Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 1997

Page 1


Science & Engineering Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air poilution & drinking water treatment

June 1997

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine p-;?-:'. '-i

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How Winnipeg faced Flood of

the Century


Pulp & paper focus - research, odour control, COD monitoring When the quality of data is somewhat strained - an editorial Treating water and wastewater at one environmental centre Canadian PCB destruction technology goes international Conference reports - WEAO, OWWA, BCW&WA

Interface level analyzer

Sludge sampler

Dissolved oxygen analyzer

The EPIC 1030 KSSM

fixed site sludge sampler, which



conforms to ISO

9001, extracts

sludges,including those with a high solids content, from flowing pipelines or through a tank wall. The pat ented positive metering system has no sensors or level detectors to foul up, and the two valves which pass the sludge are purged during samples to prevent any blockage. The 1030 can be programmed to take time- or flow-weighted samples with the option of manual sampling whenever required.

analyzer provides the ultimate level of monitoring accuracy and aeration control. It offers menu directing setup and trend graphing on the display, simultaneous DO and temperature readout on the dis play, standard automatic sensor mem brane self-cleaning, digital and analog outputs, a sensor output voltage mode, and 4 programmable setpoint relays.

Circle reply card No. 251

Circle reply card No. 252

Automatic wastewater

Portable instrumentation


for pH, ORP, SS,

Turbidity/suspended solids analyzer and sensors

o© 'ffTERfACS l.CV6l.»HAIi«ER

The new model 2511A Interface Level

Analyzer from Royce is the next natural step from the highly successful Model 2500 Blanket Level Detector. The Model

2511A is capable of having the ultrasonic speed-of-sound signal from its transduc ers changed by the user in applications where liquid mediums other than water are in use; it also has four setpoint relays which can each be used as either a "high" or "low" setpoint. Circle reply card No. 250

The Model 9200 Continuous DO

interface Levei and DO These battery op erated portable Analyzers are rugged, water proof and com pletely submers ible. They are de signed for reli able remote op eration in wastewater treatment

The BUHLER 1023 is an all stainless steel

stationary wastewater sampler, and the new est offering from EPIC. Rated for -30°C ambient temperatures,this sampler is targeted for permanent instaliation in both indoor and outdoor applications. The A.C. powered re frigerated unit can accommodate various size sample collection bottles in glass or plastic. An intelligent programmer is provided which can be off site programmed for multiple sam pling; it can also transfer data to and from the sampler's data logger facility. The pro grammer can be connected directly to a se rial printer at site,for printing of data logged in the sampler. ISO 9001 produced.

Circle reply card No. 253


plants, rivers, lakes, etc. The Model 500 pH/ORP is available with an assortment of Sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliable Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Portable Suspended Solids/Interface Analyzers are ideal for remote monitor ing in aeration basins, short term diurnal studies and laboratory applications. Each product features digital readout, micro processor based electronics with self-di agnostics. All models except for the 711

most mm

0® ®0


The Royce Model 7011 Suspended Solids Analyzer provides reliable, continuous op eration in waste treatment plants, rivers, lakes and other aqueous systems. A user friendly text screen provides menu driven setup. The instmment wiU read in either mil ligrams per liter or density percentage and is auto-ranging. With features that include insitu calibration, automatic color compen sation (Patent Pending), true microproces sor operation, and automatic ambient light compensation(Patent Pending). The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly ex perienced in effluent streams(0-500 mg/I). The Model 73 submersible sensor is for me

have analogue and RS232 digital outputs.

dium ranges typically found in aeration ba sins(0-30,000 mg/L). The Model 74 in-line sensor is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS line applications (0-80,000 mg/1).

Circle reply card No. 254

Circle reply card No. 255

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Oakville, Ontario, L6L 6K3

Tel:(905)847-2740 Fax:(905)827-6984 Internet: http://www.cancoppas.com E-mall: controls@cancoppas.com

Process Measurement - Control & Environmental Instrumentation

For more information, Circle reply card No. 256


June/July'97 Vol. 1D No. 3


Issued June, 1997

President STEVE DAVEY Publisher TOM DAVEY

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Circulation VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Asst. KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Aian Church, C.Chem., OEP Church & Trought Inc.

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc.

When the quality of data Is somewhat strained Editorial by Tom Davey


Ontario Environment Minister outlines Biii 107 at London Conference


BC Minister criticizes 'end of pipe'solutions to pollution at BCW&WA conference


BCW&WA Awards


Canadian PCB destruction technology makes inroads abroad


Economical use of land with precast boxes


Maintenance tips on check valves and pump performance


Stormwater - the devastating non point-source pollution


Professional liability insurance and environmentai risk


Particle counting as an operational tool


CH2M G&S Dr. Howard Goodfeliow Goodtellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Hoime, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Analytical Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication pub lished by Environmentai Science & Engi neering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control sys

tems and drinking water treatment and dis tribution.

ES&E's readers Include consulting engi neers, Industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.

Ontario Environment Minister says monitoring reveals encouraging data

Shedding new light on the privatization controversies The Drinking Water Materials Safety Act- implications for the drinking water industry Study says US rural air will be unhealthy under EPA's proposed ozone standard Upgrading the Trenton water pollution control plant Battery-operated radio telemetry for sewer flow monitoring New technology developed for optimization of electric arc furnace fume systems Non-indigenous species continue to threaten North American waterways Treating water and wastewater at one environmentai centre How Winnipeg faced Flood of the Century Nutrient dosage in pulp and paper plants by monitoring COD on-line

39 40 48

50 52 54 56 58

66 68 70

Essential oils for odorous gases in pulp & paper could be an accessible alternative


Canadian Publications Maii Saies

Product Agreement No. 18197 Second Class Maii

Landmark $88 miiiion research drive underway to develop closure technologies


Registration No. 7750

Printed In Canada, by Web Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher.


Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $70.00 for two years, $25.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra)

Datepad Industry Update

All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmentai Science & Engi neering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tei: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-maii: esemag@istar.ca. Web site: http://www.esemag.com


Literature Reviews


Ad Index


Product Review




R&D News


Reader Feedback Reader Service Card

6 17, 37

14 8-16

Cover story: It was the flood of the century but the city and its inhabitants responded magnificently. While three wastewater treatment plants temporarily lost secondary treatment capabilities, there was no interruption to the quality or quantity ofpotable water supplies. See story by Biii Boriase on page 68. Cover photos by Laurie Nowicki Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys Information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

When the quality of data is somewhat strained

Two recent events have re vealed the enormous conse

quences when dubious sam pling protocols are used or the integrity of laboratory staff is com promised. The Bre-X gold mining fi asco in Indonesia and the wrongful conviction of Guy Paul Morin in On tario are currently dominating the head lines; both shed new light on the role of analytical and assay laboratories. The irony is that while you need a licence to run a hotdog stand or a hair salon, professional chemists are

Costly as it undoubtedly is, this enquiry is clearly a good investment for Cana dian justice. Christine Jessop's mur derer is still at large while millions were diverted towards convicting the wrong man.

For Guy Paul Morin, relief came only after he had spent time in jail,

millions in the future.

It is appalling to think what he must have gone through after his first acquit

Which brings us back to the envi ronment industry where price, not qual ity of data, has traditionally driven the laboratory industry - driven some into the ground perhaps, for the casualty rate has been high in the analytical in dustry, which should have boomed in

tal in 1986 and the 1992 retrial which

frustrations still continued ten years later as an enquiry unfolded an unbe lievable string of sloppy police proce dures and disgraceful laboratory work which led to his jail term. But while it was analytical science which acquitted this unjustly convicted man,the subsequent enquiry ironically became a startling indictment of On-

delisted by the Toronto Stock Exchange after bil lions were lost by inves


after the trials.


Bre-X stock was later

already in consultation with their law yers with a view to appealing their con I predict that this dubious forensic laboratory work will cost even more

led to his conviction. His ordeals and

ter laboratory and assay results sug gested huge gold reserves at the Busang mining site in Indonesia. Investors ini tially saw their stock values skyrocket in a matter of weeks, only to crash on the trading floors when doubts were shed on the core sampling techniques.

convicted on the Centre's evidence, are

than a decade of anguish before and

faced financial ruin and endured more

unlicenced in all provinces except Que Bre-X stock soared like a rocket af

really was no free lunch. The Guy Paul Morin case has already cost untold millions and you can bet your gas chromatograph that many inmates,

this era of environmental concerns.

It has always amazed me that real estate developers and lenders, seeking soil analyses for projects which will ul timately be worth millions, have a low bid mind-set when it comes to purchasing laboratory services. The price differential To paraphrase the second law of between labs with super thermodynamics, it turns out that there lative staff and equipment


The list of institutions

burned by the Bre-X fiasco reads like a corporate Who's Who. They should have focussed on the qual ity of core sampling protocols and labo ratory analyses,rather than stock analy sis. Canada, as the leading mining na tion in the world, is already feeling the consequences as Bre-X has contami nated investor confidence in our legiti mate mining operations. Much more tragic than the Bre-X fiasco was the wrongful conviction of Guy Paul Morin for the murder of Christine Jessop. Having first been acquitted on a charge of murdering this nine year old girl, he was later found guilty in a second trial where forensic laboratory evidence played a large part in his conviction and jailing. Just four days before his appeal was to be heard, new evidence in the form

of DNA testing led to his acquittal of the charges. He was awarded compen sation in excess of one million dollars

and a public enquiry was ordered.

reaiiy was no free lunch. tario's Centre for Forensic Sciences, often claimed to be Canada's foremost

forensic laboratory. Evidence at the en quiry has revealed a virtual litany of undisclosed scientific data and con

taminated or even lost evidence, in

cluding the inexplicable disappearance of hundreds of slides of microscopic fibres between tbe first trial and the second. Evidence of fibre contamina

tion which could be observed by the naked eye was suppressed at the trial. Critical comments from bench techni

cians were ignored by senior Centre staff. The Ontario Centre for Forensic

Sciences, its reputation now in tatters, gives a new focus on government-run institutions. The Centre was supposed to be completely impartial in its work and it did not charge police for any of its services or analyses. To paraphrase the second law of thermodynamics, it turns out that there

and those with mediocre

capabilities is often not very great. Moreover,the cost oflaboratory analyses is mere petty cash compared to the overall construc tion cost of most projects. And more than just money is at stake. Some industrial operators have been heavily fined or gone to jail for not practising due diligence in environ mental compliance cases where analy ses often play a key role. Good laboratories have expensive state-of-the-art equipment which needs highly trained technical staff to conduct analyses and interpret data, which can then be used with confidence in siting projects or as a defense in environmen tal law cases.

Sampling data and chain-of-custody protocols require highly trained ana lytical staff whose integrity can be re lied on in courts of law. To those shop ping around for bargain basement prices, it might be wise to recall that there are no free lunches. Co for qual ity, not price - then sleep at night. â–

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997







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Reader Feedback Dear Tom, I am writing to inform you that I have joined Beak International Incorporated. I have enjoyed the challenges at MDS Environmental, and I have thoroughly enjoyed my relationship with you and Environmental Science & Engineering. Your enthusiastic grasp of the issues, your lucid and engaging writing, and your wit have been the high point of many days over the past few years. Tom, I have also greatly benefited from your counsel and advice, and I have been very proud to have my name on your Advisory Board. I request that you keep the name, and change my af filiation to Beak.

and suppliers in the water treatment pro fession. The Pipeline is issued 5 times

term)business needs with the ideals and

a year.

convictions that got you involved with this profession in the first place. It is good to see that ES&E is trying to walk this (delicate) balancing act because we need spirited environmental magazines that don't lose their "common(business) sense" to make progress in our field. Regards, Rene de Vries, Central Projects Group Inc.

Ifound your article about the corrod ing infrastructure which carries our drinking water to be absolutely right on. Regards, Peter Kordns, S.W.W.A. Pipeline Editor

Dear Tom Davey, A thank-you note. I felt that you did an excellent job editing my article on Glo bal Environmental Management, pub lished mES&E, May 1997. It is strange, but in this article, I felt more exposed than usual (this was the fourth published article for ES&E I (co-)authored since 1992), perhaps be cause I introduced some potentially con troversial ideas, perhaps because I put my soul into it. You must appreciate that running a

Hello Tom, I was checking out references to my own web site and behold, what should I find but the article I wrote about ISO 14000.

Dear Tom, Thank you very much for your kind in vitation for our staff and Ukrainian visi

Thank you for letting me be associ ated with the leading environmental publication in the land. Jim Bishop, Beak International Incorporated


successful environmental company au tomatically means balancing (short

tors to attend the Environmental Certi

fication Course at the Ontario Environ

mental Exposition. Those of our staff who attended,and especially the Ukrain ians, found the conference and exposi tion very interesting and informative. Regards, Alison Johns,

I am flattered and still amazed at the

volume of responses that I got. As you have probably heard by now, I am back at Trojan (the place where I started out 19 years ago)as service man ager. I look after commissioning and warranty of municipal wastewater dis infection systems. Best regards, Bill Neaves, Trojan Technologies Inc.

Gartner Lee

Dear Mr. Davey, With this letter, I wish to request per mission to use the following articles from your March 1997, magazine: The pipes, the pipes are appalling and Hack celebrates golden anniversary. If granted, these articles will be used in the Saskatchewan Water & Waste Water Association's news letter The

Pipeline, which goes to 1,400 members

Dear Tom Davey, While waiting in a consultant's office the other day, I read with interest your edi torial on municipal water infrastructure in the March 1997 issue ofEnvironmen

tal Science & Engineering. Your con cerns were well expressed on the enor mous loss of municipally purified wa ter from underground pipes. Ian D. Cameron, Peterborough


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

O^CToi Oxford county, Woodstock. Ontld. Canada WASTEWATER PROFILE 10: RELIABILITY Tony Decoo, Construction Manager, Oxford County, Woodstock, Ontario, Canada recently selected a Gorman-Rupp above ground lift station for a new residential development in Drumbo, Ontario. Tony chose a Gorman-Rupp lift station because of it solids handUng abOity and rebability. "The Gorman-Rupp T Series lift station is easy to maintain and comes equipped the way I want. I had a lot of problems in the past with servicing other pumps and I don't

ous other Gorman-Rupp pumps on sewage apphcations throughout his county, making Gorman-Rupp his single source suppHer. Tony says that being able to rely on Gorman-Rupp for pumps, motors, controls and enclosures makes his job a lot easier. The next time you need wastewater pumps that will vasktyour job a lot easier, contact your Gorman-Rupp distributor.

need those kinds of headaches."

He is so pleased with Gorman-Rupp pumps, he recently selected 80 Series pumps over vertical turbine pumps on a clearwater appHcation. He also has numer



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Industry Update Fredericton businesses charged with illegal exportation of CFCs Environment Canada announced May 20 that 13 charges have been laid against three Fredericton businesses, all stem

ming from the exportation of approxi mately 70 tonnes of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to the United States. The charges were laid against City Sales Ftd., a Fredericton automobile

dealership for 10 counts of exporting CFCs without valid permits. Trans Canada Autohaus Ltd. and a company registered as 051544N.B. Inc., have been charged with two counts of con spiracy in the commission of these vio lations. City Sales Ltd. has also been charged with failing to provide Environ ment Canada inspectors with accurate information during a 1994 inspection. Larry Joseph LeBlanc is president and sole director of all three companies. The United States Attorney for the District of Maine, arrested and also

charged LeBlanc and his wife, Ann Marie LeBlanc,for having illegally im ported those CFCs into the United States, where they allegedly sent ship ments to a number of automotive shops.



The charges in both cases resulted in partfrom co-operative efforts of law en forcement agencies in both Canada and the US,including Environment Canada,

completes acquisition Laidlaw Environmental Services Inc. of

Columbia, SC., has completed the pre viously announced reverse takeover of

Canada Customs, the New Brunswick

Rollins Environmental Services, Inc.

Department of the Environment,the US Environmental Protection Agency and

The new entity was concurrently re

US Customs.

ices, Inc.

