and Dave in Calgary.

Vancouver (604) 684-3282 Ottawa (613) 723-8700 Calgary (403) 237-9300

For more information, circle reply card No. 141 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

By Barb Crosbie and Darlene Suddard* enous plants have successfully colo nized an area.

Biological removal has been per formed using grass carp in aquatic sys tems or insect control. Grass carp up root vegetation during their feeding and spawning activities, while insects con sume part or all of the plant. The effect of these two treatments is quite differ ent; grass carp are non-selective and will destroy all of the vegetation in the ex posed area, whereas insects select the target plant and will move from one host to another. The use of grass carp is ideal in a situation where long term control of vegetation is desired and the system is contained so that these fish cannot

impact another area. Insect control has been employed for controlling Purple loosestrife and has been quite effective at controlling its biomass. The use of insect control took many years to de velop because the effects on the entire ecosystem were unknown and a method to control the insect's population was needed.

Mechanical removal of non-indig enous plants can be useful for areas of varying size, depending on the plant com

munity structure and the desired out come. Large areas of plant material can be removed quickly and efficiently, solv ing the problem in a few days to a few weeks. Removal creates an area which

can be colonized by native vegetation. Rotovation is a non-selective method

which is useful for large areas infested with exotic plants. Accessibility is an issue for this type of removal since the machinery is quite large. Bottom tillers remove the vegetation at the root with little impact on the water quality, creat ing an environment that is excellent for second stage revegetation by native plants. Diver dredging is a selective method that removes early stage vegetation effectively with a vacuum-like apparatus. These re moval methods are expensive due to the specially designed equipment and human resources required. The creation of selective herbicides

and the outcome of preliminary studies suggests that they are useful in control ling non-indigenous aquatic plants. Until recently, the application of herbi cides in aquatic environments had not been widely accepted due to the nonselective nature of many of these com

pounds. There was much concern over the transport of residual herbicides downstream and their secondary im pacts. In the US, Fluridone has shown promise in controlling the biomass of Eurasian milfoil without having delete rious effects on non-target aquatic plants. The results oflaboratory, mesocosm and field trials indicate that application rates of 5 ppb can control Eurasian milfoil, especially if applied when the plant is in its early growth stage. The control of non-indigenous spe cies in aquatic environments requires good management decisions which are based on the conditions of the environ ment and the desired outcome. The

method of treatment must comply with the environmental legislation governing the area of interest. Many of the chemi cal and non-chemical methods that were

presented have been tested at a full scale, operational level and are available for widespread use. Research into biologi cal control of exotic species could be in the forefront in the coming years; how ever, the ecological impacts of intro duced organisms remain a major issue.

Circle reply card No. 142

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Flood Control

Cover story by Alan Symes*

Thames Barrier Investment pays off Barrier that consists of 10 separate mov able gates, each pivoting and supported between concrete piers and abutments that house the operating machinery. The aerial picture shows the gates in action, controlling the flow of water from the sea. When a dangerously high tidal surge threatens, the gates swing up through about 90 degrees from their riverbed position,forming a continuous steel wall facing downriver. The width of the Barrier from bank

to bank is some 520 metres (1,700 ft.)

with four main openings each having a clear span of 61 m(200 ft.). Each of the four main gates is 20 m (66 ft.) high, weighs about 3,700 tonnes and is capa ble of withstanding an overall load of more than 9,000 tonnes. When not in use the gates rest out of sight in curved recesses in concrete sills in the riverbed,

This Skyscan photo shows the enormous scale of the barriers protecting the his

Recently,the great Thames

toric city of London.

flood gates were closed for the 200th time, a smooth pro cedure that underlies its ef

fective design and operation that has performed well since it started operation in 1982.

London has been saved from possi ble serious flooding on several occasions by the activation of the Thames Barrier *Staff Correspondent, London Press Service, UK

allowing free passage of river traffic through the openings between the piers. Quite apart from its crucial flood pro tection role, the Thames Barrier has be

that has prevented surge tides from sweeping up-river where they could have caused considerable damage. The cost of a major flood would be

enormous, possibly more than $20,000 million, not counting the human suffer ing and possible loss of life. The Barrier's series of massive mov

able gates are activated at regular test intervals but have been raised only 30 times to control threatening tidal flows. More than 50 staff members operate the

come an established tourist attraction.

Many people from other countries were among the 67,000 who visited the pro ject during the past year. They were able to view the civil en gineering landmark while dining at the adjoining Visitors Centre. Here, ani mated models and audio visual pro grams explain how the Barrier works and fits into the overall pattern of Lon don's evolution from Roman times to the

present day. ❖

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world wide web. Check us out at Evaluation & optimization of design/operation ofsequencing batch reactors, continuedfrom page 44 some of the parameters that should be looked at closely when performing cost comparisons for a particular application or facility. Using these parameters, life cycle costs should be analyzed before selecting the type of treatment technol ogy to be used. Conclusions

The number ofSBR plants in Canada is growing at a fast pace. Unlike con tinuous flow activated sludge systems, there was little well documented evi

dence on SBR performance and costs for

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

number ofSBR plants in North America is continuously increasing. From the list of concerns compiled, lack of proper operator training has the largest impact on operating costs and effluent quality. The development of SBR operator training programs to com plement traditional activated sludge op erator training with SBR-specific theo retical and practical concepts should be addressed.

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DNA ratio.

Sludge Production Under


Aerobic and Anoxic Conditions



Resin Acid Degrading Bacteria University of British Columbia scien tists investigated the relationship be tween the growth rate and ratio of RNA to DNA in four resin acid degrading bacteria isolated from a sequencing batch reactor. Chemical assays, as well as slot blot hybridizations with speciesspecific oligonucleotide probes, were used by A.F. MuiTay and W.W. Mohn to quantify the nucleic acids. These slowgrowing bacteria have a positive linear correlation between growth rate and RNA/DNA ratio similar to faster-grow ing bacteria like E. coll. Preliminary experiments reported in Water Science and Technology suggest that hybridiza tion probes can be used to detect growth rate-dependent changes in the RNA/


J.B. Copp and PL. Dold presented the results of their research at the WQI '98 conference which demonstrated a sig nificant difference in biomass yield un der anoxic and aerobic conditions using a variety of soluble substrates. The an-

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

R&D News, cont'd. oxic yield obtained by these McMaster University scientists was only 62% of the corresponding aerobic yield. Batch tests were performed using a seed of ei ther activated sludge from one of two local municipal wastewater treatment facilities or a prepared sample of Pseudomonas denitrificans. Regardless of the test organism, the calculated yields were consistent for each electron accep tor. A novel approach to quantifying the consumption of electron acceptor was employed in these batch tests.



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under oxidative conditions, and for bio

degradability under anaerobic condi tions.

Biodegradation of PAHs J.D. MacRae and K.J. Hall investigated the feasibility of using nitrate as an al ternative electron acceptor for PAH-degrading microorganisms in anoxic ma rine sediment. As described by these University of British Columbia scien tists, to delegates attending the 19th bi


ennial conference of the International

Association on Water Quality, PAHs could be degraded under denitrifying conditions as long as other nutrients were not limiting. The half-lives oflow molecular weight PAHs ranged from 33 to 88 days. The degradation rate of high molecular weightPAHs was slower with half-lives ranging from 143 to 693 days. Nitrate may be applied to sediments in

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situ or used in bioreactors to reduce

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Metal Leaching from Sludge M.Roy(Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada) and D. Couillard (INRS-Eau) applied dried urban sewage sludge to a sugar maple and yellow birch forest in Quebec at doses ranging from 200 to 800 kg of available nitrogen per hectare.


Metal concentrations were measured in


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the soil solution at a 30 cm depth durEnvironmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


R&D News, cont'




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Pb were below the limits of detection.

As concluded in Water Research, the



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Journal of Environmental Quality, the soil was aggregated, amended with ni trogen and phosphorus fertilizers and packed 15 cm deep in the bioreactor. Both heating and, to a lesser extent, forced aeration significantly increased the hydrocarbon biodegradation rate. The half-lives of the hydrocarbons re maining in the bioreactor, measured by

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McGill University scientists R. Gehr and H. Wright conducted collimated beam and pilot tests using low or medium pressure UV lamps to assess the disin fection performance of a municipal wastewater which had been pretreated by ferric chloride coagulation followed by sedimentation. The feed to the UV systems contained high levels of Fe. As described to delegates attending WQI '98, the collimated beam tests indicated that the target level of 2,500 coliform units per 100 ml often could not be reached. The pilot tests revealed sig nificant fouling after only a few hours. PCBs in the St. Lawrence River

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

R&D News, cont'


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


R&D News, cont' ]

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Web Site: http://www.lehder.com

ver. The degree of phosphorus removal in the process depended mainly on the presence of acetate in the aerobic zone. The average ORP control level also af fected phosphorus removal at relatively low external acetate dosages.

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Process Assessments Hazardous Materials

B.K. Bumison has evaluated methods

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Management Systems

USEPA for the determination of chemi

cal bioconcentration. As concluded by this National Water Research Institute

scientist in the Water Quality Research

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tion factor(BAF)and bioconcentration factor (BCF) in fish. The slow-stir

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method is considered the most accurate for direct deteiTnination of the /i-octanoi-

water partition coefficient (K^^), but computer estimations of •environmental site assessments


•risk assessment/management

Engineering Inc.

•site remediation

Kingston Ottawa

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vailable. Recent bilinear equations have

been derived to predict BCF values from


•waste management

Determination of Past

Aquatic Habitat Fnvironmentai quality measurements for the St. Lawrence River are relatively scarce for periods prior to the i970s, yet


Marshall Macklin

long-term data are often required for effective ecosystem management. In a study published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, Queens University sci


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources

entists F.D. Reavie and J.P. Smoi de

velop a paieoiimnoiogicai transfer func tion to provide information on past aquatic habitat. Using diatom algae coi-

Toronto, Calgary, Misslssauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, ON L3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

E-mail: mmm@mmm.ca

can be

used when a direct measurement is una


iected from three dominant habitats in

the river (rocks, macrophytes, filamen tous algae), habitat preferences of the

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A Chemex Labs Alberta / Novamann International Partnership

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tom assemblages using logistic statisti

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Alky! Phenols In Sewage Wastes Samples of raw sewage, final effluent and sludge were coiiected from 16



wastewater treatment plants across Canada. D.T. Bennie and colieagues from the National Water Research In

stitute analysed these for 4-nonyiphenoi, nonyiphenoi ethoxyiate, nonyiphenoi diethoxyiate, and 4-fe/-/-octyiphenoi. As reported in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, measurable quanti


AnaLftical koA- liem- iucceAAjjul in Inincfmc^ :ieen in Qanada.

ties of these chemicals were found in

Tim Munshaw, Af.Sc., General Manager 1-800-263-9040 ext. 244 or tlm_munstiaw@phlliprserv.com Internet: www.phillpanalytlcal.com


diatom were identified. Inference mod

els were then developed to reconstruct past habitat conditions from fossil dia



almost ail the raw sewage and sludge

samples. Of the final effluents, 60%

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

R&D News, cont'd.


contained detectable amounts of 4-lert-

octylphenol at concentrations up to 0.37 |J,g/L. Almost all the final effluents had detectable levels of the remaining alkyl



phenols at concentrations ranging up to 26 pg/L. Monitoring Biofilter Biomass Y. Le Bihan and P. Lessard used enzy matic assays to monitor the biomass of a biofilter working under different operational conditions. In backwash waters used as biomass source, these

Laval University scientists found that many enzymes, as well as dehydrogenase expressed in volumetric units,seem to correlate with volatile suspended sol ids(VSS) and with volumetric feeding

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mass. As described in Water Science

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negatively with this volumetric feeding mass. The influent temperature simul taneously affects the specific concentra

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haviour and the total sugars/VSS ratio.

