Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 1998

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

March 1998

Vancouver to host Water Quality International June 21-26,1998

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February/March '98 Vol. 11 No. 1


Issued March, 1998

President STEVE DAVEY Publisher TOM DAVEY

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Saies Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Circulation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Asst. KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., DEP. Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M G&S Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodtellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redtern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy business publication pub lished by Environmental Science & Engi neering Publications inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys

tems and drinking \water treatment and dis tribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.

Spring Convention Previews Environmental Compliance '98, BCWWA, RESEAU Envlronnement, WEAO, and OWWA/OMWA


While our oceans are dying, biilions are spent exploring dead worids in space. Editorial by Tom Davey WCW&WA attracts some 400 delegates

7 25

JetMix wins WEF award


MOEE program couid speed marketing cycie for new technologies Popuiation growth and the price of water How to seiect an appropriate open channel wastewater flowmeter Metal-enhanced dechlorination process for in situ

27 28 30

groundwater remediation


Advanced plasma arc technology for PCBs and other difficult-to-treat toxic ivasfes


PCB management- the current status How to generate electricity while reducing greenhouse gases

42 44

Speedy diversion chamber installation allows Calgary siphon inspection Water filtration - fundamentals and design NASA evaluates water purification system Biogas scrubber can be used in municipal and food treatment applications 14/asfeivafer treatment control systems Why global warming may not devastate human health Reclaimed water from treatment plant now serving Florida residents The Plastimet fire and its toxic legacy Leachate treatment system is designed to last 300 years and extend landfill life

46 48 50 52 54 56 57 58 60

Laboratory accreditation - does it result in improved data or is it mere window dressing? Selecting gas detectors for confined space entries - Part II Vitrifying toxic fly ash Catalytic converters for the next century

62 90 93 94

Canadian Publications Mali Saies

Product Agreement No. 18197 Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

Official 1998 Ontario Environmental

Printed in Canada. No part of this publi cation may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. (G.S.T. extra)

Tradeshow Guide - Exhibitors preview, floorplan

All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engi neering,220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca. Web site: http://www.esemag.com

Departments Ad Index


Literature Reviews Product Review



R&D News

Datepad Industry Update

17 12-22

Reader Feedback

Reader Service Card

34 78, 79, 81 64, 73-77 66-72 10


Cover story: Vancouver will be an impressive focai point for environmentai scientists and engineers attending the Water Quality International Conference, June 21-26. This conference wiii blend pure research with some practical solutions for industry. Story on page 88. Vancouver was also the site of Globe '98. Photo - Tom Davey Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

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Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

While our oceans are dying, biiiions are spent exploring dead worlds in space

Wewent to a Florida

beach in darkness to

see Athena II blast off

into space in a spec tacular display of pyrotechnics. After the orange glow of the launch we saw the booster rockets fall as

the rocket began its two day trek to the moon. While awe-inspiring to earthlings, as space shots go, this

ingenuity but this latest moon probe pales by comparison to earlier US successes. In the Athena II project, no human landed on the moon but

the diminutive Solar Prospector satellite was launched to begin its primary task of finding ice which could be used to provide water for later human settlers. This trip is rather inexpensive by past NASA

Churchill praised Link Trainers for their vital role in training WW11 RAF pilots. After several decades. Link

trainers are still used in military, civilian and space aviation training. No better use of his engineering versatility was demonstrated than when the Challenger space shuttle broke up shortly after take off from

mission was almost routine. Com

pared to the more recent Mars probe, this moon shot was like a trip to galactic suburbia. It was not always so. Some 35 years earlier, the Rus sians startled the Americans with

their orbiting satellite Sputnik, administering the coup de grace to stunned US politicians whenYuri Gagarin returned safely after completing three orbits of earth. Kruschev sneeringly pointed out

f harbor BRANCH-

that the diminutive US satellites

ti. 'M- -H

resembled Florida grapefruits in size. A shaken JFK announced that

America accepted the space chal lenge to be the first to put a man on the moon. Displaying both the best rockets and repartee in the space race, Krushchev responded that Russia had already hit the moon with Luna II in 1959. The Russian

problem, he stressed, would be to de-moon a cosmonaut.

But the Russian gloating was short-lived. The US rapidly over

One of the early Link submersibles in front of a Harbor Branch research vessel recently returned from the Galapagos. Photo - T. Davey.

standards, a mere $63 million. Not far from where we watched

the moon probe lies the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute on the Indian River Lagoon {ES&E June 1996). Founded by Seward

Cape Canaveral a few years ago, killing the crew. It was a Link designed submersible from Harbor Branch which was sent out to locate

Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became

Johnson and Edwin Link, Harbor

the first humans to land on the moon

in 1969, ten years after Luna II had hit the moon. Many other US space trips followed and, being Ameri cans, they naturally took a car along

Branch has done pioneering oceano graphic research as far away as the Galapagos islands, and more re cently off the shores of Cuba with the encouragement of Fidel Castro.

and retrieve wreckage from the stricken space shuttle. There was an ironic juxtaposition to the 1998 space probe. That very same day, marine scientists in Washington, issued a report which contained a sombre warning about the alarming state of our oceans.

with them, the Lunar Rover - now

Institute research includes onshore

"The sea is in real trouble, much

easily the world's most expensive used car. Neil Armstrong went from outer space to become, of all things, an expert in leaking underground gas tanks. 1 met him after he gave a presentation at a seminar in Toronto some 15 years ago.

aquaculture experiments as well as deep sea exploration in submersibles designed by Edwin Link who was an astonishingly versatile inventor. The son of a player piano maker, Edwin Link developed a range of aviation trainers where pilots could

took the Russians and Neil

more than we previously thought", said Elliot Norse, founder of the

Marine Conservation Biology Institute in Redmond, Washington.

Biologist Patricia Norse told a news conference that while scientists are

The Rover is still there as a

train without hazard to themselves

not alarmists by nature, the fact that 1,600 experts from sixty five

tribute to American tenacity and

or scarce wartime planes. Winston

countries had endorsed a call for ac-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Editorial Comment, conr tion was very significant. They want President Clinton to hold a White House Conference this

aquatic habitats have been ruined by pollution. Oyster beds have been contaminated from sewage and industrial discharges and lobster and crab, once sold at premium prices in

year on the rapid, unprecedented declines in fishing populations, and expressed concerns on the overall

restaurants, cannot be eaten with

health of our oceans.

confidence in some areas.

Congressman Curt Weldon, speaking on the same day as the moon shot, January 6, said: "It is appalling to me that we spend more

Many jurisdictions issue warn ings to anglers. The State of Florida, for example, now issues warnings of dangerous mercury

on the 'oceans of Mars' than we do on the oceans of earth".

In Canada we are painfully aware of the economic effects of oceanic

mismanagement. Cod have disap peared off the Grand Banks, once

levels in fish in certain areas, and

for years Ontario has issued warn ings and guidelines to freshwater anglers because of various polluted waterways.

whales, whose habitat was the St. Lawrence River, have been found to

We don't have to go to the moon to get the expertise to remediate the municipal and industrial pollution which is devastating the earth's waters. Technical capabilities are already here in abundance. What is missing is a willingness to spend money on proven environmental

be so contaminated they could be

remediation technology. But can we

considered as toxic waste, a maca

afford not to?

the richest fishing area on our planet. On our west coast salmon

are disappearing, with Alaska and British Columbia involved in hostile

confrontations. Dead Beluga

bre lesson in bioaccumulation.

Many other saltwater and freshwater

If all the economic costs of water

pollution were factored into the

equation, politicians would find there are great monetary savings to be gained from investing in water treatment projects. Clean water not only provides abundant and inex pensive food supplies, it can save vast sums in reducing our spiralling health costs. History shows that dirty water has killed or maimed more humans than all the wars of

recorded history. Personally, I support the idea of

space travel not only for its pursuit of knowledge but for its exciting economic possibilities. But because space travel is glamorous, priorities have become distorted. The tangi ble evidence of our deteriorating oceans and waterways are not

possibilities but grim portents of what will happen if we do not change our ways and priorities. From the moon itself we can get

the perfect word to describe a $63 million project to investigate the possibility of frozen water on a dead celestial world. The word is lunacy.


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Reader Feedback Dear Tom, On Tuesday, March 10th, about 90 graduating engineers will solemnly and voluntarily adopt a code of professional conduct, the Obligation, during the Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer, often referred to as the Iron Ring Cer emony. Following dinner,they will look forward to a Guest Speaker,one who can inspire them to anticipate exciting and rewarding careers, with the lifetime re minder of the obligation - their handhammered, cold iron rings. The Wardens of the Guelph Camp agreed that you would be an excellent speaker, with your global perspective on engineering issues, ethics and excellence. The Ritual was conceived by Profes sor Haultain of the University of To ronto, as an induction ceremony which would include something similar to the Hippocratic Oath. He asked Rudyard Kipling to compose the Ritual, which included a ring - one of the oldest hu man symbolic artifacts. The first Cana dian engineers were obligated, in Mon treal and Toronto, in 1925. Camp 17 was inaugurated in Guelph in 1968. The Kipling Ritual is unchanged,since 1925.

available to join us on March 10th. Guelph is an excellent School of Engi neering, from which many quality stu dents have graduated. Mike Garrett, the Megacity GAG (1969) and Ken Morri son (1972), whose John Street Pump ing Station is referred to in the ES&E December/January 1998 editorial, are among those who have avoided those potholes of mediocrity! R.J. Long,P.Eng., RPP Long Environmental Consultants Inc.

There is no connection between the

the present.

Camps and the associated universities or provincial associations. I hope that you are interested and

nipulated by the shrieking Luddites and those with the ability to analyze and

Dear Mr. Davey, Let me be one of the first to congratu late you on two especially timely and insightful articles, in the November is sue of ES&E magazine. I am referring to your editorial Did Pax Verdis picket when Wren was building St. Paul's? and Confronting environmental fantasies with scientific realities by Dr. John K. Sutherland.

After reading these two articles,I was relieved to find a voice of reason among the cacophony of ignorance, that passes for environmental consciousness. At the

same time, I was struck by the parallels in the human condition of the 1600's and It saddens me that we are still ma

apply the appropriate preventive meas ures to real hazards are given the short shrift.

Dennis J. Csatari

Water Treatment Technologies Inc. Dear Tom, I have just read your editorial in the November issue of ES&E which I en

joyed very much. The article by Dr. Sutherland, Science Risk and Realities,

was also very thought provoking and im pressive. Pamela Welbourn,Ph.D. Welboum Consulting,Peterborough,ON Dear Mr. Davey, I am impressed with your magazine and I rely on it as one of my sources of cur rent information in the field of environ

mental protection. I also occasionally refer my students to articles that appear in ES&E. I would, therefore, appreciate permission to dis tribute two articles (from August/Sep tember, Vol. 10 No. 4, issue of ES&E)

to my students. The articles are En hanced phosphorous removal for the Village ofElmvale WPCP and Environ mental effects monitoring at Canadian pulp and paper mills. Jim Steeves, Professor Environmental Technology Program, Canadore College

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Industry Update Montreal's distribution

system not hurting water quality

plant and over the length of the distri bution system. Analysis confirmed that

ing research will help determine what

even after several hours in the distribu

orders that Montreal has experienced, which peaked at eight separate incidents

tion system,the quality of the water was as high as when it originally left the plant. According to researchers, this study represents only a first sounding of the city's network of pipes. The part of the distribution system sampled is relatively

Montreal's water distribution mains

which are less than 30 years old, do not alter the quality of drinking water. This is what a study conducted by the Drink ing Water Industry Chair at the Ecole polytechnique has concluded. Re searchers took water samples over the course of 1994,collecting water as it left

modem,installed in the 1970s. At least

half of Montreal's system dates back over 50 years. It is hoped that continu-

the Charles-J.-des-Baillets treatment

is behind the increase in "boil water"

in 1996.

Significant drop in pollution by BC industries An Environment Canada compliance program targeted at the wood preserva tion industry in the Lower Eraser River area of British Columbia, has resulted

in a dramatic reduction in the discharges of toxic effluents. Discharges into the Eraser River of stormwater effluent con




taining toxic wood preservative chemi cals will be reduced by more than 90% by the spring of 1998. The outstanding results of the wood preservation industry conclude a fiveyear compliance campaign operated under the Eraser River Action Plan, launched in 1991. From 1994 to 1996,

the wood preservation industry in BC spent almost $23 million upgrading their plants to achieve compliance and an additional $13 to $23 million is antici


Waste water slu


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pated by next year. The report, titled: Annual Compli ance Reportfor Heavy Duty Wood Pres ervation Industry in BC, is among a se ries of 20 compliance reports by Envi ronment Canada.

Successes detailed in other compli ance reports include a 99% reduction in the discharge of dioxins and furans from pulp and paper mills, 152 fewer PCB waste storage sites in BC, 100% com pliance with the Pulp and Paper Mill Defoamer and Wood Chip Regulations, 89% implementation of best manage ment practices in the Antisapstain indus try, 95% reduction in biochemical oxy gen demand and 89% reduction in sus pended solids from grain shipping ter

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

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Industry Update Environmental

thorities but will use them in a coordi

Harmonization Accord

approved The Canadian Council of Ministers of

the Environment - with the exception of Quebec - signed an accord in Janu ary, designed to lead to improved coop eration and better environmental protec tion across Canada. Under the Canada-Wide Accord on

Environmental Harmonization, each

nated manner. Each government will undertake clearly defined responsibility for environmental performance and will report publicly on its results. The ministers of Canada, nine prov inces and the territories, also signed subagreements dealing with environmental assessment, inspection activities, and development of Canada-wide standards in areas such as air, water and soil qual ity.

govemment will retain its existing au

To ensure results are achieved

quickly, ministers also approved a workplan that includes development of Canada-wide standards on particulate matter, ground level ozone, benzene, mercury, dioxins and furans, and on pe troleum hydrocarbons in soil. These standards will be developed in consul tation with stakeholders.

Quebec indicated it still requires cer tain conditions to be met before it signs the accord and sub-agreements. Among them, Quebec would like to see Parlia ment adopt amendments to federal leg islation that recognize the need to reduce overlap and duplication between juris dictions.

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For more information, circle repiy card No. 111 (See page 17)

nology Award, sponsored by Philip Services Corp., "recognizes a new Ca nadian technology either contributing to the reduction or elimination of pollution at its source or providing for cost-effec tive remediation of environmental con tamination."

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Oxygen and ozone solutions


Cost savings and environmental benefits with ozone Ozone (O3), with its oxidative capabil ity, is an ideal component in the envi ronmental treatment of waste and proc ess water, the purification of drinking water, pulp bleaching, and remediation. In the treatment of waste and proc ess water, ozone is used for colour re moval, and the reduction of BOD/COD

and pH. For drinking water, ozone is

systems, have formed a worldwide alli ance to provide customers with total ozone solutions that deliver cost savings

gral to producing high quality ozone as a disinfectant and bleaching agent) and Trailigaz's advanced ozone production

and environmental benefits. Praxair-


Trailigaz Ozone offers the combination of Praxair's expertise in the develop ment,engineering and manufacturing of VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorp tion) oxygen generation systems (inte

A new brochure,"Praxair-Trailigaz: The oxygen and ozone solution", is now available.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 124

used for disinfection and deodorization.

In remediation applications, it is used to facilitate soil remediation, sludge di gestion, and leachate treatment. Ozone is the bleaching agent of choice for TCP (totally chlorine free) pulp production and has the potential to play a key role in closed pulping systems. Advanced oxidation processes combine ozone with ultra-violet(UV), catalysts, and hydro

gen peroxide (H^Oj).

7 7


Praxair, one of the world's largest industrial gas companies,and Trailigaz,> the world's leading supplier of ozone

Improved oxygen wastewater treatment More restrictive environmental regula tions have many industries looking for ways to improve their wastewater treat ment systems. Oxygen-based systems, like Praxair's new I-SO (In-Situ Oxygenation) unit, together with an on-site VPSA (Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption) oxygen plant, offer a cost-effective and efficient solution. When used to upgrade an existing air-based treatment plant, the I-SO/VPSA combination can be as little

as half the capital costs and use a third less power than the air-based alternative. I-SO was developed in response to the need for an improved way of dissolving oxygen into wastewater and delivers an oxygen utilization rate greater than 90%.

Praxair has acquired Liquid Carbonic Industries, making us


the world's largest supplier of


carbon dioxide and a good deal mone }â–

It vastly expands our, '^ability ^ to provide a fuU menu of atmosphetij^ process and specialty gases. It gives ;

In a new installation, I-SO can com

pete with traditional aerators on both a capital and a power usage basis. The lowcost unit can also be used to supplement existing aeration systems to meet strin

gent environmental standards for BOD.

us new capacity and expertise to serve

"O c- .Oj

lost any industry in 44 countries^

The unit, which can treat a radius of about

50 ft., can be positioned in the wastewater pond wherever there is an area of lowdissolved oxygen. Because of its simple design, the I-SO system is easily retrofitted into all types of air-based treatment systems. This means that I-SO is ideal for increasing the capacity of existing treatment facilities without significantly increasing capital and operating costs. For more information, circle reply card No. 125

I. And it lifts our revenuesyl

ÂŽyeg4 bj|lion, making our future

,|)^sitivelmparkling./7^ai^^ A^kmg(mplanet more productive. : 'e infbrivaiion please call 1-800-PRAXAIR e-mail: info @ praxair.com

fmation. circle reply card No. 112 (See page 17)


Industry Update Water Quality Network created Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

waterfront municipalities in the United States and Canada can now work to

gether more efficiently through the Mu nicipal Water Quality Network. This Network allows municipalities to share data on the quality of water from their wastewater treatment and filtration

plants. The member municipalities can also compare treatment methods, prob lems they have faced and solutions brought forward. More than 80 municipalities have already indicated their intention to join the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Munici

pal Water Quality Network. It is man aged by the Biosphere in Montreal, Canada's first Ecowatch Centre.

All data gathered by network mem bers is available on the Internet at:


First green power agreement signed Environment Canada has signed an agreement with ENMAX, Calgary's Electric System, which will supply all


the electricity for nine buildings owned or leased by Environment Canada in

graduate student in the Department of

Alberta. The contract is the first insti

Civil Engineering. The firm was founded by two U of T

tutional purchase of green power in

Civil Engineering professors, Oscar Mai'shall and Harold Macklin, and was


Green power is electricity generated in a sustainable fashion from renewable

later joined by another U of T graduate, Pat Monaghan.

energy sources such as wind, water, so SAIT launches

lar and biomass. Environment Canada is committed to

purchasing 15-20% of its electricity as green power by 2010.

environmental centre

fundralsing campaign The Southern Alberta Institute of Tech

nology(SAIT)and its industry partners,

U of T scholarship

have launched a $3.2 million fundraising

endowed Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited

and its present and past employees,have contributed $30,000 to the scholarship endowment fund of the Faculty of Ap

plied Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto, to establish in perpetuity,the Marshall Macklin Mona ghan Scholarship. Under matching programs by the

campaign to establish the PanCanadian Environmental Technology Centre. The campaign will seek investment partners from oil and gas producers, mining,for estry, instrumentation, and waste man agement sectors, and utility companies. The Centre will provide state of the

practice environmental training to busi ness and industry clients as well as day program and continuing education stu

University of Toronto and the Ontario govemment, this gift will be tripled to

dents, to set new standards in environ mental technology.

$90,000. The annual income, with a

The Centre is slated to open in Sep tember 1999 and curriculum is currently being developed.

projected value of approximately $4,500, will be awarded to an under •^'ALULyA


Why use 18 when 4 will do? Ease municipal valve installation ductile.

and maintenance with AWWA

grooved and shouldered valves and VictauUc® couplings. Use only 4 to 12 nuts and bolts vs.

REiNPOfXED coNCRerg pipg

the traditional 18 to 36.

• Install your AWWA butterfly valves three to four times faster.

sHv* rcAMtp iMHfM KIM Tir* K-K

A Raduca Installmtlon mnd malntmnanca fiaadac/ias with

groov0d or should»r»d vah/um mnd Victmullc coupllngm.

• Up to 35% space savings over flanged. • Significantly lighter than flanged. No "two-holing," alignment hassle, or sleeve couplings. Call your local municipal specialist or Vlctaulic Company of Canada,

65 Worcester Roa^ Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Phone 416/675-5575

Fax 416/675-5729. http://www.victaulic.com

^ Thm Victmullc mymtmm givma you morm apmcm, morm time, mnd mmaler mccema thmn typicml nmnged/aleayea combination.

iCtauiiC An^9001 certified company 5 1995 Vlctaulic Company of Canada. Ail rights reserved.


For more information, circle reply card No. 113 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Date Pad March 28-31, 1998. 1998 Annual

Conference, Whistler, EC. Contact:

Water Environment Association of

Catherine Gibson,(604)540-0111,Fax: (604)540-4077.

Ontario Technical Symposium,Toronto, ON. Contact: WEAO, Tel: (416) 5021440, Fax:(416)502-1786. Aprill-3,1998. Reseau Environnement Trade Show and Conference, Quebec. Contact: Jean Pierre Dubois, Tel: (514) 270-7110, Fax:(514)270-7154. April 5-8, 1998. North American No-

Dig '98, Albuquerque, NM. Sponsored by the North American Society for Trenchless Technology. Contact:(312) 644-0828, Fax:(312)644-8557. April 8-9,1998. Environmental Com pliance '98. Toronto Congress Centre, Toronto, ON. Environmental Science &

Engineering magazine will be sponsor ing the Environmental Compliance Con

ference for the 6th consecutive year in 1998. Contact: ES&E for information

(905) 727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca.

April 27-29,1998. Health & Safety '98 lAPA Conference & Trade Show, Metro Toronto Convention Centre. Contact:

1-800-669-4939, Fax:(416)506-8880. April 28, 1998. Ontario Society for Environmental Management Annual Spring Conference - The State ofEnvi ronmental Protection in Ontario:Is Our

Health at Risk? Burlington. Contact: Sue Ruggero, (416) 746-9076, Fax: (416) 743-6171. May 3-6,1998. Ontario Section Ameri

national Trade Fair for Recycling and Waste Disposal, Cologne, Germany. Contact: Edel Wichmann, Cologne In ternational Trade Shows (416) 5983343, Fax:(416)598-1840. June 5-6, 1998. Federation of Cana dian Municipalities 61st Armual Confer ence and Municipal Expo, Regina, SK. Contact: Vicki Nash-Moore,(905)3392047, Fax:(905) 339-2043. June 10-12, 1998. Canadian Water Resources Association 51st Annual Conference - Mountains To Sea: Human

Interaction with the Hydrologic Cycle,

Victoria, BC. Contact: Mike Currie, (604) 985-5361, Fax:(604)985-3705. can Waterworks Association/Ontario June 14-18,1998. Bio'98 International Municipal Waterworks Association An nual Conference, Niagara Falls, ON. Biotechnology Meeting & Exhibition, Contact: (416) 252-7060, Fax: (416) New York, NY. Contact: Biotechnology Industry Organization,(202)857-0244, 252-3908. Fax:(202) 331-8132. May 3-7, 1998. CIM/CMMI/MIGA June 14-19,1998. Air & Waste Man Montreal '98, Montreal, QC. Contact: agement Association 9Ist Annual

April 26-29, 1998. British Columbia

Canadian Institute of Mining, Metal lurgy and Petroleum, 1-800-558-5335, Fax:(514)939-2714.

Water and Waste Association Annual

May 12-16,1998. Entsorga '98 - Inter-

Meeting & Exhibition, San Diego,Cali fornia. Contact: Deborah Hilfman,

Show Manager(914) 421-3287. June 21-25, 1998. American Water Works Association Annual Conference

The Environmental

Liquid Sampler

and Exposition, Dallas, Texas. Contact: (303)794-7711, Fax:(303) 795-1989.

Automated sampling at a fraction of the


cost of electronic devices The Environmental Liquid Sampler was developed to collect the "true" first sample of liquid that arrives at a specific sampling location, then seal itself off to preserve the sample Integrity. It is a mechanically automated device that can be used in remote loca tions without a power source. This eliminates the need to person ally respond to a storm event Immediately, allowing retrieval at a

nois[ comiiDi piiiiel sysieius

more convenient time.

Applications • Storm water runoff from industrial sites, feedlots and hog confinement operations. • Sampling discharge from sewage treatment areas. • Stream bed monitor rise due

to snow melt or heavy rains. • Agriculture/fertilizer runoff. • Drainage ditches. • Airports. Advantages • No electricity required. • Portable, light weight and compact design (under 10 pounds). • Easy to install, cost efficient. • Stainless steel and aluminum construction.

• Convenient retrieval of sample. • Unique design allows for collection and visual analysis of the parameters outlined in the MSGP. • Sample jugs allow for quick and easy returns to the laboratory. For more information contact:




Tel: (402) 331-6333 Fax:(402) 331-2813 Web site: http://www.dteccorp.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 114 (See page 17)


practical efficient solution to noise reduction needs. High Performance Combined with Economy • Outstanding sound absorption • Reduction of reverberation & background noise • Simple Installation • Easy maintenance & durability

ECKEL INDUSTRIES OF CANADA LIMITED 100 Allison Ave., Morrisburg, Ontario KOC 1X0 (613) 543-2967 Fax:(613) 543-4173 1-800-563-3574 CAN./USA Web Site: http://www.eckei.ca/eckel E-mail: eckel@eckel.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 115 (See page 17)

Industry Update University of Houston researches wastewater

pipe corrosion

treatment plant. The organisms in the pipes use available oxygen generating anaerobic conditions where hydrogen sulfide H,S is produced. The gaseous

an engineered fashion rather than wait ing for nature to haphazardly kill some of the bacteria."

Six percent decline in poiiutants

Cities all over the world are facing ma jor problems with wastewater systems that were installed 50 years ago when

and is consumed by other bacteria liv ing on the crown. The H,S is used by

The amount of pollutants released into

World War II ended and communities

the bacteria to make sulfuric acid which

the Canadian environment in 1995 de

entered an unprecedented growth pe

stations and treatment plants, forcing shutdowns and producing environmen

corrodes the concrete of the pipes. To control bacteria on pipes, manu facturers have tried adding biocides or antibiotics to the concrete, but as they wash out, they can affect the organisms that are supposed to be in the sewage

clined by 6 percent from 1994 levels, according to the National Pollutant Re lease Inventory. A total of 169,070 tonnes of pollut ants were reported released by 1,758 facilities in 1995,according to the NPRI.

tal hazards.

for treatment at the end.

Releases of toxic substances and known

Deborah Roberts, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering

Producers have also tried spraying pipes with chemicals, but this must be done about every six months and can be both difficult and expensive. Roberts plans to grow a specific biological agent that attacks only those organisms that

or suspected carcinogens, were down by 9 percent from 1994, including a 570

riod. Corrosion of the concrete is the

culprit, creating leaks and allowing in filtration of rainwater that overloads lift

at the University of Houston, is part of a team of researchers who are address

ing wastewater system renewal. Roberts' task is to identify the causes of pipe corrosion and the factors which determine how fast different materials

corrode. Roberts is currently testing three different concrete materials for

corrosion damage. Collection systems accumulate wastewater which includes organic com pounds designed to be treated in the

HjS escapes to the headspace of the pipe

cause corrosion.

"The biological product we're look ing at is a specific virus called a phage and will only attack those bacteria," Roberts says. "The phage is natural and occurs all the time. We'll isolate the

phage from the sewer, grow it in pure culture in large numbers and apply it in

tonne decrease in lead emissions and a

460 tonne drop in releases of benzene. Environment Canada maintains that

technological advances and federal and provincial pollution control programs over the last few years mean that the amount of pollutants released is likely to continue to decline. Future reports of the NPRI are projected to show de creases from 1995 levels of 14 percent in 1996, 18 percent in 1997 and 20 per cent in 1998.

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressors & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at discharge pressure to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as combustion drying, agitation, fiuidizing, oxidation, vacuum cleaning, sewage aeration, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 90 years.

industries of Canada Limited



CJ'BTR Environmental




58 Bertai Road, Toronto, Ontario, M6M 4M4, Tel(416)763-4681 Fax:(416)763-0440 email: hoffman.can@btrlnc.com, website: www.hoffmanair.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 116

(See page 17)

Environmental Science tfe Engineering, March 1998



INSITUFORM solves your pipe problems using nondisrupUve, cost-effective solutions. The most difficult part about some pipe problems is just getting access to the pipe itself. Insltuform Technologies specializes in reha bilitating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located In hard-to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the Inside, In most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Extensive independent and internal testing consis tently confirms the success of our methods.

We take sole-source responsibility tor solving your problem, from the develop ment and manufacturing of proprietary products, to the engineering and installa tion of a solution at your site. Our ISO 9000 quality system assures high quality every step of the way. With experts in ail facets of pipe rehabilitation on staff, we have the project manage ment expertise and trained installers to solve your problems quickly, Our

exceptionally low accident rate and EMR reflect our commitment to safety.

