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June/July '98 Vol. 11

No. 3

Issued June, 1998

page 12




Ad Index


Editorial Comment




19 22

OWWA/OMWA conference report Underground corrosion


Datepad Industry Update


Literature Reviews


Product Review


R&D News


Reader Feedback


Reader Service Card




Sales Manager




Circulation Manager

Publisher's Assistant



Managing Editor

Sales Representative



Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Jim Bishop

Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Beak International Inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfeilow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE

MacViro Consultants

R.V. Anderson Associates


Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication of Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treat

24 26 28 31

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Studying bromate formation Effective pump maintenance Designing pumping systems Electricity from biosolids Limiting spills liability Assessing groundwater's $ value Monitoring sewer overfiows

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Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

In media scrums the score so far is:

engineers 2- activists 10 More off-the-cuff remarks on the

environmental profession's inability to deal with the media - given at the Consulting Engineers of Ontario's conference May 13.(Part it)

The engineering profession,

Personally, I have usually been gen erously treated, almost like family, by professional groups. One amusing ex ception comes to mind. I was invited to cover a conference in


with some notable exceptions,

Muskoka region. The invitation invited me to do photo coverage but stressed the

has not dealt with the news

invitation did not include lunch! As I

media very well. Journalists

did not fancy sitting in a corridor eating chips from a vending machine while the engineering aristocrats dined inside, I

love anecdotal articles which,for exam

ple, might link a child's rash with the opening of a new factory. No engineer or scientist would dare to base evalua tions on such evidence which is anath

declined the invitation. So their wise

words were lost to posterity. As a com parison, if a toilet gets blocked at the

ema to scientific research. The two

methodologies are dramatically op posed. Yet anecdotal introductions are now the very feedstock of con temporary joumalism. Environmental professionals have a poor record in dealing with the news media. One organiza

in the hundreds of millions.

tion's media office reminded me

of the old Maytag commercials where the repairman was "the loneliest guy in town". The room looked more appropriate for a monastic retreat than a room

dedicated to extrovert, deadline-

driven media types. Media reaction

When an award winning en vironmental writer went to one

major environmental confer ence on behalf of several me


was told his proposals were against the laws of organic chemistry. Unabashed, he said that this law must be changed. I am still not sure if he was displaying brilliant repartee or a profound igno rance of analytical science. In another case, someone was trying to explain how rapidly our northern tree line could advance during a warm sea son. He wrote that "a sexually active tree might move as much as a hundred metres in a single season ". Perhaps the tree in question was running from an ac tive dog, probably one sexually aroused by the bark. Ignorance costs millions The costs of the engineer's voice being muted at public policy debates can be calculated






There are many examples. Ce ment companies could have har nessed the thermal power in PCB wastes using high tem perature rotary kilns while ac tually making cement - saving millions. Rigorous tests under scientific methodologies had proved that the kilns were an al most perfect solution to PCB waste disposal. Cement kilns could also dispose of other waste chlorinated hydrocarbons as well as waste tires. The pro ject to use cement kilns this way

The cost of the engineer's voice being muted during public was abandoned after heated dia a few years ago, he was policy debates costs society hundreds of millions. protests. Instead,imported coal pointedly told that while he could get afree registration, his assist Odeon Cinema, would you charge the was used which is both expensive and ant would have to pay full registration- plumber eight bucks to get inside the dirty. Then there was the Ontario Waste about $250. He paid up but later asked building to fix it? Looking for the source Management Corporation which spent me: "How could I have possibly cov ered concurrent sessions on my own?" When reporters seek data for drink 140 million dollars over a 14 year pe ing water or pollution stories, they sel riod - yet did not manage to treat a cup I could not answer that one but the eco ful of PCB wastes. Ironically, the nomics of the issue would stagger many dom approach environmental profession engineers. The one time page rates for als - the real experts licenced by law to OWMC also proposed to use a rotary ads in the magazines he represented address these issues. Instead, the media kiln to burn the PCBs. No one seemed were approximately $2,500 per page. As approach Greenpeace, Pollution Probe, to notice that the proposed kiln would he and his assistant would probably or other groups who enthusiastically and incinerate the wastes without making expertly collaborate with the media. It is cement. This fiasco was begun under write at least four articles on the confer interesting to note that some protesters the Bill Davis conservatives, continued ence, we would likely be looking at ex posure worth a total of$8,000 at ad page would be forbidden by law to design or under the David Peterson liberals, and operate the treatment plants they so read saw the first rumblings of discontent rates. Moreover, the authors of the pa under Bob Rae's NDP government. It pers would have extended their audience ily pontificate about- yet politicians of ten give their views credence. was finally abandoned in the early days to tens of thousands, rather than the few score at the conference. A great oppor This is a tragic issue really, but not of the Mike Harris government. The without its farcical side. One activist - OWMC outlasted three successive gov tunity lost but, let it be said, the confer while debating zero pollution targets - ernments without treating any wastes. ence organizer saved 250 bucks. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Editorial Comment, conr Location,location, location Ruth Grier, when NOP Environment

Minister in the Bob Rae government, created the Interim Waste Authority to deal with Toronto's garbage. After

spending $85 million (plus another $15 million spent by municipalities oppos ing the move),the project was cancelled and Ruth was reshuffled to become Min ister of Health. I dedicated a headline

to mark her passing from the environ ment ministry to the health folio: Red Queen seeks solace in Blimderland.

Adams mine was deemed environmen

tally suitable as a repository for Toron to's garbage. Had the proposal been implemented, huge amounts of garbage could have been transported to Kirkland Lake by rail instead of hundreds of heavy diesel trucks criss-crossing Toronto, before travelling across some of the most sce nic farmland in Canada surrounding the metropolis.

activities already underway. Her 'feel good' approach was more redolent of Martha Stewart,TV's queen of gracious living. Minister Stewart said the Internet wiii

be the hub of Environment Canada's Miiiennium Eco-Communities Initiative.

The web site will feature an honour roll of communities that set environmental

targets and make significant achieve ments. It will provide a tool kit of in

Government(in) action

formation on environmental issues and

allow participating communities to re port. Ideally, this should be followed up by a TV show called Name that

ered; but then we should note, primitive

The ruling that municipalities must look after their own garbage made no sense. Clearly there was little opportu nity for garbage disposal in Toronto. It has been estimated by the Cana

cultures have often been afraid of fire.

dian Water & Wastewater Association

Almost all of the potential sites ex amined by the Interim Waste Authority were actually outside the former Metro Toronto borders. This made a mockery of the idea that municipalities must look after their own garbage. The paradox Large volumes of goods such as food,

that $65 billion will be needed simply to repair and maintain our current in

Tougher regulations, not the internet, would really clean up the environment. If leaking watermains and sewers were as visible as potholes, there would be

frastructure. But the madness contin

no need for the environmental internet.

ues as we head toward the millennium.

Will these participating communities ever understand they were built atop a crumbling water and wastewater infra

Ruth Grier in effect, had dictated that

Toronto must look after its own garbage. Incineration was not even to be consid

clothes, timber, furniture, and textiles

flow into Canada's richest city from all over the world by road, air and rail. In the IWA plan, Toronto was supposed to ingest these huge volumes then some how, in the medical sense, develop the

While our water and wastewater infra

structure is crumbling, federal and pro vincial energies and monies are focussed on trivialities. There appears to be no end in sight. The madness has contin ued since my address on May 13. For example In Regina,'June 5,1998, Federal En

a $65 billion backlog in water and sewer rehab work alone, remedial work on our

treatment plants and infrastructure has actuaiiy slowed down as we approach the millennium.

It takes the expertise of engineers, chemists and scientists to design and

its own boundaries. Some of the sites

Communities Initiative to help set and achieve results on priority environmen tal issues. The community efforts would focus on goals of clean air, clean water, a legacy of a healthy natural environ ment and action on climate change, complementing federal environmental

The ministry also ruled out a proposal to ship Toronto's garbage north to Kirkland Lake by rail, where the worked-out

Gates was even a viable fetus? Despite

vironment Minister Christine Stewart under the banner of the Miiienniutn Eco-

fertile areas of Canada,outside Toronto.

structure which was installed before Bill

called for Canadians to come together

means to evacuate the residuals within

considered, inadvertently would have placed landfills among some of the most


construct treatment facilities. Instead,

the Federal Environment Minister hopes to make us feel good through what is in effect, a giant electronic video game,as we march towards the millennium over

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Reader Feedback Dear Mr. Davey, I just returned from having lunch with one of Canada's finest engineers, re cently retired. Upon returning to my desk I opened the cover of Environmen tal Science & Engineering, and read the dinner address you gave on May 13, 1998 at the Consulting Engineers of On tario's Annual Conference. Your quick summary of the reasons I am so proud to be an engineer was given in three short columns, roughly 1,000 written

words which captured the essence ofen gineering, at least from my point of view.

It will always be true that public per-

wards protecting/enhancing our envi ronment and daily lives. Tony Ho, Ministry of the Environment

sonas are often those identified with in

tellectual highlights that capture the pub lic's imagination for a brief moment. It will also always be true that the greatest works of engineers result from the steady and relentless pursuit of im proved standards of life - not easily measured when viewed against the mo mentary pleasures one may obtain from cinematic films, whatever the brilliance of the director.

Leadershi erience


It is the responsibility of the engineer ing profession, particularly learned and professional societies, to honour their own. Should the story of these successes be compelling, such as those you paint for the works of Thomas Keefer, Willis

Dear Tom,

Chipman and Albert Berry, these suc cesses can then be heralded by the pro fession in concert with govemment and

(May ES&E)points out two clear issues:

media, where direct connection with the

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the low bid and the need for better me

dia relations within the engineering in dustry. I was also intrigued to see your sentiment recently observed in The

public is most easily obtained. I believe a program sponsored by national engineering organizations such as the Engineering Institute of Canada or the Canadian Academy of Engineer ing makes such a concept possible. It would require a unified program, with continuing moral and financial support provided by other provincial and na tional engineering organizations. It would also require no more than honouring historical figures in engineer ing, one per year, as a start. Thank you for putting into words some of my thoughts on the history of the engineering profession in Canada, and the importance that engineers such as my luncheon companion have had in the development of Canada, and for in spiring these few words to you. Ray Benson, Chairman Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd.

found anywhere, then engineers will have the leverage and credibility to de

Vancouver, B.C.

mand the return of normal fees.

Dear Tom,

tion of the engineering industry will not be an easy task, but the time is right for

Economist with an article entitled "En

gineering: in need of heroes". These articles should be viewed as

wake-up calls to engineers. The indus try must not lose this opportunity when the economy is functioning, and firms are busy, to promote the industry and the projects being worked on. Unfortu nately, the only press engineers are gen erating is in the BC condo fiasco. But what about Hibernia, PEI's Confedera

tion Bridge, or Toronto's new Air Canada Centre?

Promoting the industry and develop ing a solid media relations campaign has to be viewed as a strategy to alleviate the low bid ethos. Once the public and politicians see that engineering services are not just cheap commodities to be

Now don't get me wrong,the promo

Re:Your Editorial Comment,May 1998

Markham, ON, CANADA L3R 4B5

Your editorial comment on engineering

Well said. I feel that the PEO should the industry to start. award you an honorary P.Eng. designa Greg Skinner, tion just for your editorial comment. Member Services Coordinator for Engineering, still the invisible profes Consulting Engineers of Ontario sion in a world driven by the low bid. I would very much encourage you to ...I wish I had seen this magazine before; send the editorial to the newspapers, not it is excellent, with lots ofinteresting ar to blow our own trumpet, but simply to ticles. make people aware of the significance Susan Russell, Village of Mirror, and contributions made by engineers to Mirror,AB

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Industry Update Canada's environmental

assesses sustainable development strat

watchdog is deeply worried

egies of 28 federal departments and agencies. In addition,the Commissioner reports the results of four studies in ar

In his second annual report tabled May 26 in the House of Commons,Canada's Commissioner of the Environment and

Sustainable Development,Brian Emmett, indicates that he is deeply troubled by the federal government's performance to date on the environment.

"Vision and leadership are the two essential ingredients for tackling environ mental challenges that face a govern

Brian Emmett is the first federal Commissioner of the Environment and

Sustainable Development. He is inde pendent and non-partisan, and reports to Parliament annually. The Report is available on the

eas such as Canada's international envi

ronmental agreements, accounting for sustainable development, performance Office of the Auditor Ceneral website: measurement and the experience of www.oag-bvg.gc.ca. For more informa leading private sector organizations tion, contact: Johanne McDuff, Office worldwide in sustainable development of the Auditor Ceneral of Canada, Tel: (613)952-0213, ext. 6292. planning.

ment," said the Commissioner. "While Canada has demonstrated vision, it is fail


ing in implementing it. What really con cerns me is that far too often, the govern ment is not keeping the promises it makes



both to Canadians and to the world." Canada will not meet its international

commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Emissions will have increased by at least 11% at the turn of the century. Canada's biological diversity is in creasingly threatened by pollution and the loss of wildlife habitat. Canada has

been slow to meet its obligations under the United Nations Convention on Bio

logical Diversity. Environmental assessment is crucial

Waste water slurry being fed'into a Derrick Flo-Line screening machine


for making better decisions. Yet Cana da's environmental assessment process is not working as well as it should. The report, for the first time, also


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a new, wholly-owned subsidiary called Colder Associates Innovative Applica tions(CAIA)Inc. CAIA offers general contracting, project management and design-build services for environmen tal projects. Corporate services also in clude operation and maintenance of remediation systems, exploitation of li censed environmental technologies and distribution of specialized equipment. "We are partnering with Colder As sociates offices initially throughout

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Industry Update New carbon dioxide facility

World's largest SBR/BNR treatment system begins operation

for Chatham, Ontario Praxair, Inc. has opened a new carbon dioxide production facility in Chatham, Ontario. The plant produces up to 325 metric tonnes(358 tons) per day of car bon dioxide for use by customers in On tario, Quebec and the eastern United States. The new plant recovers and pu rifies carbon dioxide(CO,)produced as a by-product of the ethyl alcohol (ethanol) production process at the nearby Commercial Alcohols Inc. ethanol plant. The additional carbon dioxide will

help Praxair meet increased demand by customers in Ontario and provide back up for other regions. Carbon dioxide is an important en

vironmental component in industrial waste and process water treatment as a

replacement for sulfuric acid to control pH levels. Other uses include drinking

The Kunming plant.

The world's largest SBR type wastewater treatment plant, located in

Kunming, People's Republic of China, began successfol operation in Novem ber 1997. The ABJ™ ICEAS® process is designed to process 300,000 mVd(80 mgd) of domestic and light industrial wastewater at the Kunming No.3 plant. The project utilizes the Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System (ICEAS®)- a sequential batch reactor system in which aeration, anoxic/anaerobic mixing, settling and decanting are accomplished in a time sequenced op eration within a single basin. The pro

Municipalities to receive $104,650,527 for water and

water treatment, an environmentally-

cess enables high treatment rates to be achieved in a physically smaller and economic design. With each basin op erating independently, simply adding more plants in parallel can easily expand total capacity of the installation. In the Kunming No. 3 project, a total

friendly pesticide and an atmosphere additive in greenhouses to improve the growth of vegetables. Contact: Bob Douglas, Praxair(905) 803-1748.

of 14 basins, each 44m long by 32m

CEO elects new chairman J.B. (Bruce) Bodden, P.Eng., has been elected Chairman of the Consulting En

wide were installed and a total of44,000 Sanitaire® fine bubble membrane dif-

is Executive Vice President of Marshall

fusers were utilized providing enhanced oxygen transfer efficiency and lower operating costs. For more information,

gineers of Ontario(CEO). Mr. Bodden Macklin Monaghan Limited. He is a graduate of the University of Waterloo with over 29 years in the consulting en gineering industry.

circle reply card No. 165

In his address to the CEO's annual

conference, he noted that the traditional roles of client, consultant and contrac tor have been converging over the past

Durham Region Commissioner wins

sewage system improvements

Leadership Award

few years in response to larger, more complex projects and the increased use

Vik Silgailis, Commissioner of Durham

of alternative forms of delivery such as

A $200 million Ontario Provincial Water Protection Fund was created in

Region's Works Department, was se lected as one of the 1998 "Top Ten Pub lic Works Leaders of the Year" by the

(BOT), and design/build. This conver

August 1997 to help municipalities ex American Public Works Association periencing health or environmental (APWA). Mr. Silgailis is one of only a problems with their water and/or sew handful of Canadians to receive this age systems. honour. The "Top Ten Public Works In April,Environment Minister Norm Leaders of the Year" are selected by a Sterling announced six grants totalling panel of judges "for work that reflects $17,744,330 to: the District Municipal the highest standards of professional ity of Muskoka;the Township of Alfred conduct". and Plantagenet; the County of Prince On May 21,1998,the Ontario Chap Edward; and the Towns of Strathroy,

ter of the APWA held a formal presen

Deep River and Sioux Lookout.

tation as part of their National Public

On lune 2, he announced grants to

talling $104,650,527 to be used to im prove 27 sewage treatment and 18 water treatment works across Ontario. 12

outsourcing. Build Operate Transfer gence in turn, is stimulating consolida tion in the consulting engineering indus

try in the form of mergers and acquisi tions, required to provide the expertise and resources necessary to manage and deliver these larger projects. "Convergence in project delivery is

changing how our clients see the role of the consulting engineer. Our industry can seize the opportunity provided by the current strong economy to rebuild through reinvestment and strengthening

Works Week activities to honour Mr.

of resources so that consulting engineer

Silgailis in recognition of his dedication

ing is a leader and an integrator, and not merely a low-cost provider of basic en gineering services," said Bodden.

and contribution to both his community and profession.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

INSmjFORM solves your pipe problems using nondisruptive, cost-effective solutions. The most difficult part about some pipe problems is just getting access to the pipe itself. Insituform Technologies specializes In reha bilitating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located In hard-to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the Inside, in most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Extensive Independent and Internal testing consis tently confirms the success of our methods.

We take sole-source responsibility for solving your problem, from the develop ment and manufacturing of proprietary products, to the engineering and Installa tion of a solution at your site. Our ISO 9000 quality system assures high quality every step oi the way. With experts in all facets of pipe rehabilitation on staff, we have the project manage ment expertise and trained installers to solve your problems quickly. Our

exceptionally low accident rate and EMR reflect our commitment to safety. And, our 25 years and 7,000 miles of pipe rehabilitation experience are unequaled. That is why Insituform Is industry's preferred source for pipe reha bil itation. If you are having problems with difflcult-to-access pipes, call us at 800-234-2992 or visit our web site atwww.insituform.com


Technologies Limited Š1997 Insiluform Technologies. Inc.

For more information, circle reply card No. 107(See page 25)

Industry Update Positive indications for waste disposal industry

There was a large number of enquir ies for Canadian technology. The focus was not only on the German market. New contacts were made with trade visi

tors from China, Pakistan and Africa.

There was particular demand for special ized recycling systems, including a sys tem which recycles waste, hydraulic, lubricating, as well as mixed waste oils, to produce diesel fuel. The trade visitors also showed keen

interest in innovative composting proc esses.

New homes get meters A water meter will be installed in most

new City of Calgary homes under con struction as part of a program launched recently to encourage water conserva tion. The program enables customers to try a water meter for one year at no financial risk. Residents can still choose

The worldwide waste disposal industry is looking ahead optimistically. At the close of ENTSORG A Cologne,in May, Gerhard Scheele, president of the Fed eral Association of the German Waste

Disposal Industry, Cologne, spoke of "positive signals which, in view of the evident stagnation of recent times,

promise a new upward trend". Among the 1,363 exhibiting compa nies from 32 countries were Canadian

suppliers(two exhibitors and six repre sented firms), who were part of a group presentation organized by Cologne In ternational Shows Inc., Toronto, and by the Canadian Embassy in Bonn.

a flat rate billing but,"95% of custom ers who have participated in the water meter incentive program have saved money," says a city water efficiency specialist. City water plants are almost at full capacity now as population growth con tinues in Calgary.


For water disinfection, wastewater treatment,odour

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For more information, circle reply card No. 108 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Don't let our age fool you.

Concrete pipe has been going strong for decades. But don't let our age fool you. Concrete pipe is made for today. High tech and up to speed with any design, concrete pipe

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For more information, circie reply card No. 109(See page 25)

Industry Update Increased pollution could occur through fuel switching Many US power plants are planning to

switch coals to reduce SO^ emissions, but fuel switching is likely to result in substantial increases in air toxins such

as mercury if utilities are not careful in fuel selection.

According to The Mcllvaine Com pany,the potential consequences offuel switching are much greater than previ ously thought. For example, mercury content in coal varies as much as twentyeight to one. Ifjust 10 percent of coalfired plants switched to a coal with five times the mercury level of present coals, mercury emissions would rise by 51,000 Ibs./yr. By comparison, mercury emis sions from all the US municipal and medical waste incinerators are being reduced from 72,000 to 12,000 Ibs./yr. due to recent regulations. Therefore, fuel switching by power plants could offset the mercury reductions made by other industries.

Previous analysis has failed to take into account the opportunistic fuel pur chasing policies that will result from de

regulation. Dirtier fuels are lower in cost and,therefore, will be in greater demand. Ifjust one percent of coal-fired plants switched from a high sulphur low chlo rine coal to a low sulphur 0.1 percent chlorine coal, hydrochloric acid emis sions would rise by 13,000,000 Ibs./yr.

are needed - not new regulations. Title V and other Titles of the CAA already provide the means to prevent these toxic and particulate increases. 2. Utilities should make compliance decisions by taking into account all pol lution consequences of each option.

This far exceeds the new limits of

3. To make assessments easier for utili

8,000,000 ibs./yr. for all the nation's mu nicipal and medical waste incinerators. Fine particulate emissions will rise when low sulphur coals are substituted for high sulphur coals unless additional investments are made in air pollution control equipment.

ties, a pollution index which compares the relative harm of different pollutants should be constructed (e.g. SO,= 1,fine particulate = 40, mercury = 40,000). 4. Utilities should choose options which do not increase total pollution. Scrub bing or cofiring gas are also viable op tions for SO, reduction. These can be compared to the acceptable alternate

Coal contains a number of toxic met

als such as arsenic,cadmium,beryllium, manganese, nickel, and chromium. There is a large variation in quantity not only from one coal type to another, but

fuels. 5. EPA should make clear that if mer

even between coals from different loca

cury or air toxin caps are later promul gated,they will be based on a 1998 base

tions in the same seam.

line and that increases over that base

The Mcllvaine Company in its report. Air Pollution Management, suggests the following:

line for the years 1999 and beyond will

1. Common sense and communications

be deducted from future allowances.

Contact the Mcllvaine Company, (847) 272-0010.

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mote facilities. This brochure

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Circle reply card No. 239

Magnetic Inductive Flowmeters... The Aquaflux 470 Electromagnetic Flowmeter from Krohne provides high measuring accuracy and stabil ity. Every 470 Flowmeter is cali brated exactly in one of the

Tel:(514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


Big savings with on-site oxygen and nitrogen production On-site oxygen and nitrogen generating systems are reliable and convenient, and can reduce overall gas costs by 20 to 50 percent compared to traditional liquid supply methods. Praxair owns and op erates the systems so capital investment is minimal, and costs over the long term are stable and predictable. Most systems feature Praxair's re mote monitoring system which allows unattended operation, load tracking for peak operating efficiency, and aroundthe-clock system diagnostics. Nitrogen Praxair nitrogen membrane systems meet the needs of customers requiring

air and are ideal for those who require between five and 200 tons (4.5 to 182 metric tonnes) of oxygen a day at purities ranging from 90 to 94 percent over a wide range of supply pressures. A back-up liquid oxygen supply is inte grated into the system to ensure continu ous oxygen supply and optimize flex ibility.