Anaerobic Degradation of Acetic Acid

University of Ottawa scientists Z. Ning, L.Femandes and K.J. Kennedy investi gated the anaerobic degradation kinet ics of acetic acid in the presence of 2,4dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) using 2,4DCP acclimated anaerobic granules. As


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Water Quality in Vancouver, the effect of acetic acid on 2,4-DCP dechlorination was minimal. On the basis of model

discrimination, the degradation kinetics of acetic acid were found to follow non-

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competitive inhibition with 2,4-DCP as an inhibitor.


Micro-scale Assays for Sediment Toxicity C. Cote and colleagues applied a bat tery of 18 micro-scale assays and two benthic assays to assess test and endpoint performance in detecting the toxic

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potential of 15 freshwater sediment sam ples collected in the St. Lawrence River - Great Lakes systems. The two benthic

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assays and seven micro-scale assays successfully passed a double-tiered as sessment protocol devised by these sci entists from BEAK International Inc.,



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tion Technologique. As reported in the Water Quality Research Journal of

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Canada, micro-scale tests whose results

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most closely matched those of the benthic tests for appraisal of whole sedi-




Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998



R&D News, cont'd.


hydrocarbons by biosorption to acti vated sludge floes. The addition of chro

.I i

mium (CrIII) metal ions to the biomass caused observable changes in the floe

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Manitoba Saskatchewan

a Hydrogeology

structure. At low concentrations, chro

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mium caused an increase in the sorption

suggesting that changes in the floe struc

a Urban Drainage

ture can be induced which have an im


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• Drinking Water Quality and Treatment


• Hydrogeology Investigation / Modelling

pact on the sorption of pollutants to the floes.

In Situ Determination of Haioacetic Acids National Water Research Institute sci entists determined haioacetic acid con centrations in Canadian environmental

samples using an in situ derivitization method. An existing method to quanti-

• Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing

tate monochloroacetic acid was ex

• Remediation and Decommissioning

tended by B.F. Scott and M. Alaee to analyze simultaneously for the 2,4-

• Environmental Management Systems

difluoroanilide of fluoro-, chloro-, and

ment toxicity, sediment contamination level and benthic community structure index included three bacterial assays, one algal assay, and three microinvertebrate assays.

Sorption of Organics In a joint Ryerson Polytechnic Univer sity - National Water Research Institute

study, S.N. Liss and colleagues studied the relationships between structure of minimally perturbed activated sludge floes and the sorption of organic con taminants. The results, published in Wa ter Science and Technology, show sig nificant removal of selected halogenated

bromoacetic acids.

hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic

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For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Association on

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. CYANIDi REMOVAI

Cyanide Removal

Odour Control CONTR

Using sodium hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickiy remove cyanide ^wastes

detailed in a technical bulletin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air

is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

ages, equipment, as well as stor age, safety and fiandling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive

collection needs.


Canada Inc.

Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 170

Circle reply card No. 171

Procal Analytics Model

Water chlorlnatlon becomes PPG

5000 CEM Procal 5000 Continuous emission

Chlorittafihi; Systemb

monitoring analyzer is designed for in stack anaiysis of gas phase stack emission components with buiit in ports concentrations of stack gas pollutants through the Procal Analytics Analyzer Control Unit (ACU) or PC running Windowsbased software. Features include: RLi>olutiomiy

muiti component, direct /n-s/fu meas urement, autozero,stack caiibration,


integral data logger. Elsag Bailey Circle reply card No. 172

Flexible expansion joints Pipelines crossing unstable terrain such as faults, swamps or landfills, all suffer some degree of vulnerabil ity to damage from ground motion. FLEX-TEND flexible expansion joints provide pipeline protection from the stresses produced by these forces with their ability to deflect up to 30 degrees in any direction, while simul taneously expanding or contracting. They are available In sizes from 3

Dense North America

Circle reply card No. 174

New specification for pipe use in storm sewer applications

BiKjW to ywi tiy IB CPPA. jron-finftlJnOus'ij'ltJde ujOMiiDt Otihciied to

proftd.rg unbiMO, rsTDrandM Wwirut'OT Awl tnt uk a-4

insiai'JiliOT d corivqalM Wtrflfiytfn pfpe

Your mlgrmUfon Aeiowu

preferred method of sanitizing and disinfecting. With such widespread use, it is important that the method of chiorination be easy and safe. PPG industries, inc. has managed to do both with its calcium hypochlo rite chlorinating system. The inno vative system, consisting of a pat ented chlorinator and tablets, is an alternative to chlorine gas cylinders and sodium hypochlorite. PPG Industries, Inc. Circle reply card No. 173

Road maintenance products ŠRrtsa,

phalt to steel structures. Products

CPPA SfandanJ

Today, 98 percent of US drinking

Denso's road maintenance products consist of cold applied bitumen/rub ber based tapes and hot applied bi tumen/rubber compounds for joint sealing. Easy and efficient applica tion procedures provide iong-iasting, flexible and highly durable water proof joint sealing of asphalt to as phalt joints, asphalt to concrete or as are more cost-effective than hot liq uid pouring or rubberized asphalt sealants currently used.

SpecHicalion (100-97)(or Cemigatad Polyvtbylmt(PE) Pipe For Storm Sewer Appllcatlont

easier and safer water is treated with chlorine as the

auto caiibration faciiities. Procal re


Treating odours witfi Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) has issued the new specification: CPPA Standard Specification for Corrugated Poly ethylene Pipe for Storm Sewer Ap plications. This specification covers requirements and test methods for corrugated polyethylene pipe and fit tings in nominal diameters of 75mm to 1500mm (3" to 60") with either a smooth or corrugated interior. This specification provides for soil tight, silt tight, and watertight joints. CPPA Circle reply card No. 176

inches to 36 inches and can be used


on either ductile iron, steel or PVC pipelines. Terminal City Ironworks Circle reply card No. 175

CPPA releases new

specification for pipe use in storm and

sanitary sewer applications The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) has issued two new specifications: CPPA Standard Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe for Storm Drainage Appli cations and CPPA Standard

Specification for Corrugated Polyethyiene Pipe for Sanitary Sewer Applications. Copies are available from the CPPA. CPPA

Circle reply card No. 177

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cali ES&E at(905)727-4666. Quality pumping systems GSR PUMPS


Gorman-Rupp has been manufactur ing pumps since 1933. The selfpriming centrifugal T Series pumps were introduced nearly 35 years ago. Now, the same quality can be found in a complete line of submersible pumps. The J Series submersible pumps come in 3" to 12" discharge sizes, capacities to 9500 gpm, heads to 265 feet, and from 6.2 to 174 hp. These pumps are designed specifi cally for sewage handling. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 178

Corrosion Resistant Tanks ^fABRKATH)

.rj N


both the most severe chemical serv

and TEFZEL. Fabricated Plastics Limited

Circie reply card No. 179

Pollutec: an established success

industrysuMl LofsaJ AutherHtoS

exchange; reverse osmosis and deaerators - any of which can be combined in exactly the right way to provide the most suitable water treat ment process. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 180

75% of the visitors are decision mak

Compact ozone generation

1999 Products for Analysis

ers who are involved in the purchas ing process for equipment,technolo gies or sen/ices for the environment. For information on exhibiting at Pollutec'98, in Lyon, France,contact www.pollutec.com. Pollutec Circle reply card No. 181

Hach introduces exciting new plat forms for portable testing, show cased in their new 464-page cata logue, Products for Analysis 1999. AccuVer™ Test Kits, available in 10 key parameters, utilize an unbreak able colour comparator for troublefree and affordable on-site testing. The popular 1720D Low-Range

OZAT literature describes Ozonia's


Compact Ozone Generation


pre-packaged ozone plants designed for smaller municipal waterworks. Ozonia North America manufactures

ozone generators capable of produc ing from one pound to thousands of pounds of ozone per day using high endurance non-glass dielectrics. Ozonia also offers a complete line of complementary equipment including monitors, vent ozone decomposers, and medium pressure UV units.

Process Turbidimeter now offers an

exclusive calibration device to verify instrument performance in less than one minute. Hach's turbidity method #8195 has been officially accepted by the USEPA. Hach Company Circie reply card No. 183

Ozonia North America

Circie reply card No. 182

Miniature waterproof temperature iogger

Alternative combustion

technology Eco Waste Solutions'Thermal Waste

Oxidizer Units are designed to proc ess the complete disposal of all types of municipal solid waste, biomedical, industrial, pathological, and labora tory waste and by-products. The Oxidizer System uses a combustion/ oxidation process to change solid waste material into a gaseous mate rial and residual ash by-product. Metals and glass are not melted down. This ensures clean stack

emission levels and allows for recy cling. Eco Waste Solutions Circle reply card No. 184


At Pollutec 1996, there were 1,712

exhibiting companies from 24 coun tries, and over 51,500 visitors. 60% of visitors state that they have pur chased equipment, technologies and services following previous visits.



FRP armoured tanks and vessels

ices and for high purity applications where it is necessary to keep the process fluid totally free of contami nants. Lining choices include PVC, CPVC,P.P., PVDF,ECTFE,FEP PFA

ess softeners; oil coalescers, ion


Armourplastics'', thermoplastic lined

resist corrosion over a broad range of temperatures. They are suited to

Proven water and process fluid treatment systems Ecodyne offers a broad range of en gineered systems to make water suit able for use, recycle or discharge. Available are proprietary designs in clarifiers and filters; lamellas; ot proc

and Vessels


Onset Computer Corporation's StowAway"'" TidbiT"'""^ is the world's smallest, stand alone waterproof temperature logger. It records tem perature and time data in remote lo cations using state-of-the-art optical communications, which ensures fast, accurate data transfer. Launch,

readout and plot data using BoxCar® software on a PC or Mac. The Tid-

blT™ logger is completely waterproof (up to 1,000 ft), its small size facili tates unique placement opportuni ties. Hoskin Scientific

Circie reply card No. 185

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Piping products

Flexible, crack resistant

Discharge compiianoe


without chemicals!