And, our 25 years and 7,000 miles of pipe rehabilitation experience are unequaled. That Is why insituform Is industry's preferred source for pipe reha bilitation. It you are having problems with ditticuit-to-access pipes, call us at 800-234-2992 or visit our web site at www.insltuforni.coni


Technologies Limited Š1997 Insituform Technologies, inc.

For more information, circie reply card No. 117(See page 17)

Industry Update Pulp & Paper Industry posts record shipments Canada's pulp and paper producers posted record shipments in 1997 as the industry continued to focus on cost re ductions, restructuring and consolida tion to become internationally competi tive and financially successful. Pulp and paper shipments increased 5.1% over 1996 to reach a record 29.4

million tonnes, with most of the growth coming from an 8.0% increase in ship ments to the US. Overseas shipments

in net exports in 1997,contributing $30

Publications available on

billion to the country's balance of trade. Direct employment in the sector in creased 4%, adding 10,000 additional jobs.

Ontario's environment

1997 was also a year in which the industry continued its drive towards en vironmental improvement and sustainability. More than 15 Canadian forestry companies have taken steps toward cer tification under CSA standards for sus

tainable forest management. Canadian mills will meet their year

industry A number of publications are available through Ontario's Green Industry office: Business Development Resources: a Business Guide for Ontario's Environ ment Industry, outlines programs, serv ices and other resources for business

support and technology development as sistance. Marketing to the Ontario Public Service - a Guidefor Ontario's Environment Industry, provides infor

increased 2.8% to 9.7 million tonnes,

2000 targets for reducing toxic emis

mation and key contacts for Ontario

with Latin America showing an impres sive 41% gain to reach 1.2 million

sions and will hold their greenhouse gas emissions well below 1990 levels. In

based environment industry suppliers who are targeting the Ontario Govern

addition, in 1997 the industry introduced

ment market. Economic Assessment:


"The good news is pulp and paper an Environmental Profile Data Sheet shipments reached record levels," said (EPDS)which plays a role similar to the Lise Lachapelle, Canadian Pulp and nutrition advisories on food packaging. Paper Association(CPPA)President and The profile sheet provides customers

it could lead to softer demand in 1998.

with audited information on the life-cy cle environmental attributes of particu lar products.

The Asian economic crisis depressed demand for Canadian newsprint, pulp and paperboard in that region in the fourth quarter of 1997." Forest products were Canada's leader

On the recycling front, Canadian mills continued to increase consumption of recovered paper, using 4.7 million tonnes of recovered paper in 1997,a 4% increase over the previous year.

CEO. "The bad news is that market

volatility in Asia leaves the impression

DynaSand* Filter

Ontario Environmental Remediation

Sector, identifies and assesses the

remediation sector's strengths, weak

nesses, opportunities and threats. The 1998 Ontario Environment Business

Directory reflects the full range of Ontario's capabilities for environmental goods and services. For more information, contact the

Ontario Ministry of the Environment's Green Industry office, Tel: (416) 3234597.

sh^auB^ tadco^ the original

Tadco Manufacturing Inc.

Pipe Couplings

For over 19 years, both municipalities and industry have chosen Parkson's

DynaSand Filter over all other filters. It's a dear favourite due to its lack

of moving parts, ability to handle plant upsets, and low levels of operator attention and maintenance required. Parkson has the process know-how and experienced staff to support your filtration needs. We're the world leader in continuous-

cleaning sand filtration technology, with over 4,000 North American installations. Call us.

>IPARKSON CORPORATION Represented in Canada by Axel Johnson (Canada) Inc. and its representatives 9050 Ryan Avenue, Dorval, QC H9P 2M8 Telephone 514-636-8712 Fax 514-636-9718 E-Mail: parksoncanada@compuserve.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 118

(See page 17)

Straub couplings are finding a niche with Contractors and Consuiting Engineers, specificaiiy: • In valve chambers instead of shouidered or piain end coupiings. Why? Less expensive, quicker and easier to instaii. 316 stainiess steei or gaivanized avaiiable. • On buried pipes outside walls as alternate to Dresser style couplings. Why? Gaivanized or stainiess steei materiais as standard. Easier to Denso wrap.

• On stainiess steei pipes in aeration systems. Why? Aii stainless steel coupling and Tee insert prevents creep ing of coupiing off joints. • For repair coupiings- non-standard sizes, built in a day. Discover the STRAUB advantage for yourself. Give us a call.

Tadco Manufacturing Inc. - Mississauga, Ontario Tel: (905) 629-9114 Fax:(800) 268-2309 Web site: www.straubcouplings.com E-mail: tadco@ica.net

For more information, circle reply card No. 119 (See page 17)

to ^a,nta,n and come eq'uippfdThVwT/S. Oxford Cm County, Woodstock,Manager Ontlrio, Canada '5°f^™«/on WASTEWATER PROFILE 10: RELIARILITY Tony Decoo, Construction Manager,

Oxford County, Woodstock, Ontario, Canada recently selected a Gorman-Rupp above ground lift station for a new residential development in Dimmbo, Ontario. Tony chose a Gorman-Rupp lift station because of it solids handling abihty and reUabihty. "The Gorman-Rupp T Series lift station is easy to maintain and comes equipped the way I want. I had a lot of problems in the past with seiwicing other pumps and I don't

ous other Gorman-Rupp pumps on sewage apphcations throughout his county, making Gorman-Rupp his single source suppher. Tony says that being able to rely on Gorman-Rupp for pumps, motors, controls and enclosures makes his job a lot easier. The next time you need wastewater pumps that will \mktyour job a lot easier, contact your Gorman-Rupp distributor.

need those kinds of headaches."

He is so pleased with Gorman-Rupp pumps, he recently selected 80 Series pumps over vertical turbine pumps on a clearoater apphcation. He also has numer



Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd.•70 Burwell Road •St. Ttiomas, Ontario N5P 3R7•(519) 631-2870• Fax (519)631-4624

For more information, circle reply card No. 120(See page 17)

Industry Update Climate Change Reports released Three regional reports of the Canada Country Study were released in Novem ber 1997.

According to the report Responding to Global Climate Change in the Prai ries, average potential crop yields may fall by 10-30%; however, new crop va rieties could be developed which would diversify the economy. While the growth and productivity within the boreal forest ecosystem could improve in the central and northern regions, it is likely that there will also be increased disturbances such as fire, insects and diseases.

Hydroelectric production will com pete with other uses (primarily agricul tural) for diminishing water. Reduced hydropower production could lead to more dependency on thermal power pro duction, bringing higher fossil fuel con sumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The report on Climate Change and Climate Variability in Atlantic Canada, identifies regional susceptibilities to the impact of climate change and variabil ity. The social and economic conditions


Potential impacts in the Atlantic re gion include; accelerated rise in sealevel,causing flood risk, coastal erosion,

will also increase by nearly 5째C over the mainland and by \-2째C over marine ar eas. Annual precipitation increases of up to 25% may occur, with the largest in creases occurring in summer and autumn. The full reports are available from 1-

sediment redistribution and coastal sedi


of people who live in Atlantic Canada depend greatly on the need to sustain natural resources.

mentation; increased storm frequency and intensity; cooling trends in parts of Atlantic Canada; shifts in the distribu

tion of fish species and migration pat terns; and an increase in insects and/or

disease affecting agriculture. The third report. Responding to Global Climate Change in Canada's Arctic, says the region will be suscepti ble to the impacts of climate change and variability, affecting every major human activity in the Arctic. Some of these changes will bring economic benefits, which may, however, be offset by new problems. A major potential impact of climate change on the Arctic region is that a doubling of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere may cause winter temperatures over the mainland of the Canadian Arctic to rise by 5-7째C over the next century. Summer temperatures

Environmental Monitoring Equipment

Area Velocity Flow Meters are Intrinsically Safe Class I. Division I. Groups C & D

Keeping BC Icefield's purity intact The Columbia Icefield is the source of

one of North America's largest supplies of fresh water. There can be no toler

ance for pollution here. So what do you do with human waste from half a mil

lion visitors a year? The answer: replace the inadequate old wastewater treatment system with a system that treats wastewater to such a high degree that it can be discharged back to the glacier field. State-of-the-art oxidation and bio

logical treatment handles up to 250,000 litres of wastewater per day. One of the challenges faced by the new system is the seasonal aspect of the operation. The Columbia Icefield Centre, which hosts

up to 500,000 people in a summer,shuts down every winter. The treatment system must be able to start up very quickly in the spring in the aftermath of winter temperatures that dip to -40째C. Results from the system so far have been excellent.

Landfill project award Vaughan Environmental Consultants, along with Eastcan Geomatics Limited, was awarded an Award of Merit by Ca nadian Consulting Engineer Magazine and the Association of Consulting En gineers of Canada, for their efforts in the Halifax Landfill Siting Process and their contribution to the Halifax Solid

American Sigma's new 911 and 940 Model Area Velocity Flow Meters are certified for operation In Class I, Division I, Groups 0 & D fiazardous


locations. Manhole safety Is always of primary concern to monitoring crews. Two new Sigma meters help alleviate those safety concerns at an affordable price. Monitoring crews always check manholes for explosive gases, but seldom have equipment rated for such environments.

Waste Resource Strategy. A two-fold solid waste management challenge faced the Metropolitan Hali fax Region in late 1994; the municipal ity required a strategy that, in accord ance with provincial legislation, would divert at least 50% of the waste by the year 2000,and it urgently required a new landfill to replace the existing facility in Sackville, Nova Scotia.

A landfill site was found within eight

Sigma's new Intrinsically safe area velocity flow meters combine the

months, a task, which was unsuccess

Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Ontario Office

Atlantic Province Office

2495 Halnes Road

Phone: 905-277-0331

Phone: 902-477-8344

fully attempted by others over a 12-year period. Among the components of the strat egy were source-separated organic col lection and composting,removal of haz ardous waste,resource recovery and bio-

MIsslssauga, ON, L4Y 1Y7

Fax: 905-277-2588

Fax: 902-477-8345

stabilization of residual waste before

latest flow measurement technolo

gies with the highest safety at a realistic price.

disposal. 22

For more information, circle reply card No. 121 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Your Natural Resource ABB Water Meters, Inc. is your natural

resource for metering products and services that will give you a powerful advantage in the marketplace. s,

ABB employs top engineers, uses world class manufacturing and commits substantial resources to creating quality products that C-700 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS

naturally withstand the daily demands of the

real world. ABB offers complete integrated metering systems and state-of-the-art reading

technology that will dramatically improve your work flow, manpower utilization and system reliability. ABB's refreshing approach to customer service ensures that your project

is properly designed, installed and supported from day one through completion. When your business needs a steady supply T-3000 CLASS II TURBINE METERS

of metering experience and expertise, turn to your natural resource — /\BB Water Meters, Inc.

JillII #%l»li ABB Water Meters, Inc. Your Natural Resource


1200 Aerowood Or, Unit 35, IVlississaugc^tiOltl L4W C-3000 COMPOUND METERS

Tel: 905/238-9622• Fax: 905/23f-5640

For more information, ciroie reply card No. 122(See page 17)


^-- .t •C"'i» ^

^-t^ ^-~

^ui 1 -4> Sa5» i ^

^ -

Vr f


X^CONCRETE PIPE The proven superior durability of mix formulas result in higher con

performances. Field data firmly

oonorete pipe has made it the

crete compressive strengths, establish that the product life for

benchmark of the industry.

densities, and lower absorption

concrete culverts, storm sewers

rates. Concrete pipe actually

or sanitary sewer pipe can

Simply put, concrete pipe is the gets stronger over time. exceed well over 100 years... longest lasting and most durable even in aggressive conditions. There's no better proof than past pipe you can put in the ground. So the next time you specify pipe,

And recent advances have made it even more durable. Automated manufacturing proc


esses and advanced concrete


choose the new concrete pipe —

the benchmark of durability. And

put technology you can trust to work for you.

Concrete Pipe Association

Technology you con trust. For the AGFA member nearest you, call 1-888-234-PIPE or visit our web site at www.concrete-pipe.org. 222 W Las Colinas Blvd.. Suite 641, Irving, TX 75039-5423 (972) 506-72-16 Fax (972) 506-7o82

For more information, circle reply card No. 123(See page 17)

.1997 AC

All rights reserv

Conference Report

WCW&WA attracts some 400 delegates ozone oxidation and reverse osmosis

have been proven in pilot tests and field tests as effective treatment technologies for organic contaminants, while reverse osmosis, ion exchange, carbon adsorp tion, and aeration have been tested for

the removal of inorganic contaminants, including some radioactive elements. Current status of drinking water treat ment technologies and potential for the application ofemerging technologies for

WEF President Elect Rhonda Harris,

addresses the meeting. Rhonda is a popular figure at Canadian meetings.

The Western Canada Water & Wastewater Association an

nual conference took place at Winnipeg's Crowne Plaza Hotel. Some 78 exhibitors displayed their equipment and services and almost 400 people attended. The prestigious Fuller Award went to Tom Pearson of Winnipeg.The Bedell Award went to Edmonton's Terry Higo. Other award winners were:

• Al Reimer Award - Alan Jamieson, Minnedosa, MB. • Fl.C. Lindsten Award - Mike Van Den

Bosch, Winnipeg, MB. •Fl.M. Bailey Award - Brent Amy,Win nipeg, MB. In the technical program. Dr. Dinko Tuhtar, P.Eng., from BOMA Environ mental & Safety Inc., touched on new and emerging water treatment technolo gies that address inorganic, organic and microbiological contaminants under the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. An overview of the se lection process and new technological solutions for each contaminant category was provided. Process selection and design considerations are dependent on the drinking water supply source (sur face water vi. ground water), with pref erence given to those treatment tech nologies that can control multiple con

withdrawal of approximately 30 ML/ day and that the aquifer should be fur ther investigated as a supplemental sup ply. The Phase II study is near comple tion and was designed to determine if the aquifer has the capacity and quality of water required, and to identify any impacts that the proposed withdrawal may have on this or other aquifers. A hydrological/wetlands assessment is also being performed as part of Phase

the Province of Manitoba were dis

II, to further define the wetland charac


teristics and to refine the water balance

In a paper by Warren Gendzelevich and Ed Wolowich, Wardrop Engineer ing Inc., Grant Mohr, Tetr£5 Consult ants Inc., and Duane Griffin, City of Winnipeg,the authors traced the City of Winnipeg's groundwater feasibility study. The City of Winnipeg engaged Wardrop Engineering and TetrES Con sultants to provide engineering services in the evaluation of the feasibility of uti lizing a sand and gravel aquifer as a costeffective interim supplemental source to the City's water supply. The aquifer be ing considered (the Sandilands Aquifer) is located near Ross, Manitoba,approxi mately 50 km east-southeast of Winni peg. A three-phase investigation pro gram was developed to evaluate the po tential aquifer yield, water quality, im pacts on wetland ecosystems and wetland-dependent wildlife, and any impacts on local domestic water wells. The project began in January 1993. The Phase I study completed in 1993, concluded that the aquifer likely con tains sufficient water for the proposed

model developed in Phase I, in order to address possible impacts on water lev els and vegetation in the wetlands. The results of the Phase I and II pro grams have shown that the sand and gravel aquifer is very extensive through out the area. Preliminary aquifer char acteristics indicate that the proposed withdrawal rates are feasible. Detailed

aquifer modeling is being performed to determine the impacts of various pump ing schemes and to conceptually design a suitable well field. Additional bore

hole drilling, water level monitoring, groundwater sampling, and aquifer modeling will be conducted during the Phase III study, as part of a preliminary approval to obtain Water Rights licens ing. A detailed Environmental Impact Assessment will be conducted follow

ing the Phase III study, and should the aquifer prove to be a feasible supple mental water supply, applications to obtain Environment Act and Water

Rights licensing will be filed. Ken Skaftfeld, UMA Engineering, Continued overleaf


It is shown that the conventional

process train (chemical feed, rapid mix, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration

and disinfection) can often be upgraded to meet the more stringent control lev els. Granular activated carbon (GAG), ultrafiltration, packed tower aeration, Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Bill Boriase represented the Manitoba Chapter of the Canadian Public Works Association at the conference. 25

WEF Award

JetMix wins WEF award

TheJetMix Vortex Mixing Sys tem won the Innovative Tech

nology Award at the October 1997 WEFTEC exposition and conference in Chicago. This award was presented to Liquid Dynamics Corp. by the Water Environment Federation, based on proven system performance and operational efficiency. The award was in the solids handling and disposal category.

For nearly a decade,the JetMix Sys tem has been used by both municipali ties and industrial wastewater experts. Its unique mixing pattern allows for the suspension ofinorganic and organic sol ids to produce a homogenous tank through the application of intermittent mixing. The JetMix System has the ability to produce a completely homogenous tank with only 2-4 days of operation with no prior mixing for as long as 5-7 months before further handling of the biosolids. In the case of anaerobic digesters, the JetMix System is capable of intermit-

tent operation yet maintaining complete solids suspension. As part of the WEE award consid eration process, the efficiency of the system was evaluated. Independent case studies have shown that the JetMix Sys tem typically saves 60% - 90% in elec trical cost over many conventional mix ing applications. Other advantages include: • No scheduled maintenance of compo-

nents within the tank or digester. •Effective mixing is not determined by liquid level. •Expensive tank clean-out is not a stand ard practice. •Easily installed in existing tanks, typi cally with no or very little structural modification.

JetMix is represented in Canada by Greatario Industrial Storage Systems, tel:(519)763-5933,fax:(519)763-0293.

WCW&WA,continuedfrom page 25 Winnipeg and Jack Zhao, National Re search Council, Canada, presented a paper on the use of geotextile and granu lar ballast to prevent flotation of the City of Winnipeg's Shoal Lake Aqueduct. Crushed granular ballast has been placed on a trial basis along a portion of the City of Winnipeg Shoal Lake Aque duct, constructed through swampy ter

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for maintenance,repair, or other reasons. A non-woven geotextile was used to separate the ballast from the existing backfill and envelope the granular ma terial to provide the necessary lateral stability. Trial programs were com pleted in the summer and winter to evaluate construction techniques and monitor the response of the Aqueduct under loading. The geotextile provided excellent confinement of the ballast

material and post construction monitor ing has confirmed that the magnitude of vertical movement of the Aqueduct is well within the acceptable range for the concrete structure. ■


For more information, circle reply card No. 169 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

New Technologies

MOEE program could speed marketing cycle for new technologies

The Ontario Ministry of the

Environment is piloting a new program to help smooth the way for new environmen tal technologies going to market in Ontario. "We're creating a win-win situ

To be eligible for the pilot program, a technology must target one of five environmental sectors: drinking water treatment and supply, municipal and in dustrial wastewater treatment, air pol lution, hazardous waste management,or

ation for the environment and for

site remediation.

Ontario's environment industries," said

The ministry covers its cost for pro viding the evaluations under a two-tier

Environment Minister Norm Sterling (centre), when he launched the program in May. "Strict environmental standards promote the development of new and

fee structure:

•$500 to evaluate a chemical, chemical

monitored by ministry staff and by the

coating or construction material used in the processing, treatment, or supply of drinking water.

Ontario Centre of Environmental Tech

•$2,000 for evaluation of new technolo

nology Advancement to determine its value and to assess the need for any changes. NETE targets unproven technologies and proven technologies new to Ontario. As such, it complements the recently

gies or new applications unproven in Ontario that require approval under the

better environmental solutions. This

initiative will help get those solutions working,and then help Ontario sell them to other jurisdictions." Under the New Environmental Tech

nologies Evaluation (NETE) program, companies can have new or unproven technologies evaluated by ministry staff. The ministry provides a letter of opin ion on the applicability of the technol ogy in Ontario, as well as its ability to meet provincial regulations. One advan tage of having the letter is accelerated technical approvals. The written opin ion significantly speeds up the review required for a company to obtain a Cer tificate of Approval to demonstrate their technology. "Before NETE, the technical evalu

ations process for new technologies could take considerable time," says Edward Turner, who heads technical

services for the ministry's standards de velopment branch. "Using this new service, companies can have their tech nologies reviewed and a written opin ion provided within one month." Evalu ations for more complex technologies could take slightly longer. The letter also works in other ways to compress the time it takes to bring new technologies to market. Compa nies with a written opinion from the ministry should have an easier time building confidence in their products with potential clients. The letter of opin ion from Ontario is also an advantage to companies marketing their products abroad, particularly in developing coun

announced federal Environmental Tech

nologies Verification (ETV) program. While NETE provides an early stage opinion on new technologies,ETV aims to provide a thorough technical evalua

Environmental Protection Act or the Ontario Water Resources Act.

Anyone interested in applying for an evaluation of a technology under the program can call the ministry's Public Information Centre at (416) 325-4000 or 1-800-565-4923, to request the faxback of the applicant's guide for NETE

tion of all the manufacturer's data and

(request FIBS 3552E)or send a letter of application, together with information

claims, and generally applies to compa nies with proven technologies further along the path to being marketable.

and data on the technology to: The Director, Standards Development Branch, Ministry of the Environment,

While NETE itself is not a source of

2 St. Glair Ave. W., 12th floor, Toronto, ON, M4V 1L5.

funding for the development of technolo gies, it does provide a fee-based service to help expedite the approval and mar keting of environmental technologies.

Eor more information about the pro gram, call Edward Turner at(416) 3278220.

For biosolids mixing and storage solutions • We can provide a complete storage and mixing system, including:

• Aquastore® tanks from A.O. Smith Engineered Storage Products Co. • JetMix Vortex® mixing systems for both new and existing biosolids and digester tanks. • TEITTCQR' flat and geodesic aluminum


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To ensure that NETE was developed with the needs of environmental com

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covers for new or existing steel and


For more information, call:

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems P.O. Box 3613, Guelph, Ontario, NIH 6P1 Tel:(519) 763-5933, Fax:(519)763-0293

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

For more information, circle

reply card No. 170 (See page 17)


Stormwater Runoff

By Graliam J. Bryant, M.Sc., P.Eng.*

Population growth and the price of water

Thereis a growing trend toward

viewing water as a commod ity, as exportable as lumber or oil and natural gas. So what are the factors influencing the market ability of water? The simple answer is population growth. World population is increasing by 50 million to 100 million people per year(US Bureau of Census,

etc.) were considered in the study. Most of the benefits were monetarily assessed based on a "willingness to pay" princi ple (for example, if an environmental benefit adds $50 to timber productivity as a result of increased forest growth,


A growing concern with ponds that have a dual purpose (stormwater man agement and community amenity),is the potential for bio-accumulation(accumu lation of pollutants in the tissue of ani we should be willing to pay $50 for this mals), in wildfowl (Canadian Wildlife benefit). The estimated average annual Service, 1996), that may use the pond, value of the benefits provided to humans and aesthetic problems related to litter 1997). by the environment was(US)$33 tril and oil or gasoline spills. These prob The spiraling population growth is lion (1994$). lems are prevalent where industrial or increasing the demand for and reducing This value is approximately 1.8 times commercial areas drain into ponds and the supply of clean freshwater resources. the global gross national product(GNP) have prompted several municipalities to Demand is increasing for drinking wa which is approximately (US) $18 tril investigate a treatment train approach to stormwater management where up ter, residential uses (showers, watering lion. This valuation is by no means ex lawns, etc.), and industrial processes, act and there are, no doubt, many peo stream sediment and spill control de while the supply is decreasing due to ple who would contest this figure. The vices, such as the StormceptorÂŽ, are point source and non-point source pol simple fact that economists are trying implemented for industrial and commer lution. Pending demands for water ex to value the services/benefits provided cial sites prior to the municipal storm port from the United States are further by the environment, however, indicates drain network, and hence the pond. fueling interest in the value of water by that people are beginning to recognize The value of water and the scarcity legislators and the general public the linkages between a healthy economy of clean water will only increase as the (Lethbridge Herald, 1997). Humans use and a healthy ecology. world population increases and the ef 54% of freshwater runoff globally, The valuation of water is readily fects that humans have on its quality are which means that less than half of the demonstrated by the cost of properties better understood. This increased value freshwater runoff is available to main near water. Within urban developments, can only strengthen legislative and vol tain ecosystem functions that cleanse homes and offices located in close prox untary efforts to ensure that the quality and purify water so that humans do not imity to clean water have been shown of freshwater resources is protected. contract water-home diseases(Stanford, to have an increased value up to 30% Accordingly, requirements to enhance 1997). (EPA, 1995). The strong affinity of peo the quality of stormwater from urban This heightened interest in water,due ple to water has enabled engineers to developments will continue to be a to its economic value and importance to design stormwater quality/quantity wet prevalent issue, and the day is in sight societal health, is one of the driving ponds and wetlands within subdivisions where stormwater runoff will be viewed forces behind non-point source pollution which are not only functional but pro as the valuable resource nature intended control. Yet, many people still question vide a sense of community and are eco it to be. the need to control non-point source nomically justifiable in terms of the For more information, pollution since they do not view storm- overall revenue generated by a devel circle reply card No. 126 water runoff as a valuable re

source/commodity. People do not question the need for flood control (water quantity) measures since the damages due to flooding without

World Population

the measures, and hence the eco nomic benefits of flood controls,

are readily quantified. The calcu lation of economic benefits related

to stormwater quality measures are not as easily quantified, and are, therefore, much more contentious. So what are the economic ben

efits of clean water? Recently an attempt was made(Costanza et al, 1997) to value the benefits pro vided by the environment to hu mankind. Direct(food, water sup ply, etc.) and indirect benefits (cli mate regulation, erosion control. Year

*Stormceptor Canada Inc.,

US Bureau of Census 1997

Etoblcoke, ON 28

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998


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How to select an appropriate open channel wastewater flowmeter

In North America alone hundreds

of millions of dollars are spent an nually in an attempt to better quan tify open channel wastewater

flows. All too often the end-user is left

with an ill-suited instrument for the job at hand. Reasons for this range from poor planning to "loose" manufacturer's product specifications to the municipal

bidding system itself. While the typical

features are truly useful and which are simply niceties. Temporary or portable tlowmeters are likely to be battery pow ered, and should have an integral data logger. If the user intends to place the entire flowmeter in a manhole it is im

portant that the enclosure be completely submersible. Permanent flowmeters are

usually AC or solar powered, very ac curate and reliable, and offer analog (4-

user of a wastewater flow-

meter may have little or no control over many of these problematic areas, there are some simple guidelines that, if followed, will drastically increase the likelihood of an

appropriate flowmeter pur chase.

Why measure flovr? The first and most funda

sold today are equipped with piezo-resistive pressure transducers. These sen sors can be quite accurate and reliable, provided that they are equipped with adequate temperature compensation. Errors due to temperature changes in the flow media can be significant(especially at low levels) and the user should take care to determine what level of tempera ture compensation is required. Gener ally speaking, if the flow media are not likely to fluc tuate more than 10 degrees, a sensor with passive (or re sistive) compensation may be adequate. If greater tem perature fluctuations(due to heavy inflow or industrial source flow)are anticipated, a sensor with active (or dig ital) compensation is war

mental question that needs to be addressed is "why do I


"Bubbler" pressure trans ducers are not affected by temperature but do require a source of pressurized air.

need to measure flow?" Un

derstanding what the real needs are will go a long way toward choosing the right instrument. Some of the most common reasons for

This can be in the form of a

A band/sensor installation tool is used for above ground, no man hole entry Installations.

measuring flow are: • Inflow and infiltration studies.

• Capacity studies. • Custody transfer billing. • Regulatory compliance. • Process control.

Each of these applications carries with it implicit requirements regarding accuracy, reliability, ease of use, and needs for maintenance. I&I studies,for

example, usually require flowmeters that ai-e very portable, simple to oper ate, and accurate to within 5-10%. At

the other end of the spectrum, billing meters are usually the most accurate available and, as a result, are often more

difficult to install (installation difficulty is usually offset by the fact that it is in stalled only once). The application will also drive your need for product features and function ality. Modem electronics make possi ble an unbelievable number of"bells and

whistles" even on products as seemingly mundane as wastewater flowmeters. It

is very important to determine which *Marsh-McBirney, Inc. 30

pressurized canister or an electric pump. Another consideration

20 mA or VDC) outputs for use in re cording data and/or SCADA systems. The right technology This article will focus on velocity/ area open channel flowmeters. For years these were available from only one or two manufacturers. However,a number

of new products have become available in recent years, making the decision as to which instrument is best quite diffi cult.

