Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 1998

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

May 1998


storage tank options - a special ES&E focus Using ozone for water and wastewater disinfection Biosolids dewatering and stabilization research Removing colour and TOC from drinking water PCB recycling plant slated for Kirkland Lake Engineering in a world driven by low bids

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©1998 Schiumberger Canada Limited


April/May'98 Vol. 11 No. 2 Issued May, 1998


President STEVE DAVEY Publisher TOM DAVEY

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Asst. KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP. Church & Trought Inc. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M G&S

Engineering, stiil the invisibie profession in a world driven by the low bid. Editorial by Tom Davey


Neighbour's 'hell'is vacuum noise - but UK scientist may have a solution


Concrete pipe manufacturing technology from 1842 to beyond 2000


Reducing packaging waste has powerful economic impacts


Toronto conference attracts 900 delegates


1998 AWWA Annual Conference


Paste technology proves practical for surface disposal of mineral wastes


Environmental information systems for tailings management


Our aquatic environments continue to be invaded by alien

Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication pub lished by Environmental Science & Engi neering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and dis tribution.

species in ballast waters


New PCB Recycling Plant slated for Kirkiand Lake, Ontario


Air quality goes up as NOx goes down


A possible cure for sick building syndrome?


Ozone can now be used for wastewater and potable water


Prevention of scale build-up using electronic descaling technology


Effective colour and TOO removal from drinking water by microfiitration


Ottawa-Carleton investigates factors that influence biosoiids dewatering


Biosoiids stabilization research continues in Ontario


Extreme abundances of viruses in prairie wetlands


ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi

Focus on Tanks

ronmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mall Sales

Product Agreement No. 18197 Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750

Printed In Canada. No part of this publi cation may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. (G.S.T. extra)

The strength of steel and its importance in environmental protection


Selecting a tank for used lubricating oii


Fibergiass reinforced piastic tanks for corrosive environments....78


Literature Reviews

Ad Index


Product Review

work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent



R&D News

to: Environmental Science & Engi neering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit

Datepad Industry Update

All advertising space orders, copy, art

30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G

3V6, Tel; (905)727-4866, Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@lstar.ca. Web site: http://www.esemag.com

[TT^ni Ceis*dw


21 10-21

Reader Feedback

Reader Service Card


38, 67-71 57-64 8


Cover story: Leaking storage tanks can contaminate aquifers and despoil valuable real estate. ES&E's focus on tanks examines these issues on pages 74-78. Photo courtesy Westeel Industrial Products. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys Information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998


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Editorial comment

By Tom Davey

Engineering, stiii the invisible profession in a world driven by the low bid "it was not our enlightened crusaders who brought light to the masses, It was Thomas Edison. It was not our intellectuals who ended the

Insularity of Isolated communities, It was Henry Ford and the Wright brothers. For the people In the street, Kodak did more to make them aware of

pictures than Rembrandt and all the museums put together!"

Such perceptive observations

Thomas Sowell

are regrettably rare in a so ciety which is increasingly unappreciative of, even hos tile to, the benefits of technology. Ironically, the tangible results of en gineering are easily the most visible of all the learned professions. Elegant bridges span wide rivers, while office buildings reach toward the heavens which themselves are crowded with

planes girdling the world at prices working people can now afford. Fac tory workers may fly to Australia, while working folks down-under may fly to visit Rome, London and Paris. Many commonplace luxuries would be unimaginable three generations

ment, a fact few critics appreciate. Until recently,few had even heard of cryptosporidium or giardia, but en gineers quickly developed a range of options to deal with these minute kill ers, including membranes and ad vanced disinfection. None of these vital services would

be possible without the design skills and innovative technology of the en gineering profession. None of the learned professions, including archi tecture, comes even close to provid ing such tangible evidence of its con tribution to society. No other profes sion matches its contribution to in

creased life expectancies. Yet the general public, so very much aware of the persona of our leading actors, television anchormen, newspaper colunists, academics,law yers, and even architects, is almost totally unaware of the engineering professionals, who provide society with such a vital array of services. I fervently believe that water engi neers have saved more lives through chlorination, ozonation, and other wa

most honoured environmental engi neer of all time. His national and in ternational distinctions and awards are

too numerous to list in this space. As both engineer and public health pro fessional, he waged a protracted strug gle to promote the use of chlorine in Ontario, as well as the compulsory pasteurization of milk. This Canadian was decades ahead of his time, a fact

American experts were quick to rec ognize. Dr. Berry is still the only per son -American or Canadian -to have

been elected President of the Ameri can Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation. The world knows that Sir Alexan

der Fleming discovered penicillin and that Dr. Christiaan Barnard did the

first heart transplant. Yet Dr. Berry, whose work saved countless lives, remains unknown outside a diminish

ing number of engineering and health professionals. Even when he died, the media largely ignored the passing of this environmental legend, while giv ing generous coverage to routine col ourful parades and demonstrations, which can be seen virtually every

ter treatment techniques, than all the week. miracle drugs put together. In the On Canada's national newspaper, the tario of the 1880s, 18 out of 1,000 per ago. sons suffered from cholera, typhoid Globe & Mail, joined with the CBC Beneath our complex urban cen or similar diseases, with mortality in ignoring the passing of our great tres, tens of thousands of commuters rates higher than those of many Eu est environmentalist, while devoting arrive at their destinations swiftly and ropean cities. Within living memory, generous coverage, that same week safely thanks to subway systems many deadly water-borne diseases, end, to the death of the French film carved out of the earth. Their com now thankfully rare,regularly ravaged director, Eranfois Truffaut. fort and safety are further enhanced the population. Clearly they felt that the death of a by complex electrical, electronic and foreign film-maker - albeit a distin Thanks to great engineering pio mechanical equipment, and reliable neers such as Thomas and Samuel guished one, who directed 22films in rolling stock. Subway accidents, Keefer, Willis Chipman and Dr.Albert his lifetime - was a more important when they do occur, are so rare they Edward Berry, great strides were event to record than that of a Cana generate headlines for days. made in environmental engineering dian scientist, teacher and engineer, technology at the turn of the century, who had saved countless thousands of While medical research takes credit dramatically reducing the terrible lives, while also protecting our envi for our increasing lifespans, it was engineers who helped wipe out killer death rates. Although many of Tho ronment. Such anonymity epitomizes diseases such as typhoid and cholera. mas Reefer's water pumping stations what is regrettably, but unquestion ably the invisible profession - engi Canadians are protected by drinking were built before the turn of the cen neering. tury, at least one is still in mint work water plants, polluton control facili ties and sophisticated flood control ing condition near Hamilton, Ontario. Excerpted from an after dinner address to be Dr. Berry, who died in 1984 shortly given at the Annuai Conference of the Con schemes, which are always in a con after turning 90, was probably the sulting Engineers of Ontario, fVtay 13, 1998. stant state of evolution and refine Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Reader Feedback Dear Tom, Re: January 1998 ES&E: The low bid ethos - an accounting design for engi neering disasters It was Bob Rae's government which introduced low fee bid

ding for engineering serv ices. My consulting work is mostly in the transportation sector. We became one of

the top firms in pavement engineering when work

Mike's letter on file), that quality should come first, not price. I am writing to you because of the infamous Whistler lawsuit(against John Ruskin), you mentioned in your editorial. Here's an "g'/te other gem you might wish to add to your col lection, courtesy of Oscar Wilde, whom I'm quoting in a paper I'll be giving in Atlanta in April at the First

torial Comment should be sent to mu

nicipalities and owners along with all

How true!!

Senior Vice President,

Cam Mirza, P.Eng.

MacViro Consultants Inc.

International Conference on Site Characterization.

My paper is entitled The high cost oflow cost bid site

lence of service. Within six months of the NDP

or else lose my home. We just could not believe the bid prices coming in from the "competi tion", and I wondered how anyone with half a brain could think the public was being served! I wrote to Bob Rae and his Transportation Minister, the self-ap pointed wit of the House, Gilles Pouliot. At that time, Mike Harris and Lyn McLeod both agreed with me (I have

Dear Tom,

I think copies of your January '98 Edi

Wilde said, or is purported to have said: "People know the price of everything and the value of nothing."

was awarded on the basis

Ph.D.'s and three M.S.'s) to one - me,

pointedly stressing value over low prices. Tom Davey

proposals. For the past eight or nine years, you have been the most vigorous supporter of our profession as well as the strong est advocate of Quality Based Selection and Value Based Selection processes. You have written several outstanding editorials on these topics. Consulting professionals should align forces with you against the decay of en gineering professionalism in Canada. Howard Shrimpton,

of competency and excel

victory, I had to downsize from a staff of 15 (including three

ness prohibits paying a little and getting a lot." We have now at least two geniuses



Thanks Cam,

Dear Tom,

With regard to Wilde's views on price and value, we previously used the quote In

I enjoy reading your articles, particularly when you question the statements of doom and gloom sayers. I enclose an old article by Jacob Dekema, District Engineer (California Division of High

ES&E, Nov. '95. Wilde was a devotee of John Ruskin, the foremost art critic of his day. Ruskln's

writings on aesthetics also stressed value over price. "The Common Law of busi-

ways, 1971). The horses under our hoods are a lot cleaner than the ones with tails. Frank Sobolak

M 3^1 AkA IN M

Wyllie & Ufnal Consulting Engineers

Environmental Monitoring Equipment

Dear Mr. Davey, We are a member of a Canadian consor

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4,000 industries and sectoral associa

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tions. As part of the program a quar terly newsletter, called India Canada Etivironmentai Review (ICER), is pub lished on topical issues by CII. While reading the September 1997 issue of your magazine. Environmental Science & Engineering, we came across

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998


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Industry Update Canadian membrane

ZenoGem™ and ZeeWeed™ technolo

technology chosen by US navy

gies, coupled with new control systems and packaging, that will permit these technologies to be installed in confined

The federal industry ministry has an

nounced a $591,634 Technology Part

The news re-awakens fears about

potentially toxic waste on the site, in cluding cyanide and coal tar contami nation. The Dome site, previously a gas works, is one of the most contaminated

spaces. The success of this demonstration

in London. Other chemicals that contrac

nership Canada (TPC) investment in a Zenon Environmental Systems project. The project is expected to create or maintain approximately 88 jobs in Burlington over a seven-year period. This repayable TPC investment is supported under the environmental tech nologies component of TPC to help Zenon develop and demonstrate an aer ated non-oily wastewater membrane treatment system (AMTS) that can be used by naval warships and merchant vessels. At present, systems for reduc ing or eliminating wastewater pollution are too large to be used on naval ves

project for the United States Navy could help Zenon gain a dominant position in the US military market and potentially lead to the purchase of wastewater treat ment systems by navies in North America and Europe, as well as by do mestic and foreign merchant ships.


the Teflon skin of the dome suffered

around the lake were PCBs and these

The United States Navy is also pro viding $985,900 in funding to develop a wastewater treatment system for its warships that meets the rigid environ mental standards now being imple mented throughout the world. In this project, Zenon will use its proprietary

from persistent sores on their lips and red blotchy rashes on their forearms. The Dome roof was originally to

showed an overall decrease of 65.5%

have been covered in PVC (see ES&E, November 1997) but protesters got

central basin than in the south central

tors have removed from the ground in clude foul lime waste and heavy metals. Blood and urine samples from con cerned workers were negative, and it is not known what caused the rashes.

Measuring PCBs decline In 1971, sediment samples were taken

UK Dome workers

from Lake Erie and frozen. At Envi

suffer rashes British workers building the Millennium Dome have been given blood tests after developing rashes and cold sores while working on the structure. Rappellers rigging cables to support

Teflon specified instead. Teflon has not been linked to the complaints.

ronment Canada's National Water Re

search Institute in Burlington, a com

parison has been done between 1995 samples and those of 25 years ago. The results are encouraging. The most abun dant contaminants taken from all 46 sites

The results also showed PCBs de clined less in the more isolated north basin. Similar trends were observed

with residues of DDTs, chlordanes and Hexachlorobenzene.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Industry Update Near normal Ozone/UV-B values this summer Due to warm stratospheric temperatures over Canada this past winter, strato spheric ozone values were close to nor

mal values this spring. This situation is expected to continue during the summer with ozone values being within three percent of normal from May until Sep tember. Ultraviolet radiation values at

the surface are also expected to be within the same range. The warm temperatures in the strato sphere were a result of the advection of

States in such an annex with Canada.

ernments of Ontario, Quebec, New

In its submission, Canada supports the

Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Qver the

targets and timetable for the statewide

years, Canada and the United States have made progress on acid rain prob

emission reductions and urges the US EPA to modify the proposal so that the reductions in emissions of nitrogen ox ides, now planned only for the summer

smog season, are maintained through out the entire year- to further reduce acid rain.

The Canadian Government's com

ment on the EPA proposal has been dis cussed with representatives of the gov

lems but more needs to be done. Last

year, during the US domestic debate on new national air quality standards, Canada lent its support for tough new standards, and urged the EPA to carry through with its proposals in the face of tough industry opposition. New US ozone and particle standards were sub sequently issued in June 1997.

warmer air into the northern latitudes

from the south. In addition, the arctic

closed upper circulation, known as the arctic vortex, did not form to the same


intensity or duration as in 1996 or 1997. Thus temperatures in the high arctic did not drop into the minus 75 to 85 range normally associated with severe ozone depletion. Although UV-B values are forecast to be in the normal range, Ca nadians should still take precautions against getting too much sun. There are year-to-year fluctuations in the ozone layer, and while 1998 seems to be close to normal, this is not yet a signal of ozone layer recovery.

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Canada supports strong US action on air pollution Federal Environment Minister Christine Stewart announced March 13 that the Government of Canada has submitted an official comment to the United States

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northeastern states by the year 2007. The EPA has proposed aggressive re ductions in the midwestern and north

eastern US states by as much as 85 per cent of emissions of nitrogen oxides from major sources. "Central and eastern Canada receive

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directly affects Canadians," said Minis ter Stewart. "The prompt adoption of

the EPA's proposed emission reductions is necessary to protect the health and environment of Canadians."

In January of this year. Minister Stewart and EPA Administrator Browner

agreed to negotiate an ozone annex un der the Canada-United States Air Qual ity Agreement in 1999. The outcome of the EPA proposal, currently on the table


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Industry Update Are today's hog farms like chemical plants? New hog confinement techniques allow corporate operations to have as many as 20,000 hogs in one location, often caus ing pollution and human health prob

Prize winner honored for

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lems for local residents. One Missouri

Last April, the United States Attor ney for the District of Maine, arrested and charged Larry LeBlanc, president

operation has 80,000 hogs and odours from this virtual "chemical factory" of urine and animal waste can be smelled

from two to five miles away. They are called Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). With more contaminants than small pulp mills, some CAFOs have been ordered

to build large settling and treatment la goons that can hold up to 30 million gallons of hog effluent. A new US Senate study states that the large amount of animal waste pro duced on American farms creates seri

ous water pollution, and that large-scale livestock operations, functioning more like chemical plants, increase the risk of toxic spills.

and director of the Eredericton automo

Gedeon Dagan,a professor of engineer ing at Israel's Tel Aviv University, has been awarded the 1998 Stockholm

Water Prize. Professor Dagan was se lected for his pioneering research on the relationship between pollutants, subsur face formations,transport processes,and groundwater. His research has led to the application of effective strategies for protecting and restoring groundwater, a major source of drinking water and irri gation for many of the world's inhabit ants and farmers.

Pollutec 98, Lyon Eurexpo, France, November 3-6,1998 The lAih Pollutec, the International Ex

hibition of Environmental Equipment, Technologies and Services for Industry and Local Authorities, will be held from

November 3-6, 1998, at Lyon Eurexpo (Erance). More than 850 companies from 22 countries had reserved their stands nine months before the exhibi

tion opens. A total of over 1,700 exhibitors from

thirty or so countries is expected to ex hibit at this major exhibition, and 50,000 visitors are expected to attend. Pollutec will showcase environmen

As the basis for honoring Professor Dagan with the award,the Prize's Nomi nating Committee noted: "Professor Dagan has been awarded the 1998 Stockholm Water Prizefor having estab lished the basis of a new field within geohydrology, where contaminant spreading in the subsurface environment is determined in such a way that it ac counts for heterogeneity and for bio chemical processes."

bile dealership, and his wife,Ann Marie LeBlanc, with illegally importing ap proximately 85 tons of CFCs into the United States, where they allegedly sent shipments to a number of automotive shops. In August 1997, Larry LeBlanc pleaded guilty to a number of these charges and faces sentencing. Continuation of the CCOHS

NIOSHTIC速 database The US National Institute for Safety and Health (NIOSH) has announced that beginning in September 1998, they will no longer abstract and add publications referenced in the open literature to the NIOSHTIC速 database. Instead, a new

database covering only NIOSH-supported and authored publications will be referenced in NIOSHTIC-2速, thereby significantly reducing the coverage of occupational health and safety Hterature. As a result of NIOSH's decision, the

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety(CCOHS)is now ac tively pursuing a number of options to ensure that CCOHS customers receive

continued coverage of materials cur Fredericton business fined

rently included in the NIOSHTIC速 da

for providing false

tabase. CCOHS expects to be able to

CFC information City Sales Ltd., was ordered to pay

expand the coverage offered in this evolving database.

tal equipment and services in water, $20,000 in a New Brunswick provincial waste, recycling, air, noise, energy, soil court February 17, after pleading guilty decontamination, clean technologies, to knowingly providing false and mis analysis/measurement/monitoring and leading information to Environment industrial cleaning. Canada inspectors with respect to the French and English editions of a pub exportation of chlorofluorocarbons lication will now be produced at the end (CFCs)to the United States. of each exhibition covering new prod This outcome is precedent-setting ucts shown at Pollutec. Entitled Les in because it is the first time a significant novations des eco-industries/Innovapunishment has been imposed for ob tions in the Environment Industry, they structing and preventing Environment will be published by Editions Econo- Canada inspectors from performing their mica and sponsored by Pollutec, Ademe duties. At the request of the Crown,the and the Fondation Rene Dubos. money will be directed to the Environ For more information contact: ment and Sustainable Development Re Pollutec 98,UN Miller Freeman France, search Centre at the University of New 70, rue Rivay, 92532 Levallois Ferret Bmnswick, where it will be used to fund Cedex, France, Tel: +33 141 22 00 55,

environmental research on ozone-de

Fax: +33 I 47 56 21 20.

pleting substances.


In this case. City Sales Ltd. provided false information during a 1994 inspec tion where inspectors were attempting to verify information relating to the ex port of CFCs to the United States in 1993 under a permit from Environment

For more information, contact 1-800668-4284.

Could global warming save $20(US) billion in medical expenses? The Hoover Institute reports that if tem peratures rose 2.5 degrees Celsius, deaths in the United States from respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and influ enza, diseases of the circulatory system, and even infectious diseases would drop by about 40,000 per year. Global warm ing might reduce medical costs by about $20 billion annually, reports Thomas Gale Moore of the Hoover Institute in

his paper Health and Amenity Effects of Global Warming. For a copy, contact (415) 723-1754.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998




ABOVE-GROUND PUMP STATIONS. Ask us for details now! Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. GORMAN-RUPP

70 Burwell Road

St. Thomas, Ontario N5P 3R7

PUMPS Distributors across Canada

Tel: (519)631-2870 Fax: (519)631-4624

For more information, circle reply card No. 124(See page 17)

Industry Update Oldest Mississippi River plant becomes automated Bailey Controls Company, a unit of Elsag Bailey Process Automation, has been awarded a $12 million contract to

provide a complete automation system for the largest waste treatment plant in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area.

This system consists of 40-process control areas, each with redundant con trollers and 15 remote I/O areas that will

have redundant communications. Elsag Bailey will also provide over 150 opera tor workstations for process operation, training, viewing, engineering, and maintenance. Controlling the entire system is a SYMPHONY'''^ Enterprise Management and Control System. The system will perform base control strate gies, data acquisition, data historian, and interfacing/conversion of the customer's current control system for all areas of the facility, including the incinerator, sludge handling, ash handling, gravity


thickening, and others. Now 60 years old, the Metropolitan Plant was the first wastewater treatment

plant in a major city on the Mississippi River. It treats 226 million (US) gal lons of wastewater every day. Publications available on Ontario's environment

industry A number of publications are available through Ontario's Green Industry office: Business Development Resources: a Business Guide for Ontario's Environ ment Industry, outlines programs, serv ices and other resources for business sup port and technology development assist ance. Marketing to the Ontario Public Service - a Guide for Ontario's EnvironmentIndustry, provides informa tion and key contacts for Ontario based environment industry suppliers who are targeting the Ontario Govemment mar ket. Economic Assessment: Ontario En

vironmental Remediation Sector, identi fies and assesses the remediation sector's

strengths, weaknesses,opportunities and threats. The 1998 Ontario Environment

Business Directory reflects the full range of Ontario's capabilities for environmen tal goods and services.


Eor more information, contact the

Ontario Ministry of the Environment's Green Industry office, Tel: (416) 3234597.


Environment Canada

Peacock Can Move It, Pump It, Mix

climate data for 1997 Environment Canada has just released

It, Stir It, Shake It And Filter It.

its annual Climate Trends and Variations

No matter what you're moving, shaking, mixing or making, did you know you can call Peacock to discuss

special application customization and system integration? Peacock's


Or that


centres are fully stocked and ready to provide national delivery of spare parts or total packaged systems? For over 100 years industrial companies and municipalities of every size and endeavour have relied on Peacock for a wide range of

Products from MOYNO



Bulletinfor Canada -1997. The bulle tin provides a cross-country look at Canada's climate over the past year and compares it to climate data over the past fifty years. Highlights include: • Temperatures in Canada as a whole were 0.7 degrees above normal in 1997, making it the ninth warmest year in the last fifty years. Temperatures have been above normal in seven of the past ten years.

filtration, process control and materials handling products. Before You Move or Shake, Call Peacock

Daninoitth • 902-468-5599 Montreal • 514-366-5900 Mississauga • 905-812-7100 Calgary • 403-250-7000 Edmonton • 403-438-1122 Vancouver • 604-552-3185 Ft. St. John • 250-785-6627 Buffalo • 716-655-0330 msit our irchsile at tvww.peacock.ca

CPEACOCK^ A Canadian Industrial Resource Since 1897

•Precipitation was 2.9% above normal, making 1997 the 14th wettest year in the last fifty years. •The Pacific coast had its second warm

est and wettest yeai"for the last fifty years. Other regional analyses as well as the impact of El Nino on Canada's climate are also discussed in the bulletin.

The bulletin, as well as maps and charts, are available at www.tor.ec.gc.ca/ ccrm/bulletin.


For more Information, circle reply card No. 125 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998



















Complete mixing gives you the edge As the Biological Nutrient Removal(BNR) process gains popularity in wastewater treatment, the critical role played by mixing becomes even more important. Complete mixing improves the overall process and prevents short circuiting and dead zones. However, the mixing must be strong enough to ensure good distribution of the tank's contents, yet gentle enough to minimize the shearing of the floe. Flygt Submersible Mixeis are ideal for BNR applications. Why? Because Flygt Submersibles run at low speed, produce low turbulence, and draw in a minimal amount of air. Moreover, tliey consume minimal power compared to conventional, long-shaft mixers.