Victaulic pip ing products


meet or ex

ceed the work

ing pressure capabilities of comparable size flanged systems, for


ductile iron

(AWWA), as well as steel, stainless, aluminum, and other IPS

pipe. High efficiency ductile iron fittings combine with standard ductile iron on

Style 31 couplings,for ratings up to 500 PSI(depending on size) on AWWA duc tile iron pipe. Directly join ductile iron pipe, valves and fittings to IPS steel pipe, valves and fittings using the Style 307 Transition couphng. Couplings with VicRing® applied collars on varied pipe, permit joining of unusual sizes and specialty pipe up to 70" and larger.

Cem-Kote ELEX is a flexible cementi-

tious and highly chemical resistant coat ing. It is capable of spanning moving cracks with a waterproofing capacity (even at continuous immersion and pres sure), and is superior to any other prod

AQUA-FLO has 50 years combined ex perience in "Alternative to Chemical" water and wastewater treatment projects around the world. These systems are an excellent choice for steel mills, metal fin ishers, computer chip manufacturers,

For more information, circie reply card No. 200

a waterproofing membrane (negative or positive). Gemite Products Inc. For more Information, circle reply card No. 201

metal working, plastics and printing in dustry... virtually any industry that dis charges wastewater. A few of the appli cations that these systems handle are: odour control, heavy metal separation, acid purification, non-thermal solvent/ pigment separation, BOD/COD separa tion, oil/water separation. You can also get the added benefit of recovering most process products for reuse. AQUA-FLO,Inc. For more Information, circle reply card No. 202

Self-cleaning UV technology

Flocculatlon and

New metering pump

Victaulic Co. of Canada

uct. Cem-Kote Flex is suitable for resto

ration and waterproofing of concrete op steel surfaces, even when exposed to highly chemical solutions. It can be ap plied to "wet surfaces". Used for wastewater (inch digesters) and potable water structures; sewer, industrial and landfill manholes;secondary containment, and as

clarification in a single tank


Two significant advancements distin guish System UV4000™ from its pred ecessors: the use of variable output, high intensity lamps, and the incorporation of fully automated, self-cleaning technol ogy. UV4000™ offers dramatic reduc tion in space requirements compared to conventional UV systems; low installa tion costs, with channel requirements re duced by up to 80%; extended range of UV applications to poorer quality efflu ents. Trojan Technologies For more Information, circle reply card No. 203

Fimco Reactor-Clarifier™ units are de

signed and built to provide the most eco nomical solution to precipitation and clarification requirements. The basic machine design provides for coagulation, flocculation, solids recirculation, clarifi

cation and positive sludge removal in a single basin - eliminating the need for multiple tanks and associated piping. Fimco Reactor-Clarifier units are avail

able in several design configurations al lowing variations of flocculation time, launder overflow rates, flocculation dis tribution or recirculation rates, and rake torques. Eimco Process Equipment For more Information,

circle reply card No. 204 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

The beta pump from ProMinent is a newly developed solenoid metering pump which features the latest electronic technology. The beta is available in two versions: beta/4a and beta/5a, with ca

pacities up to 20 1/h for the beta/4a and 32 1/h for the beta/5a, at pressures up to 253 psig. A triple LED display indicates pump status in a traffic light fashion. Two adjustment knobs easily set stroke length and stroke frequency. A multi-function switch allows to select one of three

modes: external, stop, or prime. Also, a relay option allows for fault indication and/or pump pacing. ProMinent Fluid Controls

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 205 59

Product and Service Showcase Keeping the plastics out The widespread use of plastics has resulted in con

Influent cleaning system fluent Cleaning System is a com

stantly increased loads of plastic

bination of three

materials in the

vices. The Aqua

inlet streams to

mechanical de Guard Self-clean

Circle reply card No. 220

ing Bar Screen automatically re moves floating and suspended solids from the moving liquid stream. In the SpiralKlean, screenings are washed by vigorous agitation using water, air, and mechanical mixing. The RotoPress dewaters the wet screenings, reducing their volume up to 75%, and depending on their composition, produces a 40-50% dry discharge log. Parkson Circle reply card No. 221

Jet Aeration

Thermoplastic ball valves

wastewater treat

ment plants and sewage lagoons. The elimination

of plastic items at

a lagoon entrance by the use of an ARLAT 'TS' filter screen not only satis fies aesthetic and public health concems, it also stops this material from wrapping itself around the coarse bubble air dif-

fusers and reducing their efficiency. Frontenac Environmental

The MTS large-scale eductor technology with two-phase jet nozzles supplies at mospheric oxygen to biological effluent treatment processes. Over 750 systems are installed worldwide for biological wastewater treatment, equalization and aerobic digestion, and industrial mixing applications. Benefits include greater oxygenation capacity, reduced energy costs, superior mixing,independent con trol of oxygen transfer and mixing and reduced YOG emissions.

Waterlink/Mass Transfer Systems Circle reply card No. 223

Spill containment system

NeoValves introduces its new line of PVC-VX Series Union End Ball Valve

1/2" to 4". They are equipped with re movable spanner device and a special thread design to prevent accidental loos ening during disassembly of union nut. The "ultra compact" design is able to meet all types of commercial and indus trial applications. NeoValves Circle reply card No. 224

Pipe rehabilitation design guide Engineers and project managers can now log onto Insituform Tech

nologies' World Wide Web site at www.insituform

A recent innovation in the spill-pan mar ket by Trans Environmental Systems is a self-contained pan that can be relocated and that has a rolling, retractable rain cover. This device is installed by lag bolting it down to the spur-track railroad ties. Its rolling lid is lower than the top of the rail, so it will not interfere with car movement.

Trans Environmental Systems

Circle reply card No. 226 60

Odour controi

The BioGuard In

.com for help in designing a sewer rehabilitation project. An interactive design guide allows on line users to quickly determine minimum InsituformÂŽ pipe design thicknesses for gravity applications. Users can also evaluate the effect of the process on the flow capacity of the existing sewer. Insituform Technologies,Inc. Circle reply card No. 227

ARLAT grit classifiers scmb the biologi cal coating from grit removed in plant headworks and eliminate odour from the

storage area. ARLAT has many success ful grit classifier installations. In most of these installations, the screw-driven

classifier is teamed up with a cyclone separator for increased efficiency. Frontenac Environmental

Circle reply card No. 222


The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.

Greatarlo Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 225

Membrane technology for wastewater

Seprotech Sys tems has exten

sive experience in the use of mem

brane technology for the treatment

of wastewater. The use of mem

brane technology to reduce the vol ume of waste effluent and recover valu

able materials has proven to be a costeffective and efficient treatment process. Seprotech can provide complete wastewater treatment systems employing re verse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration.

Seprotech Systems Circle reply card No. 228

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Product and Service Showcase Solids separation


be reduced to a manageable product. The solids can then be economically trucked off-site for final disposal.

Removal of solids and sludges from the bottom of cooling ponds,settling lagoons and waste storage structures is a service required by many companies including wastewater treatment plants, malting processors, power generating stations, and the pulp and paper, chemical proc ess and food industries. Through the ap plication of our sophisticated dredging technology, your operation's production process can continue without interruption - avoiding costly shutdown.

Lambourne Environmental

Lambourne Environmental

In an industry which places ever greater demands on conservation efforts,

Lambourne Environmental operates equipment designed hy world leader Alfa Laval, to provide leading edge solids separation services. Use of on-site cen trifuges permits our clients to observe first hand how waste stream volume can

Circle reply card No. 229

Circle reply card No. 230

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Oil, grease & solids Interceptors

S tormceptor Canada has just developed an in novative and pro prietary inlet separator. Thelnlet Stormceptor System employs the same princi ples of operation as the well known In-line interceptors. Developed to treat runoff from an area of up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the internal by-pass func tion, ensuring that all sediment and oil removed from stormwater runoff remains

trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 232

Proceptor™ in terceptors are

Iron and manganese removal

Zenon's ZeeWeed® membranes are de

signed and guaranteed to operate with both low and high levels of solids, with out membrane clogging, need of high backwash cycles or detrimental effects on the membrane flux. This process that combines oxidation with microfiltration, allows for the treatment of well water

contaminated with high levels of Fe and Mn.The result is a high quality effluent, with minimal use of chemicals, and re

duced sludge volumes. Zenon

Circle reply card No. 231

Concrete Pipe

Design Manual

single or multicell units de


signed to effec tively reduce oil, grease and solids loading from wastewater ef

fluent. They are constructed from fiberglass reinforced plastic, preventing the possibility of soil and/or groundwater contamination and the subsequent liability. Ideally suited for industrial applications, Proceptor in terceptors can help to significantly reduce annual sewer use discharge penalties. Proceptor, a Division of Stormceptor

The new updated version is available now from the OCPA. This indispensable manual offers the most current

information on the design, manufacture, application and installation of precast concrete drainage systems. Get your FREE copy and read aU about it!



concrete pipe association

llhe cho ice

Canada Inc.

of a lifetime

Circle reply card No. 233

Circle reply card No. 234

Pipe within a pipe

Aluminum access hatches

Centrifugal blowers

MSU's Access



Hatches are drip proof, with a gasketed drain channel, and continuous pi

Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Com pressor and Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at dis charge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air and gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as sewage aera tion, combustion drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, cooling and pneumatic conveying for more than 90 years. Hoffman Industries of Canada

Circle reply card No. 235

ano hinges. Gas springs provide smooth

Each U-Liner"® coil is manufactured to

specifications for each project by CSR Pipeline Systems. U-Liner is made of pure, high density polyethylene. It is nonjointed for leak proof, unrestricted flow, and is designed for direct burial. Its de sign life is 50+ years, it is highly resist ant to harsh chemicals and is available from 6' to 18' diameters.

CSR Pipeline Systems Circle reply card No. 236

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


easy operation; this flush design eliminates tripping haz ards. A wide range of single and double door models are available to suit your ap plication, from light pedestrian to occa sional traffic loading. They can be used in all water and wastewater infrastructure.

MSU is certified by the Canadian Weld ing Bureau to CSA Standard W47.2M1987. MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 237 61

Product and Service Showcase Oily Water Pump

Oil-Water Separator

EQWin 98 EQWin 98 is an easy-to-use,


cost-effective environmental




system. EQWin is a Windows-

The Megator Sliding Shoe Pump is an extremely versatile positive displacement pump for environmental, marine, mining and industrial applications. The pump is self-priming, can operate under dry suc tion and can handle liquids of any vis cosity to a maximum at which pumping is economically feasible. This unique pumping design offers extremely low emulsification of oily/water mixtures.

