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ENVIRONMENTAL

Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air poliution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

US Navy combats air and water pollutlon problems Hamilton fire leaves toxic residue and controversy

Dinner with a royal detective - an editorial Enhanced phosphorus removal Modelling chlorine decay

September 1997


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Our old pumps. were clegging at least

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August/September '97 Vol. 10 No. 4 Issued September, 1997

ISSN-0835-605X

CONTENTS President STEVE DAVEY Publisher TOM DAVEY

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Saies Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Saies Representative DENISE SIMPSON Circuiation Manager VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Asst. KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop Beak International inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP

Church STrought inc. George V. CrawfonI, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M G&S Or. Howard Goodfellow Goodfeilow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical

Dinner with Prince Phiiip's private detective in 1967 changed my career. Editoriai by Tom Davey

7

Enhanced phosphorus removai for the Viiiage of Elmvaie WPCP

21

US Navy combats shipboard incineration and waste disposai probiems WEFTEC '97- 70th Annuai Conference & Exposition Horseshoe Resort and Philip Utiiities partner on treatment plant

24

31 36

Safe electrical isolation of cathodically protected structures

38

Longest microtunneling push in North America jacks 83 pipe over 250 metres

42

Why a valve and hydrant company took the ISO 9002 route

46

Chlorine dioxide is increasingly a substitute for chlorine in P&P industry

48

How aquatic threats enter the Great Lakes through commercial ballast waters

50

Buyer beware - there's no relief for purchasers A contaminated land policy and law update

63

How one military base fought pollution

72

Piastimet fire in Hamilton left toxic residues

and unanswered questions

74

Pulp mill suifurous emissions are treated by regenerative Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy business publication pub lished by Environmental Science & Engi neering Publications inc. An ail Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and dis tribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and wastewater

treatment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mali Saies

Product Agreement No. 18197 Second Class Mali

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Web Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $70.00. (G.S.T. extra) Ail advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engi neering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271, E-maii: esemag@istar.ca. Web site: http://www.esemag.com

eai

rmni Šwp

thermal oxidation

76

Canadian firm contains huge oil spill in Northern Russia

78

French VakTrak train gives New York subway a clean sweep

80

Membrane technology treats wastewater at two BC locations

81

Particle counting - new weapon in the fight against lethal waterborne diseases

83

Environmental Effects Monitoring at Canadian pulp and paper mills

86

Modeiiing of chlorine decay in municipal water distribution systems

Getting the red out with PipePac Innovative Canadian technology verification program launched

90

93 94

Departments

Literature Reviews

54-55

Ad Index

94

Product Review

56-62

Classifieds

71

R&D News

65-70

Datepad Industry Update

18 10-20

Reader Feedback

Reader Service Card

8

17, 80

Cover story: Warships are designed to fight enemies with maximum efficiency. The US Navy is aiso combating air and water poiiution. Story on page 24. Inset, Hamiiton's toxic fire. Story on page 74. Photo - John Rennison, The Hamilton Spectator. information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


mi PATIENTIEI3 STORMCIEPTOR

iVaiJB/i IB THIE iENGINIEIEPIED

BOLUTION FOR

I

BTORMWATIER QUALITY IMPROVIEMIENT

APPLICATIONS:! COMMERCIAL RESIDENTIAL INDUSTRIAL

INSTITUTIONAL INFILL RETROFIT

REDEVELOPMENT| MUNICIPAL

BENEFITS: REMOVES OIL

TRAPS SEDIMENT I DOES NOT SCOUR EFFECTIVE PROVEN VERSATILE

INEXPENSIVE SAFE MAINTENANCE FRIENDLY

MANUFACTURED UNDER UGENSEI]

i-Boo-r)r>r)-4B()i

i


Editorial Retrospective

By Tom Davey

Dinner with Prince Philip's private detective in 1967 changed my career

Photographers trod warily; Prince Philip was in town. His Royal Highness was in Toronto to address a 1967

Canadian Audubon Society banquet at the Inn On The Park. His topic? Con servation. Prince Philip is deeply inter ested in the preservation of all speciesexcept photographers. Only recently he had cleansed the sins of the English paparazzi by drenching them with a garden hose. Cameramen fingered their equipment nervously as they waited in the plush corridors. Sartorially, Metro-Toronto rose to the occasion. Cadillacs crept to the hotel entrance and disgorged their elegant, expensively-clad occu pants. Ladies smoothed down their gowns and adjusted mink stoles, while their men straightened black ties before entering. A sense of

where, Buck Morse appeared. He ex plained when photographs could be taken and threw in a few tips on the best locations. Great cop. Super PR. Then it was dinnertime. The huge doors of the Centennial Ballroom

opened and a thousand guests flowed in. The Audubon Society had given me a place at table number one, just below the head table. We sat down and scanned the menus. A tremendous sense of an

ticipation pervaded the ballroom. Inspector Sellar leaned over and asked if I would exchange seats with another man. I hesitated. My vantage

deeply interested in conservation. A guest asked him about the chances of meeting with the Prince in London, to discuss conservation. The inspector replied with the speculative detachment of a scientist considering an equation. "It is not entirely impossible," he con ceded, "but extremely difficult. You'll have to write to his personal secretary." Suddenly, the guests rose as the Prince wound his way to the head table, standing as "The Queen' was played. A brief grace, a toast to Her Majesty, then dinner. Fruit cocktails were followed

by Consomme aux Pailettes, Rock Cor nish Hen, wild rice, green salad, followed by Bombe Suchard. Prince Philip was relaxed as he chatted to his companions at the head table.

With dinner concluded, the

tural critics. Society columnists must have been proud of their To

head table guests were introduced by the chairman of the society. Dr. Walter Tovell, the Duke being wel comed by Dr. William Swinton, University of Toronto's Centennial

ronto constituents.

Professor.

Policemen from the RCMP, Metro-Police, and Scotland Yard

Dr. Swinton warmed up the au dience with a witty address. He

were there, but only the experi enced eye could spot them as they mingled with the crowd, smartly clad in evening dress. You learned to pick them out after a while. They were usually taller than the rest and more mobile. They were also the ones without partners. Although smiling and affable, their eyes constantly swept the crowd for potential incidents. The tall executive type turned out to be RCMP sergeant Buck Morse, the friendly business type, Metro- The Horse Guards are a colourful tourist attraction Toronto Police Inspector George as well as having a formidable military record. ES&E

noted that he had once been asso

occasion was in the air and, this time at least, Metro bested its cul

Photo - Tom Davey

Sellar. The Prince arrived almost unobtru

sively and 1 knocked on the door to ask when photographs could be taken. An English aide opened it a bare inch and peered at me as if it were the prohibi tion era. 1 felt like saying"Lou sent me." Primly he announced:"The press are not allowed here." Although shorter than 1, this paragon of princely protocol some how had reversed the laws of trigonom etry by looking down on me! But the Royal Canadian Mounted Police had the job in hand. Erom no

point was ideal for reporting the event. He persisted: "It's for the Duke's per sonal detective. Inspector Thoming of Scotland Yard." 1 moved!

Inspector Thoming sat down beside me. He had been the Duke of Edin

burgh's detective for five years and par ried the obvious questions from other guests skillfully. Yes, he travelled all over the world with the Prince. Yes, he had been to Australia, and the Middle East. And the Ear East. And South

America. And yes, the Duke really was

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

ciated with the British Museum but

assured the guests that he had never been an exhibit. He said

Prince Philip belonged to the fra ternity of the sea. "He is a sailor prince, a sailor adventurer, a sailor naturalist. He is also the best af

ter-dinner speaker in London." The crowd loved his repartee, but surely, this was a hard act for the Prince to follow.

Smiling,the Prince rose. "Flat tery, as Disraeli once noted," he said,"is always effective. But with Royalty, you lay it on with a

trowel." The crowd roared. Then with

a sly quip at the menu,he observed that the Rock Comish Hen might soon need protection -if the Audubon Society held any more dinners. This was regal entertainment. The audience was now his. Like an artist, he

began to manipulate the collective psy che like so much sculpting of clay. First he wooed his audience, then he lectured

them. There was none of the platitudi nous "our two great countries" stuff-nor shying away from controversial issues.


Editorial Retrospective, com' "If we could comprehend the prob

As the Prince sat down, the crowd

lems of birth control," he said,"more of

rose to a standing ovation. In classic

the starving millions might be fed"- a warning that the total farming of all

tradition, he had left his audience more

lands would not feed the under-devel

oped nations. "We can,if we wish,con vert the jungles of the world into pro ductive land. We have the capability to cover the landscape with concrete for

thoughtful, better informed, and want ing a little more. Truly a regal environ mental performance from an erudite, ar ticulate performer- a Prince of a Man, in fact.

our automobiles. But I would like to

see a stabilized world population so world resources." "I would also like to see all land us

years after the Prince's speech in To

The lord Chamberlain is commanieihyHerMajestjtoinnte

ers show a reasonable concern for un

necessary disturbance of wildlife. We cannot do this until people become aware of the problems. The Audubon Society has a splendid record in this," he said. "The long-term effect might be pointed out to planners and engineers. After all, they are not unintelligent peo ple. Conservation is a special case. It is now or never."

Now deadly serious, the Prince con cluded thoughtfully:"If we don't get the answers right now,there won't be a sec ond chance. We will go down in his tory for our neglect. I, for one, do not relish the idea of my grandchildren ask ing me,'what went wrong?"'

On reflection, the Prince's comments

on birth control were especiaiiy coura geous for a royal visitor in 1967. Not too long before his visit, Canadians had been prosecuted and fined for promul gating birth control techniques. His views on conservation too were years ahead of their time, being expressed iong before the environmentai move ments emerged. Greenpeace, for example, was formed in British Columbia some three

E'R

there would be no further demands on

Davcom inc. book.

to a Garden Tarty

at Buckingham Talace aa Thursday

ronto.

On July 17, 1997, i was invited to at tend the Royai Garden Party at Buck ingham Palace. The Queen and Prince Philip, of course, were at the garden party. Prince Andrew, who had been educated at Lakefieid in Ontario, spot ted the Maple Leafin my Canadian Le gion badge and came over, extended his hand, and chatted about Canada.

Author's Note: This article

was first written when i was a newspa per reporter. Shortly afterwards, i was offered the position of editor of Cana da's oldest environmental Journal, Wa

This completed an environmentai fin de siecie which first began with the Prince Philip article 30 years earlier. NB This piece was typeset and virtuaiiy on press when the tragic news of Princess Diana came through. Her work

ter & Pollution Control. Later, i became

to aboiish land mines which maim chii-

Science Editor at the University of To

dren and render farmiand useless,

ronto's institute for Environmental Stud

makes the proposed landmine treaty in her name a fitting environmentai monu

ies. This piece was excerpted from Ail The Views Fit To Print, a joint Southam/

ment.

Reader Feedback Dear Steve, I manage the Canadian inputs to the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) Environmental Management Project, a

$7 million project financed by the Canadian International Development Agency to develop and implement envi ronmental solutions in Indian industry. In the next issue of the publication, CII wishes to focus on the pulp and pa per industry and to this end, wishes to publish the following articles which ap peared in the January 1997 issue of En vironmental Science & Engineering: • Commercial scale technology aims to reduce pulping effluents by 90%.

• Canadian P&P industry launches $88 million closed cycle research drive. Best regards, Doug Hickman, Confederation of Indian Industry • Environmental Management Project Dear Editor:

I enjoyed the article The environment and our impact on it - Parts I and II, but was disappointed that a list of refer ences was omitted.

Would it be possible to get the refer

ences, as I am very interested in the topic of historical development of waste man agement and am writing a book on the subject; and, would it be possible to get the telephone number of Mr. David Sperling,(the author) as I would like to communicate with him.

oxidation technology but very few of our colleagues in Canada are even aware of them or their process for the destruction of toxic organics in water. In fact, they only have one system operating in a nuclear application in New Brunswick. I find it sad that our own environ

Hans Tammemagi, Oakhill Environmental

mental industry is virtually oblivious to them and their technology. Wm.Fellner, P.Eng.

Dear Tom, Your editorial on data quality(June 1997 issue) was excellent and I especially en joyed the slogan Gofor quality, notprice - then sleep at night! Rick Wilson,

I am a municipal planner who has been asked by the Government of China to

Executive Director, CAEAL

teach a course on environmental inno

Dear Sandra, I picked up a copy of your magazine recently at the Toronto A&WM show and found it very informative. In fact, I just subscribed to it. At that show,there was a display by a small company out of London, Ontario, called Purifies En

vironmental Technologies Inc. They do a large volume of environ mental cleanup work in the US and over seas with their patented photocatalytic

Dear Sir, Re: Copies of January 1997 Buyers' Guide.

vation as applied in municipalities. The course will be attended by about 30 mayors of major Chinese cities such as Tianjin and Shanghai. 1 have been try ing to get information on Canadian com panies that consult or manufacture environmental technologies and your Directory is the closest that I have come. Would it be possible to get some copies that I could leave with the Chinese?

Lauren Johnson, Senior Planner, Alberta government

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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Industry Update Ontario unveils vehicle

emissions testing program Ontario Environment and Energy Min ister Norm Sterling has launched Drive Clean, a program to reduce smog-caus ing emissions from cars, trucks and buses.

Drive Clean will begin in the sum mer of 1998, with all heavy duty trucks and buses in Ontario being required to complete an emissions test as part of the current annual safety inspection. In late summer or fall of 1998,Drive

Clean will be extended to cars and light trucks registered or resold within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and the Hamilton-Wentworth region. An emis sions test will be required every two years at registration renewal for cars and light trucks(4-19 years old)and anytime at resale (all model years). Antique cars, commercial farm vehicles and motorcy cles are not included in the program. More than one third of Ontario's 6.5

extended to cars and light trucks in other urban areas with serious recurrent smog problems,such as Windsor, in the years 2000 and 2002.

The program is expected to cut the release of smog-causing pollutants from vehicles - such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds- by an av erage of 22 percent, and microscopic dust particles by six percent. Information from jurisdictions across

million cars and light trucks are regis

North America indicates that 80 to 85

tered in the GTA and Hamilton-

percent of passenger cars pass the emis

Wentworth region. Drive Clean will be

sions test.

MOEE takes action on

The dream of a

PCB-freeToronto is becoming reality. Great news for Toronto Hydro customers! Toronto Hydro and Ego Logic have joined forces to eliminate PCB-contaminated material.

Toronto Hydro's reputation as a leader in managing PCBs dates back to the early 1980s. In fact, we've transported more PCBs than any municipal utility in Canada - accident-free.

Ontario-based Eco Logic has developed an award-winning PCB-destruction process that converts PCBs into methane and other reusable products. Together, we offer a complete local solution that: • Provides convenient removal of all your PCB waste. • Eliminates the cost and potential liability of storage. • Reduces the risk and liability of long distance transportation of your waste.

•The process handles any concentration of PCBs.

tritium contamination The Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy is investigating tritium con tamination in groundwater on the site of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. Norm Sterhng has announced that his ministry will issue a Director's Order requiring Ontario Hydro's Pickering Generating facility to report the source and extent of the problem and plans for corrective action. They will also be re quired to audit and report, through the Ministry of Environment and Energy,on any other incidents of environmental impairments at their generating facili ties and potential corrective actions. While the contamination is limited to

groundwater within the facility site, ministry staff are working with the Medical Officer of Health to ensure

there are no impacts on drinking water in the Pickering area.

The beetles take on purple loosestrife In Cambridge, Ontario, the Grand Val ley Conservation Foundation is using the Galerucella beetle as a biological control agent in a project that will be used as a model for purple loosestrife control in other North American water

• Employs non-incineration destruction technology. For more information about a cost-effective alternative

to PCB storage or incineration call us at(416)591-1806. ]

sheds.

Purple loosestrife is one of the socalled alien species posing a threat to wetlands. The plant quickly multiplies and chokes out native vegetation. A similar program is underway in Mani toba as brood stocks will be established

for two kinds of European beetles. In fact, 20,000 insects have been released in 32 sites across Manitoba.

Purple loosestrife is also a target for Ducks Unlimited in Nova Scotia as

2,000 acres of wetland habitat are being enhanced. Part of the work there in

volves using beetles to control loose strife and other invasive weeds. 10

For more information, circle reply card No. 229 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Industry Update vincial and two territorial regulatory bodies that collectively represent more than 160,000 professional engineers

Preliminary Call for Papers Environmental Compliance '98 - April 8-9,1998 Toronto Congress Centre,Toronto, Ontario Environmental Science & Engineering •Budgeting for your recycling program. magazine will be sponsoring the Envi • Accidents and Incidents. Test your ronmental Compliance Conference for emergency response system against the the 6th consecutive year in 1998. standard. Some 450 registrants attended last • Environmental due diligence for su year's Environmental Compliance Con pervisors and managers. ference, representing a broad cross sec • OH&S due diligence for supervisors tion of industries and municipalities. and managers. Environmental Compliance topics • Environmental auditing workshop. will include; •Environmental law '98 -Intro and up •Integrating ISO 9000 and ISO 14000. date to current environmental law. • Non-regulatory initiatives - a guide to If you are interested in presenting a Compliance Agreements, MOUs and paper on these or any other related top Emissions Trading. ics, please contact Lawrence Earl, at • Environmental liability of waste gen (905) 873-7309, Eax: (905) 873-6424, erators and recyclers. by October 20,1997.

Stewart appointed Federal Minister of Environment

Christine Stewart has been appointed Canada's new Environment Minister.

Eormerly Seeretary of State (Latin America and Africa), Ms. Stewart, a nurse, was first elected to the House of Commons in 1988. Ms. Stewart has been the Liberal Caucus Critic for the

Canadian International Development Agency and Associate Critic for Ifuman Rights and has an extensive background in international development issues.

across Canada.

Call for Abstracts The 1998 Annual Water Environment

Association of Ontario Technical Sym posium is to be held at the Westin Har bour Castle,Toronto,March 28-31,1998. Tentative session topics include: a)

Privatization Issues

b)

Environmental Management

Systems(EMS) c) Information Management d) Automation e) Optimization f) Small Community Issues g) Municipal Restructuring h) Pollution Prevention i) Treatment Processes/Equipment j) CSO Management k) Biosolids 1) Planning m) Emerging Issues n) Operations To request Abstract Submittal Eorm, please contact: WEAO,before Septem ber 30, 1997, at 63 Hollyberry Trail,

ganizations across the country. Mr.Desjardins,a former president and long-standing member of the Ordre des ingenieurs du Quebec,is a civil engineer with extensive experience in the manage ment of municipal works projects. Since 1987, he has been the president of Sovenca gestion de projets, inc., a Mon treal-based project management firm. North York, Ontario, M2H 2N9, Tel: CCPE is the confederation of ten pro (416)502-1440, Fax:(416)502-1786.

The Award Winning*

Ms. Stewart is MP for Northumber

land, Ontario,and replaces Sergio Marchi.

Another plebiscite on water metering? High Flow

Calgarians could face yet another plebi scite on water metering to coincide with the 1998 municipal elections. Worried about the future need for expensive wa ter treatment facility upgrades, city ad

Fine Screen

ministrators have recommended a vote

on mandatory water metering in the city. About one half of Calgary residents are already metered, with about 8,000 to 10,000 customers converting to water meters annually. The half that are cur rently on water meters account for only 22% of water consumption, while unmetered customers use 44% of the water.

New CCPE Chairman elected The Canadian Council of Professional

Engineers (CCPE) has elected Pierre Desjardins, ing., as Chairman of the Board. Mr. Desjardins has spoken of his strong desire to see the CCPE serve as a catalyst for the development of stronger linkages among engineering or-

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Industry Update Eco Logic Involved with US Army chemical demilitarization ELI Eco Logic International Inc. of Rockwood, Ontario, and a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation of Bethesda, Maryland, have agreed to team up to prepare a proprietary pro posal dealing with chemical demilitari zation.

addition,the process has recently proven the ability to destroy TNT and other energetics, found in certain chemical warfare shells, in a controlled manner with no environmental emissions.

ELI Eco Logic Inc. has also been suc cessful in the complete destruction and removal of napalm from aluminum con tainers in recent pilot tests. Additional pilot tests were successful in the destruc

Seatrade Personality 1998. The deadhne for submissions is De

cember 31st, 1997. TheseAwards willbe

presented in London,on May I2th, 1998. If you have a product, system, or process which has been introduced or approved during 1997, that merits con sideration in any of the technical catego ries, or you would like to propose a suit able candidate for the Seatrade Person

ality, contact Laura Paris,Projects Man ing TNT, Compound B and Yellow D, ager, The Seatrade Organization, 42 as well as of residuals of these highly North Station Road, Colchester, Essex, explosive chemicals in 105mm military COl IRB, Great Britain, for full entry shell casings. Tests were conducted at details. the US Army Toxic Test Chamber in PEI water clean and Aberdeen, Maryland. pestlclde-free The pilot tests also showed that shell casings can become a recyclable product. Prince Edward Island has been given a Eollowing evaluation of these results, clean bill of health in a study that looked for contamination of groundwater by the US Navy and US Army may con sider purchase of full-scale units for pesticides. The Eisheries and Environ continuous operation at their storage ment Department received the results from the first year of a three-year study sites in California and New Jersey. into groundwater contamination. Wa 1998 Seatrade Awards ters were tested for the presence of 10 Entries are now being invited for the pesticides: none of the pesticides were 1998 Seatrade Awards which will be detected in the approximately 90 sam presented for advancement in the fields ples collected. The Department hopes of safety at sea, countering marine pol that the study will provide an empirical lution, and innovation, as well as to the basis for the debate about pesticide use. tion of a number of munitions includ

Lockheed Martin Advanced Environ

mental Systems(LMAES)or its affili ate will act as the prime contractor while Eco Logic will serve as a prime sub-con tractor. Utilizing its patented non-incin eration technology, it is intended that Eco Logic will provide a turnkey chemi cal weapons destruction system that is designed to effectively eliminate chemi cal warfare agents from all metal parts, rocket residues, solids,carbon filters and

other products. In 1995, Eco Logic was selected by the US Army as one of three commer cial technologies for further evaluation for chemical weapons destruction. Since then, the Eco Logic Process has obtained 99.999999% destruction and

removal efficiencies for VX nerve agent and HD sulfur mustard in pilot tests. In

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Fact is, corrugated polyethylene pipe has revolutionized the

The industry's most respected authorities have joined us in

stormwater drainage market. And tor good reasons. Lighter

our fact-digging. Authorities like the Southwest Research

weight, easier installation and lower overall installation costs are

Institute (SwRI); Macdonald College, McGill University; the

just a few of its benefits. No wonder it's quickly

University ot Western Ontario Geotechnical Research

becoming the stormwater pipe ot choice.

Center and Utah State University. The helpful technical

For 25 years, the CPPA has been working to bring

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these merits to light. And we've continued to dig into

reference our findings - and they're yours for the asking.

what makes our product so effective. Demonstrating

We're always unearthing something new. And the

that corrugated polyethylene pipe is the material for

CPPA wil l keep applying the tacts we dig up to ars

the next generation. We've kept our industry on the

improve the industry's standards.

leading edge by tocusing on research: solid, third party studies on how our pipe performs. They've helped to make the CPPA a

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Industry Update Mackenzie Basin final

report released The final report of the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study has now been re leased. The 372-page report provides the basis for projections of the effects which a change in climate could have on the people, communities, land, waters and economies in Canada's Northwest.

The Mackenzie Basin covers 1.8 mil

lion square kilometres and includes parts of the Yukon and Northwest Territories,

British Columbia,Alberta and Saskatch ewan.

The results of the study indicate that the Mackenzie Basin may well be go ing through the beginning ofsignificant changes to its climate as a result of glo bal warming. The region has already experienced a 1.5° C warming trend this century. There is some evidence that this has lowered lake levels, thawed perma frost and increased the frequency and severity of landslides and forest fires. The study also suggests a longer grow ing season and changes to the ecosys-

tem of the boreal forest.

The Mackenzie Basin Impact Study was initiated by Environment Canada in 1990. The Mackenzie Basin was cho

sen because it is a northern region where the changes in climate are expected to be the largest. In addition, the area has sensitive ecosystems and a large number of Aboriginal people who still follow a traditional lifestyle.

For copies of the report, please fax your request to Environment Canada (416) 739-4297.

Insituform begins construction of new R&D

THE FUTURE OF

centre

WASTE WATER SCREENING

DERRICK CORPORATION

Insituform Technologies,Inc. has begun construction on a new Research and

Development centre in Chesterfield, Missouri. The facility has been designed to facilitate the development and test ing of Insituform's non-disruptive piperehabilitation technologies. The 50,000-

square foot state-of-the-art R&D centre is located in the St. Louis, Missouri,sub urb of Chesterfield, where Insituform's

headquarters will be relocating from Memphis, Tenn., in July. The centre is

DERRICK

FLO-LINE" SCREENING MACHINE

Waste water slurry being fed into a Derrick Flo-Line screening machine.

scheduled for completion in early 1998. Insituform Technologies, Inc. is a worldwide provider of proprietary trenchless technologies for the rehabili tation of sewer, water, gas, and indus trial pipes. AGRA and Caribou launch

The environmental demands, which are

ISO 14000 based

currently being placed on corporations and municipalities to control B.Q.D. (Biological Oxygen Demand) discharges and reduce ih-plant treatment costs, have created a tremendous need for efficient, reliable and cost effective equipment to

management system

reduce waste water solids concentra

tions. Derrick Corporation, with over 40 years of fine screening experience,is now capable of offering this equipment tech nology to the waste water industry worldwide.Through utilizing the Derrick "Flo-Line" screening unit design, high fluid capacities can be effectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required

AGRA Earth & Environmental, AGRA

Systems and Caribou Systems Corpo ration, have teamed up to provide a new ISO 14000 based Environmental Man Recovery of processed carrots from a waste water stream using Derrick 0.43MM urethane screens.

increase efficiency,'and achieve higher standards of environmental, health &

safety compliance. The new system was launched June 10 at the 90th Annual

Air & Waste Management Association Conference in Toronto.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Industry Update Montreal firm buys

Cansolv® System SO2 technology Cansolv Technologies Inc., of Montreal has purchased Union Carbide Corpora

tion's CansoW® System sulfur dioxide

(SOj) scrubbing technology in an em ployee buyout,led by the inventor of the process. Dr. Leo Hakka. The newly formed process development and licens ing company will market the technol ogy internationally and develop allied technology. The Cansolv System process regen-

erably absorbs SO^, utilizing a highly selective organic amine solution in a con ventional amine scrubbing process flow sheet. The process byproduct is pure SO,, which may be used as is or converted to

sulfur or sulfuric acid by conventional processes. The technology can be ap plied to flue gas desulfurization(FGD), sulfur recovery units and most gaseous process streams in the power generation, refining, natural gas, sulfuric acid, smelter, and pulp and paper industries. The projected costs of the technol ogy are in most cases lower than for current technologies, with the added ability of achieving SO,removal down to the low parts per million range. Due to a small footprint, installation in con strained sites will be simplified. This novel technology promises to be especially attractive for FGD of boilers firing very high sulfur content fuel, such as high sulfur petroleum coke and lignosulfonate cooking liquor in pulp mills. Integration of the Cansolv System proc

ess into a Glaus sulfur recovery unit can be used to economically expand capac ity, while achieving extremely low total

sulfur emissions. Fugitive SO^ emis sions at smelters can also be treated ef

fectively and economically, with result ing benefits to acid plant operation.