Flygt 4600 Series Submersible Mixere are compact, direct-drive units whose principal advantage in BNR applications is flexibility-i.e. the flow can be pointed in any direction to minimize hydraulic losses and maximize the amount of energy utilized for agitation. In anoxic zones, Flygt Banana Blade Mixers are an excellent choice because they provide gentle mixing and outstanding energy efficiency. Currently, some 90 Flygt Submersible Mixers are being used in BNR processes across Canada. If you're thinking about adopting the BNR process in your facility, you can rely on Flygt Submersible Mixers to provide the suspension in your suspended growth process. For more information, call your nearest Flygt representative today.


Visit our home page at www.ittflygt.ca

ITT Industries ITT Flygt Canada, 300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, Quebec H9R4V5 (514) 695-0100 Fax:(514) 697-0602 www.ittflygt.ca Vancouver • Calgary • Edmonton • Saskatoon • Winnipeg • Thunder Bay • Sudbuiy • Timmins • Elobicoke • Ottawa • Pointe-Claire • Quebec • Val d'Or • Moncton • Halifax • St.John's (NF)

For more information, circle reply card No. 126(See page 17)

Industry Update waste going to landfill by more than 60

The world's largest circular pumping station


nearing completion

The facility is a private-public part nership. TransAlta, an Alberta-based energy company, will build and operate the plant under a 30-year contract with the City of Edmonton. Expected to be operational in late 1999, the co-composter will produce about 125,000 tonnes of compost annually. The com post will be jointly marketed by the City and TransAlta.

Engineering professor wins Petro-Canada Award A professor in Carleton University's De partment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dr. Wayne Parker, has re ceived a Petro-Canada Young Innova tor Award for his research into the im

pact of petrochemical contaminants on the environment. He is using the award, Photo shows the project at the early stages. The Lapiniere pumping station in heart of the Lapiniere station are 16ITT Dorval, situated a few kilometres north

Flygt 3302 pumps which will pump 500

of the city of Montreal, will be the world's largest circular pumping station when completed this year. This concrete structure is 33m deep with a diameter

1/s each, at a head of 34 metres.

The pumping station is part of the new La Piniere wastewater plant which is being built by the engineering con

of 24m for a volume of 15,000 cubic

sortium of Dessau-Gendron Lefebvre.

metres, the equivalent of 300 swimming pools of 8m in diameter each. At the

Gerald Pilon is the chief project engi

Auto-rlckshaws have

tem handles all organic waste in odourfree, self-contained storage tanks that are emptied by vacuum trucks.

high emissions Auto-rickshaws and three-wheeled taxis

are found in all major cities in Pakistan and numerous other countries. They are powered by two-stroke gasoline engines and burn a gasoline-oil mixture, creat ing high emissions that adversely affect air quality. The Pakistan government is trying a number of different solutions, including natural gas as a fuel. Envi ronment Canada's Environmental Tech

nology Centre is involved in a joint project with a Canadian company called Yugo-Tech to improve a gaseous fuelinjection system for the two-stroke en gine that would result in fewer emis sions.


Addition of the ORRS can reduce the

need for garbage collection by as much as 90 percent, while also easing the han dling of organic waste prior to collec tion. The system will handle all raw and cooked organic waste such as produce, meat,dairy, deli and fish products, baked goods, flowers and plants, animal oils and greases. Bulk is reduced in the pul verizing process and the odours of de caying organic matter are totally con tained.

Once collected, the waste is recov

ered completely as an agricultural soil conditioner.

Construction starts on

New organic recycling system for grocers A new organic recycling system called the Organic Resource Recovery System (ORRS), addresses a need for grocers

co-composter Construction has started on Edmonton's

$80 million co-composter facility. The

and other organic matter. Distributed

largest of its kind in North America, the facility will process Edmonton's residen tial waste. The co-composter and the City's new recycling plant, also under

by National Challenge Systems,the sys

construction, will reduce the amount of

and other commercial handlers of food


worth $10,000, to conduct a study on the response of soil and groundwater to petrochemicals leaked from under ground storage containers. Dr. Parker explains that: "It is esti mated that five to ten percent of the un derground storage tanks currently in use in Canada are leaking. These leaks re sult in groundwater contamination ap proximately 60 percent of the time, and even after cleanup, about half of the leaked material remains in the ground. Since most storage tanks are located in populated areas, there is a clear need for reliable tools that predict the behaviour of contaminants before and during cleanup." His research will simulate soil con ditions that are characteristic of a con

taminated site, and monitor the natural

ability of soils to biodegrade petroleum contaminants. "The more we under

stand about this process and how to maximize the natural biodegrading ca pacity of the subsurface, the better we will be able to set priorities for the sites

that need to be cleaned up and develop cost-effective methods for doing so," he says.

The Petro-Canada Young Innovator Awards Program was developed to rec ognize, promote and support outstand ing young faculty researchers whose academic work is particularly innova tive, enhances the learning environment in the department in which they study, and has the potential to be significant to society. For more information, contact Dr. Parker,(613) 520-2600, Ext. 7459.

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1998



Smapt Thinking The neighbourhood witnessed a strange occurrence that evening. Coieman came home promptiy at 5:00 pm. His secret? Concrete pipe arrives on site with 00% performance buiit-in. Making instaliation a iot easier. And his iitei

Concrete Pipe... Plan On It 6299 Airport Road, Suite 508


Mississauga, Ont. L4V 1N3 (905) 677-1010 Fax (905) 677-1007 WWW.CCpa.COm

For more information, circie repiy card No. 140(See page 17)

Industry Update Chemical industry evaluates sludge cost reduction technologies The US Chemical Industry Environmen tal Technology Projects (CIETP) has begun a program to evaluate the eco nomic feasibility and technological ca

pabilities of two processes designed to reduce wastewater sludge volume and thus significantly reduce disposal costs. One process being evaluated is a mechanical cell-rupturing device devel oped by KADY International of Scarborough, Maine. The proprietary process breaks apart microbial cells in the return activated sludge lines, which facilitates additional digestion and re lease of bound water in the aeration ba sins.

The second process is an electrical plasma method developed by Scientific Utilization Inc. ofHuntsville, Alabama,

which sends pulses of electrical current into the sludge, shocking the fluid from the organisms. "In conventional wastewater treat

ment, microbes are used to consume

waste organics. Consequently, the mi crobes grow and reproduce, and the ex cess have to be eliminated. They are gelatinous and it is hard to extract the water from them," said Brad Dunn of

DuPont, who is project manager for the evaluations. "Typically, the wasted biosludge is first filtered and then pressed, which eliminates some of the water. But there is still significant mois ture in the sludge, which costs money for disposal." Battelle, a technology firm based in Columbus, Ohio,is conducting the eco nomic evaluations for CIETP. CIETP

would welcome additional companies to participate in the evaluations. Contact Chris Widrig, Tel:(614)424-4724. Innovative Canadian and US biosolids/residuals


Association. The Association's Govem-

Pollution Control Association. Entire sessions will be devoted to

ment Relations Committee has lobbied

Pacific Northwest and Canadian

for nearly two years to ensure the rec ognition of concrete's strength and du rability under Army Corps guidelines. Copies of the manuals can be ob tained from the Army Corps or by con tacting the American Concrete Pipe

biosolids management programs, in cluding land application programs in Winnipeg and Prince George, Calgary's CALGARO program, and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture's biosolids field survey results. A session on advanced technology demonstrations at King County, Washington, will offer results of innovative testing conducted on bio solids management processes. Success stories across the country will also be presented, including co-utilization in Lenoir, NC; regional WWTP biosolids planning in Sacramento, California; a public education program in Boulder, Colorado; and a de-watering process in


President of Delta

Engineering recognized Jeffrey A. White, president of Delta Engineering, was selected as one of the "Top 25 Newsmakers in the Construc tion Industry" by Engineering NewsRecord(ENR).

Victoriaville, Quebec. For more information, call WEE at 1-800-666-0206, Fax:(703) 684-2492, or visit: www.wef.org/docs/conferences. 1998.html to see the conference program

A new fully automated system of treating wastewater, patented by White, provides better than tertiary-level wastewater at a cost of only 80 cents per 1,000 gallons. The process, called


Snowfluent^'^, combines wastewater

with compressed air and disburses it through towers into the environment. Bacteria is broken down by the flashfreezing process, which turns the efflu

US Army Corps tests concrete's strength The US Army Corps of Engineers re cently gave concrete twice the service life of alternative pipe materials in its newly updated engineering manual ti

ent into snow that contains beneficial nutrients when melted.

At the end of each year, the editors ofENR review the contributions of con

tled: Conduits, Culverts and Pipes,(EM

struction newsmakers from that year.


Those selected generally are involved

The manual, which provides guid ance on the construction of conduits,

culverts and pipe used in civil works projects, gives concrete pipe an esti mated service life of 70 to 100 years, which the manual states is approxi mately two times that of steel or aluminum. The manual also states that

long-term material properties be used in the design, and designers should not expect a service life of greater than 50 years for plastic materials. The manual outlines specific uses for reinforced concrete pipe such as for dams, urban levees and other levees

where public safety is at risk or substan The most recent advances in successful tial property damage could occur. In a separate manual titled: Life Cy biosolids and residuals management programs across the United States and cle Design and Performance(EM 1110Canada will be presented at the Water 2-8159), the Army Corps sets forth a Environment Federation's (WEE) policy requiring design engineers to Residuals and Biosolids Management implement 100-year life cycle concepts Conference, July 12-15, Bellevue, into planning and design considerations Washington. The conference will be for major civil works projects, despite held in cooperation with the British higher first costs. "We are very pleased with this rec Columbia Water and Wastes Associa tion, Northwest Biosolids Management ognition," said Jeffrey 1. Enyart, presi Association, and the Pacific Northwest dent of the American Concrete Pipe 18

Association's Resource Center at: 1-800-

290-2272(ACPA),or by Fax:(972)291-

in some section of the construction in

dustry - design, contracting, labour or finance - but it is not a prerequisite. Mexico reveals 1998

regulatory plans Mexico will issue management criteria on sludges from water treatment plants, drainages, and well drilling in 1998. The rules will complete Mexico's efforts to revise regulations addressing industrial activities using water. Other standards due to be issued this year include maxi mum levels of contaminants for treated

water for urban reuses such as garden ing and car cleaning businesses, and maximum levels of contaminants in the

injection of residual waters into under ground aquifers. Along with the treated water stand ards, Mexico will revise some standards

dealing with hazardous waste, includ ing a rule on the management and dis posal of polychlorinated biphenyls. The PCB standard should provide guidelines to approximately 200 companies stor ing PCBs before their final disposal. Courtesy WEE, Global Update

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Industry Update Province to help

HDPE pipe used for water meter pits

residences lick salt woes Brockville, Ontario residents have pried some $10 million from the Ontario gov ernment. The Ministry of Transporta tion has announced that it will pay for treated water to be piped to 250 homes in Long Beach, a community west of Brockville along Highway 401. For years now, residents in the area have been fighting against road salt run ning off provincial highways and con taminating their wells. Plumbing has been corroded, well pumps and appli ances have been ruined, and bottled

water use for drinking was high. Road salt has been spread on High ways 401 and 2for at least 30 years, and has been found in the wells of at least

130 homes. The Ministry has already

paid out over $1.5 million in compen sation to affected residents and agreed to hook them up at no cost.

The Ontario community of Bosanquet needed a way to install its water meters

Eaglebrook appoints VP of sales & maketing

ter installations had to be below ground level, easily accessible, yet resistant to

in homes without basements. Such me

Eaglebrook, Inc. has appointed Ian J.

frost, rain and snow.

Goodwin as Vice President of Sales and

Attempts to use concrete pipe and precast concrete pits proved to be incon

Marketing. He has been in the chemi cal industry since 1974, most notably with Mobil Chemical and Tioxide Group.

venient as backhoes and bulldozers, needed for such installations, were dif

Mr. Goodwin received a Bachelor of Sci

ficult to maneuver between homes and

ence in Chemistry from McMaster Uni versity in Hamilton, Ontario and holds a Masters ofScience in Chemistry from the University of Toronto. Eaglebrook, Inc. is North America's leading marketer of inorganic iron salts for odour and corrosion control, phos phate removal,sludge conditioning and enhanced coagulation. The company provides a complete line of iron-based salts including ferrous chloride, ferric

the concrete pits were too narrow to eas ily inspect and repair the water meters. Peter Hegler, P.Eng., working for Bosanquet, designed his own meter pits using 30" (750mm) diameter smoothwall high density polyethylene pipe. So far, he has used 2,000 feet of HOPE pipe

chloride, ferrous sulfate and ferric sulfate.

Praxair will help protect the Shroud of Turin Praxair, Inc., through its regional com pany in Italy, Rivoira SpA, was chosen by the Committee for Public Viewing of the Shroud, to supply the technology and gases that will help protect the Shroud of Turin from degradation dur ing a forthcoming exhibition. The Shroud, believed by many to be

ture, prepared by Rivoira, will protect it against oxidation, humidity,flammability and bacterial growth (argon is an in ert, non-flammable gas). The atmos phere inside the glass case housing the Shroud will be continuously monitored at several points. The computer-based system is connected to Rivoira's plant, in order to verify oxygen, moisture con tent, temperature and pressure. The technology allows for quick reaction if the environment inside the case changes.

El Nino forecasting benefits agriculture

to create about 400 meter pits. Hegler says he has shared his idea with representatives of other municipali ties, and received very favorable re sponses.

He cuts the pipe into five-foot lengths, then installs it vertically below grade and covers the top with foam in sulation and a concrete lid. "The 1"

(30mm) dead space between the walls of the pipe provides enough insulation to keep the meters from freezing. In stallation is much easier, since we can

make field adjustments by hand," he stressed.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 141 Ocean Global Atmosphere(TOGA)cli mate research program provides an eco nomic return on investment to the

United States of at least 13 to 26 per cent annually. And that range is con servative because it only includes ben efits to the US agricultural industry, re searchers say. The National Oceanic and Atmos

pheric Administration(NOAA)funded the study to determine whether its cli mate research is a significantly benefi cial investment and worthy of contin ued support. TOGA was a successful 10-year sci

A cost benefit analysis of US govern

entific effort to understand and model

the shroud in which Jesus was buried,

ment-funded research on the El Nino

the El MÂŤo/Southern Oscillation

will be on public exhibition in Turin beginning April 18,1998. It is estimated

weather phenomenon indicates the an nual rate of return is at least double the

(ENSO) weather phenomenon. It in volved deployment of an array of oceanobserving buoys. Now,climate models can predict El Nino events, such as the current one, a year or so in advance.

that between three and 4 million visi

government's minimum acceptable

tors will view it.


An argon-based specialty gas mix-

The study found that the Tropical

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998


Industry Update Water Quality international

North America's first

1998 For the first time in its history, the Water Quality International conference in Vancouver, June 22-26, 1998, will also focus on practical solutions to wa

UV/Peroxide system set to go on-line

ter quality problems. Poster sessions, too, will include 'hot off the press' re search ideas and findings. Practical Application Sessions are: • Biological Nutrient Removal: A Dol lar Saving Technology • Environmental Controls in the Pulp and Paper Industry - Canadian Technol ogy Closing the Loop • Groundwater & Surface Water Mod

elling - Operational & Predictive Tools • Public Private Partnerships: The Ca nadian Perspective •International Groundwater Quality Is sues - Solving Problems •Membrane Technology Applications to

UV/Peroxide process neither produces bromate ion in bromide-ion-bearing

The first full-scale UV/Peroxide system for drinking water treatment in North America is scheduled for start-up in Salt Lake City, Utah, this summer. Calgon Carbon Corporation's UV/Peroxide sys tem was chosen to treat perchloroethylene(PCE), which was found at low levels in a well in its public drinking water system.

City officials chose the UV/Peroxide system technology after conducting an analysis of other technologies, includ ing air stripping and ozone. The system that Salt Lake City will use is a Calgon Carbon 360 kW Rayox® Tower using 12 x 30 kW lamps. The capital cost for the Salt Lake City system is $450,000 and operating costs are expected to be less than $0.20 per 1,000 gallons of

Wastewater Treatment

treated water.

• Thermophilic Digestion and Biologi cal Nutrient Removal with Trickling

The Rayox system destroys PCE to below detection levels by injecting small quantities of hydrogen peroxide into the contaminated water, and then exposing it to ultraviolet light. In addition, and in contrast to ozone-based processes, the

Filter - Solids Contact

• Municipal UV Disinfection For more information, contact: Tel:

(604)681-5226, Fax:(604)681-2503.

waters, nor does it produce any offgases. The system also retains the well's full 3,000 gpm flow capacity because the UV/Peroxide system is able to ef fectively treat 100 percent of the water. Eor more information, contact

Bertrand Dussert at:(412)787-6681.

Drinking water publicprivate partnership signed The City of Moncton has awarded Cana da's first major drinking water publicprivate partnership to Greater Moncton Water Ltd., a New Brunswick incorpo

rated company owned by USE Canada, Inc. (85%) and The Hardman Group Limited (15%),Atlantic Canada's lead ing independent construction manage ment and real estate development firm. The 20-year agreement, valued at

approximately $85 million, calls for the financing, design, construction, opera tion and maintenance of a 27 MGD

drinking water filtration facility. Upon the facility's commissioning, Moncton will purchase the plant and Greater Moncton Water Ltd. will enter into a 20-

year lease and license agreement with

Golder Associates is helping its clients maintain the


industrial development and the environment With innovative

services like environmental risk

assessment,remote sensing and GIS modelling, plus traditional services,such as surface and

groundwater management, strategic planning and biological assessments,site assessment and remediation,and environmental

1 800 414-8314

impact analysis, Golder Associates has the expertise that clients have trusted for over 35 years. With the integrated team of environmental and geotechnical specialists behind our name,our professionals can meet all of your

Offices ttiroughout Canada, tfie United States, Europe and Australia.

environmental needs.

_ Golder

^Associates Geotechnical, Environmental & Mining Solutions


balance between

For more information, circle reply card No. 168 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Industry Update exclusive rights to sell water to the mu nicipality. The partnership is expected to save area ratepayers approximately

$12 million in capital, engineering and operating costs. Designed by Touchie Engineering Ltd., the prime engineering consultant, the new facility will also feature the in stallation of a hydroelectric turbine that will utilize excess water in the Turtle

Creek Reservoir to generate electricity and reduce the plant's power require ments.

Sydney airport pumping station grinding along Waste from landing aircraft can clog the toughest of heavy duty pumps. Block ages at Sydney International Airport pumping station were a regular occur rence- up to three times in one day was not uncommon until a JWC Muffin

Monster in-line grinder was installed. Aircraft waste is unloaded at the

DATE PAD In late 1995,the Federal Airport Cor poration started to look for solutions to stop the blockages. ITT Flygt engineers suggested the use of the Muffin Mon ster. The total modular design of the unit was of particular interest as the grinder could be dismantled for maintenance

while still leaving the main grinder hous ing assembled to the pipework. Downtime was kept to a minimum during installation. To date, no block ages were experienced and payback is expected in 12 months. June 7-11,1998. International Pipeline Conference(IPC '98), Calgary, Alberta. Contact: 1-800-843-2763, Fax; (973) 882-1717.

June 14-19, 1998. Air & Waste Man agement Association 91st Annual Meeting & Exhibition,San Diego, Cali fornia. Contact: Deborah Hilfman,

Show Manager(914)421-3287. June 21-25, 1998. American Water Works Association Annual Conference

waste transfer station, prior to feeding and Exposition,Dallas, Texas. Contact: into the pumping station, which already (303) 794-7711, Fax:(303)795-1989. has two Flygt CP3201HT sewage June 28 - Jnly 1, 1998. Water Envi pumps. This included knives, forks, ronment Federation (WEF)conference spoons, plastic bags, towels, and so on. - Advances in Urban Wet Weather Pol


lution Reduction, Cleveland, Ohio. Contact WEF: 1-800-666-0206, Fax:

(703)684-2492. July 12-15,1998. Water Environment Federation Residuals and Biosolids

Management Conference, Bellevue, Washington. The conference will be held in cooperation with the British Columbia Water and Wastes Associa tion. Contact WEF: 1-800-666-0206.

September 9-11, 1998. Post-Emer gency Response Issues Conference. Washington, DC. This US EPA-sponsored conference will focus on post-re sponse issues of concern to emergency respondents following a significant ra diological release. Contact: Sarah Wallis, SciComm, Inc., 7735 Old

Georgetown Road, Fifth Floor, Bethesda, MD 20814, Tel: (301) 6521900, Fax: (301) 652-7001, E-mail: epaconference@scicomm.com.

September 21-24,1998. 20th Canadian Waste Management Conference - From Waste to Resource Management, Ham ilton, ON. Contact: Canadian Environ

ment Industry Association,(613) 2366222, Fax:(613) 236-6850.


You can't settle for less You can save space and instal lation time when you specify Ecodyne Lamella Settlers. Ecodyne's 40 years experience in Lameiia Settlers includes single installations up to 90 MGD, treating a variety of raw waters inciuding Great Lakes water. Custom designs are available with plastic or stainless steel plates, galvanized or SS selfsupporting troughs. No field assembly, no maintenance required. You can't settie

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Ecodyne also specializes In cooling towers and other process equipment for municipalities. Industry and utilities around the world.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

For more information, circie reply card No. 142 (See page 17)


Noise Pollutlon

Neighbour's 'hell'Is vacuum noise but UK scientist may have a solution

Noise pol uters are lumped in

with drug dealers in legisla tive proposals being consid ered by the British Govern ment. People who play stereos too loudly could have their equipment con fiscated. The sanctions are contained

the sound and broadcasts its exact elec

possible, indicating that practical shad

tronic opposite via a further bank of loudspeakers, thus cancelling out the

ows(more than 20 decibels) are poten tially achievable.

original sound to produce...silence. Although sound-blocking devices using this type of technology have been around for some years, they have only

in draft amendments to the Crime and

been capable of working indoors and

Disorder Bill which could allow police to seize sound equipment while hous ing authorities could evict tenants who make their neighbours' lives a misery. One noise polluter played a tape of his vacuum cleaner at earsplitting vol ume for two years. He set it blaring just before he left for work in a long-running dis pute with an upstairs neigh

over a small area, for example, in air craft cockpits. Research on the prob lem started in the United States and con

centrated on reducing noise from airconditioning systems in hotel rooms. There are large physical differences

The initial work on ECASS was

funded by the power distribution com pany, Yorkshire Electricity, that wanted to silence low-frequency humming from its electricity sub-stations in residential areas. Since then, many industrial con cerns have expressed an interest in con tinuing development work. The construction industry in particu lar has approached Professor Wright to look into the problem of noise on build ing sites. Other organiza tions to have approached him range from the Royal Opera House,Covent Garden,Lon

don, to the European Space Agency. Although proven to


Months of misery ensued before noise pollution in spectors were called in to the private apartments in North-

work, ECASS is still in the

development stages and it is expected to be three years before a commercial system

West London. Officers went

to the neighbour's flat and they said the noise was un

is available.


The polluter would play the tape in different rooms, depending on where he thought his neighbour was. He was eventually found guilty of breaking the Envi Set up to inflict maximum acoustical pain ail day long. ronmental Protection Act.