More than 100 VPSA systems are currently operating in wastewater treat ment,chemical processing,glass manu facturing, steel production, non-ferrous metal manufacturing, pulp and paper production, and hazardous waste treat ment facilities around the world.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 146

300 to more than 120,000 cubic feet(8

to 3,325 m^) per hour of nitrogen at 95 to 99.999 percent purity and pressures up to 150 psig (1,035 kPa). These noncryogenic systems use advanced hol low-fibre membranes to separate nitro gen from air by selective permeation.

CARBOima. Praxair has acquired Liquid

Carbonic Industries, making us' the world's largest supplier of Praxair's compact, medium-sized nitro gen membrane system can produce up to 7,500 cfh (200 rrf/hr) of nitrogen.

carbon dioxide and a good deal morf It vastly expands our


Praxair commercialized membrane

technology in 1987 and operates more than 400 nitrogen membrane systems worldwide at chemical processing, oil and gas, pharmaceutical, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, printed wiring board,food processing, and glassmaking facilities.

Praxair also offers a range of highpurity nitrogen plants that provide flow capacities ranging from 2,000 cubic feet

(55 mO per hour to 900,000 cubic feet (25,000 m^) per hour at purities of up to 99.9999999 percent. Oxygen VPSA (vacuum pressure swing ad sorption) systems for the production of oxygen were pioneered by Praxair in 1989 and are as much as 30% more ef

ficient than other adsorption systems.

to provide a full menu of atmosplMfS;^

process and specialty gases. It git^ us new capacity and expertise to se^ almost any industry in 44 countries;

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Self-contained,skid-mounted and com

pact, they are easy to install, even in ar eas with limited space. VPSA systems separate oxygen from

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rmatjon, circle reply card No. 110(See oaae 25)


Industry Update Research demonstrates

WEF President C. Dale Jacobson,

Administration, the National Research

that biosolids recycling benefits agriculture

stated that the National Organic Program Rule-which attempts to establish stand ards for "organic" crop production and

Council (NRC), and the USDA itself

Following the US Department of Agri culture's recent exclusion of biosolids

from its National Organic Program Rule, the Water Environment Federation

(WEF)has issued a statement declaring biosolids among the safest and most complete organic fertilizers currently available.

have ail declared that the use of biosolids

is safe and appropriate in the produc certification mechanisms - is based on tion of fruits and vegetables. {Land marketing, not science. Unlike animal Application ofMunicipal Sewer Sludge manure, which is unregulated, untreated, for the Production of Fruits and Veg and yet deemed OK to use in organic etables: A Statement of Federal Policy food production, biosolids have been and Guidance, Joint Policy Statement extensively studied and regulated ac SW-905,EPA,FDA,USDA, 1981, and cording to strict criteria. Use ofReclaimed Water and Sludge in The US EPA, the Food and Drug Food Crop Production, NRC, 1996). Even if all biosolids in the United

States were to be recycled for farming, they would only supply 1% of agricul tural fertilizer needs.


Urban water use in Canada The amount of water used in Canada's


municipalities went down by 22 litres per person, per day between 1991 and 1994. The big difference seems to be

with turbulent reducers(increases length of travel by up to 4; hence small footprint)

water meters, as households with me

ters use almost40 percent less than those paying a flat rate. According to Urban Water: Municipal Water Use and Wastewater Treatment (a bulletin in the


Petroleum stations

National Environmental Indicator Se

industrial uiashbays Parking lots, etc. • Precast one piece concrete (CSA to 3m earth cover) insures structural integrity, dependability. • More than 200 major installations functioning without a complaint or failure for 1 0 years. • We have replaced fibreglass units at a much lower cost.

• Effluent contains as low as 10 ppm hydrocarbons and can be lowered to 2 ppm with add-ons. • Separate compartment for monitoring. • Additional compartment for testing. • No moving parts, easy to monitor/

Ten million and counting Ten million scrap tires have now been recycled in Alberta, the Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta (TRMA)announced in mid June. This milestone was celebrated by installing the last wheelbarrow of recycled tire crumb as an improved, safer surface


Lowest Cost SQiution includes delivery and setting in accessible excavation. Backfill with native materials. Large inventory and one day delivery.

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ries), urban Canadians on average, use almost twice as much water per capita as counterparts in most other industrial ized countries,except the United States. The improvement in wastewater be tween 1991 and 1994 was significant overall(at 8%),but particularly in Que bec, where the municipal population served by some level of wastewater treatment increased by about 30%.


under playground equipment. The TRMA was originally estab lished as a Management Board in 1992, when growing mountains of then use less tires discarded by Albertans were being stockpiled in landfills at the rate of two million tires every year. Tire re cycling has proven to be so successful that not only has the province's stock pile been virtually eliminated, but a whole new tire recycling industry has taken root, producing products ranging from playground material and mats, truck liners and stabilizing materials for roads,to soil additives for athletic fields.


For more information, circle reply card No. 111 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

OWWA/OMWA Conference Report

PUC water rates are lower than regional or municipaljurisdictions

The Ontario Water Works As

sociation showed that it has

embraced the new realities of

the nineties when the outgo ing Section Chair, Patricia Lachmaniuk, handed over the reins of office to Judy MacDonald. Ms Lachmaniuk was the first woman to head a Canadian Section

since 1916, when the first Canadian

AWWA meeting was held in Montreal. When Ms MacDonald succeeded her at

this convention in Niagara Falls, it be came the first time women have con

secutively headed the Ontario Section. Indeed it is doubtful if any AWWA Sec tion anywhere can match this progres sive record.

Worthy of note, however, is that Rhonda Harris will become President of the Water Environment Federation in

Orlando later this year, so the water treatment profession is experiencing a

long overdue sea of change in gender roles. Encouragingly, the membership has enthusiastically endorsed the new gender directions. Ms MacDonald is a special studies engineer for Halton Region but her past experience, like Ms Lachmaniuk, in cludes working for the Ontario Minis try of the Environment. She has also worked for a private sector consulting company, thus bringing a wide range of experience to her new role. She faces new challenges as the water industry confronts privatization issues.

and microwaves, but nothing on the quality of water. The internet was a dif ferent story. There I found all kinds of information on water quality, AWWA, the Ohio section, the Ontario section and

conference. Incoming Chair Judy

many water related businesses. But I was saddened that nothing was available at my local library. "1 guess we should take pride in hav ing an excellent product that does not need to be advertised at the library, but the fact that general information is not always available to the public makes it hard to convince people that it is a pre cious resource. As Jim Bradley said in his keynote address: 'Our business

MacDonald said: "About two months

doesn't make headlines'.

ago when I found out what the theme of the conference was going to be, I went to the library to get a book on, guess what, "delivering quality". I found books on the quality of toasters, cars.

"It is an underlying assumption that we will produce the highest quality water. Quality, however, will become much more important as we are pushed Continued on page 21

At the recent OWWA/OMWA annual


' v., mC

Clockwise from left - Former Liberal environment minister Jim Bradley: Incoming chair Judy l\/lacDonald with 1997/1998 chair Pat Lachmaniuk; Fuller awardee Kent Edwards; and a scene from OlvlWA's vigorous debate on the Savings and Restructuring Act. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


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Photo report by Tom Davey to provide more and more for less and less, as people ask more questions and as enforcement becomes non-existent.

Certification of operators will also be come critical. We must ensure that we

maintain our efforts to protect our sys tems and educate our public. "As Samuel Johnson said: 'Our as

pirations are our possibilities'. Only by taking the lead can we ensure safe and sufficient water of unquestionable qual ity for the next generation." Privatization of municipal water commissions aroused some spirited de bate during the conference. Doug James,an OMWA Director who chaired

a session, opened up another debate by saying: "We have to have full cost ac counting and dedicated revenues in any municipal restructuring water services in Ontario."

Professor Andrew Sancton, Univer

sity of Western Ontario said: "The sim plest way to find out what has happened with Ontario municipal restructuring is to consult the website of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. Here we can get continual updates on what I call the "body count". "As of April 22,the Ministry proudly proclaims that, since the passage of the Savings and Restructuring Act in January 1996,the number of municipali

sume during their meetings. The real story here is that there are now twelve more citizens outside the system rather than inside it, where they can actually help control how public servants spend money." Kent Edwards, General Manager, Windsor PUC said: "The OWWA does

the industry a service by publishing water rate statistics. I have made a prac tice upon receiving the last two publi cations to compare water rates by gov ernance, whether by public utility com mission, regional government, or mu nicipalities. The result of this compari son has consistently showed that the lowest rates are offered by PUCs; mid dle rates are offered by regional govern ment, and the highest rates are charged by water systems operated by munici pal water departments. "The range in rates is most pro nounced for large customers where mu nicipal water department charges ex ceeded PUC charges on average by 57%. I am not claiming this to be the

result of rigorous analysis; I am simply stating that that is the result that the data produces. Rate disparities between the municipalities and PUCs are less pro nounced for residential rates. When

asked, Why? I am left to speculate that municipalities are less inclined to raise the rates of the voter base. I hope I am not being unfair." Some 600 delegates registered at the Niagara Falls conference. Kent Edwards received the Fuller Pin prior to getting the actual award in Dallas in June; at the same time. Rod Holme will become the seventh Canadian Section member to be President of the AWWA. The Howard Award went to Michael

Blair of Burlington, while Harold Hodgson received the Ontario Munici pal Water Association's Operators' Meri torious Service Award.

The combination of spirited debate on political directions plus the broad array of highly technical papers, bodes well for an industry facing unprecedented politi cal and economic challenges. â&#x2013;

BCWWA holds successful conference at Whistler

ties in Ontario has been reduced from

815 to 596, and the number of elected local councillors from 4,586 to 3,567.

Each individual restructuring was touted by Minister Leach as evidence that 'Municipalities across Ontario are elimi nating waste and duplication and pro viding better service at a lower cost'. Miraculously, each and every one of 81 different restructurings has had precisely the same result, regardless of its scope or location,regardless of whether it pro duces a new municipality of two mil lion people or five thousand. "There can be only one conclusion from such documentation: the govern ment believes that Ontarians always benefit collectively whenever the num bers of municipalities and elected coun cillors are reduced.

(Left to right) Rocky Wiley, AWWA Past President; Doug Neden, AWWA Director; Don Enns, BCWWA President; Stan LeSieur; Frank Beifry, WEF Director; Brian Barnett, Conference Chair. Photo - Penny Davey

"What conceivable evidence is there

Whistler boasts not only the longest ski

prestigious Water Environment Federa

that any area is better off with seven

runs in North America, but is also one

tion Bedell Award went to Prad Khare.

elected councillors than with nineteen?

of the most scenic places to hold a con

It is highly unlikely that the councillors are making too much money. It is like the United Way declaring that they are reducing the size of their board of di rectors so that they can save money on

ference. The British Columbia Water

Papers covered every aspect of environ mental technology, and over 100 sup pliers exhibited at the conference. ES&E will be reprinting selected papers

& Waste Association conference at

tracted some 600 delegates. Appropri ately, the team from Whistler won the Operators Safety Competition. The

in later issues after consultation with authors.

sandwiches that board members con

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


Pump & Valve Maintenance

By Scott Lane*

Pump and valve maintenance In

underground chambers

The use of petrolatum tapes

face and the surrounding environment.

severe cases of corrosion oc

The application procedures for these products consist of wirebrushing the af

curred on gas mains in Eu

rope. The corrosion was traced to stray

fected areas, to remove any loose rust,

currents from underground subway sys tems and led to a number of fatal gas explosions. Since that time, petrolatum tapes of various widths have been used through

scale and deleterious material,followed

out the world. In particular, valve and pump components suffer from the ef fects of corrosion soon after installation

due to the dissimilarity of metals within the makeup of the fitting, particularly at the area of the bolts and flanges. Corrosion is caused by the attack on these metal components by chemical


^'^'iort(tOQ. '''PBFoi

physical barrier between the metal sur

originated in the 1920's when

reactions, electrochemical reactions and

by physical processes. Several municipalities in the Greater Metropolitan Toronto area have begun using petrolatum tape, priming paste and

by the application of a primer compound over the entire surface, which pacifies

any existing oxides, and displaces sur face moisture. The primer also provides maximum adhesion of the tape product to the steel surface.

The second stage of application in volves the use of mastic filler. These

products consist of saturated petrolatum hydrocarbons formulated with inert fill ers and fibres and are used when diffi

cult contours on profiles such as valves, pumps,flanges,or couplings are present. In order to prevent the encapsulation of air pockets under the final wrap (tenting effect), mastic filler is used to smooth all profiles. The final stage in

Several municipalities In the Greater Metropolitan Toronto area have begun using petrolatum tape, priming paste and mastic fillers for corrosion protection on valves and pumps.

Look to tho dieRA^for definitive, industpy-approvad

inslali your next stQ!;i)yiewer project. Two technicai guides you can't afford to Jie^without.

mastic fillers for corrosion protection on valves and pumps. These valves and pumps are primarily found in below ground vaults or sewage chambers. They are subject to many different con ditions, unlike those buried directly in the ground: â&#x20AC;˘ They are submerged for long periods

hot humid conditions, and to the freez

ing temperatures associated with our Ca nadian climate.

The combination of metal with wa

ter and oxygen forms ferrous oxides (rust) which, over time, will create the corrosion process, thereby destroying the metal itself until the system fails. In order to prevent this from happening, external coatings are applied to the valves, pumps, piping, etc., to create a *Denso North America

reply card No. 136

crack, or shrink, and can withstand me chanical strain and vibration. They re

main permanently pliable and are highly

of time.

â&#x20AC;˘ They are subjected to long spells of

For more information, circle

the application process is the wrapping of the entire fitting or valve with a pet rolatum tape, normally with a 55% over lap of tape onto itself. Petrolatum tapes are, for the most part, hand applied and will not harden,

adhesive, durable and cold applied.

These petrolatum compounds, which impregnate the tapes, contain fillers and temperature extenders as well as mois ture dispersants and are available in a wide variety of configurations and col ours to suit the application.

They exhibit excellent chemical re sistance to acids, alkalis, salts, and

groundwater,and are available in below and above ground versions, the above ground version consisting of UV stabi lizers and a variety of colours. For more information,

circle reply card No. 135 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998




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SludgeMASTERÂŽ Dryer dehydrates sludg and turns hiosolids into a high quality nutrient rich Class "A" soil amendment.


Taking care ofthe world's water.

Composting or drying, U.S. Filter/Davis Process combines innovative technology with product expertise. With more U.S. plants in operation than any other company, U.S. Filter/Davis Process can offer the most

effective and optimum solution. All systems require minimal operator attention and produce a Class "A" marketable product that meets EPA 503 Regulations. So don't haul it and dump it! Let us turn your

hiosolids management into a profit generating program. For details, contact U.S. Filter/Davis Process, 2650 Tallevast Road, Sarasota, FL For more information,

circle reply card No. 114(See page 25)

34243, Phone: (800) 345-3982 toll free. Fax: (941) 351-4756.

Website http:/www.usfilter.com â&#x20AC;˘ E-mail: harrish@usfilter.com

Flood Control

Flood control scheme also enhances

community atmosphere

The Village in Niagara-on-the-

Lake, Ontario, is a "neourban" area. This 22 ha. site

includes 250 mixed residential

units which are predominantly one family sites. A combined commercial/ residential component increases the residential use to approximately 350 mixed units.

While the "neo-urbanism design" densifies living areas to provide a feel ing of community, the urban densification leaves additional green space for common amenity areas. Additional green spaces in this development could not be combined with normal storm-

water management ponding areas to maintain the intended open space uses. The challenge facing consultants Kerry T. Howe Engineering Limited was to implement stormwater quality and quantity control in the space available, while providing a system the Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake or the private sec-

Implementing stormwater quality and quantity in available space.

tor could maintain without significant cost increases over previous conven tional methods.

Underground storage facilities met the challenge to control the rate of run-

off into existing sewer systems, Storage facilities were provided with pretreatment, settling, oil separation, and continuous filtering for the peak run-off from a 15 mm storm event. Storage fa cilities were made from clear, crushed

Conestoga-Rovers & Associates is an international environmental engineering firm servicing clients in North,

Central and South America, the United Kingdom and Europe. Our expertise is derived from the empioy of over 800 professionals and support staff providing advanced consulting services in areas such as solid and hazardous waste management, environmental audit and impact assessment, groundwater and surface water supply, site remediation and wastewater treatment. As we continue to

set the industry example, the need has been created for the following position in our Waterloo Head office:

ACOUSTICS ENGINEER The ideal candidate will have an engineering degree with academic training in environmental and industrial noise

analysis and controls and/or relevant work experience with 'an acoustics consulting firm. Duties will entail conducting environmental and industrial noise measurements, designing noise controls and preparing acoustic audit reports in accordance with the Ontario

Ministries of Environment and Labour requirements. Applicants must be able to travel.

CRA offers a competitive salary as well as a comprehensive benefit package. Please forward your resume in confidence, including references and salary expectations to:

limestone wrapped in filter cloth. Cultec storage chambers provided a solution for the staged storage discharge needs for frequent storm events. Overall storage systems were divided between private lands and municipal ROWs (Rights of Way), to share the storage annual operation and mainte nance costs. Facilities in the municipal ROWs exist to control and treat storm

water run-off from the pavement. Analyses showed the total capital and 50 year maintenance and operation cost were equal to the standard pond system at this site. Capital costs proved slightly higher, but annual operation and main tenance costs were significantly lower. Cultec's "Recharger 330" was used for this project. The R330 has a low profile, high volume design, is only 30.5" high, yet has a storage capacity of 7.40 ft.3/LFT.

Recruitment Manager Conestoga-Rovers & Associates 651 Colby Drive

The ability to install the storage sys tem as required for each development phase reduced initial capital cost outlays

Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C2

Fax;(519) 725-5240 E-mail: phutcheson@rovers.com (MS Word 97, 95 or 6 Format)


which benefitted the cash flow for the

Consulting Engineers



development. The fact that open space amenity areas are not flooded allows the unrestricted development of these sites as envisioned by the Town planners. For more information, circle reply card No. 116 Environmental Science

Engineering, June 1998

Index Company ABS Pumps

Page 45

Reader Service No. 179 137

Company Insltuform Technologies ITT Flygt Make-Way Plastics

Page 13 41 3

Reader Service No. 107 128 102

Action Carbon-Chem


AGL Marketing








175, 176, 177






57 65 67 36 79 15 69 9

221 166 167 123 160-164 109

222, 223




CATT GH2M Gore & Storrle

30 29

120 119

Monsanto Munro Concrete Munro Concrete Neo Valves Nortech GSI OCPA OWWA Ozonia

Colgate Palmollve






22 24





Davidson Denso Derrick D-Tec

49 8 11 74

142 145 106 150

SNA Bonflglloll



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June 1998

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

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Septic Systems

Septic systems and the new Ontario buiiding code

TheOntario Services Improve

enforcement became the responsibility of municipalities, which enforce the December 8, 1997. Schedule Building Code. B (Amendments to the Build • In northern Ontario, Building Code ing Code Act, 1992, the Environmental enforcement for sewage systems will be Protection Act and the Ontario Water the responsibility of existing delivery Resources Act) took effect on April 6, agents, primarily boards of health, as 1998 and will: well as the North Bay-Mattawa Conser •transfer authority for regulating smaller vation Authority and the Township of on-lot sewage systems to the Building the Archipelago. Code Act and Building Code in order to • While municipalities become respon facilitate "one-window" permit issu sible for enforcing sewage system stand ance; ards, the legislation allows municipali • introduce new certification require ties to delegate this responsibility, by ments for installers and inspectors; agreement, to upper-tier municipalities, • assign septics delivery to existing boards of health or conservation authori agents in northern Ontario; and ties. ment Act was passed on

• set out various transitional measures.

Technical Standards

Sewage Systems covered by the OBC • Generally, those systems with a design capacity less than 10,000 litres/day and which serve one lot will be regulated under the Ontario Building Code. • Systems larger than 10,000 litres/day and off-lot(communal)sewage systems will be regulated under the Ontario Water Resources Act, with approvals is sued by the Ministry of Environment. MOE will also regulate waste systems approval for the hauling of sewage and land application sites under part V of the

• The technical standards for sewage systems are generally the same as those which were included in Regulation 358

Environmental Protection Act. Enforcement

• As of April 6, 1998, septic standards

under the Environmental Protection Act. These are now contained in Part 8 of the

Building Code. • Some changes have been made to the standards, however, to ensure conform

ity with the structure of the Building Code, and to reflect input which the Ministry of Environment received dur ing the consultation on Regulation 358 last summer.

Installer and Inspector Qualifications and Training • Part 2 of the Building Code contains new qualification requirements for

For biosolids mixing and storage solutions • We can provide a complete storage and mixing system, including:

• Aquastore® tanks from A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Products Co.

• JetMix Vortex® mixing systems for both new and existing biosolids and digester tanks.

• TEITTQin® flat and geodesic aluminum


covers for new or existing steel and


concrete tanks.


For more information, call:


Greatario Engineered Storage Systems P.O. Box 3613, Guelph, Ontario, NIH 6P1 Tel:(519)763-5933, Fax;(519)763-0293 26

For more information, circle reply card No. 117 (See page 25)

septics installers and inspectors. The requirements are contained in sections 2.11 and 2.12 of the Building Code. • For installers, the regulations require that persons in the business of construct ing on site, installing, repairing, servic ing, cleaning or emptying sewage sys tems obtain a licence. A key condition for obtaining that licence will be that sewage system construction, installa tion, repair, etc., be supervised by a per son who has successfully completed an examination administered by the Min istry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. • For inspectors, the regulations require that the person must successfully com plete an examination administered by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. • The Building Code provides for an extension for experienced installers and inspectors. These persons must obtain an "interim" qualification which gives them until April 6, 1999 to pass the ex amination.

• The Ministry was scheduled to begin providing training and examinations for installers and inspectors on March 2, 1998. Transition

• Part 12 of the Building Code contains transition provisions. In general, all pro ceedings which related to certificates of approval and orders issued or appeals commenced under the Environmental

Protection Act prior to April 6,1998 will be completed under that legislation by the delivery agent which was enforcing the legislation prior to April 6, 1998. •For permits, orders and appeals under taken on or after April 6, 1998, the Building Code Act and the Building Code will be effective legislation and regulation. The Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing and the Ministry of Envi ronment state they are committed to ensuring a smooth and orderly transition of the regulation of smaller on-lot sew age systems. For information on the technical

standards in the Building Code,call: All Arlani, Manager, Code Development and Training (416)585-6668. For general policy information, call: Rob Dowler, Manager, Building and Development Policy (416)585-6503. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Groundwater Remediation

By Dale Hatgh*

Europe's first reactive barrier treatment system instaiied in Northern Ireland site migration of dissolved solvents.

benefits in comparison to other meth

This migration is constrained by the spe cific orientation of the permeable lenses which themselves contain discrete clay

ods. The technology requires no power input and can be installed in remote ar eas, operating costs are minimal; there

or clayey silt lenses.

are no effluent treatment costs and all

During the investigation, the Colder Associates team collected groundwater

chlorinated solvents are treated. Further, it is estimated that the overall cost of

samples which underwent column reac

this system is around 25% to 33% of the

tion experiments conducted by Environmetal Technologies Inc., using iron fil ings. Test findings indicated that a rela tively long pathlength was required to

installation costs for an extraction sys

completely reduce the chlorinated sol

circie repiy card No. 181

tem which would have had to run for a

number of years. For more information,

vents. The proximity of the boundary negated this possibility. In response. Colder Associates devised a reaction

Reaction vessel being instaiied at

Workingon behalfofNortel Monkstown.