The fundamental principle under which each of these velocity/area flow meters operates is the Continuity Equa tion Q=VA where Q (flow) is equal to V (mean velocity) multiplied by A (cross-sectional area). The difference between many of the available products lies in the method by which mean ve locity and area are measured and how those values are processed in an attempt to accurately represent flow rate. Area measurement is accomplished either by a submerged pressure trans

when choosing a submerged pressure transducer is whether it has been de

signed to reduce the effects of velocity on depth measurement. A well designed depth sensor will exhibit little or no ad verse effect as flow media passing the sensors increase in speed. Poorly de signed sensors may exhibit a great deal of erroneous fluctuation (especially at high velocities). "Look-down" ultrasonic depth sen sors offer the advantage of being nonintrusive and, therefore, unaffected by water velocity. These sensors do have "dead-bands"(distances near the trans ducer where depth readings are not pos sible) that can significantly restrict the

range of flows that can be measured. Additionally, the speed of sound varies with ambient air temperature and some reliable form of temperature compensa tion should be provided. The methods available for measur

ducer or a "look-down" non-contact ul

ing velocity have increased in recent years. New methods mean more choices

trasonic transducer. It should be noted

for the user but also add another dimen

that the great majority of instruments

sion of difficulty in choosing the appro-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

By Kevin Marsh* priate technology. Electromagnetic(EM)sensors have been used widely for almost 20 years. EM sensors utilize Faraday's Law, ac curately measuring the speed of a con ductive fluid as it passes through a mag netic field. As the fluid velocity is al ways measured at the same location (just above the sensor) it is possible to deter mine site specific relationships between the velocity at the sensor and mean ve locity. Site profiling and calibration usually produce data that can provide the user with a flow accuracy of +!- 5%. Where site profiling is not used, look up tables can produce calibration coef ficients that can provide the user with a flow accuracy of+/-10%. An additional advantage to this sensing technology lies in the fact that velocity and area are measured on the same plane,thereby in creasing overall accuracy. Because EM sensors work only in conductive fluids, they are inappropri ate for the measurement of hydrocar bons, ultra-pure water,or other non-con ductive media. Additionally, if the sens ing electrodes are covered by grease or paper, accurate readings will not be pos sible. Some EM sensor designs address

this problem through non-fouling and/ or debris shedding sensor designs. Another class of sensor employs con tinuous wave(CW)ultrasound and the Doppler principle in determining veloc ity. Basically a continuous wave of

wastewater and stormwater applications impractical. Like CW Doppler sensors, coating of the transducer by grease, paper, or other material will interfere with proper signal transmission and re ception, resulting in erratic readings.

sound is transmitted into the flow me

Finally, we have seen ultrasonic tran sit-time technology, once limited to full pipes, applied to large open channels. With this technology transducers are placed on the inside pipe wall and an

dia at a fixed frequency. Reflected sig nals(from suspended solids, bubbles, or the surface) return to the sensor at a dif ferent frequency that defines that par ticular reflector's velocity. The returned signal is treated as a direct representa tion of mean velocity. A much newer arrival to this market

is the time-gated ultrasonic Doppler sen sor. Unlike CW Doppler sensors these sensors transmit ultrasonic energy in discreet bursts. Because the signals are sent in bursts, the distance to the reflec

tor can be determined thi^ough the know ledge of the sonic velocity in water and the time required to receive the return signal. A rough profile of the velocity

ultrasonic beam is transmitted across the

flow, parallel to the surface. Because the speed of sound in still water is known, an accurate measure of the wa

ter speed through that beam can be de termined via a measure of the actual

speed of the transmitted sound. Through the use of multiple beams, accuracy of 1-2% is achievable. Because of cost and installation com

plexity, ultrasonic transit-time flowmeters are typically used in larger pipes,

distribution is determined and mean ve

those with a diameter of 24 inches and

locity is calculated. While this is a very new technology,flow accuracy of+/-2% to -i-/-5% is probable. Time-gated Doppler technology re lies on minimum depths that make many

greater. This technology does not work particularly well in very dirty flows or slurries.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 128


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 129 (See page 17)


Decontaminating Groundwater

Metal-enhanced dechlorination process for In situ groundwater remediation

TheUS has 300,000to400,000 hazardous waste sites. To

date, conventional methods have not succeeded in clean

ing up the contaminated groundwater. Although statistics are most readily available for the US, there is no ques tion that similar problems exist in Canada and all other developed coun tries.

EnviroMetal Technologies Inc.(ETI) was founded in 1992 to develop and market the metal-enhanced dechlorina

tion process invented at the University of Waterloo. Results of demonstration

tests prompted ETI to start actively mar keting the technology in 1995. ETI's technology can be used on the class of compounds called chlorinated organics which are often found at these

A field test conducted at a University at Waterloo test site, involved the Installa tion otan In situ reactive wall. Once the reactive metal is placed in the excava tion and the sheet piling removed, groundwater passes through the wall under naturally flowing conditions and contaminants In the groundwater are degraded.

hazardous waste sites.

Technology The technology is based on the fact that metals - and especially iron - do nate electrons for the reductive dechlori

nation of dissolved chlorinated organic compounds. That is to say, in a corro sion-type reaction, the iron is oxidized and the organic compound is reduced. ETI has developed in situ or in place applications in which a permeable wall containing granular iron is installed across the path of a contaminated plume in the groundwater. The contaminants are destroyed when the water passes through the wall. The technology is environmentally friendly on two counts. First, it is pas sive which saves water and energy and

keeps operating and maintenance costs down. Second, one of its main compo nents, the iron fillings, is a waste mate rial which helps to conserve resources. The first field demonstration unit was

installed at an experimental site at Ca nadian Forces Base Borden in 1991. The initial concentrations of trichloro-

ethylene at 270 milligrams per litre(mg/ L) and tetrachloroethylene at 43 mg/L were high. This installation removed about 90

percent of the contaminants. With a thicker wall or a higher percentage of iron within the wall, the process prob ably could have removed all of the con taminants. Of particular importance, however,is the fact that this demonstra

w""r/rsrirwi REACTION WALL ^ 1


tion project has oper ated continuously for four years with no perceptible change in performance. Two in situ dem onstrations are now

in progress in the CONTAMINANT




United States, one in Califomia and one in New York. In both

cases the contami nants are removed


Schematic of EnviroMetal Process. 32

completely by the re active


Though highly en couraging, the dem onstrations need to

go on longer to be considered unquali fied successes.

Opportunities In the next 30 years, an estimated

$750 billion will be spent cleaning up the groundwater at US hazardous waste sites. Extrapolating this figure to the developed world, it would seem that there is an enormous market for this

technology. At present, ETI's process is designed for in situ treatment of groundwater. But the company is modifying the technol ogy so that it can be used for treating contaminated groundwater above ground as well as for treating industrial wastewater streams. This would greatly increase the company's potential market. The initial - and continuing - part nership in developing the technology involved the Waterloo Centre for

Groundwater Research, the University of Waterloo and Beak Consultants Ltd.

These organizations are active partici pants in and contributors to ETI.'In ad dition, ETI has signed a co-operative agreement with the Corporate Research and Development Laboratory of Gen eral Electric and is currently engaged in discussions with a company in Germany. The initial phase of the development of this technology was partially sup ported by the Ontario Ministry of Envi ronment.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 131

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

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This year.Environmental Compliance'98 will again be held at the first-class conference, training, and tradeshow facilities at the Toronto Congress Centre (conveniently located at 650 Dixon Rd.-just minutes from Toronto's Pearson International Airport). Workshop attendees will be able to tour the Exposition at no extra cost- and see for themselves, the latest in pollution prevention and control techniques. For workshop information, call ES&E at(905) 727-4666, 1-888-254-8769. Tom Davey,Publisher, Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine

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Preliminary List of Exhibitors(as of March 5,1998) Booth: 408

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www.buckman.com Buckman Laboratories offers chem

Fleavy Equipment Guide, Oil & Gas Product News, Recycling Product

istry and services for industrial wa ter treatment. Developing solutions for waste water systems, we provide coagulant and flocculant polymers for clarification and dewatering, unique chemistry for heavy metals precipitation, and oil-in-water emul sion breaking.

News and Flealthcare Product News.

Booth: 012

Aqua Data Triad

Contacts: Mike Tataryn (Ottawa), Stephane Joseph (Montreal) 3403 St Joseph Boulevard,#100 Orleans, ON K1C 1T1 613 824-1527, Fax: 613 824-8193

aquadata@connnet.ca aquadata.com Maintenance management technol ogy for water and wastewater sys tems, including field inspection, sys tems diagnosis and evaluation as well as priority management soft ware, modeling software and unidi rectional flushing and routing.

Booth: 402 Canadian Environmental Protection Contact: Ian Stuart

201 - 2323 Boundary Road Vancouver, BC V5M 4V8 604 291-9900, Fax: 604 291-1906

Canada's most requested environ mental magazine, Canadian Envi ronmental Protection is published nine times a year. The magazine provides information on new equip ment and services to the Canadian

environmental industry. Other titles from Baum Publications Ltd. include;

Booth: 210

CERTi, Canadian Environmental

Research & Training institute Contact: Anne Hodson

7021 Stanley Avenue Niagara Falls, ON L2G 7B7 905 354-4442, Fax: 905 354-0756 ah@certi.com

Training in environmental, industrial hygiene, health and safety pro grams, including certification pro grams,for individuals, corporate rep resentatives, with on-site training available. Booth: 305

C H M M inc.

Contact: Arnie Gess, Sales Dir. 951 Denison Street, Unit 4 Markham, ON L3R 3W9 905 305-6155, Fax: 905 305-6255

Booth: 205

Aquatic Life Ltd. Contact: Jeff Simpson

Compliance '98 Conference

41 - 360 Keewatin Street

Winnipeg, MB R2X 2Y3 204 697-3634, Fax: 204 697-3419

aquatic@aquaticlife.ca, aquaticlife.ca The exciting new SA-5000 Scanning Analyzer for lead in paint, dust,

Recycling Technologies Workshops


14 16

Pre-register for free

905 294-1910, Fax: 905 294-3719

Our company specializes in in-situ bioremediatlon. See us at the show to discuss Canada's most cost-effec tive bioremediation method.

(403) 256-8495

of Canada Ltd. Contact: Richard T. Chute



Expo passes by faxing your company name, mailing

Buckman Laboratories



Booth: 026

Booth: 209

Registration 10

monitor water, soil, and environmen tal parameters.

Bioquest Environmental Contact: Dave Simpson 91 Anderson Avenue, Suite 12 Markham, ON L6E 1A5



water, soil, and air. In addition the

complete line of Palintest photom eter systems and reagents. This line provides you with the capability to








HALL A 401

400 301

300 201

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402 303

302 203

202 103


404 305

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204 105

^ Z 3m


407 409

408 309

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address and your


410 311

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name and title to:


412 313

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416 317

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Deadline for pre-registration by fax: March 30, 1998. Passes are also good for entry Into the new Recycling Technologies Workshops

351 Joseph Carrier Boulevard Vaudreuil-Dorlon, FQ J7V 5V5 514 424-4404, Fax: 514 424-4294 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998



120 425 427 429 431 433 435 437 439


Show Preview sales@ hazmatmag.com hazmatmag.com Publishers of Hazardous Materials

Management and Solid Waste and Recycling Magazines. Booth: 018 CleanSoils Limited Contact: Gordon Weis

Booth: 301 Environmental Software Associates Ltd. Contact: Mike Goodfellow

Suite 402, 99 Atlantic Avenue Toronto, ON M6K 3J8 416 516-2337, Fax: 416 516-2837

esa@compuserve.com Environmental Workstation - com

225 Sheppard Avenue West

prised of programs such as the En

North York, ON N2N 1N2 416 226-3838, Fax: 416 226-2931

vironmental Auditor, EMS Module, Environmental Data Modules, and

Specializing in the thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soil at a fixed site in Hamilton and with mo bile units for on-site remediation. The CleanSoils Thermal Desorber

processes all types of soil, reducing hydrocarbons to residential stand ards. Complete MOE permits, large or small projects, soil analysis and certificate of destruction, final dis

posal or treatment and recycle as

the Environmental Awareness Train

ing Program. Booth: ICQ

Exhibitor Support Centre, The Contact: Jennifer Monteith

20 Jane Street, Unit F Toronto, ON M6S 3Y2 416 410-6612, Fax: 416 767-5444 tesc@trends.net "On-Site Business Services at the On-Site Business Centre."


Booth: 300

Lafarge Pipe & Precast Booth: 208

Clemmer Technologies Inc. Contact: Doug Scheifley 446 Albert Street, P.O. Box 130 Waterloo, ON N2J 4A1 519 884-4320, Fax: 519 884-6623

Storage tanks; fiberglass and steel.

Contact: Mark Smith 351 Elizabeth Street

Guelph, ON N1E2X9 519 822-3820, 800 265-9412

canapp@cycor.ca Chromatography consumables, en vironmental glassware and plastic bottles. Booth: 400

Lord & Partners Ltd.

Contact: Barry Young 9 - 741 Muskoka Road,#3 North Huntsville, ON PI HI El 705 788-1966, Fax: 705 788-1969

lordpart@vianet.on.ca Ecologoed certified cleaners/ solvents. Booth: 304

Maxxam Anaiytics Inc. Contact: Brian Growley 9420 Cote De Liesse

Lachine, PQ H8T 1A1 514 636-6218, Fax: 514 631-9814

info @qc.maxxam.ca maxxam.ca

Comprehensive environmental labo ratory services, including trace or ganic and inorganic analysis of soil, water, waste, biological fluid, tissue, and biota samples; air quality serv ices; source emission sampling and analysis; toxicity testing; and mobile laboratory services.

Fax: 519 822-6480

Stormceptor-a patented stormwater quality device. Proven performance through laboratory and field testing.

Booth: 016

McGraw - Hill Ryerson Ltd. Contact: M. Babbar 300 Water Street

Booth: 407

Booth: 312

D T E Industries Ltd.

Levitt Instruments

Contact: Ed Glanfrancesco 69 Comstock Road

2872 Bristol Circle

Scarborough, ON M1L2G9 416 757-6278, Fax: 416 757-5579 Booth: 405 Environmental Science &

Engineering Magazine Contact: Steve Davey 220 Industrial Parkway South,#30 Aurora, ON L4G 3V6 905 727-4666, Fax: 905 841-7271

esemag@istar.ca esemag.com

Contact: Chuck Palmer,Manager Oakville, ON L6H 5T5 905 829-3299, Fax: 905 829-2919

cpalmer@ levitt-safety.com levitt-safety.com Levitt Instruments provides cost-ef fective solutions for measuring en vironmental pollutants, confined spaces hazards and industrial hy giene applications. Detection of gases, fugitive emissions, heavy metal toxins, noise pollutants and various water quality parameters are

Environmental Science & Engineer ing Magazine has covered Canada's multi-billion dollar a year environ mental protection industry since 1988. ES&E's expert articles are vitally important to some 19,000 readers responsible for the design, construction and operation of water treatment and distribution systems,

some of the substances which are

sewerage systems, and industrial

799 O'Brien Drive, Unit 4

monitored with the portable, and permanent instruments we distrib ute. Levitt offers options to rent, lease, or purchase a wide variety of our equipment. Booth: 024 Life Science / Enviro Giassware

Contact: Rick Van Lunenburg

and hazardous waste management

Peterborough, ON K9J 6X7


705 749-9557, Fax: 705 749-9139


Whitby, ON L1N9B6 800 565-5758, Fax: 800 463-5885

mcgrawhill.ca A selection of Professional Refer ence Books of interest to environ

mental professionals. Booth: 403

Monserco Limited

Contact: Don Connolly 2-190 Wilkinson Road

Brampton, ON L6T4W3 905 450-3507, Fax: 905 450-8523

Radiological consultancy services, radiological waste disposal services, laboratory services. Booth: 200

NARRA (North American Recycled Rubber Association) Contact: Phil Coulter 160 Baseline Road

Bowmanville, ON L1C1A2 905 623-8919, Fax: 905 623-1791 narra@oix.com

1. Recycled tire rubber mats and other products from recycled rubber. 2. Association / industry information in recycled rubber.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Show Preview


Methods for achieving improved in door air quality through testing, duct cleaning, asbestos abatement and other source removal.

Booth: 404

Contact: Tim Morrison 47 Charleston Road

Etobicoke, ON M9B 4M8 416 231-3752, Fax: 416 234-1564

Nasco Plastics Booth: 308

Contact: Tim Bailey

New Hamburg, ON NOB 2G0

Region of Peel Contact: Dwayne Cromwell

519 662-2540, Fax: 519 662-3330

10 Peel Centre Drive

170 Arnold Street

Booth: 412

Safetyscope Inc.

www.safetyscope.on.ca Confined space, supervision serv ices, and training.

Brampton, ON 1614B9


Whirl-Pak steriie plastic sampiing bags and related sampling products inciuding soii sarhplers, liquid sam plers & Whiri-Pak racks. Other prod ucts include the Nasco Sludge Judge and Nasco Swing Sampler. Booth: DIG Nortech GS! Inc. Contact: Gil Gossette

1131 Derry Road East

Mississauga, ON L5T 1P3 905 564-4700, Fax: 905 564-6776

Water samplers and flowmeters. Process analyzers for organics, ni trate, ammonia, oil-in-water, turbid

ity and suspended solids. Multi-pa rameter water quality stations. Gas analyzers and chromatographs, portable and fixed gas monitors for combustible and toxic gases. Dust monitors, datalogging and telemetry systems. Rental equipment avail able.

905 791-7800, Fax: 905 791-2398

Region of Peel is a regional govern ment that provides services to the business community of Peel - no products are sold.

Booth: 416 SIrman Associates Limited Contact: Ivan SIrman

924 Ripley Crescent Oshawa, ON LI K 2E4 905 723-0813, Fax: 905 723-9837

Booth: 401 RMS Enviro Solv Inc. Contact: Alan Jennett 456 Alliance Avenue

Tanknology Canada Inc.

Toronto, ON M6N 2J2 416 766-7471, Fax: 416 766-7299

2650 Meadowvale Boulevard,#12A

GODWIN DRI-PRIME self-priming trash and high head centrifugal pumps, hose and piping systems for rental and purchase. Can run dry continuously, and auto reprimes on demand-unattended. 24 hour serv ice commitment. AMIAD automatic

self-cleaning water filters feature iong-iife 316L stainless 4-ply pat

Booth: 201

Contact: Peter Sutherland

Mississauga, ON L5N 6M5 905 819-8811, Fax: 905 819-8810

psutheriand @tanknology.ca 1. Precision tank testing. 2. Precision line testing. 3. Statistical Inventory reconciliation (SIR). 4. Cathodic protection testing.

ented screen elements down to 10 microns and suction scanner tech

nology that vacuums every square Booth: 212

Pollution Equipment News / RImbach Publishing Inc. Contact: Karen Galante 8650 Babcock Boulevard

inch of screen. Proven 100% zebra mussel exclusion.

Booth: 310

Pittsburgh, PA 15237

Rollex Transport Contact: Michael J. Penny

800 245-3182, Fax: 412 369-9720

321 Orenda Road

rimbach@sgi.net Pollution Equipment News provides product information to the person re sponsible for air, water, wastewater pollution control and hazardous waste disposal, industrial Hygiene

Brampton, ON LOT 1G5 905 790-8568, Fax: 905 790-9440

controlling various health hazards in

ternational marketplace with no sub scription fee. Booth: 309

Hamilton, ON L8N 2X4 905 777-9997, Fax: 905 777-9979

mipenny@robert.ca waste transporters. On roll off and tank trailers.

Booth: 204 R T S Canbar Inc. Contact: Ron Robinson One Canbar Street

Waterloo, ON N2J 4A7 519 886-2880, Fax: 519 886-5546

Manufacturers of polyethelene tanks

Power Vac Services

and industrial bulk containers cen

Contact: Terry Donohue

trally located in Ontario. Standard products as well as custom applica

24 Ronson Drive, Unit 3 Etobicoke, ON M9W1B4 416 245-5120, Fax: 416 245-5111

Contact: Tom Wass 41 Grant Avenue

Hazardous and non-hazardous

News provides information on prod ucts and services for measuring and the work environment. A combined International Edition reaches the in


Trans Cycle Industries

tions available. ISO-9002 registered and 125 years in business!!

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Booth: 022

University of Waterloo Contact: Tony Munro 200 University Avenue, West Waterloo, ON N2L3G1 519 888-4026, Fax: 519 746-4103 adm.uwaterloo.ca/infocecs

Canada's leader in co-op education, the University of Waterloo offers a complete range of specialized stud ies in ecosystem impact, environ mental practice and pollution reme diation. Whether for short term or

permanent staffing, Waterloo is the source for highly-trained and quali fied co-op students and graduates. 37

PCB Focus

Advanced plasma arc technology for PCBs and other difflcult-to-treat toxic wastes

Withtheincreasing scrutiny

of incineration as a

thermal hazardous waste

destruction technology, the intense heat-generating capability of an electrically created plasma arc is caus ing heightened interest among regulators and generators of dangerous waste ma terials from PCBs to chemical weapons. In many of the current plasma-based technologies, a transferred plasma arc is used solely as a source of extreme heat

in Figure 1. The PARCON flow chart shows a 66 kilogram/hour design to be built in 1998. A non-transferred arc-type air plasma generator is used to create the plasma field. Direct current discharge between two water cooled electrodes is

used to heat tangentially introduced air. The plasma arc column is stabilized by turbulent air flow. The hot air plasma

to create a molten bath in which waste

materials can be processed. While this design results in a system which is capable of treating a wide vari ety of solid wastes, it is a definite sec ond-best for destruction of highly toxic liquid and gaseous wastes. The key to attaining the higher Destruction/Re moval Efficiency(DRE)demanded for effective destruction of highly chlorin ated liquid and gaseous wastes is to in ject the waste, at the optimum feed rate, directly into a plasma field adjacent to the point of plasma generation; a point where the temperature is upwards of

tal section) of the reactor.

Gas directing plates in the horizontal section of the reactor ensure continuous

turbulent flow. Regulation of the gas temperature is achieved by adjusting the waste and surplus air flow rates. "Space cooling" prevents a rise in temperature at the inner wall of the reactor to higher than 1400°C.

5000°C. Using this method, DRE of 99.999999%, or higher, is attainable on compounds such as high concentration PCBs,pesticides,and chemical weapons. While this approach sounds simple enough, as usual, the devil is in the de tails. Eor example, the "quality" of the waste is an important factor, in that: the viscosity may need to be modified with a solvent additive; filtering may be re quired ahead of the feed nozzle to en sure there is no sediment or metal con

tent; or, the heating value of the waste may need to be modified. Next,the feed nozzle design is critical in that; the waste needs to be formed into the right size droplets at various pressures and feed rates. Thirdly,reactor temperature con trol is critical to ensure that complete destruction of the waste occurs in the

plasma field and, subsequently, that the newly formed gases are cooled at the precise optimum rate, to prevent toxic byproduct formation, especially dioxin and furan.

Waste Destruction Process

The plasma arc process is illustrated *Vice President - Sourcing, Plasma Environmental Technologies 38

perature of 3000-5000°C. Oxidation of the organic constituents of the waste begins to occur, due to the oxygen in the plasma field. At this stage of the process, the quantity of oxygen is less than that required for complete stoichiometric oxidation, therefore, CO and H, emerge as well(by partial pyrolysis),re ducing the nitrogen oxides created by the high temperature plasma. The process of oxidation of the pyrolysis products begins in the first stage (vertical ascending section) of the reactor, with air introduced radially in several steps. The CO and H, content of the gas oxidizes gradually until it gets to the end of the second stage (horizon

Air Plasma Generator.

leaves the generator and enters the re actor at temperatures of 3000 to over 5000°C.

Operation of the plasma generator re quires DC electric power,argon gas (for start-up), compressed air, and cooling water. The operation is harmonized by a Programmable Logic Controller as the central control unit.

After starting the air plasma genera tor, the reactor is heated to operating temperature with a solvent or light oil pumped from a feed tank. The solvent can also be used to modify the heating value, viscosity, or consistency, of the waste. When the reactor has reached

operating temperature, the waste is pumped to the reactor where it is fed directly into the plasma field at the gen erator, situated at the bottom of the as

cending vertical section of the 'U'shaped reactor. The liquid waste is instantly disinte grated in the ionized plasma field and transformed to a gas due to the field tem

The reactor is operated under a nega tive pressure of 100-150 mm water, maintained by an exhaust fan. Air is sup plied tb the plasma generator and the atomizers by a compressor(an accessory to the generator), while excess air for the reactor is supplied by a turbo-venti lator.

In the third stage (vertical descend ing section of the reactor),the gas is rap idly quenched,or cooled,by water spray, to 130-150°C. The quench process is precisely controlled to ensure cooling through the range of 500-350°C in less than 1/lOth of a second. Rapid cooling is required to prevent formation of toxic dioxins and furans. Condensed water,

emerging at the final cooling of the gas, accumulates in a storage tank and is re used, and if required, supplemented by network water.

The gas enters the bottom of a neu tralizing scrubber, or washing tower, under mild depression at a temperature of 130-150°C. Ascending the scrub ber,the gas is neutralized by contact with the alkali scrubbing solution, which is pump-driven into counter-current circu lation. The washing liquid is a light wa ter solution of sodium carbonate which, in the case of chlorinated waste, con-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

By Colin Andrews* verts the hydrochloric acid to sodium



Figure 1


The circulated scrubbing solution is heated by the hot gas, and in turn, the gas becomes saturated with steam. A circulating pump feeds back the warmed liquid from the bottom of the tower through a water cooler into the top of the tower. The now warmed cooling water is cooled in a re-circulating cooler and is then pumped back into the cooler. In this way, the majority of the steam arriving with the exit gas leaves at the top of the scrubber together with the exit gas and, after being condensed at the bottom of the cooler, it is then recycled into the system. The clean gas exits through the exhaust aided by a suction





















Waste Destruction Tests

A prototype machine was tested in Hungary under the direction of the Hun garian Institute for Environmental Pro tection using testing protocols compa rable to those of West Germany and the USA. ORE greater than 99.999999% was verified by the Institute in three tests using 1:1 mixtures of commercial PCBs

Table 1 shows air emissions from this program.

benzene, biphenyl and 1,2-di-chloro-

In 1997 the same unit was used to

excess of 99.9999% and, very signifi cantly,dioxin/furan TEQ emissions were only 0.03 ng/Nm^,in stark contrast with

conduct tests for ORE and dioxin/furan

benzene in No.2 Fuel Oil. ORE was in

TEQ emissions at the US-EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory. cun^ent emission limits of 0.2 ng/Nm' Acurex Environmental Corp.,the EPA's (US-EPA). (Subsequent tests conducted contract environmental engineering firm, by Acurex at the EPA site produced ORE conducted the testing on a PCB sunrt- in excess of99.99999% on simulants of gate mixture comprised of chloro- various chemical weapon agents and

(42% chlorine content) and ethanol at feed rates from 8-12.4 kilograms/hour.

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Water Supply and Distribution

Tunnels and Underground Works

Solid Waste Management

Water Resources Engineering

Residuals Management

Systems Analysis Modelling

Process Control

Air Management

Industrial Services

Environmental Planning

Energy Management

Environmental Laboratory

Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal

Environmental Site Characterization/Reconciliation




180 King Street South, Suite 600 Waterloo, Ontario N2J IPS tel: (519) 579-3500 fax: (519) 579-8986 direct dial: (519) 579-3501 +ext.

255 Consumers Road

555 - 4th Avenue SW, Suite 1500

North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7 tel: (403) 237-9300 fax: (403)237-7715 direct dial:(403) 237-5691 text.


tel:(416)499-9000 fax:(416)499-4687 direct dial:(416)499-0090 + ext. London • Ottawa • Thorold

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998


For more information, circle reply card No. 135 (See page 17)


PCB Focus, cont' Table 1: Air Emissions vs Ambient Air Quaiity Standards Measured Value in Testing* •30 ppmv

Chemical Waste Fed

Air Polluting Substance

Ethyl Alcohol (reference substance)

• carbon monoxide

• hydrochloric acid • hydrocarbons

• nil


• carbon monoxide

•60 ppmv •20 ppmv •8 ppmv

• hydrochloric acid • hydrocarbons PCB

• carbon monoxide

(Aroclor1242) (42% chlorine)

• hydrochloric acid • hydrocarbons

•5 ppmv

nated materials, such as transformers,

•80 ppmv • 30 ppmv •10 ppmv

•Measured Values are significantly better than the standards proposed in the 4/19/96 Fee/era//?eg/sferfor adoption by US-EPA. propellants). Process Safety Among various significant benefits of this technology is process safety. In the event of a shutdown due to system failure the volume of incompletely neu tralized waste gas emission is below de tectable limits. A sequential emergency shutdown occurs in 30 seconds, during which time 50% of the waste gas in the

Applications In addition to highly chlorinated PCBs this type of plasma arc system is capable of destroying 36 of the top 50 compounds on the US EPA national pri orities list. Of the remaining 14, 9 are metals and 2 others can be destroyed in an integrated system utilising this tech nology as the final stage. This suggests

reactor will be neutralized. The remain

of its transportability, it would be well situated at existing hazardous waste

ing 50% of the reactor gas which is not

completely neutralized is Im'in the 12.5 kg unit, and 7m^ in the 66 kg unit, which is insufficient volume to produce detect able emissions of dangerous substances.

tion multiple 66 kg/hr units operated from one control module can be speci fied, thus maintaining compactness and mobility in a high capacity plant. On sites containing PCB contami

that in addition to the obvious benefits

landfills or transfer stations.