ES&E photo

Appropriately, a scientist in the United Kingdom has developed the world's first device for blocking out sound electronically both indoors and

between this type of device and the freefield approach used for ECASS. For example,the quiet zone in enclosures is confined to a fraction of a wavelength

out. It is called the Electronic Control

of the detector, whereas for ECASS the

led Acoustic Shadow System(ECASS)

zone extends to infinity, no matter what the frequency. Conventional methods of reducing low-frequency sound over large areas involve building heavy and expensive structures to provide a solid barrier. These structures are not only expensive

and creates a "silent shadow" that can mask most sounds over a wide area.

Developed by Professor Selwyn Wright in the School of Engineering at the University of Huddersfield, ECASS has already proved a success at mask ing single-frequency noise, such as that created by generators or other machin ery. Professor Wright is now working on a commercial version.

The basic principle behind the device is simple: a computer generates the same noise as the "problem sound" but re verses the sound waves. This is called

negative replica. A bank of microphones picks up the offending noise and feeds it into the computer that then analyses 22

"The cost is likely to be a few thousand pounds ster ling," says Professor Wright, "which would make it prac tical only for commercial use." This would tackle

problems of constant ma

chinery sound from rotating machinery, such as genera tors/motors and mills, many of which have to operate 24 hours a day to re main competitive. But he does not rule out the possibil

ity of a domestic version in the near fu ture. "Computers are now sophisticated enough to handle unpredictable noise such as human speech and music," he added. "It does sound like science fic tion but it is now science fact."

hand, can be tailored to a particular ap plication and are light and easily re

The system developed by him and his team over the past three years,comprises the computer, eight loudspeakers and eight microphones and has been set up in a purpose-built room at the university. Eventually, Professor Wright would

moved to a new site.

like to see the machine used to restore

to install but difficult to remove once

built. Electronic "walls", on the other

Computer modelling has demon strated that "shadows" such as those cre

ated by ECASS can be superior to those generated naturally by solid barriers. Detailed analysis predicts that deep shadows (more than 100 decibels) are

peace in the natural environment by cre ating "quiet zones" where all excessive noise from cars, trucks and factories would be blotted out.

For more information, circle reply card No. 143

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Product and Service Showcase Multiparameter instruments YSI leads the way with multiparameter water qual ity systems. The YSI 6000 can monitor up to 12 param eters simultaneously in any type of water. Standard fea tures include field replace able probes, non-volatile flash memory, RS-232 and

â– shelf data col ection plat

Portable ultrasonic flow meter

The new ALLDOS

series of high-capac ity gas dosing sys tems offers micro-

processor-controlled electronics for the measurement ofchlo rine concentrations

SDI-12 interfaces to off-the-

The Portaflow 300 brings new simplic ity to the non-invasive measurement of liquid flow. This clamp-on ultrasonic

forms. The YSI 600 and

instrument measures from outside the

600XL with diameters as

pipe, with digital readout of linear or volumetric flow rate and total integrated flow in either imperial or metric units. Output includes an RS-232,4-20mA and pulse that allow the user more versatility in storing and downloading data.

small as 1.6 inch, offer the

solution for well monitoring. The compact YSI 6500 is the ideal proc ess control system to continuously meas ure DO, conductivity, temperature, and pH. Nortech GSIInc. Circle reply card No. 222

Safe water disinfection

HEATH Consultants Limited

Straub repair system

and the control of


^ dosing quantity. The

s I

.^9 systems have a

vacuum regulator, with gas inlet valve and safety valve for installation in the gas container room; a dosing unit with gas flow measuring,linear rate valve and dif ferential pressure regulator for floor or wall mounting; very efficient injectors. Summa Engineering Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 223

Circle reply card No. 224

GPS-X 2.4 coming In June

Guaranteed Noise Control

W Version 2.4 of GPS-X wastewater proc ess simulation software, will be available in June 1998. The new version will in The "Problem Solver" of last resort. Call

Tadco/Straub when other couplings leak or there is a problem with delivery, space, pipe alignment, oddball sizes or a grooved coupling rusts out. Couplings from stock or built in a day from 3I6L stainless steel. Unique gasket seals at low and high pressures or vacuum. Swiss design - Made in Canada. Tadco Manufacturing Inc. Circle reply card No. 225

troduce many features, including twoway DDE suppott, allowing the user to control GPS-X from applications such as

lem industrial noise sources. Our serv

Circle reply card No. 226

ice may include: regulatory analysis, site investigation of noise source, acoustic engineering, acoustic ventilation engi neering, combustion intake/exhaust si lencer engineering, structural design, material supply of all engineered systems, erection and follow-up testing. ATCO Circle reply card No. 227

Electromagnetic flowmeter

Permanent sewer flow meter

Microsoft Excel. Also available in the new version; a flexible SI/US unit con

version module; the MatlabÂŽ Link mod ule, allowing GPS-X to be used with Matlab controllers; new and improved process models and libraries, etc. Hydromantis, Inc.

New Alphasonic Level

ATCO Noise Management provides building or off-skid enclosure acoustic systems for new installations or retrofit of existing facilities to clients with prob




5000, a perma nent AC powered open channel

A new alphasonic contact level trans

mitter, introduced


by Flowline, is the low-cost measure

flow meter with

battery backup,

ment solution for a

measures flow

broad range of OEM and process applications. The

depth and veloc ity. Flow velocity is measured using ultrasonic Doppler technology and flow depth is measured using a hydrostatic sensor with a combination wet/wet pres sure transducer. The FMS 5000 is capa ble of transmitting both analog and dig ital flow signals in 4-20 or modbus for mats. Output signals are compatible with SCADA systems. Rocky Mountain In

LA 12 series 2-wire

transmitter provides accurate and reliable measurement of relatively clean noncoating or scaling liquids from 0.3 to 10 ft. Ideal for small process or OEM ves sels, Cricket'''" functions on the ultrasonic

principle and is not affected by changing liquid conductivity or dielectric values. Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 228

The Tidalflux Model FM 4100PF Elec

tromagnetic flowmeter from Krohne op erates in both partially and completely filled pipes. The one instrument com bines flow and level measurement, re

placing open channel flow measurement systems. Unlike devices using multiple electrodes to sense a full or empty pipe condition, the Tidalflux integrates a ca pacitance level sensor into the wall of the flowtube. Summa Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 229

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998


Circle reply card No. 230 23


Concrete pipe manufacturing technology from 1842 to beyond 2000

Concrete pipe manufacturing has a very long history world

wide. In North America,

manufacturing originated to produce drainage products for the agri culture, highway and railway sectors. Primarily small diameter non-reinforced drain tile and culvert pipe were manu factured. The earliest known concrete

sewer pipe was produced in Mohawk, New York in 1842.

To appreciate where the manufacture of concrete pipe and mainte nance holes is today, and where it is going tomorrow, it is important to understand how manufacturing technol ogy has evolved. Early con crete products were wet cast and air cured, similar to many wet cast ready mix concrete structures today. Today, most wet cast products benefit from modern concrete technology improvements. Often these improvements are adopted by manufacturers well in advance

connection and pipe to structure. Improvements such as cast in lifting devices eliminating lifting holes is an other innovation rapidly gaining general acceptance today. Beyond 2000 The challenge "Beyond 2000" is for new manufacturing technology to pro duce an even higher quality concrete pipe and maintenance hole, at lower cost. This will be achieved by using more computer aided automated manu-

used by some manufacturers allows them to draw wire and fabricate rein

forcing cages for every size and shape application, in house. This automation further reduces costs and increases the efficient use of steel reinforcement. This

is in addition to the availability of vari ous stirrup configurations and the use

of special spacers to ensure optimum steel placement which add to quality and strength capabilities. Today many plants have automated batching units at their heart. In future, more plants will use automatic pallet and header (Bell and Tongue former) cleaning and stacking equip ment as well as testing and marking racks. Automatic pallet and header stripping equipment is now in use in a few North American plants as this can be associated with the

use of robotic handling and form stripping machinery. Specialty products such as bends, tee connections and

prebenched maintenance hole of those being adopted by bases are very labour inten poured-in-place construction. sive. It is understood that Precast concrete products have increased in strength New technologies are dramatically improving concrete pipe there will likely always be a need to manually manufacture over the years as cement prop and fittings. Photo - American Concrete Pipe Association some of these products. However, with erties have improved. However, the facturing systems that incorporate robot future standardization of fittings and need for higher pipe strengths resulted ics. These systems are now being de benching styles similar to those shapes in the incorporation of steel reinforce veloped and perfected by North Ameri ment and the development of modern can equipment manufacturers and have used in the plumbing industry today, high performance concrete (HPC) already been developed by some equip many of these specials can be machine made. manufacturing techniques, primarily ment manufacturers in Europe. using drycast concrete. Competition from alternate materi This development will improve field Research into HPC has indicated that als and the tightening of public funding performance, as in the trench manufac very strong, durable concretes can be for infrastructure construction will drive tured connections, and benching fabri made by using very low water/cement this evolution to least cost, high quality cation will be limited or eliminated. ratios, incorporating pozzolans,(flyash, concrete pipe manufacturing. This advance will reduce a common silica fume or slag), with moist curing. Research using new high perform source of municipal sewer Infiltration ance concrete technology applications and Inflow (I&I). This HPC recipe is similar to mix de signs used in precast concrete pipe and is now being conducted on highway Conclusion maintenance hole manufacturing today. structures such as those on the new ETR The strides made by the industry to The ability of concrete pipe manufac highway 407. It is inevitable that high standardize products through consensus turing equipment to consolidate this low strength concrete, HPC, will also be a groups such as the Ontario Provincial moisture concrete with vibration and part of precast concrete products manu Standards and the product quality ad compaction has dramatically improved facturing. Indeed, many Ontario manu vancement through the Ontario Plant durability, strength and overall quality facturers using today's modem manufac Prequalification Program, will further turing equipment routinely produce ensure that future advances made of the product. New joint forming and gasketing sys products that easily exceed required through automated manufacturing tech nology will benefit all. strengths within days of manufacture. tems incoiporated with the manufactur For more information, ing process have greatly improved the Automated CNC wire reinforced circie repiy card No. 169 product performance in both pipe to pipe manufacturing equipment now being 24

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

E*^SITUFORM solves your pipe problems using nondisrupUve, cost-effective solutions. The most difficult part about some pipe problems is just getting access to the pipe itself, Insituform Technoiogies specializes in reha bilitating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard-to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the inside, in most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Extensive independent and internal testing consis tently confirms the success of our methods.

We take sole-source responsibility for solving your problem, from the develop ment and manufacturing of proprietary products, to the engineering and installa tion of a solution at your site. Our ISO 9000 quality system assures high quality every step oi the way. With experts in all facets of pipe rehabilitation on staff, we have the project manage ment expertise and trained installers to solve your problems quickly. Our

exceptionally low accident rate and EMR reflect our commitment to safety. And, our 25 years and 7,000 miles of pipe rehabilitation experience are unequaled. That is why Insituform is industry's preferred source tor pipe reha bilitation. If you are having problems with difficult-to-access pipes, call us at 800-234-2992 or visit our web site at www.insjtuform.com


Technologies'Limited Š1997 Insiluform Technologies. Inc.

For more information, circle reply card No. 152(See page 17)

Solid Waste Management

Reducing packaging waste has powerful economic Impacts

Canada's packaging waste has

been cut in half, creating new industries and jobs. The amount of packaging sent to

landfill in 1996 was reduced 51.2%

compared with 1988, according to re sults from a Statistics Canada survey released by the Canadian Council of Environment Ministers in St. John's,

Newfoundland, January 30. During this period, 11.7 million tonnes of packag ing waste have been diverted from landfill.

This voluntary effort was achieved under the National Packaging Protocol (NAPP)- a policy developed by a coa lition of government,industry,consumer and environmental groups. The NAPP task force originally set a 50% annual

Similar reductions have been achieved

only ten in 1988. In 1996, more than 20 companies were recycling hundreds of

in the production of plastic film and

thousands of tonnes of wood to produce


particle and fibre board, shingles and other products. There was very little wood recycling in 1988. Consumers Packaging Inc., Canada's largest manufacturer of glass packaging, has been producing containers with an average recycled content of30% for the past five years, compared to about 8% in 1988 - among the highest rate of re cycled glass content in the world.

aging such as detergent containers.

Even more impressive have been changes in transportation packaging. Redesign of corrugated containers used for rail shipments has reduced the amount of material required by at least 100,000 tonnes a year - a savings equi valent to the annual production of two plants. The amount of packaging reused in 1996 was about 4.07 million metric

year 2000. This target was exceeded four years ahead of schedule. The progress was broadly-based,involving industry, gov

tonnes,representing about47% of pack aging use that year. In 1992, only 36% of packaging was reused. For example, the country's largest consumer of packaging,the food indus try, increasingly employs reusable wood pallets, and plastic and corrugated ship ping containers, to move goods from factories to stores. Where economically feasible, industries are employing reus

ernment, and other stakeholders. In

able bottles at the consumer level.

1996 alone,the Canadian taxpayer saved about $100-million by diverting this

packaging waste diversion target for the

markable considering that Canada's

"Major strides have also been made in recycling - 2.2 million metric tonnes of packaging material recycled in 1996, compared with only 0.6 million tonnes in 1988 - reflecting how extensive our

population increased by 10% during this

infrastructure has become in reprocess

period. On a per capita basis, we really achieved a 56.2% diversion rate," says Alan Robinson, President, Packaging

ing all types of recyclable materials,"

material from landfill. "We feel that the achievement is re

Association of Canada.

Mr. Robinson says. For example, Canada had 105 plas tic recycling plants in 1996. There were

In Ontario, more than 400,000 tonnes of steel cans have been diverted from

landfill since 1988. The province's curbside recycling program collects and

processes more than 70% of cans sold there. A decade ago,there was virtually no steel can recycling. Now,the indus try's infrastructure has been expanded to use an additional one million tonnes

of recycled material.

Canada's paper and paperboard pack aging sector's sophisticated recycling initiatives include capacity to recycle all old corrugated containers. Hundreds of thousands of tonnes of new recycling

capacity have been added. In 1996, the average recycled content of paper-based packaging shipped in Canada was 60%, representing a 15% jump since 1988. For more information,

circle reply card No. 108

"To date, we estimate Canadian in

National Packaging Data by Material Type -1996

dustry has invested more than $2-billion to reduce, reuse and recycle packaging material. Against this background,how


ever, none of our NAFTA competitors are under the same obligation to reduce


packaging waste. They have not had to

(A a)

absorb these kinds of infrastructure

i 1.5 +

costs," he says. The good news is that these invest ments have spawned such new indus tries as recycling of plastics, wood pal lets and other packaging materials making Canada a world leader in this area.


.2 1.0


■ 0.0



leader in minimizing packaging disposal with its success in reducing the weight and size of both transportation and con sumer packaging. For instance, the weight of metal cans has been reduced by at least 30% as has paper-based pack 26

1 ■o

Canada has also become a world s




0) a n



% o



3 C

0) £




Material Type Disposal


^ Reuse

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Confidence is always our commitment.

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In fact, day in and day out, year in and year out, delivering the best environmental waste management for today and the future is our only goal. Each employee works hard to meet that goal through vigilance and delivery of value by utilizing today's best technology to handle the widest range of wastes.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 233(See page 17)

WEAO Conference Report

Toronto conference attracts 900 delegates

A record 900 delegates at tended the 27th annual con

tion. Our mission is to bring together ideas, people and resources for the revi-

ference of the Water Envi

talization of waterfronts. We were cre

ronment Association of

ated in response to The Royal Commis

Ontario/PWOD'/OPCBA- at the Westin

sion on the Future of the Toronto Water

Harbour Castle on Toronto's Harbour-

front (RCFTW). People told us about their concerns for environmental quality, their frustrations about inappropriate de velopment on the waterfront, and their desire to have greater access to it for rec

front, March 29-31. Cordell Samuels

of the City of Toronto, was Conference Chair.

Keynote speaker Suzanne Barrett outlined the efforts currently underway to regenerate the waterfront, a particu larly appropriate topic with Lake Ontario lapping at the shoreline mere feet away. "I've been working on the waterfront

reation, fitness, and nature studies.

"Early in our analysis of the water front, we realised that we needed to look at it in the context of its watersheds, the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), as four

million people-40% of Ontario's popu

of Lake Ontario-one of our inland seas

lation - lives here. When we consid

- for nearly 10 years now and it has taught me a lot about ecosystems, about people, about process and politics, and about getting things done. "I work for the Waterfront Regenera tion Trust(WRT)- a provincial crown corporation, currently in transition to an entrepreneurial not-for-profit organiza-

ered the considerable stresses resulting from environmental degradation, eco nomic recession and social problems in

'Professional Wastewater Operations Div. ^Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Assoc.

the GTA,we concluded that we couldn't address them in isolation, but needed to

take an integrated, or ecosystem-based approach to our decision-making and actions.

In response to the Commission's final report. Bob Rae's government decided to set up the WRT to promote and coor dinate ongoing regeneration." Ms. Barrett then discussed the Re medial Action Plan for Toronto and Re

gion, along with areas of concern: Six watersheds and three million people; contaminated sediments; sewage treat ment plants needing upgrades; stormwater quality; combined sewer overflows; and losses and degradation of habitats in Toronto, York and Peel

regions. On Greening the Toronto Portlands, a recent report, she said that the Portlands comprise 1,400 acres, mostly lakefill, at the base of the Don River where it flows into Lake Ontario. Port

activities have declined considerably over recent decades, replaced by rail and highway transportation. Much of the area is derelict, and soils and groundwater are contaminated. The area is

unattractive and has not been seen as an

"So, the RCFTW based its recom

mendations on the ecosystem approaeh.

attractive place for investment or to lo cate a business.

Clockwise from top left. 1. Don Redfern (left), a 5-S inductee and former President of Proctor & Redfern, George Crawford, (centre), Past President of both WEAO and CG&S, Rod Holme, incoming AWWA President. 2. Cordell Samuels, Conference Chair (left), Rosanna DILablo, Praxair Canada, and Larry Madden, C&M Environmental, Incoming WEAO President 3. Terry Matthews ofZenon Environmental and the Bedell Awardee. 4. Tom Davey a session moderator and 5-3 presenter. Dr. Jack Norman, a past WEAO President(centre), Steve Davey a past President of both WEAO and OPCEA (left). 28

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Special ES&E Report Just as cities need the hard infrastruc

ture of roads, sewers, water treatment

and energy distribution, they also need


The major awards were presented by Billy Turner, Past President, Water

over 49 papers dealing with virtually every aspect of environmental treatment technology. One paper dealing with equipment procurement aroused lively debate as the speakers from legal, in surance, consulting and other profes sions joined in vigorous debate. While some technical papers will appear in

an infrastructure for the functioning of healthy natural systems. For example, green infrastructure can: • improve environmental quality -

Environment Federation. The covetted

air, noise, microclimate, storm-

Operations was presented to Bill Clark,

water, soils and groundwater,

OCWA, Dresden. A WBF Life Mem

abstract form elsewhere, the discussions

bership award was presented in absen tia to Alex Redekopp.

on procurement and payments are of prime concem to all in the industry.

• restore natural habitats,

• enhance recreational opportunities, • enhance urban design. She said the report shows how these functions can be achieved with a net

work of parks and corridors, as well as on development parcels- working with rooftops, landscaping and parking lots. Ms. Barrett talked about economic

revitalization, in particular Hamilton Harbour, which has been vastly im proved with Pier 4 Park and the adja cent Bayfront Park. There has been over $11 million spent on restoration work such as the removal of industrial waste

and contaminated soils, CSO detention tanks, and habitat restoration. Festivals

such as Aquafest attract 150,000 people and stimulate $4.3 million in spending

Bedell Award went to Terry Matthews, a Past President of WEAO and currently with Zenon. The Hatfield Award for

Geoff Scott, a former WEF President,

outlined the growing international pres ence of the 58 Society before inducting Billy Turner, Steve Davey and Donald Redfem as new members. ES&E pub lisher Tom Davey pinned the gold plated shovels on the new recipients.

Borden and Elliot, outlined the Lien Act

and its pitfalls for all involved. Thomas Jefferson was said to have invented the

Lien Act when the City of Washington was being constmcted. He noted that

Don Redfem is a former President of

the British do not have a Lien Act but

Proctor and Redfem, one of the oldest

rely on contract law. However, when the British investigated the various Lien Acts around the world, they felt the

environmental consulting firms in Cana da,and a former President of what is now

Professional Engineers Ontario. Steve Davey is President of Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. He has also served as President of both the WEAO and the Ontario Pollution

Control Equipment Association. Technical Sessions

- another benefit of the revitalization

Ontario Act on liens was the best. "But,

the Lien Act is a repository of all sins in constmction work," he stressed.

Moderator Tom Davey said the sin gle most dangerous threat facing the environment industry was what he termed the Low Bid Ethos. He cited

There were 14 sessions comprising


Liens and Low Bids

Bruce Reynolds, a lawyer with

some of the great engineers of the past

Say goodbye to bar screens forever. mo-

At last, there's a high-flow alternative to outdated bar

t^ screens. The new Auger Monster'" modular headworks system costs less to install, less to maintain, and will significantly reduce your waste handling costs. Unlike bar screens. Auger Monsters are more compact and usually don't require civil work to install. They also cost less to main tain because there are no raking assemblies or chains to adjust or lubricate.

What's more, Auger Monsters leave Important organics in the wastestream while rapidly removing and dewatering the ground solids Auger by as much as 50%. The compacted Monster solids then make for easy disposal to a landfill.

Does your landfill hate your guts? Then say good bye to bar screens and say hello to the Auger Monster. For more information, call JWC Environmental


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Auger Monster waste:

Bar screen waste;

' Consists of large solids such as rags, plastics, shoes, etc.

• Ground and washed to

break up organics

> Contains many organics, creating foul odors

•Emits less odor and Is

• Water saturated, making It more expensive to landfill

• Compacted and less expensive to landfill

more dewatered



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WEAO Conference Report, conf such as Thomas Keefer, Willis Chipman and Dr. Albert Edward Berry, saying that: "These men,through their sanitary engineering and water purification projects saved more lives than the medi cal profession in their day; yet none of them had to face the almost irhpenetrable layers of paperwork confronting to day's young design engineers. This pa

per work often comes at the expense of engineering creativity. "With some buyers, hard earned reputations for high quality and devoted service are almost contemptuously ig nored in favour of low prices." He cited fire hydrants installed a century ago in BC. "With proper maintenance some of these hydrants are still giving protec tion and service," he said. Amortize a

few dollars in any purchase price dif ferential over a time span of a century and any low bid savings are virtually reduced to pennies. "The SkyDome, close by this hotel, is a unique and world renowned facility - a real credit to Canadian innovative

engineering. When it was being de signed, it became apparent that the old John Street Pumping Station would be right under centre field. A very creative

consulting engineer, Aivars Bergs working with Toronto city engineers suggested relocating the John Street Pumping Station to its new location, drastically reducing the height of the SkyDome itself and saving huge sums of money. "Veronica Bergs, the daughter of the engineer who proposed this revolution ary idea, is coincidently in the room to day. She too is an engineer. Incidently, during the John Street Pumping Station relocation, some 50 year-old pumps were taken out, refurbished and re

placed. They are probably good for an other fifty years, impressive proof that quality engineering designs and manu facturing saving money. "Can any low-bid mindset deliver quality engineering like this- quality of both manufacturing and design engi neering that literally will save many millions over the life of the project, that will be spread out over several genera tions?" he concluded.