Ltd., Colder Associates

has installed Europe's first reactive barrier treat

ment system located in Belfast, North

vessel concept which elongated the re actors pathlength by diversion vertically through a cylindrical column of iron fil ings. The result? A final column of some six metres in length. Croundwater was collected using a funnel positioned approximately per pendicular to the flow path. The funnel was created by placing a cement-bentonite wall in a V shape to a depth of around

The Restructured County of Oxford is located in Southwestern Ontario with a

population of 97,142. We require a

ern Ireland. Colder Associates was re

12 metres. The reactor was situated at

Manager of Water and

tained by Nortel to assess soil and groundwater contamination at a number

the apex of this wall to act as the per meable reactive gate. Reactor sand piles were then located at points downstream

Wastewater Services Reporting to the Director of Public Works, you will organize and direct the operations, maintenance, administra tion, planning, design and construction of County water and wastewater facili ties and represent the County in all fac ets of management of County systems. Currently the County is operating 19

of their sites across the UK. The inves

tigation of the Monkstown facility in Belfast found the groundwater to be contaminated with up to 390 mg/1 of trichloroethylene(TCE). Previous own ers of the site had used chlorinated sol

vents while manufacturing electronic components. Years of spillages had re sulted in an intense but localized plume close to the current site boundary. The site is underlain with glacial till interbedded with lenses of silts, sands and gravel. The sand and gravel lenses

are sufficiently permeable to allow off*Office Manager, Colder Associates, Nottingham, England

Qlfi I


and upstream. Arms from the reactor

vessel were pushed into these sand piles to form the collection and distribution arms.

Monitoring results on the device in stalled early in 1996 have been very encouraging. Data shows a 99.97% re

duction in TCE levels and daughter

water and 3 wastewater facilities.

products through the reaction vessel.

You will possess a Civil Engineering

The iron filings have created a strongly reducing environment instigating reduc

Degree, membership in the APEO and have a minimum of 7 years' related en gineering and management experience

tive dechlorination of the chlorinated

solvents, thus producing chloride and chlorine free hydrocarbons. In addition to the positive results, the reactive treatment system offers many

in water and wastewater. You will also

be knowledgeable in current engineer ing design standards and construction practices and appropriate MOE legisla tion and operating requirements.

Remedial Groundwater Control and Treatment

This is an 18 month contract position.


Interested candidates should submit a

• well decommissioning • dual phase extraction • vapour extraction • wellpoint systems i

Insitu Groundwater Contractors

7MonncelloCres. Guelph. ON Canada N10 2MI

, ,

• product recovery "Pump tests

confidential resume to be received by 4:30 p.m., July 24,1998 to: Manager of Human Resources County of Oxford P.O. Box 397, Court House Woodstock, Ontario

phone 519-763-0700,fax 519-763-6684

N4S 7Y3

For more information, circie reply card No. 180 (See page 25)


Advanced Wastewater Treatment

The many advantages of biological nutrient removal he collection of processes generally referred to as bio logical nutrient removal (BNR)are perceived by some to be emerging and costly technologies. Although further refinements will doubtless occur, BNR processes have already evolved considerably and be come more economical as reaction dy namics have been more closely studied

T and


use as an energy source under anaero bic conditions.

Waste activated sludge (WAS) from the process has 2.5 - 4 times the phos phorous content of WAS from a strictly aerobic suspended growth system. The excess phosphorous is removed from the system with the waste sludge or, alter natively, stripped from the RASAVAS stream by chemical addition. The ap-


There are now over three


hundred BNR facilities in

North America with capa

cities exceeding 2,300 mVd {Reardon, 1996), including some in Ontario.

Removal of phosphorous and nitrogen may not be the sole or even most important reasons for implementing BNR. Potential advantages include reduced sludge pro duction, decreased clarifier

solids loading for a given MLVSS and SRT,improved floe settleability, alkalinity recovery in nitrifying sys tems and energy savings.

(a) general biological nutrient removal process (N



of ammonia-N. When carried out for

these objectives, little or no nitrogen is removed. Only its form has been changed. Actual removal of nitrogen (denitri fication) occurs when microorganisms break down organic material in an environment having lit tle or no free dissolved oxy gen, but with bound oxygen present in compounds such as nitrate (anoxic). The nitrate oxygen in bioutilized, and nitrogen gas is released as a byproduct that disperses to the atmosphere.

'f-j ■

The two basic variations

of biological nitrogen re moval are pre-denitrification suspended growth BNR with off-line fermentor (N + P) and post-denitrification. In the former, the anoxic stage precedes the aerobic stage. II ' i i'"ir-^ Nitrate-carrying mixed liq uor from the aerobic stage is recycled to the upstream an Tallman island. N.Y., ABNR (N); step feed, without mixed liquor recycle oxic stage. The nitrates in the return mixed liquor pro vide the oxygen for the bioaerobic degradation of wastewater organics. In post denitrification, the anoxic stage follows the fixed film nitrogen removal, with aerobic BAV and aerobic stage. Effluent from moving bed denitrification filter Figures a) - d) the aerobic stage is rich in ni trate, but poor in organic plication of Bio-P is restricted to sus pollutants to serve as "food". Carbon pended growth systems. This is due to compounds are added in the form of ei the requirement of successively expos ther chemical amendment (e.g. methaing the same biomass to anaerobic and nol) or a partial by-pass of raw aerobic environments. wastewater or primary effluent. Nitro Relative to chemical precipitation, gen is then removed as a byproduct of potential advantages include reduced reactions in which microorganisms uti chemical use and sludge quantities, and lize nitrate-oxygen to break down the related operating costs. By reducing the provided organic material. Unlike Bio-P, denitrification can be (inert) chemical content of the mixed liquor solids, somewhat less tankage is accomplished by either suspended needed for secondary clarification, and growth or fixed film systems, since it is for achieving the higher solids retention the nitrates (in the liquid) rather than the



P" (c)


BNR involves three oxy gen regimes: anaerobic (no oxygen, in either free or bound form); anoxic (oxy gen present only in com pounds such as nitrates); and aerobic (free dissolved oxy gen present). Each provides



an environment conducive to

the growth and activity of certain classes of microflora, and one of the important factors in optimum BNR design and op eration is to minimize the contamination of anaerobic and anoxic reactor sections

from bound or free oxygen carried in sidestreams and return flows {Bernard, Wilson, Robinowitz, 1997).

Biological phosphorous removal (BPR,Bio-P)involves successive expo sure of the biomass to anaerobic and

aerobic regimes, respectively, for the release and "luxury" uptake of ortho phosphorous. Bio-P bacteria store polyphosphate at up to fifty percent of cell mass under aerobic conditions, for 'R.V. Anderson Associates Limited 28

■ ■i


of autotrophic organisms {Nitrosomas and Nitrobacter). This is a fully aero bic process, and may be employed to abate the toxicity and oxygen demand

times (SRT) needed for nitrification.

Nitrogen removal in biological sys tems is also a two step process. The first step is nitrification; the conversion of ammonia-N to nitrates by two classes

biomass that must be moved between the aerobic and anoxic environments. In

anoxic fixed film systems, the sub merged media system must have some means of continuous or periodic scour

Environmental Science c6 Engineering, June 1998

By R.G. Coulter, M.Sc.' to prevent fouling and loss of effective surface area.

The relative advantages of biologi cal nitrogen removal are those of avoid ing the significant disadvantages of the alternative of physical/chemical re moval. Where ammonia oxidation (ni trification) is required but actual re moval of TN is not, adding denitrification still offers the potential advan tages of alkalinity recovery and energy savings.

Shortcomings of earlier BNR sys tems included hydraulic retention times (HRT)2-4 times those of conventional secondary treatment. In addition to the significant capital and operating cost consequences, long retention times

Recent Advances in BNR

Figure(a)shows the basic configu ration of a suspended growth BNR proc ess with anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic

stages in sequence. There are a number of variations on this basic theme such

as the number of reactors dedicated to

each oxygen regime, the location of re cycle streams,recycle ratios, sidestream systems and repetitive sequences of re gimes. Typically proprietary combina tions of these have included Bardenpho, A2/0,Phoredox,and Phostrip. Variations on these earlier BNR processes include the Hampton RoadsWIP system, which was developed in connection with reduc ing nutrient-N loads to Chesapeake Bay.

meant increased wintertime heat loss,

and questionable performance in cold climates. Experience with operating systems and ongoing research has led to better understanding of process mechanisms and more efficient designs. A major improvement in Bio-P came

In that case, decant liquor from the fer mentation of primary sludge resulted in faster denitrification rates than supple ments of methanol, acetate or fermented

primary wastewater {Lee, et al, 1995). Whether applied to Bio-P, denitrifi cation or both, these developments hold

the potential for more effective and ef ficient BNR systems. Faster reaction times translate to lower HRTs and there

fore less tankage. The shorter reaction times also mean less heat loss in cold

climate applications.

with the observation that reactions were

There have been several other devel

faster and more complete with a higher ratio of low molecular weight organics (to P)than is often present in municipal sewage. A solution for smaller plants is the addition of low molecular weight

opments specific or adapted to denitrifi

amendments such as acetic acid or

methanol. In larger plants, off-line fer mentation of primary sludge is em ployed to provide a source of VFAs (volatile fatty acids) to the anaerobic reactor. This is shown schematically in Figure (b). Recent reseai^ch has also indicated that off-line fermentation can enhance

denitrification rates for nitrogen removal.

cation. These include;

• alternating anoxic and aerobic zones in the same (multiple pass) tankage, • step feeding in conjunction with alter nating anoxic/aerobic zones, •fixed film enhancements to suspended growth systems, • fluidized and moving bed reactors for fixed-film post-denitrification systems. Alternating of several anoxic/aerobic zones, especially when combined with step feeding, is variously referred to as the "ABNR" (advanced biological nuContinued overleaf

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Water Supply and Distribution

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Systems Analysis Modelling

Process Control

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Environmental Planning

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Environmental Site Characterization/Reconciliation




180 King Street South, Suite 600 Waterloo, Ontario N2J 1P8 tel: (519) 579-3500 fax:(519) 579-8986 direct dial:(519) 579-3501 + ext.

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555 - 4th Avenue SW, Suite 1500

North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7 tel: (403) 237-9300 fax: (403)237-7715 direct dial:(403) 237-5691 + ext.

tel:(416)499-9000 fax:(416)499-4687 direct dial:(416)499-0090 + ext.

Barrie • London • Ottawa • Thoroid

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


For more information, circle reply card No. 119 (See page 25)


Advanced Wastewater Treatment, cont' trient removal) or "Tallman Island" fication was total, no external carbon sequencing batch reactor (SBR) sys process; the latter is named after the source was used and no energy was ex tems. This likewise eliminates mixed New York City plant where much of the pended for mixed liquor recycle or mix liquor recycling, and minimizes the need developmental work has been done. The ing of the anoxic reactor. In practice, for an external carbon source. ABNR process has the relative advan the still-significant savings are more Supplementing suspended growth tage over predenitrification of minimiz likely to be in the order of 15% - 20%. systems with inserted fixed film assem ing or eliminating the recycling of mixed Additional savings could come from blies can be of both direct and indirect liquor. It offers the rela benefit in plants where tive advantage over post In theory, the energy requirements of carbon removal nitrogen removal is re and nitrification can be reduced by as much as 30% by quired. Some degree of denitrification of not re quiring an external or denitrification tends to incorporating denitrification. bypassed carbon source occur in deeper biofilm (Felos, etal, 1996,and,Reardon, 1995). using low level aeration to mix the an layers, although the extent is unlikely The process schematic is shown in Fig oxic section of the system. By adding to be self sufficient for meeting nitro ure (c). air at 50% - 70% of demand, anoxia is gen removal criteria. The main advan Where nitrification is required (for maintained while maximum transfer tage of the process, known as IFAS (In removing the oxygen demand and tox- efficiencies are obtained due to the high tegrated Fixed Fihn/Activated Sludge) icity of ammonia, and/or as a precondi deficit which exists at the low oxygen or "immobilized cell", is to reduce the tion of actual nitrogen removal), subse tension {Richman, 1996). For reasons amount of aeration and clarifier tankage quent denitrification can result in energy of both energy savings and process in required for the cBOD^ removal and ni savings. Utilizing nitrate-oxygen to re tegrity, this would need to be carefully trification stages of the overall treatment

move BODj(and liberate nitrogen gas

balanced so that demand exceeded the


as a byproduct) makes use of transferred air/oxygen that would otherwise be "wasted". In theory, the energy require

supply of free and bound (nitrate) oxy gen and anoxia maintained. The ABNR process is well suited to this and previ ous energy saving refinements. A development related to ABNR is the incoiporation of anaerobic and/or an oxic cycles in the operation of

The major developments in fixed film denitrification systems are the use offluidized or moving bed reactors. The for mer has been demonstrated as an upflow, expanded bed reactor employing medium coarse sand for support media {MacDonald, 1990). The latter is an adapta tion of a proprietary rapid sand filtration process(Dyna-Sand''''^)in which the sand media is continuously drawn downward, counter current to the upflowing treat ment stream {Koopman, et. al, 1990). A related approach to these is the apparent applicability of employing upflow BAF (biological aerated filters) technology. Inherently mixed, but not aerated mod ules(anoxic)would operate in-series with

ments of carbon removal and nitrifica

tion can be reduced by as much as 30% by incorporating denitrification. This would apply to systems in which denitri-


and Field Exposition September 21-23,1998 Waterloo Inn, Waterloo, Ontario

aerated BAF modules.

These mobile(or mobilized)bed sys This three-day event will feature technical seminars, field demonstrations and trade exhibition highlighting methods and applications of trenchless technologies. TOPICS INCLUDE:

♦ Horizontal Directional Drilling ♦ Microtunneling ♦ Watermain and Sewermain Rehabilitation

♦ Environmental Remediation

♦ Inspection and Evaluation Techniques ♦ Pipe Bursting

tems address the earlier noted need for

continuous or periodic scour to prevent fouling. All are physically compact, and could be employed in conjunction with (aerobic) BAF technology to provide advanced treatment where site space is at a premium. This is indicated sche matically in Figure (d). Conclusion There have been a number of com

paratively recent advances in the under standing and design of BNR systems. These hold the potential for more effi cient treatment, and cost-effectiveness

For more information on either the

conference or exhibition opportunities: Tel: 519-888-4770 Fax: 519-746-6556 Website: sunburn.uwaterloo.ca/catt/


For more information, circie repiy card No. 120 (See page 25)

on a par with strictly aerobic biological treatment systems. As with any tech nology,the applicability and cost-effec tiveness should be assessed on a plantspecific basis. For more information, circle reply card No. 121 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


By James H. Tsai, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.*

Alternative tertiary filters for successful phosphorous removal of 550 mVd to service the existing area and the majority of privately serviced permanent residential housing. Evaluation of Alternative

Tertiary Filters During the final design stage, a com prehensive evaluation of tertiary filters was conducted by TSH and the District. In particular, alternative continuous backwash filter designs were compared that were capable of dual point alum addition. The comparison reviewed all

If^ J

documentation and studied the costs for

equipment,structure, installation, opera tion and maintenance. It included a site

visit to the other existing installations in operation, a site visit to a Toveko pi lot plant operation, and an interview with equipment suppliers. Both the District and TSH concluded

This attractive buiiding is a sewage treatment piant. Fitter equipment is iocated in

The District Municipality of the basement.

Muskoka's need to improve and expand its sewage treat ment plant in the Community of Bala coincided with the availability,

for the first time in Canada, of an alter

native tertiary filter system. This sys tem could surpass its rivals in perform ance and cost savings in comparison with conventional filtration strategies. Tertiary filtration was required to meet strict effluent criteria to satisfy both rec reational water quality and fishery re quirements. Sewage Treatment Facilities Upgrading Requirements Priorto 1987,the Community of Bala treated a portion of its sewage in a pri mary settling tank followed by two underdrain sand filter beds, with efflu

ent discharges to Turtle Pond of Long Lake. Several reports and studies con ducted by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOB) confirmed the treatment facilities should be improved. The studies further concluded that Long Lake was unsuitable as a long term out let. It was recommended that upgrad ing of the treatment facilities be under taken and an alternative receiving water body be found where both recrea-

tional water quality and fishery criteria

that the Toveko filter was the preferred equipment for the new Indian Road WPCP application. The filter has more Continued overleaf

could be met.

The District Municipality of Muskoka (the District) retained Totten Sims Hubicki (TSH) to provide engineering services for the upgrading and improve


ment of the Bala sewage works under the Class Environmental Assessment

process. An Environmental Study Re port(ESR)recommended the construc tion of a new water pollution control plant(WPCP) with a capacity of 1,000 mVd to service the entire future com

munity of Bala, or an equivalent popu lation of 1,725 persons.

Paul 1). Smeltzer, P.Eng.

Referred to as the Indian Road

The Board of Directors of the Ontario

WPCP, the new plant was designed to function as a tertiary treatment plant consisting of an extended aeration acti vated sludge plant including chemical addition, tertiary filtration and UV dis infection to achieve an effluent phospho rous concentration below 0.3 mg/L. The new plant would be constructed at the existing site with a new outfall sewer to

Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA), is pleased to announce that Paul D. Smeltzer, P.Eng., has joined the Asso ciation as Executive Director, effective

May 11, 1998. Paul has a background in Municipal and Consulting Engineer ing, most recently as Assistant Director ofPublic Works at the Regional Munici pality of Niagara.

the Moon River. The Moon River,

Paul will direct the Association's activi

which is the outlet of Lake Muskoka to

ties in the areas of client support and marketing as well as be responsible for the operation of the OCPA.

Georgian Bay,generally flows in a west northerly direction and divides the com munity into northern and southern sec tions.

After an evaluation of the project's *Senior Associate,

fiscal limitations, a decision was made

Totten Sims Hublckl Associates

to proceed with an initial plant capacity

Environmentai Science & Engineering, June 1998

ocpa 31

Wastewater, comTABLE 1 - FLOW DATA(mVd) jVlaximum




Average Daily

filter bed and the reject water contain ing the removed solids is piped off to the plant inlet works for further treat

ing the test period are summarized in

ment. The unit is constructed of 304

tal phosphorous concentrations of raw sewage and final effluent, as well as the removal efficiency during the test pe












The final plans and specifications





for the new Indian Road WPCP were

stainless steel in a rectangular, lateral mode.

prepared by TSH and submitted to the MOB for approval in 1993. However, mechanical components than other con tinuous backwash systems, but the de sign configuration and adjustable wash rate were best suited to this plant. Moni tored head loss, automatically adjusted wash rate and reject water rate were important considerations for this plant design. The Toveko filter, which performs two simultaneous filter operations (fil tration and sandwashing), has been used in many industrial wastewater and sew age treatment plants in Europe as a ter tiary filter process. The liquid to be fil tered enters an inlet shaft which traverses

the length of the filter and uniformly dis tributes the liquid from the bottom of the bed to the entire sand bed through a series of distribution channels. As the

influent is filtered through the bed, sus pended solid materials are separated or entrapped and remain in the sand bed. The filtered water then exits the filter

through V-notch weir openings located along the entire length of the filter. A small amount of air is continuously supplied to an air lift which conveys the sand containing the entrapped solids from the bottom of the filter up to an open screw sand washer assembly lo cated above the filter. The sand is trans

ported to the base of the washer where the sand slurry is introduced to the ro tating screw. As the screw rotates, the sand grains are slowly rubbed together

as no Toveko filters had been installed

if the equipment would achieve a total effluent phosphorous concentration be low 0.3 mg/L. The MOB issued a Cer tificate ofApproval conditional upon the District submitting a performance report covering full-scale plant testing of the continuous contact effluent filtration

system, at design peak flow conditions, over a 12-month period. Performance Testing of Tertiary Filter The construction of the plant was completed in 1996. In order to comply

period, together with the MOB effluent objectives, are summarized in Table 3. Conclusions

It is noted that during the full-scale

plant testing, the average effluent BODj, suspended solids and total phosphorous concentrations were 1.96 mg/B, 2.34 mg/B and 0.09 mg/B respectively which more than satisfy the MOB effluent ob jectives of 10 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L respectively. The plant perform ance test report was submitted to the MOB in October 1997, to comply with the Certificate of Approval. The District Municipality of Muskoka plant operations staff have reported


Average Effluent During Test Period

Effluent Parameters

undertaken be BOD, tween August 1996 Suspended Solids and July 1997 with only one train of Total Phosphorous the process unit in operation. The total rated capacity of

the plant is 550 mVd with the incorpo ration of two filtration units. Since the

plant operated with only one train of the process filtration unit, the capability of the plant was limited to 275 mVd dur ing the test period so as not to exceed peak filtration capabilities. A liquid alum dosage of approximately 60 mg/L was added to the final clarifier inlet

channel for precipitation of total phos phorous. The average daily flow, maximum daily flow and minimum daily flow dur-

sand is then evenly redistributed to the

riod, are summarized in Table 2. The average effluent quality at the new Indian Road WPCP during the test

with the Certificate

of Approval re quirement, fullscale plant testing ofthe tertiary filtration system was

conveyed to the top of the washer where ated solids from the sand. The cleaned

The BODj,suspended solids and to

in Ontario or Canada, it was not known

to liberate the solids. The sand is then

rinse water is added to wash the liber

Table 1.

MOE Effluent


Objectives (mg/L)







satisfaction with the operation of the Toveko filters. The receiving surface water quality is showing no impact and is aesthetically showing improvement. TSH has since used this type of ter tiary filter in other sewage treatment plants currently in operation or under design. These plants are located in the community of Komoka in the Township of Lobo and the Village of Benelon Falls.

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 155



Suspended Solids

Total Phosphorous










Sewage (mg/L)


Efficiency (%)

Sewage (mg/L)


Sewage (mg/L)



Efficiency (%)

Efficiency (%)

































Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


The Toveko CX sand filter Airlift

Distributed in Canada by Dagex Inc., the Toveko CX continuous sand filter is an ingenious way of polishing water through sand filtration. Versatility makes Toveko CX sand filters suitable for municipal sewage and industrial wastewater, as well as oil removal and drinking water treatment. Easy installation

Sand Washing Rinse

Screw Drive


Sand Washer

Constructed of 304 stainless steel in standard 1.5 m^ modules,

2.3 m^ in height, configured in a lateral mode, the Toveko sand filter is easy to install, minimizing space requirements. Filters are site delivered, assembled as a single line of modules ('S' series)or as back-to-back modules(T series) up to 12.0 m^

Traverse Movement Drive


Sand turnover is automatic


li|l||||| i ijil^ il 'I 'IH i

Toveko CX filters are designed to cope with any load, whether continuously high or occasionally peaking. Stable filtration


The even surface of the sand layer gives a stable filtration


with no risk of short circuits.

Efficient purification These filters provide efficient purification, even at very low flow rates, because of the special positioning of the air lift

Eft uent

at the inlet shaft.