The compact and mobile features en able PCB owners to bring the equipment to a site. For large inventory destruc

soils, and debris, this type of plasma arc equipment is readily integrated with other technologies, including the transferred-arc-molten-bath technologies de scribed at the beginning of this article, as the final stage of the decontamina tion and destruction process. For ex ample, transformers would be drained of askarel which is pumped directly into the plasma arc equipment, while the transformer is either recycled or de stroyed. Soils and debris would first be cleaned in a thermal desorption unit. The PCBs and other compounds, sepa rated in the desorption process, would then be fed to the plasma arc unit for final treatment.

Finally, in-line installation at manu facturing or processing plants which generate large volumes of highly toxic liquid waste is another promising appli cation.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 136

Engineers cHabIa usted el lenguaje del exito? Delcan Corporation is a leading engineering, plan ning and project management firm whose record of success spans more than 40 years and encom passes major projects in over 70 countries. Renowned for Innovative leadership In the transpor tation, environmental and systems fields, we are seeking Engineers to design and manage the con struction of sewage treatment plants In Venezuela and Central America. A professional Engineer, fluent In both Spanish and English, you have over 10 years of experience In environmental, civil or structural projects, with a background In detailed design and/ or project management. Technical knowledge In municipal projects, with an emphasis on sewage treatment, would be a definite asset. Toronto-based

opportunities are also available. To join a progressive organization that recognizes and rewards Individual contributions, please send your resume to: Delcan Corporation, Human


For more information, circle reply card No. 137 (See page 17)

Resources, 133 Wynford Drive, North York, Ontario, M3C 1K1. Fax: (416) 447-6497. E-mail: hr@delcan.com. No telephone calls, please.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998


TGI IS EXPANDING CANADA Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc.

building and metals cleaning/

(TCI) is a leader in North

recycling technology as our U.S. operations.

America in the dismantling and recycling of electrical trans formers and other equipment containing PCB's.

Beginning this summer, Canadian PCB owners can take

advantage of over ten years of quality experience and a spot

Plans have been finalized

less environmental record.

to site a permanent PCB

TGI's mission is to eliminate

Transformer Recycling Facility in KIrkland Lake, Ontario. This new plant will incorporate the same triple-spili containment

all environmental liability for PCB waste with integrity and cost-efficiency.

[| For more information, piease contact TCi at; Commerce Court West

53rd Fioor, Box 85 Toronto, Ontario iVI5L1B9 800-909-9997•905-777-9997

or Emaii us at tci@tci-pcb.com

See us at our website at www.tci-pcb.com For more Information, circle reply card No. 138(See page 17)

PCB Focus

PCB management- the current status the second COA Progress Report was issued as well as an annex entitled

Detailed Report Activities and Results 1995-1997. This Progress Report states that Canada and Ontario have:

• Decommissioned 46% of the highlevel PCBs(COA target is 90%). •Destroyed 30% of the high-level PCBs in storage(COA target is 50%). • Destroyed 20% of the low-level PCB wastes.

A review of the second COA Report indicates that in the baseline year of 1994, when the COA was signed, Ontario had the following inventory: • 18,600 tonnes of high-level PCBs in storage.

• 10,650 tonnes of high-level PCBs in service.

It has been nearly 20 years since

• 98,000 tonnes of low-level PCBs in

PCB contaminated fluorescent light ballasts. PCBs were first banned in Ontario. Since then owners of PCB wastes

have generally placed them in se cure storage in accordance with Provin cial and Federal legislation. Some 10 years ago, the fire in St. Basile-le-Grande in Quebec generated a flurry of activity in Ontaiio as the Min istry of Environment initiated a massive inspection of all PCB storage sites. The results of this focus on PCB manage ment were eventually outlined in MOE's 1993 document Inventory ofPCB Stor age Sites in the Province of Ontario. The 1993 Inventory identified a to tal of 1529 PCB storage sites of which 1,125 (73.5%) were minor sites (less than 1 tonne) and 404 (26.5%) were major PCB storage sites. By April, 1995, MOE records indi cated that a total of 1,723 PCB storage sites existed in Ontario. This represents an increase of nearly 200 sites in a two year period or an average of 8 sites per month. Of the 1,723 sites, approxi mately 1,309 (76%) were minor sites and the remaining 414(24%) were ma jor sites. While the list of PCB storage sites is constantly changing, recent dis cussions with MOE representatives re veal that the number of sites peaked in 1995 and has steadily decreased to ap proximately 1,500. A new updated in ventory is expected to be released in 'Environmental Management Group of Proctor & Redfern Limited 42


mid-1998. It will be interesting to de termine if the number of major sites re maining in the Province has decreased. However, anyone hoping to access the information will reportedly be required to pay a user fee. Details have yet to be determined.

No estimate is provided of the weight of low-level PCBs in service. Of the

total of 127,250 tonnes recorded in the

baseline year, an estimated 28,057 tonnes (22%) has actually been de stroyed. The remainder are either in storage or in service.

In the July 1994 Canada-Ontario Agreement(COA)for the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, the following targets for phase-out ofPCBs by the end of the year 2000 were identified: • Decommission 90% of high level

Currently, Ontario still has approxi mately 1,500 PCB storage sites. At first glance it appears that in Ontario we are right back where we started in 1993. However,on the positive side nearly 200

PCBs in use.

tory, either eliminated by disposal or

• Destroy 50% of high level PCBs now in storage.

consolidated from several company-

•Accelerate the destruction oflow-level

Disposal or consolidation is an ac tivity that is supported by MOE in the 1996 document entitled Responsive En vironmental Protection-Reforming En vironment & Energy Regulation in On

PCB waste.

In order to encourage and assist own ers of small quantity PCB wastes to dis pose of them. Environment Canada and MOE developed an outreach program. The targetted audience was the owners of the 390 registered PCB storage sites in Metro Toronto (as of September, 1996). At the time of the program, in the fall of 1996, 80 organizations were represented - a lower than expected number of participants. A second outreach program was conducted in Thunder Bay in March, 1997 and was attended by 45 PCB owners. Similar outreach programs are proposed for other regions of Ontario and plans are underway to conduct these outreach pro grams in the spring of 1998 in East, West and Central Region locations. Progress is occurring and in late 1997

sites have been removed from the inven

owned locations into one location.

tario. This document was issued for a

Public Consultation period which ended on September 16,1996. Included in the document is a discussion of proposed reform in the area of waste management. Ontario's current Regulations, O.Reg 352 and O.Reg 362,covering PCB man agement,are scheduled to be revised and consolidated into one new general Regu lation regarding waste management. Also in the document,the consolidation and destruction ofPCB waste is encour

aged in order to comply with the COA. The intent of streamlining the Regula tions is to: "simplify and standardize ad ministrative requirements controlling storage and movement ofPCBs and set

Environmental Science <& Engineering, March 1998

By Peter Beukema, P.Eng., CEA* approvals requirementsfor mobile PCB destruction facilities according to the risk to the environment".

In November, 1997 a second docu

ment entitled Better, Stronger, Clearer — Environmental Regulations for Ontario, was issued outlining the results of preliminary discussions and the ben efits of reform. The intent of streamlin

ing the Regulations as outlined in the 1996 document remains the same and

revisions to both O.Reg 352 and O.Reg 362 will be incorporated into a new con solidated Waste Management Regula tion(O.Reg 347). The timetable for ac tion indicates that posting to the Envi ronmental Bill of Rights Registry for public comment was expected to occur in February, 1998. As each owner of a PCB storage site is aware. Directors Instructions under

O.Reg.362(formerly 11/82)are required in order to establish a registered PCB storage site. Usually one of the condi tions states that: "For wastesfor which a destruction method is commercially available, a timetable for this destruc tion shall be provided within six months or details justifying the continued stor

age shall be provided in the annual re port..." This condition does not appear to be routinely enforced by MOB. Since at least the mid-1980s there

have been a variety of "commercially available" technologies for owners of PCB waste. These include incineration, thermal decontamination, and chemical

decontamination among others. The in centive, however,for proper off-site dis posal has been almost non-existent; some owners of PCB waste, however, have eliminated their PCBs for reasons

200 sites that have been eliminated, the

majority ofPCB owners have reportedly sent their wastes to Alberta for incinera

tion. MOB reports that approximately 8,000 tonnes have been shipped to Swan Hills; this includes both PCBs in stor

age and PCBs that were removed di rectly from "in-service" to disposal, thereby "skipping" the storage step. While a variety of options are avail able, including several new ones, the preferred altemative among the major ity of the owners of PCB storage sites continues to be long-term storage. ■

such as:

• improving property value, • due diligence, and


to register for

• risk minimization.

Many of these "commercially avail able" technologies are expensive, re quire a large stockpile to be cost-effec tive and must have the appropriate Cer tificate of Approvals. Public support is also required. Transportation and dis posal of wastes are generally too high for many small quantity PCB owners and even the owners of major PCB stor age sites find the process long, tedious and expensive. Of the approximately


Compliance '98 April 8-9,1998 Toronto Congress Centre, Toronto, ON Contact: ES&E for

Information (905)727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca.

3-6 November 1998 - Lyon Eurexpo - France I 1 1 consider exhibiting and wish to receive an exhibitor file.

I 1 1 wish to visit the exhibition and to receive an invitation card.



Rrst name:





J/jfJ LJ

14* International Exhibition


for Environmental Equipment, Technology and Services for industry and Local Authorrties


Jjtin d

'-i ifJ 411/U d StiS


Post code:

I I =




® Pollutec 98, the International Exhibition for Environment


Equipment Technologies and Services, will l:^ held in Lyon

and will cover both industiy and local authorities, in line


vtnth the established practice for Pollutec in even years. P8/60


Lyon in 1996, Pollutec had great success

Ffggfnan France

,712 exhibitors from 24 countries 600 visitors from BO countries

70, rue Rivay - 92532 Levallois-Perret Cedex - France

Osq;m of exhibition area

Fax :+ 33 1 47 56 21 20 Visitors:


Tel.: +(416) 929 25 62 - Fax: +(416) 929 25 64

xn ■Millci I

rollutec Visitors bought material froriir

^ll^fter the ir last ^risit of the

visitor survey, Statilogiti

Voice Server: + 33 1 41 22 GO 25 Internet: http;//viiww.pollutec.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

For more information, circie reply card No. 139 (See page 17)



How to generate electricity whiie reducing greenhouse gases

Whilethe world's at ention

was focused on the United Nations' Confer

ence on Climate Change in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, it seemed that little attention was being paid to the many effective greenhouse gas reduction opportunities right here at home. In most ofthe communities where

we live, a hydrocarbon known as meth ane seeps out of the nearby landfill and discharges into the atmosphere. Not only is methane worth controlling because it is a potent global warmer, but its con

doing anyway. A review of the benefits of landfill gas capture and utilization suggest that this measure could in fact be the champion of no regrets measures in the short term:

• Methane is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide as a global warmer. Capturing and combusting methane re sults in a twenty times reduction in glo bal warming potential. • Landfill gas capture is cost-effec tive. For a 5 million tonne landfill, the

installation of a gas collection system

would cost about $1 per tonne of waste

trol has the added benefit

of displacing fossil fuel use. Fossil fuel use is, of course, the number one

High temperature combustion oflandfill gas destroys a high percentage of comingled contaminants. Though usually only 1% by volume, the trace contami nants in landfill gas include volatile or ganic compounds which are smog pre cursors. At least 98% of these trace

compounds can be destroyed by exist ing technology. • Quick reduction in radiative forc ing. Methane's atmospheric lifespan (812 years) is brief compared to carbon dioxide (200 years). If large amounts of methane are prevented from entering the atmosphere, its at mospheric concentration should fall quickly and its contribution to the green

cause of emissions of the

house effect should fall

number one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Recently, the Cana

rapidly as well. With shining

dian Institute for Envi

Policy reviewed the number two greenhouse gas, methane, and in par

may wonder why every landfill in the country isn't rigged up with a landfill gas capture sys tem. It is true that many

ticular those emissions

of the nation's 10,000

arising from landfills.

landfills are nothing but small waste heaps which are unlikely to be viable.




tributes like these, one


The research determined

that the reduction poten Some could be older than tial is still very significant in this arena, despite the Transforming a problem into a solution • Watts from waste. 50 years and produce Photo - Ecolo Odor Control Systems fact that the knowledge only a trickle of methane. However, there are larger landfills near and technology to control this emission landfilled, and the combustion-generat have been with us for at least a quarter ing system about $l-$2. Environment or in urban areas that could be tapped of a century. Canada estimates that it may be one of but are not. Why? In some cases pro Landfill gas capture could trim Cana the lowest cost reductions of greenhouse vincial electrical utilities, like Ontario da's emission overrun by between 12% gases (per tonne of carbon dioxide Hydro, refuse to purchase the electric and 19% on the basis that Canada cap equivalent reduced) when revenues from ity generated from landfill gas(produc energy sales are folded in. ing electricity with the gas is one of the tures and combusts 60% of its landfill methane. Canada's emission gap is cur • Municipalities can derive revenue most effective and sensible uses of the rently at least 46 Mt of carbon dioxide from the sale oflandfill gas. Metropoli gas for a landfill owner). Ontario Hy equivalent and may be as high as 73 Mt. tan Toronto receives 1 million dollars a dro also claims that these and other Landfill gas capture could reduce this year in royalties from the sale of landfill smaller,'alternative' energy schemes are overrun by at least 8.7 Mt carbon diox gas that produces electricity from its more expensive to administer (and nu ide equivalent. Brock West Landfill Site. clear generated power is cheap?). The environmental and economic •Landfdl gas use displacesfossilfuel All of these points of objection use. Methane produced from organic should not limit this measure from pro benefits of this measure are considered waste can contribute doubly to green ceeding. These objections are sur sufficiently great to warrant undertak ing the activity even in the absence of house gas reduction by displacing fos mountable through a combination of in the threat of climate change. Such meas silized hydrocarbons (ie. coal, oil or formation, regulation, financial incen ures are frequently referred to as no re natural gas). Canada landfills enough tive and the will to do it. In the United States, landfill gas cap grets measures as they are simply worth waste each year to generate methanepowered electricity for a city of 25,000 ture is being pursued with zeal by way of regulatory and voluntary measures as people. 'Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy 44

• Trace contaminant destruction.

well as financial inducements. Under

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1998

By Greg Jenish* Clean Air regulations, landfills over 2.5 million tonnes will be required to install capture systems. The Landfill Methane Outreach Program is a technical assist ance service sponsored by the US EPA which also signs up state and municipal allies for action on a voluntary basis. Finally, the US Internal Revenue


Efficient information'"-

management - so you cam;

Service has a financial incentive referred

spend less time managing, ■ , more time understanding

to as the Non-Conventional Fuels Tax

environmental data.

Credit which rebates developers of landfill gas the tax rate applied to an equivalent amount of natural gas (on a

► Effective compliances management.

BTU basis). As a result of these meas

* Reduced costs for

ures it is estimated that the US will have

exploited approximately 400 of the 700 known viable landfills in that country by the year 2000 and that 60% of the landfill methane will be caught and processed. Canada currently has 27 installations which capture 24% of the nation's landfill gas. We could be doing better. The remaining 76% of the nation's landfill methane escapes to the atmos phere and with it, escapes the opportu nity to improve air quality, to displace fossil fuels and to limit the possibility of rapid climate change. ■



reporting to regulators and management ► Consistency in environmeri; protocol and procedure.

* Configured to your operatic^i ► Reduced potential for

environmental liab|ij|ty ard„i?|s




For more information, circie reply card No. 140 (See page 17)

Wet Waste to Marketable

Recyclable Products - A Reality. Wet organic waste is transformed from a disposal problem to a valuable resource (feeds and fertilizers) through aerobic thermophilic fermentation The Thermo Master''''^ Process.

For more information

on plants and possible jointventure

partnerships contact Rene

Branconnier, President

and CEO, at 1-604-514-8390. For detailed investor information

please contact Investor Relations at 1-800-377-5085. The Thermo Master ™ Plant

delivers a rapid, environmentally sound technology for application today to food wastes, bio-solids and other organic sludges.

Thermo Tech Technologies stock trades on the NASDAQ Stock Exchange (TTRI.F). NASDAQ has neither approved nor disapproved of information contained herein.

Thermo Tetb Technologies lue. Thermo Master Plant


Environmental Science t& Engineering, March 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 141 (See page 17)



By Steven Bold, P.Eng.S and Mike Schmidtler, P.Eng.

Speedy diversion chamber instaiiation aiiows Calgary siphon inspection

When the City of Calgary, Alberta Sewer Division

detected high coliform readings in the Elbow River, a fast, efficient method for in

specting a steel sanitary siphon was nec essary. The 80-year-old siphon was lo cated in a difficult position and attempts to perform ultrasonic or video inspec tion were unsuccessful. The siphon was constructed in an old-style H-configuration with a deep sump at each end and a horizontal crossing approximately 2.5m below the river bed. That configu ration, along with live sanitary flow con ditions of more than 500 litres per sec ond, made entry by either workers or equipment impossible. In addition,the project was near a city street and the equipment needed to per form the work would block the road for

the duration of the project. This made a speedy job even more imperative. The answer was to use precast con crete to construct a permanent diversion chamber that allowed inspection of the siphon. The project took only three days to complete, greatly reducing the poten tial for disruption to local traffic. The siphon in question was the southernmost of two siphons crossing the river and it serviced roughly 2800 hectares (6,916 acres), including the downtown business core. A temporary spot repair of the upstream chamber had eliminated the readings of contamina tion, but the condition of the siphon re

The use of precast concrete to construct the permanent diversion chamber ailowed isoiation gates to be mounted and other hardware to be instaiied under factory quality control conditions. redirected to an existing alternate sewer which conveyed the flow to the north siphon. Once the temporary diversion was in place, Lafarge Pipe and Standard Prod ucts took measurements to design and build the precast sections,complete with the openings necessary to tie the exist ing sewers into the new chamber. The use of precast concrete to con struct the permanent diversion chamber allowed isolation gates to be mounted

isolate the two 900mm inlets, permanent stainless steel guides were bolted to in

crete sewer lines all converged into the existing cast-in-place chamber, which already had been added onto twice. Steel plates and inflatable plugs were

Also, using a preconstructed chamber significantly reduced the length of time the diversion needed to remain in place. The aiTangement of the existing sani tary sewers allowed for the use of precast 3000mm x 2400mm box culvert

and the north siphon for an indefinite period. An inspection is currently underway to determine if the existing siphon can be used or if a new one is required to be constructed in its place. The use of precast concrete allowed

used to divert the flow from the 1200mm

sections with a 1500 diameter mono

for shorter construction time and mini

line and from one of the 900mm sew

lithic opening and a top slab with a 1050mm square galvanized steel hinged hatch. The hatch was designed for CS750 highway loading. To facilitate isolation of the siphon,

mal disruption to the community. It also provided quality control conditions in constructing the diversion chamber, which made thorough inspection of the siphon possible. For more information, circie repiy card No. 142

mained unknown.

Although the manual di version necessary to construct a new chamber was fairly in volved, it would only need to be performed once. One

tion. On the outside, a 700mm diam

eter steel flange was cast flush with the wall to allow for future connection. To

serts cast into the chamber wall with

removable stainless steel plates slid into the guides. Also, an intermediate, aluminum safety platform, manufac tured by MSU Mississauga Ltd., was and other hardware to be installed un factory installed below the opening, der factory quality control conditions. complete with a removable handrail. The City of Calgary in Ttie answer was to use precast concrete to stalled the new chamber in construct a permanent diversion chamber that October of 1996. With the aiiowed inspection of the siphon. The project took chamber in place and the gates oniy three days to compiete, greatiy reducing the closed, the flow can now be potentiai for disruption to iocai traffic.

abandoned 750mm line, one live 1200mm line and two live 900mm con

ers, around the chamber from an up stream manhole to a manhole down stream. The other 900mm sewer was

^Calgary Sewer Division ^Lafarge Pipe & Standard Products 46

of the chamber, with inserts for the wall thimble cast into the wall of the box sec

diverted to the alternate sewer

a 1450mm-wide,stainless steel Fontaine

gate was factory installed on the inside

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998






Water Company,Delaware River Regional WTP,Delran, NJ

/ Leading the Way in Ozone Technology

030NIA The Clean Technology Technc 491 Edward H. Ross Dr.• P.O. Box 455 Elmwood Pork, NJ 07407

Phone:(201) 794-3100• Fox:(201) 794-3358 www.ozonianorthamerica.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 143(See page 17)

Potable Water

Water filtration -fundamentals and design

Filtration as a water treatment process has been known for thousands of years. People observed that the water quality was better in wells or dug holes than in

the river itself. It was found that the far

ther from a river and the deeper the well, the cleaner the water. This led to the

cycle duration are readily evident: • effluent quality • pressure drop across filter media. A number offorces have an influence

on the filtration process: Adhesion, Van der Waal, Gravity, etc. Today most at tention is paid to adhesion under the electrical charge of the particles and of filter bed materials. Most pollutants in the water have a negative charge. The

basic understanding about natural filtra tion processes which even today is be ing applied in modem filtration opera

common filtration materials have a


negative charge too. So,to increase the

What is filtration? It is a

separation of organic and inorganic particles of vary ing sizes from the fluid(wa ter in this case is the media). How does it work? This

question is more difficult to explain. Today there are a

T pressure - filtrocycle duration until pressure drop across the media reaches designed figure. What does this formula mean? Sim

ply, that in a properly designed filter, accumulation of polluting particles is observed over a wide depth of the me dia(e.g. not on surface layer only). The filtrocycle ends and the filter is ready for regeneration (back-washing) when effluent quality starts to drop at the same time as a maximum design pressure drop occurs. This basic principle is used today by most filter designers. Generally, the fil ter design consists of the fol lowing segments: •Process design • Hydraulic design • Mechanical design.

number of theories, some of

Let's examine each of the


which are quite sophisti

above mentioned stages. Process Design With this stage the main process parameters must be

cated. All of the advanced

theories are empirical and are based on field or pilot studies conducted by scien

found and calculated:

tists. But almost all of them

- filter capacity

have a number of similari ties. We would like to sum

- filtration rate (abstract linear velocity)

marize them.


filtration area


media: material, size,

Water containing undis-

solved particles penetrates Burlington into the filtration material. This is the

beginning of the process. A portion of the particles is retained in the first layer of the filter material; the rest of the par ticles pass the filter and are discharged with the effluent. Particles begin to ac cumulate in the first layer. When the concentration of particles reaches the maximum volume which can be held,

they (retained particles on upper layer) start to tear away and relocate to the next layer. When the particle concentration in the next layer reaches a maximum concentration, the same process repeats and the particles relocate to the next lower layer. The process repeats until the last (lowest) layer is reached. When particles begin to tear away from the last layer and discharge from the media,the effluent quality drops. At the same time, with particle accumula tion in the media, the pressure drop across the media increases proportion ally to the number of accumulated par ticles. The two main criteria for filtro*Zenon Environmental Inc. 48

Water Purification Plant. Photo - Acres & Associates

uniformity co-efficient adhesive properties it is necessary to (UC), geometric shape, bed depth increase the electrical charge of sus - filtrocycle duration pended particles or of media granules. - main and secondary back-washing cri The first goal (for suspended particles) teria: effluent quality, pressure drop, can be reached by well-known chemi time, influent quality, etc. cal processes named coagulation and - backwashing procedure,sequence and flocculation. The second goal (for me duration: by water, by water and air, dia granules) can be reached by proper etc. media selection having the highest elec - operational procedure. trical potential, by special preparation Hydraulic Design (e.g. crushing and screening or by cre The main goal of this stage is to design ating artificial medias with specific a filter which meets the following re properties). quirements: Design As discussed earlier, the filtrocycle - all of the media will be loaded uni formly during filtration mode duration is characterized by effluent - all of the media will be cleaned uni quality, and pressure drop across filter formly during back-washing mode media. all particles removed from the media So,the main filtration formula devel will be discharged from the filter ops by itself: Hydraulic design includes: T protection = T pressure and with sanitary safety factor 10 - 30%: - shell depth calculation T protection = (I.I - 1.3) T pressure - water distribution system design for uniform water distribution and collec


T protection - filtrocycle duration when effluent quality still meets required Standard.

tion during filtration and during backwashing - air-distribution system design

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

By Vyacheslav Frenkel* - water collection system or channels design - pipes and components sizing. Mechanical Design This stage includes the following; - proper material selection for each of the filter components: shell material and lining, - water distribution and collection sys tems, air distribution systems, valves, etc.

- schedule and thickness for all compo nents

- components shape and configuration design - back-washing components calculation and selection( back-washing pumps, air-blowers, water reservoirs, water towers, etc.). Mono-media and Multimedia Filters

There are two major choices in filter design: Mono-media filter

is more popu-

lar in Europe. Multi-media filter

is more popu-

lar in North America.

What type of media is better? There is no easy, correct answer. The best an swer can be reached from field pilot-

plant studies or as a minimum from jar

Chlorination and

WHMIS Workshops Basic Gas Chlorination

tests. Each of these filters have advan

(4 1/2 days): May 98 - Barrie September 98 - Thunder Bay

tages and disadvantages: Mono-media filter:

Advantages • No risk of media mixing. • Deep bed filtration can be applied, in cluding up-flow. • A separate air-scour is not needed, all media can be scoured by air. • Very simple maintenance. Disadvantages • Relatively high shell height. • High risk of not deep particle penetra tion into media case of improper design. Multi-media filter:

Advantages • Relatively small shell height. • Deep particle penetration. • High flexibility in design. Disadvantages • Very high risk of media mixing and losing filtration effectiveness. • A separate air-scour system needed. • Limited expansion during backwashing results in particle accumulation in

November 98 - Barrie

"A" "B" and "C" Repair Kit Semi nars (1/2 day) April 98 - London April 98 - Barrie November 98 - Sudbury Hypochlorination (3 days): March 98 - Labrador

June 98 - Bracebridge September 98 - Thunder Bay November 98 - North Bay WHMIS for Municipal Employees

(1 day): March 98 - Parry Sound March 98 - Bracebridge December 98 - Bracebridge

These workshops can also be conducted at a customer's location.

For further Information please contact: David Durant, P.Eng. Canadian Enviro-Courses Ltd.

31 Ridge Valley Drive Bracebridge, ON, P1L 1L3 Phone/Fax:(705)645-9570


• Only one top layer can be scrubbed

with air. Circle reply card No. 158

E-mail: cdnenvro@muskoka.com

Potable water.

Portable plant. Ecodyne Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembied into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever additional or improved water is needed.

Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant

produces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact: Ecodyne Limited 2201 Speers Road Oakvllle, Ontario L6L 2X9

Telephone:(905) 827-9821 Toll Free: 1-888-ECODYNE

Fax:(905)827-8428 Internet: info@ecodyne.com

111 MfiPffvCN


I I I. A member of The Marmon Group of companies

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

For more information, circle reply card No. 144 (See page 17)


Water Recycling In Space

NASA evaluates water purification system

A team from NASA at

Marshall Space Flight

Center in Huntsville, Ala

bama, is testing a system that will recycle all the water produced by astronauts aboard the intemational space station - including perspiration, shower and shaving water, even urine into fresh drinking water. NASA and its intemational partners are beginning assembly of the Space Station - a permanent, orbiting labora tory where astronauts will live and work year-round. Weight and storage limita tions will make continued recycling of water necessary, and even then, water


will be rationed.

A major series of tests at Marshall has been completed on the water recy cling system planned for the Space Sta tion and researchers are giving it high marks.

Eighty volunteers participated in the six-month study to evaluate the effi ciency of the system. Bach day approxi mately 20 of the volunteers would each complete an hour of activities - exer cising, eating, showering, washing their hands, shaving, brushing their teeth, and using the bathroom -in the test facility. On earth, water treatment plants use biological treatment to purify the water. Microorganisms metabolize and destroy contaminants. In contrast, the Space Station water recovery system uses physical and chemical processes to re move contaminants.