Operations Challenge Fifteen teams from across the prov ince competed for the OPCEA trophy and the opportunity to represent Ontario at the Water Environment Federation's

Operations Challenge in Orlando, Florida. Events were fiercely contested

and the high standards of excellence dis played in previous competitions was again evident. The Operations Challenge provides a forum in which professional wastewater operators are able to showcase their talents and high levels of technical skill and knowledge. The hands-on competition consists of five events:

process control, laboratory, safety, pump maintenance, and collection system. Events are judged and scored separately based upon the time required to com plete the event, with penalties assessed for tasks not performed or performed improperly. The scores of all events are totalled and the overall winner selected.

The City of Toronto's "Highlanders" were overall winners of the 1998 Chal

lenge. The Corporation of the City of London's "Royal Flush" finished a close second in the competition. The "High landers" and "Royal Flush" will repre sent Ontario at the WEF Operations Chal lenge in Orlando, Florida in October. Outgoing President Nels Conroy, presented the gavel to the new WEAO President Larry Madden.

Clockwise from top left. The Operations Challenge attracted high Interest among the delegates and the contestants. 1. The Peddlars - salespeople from OPCEA. 2. The winning team, The Highlanders, with WEF President-Elect Rhonda Harris. 3. The Log Rollers, a team of consulting engineers. 4. The second place team. The Royal Flush. 30

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998



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American Water Works Association

1998 AWWA Annual Conference Rod Holme to become President

at the AWWA Conference in Dallas June 21 - 25

The Dallas meeting wil be a significant event for Canadi

Management 'Improve Your Customer Service!

Programs to Assist Bringing New Technologies to the Water Supply

ans when Rod Holme(above),

'The Microbial/Disinfection

By-Product Rule Package: Filtering

Community Small Systems Membrane Treatment

the Bureaucratese

Basics to Case Studies 1

takes over as AWWA Presi

dent. Humorist Art Buchwald and Terry Bradshaw, of the Pittsburgh Steelers in the '70s, will be keynote speakers. More than 12,000 water profession als will attend the more than 70 techni

'Research Symposium 1: Membrane

The Future of Water Utility Management: Competitive Issues II

'Cryptosporidium Inactivation/ Removal

'Conservation Program Effectiveness cal sessions, while nearly 500 exhibi tors will show the latest technologies, 'New and Exciting Ideas in Conservation services and products. Sunday work shops will provide practical techniques • Tools for Analysis and Evaluation of Surface Water Issues to help solve everyday problems. The Attendee Reception provides plenty of networking opportunities and entertainment. The Water Industry Luncheon and the Annual Banquet are always the social highlights of the Con ference. The Facility Tours are outstand ing, while the program for spouses and guests will keep them busy and having fun from sunup to sundown. There are ample opportunities for play, with the golf tournament, the 5K run/walk, and the famed Pipe Tapping Contest. The Annual Banquet is a time to re lax and enjoy the moment- a grand fi nale to the drinking water industry's big gest and most important conference. It is also an opportunity to witness the passing of the gavel from outgoing

ES&E is proud that Rod has served on our Editorial Advisory Board since the magazine was launched over 10

• Poster Sessions

• Microbial Indicators

• Water Treatment: Coagulation and Filtration

• Water Treatment: Adsorption Processes • Disinfection and Disinfection

By-Products • Distribution Systems • Get Rid of the "Nasties": Improving Your Filter's Performance

• Small Systems • The Future of Water Utility 32

Business Models and Integrated Information Systems Universities Forum I Treatment for D/DBP Reduction

Water Rights and Their Practical Application in Water Supply Development Public Attitudes and Values: Tools for

Understanding How to Satisfy Your Customers

Advances in Technology II Diesday,June 23 - p.m.

Do Your Pipes Need Fixing? Explore the Alternatives

Small Systems Membrane Treatment Basics to Case Studies II

Quality Management in Design and Construction

Communicate With a Diverse Audience

Drinking Water Priority Contaminants:

years ago.

Buchwald • AEEP Lecture

Water: Can Customers Afford It?

Drinking Water Priority Contaminants - Health Risks and Regulation Update I: What's in Our Water? Creating Competitive Utilities: Using

Exceptional Employees Make Exceptional Utilities Customers at Your Doorstep: How to

AWWA President Bevin Beaudet to the

new President Rod Holme, of Ontario.

Monday,June 22 • Opening General Session with Art

Working Together to Design and Construct Water Treatment Facilities


Health Risks and Regulation Update II

' Public Involvement Case Studies:

Project Success Through Stakeholder Participation ' From Adversary to Advisor and Beyond: Building Effective Partnerships ' Advances in Technology I 'Professional Development I Tuesday,June 23 - a.m. ' Regulatory Agency Division Early Bird ' Management Division Early Bird ' Technical & Educational Council

Early Bird 'Is There a Cross-Connection or

Backflow Incident In Your Future?

Universities Forum II

Optimizing Treatment Process Performance Clotheswashers: The New Frontier

Issues Concerning Low Flow Toilets Desalting Source Water Protection - A World of

Opportunity Educating Youth Today - Developing Relationships for Tomorrow International Affairs Forum I:

Drinking Water Treatment Case Studies (Mexico, China, Hong Kong, Africa) Professional Development II

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, May 1998

American Water Works Association ' Water Quality Issues: Source to Tap ' Surveying the Customer ' Survey Methods for Conservation

Wednesday,June 24 - a.m. ' Regulatory Agencies Division Early Bird ' Water Conservation Early Bird: Implementation of Senate Bill 1

Planning ' New Government Initiatives in

in Texas


' Water Conservation Early Bird:

' AWWA/EPA Evaluation of State

The Hitchhiker's Guide to

Guidelines Panel

Conservation Reporting 'Professional Development Early Bird: How Does AWWA Put Together a Technical Program Anyway? ' Management Division Early Bird: How QualServe Can Help Your Utility ' Treat IT Right - Keep It Right in the Distribution System ' Practical Methods to Improve Operations and Maintenance 'Automation and Instrumentation in

Water Treatment and Distribution

■ The Future of Water Utility Management: Competitive Issues IB ' Safety Issues Risk Management Programs and Other Timely Topics ' Getting the Job Done ' Research Symposium 11: NOM,Algae, and Arsenic Removal

'Recycle and Other Hot Topics in Residuals

• Coagulation • Membranes I: Prevention and Control

of Biofouling/DBP Precursors • Moving Up With Apartment Submetering Panel • Water Conservation Potpourri • Multiple Steps for Implementing a Successful Water Reclamation

'Issues in Groundwater Development, Program Storage, and Treatment Thursday, June 25 - a.m. 'Water for People & International • Emerging Technologies Affairs Committee Forum II: Utility • Research Symposium IV: Treatment Management in Eastern Europe Research (Bulgaria,Poland,Slovakia,Hungary) 'AWWA Research Foundation Poster Session

Wednesday, June 24 - p.m. 'Fire Protection: Do Stand-By Fees Work for Everyone? 'PVC Pipe: Status Report 'Management Prescriptions: Rx 101 'Information Technology 'Safety in Construction 'Nontraditional and Transformational

Financial Concepts 'SCADA Telecommunications for the

Water Industry 'Research Symposium IB: Water Supply and Distribution System

• Membranes B: Micro and

Nanofiltration Application • Distribution System • Institutional, Commercial, and Industrial Water Conservation

Programs • Educational Initiatives for Homeowners

• Is Sustainable Development Achievable Through Integrated Resources Planning (IRP)? •Public Affairs Programs: Making Friends and Influencing Decisions For further details contact: AWWA,

6666 West Quincy Ave., Denver, CO, 80235, USA, Tel:(303)794-7711.


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Mining Wastes

Paste technology proves practical for surface disposal of mineral wastes

Miningand mineral process

ing industries will face significant challenges in the next century, many of them related waste management issues. Continually lower ore grades will result in increased volumes of processing wastes or tailings. Managing the liquid fraction of these tailings, commonly handled in a low-solids-content slurry during the metal recovery (milling) process,represents one of the most criti cal technical tasks facing the waste man agement operation. Advancing tradi tional approaches to tailings manage ment, involving increasing dependence on sophisticated liner and drainage sys tems as a remedy for groundwater pro tection, may not generate the solutions


which will be demanded in the future

by the public and regulatory agencies. Over the past decade, increased de mand for high-strength backfill materi als for underground mines has led to the development of innovative dewatering technologies. Among them,the produc tion of a low-moisture-content, non-seg regating tailings material, or "paste", is now being evaluated as a practical so lution to disposal of tailings on the sur face. Pastes can be efficiently trans'Sr. Mining Engineer, Goider Associates, Denver, CO

^President, Goider Paste Technoiogy Ltd. Sudbury, ON ''Sr. Project Manager, Goider Associates, Seattie, WA

Figure 1

ported in pipelines without settling and the particle segregation problems most typical of tailings slurries, offering the potential to "engineer" the tailings waste stream.

What is Paste?

Paste can be defined as a single phase combination of water and solids that has

negligible excess water when left to rest. It is possible to produce paste-consist ency materials having a rather broad range of solids contents based on sim ple variations in the particle-size distri butions. Thus, the definition of paste is materials-specific although materials having at least 15% weight of particles

less than 20 microns are required to ex hibit paste properties. For example, wet concrete can be classified as a paste prior to hydration. Figure 1 shows a typical example of paste. Workability is as sessed by the standard ASTM 12-inch slump test. Note the visible lack of free water from the tailings paste sample being tested. Stability can be achieved by pastes a short while after deposition. The photo, from a recent field test car ried out under adverse temperature and precipitation conditions,shows that, un like a typical slurry, the material may exhibit properties which make it firm enough to walk on only 24 hours after

Artist's concept of modified radiai stacker wfiich has a maximum reach of approximateiy 35 metres and is being operated to produce a "taiiings iandfiii". 34

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

By W.A. Cincilla, P.E.\ D.A. Landriault, P. Eng.^ and R.B.M. Verburg^ Table 1 - Summary of

Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) Test Results - Full-Run Tailings (7-day curing time) Dry Density


0% cement



1% cement


3% cement


Sample Type

Area (in2)

Strain Rate

UCS (psf)


(%) 3.955











ers (spreaders) which have evolved as part of large-scale conveyor delivery systems. Working with a major manu facturer, a standard radial stacker was

modified to accommodate a delivery pipeline in lieu of a conveyor. Discussion This alternative to traditional meth

placement. Portland cement or other binders

such as fly ash, when added to a tailings paste, significantly increase its strength and durability (see Table 1). As the ta ble demonstrates, significant increases in strength are possible, allowing for even greater flexibility in placement strategies. Environmental Stability Since the major portion of the en trained moisture in the paste is held via surface tension in the fine soil matrix,

on deposition there is only a very small fraction available as free drainage. Given that this free water generally re ports to a much larger groundwater or surface water reservoir, dilution of con

taminants to acceptable levels tends to be more readily achievable. The addition of only small amounts of Portland cement effects a wide range of important changes in long-term en vironmental behaviour. Due to the al

kaline conditions created by the cement, the solubility of most metals is mark edly reduced, a phenomenon observed repeatedly during SPLP and TCLP test ing of paste samples containing various amounts of cement. Field testing is underway to evaluate the environmen tal behaviour of paste while exposed to

mit greater flexibility in the develop ment of placement concepts, not unlike those being applied to waste rock dumps or heap leach piles. This flexibility may also expand the use of upstream con struction techniques where seismic de sign considerations otherwise prohibit its use,since, with the paste alternatives, no surface solution impoundment is re quired. These and other "landfill" op tions are being seriously considered on

ods is opening the way for a new era in mineral waste management practice. Public opposition to new mining devel opment in recent years is based prima rily on the perception of mineral wastes and the significant long-term liability they may represent. Paste technology holds great promise in altering this per ception for a potentially wide range of extractive industries including metal, non-metal,coal and sand/gravel mining.

an international scale.

The environmental benefits which ac

For small tonnage operations, pastes crue are numerous: can be transported by truck from the • Free water within a paste is minimal, thus limiting/eliminating the potential production facility and hauled to a dis for direct surface and groundwater con posal site. Once the deposited paste is tamination from metals and acidity. allowed to dry (or cure), it can be ex • Greater flexibility with regards to the panded vertically in a "stacking" fash ion. This unique feature minimizes the siting and disposal strategy since little active area of disturbance and permits or no pond management is required. the deposit to be reclaimed concurrently. • Admixture of various additives (e.g., At close of operations, the facility is in Portland cement, seed, topsoil, etc.) al lowing for production of custom-made a true "walk-away" condition. For large-tonnage paste placement materials. systems,economies of scale for materi •Concurrent reclamation results in mini als handling dictate a transition to mal post mine closure costs and a sig pumped or conveyed systems. Pastes nificant reduction in the size ofthe waste are pumpable, but require the use of area, reducing operational hazards such positive displacement pumps owing to as dust and unnecessary loss of wildlife habitat. their range of pulp densities. One op For more information, tion lies with the use of bulk materials handling equipment such as radial stack circie repiy card No. 102

the elements.

The combination of cement and ap propriate chemical additive (e.g., iron suLfate, resin, surfactant) may reduce the teachability ofcyanide to acceptable lev els. Generation of an acidic effluent by

For biosolids mixing and storage solutions We can provide a complete storage and mixing system, including;

oxidation of sulfides contained in the

tailings is also minimized by admixing of cement; in some cases, addition of as

Aquastore® tanks from A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Products Co.

little as 1%(by weight)cement was ob served to increase the acid neutralizing potential by an order of magnitude. In

JetMix Vortex® mixing systems for both new and existing biosolids and digester tanks.

addition, classified waste rock could be

TOTTCQR" flat and geodesic aluminum


mixed with the paste for co-disposal, in such a way as to encapsulate the rock

covers for new or existing steel and


within a cement-stabilized matrix of tail

concrete tanks.

Recipient of INNOVATIVE

ings. This would virtually eliminate the potential for acid generation and, there fore, is beneficial from a regulatory compliance perspective. Surface Disposal Concepts The unique properties of pastes per


For more information, call:


Greatario Engineered Storage Systems P.O. Box 3613, Guelph, Ontario, NIH 6P1 Tel:(519)763-5933, Fax:(519)763-0293

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 103 (See page 17)


Watershed Protection

Environmental information systems for mine taiiings management

In 1996, Rio Algom Limited and

Denison Mines Limited, together with the Elliot Lake Research

Field Station (ELRFS), an affili

ate of Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario,formed a consortium to under

take the implementation of a Regional Environmental Information Manage ment System (REIMS) for the Elliot Lake area.

Elliot Lake is located in the Cana

dian Shield, approximately 35 kilome tres north of Lake Huron, between

Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. The discovery of uranium in the region in the post-World War II era led to the development of 12 mines and 11 asso ciated mills between 1955 and 1958. In

the late 1980s, declining world demand for uranium, combined with the discov

ery of high grade uranium ore in other areas of the world, made continued op eration of the Elliot Lake mines eco

nomically impractical. As a result, all area mines ceased operations by the end of 1996.

The uranium mines are located pre dominantly in the upper and mid reaches of the Serpent River Watershed, which covers 1,376 square kilometres and dis charges into Lake Huron. The eight fa cilities and three tailings management areas operated by Denison Mines and five mining waste management areas operated by Rio Algom contain 150 mil lion tonnes of potentially acid-generat ing tailings. Effluents from the mining waste management areas are discharged into five of the watershed's 60 major lakes.

The primary objective of the joint initiative was to implement a personal computer-based environmental informa tion management system for managing historical data and ongoing environmen tal programs in the Elliot Lake region. Key requirements for the REIMS were regulatory compliance scheduling and tracking, reporting, data conversion, data validation, security and audit, reli ability and robustness, remote access, external application support, and exten sibility and modularity. The system needed to support an integrated ap-

Aerial photo of one of the waste management areas in Ontario's EiliotLake Region.

proach to environmental management, provide for multiple information themes, and allow many types of user interactions. After reviewing system re quirements, it was apparent that an in formation system with an integrated, process-oriented and requirementsdriven approach to the collection and management of environmental informa tion would best suit the needs of the

Elliot Lake consortium.

Following a study of environmental information management systems cur rently used by the mining industry, the consortium decided to base REIMS on

the "Envista" product, a commercially available environmental information

•Product Mgr., Envista Technologies,

management system marketed by Envista Technologies of Saskatoon. System Work Flow An integrated approach to environ mental information management was required to support the needs of the con sortium. Diverse user needs range from those of senior management in the min ing companies,to those of technical staff in the field and ELRFS laboratory. Most environmental information generated by

Saskatoon, SK

the consortium stems from regular en


vironmental monitoring activities for either regulatory compliance or operat ing requirements. These requirements also determine the environmental proto cols and procedures practised during acquisition of the data. Planning or scheduling capabilities were required to give environmental managers co-ordinate and track moni toring compliance. The system would also need to provide a capability for au tomated and manual data validation by managers or senior technical staff. Data validation would be used to prevent data integrity problems within the database, and also to prevent unchecked data from reaching reports destined for senior management or regulators. Control limit excursions manage ment was another key requirement for REIMS. The system would need to pro vide capabilities for reporting of control limit excursions for regulatory or opera tional purposes. In the case of a control limit excursion, the system would have to inform the user of the excursion at

the time of data entry, and present a mes sage indicating appropriate actions. Regular monthly and annual reports

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

By D.V.B. McClarty, P.Eng. were required for regulators, manage ment and technical staff. Capabilities for sophisticated queries for analysis of specific situations were also required. System Architecture and Functionality Envista is built on client/server ar

chitecture specially designed to manage large volumes of spatially and tempo rally referenced information.

Information Themes: Envista sup ports geographically referenced data generated from environmental and geotechnical monitoring programs and

production operations, including air, water and soil sampling information; chemical and physical properties data; inspection reports; and effluent treat ment plant monitoring data. Through its modular data structure, REIMS is de

signed to support additional data themes or monitoring activities. Future plans include expansion of the system to in clude ecological data themes that will enable incorporation of bio-monitoring and vegetation surveys data. Scheduling and Planning: Envista incorporates scheduling and planning capabilities for managing environmen tal monitoring programs, regulatory compliance, and operations monitoring for Rio Algom and Denison Mines. Sampling, monitoring, and inspection events are scheduled according to regu latory and operational requirements and tracked for compliance purposes. Data Entry and Import: Data entry into Envista can be done in response to a scheduled activity, as in the case of regular monitoring data, or as unsched

can be used to review new data or for

presentation in reports. Third party re porting applications can also be used to access the Envista repository to provide additional presentation or analysis func tionality. Data Validation/Integrity and Secu rity: Some of the features which address

the key requirements of data integrity, validation and security are as follows: analytes can be specified as requiring up to two levels of review and reporting modules can be restricted to reporting


only reviewed results; over 400 data

validation and integrity checking rou tines ensure data consistency and integ rity for all applications accessing Envista; a robust low-level security sys tem controls access to data by data owner (Rio Algom, Denison Mines, or ELRFS) and system functionality; an audit system tracks the user and date for creation and modification of all data.

Database Management System: REIMS was implemented using the Sybase SQL Anywhere™ database enContinued on page 39

uled data, as in the case of site charac

terization data. Batch import capabili ties allow users to import data from ASCn files created by the user, or pro duced by other applications or data ac quisition systems. Control Limits: Envista provides management of control limit excursions for regulatory or operational purposes. The architecture helps prevent data en try errors by notifying users of excur sions at the time of data entry, and pro vides managers with details of compli ance excursions.

Reporting and Presentations: Re porting capabilities are used to produce reports for regulatory compliance, sen ior management review, or analysis pur poses. Users can define intricate reports involving multiple locations, analytes, various levels of aggregation,formatting and layout. Graphs illustrating trends

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Product and Service Showcase Turning unwanted waste

Wastewater treatment In

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cold climates

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The Snowfluent™


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Used oil storage


Where other proc esses rely mostly on biological ac tivity, Snowfluent utilizes the natural purifying properties of freezing water. As water freezes, in dividual molecules organize themselves into highly ordered hexagonal structures. The crystalline structures have no toler ance to hold or retain impurities, and re ject them to the crystal extremities. Delta Engineering

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commitment to

quality that water utilities demand. Schlumberger leads the industry in revenue enhancement pro grams, public private partnerships, de mand side management programs, read ing systems, meter shop operation, me ter installation and maintenance, water/

energy audits, reading/billing/collection. Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 257

Landfill gas compressors

integrated Consulting Services Group Myers Waste Oil Storage system is an above-ground contained tank system en gineered to provide long-term safe and reliable storage of used oil and other en vironmentally hazardous peti'oleum prod ucts. The Myers system was the first ULC listed system in the marketplace. As a result ofcontinued development,it now includes a complete line of products that provide ideal storage solutions for just about any industrial application. King Metal Fabricators

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Many operations have already discovered the hard way that landfill gas is one of the most difficult jobs a compresser can be required to perform. Casing corrosion, bearing failures, and frequent, costly overhauls not only cut into profitability, but create an ongoing nightmare for op erations personnel. Ro-Flo® sliding vane type compressers are the best way to han dle landfill gas and turn it into a fuel source. Pencon Equipment Company Circle reply card No. 259

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Faced with inflat-

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Stormwater Management Surface deten

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proved low-end performance and a completely re designed body and internal bubble trap that provides 30% faster response to sample changes. Instrument range is 0 to 100 NTU, and accuracy is +2% of reading or ±0.020 NTU(whichever is greater)from 0 to 30

coming a more common approach. Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) is used for these facilities. The benefits are low cost, high strength and easy installation. Videos and a work

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Circle reply card No. 261 38

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Watershed Protection, conr1 gine, a workgroup level product selected for its modest resource requirements, low administration requirements, and scaleability. The REIMS system can be upgraded to the ORACLE''''^ database server through Envista's support of al ternate database platforms. Based on the ORACLE database engine, Envista is scaleable to powerful UNIX based hard ware.

hardware for both desktop and database server functions. The server hardware

consists of a multiprocessor capable Compaq™ Proliant 5000 server operat ing under the Windows NT 4.0 system, and featuring a single Pentium Pro 200MHz processor. Eor future scaleability, the system is capable of support ing up to four processors. The consortium of Rio Algom, Denison Mines and Elliot Lake Re

Database replication addresses the probiem of having users located in geographically disperse sites....


search Eield Station has successfully implemented the Envista-based Re gional Environmental Infonnation Man agement System for the Elliot Lake re gion. Some of its major benefits include: efficient information management that lets users spend less time managing en vironmental data and more time under

Database Replication: Database rep lication addresses the problem of hav ing users located in geographically dis perse sites for which high-speed data communication to a central server is

unavailable or cost-prohibitive. Data base replication solves this problem by automatically replicating changes in data between a central server and one

standing the data, reduced costs for re porting to regulators and management, consistency in environmental protocols and procedures, optimized resourcing for environmental programs, reduced data redundancy, and reduced potential for environmental liabilities.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 105 ; T6"(2.29m)

or more remote servers. Users at remote

sites enjoy the high-performance of ac cessing the server at their site while da tabase replication works in the back ground to automatically synchronize

;8'(2 44m)

Your Paragon

information between remote servers.