Visible monitoring of air lift.

Dagex Inc. also custom designs and builds rectangular and a'rcular lamella style plate settlers, with capacities to 200 m^ per hour. These units can be custom designed to fit your available plant space/tankage space.

Step Screen for superior solids separation Also distributed in Canada by Dagex Inc., the Step Screen system uses the actual solid particles in the cleaning process. This unique method provides higher filtration efficiency than that provided solely by actual slot width. On the step-shaped laminae, where every other lamina is connected to one fixed and one moveable part, a carpet of solid particles is formed. This gives a high sieving efficiency. Over 2,500 installations worldwide. Here's why: • Minimum wear and tear means minimal maintenance.

• Easy installation-simple to adapt to existing channels. • Easy to service, tiltable screen and easily replaceable laminae. • Stainless steel construction.

• Self-cleaning system provides a high degree of operation reliability. • Increased flow capacity. • Wide range of models available. 4141 Yonge Street, Suite 307, North York, Ontario M2P 2A8


Tel:(416) 250-7111,1-800-665-7136, Fax:(416) 250-8111 E-mail: dagex@istar.ca

For more information, circie reply card No. 122(See page 25)

Wastewater Odour Control

Biological oxidation can solve odour problems

Although instal ed in many

How biofiltration works

plants throughout Western Europe for over 15 years,

have only recently embraced biological oxidation technology. Potential users are realizing that biofiltration is a low cost, safe and effective solution for both

odour and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emission problems. Biofilters operate at low ambient temperatures and require no chemicals or supplemental fuels. This environmentally friendly technology is cost effective,easy to main tain and safe to use in populated areas. Biological oxidation is proving its success in handling nuisance odours and

Solenoid Valve


industries in North America

Supplemental Watering System To Exhaust

Addition Mist Eliminator"^


Water Distributor

Packing Process Gas" / Bio Media

Process Blower •To Dram


Load Cell



Figure 1

low concentrations of VOCs at installa

tions around the world involving indus tries from food flavoring and fragrance to municipal or industrial wastewater

carbon dioxide(CO,) and water(H,0). Inorganic components, such as ammo


yield compounds which form acids. In some cases, these compounds must be

Other applications include chemical manufacturing, solid and liquid waste treatment, fermentation, composting, treating agricultural odours, tobacco processing, solvent users, and many more.

How Biofiltration works

(See Figure 1) Biofiltration eliminates unwanted

chemical components from an off gas

by means of biological oxidation©. Contaminated gas, containing odours, is ducted to the biofilter where it first en

ters a humidification vessel©. The gas is drawn upward through plastic pack ing and falling water. This countercurrent operation saturates the contami nated air with water vapour. Once saturated, contaminated air en

ters the upper chamber © of the biolo gical oxidation vessel and passes down

ward O through a biologically active media. As this occurs, contaminates in

the gas stream diffuse into a water film surrounding biologically active media. Microorganisms in the water film oxi dize the contaminants and use energy released for maintenance of their own

cell material and growth. During biological oxidation, organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydro gen and oxygen are fully degraded into 'Product Manager, Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems 34

nia (NHj) and hydrogen sulfide (H^S),

using carbon, present in the off gas stream as carbon dioxide, to produce new cell material. Autolithotrophic bac teria obtain their energy by converting inorganic compounds.

neutralized @. The purified gas col lects in the bottom of the biological oxi


The most effective biofilter media

dation vessel prior to exiting ©. The (that can last up to five years) consists cleaned air then enters a process blower and is discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Biological Filter Material Biofilter performance is dependent on high quality filter media. An effec tive biofilter media should provide nu trients for cell growth, a high specific surface area for attached microorgan isms,low gas pressure drop, uniform gas distribution, resistance to compaction, proper pH,long-term operation and op timal water content.

Microorganisms Microorganisms are the heart of a biofiltration system. All aspects of the system are designed to provide optimal conditions for the microorganisms. They need, among other things, carbon and energy sources to synthesize new cell material and grow. Two groups of aerobic microorgan isms are important. The first is autolithotrophic and the second is heteroorganotrophic. Both types are chemotrophic, meaning that the required en ergy for cell function is obtained from chemical reactions. This is in contrast

with phototrophic bacteria that use sun light as an energy source. Autolithotrophic microorganisms are capable of

of specialized compost, pre-inoculated bacteria, inert spherical material and limestone. The ratio of these media

components is crucial. Specialized com post provides the necessary nutrients for the bacteria and, due to its physical structure, aids in low gas pressure drop. Inert spherical material provides low gas pressure drop, uniform gas flow and re sists compaction over time. Specially chosen bacteria should be pre-inoculated into the filter material during manufac ture and mixing. This ensures optimal performance and reduces acclimation periods compared with non-inoculated media. A calculated amount of limestone

should also be added to media, provid ing the necessary amount of buffering for each application. Moisture Content

Two important steps are required for biofiltration's complete removal of a target compound. First, the compound must be absorbed into a liquid biofilm surrounding solid media particles. For this reason, the biofilter's moisture con

tent is extremely important. If the bio film is not properly formed, the absorp tion step will not be optimized and the biofilter's performance suffers. In or-

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

By Michael S. McGrath* der for the biodegradation step to be most effective, the liquid film must have the proper thickness. To ensure proper moisture content, the media is continuously weighed. A programmable logic controller (PLC) continuously calculates the moisture content based on the filter material's

weight. If the weight dictates the bed is below the optimal moisture content, a signal is sent to a series of spray noz zles which add water to the media.

(Note; this type of a moisture control system only works on a fully enclosed biofilter design. Open top biofilters are always susceptible to periods of exces sive drying or wetness of

of toluene at 95% will be much larger than a biofilter designed for 80% re moval. The biofilter must have more

media to accomplish additional mass transfer and biodegradation. Number of Compounds to be removed The quantity of compounds requir ing removal in a biofilter also affects system size. With biological systems, microorganisms typically degrade more desirable compounds (easy to break down and high energy yield) prior to degrading other compounds. The re quired volume of media does not dou ble or triple with the addition of com pounds but can increase system size sig nificantly.

the media.) Nutrients

Fully enclosed biofilter design

Regulatory Compliance

Many companies use biofiltration, not only for odours, but for VOC con trol. Although odour emissions are sometimes regulated in North America, most often VOC control is "regulatory driven". US regulatory agencies typically mandate that 95% or more be removed.

Biofilters can economically meet these demands when the compounds and inlet concentrations are favorable to

biofiltration. Namely, gas streams con taining highly water soluble compounds with inlet concentrations below 300 mg/ m^ make ideal biofilter applications. How does Biofiltration compare to Other Technologies? Both chemical packed bed scrubbers and bio

filters require that the com pound to be removed must

Nutrients are supplied to the biofilm through dif fusion from the compost particles and from dead

ference in the technologies

biomass. Therefore, com

occurs once the contami

be water soluble. The dif

post selection is critical to

nate has been transferred

the success of a biofilter.

from the gas to the liquid phase. Biofilters use mi croorganisms to oxidize the compound, while chemical scrubbers rely on

The most efficient compost will be high in nitrogen content and contain accept able levels of phosphorus. System Sizing Solubility Compounds treated in a

chemical reactions.

When utilizing chemi cal reactions for oxidation,

biofilter must be water

soluble. The degree of solubility indirectly dic tates system size. If a compound is eas ily transferred from the gas to the liquid phase within a biofilter, it is sized ap propriately small. However, when try ing to remove slowly transferred com pounds(such as aromatics), the biofilter can become large.

chemicals must be continu

ously supplied to the sys tem. The continuous addi

pH Finally, the impact of pH biodegra dation varies for each compound. The most common occurrences of acidic media formation involve the destruction

of hydrogen sulfide which eventually produces sulfuric acid and reduces the pH of the biofilter media. Hydrogen sulfide degrading organisms can live at pH levels as low as two, while VOC de grading organisms require a near neu tral pH. Therefore, if VOCs must be removed in the same biofilter as hydro gen sulfide, provisions must be made to keep the biofilter neutral.

Biodegradability Water solubility is not the only vari able dictating system size. Once the compound is transferred into the liquid phase within the biofilter, the microor ganisms present must oxidize the com pound. This biological step can be very fast or quite slow,depending on the com pound being oxidized (or biodegraded). To prevent acidification, limestone is Molecular weight is usually an indi added to the media in these types of sys cator of biodegradability. The higher the tems. The limestone reacts with the molecular weight,the more difficult the sulfate produced in the biofilter and cre biodegradation. Also, ring compounds ates gypsum. Due to the formation of (aromatics) are more difficult to break gypsum,only a limited quantity of lime down than straight chain compounds. stone can be added to a given volume of media. Therefore,the amount of lime Removal Efficiency required The required removal efficiency is a (CaCOj),required to maintain a neutral major factor in determining system size. media pH, can dictate the size of some A biofilter designed to remove 20 ppm systems. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

tion of chemicals costs money, while microbiological reactions do not. How ever, the capital investment of a scrub ber is usually less than a biofilter for a given situation. Again, an exception to this is low inlet concentrations. Another

difference is liquid discharge. A chemi cal scrubber has a significant liquid ef fluent that can have a very high or low pH. If this is a concern, a biofilter with minimal liquid discharge should be used. The major expense associated with activated carbon is the replacement and regeneration costs. Carbon systems are designed on flow and the regeneration cost is set by the inlet load to the car bon. (Also, when the carbon can no longer be regenerated, it is disposed of as a chemical waste). Activated carbon can achieve high removals but tends to be very expensive if the inlet load is high. Biofilters will be more expensive to install than carbon system but, if the inlet load is moderate to high, the pay back duration of a biofilter is quite short. Continued on page 49 35


Results of first year operation of a dual stage bloflltration wastewater system

TheTown ofCanmore,Alberta

has approximately 12,000 in habitants; it also has a large tourist industry which results in high wastewater flow variations. Two industrial plants near the Town do not discharge their effluent into the Town's sewage network. However, there are significant wastewater flows attributable to infiltration and inflows due to the high water table and permeable soils.

Treated water

Biolrte* Waste wash water



In 1991 CH2M Hill was retained to

improve the network system (reducing infiltration) and to begin engineering for new sewage treatment facilities. The existing wastewater treatment plant was based on RBC technology (rotating bio logical contactors). Because of the Town's growth and the age of the infra structure and treatment installation, the

Process air


Wash water

Air scour

sidered necessary. The old plant was overloaded and had mechanical and

odour problems.

technology available at that time - B AF or Biological Aerated Filtration. Two technologies were considered: • a downflow system with air and water

expansion of the existing facilities, or

The consultant reviewed different

the construction of a new one, was con-

scenarios and the decision was made by

counter flow streams,

the Town for the construction of a new

• an upflow system with concurrent

treatment plant, based on the newest


*Degremont Infiico Ltd.


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and wastewater

Both types of systems were evaluated, and the concuirent system, the Biofor®, was selected because it requhed 26% less filtration area and had lower capital costs than the downflow system. Another consideration which influ

enced the choice of the process was the discharge parameters. The treated ef fluent discharges into the Bow rivers and must meet the following criteria:



TSS <10mg/l TP-total phosphorus < 1 mg/l (to be pre-precipitated in the primary ciarifiers)

N-NH„-Ammonia Nitrogen

<5 mg/l in summer < 10 mg/l in winter

The system was designed based on the following raw influent parameters to the BAF units: Biofor influent


Flow average peak BOD,



Tel: Fax: Mont. Tel: Fax: Van. Tel: Fax:

(416)661-6020 (416) 661-6787 (514)731-8570 (514)731-9172 (604) 421-4010 (604)420-9457 T:


Annual average (year 2001) 9658 mVd (402 mVh) 27 700 mVd (1 150 mVh) 617kg/d (64 mg/l)

523 kg/d (54 mg/l) 11 kg/d (1,1 mg/l) 147.1 kg/d (15 mg/l) Water temperatures

Summer maximum Winter minimum

IS'C 6°C

Degremont adopted a two stage biofiltration scheme:

• Biofor C for carbonaceous removal.


For more information, circle reply card No. 123 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

By Jean-Yves Bergel* • Biofor N for nitrification.

This approach was governed by the fact that the peak fac tor was high and the requirement that the treated water meet the effluent quality standards at all times. Under other cir cumstances, a single stage, dual biomass process can be con

sidered as demonstrated during the one year pilot study car ried out in Windsor, Ontario in 1994-1995.

Monthly Flow Data (m3/d) 10000 9000 8000 7000


Between -Max

3500m^/d and I4000 6000 m^/d £.5000





Biofilters are biological reactors where two different op erations take place simultaneously: • the retention of suspended solids by filtration effect • the reduction of organic pollution by biological effect. The first operation is governed by the size of the support media. The second is related to the loading parameters. The Biofor is a biological reactor where a high concentrated biomass with high activity attached on the support media, is put in intimate contact with the pollutants present in the raw water, and the oxygen of the process air, during a short con

2000 1000 0

I n j' ^

} 11 °1 i1 1S

" "

Figure 1 Flow Data

TSS Monthly Average (mg/l)

tact time.

The Biofor is an immersed biological reactor with upflow co-current air and water streams. The biomass is attached to

a simple inert layer specialized support medium.

\\ // \ ^/ \V/^N

Raw water enters the filter under a false floor and flows

up through the support media. Process air is simultaneously introduced through a network of diffusers. This satisfies the oxygen requirements of the fixed biomass population and maintains biological activity and growth. The Biofor is designed to favour high biomass activity and solids retention during the filtration cycle.

j —e— Raw Influent[


Febr■uay April May Month 1997

p|gu,e 2 Influent Data



Aug st

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• Rugged ductile iron body

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• Fully-coated eccentric plug seals on corrosion resistant nickel seat.

• Conforms to AWWA C-606

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Corrosion resistant nickel

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

For more information, circie repiy card No. 124 (See page 25)


Wastewater, cont* TSS Monthly Average (mg/l)

- Influent Blofor-C

-Bfluent Biofor-N

During the backwash cycle, it provides a partial evacua tion of aged biomass which helps make the biological filter a high-performance process. The appropriate selected support media - the Biolite® retains the suspended solids introduced by the feed water as well as those generated by biological degradation by the biomass. The process thus combines both biological degra dation and mechanical filtration. Treated water is collected

at the surface of the filter, resulting in no active liquor being in contact with the atmosphere, and, therefore, no odour or aerosol emission from the filter.

Canmore WWTP Presentation Figure 3 TSS Data

The new wastewater treatment plant includes: • a sewage lift station • mechanical bar screen

• one aerated grit removal chamber • two rectangular clarifiers •four Biofor C cells, of 40 m- each, with 2.5 m of Biolite N,

Monthly Average BODS (mg/l)

of 2.7 mm effective size • four Biofor N cells with the same characteristics

-Raw hfluert - hflueftf Bbfor-C







Figure 4 BOD5 Data

Month 1997

Monthly Average BODS (mg/l)

- Effluent Biofor-C - Effluent Biofor-N

• eight process blowers - one for each cell • Air scour blowers and backwash pumps • One intermediate lifting pump station to direct the Biofor C effluent to the Biofor N cell. This design permits the opera tion of the eight cells in parallel during very high flows to the plant. The plant is fully automatic. One Year Operating Results During the plant start up phase, the flow rate varied be tween 3,500 and 6,000 mVd,but last June,the maximum went

to 10,000 mVd, which is equivalent to the annual average flow rate, for the year 2001. The resulting filtration velocity varies between 2 m/h and 5 m/h depending on the number of filters in operation and the number in backwash or standby. (See figure 1) The suspended solids removal efficiency was consistently in the range of 80%. The treated water quality is excellent with an average TSS concentration of 5 ppm. This is not surprising, because the Biofor is a granular filter, and the wa ter flows through two subsequent filters with 2.5 m of Biolite 2.7 mm filtering media. (See figures 2&3)

The BODj at the Biofor C outlet (first biofiltration step)


July Month 1997

was on average below 20 ppm since the beginning. It took only a few weeks for the carbonaceous biomass to colonize the filtering support media. In the second biofiltration stage, the dissolved organic material satisfies the nitrifing biomass,


Rgure 5 BOD5 Data

and then the remaining BOD,is within the water quality pa rameters. The difference is approximately equivalent to the biomass synthesis. (See figures 4&5) The ammonia reduction began to be significant in June 1997. This is normal because the nitrification kinetics are

Monthly Average Ammonia Concentrations(mg/l)

temperature dependent, and it is necessary to waitfor the water temperature to rise up to 12°C and above to allow the nitrifiers to be installed in the filtering media. However, since that time, the ammonia level is consist

-Raw Water - Effluent Bofor-N

ently below the requested values. Even in winter, with wa ters with temperatures close to 10°C, the nitrifiers are still able to oxidize the ammonia to nitrate. (See figure 6) Conclusion

This first installation, in Western Canada, shows the abil

Figure 6 Ammonia Data


ity of the biofiltration process in sewage applications, even with cold water. The Biofor water treatment process is flex ible, easy to operate, has no odour emissions, and has a high level of reliability. For more information, circle reply card No. 125 Environmental Science cfe Engineering, June 1998


9 Steps

r e've taken SBR efficiency to the next level with our Inter

mittent Cycle Extended Aeration System (ICEAS®). Unlike the stop-and-go flow in conventional

5. Needs Less Maintenance.

Aeration is uniform and essentially trouble-free with high-efficiency,

SBRs, flow - and processing —

extended life SANITAIRE® SILVER SERIES membrane disc diffusers. No need to install

through the ICEAS is continuous.

and maintain jets, liquid motive

This offers several key advan

pumps, retrievable diffuser

tages for wastewater treatment:

frames, lift-out trackways, hoists or RAS piping and controls.

1. Higher System Capacity.


Of Any

All processes from aeration to

6. Costs Less To Operate.

settling to decanting are per formed in a single basin. Filling

Aeration accounts for approxi mately 80% of the energy costs

and decanting are done simulta neously, which increases flow capacity by 25% or more com

in an SBR system. The ICEAS system cuts that cost by up to

50% because of the efficiency

pared to conventional SBRs.

of the SANITAIRE diffusers.

2. Less Tankage Needed.

tanks to allow for settling and

7. Easy To Control. Microprocessor controls can substantially reduce labor

decanting during which no other


Conventional SBRs need extra

processing is done. ICEAS can

perform all processes continuously 3. Offers Better Biological

8. Uses A Superior Decanter Design. Our patented, stainless steel decanter system — unlike floating or submerged decanters

Nutrient Removal. A continuous

— also functions as a overflow

supply of carbon to the biomass is provided throughout the aera

protection device. It requires no effluent valves, valve vaults, flex joints, throttling arrangements or dewatering supports.

in one tank.


tion, settling and decanting phases. No added chemicals needed.

9. Expands Easily. Because each basin is a complete, modu


lar treatment unit, you can simply install more of the self-contained, Pre-Reactor Chamber

modular units in parallel to

increase total system capacity. Effluent

All these design advantages have made ICEAS the choice

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zone which traps grease and

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prevents short circuiting.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 126(See page 25)


By Saad Y. Jasim, Ph.D., P.Eng.*

Bromate formation during pre-coagulation ozonation in drinking water treatment

Thepresence ofbromide ion in raw water can lead to the for

Rguii&2,Biomcle&Bromate, March 1998

mation of brominated disin

fection by-products (DBFs) such as bromate during water treatment with ozone. The formation of bromate

depends on water quality parameters such as influent bromide ion concentra

tion, pH,total organic carbon(TOC)and various treatment conditions (Or dose, dissolved Or and contact time). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)has proposed a maximum con taminant level (MCL) for bromate in drinking water of 10 p.g/L. Many studies on bromate formation during ozonation have been conducted

gI S 9? o 9? ^ยง

RLg'L(Bromde) (Bromate) F2ugl(Bromate)

^ !;r 25

on a bench-scale under batch or semi-

batch conditions. A pilot scale applica tion is considered to be closer to a full

scale operation. The NSERC Industrial Research

for the addition of ozone at some point in the future.

Chair in Drinking Water Treatment at the University of Waterloo and partners from various segments of the water in dustry, are conducting research to inves tigate important issues in drinking

The pilot plant used in this study had two identical process trains constructed of organically inert materials (stainless steel, glass, orfluorocarbons). Each side of the pilot plant shared identical physi

water treatment. Three state-of-the-art

cal characteristics which allowed for di

drinking water treatment pilot plants

rect comparison between the two sides of the plant with common raw water quality. Aluminum sulfate (alum) was used as the coagulant, and a cationic coagu lant aid (Percol LT 24), was applied to

were built to conduct these studies.

The Windsor Utilities Commission,

Windsor, Ontario (one of the NSERC Chair partners), and the Civil and Envi ronmental Engineering Department, the University of Windsor,conducted a pilot scale study for the formation of bromate during a pre-coagulation

Figure-1, Pilot Plant Conflguration Raw Water Storage

ozonation process. The Windsor Wa


is drawn from the Detroit River which

connects Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie. The Windsor Water Treatment Cen

tre was upgraded in 1994 to increase total capacity from 227 ML/D to 454 ML/D with the construction of a sec

ond drinking water treatment plant (A.H. Weeks Plant) at the site of the original plant. Provisions were made *Dr. Saad Y. Jasim is conducting stud ies on water quality for the Windsor

Rapid Mixer

N/ Tank


N/ Tank

\l/ Settled Water Tank

N/ Filter

sor, Windsor, Ontario. 40

3.25 L/min.(10.7 m/h). Samples were taken from the pilot

plant influent (raw water) for bromide analysis, while samples for bromate analysis were taken from the pre-ozone contactor and anthracite/sand filter ef fluent. Bromide concentration in raw water

(Detroit River water), was 21-23 jJ.g/ L during the experiment; bromide concentration did not exceed 1.1 jig/ L after ozonation (samples were col

Sedimentation Tank

AlA Settled Water

while bromate was always lower than the detection limit(1 jig/L)for filtered water. (Figure 2) Future experiments would inves tigate bromate formation at pre-co agulation ozonation compared to post sedimentation ozonation, and pre-co agulation ozonation compared to multi-stage ozonation. The findings of this study would be of particular significance to the Windsor Utilities Commission in fu


ture consideration for the implemen tation of ozonation as a process to be

Jl Anthracite/Sand

considered at the A.H. Weeks Water


Treatment Plant and potentially at



other locations.

Side 1

Side 2

as an Adjunct Assistant Professor in

the Civil and Environmental Engineer ing Department, University of Wind

\/ Floccuiation


Utilities Commission. He also serves

Rapid Mixer



thracite/sand filters was maintained at

lected from the ozone contactor),


ter Treatment Centre serves three mu

nicipalities whose total population is approximately 214,000. Raw water

both sides of the pilot plant. Ozone was applied prior to coagulation on side 2 of the pilot plant (Figure 1) at a dose of 1.3-1.5 mg/L. Flow rate through the an

For more information, circle reply card No. 127 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998



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Pump Maintenance

Information - the key to success In pump maintenance

Whatis the bestsolution to

achieving success in pump maintenance? Much of this depends on how critical maintenance is in a plant. We have observed over our history of some 30 years in pump maintenance, repair and overhaul(MRO)that two fac tors often decide the degree to which maintenance is an issue.