Call for papers The 50th Annual Convention of the Western Canada Water and Wastewater Association and Canadian Public Works

Association will be held October 25-28,

1998, Calgary, Alberta. Concurrent technical and operators sessions will be held. For abstract requirements, contact Dr. Erika Hargesheimer, do City of Calgary, P.O. Box 2100, Calgary, Alberta,T2P 2M5,Tel:(403)287-5155, Fax:(403)287-5159.

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Industry Update Philip Services Corp. to locate US corporate office in Pittsburgh Philip Services Corp.,("Philip") North America's largest resource recovery and industrial services company,is establish ing a US Corporate Office in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Philip's primary corpo rate office will remain in Hamilton, Ontario. The announcement was made

during a continent-wide media telecon ference. ES&E took part in the ques tion period. "The majority of our customers and shareholders are in the United States and we believe it is essential to establish a

focal point in the United States to inte grate our businesses and drive our growth," said Allen Fracassi, President and Chief Executive Officer of Philip. Philip's US address beginning De

Forestry Industry spent $0.4 billion on environmental projects in 1996 Despite 1996 being an extremely diffi cult year financially, the forest industry remained Canada's single largest net exporter. The industry contributed $31.2 bilhon to Canada's balance of trade, a

figure which represents about two times that of the next largest sector. According to a Price Waterhouse re port, the forest industry has accounted for over 25% of capital expenditures by Canada's total manufacturing sector since 1989. In 1996, capital expendi tures totalled $4.7 billion, down $400

while $1.7 billion and $0.4 billion were

spent respectively on major expansions and environmental projects. For the fourth year in a row,industry employment increased in 1996. Since 1993,the sector has created 12,700 new

direct jobs and close to 40,000 indirect jobs. Price Waterhouse estimates that in 1996, the industry supported a total of one million direct and indirect jobs in Canada. It also made some $9 bil

million from 1995. Maintenance of

lion in payments to governments.

will have estimated 1997 revenue of

keting manager for Waterloo Concrete Products, was the 1996 recipient of the Richard C. Longfellow Award. The an nual award is presented to the author of an article, published in the Association's Concrete Pipe News, that most effec tively demonstrates innovative and ef fective use of concrete pipe and related products. Black's article,"Ontario project uses microtunneling to protect wetlands", also appeared in Environmental Science & Engineering.

$1.6 billion and employ approximately 9,000 people in 240 locations through

cember 1, 1997, will be One Mellon

out the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and South America.

Bank Center. The Company's full range of metals recovery and industrial serv

The headquarters for the Company's In dustrial Service Group will be in Hou

ices activities will be established in Pitts

ston, Texas.

burgh. Philip is in the process of closing mergers with Allwaste, Inc., and Serv-

business development projects ac counted for $2.6 billion of this total,

Tech, Inc., both of Houston, Texas.

ACPA honours a Canadian A Canadian has been honoured by the American Concrete Pipe Association

Upon closing of these mergers, Philip

(ACPA). J. Drew Black, sales and mar

Lamella^ Gravity Settler/Thickener vWith the recent addition of the Environmental

Laboratories of MDS, we at Philip Anaiytical can now offer our ciients unmatched capacity for a full range of analytical services. With laboratories in Ontario, Quebec, British

Columbia and Halifax, Philip has superior geographical coverage across Canada. For complete details please call for a

Over 20 years ago, Parkson introduced the "inclined plate" gravity settler/ thickener that was destined to revolutionize the water treatment industry. And it did! The Lamella Gravity Settler's unique flow distribution and simplified sludge removal technique, insured optimum performance to some of the largest corporations in America.

copy of our services brochure.

It did then, and still does now!

The same great product is now backed by 20 years experience in the field. Call us now for more information.

>IPARKSON Represented In Canada By Axel Johnson (Canada) Inc. and its representatives. 9050, Ryan Avenue, Dorval, Quebec H9P 2M8 Tel.:(514)636-8712 Fax.:(514)636-9718

For more information, circle reply card No. 235 (See page 17)

1-888-1--PHILI pasc@worldchat.ca For more information, circle reply card No. 236 (See page 17)


INSITXJFORM solves your pipe problems using nondisruptive, cost-effective solutions. The most difficult part about some pipe problems is just getting access to the pipe itself. insituform Technologies specializes in reha bilitating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard-to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the inside, In most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Extensive independent and internal testing consis tently confirms the success of our methods.

We take sole-source responsibility for solving your problem, from the develop ment and manufacturing of proprietary products, to the engineering and Installa tion of a solution at your site. Our ISO 9000 qualify system assures high quality every step o\ the way. With experts in all facets of pipe rehabilitation on staff, we have the project manage ment expertise and trained installers to solve your problems quickly. Our

exceptionally low accident rate and EMR reflect our commitment to safety. And, our 25 years and 7,000 miles of pipe rehabilitation experience are unequaled. That Is why Insituform is Industry's preferred source for pipe reha bilitation. If you are having problems with difflcult-to-access pipes, call us at 1-800-234-2992 or visit our web site

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Insituform

Technologies'Limited Š1997 Insituform Technologies, Inc.

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Industry Update

Date Pad April 8-9,1998. Environmental Com pliance '98. Toronto Congress Centre, Toronto, ON. Environmental Science & Engineering magazine will be sponsor ing the Environmental Compliance Con ference for the 6th consecutive year in 1998. Contact: Denise Simpson (905) 727-4666,Fax:(905)841-7271,E-mail: esemag@istar.ca.

October 14-15,1997. The First South east Michigan/Ontario Environmental Sununit. Detroit, Michigan. Contact: Diane Drago (517)663-5147. October 18-22,1997. WEFTEC '97 Water Environment Federation 70th

Annual Conference & Exposition. Chi cago, IE. Contact: 1-703-684-2452, E-mail: confinfo@wef.org. October 27-29,1997. Recycling Coun cil of Ontario - 18th Annual Conference

and Trade Show. ECO Ejficiency, the new reality. London,ON. Contact: Cara Henry (416) 960-1025, Ext. 16, Fax: (416)960-8053. October 28-30,1997. PPR'97, a multitrack Conference - Balancing Technol ogy and People. Sponsored by the Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada. Toronto, ON. Contact: Linda

Huskins,MIACC,(613)232-4435,Fax: (613) 232-4915. October 29, 1997. A Fraser Institute Conference - The Science and Politics

Ferric chloride plant awarded ISO 9002

Eaglebrook,Inc. has been awarded ISO 9002certification for its Varennes, Que

of Global Warming. Vancouver, BC. bec Ferric Chloride Plant. This is one Contact:(604)688-0221, ext.310. of the first ISO 9002 certifications is November 5-7,1997. Annual Confer ence and Meeting of The Composting sued to a ferric chloride plant in North Council of Canada. Montreal, PQ. America. This certification will simplify qual Contact: Susan Antler (416)535-0240, ity control procedures for all Eaglebrook Fax:(416)536-9892 customers using the Varennes plant's November 11-14, 1997. Air & Waste

Management Association - Pacific Northwest International Section Annual

Conference. Vancouver, BC. Call For

product, by assuring them that the prod uct will meet their own quality standards. Eaglebrook is a member of the

Papers on Environmental Management: Chemical Manufacturers Association Managing Impacts or Managing the and participates in Responsible Care; it expects all of its plants to be ISO 9002 Environment. Contact: Evan Jones certified by the end of 1998. (604) 990-0582, Fax: (604) 990-0583, Email: pnwis97@seacor.bc.ca. November 18-19,1997. Environment New York rain heads and Energy Conference of Ontario: Winning in the new environment - Suc When New York increased the installa cessful strategiesfor managing change. tion of water meters a few years ago, Toronto, ON. Contact: AnaRosati(416) landlords responded by switching old, gushing faucets, toilets and shower heads 327-7721, Fax:(416) 327-1261. November 19-20, 1997. 20e Sympo with water-saving versions that deliver sium sur les eaux usees: Rejets indus- one-half to one-fifth as much water. The old "rain head" shower nozzle triels et Prevention de la pollution. Montreal,QC.Contact: AQTE/AESEQ- has become so hard to find that people Symposium 97, (514) 270-7110, Fax: are paying $150(US)to $1,200 to own one, says The New York Times. (514) 270-7154.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Guest Comment Dear Tom,

Re: The article "Recycling - the statis tics are astounding"(May, 1997) Yes, the statistics are astounding. They also appear to be incorrect. The article claims: "In Canada, only about 2% of all solid waste is recycled, compared to 11% in the US and over 50% in Japan." In the Greater Vancouver region, over 30% of waste from homes and busi

nesses is recycled(over 40% if construc tion and demolition wastes are in

cluded). Are Vancouverites recycling 15 to 20 times more than the Canadian av

erage? Of course not. The discrepancy appears because of two of the most common errors in the

solid waste industry: 1)NotProperly Defining the Waste. The article maintains itself as a piece on municipal solid waste (i.e. garbage). In most areas of Canada, municipal solid wastes(MSW)include landclearing and

pulp mill wastes could Canada's recy cling rate ever be calculated to be as low as 2% (and according to the EPA, the US MSW recycling rate is about 25%, not 11%).

2) Not Comparing Apples to Apples. The high recycling rate in Japan has been misquoted and misinterpreted for years, even by persons familiar with the solid waste industry. There are two main reasons for Japan's apparently high re cycling rate: •Japan's definition of recycling includes incineration of MSW (which is much more prevalent in Japan than in Canada). In most (if not all) parts of Canada, in cineration cannot be included in any re cycling calculations. • Recycling rates for different countries (or even different cities) cannot be com

include sewage sludges or heavy indus trial (e.g. mining and pulp mill) wastes.

pared unless you are certain those recy cling rates were calculated on the same basis. Do they both include incinera tion? Do they count scrapped automo biles? If the recycling rate includes min ing wastes, does mining occur in both

These wastes are not materials that en

countries?

ter the normal garbage collection sys tem. Only by incorrectly including nonmunicipal sources such as mining and

Some other quibbles: • The statistic that every tonne of recy cled paper saves 17 trees is extremely

construction. However, MSW does not

controversial. The argument (whether one agrees or not) goes: "In areas like BC and Washington, trees are cut down for lumber, and paper is made from the leftover wood waste." I.e. "recycling one tonne of leather saves X cows" is untrue if the cows are killed for beef

anyways. (This is not to say that recy cling of paper is not worthwhile; it still saves disposal costs, landfill space, en ergy and water.) • The statement "Recycling 1 tonne of anything means 1 tonne less landfill" is not always true. All recycling processes have residues and processing rejects which eventually are landfilled. Also, if you recycle a tonne of material that would otherwise have gone to an MSW incinerator, you've prevented about 200 kg. (of incinerator ash) from being landfilled.

•The internationally recognized 5Rs are "Reduce, Reuse,Recycle, Recover,and Residuals Management", not "Reduce, Reuse/Repair, Recycle/Reclaim, Refuse, and be Responsible". Andrew Marr,P.Eng., Senior Project Engineer, Greater Vancouver Regional District, Solid Waste Department, Bumaby, BG

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Fluidyne Corporation, with over 100 SBR instaliations treating municipal and industriai wastewater, has been suppiying SBR systems ionger than any other company in North America.

Fiuidyne's unique SBR answers the need for a reliabie yet easiiy controlied wastewater treatment process that fits within limited budgets. Tbe Fiuidyne SBR offers the foliowing: • Minimai operating equipment. • Bioiogical Phosphorous and Nitrogen removal.

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Phone: Fax: 20

(319)266-9967 (319)277-6034

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For more information, circle reply card No. 202 (See page 17)

Representation: H2FIOW Equipment Inc. (905) 264-2188 (Ontario) (514) 686-9916(Quebec)

WLOUI !a U I F M I N T

I H (.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Wastewater Treatment

By Colin K. Kent, P.Eng.

Enhanced phosphorus removal for the Village of Elm vale WPCP

The Village of Elmvale, now

part of the Township of Springwater, used to treat its sewage, prior to 1994,in a two cell facultative lagoon. The location of this Ontario facility is outside of the Village of Elmvale and is located mid way between the City of Barrie and Sev

ern Sound.

The rated capacity of the lagoons was 750 m/day Average Daily Flow (ADF), designed for 1,650 persons, with con tinuous discharge to the Wye River which empties into Severn Sound. The Ministry of Environment and Energy would not accept any future de velopment proposals from the Village of Elmvale unless the sewage treatment facility was upgraded and expanded. The Ministry also required that an as similative capacity study of the Wye River be carried out prior to any upgrade or expansion of the sewage treatment facility. The assimilative capacity study looked at an expansion for 2,400 per sons initially, with the possibility of accommodating 3,200 persons in the future. The study concluded that phos phorus concentrations would have to be less than 0.1 mg/L in order to meet the Provincial Water Quality Objective (PWQO)of 0.03 mg/L in the River. In 1991,a study was prepared for the Severn Sound Remedial Action Com

mittee and the Wastewater Technology Centre, to look at the impact of eight water pollution control plants discharg ing to Severn Sound over a 2-year pe riod from 1989 to 1990. The study con cluded that, of a total of 6,600 kg/year of phosphorus being discharged to Sev ern Sound, Elmvale was discharging 1,810 kg/year or approximately 28%. The study looked at various scenarios for upgrading the eight municipal sew age plants to reduce their phosphorus loading to Severn Sound. As far as the Elmvale lagoons were concerned, three alternatives were identified.

The first alternative, based on an ob

jective total phosphorus effluent concen tration of0.3 mg/L, would provide a new mechanical activated sludge plant which would replace the existing lagoons and which would include tertiary solids con'Vice-President

Ainley & Associates Limited

The MOEE would not accept any future development proposals unless the sewage treatment facility was upgraded and expanded. Filter building Is In upper right corner of photo. Photo - Ainley & Associates.

tact clarifiers. Simultaneous and post precipitation of phosphorus would be practised as the chemical operating mode, with a total alum dosage of 10 mg/L as A1(i.e. 120 mg/L alum at 8.3%). The second alternative, to achieve an

effluent phosphorus concentration of 0.15 mg/L, would involve a new me chanical activated sludge plant with ter tiary solids contact clarifiers and simul taneous and post precipitation being practiced with an alum dosage of 15 mg/ L as A1 (ie. 180 mg/L alum at 8.3%), plus polymer addition of 1 mg/L. The third scenario, in order to achieve an

effluent phosphorus concentration of 0.10 mg/L, would Involve the provision of a new mechanical activated sludge plant with solids contact clarifiers and tertiary filters. The chemical precipita tion modes and dosages would be the same as the previous scenario.

nary cost estimates for the project, it came to the attention of Ainley & Asso ciates Ltd. from the Parkson Corpora

tion,the manufacturer ofthe DynaSandÂŽ Filter, that the deep-bed DynaSand Fil ter with 2 metres of sand might be able to achieve the high levels of phospho rus removal that were required for the Elmvale project without the installation of solids contact clarifiers.

The deep-bed DynaSand Filter, us ing a concept known as "continuous contact filtration", was fairly new in the industry in Ontario for high-level phos phorus removal and the manufacturer was not prepared to guarantee an efflu ent total phosphorus concentration of less than 0.2 mg/L unless a pilot study was carried out on the wastewater to be treated. Revised cost estimates based

on the deep-bed DynaSand Filter indi

cated that a saving of $700,000 might

As far as the effluent criteria for the

be achieved. (This ultimately turned out

expanded and upgraded plant for Elmvale were concerned,the Ministry's Central Region indicated that they would fully support a total phosphorus effluent requirement of 0.20 mg/L or less with an annual load of 82.8 kg or less, and a total effluent phosphorus ob jective of 0.10 mg/L or less with an an nual load of 54.8 kg or less. The predesign estimated cost for the tertiary treatment works for the Elmvale project, based on the Severn Sound study, was approximately $1.2 M.(The final cost in 1994 dollars was $0.7IM). During the process of preparing prelimi

to be $0.5 M). Parkson Corporation also

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

offered to rent the pilot filter to the Elmvale project at no cost. Because the existing Elmvale treat ment facility consisted of facultative la goons, the treated effluent would not be comparable to the secondary effluent from an activated sludge plant. It was therefore decided to conduct the pilot study on secondary effluent from an ac tivated sludge plant having a similar wastewater to that of Elmvale.

Ainley & Associates was concur rently working on a Class EA for an Continued overleaf 21


Wastewater Treatment, cont' upgrade of the Angus sewage treatment plant in the Township of Essa, and al though designed for a larger population than the Elmvale plant, it had a similar

ids and total phosphorus. It was decided to carry out the pilot study for a 3-month period during

mg/L or less when operating at a hydrau lic loading rate of 10 m/hr or less. Re ject water from the filter would run at approximately 10% of the incoming flow. The DynaSand Filter The Parkson DynaSand Filter con tinuously filters liquid suspensions while cleaning the filter media. The ef

October, November and December of

fluent wastewater is introduced to the

ADE as well as BODj, suspended sol

1992. Preliminary jar testing was also carried out prior to the actual pilot study to determine alum dosages, alkalinities, selection of polymers and evaluation of other phosphorus removal chemicals. The pilot study began at the end of November 1992 and actually continued for only 10 consecutive days. The data collected during the 10-day study showed that the average effluent total phosphorus concentration was less than 0.1 mg/L. This was with alum being added to the aeration basin at approxi mately 80 mg/L, and to the fdter at ap proximately 25 mg/L.

bottom of the sand bed where floccula-

tion takes place. This process is known as "continuous contact filtration". The clean filtrate overflows the filtrate weir

at the top of the unit and exits through the filtrate nozzle.

A small amount of air is continuously

over the top of the deep sand bed. Following the successful conclusion of the pilot study,final design of the new plant proceeded. The plant was de signed as an extended aeration activated sludge plant with provision for biologi cal removal of phosphorus and nitrogen, with tertiary filtration using the Dyna Sand Filter concept and disinfection us ing ultraviolet light. Design of the plant took place dur ing the early part of 1993; a Certificate of Approval was subsequently issued by the Ministry of Environment and En ergy; and a contract was awarded in March 1993 to Maple Engineering &

introduced into an airlift which is located

Construction Limited in the amount of

centrally in the bottom of the unit. This

$6.2M, of which approximately $700,000 was for tertiary filtration. The plant was commissioned in mid-1994,

allows continuous movement ofthe sand.

The agitation and turbulence within the airlift scours the sand filter solids and the

Parkson DynaSand deep-bed filter uti lizing "continuous contact filtration"

solids and sand are then separated as they fall through the sand washer assem bly. Some of the filtrate flows through the sand washer assembly to remove all of the separated filter solids, and this stream flows out of the filter as reject

would be effective at the new Elmvale

water at a lower level than the filtrate

treatment facility, in reducing the efflu ent total phosphorus concentration to 0.1

weir. The clean sand, having fallen through the washer, is distributed evenly

It was therefore concluded that a

and is currently operating at about 85% of its hydraulic capacity. Ainley & Associates Ltd. has since used this technology in several other plants which are now either in opera tion or under construction; these include

Bradford-West Gwillimbury, Wasaga Beach and Innisfil.

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 203

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Nautical Environmental Strategies

US Navy combats shipboard Incineration and waste disposal problems

Asthe us Navy movesinto the

21st century, both interna tional and domestic regula tions will drive changes to more environmentally responsible op

eration of Naval ships. MARPOL'and the Environmentally Sound Ships pro gram are examples of regulations that will eventually ban such common prac tices as at-sea dumping of waste paper, food, scrap, and human wastes. Unfortunately, naval ships, unlike va cation cruise ships, are designed to maximize their primary function, which is to protect national interests at sea and in extreme circumstances engage in war fare. This means that there is little room available for installation of incinerators

and associated waste handling and processing equipment. This incongru ity between desirable waste handling

practices and the primary mission of naval ships is driving the development of more compact hardware and ad vanced technologies for at-sea treatment of shipboard-generated wastes.

USS Constellation ready for action. US Navy Photo

Incineration, or more politically, waste thermal treatment, is a preferred method for waste handling. It can ac complish several of the goals of at-sea treatment of shipboard wastes, includ ing volume reduction, sterilization, and

^MARPOL refers to three international trea

detoxification. It is also considered to

ties: The Convention for the Prevention of

be the most cost-effective approach available and among the safest, requir ing little specialized personnel training. Unfortunately neither land-based nor existing seaworthy incinerator designs can meet the Naval requirements of compactness and light weight. This has led to the exploration of novel ap proaches, such as the use of forced

Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft, adopted at Oslo on 15 February 1972; The international Convention for the Preven

tion of Pollution from Ships, 1973, adopted at London on 2 November 1973; and The Pro

tocol of 1978 Relating to the international Convention for the Prevention of Pollution

from Ships, 1973, adopted at London on 17 February 1978. Additional references are available upon request. Exhaust Onricc

(Ratios Burner To Weather Switch

Cooling Airflow) Door Cooling Air

Thermocouple

der to reduce the size and increase the

throughput of incineration systems. There are several types of periodic

phenomena that occur in combustion systems. Acoustic resonance in largescale combustion systems,and slugging in fluidized bed combustion can cause

catastrophic damage to equipment. On the other hand, pulse combustors and Rijke tube combustors are used to in crease heat transfer in many practical systems. Reciprocating internal com bustion engines rely on periodic com bustion for normal operation, while gas turbine combustors are designed to avoid resonance phenomena that can damage turbine blades and bearings. Forced acoustic controlled combustion

- Oil Burner Motonxcd

acoustics to improve heat transfer, tur bulent mixing, and firing density in or

Housing

can also increase firing density (meas

Air Valve

ured in MW/m')beyond that attainable

740SCFM Max. @27.7

in normal diffusion-controlled combus Sludge Isolation Valve

Blower

tion.

In those applications where acoustic resonances are desirable, the application of forced acoustics in combustion pro vides a decided advantage over natu rally-occurring acoustics. This is be

Centrifugal Scanner

(3600 RPM) Combustion Chamber

cause forced acoustics lends itself to ac Exhaust Dilution Holes -

(Fresh Air Mixes with Incinerator

Sludge Feed Air Pressure Switch

Lnsu alion

Exhaust to Reduce Slack

Temperature) Air Atomizing Steel Shell

Baffleport

(Airtight) Baffle

Regulated Air (30-40 PSIG

(12-15 SCFM)

Figure 1. Schematic of the US Navy biackwater siudge incinerator. 24

tive closed-loop feedback control. Con sider for example a combustion system where both the quality and quantity of fuel vary, and these variations are for all

practical purposes outside the control of the system operator. This situation ac tually exists with two-stage waste incinEnvironmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


By J.A. Cole, D.W. Hansell, N.C. Widmer, Wm. R. Seeker^; K. J. Wilson, TP. Parr and K.C. Schadow^ erators and landfill gas combustion sys tems. In the case of incineration, the

developing vortices

first stage of the combustion system is a starved-airpyrolysis unit, while the sec ond stage is an afterburner intended to destroy the gaseous products of waste pyrolysis. In our example incinerator, both the rate of pyrolysis product production and the composition of those products de pend on the current state of the system and the nature of the waste being proc essed. The afterburner must be designed

O dump-' combustor

After a brief period,

Annular vortex forms

Annular vortex exapnds

near the point ofjet

in diameter as it moves

a new annular vortex

discharge

down stream with the jet

begins to form

Injected fuel is entrained

As the vortex

into the vortex as it

continues to rotate and

"peels" away from the central air jet

entrain hot gases from the surroundings the fuel is

Eventually the vortex completely envelops the pocket of fuel.The resulting structure eventually ignites

Annular Fue Jet

Annular Fuel

Injectorw

so that under the worst case scenario

there will be no significant release of undesirable products of incomplete combustion released to the atmosphere. Depending on local regulatory juris diction, this means that the minimum

temperature at the exit of the afterburner must be from 1700 to 2000°F (925 to 1I00°C) and the minimum residence

stretched and mixed

and the fuel bums at a

reduced temperature in a well-mixed environment.

Figure 2. Illustration of the operation of the acoustic afterburner.

time 1-2 s. This sets strict physical lim its on the volume and weight of the af terburner. By coupling forced acoustic

Acoustically Forced PDF

controlled combustion with a closedNatural

loop feedback control system able to respond in millisecond time frames, these requirements could be drastically altered, with the result being a much smaller,lighter, more robust afterburner having better emission characteristics than conventional systems.

frequency

EER and the Naval Air Warfare

Center (NAWC) are part of a project team that is examining applications for forced acoustics in waste thermal treat

ment systems for use on US Navy war ships. Two specific applications are un der study. The first is an advanced af terburner, and the second is a sludge in cinerator. The approaches for the two systems are different, but both use forced acoustics as a means to improve specific aspects of the system operation. Background Blackwater sludge is the term for raw sewage that has been processed through a macerator pump to produce a slurry containing about 98 percent water and slightly less than two percent solids. Presently, there are about 30 US Navy ships using blackwater sludge incinera tors. These incinerators, illustrated in

Figure 1, are based on a 1950s technol ogy and were first commissioned by the Navy in the mid 1960s. Sewage is introduced through a coarse hollow-cone spray nozzle at one end of the incinerator. The majority of the spray droplets impact on the inconel walls of the unit where they evaporate and pyrolyze and the resulting gases are

Time interval between vortex formation events

Time interval between vortex formation events

Figure 3. Schematic of the probability density function of vortex shedding intervals Induced by a central air jet at a dump plane: left - natural shedding phenomenon; right - acoustically forced shedding phenomenon.