Database replication was used in the REIMS system to provide system access for Denison Mines users located re

motely from the central server, which is located in the building shared by Rio Algom and ELRES users. Communi

Source Across Canada •data acquistion, control software •true distributed architecture

cations between the central server and

•scaieabie, PC-based systems

the Denison Mines server were estab-

•Windows NT®-based

hshed through a dedicated telephone line using 33.6 kbps modems. GIS and Third Party Software Inte gration: ELRES has developed a water shed management system using the

programming Aii backed by Davis' application experience. •Paragon is a NemaSoft brand from Nematron Corporation

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ArcView GIS software. In the near fu

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which will provide a unique means of illustrating the spatial aspects of water quality information and enable spatial analysis on the data. To provide addi tional reporting, analysis, and visuali zation capabilities, users can access data within the Envista repository through other third party software applications that support Microsoft's ODBC data base communication protocol. Hardware and Operating Systems: REIMS is based on personal computer

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Zebra Mussels & Invasive Species

Our aquatic environments continue to bi

The environmental and economic

impact of the invasion of nonindigenous species into North America has been severe. Non-

indigenous species often threaten the natu ral functioning of ecosystems when they exploit environments and out-compete the native species, decreasing the biodiversity of the area. From an economic perspective, non-indigenous species such as zebra mus sels and Eurasian milfoil, when abundant,

its of these organisms and the control meth ods available to industry. A comprehensive overview of the problems associated with non-indigenous invasions and control meth ods was presented. Zebra Mussels

fers optimal control with very low residua Concern regarding the increasing numb of chlorinated compounds in the Gre Lakes,and their effect on the biota will pi vent the use of chlorine as a long term sol tion for controlling zebra mussels. The f

Distribution ofzebra mussels


has spread from their point of introduction in the Great Lakes

Zebra Mussel Distribution

ten years ago, to as far south as Louisiana and reaching east to

are costly to industry as they impair plant operations. With over 600 non-indigenous species in North America's waterways, there is a

the Hudson River in New York.

â–˛ sightings

With zebra mussels continually moving down river systems and colonizing new areas, the lim

high demand for research documenting the

its of their distribution are un

impacts and control methods. The Eighth International Zebra Mussel and Aquatic Nuisance Species Conference in Sacramento, Califomia in March 1998 provided the op portunity for this research to be presented by

clear (see distribution map). Zebra mussels have not posed a problem in the western United States, including Califomia, al though the threat of their inva

consultants and research scientists.

sion is imminent.

To prevent the introduction of non-in digenous species from foreign ports, an open water ballast exchange is required prior to entering North American waters. Previously in the Great Lakes,foreign ships were emptying their ballast water which allowed the foreign freshwater organisms to exploit their new habitat. The ballast exchange exposes exotic freshwater organisms to a hostile environ ment by introducing the foreign freshwater organisms to salinities that exceed their tol erance limits or by flushing out the ballast tanks. Success in elimination of non-indig enous introductions can only be measured

Border checkpoints along major Califomia highways have been set up to inspect all vehi cles that are likely to transport non-indigenous aquatic life to prevent a possible introduction. Vehicles which may be a source of these organisms are quaran

• established colonies



L. RoMeau


KeAnebecfc L.


06reenR Mtehel BaÂťL

Bame tftrborau

tined until the mussels are re

moved or all the equipment is Known d istribution as of December 1997

disinfected, which will aid in

the program. Recent interest in determin ing if viable pathogens in ballast water are entering North American waterways when vessels enter without complying to the open water ballast exchange deserves further re

delaying such introductions. In creasing public awareness through educa tional programs,and aforementioned meas ures, will assist in preventing zebra mus sels from entering Califomia's waterways. The compilation of eight years of moni toring zebra mussels in the Great Lakes has revealed that, although their densities have declined since the initial introduction, sig nificant density peaks still occur. In 1997,

molluscicides(biocides)to treat zebra mu sels, which has gained much attentio "Once-through treatments" are efficie during their short application. They do n


larval and settlement densities were at their

control infestation between treatments ai

Pro-active strategies for preventing fur ther introductions of non-indigenous spe

highest levels since 1993. Settlement den sities in 1997 were the highest on the north shore of Lake Ontario, a recently colonized area. Zebra mussels pose a major problem

when all commercial vehicles participate in

cies were one area ofinterest at this confer

ence. Many representatives from the U.S. Sea Grant discussed the educational pro grams which have been developed to inform individuals of all ages how to prevent fur ther introductions of exotic species and remediation issues.

Zebra mussels and nuisance aquatic plants were the two non-indigenous groups focused on in this annual meeting. Scien tists discussed at length the distribution lim *Aquatic Sciences Inc., St. Catharines 40

for industry; clogging intake cribs and trash racks, and fouling service water systems, creating the need for monitoring require ments.

Chemical control methods Chemical and non-chemical methods

continue to be investigated for zebra mus sel control, with the majority of the work focusing on improving existing methods. Chlorine remains the most thoroughly un derstood and widely used method as it of-

cus ofresearch must shift to alternative co

trol strategies. In 1997, the Ontario Ministry of En\ ronment(MOE)granted research approv

for the trial use of non-oxidizir

are only useful in situations where interm

tent colonization can be tolerated. Th

method has not gained widespread accej

ance due to its non-selective nature and se

ondary impacts such as sediment toxici and increased suspended solid loading Until the impacts on non-target organise are documented thoroughly and found i significant,this method cannot be widely us( for controlling zebra mussels. Use of potash

One cost-effective alternative for eliir

nating zebra mussels in semi-static systen is the use of potash which is an abunda

natural resource to Canada. Potash is lo

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

By Darlene Suddard and Barb Crosbie*

waded by alien species in ballast waters

oxicity to non-target organisms and sigicantly less expensive than other chemi5. Trial studies completed over the past )years have shown that potash treatments be successfully completed in a relatively irt period of time (i.e., 2 to 8 days). Trial

are also known to be effective, but the un

certainty as to their durability makes their efficacy uncertain in large scale, long term operations. Coatings are only applicable in systems that can be dewatered for a pe riod of time,restricting their use. Research continues on these products to increase their applicability and usefulness.

trolytic' protection shows prom ise in controlling zebra mussels larger than 1.0 cm on intake structures such as cribs, trash

racks, and wet wells. The study represented three years of data collection from a large scale project where portions of an in

mussel to another, especially from dying to living mussels. One problem in developing this method is that parasites are host specific and are of ten difficult to culture. The selectivity of there is concern over its potential to infect non-target organisms. Other methods of biological control that are being studied are antagonistic and repellent bacteria, and natural products such as quinones and tannic acid. Much more research is needed into

how these organisms or compounds can af fect non-target organisms, how to culture or manufacture and whether these methods

take structure were covered with

would be feasible for large scale applica

a charged anode mesh. This is an ideal control option for in


dewatered, and eliminates the

Currently, the most appropriate method for zebra mussel control is the implemen tation of an integrated management and control program. The conditions of the site

possibility of using coatings. The ability of this system to

ity, temperature,cost,secondary effects and

control zebra mussels in the

flow rates are a few of the factors that need

older age classes demonstrates its usefulness in preventing the impairment ofintake structures. Fine tuning of this system will

to be considered when choosing a control

dustries which have concrete structures that cannot be rieston

showed that this ciliate can move from one

this ciliate has not been documented and

The use of cathodic or 'elec


method for controlling North American populations. Trans-infection studies

continue in 1998, with altera

I with permission, from the 1996 MNR/OFAH Zebra Mussel Distribution Map

of infestation, mussel densities, water clar


Initiating a monitoring program can an swer many questions prior to deciding on the most cost-effective and appropriate con trol program. Continuing the monitoring program post-treatment can provide infor

trolled and the pipes could be flushed at

tions aimed at reducing the den sities of the smaller age classes. The field trials examining the effective ness of ultraviolet light continued in 1997. This method was successful in controlling

end of the treatment to remove remain-

zebra mussel settlement in low flow condi

when the next treatment, if any, will be re quired. This strategy allows an industry to move from reactive to pro-active manage

shells. Further testing is required to ;rmine if potash treatment could be a 3le control option for larger scale sys-

tions. Results from these trials established

ment of zebra mussels.

the operational conditions, such as turbidity and temperature, which are required for UV

lies were performed on fire protection

tems where the residence time could be

mation on its effectiveness and indicate

For more information,

circle reply card No. 120

to be the most effective. Prob


Non-chemical control methods

!^on-chemical methods for controlling ra mussel populations continue to grow n trial sized experiments to full scale, rational level applications. The testing . variety of filters on intake systems was ;stigated for low flow, intermittent use ations. Although many filters are effec; at preventing zebra mussel infestation he piping system, settlement and coloition on the filters creates an alternate

blem in terms of removing and cleaning filter periodically. Thermal treatment, wn for its effectiveness in controlling ra mussels, is impractical for many intrial operations since it requires shutm of part or all of the system. Coatings

lems with the full scale UV in

stallation at Ontario Hydro prevented its operation in 1997; however, it is antici

pated that the system will be fully operational in 1998, with results available in early 1999. Biological control An interesting area of re search is the use of biologi cal control agents. A com monly found ciliate, Conchophthirus acuminatus, in vis ceral masses on the gills of European zebra mussels, is currently being studied to de

This insignificant handfui of zebra mussels could soon

termine if it could be a useful

become millions.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998


PCB Focus

New PCB Recycling Plant slated for KIrkland Lake, Ontario

In Febioiary last year,Environment

Canada announced the removal of

for PCB electrical equipment. Specific features include: a seamless, landfill

all remaining restrictions for ex port to the United States of Cana dian PCB stockpiles. Shortly thereaf

type polyethylene liner beneath the en tire concrete flooring structure; epoxy

ter, however, a US court handed down a

traffic areas plus a 3/8 inch diamond plate floor surface in the main PCB work areas. A building-wide berm and ramp system completes the design to ensure

decision which indicated that the US En

vironmental Protection Agency's action was beyond its authority in allowing the importation of PCBs to the

sealants over the concrete floors in all

US. This decision has closed the border for what some in

dustry members believe will be the long term. It now forces Canadian PCB owners

to re-examine their disposal options. The court's decision, how ever, was seen as an opportu

nity for Trans-Cycle Indus tries, Inc.(TCI). In anticipa tion of the border opening, TCI had been actively market ing the firm's PCB disposal services. The company has now announced plans to build a fully operational facility at

plant, vehicles are unloaded in an indoor receiving area. Erom this point, all op erations take place within the control led environment of the facility. Advanced Metal Cleaning for All Levels of PCB Contamination

TCI's process consists of receiving drained electrical equipment and sepa rating residual liquids and non-recycla ble components from reusable metals. The technology cleans and recycles the metal, leaving all PCB residuals to be shipped for destruction at other approved facilities. The heart of the operation is a state-of-the-art vapourdegreasing unit which is housed in a steel-lined wing of the plant. The degreaser is supported by distillation units, which continuously filter and reuse the non-ozone depleting cleaning solution. Every piece of metal is washed to below the stringent govern ment standard of 10 micro-

An amicable alliance was

grams ofPCB per 100 sq. cm. An in-house scrap operation

forged between the people of

"sizes" the reclaimed steel,

Kirkland Lake and TCI,lead

copper, and aluminum for ef ficient shipment to smelters

Kirkland Lake, Ontario.

ing to the Ministry ofEnviron ment awarding their Certifi cate of Approval in record time. The operation is a "pro cess technology." No incin eration and no landfilling will take place at the facility. With the MOE Certificate of Ap proval #A740182 in hand,

where the metals are melted

for reuse in a variety of new products. TCI has developed a so phisticated computer based records management system designed to accurately track all PCB waste materials re

A large substation transformer is hoisted into the freestand ceived,stored, processed, and begin by May 1st this year. ing, stainless steel Vapor-Degreaser by a 30-ton railsupported, shipped off-site during each overhead crane. With the utilization of a modu calendar year. Upon receipt lar building, PCB electrical equipment against even the most catastrophic spill at the facility, equipment is verified slated for processing may begin to be ever leaving the building. against the shipping manifest by serial received this summer. All phases of the process take place number, weight, and type. A bar code Environmentally Engineered indoors. TCI maintains control of the tracking system monitors the process Technology process from the PCB owner's site, ing and movement of the equipment construction was scheduled to

The Kirkland Lake facility will be modelled after the TCI operation in Pell City, Alabama. A number of enhance ments are incorporated into the new building's design to provide greater pro tection to the environment, making the structure a dedicated recycling facility *TCI Incorporated 42

where fully trained field service person nel can safely package and load PCB material for safe transport. Specially designed vehicles, owned and operated by TCI and possessing secondary con tainment provisions, complete the com pany's turnkey service, assuring a sin gle service provider for all phases of material disposition. Upon arrival at the

through the facility to final disposal. Risks at TCI are said to be less than

a typical manufacturing or industrial operation using regulated chemicals. The company has been operating in a regulated environment for a combined period of over twenty years and has never had a spill or release from any of its facilities.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Steven Lauterback*

Environmental Protection and

Worker Safety At Kirkland Lake,the facility is con structed to achieve full containment in

a vault-like structure, designed to elimi nate any risk of a release to soil or groundwater while protecting plant workers and local residents. In operat ing the facility, labour and management work in a team-oriented fashion to en

sure compliance with all federal, pro vincial and local safety and health regu lations as well as rapid response to safety and health related issues throughout their facilities. All training teams con sist of voluntary representatives includ ing both salaried and hourly employees. The plant manager chairs the Safety/ Environmental Council.

A lead cable and ballast processing centre protects workers from the dual risks of lead and PCB exposure.

To ensure worker health and safety, the firm employs a full-time Industrial Hygienist to coordinate all safety pro grams as well as an extensive periodic worker health-monitoring program. Employee training starts the first day a new employee reports for work and con sists of programs including: organiza tional philosophy and safety policies; hazardous materials handling, storage, labeling and inspection; emergency re-

sponse; spill prevention and countermeasure training; and additional training specific to individualjob tasks. In-house laundry equipment is used to ensure no contamination on worker uniforms could

find its way out of the facility. The plant's siting at Kirkland Lake affords centralized access to PCB stock

piles at pulp and paper plants, mines.

steel making factories, as well as heavy industry and electric utilities through out Canada. Companies that own PCB equipment, including some which has been in storage for twenty years, can look forward to an environmentally safe and economical means of disposition. For more information, circie repiy card No. 119

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Water Supply and Distribution

Tunnels and Underground Works

Solid Waste Management

Water Resources Engineering

Residuals Management

Systems Analysis Modelling

Process Control

Air Management

Industrial Services

Environmental Planning

Energy Management

Environmental Laboratory

Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal

Environmental Site Characterization/Reconciliation



180 King Street South, Suite 600

255 Consumers Road

555 - 4th Avenue SW, Suite 1500

Waterloo, Ontario N2J IPS tel: (519) 579-3500

North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7 tel: (403) 237-9300 fax: (403)237-7715 direct dial:(403)237-5691 + ext.

fax:(519) 579-8986 direct dial:(519)579-3501+ ext. Barrie

tel:(416)499-9000 fax:(416)499-4687 direct dial:(416)499-0090 + ext.


London • Ottawa • Thorold • Vancouver

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

For more information, circie repiy card No. 110 (See page 17)


Urban Air Pollution

Air quality goes up as NOx goes down

According to a recent study,

nology uses a layer of lake water that is without the boiler's state-of-the-art pol lution controls, concentrating energy permanently just above freezing to cool water for air conditioning. The virtu Corporation's lead boiler is generation in fewer, larger facilities au helping to stop smog before tomatically helps control emissions. The ally non-mechanical process uses 85% less energy than conventional chillers it starts by reducing nitrous oxide(NOx) economies of scale make better equip and completely eliminates the use of emissions by up to 80% over standard ment and 24-hour management finan CFC, HFC and HCFC-based refriger boilers. Commissioned by TDHC and cially viable, resulting in higher operat ants. TDHC plans to convert the plant's conducted by the University of Toron ing efficiencies. Also, hundreds of in to's Department of Mechanical and In dividual chimney stacks are eliminated." existing absorption chillers to DLWC over the next two years. dustrial Engineering, the study shows Air conditioning TDHC is a statutory, not-for-profit that the boiler's NOx emissions are be The new boiler is part of a major ex corporation created by the connection low even the strict standards proposed pansion program that also includes en by the Canadian Council of Ministers try into the district cooling market. of several stand-alone heating systems of Environment for gas-fired boilers. TDHC recently opened its first district in 1980. Now one of the largest district Smog is caused when NOx reacts cooling plant in the MTCC expansion heating systems in North America, TDHC has a 14% share of downtown with sunlight to produce ground level and is now developing a cooling tech Toronto's energy supply. ozone. In light of growing concerns nology that will drastically reduce car For more Information, bon dioxide emissions. Known as Deep about air pollution and frequent air qual circle reply card No. 111 ity advisories in downtown Toronto,the Lake Water Cooling(DLWC),this tech TDHC results are good news for tenants and building owners alike. TDHC de Principal Study Findings livers steam from three central plants to over 100 downtown buildings via 18 km 1. The NOx levels in the TDHC boiler #5 flue gases were measured of underground pipe. The steam is con at three different operating conditions. The NOx average emission verted to space heating, humidification rate is 0.064 lb. NOx/MMBTU (as NOg). and hot water by heat exchangers at cus 2. Ail measured NOx emission rates for boiier #5 are significantiy tomer sub-stations. Alex Bystrin, President and CEO of beiow the industry norms for natural gas fired boilers with and with the Toronto District Heating

TDHC said: "The new boiler has sur

out NOx control. The measured NOx emission rates for boiler #5

passed our expectations. We bought it because its pollution controls really set it apart from conventional equipment.

are also at or below the proposed Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment(CCME) standard for naturai gas fired boiiers. The NOx levels were also measured in the Ryerson boiler#4flue gases. The NOx emission levels of this old design boiler with no NOx controi were three times higher than that of TDHC boiier #5.

The 80 megawatt boiler's enormous ca pacity means that it replaces all our other boilers during the summer when smog formation is at its worst. The boiler's

remaining unused capacity is sufficient to replace most of the boilers in stand alone systems in downtown Toronto." The new boiler is equipped with low NOx bumers and a flue-gas recirculation system, both of which suppress or re

3. Peak ground level ozone concentrations in downtown Toronto oc cur during the summer months when estimated TDHC NOx emis sions are at their lowest. 0.4

CCME Proposed NOx tN

duce NOx formation. The boiler's in stallation in March 1997 is the latest in

a series ofenvironmental improvements. A unique water spray system scrubs and cools stack gases to reclaim heat and deliver more energy per cubic foot of gas. As well, economizers use waste heat from exhaust gases to pre-heat the boiler feed water. The new boiler makes

the most of these features on a daily basis and builds on the general benefits of district energy technology. "Because of district energy's basic

design - a central plant feeding a large distribution network- we can put all this boiler's strengths to work on a much broader scale," says Bystrin. "Even 44

Standard for Boilers


Z 0.3 z E-



o2 0.1

S w X



Standard Boiler











Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998


TGI IS EXPANDING CANADA Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc. (TCI) is a ieader in North America in the dismantling and recyciing of eiectricai trans formers and other equipment containing RGB's.

buiiding and metais cleaning/ recyciing technology as our U.S. operations. Beginning this summer,


Canadian RGB owners can take a rs'*

advantage of over ten years of quaiity experience and a spot

Plans have been finalized

to site a permanent PCB Transformer Recycling Facility in Kirkland Lake, Ontario. This new plant will incorporate the same triple-spill containment

less environmental record. TGI's mission is to eliminate

ail environmental liability for RGB waste with integrity and cost-efficiency.


For more Information, please contact TCI at: Commerce Court West

53rd Floor, Box 85 Toronto, Ontario IVI5L1B9 800-909-9997• 905-777-9997

or Email us at tcl@tcl-pcb.com

See us at our website at www.tGl-pcb.com For more Information, circle reply card No. 112(See page 17)

Indoor Air Quality

A possible cure for sick building syndrome?

TheBreathing Wall, an experi

mental biological air-cleaning system composed of rocks, plants, water, fish and micro organisms, was unveiled recently in a commercial pilot project at the Canada Life Assurance Company building in Toronto.

The Breathing Wall is a joint project of the University of Guelph and Genetron Systems Inc., an Ontario-based company, with funding from Ontario's Centre for Research and Space Technol ogy, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

According to Wolfgang Amelung, biologist and president of Genetron,the system for indoor environments was conceived by copying what goes on out doors-in nature. He met the challenge of designing a sustainable, self-regulating ecosystem in an enclosed space by considering that indoors was an "alien" environmentfrom outdoors."The prob lem was no different from putting life on a planet that doesn't have life. The

This three-story high Breathing Waii is being created for Ciub Monaco. Deveioped in Ontario, it is a seif-contained ecosystem composed of rocks, mosses, piants, and supported by iarge aquariums fiiied with fish and aquatic piants.

question we asked was, how did the earth do it? The answer was rock and

water, because there was no soil to be-


gin with," said Amelung. The Breathing Wall at Canada Life is an indoor ecosystem. At five-feet high, the 15-foot-long sheet of moss and fern-covered lava rock is kept constantly wet and is supported by large aquariums filled with fish and aquatic plants. Fans located behind the structure draw room

air across the plants and water, and through the wall, absorbing airborne contaminants.

► Efficient information'

management - so you

spend less time managing,' more time understanding

at the Canada Life Wall to ensure that

unpleasant smells or allergens are not

environmental data.

released into the air. However, data to

► Effective compliance management. i

date and the experience of people work ing at Canada Life indicates that there are no such side effects.

' Reduced costs for

reporting to regulators and management

Further commercial installations are

' Consistency in environmental! protocol and procedure.

► Configured to your operatiqi ► Reduced potential for myiropipefitaj ENVISTA TECHNOLOGIES




The wall can be con

nected to a heating, ventilating, air con ditioning (HVAC) system to distribute the filtered air throughout a building. Ongoing experiments are conducted

For more information, circle reply card No. 113 (See page 17)

being developed in Ontario at Panasonic headquarters. Queen's University, and Club Monaco. AlliedSignal Aerospace is applying the research to its sensor technology to improve quality of nutri ent solutions for growing food plants (hydroponic technology). NASA is also following this experi ment for potential applications for its Advanced Life Support program and In ternational Space Station. For more information,

circle reply card No. 114 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Disinfection Strategies

Ozone can now be used for wastewater

and potable water

French companies are pioneers in the use of ozone for the dis

infection of drinking water; they are now using this tech nology in wastewater treatment and the bleaching of papermaking pulp. Ozone is a gas that has an exceptional oxidizing power which is explained by its chemical composition. An ozone molecule consists of thi^ee oxygen at oms,whereas the oxygen we breathe has only two. When injected into water, the ozone destroys all micro-organisms with formidable efficiency. It also removes any staining or colour in the water and eliminates manganese and iron. Due to these oxidizing properties, ozone is not without hazard to human

health. It can be very toxic and acts as an irritant to the mucous membranes,

even at low concentrations. Fortunately, it is also very unstable and can be easily destroyed by transforming itself into oxygen, so that it leaves no trace of its presence in the water. There is no irri

ing porous diffusers, turbines, or static

tation, no smell, and no taste.

mixers. To eliminate 99.9% of bacte

Ozone is well known today for its beneficial effect in the upper layers of the atmosphere where it filters out the

ria, it is only necessary to maintain a

Ozonators are used in the Prato purification piant in Tuscany, Itaiy. Ozone re moves the discolorization from wastewaterproduced by the many dyeing plants in the town. Photo: Ozonia.