Under the Canadian Environmental

Protection Act (CEPA), each of these

charges carries a maximum penalty of a

fine not exceeding $1 million and/or imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years. At the time the alleged offences oc

named Laidlaw Environmental Serv The transaction combines the lead

ing incinerator operator in the US with the largest supplier of general hazard ous waste management services in North America. The combined operation, ex pected to generate annualized revenues

of approximately $850 million, provides

curred, CFCs were controlled under the

customers with local service from more

Ozone-depleting Substances Regula tions No. 1 under CEPA. To export bulk CFCs, the regulations required export ers to acquire a permit from Environ ment Canada for a particular time pe riod. In 1993, City Sales Ltd. acquired such a permit to export 150,000 kg. The company is accused of exporting CFCs in quantities exceeding its permit, and of exporting additional CFCs without a permit.

than 100 locations in the US and

Canada,including operations at six ma jor incineration facilities, 32 transfer/ service centres, six wastewater treatment facilities, 10 waste derived fuel blend ing facilities, six PCB treatment facili ties and 13 landfills. Some 20% of in

dustry incineration capacity will be re moved from service, raising its esti mated utilization from approximately 70% to 87%.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Zenon Membrane

Technology. she Joesn't know what a

CrypiosporiJium is, hut she's why you should know about ZSNON. t is estimated that more than 30% of North American

municipalities will experience the threat of Giardia and Cryptosporidium this year, even those using chlorine as a disinfectant. But there is a growing number of towns and cities who aren't worried. They've discovered Zenon's revo


lutionary ZeeWeedÂŽ membrane technology.

"High iron and manganese levels

It has proven to completely remove Cryptosporidium and Giardia \N\th virtually no need for chemicals. And, ZeeWeed membrane technology also completely removes iron and manganese, turbidity, volatile organics, H2S and THMs, which is why it is the technology of choice for processing drinking water in communities where quality is important. From low flow to very high flow applications, ZeeWeed is a flexible technology. It's modular construction makes it ideal for retrofitting existing facilities without increasing infrastructure size, while dramatically lowering chemical

made our conventional treatment

and energy requirements.

systems fail. With ZENON technol

Call us and find out more about this revolutionary membrane technology and join a growing number of com

ogy, we're exceeding our needs for reliable, high quality water."

munities who have the peace of mind and security of high quality drinking water.

Tom Newcombe

Hothsay, New Brunswick

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For more information, circie reply card No. 110(See page 17)

Industry Update Low ozone values recorded over

Canadian Arctic

January and April. Last year,there were reductions of up to 30 percent in March.

leaving the Arctic stratosphere cold, even after sunlight remmed to the re gion. The cold temperatures resulted in the formation of polar stratospheric

In Canada, UV radiation at the

were the lowest ever recorded for

ground is at its strongest between May and August. The low Arctic ozone val ues are not expected to have a large ef

March. Data from US satellites, ground

fect on ozone values or UV-B radiation

chlorine oxide from other molecules that

stations in Canada, and balloon instru

over most of Canada this summer.

contain chlorine but do not react with

ments show that ozone values were as

The record Arctic depletion was al most certainly caused by an unusually strong circular flow of winds called a


the unusual spring Arctic wind patterns

vortex. This vortex restricted the trans

in 1996 and 1997 are connected with

Ozone values over the Canadian Arctic

much as 45 percent below normal. In contrast, from the 1980s to the

early 1990s, ozone values declined five to 10 percent over the Arctic between

clouds - rare for the Arctic - which

cause the release of ozone-depleting

At this time, it is not clear whether

global warming or are rare natural

port of heat and ozone from the tropics.


Province fights US plan for water transfer

The dream of a


The Manitoba government is fighting a US flood-relief proposal that could con taminate Manitoba waters. The North

is becoming reality. |

Great news for Toronto Hydro customers! Toronto Hydro and I Eco Logic have joined forces to eliminate PCB-contaminated 1 material.


Toronto Hydro's reputation as a leader in managing PCBs


dates back to the early 1980s. In fact, we've transported more 1

PCBs than any municipal utility in Canada - accident-free. Ontario-based Eco Logic has developed an award-winning PCB-destruction process that converts PCBs into methane and other reusable products. Together, we offer a complete local solution that: • Provides convenient removal of all your PCB waste. • Eliminates the cost and potential liability of storage. • Reduces the risk and liability of long distance transportation of your waste. •The process handles any concentration of PCBs.

• Employs non-incineration destruction technology. For more information about a cost-effective alternative

to PCB storage or incineration call us at (416)591-1806.


Dakota congressional delegation is seek ing funds to build an outlet for Devil's Lake that would transfer water from the Missouri River basin into the Red River

and Hudson's Bay drainage system. Both the province and the federal gov ernment will appeal to the International Joint Commission, which can make

binding decisions to block the diversion plan. Funding for an outlet at Devil's Lake would be part of a larger plan to reduce flooding in the North Dakota area, which has suffered serious flood

ing in recent years.

P&P industry invites Canadians to Come See for Themselves Canada's pulp and paper industry is opening its doors to Canadians this sum mer, with more than 100 company tours across Canada focusing on forest man agement and how paper is made. The open invitation to tour industry

operations is in response to a survey by the Canadian Pulp and Paper Associa tion (CPPA). Close to 90% of Canadi ans polled said the industry should make

public communication a higher priority. The invitation to tour will be included

in newspaper and television ads with a


toll-free information line, 1-888-398TOUR. Callers will be able to obtain a

list of tours offered in various parts of the country.


For Canadians interested in an "arm

chair tour" of the industry, CPPA has launched a new website. Located at

www.open.doors.cppa.ca, it features a wealth of information about Canada's

pulp and paper industry, as well as a vir tual mill tour.


For more information, circle reply card No. 111 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997











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Industry Update Ontario announces

new green project Ontario Environment and Energy Min ister Norm Sterling has announced a pilot project to encourage the develop

them hurdle barriers to their entry into the marketplace. Announcing the program at a break fast meeting of the Canadian Environ ment Industry Association, Mr. Sterling

ment and use of new environmental

technologies. Under the project, Envi ronment and Energy ministry experts will provide written evaluations of new technologies. This will give potential buyers or investors greater confidence in the technologies, speed up govern ment approvals in Ontario, and help

said "The new environmental technolo

gies evaluation project will help move new technologies forward and get them into productive use," he said. "That's great news for the environment and it also means more opportunities for eco nomic growth and job creation." This program will complement Ontario's recently announced budget ini-

tiatives to support the creation of the $3billion R&D Challenge Fund and R&D tax breaks for Ontario companies. The environmental technologies pi lot program will focus on evaluating methods for treating water and wastewater, air pollution control, site remediation and handling and treatment of hazardous waste. Ontario companies with technologies that are generally unproven, or unproven in Ontario, are eli gible to apply for this service.

Calgary company wins CIDA Award AGRA Earth & Environmental, a


Calgary-based firm, has won one offive



1997 Canadian Awards for International


Development for its action to limit ad verse environmental effects of a major oil spill in northern Russia. In the fall of 1995, a pipeline break down resulted in a major oil spill in northern Russia. ACRA Earth & Envi

ronmental formed an emergency re sponse team and implemented an action plan to contain the spill, just in time to keep the break-up of ice in spring from spreading the oil over a vast area, thus protecting herds of reindeer and fishery resources. The firm also found new DERRICK


sources of water supply for local com

Waste Derrlc

munities. The firm earned the award in

the category of Improvement of Social Infrastructures and the Protection of the

Environment,sponsored by Babcock & Wilcox. & demands, 'Jvhich are



liced on corporations


lesv to control B.O.D.

PHILIP Environmental Inc. has announced

(Biological Oxygen Demand) discharges and~reduce in-plant treatment costs, have

the completion of an agreement to purchase MDS Environmental Services Limited, the environmental analytical division of MDS Inc. The transaction was completed on May

created a tremendous need for efficient

reliable and cost effective equipment to reduce waste.; water solids concentra

tions. De^l^^orporation, with over 40 years

Recovery of processed carrots frarrii a waste water stream using Derrick 0.43 MM urethane screens.

llening experience,is now

capable OT ^Jfering chis equipment techw.

13, 1997.

The MDS Environmental laboratory net work will be merged with PHILIP Analyti cal Services Corporation and operate under that name.

nology to jthe^waste v/ater industryff

Andrew Murray, President of PHILIP Analytical Services stated,"With this acqui sition, PHILIP Analytical has improved geo graphic coverage and unmatched capacity and range of environmental testing services in Canada. To ensure continuity and strong regional focus,all customer service and sales contacts will be maintained throughout."

worldwide.Through ut'lizing the Derrick, Flo-Line'v'. unit design high fluid aipapscitiB li^Bffeccively handled at

ersize re

rocessing 0 mesh

Lor further information, contact: Andrew Murray, President(905)673-3255, or Barry Loescher,Vice President(905)3328788, ext. 227




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9030 Leslie St. Unit 5

Kelowna, British Columbia VIZ 2T7

Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B IG2

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PHILIP Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Industry Update


Ottawa team wins 1997

Operations Challenge The benefit of the


Operations Chal lenge lies in the training that opera tors


> Safety training is the law.

» Training & Equipment = competent employees.


preparation for the event. In less than

an hour, a team of

operators and main tenance personnel manage to solve a series of process questions, take a working pump out of service, perform Operator checking Gorman Rupp specific repairs and pump during Operations Chaiienge.

> Certified confined

space training -16 hours.

> Refresher training - 8 hours.

> W.C.B. Appoved training.

return it to service.

They replace a valve in a confined space using appropriate safety equipment, perform various laboratory tests, and in stall and program a flowmeter and sampling equipment to take samples as required. The team which performs these tasks faster and with the least amount of penalties is de clared the winner.

The Cream of the Slop team from the Regional Munici pality of Ottawa-Carleton won this very hard fought com petition at the recent Water Environment Association of

Training Ongoing Throughout Canada Caii Us Now To Register.

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Attention: John Wraight

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Ontario conference.

For biosolids mixing and storage solutions We can provide a complete storage and mixing system, including: • Aquastore® tanks from A.O. Smith Engineered Products, Inc.

• JetMix® Vortex mixing systems for both new and existing biosolids and digester tanks. • Flat and geodesic aluminum covers for new or existing steel and concrete tanks.


Engineered Torage

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

For more information, circle reply card No. 114 (See page 17)


Industry Update Environmental due diligence assessment underway for Volsey's Bay Nickel Company

by delivering: • an historical review of facilities and

practices on the site;

agreement during World War 11, the Argentia Peninsula was con verted to a naval and air force

base. Three years ago, all US military operations at the site

Voiscys Bay

(nickel deposti)

Atlantic Ocean

ceased, and the site was trans ferred to Public Works and Gov ernment Services Canada

•a review of all available documents and data; • detailed information from on-site in


• identification of data gaps; •an assessment of the extent of existing contamination;

•recommendations on remedial require ments and associated costs.


As a former military base, the site is potentially contaminated with, among other things, petro ^Arge Argentla leum hydrocarbons,PCBs,heavy (proposed SmeHer^eflnery) metals, and spent/live ammuni The Voisey's Bay Nickel Company tion. The due diligence assessment will (VBNC), a subsidiary of the Canadian identify the extent of contamination at nickel giant Inco Ltd., holds substantial Argentia to assist VBNC in determin mining rights to Labrador's nickel de ing potential environmental liabilities at posit. Argentia Peninsula, a former US the site, prior to acquiring the land from military base, is the favoured site for PWGSC. VBNC's smelter/refinery. CH2M Gore Detailed site investigations have al & Storrie is assisting VBNC in conduct ready been commissioned by PWGSC, ing an environmental due diligence as and remedial action plans were devel sessment of the subject property, prior oped using a site specific risk-based to land transfer negotiations with the approach. By June 1997, the due dili federal and provincial governments. gence assessment will add to the previ In 1941, under a joint US/British ously compiled information on the site §


Cowr Your

Bindu Uppaluri, CH2M Gore & Storrie

DATEPAD August 3-6, 1997. WEF/AWWA 5th Annual Joint Residuals/Biosolids Man

agement Conference & Environmental Laboratories Specialty Conference.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Contact: Water



(703)684-2414, Fax:(703)684-2475. August 17-20, 1997. Annual Confer ence of the International Ozone Asso

ciation/Pan American Group, Lake Tahoe, Nevada. Contact: Margit Istok, (203) 348-3542, Fax:(203)967-4845. August 19-21, 1997. NlWeek 97 - a World Without Barriers. Austin, Texas. Contact: National Instruments (905) 785-0085,(800) 258-7022, Fax: (905) 785-0086.

August 24-29, 1997. Third Biomass Conference ofThe Americas. Montreal, Quebec. Contact: Tracy Thiessen, Natu ral Resources Canada (613)996-6149. September 3-6,1997. National Ground Water Association Convention and

Expo. Las Vegas, Nevada. Contact: (800) 551-7379.

Pipes, flanges, valves and fittings can be buried - but not forgotten. Corrosion will attack, and repairs can be costly.

September 7-10,1997. AWWA Distri

bution System Symposium and Exhibi tion. Norfolk, Virginia. Contact:

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for cold-applied petrolatum tapes Call for a literature package. Or, we'l send a technical representative for an on-site demonstration and analysis of your needs. j4


Toronto: (905) 940-8255 Fax: (905) 940-8258

(514) 284-9603, Fax:(514) 879-8991. October 2, 1997. Industrial Accident


Prevention Association 1997 Day of Workshops. North York. Contact: Lynn


Houston: (713) 821-3355

For more information, circle reply card No. 115 (See page 17)

September 30-October 3, 1997. Pollutec Industry 97. Paris, France. Contact: Rosemarie Ojalvo, OCl Inc.

Mackrell (416) 449-5755, 1-800-406lAPA, Fax:(416) 449-2147. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


Carbon Dioxide

Meeting growing CO needs Carbon dioxide(CO^), with its wide range of chemical and physical properties, is providing constantly expanding applica tions in a broad spectrum of manufactur ing and processing industries.

COj is used extensively for chilling, freezing and packaging of meats, poultry, baked goods, fruits and vegetables, and dairy products to improve product qual ity, eliminate preservatives, extend shelf life, and increase productivity. It is also used to fumigate grain storage silos to prevent insect infestation and mold. And in the beverage industry, it puts the fizz

pours, blanketing hazardous material for safe storage or transfer, and many more.

As demand for CO^ grows,Praxair,the world's leading supplier of carbon diox ide, continues to expand its production capabilities to meet the market's needs. In Canada,two new carbon dioxide plants are being built in Chatham (Ontario) and in Saint John (New Brunswick), while

major expansions are being completed at two existing facilities in Clarkson (On tario) and Brandon (Manitoba). Praxair has four other CO,facilities in Canada at Pointe Aux Trembles (Quebec), Maitland and Samia (Ontario), and Fort Saskatchewan (Alberta).

For more information, circle reply card No. 207

in soft drinks.

It is also becoming increasingly impor tant in the treatment of wastewater and

other process water streams, and in a host of other industrial applications including welding, purging pipelines and storage containers of flammable liquids and va-


CO2 water treatment systems The use of carbon dioxide (CO^) to re place sulfuric acid is a safe,effective, eco nomical and environmentally responsible method of controlling pH levels in alka line process,effluent and drinking waters.

Praxair has acquired Liquid

Carbonic Industries, making us^ the world's largest supplier of

carbon dioxide and a good deal mop^

It vastly expands our, '^ability f ce' ^ â–

to provide a full menu of atmospherfc^ process and specialty gases. It gr^is us new capacity and expertise to serve The method is applicable to all treatment areas including basins, holding ponds, pipelines,sumps,pressurized vessels, and tanks in the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum industries, as well as in municipal facilities. This new brochure from Praxair "Car

bon Dioxide Water Treatment Systems"

details the advantages of CO^ and Praxair's patented technology for COj


,.almost any industry in 44 countries?^ÂŤ 'worldwide. And it lifts our revenues

^kfeove $4 bUlion, making our future positivel3%parkling.//^^PIWfll3!M ;

application processes and related equip ment.