T-Fired

Double

Burner

Cooling Air

Radiative

Interior Wal

Exhaust

Cooling

Air

Cooled Plate

Blackwater

Incinerator Box

Sludge

Injection

Figure 4. Illustration of the full-scale mock up of the blackwater sludge incinerator constructed for evaluation of acoustic enhancement.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

25


Nautical Environmental Strategies, contv Acoustic Driver Pons(8)

duction ofchlorinated solvents with con

discovery that NOx and CO emissions could be simultaneously reduced by proper control of their system. The ba sic operation of the controlled vortex afterbumer is illustrated in Figure 2. Starting on the left of the figure we have a central airjet issuing past a dump

comitant corrosion issues, and reduced

plane. This jet induces the periodic for

acteristics considerably. Finally, the Navy wants to increase the throughput of biackwater sludge by 30 to 50 percent. Possible effects of these changes in clude increased paniculate matter pro duction, increased alkali in ash, intro

residence time in the combustion cham

mation of annular vortices. Fuel can be

ber. Forced acoustics is being consid ered as one part of a suite of technolo gies used to address the Navy's needs to adapt the biackwater sludge incinerator to the new process stream compositions.

introduced through an annular opening in the surface of the dump plane coaxial with the air jet so that it is entrained into

The combination of increased heat and

Figure 5. Layout of the acoustic drivers for evaluation ofacoustics for enhance

ment of performance of the Navy biackwater sludge incinerator.

mass transfer induced hy a high sound pressure level(SPL) acoustic field can both increase droplet evaporation rates

the vortices and mixed with the vortex

gases through strain-enhanced diffusion and convection. If the system is ignited, the vortex will consist of air mixed with

hot reacting combustion products. As fuel is added to the vortex its ignition

Fuel/Pyrolysis Gas

incinerated. A tangentially-mounted Speaker

burner, fueled with JP-5, induces a vor tical flow in the incinerator and heats

Secondary Air

the walls. Exhaust is removed through a large air cooled port located on axis at the end opposite the sludge nozzle. At present this sludge incinerator design is capable of treating only blackwater sludge and has a throughput ca pacity of 30 gph, its emission charac

Primary Air â&#x2013;

I

teristics are not well known, and there

are no regulations covering its operation. The US Navy wants to change the op eration of this sludge incinerator in a number of ways to make it more com patible with current and planned ship board operations. The Navy is presently developing polishing technogies to clean up grey water,that is water collected from show

ers and sinks, and possibly galleys. This water is being cleaned up to comply with Clean Water Act standards so it will not

introduce pollutants to the oceans when dumped overboard. Along a similar vein, the Navy has developed oil sepa ration systems to remove oil and sol vents from bilge water so it too can be dumped overboard. The residuum from these clean up operations is targeted for treatment in the biackwater sludge in

â&#x2013;ş

V Water Cooling Jacket

Figure 6. Details of the design of the acoustic afterburner.

and enhance the firing density of the primary fuel. The controlled vortex afterburner has

been under development by NAWC for several years. Their efforts have yielded a number of accomplishments includ ing derivation of scaling criteria and the

will be strain delayed, resulting in re duced NOx emissions (as a result of lower peak combustion temperatures) and reduced products of incomplete combustion (as a result of improved mixing and elimination of coldpockets). Continued on page 28

Pressure

Controls Dow Therm

Transducer/

Sampling and Observation Ports

To GO/MS

(Benzene) and GEM (COa, 02,

cinerator.

On top of these efforts, the Navy is also looking into systems for removing

CO, THC, NOx)

half of the water from the biackwater

sludge, that is, doubling the solids con centration. After all, one of the main

functions of the biackwater sludge in cinerator is to evaporate water, which is a very energy-intensive process. Re moving half the water will increase the solids concentration to nearly four per cent, which will change the spray char 26

Method 1

Ling Valve

Sampling Dow

Rake

Therm Out

Figure 7. Layout of the acoustic afterburner instaiiation in the package boiler. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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Nautical Environmental Strategies, conr bular enclosure.

The

combined effort by EER Phi = 0.8

tem to simulate the envi

establishment of a baseline performance characterization. This will include op eration of the system at 30 gph of two

ronment in an actual in

percent sohds sludge. Measurements will

cinerator afterburner.

be made ofgaseous and solids emissions, gas and surface temperatures, and visual observation ofoperational characteristics. Once the acoustic array is added to the system a series of tests will be conducted in which both the bumer fuing rate and the sludge feed rate are increased to the point of system failure. System failure occurs when sludge accumulates in the

and NAWC extends this

work to an enclosed sys -o 400 241 Hz

Blackwater sludge

c 200

incinerator

The blackwater sludge incinerator effort is in the

design stage. A full-scale mockup of the incinera tor, shown in Figure 4, Figure 8. Impact of driving frequency on CO emissions Frequency, Hz

has been constructed ac

of the acoustic afterburner.

The behavior of the system is enhanced dramatically if acoustic forcing is used on both the central air jet and the annu lar fuel stream. The production of vor tices by the central airjet is periodic with a natural frequency. However,if the in tervals between successive vor

tex shedding events are measured and recorded, a probability den sity function (PDF) can be con structed, as shown on the left of

Figure 3,that shows a broad dis tribution of time intervals

Tests scheduled on the blackwater incinerator simulator will first include

cording to design criteria that include matching all physical di mensions and reactant flow rates, plus simulation of the thermal boundary con ditions of the original unit. Ports have been added both for optical access and to permit gas and particulate sampling,

bottom of the incinerator and exhaust

temperatures rise due to reduced sludge boil-off. The load and firing rate at sys tem failure will be noted and then the

tests repeated with longitudinal acous tic excitation at 1000 Hz and 150 dB

SPL. It is the objective of these bruteforce tests to demonstrate and ob

900

serve any increase in system throughput attainable through the use of acoustic forcing. Future plans for the blackwater sludge incinerator simula tion unit include first the study

2° air = 2 scfm

w" O 800

2° air = 45 scfm N 700

§600 1.500 Q.

400

centered around the natural fre quency.

By forcing the jet at or near its natural frequency the PDF is collapsed to a narrow spike, il lustrated on the right of Figure 3, allowing the vortex shedding events to be accurately predicted and controlled. Likewise, the

X

8 300

of acoustic modes other than the

o

z

longitudinal mode. The eightloudspeaker array is designed to iaioo o take advantage of spinning and 0 0 2 4 6 a 10 rotating acoustic modes through Percent Oxygen as Measured (dry) phase delay sequencing of the Figure 9. impact of stoichiometry (oxygen concentra driver signals to the individual tion) on CO emissions in the absence of acoustic speakers. Depending on the mag 200 -

forcing. annular fueljet can be modulated with acoustic forcing. By setting the two and the incinerator has been instru frequencies equal and adjusting the mented with thermocouples to monitor phase angle between the two forcing temperatures and heatfluxes through the functions the fuel can be introduced at

walls.

the optimal point for entrainment and mixing with the vortices. Further improvement to this system was achieved by introduction of a sec ondary air stream introduced annularly and coaxially with the fuel stream. By modulating the secondary air rather than the fuel it is possible to gate the intro duction of the fuel, and enhance per formance even more. The work of Parr, el at., showed that DREs for benzene

EER has also engaged the services of Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc. to design an acoustic driver system for the blackwater sludge incinerator. An array of acoustic ports will be installed on the spray nozzle end of the incinera tor according to the layout sho wn in O 800 Figure 5. This ar ray of eight loud speakers will per

increased from about 3-nines to better

mit the simultane

than 5-nines (detection limit), CO emis

ous excitation of

sions were reduced from 2900 to as low

multiple acoustic

as 2 ppm, and significant reductions in both NOx and unbumed hydrocarbons were observed. The basic system de sign has been scaled up in stages from

modes in the incin

about 4.7 kW to 300 kW with some of

the tests conducted in open air, but with most work done using an open-end tu 28

nitude of effects noted with al

ternate acoustic modes,alternate system geometries may be employed. For ex

ample, to take full advantage of the acoustic impacts on heat transfer, it will be desirable to eliminate the existing hollow-cone spray nozzle in favor of a solid cone nozzle that will produce smaller droplets with a lower droplet ve locity. This will give the droplets more Continued on page 30 Phi = 0.63, 2° air = 2 scfm

Phi = 0.8,2® air = 2 scfm Phi = 0.74,2° air = 2 scfm Phi = 0.72, 2° air = 45 scfm

a 500

erator so as to in

duce large SPLs and SPL gradients throughout the combustion cham

ber volume.

200

300

400

500

Acoustic Power, W

Figure 10. Effect of total acoustic power on CO emissions under four operating conditions of the acoustic afterburner. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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Nautical Environmental Strategies, cont' time to evaporate, while simultaneously reducing their evaporation time. This, of course, means changing fundamen tally the way in which the incinerator operates and may necessitate further geometric changes to accommodate the differences.

Other plans include blending of simulated bilge water sludge with the blackwater sludge, working with a more concentrated blackwater sludge, and possibly changing the burner geometry to an axial firing configuration.

threshold of the instrumental hydrocar bon analyzer and so were of limited use in the parametric studies. The existence of an optimal fre quency for acoustic excitation is illus trated by Figure 8 which shows the ef fect of driving frequency on CO emis sion levels at two different system stoichiometries. For the most fuel-lean

case very little effect of driving fre quency is evident because CO levels are already low even in the absence of acoustic forcing. However,at Phi = 0.8,

tion system in that the CO levels de crease as oxygen increases. However, the magnitude of the CO levels suggests that, in the absence of acoustic excita

tion, mixing of fuel and air in this sys tem is poor. When the secondary air flow rate is increased from 2 to 45 scfm the CO levels increase even further to

nearly 900 ppm (dry,7% O,)in the worst case shown in Figure 9. However, as acoustic power is added to the system the CO levels drop dramatically as shown in Figure 10. The power levels shown in the figure are estimates based

Controlled vortex afterburner

where CO concentrations of 420-550

The final design of the full-scale con

on linearization of the manufacturer's

trolled vortex afterburner tested at EER

ppm were measured in the absence of acoustic forcing, a very distinct minima

is shown in Figure 6. This device was

in CO was detected at 241 Hz. This is

attached to a 24-inch inside diameter

very near the calculated optimum of 220 Hz. The difference may be due to un certainties in jet velocities, or may be related to changes in the Jet fluid prop erties due to the radiant heat loading from the heated refractory in the pack age boiler. Once this optimal frequency

tic transducer. However, even if the power levels shown are not highly ac

cold wall package boiler in the configu ration shown in Figure 7. Parametric tests were then conducted to determine whether the work of Parr could be ex

tended to closed systems, and how en closure would impact performance. In these initial tests CO was used as a sur

was identified, it was used for the ma

rogate for system performance. Al though unburned hydrocarbons were

jority of further tests. Figure 9 shows the impact of oxy gen level on CO emissions in the ab sence of acoustic excitation. The sys tem behaves similarly to any combus-

monitored for DRE,in all cases where acoustic excitation was used the meas ured levels were below the detection

Proven Performers

laboratory test data on the Ling acous

curate, the results of these tests suggest that an acoustic power level on the or der of 100 W is sufficient to reduce CO

levels to about40-50 ppm. It should also be noted that while the worst unforced

emission levels were obtained using a secondary air flow rate of45 scfm, with acoustic forcing the CO emissions were comparable to the best results obtained. Preliminary data have now been col lected in the EER system with phase synchronous acoustic excitation of the secondary air and the fuel stream. Simi lar to open-air tests conducted at China Lake, modulating the fuel has resulted in even lower emissions. Analytical equipment is also being upgraded to pro vide for NOx emissions data, as well as benzene detection limits at least two

orders of magnitude lower than the present instrumentation. These addi tional data will help to provide a more comprehensive picture of the promise

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Einancial support for this work is pro vided by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program of

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Environmental Science cfe Engineering, September 1997


Chicago Conference Preview

WEFTEC '97- 70th Annual

WEFTEC'97,the WaterEn "g*

vironment Federation's 70th Annual Conference

& Exposition, to be held in Chicago, Illinois, will also be cel ebrating the 25th anniversary of the Clean Water Act(CWA),one of Ameri ca's major environmental legislation

landmarks. The Opening General Ses sion, entitled Celebrate the 25th Anni

versary ofthe Clean Water Act, will fea ture a video presentation which takes a glimpse at the past, present, and future progress and challenges marked by this important legislation. This program will feature a keynote address by William D. Ruckelshaus, the first administrator of

Conference & Exposition Some Conference Highlights Full-day Workshops Saturday, October 18,1997 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. •Analytical Techniques for Basic Wastewater Operations • Benchmarking Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations • Biosolids Management: Innovative Treatment Technologies and Processes • The Bidding Process: Professional Services Specialized Equipment Removal Technologies • Maintenance Management in Small

• Innovative Tools for Watershed Man

agement • In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Site Remediation

• Measuring Performance of Collection Systems O&M Programs • Wastewater Microbiology for Opera tors

• Watershed-based Effluent Trading Preliminary Technical Program Monday, October 20,1997 1:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.

Wastewater Facilities

• Managing Information to Improve Business Processes in Utilities

Agency. This year's international workshop is entitled Infrastructure Needs in Asia: Strategiesfor Success in this Emerging Market. This workshop provides infor mation on increasing water and wastewater needs, existing opportunities and trends, and the key strategies for emerg ing in this rapidly growing market. Sev eral major international representatives will share their experiences. Delegates will have the opportunity

•Planning to Preserve Your Infrastructure

affect daily operations.

Facilities

• Examining Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing Practices and Applications

• Industrial Wastewater Reuse and TDS

the US Environmental Protection

to choose from 80 sessions on issues that

•Developing an Effective Risk Manage ment Program for Water/Wastewater

• Wastewater Treatment Research: Anaerobic Processes

• Wastewater Disinfection: Chlorine

• Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Biological Nitrogen and Phosphorus

Versus UV Light: What is the Truth? • Wastewater Microbiology for Operators Removal International Workshop • Residuals and Biosolids Management: •Infrastructure Needs in Asia: Strategies Land Application for Success in this Emerging Market • Collection Systems: Construction and Sunday, October 19,1997 Other Issues 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. •Biological Systems: Dealing with Dif •Remediation ofSoil and Groundwater: Case Histories ficult Waste Streams at Your Facility • Complying with Clean Air Act Acci • Industrial Issues and Treatment Tech dental Chemical Release Prevention nology: Biological Treatment Regulations Continued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

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31


Chicago Conference Preview, cont'd. • Surface Water Quality and Ecology I: Progress in Water Quality, 1965-1997 • Surface Water Quality and Ecology II: Environmental Modeling •Surface Water Quality and Ecology II: Ecological Risk Assessment • Management: Planning Strategies • Facility Operations: Operations Forum • Facility Operations: Odours & VOCs I •Current Issues: Technology Innovation • Natural Systems and Water Reuse: Small Community and Natural Treat ment Systems • International and Regional Issues: Local Issues I

• International and Regional Issues:

diation

• Industrial Issues and Treatment Tech

nology: Water Quality Based Permitting • Surface Water Quality and Ecology I: Watersheds: Institutional Issues

• Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Innovative Nitrogen Control • Residuals and Biosolids Management: Anaerobic Digestion • Collection Systems: Trenchless Tech nology • Collection Systems: Odour and Cor

•Surface Water Quality and Ecology II: Water Quality Criteria and Standards rosion Control • Management: Leadership •Facility Operations: Privatization,Part •Remediation of Soil and Groundwater: Cyanide Fate, Transport and Treatment nerships, Financing • Facility Operations: Odours & VOCs n • Industrial Issues and Treatment • Current Issues: Technology Innovation Technology: Treatment Technology and • Natural Systems and Water Reuse: Issues • Surface Water Quality and Ecology I: Wetland Systems Design and Perform Watershed Management ance • Public and Regulatory Issues: Public • Surface Water Quality and Ecology II:

Latin American Issues I

Education - Cornerstone of Success

Stormwater

• International and Regional Issues: Asia-Pacific Region Issues. Tuesday, October 21, 1997 8:30 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.

• International and Regional Issues:

• Management: Competition and Tools • Facility Operations: Instrumentation, Control and Information Systems I • Natural Systems and Water Reuse:

• Wastewater Treatment Research:

• Wastewater Treatment Research:

Water Reuse I

Biofilms and Novel Processes

Nitrification

• Public and Regulatory Issues: Public

• Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Biological Nitrogen Control •Residuals and Biosolids Management:

• Wastewater Treatment Research:

Outreach

Recalcitrant Organics

• International and Regional Issues:

• Wastewater Treatment Research:

International Issues.

Class A Biosolids

Metals Removal

• Collection Systems: Monitoring and Modeling

• Wastewater Treatment Research: UV Disinfection

• Wastewater Treatment Research:

•Remediation of Soil and Groundwater:

• Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Oxygen Activated Sludge

Biological Nutrient Removal Continued overleaf

Natural Attenuation and Intrinsic Reme

Latin American Issues II.

Tuesday, October 21, 1997 1:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.

Wednesday, October 22, 1997 8:30 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.

Intermediate Environmental

Engineer MacViro Consultants Inc. is an employee-owned com pany providing consulting engineering, planning and scientific services to clients in Ontario and other parts of North America. We are an inter-disciplinary organi zation directed to solving environmental problems in both the public and private sectors. We have an immediate need for an Intermediate En

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vironmental Engineer in the Water & Wastewater Treat ment Group. The successful candidate will have, as a minimum, a degree in civil, chemical, or environmen tal engineering, and at least 7 years experience in plan ning, approvals, design and contract administration of municipal and industrial water and wastewater treat ment projects. A post-graduate degree in environmen tal engineering would be an asset. If you are interested in this challenging opportunity, visit our Web Site, and reply in confidence by writing to:

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Chicago Conference Preview, cent' • Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Advances in Physical Processes •Residuals and Biosolids Management: Thermal Processes

• Collection Systems: SSOs/I&I

• Municipal Wastewater Treatment: Process Optimization • Residuals and Biosolids Management: Aerobic Digestion •Collection Systems: Wet Weather Con

Biomonitoring •Surface Water Quality and Ecology II: Permitting and Monitoring • Management of Change: Small and Medium Utility Forum • Facility Operations: Federal Facility

• Remediation of Soil and Groundwater:

ditions

Field Applications

•Remediation of Soil and Groundwater:

Issues

• Industrial Issues and Treatment Tech

Nitrates

• Current Issues: HIV in Wastewater

nology: Food Processing and Related

• Industrial Issues and Treatment Tech

• Natural Systems and Water Reuse:

Wastes

nology: Chemical and Pharmaceutical

Water Reuse III

• Industrial Issues and Treatment Tech

Wastes

nology: Metals and Oily Wastes • Surface Water Quality and Ecology I: Watershed Management Tools • Surface Water Quality and Ecology II: Water and Sediment Quality • Management: Implementation • Eacility Operations: Instrumentation, Control and Information Systems II

• Industrial Issues and Treatment Tech

• Natural Systems and Water Reuse: Wetland Systems II • Public and Regulatory Issues: Trends in State Environmental Policy.

• Current Issues: Disinfection

• Natural Systems and Water Reuse: Water Reuse II

•Public and Regulatory Issues: National Water Quality Standards • International and Regional Issues: Local Issues II - Water Quality. Wednesday, October 22,1997 1:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. • Wastewater Treatment Research:

Activated Sludge

nology: Metal Products and Machinery • Surface Water Quality and Ecology I: Exposition The WEFTEC'97 Exposition,one of the world's largest assemblies of wastewater and water quality products and

Lifestyle Program The following activities are available to Guests of WEFTEC '97 attendees:

• Welcome to Chicago Presentation services, will showcase the latest devel • Lifestyle Luncheon opments of more than 700 companies. • Shopping on Your Own in Chicago "The exposition is open on Sunday, • Chicago Highlights Sightseeing Tour Qctober 19,1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., and • Early Morning Walk in Grant Park on Monday, October 20, "Tuesday, • Chicago River Cruise and Architecture October 21,and Wednesday,October 22, Tour from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. For conference information/customer • Erank Lloyd Wright Home in Qak Park service, call: 1-800-666-0206. Access

• Renoir Portraits at the Art Institute of

WEFTEC '97 information on WEF's

Chicago • Fabulous Chicago Interiors.

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CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists industrial Services

Solid Waste Management Residuals Management Energy Management Process Control

Water Supply & Distribution Wastewater Collection, Treatment & Disposal Tunnels and Underground Works Systems Analysis Modeling Water Resources Engineering

Air Management Environmental Planning Environmental Site Characterization/Remediation

Environmental Laboratory

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Barrie - London - Ottawa - Niagara - Vancouver 34

For more information, circle reply card No. 246 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Need a loan? Well put in a good word for you with the bank. A business loan can finance the research

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Wastewater Treatment

Horseshoe Resort and Philip Utilities partner on treatment plant

In the past, wastewater generated

at the Horseshoe Resort, north of Barrie, Ontario, was treated via

effluent criteria was a combination of

tion basin prior to the filters. There are two effluent pumps which feed water to the tertiary filters. The filters for this

septic tile beds. Over the last few years, however, the tile beds began to

nitrification/denitrification processes, followed by chemical addition and ef

Frontenac.

fail. As a result, the resort was ordered

fluent filtration.

by the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment and Energy to have a new system in service by the end of 1996. In the interim,sewage was to be hauled off site. In addition, the Township of OroMedonte halted any further develop ment proposed by the Resort Corpora

plant and trunk sewer in less than a year with no potential income from the sale

Thorburn Penny evaluated many treatment options and selected Sequencing Batch Reactors(SBRs)be cause of their lower capital costs and ease of operation. The SBRs for this project utilize the Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System(ICEAS). The system is slightly different from the traditional SBR proc ess as it can be operated on a continu ous basis with the provision of a pre-

of condominiums.

react chamber.

tion. The resort was faced with a crisis;

to construct a new sewage treatment

As resort staff were not familiar with

the business of constructing or operat ing a wastewater treatment facility, Philip Utilities Management Corpora tion (PUMC) entered into a contract with Horseshoe Resort Corporation to design, build, operate and finance a wastewater treatment facility for the community. Thorbum Penny (TPL), a subsidiary of PUMC and a multi-disciplinary en gineering firm heavily involved in the design/build process, acted as the con structor for this project. The project During the early stages of the project it was decided, due to the lack of a suit able receiving stream in close proxim ity to the site, that in-ground disposal of the final effluent would be the most ap propriate solution. Given that the volume discharged would be in excess of 4,500 L/day, the

It was decided that the best technol

ogy to meet these relatively stringent

The Austgen-Biojet SBRs were prepurchased from Napier Reid. The prepurchase process allowed TPL to optimize the size and layout of the facil ity, as well as ensure that the equipment was on-site when required to meet the tight time frame of construction. The prepurchase process also allowed the owner/ operator(PUMC)to select the best sys tem from an operational perspective in terms of energy savings,chemical usage, labour and maintenance requirements. The process uses a single basin in which the activated sludge is exposed to aerobic/anoxic/ anaerobic conditions

over a number of pre-determined cycles. Effluent is drawn off the SBR through a decant arm to a 120 cu.m. effluent stor

age tank which serves as an equaliza

project were pre-purchased from Sludge from the SBRs is pumped via waste sludge pumps to a 120 cu.m. stor age tank. There is an air header within the tank to intermittently provide air to ensure the sludge does not go septic prior to haulage. Sludge is then pumped to a truck for disposal off site. A thick ening mechanism located within the sludge holding tank pumps decant back to the SBR.

A trunk sanitary sewer was strategi cally constructed through the proposed development area and adjacent to the septic beds. The route traversed vary ing soil and groundwater conditions and included a jack and bore section under the County Roadway. Competitive pipe prices were negotiated with IPEX for the sewer works and plant piping. This en sured that Thorburn Penny was dealing with only one pipe supplier who was ca pable of providing material and techni cal support to meet the tight time frame. Flow into the plant is measured with a parshall flume with an OCM ultrasonic flow meter located in the manhole after

the bar screen. Flow is equally divided into two SBRs, with provisions to add a third treatment train.

Advantages of the process The Horseshoe Valley Resort Wastewater Treatment Plant is now opera-

facility was classified as being "large" and MOEE Policy 15-08 (Reasonable Use) was applied with respect to efflu ent nitrate concentrations. Reasonable

Use calculations and discussions with

MOEE staff determined that compliance criteria should be set at 10 mg/L for to tal nitrogen, which was defined as the sum of TKN, nitrate and nitrite. In ad dition, it was determined that, in order

to eliminate any potential for impact on downgradient coldwater fisheries, a stringent phosphorus limit of 0.3 mg/L would also be imposed. *Thorburn Penny Limited Consuiting Engineers 36

Philip Utilities Management Corporation and Thorburn Penny provided Horseshoe Resort Corporation with a complete design, build, operate and finance solution for its wastewater treatment needs.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


By David Ohashi, P. Eng.* tional and has provided a final solution to a long-term problem. The fact that the solution now exists,in itselfindicates the

success of the project. The process worked for the following reasons: i) Guaranteed Construction Costs

As part of the design/build process, Thorbum Penny was responsible for the prehminaiy design ofthe facility, as well as estimating and guaranteeing a con struction cost. This process gave the owner the opportunity to proceed to con struction based on a guaranteed cost before substantial design fees were in curred. The conceptual design was also used as the basis to obtain a preliminary Certificate ofApproval since innovative design considerations were incorporated

Suppliers SBR equipment Tertiary filter Submersible pumps Valves Electrical

Sewer pipe & plant piping Precast concrete

equipment as Philip Utilities would also be operating the facility. As an exam

ple, it was mandatory for the SBR sup pliers and contractor to utilize Flygt sub mersible pumps due to their reliability and prompt attention to service. The pumps are also used at most other PUMC facilities, hence, a standard

maintenance agreement could be se

to reduce costs.

cured.

ii) Time and Cost Savings The design/build process eliminates some of the time-consuming aspects of the traditional design-bid-build process which translates directly to monetary savings. For the client, it translated into the ability to more quickly issue occu pancy permits to new residents and time shares, as well as eliminate the expen sive practice of hauling raw sewage off

v)Pre-Purchase of Major Equipment

site for treatment. The resort also re duced their own administrative costs as

they could dedicate their valuable time to constructing time shares and condo miniums for occupancy. The process ensured that capital was not tied up for any longer than neces sary and revenue could be more quickly realized.

iii) Selection of Contractors

In order to ensure that the project was completed on time and without major conflicts, prices were negotiated with contractors with extensive expertise with this type and size of project. Sepa rate contracts were executed between

Thorbum Penny,acting as the construc tor, and the plant electrical and sewer

Major equipment, which included the

SBRs and tertiary filters, was pre-purchased. A thorough technical review of the equipment could be completed based on detailed proposals from suppliers by the designer, as opposed to allowing the mechanical contractor to select the

equipment based on low price. The selection of a supplier prior to conceptual design greatly aided in the final design of the facility as basin sizes and building layouts could be optimized. The greatest benefit in pre-purchasing the equipment with normally long lead times was it ensured the equipment was on site when it was required. This was very critical in a project with such tight time frames. vi) Shifting of Liability and Risk The resort benefitted from the design process as the risk of cost overruns, liq uidated damages for schedule overruns, obtaining permits from the Ministry of the Environment and Energy and other regulatory agencies was shifted to the designer. The liability for meeting the stringent effluent quality was also

Napier Reld Ltd. (Austgen-Blojet) Frontenac Environmental Ltd.

Flygt Syntec Klockner Moeller

Ipex Lafarge

as yet unknown, third party customers. Philip Utilities was able to provide financing to Horseshoe that addressed all these concerns by combining the fi nancing package with an operations and maintenance contract. Repayment terms are structured to provide minimum par tial payments of principal which are aug mented by additional payments as third party customers hook into the system. Eurther, the term negotiated was for a period in excess of that available to Horseshoe from conventional sources. Conclusion

The project proved to be most suc cessful for all parties involved. Philip Utilities was able to provide innovative project financing to the resort, hence, allowing them to go forward with their own developments. Thorbum Penny Limited designed and constructed the facility on time and within budget. The facility was recently commissioned and is now being operated by PUMC staff. The project is further evidence of the private sector's ability to design, build, operate and finance water and wastewater facilities in an efficient and costeffective manner.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 298

Visit

Environmental

contractor.

shifted from the resort to PUMC, as

Science &

iv) Quality of Material and Equipment The design/build process gives the designer/ constructor greater control in the selection of material and equipment. The traditional design-bid-build process allows the contractor to select the equip ment and material almost always based on low price. The design/build process allows the simultaneous input of the design team and contractors to develop an optimal design in terms of evaluat ing materials and constmction methods. The design of the Horseshoe facility considered high quality and reliable

operator of the facility. Financing Philip Utilities was responsible for financing the facility, as well as arrang ing to operate the system.