0.2 milligrams per litre for around five

tion has no longer been confined to the sterilization of drinking water. It is now being used to disinfect urban and indus trial wastewater,in conjunction with tra ditional physico-chemical and biologi

ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Its

minutes. A full installation includes an

cal treatment.

existence was revealed a century and a half ago, but its application to the steri lization of water dates back to a patent given a French scientist, Marius-Paul Otto, at the beginning of this century. In 1906, the city of Nice, capital of the

This process can remove toxic sub stances such as phenols and cyanides before wastewater is discharged into riv ers or used for irrigation. In Estepona, in southern Spain, Trailigaz is using ozone to treat urban wastewater prior to reusing it for watering the local golf

pany that is today part of the Compagnie

electric oven or catalyst downstream which removes and destroys the remain ing ozone, since most national regula tions prohibit the release into the atmos phere of more than 0.1 ppm of ozone. Ozonia, a joint venture between the French engineering company Degremont and the industrial gases producer Air Liquide, together with Trailigaz, are among the main manufacturers and in

Generate des Eaux (CGE). CGE and

stallers of ozonators.

French Riviera, became the first town in the world to use ozonation, on the initiative of a water distribution com

Lyonnaise des Eaux are the main water distribution companies in France. Ozone is too unstable to be trans

ported; it is produced on site within the water treatment plants by means of ozonators. These units operate using oxygen from the atmosphere or from pure oxygen. The principle is the same for both methods: the oxygen atoms are ionized between two capacitor plates through a continuous, controlled elec trical discharge at a frequency of be tween 600 and 1,000 Hz. This produces a gas mixture containing 3 to 10% ozone, which is mixed with water, us

minimal ozone concentration of 0.1 to

course. The Italians have also discov

ered new applications for ozone, which is used to remove the colour from waste-

have around 80% of ozonator sales. In

water from textile dyeing plants. Ozone is also starting to find use as a bleaching agent in industry, with sev

Dallas, Trailigaz has installed the larg

eral kaolin factories in the United States

est known installation in a water treat

using it for that purpose. In the papermaking industry, ozone is being used in conjunction with oxygen to complete the bleaching of pulp. The first installation

In the US alone, Ozonia and Trailigaz

ment plant, producing 315 kg.(694 lb.) of ozone per hour from oxygen. The same company has also installed a large unit in Montreal and is currently reno vating a plant in Moscow. Ozonia has built thirty installations in the United Kingdom alone since 1990. The com pany has also supplied purification sys tems for Istanbul, Pusan in Korea, and various Chinese cities.

Since the start of the decade, ozona

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

of this kind dates back to 1991 in the

United States. Today there are a total of fifteen, in Scandinavia, Brazil, Canada

and South Africa. In Sweden, a paper mill owned by Sodra uses no less than 210 kg.(463 lb.) of ozone per hour. For more information,

circle reply card No. 115 47

Process Water Management

Prevention of scale build-up using electronic descaling technology

SweetRipe Drinks Ltd.,a major

Canadian juice manufacturer in Canada,has resolved the prob lem of scale build-up on the Alfa Laval plate and frame heat ex changer on its hot pack Glass I& H bot tle rinser by installing the Scalewatcher Electronic Descaling System. A privately owned Canadian bever age company, SweetRipe produces 20 million cases of fruit beverages annu ally which it distributes throughout Canada,the USA,Europe and the Mid dle East. The company has three stateof-the-art plants(two located in Mississauga and the third in Port Williams, Nova Scotia). The heat exchanger is used on glass

bottle rinsers to heat up the recirculating water which is sprayed on the outside of the bottles to prevent thermal shock when the bottles are filled with hot pas teurized juice which can reach 95°C. A build-up ofscale on the plates ofthe heat exchanger resulted in the loss of heat

Top pipe shows extensive scaiing, whiie bottom pipe, with Scaiewatcher instailed, is compieteiy dear.

transfer coefficient and necessitated the

ture of the circulating water cannot be

unit be shut down to clean the plates, Without cleaning, the standard tempera-

achieved which increases the probability of thermal shock at the filler.

^0 CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Water Supply and Distribution

Tunnels and Underground Works

Solid Waste Management

Water Resources Engineering

Residuals Management

Systems Analysis Modelling

Process Control

Air Management

Industrial Services

Environmental Planning

Energy Management

Environmental Laboratory

Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal

Environmental Site Characterization/Reconciliation




180 King Street South, Suite 600 Waterloo, Ontario N2J 1P8 tel: (519) 579-3500 fax:(519)579-8986 direct dial:(519) 579-3501 + ext.

255 Consumers Road

555 - 4th Avenue SW, Suite 1500

North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7 tel: (403) 237-9300 fax: (403)237-7715 direct dial:(403)237-5691 + ext.



tel:(416)499-9000 fax:(416)499-4687 direct dial:(416)499-0090 + ext. London • Ottawa • Thorold

For more information, circle reply card No. 116 (See page 17)


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Process Water Management The company looked for an environ mentally friendly and cost-effective way of cleaning the plate heat exchanger which had required use of two mechan ics for up to three hours every two weeks. The plates had been difficult to separate and once apart, the scale had to be chipped off and the plates soaked in an acid bath. In addition the scale was act

ing like abrasive sandpaper and causing wear on the EMT wear strips on which the rubber bottle grip holders run. In August 1996 the company had DSI Canada of Ajax, Ontario install a Scalewatcher Electronic Descaling System on to the 45 foot,two-inch brass outlet pipe feeding the Alfa Laval plate heat ex changer. The Scalewatcher was treat ing a flow rate of between 35 and 40 gpm with an upstream temperature of 180°C and pressure of 20 psi and a downstream temperature of I25°C and pressure of 30 psi. In September, during a planned shut down just 1 1/2 weeks after installation, the circulating pump was pulled out and the inside of the volute and impeller were examined for scale build-up (nor

mally, excessive scale build-up forced SweetRipe to replace the pump every 16 months. Much to their surprise, the in spection team found the plates to be rela tively clean of scale and the small amount of scale present was soft and easily removed with a brush. It was also found that the pump and inlet were to tally free of any scale build-up. On November 1st, when the heat ex

changer plates were pulled apart so that the gaskets could be replaced, it was noted that 100% more of the previous scale build-up had been dissolved and passed to drain. A further examination on December 1st showed the plates to be completely scale free and were in fact cleaner than the steam side of the heat

exchanger. Commenting on the Scalewatcher ap plication, Kenneth MacAuley, Vice President, Operations said "The Scale watcher System performed remarkably well. Downtime has been saved in line

stoppages and time spent cleaning the heat exchanger. Even the inside of the rinser is free of scale. As the heat ex

changer is now running efficiently, our

steam demands on the unit have dropped from 110 psi down to 12 psi." SweetRipe have since installed eight Scalewatcher Electronic Descaling Sys tems throughout the two plants in the Toronto area.

The product functions by using elec trical fields generated by a coil wrapped around the outside wall of the pipe work to be treated. Using Scalewatcher's pat ented frequency modulation technology, the current changes direction several thousand times a second. This change creates an induced electric field inside

the pipe, which affects the electrically charged, dissolved ions of scale-caus ing minerals. Reacting to the varying electric field,

the crystal growth characteristics of scal ing minerals are altered. Treated crys tals remain suspended in solution and no longer contribute to the build-up of hard pipewall deposits. In response to lower saturation levels, existing scale deposits are softened, loosened and re moved in the water flow.

For more Information, circle reply card No. 117

Newly Appointed Exclusive Canadian Representatives for Biihler Montec formerly EPIC and DETEC Samplers & Flow Meters

Also known as EPIC1011,the Buhler Montec

Also known as Surveylogger, the BGhler Montec F3510 portable area velocity flow me ter for partially filled pipes and open channels without a primary device. Intrinsically safe, integral data loggerfor 32000 events, recharge able battery, programming, data retrieval and analysis by means of portable computer. Circle reply card No. 252

PI 011 portable sampler provides many sec tors of Industry and municipalities with a so lution to a wide variety of clean and waste water, effluent and sewage problems in open or closed channels. Detachable, user-friendly programmer. Available with a wide choice of glass or plastic container formats. Circle reply card No. 253

The Buhler Montec SI 023 permanent auto matic wastewater sampler, refrigerated in a stainless steel housing. Detachable, userfriendly programmer allows storage, down loading and retrieval of completed programs and data. Available with a wide choice of glass or plastic container formats. Circle reply card No. 254

Creative Environmental Solutions For Today's Industry



Cohsu^tantfi 92infittec(

Sales - Service - Rental - Training

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

2085 Piper Lane, London, Ontario, N5V 3S5 Tel:(519) 659-1144, Fax:(519) 453-2182 Web Site: www.heathltd.com

Montreal • Etobicoke • Calgary • Burnaby


Advanced Drinking Water Treatment

By V. Frenkel & G. Best*

Effective colour and TOC removal from

drinking water by microflltratlon

Substances in drinking water

sources can be presented in three main forms: suspended, colloidal and dissolved. The

suspended matter, which is commonly characterized by turbidity, can be remov ed by most conventional treatment pro cesses, the most familiar of which are

chemically assisted coagulation follow ed by filtration, or clarification and filtration. The coagulant dosage in this case is typically comparable to the turbidity level in the source. However, conventional treatment

processes are often not effective enough when colour and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) are also present in the feed water. As the colloidal and dissolved

portions of these components are rela tively high, they are not readily removed by settling and gravity filtration (espe cially in inland lakes, which comprise the most common drinking water source in North America).

The Ontario Drinking Water Objec tives include an aesthetic objective for the level of colour in drinking water of 15 TCU and TOC of5 mg/1 respectively. The USEPA regulations are stricter. For source waters with high colour and TOC levels. Enhanced Coagulation (EC)is traditionally used where the co agulant dosage exceeds that required for turbidity removal. The EC process has *Zenon Environmental Systems, Inc. Zenon Municipal Systems

Depending on the source water chemistry, > 95% coiour and > 85% TOC removal can be achieved.

two stages: floe formation (the same as in the coagulation process) and organic matter adsorption on the formed floes. The filtration cycles become shorter and sludge production levels rise because of the high dosage of the coagulant injected. As a means to reduce the cost of treat

ing waters containing colour and TOC, Zenon has developed a unique process based on the ZeeWeedÂŽ microfiltration

membrane technology. This process uses a coagulant dosage of 30-40% less than conventional requirements while achieving a higher level of colour and TOC removal. Depending on the source water chemistry, >95% colour and >

This is a significantly better perform ance than with conventional EC and is

achieved by taking advantage of the absolute barrier characteristics of the

microfilter to separate even the small, non-settling floes. The most influential parameters on the process performance are source water pH, alkalinity, temperature, col our and TOC levels, UV adsorption and type of coagulant used. Zenon's proc ess includes the following steps: coagu lant addition, flocculation, solids con

centration with organic matter adsorp tion and immersed membrane micro-

filtration. This process does not need the extended hydraulic retention times required for conventional flocculation or the settling basins associated with con

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brane's pore size. A number of successful pilots have been completed, demonstrating a high process efficiency. This had led to a number of full scale applications which are currently under construction. For more information,

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Biosolids Management

Ottawa-Carleton investigates factors that influence biosoiids dewatering

The disposal of biosolids

presents a considerable chal lenge for many municipal wastewater treatment plants.

In most cases the biosolids will be dewatered to reduce the volume of ma

terial which must be transported from site. The objectives of biosolids dewatering are to maximize the cake den sity while maximizing solids capture. These sometime conflicting objectives need to be achieved at minimum costs.

A study was made ofsome of the fac tors that influence the dewatering of biosolids at the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton's Robert O.Pickard

Environmental Centre (ROPEC). The ROPEC treatment facility is de^Carleton University ^Duke Engineering & Services ^Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton

signed to treat average daily flows of

at the time of this study, ROPEC was

approximately 460,000 mVd. Full sec

testing an OPTIFLOC™ in-line mixer

ondary treatment is provided including chemically assisted phosphorous re moval in the secondary clarifiers. Waste activated sludge is thickened by centrifugation prior to mixing with primary clarifier underflow and subsequent anaerobic digestion. After anaerobic digestion, the bio

to assess savings in polymer usage. This is a patented process that was developed by Water Technology International. Therefore,the global objective of this study was to investigate factors influ encing the use of polymer in the dewatering of biosolids at the ROPEC plant and to identify process parameters that might be adjusted to enhance dewatering while reducing costs. The specific tasks that were undertaken in

solids are conditioned with a cationic

polymer prior to dewatering by centrifugation. The use of polymer for condition ing represents a substantial operating cost and it is therefore highly desirable to re duce the quantities of polymer use while maintaining satisfactory operation of the biosolids handling facility. The use of a rapid mixing stage im mediately after polymer introduction has been found to improve the efficacy of

polymer dosing (Christensen, et al., 1996; Langer and Klute, 1993). Hence,

cluded a review of historical records of

polymer dosing, a field scale evaluation of polymer savings that could be achieved

by employing an OPTIFLOC™ mixer and a lab scale evaluation of the impact

of makeup temperature on polymer ef ficacy. Conclusions A review of historical records at the

ROPEC facility revealed a seasonal

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Tel: (514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

W.J. Parker\ V. Allen^ and D. Robertson^

trend in polymer usage ranging from 10 kg/tonne of biosolids during warm weather conditions to 12 kg/tonne in cold weather conditions. The polymer usage was found to be strongly depend ent upon the ratio of primary to second ary sludge flows entering anaerobic di gestion.

ments. A simple cost-benefit analysis revealed that the payback period for ac quisition of these units based upon re duced polymer consumption was ap proximately 1.5 years. Bench scale testing was performed to assess the impact of polymer make

The historical records also revealed

Time-to-filter tests that assessed this

a relationship between the consistency of the polymer dosing solution and the dosage requirements with reduced us age for more dilute polymer solutions. Although not confirmed through direct testing, these results suggest that sav ings may be realized if a more dilute polymer solution were employed. Field-scale testing with an OPTI-

parameter were inconclusive. However, when the polymer make-up procedure was replicated at bench scale in the lab

it was observed that considerably more polymer was not dissolved at 4°C as compared to 10 and 20°C. If it is as sumed that less efficient use of polymer will occur when poorly dissolved, these results suggest that warming the makeup water temperature by 5 to 6°C might re duce polymer requirements. Excerptedfrom a paper presented at the 1998 WEAO conference. For more information, circle reply card No. 235

up temperature on polymer efficiency.




FLOC™ mixer revealed that rotational

speed had little impact upon the effi ciency of polymer usage. However,use of this mixer substantially reduced the polymer required to attain predefined targets of 30% TS in the biosolids cake and 1000 mg/L of TSS in the centrate.

With the OPTIFLOC™ in place a mean dosage of 7.1 kg/tonne was required to maintain a minimum of 30% TS in the

cake while 7.9 kg/tonne was required to maintain a maximum of 1000 mg/L of TSS in the centrate.

Without the

Waste w4


OPTIFLOC™, 8.4 kg/tonne was re quired to maintain a minimum of 30% TS in the cake while 9.0 kg/tonne was required to maintain a maximum of 1000 mg/L of TSS in the centrate.

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Biosolids Management

Biosolids stabilization research continues in Ontario

In November 1995, the Ontario

putrescibles in the biosolids are well es Ministry of the Environment tablished, there are no numerical guide (MOB), the Water Environment lines to assess whether the biosolids Association of Ontario (WEAO) have been "sufficiently" stabilized or and Environment Canada's Great Lakes not. Instead, MOE specifies design 2000 Cleanup Eund (GL2000CUE), guidelines for composting, mesophilic sponsored a two-day experts meeting to anaerobic digestion and conventional discuss the most critical problems en aerobic digestion processes. countered with solids processing and Consequently, there is no opportunity management, and recommend a strate or incentive for municipalities to opti gic program to resolve these problems. mize their stabilization process design The experts concluded that the ex and operations, which may lead to in isting MOE definition of biosolids stabi creased capacity of their existing digest lization was a major hindrance to ers without major capital expansions. optimizing biosolids handling and man Delays in approvals have also been agement. MOE requires biosolids to be encountered when alternative stabiliza stabilized before they can be land ap tion processes such as alkaline stabiliza plied. tion, autothermal thermophilic aerobic While the objectives of stabilization, digestion, etc. are proposed. The experts i.e. to reduce pathogens, odour and recommended that the MOE should im mediately initiate a program to develop a set of product"quality based" stabiliz ^CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited ation criteria to replace or complement ^Ontario Ministry of the Environment ^University of Ottawa the existing "process design based"

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guidelines. This is similar to the use of

BODj, SS and total ammonia concen trations for setting sewage effluent "product" quality limits. As a result of this meeting,the MOE, WEAO and Environment Canada con

tracted CH2M Gore & Storrie(CG&S)

Ltd. to undertake the first phase towards defining quality-based stabilization cri teria for biosolids applied on agricultural land and to identiify ways to optimize biosolids stabilization for the future.

The overall purpose of this study was to identify and recommend a list of crite ria to be used to deteiinine if biosolids

are sufficiently stabilized for subsequent utilization or disposal. Need for Stabilization

Using a variety of barriers, the hu man body can deal successfully with most attacks by pathogens. For exam ple, intact skin does not permit the en try of pathogens into the blood. If inva sion of blood occurs through breaks in

June Issue

Editorial Lineup Analytical detection Biosolids dewatering Environmental insurance


Flow measurement/metering Groundwater remediation Kenneth W. Campbell, P.Eng.

Industrial wastewater Instrumentation

K.A. Morrison, P.Eng., president, is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Kenneth Campbell, as an associate director of the firm. Mr. Campbell joined the practice in 1984, having received a Bachelor of Applied Science in Civil Engineering from the University of Toronto in 1982. He was appointed an associate of the firm in 1989, and he presently functions as an associate manager, water supply. R.V. Anderson Associates Limited is an

established multidisciplinary consulting engineering and technology management firm, founded in 1948, currently with a staff complement of over 150. 54

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(905)727-4666 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

I. Osinga, S. Black, P. Nicol, G. Crawford\ T. Ho^ and Dr. S. Sattar^ skin, specialized blood cells can either kill the pathogen or mount an immune response against it. Furthermore, patho gens die off naturally in the environment due to heat, sunlight, desiccation and other antagonistic microorganisms. However, humans and animals can become infected when there is a suffi

ciently large dose of pathogens depos ited at the portal of entry, e.g. mouth, nose and eyes. More detailed discus sions of the presence of pathogens in raw solids and biosolids and their health sig nificance to Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) operators and the general public can be found in several reports. Putrescibles in raw solids and bio

solids generally comprise organic car bons such as proteinaceous, polysaccharide and lipid materials, as well as or ganic nitrogens which are primarily amino acids. The median concentrations

of organic carbon are relatively constant in most biosolids, ranging from 27% to 33%; organic nitrogen can range from 1% to 10% on a dry weight basis. As

Aeration process at a wastewater treatment plant. Experts claim that the existing definition of biosolids stabilization was a major hindrance to optimizing handling and management. Photo - courtesy CH2M Gore & Storrie. putrescibles decompose over time, an present in the biosolids to animals and obnoxious odour is produced and they humans. attract vectors such as rodents, insects

and birds. Vectors are a public nuisance and more impor tantly, they can transmit pathogens

The Environmental

There is an universal consensus be

tween regulators, wastewater treatment professionals and STP operating authori ties that biosolids should be "suffi

ciently" stabilized to reduce the levels

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Biosolids Management, conr of odour, putrescibles and pathogens in the biosolids before they can be applied to agricultural lands in a safe and envi ronmentally friendly manner. Complete stabilization to totally eliminate odour, putrescibles and pathogens is however, neither necessary nor desirable for biosolids to be used as fertilizer supple ments on agricultural lands. Some of the microorganisms remaining in the biosolids can exert antagonistic effects on pathogen regrowth and the putre scibles can be a useful organic source consensus on how to define and meas

were collected from the fourteen STPs digestion facilities monitored in this during the period of August 1996 to study, percent volatile solids reduction March 1997. Samples of raw sludges, could only be estimated. Volatile solids including raw primary sludge and/or concentrations in aerobically digested waste activated sludge, as well as di biosolids from three STPs were higher gested biosolids and biosolids from stor in the winter than in the summer. age facilities were analyzed for several •For the six aerobic digestion facilities, FCmfcdata for biosolids samples, both in microbiological and conventional pa rameters. Two sets of samples were the summer and in the winter, met or were significantly lower than the US collected from each of the fourteen di gestion facilities during the period from EPA criteria of 2x10® CFU/gm total sol ids for Class B biosolids. Median den August to November 1996. Seven addi tional sets of samples were collected sities were 7.1x10" after digestion and from each of three aerobic digestion fa 9.7x10" after storage. cilities during January and February • For the eight anaerobic digestion fa

ure whether the biosolids have been


for the soil. There is however, a lack of

cilities, FCmfc contents in biosolids sam

ples from seven of the eight STPs met or were significantly lower than the US

"sufficiently stabilized". Project Description A survey was sent to forty STPs for the purpose of characterizing the status of digestion facilities in Ontario. Four

clusions and recommendations from the

EPA criterion of 2x10® CFU/gm total

results of this study: • Only three of eight anaerobic diges

solids for Class B biosolids. Median

teen STPs were selected for field sam

tion facilities achieved the 38% or

pling and further assessment, based on the following criteria: biosolids/supernatant flow measurement possible; di gesters cleaned out recently; ST? in RAP area of concern; type of digestion process; secondary digester or storage facilities on-site; and the size of STP.

Raw sludge and biosolids samples

Summary The following are some of the con

greater volatile solids reduction (i.e. US EPA criteria for Class B biosolids). However, historical data obtained indi cated that percent volatile solids reduc

tion can vary from month to month by as much as 26%.

• Due to lack of operating data and the unsteady operation from the six aerobic

densities were 5.6x10" after primary di gestion and 1.1x10" after secondary di gestion. • Long term variability for FCmfc densi ties in raw, stabilized and stored bio

solids was about 0.4 log which is simi lar to the variability observed in disin fected and undisinfected final sewage effluent. This implies that compliance should not be based on a single sample. •There were statistically significant but weak correlations between FCmfc and

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Salmonella and Coliphage for biosolids from both aerobic and anaerobic diges tion facilities, thus implying that FCmfc can be used as a surrogate parameter for pathogens.



•There were no correlations between the



three potentially useful surrogate param eters: FCmfc, volatile solids concentra

tion and SOUR20 for aerobically stabi




lized biosolids.

Postal Code:

• For the eight anaerobic digestion fa cilities, the ratios of volatile acids to al

Circle the numbers below for FREE information on the products in the May 1998

kalinity, ranging between 0.08 to 0.23,

issue that interest you.

indicated that the anaerobic digesters were performing satisfactorily and were

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133134 135136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150151 152153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167168 169170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184185 186187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201202 203204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218219 220221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235236 237238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252253 254255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286287

well below the bench mark of 0.3.