The Space Station Urine Processor uses distillation to evaporate and remove the more volatile components of urine, including the water. Less volatile and less desirable components remain as a liquid brine, which eventually has to be disposed of as waste. The Space Station Water Processor uses four technologies to purify the water. These technologies include particulate filtration, ion exchange, carbon adsorption, and catalytic oxidation. Fol lowing these steps, iodine is added as a microbial biocide, similar to the use of

chlorine in most municipal water sys tems. Last of all, the quality of the water is monitored to ensure the purifi cation process is working and water quality is acceptable. The system successfully recycled and purified the wastewater into potable water for 146 days, including the first 50

The water recycling system planned for the International Space Station recently completed a major series of tests at l\/larshall Space Flight Center In Huntsville, Alabama. Volunteers completed one-hour routines of daily activities in the test facility. The system collected and recycled all the water In the environment, including humidity from respiration, perspiration and microwave use; wastewater from showers, hand washes,shaves, toothbrushes and urine.

128 days in which the product water was recycled for use by the volunteers. This is significant because of the concern that contaminants not efficiently removed by the system would begin to accumulate after extended recycling. Of course, a significant measure of the system's success was the taste test. Test subjects said the water was very acceptable for drinking. There were no bad tastes or odours reported. • "The system was able to remove all microbial health hazards from the

water," said Monsi Roman,chief micro-

biologist for the Space Station life sup port system.

Viral test procedures for the system were developed as a cooperative effort by Marshall and the US EPA. During testing, a mixture of four viruses was added to the water. Only viruses capa ble of infecting bacteria were used so there was no risk to the volunteers par ticipating in the study. The water was then processed through the system. Test results show that the water processor is capable of removing all viruses present in the wastewater.

The processing system being devel oped for the Space Station can effi ciently recycle water containing a high concentration of contaminants. The less

water used, the higher the concentration of contaminants.

The system is claimed to be very ef ficient-10,000 times better than the av

erage water treatment plant. On board the Space Station, water will be rationed, so there will be a much higher concen tration of contaminants than dealt with

on earth.

For short-duration missions, it is not

necessary to recycle air, water or waste since sufficient quantities can be taken along. But with long-duration missions - such as Space Station or a venture to Mars-it is necessary to recycle as much as possible to reduce re-supply and stor age requirements. The Space Station water recovery system also could have applications for water processing on earth. One area where it might be applicable is in geo graphical areas where temperature is a factor, such as the basins of Antarctica

where biological processes do not work due to extremely cold temperatures. Physiochemical processes, like those used by the Space Station system,could work there.

Testing began in May 1990. The next stage of testing is scheduled to begin in mid 1998. After testing is complete,the system will be ready for integration into the habitation module, the living quar ters of the Space Station. For more information, circle reply card No. 145

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

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For more informatiorr, circle reply card No. 146(See page 17)

Odour Control

Biogas scrubber can be used in municipal and food treatment applications

Hydrogen sulphide is a health

and safety hazard, and when

combined with carbon diox

ide and water vapour, may corrode plant equipment and piping. Apollo Environmental Systems has de veloped a scrubber for removal of hy drogen sulphide and particulate matter from biogas as it is produced. It was first installed and tested at the Metro

politan Toronto Works Department's Main Treatment Plant at Ashbridges Bay. The field evaluation showed that the scrubber removed about 98 - 99% of the

hydrogen sulphide. A key innovation, from which other advantages arise,is the extremely high mass transfer rate gen erated by the gas-liquid contacting sys tem.

Chemical costs are reduced

through the combination of reduced catalyst inventories and concentration, a result of the increased mass transfer rates.

Apollo Biogas Scrubber commercial unit.

That process produces a biogas which is composed mostly of methane and car

The unit is insensitive to fluctuations

bon dioxide and is contaminated with

in biogas feed rates and hydrogen sul phide concentration within the feed, and may be scaled up or down very effi ciently. Other features include self-in duced gas flow which may reduce or

small quantities of other gases. Hydrogen sulphide is one of these gases. Hydrogen sulphide and other sul phur compounds must be removed from anaerobic digester gas streams before they can be used as fuel for stationary engines and cogeneration units. The Apollo scrubber may also be used in other places where biogas is pro

eliminate the need for a fan, blower or

compressor, and low pressure drop across the system. About 10% of Canadian wastewater

treatment plants and 25% of US plants use anaerobic digestion to reduce the volume of sludge requiring disposal.

duced, such as landfill sites and indus

trial anaerobic digesters. Industrial di gesters are used on wastewater streams

Regeneration Demister

Biogas / Scrubbing


Vessel Vl "" '

Biogas Blower

n Sulfur

biogas, free of H^S, may be used as a low-energy content fuel for boilers as well as for stationary engines and cogeneration, and to produce heat for plant digestion tanks and control build ings. Apollo gas scrubbers eliminate nox ious odours and sulphur dioxide emis sions, and save money by reducing cor rosion and downtime, and extending equipment lifespan. The process is based on a patented, high efficiency, gas-liquid contactor which has as its basis, an impellershroud mixing device. An aqueous re duction/oxidation process converts hy drogen sulphide to elemental sulphur and water. The catalyst, reaction prod ucts and buffer additive ai^e all environ

mentally acceptable (according to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment). Hydrogen sulphide feed concentra tion does not significantly affect the re moval efficiency provided that there is adequate catalyst concentration and


Gas/Liquid Separator


produced by industries such as food processing, beverage manufacturing and pulp and paper. The level of hydrogen sulphide in the biogas from industrial anaerobic digesters is higher than that from anaerobic digesters in municipal waste treatment plants. Upgraded

recirculation rate.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 147 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

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1997 Winner of the Schreyer Award For more information, circie repiy card No. 150(See page 17)

Wastewater Operations

Wastewater treatment control systems ■ hile municipal and indus


trial wastewater treat

Real World On-line Measurements

ment plants must meetin creasingly stringent stan

dards for effluent, wastewater treatment

plants are complex. The amount and quality of the sewage varies. If they are to operate at peak performance then they

Analytical Measurements

Adopt Control



for the treatment processes. Hydromantis, with the support of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, developed a computer-based control system called the Integrated Computer Control System (IC-S). The IC-S is de signed to improve the performance of the plant which, in turn, will decrease the variations in the quality of the efflu ent and help to defer the capital cost ex penditure for upgrading or expanding

the plant. Further, the IC^S will help to reduce: the number of violations for ef

fluent quality; the volume of pollutants loaded into the receiving waters; energy costs by lowering the amount of energy used.

The IC^S consists of a collection of

computer modules which build on a

Position Open Zenon is an advanced

membrane technology company dedicated to solving urgent prob lems of humanity asso ciated with water supply and wastewater management.

Due to our increasing growth, we have immediate openings for:

Project Managers Interested candidates must have

a minimum of 5 years related expe rience in the field of water and

wastewater, possess an engineering degree and be registered as a pro fessional engineer in the province of Ontario.

Please forward your resume to: Zenon Environmental Inc.

845 Harrington Court Burlington, Ontario L7N 3P3

Fax:(905)639-1812 Attention:

Manager of Human Resources 54




need advanced and automated controls







■■ ■ ■


■ ■ ■ H

■ ■■n


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Adaptive Data Filter



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estimator Updated

Control Vector

State & Parameter Vector

Simulator/Model (BPS-X)

mi—T^dH— plant's existing control systems. These include the automatic sampling instru ments, closed-loop automatic units and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems.

The IC^S is an automated control sys


Simulated Values

line and off-line, or stored data, as well as simulated results to find abnormali

ties in the process and to suggest ways to control them.

' Advanced Automatic Control (AAC) It uses the interface of the GPS-X simu

tem which identifies changes in the char acteristics of the wastewater as it goes through the treatment process. The aim is to predict and avert upsets in the proc

lator and MATFAB - a powerful nu merical problem solver - to create ad vanced controls that allow for the dy

ess. These modules include:

process models. • Human Computer Interface (HCI) - It provides a link between the operator and

• Adaptive Data Filtering (ADF) - It ex tracts data from the on-line sensors in

the plant, filters out the factors which might interfere with a tme reading of the data and gives the real measurements; • Respirometric Parameter Identifica tion (RPI) - It continuously monitors the activated sludge process using respirometry data. Respirometry measures the rate at which oxygen is consumed by micro-organisms during the oxidation of organic matter. • Dynamic Parameter Estimator - It au tomatically estimates parameters that may change with time. By using this estimator, the calibration of the model

can be updated constantly. • Simulation Model (General Purpose Simulator or GPS-X) - It is a computa tion tool for developing and calibrating models which simulate the workings of wastewater treatment plants. • Decision Support System (DSS) - It uses current plant conditions from on

namic nature of wastewater treatment

the IC^S functions.

Testing during the present IC-S projects shows that the modules keep a simulated plant in compliance and work ing efficiently. Further, Hydromantis has developed module functions to iden tify trends in data, to use respirometry derived information, to estimate param eters which vary over time and to iden tify and establish control systems for the plant's processes. Finally, the company has used a simulator to provide new in sight into a plant's operations, to predict future trends and to test different options for controlling the quality of the efflu ent.

In the future, Hydromantis will dem

onstrate the IC^S using a full-scale plant model in GPS-X and data from waste-

water treatment plants in Ontario. For more information, circie repiy card No. 149

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998


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Global Warming - An Opinion

By Dr. Elizabeth M. Whelan*

Why global wanning may not devastate human health

President Clinton and other

world leaders met in Kyoto, Japan last December to sign a treaty that will reduce green house gases and thwart the threat of glo bal climate change. The Clinton Admin istration has justified such a measure by warning of the apocalyptic effects that projected global warming will have on human health. Proponents of the pro posal have warned that the alleged cli mate change will cause hundreds of thousands to die yearly due to heatrelated ailments and increase the spread of tropical infectious diseases.

noted that, during the summer, the Gulf states of the US are several degrees

Caribbean has the disease. It is not the

a proposal of this kind may have the re verse effect-worsening the already dire state of human health in developing

climate, it is the existence of a stable


public health program that controls the

Emissions limits of the magnitude proposed by global warming proponents will disrupt the economies of developed

warmer than the Caribbean. While both

regions carry the dengue vector, only the


Clean water and sanitation

Contrary to the Clinton Administra tion's belief,the significant health prob lem facing the world is not global warm ing. There were 922,000 deaths in In dia alone in 1990 from preventable diarrheal disease; these deaths could

Climate science, however,is rife with

have been eradicated with a moderate

uncertainty - as are the allegations for

investment in drinking water and sani tation. The answer is to expand public health measures to prevent the spread of disease through immunization, mos quito control, and improved sanitation. The global warming doomsayers

the health effects. In fact, there is no

scientific consensus concerning global warming. The climate change predic tions are based on computer models that have not been validated and are far from

want us to believe that limiting gas emis sions will save the lives of humans. But

nations who will bear the brunt of the restrictions. With the economies of de

veloped nations compromised, interna tional aid and public health programs will be under-funded, placing more lives at risk of preventable diseases. To effectively combat global health problems today and in the future, it is imperative that we rebuild our public health infrastructure and implement bet ter disease prevention strategies, not in vest in proposals that will disrupt econo mies and cost millions ofjobs. â–

perfect. These projected findings on which billions of dollars are wagered, can differ by up to 400%. As for the hypothetical health effects that are based on the alleged global warming, these predictions are even more dubious. For example. First Lady Hillary Clinton has portended in her weekly newspaper column, that "as a conse quence of climate change, the percent age of the world's population at risk to malaria could increase from 45% to 60%. And the United States is not im mune."

This is true; the US is not immune.

The mosquito vectors of dengue, yellow

fever, and malaria that the First Lady mentions, have been in the US for cen

turies now. No epidemic has occurred, or will occur, because of the public health and sanitation infrastructure that exists here.

As for the increase in the incidence

of malaria: rising temperatures may shorten the incubation period of mosquitos carrying the disease. However, the warming of the earth alone will not increase the disease. Dr. Duane Gubler, director of the division of vector-borne infectious diseases at the Center for Dis

ease Control and Prevention(CDC),has 'President, American Council on Science and Health, a New York-based

public health advocacy organization. 56

Photo by Tom Davey Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998


ES&E Photo story by Tom Davey

Reclaimed water from treatment plant now serving Florida residents

A 1.5 US m.g.d wastewater

treatment plant in St. Lucie County, Florida will begin selling the treated wastewater commercially very soon. This ES&E photo shows the hook up to the first private devel opment underway,in January, 1998. The three pipes in the trench are for potable water, sewage and reclaimed water. This treatment facility has been in operation for over a year and does not discharge to any receiving waters. Currently, treated water

only during winter months. Yet this one penetrate them. Reclaimed water from the Island condo uses 35,000 US gallons per day all year round. Then too, large golf Treatment Plant will be sold at $2.52 courses in particular have a voracious (US) per thousand gallons. The re appetite for water. claimed water has a sulphuric odour, but, experts say, it will be safe to apply to lawns and landscape plants. Nutrients such as ni trogen and phosphorous which remain in the treated water are added environmen tal and economic benefits.

Until January 1998, the treated water has been used

only to irrigate state and county parklands. Now, with

costs $3.52 per thousand US

the installation of 33,000 ft. of

gallons. As lawns, flowers and shrubbery require year round watering in most of Florida, irrigation is extremely expen sive. One small condominium serves

only 150 families in three highrises. Moreover, many of the units are in use

The plant gives another benefit. Some of the aquifers serving North Hutchinson Island were becoming drawn down allowing salinated water to

PVC pipe, the treated irriga tion waters will be soon piped to many condos and houses, giving economic as well as environmen tal benefits to the island.

(Original report, see ES&E, March 1997.)



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Pat McGrenere Executive Vice President 905-459-4780

Head Office

Brampton. Ontario

ISO 9002

Davis Controls'

E-mail:kmk@ kmk.on.ca

For more information, circie repiy card No. 333 (See page 17)

For more information, circle repiy card No. 334

Emergency Response

The Plastimet fire and Its toxic legacy

While Hamilton's massive industrial fire occurred

July 9, 1997, reverbera

The lone MOE officer showed no

hesitation in calling in additional levels of support to assist him in advising the

tions from the incident

local officials of what could be involved

show no signs of abating. The fire in volved 400 metric tonnes of polyvinyl chloride(PVC). An additional estimat ed 350 tonnes escaped what has been

in this "toxic soup" of black, yellow and orange acrid smoke.

labelled as Canada's most toxic event.

The fire involved a former smelting and recycling facilities property. Plastimet Recycling was renting the property at the time. The Hamilton Fire De

partment(HFD) had earlier cited Plastimet's operation

The MOE followed recommenda

tions made by TEAM-1, who made nu merous phone calls to the 24 hour Spills Action Centre advising them of the sus pected toxic water runoff going into the storm sewer system and the need for air

the birds were not chirping and there was no clanging of railway crossing signals. Some had difficulty in finding their back yards. On numerous occasions, acrid smoke (later found to have an extensive hydrochloric acid content)covered their homes several times during the first three days. The adjacent Hamilton General Hos pital was also having difficulty and con templated a full evacuation. In fact, the close proximity to the fire led officials to call for a "stand-by evacu ation". This put over 30 am bulances and other emer

with 20 fire code violations

gency vehicles on stand-by at the hospital for what

so they had quite a file on

seemed to be an inevitable

both the past and present

evacuation. It was later de

land uses.

termined that shutting off the ventilation system during the frequent wind shifts would suffice. Hospital officials

The vastness of the fire

alone brought out virtually all emergency service per sonnel and agencies, as well as several hundred curious observers of the toxic fire.

later spent over $100,000 on replacement filters. During Day 3, officials ordered a voluntary evacua

At times it appeared that the media outweighed the firefighters in sheer numbers and equipment. News re porters and photographers struggled to get close to the fire for the award-winning shots when really the best

were outfitted with air puri fying respirators, complete with chemical cartridges and chemical proof goggles. They patrolled the streets

shots were taken some 5-7

and marked homes that had

kilometres away.

been successfully evacuated.

The fall out of some of

tion of certain residential sections. Police officers

Measurements of 5,000

micrograms of polycyclic the material was landing in Evidence of the fire could be seen up to 30 kilometres away. aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitoring vehicles. a mall parking lot nowhere near the in measured during the fire. 0.2 to 5.0 is dustrial fire scene. Evidence of the fire Ten hours after the fire started, the was seen some 30 kilometres away. Lo million dollar MOE air monitoring van the normal range in the city. Levels of cal residents pulled up lawn chairs and capable of verifying actual air quality hydrogen chloride were measured at 470 coolers and literally camped out for the (not for immediate dioxin results) parts per billion, which is well above the standard of60 ppb. On July 12, the day night, as they too knew that this large showed up on site. scale industrial fire was not going to be The fire burned for an astonishing 77 the evacuation ended, levels fell to 20 put out quickly. hours and was finally put out when some ppb. Similarly, benzene levels peaked Approximately one hour after the 200 million litres of water were pumped at 250 ppb, compared to the norm of 2 start of the fire, the HFD notified the onto the fully engulfed two acre site. ppb. Ministry of the Environment(MOE)of Water runoff into the storm and sani Residents returning to their homes were warned by local health authorities the suspected toxic occurrence and re tary sewers became a concern for re quested some support. After some de gional officials. Some toxins were not to eat their garden fruits and vegeta lay, the MOE officer arrived. Once on measured in excess of 2,000 times the bles, due to dioxin contamination. Also, site, he was barraged with officials seek normal level. Water was redirected (as they were told not to let their children ing assistance on identifying what the ordered by Regional Sewer officials) to and pets play on their own properties. The fire department withdrew from main concems were over partially incin the sanitary sewer system for treatment erated PVC components and other un at the sewage treatment plant. Dioxin the site and allowed the environmental emergency crews to deal with the after knowns such as PCBs. in the wastewater showed levels at 210 picograms per litre, the MOE standard math. The Hamilton Fire Department reported it cost them approximately is 15 picograms. 'Manager of Emergency Services, TEAM-1 Environmental Services As residents awoke, they found that $300,000 to decontaminate and retrofit 58

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

By Mitchell GIbbs* their equipment due to the toxic fall out.

fallen on deaf ears. Residents, Green

Residents received $100 each for their

peace, local and international firefight ers unions. City officials, etc., are all re questing an inquiry. At press time of

concerns and troubles. The burned out carcass of the struc ture and the 400 tonnes of melted PVC left little for the Fire Marshall's office

to investigate. The MOE would now take the lead role and order the property

Flowline innovation available here...

this article the MOE had conducted its

own internal review and gave itself a passing grade. In excess of 4,000 tonnes of debris

owner and tenant to deal with the evi

both hazardous and non hazardous

dent toxic mess. The owner of Plastimet worked with officials for a short time.

waste, have been removed from the site.

An organic type ground cover has been sprayed on the site and extensive power trol and field orders, the MOE had to washing of any remaining concrete sur seize control of the site and order a clean faces has been completed by EES. On or about July 17, 1997, a $200up to MOE standards. Laidlaw Envi ronmental Services(Guelph)Inc.(EES) million lawsuit was launched against the was awarded the contract, estimated at City of Hamilton Fire Department, the 2 million dollars, to deal with fire re building owner and other agencies such lated damage only. A subsequent full as the Ministry of the Environment. The remediation of the property is expected issues deal with why the fire was al to be undertaken in the spring of 1998. lowed to happen,the response to the fire, Team-1 staff had 6,223 hours on the site. and the subsequent dealings with the A series ofcommunity meetings took residents. Earlier this year, ads were place where residents could vent their placed in Hamilton area newspapers concerns and seek answers to obvious notifying people who might have been questions: Why was this allowed to hap affected by the fire. The smoke may pen? Why were we not evacuated have cleared, but the political fire and sooner? And what went wrong? To date, fallout have only just begun. these remain unanswered satisfactorily. For more Information, The call for a Provincial Inquiry has circle reply card No. 335 But after numerous attempts and con

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2200 Bristol Circle. Oakville, Ont. L6H 5R3 Tel:(905) 829-2000 Fax:(9051 829-2630• Montreal: Tel:(514) 737-4817• Atlantic:

Tel:(902) 755-1831•Kingston: Tel:(613) 389-9333• South Central Ontario: Tel:(905)643-4277• Winnipeg: Tel:(204) 253-2815 •Calgary: Tel:(403) 255-5035• Vancouver: Tel:(604) 298-9101

Circle reply card No. 337

ESG International Canadian Environmental

ESG International is pleased to

Auditing Association

announce the addition of Mr.

Don Eewis as a senior manager. Prior to this appointment, Mr. Eewis was Manager of the Con sulting Division of Aquatic Sci ences Inc.

His responsibilities with ESG will include the delivery of serv ices involving new applications for monitoring and remediation of soils, water and wastewater. Mr.

Lewis is known for his innovative yet practical ap proach to the application of new technologies. Since its inception in 1975,ESG International has been a leader in the environmental consulting in dustry. With permanent and project offices in Canada, USA and overseas, ESG provides services in the areas of EA, SIA, Planning and Development, Resource Man agement and Remediation, Risk Assessment and Ecotoxicology. ESG International

361 Southgate Drive Guelph, Ontario, NIG 3M5 Tel:(519) 836-6050 Fax:(519)836-2493


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Association canadienne de verification environnementale

Upcoming Application Deadlines Upcoming deadlines for the submission of applications for the two designations in environmental auditing offered by the Canadian Environmental Auditing Association are: Certified Environmental Auditor - CEA • June 12, 1998

Certified Environmental - Sustainable Forest Management System Auditor- CEA(SFM) •April 24, 1998 • September 25, 1998 To receive certification application forms or for further information about the certification program and/or association membership,please contact the CEAA at(905)567-4705, fax:(905)567-7191. For more information, circle reply card No. 130 tSee naae 171

Waste Management

By E. Stradiotto\ B. Tushingham^ and N. Lee, P.Eng.^

Leachate treatment system is designed to last 300 years and extend landfill life

The Mohawk Street Sanitary

Landfill site, located in the

City ofBrantford, Ontario, has accumulated some 3.5 million

cubic metres of solid waste during the past 40 years of operation. Recently, the City obtained approval from the Ministry of

Pipe of Guelph, who elected to dry cast the maintenance holes to meet tight pro duction schedules and ensure greater quality control during production. In total. Con Cast Pipe produced 85 m of

to the difficulty in maintaining the integ rity of epoxy-coating during bending and handling. Once the mats were assembled, the dry cast method of production accom

1800 mm diameter riser units and 13 m

were tested following production to en sure rebar cages remained in tact and properly located. The concrete design mix provided by St. Lawrence Ce

the Environment for an

amended design and develop ment plan offuture fill areas at the site. This plan would put

modated them with ease. Random units

ment was an economical blend

of75% Type 10 Normal Port land Cement and 25% slag cement. Test performance of

the landfill site in an enviable

position of having an approved capacity to last an additional 60 years or more. This achieve ment was orchestrated by the efforts of City staff, the

this mix was found to have

greater sulphate resistance than Type 50 sulphate-resist ant Portland Cement.

landfill consultant Proctor &

As an added measure of

Redfern Limited, and the

hydrogeological sub-consult

protection, a waterproofing agent was applied to the exte

ant, Colder & Associates Ltd.

rior and interior surfaces ofthe

An integral part of the ap proved design is a leachate system which entails a net work of perforated underdrain pipes lining the landfill. Each

maintenance holes.

ids, resistant to deterioration,

of these underdrains is con

nected by a series of 1800 mm diameter maintenance holes.

The collection system ulti mately drains to a 3000 mm diameter in-ground pumping chamber, where the influx of leachate can be monitored.


cementitious, polymer-based material is impermeable to flu


and protects against physical abuse during handling. While maintaining these properties, the waterproofing agent re mains flexible and elastic.

Pipe-to-maintenance hole connections were secured with

Link Seal gaskets. These gas kets make use of highly resist ant rubber compounds and

Subsequently, the collected leachate is pumped via forcestainless steel hardware as main to the City's water pol guards against deterioration. lution control plant located ad Access hatches were made of I irW jacent to the landfill. Since the spark-proof, light-weight collection system will be pro Designers encountered harsh conditions at the Mohawk landfill aluminum. The Mohawk Street Sanigressively buried under me site. tary Landfill is an engineered landfill that tres of waste, component structures re of 3000 mm diameter riser units. will give testimony to the technology of quire a design life comparable to that of Based on the harsh conditions of the the landfill. In Ontario, that design life surrounding environment and the ex the late twentieth century. In combina pected design life. Norm Lee,P.Eng., of tion with stringent design guidelines and is taken to be 300 years. This demand Proctor & Redfern specified that epoxy- carefully selected products, the facility's ing prerequisite of materials and prod ucts is a welcome application for precast coated reinforcement and sulphate-re performance life is expected to stand the sistant cement be used in the precast. test of time. Continuous research in concrete products. In July 1997, Kast Construction Lim Each of the above materials provides material components and improved en ited of Brantford was awarded a $2 mil improved resistance against the poten gineering design have all helped in the lion contract to construct a portion of tially corrosive elements existing in the evolution of precast technology and the the collection system. Precast concrete landfill. broadening of its horizons. Time has Rebar mats were assembled at Con structures were supplied by Con Cast shown that the applications for precast Cast Pipe using epoxy-coated wire ties. products will continue to expand. Although wire mesh fabrication is less For more information, 'Con Cast Pipe circie repiy card No. 338 ^Proctor & Redfern Limited labour intensive, mesh was not used due 60

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

TEAM-1 Environmental Services Inc.


Hamilton/Toronto Divisions


SPILL RESPONSE 1-800-32-SPILL(77455) • High hazard spill response • Transportation/Road Spills • Contingency Planning • Trained, Qualified Personnel

• NFPA Hazmat Training • WHMIS,TDG • Confined Space • Outfitted Training Facility

Providing Emergency Response to Government, Industry, & Transportation.

Office:(905) 383-5550

I J Services Inc.

Fax:(905) 574-0492

Visit our web site at www.microcalm.com/team-l

For more information, circle reply card No. 339(See page 17)


By Dr. Barry Loescher*

Laboratory accreditation - does it resuit in improved data or is it mere window dressing?

There are two recognized

accreditation programs for

Percent of Labs With Unsati^actory Scores (10% Expected Due to Statistical Scoring)

Canadian environmental laboratories. One is admini

stered by the Canadian Association of Environmental Analytical Laboratories (CAEAL)for the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) and the second is oper ated by the Quebec Ministry of Envi

I accredited

ronment and Wildlife (MEF) for Que 1 non accredited

bec labs. The programs are comparable and, although the following discussion deals with CAEAL/SCC,the same com

ments apply to both programs. What is accreditation?

Accreditation is granted on a test by test basis, based on accurate results on blind performance evaluation samples (PE) plus a detailed site audit repeated biannually. The audit verifies the over all process(standard traceability,fridge pared to only 6% of accredited labs. temperature, quality program,etc.) plus (10% unsatisfactory is expected due to the individual test methods (calibration, statistical scoring). More striking, for QC protocols, troubleshooting....) and fecal conforms, a parameter directly re the completeness of documentation for lated to human health, the failure rate all of the above. In the case of Philip's for certified labs was 22% versus 6% Burlington laboratory in 1997 this in for accredited labs. It is reasonable to volved three auditors for four days. assume that a comparison with non cer

ing that period and that accreditation has played a major role in this transforma tion. The CAEAL data supports my belief. Accreditation makes a differ ence!

In light of this, it seems incredible that throughout all the Federal Depart ments and Provincial Govemments only

Accreditation is often confused with

tified labs would be even more dramatic.

Environment Canada, Newfoundland,

certification which involves only PE sample analysis. The programs are expensive for the

The complete evaluation is available on the CAEAL web site http://www.

Manitoba, Quebec and Nova Scotia (in progress)require that test data generated in support of environmental regulations be provided by laboratories which are


laboratories with an annual direct cost

Currently, there are 78 accredited

of$5,000-$15,000,depending on scope,

labs and an additional 75 certified labs

accredited for those tests.

plus substantial staff and resources re quirements. Estimates of the full cost of accreditation have ranged as high as

(all accredited labs are also certified) in the CAEAL/SCC program and an addi tional 76 in the MEE program. Virtu-

One glaring exception is Ontario which requires neither certification or accreditation. They do "strongly rec-

$100,000 annually. Numbers

ommend the use of certified

such as this have been used by

The accredited iabs performed substantiaiiy

or accredited labs" but recent

smaller labs as an argument

better than the certified iabs.

contract awards have indi-

ally^all major private and public labs in this country are in one of these pro grams. However, there are many mu nicipal, university and smaller private

not always heeded. With the increased downloading of services involving test ing, the need for a defined quality standai^d is self-evident. I understand and sup port the Ontario government's stand against increased regulation, however, I do not see the requirement to meet a National quality standard as regulation,

against accreditation. These costs and staff time commit

ments obviously must impact the cost of analysis. The question is, do they do any good? CAEAL has recently completed a statistical evaluation comparing PE sam ple data from certified and accredited labs. The results were very clear. The accredited labs performed substantially better than the certified labs. In fact, on the tests evaluated, 17% of the certified

labs had unsatisfactory scores as com*Dr. Barty Loescher is Vice President of Phiiip Analytical Services, a Director of lAETL Canada and a member of the

ES&E Advisory Board. 62

cated this recommendation is

labs which are not. I estimate that about

600 labs in this country are carrying out environmental analysis. The bottom line is that a great deal of environmental data, much of it relating to human health and/ or having major financial implications, is generated by non accredited labs. Having been involved in the environ mental testing business for over 20 years, both in the public and private sec tors, I am absolutely certain of the ma jor improvement in lab data quality dur

rather as common sense. Therefore, as

part of the "common sense revolution" I would ask that the Ontario Government

legislate the requirement that all envi ronmental testing in support of govern ment regulation and/or related to human health be done by accredited laborato ries. â–

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

mroQ'uCmg a

way to

Cancida's pi''6

fade Si ind dis






mlber 2


Targeted to reach the private sector and municipalities, this

will be an important industiy event for suppliers to the Canadian market.