Engineering Magazine on the

In the case of Horseshoe Resort, fi

nancing requirements presented several hurdles that required an unconventional approach. Such hurdles included the

world wide web. Check us out at

existence of several secured creditors, a

capacity to service debt predicated on future expansion of the resort and the need to fund existing and future capital requirements from both known existing users of the facility and anticipated, but

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

http:// www.esemag.com 37


Preventing Corrosion

By William B. Russell*

Safe electrical isolation of cathodically protected structures

Cathodicprotection,proven by decades of service in a vari

ety of applications, prevents corrosion of buried or sub

merged metallic structures. Cathodic protection is most efficiently and uni formly applied when the primary struc ture is electrically isolated (i.e. all me tallic/electrical contacts with foreign

fault currents, while blocking DC cur rent required for cathodic protection. However, batteries proved to be rather difficult and expensive to maintain, due to the need to keep them charged and regularly topped with electrolyte. In 1956, an electrical power physi

RustrolÂŽ Nickel-KOH polarization cell system. Further product development

cist, R.C. Jacobsen, resolved this main

response,fail-safe and maintenance-free operation in a non-electrolytic environ

tenance problem by devising the Nickel-

has allowed the introduction of the elec

tronic circuitry incorporated into the unique solid state Cathodic Isolator''''^, introduced to the market in 1990. This

device ensures acute sensitivity, instant

metallic structures are elimi

ment.

nated).

Electronic Cathodic Isolator

Cathodic isolation is said to

The electronic cathodic iso

be a superior form of electrical isolation. It maintains stringent electrical grounding require ments and confines the DC pro

lator device is designed to safely and continuously con duct AC-induced voltages while blocking the DC current re

tective current at the surface of

quired for cathodic protection.

the intended primary structure (i.e., pipeline). Cathodic isola tion provides all of the advan tages of electrical isolation by blocking the DC protective cur rent at the electrical isolating device, such as across a pipe line isolating flange, while maintaining an effective grounding path to ensure per sonnel and equipment remain safely protected during all types of electrical disturbances, (i.e. AC fault currents, lightning,AC induction, power switching surge currents, etc.) The safety of the general public, operating personnel and

When the potential across the electrical isolating device(such as an isolating flange) exceeds the set voltage threshold circuit parameters(typical range 2.5 to 20 volts)the electronic cathodic isolator responds instantly; AC fault currents,lightning, power switching surges, or any other

the buried steel structure can,

electrical disturbance shall be free to conduct.

Characteristics of the elec tronic cathodic isolator device

provide the following; a) High impedance to the flow of DC current under the influ

ence of DC voltage levels nor mally associated with cathodically-protected structures. b) Low impedance to the flow

therefore, remain fully pro Cathodic protection works for a variety of buried or sub merged metallic structures. tected by implementing ca of AC current associated with thodic isolation, utilizing proven protec KOH polarization cell system. His pa power system faults and other conditions per at the NACE Corrosion '57 Confer arising from the operation of AC power tive devices (i.e., Nickel-KOH polari ence detailed how the ideal electrode zation cell and electronic cathodic iso systems, including static electricity, lator systems); thenceforward uniform proved to be commercially pure nickel; mitigation of induced AC voltage, et al. The electronic cathodic isolator de cathodic protection can be safely (the next best candidates, in order, were mild steel, nickel plated copper, and vice incorporates several components. achieved at a greatly reduced cost. stainless steel). The preferred electro AC modules conduct the nominal in History of The lyte was an exact 30 percent solution by duced AC voltages until the potential Nickel-KOH Polarization Cell Batteries were originally used to weight of pure potassium hydroxide in exceeds the set voltage threshold re quired for the firing of the thyristor cir safely decouple pipelines in order to distilled water. These were the materi provide ionic current transfer to the als of choice for construction selected cuitry, typically activated by AC fault grounding network for electrical distur by R.C. Jacobsen, to devise the first current exposures. When the cathodic bances. Batteries, of amphoteric metal polarization cell capable of passing a 26 isolator device senses a lightning surge, and acid, provided an extremely low kA AC fault current for 1/2 second (30 both AC and DC strays are conducted, impedance path to continuously pass cycle) at 20° C(70° F), with a potential and the hermetically sealed gas gap clamps the surge. AC, and to safely pass 1/2 second AC rise of less than 30 volts rms. Cathodic Isolation Design Criteria Research and development may be Cathodic protection systems must never-ending work, but his original se *Vice President, Operations lection of materials of construction re often be designed to safeguard against Interprovincial/lnternational Corrosion main the well-proven optimum for the Continued on page 40 Control, Burlington, Ontario 38

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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Preventing Corrosion, conr the possibility of a power system AC fault current exposure. In the case of a high voltage pipe-type cable system,the low impedance provided by the pipe jacket almost guarantees that some of the fault current will return via the me

tallic pipe. Likewise, when an oil or gas pipeline is buried near an overhead high voltage transmission line, or runs paral lel for a distance, the pipeline may serve as a low impedance route for AC fault currents.

The fault current exposure for pipetype cable installations is discussed due to this electrical structure being more prone to fault currents from a power system than many of the oil or gas pipe lines. Those involved with oil or gas pipelines, with segments parallelling electrical power line corridors, can take advantage of the same techniques to mitigate induced AC voltages and pro vide AC fault current protection for their pipelines using ionically conducting protective equipment. The combination of absolute AC con

tinuity to the grounding network and nominal DC blockage for cathodic pro tection is referred to as Cathodic Isola

tion. Electrical protection equipment

which has proven the best medium to provide both of these functions is the polarization cell system or the newly developed electronic cathodic isolator device. These devices maintain safety standards for effective grounding within

fault current which will be shared, it is

wise to err a bit by safely designing on the conservative side.

Other parameters to be considered for a proposed polarization cell system or electronic cathodic isolator device are

the amount of steady state AC current form to the need for safe operating "step/ (@ 50 or 60 Hz rms) required by the touch" potentials accepted worldwide device to continuously conduct; includ (i.e., not to exceed 15 volts rms). ing magnitude of surge/lightning expo Sizing of Electrical Protection sure, AC/DC stray current interference, Equipment voltage threshold operating parameters When considering sizing of the pro and other factors such as enclosure re tective equipment for providing safe and quirements (i.e., NEMA) temperature effective grounding of a pipeline paral and exposure ratings, etc. lelling a power corridor, the AC fault Summary current rating for the electrical protec The design and installation of AC tion equipment should be selected to protection equipment for pipeline(s) match or exceed the largest available AC parallelling power lines can range from fault current exposure of the primary a simple, straightforward solution to an structure. The available AC fault cur extremely complex one. Usually, with rent at any particular location can be the proper care and expertise applied to determined by the power utilities tech consider all predictable operating char the National Electrical Codes and con

nical staff. In most situations, however,

acteristics, a safe and cost-effective so

there are shield wires; thus the pipeline is unlikely to be exposed to the full AC fault current available at any one loca

lution can be developed utilizing pro tective equipment. Occasionally, for special situations, other protective devices may need to be

tion as some of this current will return

via the shield wires. Since it is very dif ficult to determine the proportion of AC

ANNOUNCEMENT STEPHEN McMINN, P.ENG. Mr. Steve McMinn, P.Eng., has been appointed general manager of Anderson Operations Inc., a

considered.

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Aeration is uniform and essentially trouble-lree with high-efficiency,

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For more information, circie reply card No. 256(See page 17)


Microtunneling

Longest microtunneling push In North America jacks 83 pipe over 250 metres

The Cheapside Stre t sanitary

so that he could proceed with lining up sewer project in London, jacking equipment that could handle the Ontario, is reputed to have installation. the longest microtunneling The contractor rescheduled construc push in North America. In the final tion of the shaft to April 15,and expected push, 83 pipe were jacked a distance of the shaft to be ready to receive pipe one approximately 253.15 metres. On Feb week later. The boring contractor, ruary 24, 1996, the Soltau RBS 400 Bonlot of Guelph, needed an additional broke through the exit shaft at 8:00 a.m., week to install the microtunneling completing an installation by microtunneling that had taken almost a year to complete in tough environmental condi tions.

This is a story of the men and machines behind the in

stallation of the equipment to May 15. Since the equipment would not be in stalled to accommodate the pipe deliv ery, more time was provided for Lafarge to build an inventory of pipe for the project. The second form was delivered to

Lafarge, as scheduled, and the machine changed over on May 9. The first pipe was produced for the project on May 10. After adjustments and some innovative modifi

cations, pipe was being stacked for shipment by May 11. During the trial runs, Lafarge staff found that there

stallation. It lends apprecia

was a lot of work that had to

tion to the work that is neces

be done in preparing the pipe for delivery: bell bands had to

sary to properly manufacture and install a concrete pipe drainage system using new technology. Not all plans laid

be cleaned; burrs on the ends

on the pipe had to be removed; pipe had to be checked for squareness; the pipe lengths had to be measured; the spig ots had to be gauged; the threads in the grout plugs had to be cleaned; a plastic valve had to be installed in the plug; debris had to be swept from inside the pipe; and the bell band had to be touched up with epoxy paint. The next challenge was to economically produce a pipe

down in the confines of an

office play themselves out ac cording to expectations. In the field and in the plant, people make the difference.

In March of 1995, Lafarge staff met to order new forms

that would be required for the jacking pipe to be used on the l,119.35mlong trank sanitary sewer designed by Parker & Associates for the City of London. The system was comprised of 367 pieces of

with a surface that was as

smooth as possible to facili tate jacking movement behind the boring machine.

900 mm x 3.05 m concrete

pipe with 125 mm thick walls, plus specials. The contractor, Drexler Construction Ltd. of

On June 15, the microtun Concrete

Guelph, Ontario, planned to commence construction of the tunnel shaft on April 10,1995. Lafarge had less than a month to have the plant producing pipe for the project. People from many parts of Canada and the United States began to pull together to get the project off to a good start. Two pipe forms were ordered imme diately, and staff turned their attention to securing suppliers of steel bands for the joints, steel couplings, reinforcing steel,fabrication of ajig to measure pipe squareness, and recording forms for documenting finished product measure ments. The contractor was sent copies of the joint drawing, steel design, mix design, pipe weights and jacking forces 42

pipe awaiting instailation.

equipment. At this time, wire reinforc ing mesh was scheduled to arrive at the plant by the third week in March. Test ing commenced on the concrete mixes and the results were sent to Lafarge's Edmonton operation for review. All was proceeding well. With construction of the shaft

underway, Drexler ordered pipe for de livery to the site on May 15. Back at the plant, the first form arrived as sched uled, but shortly after, the mesh fabri cating machine broke down and deliv ery was delayed. At the site, water seep age was causing all kinds of problems

neling equipment was ready, and the first piece of pipe was in place to push the mole forward. After over coming some equipment problems,tun neling commenced in earnest on June 19. Lafarge had almost a month to im prove the production process and was now prepared to produce good quality pipe as fast as the contractor could use it. But, there was trouble on the site. The diesel engines that power the hy draulic pumps shut down through over heating. (Thejacks are designed to push the pipe using 100 tons offorce, and can be increased to push with a force of400 tons). A quick site conference deter

with the construction of the structure for

mined that anchors installed at three

installing the microtunneling machine.

locations at the spigot end of one pipe Continued on page 44

Because of this, Drexler rescheduled in

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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Division provides water and wastewater pipeline rehabilitation and renovation services to municipalities and industry using state-of-the-art trenchiess technologies. • • • • • •

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Microtunneling, cant' and the bell end of another would stop

the pipe from rotating, if placed behind the boring machine. With further adjust ments to the equipment, the contractor was pushing four to six pipe each day. By mid June, heavy rains flooded the pit and caused a serious washout on the site that interfered with the crane used

to lower pipe into the pit. Water from the storm also flowed into the pit from around the pipe,shifting the slurry pump that weighs 1,500 lb. In addition, the storm caused minor electrical problems. After a three day delay, the crew started pushing pipe once again,into more rock. In early July, the project was halted. Jacking pressures had increased to 300 tons, and further pushing was consid ered to be ill advised. With great diffi culty due to soil conditions, a shaft was sunk from ground level to the head of the boring machine and the unit re moved. The cutting picks and cutting ring had been worn away by the boul ders. By mid July, the Bonlot crew was once again pushing pipe, but progress was slow due to terrible ground condi

The jacking crew overcame great difficulties underground.

tres, six pipe were anchored to the machine head to prevent pipe rotation. Jacking commenced on November 21. After the first week in December, the

project was halted while a shaft was dug

teeth were worn off, and Drexler re

to retrieve the head, thought to have worn teeth. This time, heavy clay was found to be plugging the head. Cold weather was also causing problems by freezing hoses, ceramic pistons, pumps and tanks. Winter microtunneling did not promise to be much fun! By mid December and only two feet from the exit shaft wall, the crew expe rienced a problem with the slurry pump at the head of the boring machine. But, they started the head turning and turned on the water jets, then just pushed for ward. The push went so easily that they never knew that they had broken through

turned to dig another vertical shaft to

the concrete wall of the shaft.

tions.

By mid August,the Bonlot crew was pushing pipe on the second drive of the project, a distance of259.25 metres. But pipe was still rotating behind the head, and a new technique was developed to stop the rotating action. Four to five lead pipe were now subject to a form of an choring to stop pipe rotation. Then in early September, the project was halted once again as the crew found that they could not push pipe any fur ther. They suspected that the cutting

remove the machine. This time the shaft

By January 10,1996,the Bonlot crew

was dug quickly using a back hoe, and the boring head and crushing cone re paired without much delay. By mid Sep tember the second drive was completed, and excavation of the third jacking pit was well under way. By late October, microtunneling equipment had been installed in the third shaft, and jacking had commenced. The

had started the final drive as Drexler

third drive had to cover a distance of

started construction on the exit shaft,

approximately 250.10 metres away. Cold weather continued to play havoc with water lines, pumps and slurry. On February 24, 1996, the crew celebrated as the lead pipe of an 83-pipe long run broke through the wall of the exit shaft. By February 26, the new system had been connected with the existing sewer

176.90 metres. More picks had been added to the cutting head as well as more teeth to the outer ring to improve the rate

contract was $3 million.

of installation. The third drive started

lessons learned that will make the next

November 3rd as the weather began to herald the coming of a cold, harsh win ter. Two shifts were once again push ing pipe, and by mid November, the third drive was completed.

microtunneling job easier: a) It is critical that more test or bore holes be taken for microtunneling pro jects than are taken for open cut meth ods. Holes should always be deeper than the invert of the pipe. Without accurate

For the fourth drive of 250.10 me44

on Sanford Street. The total cost of the

Like any difficult project, there were

information, it is very difficult for the contractor to determine what microtun

neling boring head should be used. b) A quality pipe product must be sup plied to the contractor. An attitude of "it's concrete, and this is good enough," is not acceptable. It is critical to have a smooth outside diameter on the pipe. This helps to reduce the friction as the

pipe is pushed through the ground. Pipe squareness is also critical for keeping the pipe on line during the push. Concrete strengths and reinforcing are equally important as the pipe must not destruct during pushing. c) Proper bentonite lubrication around the pipe while the pipe is being pushed is very important. It will help to reduce friction and jacking pressures. d)Construction of a suitable launch shaft is very important. Various shaft types can be constructed. Circular poured concrete in short lifts, and removing the ground under it to lower it to the required depth is one way. Another is concrete segments stacked in a vertical position, and yet another is sheet piles driven into place with horizontal bracing. More than anything, this project was a testimonial to how people can work together to overcome challenges that first seem overwhelming. Dedication to the successful completion ofthe project, and the will to try out new approaches to problems by employing new technol ogy separated success from failure. Men worked together to solve problems, without pointing fingers and condemn ing actions. For more information, circle reply card No. 258

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Presenting The Schlumberger ADVANTAGE

'he ADVANTAGE water meter reading system exclusively rom Schlumberger. The ADVANTAGE is a remote metef^reading probe which uses cordless communication. With a single trigger pull, the probe automatically senses the register type, captures the reading, then transmits the reading to the handheld via Radio Frequency. The ADVANTAGE reads Schlumberger ProRead'^^ and ARB VŽ remote receptacles. ADVANTAGE also reads the remote receptacles of Sensus Technologies, Inc. The probe buffers up to 5 readings, allowing the operator to review the readings at any time. For further details, contact your local Schlumberger representative or distributor today. Š1997, Schlumberger Industries

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For more information, circle reply card No. 259(See page 17)


Quality Assurance

By Dale Baldry*

Why a valve and hydrant company took the ISO 9002 route

The first question many con

sumers ask when being intro duced to a new product is

"What does it cost?" More

than ever before, people are conscious of getting value for their dollar. They want a low-cost quality product,but what is sacrificed for low cost? Products are

not always what they appear to be. The customer may not be

facilities. Terminal City is the only metal casting operation in Canada manufacturing its own waterworks fit tings from 4" to 30" sizes, gate valves from 2" to 24", and both compression and slide gate fire hydrants. In the fall of 1996, we successfully completed ISO 9002 Certification. This is an internationally recognized Quality

the system around your existing opera tion. This helps the workforce adapt to the system, and makes transition much easier. Have an outside consulting firm help with the development of the sys tem. This eliminates mistakes and time

is better spent on developing the system quickly and with less confusion. Designate one individual as the Qual ity Assurance Manager during

standard of their intended use.

development so that this per son is able to maintain the sys tem efficiently after its com pletion. Increased paperwork is minimized if you can adapt to procedures already in place. By modifying current forms, in-plant paperwork is kept to the same level or slightly changed. Corrective Action, Training, and Procedure

This is done to maintain a uni

Forms are a few areas where

form standard for manufac

you will probably see an in crease in paperwork. In most companies, daily routines are accomplished as they have been for years. Em ployees have always done it that way,so there has been no

aware of the real cost of the item until it becomes neces

sary to service or repair it, i.e. replacement parts. This can place a financial burden di rectly on the purchaser, or in directly on the taxpayer if pur chased through a government agency.

Products purchased are usually manufactured to the

tured goods. It also ensures the customer is receiving a product made to an exact specification which is inter changeable at a later date. What assurance do owners

have that the products they buy represent a quality stand ard during manufacturing or servicing? If the item pur

need to write it down. With

an ISO Quality Assurance System, documentation is very important. It lets man agement identify repetitive

chased fails for some reason,

is there any guarantee that re placement parts will be prob

situations, and sets a standard

for all who perform the work. When new employees are in

lem free?

A Quality Assurance Sys

troduced into the workforce,

tem addresses this concern,and

much more. A QA System ensures that a procedure is in High standards required for ISO 9002. place which delivers consistent quality in all products manufactured. It Assurance System in place at many will address any problems and minimize manufacturing,service, and design com the possibility of the same problem be panies throughout the world. ing repeated. This system makes sure that Our ISO 9002 System encompasses corrective action is taken to maintain a the complete manufacturing process, as set level of quality to the customer on the well as our sales department. We chose products or service offered. to pursue an ISO 9002 Quality Assur Our company is a Canadian-owned ance System as a way to enhance the waterworks casting manufacturing com quality of our products. ISO 9002 has pany based in Vancouver for the past 90 helped us identify some operational years. The operation consists of an iron processes which were redundant and has foundry, machine shop,and pattern shop improved others. An important point to remember if starting a Quality Assurance System is 'General Manager, Terminal City Iron Works Ltd. to try as much as is possible to design 46

you know that the required operational procedures are in place and will be maintained in order to achieve the level

of quality expected at all times. By having a Quality Assurance Sys tem in place you are assured of the fol lowing: 1) Maintaining the same degree of qual ity in the production of your products or services.

2)The customer will receive consistent

quality for the dollar spent. 3) Corrective action will be taken if re quired. We are pleased with our experiences with ISO 9002.

For more information, circle reply card No. 260

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


I

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N

E

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Trenchless PIpelliie Renewal With over 4 million feet installed, U-Liner has proven to be one of the best solutions for trenchless pipeline renewal. Each U-Liner coil

is manufactured to specifications for each pro ject by CSR Pipeline Systems, a leader in pipeline rehabilitation technology. U-Liner is made of pure, high density polyethylene (HOPE). It is a seamless, tubular line, U-Liner, the patented "pipe within a pipe".

deformed at the factory into a "U" shape i i jointless coils in a variety of lengths and diameters for rapid, trenchless installation into the existing pipe. There, it is reformed in place by a patented heat/pressure method, resulting in a tight-fitting "pipe within a pipe." Without any excavation, surface disruption or enviromnental risks.

The advantages of U-Liner: • Non-jointed for leak-proof, unrestricted flow ■Ml

U-Liner pipe is custom produced in continuous lengths to meet your specifications.

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• Available from 6" -18" diameters

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CSR Pipeline Systems offers vast experience in piping research, design, engineering, and technology support. We have the financial strength and a network of licensed installers to support the most ambitious projects. U-Liner - proven efficiency in renewal of pipelines for water, wastewater, chemical, natural gas and industrial applications. Whereever pipe needs to be renewed, U-Liner may be the solution.

e Pipeline Systems 16701 Greenspoint Park Drive Ste. 350

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Sophisticated monitoring technology ensures a quality installation.

Fax: (281) 874-0962 www.csrpipesystems.com/uliner

For more information, circie repiy card No. 261 (See page 17)


Pulp & Paper

Chlorine dioxide is increasingly a substitute for chlorine in P&P industry

Following the identification, in

the late 1980s, of trace levels of dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), an

inadvertent by-product of the prevailing chemical pulp bleaching process, the pulp and paper industry moved quickly and voluntarily to imple ment a comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy to virtually eliminate dioxin. By applying the principles of pollution prevention - process changes, product reformulation, and raw material substi tution - the industry, in a remarkably short time, has achieved success in vir

tually eliminating dioxin from mill wastewater.

One key component of the industry's virtual elimination strategy has been the increased substitution of chlorine diox

ide for chlorine in the first stage of che mical pulp bleaching, a process change

Dioxin ievels have declined in many fish downstream of pulp miiis. Photo - T. Davey

dioxin discharges from pulp and paper mills to waterways have decreased by 90% over the period 1988-1994. In both Canada and the US,fish con

showcase this broader eco-system re covery and environmental improve ment. According to both EPA and state environmental and health authority data,

that has become known as Elemental

sumption advisories have been - and

since 1990, 13 states have lifted a total

Chlorine-Free (ECF). Now,new science, a proven environ mental track record, and strong market demand together document ECF's suc cessful application as a pollution pre vention process. ECF pulp quality is excellent. Stud ies show that ECF bleached products can achieve high brightness(89-90% ISO), and high strength (burst, tear, tensile, viscosity). Other bleaching processes are less selective and consequently have not been able to retain high strength at full brightness. In addition to product quality, a great

continue to be - lifted as dioxin levels

of 17 dioxin advisories from water-

in fish downstream of pulp mills decline. These indicators of progress and broader eco-system integrity document the suc cess of the pulp and paper industry's use

bodies downstream of US pulp mills a decline of more than 50 percent. Product quality, combined with a strong environmental performance, has made ECF pulp the fastest growing seg

deal of attention has been focused on the environmental benefits of chlorine

dioxide bleaching. As a result of ECF processes, throughout North America Milestone reached in Champion International Corporation has started recycling bleach plant filtrates using its Bleach Filtrate Recycle (BFR''''^) process and is beginning to evaluate the technology under actual commercial conditions at its Canton,

NC, pulp and paper mill. The BFR process promises to sub stantially reduce the discharge of dis solved organic compounds from bleached-kraft pulp mills. Testing of the system began nearly a year ago with the installation of two main components: a Chloride Removal Process(CRPâ&#x201E;˘)and 48

of chlorine dioxide.

The recovery of coastal fisheries in British Columbia is an example of the progress made by the pulp and paper industry after the implementation of chlorine dioxide. In October 1996,En vironment Canada and Health Canada

together published the Chlorinated Sub stances Action Plan: Progress Report. The report documented the re-opening of approximately 46 percent of coastal fisheries that had previously been closed due to dioxin contamination. Similarly, the waterbodies of the United States also

test of BFR process a Mineral Removal Process(MRPâ&#x201E;˘). Champion has been testing compo nents of the BFR process at the Canton mill. In August 1995, Champion com missioned the CRP system, which con tinuously separates salts (chlorides and potassium)from the processing stream, enabling the recovery of the bleach-plant effluent and chemicals for reuse in the

pulp mill. In November 1995,the MRP system - which removes hard-water mineral deposits that scale and cake processing equipment - was success fully commissioned.

ment in the world bleached chemical

pulp (BCP) market. In 1997, ECF manufacture is expected to reach 38 million tonnes per year, for a world market share of 50 percent. In all ma jor pulp producing regions of the world, ECF demand is rapidly rising. North American trends paint a very similar picture. In Canada, ECF pulp production has increased more than 900% since 1990. It now holds more than 70% of the Canadian bleached

chemical pulp market. Likewise, in the US,production of ECF pulp is expected to reach 13 million tonnes by the end of 1997, totalling 47% of all US bleached chemical pulp production. As research and technological devel opment continues, the pulp and paper industry is moving into an era of beyond compliance. Many believe that pros pects for continued progress are bright, including a shift toward the develop ment of minimum-impact mills. For bleached chemical pulp mills, develop ment will be progressive, but emerging research suggests that ECF processes may serve as the foundation for the in dustry's future successes.

Circle reply card No. 262

Environmental Science i& Engineering, September 1997


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I!

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For more information, circle

reply card No. 263(See page 17)


Invasive Species

How aquatic threats enter the Great Lakes through commercial ballast waters

MarshallMcLuhan's Global Village has become a bio logical reality as exotic marine life is now known

to have entered Canada in Great Lakes

shipping ballast waters. As human ac tivity increases worldwide,the potential movement of exotic or pathogenic (dis ease causing)organisms of all types also increases. The damage result ing from this activity,from eco system, human health and eco nomic points of view, is pres ently not well understood.

While it has been reported that most vessels comply with in-place guidelines, the evidence suggests that some do not. Further, even those vessels that do ex

change ballast, may harbour viable or ganisms in areas of salinity stratification within ballast tanks or in accumulated

wet sediments and unpumpable ballast of vessels that report "no ballast on

cases living invertebrates (organisms) were also detected. It is generally ac cepted that ballast waters with high sa line levels are much less likely to intro duce unwanted species into our water ways.

An in-depth study of upbound and downbound ocean-going vessels and laker traffic was undertaken in 1995. One hundred and five vessels

were boarded during the field sampling program; the major ity of these yielded samples that could be analyzed for the pres ence of live organisms.