First and foremost is the

availability of spares. If your plant has a spare in place, re pairs can be executed as and when needed. A spare pump can be put into action when

vironment, water and waste treatment

ditions can have a dramatic effect on

operators are looking for the approach that demands the least capital cost and the highest level of efficiency. Many have chosen to go with less rather than more spares. To compensate, they have implemented detailed maintenance and trending analysis regimes that use per formance intelligence to predict pump failures and to help guide them in es-

performance. A successful program is one in which pertinent information is collected in a manner that facilitates results. A vari

ety offunctions can be monitored. Com prehensive programs usually track such operational aspects as: flow, power con sumption, heat, pressure, noise, and speed. Other areas that should also be considered for moni

toring include strain, liquid levels, leakage and other emissions, output contamina tion and vibration.

ever there is a breakdown and

While vibration analysis

can operate until the operat ing pump is repaired or as long

has become a cornerstone of

as it is needed.

But, redundant units in

modem trend analysis, it is not without its detractors. There

are those who say that vibra

crease capital costs and this is becoming an important con sideration in deciding on the need for back-up units. There is also the tendency to use spares as an alternative to a fully executed maintenance program. I am not saying that this is right, but in today's re

tion information has little

source-stretched world, the

whether it is based on decibels

value on its own. I tend to

agree. It should be one part of an active program that com bines information from a va

riety of sources. There are also those who

argue about the type of vibra tion analysis to be employed,

or frequency of vibration. Suffice it to say that under operational issues that seem a standing the nuances of this greater priority. Which is why we still get calls in the middle very valuable tool is some of the night for emergency re thing that should be left to the people who pursue this as a pairs. Millwright Tom MacDonald begins an overhaul assignment on A second issue to consider career. Based on their input, a radial split pump. is the critical nature of the and other performance infor pumping unit; specifically, how long can tablishing effective maintenance pro mation, one can create a suitably effec it be taken out of service without jeop grams. tive program that can be expected to ardizing operations? In plants without While developing a program may predict failure with a reasonable level spares, some effort should be taken to sound easy, it quickly becomes an in of accuracy. calculate to the hour the time a pump domitable challenge. Often trending Despite the effectiveness of today's can be out of service. Advance arrange programs are designed to efficiently technology,from my perspective, noth ments with a local repair shop, or de collect a wide range of performance and ing can beat what an experienced eye velopment of intemal repair capabilities, operational information. But,this infor can see during routine maintenance. For are mandatory to ensure no time is mation can become a burden unless op those of us who have seen many pumps wasted during an emergency. erators have the ability to effectively in distress, we are able to identify prob Being able to bring a pump back into analyze all the data. lems simply by looking at a pump be service within a set time in which pro There are a number of follies associ ing maintained. A list might include: duction is not affected can, if appropri ated with performance information. One worn out areas, obvious corroded sec ate, actually eliminate the need for of the most common is to use data on tions, lodged materials, parts that are spares. In today's budget conscious en one pump to generalize the perfomiance damaged or even improperly installed, of all pumps in the false assumption that parts rubbing together, and colour dis all pumps are created equal. Even ifthey tortions. *Manager, Peacock Toronto Mechanical Services Centre were, subtle changes in operating con These are all clues that something is trend is to move on to other


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

By Harry Kornel* Trending analysis can help pinpoint amiss. A good maintenance program stalling a back-up mechanical seal in should include extensive "looking" at all each active pump. This can give you areas in individual pumps that need at some breathing room between failure tention before they become the source parts of the pump. Over time, an opera and repair. of a breakdown. Every plant is differ tor can become quite efficient at spot ent,every pump operates differently. In It is said that maintenance by walk ting trouble. some plants they are pushed almost to We can also go beyond the human eye. ing about has its merits. A plant opera Thermal imaging can give us a view of tor tuned into the sounds of all rotating their tolerance levels, in others they op erate well below their performance performance irregularities and show machinery can often spot a little disso where parts may be rubbing. We can X- nance that can signal problems. This is ranges. Understanding the operating the same as motorists detecting prob- efficiencies of each pump is almost an ray to detect faults or cracking. Some ar impossibility. gue that this can become overkill, A plant operator tuned into the sounds of Trending can help pinpoint too much analyzing, becoming all rotating machinery can often spot a performance variations that can too sophisticated. I admit, there are problems with looking at little dissonance that can signal problems. signal inherent or growing prob lems that can result in failure. things; they can seem to be okay. Consider seals. They may appear to lems simply by listening to their engines It works as an effective aid in determin ing pump performance; but it works best have considerable remaining life. It is on a regular basis. Unfortunately, this is good in theory as part of a detailed program. not uncommon to measure their life ex All rotating equipment will eventu pectancy as a factor of current wear and but not very practical in today's mod time in service. This approach is sel ern plants. There simply isn't enough ally wear out. Effecting an informationdom accurate; in reality, wearing out is time to really listen to every piece of rich, pro-active maintenance program for pumps will allow operators to en the cause of only a small number of equipment. A disciplined trending sys sure the highest level of operational pump failures. In most cases, pump fail tem becomes the most viable alternative simply because, if designed properly, it efficiencies. An investment in trending ures can be traced to seal or bearing fail ure; these parts can easily pass visual can offer the most reliable information analysis services may be one of the most inspections. on performance and life expectancies; effective ways of ensuring pump main One of the most effective means of this is critically important given today's tenance success. time constraints. For more information, preventing downtime, not failure, is in

circle reply card No. 129

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For more information, circle reply card No. 130 (See page 25)

For more information, circle reply card No. 147 (See page 25)

Pumping Plillosophy

By George Black*

Pump performance depends on sound thinking by designer, specifier & end user

Speaking at the Tulane Univer

sity Business School a few years ago,Fred W.Friendly,the

former head of CBS News,

made the profound and disturbing state ment: The job of the university was not to teach students what to think but to

"open minds and make the agony of de cision-making so intense you can only escape by thinking." Contrast this with the provocative statement by the re

low price has an adverse effect on qual ity, production, safety, maintenance, or the environment.

Stated another way, pump users are not only buying pumps, but are buying solutions to an existing or an anticipated problem - answers to a known need. Manufacturers of engineered pumps are not or should not be in the business of

building products for which there is no real need. It it like trying to market a Rolls Royce for use on the farm. Even standard off-the-shelf pumps, too often

nowned mathematician Alfred North Whitehead in 1911 that "a civilization

can be judged by how successful it is in permitting individuals to accomplish things automatically, and without thinking." Reflecting on the rapid progress of our business and consumer society into the computer age with its accent

considered identical twins, are not clones.

and, with the help of young engineering graduates, created flexible liners and nonmetallic, peristaltic type rotary pumps. The pump bodies or casing were made of Lucite - a DuPont-developed plastic-and thick-sectioned elastomeric liners were molded of pure gum rubber. This was the birth of the plastic pump. The people who made these first pumps recognized the potential for the use ofplas tics as the basic material for industrial

pumps. The critical need for a chemically inert material should have provided the re ceptive environment for the growth of plastic pumps. But it did not. General acceptance of these pumps was not forth

coming despite the variety of chemically inert, light weight, structurally strong plastics and the wide range of elastomeric

on machine-made solutions to

materials that became avail

problems of every dimension, we can see how easy it is to relegate thinking to click here

able. Minds should have been

or to download someone else's



opened but they were not. The


safely and cost-effectively, aggressive acids, corrosive

need was there to handle

answer to a problem. It is un caustics, bromine,radioactive fortunately obvious that Mr. solutions, reagent grade Whitehead and his philosophy chemicals and pharmaceuti may be winning. cals, ultrapure water and an Is it any wonder that per endless list of troublesome sonnel directors complain that fluids, but the mindset was our college grads can't write a fixed on metals. sentence, compose a letter, or The reason? Engineers, communicate their thoughts? This robot-like response In the fifties we found the ideal corrosion resistant metal wasn't plant managers, and mainte nance people identified plas mechanism leads to looking metal. A pump is much more than a piece of tics with cheap toys, despite the crea for idiot-proofequipment and books/or metal or plastic, or a catalogue page come tive engineering of pump manufactur dummies, prepared for supposedly intel to life. It is a reflection of the company ers and the prodding of the giant chemi ligent men and women. The aphorism use it or lose it, that so that produces and services it. As a user, cal companies like DuPont, Dow, Monsanto, Goodrich, and others. aptly fits our muscular structure, also you want it when you need it, perform The thinking process that went into applies to the neuromuscular workings ing as promised. You are buying what it of our brain. Unfortunately, business does, not what it is called, or what the the development of plastic pumps from a small unit you could hold in your hand executives on the equipment-using, as catalogue or advertising says it can do. You may find it strange to learn that as it recirculated life-sustaining blood, well as on the manufacturing side, tend to the heavy duty, horizontal centrifugals to forget it. This is why we hear the price some original pumps were not engi and 50-foot tall vertical pumps did not is too high as the determining reason for neered and built by a pump manufac not purchasing and the universal excuse turer. They were built to answer a life come from a catalogue or computer. It saving need presented by the medical came from face-to-face interchange be for a salesperson not getting the order. Management on the user and the sales profession. Approximately fifty years tween the user and manufacturer. It came from a combination of the exist side knows that initial price is but one ago, the doctors performing heart sur ing need and programs designed to open factor in product cost. An important one, gery at a Pennsylvania hospital re certainly, but of minor significance if the quested a heart-lung pump apparatus to closed minds. It came from technical handle blood without contaminating or journal editors who encouraged problem injuring the sensitive cellular structure. and solution articles in their pages. It 'Communications Director, Vanton Pump & Equipment Corp. The entrepreneurs took up the challenge came from companies willing to share 44

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

their successes and failures with read

ers of these publications. The willingness to accept new ideas has to come from plant managers with

Proven Performers

the freedom and the incentive to think


creatively. Too often the thinking proc ess is fenced in by the fear of trying something new, of making a mistake; it

• Non-clog and vortex — up to 700hp • Grinder — 2hp to I6hp • Effluent and ejector — 4/lOhp to 3hp

is easier to stick with what has been done

before. Ritual,too often, closes the door

to reason. The opening of that door must emanate from management. Unfortunately, human interchange seems to be losing out in the battle with impersonal machines. From the auto mated answering of telephones to ex

Mixers— • Submersible

• Top and side entry Aerators-

4"" -

• Submerged and floating

tremes of standardization, to the cold re

Control Paneb—

ality of absentee ownership, goose-stepping seems to be replacing face-to-face human interchange. Short-term bottom line financial proof of performance is driving long-term planning to the back ground, emphasizing minimum inven tories and just-in-time manufacturing. A significant baiTier to successful management is the isolation mindset.

• Complete design


and manufacture

Look to ABS Pumps for all your pumping and mixing requirements. FOR


_ A company in the Cardo Group PUMPING

ABS Pumps Corp. 1215 Meyerside Drive, Unit #7 Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5T 1H3 905-670-4677 Fax: 905-670-3709

This is reflected in the close to the vest

philosophy that puts secrecy in a domiContinued overleaf

For more information, circle reply card No. 179

Potable water.

Portable plant. Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever additional or improved water is needed. Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant produces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact:


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Telephone:(905) 827-9821 Toll Free: 1-888-ECODYNE

Fax:(905) 827-8428 Internet: lnfo@ecodyne.com


1 B 1 A member of The Marmon Group of companies

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


For more information, circle reply card No. 131 (See page 25)


Pumping Philosophy, cont' nant position and reduces interchange. It is often referred to as top down man agement.

The top man knows best so employ ees down the line don't question stand ard procedures and don't share problems or solutions with sales representatives, friends or colleagues, and certainly not with the trade press. With respect to the outside world,its a give nothing, take all approach. They search the technical press for helpful information on problem solving, but clam up when it comes to supplying similar data on their own operations. The case history, how Isolved it type of editorial has been diminishing because of this isolationist thought process, and we are all losers. This same mindset results in.unnec

essary downtime due to pump failures or product contamination caused by in stallation of the wrong pump or the se lection of the wrong pump material. In our 50 years of creating thermoplastic pump design for handling corrosive, abrasive, hazardous as well as ultrapure fluids,the single, most significant cause

of failure has been the lack of full dis

closure on the part of the specifier, pur chasing agent, or user. When the ques tion of service conditions is raised by our sales representatives in the field or at headquarters, too often the answers are vague or incomplete. Our personnel are schooled in the importance of maintaining confidenti ality, but more often than not, what is told to them in confidence is an open secret. And frequently, the solution to user pumping problems has already been solved by plant operating people whose products are not competitive, and many times by the same company's personnel in another division. Without full dis closure of service conditions for a new

installation, or data on the existing prob lem, the pump user is flirting with fail ure. The thinking process should con sider the pump supplier and manufacturer as a friend and partner, not an adversary. The thinking process The following concepts summarize the thinking process that permeates suc cessful manufacturing, engineering, and marketing decisions.

YOUR LARGEST SELECTION OF »EED REDUCERS & GEARMOT • Modular reducers, gearmotors & planetary drives for a vast range of applications • New series drives offer more

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For more Information, circle reply card No. 133 (See page 25)


Every customer is an individual, and every order is an answer to a specific need. Therefore, every pump must be tested against the requested flow char acteristics and a permanent record of this test data should be kept on file and be readily retrievable. Since experience is the best guide to anticipated performance in critical cor rosive or abrasive situations, whenever

possible, retrieve, codify, and make this data available to customers and competi tors alike.

In order to overcome the various de

humanizing, automated seller-buyer ap proaches, we consistently recommend conducting seminars on pump technol ogy in the facilities of large pump us ers, in the offices of system designers, engineers, and construction companies. Maintenance and operating personnel should visit pump manufacturers' facili ties.

Printed communications are no

substitute for hands-on show-and-tell

presentations. Field sales personnel should be re quired to individually visit every major installation and verify the performance of the pumps. The first use of a plastic pump in any application not previously identified must be reported, codified, and followed to ensure satisfaction.

Pump design engineers must con tinue to work closely with materials manufacturers, with highest priority given to new materials or material com binations that can increase pump life, reduce maintenance, and in other ways respond to the problems of greatest con cern to pump users.

We urge pump users to consider full disclosure and full interchange. Cus tomization to fit specific needs fre quently will be more cost-effective than off-the-shelf purchasing. Slight varia tions in basic pump design can often repay a delivery delay or a higher initial cost in very short order. We also urge users not to live with problems, not to accept or compromise with mediocrity. Progress is made by identifying prob lems and forcing those involved in pur chasing, using, and manufacturing, to think their way through a problem to mutually satisfactory solutions no mat ter how hard this thinking may be. Edited and reprinted with permission from Piant Services, a Putman Publication.

For more Information, circle reply card No. 132 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Our old pumps

were ciegglng at least ence a month.

These German-Rupps have never clogged In ever three years" Clayton MacMurtry, Works Superintendent Town of Middleton/Nova Scotia

"We were having a lot of problems with one of our submersible lift

stations. We were handling rags, ban

dages and other solids from a nearby hospital as web as a large amount of sand caused by two other main bnes with non-gasketed joints. "The old pumps were clogging at least once a month, and we were

In over three years these pumps have costing us about $7,000 a year. never clogged. The routine checks "Then we decided to go with a Gorman-Rupp T Series above ground and maintenance are a pleasure because of the solids handling abihty. compared to the hassle of the old wet well. We hke the Gorman-Rupp pumps so well we've already

replaced two other submersible lift GORMAN-RUPP

replacing wear rings every six months. Maintenance and downtime were

stations with the T Series pumps. They've solved many of our problems and saved us thousands of dollars a


year in maintenance."

Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd.•70 Burwell Road • St. Thomas, Ontario N5P 3R7• 519-631-2870 • Fax 519-631-4624 www.gormanrupp.com

E-Mail: grcanada@gormanrupp.com

For more information, circie reply card No. 134(See page 25)


By S. Gibbons, P.Eng. and P. Burrowes, P.Eng.*

Generating electricity from biosoiids

The Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, Ontario, has invested $4.5 million in the

construction of a cogenera tion facility at its Robert O. Pickard Environmental Centre (ROPEC). The cogeneration facility will save Ottawa-

Carleton taxpayers $650,000 annually. The cost of building and commission ing the plant will be paid offin less than seven years.

Cogeneration is the conversion of energy in one form (burning fuel) into energy in two forms (electricity and heat). Methane is burned to produce both electricity and heat(hence the name cogeneration). Cogeneration Facility Operation The cogeneration facility bums di gester gas in three combustion engine/ generators. The digester gas serves as fuel for the engines that drive the gen erators, producing the electricity. Each unit has a maximum electrical genera

cogeneration facility can produce up to 2,430 kilowatts, or 2.43 megawatts. Electricity generated is used to power the aeration blowers and centrifuges, substantially reducing the quantity of electricity supplied by Gloucester Hy dro. The facility uses as much digester

through "mufflers" located on an out side platform and is vented to the atmos phere. The hot water goes into the plant

heating system at between 85 and 95°C. The heat generated fulfills all plant needs during the summer; any excess heat is sent to the sewer system as hot

gas as possible, up to 27,000 mVday,to

water. In the winter months, boilers are

maximize electricity production. Heat generated from the engines is utilized and transferred to the plant-wide heating system. Heat is captured from the engines in two ways: • Each engine is cooled by circulating coolant through cavities in the engine body. Excess heat from the combustion of digester gas raises the coolant tem

used as needed.

perature to approximately 120°C. The coolant flows to a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to the plant heat ing system. • The exhaust gas which leaves the en gine at about 450°C,rans through a heat exchanger (boiler) where it is cooled to

tion capacity of 810 kilowatts; the

about 150°C. The heat is transferred to

*CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

the plant heating system. The exhaust gas leaves the building

Industrial Applications Waste Effluent Treatment

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About 37% of the available energy in the digester gas is converted to elec tricity, and 48% to thermal energy. This could provide power for an entire year to over 1,000 homes.

The engine/generator control system is connected to ROPEC's computerized

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisi tion(SCADA)system; this allows plant operators to monitor and control the operations of the cogeneration system from the control centre.

In 1996, ROPEC spent $2.7 million to purchase electricity. The cogenera

tion plant is expected to save $900,000 per year on electricity purchases. For more information, ciroie repiy card No. 113

Seprotech Systems Incorporated tias extensive experience in ttie use ot membrane tectinology for ttie treatment of vi/aste\A/ater. Ttie use of

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waste etfluent and recover valuable materials

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has proven to be a cost effective and efficient treatment process. Seprotech con provide complete wostewoter treatment systems employing reverse osmosis, nonotiltrotion,

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ultrotiitration and microtiitration to meet the

requirements of existing and future environmental standards.

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Telephone: (613) 523-1641 Fax: (613) 731-0851 Internet: www.seprotech.com


For more information, ciroie repiy card No. 187 (See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

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Biological oxidation, continuedfrom page 35 Some very simple screening tools are useful when trying to decide if an appii cation favors thermal oxidation or bio-

filtration. Normally thermal technolo gies will be the correct choice if the in let concentration of the air stream is in

the autothermai (no supplemental fuel required for continuous operation) range. Typical autothermai concentra tions for catalytic oxidizers are between 500 - 1000 mg/m^ of contaminants. For

non-catalytic systems, concentrations

usually start at around 1000 mg/m\ An exception is for inlet concentra

moved. The physical size of thermal oxidizers is not typically dependent on loading or contaminant type. Therefore,

tions, below 200 mg/m^ Whenever,the

if the inlet concentration is low, the hio-

inlet concentration is low,thermal tech

fiiter required may he quite small to

nologies require supplemental fuel and can become extremely expensive to op erate. In addition, hiofiiters are sized

differently than thermal technologies. Biofiiters are based on the amount of mass and contaminant that must he re

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

achieve the desired removal. Conse

quently, a hiofiiter will incur less capi tal and operating costs than a thermal oxidizer to perform the same task. For more information, circle reply card No. 144 49


R&D News

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Endogenous decay of biomass results in oxidation and resynthesis as well as re lease of suspended organic debris that is refractory in the biological process. R.L. Droste made a thermodynamic analysis of endogenous resynthesis to determine the endogenous yield factor and verify concepts in the more recent mechanisticIAWQ models. The endog enous yield factor is not, in general, the

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

R&D News, conrd.


same as the yield factor from exogenous substrate as assumed in the lAWQ


model. A new model, described in

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


R&D News, cont'd. tions. Parameters determined by these

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and efficient as well as minimum use

of dosing chemicals. Statiflo motion less mixers are commonly used In ooagulatlon/flocculatlon, flash mixing of dilute polyelectrolyte, alum, caus tic, etc., pH control, disinfection/

3300, 3100, 3110 and 3000 series

for instrumentation of plants produc ing cryogenic liquids. Easy-to-read charts and comprehensive specifica


tion sheets are included.

and other dilution and dispersion applications.

Davis Controls

Statiflo Inc.

Circle reply card No. 228

Circle reply card No. 229

BIONOx submersible aerators/mixers The BIONOx™ submersible aerator/

Drier cake at higher hydraulic loading rates than two-belt dewatering filters Conventional two-belt dewatering fil

mixer provides a unique blend of the high oxygen transfer efficiency of fine bubble diffused air with the strong mixing capability of a slow speed

3DP Three-Bell Dewatering Filters

ters simply don't handle dilute sludges efficiently. When a low-sol

ids feed Is compressed too quickly

aerator...all In one basic unit. Air Is

fed to the unit creating fine bubbles which are discharged Into the wastewater through extended diffu sion channels In a 360° pattern. In conjunction with aeration, the unit may also be used for mixing. ABS Pumps Corporation Circle reply card No. 230

the result is often lateral extrusion. The Elmco 3DP™ filter solves this

dilemma by coupling a compact twobelt dewatering filter with a sepa rately driven, fourteen-foot gravity belt thickener (GET).



!liiill-Putpoic Ops

Circle reply card No. 231

Road maintenance products HIGHWAY'MAINIENANCEfflMDUinS

Denso's road maintenance products consist of cold applied bitumen/rub ber based tapes and hot applied bi tumen/rubber compounds for joint sealing. Easy and efficient applica tion procedures provide long-lasting, flexible and highly durable water proof joint sealing of asphalt to as phalt joints, asphalt to concrete or as

Conveyor screening belt ^JERRICK DERRICK

Flo-Line Scalper' for induatiiot and Waatawatar ApplicBtiona

belt to be Increased and additional

fluid to be processed. The uphill pitch on the conveyor bed permits a fluid pool to form at the end of the Scalper, resulting In an increased hydrostatic head. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 233

Denso North America

Compact ozone generation

Flexible expansion joints

units OZAT literature describes Ozonla's

Pipelines crossing unstable terrain such as faults, swamps or landfills, all suffer some degree of vulnerabil ity to damage from ground motion. FLEX-TEND flexible expansion joints provide pipeline protection from the stresses produced by these forces with their ability to deflect up to 30 degrees In any direction, while simul taneously expanding or contracting. They are available In sizes from 3

Ozonia North America manufactures


ozone generators capable of produc ing from one pound to thousands of pounds of ozone per day using high endurance non-glass dielectrics. Ozonia also offers a complete line of complementary equipment Including monitors, vent ozone decomposers, and medium pressure UV units.

OzoneB Units

Ozonia North America

Circle reply card No. 234


Terminal Clly

pre-packaged ozone plants designed for smaller municipal waterworks.



recovery from Industrial and wastewater process flows, while reducing wastewater treatment costs. As sol

Circle reply card No. 232


tor. The unit works to Increase solids

ids loading Increases, the variable speed motor allows the speed of the

phalt to steel structures. Products are more cost-effective than hot liq uid pouring or rubberized asphalt sealants currently used.