Here are just some of the exhibitors that recognize this important sales opportunity! Ambaca, Busch Systems, Cadillac Products Inc., I PL, Jeffrey, Machinex, Mass Corp., SSI Schaefer,

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Canadian Waste Expo is produced and managed by Contact Exposition Management Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 341 (See page 17)

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, cail ES&E at(905)727-4666.

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Multi-gas monitors

Stormwater Management

chemicals. The reconstruction material

is custom manufactured from polyester felt and formed into a tube that fits the

pipe to be rebuilt. Prior to installation, the tube is impregnated with the speci fied thermosetting resin. The resin satu

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Dissolved air flotators

screen. PIPE-FLO Lite then calculates

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multi-gas monitoring instruments com bine proven multi-gas sensing technol ogy with an internal sampling pump to provide remote detection capabilities in one complete package. The ATX Series monitors are used in a variety of indus tries including public utility, municipal wastewater, oil and gas, petrochemical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, and heavy industrial manufacturing. The ATX620 is designed for use in applica tions where high concentrations of meth ane or natural gas, along with toxic gas and oxygen levels, are of concern. The ATX612 continuously monitors for com bustible gases, oxygen and the combina tion of two toxic gases including carbon monoxide,hydrogen sulfide, sulfur diox ide, nitrogen dioxide or chlorine. Industrial Scientific Corporation For more information, circle repiy card No. 190

Surface detention/retention of stormwater

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University of Toronto scientists inves tigated the influence of pre-hydrolysis of D-stage filtrate on the biotreatability of bleached kiaft mill effluent using four aerated bench scale lagoons operated in parallel. The results reported in Water Research by Y. Zheng and D,G. Allen indicate that, overall, pre-hydrolysis fol lowed by biological treatment resulted in a 63% AOX removal which was sig nificantly higher than that achieved by biological treatment alone. COD and BOD removals for both feeds were 45

and 99% respectively and were not sig nificantly affected by the pretreatment. Physical and Chemical Limnology of Arctic Lakes R. Pienitz(Laval University), J.P, Smol (Queen's University), and D.R.S. Lean

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terpreted water chemistry and other limnological data gathered from 59 lakes


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R&D News, cont'd. The methods, presented in Water Sci ence and Technology, permit the identi fication of the location, duration, and


magnitude of a transient event in a water quality time series.

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lected through intensive sampling dur ing rain events. The results obtained by P. Lessard of the University of Laval and





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across Canada to assess the effective

ness of the 1989 regulation of antifouling uses of tributyltin (TBT). As re ported in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, Y.K. Chau and coworkers concluded that the regulation was only partially effective. It had some



effect in the reduction of TBT concen

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polyelectrolytes to compare their behav

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tion. As described in Water Research,

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Toronto • Vancouver

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R&D News, cent'a


RGBs in Great Lakes Water


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Bird Eggs Eggs of double-crested cormorants and herring gulls collected from Lakes Erie and Ontario during 1981 and 1992 were analysed for PCBs by G.C. Haffner and colleagues from the University of Wind sor and the National Water Research

Institute. The results, published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, indi cated that the total PCB in herring gulls was significantly lower in 1992. Changes in concentration of total PCB in cormorant populations were not sig nificant in Lake Ontario and only a small change was observed in Lake Erie cor morants.

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Drinking Water Quality Models The dynamics of chlorine decay in a water distribution system are important for disinfection control purposes. A pa per in Water Science and Technology by J.B. Serodes and Laval University col leagues presents the application of an emergent modelling approach, an arti ficial neural network (ANN), to simu late residual chlorine in a Severn Trent

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samples, has been investigated by D.A. Cancilia and X. Lang. Chromatographic data sets generated from three locations on the Niagara River were used by these National Laboratory for Environmental Testing scientists in this research. The results, presented in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, show that these meth-

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R&D News, cont'd. ods are useful for the determination of

the variation of target organic com

pounds over time both within and be tween sampling sites. Stormwater Management Systems A paper published in Water Science and Technology, presents an optimization methodology for single catchments us ing a single stormwater quality control pond. University of Toronto scientists F. Papa and B.J. Adams further devel oped the methodology for a multiple parallel catchment (each with a single pond upstream of its outlet) optimiza tion procedure employing principles of dynamic programming. The optimiza tion technique employs analytical prob abilistic models for stormwater manage ment planning and analysis which are in closed form and thus easily integrated into an optimization network. The costs explicitly considered are land-associated



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"I've brought my expertise in nutrients, toxicology and policy development to our environmental plan ning team to heip you manage water quality." Neil Hutchlnson, Ph.D., Senior Surface Water Specialist Tel:(905)477-8400 ext. 349 Email: nhutchlnson @gartnerlee.com ♦ Industrial Water/ Wastewater Treatment ♦ Waste Minimization

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ducted at three mills in British Colum bia. Environment Canada scientist A.E.

Redenbach found that there was a high

degree of similarity between the mills for the tainting results. The results, pub lished in Water Science and Technology, showed that significant tainting occurred within three hours and at an exposure concentration of less than 0.08% efflu

ent at one location. Adult and juvenile

fish appear to be attracted to and reside in effluent plumes immediately down stream of some mills. Tertiary treated effluent discharged from one mill con tinued to taint resident fish.

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A new strategy based on respirometry for the control of the anaerobic period duration of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) biological phosphorus process with rapid-fill mode of operation was developed by A.Larose, Michel Perrier, and Y. Comeau. These Ecole Polytechnique scientists withdrew samples every

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them intermittently in order to determine the respiration rate. As described in Water Science and Technology, the time of disappearance of the rapidly biode

respiration rate.

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sion makers as well as water resources

professionals. A simple scenario ap proach Is used to examine the Impact of alternative urban, Industrial, and agri cultural management practices on sur face water quality.

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A paper in Water Science and Technol ogy by A. Mailhot and colleagues from INRS-Eau and Environnement Quebec presents a general description and the state of progress of the GIB SI system, a watershed-based software system for Integrated management of surface water quality. This spaclal support-de cision system is designed to assist deci

Municipal Services

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Water Quality Management



and Paper Wastewater Since 1992,studies at a number oflarge bleached kraft pulp mills were under taken by K.R. Munklttrlck and col leagues at the National Water Research Institute and the University of Guelph to follow the responses of wild fish as these mills underwent process modifi cations and Installed secondary treat ment. Improvements In the performance of wild fish have been recorded at five


North American sites after the mills modernized their waste treatment and

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pulping processes. However, as de scribed in Water Science and Technol

ogy, the Improvements are not complete and are not universal. The process changes resulting in the Improvement of environmental conditions have not been

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Treatment of APMP Mill Effluents

The anaerobic hlotreatahlllty of an Al kaline-Peroxide Mechanical Pulping

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Schnell and colleagues from Water Technology International Corp. and Andrltz Sprout-Bauer. The warm and concentrated effluents generated by the non-sulphur APMP process were found to he highly amenable to anaerobic deg radation as reported In Water Science and Technology. Process effluent BOD and COD were reduced by 87-95% and 70-77% respectively. Acid soluble lignln compounds exhibited hlorecalcitrance as revealed by limited removals of 34-55%(and were the main constitu ents contributing to residual COD), while resin and fatty acids were reduced by 80-94%.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

R&D News, cont'd.


Rainfall-Runoff Model

Marshall Mackiin



McGill University scientists V.A. Cooper, V.T.V. Nguyen,and J.A. Nicell evaluated global optimization methods for conceptual rainfall-runoff model calibration. The study investigated the performance of three probabilistic opti mization techniques for calibrating the Tank model, a hydrologic model typi cal of conceptual rainfall-runoff mod els. The three methods were: Shuffled


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources Toronto, Calgary, Mississauga, Whitby 80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thomhili, ON IJ3T 7N4 Telephone: 905-882-1100 FAX: 905-882-0055

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Complex Evolution (SCE), genetic al gorithms, and simulated annealing. As


m 1

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Reservoir Flooding University of Manitoba scientist C.A. Kelly and colleagues from a number of

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boreal forest wetland caused the wetland

to change from being a small, natural carbon sink, with respect to the atmos phere, to a large source. This change was caused by the death of vegetation which eliminated the photosynthetic CO, sink and stimulated the microbial production of CO,and methane from de composition of plant tissues and peat. The flooding also stimulated the micro bial production of methyl mercury from inorganic mercury.

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Microbial Floe Stabilization

In the analysis of microbial floes from activated sludge, it is important to sta bilize these structures and their compo nents for structural studies sufficiently to assess, minimize, and conceptually balance artifacts, particularly during manipulation. I.G. Droppo and col leagues from the National Water Re search Institute, McMaster University, and Ryerson Polytechnic University collected floe samples using plankton chambers consisting of reservoirs with a moveable circular microscopic slide.


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As described in Water Science and Tech

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R & D News, centD


Resin Acid Degradation

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Tel:(514) 591-5748, Fax:(514) 455-3587


Consulting Engineers • Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental AutJits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply

dehydroabietic acid(DHA),a resin acid commonly found in effluents. J.N. Sad dler and his colleagues examined the ability of two bacterial strains(BKME 5 and BKME 9)to grow on chemithermomechanical pulping (CTMP) efflu ent and degrade DHA. As described in Water Science and Technology, both strains could grow on CTMP effluents but did not degrade DHA. COD meas urements showed that both strains used

other organic substrates in the CTMP effluent. When nutrients were added to

MILTON: (905)875-2144 TORONTO: (416)361-8135



the effluent, both growth and DHA deg radation increased significantly.

2,4-Dlchlorophenol Degradation Kinetics engineers architects


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t o 11 e n

sims hubickl associates


The degradation of 2,4-DCP by accli mated anaerobic granules, enriched at two specific loading rates, was exam ined experimentally in batch mode by Z. Ning,K.J. Keruiedy,and L.Femandes. These University of Ottawa scientists analysed the data from process curves by nonlinear regression to estimate pa rameters in the Haldane inhibition equa tion, and one of its modified forms, to

UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone:(403) 486-7025

obtain quantitative information on deg radation idnetics. Linear sorption kinet ics of 2,4-DCP were employed in data treatment to discriminate between the

effects of sorption and biodegradation. The results reported in Water Science and Technology showed that the modi fied inhibition equation described the experimental data better than the Haldane inhibition equation.


Walker Laboratories

For more information,contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Association on Water Quality, Environmental Tech

2800 Townline Road, Thorold, Ontario L2V 3Y8 TEL:(905)227-1158 FAX: (905)680-1916 Visit our Web Site - http://vvvvw.walkerlabs.com

nology Centre, Environment Canada,

Environmental Testing Laboratory m- Emergency testing m- Full service laboratory: water, soli, solids, air, effluent testing w Reg 347, Decommissioning, MISA packages available

3439 River Road South, Gloucester, ON K1A0H3,Tel:(613)990-9849, Fax:


Environmental Science

Walker Laboratories are fully CAEAUSCC and NYS-EI_AP Accredited


• Industrial/Municipal Wastewater Management


• Watershed and Stormwater Management

(604) 990-0582 Calgary (403) 264-7717 (519) 741-5774 Kitchener Toronto area (905) 891-2400 Kingston (613) 542-5888 www.xcg.commail@xcg.com

• Drinking Water Quality and Treatment




• Hydrogeoiogy investigation/Modelling • Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing • Remediation and Decommissioning • Environmental Management Systems

& Engineering magazine is on the world wide web. Check us out at

http:// www.esemag.com Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Product and Service Showcase Above ground petroleum storage and containment

ACPA expands Web Site


A lightweight in sulation between


the inner and outer

Concrete Pipe

steel tanks pro vides a two hour

fire rating/ballis tics tested to .30 caliber. Interstitial

monitoring. Available in 250 to

9460 I.G. capacity. May be placed in proximity to buildings without the need for a firewall or inside a building where approved by the authorities having juris diction. 30 year guarantee. ULC ap proved. FireguardÂŽ is a registered trade


The American Concrete Pipe Association recently expanded its web site, www. concrete-pipe.org, to provide direct ac cess to other popular web sites relative to the industry. Direct links are now of fered via AGFA'S web site to government and professional organizations, other as sociations and industry publications. The web site provides comprehensive infor mation about concrete pipe products to engineers,government officials and con tractors. Through these additional links,

mark of the Steel Tank Institute.

visitors now have direct access to other

Westeel Industrial Products

important resources. ACPA Circle reply card No. 193

Circle reply card No. 192

Box-Plant Mobile Container

Air quality management

DAGEX's box-plant mobile container has a capacity of 30-60 mVday. Fine screening is optional, with extended aera tion with activated sludge,thin layer sedi mentation, optional dry tablets chlorination and optional micro or continuous sand filtration. Operation is fully auto mated with no moving parts in liquid. It is factory pre-fabricated from corrosion proof materials. DAGEX Inc. Circle reply card No. 194

New Alphasonic Level

Environmental Management



A new alphasonic contact level trans

mitter, introduced

by Flowline, is the low-cost measure ment solution for a

broad range of

EER Canada specializes in all aspects of air quality management: emissions sam pling and monitoring for the purposes of regulatory comphance,inventories/audits and performance guarantee testing; dis persion modelling;emission factor devel opment; pollution control; and combus tion engineering. EER's staff have ex pertise in managing CA applications, continuous emission monitoring, and source testing. EER Canada Circle reply card No. 195

New True Union Plastic Ball valve

I OEM and process

I ri'

. fI applications. The LA 12 series 2-wire

transmitter provides accurate and reliable measurement of relatively clean noncoating or scaling liquids from 0.3 to 10 ft. Ideal for small process or OEM ves sels, Cricket'"'^'functions on the ultrasonic principle and is not affected by changing liquid conductivity or dielectric values. Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 196

Electromagnetic flowmeter

The Tidalflux Model FM 4100PF Elec Chemline Plastics has introduced a new

addition to its product line -the Type 21 True Union Ball valve. This state-of-the-

art new design incorporates features such as 225 psi pressure rating(up to 2"), dou ble o-rings, safety shear stem design, in tegral actuator mounting and base mount ing platforms, and more. The original CTU Series is still available. Chemline Plastics

Circle reply card No. 198

tromagnetic flowmeter from Krohne op erates in hoth partially and completely filled pipes. The one instrument com bines flow and level measurement, re

placing open channel flow measurement systems. Unlike devices using multiple electrodes to sense a full or empty pipe condition, the Tidalflux integrates a ca pacitance level sensor into the wall of the flowtube. Summa Engineering Ltd. Circle reply card No. 199

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Envista Technologies is a scientific soft ware company with products to address the issues of environmental management. The Envista product provides managers, geoscientists and engineers with a pow erful tool for maintaining and tracking regulatory compliance as well as envi ronmental and geosciences information. Envista creates a corporate data standard and ensures that data is complete and consistent. Envista Technologies Circle reply card No. 197


The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in biosolids storage where solids suspension is important. Benefits of us ing the JetMix system include: Intermit tent operation saves 60-90% in power consumption. Expensive tank cleanout and scheduled maintenance not required. Easily installed in existing tanks. Multi ple tank mixing using a central pump house. JetMix was a recipient of a 1997 Innovative Technology Award from the Water Environment Federation.

Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 200 73

Product and Service Showcase Latest addition of the Pipe

Submersible aerators/mixers

Safe water disinfection

Handbook now available

The new ALLDOS

series of high-capac ity gas dosing sys

The latest addi tion of the Con

crete Pipe Hand book, a compre

tems offers micro

hensive collection

electronics for the


of theories, for

measurement of chlo

mulas and aids for

rine concentrations

designing con crete pipe sys tems, is


available from the

American Concrete Pipe Association. Now in its fifth printing, the 1998 hand book has been updated to include infor mation on Standard Installation, based on

work done by the American Society of Civil Engineers, in conjunction with the Association. ACPA

and the control of

Framco BIONOx'^" submersible aerator/

mixer provides a unique blend of high oxygen transfer efficiency of fine bub ble diffused air with the strong mixing capability of a slow speed aerator, all in one basic unit. It utilizes existing plant air where available and is not subject to winter icing problems. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 202

Circle reply card No. 201

Screens for water/wastewater/

dosing quantity. The systems have a vacuum regulator, with gas inlet valve and safety valve for installation in the gas container room; a dosing unit with gas flow measuring,linear rate valve and dif ferential pressure regulator for floor or wall mounting; very efficient injectors. Summa Engineering Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 203

Drip-free dry disconnect hose coupling assembly

Motion Sensors

sludge Screenlnga handling

I I, I

// J ^





With the HP Wallander STEP SCREEN®

for intake water/wastewater/sludge, stepnotched laminae rotate relative to adja cent fixed blades achieving all in one; solids separation, solids advancing, sol ids dewatering, and screen self-cleaning. Among the Step Screen's benefits are; high open area (to 60%); tolerance to sand; high solids removal efficiency due to 1, 3 & 6 mm slot opening with finer capability in blanketed regime. Dagex Circle reply card No. 204

Milltronics non-contacting motion sen sors provide machinery protection, thus avoiding catastrophic failure and reduc ing downtime. Early warning ofimpend ing equipment failure can be easily pro vided with motion sensors alarming on machine slowdown or stoppage. Some models allow the magnetic sensing probe

Victaulic has introduced the world's first

drip-free dry disconnect hose coupling assembly for safer, cleaner and faster transfer of process fluids. The Dry

Link™ assembly eliminates exposure to toxic chemicals, hazardous fluids and

to be located as far as 4" from the moni

their fumes. Conventional dry discon

tored target, pernritting versatility of ap plication in harsh environments. These motion sensors provide maintenance-free operation. Milltronics Circle reply card No. 205

after each transfer, requiring catch con tainers and time-consuming cleanup. Victaulic Company of Canada

Lowering solids

Ultrasonic level and

Water Sampling

concentrations in wastewater

flow measurement

nects can leak as much as 15 cc of fluid

Circle reply card No. 206

The MultiRanger IHffTli:

Plus is a multi functional meas urement system

specially designed to meet the needs

Derrick Corporation, with over 40 years of fine screening experience offers costeffective equipment to reduce wastewater solids concentrations. Through utilizing the Derrick "Flo-Line" screening unit design, high fluid capacities can be ef fectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher solids/ particulate removal. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 207 74




wastewater appli cations. This proven unit combines Milltronics' advanced Sonic Intelli

gence"' echo processing with non-con tacting design and corrosion resistant components to provide reliable, lowmaintenance operation. Typical applica tions for the MultiRanger Plus include: Lift station pump control, Open channel flow. Milltronics

Circle reply card No. 208

When sampling potable water, use the Whirl-Pak Thio-Bag, made of unbreak able, sterile polyethylene. Patented "Puncture Proof Tabs" protect the bag against piercing. Each bag contains nontoxic, non-nutritive, sodium thiosulfate

to neutralize chlorine. Thio-Bags are available in two sizes; BO 1040WA holds

100 ml., and BO 1254WA holds 300 ml. Nasco Plastics

Circle reply card No. 209 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Product and Service Showcase Straub repair system

Portable sewer flow monitor FlowRat model

Biological phosphorus removal

1000 is a portable sewer flow moni

tor complete with

I $1 j ' r —1

The "Problem Solver" of last resort. Call

Tadco/Straub when other couplings leak or there is a problem with delivery, space, pipe alignment, oddball sizes or a grooved coupling rusts out. Couplings from stock or built in a day from 316L stainless steel. Unique gasket seals at low and high pressures or vacuum. Swiss design - Made in Canada. Tadco Manufacturing Inc.

Circle reply card No. 210

-Stainless steel shield and com-

puter software. Using Doppler technology to

At the heart of each A-C™ Process from



EIMCO is a Carrousel® oxidation ditch

stream velocity,

featuring an aeration system so efficient in oxygen transfer and mixing that aera tion power can typically be reduced by 75-80% without loss of mixing. This ability to maintain solids suspension while varying oxygen input ensures that dissolved oxygen levels can be easily and accurately adjusted. EIMCO Process Equipment Circle reply card No. 212



travel through the flow profile and return to the sensor head. Internal electronics average return signals and datalog the stream velocity. Depth can be measured using a pressure depth sensor or ultrasonic level device.

Rocky Mountain Instruments Circle reply card No. 211


Circular clarifiers

Influent cleaning system The BioGuard™

System reduces wastewater treat

ment costs and

improves per formance by re moving unwanted solids from the

The Type S Clarifier from GL&V fea tures a centre column unit designed for inverted siphon feed and peripheral over flow. Feed enters from the bottom of the

tank through the centre column. Settled solids are raked toward the centre of the

tank to the sludge pocket for discharge. Ideal for clarification in larger volume operations. The circular tanks range up to 200' diameter. GL&V

influent stream.

The 4000 Series of Submersible Mixers

and Agitators from ITT Flygt are quickly gaining popularity over traditional longshaft mixers. They are used in munici pal treatment plants, pulp and paper mills and industrial plants, in a variety of ap plications and configurations. A 50% savings can be achieved through reduced energy consumption. They are easy to install in any shape of tank. ITT Flygt

Circle reply card No. 213

Circle reply card No. 214

Full pipe flow monitor

Dewatering technology

sensor using Dop pler technology. The sensor is in serted into a two

inch ball valve in

effective, no mat


flow stream, the return signals averaged and pipe flow is computed. The IFS sen sor can be integrated with RMFs port able or permanent flow controller. Rocky Mountain Instruments Circle reply card No. 216

Lamella clarifiers

ficient and cost-

stalled on a closed

mitted into the

virtually elimi nate fecal matter; this provides impor tant protection for operating personnel from exposure to wastes containing pathogenic organisms. Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 215

trifugal technol ogy have made Westfalia Separa tor's complete line of high solids decanters very ef

an insertion flow

waves are trans

ids are washed to

Advances in cen

The IFS 9000 is


The screened sol

Ecodyne custom design each lamella clarifier to meet the specific service needs

ter what type of sludge is being dewatered, from aerobically digested sludge to zinc oxide. They

reduces maintenance to a minimum.

are manufactured from stainless steel

There are no moving parts. Its compact

with tungsten carbide hard surfacing for long-term operation and low mainte nance.

GEA Process Technology Canada Circle reply card No. 217

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

of their clients. Use of a lamella clarifier

ness allows the unit to be located in new,

automated plants or in upgraded instal lations where space may not be available for a standard clarifier. Units are usually fully assembled, minimizing erection costs and time. Ecodyne Limited Circle reply card No. 218 75

Product and Service Showcase Digestion systems

PCB and electrical equipment disposal services

a permanent AC powered open

of PCB and non-

channel flow me


equipment and all PCB waste mate

rials. Their stateof-the-art facili

production. GL&V Circle reply card No. 219

Screenings removal and dewaterlng system

ties ensure "cra

dle to grave" li ability is never compromised. Heavy duty washing equipment processes all levels of PCB metals to < 10|ig/100 cm sq. TCI's new plant in Kirkland Lake, Ontario,is scheduled to become fully op erational in mid-1998. TCI Inc.

Circle reply card No. 220

Expanded capabilities for spectrophotometer

and manufactures


plants for many years. Now it is being used by the pulp and paper indus try, where it removes large particles from effluent wastewater. It is also being used to recover and reclaim wood cbips and pulp fibres. ARLAT Circle reply card No. 222

Diffuser valves for pollutants

include user interface enhancements;

storage for customized setups; erasable data points; text or tabular print selection. The new Version 2.30 software also fea

tures preprogrammed procedures for six new parameters. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 223

Liquid Sampler


pounds for joint sealing. Easy and efficient applica tion procedures provide long-lasting, flexible and highly durable waterproof joint sealing of asphalt to asphalt joints, asphalt to concrete or asphalt to steel structures. Products are more cost-effec

tive than hot liquid pouring or rubberized asphalt sealants currently used. Dense North America

Circle reply card No. 224

Odour Control

tal Liquid Sam pler was devel oped to collect the "true" first sample of liquid that ar rives at the ap pointed sampling


Road maintenance products

men/rubber com

Recent upgrades to the Hach DR/4000 UV-VIS Scanning Spectrophotometer make it even easier for analysts to con duct advanced research and perform re petitive testing. Software improvements

The Environmen

With environmental regulations becom ing more and more strict in Canada, many industrial and municipal sites are look ing for ways to keep what they discharge to rivers, lakes, and the ocean in compli ance. Chemical plants, fertilizer plants, pulp & paper mills, and sewage treatment plants are all finding that Red Valve's TideflexÂŽ Diffuser Valves provide a sim ple solution to staying within environ mental guidelines. Neovalves Circle reply card No. 225

Pmpmil Denso's road based tapes and hot applied bitu

watering systems. The TS Model

water treatment

nals in 4-20 or modbus formats. Output signals are compatible with SCAD A sys tems. Rocky Mountain Instruments Circle reply card No. 221


moval and de-


ducer. The FMS 5000 is capable of trans mitting both analog and digital flow sig

products consist applied

screenings re

been used for mu

ter with battery backup, measures flow depth and ve locity. Flow ve locity is measured using ultrasonic Doppler technology and flow depth is measured using a hydrostatic sensor with a combination wet/wet pressure trans


ARLAT designs

Filter Screen has

Model FMS 5000,

TCI are special ists in the disposal PCB

GL&V's digester can be set up as a com plete single-stage system where it oper ates on a regular intermittent schedule and accomplishes both mixing and sepa ration of solids and supemate. It can also he installed with the floating gasholder in a two-stage system which provides a longer detention time and traps the gen erated methane gas for heating and power

Permanent sewer flow meter



seals itself off to preserve the sample in tegrity. It is a mechanically automated device that is able to be used in remote

locations without the use of a power source. Portable and light weight(under 10 pounds), it is easy to install with ad justable unit mounts to a "T" post to ac commodate different water levels or a

stainless steel sleeve for ground level in stallation. DTec Corporation Circle reply card No. 226

The use of Hypochlorite(JAVEX-12)to treat odours is detailed in a technical bul

letin from Colgate-Palmolive. Systems are discussed that dispense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include storage and air collection needs. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 227

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Product and Service Showcase Compression-type fire hydrants

Fluorescent Lamp Recycling Wcotn turn

Terminal City's C71 and C7IP compres sion fire hydrants now


lamps into alnnist


have 'new'

Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers Inc. (FLR) has devel

oped a process for the safe recycling

urethane valves and


a 'new' surge relief valve design. They are ULC Approved

lamps. These lamps contain haz-

and are Made in

mercury and mer cury vapour and regulations restrict mer cury from entering landfill. FLR sepa rates and recycles the glass, mercury, phosphor, aluminum and brass compo nents. Flexible arrangements can be

Canada to AWWA Standard C502-85.

They can be sup plied to depth of bury, and pumper thread is site-specific to area of installation. All working parts are easily accessible for in spection and service, without excavation. Terminal City Iron Works Circle reply card No. 228

ardous amounts

made for the removal oflamps from your location.

Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers Inc.