However, recent introductions of the zebra mussel {Dreissena polymorpha), believed to have

It was found that most

ocean-going and laker shipping

arrived in the ballast water of a

harboured live freshwater or

Russian vessel, the spiny water flea {Bythotrephes cederstroemi), and the River Ruffe, {Gymnocephalus cernuus) a are examples of these non-

ganisms which included phytoplankton, zooplankton, and pathogens (disease causing human bacteria)in some ballast water samples,regardless of the percentage of salt water present

native intruders, which are

in the ballast.

fish, to North American waters

wreaking havoc on our water

The most recent study also

ways.

included a review of the vol

Diver going down to inspect accumuiations of zebra mus- umes of ballast water which Zebra mussels, with no natu ral predators to limit their seis which biock water intakes at treatment plants and could be moved into the Great growth,have caused millions of power stations. Lakes as well as between lake dollars worth of damage by clogging up board' basins. It was estimated that in 1994, the water intakes of water treatment Following a preliminary investiga potential movement by all ocean ships plants and power stations. While dras tion completed by Aquatic Sciences Inc. into the system was in excess of 5 mil tically reducing mature fish populations, for the Canadian Coast Guard in 1994/ lion m^(m^ is a cubic metre or 1000 li zebra mussels ironically improve the 95,it was apparent that development of tres). By comparison it was estimated clarity of the lakes they infest. improved sampling equipment was nec that in excess of 50 million cubic me The Canadian Coast Guard has in essary prior to initiation of any large tres were lifted and moved throughout place, guidelines for voluntary open scale ballast water study. the lakes by Canadian and U.S. domes ocean ballast water exchange by ocean This preliminary project led to devel tic fleets over the same period. going vessels travelling upstream into opment of more effective sampling An attempt was made to define the fresh water of the St. Lawrence Sea equipment and protocols. These could ballasting pattems and volumes in or way and the Great Lakes System. In ad be used to better determine both com der to better understand the risks im dition, the US Coast Guard has regulated pliance rates of upbound shipping as posed by commercial shipping practices. that ballast water salinity of vessels of well as the effectiveness of the present This assessment identified upbound traf concern be at least 30 parts per thou guidelines for prevention of introduc fic in the form of vessels in ballast and sand(ppt)in order to control freshwater tions of exotic species to the Great Lakes those that reported no ballast on board species with a lower limit of less than and associated waterways. (NOBOBs) as potential inoculators of 25 ppt. During 1994 field sampling,thirteen alien species into the system. Laker traf The intent of these actions is to en

sure that exotic freshwater organisms, which may travel from foreign ports in ballast water, are either flushed out of

ballast tanks or are exposed to salinities which would cause mortality prior to entering North American freshwaters. ^Aquatic Sciences, St. Catharines ^Environmental Science & Engineering 50

downbound vessels were boarded in the

fic acted as interbasin vectors transfer

Welland Canal in order to test and re

ring these non-native species into lakes which were previously unaffected. NOBOBs, plus secondary Great Lakes ballast, constitute a major avenue for the introduction and spread offoreign fresh

fine sampling equipment and protocols. In all cases where vessels were car

rying reportable ballast water, samples were successfully retrieved. More im portantly, in at least four vessels which reported no ballast on board, sufficient water was collected through sounding pipes to measure salinity and in some

water ballast to the lakes.

Ballast water has been established as

one of many possible vectors. Other sources could include seaplanes or

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


By Don Lewis^ and Tom Davey^ pleasure vessels which use more than one lake. In order to evaluate the relative risk

that shipping poses to the Great Lakes ecosystem,it is recommended that a re view be made in the context of the risks

posed by all vectors. While quantify ing these risks was beyond the scope of the project, an effort is needed to iden tify the parameters or framework under which this process could be completed. Potential strategies of controlling future introductions were reviewed in

general terms from the perspective of economic feasibility, political feasibil ity, and real world ability. The cost and logistics of shipboard vs external (port or ship-based)treatments are discussed. Conclusions - Phase I Based on the results of the 1994 and

1995 sampling programs, it is apparent that live organisms from fresh water ports outside of North America can sur vive for the several weeks it takes to

traverse to domestic ports. In addition, based on the varying salinities between tanks on the same ship and the presence of salinities in the brackish water cat

egories,there appears to be evidence that the level of compliance with ballast ex

change guidelines may not be as high as original estimations. One example of non-compliance was noted in the 1994 study which included sampling of a vessel that had entered the Seaway with freshwater ballast apparently taken from the Congo River in Africa. A number of reasons, not the least of

which may include physical constraints on board, and safety of ship and crew may be,in part, responsible for varying levels of compliance. While regulation alone is preferable, it appears that some sort of mandatory testing or ballast water treatment in place of or in addi tion to the exchange program may be necessary.

Prototype sampling equipment is

retrieved and to ensure proper monitor ing of the effectiveness of future con trol efforts.

The presence of both fecal coliforms and E. coli, as well as other pathogenic bacteria, make it apparent that ballast water may not only present a significant risk to the ecosystem but also to human health. While the presumptive early identification of V. cholerae was not

substantiated, the presence of closely related species as well as other Vibrio sp. clearly indicate that other disease causing agents, including viruses, may be present in ballast water. NOBOB vessels represent a major breach in exotic species control efforts through the ballast exchange program.

now available for collection of water

The effectiveness of the ballast ex

samples from double bottom ballast tanks, assuming that sounding pipe ac cess is available. In addition, sampling through air vents is also a distinct pos sibility. This further development would ensure that an effective tool for the as

change program, even for ships in bal last, appears in question based on the presence of fresh water specimens in many samples,regardless of salinity lev els. Even though concentrations of in troduced species may be reduced, the

sessment of the risk of future introduc

sheer volume of introduced ballast

tion of foreign species through ballast water transport is available. Of prime importance is further refinement to en sure that better sediment samples are

water puts the program in question. Ballast water movement represents only one of a number of human activiContinued overleaf

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51


Invasive Species, cont' water. Vectors other than ballast water

Ocean-going vessels constitute the major single potential contaminator of the Great Lakes with foreign species,

represent the majority of exotic species

while the domestic fleet and those ves

introductions to the Great Lakes.

sels reporting NOBOB act to disperse these species. Even though the major ity of vessels are in compliance with regulations and guidelines, and required reports and forms for ships in ballast are in place, organisms from both marine and freshwater origin outside of the

ties that result in the introduction of ex

otic species to North American fresh

As invading organisms ignore politi cal and jurisdictional boundaries, it is essential that the same laws and regula tions govern the various activities which can result in introductions in the entire

Great Lakes Basin. Individual province and state efforts are undoubtedly help ful but not likely to be effective. It is essential that all jurisdictions bordering the Great Lakes adopt a uniform ap proach to this problem, examining all vectors in greater detail. This will in clude a coordination and communica tion of all research efforts. Conclusions -Phase II

Vessels reporting 'No Ballast on Board' constitute a major portion of the vessels entering and distributing foreign ballast throughout the Great Lakes. As much as 5,694,588 m'of ballast water could have been introduced to the

Great Lakes through the activities of ocean-going ships in 1994, while the do mestic fleets potentially lift and distrib

ute more than 50,000,000 m^ annually.

As invading organisms ignore poiitical and jurisdictionai boundaries,

it is essentiai

that ailjurisdictions bordering the Great Lakes adopt a uniform approach to this problem, examining ail vectors in greater detail.

For complete data circle response number or phone (905)829-2000

Davis Controls'

52

For more information, circle reply card No. 265

While this study has focused on the Great Lakes, the growing concern worldwide,combined with the problems of obtaining worthwhile samples of bal last water and sediment, would appear to justify either,modifications to exist ing ship's fittings, such as the installa tion ofports in ventilators or the enlarge ment of sounding apertures, or the in stallation of a dedicated means to sam

more likely to be successful in the elimi nation of foreign introductions than in dividual shipboard systems. Compli ance and effectiveness monitoring can also be most easily accomplished if treatment is accomplished from an ex

pathogenic content of commercial bal last water entering the Great Lakes.

ternal source.

• Automatic compensation for temp., pressure, R.H. and salt concentration • Modular design, low maintenance • Disposable Clark Principle sensor

the ballast water introduction issue.

ber is essential to further characterize the

barriers, strainers or filters are least

• Highly accurate measurement of O2

increased access to ballast water tanks

is important to more accurately assess

Treatmentfrom an external source is

Treatment technologies that are maintenance intensive such as physical

• Turndown of 1:1,000

ment control options in limiting the problem of unpumpable ballast and ex otic introductions may be an important step to new control strategies. Based on this study, it is clear that

likely to stay in service, particularly in ship board applications.

entering the system. The terminal ports of Lake Superior, Michigan,and Brie,in that order,receive the greatest portion of ballast water dis charged in the Great Lakes, with Duluth and Thunder Bay by far receiving the greatest volumes. Shipboard treatment of ballast water appears to be logistically, economically, and particularly from the aspect of con trol, the least attractive method of bal

accuracy with Danfoss dissolved Oxygen Meters

accumulation and of other mud/sedi

ple ballast tanks. It is recommended that the technical feasibility of providing a practical and acceptable means of access be explored. Considering the very low priority that microbiology was given in the present study, it is significant that pathogenic organisms of note were discovered. It is recommended that a thorough risk analysis be completed to properly assess the potential risk that pathogenic spe cies, increasingly reported in ballast water of commercial shipping traffic worldwide, pose to the ecosystem and human populations of the Great Lakes. A follow-up sampling program as part of a risk assessment during the sum mer months of July, August,or Septem

Great Lakes are live in ballast water

last water treatment.

Discover a new level of

survey requirements on mud/sediment

Ship based or centralized treatment facilities may offer the most economi cal and practical extemal treatment op tion. This type of treatment can be ac complished at individual ports or pref erably at some 'pinch point' in the lower St. Lawrence River.

Recommendations: Phase I & II Based on the results ofPhase I and II

of this study, the efficacy of the current ballast water exchange program for pre vention of exotic species introduction is questionable at best. The program, as an effective tool for this purpose, needs a thorough review from a safety, com pliance and effectiveness point of view. A study of the effect of enhanced

Both bacteria and viruses of note world

wide may be the focus of this study. It is clear that a disinfection compo nent must be a part of any ballast water treatment feasibility or demonstration project. Non chemical initiatives should be the focus of initial investigations. Extemal,rather than individual ship board systems, will likely be more suc cessful for control of exotic species in troductions,regardless of the exact tech nology used for this purpose. It is rec ommended that new initiatives in this

area focus on compliance, enforcement and monitoring issues as a major driv ing force in the selection criteria. It is apparent that a significant con tribution to exotic introductions comes from vectors other than ballast water. It

is recommended that a more thorough examination of these contributions be included in future work. ■

For more information, circie repiy card No.169(See page 17)


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Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. On-Line Wastewater

Monitoring Your windmv inio the

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On-Line resplrometer "Unlocks the Mystery of Activated Sludge'^"" with 24 hour biological monitoring at up to 3selected points in sequence, giv ing early warning of toxicity, changes In organic load, treatabillty and aera tion requirements. Low 30-day main tenance requirements. Customers receive extensive training in process control and troubleshooting. Over 30 years In resplrometry. Arthur Technology Circle reply card No. 300

Iransportation Dangerous(okkIs

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details the advantages of using 00^

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to treat process, effluent and drink ing waters. This safe, effective, economical and environmentallyresponsible method of controlling pH levels In alkaline waters Is applicable to all treatment areas, including basins, holding ponds, pipelines, sumps, pressurized vessels and

Muffin Monster® grinder, has updatec Its Product Summary Brochure to illu strate its expanded,full line of waste water solids reduction equipment The six-page colour brochure tea tures product photos, speclflcatior

Monster® 30000 and 40000 Series Mini Monster® 20000 Series anc Channel Monster® Series are usec

tanks in the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical and petroleum indus tries, as well as municipal facilities.

In a wide variety of applications.

Praxair

JWC Environmental

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Circle reply card No. 303

The portable sewage pump that gets to emergencies fast!

Specialty Gas Suppliers Catalogue

Gorman-Rupp's portable T series sewage pumps by-pass sewage lines while the station is being re paired. They're built to travel on a moment's notice, because they're mounted on a tough tubular frame with heavy-duty shocks,springs and tires. This makes them safe for high way operation and easy-to-

Whatever your requirements ir specialty gases and gas mixtures you can find It all in this catalogue Air LIqulde Canada, one of the larg^ est specialty gas suppliers, presents a spectrum of products and usefu

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for environmental monitoring. Tc order, call your nearest Air Liquidc Canada sales representative. Air Liquide Canada Circle reply card No. 305

FREE Booklet on Corrugated Polyethylene Drainage Pipe

Centrifuges for industrial Westfalia decanter centrifuges are constructed with all stainless steel

contact surfaces and tungsten car bide hard surfacing for reliable, longterm operation and low maintenance. The units feature fully enclosed de sign for complete process contain ment and low operator exposure.

Hydratiiic ConsidtratlQits

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The patented high torque 2-gear drive and Hy-flex bearings allow for the highest "G"s and the driest sol ids. GEA Process

Technology Canada inc. Circle reply card No. 306

technical Information. You will aisc

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wastewater treatment

54

JWC Environmental, home of the

systems. The company's Muffir

portables aren't handling emergen cies in the field, they can handle rou tine jobs like pumping out digesters and holding tanks around the plant. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 304

Centrifuges

troduction to the Act and Regulations Classifications of Dangerous Goods Safety Marks; Documentation; Dan gerous Occurrences and Specia Requirements. The manual is cros: referenced with the Act and Regula tlons; Includes more than 35 higt quality overheads, information tc help you get started, and "Tralne Aids" throughout each section. Canwit Consulting Corporation Circle reply card No. 301

charts, and illustrations of JWC En vlronmental's range of engineerec

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Updated Product Summary

Praxair's new brochure, "Carbon Dioxide Water Treatment Systems"

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rax intoimsxn %saira

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Dual wall (smooth interior) corru gated polyethylene drainage pips offers significantly more hydraulic capacity than traditional pipe mate rials. This booklet addresses hydrau lic considerations for high density polyethylene (HDRE), Including dis charge curves, conveyance method self-cleansing velocities and value considerations, with a comparison or Manning's "n" values. Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association

Circle reply card No. 307

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cail ES&E at(905)727-4666. Industry association

Piping for wastewater

First incorporated in 1957, the On tario Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA) is a nonprofit industry asso ciation. The OCPA promotes the high standards of business practice and the product quaiity of its mem bers, and provides technicai informa tion to specifiers, reguiators, contrac

treatment

tors and educators.

Victauiic, having suppiied pipe coupiings, fittings, and vaives to municipaiities for 70 years for savings in both instailation and operating costs, offers systems for ductile iron (500 psi), steei(4000 psi), stainless, PVC, and HDP; grooved AWWA eccentric plug vaives to 12-inch,

Producers of

concrete pipe, maintenance hoies, box cuiverts and box sewers, and precast concrete speciaity products joined to form the Association. OCPA

iron BFV to 24-inch, stainless BFV to 12-inch as well as bail and check for Water and

vaives; fittings, strainers, couplings

Wastewater Treatment

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Piping Systems .

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Water Meters, Systems

Underground Infrastructure Rehabilitation & Reconstruction

Our mission is to offer solutions for

Philip Utilities Underground infra structure Division specializes in de veloping "Trenchiess Technology" solutions for various situations.

These tried and tested technologies have been designed to provide ef fective water main renovations while

minimizing the impact of surface re pairs. This can be achieved by a variety of "No-Dig", "Low-Dig" or to tal reconstruction alternatives de

pending on the situation. Philip Utilities Circle reply card No. 293

and administration.

Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 292

Air Purification Machines

EIMCO Flexscour Underdrains ...The Uniform Choice for Air/Water Backwash

Designed for offices or large indus trial settings where the removal of heavy-duty particuiate is necessary. Units produce and control negative or positive ions which, when intro duced into the air flow remove

smoke, dust, feather dust, offset powder, oil particles, paper dust, fiberglass or anything small enough to be airborne. The Mi-1500B and

the Mi-1500C are also effective in

controlling extreme static electricity. They are also capable of eliminating both the gaseous and particuiate phases of tobacco smoke. Sima Group Circle reply card No. 294

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The underdrain is the heart of every granular media filter, if the under drain is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years of continuous service, if not, the underdrain and perhaps the en tire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour filter underdrains provide a durable, corrosion-resistant system for coiiecting filtered effluent and accurately metering uniform air/water backwash flows.

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Water & Wastewater

Trenchiess pipeline renewal

Management Philip Utilities Management Corpo

variety of water and wastewater serv

U-Lineh®, from CSR Pipeline Sys tems, is a trenchiess rehabilitation system designed to repair damaged potable water, sewer, gas and indus trial process pipeline. U-Liner is de formed at the manufacturing site and

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

shape of the damaged host pipe. ULiner, made of HDPE, meets ail

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55


Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Revolutionary magmeter

Dissolved air flotators

Industrial pipes reconstructed without

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Aquarius has a complete line of DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATORS: Circu

The New Unimag from Isco completely eclipses existing magmeter systems in concept and practical application. Unimag eliminates concern regarding electrode fouling, vibration effects and linear malfunction. Unimag features unique interchangeable sensors with no need for recalibration. Unimag also comes with the powerful model 4401

lar, rectangular, with and without lamella. These flotators are used in many indus trial areas: Separation of fats and solids in the food processing industry; recov ery of oil, greases and valuable chemi cals in the petroleum, chemicals and metals industries; fibre recovery and deinking in the pulp and paper industry; process water clarification in all indus tries; and sludge thickening, especially on backwash water. Aquarius For more Information, circle reply card No. 309

The Insimform cured-in-place-pipe proc ess, using liquid thermosetting resin tech nology, can be engineered to withstand the corrosive effects of a wide range of chemicals. The reconstruction material

is custom manufactured from polyester felt and formed into a tube that fits the

pipe to be rebuilt. Prior to installation, the tube is impregnated with the speci fied thermosetting resin. The resin satu rated material is then inverted, or turned

converter.

inside out, within the damaged pipeline.

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. For more Information,

Insituform

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 310

circle reply card No. 308

Grind Hog™ "KWIK-LIFT"

Ultrasonic Level Transducers

SIGMA-ALDRICH*

VOST Stack emissions

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Supelco's VOST air sampling tubes are designed to meet EPA SW-46 Method for the sampling of emissions for hazardous waste incinerator stacks. The high-pu rity adsorbents used in the VOST tubes provide consistently low background lev els. VOST 100 tubes are packed with 35/60 Tenax®TA that traps volatile and semivolatile compounds with a low af finity for water and methanol. VOST 200

tubes are packed with 35/60 Tenax®TA and 20/40 petroleum charcoal to trap the more volatile compounds. By placing these two traps in series during sampling you can collect up to 20 L of emissions. Sigma-AIdrich Canada Ltd. For more Information, circle reply card No. 311 56

Milltronics Echomax™ Series transduc

Heavy Duty comminution, affordable with modest maintenance and operation costs. Featuring "Kwik-Lift" and "AutoCoupling" Wet Well Removal Systems, Grind Hog™ Comminutors offer conven ient and remote removal systems for in spection and maintenance without enter ing a confined space. Motor and control options provide for flood and overload protection. Cast-iron, Stainless Steel and PVC components withstand the corrosive elements of pumping stations and treat ment plants. Existing bottom-discharge design influent works are ideal candidates for Grind Hog™ Retrofits.

ers extend the use of ultrasonic level

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circle reply card No. 313

G.E.T. Industries Inc.

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 312 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Product and Service Showcase New software for

Residential Backflow Prevention meter

spectrophotometer

Schlumberger's T-10 Residen tial Backflow Prevention me ter is the first in-

f-Recent software upgrades in the DR/4000 UV-VIS Scanning Spectrophotometer have added preprogrammed procedures for nine parameters, including nitrate (low, mid", high ranges and AccuVac® Ampule methods), chlorine, boron, lead and total nitrogen. Designed for easy installation, the new version 1.07 soft

ware can be installed by inserting a 3.5" diskette into the PC floppy disk drive slot, and downloading to the DR/4000. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 101

tegrated water measurement

and backflow

prevention de vice approved by the CSA. Uniquely adapted to fit the needs of today's utilities, it eliminates extra planning and installation time. Backflow meters reduce your total costs by streamlining operations and increas ing protection against backflow liability. Schliiiiiberger Circle reply card No. 102

4h EAGLEBROOK' INC. of CANADA

Controlling H^S in digester gas Eaglebrook's ferric chloride and ferrous chloride offer a very easy and economi cal method to control hydrogen sulfide (H,S) in a digester. A cost-effective so

lution to any H^S problem is the addition offerric or ferrous chloride to the digester sludge. If the iron salt is applied to the wastewater influent, it must work through the treatment plant's sludge cycle. This could take thirty days or longer for the iron salt to condition the plant's digester. If the iron salt is added to the sludge re cycle line, H,S reduction can occur within 24 hours. Eaglebrook Inc. Circle reply card No. 103

Corrosion protection systems

Vortex mixing system

Solutions' advanced ultraviolet disinfec

Denso Tape and Profiling Mastic pro vides long-lasting corrosion protection for buried pipes, flanges, valves and fit tings, that is easy to apply. No abrasive blasting is required, nor any special equipment or training. The system is more cost-effective than paints, with no

tion system for inactivating Crypto sporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in

90 for cold-applied petrolatum tapes.

clean water. Safe Water Solutions

Denso North America

"The Crypto File" is now available

Circle reply card No. 104

Circle reply card No. 105

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in bio-solids storage, anaerobic digesters, flow equalization, aerobic di gesters with supplemental air, leachate systems, and other situations where sol ids suspension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Inter mittent operation saves up to 90% in power consumption; no need for sched uled maintenance on equipment inside storage tanks; multiple tank mixing us ing a central pumping facility; the opera tion is not dependent on tank levels. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 106

Noise control panel systems

PCB-free Toronto

Analysis Systems

A compilation of test results on a new technology for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium is available from Safe Water Solutions, L.L.C. "The Crypto File®" contains data from independent testing performed by Clancy Environ mental Consultants, Inc. on Safe Water

VOCs. It meets AWWA Standai'd C217-

^^toronto hydro Eckoustic® Functional Panels can quickly add sound absorption to compressor rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms. In administrative areas, work can be car

ried out more efficiently with EFFs pro viding acoustic control. Positioning EFPs outside a facility can provide excellent acoustic screening. The noise arising from generators can be absorbed by EFPs, reducing the area's db level. Eckel Industries

Circle reply card No. 107

Great news for Toronto Hydro custom ers! Toronto Hydro and Eco Logic have joined forces to eliminate your PCB-contaminated material. Toronto Hydro's reputation as a leader in managing PCBs dates back to the early 1980s. In fact, we've transported more PCBs than any municipal utility in Canada - accidentfree. Ontario-based Eco Logic has de veloped an award-winning PCB-destruction process that converts PCBs into methane and other reusable products.

ECO LOGIC-0#0 Toronto Hydro Circle reply card No. 108

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

The 50th anniver

sary edition of Hach's Systems for Analysis catalogue features many new products for water quality testing, in cluding the DR/ 4000 Scanning UVVIS Spectrophoto meter,the DR/2010 Datalogging Spectro photometer, and several new methods for

simplified analysis. The catalogue is avail able in English and French. A compre hensive Web site has been launched at

http://www.hach.com. Literature re quests, quotation requests and technical questions can also be handled via the new Web site. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 109 57


Product and Service Showcase Self-cleaning UV technology

Floating aerators

pabilities, are encased in compact enclo sures powered by 24 vdc. These motion sensors are easily installed and require no maintenance. Degremont Infilco

Building on Trojan Technologies com mitment to provide innovative cost-effec tive solutions to environmental problems, the System UVTOOO''''^ has been designed to address the operational limitations of conventional low-intensity UV disinfec tion systems,particularly in treating lowquality wastewater, and in minimizing UV lamps for high volume treatment fa cilities. Trojan Technologies

Circle reply card No. 128

Circle reply card No. 129

Framco Oxygun''''^ SelfAsphating Roating Aerators provide an efficient method of aerating tanks, basins, and lagoons for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The low cost, easy-to-install aerators disperse atmospheric air below the water surface using a unique impeller and diffuser system. An electric motor drives the self-cleaning maxi flow impeller,forcing liquid at high speed past three air ports. ABS Pumps Circle reply card No. 130

STOP Zebra Mussels

Leak-free piping system

Influent-cleaning system

Self learning motion sensors

Motion-Expert safety devices are de signed to protect moving or rotating equipment by detecting loss or reduction of motion. Bxtemally mounted on non magnetic troughs, they detect movement of shaftless conveyor spirals or other ob jects at speeds from 2 ft./min. and fre quency of 1 pulse every 2 min. Sensors and controllers, with self-calibration ca

Sandale Utility Products Inc. spe cializes in Drisco-

pipe leak-free piping systems, an

AMIAD® automatic self-cleaning filters to 14" with unlimited flow capacity. Long-life 316L 4-ply screen technology filters to 10 micron. Suction scanner

cleans every square inch of filter element with no interruption of flow. Less than 1% flush flow rate and very low pres sure drop saves water and energy. Tem porary or permanent major plant and fire water supply,recycling, effluent,cooling and process water. R.M.S. Enviro Solv Inc.

affordable

polyethylene pipe which outper forms steel pipe in almost every cat egory. Driscopipe piping systems are ideal for oil, gas, potable water, indus trial, municipal, mining and tele communications. This piping system has exceptional strength even when buried at depths of over 100 feet and is corrosion resistant. Sandale Utility Products

Circle reply card No. 132

Circle reply card No. 131

The BioGuard™

System signifi cantly reduces municipal wastewater treatment

costs

and

im

proves plant op eration by remov ing unwanted sol ids from the influ ent stream. The screened solids

are then washed to virtually eliminate fecal matter, and finally compacted to reduce the volume for disposal to landfill. Further benefits are the minimizing of odours and insect problems due to the totally enclosed system design. Farkson Corporation

Circle reply card No. 133

Pipe within a pipe

A personal commitment

TDG act & regulations on CD-ROM Danatec has re

leased a complete up-to-date text of the Transporta tion of Dangerous Goods Act and

Regulations on CD-ROM. This

Each U-Liner® coil is manufactured to

specifications for each project by CSR Pipeline Systems. U-Liner is made of pure, high density polyethylene. It is nonjointed for leak proof, unrestricted flow, and is designed for direct burial. Its de sign life is 50+ years; it is highly resist ant to harsh chemicals and is available

from 6" to 18" diameters.