The Derrick Flo-Llne Scalper™ Is an inclined conveyor screening belt driven by a 1 hp, variable speed mo

inches to 36 inches and can be used

on either ductile Iron, steel or PVC EB'^tA'.IRC-'N

pipelines. Terminal City Ironworks Circle reply card No. 235

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Product and Service Showcase Stormwater management

Wedco stormwater catch basin High density polyethylene: Superior resist ance to most chemicals and acids, especially road salt. Proven material. Corrosion free.

1 VL

Life expectancy of 25 years. Flexible Installation: For existing installa tions, pipe can be placed at exact height by using a cradle adapter. Rotating top cone al lows variable positioning of rectangular man hole opening. Rectangular opening is off-cen tre to allow for more precise alignment with

Delivered liquid oxygen

High-capacity, open bottorn Cultec Recharger^" chambers provide greater storage

and much higher infiltrative capa bility. Less area and less crushed

the curb or sidewalk.

stone are required

Circle reply card No. 260

Circle reply card No. 261

If oxygen demand is less than 20 tons(18 metric tons) per day, or intermittent, de livered liquid oxygen may offer the most cost-effective method of supply. Liquid oxygen is also available as back-up to onsite plants. Whether for primary or back up use, Praxair provides the storage tank and vaporizer. Once vaporized, the oxy gen is delivered to your pipeline at the pressure you require. Praxair Circle reply card No. 262

Oxygen supply

Portable sewage pumping

New grooved-end AWWA


check valve

Gorman-Rupp's new portable sewage pumping station is designed for emer gency standby and sewage bypass opera

AWWA check valve for water and waste-

Lightweight: Does not requre heavy equip ment to manoeuvre. Faster installation at a

lower cost. Total height 75", total weight 162 lbs. 1 1/2" X 1 1/2" X 1/8" angled stainless steel reinforcing band for more rigidity, in stalled midway in the cylinder. A four-season testing program was conducted by Quebec City in co-operation with Laval University, Wedco Moulded Products and SETRA Inc. Make-Way Plastics Ltd.

with Recharger stormwater management systems. Recharger HD far exceeds any H-20 wheel load requirement for instal lation under paved, trafficked areas. Cultec chambers effectively serve envi ronmentally sensitive areas while making valuable land available for parking lots, athletic fields and other applications. Make-Way Plastics Ltd.

Praxair on-site

Oxy GEN^'^' VPSA systems are well-suited

to many proc

esses requiring a steady oxygen demand of 5-


180 tons (4-160

metric tons) per day. A Praxair VPSA system provides a safe and reliable oxygen supply, and is often more economical than liquid oxy gen. The system produces oxygen at 90%-94% purity. It uses ultra-efficient synthetic zeolites(adsorbent material), a simple two-bed adsorption cycle, and a vacuum pressure process. Praxair

Circle reply card No. 263

Spill containment system

tions. The station features a 6" T Series

self-priming centrifugal solids handling sewage pump with submersible trans

ducer type liquid level control. Pump will cycle automatically in response to a liq uid level control signal, allowing for un attended operation. Gorman-Rupp of Canada

Circle reply card No. 264

Victaulic's new Series 317 grooved-end water services is easily installed with Victaulic grooved couplings, transition couplings or flange adapters; it features a unique coupling-cap assembly that facilitates access for reduced mainte nance downtime. Used in combination

with the grooved-end Victaulic plug valve, it provides a complete grooved valve package for lift stations. Victaulic

Circle reply card No. 265

TOP for self-cleaning pump stations The new TOP in

corporates a unique sump floor design, with hydraulically optimized pump discharge connec tions, to eliminate "dead zones" and

A recent innovation in the spill-pan mar ket by Trans Environmental Systems is a self-contained pan that can be relocated and that has a rolling, retractable rain cover. This device is installed by lag bolting it down to the spur-track railroad

plify construction of new or retrofit pump stations. Either way, the convergent de sign of the sump floor, reduces residual

ties. Its rolling lid is lower than the top

fluid volume and ensures that retained

of the rail, so it will not interfere with car

solids are collected beneath the pumps suctions, ready to be pumped away. ITT Flygt Canada Circle reply card No. 267


Trans Environmental Systems Circle reply card No. 266

promote controlled fluid flow while pumping. TOP is available as a stand ardized, prefabricated component to sim

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption; expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required; easily installed in existing tanks; multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 268 59

Product and Service Showcase Filtering contaminated processing fluids

Oil, grease & solids interceptors

Iron and manganese removal

Proceptor™ in terceptors are

single or multicell units de

signed to effec tively reduce oil, grease and solids loading from wastewater ef

As fluid filtration becomes a necessity, it makes sense to use a system that will pro vide high quality at a low operating cost. EMCO's complete line of automated sys tems offer: A patented gravity flow sys tem; significant reduction of waste dis posal; small machine footprint; positive pressure seal system; modular construc tion; and automatic operation and low

fluent. They are constructed from fiberglass reinforced plastic, preventing the possibility of soil and/or groundwater contamination and the subsequent liability. Ideally suited for industrial applications, Proceptor in terceptors can help to significantly reduce annual sewer use discharge penalties. Proceptor, a Division of Stormceptor

maintenance. Nottawa Iron Works

Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 269

Circle reply card No. 270

Inlet Stormceptor® system

Thermoplastic ball valves

Zenon's ZeeWeed® membranes are de

signed and guaranteed to operate with both low and high levels of solids, with out membrane clogging, need of high backwash cycles or detrimental effects on the membrane flux. This process that combines oxidation with microfiltration, allows for the treatment of well water

contaminated with high levels of Fe and Mn.The result is a high quality effluent, with minimal use of chemicals, and re

duced sludge volumes. Zenon Circle reply card No. 271

Liquid polymer processing



Canada has just

developed an in novative and pro prietary inlet separator. Thelnlet Stormceptor System employs the same princi ples of operation as the well known In-line interceptors. Developed to treat runoff from an area of up to 0.20 ha, the Inlet Stormceptor has inherited the internal by-pass func tion, ensuiing that all sediment and oil removed from stormwater runoffremains

trapped within the storage chamber,even during peak flows. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 272

Advanced SBR Technology

NeoValves introduces its new line of PVC-VX Series Union End Ball Valve

1/2" to 4". They are equipped with re movable spanner device and a special thread design to prevent accidental loos ening during disassembly of union nut. The "ultra compact" design is able to meet all types of commercial and indus trial applications. NeoValves

The Model 560 Liquid Polymer Module is an advanced, highly effective system for instantaneously activating liquid poly mer emulsions and solutions. A uniquely designed liquid polymer Activation Chamber maintains complete control of the polymer at each phase of the activa tion process,thereby eliminating polymer short-circuiting and the resulting underprocessed or overprocessed polymer. Metcon

Circle reply card No. 273

Circle reply card No. 274

Pipe rehabilitation design guide

Controlling hydrogen sulfide problems

Engineers and project managers can now log onto Insituform Tech

nologies' World The Intermittent Cycle Extended Aera tion System(ICBAS®)-in which aera tion, settling and supernatant decanting are cycled in a continuous flow single basin -represents a significant improve ment over conventional sequential batch reactor (SBR) systems. Developed by

ABJE"^,the process combines continuous inflow with intermittent decant which minimizes basin size and also eliminates

the need for multiple basins. Water Pollution Control Corp. Circle reply card No. 275 60

Wide Web site at www.insituform

.com for help in designing a sewer rehabilitation project. An interactive design guide allows on line users to quickly determine minimum Insituform® pipe design thicknesses for gravity applications. Users can also evaluate the effect of the process on the flow capacity of the existing sewer. Insituform Technologies,Inc.

Circle reply card No. 276

U.S. Filter/Davis Process has developed BIOXIDE® as a means to eliminate the

odour,corrosion and safety problems as sociated with hydrogen sulfide in sew age. BIOXIDE® achieves sewage odour control naturally, rather than chemically. As a result, it both removes dissolved

hydrogen sulfide and prevents its forma tion. U.S. Filter/Davis Process

Circle reply card No. 277 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Product and Service Showcase Dissolved oxygen monitor

Solids/liquid separation

Self-contained water treatment units

The PBS,Plate-

Box Settler™, is designed for separation of solid materials

from liquids or from insoluble

American Sigma's new Model 8420 Dis solved Oxygen Monitor offers reliable, accurate monitoring in the most difficult applications. It combines a membraned, amperometric probe with a multi-fea tured transmitter/monitor to provide con tinuous on-line dissolved oxygen levels. The 8420 was designed to deliver reli able D.O. measurements in the toughest environments.


liquids of different density (oil/

water), based on the laminary (thin layer gravity separa tion) principle. Utilizing a series of closely spaced inclined (45-60°) plates, the settling area available is increased(up to ten times). The crosscurrent PBS uti lizes a unique yet simple flow distribu tion and collecting system. Dagex Inc.

Circle reply card No. 279

Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 278

Rectangular clarlfier

Sludge disposal

The Monorake® Clarlfier is a rectangu lar tank machine with balanced raking mechanism suspended from traveling carriage spanning tank. It is equipped with positive drive with no submerged bearings, and is adaptable to any exist ing rectangular concrete tank with mini mum modification. It is expressly de signed for installations where conditions dictate the use of rectangular tanks. GL&V Process Equipment Group Circle reply card No. 281

A Fluosolids® Combustion System is ideal for disposal of most biological wastes, noxious liquid and semi-solid wastes. Fluid-bed reactors offer greater flexibility, fuel economy, lower mainte nance and are more compact than other types of combustion. The system can be used for combustion of refinery wastes, activated sludge, pulping waste and other organic wastes. GL&V Process Equipment Group Circle reply card No. 282

Biological phosphorus

Above ground storage

Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units

easily transported and quickly installed. Standard sizes treat from 20 gpm to 500 gpm. Each Monoplant contains clarifi cation,fdtration,chemical feed and grav ity backwash systems. Effluent turbid ity is less than 1 JTU. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 280

Washing and pressing of screenings

With the Hydropress HPSFW Wash Press,the volume and mass of screenings are reduced, as are waste-handling costs. Odours are controlled and hygiene is improved in the screening area. The HPSFW has an additional axial bearing to absorb the pressing forces which pre vents bearing damage in the gear. Water

is injected through the screwshaft which guarantees optimal washing results. Dagex Inc.

Circle reply card No. 283

Sample collection


At the heart of each A-C^" Process from EIMCO is a Carrousel® oxidation ditch

featuring an aeration system so efficient in oxygen transfer and mixing that aera tion power can typically be reduced by 75-80% without loss of mixing. This ability to maintain solids suspension while varying oxygen input ensures that dissolved oxygen levels can be easily and accurately adjusted. EIMCO Process Equipment Circle reply card No. 284

The H Seal above ground horizontal dou ble-wall storage tank is certified by the Underwriter Laboratories of Canada

(ULC S-601 Primary - vacuum monitor ing available) and (ULC S-653 Second ary contained system). The H Seal tanks can hold from 1,000 - 90,000 litres. Cus

tom sizes and coatings are also available, as are tank mounting fueling systems. Northern Steel

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Circle reply card No. 285

The Environmental Liquid Sampler eliminates the requirement to personally

respond to a storm event immediately, allowing retrieval at a convenient time. This sampler offers cost-efficient, auto mated sampling at a fraction of the cost of electronic devices. It is made of stain

less steel and aircraft grade anodized aluminum. It is a mechanically operated device, with no electricity required. DTec Corporation Circle reply card No. 286 61

Spills Liability

By Donna S.K. Shier*

Spills, sewers and stormwater: A legal opinion on environmental Issues - Part I

This article addresses two is

damage from a spill. A spill is a dis charge of a solid, liquid or gas (pollut

sues: liability for spills and clean-up and new regulatory

ant), that enters the natural environment, from or out of a structure, vehicle or

issues that will affect devel

opers, contractors and municipalities. Environmental liability comes in three flavours: prosecutions, administra

other container and is abnormal in qual ity or quantity in light of all the circum stances. Spills must be reported if they cause or are likely to cause an adverse

tive orders and civil lawsuits.



Until now, there has been a consid

Prosecutions and civil lawsuits are

most germane to this audience.

erable amount of confusion over how


There are four ways that prosecutors in Ontario can charge companies, mu nicipalities and individuals for spilling polluting substances into water. Corpo rate officers and directors may be found personally liable under these statutes which are:

Several municipalities have been charged under the EPA for odours from sewage treatment and composting ac tivities. Examples include Kingston and Metropolitan Toronto. Natural Environment -

• Environmental Protection Act • Ontario Water Resources Act

• Fisheries Act(Canada) • Municipal Sewer-Use By-laws The Environmental Protection Act Adverse Effect The Environmental Protection Act

prohibits anyone from causing or per mitting the discharge of a contaminant,

Discharges into Sewers A discharge or spill must enter the "natural environment" in order to con stitute an offence under the EPA. Dis

charges into storm and sanitary sewers that can release air emissions are pro hibited under the Environmental Protec

into the natural environment, that

tion Act- under the special "secondary discharge" provision added in 1981. In one case,a paint company dumped

"causes or is likely to cause an adverse

solvents into the sewer. Fumes entered

effect". To do so constitutes an offence

nearby residences and a school. At that time, discharges inside buildings were

under the EPA. Failure to promptly re port a discharge is also an offence.

not considered to enter the natural envi

fined in the Environmental Protection

ronment. The paint company was not guilty.

Act. It means harm to human health,

As a result, the EPA was amended to

safety or the environment. Adverse ef fects include causing a nuisance to neighbours. For example, in the Com

provide that a discharge in one building

"Adverse effect" is a term that is de

mander Business Furniture case, a com

pany was convicted for air emissions that did not exceed regulated amount, and were not alleged to cause a health hazard. The adverse effect was that the

odour of the fumes disturbed occupants of nearby residences-the smell was bad enough to force the neighbours indoors,

or structure that enters the air in another

building is deemed to enter the natural environment. So a spill of gasoline into the sewer (or into the soil and groundwater), that seeps into a neighbour's basement or nearby business, violates the EPA. Industrial chemicals dumped into the sewers that create hazardous

fumes in the municipal sewage treat ment plant would likewise constitute an and the Court held that this constituted offence under the EPA, and may also an adverse effect. violate the local sewer-use by-law. Spill Reporting Proposed Changes to Eliminate *Donna S.K. Shier, a partner at OuterReporting of Trivial Spills bridge Miller Sefton Willms & Shier, is cer The EPA contains the Spills Bill tified as an Environmental Law Special ist by the Law Society of Upper Canada. which establishes a duty to report spills, She gave this report May 14, 1998, at a a duty to clean them up, and the obliga Stormceptor Canada Inc. seminar. tion to compensate those who suffer For more information, 62

circle reply card No. 212(See page 25)

big a spill has to be to be reportable. The EPA imposes the duty on the spillers, owners and controllers of the spilled substance to decide whether the spill causes or is likely to cause an adverse effect. If you get it wrong and don't re port, you can be convicted of failing to report.

The Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment promised to simplify spill report ing as part of its regulatory reform pack age known as Better, Stronger, Clearer, and has published a proposal to do so. The proposal was published on the elec tronic Environmental Registry on April 3, and comments were being accepted until May 18. The MOE proposes to amend Reg. 360, the EPA Spills Regu lation, to establish limits for some types of spills, and establish a method for other companies and municipalities to set their own limits.

For example,the proposals would not require reporting of gasoline spills of under 25 litres at service stations and

under 100 litres at bulk plants or distri bution facilities that are not open to the public. Owners would still have to clean up and keep records. The MOE also pro poses to set a 100 litre reporting thresh old for non-PCB transformer oil spills. In both gas and oil examples, the limits do not apply if the substances escape into water.

The most interesting aspect of the proposal would allow companies and municipalities to establish their own thresholds in Contingency Plans. The thresholds must be based on the adverse

effect test. The proponent of the plan decides what quantities of the specific hazardous substances it uses can be

spilled without causing an adverse ef fect. These quantities are used as re porting thresholds in the Contingency Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Water Environment Federation'' Preserving &Enhancing the Global Water Environment

Water Environment Federation

71st Annual Conference & Exposition

Join us

for the Largest Water Quality 82 Technical Sessions

23 Full-day Workshops

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Conference Information

1-800-444-2933 (U.S. & Canada)


Orange County Convention Center

or 1-908-225-6417

Orlando, Florida U.S.A.

Select Fax on Demand document #40

Conference Dates: October 3-7, 1998

For general information,

Exposition Dates: October 4-7, 1998

call 1-800-666-0206 (U.S. & Canada)

For more information,

circie reply card No. 169(See page 25)

or 1-703-684-2452;

or visit WEF's WEB site at http://www.wef.org

Spills Liability, cont' Plan. An MOE Director would have the

right to check over the Plan, and require the proponent to change the threshold. If this proposal is implemented,it should reduce confusion over what is reportable and what is a spill. According to the MOE, the proposal could reduce the number of spills reported annually by as much as twenty per cent. The Ontario Water Resources Act The OWRA makes it an offence to

discharge material into or around water that "may impair the quality of the water". Often prosecutors lay charges under both the EPA and the OWRA.

The Toronto Electric Commissioners case was decided under the OWRA.

That was the case where the judge held that spilling any amount of PCB mate rial into water met the test for convic

tion - the Crown did not have to prove that water quality was actually impaired. The OWRA also makes it an offence

to fail to report a discharge that may impair the quality of water. Municipalities and their contractors have been convicted under the OWRA

Municipalities will have to take a closer look at their ability to treat whatever comes in under surcharge agreements to ensure that they can meet effluent limits. Photo - Proctor & Redfern

as a result of sewage system construc tion. For example, the Town of Smith

resolving this conflict is one of the jus

Falls was convicted in 1993 for dis

tifications for the transfer of STPs to

charging murky water and sediment, and for discharging sewage into the Rideau River. The Town owned and operated its own STP. The plant was undergoing expansion, and the discharges occurred while the excavation was being dewater-

municipalities under Bill 107. Once an STP is owned by a municipality, the MOE will have no conflict in laying charges for effluent violations or spills. Fisheries Act(Canada) The federal Fisheries Act prohibits anyone from depositing a deleterious substance into waters frequented by fish. According to the case law, fish do not

ed. The Town's contractor was also con victed and fined.

AO Water Resources

Specialist Water resources specialists are sought for potential iong-and short-term world wide assignment Skills: Skills are particularly desired in the areas of water resource policy de sign and implementation, environmen tal conflict mediation/resolution, potable water contamination, and industrial water use. Skills in water law, access

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The MOE has charged itself under the OWRA!

In addition to the financial incentives,

have to inhabit the water at the time of

The most unusual OWRA case I am

aware of, was the charge arising from excessive fluoride injections at the Lambton Water Treatment Plant. The

MOE operated the plant, charged itself, and pleaded guilty! The report indicates that the MOE charged itself in recogni tion that it is the custodian of the pres ervation and conservation of the envi

ronment. The Court did not impose any fine because:

• no adverse health effects were re

ported; • the defendant acknowledged its pub lic responsibility; • general deterrence was achieved by entering a conviction; • payment of a fine by the MOE would be meaningless; and •the defendant pleaded guilty at an early stage of proceedings. MOE Conflict of Interest

the spill - it is enough if fish use the stream or creek at some time during the year.

Federal regulations under the Fish eries Act establish sector effluent limits

- for example, for the pulp and paper industry. One of the largest fines in Canadian environmental protection his tory was levied under the Fisheries Act several years ago, when Quebec com pany Tioxide Limited was fined four million dollars for discharges into the St. Lawrence River.

In 1996, Halton Region was pros ecuted and fined under the Fisheries Act

as a result of a chlorine spill that caused a fish kill. The Region was fined $40,000 in total - $15,000 for the first count, $5,000 for the second count and

an additional $20,000 as a penalty im posed to promote conservation of fish and fish habitat.

and Bill 107

The facts of this unusual case illus

The discharge occurred at the Georgetown STP. The chlorine was

trate the historical conflict of interest the

used to treat the effluent when the ultra

MOE had over municipal STP non-com pliance. The MOE,owned or operated many municipal STPs. Critics pointed

violet disinfection system which was normally used, was shut down due to mechanical problems. Municipal Sewer Use By-Laws Most municipalities have sewer-use by-laws. MOE published the first Model Sewer-Use By-law in 1976. A new

out the conflict of interest - as owner/

operator, the MOE was unlikely to lay charges that would publicize its failures and penalize itself.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Spills Liability, cant' Model By-law was introduced in 1988 as a part of the MISA(Municipal Indus trial Strategy for Abatement) program. Sewer-use by-laws control the dis cbarge ofspecific substances and classes of substances into municipal sewers. Tbey can also prevent discbarges of ex cessive quantities of waste water. Haz ardous materials discharged into sewer systems pose a number of problems; • occupational health and safety threats to STP workers;

• corrosion of sewer and plant compo nents;

• clogging of sewer pipes, reducing ca pacity; • upsetting treatment processes; •contaminating treatment plant effluent. Municipal officers enforcing seweruse by-laws are sometimes the first of ficials to investigate discharges or spills.

Depending on the nature of the dis charge, they may call in the MOE as well.

Surcharges and Indirect Discharges MISA was originally intended to deal with both direct and indirect discharges. Direct discharges are those made to sur face water. Indirect discharges are those made to sewers.

Defences of Environmental Prosecutions

Due Diligence Environmental offences are "strict

liability" offences. This means that once the Crown prosecutor proves that the accused company, municipality or per son caused or permitted the discharge, the person will be found guilty unless the person can prove that he took all rea sonable care to avoid or prevent the dis charge. This is known as the due dili gence defence. Coincidentally for municipalities, the elements of due diligence are basically the same as those required to success fully defend against a civil negligence lawsuit. I am going to describe these elements shortly, when I discuss the new Municipal Act provisions to reduce mu nicipal nuisance and negligence claims. However, before discussing the ele ments of due diligence, and civil liabil ity, I'd like to tell you about how I ap proach the issues that the prosecutor must prove before my client is forced to prove due diligence. Identification

Industries are sometimes prosecuted for spills to surface water when spills in

The first phase of MISA has now been in effect for several years and regu lates direct discharges from a number of specific facilities in nine industrial

the parking lot or the back 40 drain into local creeks, ponds or drainage swales. Sometimes enforcement officials charge the wrong company - often, for exam ple, the company nearest to the point

sectors - each sector has its own MISA

where the contamination was discovered.

regulation. The second phase of MISA, was intended to cover discharges from

municipal STPs, which would be af fected by the industrial discharges ac cepted and treated by the municipality. The municipal phase of the MISA pro gram is in limbo. Some municipal sewer-use by-laws permit the municipality to levy a sur charge on industrial users permitting them to discharge effluent not otherwise permitted in quantity or quality by the sewer-use by-law. Some critics have suggested that municipalities accepted industrial effluents that their STPs can

not properly treat, because they need or want the surcharge revenue, or they want to keep local industries happy. If the second phase of MISA is en acted,or the MOE begins to charge more

municipalities for violations of certifi cate of approval effluent limits, these municipalities will have to take a closer look at their ability to treat whatever comes in under surcharge agreements to ensure that they can meet effluent limits.