• SOUR20 can be a useful surrogate pa rameter for aerobically stabilized bio solids both from a practical and theo

retical perspective. Results generated by this study and a similar study in the US would imply that many aerobic di gesters may not be able to meet the cur rent US EPA criterion of 1.5 mg oxygen per gm of total solids per hour. More field monitoring would be necessary to

288289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303304

establish a new limit.

305306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320321

Excerpted from a paper presented at the 1998 WEAO conference.

322323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337338 339340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354355


For more information,

circie repiy card No. 236

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

R&D News

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Trojan Technologies has appointed Dr. William L. (Bill) Cairns to the newly-cre ated position of Chief Scientist. Dr. Cairns has been part of Trojan's Re search and Development team as Re search Manager tor more than eight years. He holds an undergraduate de gree from the University of Guelph and a PhD.from the Department of Biochem istry, Biophysics and Cell Biology at Iowa State University. Dr. Cairns has more than 20 years of industrial, research in stitute, and academic research experi ence in the areas of photochemistry, biologicai photoresponses, and the funda mentals and applications of microbial and physical systems tor water and wastewater treatment.

As Chief Scientist, Dr. Cairns will nur ture scientific relationships between Tro CH2M Gore S Storrie Limited

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jan and universities, regulatory agencies, industry groups, granting agencies,con sulting engineers, and clients. Dr. Cairns will help ensure that a continuous stream of innovative technologies is being funded as Trojan builds on its pre-emi nent position in the UV industry through partnerships with leading scientific or ganizations.

Toronto • Vancouver • Waterloo 58

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

R&D News, cont'


Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment

;NviRarsiiS/iEisi"rAi_ Oivisiorsi

A pilot scale study of options for the treatment of combined sewer overflows

(CSO) is being conducted by Water Technology International scientist D. Averill and colleagues from four other cooperating organizations. The results of long column settling tests with CSO suspensions reported in Water Science and Technology indicated that approxi mately 40% of the suspended solids was

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non-settleable at the test threshold of 0.3


m/h. The use of a cationic polymer as the sole coagulant in a three metre di ameter vortex separator achieved at least 50% TSS removal at surface loads up to approximately 40 m/1. These efflu ents were more amenable to UV disin

fection than those produced with metalbased coagulants.

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Treatment of Landfill Leachate


City of Vancouver scientist J.P. Hender son and colleagues from International Submarine Engineering Ltd., and the University of British Columbia, inves tigated the use of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) and of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to nitrify landfill leachate with an ammonia nitrogen con centration of 200 mg/1 and a BOD.con centration of 50 mg/1. The research re

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supplies and those present in the sludge. Treatment of Acid Mine Taiiings G.J. Zagury and colleagues from the University of Sherbrooke and Elf Aquitane neutralized acid mine tailings ef fluents using alkaline sludges produced in pulp and paper mill operations. De pending on the proportions of sludge

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added,the resulting pH values increased


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Leaching studies in laboratory columns for a period of 25 weeks showed the ef ficacy of sludge incorporation with acid mine tailings. As described in Environ mental Technology, the sludge incorpo ration also increased the buffer capac ity of the mining residues. The concen trations of Cu,Zn, and Mn in the leach-

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bed sediments, stormwater, and street

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Digestion A. Chu, and colleagues from the Uni versity of British Columbia,Dayton and Knight Ltd., and Turborator Technology Inc., investigated the efficacy of vola tile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation in thermophilic aerobic digestion(TAD)of primary sludge. As described in Envi ronmental Technology, net VFA accu mulation was found to be a function of


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both aeration and SRT. Decreasing or increasing the aeration rate and/or SRT resulted in a proportional change in VFA (specifically acetate). Under strict anae robic conditions,the VFA profiles in the pilot scale TAD process were similar to fermentation type processes which are characterized by an even distribution of VFA between acetate and propionate. Biosorption of Lead Sulfate reducing bacteria biomass was examined by J.K. Bewtra and colleagues at the University of Windsor for the biosorption of lead using a batch equi librium method. The biosorption capacEnvironmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

R&D News, contv


ity, as a ratio of the lead removed to the

sulfate reducing bacteria biomass used, was found to be equal to 0.3. As de scribed in the Canadian Journal ofCivil


Engineering, this ratio was found to be constant under different conditions of

the batch reactor and the biomass used. This information can be utilized in de

termining the overall metal removal rate by both sulfides precipitation and biosorption by active biomass, as well as biosorption by inactive biomass.


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Aqueous chlorine, chlorine dioxide, so dium thiosulfate, chlorite, and chlorate

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on Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts un der drinking water disinfection condi tions. These University of Alberta sci

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effect on the oocysts. The results, pub lished in Environmental Science and TOROtfTO:

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t o 11 e n

sity of Quebec scientists Y. Gelinas and

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mospheric bulk deposition and agricul tural soils, was significantly different. This allowed a direct apportionment of lead found in plant material throughout the watershed. In agricultural streams, a preferential uptake of atmospheric lead

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rium loadings at different pH levels. Shield Lake Chemistry As reported in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, catch ment slope and lake morphometry ac count for 50-70% of the variability of

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gest that, during periods of high ranoff, the development of waterlogged areas and the importance of overland flow on saturated soils are inversely proportional to catchment slope. University of Mon treal scientists P. D'Arcy and R. Carig-

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Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Influent Cleaning System

Water chlorination becomes easier and safer

The BioGuard Influent Gleaning Sys tem Is a combination of three unique

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EVITA^"^ oxygen meters

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cxpamhn); iht Frunnm


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EVITA™ dissolved oxygen meters from Danfoss offer high levels of accuracy and flexibility at a sensible price, making them the ideal choice for wastewater applications. The modular design and wide selection of components ensure the exact price/performance match for your requirements - from a single-basin Installation to an entire computercontrolled plant. Davis Controls Limited

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Poilutec: an established

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and welding equipment, Canadian Liquid Air Ltd. boasts more than three quarters of a century of history In Canada. From Its headquarters in Montreal, the company operates a

of visitors state that they have pur chased equipment,technologies and services following previous visits. 75% of the visitors are decision mak

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

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Literature Review For Information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. CEO's 1998 Directory -

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Circle reply card No. 184


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Product and Service Showcase PCB disposal

Flocculation and clarification

in a single tank


Dredging PCB

(askarel) process provides segre gated 20,000 sq. ft. building with steel-lined inte

rior; custom-deEimco Reactor-Clarifier'^" units are de

signed and built to provide the most eco nomical solution to precipitation and clarification requirements. The basic machine design provides for coagulation, flocculation, solids recirculation, clarifi

cation and positive sludge removal in a single basin - eliminating the need for multiple tanks and associated piping. All units are backed by over 30 years expe rience in engineering and manufacturing. Eimco Process Equipment Circle reply card No. 186

signed four-story stainless steel

degreaser which accommodates

any size transformer or PCB article; con tinually recyled, non-ozone depleting solvent and regenerative, two-stage car bon filtration system; core/coil chopping process and four-stage bathing system which cleans metals to non-detectable levels. TCI Inc.

Circle reply card No. 187

Removal of solids and sludges from the bottom ofcooling ponds,settling lagoons and waste storage structures is a service required by many companies including wastewater treatment plants, malting processors, power generating stations, and the pulp and paper, chemical proc ess and food industries. Through the ap plication of our sophisticated dredging technology, your operation's production process can continue without interruption - avoiding costly shutdown. Lambourne Environmental

Circle reply card No. 188

Solids separation

Fluorescent Lamp Recycling

Pre-packaged sewage lift station

We can turn


lamps into almost


Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers Inc. (FLR) has devel oped a process for the safe recycling of


lamps. These lamps contain haz ardous amounts of

mercury and mer cury vapour and regulations restrict mer cury from entering landfdl. FLR sepa rates and recycles the glass, mercury, phosphor, aluminum and brass compo nents. Flexible arrangements can be made for the removal oflamps from your location.

Fluorescent Lamp Recyelers Inc.

Circle reply card No. 189

In an industry which places ever greater demands on conservation efforts,

Lambourne Environmental operates equipment designed by world leader Alfa Laval, to provide leading edge solids separation services. Use of on-site cen trifuges permits our clients to observe first hand how waste stream volume can

sion, mildew and weather-resistant, and blends with its surroundings. The pan els are removable for easy maintenance.

Circle reply card No. 190

Inside, Gorman-Rupp T Series self-prim ing centrifugal sewage pumps give de pendable performance. Gorman-Rupp Company Circle reply card No. 191

A personal commitment

Tailings and waste rock

be reduced to a manageable product. The solids can then be economically trucked off-site for final disposal. Lambourne Environmental

High-rate ciarifier

This 6' X 6' above-ground lift station is shipped with pumps, motors, controls, valves and piping all pre-engineered, pre tested and ready for immediate hook-up. The tough fiberglass enclosure is corro

disposal Bovar Waste Man

agement's Swan Hills Treatment Centre is a world

The UltrapulsatorŽ Llocculator-Clarifier provides a highly effective approach to water purification problems. It is a very high-rate ciarifier which combines highly concentrated and homogenous sludge blanket and internal sludge recirculation with polishing action of tube settling modules. Settling modules are sloped at 60° to permit evacuation of sludge set tled on the bottom of each tube. There

are no attachments within tubes that pre

vent sludge from settling. Modules im prove sedimentation process in clarifiers. Degremont Infilco Circle reply card No. 192

leader in handling the widest range of wastes, including transformers. Bovar offer a com

bination of solid fi

nancial strength, leadership in waste management, and re lease the customer from liability. This combination makes them your best source for waste management. With Bovar Waste Management, you get com plete confidence. BOVAR Waste Management Circle reply card No. 193

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998


Associates PasteTec Based in Sudbury, Ontario, Golder Paste Technology, Ltd. (Golder PasteTec), a

wholly-owned subsidiary of Golder As sociates, offers full engineering, procure ment, construction management and commissioning services to the mining industry for the design and construction management of tailings paste production systems. Paste technology has recently , emerged as a cost-effective and techni cally competent alternative to traditional backfill methods. Golder Associates

Circle reply card No. 194 67

Product and Service Showcase In-line helical drives

PCB and electrical equipment disposal services TCI are special ists in the disposal of PCB and nonPCB


equipment and all PCB waste mate rials. Their stateof-the-art facili

C Series high efficiency drives and gearmotors feature in-line helical gear ing for reliable, noise-free operation in a compact, power-dense coaxial design. They offer twice the two-stage reduction of competitive models, resulting in sig nificant savings in maintenance costs. They are available in torque from 260 to

dle to grave" li ability is never compromised. Heavy duty washing equipment processes all levels of PCB metals to < 10 pg/lOO cm sq. TCTs new plant in Kirkland Lake, Ontario, is scheduled to become fully op

10,600 Ib./in., and ratios from 2.6:1 to 287:1. BNA Bonfiglioli North America

Circle reply card No. 196

ties ensure "cra

erational in mid-1998. TCI Inc.

Circle reply card No. 195

Emergency response

A solution for zebra mussels ■Sotution" for ZEWIA MUSSELS

The issue of zebra mussels is attract

ing increasing at tention from mu

nicipalities, utili ties, government agencies and in dustries around the Great Lakes. One solution in

volves the use of JAVEX-12™ sodium

hypochlorite, which kills the zebra mus sel larvae. Colgate-Palmolive is, there fore, focusing much of its technical ex pertise on this subject. They are consult ing with experts to establish dosage lev els and techniques best suited to help control the spread of zebra mussels. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 197

Conveyor screening belt

"True" sample collection


The Environmental Liquid Sampler is a mechanically automated device that is TEAM-l Environmental Services pro vides specialized Emergency Response services for government, industry and transportation. In the event of a low haz ard, low volume vs. high hazard, high volume occurrence, TEAM-1 can deploy a highly trained team with state-of-theart equipment to rectify any situation on a 24-hour basis - Canada wide. TEAM-l Environmental Services

able to be used in remote locations with

out the use of a power source. This elimi nates the requirement to personally re spond to a storm event immediately, al lowing retrieval at a convenient time. It can be used to sample: stormwater run off from industrial sites and from feedlots

and hog confinement operations, and dis charge from sewage treatment areas. DTec Corporation

Circle reply card No. 198

Circle reply card No. 199

New economical rate

Lamella clarifiers

The Derrick Flo-Line Scalper'''" is an in clined conveyor screening belt driven by a 1 hp, variable speed motor. The unit works to increase solids recovery from industrial and wastewater process flows, while reducing wastewater treatment costs. As solids loading increases, the variable speed motor allows the speed of the belt to be increased and additional

fluid to be processed. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 200

Automatic back-flushing filter


The AutoFilt RF3 au

tomatic back-flushing filter is designed for continuous and main tenance-free filtration in all sectors of indus

try. The slotted-tube filter elements with

The model RIO Rate Indicator/Totalizer

is an economical up-counting totalizer

Ecodyne custom design each lamella clarifierto meet the specific service needs

and a 1/Tau ratemeter. The RIO has an

of their clients. Use of a lamella clarifier

8-digit LCD display and features sepa rately programmable count/rate sealers and decimal points allowing for display of rate and count in various engineering units. Features include programmable

reduces maintenance to a minimum.

reset enable/disable, remote reset, field

replaceable 5-year battery, and high or low speed inputs. ABB Water Meters

Circle reply card No. 201 68

There are no moving parts. Its compact ness allows the unit to he located in new,

automated plants or in upgraded instal lations where space may not be available for a standard clarifier. Units are usually fully assembled, minimizing erection costs and time. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 202

filtration rates of 50 to

3,000 pm ensure highly effective sepa ration of contaminat

ing particles from the process medium. Au tomatic cleaning starts as soon as the el ements become contaminated. A range of filters of different sizes allows flow

rates of up to 10,000 m' per hour. Culligan Northworks Circle reply card No. 203

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Product and Service Showcase New hand-held colorimeters

Upgrade for generator remote

Right-angle bevel gears

water meters Available now from ABB Water Meters is

Water quality analysts who routinely per form field testing will appreciate the many advanced features built into Hach's rugged new DR/800 Series Colorimeters. Designed to fit comfortably in one hand, the instruments offer advanced datalog ging capabilities, automatic wavelength selection, and up to 90 preprogrammed calibrations, including COD. Housings

the latest technology to allow you to up grade your reading system without re placing the water registers. The ABB

The unique symmetrical housing design, and universal mounting faces, of BNA's



A Series drives result in unmatched drive

counter will replace

mounting flexibility with efficiencies approaching those of helicals. They of fer nearly 50 percent greater two-stage reduction for greater economy and lower maintenance costs. They are available in torques from 650 to 5,800 Ib./in., ra

meter or generator

an electromechanical wall counter with an

LCD aispiay and Scanpad in one enclo sure. The Scancounter will work with

are chemical resistant and meet IP67

all brand generator meters currently in

waterproof and dustproof standards. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 204

stalled and allows for visual or

tios from 5:1 to 400:1.

scanreading. ABB Water Meters

BNA Bonfiglioli North America Circle reply card No. 206

Modular headworks system JWC

Circle reply card No. 205

Portable sewer flow monitor


FlowRat model

mental's Auger

1000 is a portable

Monster^" modu

sewer flow moni


system won the


1997 WEF Inno

shield and com

vative Technol

puter software. Using Doppler technology to

JWC Environmental

check valve

tor complete with


ogy Award - Proc ess Equipment Category. The technology combines the high flow ca pabilities of a traditional bar screen with the capture rate of a fine screen, while leaving essential organics in the waste stream. The new Auger Monster systems are designed to reduce the high mainte nance of bar screens while eliminating the mess of unwashed screenings.

New grooved-end AWWA




stream velocity, sound


travel through the flow profile and return to the sensor head. Internal electronics average retum signals and datalog the stream velocity. Depth can be measured using a pressure depth sensor or ultrasonic level device.

Rocky Mountain Instruments

Victaulic's new Series 317 grooved-end AWWA check valve for water and waste-

water services is easily installed with Victaulic grooved couplings, transition couplings or flange adapters; it features a unique coupling-cap assembly that facilitates access for reduced mainte nance downtime. Used in combination

with the grooved-end Victaulic plug valve, it provides a complete grooved valve package for lift stations. Victaulic Company of Canada

Circle reply card No. 207

Circle reply card No. 208

Circle reply card No. 209

Self-prompting polymer makedown system

Peacock launches web site

Economical pre-treatment of industrial wastewater


Peacock. Inc. has created a website,

ProMinent's new and improved "smart" self-prompting Ultromat Plant delivers ready-to-use polyelectrolyte solutions automatically, safely and continuously. All components are combined in a com pact unit. The powder is fed from a feed hopper into a mixing assembly. Follow ing wetting,it enters a triple compartment tank where it is diluted and mixed to the

www.peacock.ca, that features back ground information on the company, its latest news releases and employment opportunities. The page also has a direct link to the web page of the company's parent, the Weir Group, Scotland. The page provides information about the com pany, its divisions and their products and services. It also provides location infor

required concentration, aged and stored.

mation on all Peacock offices in Canada.

ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd.


Circle reply card No. 210 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Circle reply card No. 211

Proceptor™ collects spills at source pre venting liabilities and damage to munici pal or onsite waste treatment systems. It removes oil and suspended solids from industrial effluent. It isolates suspended solids, reducing the need for sewer flush ing and cleaning. Proceptor efficiency exceeds existing environmental regula tions, codes and acts, by reducing waste contaminants to acceptable limits. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 212 69

Product and Service Showcase Drilling machines for service

Personal gas monitor

Portable dust monitor

connections The Gasman II is Crowcon's newest

personal single gas monitor. Available to monitor differ

ent gases such as

H,S, CO CH^, or

The 1.108 Dustcheck^'" Aerosol Moni

Mueller gives you a choice of small drill ing machines for drilling holes from 7/16" to 2" in all types of pipe. This in cludes the newer plastic pipes, as well as cast iron, cement lined cast iron, ductile iron,cement lined ductile iron, steel, con crete, reinforced concrete and asbestoscement. Machines are available in hand

or power operated models with a selec tion of drills and shell cutters for the type of pipe you are using. Mueller Co. Circle reply card No. 213

Sewer management software

toring System from GRIMM is a world leading instrument for dust measurement applications. Using the 90 degree light scattering technique, the 1.108 includes a 15 channel pulse height analyzer for size classification, covering a range of0.3 to 20 microns. Data recorded on the

standard memory card can be analyzed in a number of ways including size and mass distribution and following EPA con ventions. Nortech GSI Inc.

O,, the rugged and lightweight Gas man



highly visible and audible alarms,

data logging capability with a Windows compatible PC interface and intrinsic safety for use in hazardous areas. For multigas personal monitors, ask about the Triple Plus or the Custodian. Nortech GSI Inc.

Circle reply card No. 215

Circle reply card No. 214

Four-Gas Portable Instrument

Environmental Management Software

Sewer system evaluation studies for ca

The SA2000 is Scott's new Four-Gas

pacity or infiltration and inflow typically require endless hours of processing col lected field flow data. The powerful da tabase and graph template features of American Sigma's new Vision^^' sewer

Portable Instrument and Data Logger. The instrument simultaneously monitors: combustible gases and vapours, hydro gen sulfide, oxygen, and carbon monox ide. The advantage to the SA2000 is that each time your staff uses the detector the time, date, and gas testing results are re corded and can be downloaded to give you a hard copy for your records.

management software cut hours into min utes. This allows users to handle more

sites with less manpower for consider able cost-savings and improved report ing. Can-Am Instruments

Heath Consultants Limited

Circle reply card No. 216

Circle reply card No. 217

Full pipe flow monitor

Oil Spill Protection

Envista Technologies is a scientific soft ware company with products to address the issues ofenvironmental management. The Envista product provides managers, geoscientists and engineers with a pow erful tool for maintaining and tracking regulatory compliance as well as envi ronmental and geosciences information. Envista creates a coiporate data standard and ensures that data is complete and consistent. Envista Technologies

Circle reply card No. 218


The IFS 9000 is an insertion flow

sensor using Doppler technology. The sensor is in serted into a two

fuel tank farms, automotive service sta

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption. Expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required. Easily installed in existing tanks. Multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the

tions and restaurant parking lots. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 220

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 221

inch ball valve in stalled on a closed



waves are trans

mitted into the

flow stream, the return signals averaged and pipe flow is computed. The IFS sen

sor can be integrated with RMFs port able or permanent flow controller. Rocky Mountain Instruments

Circle reply card No. 219


The fiberglass Stormceptor is designed for emplacements where there is a po tential for oil and chemical spills, and where they accumulate in substantial volume between clean ups. Being chemi cally inert, light weight and easy to in stall, the fiberglass Stormceptor is par ticularly suitable for industrial properties,

Water Environment Federation.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Wetlands Research

By R.D. Robarts, Ph.DJ and D.R Bird, Ph.D:

Extreme abundances of viruses

in prairie wetlands

There are mil ions of wetlands scattered across the Canadian

prairies and American Great Plains. They contribute

greatly to the biodiversity of this vast region, and are important in the health of the socio-economy. Due to their geo graphical location, prairie wetlands are subject to the interacting effects of cli mate warming, increasing levels of ul traviolet radiation, and agricultural ac tivities. There is a good possibility that both local and global changes will have


adverse effects on wetland health. Con

sidering the importance of prairie wet lands, it is surprising that there have been very few studies of their ecology and their capacity to react to change.

In particular, the ecology of micro organisms in prairie wetlands is virtu ally unstudied, although these micro scopic organisms are the fundamental regulators of wetland ecosystem activi ties. As part of the Wetland Ecosystem Vulnerability Study(WEVS)being con ducted by the National Hydrology Re search Institute, Environment Canada and the Northern Wildlife Ecology Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service in

Saskatoon we surveyed about 300 lakes

Wetlands across Canada are under threat. Photo - T. Davey

role is that of bacterial predators. Viruses cannot reproduce on their own and require a host in order to do this. In aquatic systems millions of bacteria are normally present in a millilitre of water. Many viruses use these bacteria as hosts.

less for all others The great diversity of size and shape of wetland viruses at tests to the diversity of their hosts. Although the overwhelming major ity of the viruses seen under the micro scope are waiting to collide with and

When viruses invade a bacterial cell

attach themselves to microscopical hosts, there may also be an unknown

Within a drop of water from these

they reproduce to the point where even tually the bacterial cell bursts. When this happens more viruses are released into the water but also organic and inor

different water bodies we found millions

ganic nutrients are released which can

about the transmission in water of vi

to tens of millions of bacteria. These

then be used by other microorganisms.

numbers of bacteria are typical of num bers found in fertile natural systems. However, more startling was that in

In this way the microbial component of

ruses such as avian influenza, paramyxoviruses and duck plague, there are

and wetlands in western North America for total bacterial and viral numbers.

many prairie wetlands in Saskatchewan we found up to 2.5 billion viruses per millilitre of water. These include some

of the highest viral counts from natural systems in the world. Some of these exceptionally high viral counts were

these wetlands for a food source. We have no reason to believe that

of large scale mortality of birds and

these viruses pose any risk to the health

amphibians or fish. It is an intriguing possibility that wetland waters may har

of either humans or wildlife. On the

the effect on the health of humans or

munity that is kept under close control by viral predators. It is a common con sequence of natural predator-prey rela tionships that communities of organisms that iu-e heavily preyed upon are the most biologically vigorous and contain the greatest diversity of species. This is par ticularly true for predation by viruses because each virus is capable of infect ing only one prey species and is harm-

and in lakes have shown that their main

'NHRI, Environment Canada, Saskatchewan

^UQAM, Quebec

waterfowl biologists know quite a bit

undoubtedly many viruses in water that affect wildlife that we know very little

other hand, their numbers suggest the

up images of disease, in fact these or ganisms are a normal part of all aquatic systems. Studies of viruses in oceans

wetland birds, animals and fish. While

the food chain in aquatic systems is in creased. Eventually the food chain is stimulated all the way up to waterfowl and other animals which depend on

from water collected from drinking water dugouts. An obvious question then is what is wildlife? While the word virus conjures

number of viruses that are derived from

presence in these shallow ecosystems of an active natural bacterial and algal com

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998


These are probably not a usual cause mammals but this may not be true for

bour natural disease agents. If so, then further insights into rates and pathways of viral infection might provide new

ways of managing and protecting wild life resources.