CSR Pipeline Systems Circle reply card No. 170 58

At BOVAR Waste Management, we all proudly stand committed to environmen tal protection. Our Swan Hills Treatment Centre is a world leader in handling a wide range of wastes...and each and every

employee is dedicated to that leadership. We're working hard to ensure the great outdoors remain great. Confidence is our never-ending commitment. BOVAR Waste Management

highly interactive CD was designed with ease of use in mind. The unique Quickcheck screen allows for the search and display of Documentation,Labelling and Placarding information. Simply buy a book or CD and we will answer any Dangerous Goods, WHMIS or Waste questions at no charge. Danatec Educational Services

Circle reply card No. 172

Circle reply card No. 171 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Product and Service Showcase Extended aeration system

Denitrification system

Emergency response training

m Unlike the stop-and-go flow in conven tional SBRs, flow, and processing through Austgen-Biojet's Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System

(ICEAS®) is continuous. All processes are performed in a single basin. A con tinuous supply of carbon to the biomass is provided throughout the aeration, set tling and decanting phases. No added chemicals are needed. The ICEAS sys tem cuts aeration costs by up to 50%. Austgen-Bipjet

The Carrousel® denitIR™ System with Integral Anoxic Reactor oxidizes carbon aceous BOD, ammonia and organic ni trogen; reduces nitrite and nitrate nitro gen; restores alkalinity; recovers chemi cally bound oxygen; and reduces or elimi nates alkali addition. The modified Car

rousel basin features an integral anoxic reactor. Eimco Process Equipment

Circle reply card No. 173

Circle reply card No.174

Centrifugal blowers

Compression-type fire hydrants

have

'new'

'new' surge relief valve design. They are ULC Approved

liver over 43,000 scfm of air to a dis

charge pressure of approximately 9.5 FSIG for the activated sludge process. Process variables are constantly moni tored and used as feedback to control the

air output from the blowers, by modulat ing the pneumatically controlled inlet butterfly valves. Hoffman Industries Circle reply card No. 176

that you can react quickly and appropri ately to emergencies which affect com pany operations. Danatec Circle reply card No. 175

FroMinent Fluid

urethane valves and a

Four 900 HF Hoffman Multistage Cen trifugal blowers in operation at a major Canadian wastewater treatment plant de

to-follow format, this ERF will ensure

Chemical metering

Terminal City's C7I and C71F compres sion fire hydrants now

This low-cost "self-directed" Emergency Response Plan (ERF) consists of a 139 page,3-ring binder with multiple tabs and an easy to use computer program,allow ing the user to build the plan chapter-bychapter. Written in a non-technical,easy-

Controls' new Ml

chemical metering package allows for the safe and easy in tegration of an entire metering pump sys tem into any appli cation.

The MI

and are Made in

comes standard with

Canada to AWWA

pressure

Standard C502-85.

valve, calibration column,and suction

They can be supplied to depth of bury, and pumper thread is site-specific to area of installation. All working parts are easily accessible for inspection and service,

relief

and discharge mani folds as stock items.

without excavation.

Coupled with FroMinent's extensive metering pump line, capacities of 20 to 633 litres per hour can be achieved.

Terminal City Iron Works

FroMinent Fluid Controls

Circle reply card No. 141

Circle reply card No. 142

High-rate clarifier

Packaged Sewage Pumping System

Internet Site

830 nvT)

610 mm

ITT Flygt Canada has set up a new Internet site that provides a wealth of in formation on submersible pumps and agitators. It features international case stories and useful engineering tools. Al ready available to registered users, is the site's databank,the dimensional drawings of over 300 pumps and agitators. This program greatly simplifies pump station design work. The site can be viewed at: www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt Circle reply card No. 143

The Ultrapulsator® Flocculator-Clarifier is a very high-rate clarifier which com bines the advantages of a highly concen trated and homogeneous sludge blanket and internal sludge recirculation with polishing action of tube settling modules.

Settling modules are sloped at 60° to per mit evacuation of sludge settled on the bottom of each tube. There are no at

tachments within tubes that prevent sludge from settling. Modules improve sedimentation process in clarifiers. Degremout lufilco

Circle reply card No. 144

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Fackaged Submersible Fumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 145 59


Product and Service Showcase Power WWTP simulation

Monitoring reports

Screening machines

on a PC Hydromantis has ported its 1 W~i GPS-X model lili ling and simu

use with all 900

lation software

Series Samplers

i-

American Sigma's new InSight soft ware program has been designed for

to the PC run

ning under Microsoft Windows NT. With the GPS-X development system, the en gineer builds a plant model by graphi cally selecting and hnking processes from a library of 220 mechanistic models. Dynamic simulation and calibration tools improve the model's accuracy. Once the model is built and calibrated, the engi neer interactively simulates the dynam ics of the plant for efficiency. Hydromantis Inc.

Circle reply card No. 110

Biofiiters

and Flow Meters.

Derrick multiple deck machines are uti lized for a wide range of screening ap plications. The double deck design is used in cases where the finer screen deck

must be protected from coarse oversize particles of a heavy oversize load. This double deck arrangement assures control led product specifications in industries where quality and production are criti cal. Derrick Corporation

InSight is a DOS based program, designed to work in a Windows en

vironment,for all levels of computer us ers. Sigma samplers, flow meters, and rainloggers are displayed on a tool bar for easy setup and data retrieval. Multi ple channel logging including flow, rain and water quality can be overlaid on graphs for detailed analysis. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. Ill

Circle reply card No. 112

Membrane technology

Cathodio protection/ corrosion control

Biofilters have a long history in Japan and Europe as industries' air purifier. The unique innovation by MGL is the secret of the design. The design controls the temperature and moisture - winter and

ZENON have developed a unique, cost-

Interprovincial Corrosion Control, the

effective, hollow fibre membrane named

Canadian Distributor of the MAXMAG

ZeeWeed''^^. By inserting ZeeWeed™

Magnesium Anode, offers customized services throughout the process of cathodic protection/corrosion control, in cluding initial surveys, system design, engineering services,follow-up monitor ing and system maintenance. The

modules into an existing plant, any tank

summer. The results are evident in the

can be turned into a reliable membrane

biofilter media lasting 50% longer before it is replaced. No gas escapes or cavitation problems that are suffered by the competitors. Constant electronic moni toring produces the required govemment reports and management control. MGL Circle reply card No. 113

filtration unit. ZeeWeed™ based water

Water quality monitors

treatment systems use ultra low pressure, thereby reducing both capital and oper ating costs. ZENON has a variety offlex

MAXMAG is manufactured to meet

ible forms to meet all client needs.

ASTM Standard B843-93, Grade MIC.

Zenon Environmental

Interprovincial Corrosion Control Circle reply card No. 115

Circle reply card No. 114

Screens for water/wastewater/

Valuable tool for engineers

sludge

The 9th edition of

^ ^ SoreenlngB

the Concrete Pipe Design Manual, produced by the

handling * device

t-W T ■^^31 .tCrW.L.

American Conf

d

Non-fixed

laminae

rotation

With the HP Wallander STEP SCREEN^

IBR offers the potable water industry accurate on-line and bench-top, multi channel particle counting instruments developed specifically for the water treat ment industry. These systems consist ently achieve accurate, repeatable and excellent resolution ratings,including the highest concentration limits available(to 25,000 per ml). IBR Circle reply card No. 116 60

for intake water/wastewater/sludge, stepnotched laminae rotate relative to adja cent fixed blades achieving all in one; solids separation, solids advancing, sol ids dewatering, and screen self-cleaning. Among the Step Screen's benefits are: high open area (to 60%); tolerance to sand; high solids removal efficiency due to 1, 3 & 6 mm slot opening with finer capability in blanketed regime. Dagex

- ~

Crete Pipe Association, contains all the technical

data and design aids engineers need when specifying concrete pipe. It also eliminates the lengthy computations that are sometimes required without the use of design aids. Hundreds of tables and figures cover the hydraulics of sew ers and culverts, live loads and earth

loads, supporting strengths and supple mental design data. AGFA

Circle reply card No. 118

Circle reply card No. 117 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Product and Service Showcase Secondary Containment Deck

Indirect design method Design

9

Data

Number 40 from the

American

Concrete Pipe As

IWR4I TECHNOLOGIES

LTD.

sociation allows

Spill-KillerÂŽ Secondary Containment Decks provide safe, reliable storage and spill protection for 55 gallon drums. The base and grate are made of polyethylene, which has excellent resistance to most

chemicals, and the grating system allows spills to drain into the base. The entire deck sits only 3 3/8" off the ground al lowing for easy on-and-off movement of drums. Each deck holds up to eight 55 gallon drums. M.J. International and Associates, Inc. Circle reply card No. 119

Ultrasonic level and flow measurement

designers to take advantage of the indirect design method using four new Standard In

stallations. Engineers can calculate the load on the pipe (soil, live, etc.) and de termine what class of pipe from ASTM C76(AASHTOM170)is required. This allows engineers to design the pipe with out "directly" designing the reinforcing steel. ACPA

Circle reply card No. 120

Oil/grease and solids interceptors

interceptor series

urement system

is a new line of

specially de signed to meet the

tor which satisfies

applications. This proven unit combines Milltronics' advanced Sonic Intelli

genceâ&#x201E;˘ echo processing with non-con tacting design and corrosion resistant components to provide reliable, lowmaintenance operation. Typical applica tions for the MultiRanger Plus include: Lift station pump control. Open channel flow. Milltronics

ACG Coalescer

OGC multi-cell

functional meas

needs of water

systems rWR Technologies is a leading designer, manufacturer and installer of dual phase extraction and treatment systems with vast experience in tackling the most chal lenging of remediation projects. This proven technology is used to extract soil vapour and liquids using a liquid ring pump. IWR systems are skid or trailer mounted with optional water and vapour treatment. IWR Technologies

The Proceptor

Plus is a multi

and wastewater

Extraction and treatment

Circle reply card No. 121

The MultiRanger

iBrnr

1-800-781-8750

oil/grease separa a typical munici pal requirement for the use of multi-stage interceptors. The larger OGC units (>1000 IG) are geared towards heavy food processing, industrial operations and custom wastewater treatment applications. The smaller units (<500 IG) are designed to replace typical box style interceptors. Stormceptor Canada

Circle reply card No. 123

Circle reply card No. 122

The ACG Coalescer employs the basic principle of coalescence to speed up the process of gravity separation. Special oilattracting media draw oil particles out of the water. Virtually self-cleaning, the ACG Coalescer requires little mainte nance once initial adjustments are made. Its modular design also allows the addi tion of filtration devices to remove other

contaminants, such as light fines. The unit's only external requirement is com pressed air. Geneq Inc.

Circle reply card No. 124

Gravity-flow pipe

Submersible pumps

IPEX Ultra-Rib

Amacan K,Amacan

pipe can be used

P/PNT and Amacan

to convey storm

M/SNT are sub

water in urban ar

mersible

eas where tight joints are re quired. Ultra-Rib can also be used

as piping for storm water management applications where water is temporarily stored under ground and then released at a controlled rate. Where groundwater recharge is re quired, perforated Ultra-Rib is also avail able. IPEX Ultra-Rib pipe can also be used to convey domestic sanitary sew age. Its tight joints provide protection against infiltration and exfiltration. IPEX Inc.

Circle reply card No. 125

pumps

New CPPA technical booklet

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association

(CPPA) now has

with a tubular cas

available for no

ing design. Typical for KSB pumps are the different types of impellers and the

charge, the tech

various

material

combinations. Im

portant advantages offered by the Amacan series are: space saving assem bly, tubular casing adapted to suit each construction, minimum installation peri ods, low expenditure for construction costs, and they incorporate all important characteristics required to ensure maxi mum operating safety. KSB Pumps

nical

booklet

Chemical

and

Abrasion Resist ance of corru

gated polyethylene drainage pipe. Chemical and Abrasion Resistance sets

forth independent data demonstrating corrugated polyethylene pipe's resistance to a variety of acidic substances and abra sive conditions. CPPA

Circle reply card No. 127

Circle reply card No. 126

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

61


Product and Service Showcase Pollution prevention The utility-pat ented

On-line hydrocarbon monitoring

Membrane technology in industry

Storm-

ceptor consists of two sections: a

"separation/stor age" chamber at the bottom and a

"bypass" chamber Storm-

The new PL-100 fluorometer can be used

water flows into

as a portable or fixed monitor to meas ure the concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water. By changing the optical kit of the analyzer,the PL-100 can monitor chlorophyll-A or fluorescent tracers. The standard range for PAH is 0 to 10,000 ppb. On clear water the preci sion is better than 5%,with a repeatability of 3 ppb or higher.

Chemical plants, hydrocarbon producers, pulp and paper mills, utility plants and other large industries are no longer con tinually regenerating their ion exchange systems, thanks to Zenon membrane technology; it takes multiple stage treat ment systems and replaces all but one with a single step, membrane based proc ess which delivers consistent 18 meg ohm water with virtually no waste and with 10 percent of the chemical require

GeoStructure Instruments

ments. Zenon

above.

the upper bypass chamber, is diverted by a U-shaped weir down a pipe, and into the "separation/holding" chamber. Up to 80% of the inflowing fines and coarse sediment load settles down to the floor

of the chamber, while the petroleum prod ucts rise and become trapped. Stormceptor Canada Circle reply card No. 146

Circle reply card No. 147

Circle reply card No. 148

Sludge disposal

Portable ultrasonic flow meter

The Monorake® Clarifier is a rectangu

A Fluosolids® Combustion System is

lar tank machine with balanced raking mechanism suspended from traveling carriage spanning tank. It is equipped with positive drive with no submerged bearings, and is adaptable to any exist ing rectangular concrete tank with mini mum modification. It is expressly de signed for installations where conditions dictate the use of rectangular tanks. GL&V Process Equipment Group

ideal for disposal of most biological wastes, noxious liquid and semi-solid wastes. Fluid-bed reactors offer greater flexibility, fuel economy, lower mainte nance and are more compact than other types of combustion. The system can be used for combustion of refinery wastes, activated sludge, pulping waste and other organic wastes. GL&V Process Equipment Group

The Portaflow 300 brings new simplic ity to the non-invasive measurement of liquid flow. This clamp-on ultrasonic

Circle reply card No. 149

Circle reply card No. 150

Circle reply card No. 151

Liquid Sampier

Advanced wastewater

Area velocity flow meter

Rectangular clarifier

The Environmen

J

treatment

now available in a

flow meter that is

only 4 1/2" in diam eter and weighs 8 lbs. Add the easy setup

then

and data retrieval

Searching for adequate solutions for the

device that is able to be used in remote

municipal wastewaters, AQUARIUS apphed its thorough knowledge of biologi cal processes to the UNITANK® system. It can be used for the biological treatment of a variety of wastewaters, including those from the agrofood, biochemical, chemical, textile, paper and petrochemi cal industries. Aquarius Circle reply card No. 153

commodate different water levels or a

stainless steel sleeve for ground level in stallation. DTec Corporation Circle reply card No. 152 62

HEATH Consultants Limited

advancements are

seals itself off to preserve the sample in tegrity. It is a mechanically automated locations without the use of a power source. Portable and light weight(under 10 pounds), it is easy to install with ad justable unit mounts to a "T" post to ac

pipe, with digital readout of linear or volumetric flow rate and total integrated flow in either imperial or metric units. Output includes an RS-232,4-20mA and pulse that allow the user more versatility in storing and downloading data.

American Sigma's Doppler technology

tal Liquid Sam pler was devel oped to collect the "true" first sample of liquid that ar rives at the ap pointed sampling location,

instrument measures from outside the

advanced treatment of industrial and

features, and collec

tion system crews will be able to sig nificantly improve their monitoring pro ductivity. Designed with Sigma's one megahertz Doppler and active probe elec tronics, the low profile depth/velocity probe causes a minimum flow distur bance reducing maintenance frequency. Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 154

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Environmental Law

By Donna S.K. Shier*

Buyer beware - there's no relief for purchasers A contaminated land policy and law update

Recentlegal and policy devel

that solvent contamination in the

opments highlight the poten tial liability of landowners

groundwater rendered the property "val ueless". Moreover, the metal stamping company vendor did not tell the pur

who take title without ad

equate investigation of property. The Ontario Court of Appeal recently dis missed a developer's appeal, despite the vendor's non-disclosure of groundwater contamination. The developer had closed the deal without conducting an environmental site inspection. More over,in early July, this year, the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy (MOEE)released its proposed policy on liability for contamination, maintaining that innocent purchasers should be jointly and severally hable for clean-ups. Policy Will Hold Innocent Buyers Liable Ontario's MOEE posted proposed amendments to its important Compli ance Guideline on the electronic Envi

ronmental Registry in July. Intended to clarify MOEE's policy on liability for clean-up, the amendments declare that MOEE Directors will rarely exercise discretion to exempt parties from liabil ity. Directors will not consider liability allocation factors - principles of fair ness applied by the Environmental Appeal Board and the courts to limit par ties' liability. Fairness principles were also enunciated in a report on contami nated land liability issued by the Cana dian Council of Ministers of Environ

ment(CCME). The MOEE objected to the fairness principles during the devel opment of the CCME document, and continues to favour a 'deep pockets' approach. The amendments propose that only innocent previous owners, and in some cases lenders, municipalities and pub lic authorities, will be exemptfrom joint and several liability. Irmocent purchas ers will be strictly bound by the princi ple of caveat emptor - buyer beware. According to the MOEE's proposal, exempting innocent purchasers could give vendors incentive to ignore remedi

chaser that the land was contaminated

with waste solvents, and that vendor's

Donna Shier

The amendments state that, once a

existing decontamination pumping sys tem was likely inadequate. The developer lost at trial and appeal levels. Despite this loss, however, the developer can start a new lawsuit for its costs, if it ever remediates the property. The Ontario Court of Appeal's deci sion in this case is interesting for sev eral reasons. The Coiut said:

clean-up order is issued,"named persons â&#x20AC;˘ purchaser's right to claim rescission are free to negotiate matters of 'fault' and damages for contamination was lim and apportionment of liability among ited where purchaser failed to investi themselves. Failing a settlement of such gate before closing; issues they are free to take legal action â&#x20AC;˘ contamination that did not interfere against one another and have matters of with the existing industrial use of the apportionment of liability and 'fault' property did not amount to a defect in adjudicated by tbe courts." This ap title; and proach is consistent with the MOEE's â&#x20AC;˘ failure to refer to purchaser's residen desire to minimize its involvement in tial rezoning plans in the agreement of clean-ups. The Guideline for Use at purchase and sale was fatal to purchas Contaminated Sites in Ontario (Febru ary 1997) makes owners and their con sultants certify that remediation activi ties meet provincial standards-in most cases the MOEE will not be involved. The amendments confirm that the

MOEE will continue to resist a fairness

or adjudicative role in facilitating co operation or allocation of liability among potentially liable parties. MOEE officials argue that it is too difficult and costly to conduct investigations and al locate liability in a procedurally fair manner. Following budget and resource cuts, and a hard line it has followed for

years, the MOEE is unwilling to con sider the British Columbia approach. In B.C.,contaminated site regulations took effect in April 1997. The B.C. environ ment ministry will participate in alloca tion of liability based on factors such as agreements between the parties, degree

er's lawsuit.

As noted, the Court ofAppeal did not determine who would be responsible for fumre clean-up costs. The Court implied that a future lawsuit for clean-up liabil ity could only succeed based on an ac tual clean-up or a government order. Any fumre proceedings to sort out clean up liability will certainly be lengthy and complex. Facts: Purchaser Tony's bought an in dustrial property down the street from Tony's warehouse, in September of 1988. Vendor's property was contami nated with waste varsol it had dumped before the solvent was classified as a

registerable hazardous waste. At the time the property was sold, vendor was operating pumps and purge wells on the property to reduce offsite contamination. Purchaser closed the deal without

conducting any physical inspection, en

of contribution to the contamination, and

vironmental site assessment or standard

parties' due diligence.

ation, hide evidence of contamination

Case Dismissed When Purchaser

and leave the taxpayer, instead of the purchaser, on the hook.

Failed To Inspect Civil litigation over contaminated land liability can be complex and lengthy. \n Tony's Broadloom & Floor Covering, the condominium developer

soil testing. Two months after closing, Tony's discovered the varsol contami nation. Despite the contamination, Tony's continued to pursue its plan to redevelop the property and applied for rezoning. It abandoned its plans for resi dential development in 1991 becanse of

lost its bid for rescission of the contract

the recession.

*Outerbridge Miller Sefton Wlllms & Shier. Donna Shier is certified as a Spe cialist in Environmental Law by the Law Society of Upper Canada.

and damages. The developer claimed

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

Vendor did not disclose the fact that 63


Environmental Law, conr the property was contaminated to pur

Vendor Did Not Disclose Contamina

that can be said on this record Is that

chaser. Moreover, vendor did not no

tion: Purchaser alleged that vendor had a legal duty to disclose the contamina tion before the sale was completed. Its allegation of duty was based on two grounds; contamination was a latent

the presence of the contaminant could significantly Increase the costs of developing the property for use as

tify purchaser of a letter and report it received from its environmental consult ants. Both documents were received af

ter the sale agreement was signed, but before the closing. The consultants

defect in title which vendors are bound

to disclose; and vendors should be le

warned vendor of increased risk of off

side contamination, possible malfunc tion or inadequacy of the remediation system and concerns about discharges into the municipal sewers. Vendor re ceived the report a few weeks before closing, did not show it to purchaser. Vendor gave the report to the MOEE af ter the deal had closed. The MOEE ap parently advised vendor that the prop erty should be cleaned up. No clean-up order was made at the time of the ap peal. Failure To Notify OfPlanned Change Of Use: The Court found that Tony's did not tell vendor of its plans to rezone the property and build a multi-storey residential condominium. There was no

evidence that the industrial use could not

gally bound to bargain in good faith. Was Contamination A Defect?: Pur chaser alleged that the mere presence of

although the MOEE and the City of nation for several years, "Neither had taken any steps to order a cleanup or curtail the industrial use of the prop erty..." According to the Court, "the appellants [Tony's] got exactly what they bargained for-industrial land. The appellants' undisclosed intention to use the property for residential purposes does not alter the bargain appellants

"hazardous industrial waste" on the

property rendered it either dangerous or

...only innocent previous owners, and in some cases

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potentially yielding as much as $24,000 - 48,000 per year. The Court stated: Counsel referred to no statutory or

made,or create a latent defect in the in

other authority which suggests that the presence of a contaminant char acterized as hazardous under a regu lation compels the conclusion that the continued use of the property for In dustrial purposes Is dangerous or Il legal. [Purchaser's] own evidence established that the property had value In Its existing state. The most

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The respondents[vendor] had no rea son to believe that the appellants[pur chaser] would use the property for any purpose other than an Industrial one. The question of whether the contaminant constituted a defect In

the property must be considered In this context. This record offers no

support for the contention that the contaminant Impaired the continued use of the property for Industrial pur poses. The appellants got exactly what they bargained for - Industrial land.

Latent Versus Patent Defects: Despite its finding that the contamination was not a defect, the Court examined the al

ternative. Mr. Justice Doherty (who wrote the decision for the three-judge panel) stated: "If I am wrong and the presence of the contaminant was a de fect, I agree with the conclusion of White J. [the trial judge] ... that the de fect was a patent one." Patent defects are those which would

be evident on reasonable inspection. A seller is not bound to point them out to a buyer. Latent defects are those not readily discoverable by a reasonably vigilant purchaser. A vendor may be found liable for failing to disclose la tent defects.

Even though purchaser in this case may not have seen the pumping instal investigation would have caused pur chaser to enquire about the pumps and pipes,leading to information on the contarrtination. Vendor was not liable for

failing to unilaterally disclose it. Duty To Bargain In Good Faith: The Court called the existence of a duty to bargain in good faith between armslength third parties in a commercial real estate deal "debatable." Nevertheless,

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be continued. The decision notes that Etobicoke were aware of the contami

a residential condominium.

dence of bad faith or misrepresentation. According to the decision: [Vendor] gave [purchaser] ready ac cess to Information concerning the property, even to the extent of perContinued on page 71 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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Toxicity of Biocides to Fish Acute toxicities of four biocide com

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For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa

■ • • ■

tion on Water Quality, Environmen tal Technology Centre, Environment Canada, 3439 River Road South, Gloucester, ON K1A0H3,Tel:(613) 990-9849, Fax:(613)990-2855.

Hydrogeology and Groundwater Investigations Environmental Site Assessment/Auditing Remediation and Decommissioning Environmental Management Systems

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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property. I cannot agree that the fail

Wingham,Ontario

physical harm to persons or property, a vendor may have a duty to warn pur chasers. The Court found no evidence

of danger arising from the varsoi con tamination in this case.

property tor Industrial purposes, and which could have been obtained by [Tony's]through their own reasonable

Future Lawsuit For Clean-up Costs: The Court emphasized that the dismissal of the Tony's lawsuit for rescission and damages did not affect vendor's poten tial obligation to fund a ciean-up in the

efforts, constitutes bad faith.

future. The Court stated:

ure to disclose Information which did not affect the continued use of the

The Court did not penalize vendor for withholding the consultant's letter and report which vendor received after sign ing but before closing, although the in

The appellants [purchaser] have taken no steps to remove the con taminants and no cleanup has been

trolling the contamination would likely increase. However, the Court clearly stated that liability for ciean-np costs

ordered. It and when the appellants undertake a cleanup, or a cleanup order Is made,the respondents'[ven dor] liability tor costs attributable to that cleanup may have to be ad dressed in the appropriate torum.

would have to be dealt with in another

This action does not address those

formation stated that the costs of con

lawsuit, if a ciean-np was ever con

potential obligations.

ducted or ordered.