Circle reply card No. 229

Oil/water separators

Noise control systems

Water purification

Eckoustic ® Functional Panels offer out

standing sound absorption, and effective reduction of reverberation and back

ground noise. They are simple to install and can be spot located on walls and ceil ing, without the need to modify the area or reposition utilities. In areas where greater noise reduction/isolation is re quired, EFFs can be used in conjunction with Eckoustic Modular Panels. Eckel Industries

Circle reply card No. 230

Centrifugal blowers

The Ultrapulsator flocculator/clari-

fier from Degremont Infilco offers

great operational flexibility and ease-of-use. The

McTighe Industries provides an oil/

water separator capable of constant op eration with no attention, and a minimum

of maintenance. Separators equipped with the McTighe Petro-Pak™ can be ex pected to remove oil particles down to 20 microns in size and produce an efflu ent quality of less than 10 ppm of free oil. McTighe Industries Circle reply card No. 231

high rate of this solids contact flocculator/ clarifier reduces surface requirements, resulting in substantial cost savings. With its unique pulsing action, the Ultra pulsator provides a concentrated and ho mogeneous sludge blanket, internal sludge recirculation, and the polishing action of tube-settling modules. Degremont Infilco Ltd. Circle reply card No. 232

Hoffman Industries of Canada

Circle reply card No. 233

Package potable water treatment plant

Sewer management software

The Degremont Infilco Pulsapak'®, a package potable water treatment plant, produces a very high quality of water, utilizing technology equivalent to that used in large installations. The Pulsapak

Sewer system evaluation studies for ca pacity or infiltration and inflow typically require endless hours of processing col lected field flow data. The powerful da tabase and graph template features of

is the result of a combination of two

American Sigma's new Vision™ sewer

proven Degremont technologies: the

management software cut hours into min

Pulsator® Flocculator-Clarifier,equipped

utes. This allows users to handle more

with tube settling modules; and the sand and anthracite dual media gravity filter. Degremont Infilco Ltd.

sites with less manpower for consider able cost-savings and improved report ing. Can-Am Instruments Circle reply card No. 235

Circle reply card No. 234

Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Com pressor and Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM, at dis charge pressure to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air and gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as combustion drying, agitation, fluidizing, oxidation vacuum cleaning,sewage aeration,cool ing and pneumatic conveying for more than 60 years.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Portable gas chromatograph

The Photovac gas chromatograph is ergonomically designed for occupational and environmental health & safety moni toring. Multi-detector capability includes PID and ECD. It is exceptionally sensi tive to low PPB levels. Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 236 11

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Reusable Oil Recovery System Recoil SpatBtfGrMeOS BmcI Fuel



Leaks eliminated with Prime-Aire

Hydrocarbon Recovery products will handle liquid hydrocarbon leaks, sprays, drips, and spills In a broad range of Industrial workplace envi ronments. Ribbons, pads and flota tion eels absorb liquid hydrocarbons, repel water, and may be reused over 500 times. Applications Include con taining and clean-up of oil leaks and drips around machinery, and liquid hydrocarbon spills on water.

New 6" and 12" PrIme-AIre™ trash

pumps feature an exclusive priming system (patent pending) which vir tually eliminates the leaks associated with traditional vacuum assisted

pumps. This unique system not only reduces environmental concerns on

sewage bypass operations and other environmentally hazardous liquids, but also enables PrIme-AIre trash

pumps to operate under flooded suc tion conditions without leaking. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 238

Nottawa Iron Works inc.

Circle reply card No. 237

Accident investigation trainer package Canwit's Accident Investigation

Large storage capacity for more savings Proceptor™ delivers a prolonged re

Trainer Package consists of a Trainer Manual and a supply of Accident In vestigation Kits. The Trainer Manual Is made up of three parts. Over

tention time for superior separation of oil, grease and solids, meeting and exceeding today's strict regulations. The large storage capacity allows full treatment of the Incoming process water while preventing scouring and flushing of the entrapped waste ma terial. This feature prevents the drain blockages and backups associated with small Interceptors, and allows Proceptor to be located outside, where It can be easily serviced. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 240

heads are Included.

Trainer laanuM

Each Investi

gation K/f contains a comprehensive report form and Instructions on com pleting each section, witness inter view forms, and an Inside pocket to hold photos and other Items essen tial to the Investigation. Canwit Consulting Corporation Circle reply card No. 239


The New industrial


Scientific Catalogue


Industrial Scientific is pleased to an nounce the availability of Its new pre mier catalogue of portable and fixed gas detection and monitoring equip ment. The 64-page publication In cludes product photos, descriptions, specifications and ordering Information for all portable Instruments, fixed sys

Choose from CONSORTS wide




chemical hand-held me

ters, benchtop meters and controllers. These Instru

ments can measure up to eight parameters: pH, mV, temperature, conductivity, resistivity, salinity, Ion selective readings, and dissolved oxygen. Multi ple channels for different probes let you measure several areas of your process at once. Other features Include RS-232 output, graphing dis plays, and datalogging capabilities. Labcor Technical Sales

Circle reply card No. 241

tems and accessories manufactured

by Industrial Scientific Corporation. Information on repair, maintenance and training services is Included, as well as a handy reference library for your convenience. Industrial Scientific Corporation Circle reply card No. 242

Double containment above

Water Meters, Systems

ground storage

and Services Overview

Double containment above ground storage and dispensing of flamma ble and combustible liquids Is avail able In capacities up to 20,925 I.G. capacity. These environmentally safe tanks are available with a wide

range of customized specifications and optional equipment for specific requirements Including custom paint, stair and ladder assemblies, special linings and multl compartments. Self unloading transport available. Westeel Industrial Products

Circle reply card No. 243


Ga.s Drrrrcno.N Soi

Our mission is to offer solutions for

water utility customers by provid ing superior methods of metering, service, and Improving customer efficiency. Schlumberger leads the Industry with meter design In novation, advanced reading sys tems for utilities of every size, and complete management services for utility operations, maintenance, and administration.

Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 244

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cali ES&E at(905)727-4666.


Industrial plastics product guide Fabco Plastics has again revised and updated their 464-page Buyers Guide & Engineering Specifications cata logue. This is a comprehensive list ing of available industrial products and illustrates new and technologi cally advanced items. The catalogue also has an extensive 74-page Engi neering Reference Section and

Activated Sludge Monitoring

Unlock the Mystery of Activated Sludge with RESPIROMETRV

Chemical Resistance Chart which will

assist material specialists specifying plastic products in the chemical, cor rosion, and pollution fields. Fabco Plastics

Monitoring bloactlvlty at critical points throughout the wastewater treatment process provides timely data on the characteristics of the influent, proc ess control and troubleshooting. Understand and control what Is go ing on inside the system, pinpoint trouble before It affects operation, save energy and money - all with Resplrometry. Learn how our 30-r years of experience with Resplro metry can "Unlock the Mystery of Activated Sludge™" at your planti Arthur Technology, Inc. Circle reply card No. 246

Circle reply card No. 245

Cbeaieal Tsttlnii SotuliaDC trM'MiWacqoe•in tatnv

m \

New VWRbrand Solutions

Lower municipal pumping



VWR Canlab is pleased to announce

Choosing iTT Flygt as a partner at the planning stage of your municipal pumping system's design can prove very cost-effective. We can act In an advisory capacity to planners, designers and users of pumping sta tions. Since 1947 ITT Flygt has suppiled and Installed over 1 million pumps for water and sewage han dling throughout the world; over 10,000 of these are large pumps for use In municipal water and waste-

the release of a new solutions cata

logue containing atomic absorption standards, pH buffers and a large se lection of reagents prepared in ac cordance with EPA, ASTM, APHA and AOAG standard testing methods. VWRbrand solutions are NIST trace

able where applicable and all prod ucts are expiry dated. Custom manu facturing services are available. For more details contact us at 800-9325000 or visit our Web site: www.vwrcanlab.com VWR Canlab

water treatment facilities.

ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 248

Circle reply card No. 247

-....aiiaLii,. 7-




CO2 Water Treatment Systems

Membrane Technology

Praxair's new brochure, "Carbon

Dioxide Water Treatment Systems"

in emergency relief operations, mu nicipal treatment facilities, pharma

dkails the advantages of using CO^

ceutical laboratories and a host of

to treat process, effluent and drink

other applications around the world. Zenon is setting new global stand

ing waters. This safe, effective, economical and environmentallyresponsible method of controlling pH levels In alkaline waters is applicable to all treatment areas, including basins, holding ponds, pipelines, sumps, pressurized vessels and tanks In the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical and petroleum Indus tries, as well as municipal facilities.

ards In water and wastewater treat

ment. Zenon's revolutionary mem

brane technology forms an absolute barrier to contaminants in any proc ess. There are more than 20 pat ents worldwide. Zenon

Circle reply card No. 250


Circle reply card No. 249


Canada-wide emergency

Specialty Gas Suppliers


Catalogue Whatever your requirements in specialty gases and gas mixtures, you can find it all In this catalogue. Air Liqulde Canada, one of the larg est specialty gas suppliers, presents a spectrum of products and useful

TEAM-1 Environmental Services Inc.

Prnyitliii^ Emci'ffc'ncy Ri'spnnsc lo Govcnmciir.

<& Tninsporhilioii

Is a privately-owned and operated Emergency Response Company. We provide specialized services to the needs of government, industry and transportation. In the event of a low hazard, low volume vs. high haz ard, high volume occurrence,TEAM1 has the ability to deploy a highly trained team with state-of-the-art

equipment to rectify any situation on 24 HOUR EMIIKOEWY RESPONSE

1-800-32-SPILL f7?w,

a 24 hour basis - Canada wide. TEAM-1 Environmentai Services

Circle reply card No. 251

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998



technical Information. You will also

find typical and Innovative applica tions such as calibration standards

for environmental monitoring. To or der, call your nearest Air Liquids Canada sales representative. Air Liquide Canada Circle reply card No. 252


Spring Conferences Water

WEAO's 27th Annual Technical Symposium

Environment Association of

Ontario i io A

and OPCEA Exhibition March 29-31,1998 Westin Harbour Castle, Toronto Effective Facilities Management • Facilities Management: Meeting the Challenge. Efficiency in Construction and Operation • Reducing Costs: Process and Energy Optimization. • Optimizing Design to Save Capital Cost $.

Industry and Technologies •Pollution Prevention in the Metal Fin

ishing Industry. •Getting Control of Automation and In formation Management Systems. PWOD and OPCEA •PWOD.

•Procurement Strategies. Wastewater Treatment and

Solids Management • Biosolids - Where would we be with

Operations Challenge provides excitement during the conference. The 27th Annual Water Environment Association of Ontario Technical

Symposium and Exhibition is cosponsored by the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association and the Professional Wastewater Opera tions Division, Ontario.

The conference will have two full days of paper presentations on a range of timely technical, management and opera tions issues. Featured this year are full day sessions on Facility Management issues, Small Flow issues and a new ses

sion focussing on the Metal Finishing industry. There will be a large exhibi tion with equipment suppliers, consult ants,laboratories and other services used

by the wastewater treatment industry. An exciting Operations Challenge pits teams of operators from wastewater treatment plants across Ontario in a face off. They compete to minimize the time required to complete five events, cov ering emergency procedures, process knowledge,laboratory skills and opera tions proficiency. Fun and fast paced, the challenge has become an educational event for operators and a focal point for spectators.

The conference provides a unique opportunity for hundreds of profession als to further the cause of environmen

tal protection, through the development and application of science and technol80

out them?

ogy. The technical and social programs • Toxicity and Nutrient Control. Flows From Small Communities have been developed to provide plenty of time for networking throughout both • Small Flows: Today's Issues. Managing Planning and days. The Sunday Ice Breaker is a Wet Weather chance to have fun and renew acquaint ances. The Monday Awards Luncheon • Wet Weather Flow and Watershed and Tuesday buffet lunch in the OPCEA Management. area also provide opportunities to meet • Master Planning and Class EA Research Update others over good food. The conference closes with a Tuesday night banquet din • Research: The Key to the Future. For registration or more information, ner that includes entertainment. The 1998 WEAO Technical Program contact Sandy Pickett at(416)502-1440, Fax:,(416) 502-1786. will include: Announcement Trans-Cycle Industries, Inc.(TCI) of Hudson, New York and Pell City, Alabama, are to build a PCB electrical equipment, metals recycling operation in the Town of Kirkland Lake, Ontario. In recent years, the company has emerged a leader in advanced processing technology for environmentally-safe dismantling and recy cling of electrical transformers and other equipment containing PCBs. TCI presently operates two similar facilities in the United States. The Kirkland Lake plant would be modeled after the Alabama operation. The building features a specially designed, triple-spill containment system providing a completely seg regated home for this totally indoor process. David Laskin, President of TCI said,"the process will consist of receiving pre viously drained electrical equipment, separating residual liquids from reusable metals, cleaning the metals in a state-of-the-art closed loop solvent washing proc ess, and recycling the metals via smelting. All the PCB residuals will be shipped to Alberta for final disposal. This undertaking represents the first operation of its type to be sited in the Province. No incineration, landfilling or hazardous waste disposal of any kind will take place at the facility.

For more information, oircie reply card No.343 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Cyanide Removal

Odour Control

Using sodium hyppchlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorlte (JAVEX-12) Is

Is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorlte spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics Include: storage and air

ages, equipment,as well as stor age, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Colgate-Palmoilve

A "Sofcitkjn" for ZEBRA MISSELS

i -f

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Circle reply card No. 254

Zebra Mussels

Separation & treatment systems EIMCO specializes in processes for the physical separation of materials and for chemical and biological treat

To help control zebra mussels, one solution Involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorlte, We are

consulting with experts to estab lish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept Informed of the latest Information, please

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 255

Compact ozone generation units OZAT literature describes Ozonia's


OZAT®| Compact


Generation Units

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

contact us.


collection needs.

Canada Inc.

which kills the larvae.


detailed In a technical bulletin.

pre-packaged ozone plants designed for smaller municipal waterworks. Ozonia North America manufactures

ozone generators capable of produc ing from one pound to thousands of pounds of ozone per day using high endurance non-glass dielectrics. Ozonia also offers a complete line of complementary equipment including monitors, vent ozone decomposers, and medium pressure tJV units. Ozonia North America

Circie repiy card No. 257

Industry association First Incorporated In 1957, the On tario Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA) Is a nonprofit Industry asso ciation. The OCPA promotes the high standards of business practice and the product quality of Its mem bers, and provides technical Informa tion to specifiers, regulators, contrac tors and educators.

Producers of

concrete pipe, maintenance holes, box culverts and box sewers, and

precast concrete specialty products joined to form the Association. OCPA

Circle reply card No. 259

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

ment of water and wastewater. More

specifically, the company's technical resources are focused on liquid-solid separation (sedimentation, vacuum filtration, pressure filtration, granular media filtration, flotation); solid-solid separation (flotation, heavy media separation); chemical recovery and regeneration; biological waste treat ment; and intelligent process control systems. EIMCO Process Equipment Circle reply card No. 256

Products for Analysis catalogue Hach's Products for Analysis 1998 catalogue features many new proc ess and field Instruments, Including; the 1720D Low-Range Process Turbldlmeter, successor to the popular 1720C; the APA 6000 Analyzers for hardness, alkalinity, nitrate and am monia; the AquaTrend Network sys tem, which provides advanced data management; DR/800 Series Colori meters and Portable Laboratories; and the new Pocket Turbldlmeter™

Analysis System. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 258

Water Efficiency Service Programs Faced with Inflating operating costs, while being expected to avoid rate Increases and provide greater, bet ter, and non-tradltlonal customer service? Schlumberger's Technical Service Group offers complete field service, and project handling capa bilities, from meter installation to full, ongoing maintenance, management and meter reading services. Cus tomized packages allow a utility to contract for as many or as few serv ices as It needs. Schlumberger Circle repiy card No. 260


Spring Conferences

Environmental Compliance '98 and Ontario Environmental Exposition April 8-9,1998 Toronto Congress Centre, Toronto, Ontario Environmental Science & Engineering will present the 6th Annual Environ mentalZ)HcZ)//ige«ce Conference and Workshops in conjunction with the Ontario Environmental Exposition, April 8 and 9, 1998. Ontario's largest conference of envi ronmental compliance strategies, tech nologies and solutions takes place at the new Toronto Congress Centre, near Pearson International Airport. The workshops provide a unique en vironmental education and training op portunity for: •Plant managers and engineers. • Environmental managers and co

egates access to some of Canada's lead ing environmental consultants. Over 50 top-notch speakers representing Cana da's leading-edge environmental train ers,lawyers,consultants, managers,ad ministrators, and health & safety prac titioners, are scheduled to participate in "Environmental Compliance '98". Their names will be familiar to you as some who are speakers at conferences costing over $1,000 to attend! For little more than one-tenth of that amount, you and your colleagues can register for a half-day workshop in which you will have access to these top practitioners -


consulting fees! Discounts for multiple registrations ensure that all members of your team can take part and one company alone sent 16 registrants to attend these work shops recently. Many others arrange group partici pation and involvement for plant man agers, environmental audit teams, 3Rs teams,supervisors and environment and health & safety committee members. Workshop participants benefit not only from the educational workshops, they

• Environmental lawyers. • Environmental and engineering con sultants.

•Environmental health and safety man-

• Dangerous materials shippers and su pervisors. • Storage tank managers. • Environmental auditors.

• Spills and emergency response teams. • 3Rs compliance co-ordinators. Workshop participation gives del-

for a fraction of the cost of their normal

also receive other educational materials

such as background papers, books, wall posters and more. As an added bonus, each registrant receives free access to a special lunchtime "open workshop" on "New Re cycling Technologies", sponsored by Recycling Canada atid free admission to the Ontario Environmental Expo sition, featuring innovative exhibits of the latest advances in environmental

technology, products and services. Following are some of the program highlights: APRIL 8

Environmental Management ISO 14001: Lessons learned in

implementing a successful EMS • Current status of ISO 14001 certifica

tion program. • Key steps in implementing an ISO 14001 Environmental Management Sys tem program.

•Lessons learned during implementation. • Case study. ISO 14000 and ISO 9000:

Integrating Quality & Environment • Overview of the Integration Process. •ISO I400I and ISO 9001.

HPWallander STEP SCREEN® for Intake Wafer / Wastewater / Sludge ScreeningH offloading

Box-Plant for Water / Wastewater Consists of: Custom Laminary Plate-

Box™ Settler (PBS) & TOVEKO

Gravity SandBox " Filter (SBF)with Continuous Positive Sand Wash & Turnover

• Management Systems. • An integrated document control system.

•Preparation of an Integrated Qual ity and Environmental Management manual.

• Performing combined internet Optional

9001 and 14001 audits.


Regulation & Compliance Environmental regulation & compliance - the new reforms

Positions of moving iaminae (drafted in black): A=neutral B=iowest C=front D=top Cieaning action & forwarding up bianket of screenings take place between points B & D.

•The New Framework for Environ

Step-notched iaminae rotate relative to adjacent fixed blades achieving all in one: •screen seif-cleaning • solids separation • solids advancing •solids dewatering Benefits: high through flow area (to 60 %); tolerance to sand; high solids removal efficiency due to 1,3 & 6 mm slot opening with finer capahiiity in blanketed regime.

Features of SBF: Sand turnover rate is a

function of feed and contamination rates; sand


removal across width of bed

• The Approvals Process and Ap provals Reform. • Environmental Management and the New Reforms including environ mental record-keeping. • The Waste Management System

Treatment 82


ensures no

"dead" areas; vigorous washing of reject sand. Benefits of SBF: compact / low profile / stainless construction; automatic operation; no backwash; high quality effluent; high hydraulic & solids loading; to 5% reject only.

Separation Equipment & Water/WasteWater

mental Compliance. Federal legislation and the man agement of chemicals. •Provincial Environmental Legisla

Tel.: 416-250-7111


Fax: 418-250-8111

e-mail: dagex@istar.ca

For more Information, circle reply card No. 344 (See page 17)

and the New Reforms.

• Clean-up of Contaminated Sites.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Spring Conferences Environmental Auditing Environmental Auditing (1): Essential Skills & Techniques • The Systematic Audit Process. • Interviewing Skills. • The People Factor. •Communicating Audit Results Profes sionally. Environmental Auditing (2): Auditing within the EMS • Internal EMS Auditing. • Compliance Auditing. •Advanced and Innovative Techniques to Improve EMS Effectiveness. Hazardous Materials Management Hazardous Materials Management: A practical guide to due diligence •Legislative Overview: The Regulatory Regime as it applies to hazardous mate rials management. •A Blueprint for a Hazardous Materials Sessions dealing with recycling wiii be part of Environmental Compliance '98. Management System. Cornerstone of EMS planning Evaluation? Storage tanks in Ontario: A • How to Identify Environmental As • What are Environmental Performance practical guide to compliance pects. Indicators? •Introduction to the Regulatory Scheme. • Significance Rating. • What is meant by Eco-efficiency. • Life Cycle of a Storage Tank System. •Targeting Interventions. •How to Capture and Quantify the Value APRIL 9 Eco-efficiency: Quantifying EH&S of the EH&S Function within your Environmental Management performance for business success Company. Environmental Aspects: The • What is Environmental Performance • How to Capture the External Benefits

I Mueller Canada I Round Ports are betten..or pipe would be square! Our Ballcentric Plug Valve offers better flow characteristics and less pressure drop across the valve than other types of eccentric plug valves. In some cases, the flew through curs is up to 85% higher than with the usual rectangular port Ink ■■■■ design. This means less erosion, longer service life and lower pumping costs. ■apmapnSSnk.



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Environmental Science

Engineering, March 1998



For more Information, circle reply card No. 155 (See page 17)


Spring Conferences ofImproving yourEH&S Performance. • Phase I ESA: Visual Inspections, re port preparation. How to locate the using to Evaluate Environmental Per- missing pieces of the puzzle. formanee? • Phase II ESA: Field sampling, inves Due Diligence tigative techniques and laboratory analy Environmental Due Diligence for sis. Supervisors and Managers • Risk Assessment, Site Remediation •Corporate Liability and Due Diligence. and Decommissioning: Planning and • The Due Diligence Defence. Process. • Preparing for Transactions. • Land Use Planning and a Proposed • Due Diligence and Environmental Standard Municipal Model for Devel Management. opment Approval and Soil Clean-up. Health & Safety Due Diligence for Brownfields/Contaminated Sites Supervisors and Managers Redevelopment: Liabilities & • The Nature of Due Diligence. Incentives • Potential Sources of Liability for • An International Perspective. Supervisors & Managers. • International Perspectives: Selected • Supervisors and Managers under Case Studies. OHSA. • Incentives for Brownfields Develop • Due Diligence and the Management ment. System. •Brownfields/Contaminated Sites Res •What Criteria are Financial Institutions

• Prosecution under OHSA.

toration: How to Use Ontario's Guide

• Integrating some "big ideas". Environmental Engineering Site Assessment, Decommissioning & Remediation: New requirements • Why bother with remediation? The

lines for Use at Contaminated Sites.

law and the liabilities.

• Liabilities and the Devolution of Re

sponsibility to Municipalities. • Who's got the Power? A New Role for Municipalities. • Land Use Planning - Brownfields and

the Ontario Guideline: One Year Later.

Emergency Response & Spills Planning Strategic Risk Management and Emergency Response Planning •The law.

•Plan Development. • Community Integration. Spill Management for First Responders and Managers • Planning and Preparedness. • Suddenly there's a spill: What do you do? - A Guide to Incident Management. •A Guide to Mitigation & Remediation. For conference registration, please contact EScfeE at 1-888-254-8769,(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271. For exhibition booth sales or a free

Tradeshow attendance pass, contact Great West Expo at 1-800-298-1232. Environmental Science &

Engineering magazine is on the world wide web. Check us out at


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Spring Conferences BC Water & Waste Association

26th Annual Conference & Technical Transfer Seminar Whistler, BC - April 26-29,1998 This conference takes place at the re nowned Whistler Resort. The theme is

Building on Success. Conference ses sions include:

Monday,April 27 Operations and practice - wastewater Presentations on the difficulties as

reservoirs, the operation of utilities in cold climates and the operating details and performance of butterfly valves in the distribution system. Tliesday, April 28 Partnering and systems management Water and wastewater issues with re

mobilized cell biological plant in Bor deaux, France.

Odour control and energy conservation

Odour containment and treatment, and energy optimization for wastewater treatment facilities.

Small water and wastewater systems Guidelines and working examples for small pressure systems, upgrade of a small wastewater plant, on-site disposal, and filter media design for improved performance.

sociated with design and construction of spect to partnering, productivity assess wastewater treatment plants, operator- ments, computerized maintenance Water treatment contractor interfaces during construc (CMMs)for water supply and supervi sory control and data acquisition Disinfection solutions including tion, operational experience with mem (SCADA) at a wastewater treatment flushing programs, assessment of risk brane filters, operator experiences with plant. for parasites, physical structures for online instrumentation in biological nu Water supply solutions chlorination, ozone disinfection, and trient removal facilities, and start-up and Water supply solutions including so direct filtration with chlorination. commissioning of WTPs. dium hypochlorite disinfection in bur Wastewater reclamation and Industrial and high strength wastes ied storage tanks, upgrade of a cast iron disinfection issues Industrial and high strength waste watermain with in situ epoxy lining, Water reuse, Vemon water renovation treatment from oily water separation evaluation of water supply options for and Oliver's irrigation facilities con design at Vancouver Wharves, to a Port St. John from wells vs. surface struction as well as use of ultraviolet unique reclamation process combining water, comparison of northern commu disinfection in wastewater reclamation treatment for aluminum and ink wash nities using wells and groundwater sup facilities. solutions, to membrane filtration for oil ply and computer modelling for Water Biosolids separation at BC Transit. Distribution in Salmon Arm. Papers on biosolids from their material Infiltration & inflow and Wastewater treatment properties to their uses in silviculture, facility planning Papers on wastewater treatment fa farming and reclamation projects Five papers which evaluate I&Ifrom cilities including the concept evaluations Technology Transfer Sessions in management,to design,to measurement and design of the Northwest Langley clude: Risk assessment and decision as well as the process of sizing sewer Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, analysis; SCADA systems for water and age facilities by forecasting flows and the San Diego,CA Point Loma Chemi wastewater;Improved design of biologi selecting cost justified design. cally Enhanced Primary plant. Prince cal wastewater treatment. Water supply issues George TF/SC construction, biologi For registration information, contact Water supply issues including water cally enhanced nutrient removal in theBCWWA,Tel:(604)540-0111,Fax: conservation, seismic assessment of Howard County, Maryland, and an im- (604) 540-4077.

RESEAU Environnement Annual Conference and Tradeshow

April 1-3,1998 - Quebec City, Quebec

•A session on Sustainable Development organized by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. • Waste management by landfilling. • Different methods of waste collection

The Annual Conference and Tradeshow

• Agricultural cleanup.

in Quebec.

ofRESEAU Environnement will be held

• Water treatment. Panel discussion on

•Innovative site contamination remedies

in Quebec City, April 1 -3,1998, at the Centre des Congres de Quebec. The Association quebecoise des techniques

water treatment at the municipal level. • Wastes. The plans of the ministere de

both ex and in situ.

de r environnement and the Association

waste management,followed by a panel discussion. Different approaches to

des entrepreneurs de services en environnement du Quebec have joined together to form RESEAU Environ nement. There will be concurrent ses

1'Environnement et de la Faune for

waste management.

Friday, April 3 • Environmental management. •ISO 14000 and ISO 9000.

• The waste management markets. • Treatment of organic matter.

• Contaminated sites and groundwater. Policies and regulations. Site manage

• Rehabilitation of urban sites.

ment - natural rehabilitation and risk

at this conference, with more than 200

Some 2,500 attendees are expected

sions throughout the three days: Wednesday,April 1 • Indoor air quality. • Biogas control and odour reduction:


exhibitors. The conference hotel is the

Thursday,April 2 • Technologies for the control and re

Lieu d'enfouissements sanitaires(EES). • The quality of drinking water. Panel discussion on the problems in water

Hotel Hilton Quebec, in Quebec City. The sessions start each day at 8:30 a.m., with registration beginning at 7:30 a.m.

•The control and reduction ofindustrial odours.

management. • Corrosion control.

duction of VOCs from solvent use.

• Water supply and sewerage systems. • Financing water supplies.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

For more information, contact RESEAU Enviroimement,911 rue JeanTalon Est, bureau 220, Montreal, QC, H2R 1V5, Tel: (514) 270-7110, Fax: (514) 270-7154. 85

Spring Conferences OWWA/OMWA 1998 Joint Annual Conference



Delivering Quality- May 3-6 Sheraton Fallsview, Niagara Falls

The 1998 Joint Annual Conference of

• Insurance Program for Public Water

the Ontario Water Works Association


and the Ontario Municipal Water Asso ciation, takes place May 3-6. The four-day conference will feature

Session B - Groundwater

speakers; Jim Bradley, MPP for St.

•The Value of Municipal Groundwater Supplies • Wells and Well Fields: Knowledge Leads to Improved Performance.

Catharines and the Liberal Environment

• Practical Consideration in the Selec

Critic will be the keynote speaker. This will give conference attendees the op portunity to question a former Environ

tion and Servicing of Well Pumps. •Treating Groundwater - Recent Trends.

ment Minister.

• Optimizing Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum during Water Filtration. • Application of Neural Networks to the Optimization of Water Treatment

addresses from several well-known

Session C - Research Forum

The first annual Michael R. Provart Award will be bestowed on the student

presenting the top paper in the Univer sity Eorum. Monday, May 4 Conference Opening Keynote Address: Jim Bradley, MPP,

Particulate Removal Processes.