The TECHNO-SELECT oil-water sepa rator uses a unique and reliable differen tial gravity valve to ensure maintenancefree disposal of separated oils without any trace of water. In most applications, ef fluents under 10 ppm are produced. Made of polypropylene or carbon steel, this OWS handles flow rates from 5 to

Circle reply card No. 238

5,000 GPM. It offers a solid 30-year warranty on the OWS body and coalescent plates. Nortech GSI Inc. Circle reply card No. 239

Sludge disposal

High speed dry screening

Nortech GSI Inc.

based database system that provides com prehensive functions to import, store, manage,query, analyze, report and chart the quantitative and qualitative sample data acquired from environmental moni toring programs. EQWin is a user-de finable system meeting compliance standards like ISO 14000. QA/QC data, export to CIS,and more. For a free demo visit www.eqwin.com Gemcom Software International Inc.

Circle reply card No. 240

Modular headworks system

^ JWC Environmental's Auger Monster'''" modu lar headworks

system won the 1997 WEE Inno vative Technol

A FluosolidsÂŽ Combustion System is ideal for disposal of most biological wastes, noxious liquid and semi-solid wastes. Fluid-bed reactors offer greater flexibility, fuel economy, lower mainte nance and are more compact than other types of combustion. The system can be used for combustion of refinery wastes, activated sludge, pulping waste and other organic wastes. GL&V Process Equipment Group Circle reply card No. 241

Cathodlc protection/

Derrick Model L and K single deck screening machines are available with either 1800 or 3600 RPM vibrators and

in sizes ranging from 18" x 60" to 48" x 120". Machines can be supplied with open hopper configurations or complete dust enclosures with flexible motor seals,

gasketed side access doors and remov able covers. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 242

Floating aerators

ogy Award - Process Equipment Category. The technology combines the high flow ca pabilities of a traditional bar screen with the capture rate of a fine screen, while leaving essential organics in the waste stream. The new Auger Monster systems are designed to reduce the high mainte nance of bar screens while eliminating the mess of unwashed screenings. JWC Environmental

Circle reply card No. 243

Water & wastewater services

corrosion control

n\Ontario Clean Water Agency Agence Ontarienne Des Eaux

The Ontario Clean Water Agency is in business to provide reliable and cost-ef fective water and wastewater services.

Interprovincial Corrosion Control, the Canadian Distributor of the MAXMAG

Magnesium Anode, offers customized services throughout the process of cathodic protection/corrosion control, in cluding initial surveys, system design, engineering services,follow-up monitor ing and system maintenance. The MAXMAG is manufactured to meet

ASTM Standard B843-93, Grade MIC.

Interprovincial Corrosion Control

Circle reply card No. 244 62

Framco Oxygun'''" Self Aspirating Float ing Aerators provide an efficient method of aerating tanks, basins, and lagoons for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The low cost, easy-to-install aerators disperse atmospheric air below the water surface using a unique impeller and diffuser system. An electric motor drives the self-cleaning maxi flow impeller,forcing liquid at high speed past three air ports. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 245

OCWA currently operates more than 400 facilities in Ontario, making it the larg est operator of water and wastewater services in Canada. We are the industry leader in project management,infrastruc ture development, the formation of pub lic/private partnerships, and above all, operations and maintenance. For more information, call 1-800-667-OCWA, or visit our Website at: www.ocwa.com OCWA

Circle reply card No. 246

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Product and Service Showcase Ultrasonic Wind Sensor

Capacitance point level

Ozone Analyzer


The new Model 425 Ultrasonic Wind


from Handar is

designed for measuring hori zontal


speed and direc tion. The sensor can be used in air

quality monitor ing, meteorol ogy, agriculture, aviation safety, and emergency services. It has no moving parts so it eliminates the maintenance re quired on mechanical sensors. It is built for rugged remote locations and requires only 10 mA to operate.

Milltronics' new Pointek CLS200 capaci tance point level switches provide level detection in applications with liquids, solids, slurries and interfaces. Switches

Circle reply card No. 247

are easily installed even in small diam eter pipes and operate independently of the influence of a tank wall. A wide range of configurations are available, includ ing rigid, sanitary, and extended (cable or rigid)sensor models. Milltronics Inc. Circle reply card No. 248

TB82/Advantage Series

Water quality test strips

Hoskin Scientific

The Model 400 UV Absorption Ozone Analyzer from Advanced Pollution Instrumentaion (API) measures low ranges(0-100 ppb to 0-10 ppm)of ozone in ambient air. Through a valve switch ing mechanism, which every four sec onds alternates measurement between

sample stream and a sample scrubbed for ozone, an unbiased True Ozone reading is obtained. Nortech GSI Inc.

Circle reply card No. 249

DO analyzer controller

„s® QQ00Q D oWGtt Wisuan

«HW~- ^

The Model TB82/Advantage Series of fers a simple solution to your pH meas urement needs. Features include intui

tive menu programming,a secondary dis play, and on-line sensor diagnostics. A simple configuration choice allows the TB82 to become a pH, ORP,or non plon transmitter(with ppm or ppb indication). An advanced diagnostic alarm produces a user-selectable analog pulse output to alert you to any problems. Elsag Bailey Circle reply card No. 250

Extended aeration system

Hach's Water Quality Test Strips are de signed for fast and dependable on-site testing for eight key water quality param eters. Testing takesjust seconds and costs only pennies per test, requires no train ing and no handling of chemicals. Hach water quality test strips are available for

The Royce Model 9100 DO Analyzer is an economically priced system that was designed to provide the specifications normally required for the typical appli cations for continuous monitoring and control ofDO. It is a digital readout,fully automatic instrument with features such as: 0-100 PPM or 0-999% Saturation DO

ity, iron, copper, nitrate and nitrite, pH and chloride. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 251

range, push-button automatic calibration, automatic altitude and salinity correction, and self-diagnostic electronics. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 252

Supplies for P&P industry

Packaged wastewater

free and total chlorine, hardness, alkalin


Air Liquide is a leading supplier of

Unlike the stop-and-go flow in conven tional SBRs, flow, and processing through the Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System (ICEAS®) is continu ous. All processes are performed in a sin gle basin. A continuous supply of car bon to the biomass is provided through out the aeration, settling and decanting phases. No added chemicals are needed. The ICEAS system cuts aeration costs by up to 50%. Water Pollution Control Corp. Circle reply card No. 253


gases, technol ogy and engi neering to the pulp & paper in dustry. Oxygen is used in the

bleaching proc ess for oxygen delignification, oxygen caustic extraction and white liquor oxidation to reduce us age of bleach chemicals and lower pol lution load. The Cardox division of Air

Liquide is working to develop new ap plications for carbon dioxide in the P&P industry. Air Liquide Circle reply card No. 254

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

The Bioclear® wastewater treat

ment plant offers SBR technology to communities



people (or 9,000 to 250,000 gpd). Below-ground construction

makes the plant practically invisible, reduces odours, and is ideal for remote, cold weather loca

tions. High quality effluent can be re used for fire protection and irrigation. Waterlink/Bioclear Technology Circle reply card No. 255


Biosolids Management Project Canadian firm supplies biosolids equipment to US ATAD process to receive Process to Further Reduce Pathogens approval from the US EPA.

Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic

Digestion (ATAD)is an aerobic sludge digestion process that operates from 40°C to 80°C without supplemental heat.

The process relies on the heat released during digestion to attain the required temperatures. The resultant biosolid is pathogen free and fully stabilized. Proof of pathogen destruction can be checked by testing for Salmonella <3 MPN, enteroviruses <1 PFU or 1 viable Ascar-

ius spp ovum. As these tests are expen

sive, regulatory authorities use a time temperature function to allow operators to meet their permit and monitor fecal coliform.

Three 250 rrf ATAD reactors at IVIcMinnville, Oregon.

Sanitherm Engineering Limited of

The $2.1 million Cdn. contract is to

Vancouver, BC reports that con struction is underway on its Douglas County, Washington ATAD in

supply a three stage Fuchs ATAD sys tem to produce US EPA Class A sludge as defined by the 40 CER Part 503 regu

The technology was developed in Germany in the 70s and imported to Banff, Alberta in 1989. The first plant in the USA was in 1993(both plants use the Fuchs process supplied by Sani-

stallation. This will be similar to the one

lation. The resultant biosolid can be land


which Sanitherm supplied to McMinnville, Oregon in 1996.

applied with the minimum of restric tions. The Fuchs process is the only

For more information,

circle reply card No. 145

HOFFMAW Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors & Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressors & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at discharge pressures to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as sewage aeration, combustion, drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 90 years.

Industries of Canada Limited


mim aEaaiHGa

Si'BTR Enviranment:ai




58 Bertal Road, Toronto, Ontario, M6M 4M4, Tel(416)763-4681 Fax:(416)763-0440 email: hoffman.can@btrinc.com, website: www.hoffmanair.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 146 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Ontario Smog Alert Ontario air quality targets come under fire

The Ontario Environmental

has among the highest smog levels in Commissioner,Eva Ligeti has Canada,and that human death rates from criticized the government's respiratory problems could be linked to record on air quality. Her exposure to inhalable particulates. The 1997 annual report says: discussion paper, which was supported "The Ministry of the Environment by technical documentation detailing (MOE) maintains that overall air qual scientific findings and uncertainties, pre ity has improved in Ontario since 1970. sented key ministry goals over the next However, the ministry also acknowl 20 years: to reduce nitrogen oxides edges that smog and fine particulates (NOj^) and volatile organic compounds remain chronic problems. Over the past (VOCs)by 45 percent by the target year two years, MOE has announced almost of 2015. The ministry hopes that this a dozen initiatives aimed at improving will reduce ozone exceedances(or "bad air days") by 75 percent. The discus air quality, and the ministry's 1997 busi ness plan sets targets and deadlines to sion paper received extensive public reduce pollutants that contribute most consultation,including a two-day work to smog. During the past year,I reviewed shop attended by more than 170 people. some of these decisions, and I will con "During the public consultation, peo tinue to monitor whether the outcomes ple recommended the ministry put a new are consistent with the ministry's State emphasis on public transit and energy ment of Environmental Values and the

conservation measures, and more em

purposes of the Environmental Bill of Rights, and how the public was involved in ministry decision-making. "In June 1996, MOE posted a Smog Discussion Paper on the Environment Registry that pointed out that Ontario

phasis on air quality monitoring. They said the emission reduction targets in the discussion paper were too weak. Many people requested that MOE establish in terim targets, with benchmarks that would measure progress well before 2015.