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M^ing our planet more productive. ? mora intf/mation please call 1-800-PRAXAIR e-mail: info @ praxair.com

atfon. circle reply card No. 116(See page 17)

Industry Update TerraTec exhibition and conference The TerraTec Environmental Exhibition, took place in Leipzig, Germany, March 4-7,1997 with more than 18,000 visitors. A record 882 exhibitors from 20

countries presented innovative environ mental techniques, environmental con cepts and technological know-how. The largest contingents offoreign exhibitors came from Denmark, Russia, the USA, and the Ukraine. The areas of the exhi

bition attracting the most interest were effluent and sludge treatment, waste dis posal, recycling and recovery of valu able materials and environmentally friendly energy sources. Two particular attractions of the ex hibition were the "Marketplace" and the specialist "Renewable Energy Sources"

topics were wind farms, water-power, biogas, biomass,and combined heat and power. The next TerraTec Exhibition will take place in March 1999.

Method(as described in Standard Meth ods 18th Edition, APHA, 1992), to

of COD analysis

$0.25 per test. (In comparison, pre

A cost-effective procedure for analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is

to $2.00 each). Low- and mid-range

available from the CH2M Gore &

Storrie Research Centre and Process Op erations Assistance team. Typical ap plications on industrial and municipal wastewater include supplementing

BODj analysis for plant operations af ter developing a BODj/COD ratio, and characterizing wastewater and effluents for computer modeling. It can also be used for treatability and bench or pilotscale studies.

bition held in Germany, the market showed a significant demand for envi ronmental techniques and technology

COD analysis can be done frequently and the ratio used to make assumptions

from countries in Asia, Eastern Europe,

providing quick results, COD analysis allows monitoring frequency to be in creased to fine-tune plant operations. While this is a common practice in in dustrial research and design, only re cently has its value been recognized for

the Middle East and South America.

With 130 exhibitors, the specialist exhibition Renewable Energy Sources more than doubled in size compared with 1995. Among the most popular

users of the Closed Reflux Colorimetric

CG&S reduces cost

Since COD and BOD^ are related,

exhibition. Eor the first time at an exhi

monitoring of municipal wastewater treatment plants. The new CG&S procedure allows

on BODjlevels. Being inexpensive and

analyze samples at a chemical cost of packaged proprietary tests can cost up COD procedures are available, cover ing a COD range from 5 to 1,200 mg/L. Eor more information, phone (416) 499-0090, Ext. 370.

Xeriscape for water conservation Educating the public is making a big difference in Victoria's water consump tion. Xeriscape, a water-wise lawn and garden education program, aims to re duce outdoor water consumption by 25% during peak summer periods. Residents are also being encouraged to plant native and drought-tolerant plants that not only need less water, but also restore natural ecosystems. Last summer, over 90 homes were enrolled

in the program, which also offered work shops, lectures and home visits.



The Proven Protectors In The Fight Against Pipeline Corrosion

'• With the recent addition of the Environmental

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Hazardous Gas Monitor Ttie Enmet Gas Monitor is ideal for

gas monitoring of tiazardous locations. Ttie Monitor can be

designed for single sensor or multi sensor locations. The Enmet Gas monitor is available with 4-20mA for

connection to your PEG system or as a stand alone unit with an audible or

Oil/Water Separator Oils spills can be easily handled with a McTighe Oil/Water Separator. McTighe offer a wide range of separator capacities from 10 GPM to 4,000 Gallons per minute. The unique Petro Pak option allows a McTighe separator to

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Ontario Environment Minister outlines Bill 107 at London Conference

The Water Environment Asso

ciation of Ontario attracted

some 750 delegates to its April conference as well as Ontario

Environment & Energy Minister Norm Sterling and former Minister Brenda Elliott who was chairing public hearings into Bill 107 in the same building. The minister touched on the debate surround

ing Bill 107,the Water and Sewage Serv ices Improvement Act. He said the central function of the bill

was to improve water and sewage serv ices in Ontario by clarifying the role of government and increasing its account ability. The bill proposes to; • give Ontario municipalities full title to provincially-owned water and sew age treatment plants serving their com munities;

Outgoing WEAO President Dean Edwardson, Laidiaw, Rhonda Harris, WEE Vice •transfer to municipalities responsibili President, and Peter Nicol, WEF Director, CH2M G&S. ties for the septic system program, in cluding inspections and approvals. fore we introduced Bill 107. payer as well. Fewer levels of govern He said that municipalities have al "Right now, the province is in an ment administration means increased ready shown they can deliver high qual ambiguous position, almostin a conflict efficiency and decreased cost." ity water and sewage treatment services of interest position, being a regulator, He said the bill would help the pro to their communities. After all,they now owner,operator and funder of water and vincial government focus on its real job own about 75 percent of Ontario's treat sewage services. Bill 107 would end which was setting tough performance ment facilities. With passage of Bill this conflict situation," he stressed. standards for water and sewage treat 107,they would be the sole level of gov "Municipalities need the kind offlex ment plants - and then ensuring those ernment holding title to water and sew ibility provided by this bill. Our pro tough standards were met. age plants in Ontario. posed legislation would allow munici "It will also encourage continued "Many local governments have told palities to deliver water and sewage public control of water and sewage us they want us to move in this direc services, as most do now,and to choose works,thereby protecting the taxpayer's tion," he said. "In fact, almost 60 mu the operator that best suits their needs. best interest and investment. Munici nicipalities made this request even be'There will be advantages for the tax- palities would be prevented from sell ing all or part of their water and sewage works to the private sector until they have repaid any and all provincial capi tal grants received since 1978. "Some water and sewage works pro vide service to more than one munici

pality, meaning they are jointly respon sible for the debts. In the case of these

arrangements - called area plans - the works will be transferred to the serviced

municipalities through a joint manage ment structure."

The minister then touched upon a long neglected area - septic systems. "Bill 107 also calls for the transfer of

The Operations Challenge Is a rigorous test requiring speed, team work and tech

responsibility to municipalities for the septic system program, including in spections and approvals. The province would stay in the game by intensifying its role in the training and licencing of septic system installers and inspectors,"

nical knowledge.

he stressed.


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Photo story by Tom Davey At the awards luncheon, Rhonda Harris, Water Environment Federation Vice-President, announced several re

cipients: The Arthur Sidney Bedell Award was given to Erv Mclntyre a pastpresident of WEAO,a past CWWA di rector and, at present, a Senior Advisor to the WEAO executive. The William

D. Hatfield Award was made to Brian Runstedler, of the Ontario Clean Water

Agency, Brantford. Cordell Samuels, Metro Toronto,

Larry Madden, C&M Environmental, Bill Borlase, City of Winnipeg, and Rhonda Harris were inducted into the

5-S Club by Geoff Scott, himself a

ing how nice it would be to have such a shovel, Geoff was ready. Not only was there a 5-S shovel awaiting the Minis ter, but his certificate was presented, al ready signed earlier by the 5-S members. The Operations Challenge held in conjunction with the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association trade show, was a major attraction. Thirteen teams took part in this year's event. It was so exciting, that Rhonda Harris, the

WEAO Presents:

Wastewater Flow Measurement A one-day seminar with product demonstrations.

WEE Vice-President, who was scheduled

September 15,1997

to leave at noon,cancelled her flight and stayed the entire event. Her presence was a big morale booster for all teams.

Regal Constellation Hotel Mississauga, Ontario

former WEE President. The 5S Club is

Congratulations to the Ottawa-

the Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovellers. When Minister Sterlingjok ingly concluded his speech by mention

Carleton Team who defended its title and

will compete at the WEE Challenge in Chicago, in October.

For further details, or to register, contact Sandy Pickett, Water Env. Association,(416)502-1440.

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BCW&WA Report

BC Minister criticizes 'end ofpipe'soiutions to poiiution at BCW&WA conference

Cathy McGregor,EC's Minis

ter of Environment, Lands

and Parks, spoke out boldly at the British Columbia

Water & Waste Association meeting in Victoria. She said that in 1996, in its

first public status report on the quality of BC waters, her ministry reported on 124 bodies of water throughout the prov ince that were analyzed on the basis of expected water quality problems. "While water quality in 55 of the water bodies was in the good or excel lent categories,60 rated only as fair and

serious about avoiding the economic and social costs of poor water quality. The cumulative impacts and carrying capac ity of the receiving environment are critical factors," she stressed. She said we must accelerate our ef

forts to deal with pollution from nonpoint sources such as farmer's fields, active or discontinued logging, septic tanks, home gardens and city streets. "Non point-source water pollution is largely unregulated because of the in herent difficulty of trying to control so many sources of pollution over a dis-

District, for example, there are an esti mated 1,750 stormwater outfalls, and

over half ofthem discharge directly into fish-bearing waters. Ordinary citizens contribute to polluted runoff in many ways, often without even realizing it, while industrial and commercial busi

nesses contribute through a multiplicity of accidental spills and leaks and through the use of potentially toxic com pounds." She acknowledged that many indus tries were required, by their waste man agement permits, to collect, monitor, or

11 were identified as bor

treat stormwater, but uncon

derline or poor - and that's eleven too many. Apart

trolled runoff from some in

Columbia wants their wa

dustries remains a significant problem, as often these wastes end up in our rivers,

ter supply to be in only

lakes or the ocean.

"fair" condition?" she de

trol of"end-of-pipe" indus trial pollution from obvi ous, identifiable pollution sources. Waste permits

"Upgrading of municipal sewage treatment is a eontinuing priority even as we move from an end-of-pipe focus to ward a far broader program of pollution prevention. There are still too many municipal discharges appearing on the twice-yearly non-compliance

were, and continue to be,

list," she noted.

issued to allow a specified amount of discharge from factories and sewage out falls to flow into receiving

She pointed out the mount ing concern over sewage dis charges from boats - recrea

from that, who in British

manded. She was critical of

water quality management which focussed on the con

Frank Belfry, outgoing BCW& H/A president, and Cathy McGregor, Minister of Environment, Lands and Parks. Photo - Penny Davey

levels that are hoped to be harmless, she noted.

"While this is one way of helping to protect water quality, we can't afford to let it be our only approach. It's too re active and piecemeal. It's limited by what the technology of the day can of fer. And it does not encompass all the causes of water pollution. "We now recognize the need to shift away from this reactive, end-of-pipe style of regulation towards broader, proactive, ecosystem-based approaches, where airsheds and watersheds become

management units for planning and de cision-making, and where interactions among the parts of ecosystems, includ ing environmental,economic and social connections, are considered.

"We know today that we must em phasize pollution prevention ahead of after-the-fact poWntion control if we are 20

tional as well as commercial

- as more and more people

waters and to be diluted to

persed area. The finger cannot be pointed at anybody in particular because we're all responsible," she stressed. "Time and time again, fish have served as barometers of the health of the

environment as a whole, and a critical

measure of our ability to manage water wisely. "For that reason,fish health and fish eries values have been, and will continue to be, at the centre of our environmen

tal and resource management strategies - whether we are dealing with pulp mill pollution, power production,forest prac tices, mining, agriculture, or the impacts of urban growth," she said. The minister said that stormwater

take to the water around the GulfIslands.

This trend also affects the quality of freshwater in many of our interior lakes. However, the regulation that prohibits boats from dumping sewage into sensi tive waters is administered by the fed eral government - and at present only three interior lakes, and no marine

areas, are protected in BC. "We have asked Transport Canada to protect an additional 50 bodies of water in British Columbia. The expanded list will include many of the popular rec reational boating harbours in the Strait of Georgia, as well as key lakes from the Lower Mainland through to the Kootenays.

runoff was the cause ofsome of the most

"The common denominator of our

horrendous fish habitat impacts - both chronic and catastrophic - in our urban

strategy is stewardship. Everyone ben efits from abundant supplies of clean water - and everyone has a part to play


"In the Greater Vancouver Regional

in the solutions."

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

BCW&WA Awards


Incoming president Don Enns, presents University of BCAwards to students (left to right) Pierre Berube and Jerri Charchuk.

Several awards were presented during

Stanley A. Copp Award

the conference:

Dennis Mitchell, Greater Victoria

After an exciting safety contest, the home team emerged victorious.

ITT Flygt. BCWWA Personal Recognition


Water District.


Okanagan College Award Wendy Schinz and Gerald VandenBurg. University of British Columbia


Pradeep Khare Dennis Mitchell

Vic Terry Award

George Warren Fuller Award Doug Neden, Greater Vancouver Regional District. BCWWA Corporate Recognition

John Tailford, Greater Vancouver


Regional District.

PSI Pipeline Supply International

Terri Charchuk and Pierre Berube.

Chester Merchant.

Industrial Waste Award

Chevron Oil, Canada.

Safety Competition Greater Victoria Regional District Team.

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PCB Update

Canadian PCB destruction technology makes Inroads abroad

TheState ofNorth Carolina is evaluating technolo

gies to remediate a PCB chemical waste landfill. The successful technology will then be contracted to clean up the entire Warren County landfill. The

State of North Carolina has set aside US $25 million for the

complete remediation of this site. In February 1997, Eco Logic responded to a State of North Carolina request for proposals for the remediation of the Warren County landfill site. Their process was chosen to participate in the proposal by ajoint State and county work ing group that evaluated a large number of technologies. Teamed with Camp, Dresser and McKee, a major US engineering and construction company,Eco Logic will un dertake a pilot project on contaminated material from the landfill. This activity, which will ascertain how well the Canadian process can destroy the landfill materials, was scheduled to commence in May. The State of North Carolina owns and maintains a closed

(since July 1983) PCB chemical waste landfill which had been permitted in accordance with state and federal laws. The State is committed to detoxification of the landfill uti

lizing appropriate and feasible technology. "There is a large market for hazardous waste site remediation," says Dr. Douglas Hallett of Eco Logic. "In

fact, over $3.6 billion US was spent on these activities by US public and private sectors in 1994." Japanese sign PCB destruction technoiogy agreement Japanese PCB waste materials may soon be destroyed by the Eco Logic process. An initial non-binding agreement to purchase a license for PCB destraction in Japan, and to pur chase a demonstration unit was announced recently, with Tokyo Boeki Ltd. and Nippon Sharyo Ltd.

Eco Logic SE25 Destructor on site in Kwinana, Austraiia.

In the first phase of the agreement, the Canadian com pany will provide the Japanese with a demonstration unit of the gas phase chemical reduction process,for Japanese regu latory approval. On receipt of this approval- and when Tokyo Boeki and Nippon Sharyo decide to proceed -Eco Logic will provide a full scale, commercial unit for use in Japan. All costs, expenses, a further licensing fee and ongoing royalty fees derived from operating revenues will be paid to Eco Logic. Tokyo Boeki is a trading house specializing in steel, raw materials, energy and fuel, electronics and machinery. Nip pon Sharyo is a major engineering and manufacturing firm focusing on Shinkansen, a world famous high speed bullet train, steel, electronics, and environmen

tal engineering. Sales for both firms in dividually exceed $1 billion US.

The Acid


We have over 25 years of successful application experience in the Canadian Municipal, Environmental and Industrial fields.

An extensive range of plastic valves, strainers, flowmeters and controls are available for

all corrosive applications: Chemical Feed systems. Landfill Leachate and Methane, Waste Water, Soil Cleaning, etc.

^CHEMLINE kSJ Plastics Limited Your Pipeline To Quality Valves, Strainers, Flowmeters and Controls 55 Guardsman Road, Thornhill, Ontario L3T 5L2 Tel: 905-889-7890 Fax: 905-889-8553


For more information, circie repiy card No. 137 (See page 17)

Toronto PCB project agreement signed An agreement to eliminate stockpiles of PCB wastes currently being stored at more than 160 sites around the City of Toronto, has been signed by Eli Eco Logic and Toronto Hydro. The partners expect to process more than 2,000 tonnes of PCB owned by Toronto Hydro, the City itself, and other private and public organizations. The material will be processed using Eco Logic's mobile non-incineration de straction technology. The site selection process for a single location will be car ried out through a public consultation process and the project will go through regulatory approval channels. For more information, circie repiy card No. 138 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Confidence professionally and personally.