We have successfully defended cli ents when MOE officials were unable

to prove that the spill which was respon sible for a fish kill or oil slick came from

our client's facility. However, enforcers have better luck

with today's sophisticated chemical fin gerprinting techniques that can identify unique chemical constituents and better locate the origin of a contaminant. No adverse effect

The test for a discharge offence un der the EPA is that the discharge or spill caused or is likely to cause an adverse effect. The prosecutor must prove that the substance discharged caused or was likely to cause an adverse effect. Tail ing to prove this will result in dismissal of the charge. The prohibition in the OWRA is stricter. The courts have held that dis

charges of substances having the poten tial to impair water quality may be suf ficient for conviction, regardless of quantity and impact. Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

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A Constant Flow OfIdeas. Toll free 1-800-461-5632

For more information, circle reply card No. 166

Spills Liability, cant' Entering The Natural Environment If a spilled pollutant is cleaned up before it escapes into the natural envi ronment, a prosecution under the EPA will fail. For example, a substance that is spilled inside a building is not deemed

against municipalities, because of the recent changes to the Municipal Act designed to decrease claims. Municipal Sewer and Water Escapes: Nuisance Relief

to enter the natural environment. As I

ed the Municipal Act, to shield munici palities from nuisance actions for sew age and water escapes. This amendment was passed to answer the Supreme Court

mentioned before, if something is spilled into a sewer and fumes are emitted in

In December of 1996, Bill 86 amend

Justice Wilson, was arguably the most stringent. Ontario's Municipal Act now pro vides that"no proceeding based on nui sance, in connection with the escape of water or sewage from sewage works or water works shall be commenced"

against a municipality, a member of council or a local board, or an officer,

to have entered the natural environment.

of Canada's decision in St. John's Area

employee or agent. Under the new law, actions based solely on nuisance may be

What about spills in parking lots that drain into a storm sewer and discharge

Board v. Tock.

dismissed without trial.

The Tock decision made it very diffi cult for municipalities to successfully defend nuisance actions arising from sewage system failures and water main

The municipal nuisance shield is lim ited to sewer and water escapes, and does not extend to other types of nui sance claims against municipalities. Note that plaintiffs may still sue in neg ligence for damages arising from sewer or water releases, or for spill compen

another building, the fumes are deemed

into watercourses?

If a storm sewer

equipped with interceptor prevents the contaminant from entering the water course, or from percolating into the groundwater, then the contaminant re mains within a structure. It will not en ter the natural environment and an EPA

prosecution could not succeed. CIVIL LIABILITY

Civil liability for spills and discharg

leaks. In order to avail themselves of the

defence of"statutory authority", munici palities had to prove that the sewage works were built to meet a statutory re quirement, and that the damage suffered by the plaintiff was the inevitable conse quence of complying with the statute.

es arises under a number ofcommon law

The Tock decision made the defence

causes of action, including nuisance, negligence, strict liability, riparian rights and trespass. At this time,I am only going to touch on nuisance and negligence actions

of statutory authority particularly com plex,since three Supreme Court Justices wrote individual decisions expressing three different views of the defence. The

prevailing decision, that of Madame

Railroad Track Spill Containment

sation under the EPA.

Municipal Negligence: Common Law Codification Another Bill 86 amendment codified

the common law policy defence for municipalities to negligence actions. This codification did not expand the existing common law defence against negligence. It does help by clearly stat ing that prudent municipalities can limit

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Spills Liability, cont' their exposure to negligence claims by anticipating potential areas of concern and developing policies to deal with these concerns.

Under the new Municipal Act provi sion, municipalities, councillors and employees will not be liable in negli gence for acts or omissions made pur suant to a municipal policy decision. The policy decision must be a good faith decision based on a discretionary mu nicipal power or function. The policy defence does not apply to a mandatory statutory obligation - that is, a munici pality cannot fail to carry out an obliga tion required by law, and use a munici pal policy decision as a defence. Municipal Policy Decisions and Due Diligence The formula that is most likely to successfully defend a negligence action and is most likely to make out a suc cessful due diligence defence to a pros ecution is as follows:

1. Study the issue, the service, the obli gation, the assumed activity - consider the alternatives, consider the ramifica tions, consider the benefits and the risks,

and evaluate them against the costs. 2. Document this review.

3. Make a rational, well-planned and de signed policy decision which considers the potential risks to public safety and private property owners and which can be clearly traced to the review process. 4. Document the policy decision. 5. Prepare straightforward procedures.

training, maintenance systems, inspec tion systems and then implement the op erational aspects necessaiy to ensure that the policy is properly, consistently and effectively carried out. 6. Document your preparation, training, procedures and implementation.

7. Allocate the resources for implemen tation according to your policy and op erational plan. 8. Ensure that operations remain con sistent and adequate as standards and technology change by building checks and reviews into the procedures.


9. Document the checks.

10. Finally, schedule the policy for peri odic review and document these reviews.

Simple, isn't it? It requires a dili gent, systematic approach. Many of our municipal clients have been practising this approach for years. It can be done. It works. The results can include better

service delivery, better trained and more competent staff, significant decreases in accidents, incidents and management 'fire fighting', and reduced exposure to civil and criminal liability. Some will call this formula a logical checklist, others might call it a due dili gence program, others use the term risk management, and still others call it the basics of an environmental management system. But for a municipality trying to consistently avoid liability, it's the only game in town. Part II will continue in the August/ September issue ofES&E.


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Water Management

It's time we assessed the real value

Canada has 9% of the world's fresh water and is one of the

least populated countries. Canadians grossly under value their water resources, and pay lit tle for their water compared to other countries. In Canada,25% of the popu lation rely upon groundwater for their primary supply. The same holds true for the number of municipalities in Ontario that use groundwater supplies. The in serted box provides some interesting facts that put Canada's water resources and demands into perspective. There are many serious issues fac ing Canada's water resources and the utilities that deliver them, e.g. export of water, supply versus demand manage ment, and public education, to name a

of groundwater Valuing groundwater Groundwater occurs in many differ ent geological environments. It is diffi cult to define exactly the volume of water available for supply (extractive use). The reason for this generally re lates to the cost of exploration and the poor understanding of groundwater by the utilities that are responsible for pro viding the supply. One commonly hears that hydrogeology is an art and not a science. This is not true. Hydrogeology is an exact science with governing equa tions like other sciences and engineer ing disciplines. However,what compli cates hydrogeology is that we are deal ing with nature in an area where we can only make visual observations through

dictional issues arise. These issues have

not been addressed in any serious fash ion in Canada,although they will surely arise in the next few years. We can think of the value of groundwater in terms of its contribution to our

well-being in two ways. First, ground-

water has an extractive value(V^)which is defined as the sum of the cost of ex

ploration of the aquifer, the drilling of production wells, pumping and distribu tion, etc. Second, and less well under

stood is the in situ value(V.)of groundwater which is defined as the value that

occurs as a consequence of leaving the groundwater in the aquifer. Thus the to tal economic value(TEV)of an aquifer can be represented as follows:

small diameter boreholes. We then have

TEV = V X +V I

few. However, the focus of this article

to extrapolate information between

is on the real value of groundwater. Most valuation methods only deal with the extractive value of the groundwater, that is, the sum of the cost of explora tion, well construction, pumping and distribution. It is now becoming recog nized {NRC 1997) that there are addi tional factors influencing the value of groundwater.


The value of a groundwater resource can also be defined as the present value

"Gartner Lee Limited

There is no doubt that groundwater has significant value to Canadians, af ter all 25% of them use it as their pri mary water supply. However, what is the true value of groundwater as a com modity; can we put a dollar value on an aquifer? These are some of the ques tions that need to be researched, mainly in areas where supplies are stressed and where national and international juris-

of the resource discounted into the fu

ture over a specified time period where i is the discount rate:

TEV = i:V(t)/(1+i)' A further way of defining an aqui fer's worth is to discount its current

value(R)into the future: TEV = R + R/(1+i) + R/(1+i)2 + R/(1+i)= +

Thus the value of the groundwater asset is the sum of the annual incremen

Some water facts The following numbers have been drawn from numerous publications deal ing with water supply on a national and international basis. Useful national in

formation can be obtained from Envi

Canadian numbers •9% of world's fresh water.

• 25% of population rely on ground-

tractive uses are well understood and


•Territories 1.78 • Manitoba 1.02

relatively easy to value as we have built many such systems and use them daily. In situ value of groundwater The challenge of valuing in situ groundwater resources is complex and encompasses a number of disciplines beyond the traditional groundwater in dustry. In situ uses include: ecological

•Alberta 0.99

functions such as maintenance of stream

•60% of water use is for power genera

ronment Canada and intemational infor


mation from the United Nations. • 26 countries cannot meet their water

•50% of discharges are untreated. •Canadian consumption is twice that of European.


• commercial water rates $/m^:

Global numbers

• 70% of the world's water is used for

agriculture. • cutting iixigation by 10% would dou

tal contributions the aquifer makes,dis counted over the aquifer's life span. The extractive value of groundwater includes such uses as: municipal supply, industrial use, and agricultural use. Ex

ble the water available for domestic use.

• Saskatchewan 0.89

baseflow, buffer uses for times when

• 1 billion people use unsafe drinking

• Ontario 0.71

surface water supplies are running low and they are augmented by groundwater (modified conjunctive use), subsidence


•commercial water rates $/m^:


• Nova Scotia 0.52 • New Brunswick 0.44

• Germany 2.74

•PEI 0.39

avoidance, recreational use where

• The Netherlands 2.00

• British Columbia 0.33

groundwater discharge maintains sur

• United Kingdom 1.38

• Yukon 0.26

face water levels, control of sea water

• Canada 0.83

• Newfoundland 0.21

intrusion and the landward migration of salt water. All of these groundwater uses Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

By Robert E.J. Leech*

Position Available The Ontario Water Works Associa

have a significant effect on our quality of life, but to date have not been thought

toba {Kulshreshtha 1994) attempted to

of in economic terms.

boine Delta Aquifer. This aquifer oc curs in an agricultural area where 70% of the extraction is for agricultural pur poses. The aquifer was only evaluated

So how then do we measure the eco

nomic value of an in situ groundwater resource? These values relate more to

human well-being rather than to water as a commodity. Economists have in troduced two concepts that become helpful: willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA). For ex ample, if it is decided by the water au thorities not to pump groundwater for supply purposes, but rather to leave it in place to sustain an ecological func tion and at the same time import water at a higher cost from elsewhere, the ad ditional cost as borne by the public de fines their willingness to pay for their water.

In other words,this puts an economic value on the in situ resource in this par ticular case. Another approach may re late to people's willingness to travel fur ther from say a recreational lake/wetland that has been impaired by groundwater pumping,to a more distant recreational facility. In this case, the additional cost of travel provides an economic value for the water sustaining the original recrea tional facility. How then do we understand the lim

its to what the public are prepared to pay or accept for a given change to their groundwater resources? The Contingent Valuation Method(GYM)is commonly used by economists to evaluate noncommodity services. The GYM is a sur vey-based procedure that uses the WTP/ WTA concepts. Basically, individuals and groups are surveyed as to their pre disposition towards certain changes and through this method trade-offs emerge to focus the decision-making process on economic value.

The information obtained through

such surveys may be biased by the way the questions are put, therefore statisti cal analysis and conection of the data are required to arrive at a fair value. Each situation is different, and, notwith

define the economic value of the Assini-

for its extractive value. Nevertheless,

the aquifer value was calculated to be between $85 million and $460 million

when using an economic efficiency

analysis, and between $795 million and $4,000 million when using a regional development analysis to assess the value of more fully using the aquifer's re sources.

The results of this evaluation clearly demonstrated that impairment of the groundwater by contamination would have a significant economic impact on the users. The principal recommenda tion of the work was to implement an aquifer management plan to protect the aquifer. Summary Typically groundwater is not thought of as a commodity with an overall re source value, and when it is, the total

economic value(TEY)is based only on the extractive value of the aquifer. More recently, focus is starting to shift to as certain the TEY of an aquifer by includ ing the in situ value of the groundwater. Determining the TEY of an aquifer is a site specific, complex and challenging process and one where the hydrogeo-

logist and engineer must work hand in hand with the economist. Given the im

portance of groundwater to Ganadians, this type of work should be of increas ing importance. Once the public and politicians un derstand the enormous value of their

groundwater resources, it will become increasingly obvious that groundwater management plans encompassing well head and aquifer protection programs must be implemented more vigorously. In addition, municipal management of water resources will likely accelerate the attention paid to demand rather than supply management.

standing the inherent biases of this method, a true economic value of the

groundwater resource can emerge. This approach has been used in the US to evaluate Superfund sites and assess the economic and social trade-offs associ

ated with the clean-up decisions. There are few case histories where


tion is currently seeking applicants for the following part-time position:

Technical Advisor To prepare technical input to issues facing the water industry, provide credible response to the Associa tion's communicator, provide input to OWWA Initiatives for government affairs, training, and professional development. A degree in civil or environmental en gineering with at least 10 years ex perience in the water industry is re

quired. Salary range $20K to $30K. Applications will be accepted until September 4,1998. Compensation commensurate with experience.

Reply to: Ontario Water Works Association 45-23rd Street

Toronto, Ontario M8V 3M6

Facsimile:(416) 252-3908






Kulshreshtha, S.N. 1994: Economic Value of Groundwater in the Assiniboine

Delta Aquifer in Manitoba; Environment Canada, Social Science Series No. 29. National Research Council, 1997: Valu

ing Ground Water, Economic Concepts and Approaches.

the TEY of an aquifer has been esti mated. An interesting study in ManiEnvironmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

For more information,


Tel: (905) 457-5145 Fax: [905] 457-1 730 Hffp://www.fronfenac.ca

circle reply card No. 171 For more information, circle reply card No. 168

Could Biosphere 2's super tree clones help the Pulp & Paper Industry?

,-• (--I

Driving 130 miles through

Arizona's Sonoran Desert,

in March, took me by end less cactuses, two giant copper mines and a desert made green by unseasonal El Nino rainfall. Having left Toronto struggling with a heavy snowfall, the 75°F temperature seemed quite appealing. I was on my way to the world's largest enclosed ecological laboratory. Biosphere 2, which is isolated in the Sonoran Desert, and is

now managed by Columbia University.

Why did an Ivy League university move a campus research facility to the Biosphere 2,400 miles west? This somewhat incongruous move was made when scientists from Colum

bia's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observa

tory became involved in Biosphere 2 in 1992 to find answers to the declining

oxygen levels in the biosphere which had dropped some 50%. They found that microbes in the biosphere's exces

sively rich soil were consuming oxygen ravenously as they decomposed organic


■■Slllllil issiHiiu ■Baasaiiiii BiBESBa|sc


Biosphere 2 in Arizona's Sonoran Desert. Photo - Volvo.

us to grow more food with less water? • Will the increase in plant growth cre ated by extra carbon dioxide signifi cantly offset the negative aspects of glo bal warming? Scientists from Columbia and other universities and research facilities cre

et's most compelling environmental questions:

ated a research agenda in January 1996 as part of the Biosphere 2 team. Sev eral projects are now in place. One project examines how food crops will benefit from atmospheres containing

• How will the rise of carbon dioxide in

increased carbon dioxide.

the atmosphere impact the ecology of

project explores how potential climate and ocean acidity changes will impact coral reefs. A third investigates how in-

matter. The researchers became in

trigued with Biosphere 2 itself which was helping to address some of our plan

our planet? • Will the rise in carbon dioxide allow


In The Atlantic Monthly, December 1997, an article called 'No Middle IVay', said: "The Idea that technology can fully substitute for natural life-support systems recently underwent a damning test In the first Biosphere 2 "mission". Eight people moved Into a 3.15 acre closed ecosystem, Intending to stay for two years.

The $200-mllllon-plus habitat featured agricultural land, wetlands, rain for est, desert, savanna, and even a mini ocean with coral reefs. A sample of biodiversity thought adequate to keep the system functioning was Included, and the system was designed to supply the "blospherlans" with all basic ma terial needs and more. But comfort was short-lived, and the experiment ended early In failure. Atmospheric oxygen concentration had dropped to 14 per cent (a level typical of elevations of 17,500 feet); carbon dioxide spiked errati cally; nItrous-oxIde concentrations rose to levels that can Impair brain func tion; nineteen of twenty-five vertebrate species went extinct; all pollinators went extinct, thereby dooming to eventual extinction most of the plant species. The article was written by Paul Erilch, Grechen C. Dally, Scott 0. Dally, Norman Myers and James Salzman. At a seminar which followed our tour, scientists from Columbia University were clearly more optimistic about Bio sphere 2's future.

creased carbon dioxide will alter the com

petition among various plant species. One important project focusses on cottonwood trees which, because they

can grow extremely rapidly, are ideal for the Pulp & Paper industry. The fact that paper can be recycled several times is another environmental bonus.


could have important ramifications for the P&P industry as well as impacting on global warming. The UN Kyoto Conference in Japan attempted to reach an international ac cord in December 1997, to reduce fos

sil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. To forestall po tential stalemates, a compromise was proposed allowing countries with large forestry resources, such as the United States and Canada, to get "credit" for storing carbon in trees. Specifically, the compromise document stated that a country's carbon emissions (the amount of carbon that is going into the atmos phere from burning fossil fuels), could be offset by the amount of carbon that is removed by extensive tree planting. A critical question needed answering before the tree plantation scheme could be considered viable: "Can forestry re ally significantly sequester carbon?" In order to answer that question, scientists need to better understand the scientific basis of how carbon is stored in a man

aged forest. Biosphere 2 has plans for experiments that will address that ques tion.

As the Biosphere is able to control 70

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Pulp & Paper Focus

By Albert Wakim^ and Sally Krigstin^

Fine screening of puip and paper effiuent

Whenit comes to water us

age,the Atlantic Packag ing paper mill is no exception when com pared to other paper mills, especially those recycling paper or cardboard. Their water flow is heavily loaded with all kinds of solids such as paper fibre, shredded plastic bags, wood chips,back ing strips, staples, broken CDs, etc. During the various phases of recy cling and production, these materials find their way to the wastewater collec tion system. Prior to wastewater treat ment, these debris must be removed. If these materials are not removed

they could wreak havoc on the pump ing station, the clarifier, the aeration tank


and then on the sand filter. The solution came when H2Flow

Equipment Inc. proposed an FS style continuously self-cleaning fine screen, previously utilized by many other pulp Discharge side of the screens, including dewatering compactor. and paper customers. • All intervention points are at the head combined with extremely high concen The screen needed to handle up to section easily reached by the operator. tration of solids, proved to be too much 22,680 mVday (6 USMGD)of hydrau • Ease of removal out of the channel. for the screen's capacity. The solution lic flow. A two foot wide screen with The two foot wide FS screen was put was simple, increase the speed of the 6mm opening size and four foot dis rotating grid to keep up with the flow. in an existing channel. charge height was designed and ordered. The new screen performed exactly to After replacing the motor and the gear The main features of the FS screen its expectations. It was pulling out larger reducer to allow for a higher speed, the that Atlantic really liked were: quantities of screenings, relieving the screen was able to handle the flow in all •An all stainless steel construction. conditions. pumping station, the clarifier, the aera •A continuously rotating screen to carry tion tank and the sand filter of undesir Having proven that 6mm was the the screenings up to discharge and to able solids. To deal with the unloaded right screen opening and having shown continuously offer a clean grid to the wet screened material, H2Flow also sup that the FS type screen performed very water flow. The grid's speed can be ad plied Atlantic with a screw compactor well for this type of waste, a second but justed manually or automatically. to greatly dewater the screenings; the wider FS screen, again with 6mm open • No sprockets or other maintenance squeezed water is directed back to the ings, was ordered to replace an old items under the water. channel. The screenings dryness is in 13mm rake type screen that was finally de-commissioned. the range of 60-70% dry solids. The second FS screen is in operation Even though the FS screen performed ^H2Flow Equipment inc. very well, the instantaneous peak flows. now and is doing a great job, running at ^Atiantic Packaging a slower speed than the first FS screen which is now kept as a stand-by. Both seen, researchers will never have to ask screens are fitted with variable fre Continuedfrom page 70 the levels of temperature and CO,in an the question: "Is that tree over there quency drives that allow for grid speed environmental laboratory large enough somehow genetically superior to that changes. Those speed changes are now performed manually but a combination to grow stands of trees, scientists claim tree back in the corner?" Depending on the answers that sci of level sensors could automate the sys that a perfect tree has been identified to experiment with; a cottonwood super entists at Biosphere 2 derive from their tem by linking the grid's speed with the clone. The super tree can grow year experiments, it may be possible for the water levels in the channel ahead and after the screen. round in the right climates; it has little United States, Canada, and other coun The choice of the FS type screens or no dormancy, and grows extremely tries, to plant vast groves of these super trees to remove excess carbon from the brought savings to Atlantic by cutting fast. down on operation, maintenance, down As clones, each sapling is genetically atmosphere and help to offset any glo bal warming trends. time and by allowing for the reuse of identical to the next,so they are particu Biosphere 2 is a world in miniature. the effluent water. larly desirable in scientific experiments. For more information, For example, as variation in growth is Biosphere 1, of course, is Planet Earth. circle reply card No. 156 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998


Instrumentation for Pulp & Paper Mills

Level monitor helps upgrade pulping process

A paper mil using the groundwood pulping process need

ed to reduce variations in

pulp quality. In addition,the mill wanted to automate the control

process to reduce energy consumption. A particular challenge was finding a re liable method of monitoring the travel of the grinder ram cylinders. The mill installed a Milltronics ul

trasonic level monitor,'The Probe', at a

fixed position on the grinder housing. (See photo). This continuous measure ment aids in control of the process, in creasing efficiency while decreasing variations.

How it works

The groundwood mill has five tan dem grinder lines, with one motor driv ing two stones. Since each stone has a front and back pocket, there are twenty pockets altogether. The original control consisted of one water pressure gover nor providing both stones(A and B sides), with the same hydraulic pressure and no compensation for stone sharpness. The important starting point for the grinder controls was to measure specific energy applied, in megawatt hours per ton, on each of the twenty grinder pock ets. New energy consumption measure ments on each of the five grinder lines in

Abitibi-Consolidated Fort William

cluded a watt meter on each motor and a

newsprint mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, has put a high-tech face on an old pulping technology. The mill, dating back to 1923, uses only purchased elec trical power. Since production costs are particularly sensitive to energy con sumed per ton, an effort to reduce en ergy consumption and improve pulp quality was initiated.

torque transducer on one stone drive shaft. Production rate from each of the

twenty pockets was derived from the travel ofthe surface of the pressure shoe. Initially, a potentiometer with a taut wire was connected to the back of the pres sure shoe, but proved too unreliable. The mill then installed a Milltronics ul

trasonic level monitor,'The Probe', at a

fixed position on the grinder housing. This unit now measures the position of a 10 in. by 10 in. metal target fixed to the back of the pressure shoe. Continu ous measurement indicates the distance between the surface of the stone and the

surface of the pressure shoe through the whole grinding cycle. Each grinder ram cylinder is now equipped with a pressure gauge and separate controls on the high-pressure water supply to each cylinder. This in strumentation allows the power to be distributed between the A and B stones

M k il rViyiM

and the front and back pockets on each grinder in the ratio appropriate to the stone sharpness condition. Stone sharpness conditions change

Environmental Monitoring Equipment

with time and not all stones are at the

same sharpness level. To achieve its overall objectives, the control strategy

New from Sigma

calculates the individual stone sharpness index and uses it as a key input to decide how grinding energy should be managed. Benefits

Interface Level Monitor


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Decisions about the loading of stones and their sharpening cycles are now based on specific information about each grinder's condition and how it relates to the other grinders. Operators use more light sharpenings to keep conditions uniform and see many mechanical prob lems, like piston leakage and hang-ups that were not previously visible. Operations are consistently running at a lower specific energy. The freeness variability of the Cowan screen has been reduced by at least 17%,while shive con tent has been reduced by at least 12%. The mill's evaluation study indicates the average energy consumption per ton since 'The Probe' installation has de

Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Web Site: www.can-am.net

Ontario Office

Atiantic Province Office

creased by about 4.5%, or a cost-sav



ings of $150,000.