"In January 1998, MOE released its smog plan A Partnershipfor Collective Action. However, none of the environ

mental organizations that were eonsuited endorsed this plan,citing the lack of detail and the need for stronger per formance targets. "In fact, MOE's own emissions pro jections, which factor in future eco nomic growth, show that even if all ex isting and proposed pollution control activities are carried out over the next

18 years, Ontario's overall air quality is likely to be somewhat worse in 2015 than it is today." The commissioner recommends that

the MOE should complete and publish a full list of the emission reduction ac tions that are still needed to achieve its

stated air quality targets by the year 2015. The ministry should also estab lish interim targets, and should provide the public with annual updates on emis sion reductions achieved, trends in total

emissions and air quality concentrations, and reductions still needed to meet near-

term and long-term targets. â?–

Third Biennial Event

Pan-American Environmental Technology Trade Show and Conference AMERICANA

March 24-26, 1999 Montreal, Canada


Americana 99 will include: Š

^Q0c\\nk2\ and business conferences ^^reign delegations

Galewavj^he for the Americas




E-mail: info@americana.org Website:vyww.americana.org

Amertcana 99 is the premier event on the latest environmental technologies in the Americas For information:

91 1 Jean-Talon Street East, Suite 220, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2R IV5 Tel.:(514) 270-7110 Fax:(514)270-7154 Organized by : RESEAU Environnement

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

For more Information, circle reply card No. 147

(See page 25)


Tree Capping of Landfill Sites

By Chris Shrive, P.Ag.*

An alternative to clay and membrane caps

The cost of capping a large-

scale waste site as part of site remediation can be daunting. Alternatively, infiltration and leachate generation control can be achieved using a natural treatment technology, ehminating the need for clay or membrane capping. In a landmark project, CG&S capped a 40-ha(100-acre) gypsum stack in the spring of 1998 with a dense plantation of hybrid poplar trees to draw out and evapotranspire porewater from the stack. The

With roots that run down to six me

surface water.

For the IMC site, the difference in

cost-$6 million for regrading and clay cap placement versus approximately Leaf Transpiration

^4^ Surface Evaporation ^ Tree Blomass(Reaction)

stituents of wastewater and remove infiltration




S.uffa.ce.clter and

site is located at International

Minerals & Chemicals (IMC) Clobal(Canada) Limited facilities in Port Maitland, Ontario (near the

tres deep,rapidly growing poplars draw large quantities of water and nutrients from the soil. When planted at high den sities, poplars intercept and evapotranspire precipitation or wastewater effluent when applied to the tree plantation at a control led rate. They assimilate the con

Top Soil (Dense Rooting) M crobial Biomass (Reaction)

Root Deptli Deeper Soil(Deep Rooting

Conlrolied By Water Table Deptli)

mouth of the Crand River on Lake

soil and porewater contaminants. At maturity, the poplar cap's tall dense structure provides visual and odour barriers for ongoing site op erations. As decommissioning is completed,the cap's end use allows for an ecological blending with the surroundings as wildlife habitat, or a recuperation of some installation costs through harvesting of the trees for pulpwood. The stumps of

Fluctualing WaterTabie (Bootable Erie). The gypsum, generated Upper Layer) during fertilizer production,is very Principal water baiance components high in phosphorus, and runoff the harvested trees draw water and and infiltration must be controlled to 10% of the cost of regrading and clay contaminants from the soil as coppice avoid potential algae blooms in nearby cap placement for tree installation and forms and continues providing an effi monitoring - was compelling, but there cient infiltration barrier. *CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited are additional benefits. Circle reply card No. 148

Canadian Environmental

Railroad Track Spill Containment

Auditing Association


National Conference and Annual Meeting October 26 and 27,1998 Location:

Citadel Hotel, 101 Lyon Street, Ottawa, Ontario Theme:

Creating Partnerships and Awareness Technical Presentations:

- Environmental Auditing - the inside story from key industry sectors - Environmental initiatives of the Covemment of Canada

The Ounce of Prevention to Preclude

- Evolution of Certification Programs and Practice Cuidelines

a Ton of Headaches! Unique, Relocatable Spill Containment Pans wltti Rolling Ralncovers. Opens Wtien You Need It and Closed and Locked Wtien Not Needed. Avoid Collecting Snow, Rainwater and Debris! Lower Your Environmental Liability!

- Environmental Auditing around the world - Benchmarking Environmental Auditing Programs - Tradeshow - up to 25 exhibitors Keynote Speakers: - Hon. Christine Stewart, Environment Canada

- Hon. Charles Caccia, Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development

_ ..JNMENTAL P.O. Box 40163


Cleveland, Ohio 44140


FAX 440-871-3414


For more information, circle reply card No. 149 (See page 25)

Contact John Pawley at the CEAA office, to receive your conference brochure and registration form. Phone;(905) 814-1160; Fax:(905) 814-1158; or E-mail: execdirector.ceaa@sympatico.ca Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998


By Peter O'Connor*

Concrete pipe re-used on coal tar site

Horizontalel iptical pipe,produced

in 1959 and 1964, was excavated, cleaned, and then reinstalled on a

property owned by the City of Ottawa. Not only was the pipe re-used, but it was returned to continue its function as a

stormwater system through a site that had been contaminated with coal tar.

Coal tar is a heavy, dark, viscous liquid obtained from the destmctive distillation, or

carbonization of coal. The primary product of the carbonization of coal is coke, while

the secondary products are coal tar, light oil, ammonia liquor, and coal gas. Over time, following its appearance in 1681, it was re alized that important solvents and wood pre servatives could be obtained from coal tars.

The residue could be used for highway pave ment binders and for specialized coatings. Coal tar was a common product used by cit ies and towns in Europe and North America during their early development. The Ottawa project was located on a prop*Lafarge Pipe & Precast, Ottawa Environme

•v'. ■ . .w.

*'1 - .

-■ ■ JA-.



The backhoe operator turns each pipe over so the coal tar can be removed easily.

ICompliance & Technologies '99 ,GalIf or Papers 1^

Environmental Science & Engineering magazine in association with Templegate Information Services Inc., will again be producing the conference and workshop program for "Environmental Compliance & Technologies '99". The workshop will also include a table-top trade show. The two day event will be held April 7-8, 1999, at the Regal Constellation Hotel, 900 Dixon Road, Toronto (close to Pearson International Airport). Presenters will be required to prepare written materials and de liver presentations to environmental consultants and managers from across Canada at this two day event. Preference will be given to those willing to undertake responsi bility for organizing half-day sessions likely to be of interest to: - corporate environmental managers - engineers and consultants - municipalities - environmental and real estate lawyers - emergency response persormel - process personnel, etc.

The Conference and workshops will, in addition, feature tabletop exhibits and networking opportunities designed to bring sup pliers and specifiers together in a professional and stimulating en vironment. Authors should fax Lawrence Earl: (905) 873-6424. For information about table-top displays, call Environmental Science & Engineering at: (905) 727-4666 or fax: (905) 841-7271. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

''' i'pi

erty on Lees Avenue. The original tender called for replacement of 110 m of 1090 mm X 1725 mm horizontal elliptical pipe (ASTM C507 H.E. IllMortar Joint) and maintenance holes, and removal of the coal tar-contami

nated soil to a designated disposal site. Taggart Construction Ltd,, of Ottawa, was awarded the work, and excavation com

menced in January 1997. But when the pipe was removed and examined, it appeared to be in excellent condition - after 33 years in soils containing coal tar. The City and con tractor then came to an agreement to remove the pipe, steam-clean each piece, and return it to the trench after inverting the pipe, so that the obvert became the invert. In addi

tion, pipes were joined with single offset gas kets. The decision was taken to install new

pipe and maintenance holes only where needed. The cost saving to the City was es timated at $54,500.

When the pipes were excavated for clean ing, it was discovered that two of the six foot lengths had been manufactured in 1959, and the others in 1964. The pipe had been manu

factured by Concrete Pipe Company at their Caledonia Road plant in Toronto, Ontario. For more Information, circle reply card No. 151 67

Emergency Response

Planning for emergency responses

Emergencysituations,like spil s

and fires, can be great sources of environmental liability. These unplanned incidents tend to occur at the most inopportune time and result in high clean-up costs, significant business disruptions, nega tive publicity and possible legal action. Due to obvious negative impacts like these, many companies are taking a proactive approach to emergency re


floor workers dealing with hazards in the workplace. Input may also be desired from exterior service providers, govern ment officials and neighbours. Without involvementfrom all concerned,imple mentation can fail. No ERF is worth

the paper it is written on (or the disk space it takes up) if it does not match the risks present on the shop floor, nor will it be accepted. This process needs to be tailored to the conditions present in each facility but


• Less likelihood of corporate and per sonal liability; • Fart of any modern Environmental Management System (EMS); •Potential for improved public relations; and

•Significantly strengthens any potential due diligence defense through the ap plication of reasonable management and care.

The ERP Process

The process of creating an ERF can be quite involved. To properly design, implement and monitor a plan for emer gency response, a company needs to in volve may different interior and exte rior parties. Input from personnel should range from top management to the shop 'Environmental Contingency Services (ECS), Mississauga, ON 68

accomplished by checking records on past incidents, physical assessment of the facility, discussions with staff mem bers and the involvement of experts (i.e. Fire Marshal, MOE officials, consult

ranked by the ERF planning team, based on priority. Starting with the most se vere risk areas, the team gen erates optionsfor risk reduc tion and elimination meas

ures. Through brainstorming and selection filters (financial, technical, etc.), risk reduction measures are identified and a suitable schedule

for implementation is de veloped. If selected and implemented correctly, the facility will be much less likely to have emergency situa tions occur once this process is com plete. the following stages are fairly generic for each ERF: • Commitment to the process. • Identification of risk areas.

• Identification and implementation of


this exercise. Risk identification is

ants). Once all relevant risk areas are identified and understood, they are

Emergency Response Plans (ERPs) are becoming a significant tool for mod em business management teams. An ERF is a formal proactive plan of ac tion for mitigating and responding to unplanned incidents in the workplace; it focuses on address ing environmental, legal, and health & safety considerations in a logical manner. There are many key ben efits to companies that adopt an ERF,including: •Better understanding by all parties of the health & safety implications associated with emergency situations; ' • Improved relations between management and labour force be cause it is seen as a preventative meas ure to protect the safety of all person •Provides management team with a bet ter understanding of risks present in a facility which allows for better manage

ented individual and given a deadline for intended completion. The identification ofrisk areas is the foundation on which the process is built. The risks considered in the process need to be clearly identified in the scope of

risk reduction or elimination measures.