At BOVAR Waste Management, we're all committed to delivering contidence to you and all our clients.

ft means giving you personal confidence so that when your work day is over you know that you've

And that constant dedication to

made the best decision for

confidence means many things. It means giving you professional confidence that you have made the most solid business decision for your waste management. Our team of waste management professionals use fhe world's best technology to handle the widest range of wastes.

environmental protection. And it means giving you confidence that we deliver value, liability release, solid financial strength, and contidentiality. At BOVAR Waste Management, each employee is committed to delivering COI^FIDENCETQYDU.


in waste management, call 1-800-633-5552.

BOVAR Waste Management #4 Manning Close N.E. Calgaiy, Alberta, Canada,T2E 7N5

Phone:(403)235-8300 Fax;(403)248-3430 waste_management@bovar.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 139(See page 17)

Stormwater Management

By A. Polski^ and R.P. DeAngelis^

Economical use of land with precast boxes

Designersofburied infrastruc

ture have ready access to products, materials and stan dards to make economical

use of land planned for urban develop ment. Canadian engineers, architects and planners have advanced the science of stormwater management with soft ware, environmental legislation, and a wide variety of containment schemes. Now, in rapidly growing cities like North York, Ontario, new technology is being applied to solve an old problem inherent to land development. Land for stormwater management facilities is scarce in North York. Be

cause developable land is also expen sive, land owners and city officials must work together to provide the best devel opment opportunities for the market. Unlike some urban areas in the Greater

Toronto Area(GTA), the City of North York does not have provisions for main taining stormwater management ponds. The designer, Condeland Engineering, of the Rowan Court residential devel

opment project was faced with the prob

lem of providing a 1,600 m' storage facility without the benefit of a pond. The solution was determined to be

two large precast concrete storage cells buried at varying depths beneath Rowan Court that has a finished road grade be tween 3.5% and 5%. The size and length of the precast concrete box culverts were

of the downstream cap. The project called for 102 (3000 mm x 2100 mm) gasketed box units with 2.4 m lay lengths and 254 mm thick slabs and walls. The units weighed 18,300 kg apiece. The gaskets used were the selflubricated "SuperSeal" gasket, produced by Hamilton Kent in Etobicoke. The units were delivered to the site with the

gasket glued to the spigot end of each unit.

Murray Winter, project manager with Con Drain, said, "Con Cast helped us meet our deadline by supplying us with precast gasketed box units. They were

road grade of 24 m over a distance of 625 m east of Rayview Avenue. The cover over the cells ranged from 0.6 m to 7.0 m.

Kasey Rartusevicius, P.Eng., of Ralke Engineering Inc., worked with the precaster to design units having design strengths for three separate earth cover applications. Forty-three units were designed for a design earth cover (D.E.C.)of0.6 m to 3.6 m using stand ard welded wire fabric(WWF)reinforc

ing mats. Thirty-two units had a D.E.C. of 3.6 m to 5.4 m. Four of these units

had WWF reinforcing mats of MD 45.2 and MD 71.0 (D7 ume, production, Because developable land is also expensive, land owners and and D11). High delivery and instal shear stress at city officials must work together to provide the best a function of vol-

lation time to com

haunch areas re

development opportunities for the market. plete the project. quired additional The precast con25 M rebar at 140 Crete units of the cells were designed in easily installed in bad weather without mm spacing. Nineteen of the units have accordance with the materials specifi the need for any additional work to a D.E.C. of 5.4 to 7.0 m. Six of the cation for nine standard sizes of units achieve a watertight system." units have WWF reinforcing mats of under OPSS 1821. With design ap Other special products precast for the double MD 45.2 and MD 58.1 (double proval in place under OPSS 1821, the project included two (3000 mm x 2100 D7 and D9). High shear stress at the design and manufacturing stage was mm) concrete plugs with hole for the haunch areas required additional 25M expedited, thereby gaining efficiencies inlet pipe, and two (3000 x 2100 mm) rebar at 51 mm spacing. for the engineer, contractor and concrete caps with two outlet holes each. Con Drain Company(1983)Ltd. was precaster. The units were produced in a Con Cast Pipe also supplied 30 catch- the general contractor responsible for the controlled environment at Con Cast Pipe basins, valve chambers,300 mm to 675 installation of the cells and associated in 17 production days(6 per day). mm concrete pipe and 30 maintenance infrastructure. Construction started on The two cells are each 125.71 m long. holes. Eight of the precast units were November 14,1996 with delivery of pipe Roth have a single 375 mm drop pipe utilized to create four maintenance hole for sanitary and storm sewers, and main entering the up stream end, and a 300 tees. tenance holes. The first box units were mm pipe located at the outlet. They also The design also called for special delivered on November 29. Ry Decem have a 200 mm orifice pipe at the invert engineering of the load bearing capac ber 11, installation was finished. Total ity of the units at certain depths of bury, eost of the contract was $2.5 million. since the roadway was far from level. For more information, ^Con Cast Pipe ^Condeland Engineering Ltd. Rowan Court has a fall in the finished circle reply card No. 140 24

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997



CONCRETE PIPE The proven superior durability of

mix formulas result in higher con

performances. Field data firmly

conorete pipe has made it the

orete compressive strengths,

establish that the product life for

benohmark of the industry.

densities, and lower absorption

conorete culverts, storm sewers

rates. Concrete pipe actually


gets stronger over time.

exceed well over 100 years...

Simply put, concrete pipe is the longest lasting and most durable pipe you can put in the ground.





even in aggressive conditions. There's no better proof than past

And recent advances have made

So the next time you specify pipe,

it even more durable.

choose the new concrete pipe — the benohmark of durability. And

Automated manufacturing proc

put technology you can trust to

esses and advanced concrete


work for you.

Concrete Pipe Association

Technology you con trust. For the ACPA member nearest you. call 1-888-234-PIPE or visit our web site at www.concrete-pipe.org, 222 W, Las Coiinas Blvd, Suite 641, Irving, TX 75039-5423 (972)506-7216

Fax (972) 506-7682

For more information, circle reply card No. 141 (See page 17)

1997 ACPA

All rights reserved

Pumps & Valves

Maintenance tips on check valves and pump performance

Undetected cheek valve malfunctions can cause per formance problems, the source of which is often erroneously blamed on the pumping equipment. Check valves are needed to isolate each pump during periods of non-operation, preventing back-flow through the pump into the sump,as well as cross-flow between operating and non-operating units of a multi-pump station (see draw ing). When troubleshooting pump stations with performance complaints, take a moment to consider the possibility of a check valve problem and its effect on the symptom. Indications of possible check valve problems include un even run times on time meters of pumps in multi-use, pumps with impellers loose or fallen off, broken motor shafts, turbu lence or water movementin the area of non-operating pumps, lower than normal amperage draws, and slower than normal pump-out times. Pumps operating into a force main have to first develop sufficient head to overcome the back pressure on the valve from the main. With this hydraulic requirement in mind,it is important that the pumping units be sized large enough dur ing the design stages to overcome the realistic effects of age and possible changing system demands which will add fur ther burden on the pumping units. When selecting a replacement impeller, always be sure that the hydraulic performance specifications meet or exceed that of the impeller being replaced. In addition, pumps oper ating into a force main often have an air release/vacuum re lief valve installed near the check valve on the force main

side to prevent air pockets and help overcome the effects of water hammer when the check valve closes. Improperly lo cated or malfunctioning air release/vacuum relief valves can cause hydraulic problems that hamper the normal operation of the check valve as well as affecting the performance of the pumps connected to it.

Valve chamber

:\ S 1

The following example points out typical problems cre ated if the check valve for pump 1 were to hang up in a par tially open position: a)Pump I would always be called on to operate under par tially throttled conditions. The added head would cut down on the expected flow, which would in turn add to its operat ing cycle. In some cases, depending on the system, pump I may not be able to pump down to shut-off without the assist ance of pump 2. b) A more serious situation would exist when pump 2 be comes the lead pump. First of all, we would have the same basic condition as above, due to some of the flow returning to the station through the partially open valve in the line to pump 1. Secondly, the back-flow would cause pump 1 to spin in reverse and when called on to assist pump 2, it would have to stop the back-spin, and come up to speed in the proper direction and within a given time

is covered by water The rest is covered

by SEW-Eurodrive. Wastewater treatment facilities in Canada and around the world

look to SEW-Eurodrive for integrated drive solutions, and roundthe-clock service and support. With three Canadian assembly plants and more inventory than ail our competitors combined - we are the nation's leading supplier of motors, speed reducers and electronic controllers. For a better solution, call the drive uptime leader.



Toronto:(905)791-1553• Vancouver:(604) 946-5535• Montreal:(514) 367-1124 EURODRiVE 26

Check valves

Pump 2


Two thirds of the Earth's surface



For more information, circle reply card No. 142 (See page 17)


There are two possible end results; a)The rotor shaft may snap in time un der the strain of continued starting shocks.

b) Under these circumstances, the mo tor must first oppose backward rotation prior to coming up to speed in the proper direction, which prolongs the normally high starting current. This condition causes added heat to the stator windings, which,in turn,shortens the normal stator life.

Of course, the seriousness of the

problem would depend on voltage sup ply and more important, the number of starts per hour. These maintenance tips and drawing were provided by ITT Flygt. Conditions may dijferfor other makes ofequipment. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Why do over 200 municipalities in Ontario iise^^

the Ontario #lean W^ter Agency for their water and wastewater services?

Consistent, Reliable Service Open, Responsive Communications Local Customized Attention

Competitive Pricing Almost 5 mi l lion people in Ontario depend on the Ontario Clean Water Agency for safe and reliable water and wastewater services.

Industry Leaders In:

• Operations and Maintenance •Infrastructure

Development • Project Management • Public/Private


Today OCWA is changing in ways that we believe wil l set a new standard for client service in the industry. At the heart of our new service delivery strategy is a dedicated team of Client Service Representatives and certified operators. Our service professionals are located in the communities we serve, where they need to be to deliver quality service.

Plain and simple, that's the kind of service that adds value for clients. It's fast and efficient. Site-specific, when it needs to be. Open and responsive, always. And it's competitively priced. At OCWA, we're committed to the people we serve.

To discuss the kind of service most meaningful to you, contact OCWA at 1-800-667-0CWA. A Client Service Representative will respond promptly to your call.

Ontario Clean Water Agency Agence Ontarienne Des Eaux

For more information, circie repiy card No. 143(See page 17)

Guest Comment

By Graham Bryant, P.Eng., M.Sc.*

Stormwater - the devastating non point-source poiiution

Arecentarticlein therenowned

National Geographic sug gested that non point-source pollution, carried by stormwater, accounts for approximately 80% of the degradation in North America's


freshwater lakes and streams. The arti

HIâ– i

cle drew attention to a problem often overlooked by the general public; while point-sources attract headlines and at tention, stormwater runoff pollution draws mostly indifference. There are three reasons for the low

profile for non point-source pollution. First, the effect of stormwater on the environment is cumulative, and not im

mediately apparent. The impact of pe troleum products spilled into streams is felt almost at once. Trickle small quan tities of pollutants through the storm sewer system and it may take years to become evident,especially with groundwater contamination.

Toronto's Don River is an example of the cumulative effect of non pointsource pollution. The Don, which runs through a heavily urbanized area of the city, has become a symbol of pollution to many Toronto-area residents. There are stories of researchers developing skin rashes from contact with the river

during the 1980s. *Director of Engineering, Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Many recreational lakes face the threat of oil contamination from stormwater runoff. Photo - T. Davey

Yet less than a century ago fishermen pulled healthy fish from the river for local markets. It took several decades

of neglect for the Don to reach such high levels of pollution. Out of sight: What you can't see can hurt you In 1993 and 1994, Toronto averaged about 400 reported petroleum spills an nually. Many of these spills were car ried through storm sewer systems di rectly to streams flowing into Lake Ontario, eliminating any chance to pre vent their entry or treat the runoff. These are only reported incidents of petroleum spills. How many more occur annually and go unreported? One hundred? Two hundred? One thousand? Each year in the US, 133 million US gallons of mo tor oil are lost or unaccounted for.

The Greer Galloway Group Inc. Water Resources/hydrology/municipal engineer with 5+ years experience sought by progressive, growth minded company for our Peterborough and/or Oshawa office. Experience with Interhymo, SWMM,HBC2,and culvert analyses re quired. Presentation and business devel opment skills an asset; must be a self starter.

Please send a resume in confidence

to our Peterborough office,973 Crawford Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 3X1. 28

The oil dropped daily on North American parking lots would surely rival many of the headline grabbing tanker disasters.

The problem is complicated because many citizens assume storm sewer sys tems lead to treatment plants, when that is not the case at all. Stormwater equally impacts environmental health as fumes do from factory smokestacks. The fumes are visible, the storm sewer flow isn't.

When you talk stormwater quality measures, most people think you are pri marily concerned about protecting fish, frogs, and other aquatic life. But aquatic

life is only one important reason for re moving pollutants from stormwater; more importantly they are a prime meas ure of degraded water quality for human consumption. Degraded water quality affects rec reational uses of water resources. Fish

disappear and a study in California found that people who swam near storm drain outfalls were 50% more likely to suffer fever and vomiting than those who kept their distance. Degraded water quality also has a long-term impact on supplies of drink ing water. Contaminated potable water sources require more complex, and ex pensive treatment facilities. Economic impacts are inevitable. Sports fishing disappears, taking tourist dollars with it and dredging costs for harbours and waterways escalate. Disposing of oil contaminated dredgings inevitably presents more expensive problems to solve for the future.

Unquestionably stormwater contami nation directly affects our water qual ity. Unfortunately, most attention on water pollution problems has been focused on point-sources such as sani tary sewage and industrial discharge. Raised awareness of problems asso ciated with non point-source pollution will lead to a sense of stewardship for our freshwater and groundwater sys tems. â–

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


k Ay

W-: i#a?->i:S59BB

pipe problems using nondismptive, cost-effecdve solutions. The most difficult part about some pipe problems is just getting access to the pipe itself. Insituform Technologies specializes in reha bilitating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard-to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the inside, in most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Extensive independent and internal testing consis tently confirms the success of our methods.

We take sole-source responsibil ity for solving your problem, from the develop ment and manufacturing of proprietary products, to the engineering and installa tion of a solution at your site. Our iSO 9000 quality system assures high quality every step of the way. With experts in al l facets of pipe rehabilitation on staff, we have the project manage ment expertise and trained installers to solve your problems quickly. Our

exceptionally low accident rate and EMR refiect our commitment to safety. And, our 25 years and 7,000 miles of pipe rehabilitation experience are unequaled.