Our survey was conducted only dur ing the summer of one year. We have no idea of how viral numbers change in a wetland between summer and winter

or how they may change from one year to the next. High numbers of viruses may be a normal characteristic of prai rie wetlands. Indeed,on the basis of the 71

Wetlands Research, cant' limited data we currently have we can only surmise about the ecological role of these vimses in prairie wetlands based on published studies from lakes and oceans. But even this information is lim

ited since viral numbers are only avail able for less than two dozen lakes in the world!

Wetlands are a major natural resource for prairie Canada. The in-water ecol

that help support the biological produc tivity of surface waters. While ti'opical and subtropical wet lands are generally considered to be the most biologically productive systems in the world, prairie wetlands do not lag far behind, as evidenced by the huge flocks of waterfowl they support. The

Predictions from global circulation models about climate change indicate that the prairie region will be warmer and more arid in the future. In addition,

reduction of the Arctic ozone layer will mean increased UV-radiation impinging on prairie wetlands - the agricultural heartland of Canada. Additionally, economic diversification in this

Our survey of the microbiological populations of wetiands is oniy the beginning of the process of understanding the ecology of these systems.

ogy of these systems has been sadly neglected. The data recently collected as part of the WEVS program have shown that these sys tems are chemically distinct from surface waters in other parts of Canada. Our survey of the microbio logical populations of wetlands is only the beginning of the process of under standing the ecology of these systems. This survey has shown that they may also contain some unique microbiologi cal characteristics. Microorganisms play vital roles in keeping our waters clean and healthy. They are involved in the decomposition and cycling of a wide range of organic materials and nutrients

region is already a reality and may create new envi ronmental stresses. What

will be the effect of all these

stressors on our diminishing number of wetlands? Mi

croorganisms, and in particular bacteria, are the

basis of such high productivity is poorly understood. For example, if you visit a wetland site you may find two wetlands laying side by side that differ dramati cally in productivity,for no obvious rea son. One wetland will have a large com munity of ducks while the other does not have a single duck. What do the ducks

prime decomposers in aquatic systems and they are the first link between the biological and non-biological compo nents of aquatic ecosystems. In order to make informed predictions about what will happen to our wetlands and their wildlife populations in the future

know that we don't? What makes one

narios, we need information about the

wetland more appealing for waterfowl than another when both look identical

ecology of microorganisms in these sys tems. This information currently does

to the human eye?

not exist.

under these various environmental sce


For water disinfection, waste water treatment,odour

control, cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.


Professional Products Division 6400 Norfhw/est Drive

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4V 1K1 Tel: (905)678-2051 Fax:(905)678-0898 E-mail: javex-12info@colpal.com Plant Locations: Moncton, Montreal,Toronto,Edmonton


For more information, circle reply card No. 132 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

Focus On Storage Tanks The strength of steel

Selecting a tank for used oil

• Tanks for corrosi

applications WR&UMoa


Northern Steel

HSEAL Aboveground horizontal double-wail storage tank • ULC S-601 Primary (Vacuum monitoring available) • ULC S-653 Secondary contained system • tank mounting fueling systems available • 1000-90,0001 capacities

• specialty systems for jet fuel • custom sizes & coatings available Stainless steel tanks as well as structural steel also available. For complete product information: Northern Steel Industries Head Office

Edmonton Office

Tisdale, SK


toll free:

(403) 414-6881


Fax:(403) 414-6882

fax:(306) 873-2252

Protecting tomorrow TODAY

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

e-mail nsi@sk.sympatico.ca


For more information, circle reply card No. 267 (See page 17)


Focus on Storage Tanks

Cover Story

The strength of steel and Its Importance in environmental protection

In his book Toxic Time Bombs-the

Regulation of Canada's Leaking Underground Storage, environ mental lawyer John Swaigen esti mates that a tiny gasoline leak of just one or two drops per second can dis charge more than 34 gallons a month,

system provides a superior storage so

in underground applications. A poly ethylene grid separates the steel tank


from the polyethylene Tank JacketÂŽ and

You cannotjust bury an underground petroleum storage tank anywhere with out a properly excavated site, the cost

creates a testable interstitial space with provision for monitoring. These tanks also provide impact and puncture resist ance and may be installed on a clean bed

monitored double walled containment

of which has to be factored into the

sufficient to contaminate more than 120

project. Depending on soil conditions

of sand without the need for the more

million gallons of groundwater with

at the installation site, a tank made of

detectable concentrations of benzene.

material other than steel requires more

expensive pea gravel. Sacrificial anodes are not required with tanks such as these.

Considering the number of underground storage

Tank Jacket are registered

tanks now in use across

trademarks of Total Con

Total Containment and

Canada and the fact that

tainment Inc., Exton,Penn

some of these tanks may

sylvania. Inasmuch as the pur chase of a petroleum stor age is a long term decision,

have been installed more

than 50 years ago, Swaigen's warnings should not be taken lightly. This is not to say that the petroleum storage regu latory environment or tech nology has remained static for the past half century. For example,subsequent to

it is also well to consider

that petroleum fuels and lubricants have and always will be formulated to be

contained by steel. It is therefore entirely possible that some additive or im

provement not yet devel oped may prove incompat

the installation of these

very old tanks, the steel tank industry promoted the advantages of sacrificial anode protection systems. These are packaged mag

ible with other tank mate

rials. The National Fire Code

(NFC) and Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada

nesium or zinc anode as

semblies welded to the

The integrity of petroleum tanks is vital. Leakage of oniy two arops (ULC),in cooperation with persecond could seriously contaminate underground watersupplies.

tank to prevent corrosion of the steel. This technology, coupled with a thick dielectric coating system, is designed to extend the life of steel un derground tanks for a minimum of 25 years.

More recent technology, designed to greatly enhance environmental protec tion is the secondary containment steel tank developed by the Steel Tank Asso ciation of Canada(STAC). Trade named

Petro-VaultÂŽ, this is a primary tank sealed with a second layer of steel with a vacuum drawn between the two lay ers. The tank is supplied with either a visual or electronic vacuum monitoring device. The tank includes the previously mentioned sacrificial anode protection and insulating coating. Obviously, a

the Standards Council of

costly bed preparation such as pea gravel. Then, there is the realistic rec ognition that the installation process it self can involve handling mishaps. Steel withstands abuse without cracking, tear ing or rupture because it is ductile, there fore highly resi.stant to cracking. Steel will dent, bend or stretch dramatically, even at weld joints, without failure. Steel is very resistant to structural dam age or reduced material thickness from abrasion. The coating can be field re paired with confidence that the tank strength or life has not been compro mised.

Another double containment under

ground storage tank design introduced in recent years bears the trademark

Petro-Vault tank will cost more than sin

Total ContainmentÂŽ. In this design, the

gle wall alternatives, but the added en vironmental protection gained by a

steel tank is fully jacketed with high density polyethylene, a dielectric noncorrosive and chemically resistant ma terial with a proven history of stability

*Westeel Industrial Products 74

Canada,have been active for many years in establishing design, installation and operation criteria for underground tanks. More recently, in 1988,the Federal,Pro vincial and Territorial Ministers of the

Environment developed and unani mously agreed upon an Environmental Code of Practice for enhanced protec tion of groundwater. Today, fuel spills are simply not acceptable. In recent years, the steel tank indus try has invested heavily in the research and development of above ground pe troleum containment suitable for just about any permanent or temporary ap plication. It is important to note that many of the features designed to en hance the life of underground storage tank systems are also available for above ground use. Additionally, above ground tank integrity can be visually inspected, thus the cost of correcting any detected problems is most often less than with

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

By Brad Warner* underground systems. The ultimate technology in safe

above ground storage is the new Fire guard速 tank, developed by the Steel Tank Institute (STI). It not only has a two hour fire rating, it is also ballistics and impact tested. The primary feature that sets it apart from the option of a tank embedded in concrete is lightweight por tability. Depending on the authorities having jurisdiction, a Fireguard tank can be immediately adjacent to a building. Other new names in double contain

ment above ground petroleum storage

and dispensing include Recycoil速, Fuel Vault速 and Vacu-Vault速 from Westeel.

Each of these products is available in different shapes, sizes and options for application specific suitability. The cost of installing tanks such as these is most often much less. For ex

ample,the site preparation requirements are generally less elaborate. The total space requirements may also be reduced as a result of the elimination of earthen

dykes or other safety precautionaiy ele ments which would be mandatory for above ground single wall storage systems.

...when sources of pollution are discovered, the responsible parties are often bankrupt or


The steel tank industry has invested heavily in the research and development of above ground petroleum containment. tion are discovered, the responsible par ties are often bankmpt or insolvent in the face of prohibitive clean-up costs. Ad equate insurance is therefore essential to avoid "betting your company" on a clean record of environmental protection. The risk of pollution is always pre

sent wherever combustible liquids are stored and dispensed. When planning or upgrading tank storage facilities, con sideration should be given to the advan tages of the latest steel tank technology. For more information,

circle reply card No. 133 New features and tank sizes available!

insolvent in the face of

prohibitive ciean-up costs. Double containment above ground storage has proven to be particularly popular at remote sites. Some of these locations are in Canada's Pre-Cambrian,

or permafrost regions where under ground site preparation often involves blasting and/or long hauls of sand or gravel. It makes sense that the further a site is away from availability of special ized equipment and other required ele ments, the more efficient it is to have a

complete package arrive on one truck. Even if a fuel storage and dispensing site is planned as a permanent installa tion, eventual decommissioning must be considered as a possibility. Ownership liability requires that the site be left in an acceptable state. Factoring the po tential cost of decommissioning in the original planning phase usually points to above ground storage as the more practical option. Insurance premiums will have to be paid for the life of the tank. It is clear that public intolerance towards environ mental contamination will continue to

grow in the years ahead. John Swaigen points out that when sources of polluEnvironmental Science & Engineerinf^, May 1998

Dollar for Dollar

Your Least Expensive Solution to Used Dil

Storage Problems

Once again quality and experience pay the

best dividends. The Myers Waste Oil Storage System is the first fuily integrated engineered system that takes ease of installa tion and operation, longevity, and human factors into account. Myers' systems are built to last, with fail-safe engineering features that give you peace of mind and the lowest long term cost for safe interim storage of used oil.

For more information on Canada's first and foremost ULC-iisted contained used oil

storage system caii, fax or write us today.

AWERS WbsteOil^

Storage System

Manufactured by: King Metal Fabricators Ltd.

219 Waverley Road Dartmouth, Nova Scotia Canada B2X2C3


Tel: (902) 434-7110 Fax:(902) 434-9478 E-mail:


For more information, circle reply card No. 134 (See page 17)


Focus on Storage Tanks

Selecting a tank for used lubricating oii

There is a great disparity be

oil is a serious hazard to the environ

proved interim holding tank system while await ing collection. • Any used oil must be collected by companies that are licenced to per form this service. They know how to safely han dle and transport the product and have greater options for its end use such as re-refining or

ment. Lubricants contain metal traces

controlled incineration.

and other contaminants not found in

unused oil. Some used oil is ending up in landfill sites, disposed through sew ers or being poured onto the ground. As

Purchasing a Tank System When evaluating a tank system for used oil,

little as one litre of used oil can con

make sure it carries an

tween the one billion litres of

lubricating oil sold in Canada which produces approxi mately half a billion litres for disposal, and the 250 million litres of used oil re

covered for proper re-use or disposal. This means that some 250 million litres

of used lubricating oils are being im properly disposed of or misused. This large volume of missing used

taminate many thousands of litres of clean drinking wa ter and adversely affect the Before - This waste oii dumpsite is oily, ugly and dangerous. Besides the obvious fire safety hazard, the site presents an open Invitation to vandals.

environment in countless

other ways. There are also huge po tential costs of site remedi

ation following contamina



• The system has structural integrity of design and materials. •The system has met the requirements

Moreover,the missing oil is a waste of a valuable nonrenewable resource. Used

of the National Fire Code in its de

oil can be reclaimed and

sign and safety features. • The manufacturer is capable of building the system to ULC standards. • The manufacturer follows a given level of testing and quality control to ensure that each system produced

reused, or be refined into

various hydrocarbon-based products, or substituted as a fuel to conserve stocks of

virgin oil. The Solution

meets ULC standards.

It is essential to adopt a ULC has a wide range of tank sys "cradle to grave" strategy tem standards and guidelines to facili when evaluating actions to After - A site is cieaned up and remediated. A fresh tate the various products which may eliminate the risk of pollu coat of gravel is applied to level the site and concrete be stored. It is wise to be aware of tion and subsequent clean-up patio stones are set under the legs. Installing the tank what standards apply to a used or takes only 15 minutes. Photos - King Metal Fabricators costs and possible fines. waste oil tank system and not to as •All used oil generated should be safely Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada sume that just any ULC listed tank is collected and accounted for. (ULC) label. This will help to ensure suitable for this type of service. Used oil must be placed into an ap that the tank system you purchase has Originally, ULC issued an "other the approval of your local authorities and recognized document" ULC/ORD*King Metal Fabricators has met the following minimum require- C142.23-1991 which described the con struction requirements of a used oil tank. King Metal Fabricators were the first in FAST DELIVERY Canada to petition ULC for the creation


-stock sizes

of this document and the first in North

-chemical resistant

-custom options Est 1968


25 - 9000 gal

(905)579-1433 Fax (905)579-1431 www.fibreglass.com

America to have tank systems approved based upon its content. The first thing this document indi cated was that the tank design and con struction be that of CAN4-S601M Standard For Horizontal Tanks or CAN4-S630M for Vertical Tanks. Then


For more information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998

By Don Myers* and other used petroleum products are known to contain as much as 33 percent

sound decision.

tails of proper configuration for the col lection and interim storage of used oil.

contaminants: fresh and/or salt waters,

ered. Does the tank allow easy access

Fill funnels, suction tubes for emptying, access stairs or platforms and second ary containment, etc., were addressed along with testing and labelling. In 1993, ULC adapted and upgraded

metals, organlcs,acids and various other foreign materials. These accelerate the corrosion process and the premature fail ure of the tank. Lining the tank tends to be the best defence. Again, ULC has not made this a mandatory requirement on contained tank systems. A good tank manufacturer should be able to provide

to all its functions and are various addi

ULC/ORD-C142.23 took over with de

ORD-C142.23-1991 to a full standard called Standard For Tank Assemblies

For Collection OfUsed Oil, ULC-S652, 1993. This publication contains addi

all the information needed to make a

Ergonomics should also be consid

tional safety features incorporated such as non-slip treads and landings? A system that looks good will gener ally be well maintained. Moreover, a clean, well laid out system shows your concern for the environment.

For more information, circle reply card No. 139

tional details for the construction and

operation of these tank systems. In 1995, ULC developed ULC/ORDC142.21-1995 which addresses above

ground used oil storage systems. This document takes into account the con

figuration of tanks which incorporate pumping systems which carry the oil to the tank.

You must now evaluate probably the most critical aspects of your purchase relative to long term use.

Used oil and other used

Oil &Fuel Run-off Solutions

petroleum products are known to contain as

much as 33 percent contaminants:fresh and/

or salt waters, metals, organlcs, acids and

Oil/Water Separators

various other foreign materials.

High-performance Solutionsfor Reducing Oil and Fuel in Run-off Water Streams...

ULC has very minimal requirements for protective coatings being applied to the tank system. This leaves the respon sibility for long term corrosion protec tion to the manufacturer or the end user.

All surfaces exposed to the elements should at least be protected with a high quality coating system. Today's most accepted and used coating would be a two part, high solids content epoxy

Processes substantially higher design flows than gravity separators having the same footprint.

1^ Removes oil droplets as small as 20 microns.

which meets ULC-S616M standard.

Reduces effluent-free oil concentrations to as low

Surfaces should be prepaied for coat ing as per the paint manufacturer's in structions, at the very least using com mercial sand blasting; in addition, all joints to be coated should be seal welded and all sharp comers ground. Additional attention should be paid to high traffic areas and wear points. Galvanized steps and fasteners, stainless steel hinge pins and protective rubber moldings should all be considered.

as 10 parts per million! For more information caii us toii-free...





One final area to consider is the inte

rior of the primary tank itself. Used oil Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1998



Protecting Your Business, Preserving the Environment Greentank^"^ is a Registered Trade Mark of ZCL COMPOSITES INC.

For more information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 17)


Focus on Storage Tanks

Fiberglass reinforced plastic tanks for corrosive environment applications

Corrosion is traditional y a

major expense in chemical storage and handling appli cations. During discussion on this subject, visions of coatings, liners, special alloys and reinforced plastics invariably spring to mind. Corrosion is also experienced in ap plications ranging from the storage of water treatment chemicals to wastewater

neutralization tanks to de-ionized water tanks.

ZCL Fiberglass, a Division of ZCL Composites Inc., specializes in the ap plication of fiberglass reinforced pla.stic (FRP) technology. Most predomi nant has been its use for the reliable and

long-term underground storage of petro leum products. Before any declaration that FRP is a panacea for all that ails modern indus try, one must understand the nature of the problem. As for any application, it is essential that the right material be se lected so as to ensure the best perform ance over the intended lifespan. Some advantages of fiberglass rein forced plastic (FRP) include coiTosion resistant resins developed for specific purposes that have withstood the tests of time and service. FRP equipment typically is moulded with a minimum of welds or joints exposed to corrosive


Double wall secondary containment system. Photo - ZCL

materials, thus minimizing the opportu nity for corrosive attack at these loca

lightweight nature of fiberglass rein forced plastic (up to five time lighter


than steel), facilitates installation and,

The smooth surfaces of moulded FRP

are less likely to support biological growth and are easier to keep clean. This has significance for long-term corrosive effects, health considerations and even

downstream equipment fouling. The

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when applicable,relocation of the equip ment.

Most tanks are available in single wall and also in double wall designs for critical applications. FRP is an effective thermal and elec

trical insulator resulting in reduced heat loss compared to metal, and no induced current corrosion. It is not subject to any significant long term material creep ing, which can be experienced with unreinforced thermoplastics. Larger tanks operating at higher temperatures can be produced and FRP storage tanks usually cost less than many alloys and exhibit lower long-term maintenance costs than many coatings and liners. The design of a tank must take into account not only the material being stored or processed but also the condi tions under which the equipment will be installed (outdoors, indoors, under

45 64

ground, space restrictions, etc.). Tank operating conditions(temperature, pres



sure) are also features that must be as



sessed in completing the optimum de sign for the intended application.

TCI Inc Terratec

ZCL Composites .... 77 Zenon


For more information, circle reply card No.136

Environinenlal Science & Engineering, May 1998

PROCESS WATER MONITORING T\irbidity - Suspeaded Solids - ppb DO - Dual pH,ORP,DO,ISE... Suspended Soli^

COMBI Dual Input

ppb DO Analyzer



Partech IR sensors, combined with the

7100 controller provide

otssoi® atvij(N

robust and accurate


measurement of

suspended solids and turbidity in municipal or industrial process applications. Four low

eooA eeo© ^

maintenance moulded sensors cover ranges

' B Ft 0 E 13 Q B Q RrrAMAtyncAir.|


The RTF Analylical Model 2010 Dissolved Oxygen .■\nalyzcr uses a three electrode galvanic cell to measure DO from 0 ppb to 10 ppm. Unmatched in the industry, the 2010 is loaded with features such as 0.1 ppb precision, auto-ranging, front-panel programming, two fully adjustable 4-20 niA outputs, txvo relav outputs and

extending from 500 to

30,000 m^. For very tough applications, the world unique Turbi-Tech sensor, with self-cleaning

capability, is also available. We have your solution for

much more. . . The 2010, THE SOLUTION TO

MLSS and flnal effluent control.


Circle reply card No. 292

Circle reply card No. 291

Circle reply card No. 290



Calgary Toronto Montreal

The RTT Analytical COMBI 2000 Dual Input Controller offers as many as 16 sensor combinations to choose from, covering the tiieasurement of pH, ORP, DO, Conductivity, TLirbidity, ISE and Temperature. With its unique design, the 2000 controller includes two 4-20 m.A outputs, up to five buiit-in relays and an optional single or dtial PID controller for optimum process control

• Municipal WWTP

• Boiler water control

• Industrial WWTP

• Disinfection control

1-888-965-4700 • Corrosion prevention • Drinking water control

INDUSTRIAL GAS MONITORING Gas Analyzers - Flammable Gas Detectors

Total Hydrocarbon





IR Gas Detector


New from CROWCON, the CIRRUS is a duai beam

IR flammable ga.s. detector offering,

unmatched longj term stability, a'

C,\l Model 300-FID is designed to continuously measure the total HC concentration within a gaseous sample. The 19 inch rack mounted anaiyzer uses a flame ionization detector and offers eight switch selectable ranges extending from 0 to 30,000 ppm Carbon. Tiie 300-FID is ideal for monitoring stack gases, scrubber efficiency, solvent recovervand more. . .

Circle reply card No. 293

The 1312 monitor is ba.sedon the unique Photoacoitstic Spectroscopy (PAS) technology mastered by INNOVA AirTech. The 1312 can monitor up to 6 gases simultaneously with very high selectivity based on the use of optical filters. The instrument is well suited for on-site measurement for various applications such as indoor air quality, health and safety leak detection and more. . . The 1312 offers low detection limits in the 10 ppb to I ppm range, a very high stability and a 12 day data storage

capacity for 6 gases read every 10 minutes. Circle reply card No. 294


Calgary Toronto



lifetime factory

calibration and a

5-year warranty.

CIRRUS provides complete connection flexibility with both 4-20 tnA and RS-485 otitputs. With its pellistor mimic hmction, CIRRUS can easily extend pellistor-based systems. For reliable, bassle-free long term monitoring, ask for CIRRUS.

Circle reply card No. 295


• Stack monitoring • Personnel safety • Vehicle emissions

• Hazardous areas • Gas leak detection

• Offshore platforms



It's all in how you put it together.




the complete WORKS

EIMCO engineers have put together a phosphorous removal system that combines three


biological environments in a single partitioned reactor—eliminating recycle pumps and

Engineering new solutions

Once again, EIMCO writes the book on efficiency. For information, call (905) 625-6070.

piping. As a result, the Carrousel®

System reduces maintenance and operating costs.


For more information, circle reply card No. 138(See page 17)

P 1998 Baker Hughes