• Development of emergency response responsibilities and procedures. • Implementation of the plan. • Acquisition of training and response products. • Testing and monitoring of ERF. Commitment is essential before any company goes through this process. The ERF process requires a focused effort, money and an understanding ofthe proc ess. Without a commitment, the ERF

process may never be completed, or may not become the useful tool it can be. All

members of the planning team need to understand and believe in the strengths and benefits of the process and be given the responsibility to generate a quality plan that meets the needs of the facility. A general recommendation for the proc ess is for the team to be lead by a tal

Since most risks cannot be eliminated

due to the very nature of certain types of business,emergency response respon sibilities and procedures will be devel oped. Fersonnel and/or service provid ers will be identified who will be respon sible in emergency response situations. These people should be chosen based upon their experience and training rather than their seniority. In many situations, the individual best suited to operate a facility under normal working condi tions is not the best person to be in charge when reacting to crisis situations. Frocedures will be developed for key emergency situations including evacu ation,first aid,containment,security and communication. Emergency response personnel will be given agreed upon procedures and priorities for complet ing their roles. The stage of identifying responsible parties and developing re sponse procedures can be very involved and time consuming. Implementation of the ERF requires that all involved parties understand their

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

By Daniel Joyce, B.ES. roles and responsibilities under emer

rather than real life crisis situations.

gency situations. Many individuals may require training. Some physical plant changes may also occur during imple

Monitoring ofthe ERF is also important. Does the ERF meet the risks present at the site over time? The risks present in a facihty or responsible ERF members may change. A mechanism to identify

mentation as measures identified in the

risk reduction option stage are put in place. These may take the form of prod uct substitutions, engineered plant changes, storage improvements, con tainment measures, or fire protection upgrades. As part of implementation, training and response products will be acquired. Response team members may need to be trained to meet their new roles and

certain products may be purchased to assist with future response efforts. Training may include topics like emer gency response priorities, procedures, crisis management, first aid, safety is sues and communication. Products may include safety suits, spill response kits, fire extinguishers, containment devices and first aid kits.

Testing and monitoring of the ERF are essential components. Testing in cludes discussions and drills on BRP is

sues. It is best to make mistakes during emergency response practice sessions

and add new risk areas should be included

in the original ERF. Contact lists identi fied under communication procedures need to be checked periodically to ensure they are current. Testing and monitoring should occur on an ongoing basis. Each of these stages of emergency response planning and implementation are essential components to developing a successful ERF.

In Canada, the CSA standard, Z731-

95 - "Emergency Planning for Industry", provides a well thought out approach to developing an ERF. This standard can be an excellent resource for companies. It walks an emergency response plan ning team through the process with a focus on three major operational themes for developing an ERF: 1) Organization & Data Collection; 2)Emergency Response; and 3)Administration. Companies that have a high level of

risk or poor environmental histories may find that having an ERF that meets the requirements of the CSA standard is ad vantageous for community relations or insurance purposes. There are many other tools available for developing an ERF including books, manuals, software programs, consult ants and Intemet resources. These can

provide additional assistance to compa nies interested in reducing the liabilities associated with potential industrial emergencies. Before relying on any of these tools, it is essential that the end

result, the final ERF, goes beyond the needs of a theoretical facility and spe cifically addresses the risks present on your shop floor. The process of developing an emer gency response plan can be quite oner ous for companies, managers and plan ning team members. It can also be very rewarding. More importantly, compa nies who choose not to investigate this management tool, leave the stability of their business at the mercy of chance and untrained reactions.

For more information, circle reply card No. 152


Ego Waste Oxidizer WAST C The has approval for use in SOL 11 T I O N 5 Ontario by MOEE. The

Lifting Davits


system complements existing recyciing pro grams. Under 50 Tons/Day are a speciaity with energy recovery encouraged. Services for MOEE Air Permits are also available.

Vent Pipes

Access Hatches

Lifting Hooks Liquid Level Regulator Holders

Safety Ctialns Railing Systems

Safety Landings Fall Arrest Systems Trash Baskets UTOr.lATCO



Climbing Rungs

Guide Bars

Sump Grates

Environmentally Sound Waste Destruction For: • Residential Waste • Commercial/Industrial Waste • Animal Waste • Environment Canada Verified

• Medical Waste • Institutional Waste • Industrial Waste

RehabilitateYour Underground Economy With the Best in Safety Equipment Easy to install,

corrosion resistant, -* maintainence free 0)

fabricated to the high^ est industry standards.

^ Voice:905 823-4340

safety equipment,S E-mail: ecowaste@eco-waste.com Web page: www.eco-waste.com

Tel:(905) 634-7022 Fax:(905)634-0831

Eco Waste Solutions Inc. 5195 Harvester Road, Unit 8, Burlington, Ontario L7L 6E9

For more information, circle reply card No. 153 (See page 25)

engineered to meet 8

P Fax: 905 623-4947

I 1-800-268-5336 A Browse our website;

your most exacting

requirements and *2


. .

^ www.msumississauga.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 168

(See page 25)

Focus on Manufacturing

A low cost/efficient solvent recovery

system for newspaper printing uct had to be recyclable if at all possi ble. Since the newsprint web was fre


rS'S, â–


quently used to clean pipe rollers and occasionally blankets, on line during long runs, there was also a need for a product that did not contain water. This way, it could be put on the paper for on line cleaning. It did, however, need to be water miscible in order to loosen lint

on the blankets on manual washups us ing solvent and water. Afer six months of research and test

ing, a product(commercially named TS Blanket and Roller Wash) was devel

oped that proved to meet all the require ments. Extensive testing with blanket


and roller manufacturers, as well as in

When the Toronto Star

depth corrosion studies, showed the product to be benign in every respect. The health and safety profile of all com ponents was excellent. The product had low volatility and, within two months

Filter cake after filtering

moved their printing operation to The Press Centre in Vaughan in

1991, they wanted to ensure that their press chemistries complemented their new state-of-the-art printing facility. To this end, they requested their suppliers of consumables to ensure that all prod ucts met the highest available standards of health & safety and environmental protection. In particular. The Star was moving from a letterpress operation to offset printing and were aware of the increased amount of chemistry involved, as well as the potential for employee and envi ronmental exposure to chemicals(foun tain solutions, volatile blanket washes,

etc.), that had not been part of the letter press printing process. A change to veg etable oil inks was already being imple

cleaning was a renewable,environmen tally friendly material from a chemical family known as fatty acid esters. Al though these products are expensive(ap proximately four times the cost of other solvent chemistries), they did not have any objectionable odour like orange oils and seemed to do a reasonable job in cleaning rollers. Unfortunately, this sol vent proved to be aggressive towards rubber. Roller swelling and flaring be came a problem. A succession of other cleaning chemistries was tried and aban doned.

The Press Centre came to the con

clusion that "environmentally friendly" did not necessarily translate into "equip ment friendly". The Toronto Star Press Centre con

tacted Dell Tech Laboratories in Lon

don, Ontario and contracted their serv

mented but The Toronto Star wanted

ices to develop a cleaning chemistry that would meet their requirements. Ground

other chemistries to incorporate the same

rules were established. First and most

level of environmental consideration.

importantly, the product had to be safe for press personnel. This included a low evaporation rate (low volatility), with minimum solvent vapours entering the pressroom. It also had to have minimal toxicity for skin contact even though gloves were normally worn by press personnel when cleaning the press. Second, the product had to be press safe (minimum impact on rubber and metal components). Finally, the prod-

The early results of this exercise were not impressive. Environmentally friendly was definitely a buzzword in the chemical industry at the time. When Toronto Star's interests became known,

there were no shortage of chemical sup pliers calling on them. A product which was tried for roller "President, Dell Tech Laboratories Ltd. 70

of use, there was no solvent odour re

maining in the building. It could be used straight for ink roller cleanup and could also be put on the web for cleaning pipe rollers or cleaning blankets during the run(walk wash). Unlike traditional sol vents, this chemistry could be mixed with warm water without liberating strong odours. This proved advanta

geous since warmer water increases the penetration of paper fibres and enhances ink removal from the blankets.

Soon, the product was introduced to other areas of the operation (parts wash ing, machine shop, etc.), and became the single solvent of use in the plant. By design, the solvent produced a good emulsion, when mixed with water, re

sulting in efficient blanket cleaning. The emulsion however, separates quickly upon standing, producing a distinct lower water and top solvent layer. This

phenomenon led to the design and in stallation of a functional and inexpen sive recycle system. A number of recovery systems were studied before the decision was made to "invent" one to meet the Press Centre

requirements: 1. Centrifuging - Although the lab and field tests were positive and the envi ronmental discharge parameters could be met, the up front cost was high ($300,000 for the centrifuge and close to $500,000 for the complete system).

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

By Robert J. Dell* Maintenance costs of the equipment were going to be about 3% per year of the capital investment (e.g. $9000 per year), plus a high operator time require

card to sewer. Material trapped by the filter press is dried and removed as a cake for landfill disposal as non hazard

ment. This system also has a relatively low overall processing rate and can only

The upper and middle layer are di rected to a second stage settling tank where they undergo another 10-14 days of settling. Solid material sinks to the bottom, forming a sludge. The larger upper layer is quite clear and is decanted

tolerate low levels of solids. 2. Distillation - This method tends to

consume high energy. It also may not achieve satisfactory results when the fractions being separated by distillation have similar boiling points or have a confused series of boiling points for various components. Another issue which may arise is the need for im proved fire protection if the distillation process includes flammable liquids or gases, and may require improved and expensive ventilation equipment to maintain a safe working environment. Conversely, the use of lower volatil ity solvents (like TS Blanket & Roller Wash) with higher boiling point ranges which produce reduced levels of va pours in the work place, may tend to exacerbate the problem of distillation techniques because of the higher tem peratures required. These higher tem peratures may also tend to change the chemistry of the ink oils and solvent components rendering them useless. 3. Multi-Component - A commercial waste technology company was con sulted and they proposed an unproven process treatment system that incorpo rated a labyrinth of steps including fil tration, de-emulsification, distillation and ultra-filtration. The equipment cost was over $220,000 and required consid erable manpower and energy costs to mn. 4. Gravity Separation and Filter Press - Since the emulsified TS Blanket &

Roller Wash separates quickly after use into solvent and water layers, the grav ity separation technique became an at tractive option and designs were pre pared. The spent solvent/water mix is al lowed to settle in a first stage tank for approximately two to three hours. Three layers are formed. The lower layer is predominantly dirty water and is dis tinctly separated from the middle layer which is mainly solvent and the bulk of the paper fibre, clays and ink pigments. The top layer is predominantly solvent with some ink oils and small amounts

of solids (pigments, paper fibres). The lower water layer is drawn off to a wastewater tank for holding. It is subsequently pumped to a filter press where the filtrate is clean enough to dis

ous waste.

to a reclaim solvent tank where it awaits

reuse. The smaller sludge layer is stimed up and pumped to the filter press where it is filtered. The filtrate goes back to the secondary settling tank for another pass through the system. The filter cake is dried and disposed of to landfill as non hazardous waste.

Other than operation of the filter press, operator involvement with the system is minimal. A unique sensor sys tem has been developed. It detects the interface when the first stage tank is being emptied so that the layers are di rected automatically to the proper sec ondary storage tanks without supervision. In summary, solvent reclamation with this process has only three outputs. The first output is reclaimed solvent.