That Is why Insituform Is industry's preferred source for pipe rehabiiifation. If you are having problems with difticult-to-access pipes, call us at 1-800-234-2992 or visit our web site

at http://www.cmm.net/lnsituform/


Techrmlogies Limited Š1997 Insituform Technologies. Inc.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 144(See page 17)

Environmental Insurance

By Peter R. Matson*

Professional liability Insurance and environmental risk any engineering firms are expanding their services to include components of environmental consulting. Other firms are providing only environ mental services and are staffed with pro fessionals with various backgrounds. Environmental consulting is still an evolving field with developing method ologies and technologies, making it a moving target where professional liabil ity issues are concerned. Public aware ness, business issues and government mandates are intertwined and impact both perceived and real environmental risk. When providing environmental serv


ices, the consultant's standard of care is

quiring that the professional be respon sible for statutory fines and penalties. All projects, studies or designs have professional liability risks associated with their performance. Many projects may carry environmental exposures that

with construction activities and the po tential for the system to fail to perform as anticipated; the consultant risks a claim for damages, delay or additional expenses incurred, including construc

do not result from environmental con

activities are usually delivered via de sign-build. Consultants can manage their profes sional liability risk through one or a combination of risk-management tech niques including retention, whereby they keep all the risk; reduction, by us ing appropriate business practices; al location, which places risks where they belong; and transfer, which involves purchasing insurance.

sulting services, but rather from tradi tional engineering services. Some examples include construction staking or surveying for industrial cli ents; structural design for industrial plants that use chemicals; subsurface investigation at a "clean" site that results in contamination from an underground pollution source; preliminary site assess ments performed on "clean" sites that

tion-related claims since remediation

complicated by many factors: • Technologies that are evolving or rap idly changing. • New technologies or those that have

fail to uncover contamination; vicarious

To reduce risk, the consultant should

exposure through the actions of a sub-

focus on areas where the firm has a high level of control and use business prac tices such as careful client and project

never been tried.

service projects can result in different

evaluation and selection;internal evalu

• Multiple standards(provincial vs.fed eral) applied to a given project may con fuse the application of"standard ofcare". • Changing regulations are an all-toofrequent problem. New information

risks. In Phase 1 and 2 environmental

ation of skills and expertise; a written contract that includes an adequate scope of services and specifies those services the consultant is not contracted to per form; and the owner's acceptance of appropriate risks and responsibilities. A sound way to manage liability is to allocate risk in proportion to benefit received from the project. A limitationof-liability clause or the indemnification

about environmental risks, remediation

methods and other factors produces re actions by legislators and regulators. Unlike other more traditional engineer ing disciplines that are subject to more consistent regulations, the environmen tal professional may be held to changing standards of care caused by changing regulations. Consider that in Ontario,key areas are under review including the as sessment process as it relates to landfill sites and waste management issues; the codification of environmental standards

as well as changes to regulatory require ments under various legislation. • Professional liability may also ema nate from the professional's failure to perform duties detailed in a contract (contractual liability). An environmen tal contract may often include provisions that may increase the professional's li ability, such as rendering of certifica tions regarding site conditions as they relate to hazardous or toxic materials;

contract provisions to complete studies or designs to meet specific time con straints; indemnification provisions re quiring the professional to defend and hold harmless the client; provisions re*Pro-Form Insurance Services Inc., Aurora, ON 30


Moreover, common environmental-

site assessments, the client risks pur chasing potentially contaminated prop-

When performing site investigations and sampiing, overiooked contamination can

resuit in a ciaim for damages or corrective action costs against the consuitant.

clause in the contract can be used to limit

erty and assuming all its liabilities if the assessment is not thorough; the consult ant risks a claim for cost of clean-up or lost property value. Compliance audits and industrial hygiene surveys involve the client risk ing continuing a noncompliance, unsafe or unsound operation if the situation is not identified by the auditor, whom they perceive as an "expert"; the consultant risks a claim for the cost of compliance or any subsequent regulatory penalty. When performing site investigations and sampling, overlooked contamina tion can result in a claim for damages or corrective action costs against the consultant.

With feasibility studies and remedial design, the client risks selection of a re medial action that may not perform as anticipated, thereby requiring additional corrective action; the consultant risks a

claim for additional expenses. In implementing a remediation sys tem,the client risks problems associated

claims to a specific dollar amount based on the value of the project, or to the cov erage available in the consultant's pro fessional liability insurance policy. The most common form of risk trans

fer is the purchase of professional liabil ity insurance, which provides coverage for negligent acts, errors or omissions subject to the policy limit. Specifically, it covers the liability arising out of the negligent performance of professional services and typically needs to be en dorsed to broaden coverage to include environmental risks. Consultants need

to pay special attention to pollution and design-build exclusions. Finally, insurance will not cover ex pected or deliberate damages, nor will it cover penalties or intentional noncompliance with environmental regula tions. Moreover, insurance solutions

must be tied in with improvements and changes in society's perception and re sponse to environmental risk. Circle reply card No. 145

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

1 I 11 t I

â– Ox*

Smart Thinking Some GO years later, Edward entertained tils grandson Owayne with tains ot how his concreto system changod Ihe courso ot tho tntnre.

Concrete Pipe... Plan On It jju


6299 Airport Road, Suite 508 Mississauga, Ont. L4V 1N3 (905) 677-1010 Fax (905) 677-1007 www.ccpa.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 146 (See page 17)

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, caii ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Stamp Out Indoor Air Pollution with our

Integrated monitoring for the 21st Century

Industrial pipes reconstructed without


Proven Solution The Living Air Modei XL-15

e Im'UOOSeria

OptH ChtHHfi

Chemical Free (not a filter) Portable electronic units send ozone and

ions into indoor environments replenish ing the air like "Mother Nature" does outdoors. Systems are available to pu rify most indoor environments ofsmoke, dust, chemical gases, odours, and bacte ria. Units are effective on areas ranging in size from 100 to 20,000 square feet. Fresh n' Clean indoor Air

YSI600 Malti-Bmtmeur

XRttrr QtuditjAKnufar •pH

ISCO andYSI havejoined forces to bring you the most comprehensive integrated monitoring package on the market. ISCO's modular design proves to be more flexible than competitive systems. The YSI 600 multiparameter sonde lets you monitor up to four parameters with a sin gle cable design, eliminating fouled ca

bles. The RapidPulse™ oxygen sensor delivers readings without stirring. This exclusive system gives you the integrated measurement and reporting capabilities you need for monitoring; stormwater run off; rivers,lakes, and estuaries; non-point source pollution; combined sewer over


flows; and wastewater effluent.

Dealers Welcome

Nortech Control Equipment,Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 129

For more information,

circle reply card No. 128

The Insituform cured-in-place-pipe proc ess, using liquid thermosetting resin tech nology, can be engineered to withstand the corrosive effects of a wide range of chemicals. The reconstruction material

is custom manufactured from polyester felt and formed into a tube that fits the

pipe to be rebuilt. Prior to installation, the tube is impregnated with the speci fied thermosetting resin. The resin satu rated material is then inverted, or turned

inside out, within the damaged pipeline. Insituform

For more information,

circle reply card No. 130

High-rate clarlfler 1830 mm

On-line particle counter

Chlorine storage and handling eliminated


The Ultrapulsator® Flocculator-Clarifier provides a highly effective approach to water purification problems. Basic prin ciples of water chemistry are employed in a simple and effective way to remove turbidity, colour and organic material from municipal and industrial water sup plies. The Ultrapulsator® is a very highrate clarifier which combines the advan

tages of a highly concentrated and ho mogeneous sludge blanket and internal sludge recirculation with polishing action of tube settling modules. Settling mod

ules are sloped at 60° to permit evacua tion of sludge settled on the bottom of

EIMCO Process Equipment has intro duced an on-site disinfectant generating system for municipal potable water. The compact, skid-mounted system uses a patented, membraneless electrolytic cell to produce a powerful mixed oxidant solution from salt water. The primary dis infecting agents - ozone, chlorine diox ide and hypochlorous acid -are substan tially more effective in combination than

each tube. There are no attachments

chlorine or ozone alone. Because these

within tubes that prevent sludge from settling. Modules improve sedimentation

chemicals are produced in solution, at the concentration in which they will be used, the need to store and handle toxic gases

process in clarifiers. Degremont Infilco For more information,

circle reply card No. 131


or corrosive concentrates is eliminated.

The new 1900 WPC Process Particle

Counter System determines filter effi ciency and optimizes potable water treat ment processes. The instrument helps op erators detect or anticipate filter break throughs of particles in the size range associated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Windows™-based software cal

culates log reduction, provides real-time data, and retrieves historical data on plant filter operation for review. Hach Company For more information, circle reply card No. 133

EIMCO Process Equipment For more information, circle reply card No. 132 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Product and Service Showcase Pipe design software

Triple deck screens

Cathodlc protection/ corrosion control


The Derrick triple deck screening ma chines are available in Models A, C or Software from the American Concrete

D. Vibrators are either 1200 or 1800

Pipe Association allows you to design

RPM. All the decks are easily accessed through side doors. A reduced overall unit height is accomplished through uti lization of a dual vibrator "straight line" conveying action. With no exterior belts or drive mechanism there is no possibil ity of motor contamination by potentially damaging dust or chemicals. Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 171

concrete pipe in accordance with ASCE, SIDD and AASHTO standards for the

buried condition, using the direct design method. Pipe Culvert Analysis and Re inforcing Design(PIPECAR)determines moment,thrust, and shear stresses due to

pipe weight, soil weight, fluid weight, live loads and internal pressure up to 50 feet of head. AGFA

Circle reply card No. 170

Power WWTP simulation on a PC

Noise control panel systems

Interprovincial Corrosion Control, the Canadian Distributor of the MAXMAG

Magnesium Anode, offers customized services throughout the process of cathodic protection/corrosion control, in cluding initial surveys, system design, engineering services,follow-up monitor ing and system maintenance. The MAXMAG is manufactured to meet

ASTM Standard B843-93, Grade MIC.

Interprovincial Corrosion Control Circle reply card No. 172

Zebra mussel control

One solution

Hydromantis has ported its

A "Sokitkm" tor

to help control


zebra mussels involves the

GPS-X model

use of JAVEX

ling and simu


lation software


to the PC run

ning under Microsoft Windows NT. With the GPS-X development system, the en gineer builds a plant model by graphi cally selecting and hnking processes from a library of 220 mechanistic models. Dynamic simulation and calibration tools improve the model's accuracy. Once the model is built and cahbrated, the engi neer interactively simulates the dynam ics of the plant for efficiency. Hydromantis Inc. Circle reply card No. 173

GAC adsorbers


which the



Eckoustic'ÂŽ Functional Panels can quickly add sound absorption to compressor


rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms.

Palmolive is

In administrative areas, work can be car

ried out more efficiently with EFPs pro viding acoustic control. Positioning EFPs outside a facility can provide excellent acoustic screening. The noise arising from generators can be absorbed by EFPs,reducing the area's db level. Eckel Industries

working with experts to establish the best dosage lev els and techniques to control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept informed of the latest informa tion, please contact us. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 175

Circle reply card No. 174

Corrosion protection systems

Low profile overflow screen

ProtectÂŽ offers

the proven effec tiveness of granu lar activated car

bon in a modular,

disposable, inex pensive, and ver satile design. It is the practical solu tion for remedi

ation, most indus trial wastewater

discharges, organic vapor emissions, and odour control applications. Contami nated air can simply be piped to one or more adsorbers which contain specially

Denso Tape and Profiling Mastic pro vides long-lasting corrosion protection for buried pipes, flanges, valves and fit tings, that is easy to apply. No abrasive blasting is required, nor any special equipment or training. The system is more cost-effective than paints, with no

The Model OS-LP low profile overflow screen is specifically designed for screen ing combined and sanitary sewer over flows which require maximum hydrau lic capacity. The spacing between bars of an existing installation can be easily modified with the modular sectional de

selected activated carbon. The liquid

VOCs. It meets AWWA Standard C217-

phase adsorption system is both efficient

90 for cold-applied petrolatum tapes.

sign. Self-adjustable combs provide thor ough cleaning between the bar spaces, and a self-cleaning trough collects and carries away screenings downstream to

and flexible. A.C. Carbone Canada

Denso North America

the screen. John Meunier Inc.

Circle reply card No. 176 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Circle reply card No. 177

Circle reply card No. 178 33

Product and Service Showcase Sludge sampler

Monitoring reports

conforms to ISO

American Sigma's new InSight soft ware program has been designed for

9001, extracts

use with all 900

sludges,including those with a high

Series Samplers

solids content,

InSight is a DOS based program, designed to work

The EPIC 1030

fixed site sludge sampler, which


Economical pre-treatment of

from flowing pipelines or through a tank wall. The patented posi tive metering system has no sensors or level detectors to foul up, and the two valves which pass the sludge are purged during samples to prevent any blockage. The 1030 can be programmed to take time-or flow-weighted samples with the option of manual sampling whenever re quired. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 179

Membrane technology

industrial wastewater

Proceptor™ ef ficiently re moves oil and

suspended sol ids for easy dis posal from in

and Flow Meters.

in a Windows en

vironment,for all levels of computer us ers. Sigma samplers, flow meters, and rainloggers are displayed on a tool bar for easy setup and data retrieval. Multi ple channel logging including flow, rain and water quality can be overlaid on graphs for detailed analysis. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.


of stored contaminants into soil and

groundwater. They provide immediate payback when considering soil and wa ter remediation cost. Their efficiency exceeds existing environmental regula tions, codes and acts, by reducing waste contaminants to acceptable limits. Stormceptor Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 180

Circle reply card No. 181

The safer way to clean

PCB-free Toronto

State Chemical's

toronto hydro

ZENON have developed a unique, costeffective, hollow fibre membrane named

ZeeWeed''''^. By inserting ZeeWeed'''" modules into an existing plant, any tank can be turned into a reliable membrane filtration unit. ZeeWeed™ based water

treatment systems use ultra low pressure,

thereby reducing both capital and oper ating costs. ZENON has a variety of flex ible forms to meet all client needs.

Great news for Toronto Hydro custom ers! Toronto Hydro and Eco Logic have joined forces to eliminate your PCB-contaminated material. Toronto Hydro's reputation as a leader in managing PCBs dates back to the early 1980s. In fact, we've transported more PCBs than any municipal utility in Canada - accidentfree. Ontario-based Eco Logic has de veloped an award-winning PCB-destruction process that converts PCBs into methane and other reusable products.


butyl cleaner and

F ^

degreaser, safe surfaces. It is safer because it



^ is butyl-free and ^«:» contains non phosphates. Powerful, con

centrated active ingredients effectively attack and eliminate deposits. This is a heavy-duty industrial degreaser that com bines strength with safety. This highlydilutable product is nontoxic, and can be diluted to meet your specific needs. State Chemical Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 184

Circle reply card No. 182

Circle reply card No. 183

Gaskets for plastic flanges

Turn-key operations

When connecting plastic flanges, low bolt torques desirable.

These full face



Chemhne Plastics feature a raised

double o-ring profile. The raised face design provides positive sealing with bolt torques lower than required with conven tional flat faced gaskets. Chemline GA Series gaskets are available 1/2" to 12"

in pure EPDM, Teflon PTFE encapsu lated, and PVDF encapsulated EPDM. The elastomer core provides flexibility for better sealing of the Teflon or PVDF. Chemline Plastics

Circle reply card No. 185


When dealing with un derground or aboveground storage tanks.

EPIC 1011 portable waste water sampler The EPIC 1011 is

one of a range of au

Restoration Environ

tomatic waste water

mental Contractors can

samplers manufac tured under a Qual ity Management System that con

supply a complete turn key operation. Assess ments of potential prob lems include: geographi cal investigations, shal low sampling of soils, pitting and excavation, borehole drilling and monitoring. Excavation and removal of contaminated soils, pumping and re moval of tanks, soil testing to ensure regulatory compliance and backfilling

forms to ISO 9001 -

your assurance of long-term reliability The 1011 is a cost-

with clean fill are included in Restora

effective and highly adaptable unit with a wide range of ap plications amongst water companies and industry. There is a choice of sampling modules from a single composite con

tion's remedial program. Restoration

tainer to 24 individual containers.

Environmental Contractors

Cancoppas Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 186 34

No Issue is a non-


Toronto Hydro

Zenon Environmental



commercial effluents. Proceptor inter ceptors are constructed from inert com posites to prevent leakage and exfiltration

Circle reply card No. 187 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Product and Service Showcase "The Crypto File" is now

Least cost analysis software


New COD system eliminates hazardous metal waste

A compilation of test results on a new technology for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium is available from Safe Water Solutions, L.L.C. "The Crypto File©" contains data from independent testing performed by Clancy Environ

The Least Cost Analysis(LCA)program from the American Concrete Pipe Asso ciation evaluates the costs associated with

each alternative pipe material based on design components and project require ments. It incorporates project design life,

mental Consultants, Inc. on Safe Water

material service life, economic factors,

Solutions' advanced ultraviolet disinfec

tion system for inactivating Crypto sporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in

traffic costs and other project-related items. Total costs are calculated using present worth, annualized costs or future

clean water. Safe Water Solutions

value methods. ACPA

Hach's Manganese III COD System for monitoring chemical oxygen demand (COD)in wastewater completely elimi nates mercury and chromium waste. Within 90 minutes, analysts can complete up to 10 COD tests. The Manganese III COD method uses a closed reflux micro

method that is much less labor intensive

than the traditional open reflux macro method. Hach Company

Circle reply card No. 188

Circle reply card No. 189

Circle reply card No. 190

Submersible pumps

High-rate, compact clarifier

Microbiology testing

Whether you need to provide an existing fa cility with a per formance up grade or require

Amacan K,Amacan P/PNT and Amacan M/SNT are sub



with a tubular cas

ing design. Typical for KSB pumps are the different types ofimpellers and the various


combinations. Im

advanced and cost-effective

clarification technology for a new instal lation - consider Microsep, the clear so

lution. The Microsep® System uses its

portant advantages offered by the Amacan series are: space saving assem bly, tubular casing adapted to suit each construction, minimum installation peri ods, low expenditure for construction costs, and they incorporate all important characteristics required to ensure maxi mum operating safety. KSB Pumps

patented high-rate Ballasted Floe Reac sults in liquid-solids separation. The process uses a continuously recycled in ert carrier to dramatically increase the settling properties of suspended solids

Circle reply card No. 191

Circle reply card No. 192

Chemical metering made simple

Residential Backflow

tor (BFR)™ to achieve exceptional re

and associated contaminants.