Fax: 905-829-4701

Fax: 902-477-8345

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 157 72

For more Information, circle reply card No. 148

(See page 25)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Nivus Pulsflow for accurate raw

sewage flow

Stored-program control makes Bono Zon ozone generators

Efficient, precise activation of liquid polymer

versatile m

The Nivus Pulsflow is designed to accurately measure raw sewage flow in closed pipe in stallations. Continuous on-line measurement

is assured by the unique wedge mounting design,that prevents material froiu hangingup and fouling the sensor. The Pulsflow can be installed without process interruption. Its Ultrasonic signal is impulsed 1000 times per second providing reliable and consistent ac curacy of 1% of range or +/- 0.005m/s. For more information, circle reply card No. 175


Bono Zon ozone generators are available in carefully selected capacities ranging from 10-600g 03/h standard versions. Single-cir cuit and customized multi-circuit systems can be supplied. Unlike other systems,these ozonators operate under vacuum and there fore meet the most stringent safety standards. The air preparation system of the A series is equipped with double adsorption vessels. Process air passes through a desiccant bed and is dried before reaching the ozone gen

The Model 560 liquid polymer processing module is an advanced, highly effective sys tem for instantaneously activating liquid polymer emulsions and solutions. Com pletely pre-piped and pre-wired in an indus trial-duty, compact package. The fully au tomatic Model 560 processing module uti lizes Acrison's performance-proven,control led shear activation chamber for precise and uniform polymer activation. The result is superior, extremely efficient polymer per



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circle reply card No. 177


15 Connie Ores., Units, Concord, Ontario, L4K1L3 â&#x20AC;˘ Tel: (905) 738-2355, Fax:(905) 738-5520 776 Corydon Ave., Suite 759, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3M 0Y1 â&#x20AC;˘ lei:(204) 895-8487, Fax:(204) 896-6606

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Rrst name:



for Environmental Equipment,

Technology ahdfServlces

for Industry and lical Authorities



A|l- F r i r i H !*


.J ujJ J /J J-jJ


Postcode: Town:

Country: Pollutec 98,the International Exhibition for Environment


Equipment Technologies and Services, will be held in Lyon



and will cover both industry and local authorities, in line with the estebitshed practice for Pollutec in even years.

P8/60 t Lyon in 1996, Pollutec had great success: Exhibitors;



Miller Freeman France

,712 e^diibitors from 24 countries

70, rue Rivay - 92532 Levaliois-Perret Cedex - France

600 visitors from 80 countries

Fax :+ 33 1 47 56 21 20

sq.m of exhibition



Tel.: -f(416) 929 25 62 - Fax: +(416)929 25 64

jS^t^iutec visitors bought materialfrom Gaffer their last visit of the sho^ tsti

Voice Server; + 33 1 41 22 00 25 Internet; http://www.poilutec.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 173 (See page 25)


Instrumentation for Pulp & Paper Mills

By John Daly*

Effluent colour monitoring in the pulp and paper Industry

In order to meet environmental dis

charge requirements, it is becoming more and more necessary to measure the colour of plant effluent and deter



mine the amount of dissolved colour and sol

ids within it. The normal practice in many plants is to manually take effluent samples hourly and perform lab colour measure ments to ensure confomiity to the APHA




colour standard. APHA colour standard is

the ratio 720nm (red) and 465nm (blue) transmittance.







A colorimeter can be used to monitor effluent colour on-line. It utilizes a dual

Light Path Diagram - Dual Beam Color

beam measurement method that measures

and computes the ratio of two light beams, reference and measurement. A light source shines visible light through the effluent stream via two transparent win dows and some projection optics. At the other side, the

received light is split into two separate beams and its inten sity is measured. In the case of APHA colour measurement, the reference channel is filtered at 720nm and the measure ment channel at 465nm.

*Westech Industrial Ltd.

Using the in-line monitor, expensive sampling and analy sis can be avoided and alarm functions can be used to alert an

The Environmental

Liquid Sampler Automated sampling at a fraction of the cost of electronic devices The Environmental Liquid Sampler was developed to collect the "true" first sample of liquid that arrives at a specific sampling location, then seal Itself off to preserve the sample Integrity. It Is a mechanically automated device that can be used In remote loca tions without a power source. This eliminates the need to person ally respond to a storm event Immediately, allowing retrieval at a more convenient time.

Applications • Storm water runoff from Industrial sites, feedlots and hog confinement operations. • Sampling discharge from sewage treatment areas.

• Stream bed monitor rise due


to snow melt or heavy rains. • Agriculture/fertilizer runoff. • Drainage ditches. • Airports. Advantages • No electricity required. • Portable, light weight and compact design (under 10 pounds). • Easy to Install, cost efficient. • Stainless steel and aluminum construction.

• Convenient retrieval of sample. • Unique design allows for collection and visual analysis of the parameters outlined In the MSGP. • Sample jugs allow for quick and easy returns to the laboratory. For more information contact: ec Oor-por-atlon

Tel: (402) 331-6333 Fax: (402) 331-2813 Web site: http://www.dteccorp.com

For more information, circie repiy card No. 150 (See page 25)

operator of excessive levels of contaminant before discharge, thus avoiding penalties and fines from local authorities. A typical installation uses a I" NPT sensor in a sample stream with the transmitter housed locally in an EC-600 NEMA 4 enclosure. A sample probe with a screen to reject large debris is used to extract the sample from a larger dis charge pipe. A self-priming pump, capable of about 1/2 litre per minute, draws the sample through the loop. A 'Y' strainer should be installed to keep larger particles from getting to the pump. After the pump, a 10 micron absolute 10" cartridge filter cleans the sample prior to entering the sensor. The 10 mi cron filter approximates a typical laboratory procedure and ensures correlation to lab samples is direct, making the cali bration of the system easier. Elow should be vertically up through the sensor, ensuring the sample cell is filled at all times. Valves should be fitted to allow isolation of the loop for calibration and maintenance purposes. Calibration is carried out by filling the sensor sample cell with known, laboratory tested colour examples. The system reads out in percent, so the lowest colour (usually clear water)is correlated to 0% and the worst case colour is 100%. With the instrument calibrated, the built-in alarm

can be set to operate when the measured colour exceeds the desired maximum APHA colour value. When an alarm is

reported, the operator in the plant knows to replace a colour removal filter upstream of the monitor or switch the out flow into recirculation for additional conditioning. The use of a dual beam colorimeter in this application eliminates the need for operator sampling and conducting laboratory spectrophotometer measurements, both of which are time consuming and costly. The process stream is con tinuously monitored and can be logged to provide a record for regulatory agencies. For more information, circie reply card No. 158 Environmentai Science & Engineering, June 1998

Product and Service Showcase IR Gas Detector

Leachate pump with 5-year warranty

Compact sampling controls & pumps SampleEase Controllers and

Bladder Pumps are versatile,

New from CROWCON,the CIRRUS is

The industry's first controllerless pneu matic leachate pump, the AP-4 AutoPump, now has a market-leading 5-Year Warranty. The AP-4 was the first controllerless pneumatic pump used on

a dual beam IR flammable gas detector offering unmatched long term stability, a lifetime factory calibration and a 5-year warranty. CIRRUS provides complete connection flexibility with both 4-20 mA and RS-485 outputs. With its pellistor mimic function, CIRRUS can easily ex tend pellistor-based systems. For reli able, hassle-free long term monitoring,

4", handles flow rates as high as 16 GPM, and depths over 300 feet. The pumps are "timer free" resulting in less training and

ask for CIRRUS. Nortech GSI Inc.

site visits. Nortech GSI Inc.

a landfill back in 1988. It allows fluid extraction in wells with I.D.'s as small as

Circle reply card No. 200

Circle reply card No. 201

Gas detection transmitters

Self-prompting polymer makedown system

easy-to-use, and good for every monitoring ap plication (dedi cated, portable, conventional, and lowflow). The CEE SampleEase Controller, which can be used with any bladder

pump, is made of rugged safety-yellow polyolefin, and at 8 lbs, is the smallest in the industry. The CEE SampleEase Pump is a pneumatic bladder pump. Its simple design requires only a pen or pencil for normal servicing. Nortech GSI Inc. Circle reply card No. 202

Products for Analysis catalogue Hach's Products

for Analysis 1998 catalogue features many new proc

ess and field in


ing: the 1720D Low-Range Proc

The WorksAlone IF"' line or gas detec tion transmitters complements the Indus

trial Scientific product line of fixed gas monitors with the added capability of non-intrusive calibration, "smart" sens

ing technology and a large visual graphic display. The WorksAlone II is an inde pendent sensor/monitor capable of dis playing gas concentrations and indicat ing alarm conditions when a programmed alarm point has been exceeded. Industrial Scientific Corporation

ProMinent's new and improved "smart" self-prompting Ultromat Plant delivers ready-to-use polyelectrolyte solutions automatically, safely and continuously. All components are combined in a com pact unit. The powder is fed from a feed hopper into a mixing assembly. Follow ing wetting, it enters a triple compartment tank where it is diluted and mixed to the

required concentration, aged and stored. ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 203

Circle reply card No. 204

Dissolved oxygen analyzers

Leak detection

ess Turbidimeter, xaiim

successor to the

popular 1720C; the APA 6000 Analyzers for hardness, alkalinity, nitrate and am monia; the AquaTrend Network system, which provides advanced data manage ment; DR/800 Series Colorimeters and Portable Laboratories; and the new

Pocket Turbidimeter^ Analysis System. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 205

Low-range process turbidimeter Hach's Model 1720D


Range Process Turbidimeter,

offers improved low-end per formance and a

completely re designed body

The Model 9200 Continuous DO

analyzer provides the ultimate level of monitoring accuracy and aeration control. It offers menu directing setup and trend graphing on the display, simultaneous DO and temperature readout on the dis play, standard automatic sensor mem brane self-cleaning, digital and analog outputs, a sensor output voltage mode, and 4 programmable setpoint relays. Cancoppas Limited Circle reply card No. 206

Accurately pinpointing leaks leads to a reduction in the number of holes dug,

saving labour, re-instatement and main



bubble trap that

Leak Noise Correlator offers the most accurate and effective leak location. It

provides 30% faster response to sample changes. Instrument range is 0 to 100 NTU,and accuracy is +2% of reading or Âą0.020 NTU (whichever is greater)from

can produce accurate results over longer

0 to 30 NTU. Instrument resolution is

distances-even on traditionally difficult

0.001 NTU. Hach Company

tenance costs. The MicroCorrÂŽ Super

pipes. Heath Consultants Circle reply card No. 207

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Circle reply card No. 208



"Drive-by shooting" at sewer overfiows

TheCity of Edmonton is serv

iced by 4,350 km of sewerage and drainage facilities, of which 930 km are combined

sewers constructed between the years 1903 and 1960. The area serviced by combined sewers (about 5,000 ha) rep resents about 16% of the presently de veloped lands in the City. The service area includes the downtown core plus residences for about 30% of the City's present population of 630,000. The major drainage system through Edmonton is the North Saskatchewan

River. Within the City, the river is the receiving water body for six small tribu tary creeks,214 storm outfalls, 19 CSOs ^General Supervisor, Monitoring and Assessment, City of Edmonton ^Director, Drainage Planning, City of Edmonton ^President, Optimum Instruments Inc., Edmonton, AB

in Edmonton and the secondary treated effluent from the City's Gold Bar Wastewater Treat ment Plant (GBWWTP). The creeks, storm outfalls and CSOs discharge to the river during spring snowmelt and rain fall events.

To some extent during the 1950's, and exclusively since 1960, new devel opment in the City has been serviced with separate sanitary sewerage and storm drainage systems. Today there are about 1,600 km of sanitary sewerage piping and about 1,800 km of storm drainage piping. During the 1950's, there appears to have been an emphasis on flood control as both the combined

and sanitary sewer systems were fre quently interconnected to the adjacent storm drainage system at common man holes or high level overflows. In other jurisdictions these may be termed sanitary sewer overflows. In a count in 1994, there were 347 of these

system interconnections; subsequently,

the number was reduced to 188 by the

expeditious remediation at sites provid ing no obvious flood control benefit. Interconnection Control Strategy

As part of its commitment to envi ronmental protection, the City has pre pared an Interconnection Control Strat egy. The primary objective of this strat egy is the identification and control of sanitary flows through storm outfalls. There is concern about interconnections

regarding their potential to discharge during dry weather as a result of tempo rary blockages in the system. A key commitment of the Interconnection

Control Strategy is perpetual monitor ing and assessment of all unmitigated interconnections.

The focus of the monitoring and as sessment activities is to collect a base

level of information with regard to the frequency and duration of discharges from each site, and confirm the findings from the earlier studies in the higher

Newly Appointed Exclusive Canadian Representatives for Biihler Montec formerly EPIC and DETEC Samplers & Flow Meters

Also known as EPIC 10il,the Buhler Montec

Also known as Surveylogger, the Biihler Montec F3510 portable area velocity flow me ter for partially filled pipes and open channels without a primary device. Intrinsically safe, in tegral data logger for 32000 events, recharge able battery, programming, data retrieval and analysis by means of portable computer. Circle reply card No. 252

PI 011 portable sampler provides many sec tors of industry and municipalities with a so lution to a wide variety of clean and waste water, effluent and sewage problems in open or closed channels. Detachable, user-friendly programmer. Available with a wide choice of glass or plastic container formats. Circle reply card No. 253

The Buhler Montec SI 023 permanent au tomatic wastewater sampler, refrigerated in a stainless steel housing. Detachable, userfriendly programmer allows storage, downloading and retrieval of completed pro grams and data. Available with a wide choice of glass or plastic container formats. Circle reply card No. 254

Creative Environmental Solutions For Today's Industry



Sales - Service - Rental - Training


2085 Piper Lane, London, Ontario, N5V 3S5 Tel:(519) 659-1144, Fax:(519) 453-2182 Web Site: www.heathltd.com

Montreal • Etobicoke • Calgary • Burnaby Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

C.J.W. Ward\ J.E. Hodgson^, K. Smelquist^ which time the chip starts using counter seconds, the datalogging chip transmits priority areas. This was originally en the data from all 16 counter pairs at a visioned to be a crest gauge monitoring pair 1 again. program at each interconnection. How With the preceding two components, frequency of 916 MHz. By connecting ever, the City desired more comprehen a simple gauge has been described a radio receiver to a laptop computer in sive discharge data than is traditionally which monitors the frequency, duration the vehicle, a field technician can easily provided by crest gauges. Due to the and time of occurrence of an overflow collect all of the transmitted data sim large number of interconnections, this event. However, this still requires a link ply by driving past the site. This is called data had to be collected without the high between the datalogging chip and the 'drive-by-shooting'. Results up front capital cost of a comprehensive personal computer in order to make use In 1997, VLGs were installed at 182 flow monitoring program based on the of the information. This linkage is commonly used area-velocity technol achieved by remote communications of the 188 interconnections in the City Continued overleaf ogy. This led to the development of the using high frequency radio. Every eight "Virtual Level Gauge." _ Virtual Level Gauge The Virtual Level Gauge(VLG) {Ward, Hodgson and Smelquist, ProMinenfs new Beta How we made Beta the first choice in pumps: 1997), consists of three main com ponents: a sensor; the datalogging Pump gets the green 2. Simplicity 1. Affordabiiity chip; and the communications sys Less means more. Beta's new simplified light for offering more tem. Accurate, repeatable state-of-the-art con simplified operations,a The sensor consists of a PVC control with only two cept, results in lower

Beta from ProMinenf,ingeniously simple,simply genius.

pipe cap with two stainless steel

wider range of applica

screws anchored in the end. The two

manufacturing costs. Beta's better price comparison means

screws are wired to the power sup

tions,a better sen/ice

ply located with the datalogging and communications chips in the body

contract and the best

you can put a quality

comparative pricing.

Prominent pump any where - affordably.

of the instrument. The power sup

ply continuously supplies an alter nating current (AC) to the probe through the two screws. A detector determines the presence or absence of the sewage by comparing the re

Why the New Beta Pump from ProMinent gets the Green Light.

sistance between the screws with the

resistance internal to the integrated circuit.

The datalogging microchip con sists of a microchip programmed as a digital counter. Every eight sec onds the chip checks if the probe is wet(or dry) over a two-minute cy cle. This results in 15 readings. Nor mally, the counter will indicate 15 times the same event (i.e. all wet or



all dry). This will then be counted as a wet or dry two-minute period as appropriate. On the basis of the preceding de scription, the datalogging chip is ca pable of monitoring the duration of wet or dry events, as sensed at the probe head. However,this can only


be used to indicate the total duration,


and not the frequency of events. To facilitate this, the chip has 16 coun

ter pairs (a pair being 1 wet and 1 dry event). The duration of the first dry and wet events are recorded in counter pair 1. As soon as the wet

knob adjustments and the "traffic light" sys tem, greatly simplifies both operation and function monitoring in noisy or dark places.


ProMinent Canada

490 Southgate Drive Guelph, On. N1G4P5

event is ended, the duration of the

Tel 519-836-5692

next dry and wet event are recorded

Fax 519-836-5226

in counter pair 2. This is continued until all 16 counter pairs are full, at


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

;.136 Industry Drive,

SiR.l.D.C. Park West,


Pittsburgh, FA 152f^ÂŤS Tel 412-787-2484


For more information, circle reply card No. 152 (See page 25)

pfoam^Jcom p 77

Instrumentation, cont' of Edmonton. The remaining

This provides a continuous

six sites were not monitored

evaluation of overflow event


due to site conditions which . Communications

precluded the use of VLGs. Monitoring of these sites by other means is being assessed

Evaluation of sites falls into


three categories: those sites that are not active and can be

in 1998.

safely eliminated; those sites that are highly active and

The results from the VLG - Datalogging Chip

monitoring program were as

should be controlled or miti

sessed in December 1997. The

summary of the 1997 program results are presented in Figure 1. The activity at 182 of 188

gated in some fashion; and those sites that are moderately


active, which can either be con trolled or eliminated with fur

total interconnections was

ther evaluation. Sites that are

quantified. Monitors at five of the sites were installed late in

active frequently during wet weather are investigated in the field and mitigative measures are assessed, and implemented

Data Recorder

the year and provided minimal data. Of the 182 quantified, 109(or about 60%)showed no activity in 1997; 12 were ac tive for up to 100 minutes; 16

as funds committed to the con

trol strategy become available. Conclusions

were active for between 101

and 1000 minutes; and 45

(about 25%) were active for


over 1000 minutes.

able to commit to continuous

Field inspections of those

monitoring of interconnection overflows as part of a long term control strategy. This is a costeffective means of collecting basic information on the per

sites that were active for over 1000 minutes were initiated

late in 1997. At eight of the locations investigated, the monitoring equipment or its

Schematic of Virtual Level Gauge

formance of interconnections.

installation orientation was

most likely the cause of high activation records. There was no indication that

equipment malfunction or installation problems at the remaining sites could have been the reason for the high acti vation numbers. These sites, and the remainder of the sites active for over

1000 minutes, will be assessed in 1998

to confirm and better quantify the frec


The gauge monitors the frequency, du ration and time of occurrence of high

quency of activation. On the basis of the monitoring and assessment work performed to date, the water levels. On the basis of the data collected, only 45 of the sites (25%) City of Edmonton has developed an In terconnection Control Strategy {City of overflow for a significant duration. Edmonton, 1998). A key commitment Approximately 60% of the sites did not of the Interconnection Control Strategy overflow at all during 1997. Thus, it is perpetual monitoring and assessment can be concluded that the application of of all unmitigated interconnections. the Virtual Level Gauge has successfully and cost-effectively indicated those locations in the system which


Z 0) c c o

Through the wide spread application of the VLG, the City of Edmonton has been

are more critical in terms of fre

quency and duration of overflow. With a commitment to per petual monitoring and assessment,

100 80


and with a cost-effective tool to



â&#x20AC;˘s 0) A


obtain the information needed, the

City of Edmonton is now proceed ing with development of software tools for data management and re porting capabilities. These tools

40 20



will combine the results from the

0 Not




1 to 100


Activity(rrinutes) Figure 1. 1997 interconnection Activity 78

101 to

> 1000

VLGs with rainfall data for graphi cal and textual reports. The pro duction of the software is expected to be completed later in 1998. For more information, circle reply card No. 159

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1998

Ambisnt Air Ozone • N0/N02/N0X • CO • H2S • S02 • Hydroearbon From Advanced Pollution Instrumentation (API) For more information, circle repiy card No. 160

MODEL 10OA:0-50ppb to 0-20ppm

(^03^ MODEL 400: 0-1 OOppb to 0-1 Oppm

MODEL 10OH: 0-10 to 0-5000 ppm

200A:0-50ppb to 0-20ppm

(H2^ MODEL 101 A:0-50ppb to 0-20ppm «^rN02/N^^MODEL 200AH:0-5 to 0-5000ppm MODEL 300: 0-1 ppm to O-IOOOppm

From California Analytical Instruments (CAI) For more information, circle repiy card No. 161 STACK

MODEL 300-HFlD: 0-10 TO 0-30,000 ppm L C02 ■ MODEL ZRH: Up to 3 ranges From INNOVA AirTech Instruments For more information, circie repiy card No. 162

Model 1312: Up to 5 gases simultaneously lOppb to 1 ppm range


GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION Pneumatic pumps • Oil/Water Separators Techno-Select System Oil/Water Separation


Controlorless Pump

Flowrates: 5 to 5000 GPM

Introduced in 1986 by Clean Envi ronment Equipment, the AP-4 is the industry's first controlerless pneu matic pump. With its leading 5-year

Easily reaches 10 ppm concentrations Unique ciitTerential gravity vane Works by gravitv'. very low maintenance Above or below ground construction Full compliance with standards (ISO.API etc) Can be built to suit application

warrantv it still is the most reliable

and proven remediation pump. Used in wells as small as 4 inches, the

AP-4 handles How rates up to 16 .USGPM and depths over 300 If on such applications as total fluids, dis solved and/or sinkers, product only . leachate and condensate pumping, for reliable pumpling. the .-\P-4.

Canadian made The Techno-Select 0/W separator uses a unique mechanism, a reliable differential gravitv' vane, to ensure maintenance-free disposal of separated oils w ithout any trace of water. In most applications effluents tinder 10 ppm are produced. UNDOIIBTEDLY, THE BEST BUY ON THE MARKET. Circle reply card No. 164

Circle reply card No. 163




Calgary Toronto Montreal




It's all in how you put It together.






"the complete




EIMCO engineers have put together a phosphorous removal system that combines three


biological environments in a single partitioned reactor—eliminating recycle pumps and

Engineering new solutions

Once again, EIMCO writes the book orrefficiency. For information, call (905) 625-6070.

piping. As a result, the Carrousel®A^C" System reduces maintenance and operating costs.


For more information, circle reply card No. 154 (See page 25)

© 1998 Baker Hughes

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 1998  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 1998  

Profile for esemag