The second is filtered wastewater that

is clean enough for sewer discharge (or reuse as a cleaning agent if necessary). The third output is a solid cake which is safe for landfill disposal. All of this is done with low initial capital cost, a small working area, low energy requirements and minimal operator involvement. Prior to installing this system, Toronto Star were sending out several drums of waste solvent per month at a disposal cost of several thousand dollars. Today, there is no waste being sent out and the purchase of virgin solvent has been cut by over 50%. While this process lends itself read ily to recovery of solvents used for cleaning offset printing presses, it could be applied to any industry where emul sified solvents are used for maintenance

cleaning or are part of process opera tions (grinding, cutting, cooling, etc.). The Toronto Star has applied for a patent of this "Solvent Recovery Appa ratus and Method" and are presently dis cussing marketing arrangements with in terested parties. For more information, circle reply card No. 154

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Environmental Science cfe Engineering, September 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 155 (See page 25)


Health & Safety

By John Wraight*

The dangers of working In and around confined spaces

The danger of working in con

fined spaces has been recog nized since Roman times,

when the Emperor Trajan was noted to have sentenced criminals to

clean sewers, an occupation

their nature,confined spaces tend to con centrate hazards. Certain gases will dis place breathable air or the confined space results in the accumulation of toxic, flammable or replacement gases.

1) open-topped enclosures with depths which restrict the natural movement of

air (e.g. degreasers, pits, selected types of tanks and excavations), and

2)enclosures with limited openings for entry and exit (e.g. sewers,

considered one of the most

tanks and silos). The hazards

hazardous. Today, the work of maintaining sewer systems is performed by a highly trained group of professionals using equipment and methods designed to protect them selves and the public from the dangers and health hazards as

found in any confined space are determined by the mate rial being stored or used, by the process taking place inside the space, and by the effects

sociated with these areas.

to read or hear, all too fre

struction activities or during frequent necessary functions such as inspection, repair or

quently, of the gruesome


Why then do we continue

deaths of those who must

of the external environment.

Worker entry into confined spaces may occur during con


work in and around confined


spaces? Consider these terms

not intended for continuous

Oxygen Deficiency Oxygen deficiency is caused by chemical or bio logical reactions which dis place or consume oxygen from a confined space. The consumption of oxygen takes place during combustion of

employee occupancy.

flammable substances, as in

in the definition of a confined

space: has limited openings for entry and exit, unfavour able natural ventilation which

could contain or produce dan gerous air contaminants and is

Now,consider the fact that

there are two major factors that contribute to fatal injuries in confined spaces, namely, failure to recognize and con trol the hazards associated

welding, cutting, or brazing. A more subtle form of con

sumption of oxygen occurs during bacterial action, as in the fermentation process. Oxygen deficiency can result

from bacterial action in exca with confined spaces, and in vations and manholes which adequate or incorrect emer gency response procedures Safety in confined spaces was a major factor in the recent are near garbage dumps, landfills or swampy areas. and programs. Referring to BCWWA Operations Chailenge. Photo - Penny Davey the definition of a confined space and Physical hazards in a confined space Oxygen may also be consumed during the causes of fatal accidents in these ar are generally associated with restricted slow chemical reactions, as in the for mation of rust on the exposed surface eas, it would appear that training and movement or close proximity to machin education are two ways of preventing ery or substances. These include, but of metal tanks, vats, and ship holds. Ambient air has an oxygen content such tragic occurrences. are not limited to, electrical components, Normally, confined spaces will not moving mechanical components and of 21%. When the oxygen level drops appear to be hazardous and they may unstable chemicals. Recognition of the below 17%, the first sign of hypoxia is have been entered on prior occasions inherent capacity of these spaces to har a deterioration of night vision, which is without incident or any apparent sign of bour hazardous agents is a significant usually not noticeable. Physiological ef danger. At other times, there may be element in any workplace hazard assess fects include increased breathing vol apparent indications of danger: the dis ment. When confined spaces are rec ume and accelerated heartbeat. Between tinct odour of irritating or toxic atmos ognized to be hazardous, provisions for 14% and 16%,physiological effects are pheres, the presence of arcing electrical minimizing the need for entry and for increased breathing volume,accelerated equipment, continued mild electrical use of appropriate work practices and heartbeat, poor muscular coordination, rapid fatigue, and intermittent respira shocks, or flowing grain or sand. By equipment can be made. Confined spaces may be classified tion. Between 6% and 10%,the effects Continued overleaf *Heath Consultants Limited into two categories: 72

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

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Health & Safety, cant' are nausea, vomiting, inability to per form,and unconsciousness. At concen

trations less than 6%,there is rapid loss of consciousness and death in minutes.

Oxygen displacement: Inert gases and simple asphyxiants A simple asphyxiating atmosphere contains a gas or gases that are physi ologically inert and which do not pro duce any ill effects. However, in suffi cient quantity, a simple asphyxiant will displace oxygen and may result in an at mosphere unable to support respiration.

Ambient,or normal,atmosphere is com posed of approximately 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% argon, with small amounts of various other gases. For example, if 100% nitrogen - a non-toxic, colourless, odourless gas-is used to inert(displace oxygen in)a con fined space,it will cause immediate col lapse and death to the worker if the con fined space is not adequately ventilated before worker entry. Other examples of simple asphyxiants which have claimed lives in confined spaces include carbon

dioxide, argon, and helium. Flammable atmospheres A flammable atmosphere generally results from vaporization of flammable liquids, by-products of chemical reac tion, enriched oxygen atmospheres, or concentrations of combustible dusts.

Three components are necessary for an atmosphere to become flammable: fuel and oxygen in the proper mixture, and source of ignition. The proper mixture of fuel and oxygen will vary from gas to gas within a fixed range and is re ferred to as the lower flammability limit (LFL) and upper flammability limit (UFL). These terms are synonymous with the lower explosive hmit(LEL)and upper explosive limit(UEL). For example,the explosive range for methane is between 5% and 15% in air. Concentrations below 5% methane are

below the explosive range, and concen trations above 15% are too rich to supA simple asphyxiating atmosphere contains a gas or gases that are physiologically inert and which do not produce any Hi effects port combustion. If a confined space contains 27% methane and forced ven

tilation is started, the introduction of air

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into the confined space may dilute the methane in air, taking it into the explo sive range. Toxic gases Toxic gases may be present in con fined spaces because: 1. The manufacmring process uses toxic gases. For example,in producing polyvinyl chloride, hydrogen chloride is used, as well as vinyl chloride monomer. 2.There are biological or chemical proc esses occurring in the product stored in the confined space. For example, de composing organic material in a tank or sump can liberate hydrogen sulphide. 3. The operation performed in the con fined space can liberate a toxic gas. For example welding can liberate oxides of nitrogen, ozone, and carbon monoxide. Some toxic gases such as phosgene or carbon monoxide are particularly in sidious because of their poor warning properties. Toxic gases wliich have been reported to cause death to workers in confined spaces include carbon monox ide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sul phide, arsine, chlorine, oxides of nitro gen, and ammonia. Toxic gases may be involved when acids are used for cleaning the interior

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998

Health & Safety, cant' of a confined space. For example, hy drochloric acid can react chemically with iron sulphide to produce hydrogen sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide is heavier than air and will settle out at the bottom

of a confined space. Hydrogen sulphide is extremely toxic and exposure can cause paralysis of the olfactory system (making the victim unable to smell the gas), loss of reasoning, respiratory fail ure, unconsciousness, and death.

tied from below,allowing a hollow space to be created. The bridge of material over the space may collapse without warn ing, entrapping workers who are stand ing below or on top of the bridge and


who are unaware that the surface is un

stable. Bridging can occur in storage bins, silos, and hoppers that contain ground grains, soybeans meal, or other meals, or other loose materials such as cement, limestone, coal, or sawdust.

Circle reply card No. 157


Hydrocarbon solvents are frequently used in industry as degreasing agents. These agents can cause unconsciousness by depressing the central nervous sys tem. Some chlorinated hydrocarbon



solvents, such as chloroform, have been


used as aesthetic agents. In addition, certain chlorinated or fluorinated hydro carbon solvents are toxic to the heart and


have been associated with sudden death

in confined spaces. PHYSICAL HAZARDS

In addition to the atmospheric haz ards in a confined space, physical haz ards must also be addressed. Physical hazards cover the entire spectrum of hazardous energy and its control. These hazards include those associated with

mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic energy, engulfment, communication problems, noise, and size of openings into the confined space. Engulfment Engulfment in loose materials is one of the leading causes of death from physical hazards in confined spaces. En gulfment and suffocation are hazards as sociated with storage bins, silos, and hoppers where grain, sand, gravel, or other loose materials are stored, handled, or transferred. The behaviour of such

material is unpredictable, and entrap ment and burial can occur in a matter of

seconds. In some cases, material being drawn from the bottom of storage bins can cause the surface to act like quick sand. When a storage bin is emptied from the bottom, the flow of material

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forms a funnel-shaped path over the outlet. The rate of material flow in creases toward the centre of the funnel.

During a typical unloading operation, the flow rate can become so great that


p It

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once a worker is drawn into the flow

path, escape is virtually impossible. A condition known as bridging can create additional hazardous situations.

Bridging occurs when grain or other loose material clings to the sides of a container or vessel that is being emp

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Trenchless Rehabilitation

Cast iron watermain rehabilitation - the

Saanich, BC experience

Saanich is a municipality of 103,000 people, straddling the Saanich Peninsula just north

of Victoria, BC. It is a mix of

agricultural, residential and commercial land use, with suburban residential com

upgrading, including replacement. En gineering and Public Works were con cerned that all dollars be targeted as stra tegically as possible. Typically,less than one million dollars annually are devoted to replacing undersized and inad-

fire flows, than was being replaced/re habilitated in a given year. These were the driving forces for in vestigating rehabilitation of cast iron pipe. Where failure records indicated intrinsically sound pipe, and where flow

peting with its agricultural roots. Watermain inventory is

tests confirmed C factors of50

segments of cast iron predat ing the 1880s. Cast iron domi nated the specified material for

or lower, cleaning and epoxy lining was targeted as a lowcost alternative to complete pipe replacement. The lower unit cost meant more capital

installation until the 1950s,

funds would be left for those

when asbestos cement became

undersized and failure-prone segments where replacement was required. The first section of pipe chosen for the epoxy method

also a mix of old and new, with

popular. Due to moderate cli mate, pipelines are shallow buried (typically +/- 1 metre), and the lightness,corrosion re sistance and ease of installation

was Arbutus Rd., a 500 metre

favored the non-ferrous mate

length of 150 mm cast iron, originally installed in 1954. Break history revealed no cause for concern regarding Joint performance, service pullouts, etc. However, flow testing placed this line in the below 50 C factor range, and a history ofcustomer complaints of dirty, poor quality water


From the 1970s onward, Saanich has favoured C-900 and ductile iron as materials for new watermain construction.