Microsep International Corp.

Prevention meter

ProMinent Fluid


Controls intro

T-10 Residen

duces chemical

tial Backflow Prevention me

dosing stations with easy compo

^fceS GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc. is a

specialist in microbiology testing of po table, surface, and waste water. We pro vide cost-effective testing of your water samples to meet all environmental and drinking water objectives. We perform Cryptosporidium and Giardia testing as one of our services. Have a microbiol

ogy concern? Call us. GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.

Circle reply card No. 193

Aluminum access hatches MSU's Access

Hatches are drip proof, with a gasketed drain channel, and

meet your custom


continuous pi ano hinges. Gas springs provide

needs. The new

and backflow


ter is the first in

tegrated water

nent selection to

S2 Dual dosing package,pre-engineered by the experts in chemical meter ing,is ideal for rehable backup with mini mum costly downtime or for dual chemi cal dosing. Coupled with ProMinent's solenoid-driven metering pumps,capaci ties of up to 30 litres per hour(per pump) can be achieved.

ProMinent Fluid Controls

prevention de vice approved by the CSA. Uniquely adapted to fit the needs of today's utilities, it eliminates extra planning and installation time. Backflow meters reduce your total costs by streamlining operations and increas ing protection against backflow liability. Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 195

Circle reply card No. 194 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


easy operation; this flush design eliminates tripping haz ards. A wide range of single and double door models are available to suit your ap plication, from light pedestrian to occa sional traffic loading. They can be used in all water and wastewater infrastructure.

MSU is certified by the Canadian Weld ing Bureau to CSA Standard W47.2MI987. MSU Mississauga Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 196 35

Product and Service Showcase Turbidity/suspended solids analyzer and sensors

Compact submersible mixer

Oil/grease and solids interceptors The Proceptor OGC multi-cell

interceptor series is a new line of

oil/grease separa


The Royce Model 7011 Suspended Sol ids Analyzer provides reliable, continu ous operation in waste treatment plants, rivers, lakes and other aqueous systems.

Thanks to the hyperboloid shaped mix ing body of the ABS-HYPOMIX® which is located near the tank floor, this system avoids the well-known flow disadvan

tages of vertical mixers in tertiary sew age treatment systems. The drive, by

The instrument will read in either milli

means of a submersible motor unit, re

grams per litre or density percentage and is auto-ranging. The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly experienced in effluent streams (0-500 mg/I). Cancoppas Limited Circle reply card No. 197

sults in a very compact robust installa tion which can run completely vibration-

Stainless steel pump

free and eliminates all the other disad

vantages associated with long drive shaft units. ABS Pumps

tor which satisfies

a typical munici pal requirement for the use of multi-stage interceptors. The larger OGC units (>1000 IG) are geared towards heavy food processing, industrial operations and custom wastewater treatment applications. The smaller units (<500 IG) are designed to replace typical box style interceptors. Stormceptor Canada

Circle reply card No. 199

Circle reply card No. 198

Self-cleaning fine screen

Water & wastewater services

The ITT Flygt Ontario Asence

3041 submersible

pump is specially designed for cor rosive liquid dewatering appli cations. The hy draulic and motor sections are inte

grated into a com pact, space-sav

ing unit which is resistant to both corrosive and

warm liquids. All parts that come in contact with the liquids are made of cor rosive resistant stainless steel.

ITT Flygt

STEP SCREEN® is one of the most ad

vanced concepts for separating solid par ticles from wastewater/sludge/slurry. The STEP SCREEN® is unique in that the step shaped laminas (blades) form a screen upon which the caught particles build a blanket. Flow capacity is much higher than a conventional bar screen due to the greater effective opening through flow area(up to 25%). Dagex Inc.







The Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA)is the largest supplier of water and wastewater services in the province, serving almost 5 million individual con sumers. Today OCWA is changing in ways that will redefine service in the in

dustry. Our new Client Services Repre sentatives will be located in the field to

provide proactive, timely and effective service tailored to the client's needs. OCWA

Circle reply card No. 202

Circle reply card No. 201

Circle reply card No. 200

Helical speed reducers

Open channel flowmeter

Specialty gas suppliers catalogue Whatever your requirements in specialty gases and gas mix tures, you can find it all in this

SEW-Eurodrive's F-Series helical speed reducers have been redesigned to offer more gear ratios, significant torque in creases for greater service factors, im proved modularity, and more sizes. As a result, end users can select the gear unit that more cost-effectively meets the ex act requirements of their application. SEW-Eurodrive provides turnkey drive solutions supported by single-source re sponsibility across Canada. SEW-Eurodrive,Inc. Circle reply card No. 203 36

Marsh-McBimey's Flo-Tote™ is an open channel flowmeter, which measures ve locity and level. No weirs or flumes are required, and, with use of the Q-Stick

Tool, there is no need for manhole entry. The Flo-Tote's accuracy has been veri fied by an independent flow laboratory. C&M Environmental Technologies Circle reply card No. 204

catalogue. Air Liquide Canada, one of the largest specialty gas suppliers, presents a spectrum of products and use ful technical information. You will also

find typical and innovative applications such as calibration standards for environ

mental monitoring. To order, call your nearest Air Liquide Canada sales repre sentative. Air Liquide Canada Circle reply card No. 205

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Classifieds —





nthrafliter ^


TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

High Pressure Water Jetting tina Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services


Media & Coal Ltd.

TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617



Waste Water Treatment







Sponge Jet Cleaning

Circle reply card No. 149

For more information, circle No. 152





Quality, On Site, Water/Wastewater Educational Services

Utility Operation & Safety Training EXAMPREP Certification Courses



• Monitoring Wells • Recovery Weils

• Municipal Well Drilling •Industrial Well Drilling

• Gas Extraction Wells

•Construction Drilling • Well Testing and Rehabilitation

•Deep Monitoring Well Specialists

No Fee Training Audits & Consultations

R.R.#1 (Bast Place) Waterloo, Ontario

Professional Adult Educators

^ CEU Accreditation Since 1987 ^

(519) 664-1422

147 North Street West


Wingham,Ontario (519) 357-1960

Davidson "Since 1900"

For more information, circle No. 153

Phone/Fax: (905)892-1177 14 Mllburn Dr. Fonthlfl, Ontario 1.05 1E4

Circle reply card No. 150

FAX (905)841-7271 for quick response


Biosolids and Waste Utilization • Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.

Company Name:

Area Code &Tel:



Mail — P.O. Box 60069

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2


Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakvllle, Ont. L9T 2X5

Phone:(905) 878-2800/Fax: (905) 878-7332



Postal Code:


Circle reply card No. 151

Employment Opportunity A Wfiitby based manufacturer and fabricator of reinforced fibreglass products, seeks the following individual:

Circle the numbers below for FREE information on the products in the June 1997 issue that interest you.

Sales Professional

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117

Responsibilities include: sales and technical representation of our FRP Cover Systems and

118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133134 135136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150151

Associated Products to the wastewater indus

152153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167168

try. You should possess a post secondary business and/or engineering degree, proven sales experience, superior communication skills, and a propensity for responsibility and challenge.

169170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184185 186187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201202

203204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218219 220221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235236

Please forward your resume to:

237238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253

Nemato Composites Inc.

254255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286287

1605 McEwen Drive, Whitby, ON LIN 7L4 Fax:(905) 571-5303 or (905) 571-4662

288289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303304

E-mail: nemato@durham.net

305306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320321

No phone calls please

322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337338

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


Water Treatment

By Abhay D.Tadwalkar*

Particle counting as an operational tool

The Ontario Water Works As

sociation(OWWA)Treatment Committee and Continuing Education Committee spon sored a one day seminar on Particle Counting as an Operational Tool on

Tvletcon /vtejcor,

March 20, 1997 at the Four Points

Hotel in Mississauga, Ontario. Particle counters provide a rapid means of determining the size and the number of particles in water. Particle counting data offers more detailed in formation on the quality of water as compared to turbidity measurements


and this information can be used to

optimize the water treatment process. Application of particle counters in mu nicipal and industrial water treatment plants is gaining momentum because of recent outbreaks of waterborne diseases

in North America caused by microor ganisms such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Brian Jobb, Vice-Chair, Treatment Committee, addressed the timeliness of

this topic and the need to disseminate this information to the operating level at the water treatment plants. Roland Welker, of Dillon Consulting Limited, talked about the multi-barrier approach for particulate and microbial removal and the monitoring techniques for as sessing the removals. He also intro duced Microscopic Particulate Analysis as another tool to measure the perform

One of the novel features of the seminar was that the suppliers of the commercially available particle counters were present on site. Photo - T. Davey

parasitic cysts, which have existed in the past, are currently a drinking water prob lem. He challenged both regulatory agencies as well as plant operators to set higher operating standards,use additional tools such as particle counters and adopt operating procedures that encourage "fil ter to waste", a set maximum filter run

length, no recycle of the backwash wa ters, annual filter maintenance and opti mization of pre-treatment process. Erika Hargesheimer then dealt with

ticle counters at the two conventional

surface water treatment plants on Lake Erie and the Niagara River. Particle count data was used to optimize the treatment process and was beneficial in detecting filter breakthrough of the particulate matter. The speakers' presentations were fol lowed by a panel discussion. The ques tion of whether particle counters would replace turbidimeters was discussed. There was a general consensus that the

the criteria for selection of the on-line

turbidimeters would continue to be used

for the foreseeable future while particle counters would be increasingly used for trouble-shooting and process optimiza

cussed whether an absolute guideline value for particle counts for treatment

particle counters, calibration and chan nel sizes, quality assurance issues and the need to define water quality goals based on particle counting data. Douglas Stendahl, of the Manheim

should be established or not and if so,

Water Treatment Plant, Kitchener, de

ance of microbial removals. It was dis


It was also recognized that there is a need to develop on-site calibration ca what should it be. Erika Hargesheimer, scribed particle counting as "not a sil pabilities, define quality assurance of the City of Calgary,examined turbid ver bullet but another arrow in an op- protocols, develop manageable data file ity versus particle counting structures and integrate data measurements. with the existing SCADA Application of particle counters In There is excellent corre systems for real time opera lation between turbidity and tion based on particle counts. municipal and Industrial water treatment particle counts for water Regarding particle monitors plants Is gaining momentum because of (as opposed to particle with turbidity greater than 0.1 NTU. However, at very counters), it appeared that recent outbreaks of waterborne diseases.. low turbidities (less than 0.1 they had limited application NTU - operating detection in the water industry since limit for turbidimeters), correlation is erator's quiver". Since particle count particle monitors measure a "relative" poor. It is in this range that particle data is very much source water and plant index of water cleanliness which is not counting provides improved sensitivity specific, he recommended establishing clearly defined. and analytical confidence for monitor a plant-specific (say less than 50 parti Three suppliers had their units on ing the effectiveness of the treatment cles) "total particle count per millilitre display and were available for a techni greater than 2 m size" as an uncompli cal dialogue and participation in the process. Wayne Manley, of the Peterborough cated operational goal. panel discussion. Utilities Commission,reflected why the John Mogavero, of the Erie County The seminar was partially funded by Water Authority,Tonawanda,New York, the Ministry ofEnviromnent and Energy *Metro Toronto described their experience with the par and Ontario Clean Water Agency. â– 38

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, June 1997

Conference Report

By Tom Davey

Ontario Environment Minister says monitoring reveals encouraging data services for homeowners in Northern

Ontario, he said the water and waste-

water treatment plants owned and oper ated by OCWA are paying their own way and breaking even. "We do not anticipate that costs will go up just because title is being trans ferred from OCWA to municipalities," he stressed.

Turning to Ontario's Drinking Water Surveillance Program,the Minister said, "DWSP was introduced in 1986 when

22 locations were monitored. Today we report on 135 locations with more sched uled for 1997."

Norman Sterling, lawyer, engineer, and Minister of Environment and Energy, happiiy fielding questions from the fioor.

Environment and Energy Min

ister Norman Sterling had some encouraging news for the over 600 delegates attending

the Joint Annual OWWAVOMWA^

Conference, in Hamilton, Ontario.

The Minister, who has degrees in both law and engineering, said he was encouraged by a recent study done by the respected economic think tank, the Eraser Institute. The study states that

"DWSP reports have just been com pleted for the 1993-1995 period and the test results show that municipal water treatment facilities consistently produce excellent water for their communities."

Rod Holme,AWWA President Elect,

was presented with the Fuller Award Pin, prior to getting the award at the 1997 AWWA Conference. Coincidently, he will officially become the Vice President of the Denver-based American Water Works Association which serves all of

North America in addition to a widely spread international membership. A Vice President of Proctor &

Rod Holme received the OWWA's high est honour, the Fuiier award at the OWWA/OMWA Conference.

OWWA Chair,Tom Eyre, noted with regret the passing of Mike Provart, a former Section Chair, AWWA Director, and Director of Dillon Engineering. Mike will not be forgotten; a scholar ship has been established in his name in cooperation with the Section. Mike's widow Anne was present during the an nouncement.

At the Annual Banquet,Pat Lachmaniuk, MOEE, became the first woman

since 1980, the 'overall environmental

Redfern, Rod has served on ES&E's

Chair of OWWA,and this long overdue

quality' in Canada has improved by 15.6 percent. Canada's overall water quality has improved by 26.9 percent, based on the measurement of six water pollutants which include phosphorous, nitrogen

Editorial Advisory Board since the magazine was launched early in 1988. He has given ES&E valuable technical advice as well as contributing articles over the years. Joe Gemin, also from

trend will continue as the new 1st Vice

and PCBs.

P&R, received the covetted Howard

"Unfortunately, this is not the case globally," Mr. Sterling said, citing the huge problems faced by countries such as Uruguay and Brazil. "Ontario busi nesses in the environmental industry have a wonderful opportunity to export their know-how and expertise and be at the leading edge in helping these coun tries address some very serious issues." "1 know that many here are wonder ing about the future of the Ontario Clean Water Agency. Bill 107 provides mu nicipalities with a choice with regards to OCWA. They can continue to use it for the management and operations of their water and sewage treatment serv ices, or they can look at other options." Referring to future costs for these

Award for his contribution to treatment

plant operations.

Chair of the Section is Judy MacDonald, P.Eng., Reg. Municipality of Halton. Casino Night continues to be one of the social highlights. It is sponsored and staffed by the Equipment Suppliers with all proceeds going to the Toronto Hos pital for Sick Children. â–

'Ontario Water Works Association

^Ontario Municipal Water Association

Dick Beck, centre, co-author of privatization paper, enjoying Casino Night.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


Conference Report

Shedding new light on the privatization controversies In a paper given at the OWWA/ OMWA Joint Conference, Dick Beck and Don Black discussed

the future of public water systems.

Our purpose is to provide our

communities with adequate supplies of high-quality drinking water, which is al ways safe, reliable and pleasing. While drinking water standards will continue to be set by the Ministry of Environment and Energy, we should aim to not only meet but exceed these. We must also

prepare for changes which may be com ing with proper long-range technical and financial planning. This is a huge re sponsibility, because it is public health that is at stake.