The MOEE could issue an order to

Duty To Warn Of Dangerous Condi tions: The Court briefly referred to an other common law disclosure duty. Where conditions may pose a risk of

147 North Street West

(519) 357-1960

For more information, circle reply card No. 222

Continuedfrom pg. 64 mitting Investigations which were not required by the agreement of pur chase and sale. Furthermore, they had no knowledge that[purchaser]in tended to radically alter the use of the

1'800'663'3B49

Davidson "Since 1900"

vendor to clean up the property. The Environmental Protection Act extends

ciean-np liability to former owners. However,as an "innocent purchaser",the

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

developer could also be subject to an order, and would be jointly and sever ally liable according to the Compliance Policy amendments discussed above. Vendor's liability for a voluntary ciean-up by purchaser is by no means clear. The Court of Appeal has already found that vendor satisfied its obligation to deliver a property legally fit for in dustrial use. Absent a government ciean-up order against vendor, Tony's would have to pursue a complex law suit, with no guarantee of success. Finally, even if the MOEE made a cieannp order, it might elect to do so against the purchaser only. The moral of this story is clear. Caveat emptor. Do your environmen tal investigations before yon close the deal. Make sure the contract gives yon the right to investigate and terminate, and make sure yon have the results of your investigations before the time ex pires. Litigation over contaminated land is not only expensive, its results are un certain. ■ 71


Stormwater / Vapour Recovery

By Bill Stelnburg*

How one military base fought pollution

Canadian Forces Base Borden

covery systems. There are five islands with nine dispensers which can only be accessed with digital swipe cards, im proving customer service and allowing computerized monitoring offuel inven tory. All underground piping is double-

recently cleaned up its fuel storage and dispensing sys

tem and, at the same time, set a new standard for environmental re

sponsibility in the Canadian Forces/ Department of National Defence. In mid-February, CFB Borden, located approximately 100 km north of Toronto,Ontario, began operating a new centralized fuel depot on base, estab

the stormwater treatment device is large

occur In the area, the

enough to produce nearly 100 percent removal for the 545 square metres of the depot's cement pad. Despite CFB Borden not being bound by the Vapour Recovery System Regu lations applicable to the Southern On

stormwater treatment

device Is large enough to produce nearly 100 percent removal for the 545 square metres of the depot's cement pad.

vehicles. The new system replaces four different depots, which have been or will be closed, and will be responsible for dispensing nearly 2 million litres offuel a year (estimated at 1 million litres of gasoline, 750,000 L of diesel fuel and 110,000 L of coloured diesel per year). The new facility, constructed by Nortuk Contracting Ltd, of Streetsville, Ontario, is comprised of a compound

tario Corridor, which will come into ef

walled - only the pipes running to the dispensing islands are underground. The facility has an isolated storm drainage system, including a Stormceptor STC

with five 45,000-litre Convault above-

750 series stormwater quality treatment device to filter out any potential fluid or particle pollutants before the runoff en

ground tanks equipped with vapour re''CFB Borden Environment Office

cased in poured concrete, making them fire and impact resistant. Internal alarm systems are in place to detect any leaks. The underground piping has alarms in

place for leak detection as well and, if any spills or leaks do occur in the area,

....If any spills or leaks do

lished to serve a fleet of more than 1,000

ters a nearby watercourse. The Convault storage tanks are en

fect at the end of this year, base engi neers decided the new depot should use vapour recovery systems as part of its overall effort to improve its level of re sponsibility as an environmental citizen. Also, each of the decommissioned

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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For more information, circle reply card No. 206(See page 17)


Emergency Responses

Plastimet fire In Hamilton left toxic

residues and unanswered questions

When the thick cloud of rise from the industrial

using the 7,400-square-metre building last year for storing, and then recycling, off-specification auto parts such as dash

and residential area of

boards.

toxic smoke started to

the north end of Hamilton, Ontario,

Wendy Carruth and Mike O'Brien had a panoramic view of an environmental crisis. The owners of O'Brien's Grillhouse were at a scenic lookout on the

brow of Hamilton Mountain on the early evening of July 9, when they

Plastimet did not need an

MOEE certificate of approval for the plastics recycling operation. Although the Hamilton-Wentworth Regional Public Health Department is stressing that there should be no longterm health effects from the Plastimet

witnessed the start of a fire that

consumed an estimated 400

tonnes of plastic at the Plasti met Inc. recycling plant on Wel lington Street North. "All of a sudden, we saw a small mushroom cloud (of smoke) that kept getting big ger", Ms. Carruth said. "As the cloud rose, you could see the or ange flame. Then there was a white flash, like lightning. You could hear it pop."

inter-relation. This would eliminate

many artificial boundaries between municipal agencies. Potentially hazard ous situations could be flagged by both concemed municipal departments and private citizens for corrective or preven tive actions.

In many cases, high-risk areas are obvious to knowledgeable and experi enced personnel but often are dealt with slowly due to bureaucratic red tape. Eor instance, the Hamil ton Eire Department and the owner of Plastimet were work

ing to resolve outstanding fire code issues, including the lack of a sprinkler system. Without early fire suppression,the cause of the fire may never be re

m

vealed, due to the intense heat

and the heavy equipment used to move burning materials to aid fire-fighting. Even though the plastics on

The view from the mountain

the site are not considered to be

brow takes in the lower portion of the City of Hamilton with its

a hazardous material by them selves, the byproducts from

mix of businesses, residences,

chemical reactions and fires

hospitals as well as light and heavy industry. The view in

may automatically change the status of a fire (the event) to a

cludes the western end of Lake

hazardous material incident.

Ontario and even the CN Tower

While all of the chemicals

in Toronto. The fire took nearly four days to extinguish. The re percussions of this emergency will be felt for a longer period of time. Even though the fire

produced by this fire may never be known, the list includes: dioxins, carbon monoxide, ox

ides of nitrogen, vinyl chlorine, benzene, hydrogen chloride and involved a non-hazardous ma polycyclic aromatic hydrocar terial, the byproducts of the Lone fire-fighter battling flames beside verticai tank. Photo bons (PAHs). Hydrogen chlo -John Rennison, the Hamilton Spectator. burning plastics created a haz ride is transformed immediately ardous-materials incident which was not fire, there are many fire-fighters, police into hydrochloric acid when it combines appropriately recognized by response officers and residents who have reported with water moisture (i.e, air, fire-fight personnel. a variety of ailments linked to exposure ing water, moisture on the skin and in On July 11,the City of Hamilton de to the smoke. the lungs). clared a state of emergency as it organ As the debate and controversy con In terms of health effects, there were ized a one day evacuation that affected tinued, it became increasingly evident immediate signs to warn emergency approximately 650 people. It is ironic that a stronger environmental manage personnel and residents of the toxic dan that Hamilton's last state of emergency ment system is needed to identify the gers. The smoke smelled of burning also concemed this same property which risks of activities, products and services plastics, according to eye witnesses. The had been occupied for decades by in a community. A central authority is black smoke of unbumt hydrocarbons Usarco, a metal recycling firm which needed to take immediate and coordi (soot) is an indicator of potential carci closed in 1990. In 1993, children broke nated action when high-risk situations nogenic and toxic conditions. The veri into the closed plant and made off with are identified. fication of polyvinylchloride and polya quantity of mercury. Such a proactive system would fit the urethane burning was another warning Plastimet, which rents the site, began ISO 14001 environ,mental management for toxic conditions. system(EMS)approach because the in The colour of the smoke, the size of ternational standard considers all aspects the column and the knowledge that this *Spill Management Inc., Stoney Creek, ON of environmental management and their was a plastic recycling operation should

74

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


By Cliff Holland and Charles Ross* have been major factors in the "size-up" of the risks and hazards of this hazard ous materials incident. The Hamilton area was under a thermal inversion

which held the toxic cloud over the site

for some time. Due to varying weather conditions, it would be difficult for

emergency responders to position them selves safely. In the early stages of this emergency, air monitoring may only have provided indicator information as to the potential health risks. As part of the initial re sponse, human senses (i.e, smell, sight, taste, irritation), combined with com mon sense could be just as valid for de cision making. If responders wanted to err on the high side of caution, there was enough justification to advise residents to evacu ate the area that evening. Residents were advised to stay in their homes and keep their windows shut. News reports the next day stated that "emergency work ers said that there was no health risk."

Considering the situation, the Hamilton fire-fighters, with the help of heavy equipment from Stelco's Hilton Works, did an excellent job in suppressing the fire. Within days of the fire, however, fire-fighters were reported to be com plaining about minor ear, nose and throat irritations, fatigue, headaches, respira tory problems, vomiting and nausea. There were also complaints about burn ing sensations in their ankles and feet. Inhalation and ingestion problems exist only because response personnel did not choose to use both primary(Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) and secondary respiratory protection (car tridge respirators). Fire-fighters were well protected when they wore their specialized bun ker gear and supplied air. However, news photos and reports have confirmed that there were periods when response personnel working in toxic conditions were not protecting the entry routes to the body at all times. The atmosphere included hydrochloric acid vapours strong enough to corrode fire equipment and bum skin and lungs. It is difficult to convince those who

do not work with chemicals on a regu lar basis to maintain appropriate levels of personal protection at all times. Peo

ple who are trained in handling small chemical spills and even fires involving hazardous materials may not understand the seriousness of toxicity until it be comes an issue in a fire of this magni tude. The dose/response relationship

Aerial view of fire. Photo - Gary Yokoyama, the Hamilton Spectator. between the amount of chemical and the

short-term exposures during the Plasti-

exposure time is often overlooked in

met fire.

minor incidents.

The health department has also said that Hamilton's water supply has not been affected by the run-off offire-fight ing water contaminated with heavy met

To err on the high side of caution, responders should consider changing supplied air cylinders, hooking onto purified-air supply lines or donning car tridge respirators to maintain respiratory protection. A total of about 200 fire-fighters and 100 police officers rotated duties throughout the emergency. All were asked to fill out Workers Compensation Board forms to establish their history in the event of future health problems. According to public statements, police officers were not issued respiratory pro tection until the city declared the state of emergency and residents were ad

als and unburnt hydrocarbons. Accord ing to the health department, levels of toxic materials in the storm sewer out flow to Hamilton Harbour were low.

Hamilton's drinking water is taken from Lake Ontario.

As of press time, there was pressure for a public inquiry from local politi cians, MPPs, residents of the area and

environmental organizations such as Greenpeace. An inquiry would focus on long-term health impacts. It would deal with recycling operations and enforce

vised to evacuate.

ment of the National Fire Code. Other

Public information and warning sys tems for residents living in the area of the fire scene will be ongoing issues. Many have complained of nausea, sore throats and stomach upsets. They have also complained about information on the health risks that appeared contradic tory and confusing concerning issues such as their exposure to dioxin. The health department has announ

issues will include responsibilities for the costs offire-fighting and who is pay ing for the site cleanup. Also likely to

smoke and soot from the fire."

gency.

People likely have a far greater health risk from being exposed to the emissions and contaminants from major industries over a long period of time than from the

tragic fire is: "Be Prepared". For more information, circle reply card No. 207

be scrutinized will be the role of the

Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy in providing mobile air moni toring services. However, inquiries should also ex amine:

â&#x20AC;˘ Procedures for identifying and deal ing with public concerns; ced that it will monitor the health status of people who live near the fire. The â&#x20AC;˘ The capability of emergency respond health department is very likely correct ers, their equipment and training for in its statement that long-term (chronic) dealing with a wide variety of industrial incidents; health effects "are not expected to re sult from the brief time that residents â&#x20AC;˘ Proactive measures that people may were exposed to the chemicals in the take in the event of an industrial emer

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

The lesson to be learned from this

75


Pulp & Paper Focus

By Jean J. O. Gravel*

Pulp mill sulfurous emissions are treated by regenerative thermal oxidation

Public concern over health and

discomfort from traditional

odorous fumes from kraft pulp mills has led, over the past few years, to major reductions in emissions of Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) com

pounds from the black liquor recovery boiler.

The other smaller volume

sources in the mills are now coming under regulatory requirements. Non-condensable gases (NCG), vented from many discrete process units and tanks in the plant, contain mainly hydrogen sulfide, methylmercaptans, dimethyl sulphide, dimethlyl disulphide, plus various amounts of methanol and turpentine vapours. As these NCGs are very toxic, corrosive and potentially explo sive, special attention must be given to the design of collection, conditioning and disposal equip

compounds (YOG), major improve ments have been incorporated into the RTO equipment to protect it from acid NCGs. corrosion in the low temperature zones Technical developments in the Re generative Thermal Oxidation (RTO) and to achieve a rapid response to the fre quent changes in the concentrations of process promise a much improved ther mal efficiency for a reduced fuel cost, organics, sulfur compounds and water in a rugged and otherwise well proven vapour in the fumes, as they are vented from batch digesters, blow tanks, evapo incineration method. In fact, fuel con sumption in a typical case has been re rators, and other equipment in pulp mills. achieve the temperatures required for

total destruction of low concentration

duced to 20% of that calculated for a

The first RTO for this service in

direct fired incinerator performing the same duty. The RTO process uses three heat re covery chambers filled with ceramic nodules which are preheated before in troducing the fumes for treatment. The

Canada has been in operation since January 1997 in the kraft pulp mill of Cascades East-Angus,in Quebec;it was supplied by Biothermica International inc, of Montreal(QC). It was designed NCGs vented from digester vents, blow tanks, evaporators, and con centrator. Design flow rate to the RTO is about 15,800 cu.m/hour

(9000 s.c.f.m.) A TRS destruction efficiency in excess of 98% is in

ment.

dicated.

Various combinations of scrub

bers, gas coolers or preheaters are sometimes used for conditioning the gases. The substantially com plete elimination of odours and toxicity requires the total oxidation of all TRS compounds to sulfur di

A detailed evaluation of the

process is in progress and will be reported on later. Special precautions against sulfuric acid corrosion included

preheating and purging by recirculation of reheated flue gases, to gether with acid proof lining of

oxide. Where local ordinances

limit the discharges of sulfur diox ide, this can be followed by scrub bing of the combustion gases. A number of options are avail

vulnerable metallic surfaces. Par

able to effect the oxidation or in

cineration of NCGs in the plant. On the one hand, they can be in troduced in existing combustion System in operation. units of the plant such as the lime kiln, the recovery boiler or power boil fumes are passed over the first bed of ers. In practice, this has been found to hot nodules to be heated on their way to sometimes affect the processes in vari the combustion chamber where the pol ous ways or to add corrosion and safety lutants are totally oxidized at a tempera risks to the operation. ture of about 800°C. The hot gases are On the other hand, dedicated incin then channelled through a second bed eration units are often preferred. They of nodules wherein their heat is trans can be designed to meet exact needs, ferred to the packing before their dis located more strategically with respect charge to the atmosphere. A portion of to the sources, and operated and main the cooled clean gases is returned to the tained independently. Traditional dedi third bed for purging off any dirty fumes cated oxidation processes such as flares, remaining after a bed is switched peri direct fired incineration and recupera odically from entry to exit duty. This tive incineration demand appreciable changeover of bed duties is done by amounts of costly auxiliary fuel, to means of automatically sequenced mo torized valves.

*Vice-President, R&D, Biothermica International Inc. 76

to treat the collected and conditioned

To deal with NCGs containing acid fumes together with volatile organic

ticular attention was also given to process control, monitoring and alarms by means of a P.L.C. It is expected that forthcoming TRS emission regulations for pulp and paper mills in Canada,and par ticularly in the United States, can readily be complied with, using the RTO process in view of its energy efficiency and an established record of high avail ability in other industries such as organic coatings and asphalt roofing paper satu ration.

In summary, new and improved equipmentfor the dedicated incineration of NCGs from pulping and liquor processing operations is now available to the industry. The RTO process pro vides a safe, effective, reliable and en

ergy-efficient alternative to meet the in creasing demands for reduction of emis sions of toxic and odorous TRS com

pounds to the atmosphere. For more information, circle reply card No. 208

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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Spills Containment

By Bonnie Gray*

Canadian firm contains huge oil spiii in Northern Russia

In the fal of 1994, the KharyagaUsinsk pipeline suffered a major failure, releasing more than 100,000 tonnes of oil into the fro

zen tundra of the Republic of Komi, 1,400 km. northeast of Moscow. The

spill, three times greater than the Exxon Valdez, was regarded by environmental groups worldwide as one of the worst disasters of its kind. When this serious

oil spill threatened to contaminate a local river system in northern Russia, Canadian expertise was at the forefront of an international rescue effort.

The oil spilled into the fragile Arctic environment after temporary dams and dikes - built earlier that year to contain massive amounts of leaking oil from pipes - burst. Without immediate ac tion, the oil threatened to seep into the local Kolva, Usa and Pechora rivers and,

ultimately, the Barents Sea. It took more than three months for

the international community to get in volved. "The Russians are fiercely proud and independent, stemming from years in an insular system, and were therefore reluctant to ask for help," says Gordon Rozon, Principal Consultant, Human Environment, at the Calgarybased engineering consulting firm AGRA Earth & Environmental(AEE).

When Russian officials finally did appeal for assistance, the World Bank called in AEE to inspect the damage. The company had conducted previous

Feeder pipeline crossing over oii-contaminated stream.

from the Canadian Embassy in Moscow, team members worked into the night to prepare an action plan alerting Ottawa to the crisis.

"We were up against a significant time window," recalls Rozon. "The oil had been pooling in the tributaries of the Kolva, and the Russians had set up tem

porary structures to contain the oil. In frigid temperatures the oil had congealed and was sufficiently contained but come spring, floods would cause the tempo rary structures to give way, spilling oil into the river system." Within days, the Canadian govern ment authorized the release of $1 mil

environmental assessment work on the

lion from the Canadian Trust Fund to

Kharyaga-Usinsk pipeline for the Komi Arctic Oil Project and on behalf of Erench and American oil companies,and was quite familiar with the area. Its mission was to fly to the site for a quick overview investigation and make recom mendations for a successful cleanup op

the World Bank to begin the initial study. Immediately, AEE formed a multi-disciplinary emergency re sponse team to assess the environmen tal and socio-economic impacts of the spill, the state of the existing pipeline, and the Russian plans for spill con tainment and recovery. Battling Arctic winter conditions, low light and severe logistical support

eration.

"We knew the area very well and we knew the pipeline very well because the other projects we had worked on fed oil into it," says Rozon. "The environmen tal integrity of that pipeline had always

constraints, the AEE team worked 59

restoration.

AEE initiated direct community in volvement in the project - probably a first in Russia. Through a needs survey and public meetings, nine aboriginal communities along the river down stream of the spill area were able to ex press their concerns, resulting in in creased attention being devoted to en vironmental protection. International contractors and local subcontractors were hired to oversee the

construction of uniquely-designed dams as well as Russian-pioneered siphondams. The dams were maintained

through the breakup period. The Alaskan oil spill contractor worked closely with AEE during the cleanup. Through international efforts led by a Canadian company, the people of the Komi Republic were spared an ecologi cal catastrophe. Reindeer herds and fisheries resources were protected, altemative access to clean drinking water was provided to downstream villagers and forage was provided for grazing ani mals to replace grass in areas contami nated with oil. A new pipeline is being constructed to prevent future leaks. The project earned AEE the 1996 Emerald Award for Environmental

The Canadian team was alarmed at

consecutive 18-hour days to produce a three-volume appraisal report contain ing detailed recommendations on how to properly contain the spill. It was only

the situation in the Komi Republic and

after AEE finished its work that the

for Environmental Excellence, as well

returned to Moscow with word that im

World Bank approved a $120 million

as the Canadian International Develop

mediate action was necessary. With help *Manager, CIS Programme,

(US) loan to the Russian Federation. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development added an additional

AGRA Earth & Environmental

$25 million to the project for pipeline

been an issue for us."

78

Excellence from the Alberta Foundation

mentAward from the Alliance of Manu

facturers & Exporters Canada. For more information, circle reply card No. 210

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


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New York subway authorities

The VakTrak vacuum train created for the New York subway system.

have decided to act against

accumulations of dirt and lit

ter. With the help of two French companies, they have just ac quired a high performance vacuumcleaning train, called the VakTrak. Rub bish not only gave an unsightly appear ance to the underground system, it

Defrance, managing director of Neu Transfair. At the rate of one circuit every month or so, a train collects appreciable quantities of waste. Milan,for example, collects eighty metric tons per year. The train is equipped with an engine at each end and three coaches, with a

suction hood in the middle one,and hop pers for storing the waste in the front

caused no fewer than four thousand fires

and rear. To collect waste more effi

each year. While these small fires did not affect passenger safety, they dis rupted traffic and caused damage to track and equipment. The only solution was to clean the tracks regularly. New York City Transit (NYCT)

ciently, the hood first blows it into the air, then vacuums it up. Ducts and noz zles of various sizes, suitable for vari

ous track configurations are also avail able.

train arrived this spring and was due to

After being sucked up, the waste is trapped by a cloth filter and accumulates in hoppers that hold fifteen cubic me

enter service in autumn 1997 after test

tres (520 cu. ft.) of material. Particular

ing. It will not be sufficient to clean all 720 miles of track, consequently NYCT has taken an option on three more trains, at(US)$10 million each. The first VakTrak cleaning train op

attention is paid to air quality in the tun

turned to automation. The first French

nels and stations. Thanks to a filter, the

tem is able to clean the whole width of

air ejected from the hood contains a maximum of three milligrams of dust per cubic metre of air. The filter itself is continuously cleaned by reverse-blast ing compressed air. Thanks to an air flow rate of 280,000 cubic metres per hour(9.9 million cu. ft.), the hood does not lack for suction power. For more Information,

the track," emphasizes Jean-Louis

circle reply card No. 213

erates in Paris. Montreal,London,Brus sels, Milan, Rome, and now New York,

have equipped their subway systems with French cleaning trains, and Seoul is now also buying one. "No other sys

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Wastewater

Membrane technology treats wastewater at two BC locations

In 1996,faced with the need to ex

pand its resort, and the desire to preserve the natural pristine waters

and wildlife of the surrounding area, Mt.Washington ski resort initiated an environmental compliance program to meet these ends.

They installed a new wastewater treatment system, to serve the resort's

and provide clean water for local fish

In 1996, the Capital Regional Dis trict (CRD) Board

populations.

of

British

The plant is expandable from

Columbia awarded a contract to Zenon

144,000 to 200,000 gallons/day and is housed in a 60' x 80' building. By in creasing the discharge capability to the stream, the planning of further resort expansions has been made possible.

Municipal Systems Inc. to perform a major upgrade of the Ganges Wastewater Treatment Plant on Saltspring Is land, near Victoria. In the first phase Continued overleaf

445 chalets and condominiums, utiliz

ing ZenoGem® membrane bioreactor technology. It is producing an advanced tertiary quality effluent which far ex ceeds current Ministry of the Environ ment standards The Ministry has ap proved immediate discharge of the total volume of treated water back to the

creek to balance off upstream with drawal of drinking water for the resort Ml. Washington Ski Resort Influent

BOD3

Effluent

250 mg/l <5 mg/l 250 mg/l <5 mg/l 50 mg/l <1 mg/l

TSS NH3

PH Turbidity Phosphate Fecal Coliform

>5, <9 <0.5 NTU <0.1 <1000 CFU/100 ml

Type of Application Ski Resort • Application: Sanitary • Wastewater: 200,000 GPD • System Size To stream • Discharge: • On Line:

December 1996

Visit

Environmental OCMIU

Science &

Engineering Magazine on the

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For more information, circle reply card No. 267 (See page 17)

81


Wastewater, com' of the seamless upgrade, existing tank age was utilized for installation of the patented ZeeWeedT"^ membranes to re lieve the load on the RBC. The effluent

from the facility now exceeds the Min istry of Environment standards for ma rine outfall. The ZenoGem® technol

ogy allows the capacity of the current plant to be increased by 300% and elimi nates the need for major capital expan

*• >«»«

sion.

The upgrade resulted in substantial cost savings to CRD. Many of the com ponents for upgrading the facility were Ganges Wastewater Treatment Plant Influent

Effluent

BODj

300 mg/l <5 mg/l

TSS Tl\l

160 mg/l <5 mg/l 50 mg/l <1 mg/l

l\IH3

PH

>5, <9

Equipment room at Mt. Washington Ski Resort.

Fecal Conform

<1000 CFU/100ml

already in place and no costly sewer extensions were required. Operating costs were lowered through reduced maintenance and sludge disposal re quirements. Phase II, which is planned for early 1998, will see the decommissioning of

tional tank for influent equalization in series with the existing influent equali zation tank. Phase III (1999), will in

the RBC and the utilization of an addi-

circle reply card No. 274

Type of Application • Application: Municipal WWTP • Wastewater: Sanitary • Phase 1 Size: • Phase II Size: • Phase III Size: • On Line:

50,000 GPD 134,000 GPD 200,000 GPD December 1996

volve the addition of membrane cas

settes to handle the predicted increase in flow volume.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Water Treatment

By Tom Vetterly*

Particle counting - new weapon in the fight against lethal waterborne diseases

Severaloutbreaks of waterborne

ztHmi

Concentration Fimits are defined as

disease spawned the use of par

the concentration at which there is a

ticle counters in the water treat

greater than 10% probability that more than one particle will be counted simul taneously. At this limit, actual concen trations are understated and particle dis

ment industry. It was first thought that particle counters would be the magic bullet that would prevent future outbreaks. Now,particle counters are no longer thought of as the magic bullet against waterborne disease but as an excellent operational tool for optimiz ing filter plant performance. Its accept ance as a technology is no longer in doubt,although issues still remain which cause many to take pause. Criticisms about particle counting include instru ment accuracy, calibration and mainte nance. If the right particle counter is chosen, these criticisms do not have to be tolerated.

Instrument Accuracy Particle counters came into use 15 to

tribution overstated. Errors from con

centration typically only occur in raw and settled waters. Under these condi

tions, manufacturers offer special sen sor selections to address these dirty waters.

Tom Vetterly. Photo - Tom Davey While resolution is understood to be

an important constituent in determining accuracy, it is rarely understood or prop erly defined. Resolution is the Coeffi

use of a water weir. These flow fluc

cient of Variance of a known latex

microsphere of exact size divided by the

20 years ago in the hydraulic, pharma

Coefficient of Variance of that same

ceutical and semiconductor industries.

microsphere size as determined by the particle counter. (Figure 1). Precision in sizing is important when setting the lower size limit since typical particle count distribu

Not long after their inception the indus tries began to develop standards, round robins and other specifications to ensure Resolution

tions follow a 1/x ^ to 1/x

«]00

^ distribution. (Figure 2). In this Figure an error

3500 3000 -

2 2500

similar magnitude as the relationship is linear.

Using a solid state flow transducer with no moving parts to determine the real-time flow rate, multiplied by the time of the measurement which is meas

ured to within milliseconds by the mi

MIcrospheres

ing 2 microns will auto matically introduce a

croprocessor in the on-line box, allows

10% error into the actual

Figure 1

particle count > 2 um. The counting error asso ciated with defining the 10 micron size range is much less than the 2 or 3

correlation between instruments. A

micron boundaries.

Another important factor in deter mining accuracy is Counting Efficiency. This term, typically expressed as a per centage, describes how many particles are actually counted in

accurate determination of the sample volume and consequently the particle concentration. The flow monitoring er ror is estimated to be less than ± 2%.

Resolution, Counting Efficiency, Flow Monitoring and Concentration Limits are all terms that help define the accuracy of the system. This accuracy, often called count correlation, has been

demonstrated in a recent field study at

the Metropolitan Water District in Los Continued overleaf

Typical Particle Distribution

a known concentration

solution.

Counting

2500

Efficiencies of 99% 2CXXD -

should be expected and defined as an important criterion in particle

11500

count selection. Inde

o 1000

pendent users have re ported that some com mercially available par

*lnter Basic Resources Inc.

ticle counters are as low

Represented in Canada by Metcon,

as 30% counting effi ciency.

Concord, Ontario

correlation values with an error of

of± 0.1 microns in defin

Particle Count

similar push for accuracy simultane ously developed in the pharmaceutical industry. Within the pharmaceutical in dustry, sensor specifications such as USP<788> were developed that define sensor resolution as one important cri terion for determining accuracy. Essen tially, this standard, promulgated by the FDA for pharmaceutical injectables, re quires conformance to ASTM F658-87 and a 10% resolution specification. The water industry is now beginning to see the importance of such a specification as particle counting becomes an ac cepted technology.

tuations are due primarily to head loss across many types of filters. The mean of these fluctuations is probably no greater than 20% yet such fluctuations will affect particle concentration and

Actual

reading

M crons

Flow monitoring also ensures accu racy in measuring particle counts/ml. Experience has shown that filter flow fluctuations can range from 0 to 130% of the set flow value, regardless of the

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

3

500 ■ "

Figure 2

83


Water Treatment, cont' Angeles. In this field study 21 separate sensors are compared with a single sen sor. The results show a deviation of ~

bration in use including primary, sec ondary and calibration verification. Primary calibration of sensors using

2.5% for all sensors. Moreover this de

NIST certified PSL standards and the

viation should be consistent for all sen

moving window calibration described in

sors manufactured to the same specifica tions. An example ofthe results obtained from the data is shown in Figure 3.