Jim Bradley, MPP - St. Catharines

Liberal Elouse Leader Of The Official

Are We? An Update on the Ontario Clean Water Agency.


• Ontario's Water Utilities - Models of

Concurrent Sessions Session A - OMWA

•Who Are We? Why Are We? Where




• Modeling Chlorine Dioxide Disinfec tion By-Product Formation in Surface


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Spring Conferences and Groundwaters.

Albuquerque venue for

ment Issues.

Dioxide-Related Disinfection By

• Optimization of Biological Filtration in Drinking Water Treatment. • Emerging Technologies in Drinking

product Formation.

Water Treatment.

• Microbial Inactivation Estimation Methods and their Effects on Chlorine

• Biofilm Detachment during Backwashing of Drinking Water Biofilters. • Pilot Scale Evaluation of a High Rate Pre-Treatment Process.

Tbesday, May 5 Early Bird Session • Results of Residential Water Use

Monitoring in Ontario. Plenary Session • The Impact of Municipal Restructur ing on Public Water Authorities and the Water Works Industry.

Session E - Quality Customer Service

• QualServe. • Managing Change in the Ontario Wa ter Industry.

•Competition Strategy for Peel Region. • Water Master Planning - Case Study. Session E - Small Systems & Distribution

NO-DIG '98 The North American NO-DIG '98 gets ready to achieve new levels in trenchless technology in Albuquerque, April 5-8. Two new awards are adding to the strength of this year's program: Most Innovative Product/Service displayed at the Exhibition, and Paper-of-the-Year, NO-DIG '98.

The North American Society for Trenchless Technology and the NO-DIG conventions are 100% devoted to

• Membrane Filtration for Small Sys

trenchless technology. "There are no other meetings around specifically dedi cated to our industry and with the depth and quality of presentations," stated Dean

• The Concerns of the Water Customer.


West, NASTT's Executive Director.

• The Government's Reasons for Mu

• Water Quality Modelling in Distribu tion Systems. • An Introduction to CATT (Centre For The Advancement of Trenchless Tech

The largest representation of suppli ers of products and services to the trenchless technology industry is being assembled as part of the NO-DIG '98

nologies)(University of Waterloo). Wednesday, May 6- Tours - Sir Adam Beck Generating Station. - Seaway Authority.

ing part in the All-Day Field Demon strations which have proved to be one of the most popular activities at North

nicipal Restructuring. • An Overview of Municipal Restruc turing. • The Impact of Municipal Restructur ing on Public Water Authorities. Concurrent Sessions Session D - Treatment

•Pretreatment pH Supression using Car bon Dioxide.

•Coagulant Optimization; Performance

For more information contact: Astrid

of Alum,Acid-Alum & Ferric Chloride.

Tallon, OWWA, Tel: (416) 252-7060, Fax:(416) 252-3908.

•A Review of Current Residue Manage

Do you suspect that more concrete is not the best solution?

exhibition. Exhibitors also will be tak

American NO-DIGs. For more infor

mation about NASTT or NO-DIG '98, fax:(312) 644-8557.


Manager - Air Quality

Building additional capacity is often an easy engineering recommendation - and often the most expensive one.

Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers

We are experts at doing more with your existing water and wastewater systems.

Water and wastewater process optimization Planning, assessment and feasibihly studies Design and construction management Operator training systems GPS-X"'and SimWorks™ wastewater simulators

SNC-Lavalin Inc., the largest consulting engineering firm in Canada, is seeking a senior person to sustain and continue the growth of its air quality services in its Toronto, Ontario office. The successful candidate will

have a strong base ofindustrial contacts and an aptitude for client liaison and marketing. A post-graduate degree with an environmental or chemical engineering focus and at least 10 years experience is essential to manage the following: • • • •

air quality dispersion modelling; FIAs and regulatory compliance issues; stack sampling and ambient air monitoring; evaluation, selection and design of APC equipment and indoor ventilation systems; • indoor air quality; • meteorological analysis.

Please forward a detailed resume, in confidence, to: Human Resources

2235 Sheppard Avenue Fast, Atria North-Phase II Tel:(905) 522-0012 Fax:(905) 522-0031 www.hydromantis.com info@hydromantis.com 1685 Main St, West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 1G5

^[^u're probably right. For more information, circie repiy card No. 348 (See page 17)

Willowdale, Ontario, M2J 5A6, Canada Fax:(416)756-2266 or E-mail: chrik@snc-lavalin.com

We advise that only those applicants selected for an interview will be contacted. Member of the SNC-Lavalin Group


Spring Conferences

Water Quality International to blend science with practical applications

Readers of ES&E have long

telemetering of data by satellite to a con

opment and implementation of new technologies and practices which are at the forefront of the industry's efforts to wards more sustainable production sys

valued our R&D News sec

trol centre in Victoria. Calculations on

tion provided by the Cana

expected flow are used to provide feed back control strategy to control levels of flow for hydro-electric dams. This could maximize power production, while minimizing damage downstream to aquatic systems and physical facili

Canadian paper products are manufac tured to meet both very high quality standards, as well as exacting environ


mental standards.

Hydro-geological consultant teams will discuss groundwater recharge as well as decontamination of aquifers. Re charge of exploited aquifers with treated wastewater is technically challenging; however, this strategy is becoming ac cepted as a viable alternative for aqui fer management. The direct benefits lie in the area of reduced land subsidence, effective wastewater management and effective management of water re sources (increased yields) without re sorting to expensive and often environ mentally damaging inter-basin transfers

Topics covered will include: progress in improving effluent quality in recent years and the current state of work on closing the loop; recent changes in bleaching technologies; and Canada's Environmental Effects Monitoring Pro gram, which ensures current regulations are adequate to protect aquatic receiv ing environments. A panel of experts will also share their perspectives on what might constitute the "mill of the future".

dian Association on Water

Quality. CAWQ is affiliated with the International Association on Water

Quality, renowned for its world-wide conferences on the advancement of sci

ence and practice of water quality man agement. The main areas of interest are wastewater and water treatment proc esses, sources and impacts of pollutants on receiving waters, hazardous waste management and source control,environ mental restoration and site remediation.

For the first time in its history, this year's Water Quality International con ference which will be held in Vancouver, June 21-26, will have an additional fo

cus on the practical solutions of water quality problems. Poster sessions wiU in clude 'hot off the press' research ideas. Consulting engineers who have pio neered biological nitrogen and phospho rus removal systems in effluent treat ment processes internationally will present several examples of problems solved in the USA,Canada,Europe and Australia.

A consortium ofconsulting engineers dealing with hydrology problems for prediction offlow from watersheds will discuss two particular control aspects. One of these is the real-time control of

flow in watersheds beginning with stream gauge measurements and

of water resources. Other sessions will include a manu

facturer of membrane processes who will outline solutions to environmental

problems. Several examples will be given of potable water treatment and low-cost treatment solutions for indus

trial and municipal waste treatment problems. Canadian Pulp & Paper Association to host special forum The Canadian Pulp and Paper Asso ciation will host a forum on the devel

tems. This forum will demonstrate that

There will be a special forum on the growing trend in private partnerships in public works. This will be led by a ma jor industry in the United States and Canada and will emphasise the design/ build/operate/finance of both drinking water and sewage systems. The conference will take place at the Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre.

Dr. J.D. Norman (above), is Conference President.

For conference registration contact: Conference Secretariat, 645-375 Water

St., Vancouver,BC V6B 5C6,Tel:(604) 681-5226, Fax:(604)681-2503.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on this subject. We are consulting

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Mail to: Colgate-Palmolive Canada inc. 255 Wicksteed Ave., Toronto, Ontario M4H 1G8 Phone: (416) 421-6000

Fax: (416) 425-9320

For more information, circle reply card No. 351 (See page 17)

Confined Space Safety

Selecting gas detectors for confined space entries - Part II Part I(ES&E, November 1997) dealt with the overall problems of confined space entries. Part II discusses the various types of gas detectors.

Let's build a gas detector for

confined space work. To start out it will require a combusti ble sensor. We previously de scribed the three types of combustible

sensors available and their features.

However,for confined space work, any of the three technologies will provide adequate protection. Secondly, we need an oxygen sensor to detect both oxygen enrichment and deficiency. There are several manufacturers of oxy gen sensors and while they may all look different, they are essentially the same tech nology and will work well. To complete this instru ment we will require a toxic sensor(s). The key to safe confined space gas detection

pumping stations, waste treatment plants, industrial sites with toxic hydro carbons and the like, then the broad

range(MOS)type is your best solution. Unlike the chemically specific electro chemical sensors, these sensors cannot

differentiate one toxic gas from another but they will tell you whether it is safe to enter or it is time to get out. The broad range sensors have their limitations as well and cannot detect any of the diox ides,i.e.: carbon dioxide,sulphur dioxide. It must be noted that a gas detector with a combustible sensor will not pro tect you from toxic levels of hydrocar bons. A classic example is gasoline. The current TWA for gasoline is 900

concentration of the contaminant

to the point where the readings presented are inaccurate. Other problems may include leaking pumps,cumbersome sample lines, and in some environments, the

lies in these toxic sensors. There are two main sensor

types: electrochemical (Wet Chem) and Broad Range (Solid State MOS). To select the correct toxic sensor we need to evaluate

our confined spaces. If your Hmmm... ..Maybe I bought the wrong detector. area of work is an industrial site, where

PPM. A combustible gas detector, cali

the toxic gases are known or can be con trolled, then a chemically specific toxic sensor can be chosen (providing a sen sor exists for that gas hazard). Manu facturers produce gas detectors that are capable of supporting one or two of these chemically specific sensors. Some instruments are available with a range of plug-in sensors that can be changed

brated to methane, will not alarm on

gasoline until around 50% of the LEL or 5000 to 7000 PPM. This is well in excess of the TWA and can cause a

worker to be rendered unconscious.

the specific toxic sensor(s) you require. However, there is a limit to the sensors

a detachable remote diffusion sensor

available and, if toxic hydrocarbons or

assembly. There are strengths and weak ness in all systems. Selection .should be based upon need, not availability. Sample Draw The most common form of sampling a confined space is the sample draw method. The advantage of this method is that any monitoring is performed out side the space. With a sample draw sys

Other instruments must be ordered with

solvents are a concern, then the broad

range(MOS)type may be your best bet. If you are in an area where the toxics are unknown or cannot be controlled,

such as storm and sanitary sewers. 'President, Canadian Safety Equipment ^President, Safetyscope 90

sample line may plug due to sludge, dirt or condensate icing. A disadvantage of the manual sample draw method is the effort involved moving the air sample along the tube to the sensor. A general rule of thumb is that it takes 3 pump strokes to move the sample 1 foot. If your line is 12', it will take 36 pump strokes to get the sample to the sensor, then the sampling must continue for up to 3 minutes. If you are using a bulb hand aspirator strong wrists are both a requirement and the end re sult of a lot of entries.


In confined space testing it is impor tant that the operator know how the sen sor comes in contact(operation) with the atmosphere. There are three primary means of exposing the sensor to the at mosphere - sample draw, diffusion and

in the field without fuss or calibration.

tem, a pump moves the sample from the atmosphere and draws it through a hol low tube to the sensor. The pump can either be a bulb hand aspirator which requires squeezing or a motorised aspi rator which utilizes batteries(independ ent or the gas detectors). Drawing the sample to the detector protects the tester by eliminating the need to enter the space and limits any movement of the door/cover to the space that may create a spark which could ig nite flammable gases that may collect around the entry point. For these rea sons, the sample draw method is recom mended when conducting your pre-entry test. The primary disadvantage of this method is sample dilution. The tube leaking or using a tube over 12' in length will reduce the

Sensor Operation Most gas detector sensors operate by diffusion. Diffusion works by air being absorbed into the sensor cell. Electronic

gas detectors rely heavily on diffusion sampling. The atmosphere must be brought to the gas sensors by the afore mentioned sample draw (aspiration) or by lowering the gas detector into the at mosphere. Some manufacturers offer a detach

able remote sensor assembly as a means of remote sampling. Advantages of this technology include the lack of pumps and moving parts, much faster response time than aspiration and wires can carry

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

By Ross Humphry^ and Tim Morrison^ the sample information with no poten tial of diluted readings. The sample

• Approvals.

method is still diffusion but the sensors

a) Construction. Monitoring devices must be very rugged and easily carried by the workers. Even with training and

• Ease of use.

are lowered into the atmosphere to be tested. Once the atmosphere has been tested by aspiration and/or remote sen sors, the gas detector can be worn by

the best intentions of the workers, field

use does abuse the units. Drops, jolts, exposure to the elements, misuse, etc.,

the worker for the duration.

Because each sampling method has its own strengths and weaknesses, all techniques are used to monitor the at mosphere. The sample draw is used for the pre-entry test that occurs just inside the space at the doorway. (Suggestion: use a 6' or shorter tube). Diffusion sam pling occurs at all other times. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS

The third component to consider in gas detector selection is design charac teristics. Many gas detectors are sold solely upon these characteristics. The reason for this is that many gas detector

all can shorten the life of the instrument.

work period, a back up or stand by power source must be present. Batter ies have all sorts of limitations. Many units have no way to determine the charge in them; cold and age decrease battery life; lead acid batteries can leak and damage your electronics; NiCad(re chargeable batteries) can develop mem ories and so on. Battery maintenance

The case and its components must be con structed to withstand rough handling. The unit's alarm systems, which

costs and efforts should be evaluated

very carefully to ensure your system will work when required. For confined space work, gas detec tors need to be portable (hand held). If the unit is designed to be worn by the

should be both audio and visual, must also be evaluated. The alarm should be

loud enough to be heard in your envi ronment by either the attendant outside the space or the entrant(s) inside. In a perfect world, both attendant and entrant

worker, it should rest on their belt, not

weigh it down. In many tight spots, the worker should not wear the device as it

may create a catch point. It may be ad visable to have the ability to hang up the unit inside the space.

would hear the alarm. Some manufac

turers have remote alarms that could enable both the attendant and entrant to

simultaneously hear the alarm. The op tion is only worth the money spent if the remote wiring is long enough for all

manufacturers do not make their own

sensors. They design and make the elec tronic box of the gas detector. The following characteristics should be considered only after selecting the appropriate sensors:

Switches, buttons and knobs should

be positioned or designed so that they cannot be knocked out of position, but one can still operate them with gloves on. The unit should be tamper resistant

your spaces.

Batteries are another consideration.

• Construction.

Batteries can be either disposable or re chargeable but either type should sup ply enough power to last 6 to 8 hours.

• Electronics.

If the batteries cannot last the entire

and default to an alarm mode in the event

of battery or sensor failure. Gauges and/ or displays should be large and easily Continued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

For more information, circie repiy card No. 352 (See page 17)


Confined Space Safety, com* read and understood. This means you must be able to not only see the dis played data, but also understand it. In confined spaces there are all types of lighting. Does the information show in all lighting situations? And finally, do the abbreviations make sense or do you need an explanation card on the detec tor? If the information cannot be un

Response Time This is the time period between ob taining data from the sensors and dis playing it. This time period depends on what information is collected, the sen

sor response, how the information is dis played, and the unit of measurement being used (e.g. % LEL or PPM). Re sponse time can range from milliseconds

derstood, it may not be performing the job that it is intended to do. b) Electronics. Information provided

to minutes.

must be reliable and useful as life and

the readout and the true concentration.

death decisions can be made based on

This relationship is indicated by an er ror factor (indicated by e.g. +/0.5%). The lower the number, the greater the instrument's accuracy. Pre

the data provided. The electronics' re sponse time, accuracy, precision, radio frequency (RF) interference, reading drift and sensitivity are all factors that can differentiate a poor purchase from a good investment.

average exposure value of I PPM and it is IDLH at 10 PPM; therefore, any

change must be noted at once. On the other hand, carbon dioxide's TWAEV is 5000 PPM, and is IDLH at 40,000 PPM;therefore the sensitivity need not be that great.

Reading Drifts This is the movement in the instru ment's electronic readout when the at

Accuracy and Precision Accuracy is the relationship between

cision is the number of times the accu

racy would be right in any given number of tests (correct 19 times out of 20). In this case the higher the number, the RF Protection Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) greater the precision. protection is the unit's ability to protect Sensitivity the readings from interference caused by This is the unit's ability to accurately radio waves, pulsed power lines, trans measure changes in concentrations. The formers, and generators. RF protection hazards presented by the substance be is expressed in immunity to x watts of ing measured would determine the need radio transmission at a specific dis for sensitivity. For instance, at present tance. in Ontario, chlorine has a time weighted

mospheric value remains the same. Moving the instrument from one angle to another,shaking it, ambient vibrations or no apparent reason may cause the readout to change. Poor electronic cir cuit board design and/or age of the ma chine or the sensor will cause the read

ings to drift. Sensor or component age ing causing this problem is acceptable and can be compensated for as part of the unit's ongoing maintenance pro gram; however,poor construction is not acceptable. Poor construction cannot be repaired and creates mistrust of the unit with those who work with it. If they do not trust the readings, they will not use it and a tragedy could easily occur. Your best protection is to contact current us ers of the instrument and ask about their


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experiences. c)Approvals. Once a manufacturer has developed an instrument for use in a hazardous atmosphere, it should be ap proved by an independent laboratory for intrinsic safety. d)Ease of Use. One of the most impor



tant considerations after sensor evalua tion and selection is the ease of use of

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1998 issue that interest you. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133134 135136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150151 152153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167168

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339340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354355


the instrument. Is it simple to operate? Is it simple to understand? Are the but tons/switches easy to use with gloves on? Do you have to use switches or buttons to get alarm information? Will it alarm when battery/sensors fail? Most importantly, is it one switch operation? Portable gas detectors are available from a variety of manufacturers. They range from single electrochemical sen sor instruments to very precise multiple sensor units. Do not be swayed by so phisticated technology and fancy pack aging. Choose a device that meets your needs (both short term and for the next 3 to 5 years if possible). Look at all the variables from sensors to design, but always keep sensors as your number one criteria. Your employees also have to be considered in the equation. If not, a per fectly good gas detector will collect dust because they feel the damn thing isn't any good! A well thought out purchase can save lives and prevent injuries. â–

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

Air Pollution

Vitrifying toxic fiy ash

In most industrialized countries, incineration is seen as the most

effective solution for getting rid of the vast amounts of waste genera ted by human consumption. But is it an effective means of disposing of waste? Not really, claim French scientists.

annually treats 120,000 metric tonnes of domestic waste.

To start with, total vitrification costs

will be around $500 per metric tonne of fly ash. In the long term, the cost of treatment per metric tonne should bejust $300. The treatment involves melting

In France, the incineration

could treat 660 pounds of cinders per hour. Several metric tonnes of ash have

already been vitrified using this system. The installation consists of a tilting furnace similar to the type used by glassworkers, the difference being that, instead of being gas powered, it has an electric arc burner fitted with

tic or hospital waste leaves be tween 440 and 660 pounds of

graphite electrodes. The ash is placed in the fur nace using an Archimedean

clinker and between 66 and

screw and heated to 2,600°F.

110 pounds of fly ash. Clinker, although bulky,is in offensive and may be used as filling material on engineering sites. Fly ash, on the other hand, is usually rich in heavy metal particles and dangerous to public health. This mate rial must be placed in control

The vitrified end product is either amorphous and glass like or has a crystalline struc

of one metric tonne of domes

ture similar to basalt. Glass-

workers are interested in it, as are manufacturers ofincinera tion furnaces and boilers. One

of them, CNIM, has built its

own vitrification pilot unit in the municipal waste incinera tion plant at Toulon on the

led landfills so that it does not

pollute aquifers. Storage, however,is an expensive pro cedure,costing up to $600 per

Mediterranean coast, but at

the present time it can only treat about 100 pounds of waste per hour.

metric tonne. France alone

produces 400,000 metric tonnes of fly ash annually. TIRU,a company that runs several incineration plants in the Paris area, are looking at how to treat fly ash in order to

A number ofFrench indus

trial firms have joined forces with the Technological Uni versity of Compiegne,located north of Paris, to conduct an

original research program on vitrification. This program ing the fly ash to a high tem uses an oxygen burner work perature, resulting in a prod ing with a mixture of natural uct that looks like hard rock, gas and oxygen. Producing basalt, or glass, hence the EOF(Electricite de France)flow of vitrified products after heat only small quantities of name 'vitrification' given to treatment on the pilot unit. The furnace is equipped with a sulfurous pollutants, nitrogen graphite-electrode electric arc. the process. oxides and fumes, the instal make it inert and inoffensive.

The treatment consists of heat

In terms of volume,the material takes

the ash with a plasma torch. Sometimes

up one-sixth the volume of the initial quantity of ash. Above all, it is stable over the long term and the heavy metals (zinc, mercury, or lead) trapped inside

referred to as the fourth state of matter,

plasma is a gas ionized by high tempera

lation is compact and economic. The use of oxygen makes it possible to reach temperatures of over 2,900°F during

tures which in turn accelerates certain


chemical reactions, among them vitrifi

are not harmful to the environment.


Nevertheless, vitrification requires fur ther in-depth research and will not come into general industrial use in France be fore the next century. At the same time, a number of competing R&D programs are underway in this field. Early in 1997, one of the first indus trial plants for the vitrification offly ash

Developed in the Aerospatiale facto ries in Bordeaux, a plasma torch heats waste to more than 7,200°F by ionized gas via an arc. The torch is comprised of two tubular electrodes in a gas injec

The main distinguishing feature of this research program lies in the use of foam to convey the ash to the furnace

came on line near Bordeaux, in south

tion chamber. Results from the first tests

were deemed to be sufficiently decisive for incineration plant operators to start industrial-scale operations immediately.

western France. Designed by Europlasma,the plant has the capacity to treat 3,500 metric tonnes of fly ash per year

Electricite de France (EDF), the French electricity board,is working with

at a cost of$4 million. The facility is in

research centre. In 1993, EDF scien

the city's main incineration plant, which

tists produced an experimental unit that

a more conservative method at its Paris

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

flame. The foam contributes to the dis

persion of ash in the furnace and thereby increases the efficiency of heavy metal carbonization in gas or dust form. This process turns out a vitrified product that traps all heavy metals. Using other operating parameters, it is also possible to obtain at the bottom of the furnace a vitrified product contain ing no metal salts or metal oxides. These salts and oxides settle on a filter during cooling and can be recycled. Circle reply card No. 353 93

Air Pollution

Catalytic converters for the next century

UK chemists have developed

a new catalytic converter for vehicle exhausts that will

reduce air pollution from car exhausts more effectively than today's catalysts and at lower cost. The con verter, made at Dundee University in Scotland, contains a new patented de sign of catalyst using palladium rather than platinum and rhodium as in the cur rent generation of devices. The new catalyst is both cheaper and more efficient than those in road vehi

cles today and is more suitable for use with the "lean-burn" engines that will be increasingly used in the next century to protect the atmosphere. The United States has taken the ini

tiative in enforcing the fitting of cata lytic converters in road vehicles. West ern Europe, including the UK, is now following the US example, brought about by growing concern about the harmful effects of gases in car exhausts. As Jim Cairns, Professor of Elec

tronic and Mechanical Engineering at Dundee University explains: "If an en gine were absolutely 100 percent effi cient, it would produce only carbon di oxide and water vapour in its exhaust. "But in practice, all engines produce varying amounts of carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. And all these gases are poten

This 1970 Oldsmobile Delta 88, owned by ES&E President Steve Davey, employs one of the first air pollution control systems designed to reduce emissions. Emis sion systems on today's cars are far more complex.

The catalytic converters increasingly fitted in car exhausts convert these harm

ful gases to harmless carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contributes to global warming but it is generally agreed that the contribution to this made by vehicles is a much less se rious problem than the health hazards ofcarbon monoxide and unburnt hydro carbons.

tial health hazai^ds and cause undesirable

The catalysts used in exhausts today are cylinders filled with porous ceramic material similar to a honeycomb or a sponge and with an enormous internal


surface area.

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The linings of the pores in the honey comb are sprinkled with particles of the precious metals platinum,rhodium, pal ladium or iridium. The platinum cataly ses reactions that oxidize the carbon

monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide, while the iridium breaks

down the oxides of nitrogen. But Jim Cairn's new catalyst, he explains, does it all with just one ingredient. "Our catalyst is different because it contains just one precious metal, palla dium, with another non-precious metal, zinc. We've shown that this combination

can remove all the exhaust gas pollutants, including the oxides of nitrogen," he said. "One advantage of palladium is that it is less expensive than platinum or rho dium."

The new catalyst is mounted on a ceramic honeycomb, like existing cata lysts. The difference lies in some clever chemistry that has been used to attach the palladium and zinc catalyst material to a framework made of zirconia (zir conium oxide). This is what allows pal ladium alone to remove all the pollut ants in the exhaust gases. The similarity of the basic design to that of existing catalytic converters means that it will be quite easy for ve hicle manufacturers to switch to produc ing the new catalyst. At least one of these is already showing strong interest. The new catalyst stiU has to prove that it can go on working for 100,000 miles (160,000 km), the lifetime that is now being required for catalytic converters.

Circle reply card No. 354

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1998

WATER QUALITY MONITORING On-Line analyzers - Multiparameter Systems EZ TOC ANALYZER




Process TOC ihialyzer is a continuous on-line

analyzer designed to monitor witli accuracy and reliability the Total Organic Carbon concentration present in water. TOC analysis is an easier, faster and less expensive indicator of water

qualitt' than B0D5 or COD. TOC measurement with the EZ TOC is a method of choice to monitor

organic pollution in water whether it he for process controi or to detect organic spills.






The NT-100 can he

used to measure nitrate concentra

tions in potable or wastewater appli cations. It is configurable to operate either untler continuous flow or in a batch mode with an external

pump slaved to the unit. An optional automatic washing system ensures unattended operation and no downtimes. The standard range offered is 0 to 250 ppm N03. Standard outputs include 4-20 niA, trvo RS-232, three latching relays. The .N'T-100 is THE SOLUTiO.N to help meet regulations on nitrate levels.

Circle reply card No. 290

Circle reply card No. 291

YSI leads the

way with multiparameter water quality systems. The VSI6000 can monitor up to 12 parameters simultaneously in any type of water. Standard features include field replaceable probes, non-volatile flash memory, RS-232 and SDI-12 interfaces to off-the-shelf data collection

platforms. The YSI 600 and 600XL with diameters as smail as 1.6 inch offer the solution for well monitoring. The compact YSI 6500 is the ideal process control system to continuously measure DO, conductivity, temperature and pH.

Circle reply card No. 292



Calgary Toronto Ottawa



•Municipal WWTP •Drinking water control •Chemical plants •Food processors •Pulp and Paper •River studies

AIR QUALin MONITORING Gas Detectors - Dust Monitors DUSTCHECK



Portable Dust Monitor

Fixed Multigas Monitor

Personal Monitor The GASMAN II is Crowcon's newest


personal single gas monitor.

the ideal solution

Available to monitor

for gas and/or fire

different gases such as

monitoring over small areas. By design, tlie


The 1.108 Aerosol Monitoring System from GRIMM is a world leading instrument for dust measurement applications. Using tlie 90 degree light scattering technique, the 1.108 includes a 15 channei pulse height analyzer for size classification, covering a range of 0.3 to 20 microns. Data recorded on the standard

memoiy card can be analyzed in a number of ways including size and mass distribution and following EPA conventions. A removable filter also allows for

gravimetric and cliemical analysis


read a variety of sensors including flammable, toxic, oxygen and fire detectors. GASMASTER 1 is a single cliannel unit and GASMj\STER 4 accepts tip to 4 channels. The GASM/\STER has a well thought visual display, offers extensive alarm capabilities including control fimctions and provides a 4-20mA output on each cliannei for interfacing.

Circle reply card No. 293

Circle reply card No. 294


Calgary Toronto Ottawa



H2S, CO, CH4 or 02 the rugged and lightweight GASMAN II offers liighly visible and audible alarms, data logging capability with a Windows compatible PC interface and intrinsic safety for use in hazardous areas.

For multigas personal monitors ask about the TRIPLE PLUS or tlie CUSTODI,\N.

Circle reply card No. 295


•Health and safety •Confined space •Personal protection •Hazardous areas •Fire protection •Filter studies

For more information, circle reply card No. 355(See page 17)



It's all in how you put it together.





EIMCO engineers have put together a phosphorous removal system that combines three


biological environments In a single partitioned reactor—eliminating recycle pumps and

Engineering new solutions

Once again, EIMCO writes the book on efficiency. For Information, call (905)625-6821.

piping. As a result, the Carrousel® A^C"System reduces maintenance and operating costs.


For more information, circle reply card No. 350(See page 17)

© 1998 Baker Hughes