The main issues for water quality in volve pathogens, chemicals (e.g., THM levels), and aesthetics (i.e., taste and 'Member, Board of Directors, OMWA ^Executive Director, OMWA

odour). These are all important, but pathogens are considered by many to be the biggest issue, because their shortterm effects can be very visible and de bilitating e.g., periodic outbreaks in North America of cryptosporidiosis. Ontario's public water systems fall into two main categories: municipallyowned, and provincially-owned. The municipally-owned can be either Coun cil-operated or Utility Commissionoperated, and the membership of the Ontario Municipal Water Association comprises about half of each type. Under Bill 107, the provinciallyowned water and sewage systems now operated by the Ontario Clean Water Agency, are being given to the munici palities, although they may continue to be operated by OCWA under existing contracts. Hopefully,the ownership and control of these and other systems will not be sold to private interests, but will remain in municipal hands as desired by the Minister.

A public opinion poll was conducted by Pollara in February 1997 for Ontario residents. The numbers from this sur

vey are even higher than a similar sur vey last year: •The Ontario public continues to over whelmingly support the sale of water to consumers at cost. Fully 86% feel that water should be sold at cost.

• A large majority of Ontarians (80%) want the money that they pay in water rates to be used solely for improving the water system.

• A large majority (81%) believe the public should be consulted through a series of public information meetings and a public referendum, before key policy changes are made in how the drinking water system is run. This poll proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that the vast majority of Ontario residents believe that water is a public good and not a private commodity. And they want to keep the revenues within the system to keep it in good shape.

The reasons for choosing largo,^dlamotor, solid-wall PVC are no logger tl|jait strong.

If you want to lower your material costs without sacrificing quality, try our RAURIB' PVC pipe. It gives you the strength and performance of DR 35 pipe, but It costs less. Like DR 35, RAURIB has a proven track record with both sanitary and storm applications. Plus, RAURIB is

one of the most trusted names in the waterworks industry. Do you need any more reasons for giving us or our authorized distributors a call?

manufactured to ASTM and CSA standards with identical

performance requirements to DR 35. Also consider the fact that our 25 years of experience in creating innovative designs and providing exceptional service has made us

•Municipal •Industrial •Accessories

Marlllmes (800) 565-7342 •(506) 538-2346 • Quebec (800) 361-0830 •(514) 457-3.345 • Newfoundland (800) 205-1991 •(709) 747-3909 Ontario (800) 561-9609 •(905) 335-3284 • Prairies (204) 697-2028 • British Columbia (800) 668-i 173 •(604) 852-4527


For more information, circle reply card No. 127 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


Me Along

Com milled lo Excellence

Edition #1 - Summer 1997

Pubiished For Those Who Design, Construct or Maintain Municipai Systems

Clogged Pipes a Thing ofthe Past by Howard Mozel, Oakville Beaver Staff

Reprinted with permissionfrom The Oakville Beaver, Sunday May 25, 1997 Edition OAKVILLE - Bronte residents can look

forward to improved drinking water and fire protection thanks to a massive new water main project which gets underway Monday. According to Brent Marshall, Halton Region's Acting Planning and Public Works Commissioner, the work is

part of a seven-year $110 million program to upgrade south Halton's

the pipes is a temporary solution but with the new PVC pipes of a minimum six inches, flow will double or triple, permanently.

reduced to one lane in either direction

during construction but no two projects will have lanes closed simultaneously during peak hours.

As far as water quality is concerned, "The co-operation from Oakville has been Marshall said as many as 70 Oakville great," says Marshall. "By co-ordinating homes have been equipped with special our project planning, we will be able to deliver better service, reduce inconvenience to

the public and reduce our

water and wastewater


delivery system. Costs will be spread out over a 10-year period.

Ward 1 councillor Kevin

Flynn said there is no doubt the projects will be hard on the community, but explained most residents are willing to accept short-term dismptions for long-term gain.

The first year of the project represents $16 million



improvements to the Bronte/Burloak Area. In

1997 alone, 11.2 km of water mains and 2.2 km

"Everybody understands the work has to be done," said Flynn.

of wastewater mains will

be replaced in the area. This involves removal of the network of cast-iron water mains - some are

The Photo by Peter McCusker Brent Marshall. Halton Region's Acting Planning and Public IVorks Commissioner demonstrates the difference between the new PPCpipes to be installed in Bronte and the old rust-clogged pipes they'll replace. The old pipe was takenfrom Burlington Avenue in Burlington.

almost 50 years old - and replacing them with PVC versions. The old water mains are prone to mst, scale build-up and other problems - not the least of which is public safety.

To illustrate his point, Marshall referred to a segment ofold four inch pipe clogged by rust build-up taken ifom Burlington Avenue. Last year on that street a home was destroyed by fire because of insufficient water pressure. Cleaning out



Lakeshore Road West

filters at the water meter. Rusty water is

projects are only the beginning. Other work will take place on Mississauga Street, West Street, Shore

not a health issue, but Marshall said the

Road, Timber Lane and Seneca Drive. In

new system will have a big impact on

July, work begins on the new tmnk water

aesthetics nonetheless.

main on Bronte Road from Rebecca Street

In an effort to minimize traffic disruption and save money, the $550,000 reconstruction of the Lakeshore bridge

to Upper Middle Road. Completion date is June 1998. More projects are slated for next year.

over Bronte Creek will occur at the same time as water main work. Traffic will be

(continued on page 2)

Clogged Pipes a Thing of the Past

To ensure public safety, Town Council

an available alternative route - and that

(continuedfrom page 1)

voted in March to have the Oakville Fire

Bronte is still open for business.

Department locate one fire track on the west side ofthe bridge at peak traffic hours during construction.

In Nov. 1995 a survey of the bridge's condition was conducted by C.C. Parker

A brochure outlining details of the projects,locations and schedules will soon be delivered to every household in the area. Residents are being encoui^aged to keep this on hand all year for easy reference. Marshall also encourages residents who encounter problems to call the Town or Region so other measures can perhaps be taken.

To assist Bronte BIA members worried

about reduced business due to the project, Town Public Works Director Ray Green said no detour signs will be used. Instead signs will be erected at strategic locations to notify motorists that Burloak Drive is

Consultants who recommended that

patching, waterproofing and paving were necessary. The report also called for replacement of the expansion joints and the repair of sidewalks and parapet walls.

Pipe Ingenuity Saves the Day in Piedmont by Michel Cadotte, IPEX Inc., Montreal

The town of Piedmont's crucial

of a 2,200 metre, 600 mm, PVC DR41

holiday season was saved thanks to

force main under a cycling path which,

a unique installation technique used to

during the winter months, is also used as

allowed the trencher to excavate a very narrow cavity 900 mm wide and 2.5

meters deep. This type ofexcavation also

a cross-country ski trail. This project

minimized the critical impact on the en

was to start on December 10th and


had to be completed in time for the holiday season on December 20th. For the consulting engineering finn of Vallee, Lefebvre & Associates and the

citizens of Piedmont, the length of time required to complete this undertaking seemed impossible to

The base and lateral support, normally

obtained by compacting the embedment material, were replaced by filling the cavity with concrete halfway to the top of the pipe. This economical approach allowed the installation of up to 250 metres of pipe per day compared to 150

overcome. A viable solution had to be

metres per day when using the

found quickly. Les Entreprises

conventional installation method.

Michaudville Inc., a contractor from

St-Bemard-de-Michaudville,came up with such a solution.

The Engineer and suggested


Thanks to the ingenuity of the municipality, the engineer and the contractor, the project deadline was met

in time for Piedmont's holiday season. â–


IPEX PVC pipe and a unique installation 900 mm wide trenches aliowed the laying of 250 metres of600 mm DR41 per day install a 600 mm PVC force main in

record-breaking time. Piedmont, located north of Montreal, is

popular for its numerous ski facilities and

technique to install the force main in the time available.

Instead of excavating a 3.7 metre wide trench to

install a 600 mm pipe, a trencher was used to

relies on the tourist ski trade in the winter

accelerate the excavamonths.

This particularjob required the installation


tion pace. The nature and stability of the soil

Trencher used to install 600 mm PVCforce main

Kitec Passes Test in Regina by Allan Baker,IPEX Inc., Regina

Atest early this year on the effects of


pipe and gained access as the ice blockage

.freezing pipes proved to the City of

male adapter was placed on the opposite

melted away. When the steamer hose was

Regina that KITEC Water Service Tubing

end of the KITEC and was connected via

inserted 10 feet into the pipe, the KITEC

has the superior characteristics necessaty

a hose to a water faucet. The pipe was

pipe felt warm but not uncomfortable to

to withstand rugged Regina winters.

then filled with city water and capped off.


In 1995,the City ofRegina installed eight

The filled pipe sample was placed outdoors

After approximately five minutes of

test sites for KITEC in their municipal

at 10:25 a.m., where the outdoor

steaming the pipe, there was a rush of

water distribution system. These services

temperature that day was -14°C.

water through the curbstop. At this point

were a combination

Arrangements were then made to meet the

the free flowing municipal water supply

steam thaw technicians later that

was then shut off.

of new


replacement installations. During initial discussions with the City

end of a 20-foot sample of KITEC.

aflemoon. We then cut the service into several

of Regina regarding KITEC,

sections to inspect for

a topic of concern was the

damage due to the high

issue of frozen services.

temperatures. The City of

Specifically, their concems

Regina personnel inspected


the samples for interior damage but could not see any

1) If frozen, would the

visible damage. The pipe

KITEC split?

appeared to be completely 2) Would the Public

unaffected by the test. A

Works Department

sample of pipe was left with

be able to use their

Mr. Sarasen at the Public

pressure steamer to

Works Department.

thaw out the frozen

KITEC service?

KITEC pipe met ihc challenge (he City ofRegina put lo it and should he approredfor municipal services later in 1997.

On the municipal side of the

fully expected the pipe to be

damaged from the steam test as we have

service, the City utilizes a steamer to thaw

At 3:00 p.m. the KITEC was frozen solid.

out services. This steamer is simply a

Visual inspection of the pipe proved that

boiler mounted on a trailer which they pull

the pipe was completely sound with no

from site to site. This boiler generates a

Mr. Sarasen commented, "I

damaged other plastic products in the past with our steamer." Asked what his

visible damage.

thoughts were after the steam test,"I think KITEC is a good pipe and, of the original

steam temperature of 250 to 300°F. On

The cap was removed from the male end

test sites installed two years ago, we

the day of the test, the pressure being

of the service and a hose was connected

haven't had a reason to follow up, or go

generated was 70 psi. Under the direction

from the city water to the male adapter.

back and check on them. Basically we have

of Mr. John Sarasen, Supervisor of Water

This would simulate the thawing of an

almost forgotten about them."

Distribution and Steam Technicians

actual service under municipal pressure.

Walter Schmidt and Steve Schlosser, the

following test was set up at the City of Regina Public Works Yard. A closed curbstop was connected to one

After connection to city water the valve on the curbstop was opened to allow the 3/8" OD steamer hose into the pipe. The steamer hose was inserted slowly into the


4" Tapped Couplings are now available with 3/4" and 1" AWWA tapped outlets. Manufactured from 4000 psi HDB resin and color coded blue, the IPEX Tapped Coupling gives you the same characteristics as Blue Brute C900 pipe.

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ipexmarketing@sympatico.ca Commilted to Excellence

By Dick Beck^ and Don Black^ The survey results support principles described in the report Ontario's Water Industry - Modelsfor the 21st Century. This was prepared for OMWA by Dr. Neil Freeman,Public Policy Consultant and Adjunct Professor in Political Sci ence at the University of Toronto. This has proved to be a valuable reference, as it is the first ever publication to ex plore the past, present and future of the supply and distribution of public drink ing water in Ontario, and desirable mod els for public water systems. OMWA's Five-Point Plan was devel

oped from the findings of the report. A part of its public information program,

Public water utilities have existed

NO votes.

the public well- with efficient, not-for-

Well, you may ask, why is this so bad? Can't the water utilities run just as

profit service, and requiring no subsi dies from local taxes. The "customer is

well under a committee of Council? The

key",and water utilities do onejob only.

answer is: Possibly almost as well un der some circumstances, but much

When utility commissioners are elected, they are as directly accountable to their customers as it is possible to be. Rev enues go back into the system to main

tain and upgrade treatment plants and other infrastructure. They are consistent with the government's new focus on full financial transparency, use of user fees, and elimination of cross-subsidization.

Today, however, our public water

the OMWA's Five-Point Plan strives to

...the Ontario government has

of public water authorities in the prov ince. To fulfil these goals the OMWA

removed some of the checks

ing towards:

• Full financial transparency. This goal is to ensure that water utility rates continue to be based on fee-for-service

and balances that have made

the public utility systems work and that have made them

completely accountable to the people they serve.

and full-cost recovery, and that revenues poses. Water rates should not be used

systems are at a watershed, because the Ontario government has removed some

to cross-subsidize general municipal

of the checks and balances that have


made the pubhc utility systems work and that have made them completely ac countable to the people they serve. For example, under Bill 26,the Savings and Restructuring Act, municipal councils can bypass the law that requires them to hold a referendum before dissolving public water utilities and making them just another department of the munici pality. It means this decision can be made without any public consultation or input and only requires a majority vote of council. This has already happened

are dedicated only to public utility pur

•Direct public accountability. Secure the autonomy of water utilities from municipal councillors in order to ensure accountability to customers and finan cial separation from the municipality. Municipalities should administer taxsupported services, while public utilities provide rate-based services. Where municipalities control water service,the system should be run in a business-like manner with dedicated revenues.

• Capturing natural efficiencies through integration of utilities. Seek statutory amendments that would en courage the integration of a municipali ty's public utility functions, including water, wastewater and electricity into a single, autonomous public utilities commission to capture the natural

worse under others.

If a Council committee operates as a virtually separate utility, then it can, in theory, come close to achieving most of the goals we have discussed, and we would be well satisfied. But this re

quires essentially an arm's length rela tionship with Council,full-cost account ing and financial transparency, dedicated revenues, and well-focused technical

preserve and strengthen the contribution

and its member water utilities are work

in some communities,in spite of earlier

since about 1882, and they have served


• Full cost/benefit studies before pri vatization. Require that privatization

and financial planning. Indeed, many water systems now exist as departments of a municipality, and we hope there will be a trend towards full adoption of the elements of the Five-Point Plan.

However, there is no question that some Councils are looking on water rev enues as a possible source of money for other general municipal services. This

mixes up the contribution of ratepayers and taxpayers, who are often the same people but who pay on a different basis. And a more serious consequence is the tendency to spend less on maintenance and upgrading of the water system, at the expense of future rate shocks and perhaps even water quality. In conclusion, we believe the public utility concept is a model to be preserved and strengthened. The adoption of the elements in this Five-Point Plan will go a long way toward ensuring that we can maintain and build upon the strengths of a system that has been around longer than any of us. ■

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Engineering, Consulting,Procurement,Project Management

of water services should not occur with

out a full and open cost/benefit compari son with the public utility concept, in cluding a full accounting of the conse quences of all contract commitments. • Meaningful public input. Require that there be public consent and input through referendums and other consul tation before public water utilities are dissolved or transferred to a council func

tion or franchised to the private sector. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Ainley & Associates Limited Consulting Engineers and Planners Water Supply and Sewage Treatment Environmental Assessments - Roads and Bridges Structural Engineering - Land Use Planning Our expertise covers a// aspects of C/vff, Mjrv'cpa/ and Snv^onmentai Eng^ering and Land L/se Piann/ng C<XJJAfGWCXX> rrosd 44s-34st

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R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality



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Association Canadienne sur la

Qnalite de I'Eau R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Special sessions on "Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems" were convened as part of the 31st Central Canadian Sym posium on Water Pollution Research

consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

Environmental and Infrastructure Specialists Planning and Management Design and Construction Operations and OptMzation

Water and Wastewater,Transportation and Urban Development Technologies

held in 1996 at the Canada Centre for

Toronto (416)497-8600; Welland; Ottawa; Sudbury (Dennis); London; Moncton (Tonchie);

Inland Waters in Burlington, Ontario. The chairmen of the special sessions.