ASTM F658 ensures variances between

Calibration

Once a particle counting system has been purchased, the end user will want to ensure accuracy by periodically cali brating the particle counters. There are currently three different levels of cali

sensors no greater than 10% (assuming <10% resolution and 99.5% counting efficiency). A primary calibration is typically performed by sequentially in jecting a series of standards into the flow of the sensor and defining the pulse height these spheres produce. Typically a factory-trained professional performs

SinniSSi!^

this procedure on the customer's site. Secondary calibration is a method of calibrating one sensor to a traceable material as described previously and subsequently calibrating all other sen sors to this golden sensor. This method is inherently flawed and is not recom mended. By forcing a sensor to count exactly the same as another, the size in tegrity is compromised. In other words, while the master sensor may measure counts at 2 um, the secondary sensor could conceivably now measure counts at 2.5 um. The only way to ensure that particle counts/ml greater than a specific size are correct is to perform a primary calibration on each sensor.

Calibration Verification is a proce dure that allows water plant personnel to verify that their current particle count calibration is valid or is in need of cali

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All particle counters consist of an orifice with windows that allows the flow of water in one direction and laser

light to shine in the other. As insoluble iron, manganese and calcium salts be come deposited on the windows, the laser loses its ability to detect particles. This film buildup can usually be re

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allows the laser to detect particles again. The time span between cleanings varies

from once a day to once a year, depend ing on the PPM levels of salt in the water.

WATER ON-LINE ANALYZERS NITRATE.AMMONIA.ORGANICS.CHLORIDE.OIL-IN-WATER The DATALINK analyzers are microprocessor based optieal measurement systems designed to continuously monitor water quality for specific contaminants. Fluorescence detection is used by the new PL-100 Fluorometer making it ideal to measure the presence of hydrocarbons in water. The remaining four members of the family apply the UV absorption technology. All five monitors share common design features such as fast response, on-board data logging, 4-20 niA and RS-232 outputs, no drift, non contacting optical sensors, usage as a fixed unit and portability for field use with an on-board 12V battery. Optional equipment is also available. APPLICATIONS

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Additionally, upstream or settled waters tend to require greater cleaning due to coagulant use. After making the decision to monitor upstream waters, be careful to select an appropriate sensor with a high concentration limit and large orifice size. Upstream sensors should have orifices that can flow at very high flow rates,>100 ml/min and have large orifices that can be cleaned by a small pipe cleaner. These large bore sensors are not as accurate in resolution or count

ing efficiency, but may provide a more practical solution for ease of cleaning. Software

Software is the most apparent part of the system to the end user, and provides the main interface with the particle count system. The software should not only provide real-time particle counts, but turbidity, and other data important for making intelligent process control de-

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Water Treatment cisions. It should also

COUNT CORRELATION

have the ability to pro

MAIN UNIT vs UNIT 301

vide at least 6 to 12 months of historical

900000

data. If the system is large, maintenance of

aooooo

the data can also be an

700000

issue.

Beyond ease of us ing the software and ac cess to historical infor

sooooo

500000

O 400000

mation, the software should have built-in

♦ 2um 300000

P—Sum ■ ■ A- iSum

functions that verify data integrity. The soft

X

♦ ISum

ware should monitor

not only the flow through the particle

2um

K- Sum

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 28 27 28 29 30 31 32

RUNS(1 minute each)

counter sensor, but also

Figure 3

the sensor baseline and

sensor voltage. Having these built-in functions provides the user with confi dence in the data and eliminates the need

to go to the pipe gallery to verify parti cle counter operation. Summary In general, particle counters should be selected based on their accuracy as determined by sensor resolution and counting efficiency. Other factors that

add to accuracy include flow monitor ing, primary calibrations, and in the case of upstream particle counters, concen tration limits. Do not compromise on precision or surreptitiously believe that it is unattainable. Recent installations

prove that 5% variance between particle counters is a reality. When using parti cle counters to determine raw or settled

water, be sure to select an appropriate

count data and have a data strncmre that

provides long-term historical data. For more information, circle reply card No. 275

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sensor based on your water source and coagulants' usage. Compromising accu racy may be appropriate in this case if maintenance is reduced. Finally, software should be selected to be functional, pro vide feedback and validation of particle

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85


P&P Monitoring

Environmental Effects Monitoring at Canadian puip and paper miiis

In May 1992,EnvironmentCanada

(EC)and the Department of Fish eries and Oceans(DEO)amended the Pulp and Paper Effluent Regu lations to require that all mills conduct an "Environmental Effects Monitoring" (EEM) program. The objective of the program is to assess the adequacy of effluent regulations for protecting fish,

appropriate and comprehensive design for the first-cycle EEM study. 2. Undertaking of the EEM Study. The second phase of the EEM study involved the completion of the approved field study, analysis of the results and preparation of the final report. All study reports had to be submit ted to EC before April 1, 1996.

fish habitat, and the use of fisheries re

Mill Sites

sources in the receiving environment. EEM studies are to be conducted every three years to document the spatial and temporal response of benthic inverte brate and fish communities as mill up grades and process improvements are implemented. The EEM studies were conducted in

two phases: 1. Preparation of the EEM Study design. The first phase was to collect and review relevant background information that would lead to development of an *Beak International Incorporated

BEAK conducted studies at 25 of the

134 mills to which the regulation ap plies, ranging in location from B.C. to the Maritimes. The studies included

sublethal effluent toxicity tests, fish population surveys and benthic inverte brate community assessments. Al though the majority of the receiving environments studied were river systems (18 of 25), some were located in lake, estuary and ocean environments.

Methods

Effluent Sublethal Toxicity Tests Mill effluent samples were collected on a quarterly basis over a period of one year. The tests were conducted with ei ther marine or freshwater species, with a plant, invertebrate and fish species tested at each mill (Table 1). Laboratory tests were used to char acterize mill effluent toxicity in terms of the degree and temporal variability of toxicity. The data were also used as an indicator of potential effects in the environment based on effluent disper sion/dilution characteristics.

Areas of potential effect were based on the lowest IC25 value (i.e., the con centration causing 25% inhibition in the

Of the 25 mills studied, 15 had some

measured response relative to controls) selected from toxicity test results for the three different species tested. Areas of mill-related effects in the receiving en

form of secondary treatment and 10 had only primary or no effluent treatment at the time of the study.

served among either benthic invertebrate communities or fish populations that

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By P. Orr, M.Sc., C. Russel, B.Sc., D. Farara, B.Sc.* Table 1: Sublethal Toxicity Test Methods Receiving

Test Description Fish early life stage development test Invertebrate reproduction test Plant toxicity test

Test Species

Environment

Acceptable Methods

Marine or Estuarine Freshwater

Sheepshead minnow or inland silverside Fathead minnow or salmonid spp.

US EPA 1991 Environment Canada 1992

Marine or Estuarine

Echinoids (sea urchins or sand dollars)

Environment Canada 1992

Freshwater

Ceriodaphniadubia

Environment Canada 1992

Marine or Estuarine Freshwater

Champla parvula Selenastrum capricornutum or

US EPA1991 Environment Canada 1992 or APHA1992

Lemna minor

could be reasonably associated with the

to a reference area community on the

mill.

basis of invertebrate abundance,number

Benthic Invertebrate Surveys of taxa and correspondence analysis In the first-cycle EEMs, most mills (CA)axis scores to identify differences were required to conduct a broad,"ex that may be mill-related (p=0.05). tensive survey" to identify the spatial Adult Fish Survey extent of effects. Extensive surveys in At each mill, two species (sentinel) volved collection of duplicate samples were targeted as required by the regula at 12 stations or more,spread among ref tion. The premise of the regulation was erence and effluent-exposed areas of that understanding the health of efflu similar habitat. At mills with sufficient ent-exposed fish relative to reference historical data, an "intensive survey" fish would provide an indication of po design was employed in the first-cycle tential effects at the population level and EEM study, involving comparison of among the broader fish community. reference, near-field and two far-field areas. At least three stations were sam

pled per area. For both survey types, the benthic communities in effluent-ex

posed areas were statistically compared

Measurements were collected on

each fish (age, length, weight, liver weight, gonad weight and egg number and size)to assess survival, growth, and reproduction. These data were used to

conduct statistical comparisons of efflu ent-exposed and reference fish. Dioxin and furan concentrations

were analyzed in at least one 10-fish composite sample from both reference and effluent-exposed areas at mills us ing chlorine-based bleaching. Results

Sublethal Toxicity Tests Based on sublethal toxicity test re sults and effluent dispersion, character istic zones of potential effects on biota were identified at 15 mills(60%). In all cases where toxicity results suggested potential for biological effects, effects were observed in the receiving environ ment. However, the observed effects

could not be specifically attributed to Continued overleaf

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ou*re probably right. For more Information, circle reply card No. 272 (See page 17)


P&P Monitoring, cont'd. Table 2: Number of Mills that Met

Requirements of 20 Males and 20 Females of Each of Two Fish Species in Reference and Exposure Areas Males

Females

One

17

15

Species

(68%)

(60%)

Two

4

7

Species

(16%)

(28%)

direct toxic effects of effluent exposure on biota as opposed to effects related to organic and nutrient enrichment or or ganism avoidance. At 6 mills (25%)toxicity results did not indicate the potential for instream effects and yet effects were observed in the field, probably due to influences other than toxicity (i.e., such impacts would not be reflected in laboratory ef fluent toxicity test results). In no cases did toxicity tests suggest an instream effect where none was ob

served, indicating a low risk to mills of a false positive result. Benthic Invertebrate Survey Benthic invertebrate surveys gener-

ally provided a good indication of the severity and extent of mill-related ef fects. Effects among benthic commu nities were observed at 88% of the mills

studied and, while causal relationships could not always be conclusively estab lished, the observed effects were con sistent with those typically associated

Table 3: Number of Mills that Obtained a Sufficient Number of Fish

(10) in Each Area to Complete Statistical Analyses Males 23

20

Species

(92%)

(80%)

with pulp and paper mills (increases in effluent-tolerant species and decreases in intolerant species, increases in spe cies with "gathering" or "grazing"feed

Females

One

Two

11

10

Species

(44%)

(40%)

treatment. The effects of historical sol

to conduct statistical analysis(Table 3). Previous studies conducted at pulp mills noted increased condition(weight and length), increased liver weight, de creased gonad weight and decreased fe cundity in effluent-exposed fish.

ids deposition were difficult to distin guish from current mill influence at

few differences were observed between

ing habits, etc.). Mills with only pri mary treatment systems generally showed greater effects on benthic com munities than those with secondary

some sites.

Adult Fish Survey Very few mills were able to achieve the minimum sample sizes stipulated in the regulation(20 males and 20females of each of two sentinel species at both reference and effluent-exposed areas) after a "reasonable" fishing effort(usu ally 7 to 9 days)(Table 2). However,

The Environmental

In the 25 EEM studies conducted,

reference and effluent-exposed fish. Where differences were observed, they did not consistently reflect the observa tions made in previous research studies and were often inconsistent between

species and sexes(Table 4). Many fac tors besides mill influence could con tribute to differences between reference

and exposed fish including genetic dif

sufficient numbers

ferences between stocks, micro-habitat

(19)were collected

differences (e.g., type and availability

Liquid Sampler Automated sampling at a fraction of the

AQME

cost of electronic devices The Environmental Liquid Sampler was developed to collect the "true" first sample of liquid that arrives at a specific sampling location, then seal itself off to preserve the sample Integrity. It Is a mechanically automated device that can be used in remote loca tions without a power source. This eliminates the need to person ally respond to a storm event immediately, allowing retrieval at a

Canadian Environmental Auditing Association National Conference (Co-sponsored by the I'Assodation quebecoise verification environnementale)

more convenient time.

October 27 and 28,1997

Applications • Storm water runoff from industrial sites, feedlots and hog confinement operations. • Sampling discharge from sewage treatment areas. • Stream bed monitor rise due

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Economic versus environmental

performance Certification of professional foresters Aspects of ISO 14000 development Life cycle assessment Corporate Environmental reports

The conference registration package and program will be forwarded to all CEAA members and interested

environmental auditing practitioners soon. In the meantime,please contact John Pawley,Executive Director, CEAA at:(905)814-1160, ore-mail: execdirector.ceaa® sympatico.ca for further information.

For more information, circle reply card No. 282 (See page 17)


P&P Monitoring, cont'd. Tabie 4: Comparison of EEM Fish Survey Results to Results of Previous Research Studies % Cases Where Measured'

Primary Treatment Oniy

Aii Miiis

Responses Previousiy increased^

Decreased^

increased Increased Decreased Decreased Decreased

19 35 17 5 21

14 7 13 11 16

Body Weight (at Length) Liver Weight (at Body Weight) Gonad Weight (at Body Weight) Egg Size (at Body Weight) Egg Number (at Body Weight)

Difference"

increased

Decreased

No Difference

53 52

15 41

61 68 58

23 11 11

11 0 12 11 11

56 48 58 78 67

No

Associated with Miiis

The sum of responses for each parameter (totai increased, decreased and no difference) may be iess than 100% as anaiyses at some miiis produced a significant interaction term which preciuded inciusion of those data in this format. ^Statisticaiiy significant increase among effiuent-exposed compared to reference fish. ^Statisticaily significant decrease among effiuent-exposed compared to reference fish. "No significant decrease between effiuent-exposed and reference fish of food), other confounding influences (e.g., dams,other industrial discharges), and fish migratory patterns. To identify whether differences be tween reference and exposed fish pop ulations are ecologically meaningful ne cessitates a better understanding of the range of natural variability and popula tion consequence of the parameters that were measured than is currently avail able in the scientific literature. For ex

ample, does a 10% decrease in gonad

size in an effluent-exposed population relative to a reference population indi cate a decrease in the reproductive po tential or overall health of the exposed population, or does it represent natural spatial variability for this species? Consequently, except for extreme cases (e.g., where fish were absent in the effluent-exposed area), it was usu ally not possible to determine whether effluent-exposed fish populations were adversely affected relative to reference

fish populations. Dioxin levels in fish tissues at mills

using chlorine-based bleaching were well below guidelines for human con sumption. Comparison of EEM results to measurements made in previous years showed improvement attributable to re duced use by the industry of elemental chlorine.

References available on request. For more information,

circle reply card No. 276

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89


Drinking Water

Modelling of chlorine decay in municipal water distribution systems Chlorine decay mechanisms within distribution systems are complex, but are generally modelled by reactions within the bulk fluid, pipe wall and res ervoirs. The bulk decay rate is dependent on factors such as temperature and water chemis try, while the pipe wall decay is related to material, with older

cast iron mains having the high est chlorine decay due to cor

<ai mgn

WATER TREATMENT PLANT

Municipal drinking water disinfection using chlo

rine is one of the stand

ard methods used world

system.

In order to continue to provide a high quality, safe water supply to its custom ers, the Region commissioned a Water Distribution System Chlorination Study Previous sampling in the distribution system revealed low chlorine residuals in the northern and downtown portions of the city. The study reviewed the ex tent of chlorine decay within the system and recommended an action plan to im prove day to day operational chlorine

warm.

for the analysis of both hydraulic and water quality performance. It solves system pressures and velocities as well as the fate of dissolved substances us

or chlorine residuals.

Niagara River in the southern portion of the City is treated and pumped through a transmission system to the local distribution system. Both an elevated tank and a large in-ground storage/ repumping facility balance sup ply and pressure within the

(Proctor and Redfern Limited, 1997).

bution system to prevent bacteriologi cal regrowth. But a common problem in distribution systems is loss of chlo rine residual as water travels through the system. This is most acute during early autumn months when consumption has decreased from summer peaks, while water supply temperatures are still

(Rossman,USEPA, 1994), was selected

Ontario. Water taken from the

American Water Works Association sidual be maintained within the distri

most effective improvement plan. The widely accepted USEPA water distribution system model, EPANET

The Regional Municipality of Niagara operates the water supply and transmission system for the City of Niagara Falls,

wide to provide a safe water supply. The recommends a detectable chlorine re

ous remedial measures and led to the

ing extended period simulations. An attractive feature of this public domain software is its graphical presentation of results using contours overlain on a sys tem map or time-series graphs showing parameters ofinterest, such as pressures

rosion.

0.1 to 0.2 moll

ties.

â&#x20AC;˘Provided a tool to assess effects of vari

The AWWARF enhanced version of

the software was used in the study. This version overcomes water quality reac tion limitations from the original EPANET by incorporating nth-order bulk flow reaction rates, zero or first

order wall decay rates, and an improved method of estimating chlorine wall de cay coefficients based on a relationship with pipe friction factors and generation of calibration statistics for extended pe riod modelling. During the initial study phase, an uncalibrated water distribution system model was created using EPANET. The model incorporated pumps, storage, all trunk mains and local mains modelled

The study focused on the trunk watermain system to define its capabil ity to provide a minimum free chlorine residual of0.2 mg/1 to the local systems,

as equivalent pipes. Based on this mas ter model,sub-models incorporating ad ditional detail can later be developed to further assess water quality behaviour within local system mains. An uncalibrated model, using key parameter estimates, enabled a prelimi nary system performance assessment, which identified areas exhibiting low

residuals.

This problem is also related to sys tem age and physical condition and raw water quality. Depending on the resi dence time of water storage, reservoir operation may worsen this condition as aged water is released into the system. For a substantial portion of the year, these reservoirs, which provide fire flow and emergency capacity, are operated to recirculate water and not specifically to supply peak demands.

to ensure that a detectable residual is

chlorine residuals. These initial model

present at all locations. The process in corporated the methodology developed by the study. Characterization and Modeling of Chlorine Decay in Distri bution Systems(AWWARF, 1996). A computer model of the overall water distribution system that simulates both system hydraulics and water qual ity behaviour benefited the study, as it: â&#x20AC;˘ Defined existing conditions and prob

results provided input to select sampling sites and problem areas requiring more detailed sampling. The sampling program was con ducted over a 24 hour period at hydrants distributed throughout the system, on

'Proctor and Redfern Limited

â&#x20AC;˘ Predicted effects of infrastructure

^Regional Municipality of Niagara

changes,demands,or operations activi

lem identification.

90

both trunk and local watermains. Meas

urements taken every two hours in cluded static pressure,free/total chlorine residual and temperature. Samples were also obtained for laboratory analysis of pH, carbons, THMs and other water quality parameters. SCADA informa-

Environmental Science cS: Engineering, September 1997


Eppo Eerkes, P. Eng.^ and Harold Hodgson^ tion for pumps,elevated tank levels and treatment plant chlorine dosage pro vided boundary condition status for the duration of the sampling study. Simul taneous bottle tests were also conducted

to determine a range of bulk decay co efficients over several temperatures. The reservoir was not operated dur ing sampling so that an undistorted measurement of chlorine decay within the watermains was obtained. Separate reservoir inflow/outflow sampling was

Figure 2: Free Chlorine Residuals in Northern Portion of System -Existing Conditions (Average October Demand)

^ 0.14 ¥ I 0.10 S

0.08

0

0.06

Effect of Reservoir

Operation

f 0.04 R

0.02

12

18

24

Time(Hours)

Increase Plant Dosage to 1.4 mg/l Free Chlorine

■ f Effect of Reservoir ^

conducted to define reservoir chlorine

Operation

decay.

"o

This extensive data collection was

M o

a:

used to calibrate the hydraulic and water quality components of the EPANET model. As chlorine decay is time dependent, a calibrated extended period model was essential. Hydraulic

p

0.4 0.3

0

■| 0-2 o

5 0.1 0

s

11.

-

8

12

18

24

30

Time (Hours)

and chlorine residual calibration was

verified by comparing calibration sta

10.30

tistics between field and model data for

£ 0.25

— -X — Existing Conditions with Recommended Chlorine Booster Facilities in Place

n

the 24 hour sampling period for pump discharge and pressure, elevated tank levels,static pressure readings and simu lated chlorine residuals. Model param eters were refined to accurately predict chlorine concentrations and system hyContinued overleaf

2 0.20 S

a: 0.15 0

1 O 0.05 u.

-

6

12

18

Note: Reservoir operation from 15 to 20 hours

24

30

Time (Hours)

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997

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91


Drinking Water, cont' draulic behaviour.

While the hydraulic analysis focuses on peak demand conditions, the critical analysis scenario for chlorine decay is a low demand period, when residence time is longer, combined with elevated water temperatures when chlorine de cay is accelerated. The average Septem ber/October demand period fits these

rience, a number of improve ment options were pursued and

Figure 3: Free Chlorine Residual Contours With Recommended Chlorine Booster Locations

evaluated using the model. The results of several of these alter

natives are shown in Figure 2, which presents chlorine re sidual time-series for existing conditions and several alterna tives at a location in the north

characteristics and was, therefore, used end of the system. The figure for analysis. Once the EPANET model also shows the effect of reser was calibrated,system analysis was con voir operation on the system. ducted to characterize chlorine decay These alternatives included: within the existing system for various • Increasing plant dosage until demands and decay coefficients. Ex the required residual was ob tended period simulations were manda tained in the extremities of the tory for this type of study and simula system. High dosages were nec tions of up to 96 hours were conducted, essary, which may lead to for including simulation of reservoir opera mation of chlorine by-products. tion. • Isolating a portion of the The simulations revealed the effect downtown area to improve and of pipe wall and bulk flow decay and control chlorine feed to the area. the decrease in residuals as flow moves This benefited water quality, in a northerly direction from the plant. however it was not deemed ap For the September/October demand propriate from a hydraulic condition, only 20 percent of original viewpoint. plant chlorine dosage remained in the •Adding chlorine booster facili extreme northern portion of the system. ties, which were assessed by examining Substantial decay was also indicated in flow paths and determining the area of

aimgn ailoasmgl >a2mgil

TREATMENT PLANT osed Chlorine Booster

reservoir outflow main, adjustment to the plant dosage and prioritization of main replacement. Figure 3 presents

the downtown area where older cast iron

influence of individual or combinations

mains exist, which have a high wall chlorine demand. This is shown in Fig ure 1, which presents chlorine residual contours for the system. Simulation of reservoir operation

of booster locations and chlorine dos

simulation results with the additional

ing rates. Optimal locations were de termined that would provide acceptable consumption.

rechlorination facilities in place. Local ized pockets of low residuals should be evaluated for replacement or additional flushing. Final selection for chlorine

showed a dramatic effect on chlorine

• Rechlorination of the reservoir out

booster station sites and watermain re

residuals. The modelling delineated the

flow,thereby resulting in energy savings through reduced recirculation. •Pipe replacement, prioritized by watermains suspected of high chlorine decay. •A review of operational practices such as reservoir operation and flushing. Study recommendations included two distribution system chlorine booster

placements will be based on comprehen sive analysis using modelling, evalua tion of municipally owned properties to accommodate proposed facilities and a review of the municipality's capital works program. Water quality modelling by knowl edgeable personnel is a powerful and cost-effective tool for investigating operational issues. The benefits to water utilities are clearly revealed by model application to optimally locate rechlorination facilities, resulting in a system that will ensure the required chlo rine residuals are present, while minimiz ing cost and chlorine consumption. The study provided practical charac terization of the distribution and decay of chlorine within the system once treated water leaves the plant. The re sults of this analysis have formed a clearly defined course of action to en hance the Region's operation of the water distribution system and service to

area of influence of the reservoir.

After several hours of operation, an av erage 90 percent drop in chlorine re sidual was found within this area.

The model permitted the quick iden tification of key operational issues and factors affecting chlorine residuals. From this analysis and the team's expe

residuals and minimize overall chlorine

station sites as well as a booster on the

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1997


Life Cycle Analysis

By A. Grant Lee, MClP., RPR.*

Getting the red out with PipePac

Valuefor dol ars has become

a mantra for Canadians. Not

only is the phrase heard re peatedly, but the mantra has now become a reality as governments and businesses restructure to compete in the new economy. Anticipating a future when endusers of products would be sensitive to concepts such as life cycle analysis (LCA)of projects, along with compari

i

sons of embedment costs of buried

drainage systems, the concrete pipe in dustry developed computer software to assist designers during the planning and pre-design stages of sanitary and storm sewer projects. These programs were modified, over time, as technical para meters changed. They are now pre sented in a software package called PipePac. But having a useful computer pro gram for designers of systems, and pur chasers of products, was of little conse quence until the time was right for its application. That time arrived in 1995 when the Office of the Provincial Audi

tor for Ontario released its annual report. In it, the Auditor strongly recommended that the Ministry of Transportation (MTO)"develop improved life cycle costing procedures and incorporate life cycle costing analyses into its design and construction decisions." Life cycle analysis is an important component in the MTO's policy for engineering and construction delivery. It is a linchpin in what is now known as 'value engineer ing'. The downloading of responsibilities, and cost, to municipalities by Ontario's Mike Harris government has also under scored the importance of such software as PipePac. Budgets for capital works projects are drafted with needle-sharp pencils, and people with a gift for sort ing through detail. More than ever be fore, all aspects of a project have to be considered, including environmental

In these fiscally tight times, prema ture maintenance and replacement costs only compound the problem of finding sufficient funds for maintaining and ex panding infrastructure. Cost analyses of pipe envelopes and life cycle analyses will help to determine real costs of new projects. PipePac is a software that has merged 3EB (Three-Edge-Bearing), SAMM (Spangler & Marston Method of pipe design), CAPE (Cost Analysis of Pipe Envelope),and LCA (Life Cycle Analy sis). Merging of the programs into one

application has resulted in a uniform interface, a single database for each project, simplified use, reduced data entry, minimized errors, and standard ized design process. The software ena bles the user to design the pipe installa tion, examine the design's embedment costs, and perform a life cycle analysis without having to re-enter any data, de termined from the previous step. PipePac is available free of charge from the OCPA,and can be downloaded

from their web site at www.ccpa.com.

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93


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Innovative Canadian technology verification program launched

Canada'sEnvironmental Tech

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panies which have successfully com pleted the program. The certificates were presented at a special ceremony during the 90th Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association in Toronto, June 10.

ETV is a joint initiative of Environ ment Canada and Industry Canada, de veloped in partnership with private in dustry. It is a voluntary program de signed to give Canadian environmental technology companies an edge in the global marketplace by reassuring buy ers that the technology has been vali dated by an independent third party. Through a license agreement. Pro gram policy and general direction are the responsibility of both Environment Canada and Industry Canada. The pri vate sector provides input to government and direction through participation in

periodic performance reviews. The first ETV graduates are:

carbon contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soils,

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sludge and other solid host matrices. The hydrocarbon contaminants are re

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ing solutions in a number of food and beverage applications.

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polymers engineered to absorb, or im bibe, 15-27 volumes of organic liquid and act as a point source control system and spill immobilization product.

Windsor, Ontario Enviro Med Labs. This technology con sists offour environmental toxicity tests for monitoring the potential toxic haz ard posed by environmental samples (contaminated matrices such as food,air, water, soil, sediment, and biota) toward cultured human cells, see Environmental

St. John's, Newfoundland see Thermal Phase Separator. SCC's Thermal Phase Separator (TPS-1) is a two-staged process that utilizes indirect heating to separate halogenated hydro-

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Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1997  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1997  

Profile for esemag