Both figure significantly in the total inventory of 570 km. With only a moderate capital Speciaiist application equipment: Ensuring optimum viscos budget available for watermain ity and controiied pumping. Photo - Pipe Fiow Technology Ltd.

were on record. A children's

Waterworks Superintendent for the District of Saanich ^Iken Services

This paper was presented at the recent BCW&WA Conference in Whistler, BC.

equately performing pipelines. This fig ure represents less than .3% of asset re placement value. Concerns were that more pipeline was failing, or perform ing at a substandard level, especially for

hospital is also serviced by this pipeline, and Saanich had received, prior to 1997, annual complaints of rusty water foul ing their laundry. Pipe Flow Technology and Iken Services was contracted to clean, video

and line the watermain. Epoxy relining is a five-step process, with the District ofSaanich doing steps one,and five, and the contractor undertaking steps two, three and four.

Heated reservoirs

Air compressor

Pump Wnchreel

Step one: Notification of property Centrifugal

owners/residents and the installation

application unit Roaln/harctener/


air hoses

Static 1

Application: Lining machine drawn through pipe. Photo - Pipe Flow Technology Ltd. 76

of service bypass lines. Saanich handdelivered letters explaining the project, including start and completion dates, numbers to call if problems were en countered, and a brief summary of the nature of the work being done. After the letters were delivered, poly bypass lines were laid from hydrant connections beyond the affected watermain segment. These bypass lines were connected into setter connections that temporarily re placed the water meters at the property line. Overland poly tubing was protected at driveway and road crossings

Environmental Science tfe Engineering, September 1998

By Mike Ippen^ and Jamie Eichenberger^ with timber "rollovers".

Step two: Excavation of access pits. The epoxy process can complete ap proximately 140 metres per access pit, so five were dug, one at east and west ends of the project, and two about one hundred metres from each end. The fifth

cut was almost midpoint, and Saanich took advantage of this location to install a needed fire hydrant. The pits were ap

proximately 1.5 m wide by 3 m in length, sheer cut and each one certified by a professional geotechnical engineer for Workers Compensation Board regu lations regarding safe work in excava tions greater than four feet in depth.

Coupons were removed and vertical tees installed as pig and swab launchers. Step three: Cleaning and video in spection of pipeline. The contractor ran trains of pigs in increasing diameter and stiffness to remove encrusted tubercles

Debris being removed from a pipe during a cieaning process. Photo

Pipe Flow

Technology Ltd.

from the pipe wall. Pushed by water pressure, the pigs were discharged into a baffled weir which captured the heavier solids and finished pigs. Water

curing, the video is run through the line, confirming coverage and uniformity. As the liner is so thinly sprayed,there is no


need to blow back service lines. The

was dechlorinated with anhydrous so

process has worked through open

after the first excavations were begun. Summary

dium thiosulphate and spilled into a ditch containing filter cloth dams to re tain finer sediments. When pigging was completed,the launchers were removed and the CCTV rig was positioned to verify cleanliness and pipe integrity. Step four: Epoxy lining. The contrac

valves; however, on Arbutus there were no in-line valves to line through.

Epoxy relining is a trenchless reha bilitation method, averaging 55-65% of

Step five: Reconnect to system and

conventional replacement costs.

dismantle bypass lines. After video in ventory was done, the line was flushed and chlorinated. Samples were taken to

Saanich was looking for a means of ad dressing hydraulic performance prob

the local lab. and when results known.

tor went over the video with

Saanich, and after confirming a clean pipe wall,the epoxy rig was brought into the access



backfilled, compacted and paved. This step took place only eight working days

lems on its cast iron inventory, taking into account its overall good perform ance as far as break history is concerned. With a watermain

inventory high in pipelines with poorer operational his tory, and with limited budgets for replacement and upgrading,

pits. The lining machine is a trailer unit consisting of heat vats, pump and hose reel as

it was felt cast iron rehabilita

sembly. The vats are oil heated to keep the epoxy at a speci fied temperature. A control panel at the rig provides the op

tion was a useful option to pur

erator with pressure, tempera

ment, created minimal traffic

ture, nozzle speed and lining

and pedestrian inconvenience, and with bypass lines installed prior to start, meant no inter ruption of water supply to cus


The process took 60% less time to complete than replace

thickness as the hose reel

moves through the pipeline. The spinning head is dragged through the cleaned pipeline by a tag-line at the exit pit. Vol umes of epoxy are calibrated

tomers. The fast application

stage meant that the pipeline could be reconnected and put

and monitored through the relining process. Typical epoxy Did pipe deterioration: Water quaiity at risk. thickness is 14 mils, or ap Photo - Pipe Flow Technology Ltd.

proximately one-tenth the usual thickness ofcement mortar. A140 metre run under usual conditions will take less than 15 minutes to line.

After lining, the pipe ends are sealed and a 16 hour cure is required. After

back into service faster than

with other, more traditional re-

lining materials. At 14 mils thick, inside diameter of the

the line was put back into service. A

pipe is not reduced and regrowth of tu

final flow test was done at this time, and

bercles is inhibited, and there is no

final C factors were approaching 117, from the original low of 46. Connec tions were restored and bypass lines dis

chance of service lines being blocked. For more information, circie reply card No. 160

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1998



Watermain breaks can impact public health iron (Dl) pipes and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)or vinyl pipes are also in use. It covers three-quarters Water distribution pipes that corrode ofthe earth's surface. Of or break may cause contamination of the all the earth's water, only one percent is drinking water supply and subsequent 'ater is the most common

A National Research Council of

substance found on earth.

Canada(NRC)study of the performance and durability of the various types of pipes in Canadian municipal water utili ties found that PVC pipes demonstrated


available as a source of drink

is salt water, located in oceans

and seas, and two percent is fro zen in the polar ice caps. More than a third of the

world's people lack a safe water supply. In underdevel oped areas, diarrhea causes 3.5

Length of Pipe

Pipe Material


Cast Iron




Ductile Iron Asbestos-Cement









PVC (Vinyl)





Pressurized Concrete


age five every year. By 2025, more than two-thirds of the global popu

outbreaks of waterbome diseases.

In the US, a study of the causes of

shortages of clean water. Treated potable water travels through many kilometres of underground water mains from the treatment plant to the consumer's tap. Pipes that comprise the drinking water distribution system can include cast iron(Cl)or asbestos-cement (AC)pipes, which are still in use today but are no longer installed. Cast ductile

waterbome disease outbreaks from 1971


to 1992 found that in community water

systems, contamination of distribution systems was a significant factor. Canadian municipalities have esti mated annual water losses of $650 mil

lion, primarily through broken mains, plus expenditures of $82 million a year on repairs.

tion pipe per every 62 miles of pipeline is 0.5 breaks for vinyl pipes compared with 32.6 breaks for Cl pipes and 7.9 breaks for Dl pipes. Unlike Cl and Dl pipes, vinyl pipe is non-corroding and does not rust, scale, or pit.

PVC does not chemically re act even with aggressive water. It is also flexible enough that it can bend without breaking, making it able to endure an impact or earth movement. When prop erly designed and installed,PVC has an estimated life span of more than 100 years, with little or no loss of strength. Sources: Critical Trends: Giobal Change and Sustainabie Development, United Nations Report, World Health Organization Report, Chlorine Chemistry Council.

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"break rates" for water distribu

0.5 0.8 4% National Research Council Canada, 1995

lation will live in countries with serious

Offering a compiete iine

estimate of the average annual

1992 1993 # of breaks/100 km


million deaths in children under


the lowestfailure rate. The NRC

Data on length of pipe and water main break rate per 100 km

ing water. Ninety-seven percent

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For more information,

circle repiy card No. 167



Suspended Solids/Turbidity | Very Low Turbidity Self-Cleaning System I Filter Breakthrough Monitor I self-cleaning allowing the


on-line meas


enough filter

urement of suspended solids or turbidits




the control of the 7100 station,


file robust system 715 is designed for spotchecking the sludge




settling tanks. Using a single gap pulsed infrared


drift. A range of O-IONTU


with a resolution of O.OINTU

changing concentration of suspended solids as the

is selectable for monitoring final potable water and pre venting Cryptosporidium invasion. The monitor uses a

n n

blanket level interface in

to monitor performance


rugged conditions. Under

self-cleaning is done at pre-programmed intervals, keeping maintenance at a minimum and freeing the operator. Its low range (90 deg. scattered light) covers 0-50mg/l or 0-500mg/l and the high range (light attenuation) includes 0-4.000mg/l or 0-20.000mg/l The Turbi-Tech is made for the toughest applications.Trv it I

Portable Detector

The RTT Analytical turbidity monitor is

Tlie TLirbi-Tecli sensor rises

a unique mechanism


measures the

sensor is lowered into the tank. When the

sludge interface is reached, an unmistakable audible signal is heard. The sensor is reel

novel solid reference standard

mounted and the cable is marked in meters for

making calibration of span and zero simple and quick.

easy determination of the sludge interface depth. The 715 is fast, accurate and ine.xpensive.

Circle reply card No. 262

Circle reply card No. 261

Circle reply card No.260



• Mixed liquor SS monitoring • Final effluent compliance • Filter breakthrough

• Pulp and paper • Dairy industry • Brewing and distilling

• Biomass control

• Potable water treatment








The Megator sliding shoe pump is an ex-









separator uses a

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unique and reliable differential gra\ it>

romalic Indrocarbons

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ing and industrial applications. The pump is self-priming can operate under dry suction and can handle liquids ofany viscosity to a maximum at w hieli pumping is economically feasible. Systems may he mounted direct-coupled or V-belt drive operating over a wide How range. This unique pumping design offers extremely low cmii[.slfleatioii of

maintenance-free disposal of separated oils w ithout any trace of water. In most applica tions. eflluents under 10 ppm are produced. Mtide of poly propy lene or carbon steel, this

(PAH) to


with liiuh sensitivity their concentration in water, trations

PPB can

concen be


solved. The PL-100 offers on-board datalogging;, 4-20inA and RS-232 output. It can be used as a

OWS handles llowrates from 5 to 5000 GPM.

ponable analyzer or in a Hxed configuration. Sample

It offers a solid 30 year warranty on the OWS body and coalescem plates. Tudoiibtcdly. the

deli\er\' can be from a pressurized pipe or from the optional peristaltic pump. An optional automatic washing system ensures minimal maintenance.

best buy on the market.

oilv/water mixtures.

Circle reply card No. 263


Circle reply card No. 264


Calgary Toronto




Circle reply card No. 265






It's all in how you put it together.

WAR AND PEACE l.i:o roi-a iv*r

mi BEi


the complete WORKS

EIMCO engineers have put together a phosphorous removal system that combines three


biological environments in a single partitioned reactor—eliminating recycle pumps and

A Baker Hughes company

piping. As a result, the Carrousel®A^C"System reduces maintenance and operating costs.

Engineering new solutions

Once again, EIMCO writes the book on efficiency. For Information, call (905) 625-6070. www.bakerhughes.com/elmco.htm

For more information, circle reply card No. 162(See page 25)

® 1998 Baker Hughes