Fredericton (Tonchie); Charlottetown (Atlantech); Mnmbai,India(PHE Consnltants)

National Water Research Institute sci

entists R.J. Allan, J. Barica and M.A.

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dered from the Canadian Association on

Water Quality at $40.00 each.



Zarull, selected papers from major re gions in Canada to present an overview of ongoing restoration activities and to identify information gaps. A special is sue of the Water Quality Research Jour nal of Canada has now been published containing 12 of these papers represent ing current Canadian state-of-the-art in the area of aquatic ecosystem restora tion. Copies of this issue may be or

Biollte Carrier for Anaerobic


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University of Ottawa scientists R. Prakash and K.J. Kennedy studied start up and steady state operation of anae


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ment of wastewaters at high loading rates and organic removal efficiencies. During steady state experiments,organic removal efficiencies greater than 80% were obtained for organic loading rates as high as 20 g COD/(L°d).

Stormwater Quality Management A paper published in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada describes a screening tool for stormwater quality management in urbanized areas. The generic planning strategy developed by Ryerson Polytechnic University scien tist J. Li comprises five steps:(1)iden-

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

R&D News


tification of ecosystem and economic goals and objectives, (2) identification


of feasible retrofit stormwater manage ment practices (RSWMPs),(3)formu

Consulting Engineers

lation of alternative stormwater quality

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management strategies in accordance

with a preferred hierarchy of RSWMPs, (4) evaluation of alternative strategies


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(5) selection of a stormwater quality management strategy. The application

of the strategy to the City of Scarbor ough is described. Fate of Kraft Mill

Organochlorlnes in Nature F. Archibald, L. Roy-Arcand an^l M. Methot monitored the fate and persist ence of the colour and organochlorlnes (AOX)exiting the secondary treatment systems of three modern pulp and


paper kxaft mills. As described in Wa ter Research, biotreated AOX from el

emental chlorine-free bleaching was largely mineralized in four months, pri marily by sunlight-dependent processes. Effluent chromophores were more rap idly and completely degraded by light

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than AOX,and neither AOX nor colour

were susceptible to biological degrada tion. These Pulp and Paper Research

Barrie•Calgary • London • Niagara • Ottawa • Vancouver• Waterloo

Institute of Canada scientists also found that these concentrated effluents had no

acute or chronic toxicity for a diverse assemblage of aquatic organisms over a 4-month period.

•Environmental Audits/Assessments


•Site Remediation &


PCB Accumulation in

Aquatic Systems University of Toronto scientist J. Campfens and D. Mackay of Trent Uni versity developed a fugacity-based model to simulate the phenomena of bioconcentration and biomagnification of organic contaminants in complex food webs in aquatic systems compris ing water and sediment. The model,de scribed in Environmental Science and

Technology, was applied to bioaccumulation of PCB congeners in Lake Ontario yielding results generally within a factor of three of measured values.

This approach quantifies the roles of ex change with water, food uptake, and

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food web structure as determinants of

bioaccumulation in aquatic systems. It has the potential to treat broader food webs including terrestrial and avian or ganisms. Photodegradation of Organic Pollutants Calgon Carbon Oxidation Technologies scientists investigated the UV-visible photolysis offerrioxalate in the presence


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997



R&D News of hydrogen peroxide for the treatment of contaminated ground water and in


dustrial wastewater. A. Safarzadeh-

Amiri, J.R. Bolton and S.R. Carter





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As described in a paper published in Water Research, R.D. Tyagi and col leagues studied the effect of sludge sol

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crease in sludge solids concentration increased the sulfuric acid production rates but generally did not affect the metal soiubiiization efficiency. The sludge solids content did not affect the sludge solids reduction during the proc ess operation and the fertilizer value of the processed sludge remained intact. The SSDML process was more efficient than anaerobic sludge digestion for the destruction of total coiiforms.

Nitrification and Methane Oxidation In Sediments Nitrification and methane oxidation in

profundai and littoral sediment surfaces of a polluted system were investigated by R. Roy, R. Knowles and M.N. Chariton using pore water analysis, enu meration of methanotropic and nitrify ing bacteria, and slurry experiments. The results described in the Canadian

Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences were applied to Hamilton Harbour. It was concluded by these McGiil University and National Water Research Institute scientists that meth

ane metabolism may be more important than nitrification as a sink of hypolimnetic oxygen and that methane may sup press nitrification by competition for oxygen and ammonia between methanotrophs and nitrifiers. Disinfection of GAC Fines

As reported in Water Research, D. Pemitsky, G.R. Finch and P.M. Huck used a physical/chemical desorption technique to assess the impact of colo nized granular activated carbon(GAC) fines, released from biologically active Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

R&D News


carbon contactors, on disinfection per formance. Application of the desorption procedure to disinfected pilot plant wa

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released fines or a low number of or

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A novel non-equilibrium, steady-state model is presented in Environmental Science and Technology which predicts the bioaccumulation of organic chemi cals by filter feeding and detritivorous

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benthic invertebrates. H.A. Morrison

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chemical dis-equilibria between overly ing water, diet and sediment, biomag-

Wastewaters E. Garneau and R. Gehr used batch

sorption tests with synthetic solutions to investigate the removal of phosphorus from wastewaters with alum. It was

found that aluminum hydroxide has a significant capacity for orthophosphate, condensed phosphate and organic phos phate. These McGill University scien tists showed that orthophosphate re moval is not achieved through alumi num phosphate precipitation but rather through a mixed aluminum hydroxide phosphate precipitate. As noted in Wa ter Research, jar tests performed with alum sludge and wastewater showed that phosphate is removed almost exclu sively by the particulate fraction of the sludge. The removal of orthophosphate decreased with an increase in the stor

age time of the alum sludge.

Stormwater Quality Parameters Queen's University scientists M.A.Van Buren and W.E. Watt, together with J. Marsalek of the National Water Re search Institute studied the distributions of concentrations of 14 constituents in


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five sources ofrunoff. These were parkEnvironmental Science & Engineering, June 1997



R&D News ing lot runoff discharging into an onstream pond, base flow and event flow in a small suburban creek feeding the same on-stream pond,and the pond out

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Protons in Sediments

The exchange of metal and protons with natural particles requires a long equilib rium time due to their porous and het erogeneous structure and diffusion in side the particle. P. Brassard, E. Macedo and S. Fish reduced diffusion to a pre dictable component of the system by fix ing the time interval between successive titrant additions and ensuring that the same pH increment occurs each time. Assuming that apparent delays in equi librium are entirely caused by diffusion, these McMaster University scientists were able to show that one-third to one-

half of the binding capacity of Hamil ton Harbour sediments resembles diffu Marshall Macklin

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Drinking Water

The Drinking Water Materiais Safety Act impiications for the drinking water industry

The regulation of drinking

water is a responsibility shared by the provincial,fed eral and territorial govern

lies the characteristics of the water. This

category will mainly affect producers of on-site (used by the consumer at home) water treatment devices.

ments of Canada. In the late 1970s and

Treatment additives are chemical or

early 1980s,it was recognized that there was no national Canadian program to ensure the safety of drinking water treat

biological agents that modify, or claim to modify, the composition or charac

ment devices. With the termination of

consumption. Agents that come into contact with water at any time during its collection, storage, treatment or dis tribution in municipal or private water systems are covered by this category. The products and techniques used by municipal water treatment system op erators may be affected. System components are the elements of water supply systems (including plumbing components) that come into

the US Environmental Protection Agen cy's advisory program (which helped identify appropriate materials for use in water systems), the provinces turned to Health Canada to regulate drinking wa ter treatment additives and system com ponents. After consultations between Health

Canada and various stakeholders, sub

stantial changes were made to the legis lative model, and the proposed Drink ing Water Materials Safety Act was pre sented in Parliament for first reading on December 11, 1996.

The stated purpose of the Act is "to protect the health of Canadians by pre venting unsafe drinking water materi als from being sold or imported in Canada". The proposed Act would provide for: • the regulation and certification of drinking water materials; •the making of national drinking water quality guidelines; and

teristics of water destined for human

contact with water as it is carried from the water source to the consumer or that come into contact with treatment addi

tives as previously defined. This cat egory will have implications for both product suppliers and purchasers; sup


The proposed Drinking Water Mate rials Safety Act has several important implications for the municipal water supply community. The Act would pro hibit the use of materials deemed unsafe,

and would limit the choice of drinking water materials to those that are certi

fied to appropriate health-based stand ards. Although it is estimated by Health Canada to be unlikely, some increases in the cost of products may occur. On the other hand, purchasers will have the assurance that products are safe and they will be provided protection against false or misleading health claims to munici palities and individuals alike. The legislation is intended to com plement all existing provincial or mu nicipal plumbing codes rather than re place them. Provinces will not be re quired to revise plumbing codes or regu lations, or to enforce the materials stand

ards (inspection services are to be pro vided by the Minister of Health). The Act has been drafted in a man

ner that attempts to minimize the bur den to industry and to government.

• the conduct of research into maintain

ing and improving the quality of drink ing water. Regulation and certification The Act would provide for certifica tion of drinking water materials through harmonized, mandatory standards and accredited third party certification. The certification process would apply to materials to which health-based per formance standards have been pre scribed by regulations. Under the Drinking Water Materials Safety Act, the affected materials fall into three categories: treatment devices, treatment additives, and system compo

tiveness of drinking water materials, methods of drinking water analysis, col lection, treatment, storage and distribu tion of potable water, and any other fac tors which may affect the quality and safety of drinking water.

pliers may have to modify products to meet new standards, while purchasers will be able to choose only from certi fied products for their water supply sys tems.

National guidelines and research Health Canada has been producing the Guidelinesfor Canadian Drinking Water Quality since 1978. The Guide

Health Canada estimates that the cost of

implementing the certification process will be approximately 2% of manufac turers' annual sales. As a result, no sig nificant cost increases of the applicable products to municipalities are expected. The proposed legislation. Bill C-76, was read in Parliament for the first time

lines in their current form establish de

on December 11, 1996. Under normal circumstances, the Bill will be read a

sirable physical,chemical and microbio logical drinking water quality param

second time(Second Reading)and then forwarded to a Parliamentary Commit

eters based on scientific, technical and

tee for detailed review. The Committee

medical evidence. The proposed Act provides authority for continued efforts in establishing guidelines for the param

to submit Briefs, and some of them will

Treatment devices are those which

eters described above, as well as for

tee for examination of their Brief.

purify or otherwise treat water destined for human consumption. These include

methods of analyzing drinking water, and the collection, treatment, storage,

The Canadian Water and Wastewater

the accessories sold with such devices

and distribution of water destined for

or sold separately as replacement parts. If a device is represented to modify

human consumption. The Act provides authority to under take research and development pro grams in the areas of safety and effec


water, it will be considered a treatment

device whether or not it actually modi48

will invite interested or affected parties

be invited to appear before the Commit

Association expects to be invited to sub mit a Brief and to appear before the Committee.

Editor's Note:At press time,it appeared that this bill would die on the order

paper because of the June 2 election.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

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Air Pollution

Study says US rural air will be unhealthy under EPA's proposed ozone standard

Aday in the country may not

be as healthy as you think, according to a new air pollu tion standard proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Late in 1996, the EPA proposed a new standard for ground-level ozone, a pollutant associated with photochemi cal smog. This new standard could cause large portions of the rural eastern United States to be cited as ozone non-

attainment areas, according to a study published May 9 in the journal Science. This will require a major change in US air pollution control strategies, which until now have largely focused on ur ban pollution. Ground-level ozone is produced from chemical reactions in the atmosphere fueled by air pollutants such as hydro carbons and nitrogen oxides. The fed eral Clean Air Act empowers the EPA

measured over one hour. Sites would be considered in non-attainment if the

third highest 8-hour averaged ozone concentration - averaged over three years-exceeded 0.08 parts-per-million. "Because of differences in the way ozone fluctuates in urban and rural

areas, the new standard is far more

likely to be exceeded in rural areas," Chameides explained. Summertime ozone levels tend to

fluctuate dramatically in urban areas, dropping to near zero at night, then building up during the day to a peak in the afternoon. By contrast, rural ozone levels show smaller fluctuations, with a

lower but longer-lived daytime maxi mum and less fall-off at night. "Lowering the permissible ozone concentration and averaging it over eight hours instead of one hour brings more rural sites into non-attainment," Chameides said.

Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone to protect human health. In response to new medical data indicating adverse

Lowering the permissible

health effects at lower ozone concentra

averaging it over eight

tions, the EPA has proposed a new NAAQS. Analysis of ozone levels measured at

hours instead of one

ozone concentration and

hour brings more rural

rural locations in the eastern half of the

sites into non-attainment.

the sites would not meet the new ozone standard.

"This implies that the harmful effects of air pollution may be a lot more ubiq uitous in the United States than previ ously thought," said Dr. William L. Chameides, Regents Professor in the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sci ences at the Georgia Institute of Tech nology and lead author in the Science paper. "Non-attainment of the current standard is mostly limited to urban areas and thus most people's perception is that air pollution is an urban problem. But if EPA's new standard better reflects

Scientists have known that the new standard would increase the number of

non-attainment counties in the United

States by a factor of about three. However, Chameides and his col

laborators- Dr. Rick D.Saylor of Geor gia Tech and Dr. Ellis B. Cowling at North Carolina State University - be lieved that the impact on rural areas had not been adequately considered. To ad dress this issue, they analyzed 1995 ozone data from 85 rural monitoring sites that were part of the Southern Oxidant Study's Spatial Ozone Network

the health effects of ozone pollution, it (SON) and the EPA's Clean Air Status suggests that you could probably go just and Trends Network(CASTNET). about anywhere in the eastern United Forty-one of those sites- nearly half States during the summer and encoun -reported three or more ozone readings ter unhealthy air." above the 8-hour,0.08 parts-per-million The new standard of 0.08 parts-per- level. Under the current standard, only million would be measured over an

6 of the 85 rural sites have unallowable

eight-hour period, while the current standard of 0.12 parts-per-million is

ozone levels.


sions that cause their non-attainment

problems. "The way the EPA guidelines are currently written, local and state agen cies must develop a strategy to comply with NAAQS by controlling pollutant emissions within their area," Chameides

explained. "In rural areas, however, it is unlikely that emissions within the area are contributing very much to the ozone pollution. These areas are not going to be able to solve the problem by control ling local pollutant emissions." Communities and states would have

to take a more regional approach,requir ing cooperation between political enti ties that have not always worked to gether in the past. "Pollution in rural areas is caused by a complicated combination of distant urban emissions, and local and distant

to establish a National Ambient Air

United States indicates that nearly half

standard would force a major change in ozone control strategies, since few ru ral areas can control the pollutant emis

Requiring rural areas to meet the new

rural emissions,so you need to come up with a regional strategy to address rural air pollution," Chameides noted. "Not only will this change the politics of how we address air pollution in the United States, but it will also probably affect the economics of air pollution control." Since acceptance of the Science paper, the researchers have repeated their analysis using data from a full three-year period, and have attained es sentially the same results. "While the details change depending upon the specific set of rural monitor ing sites used and time period considered, the basic conclusion remains,Chameides

explained. "Roughly 40 to 50 percent of the rural eastern United States is found to violate the new standard."

In order to understand the full impli cations of this rural non-attainment,

Chameides believes more air quality data will be needed from the rural United States.

"If we go forward with this standard, we will have to invest in a much more

significant and well-planned rural ozone monitoring network," he concluded. "The network we have now is largely focused on urban and suburban areas

and is simply not adequate for docu menting the extent of rural air pollu tion."

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997



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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


Wastewater Treatment

Upgrading the Trenton water pollution control plant

TheCity ofTrenton have under

taken a major upgrade of their Water Pollution Control Plant

in order to provide the capa bility of meeting the more stringent ef fluent criteria being proposed by the Bay of Quinte Remedial Action Plan for BOD(5mg/L),suspended solids(5 mg/ L), and total phosphorous (0.3 mg/L). The upgrades have been completed in a cost-effective manner through a turnkey construction contract with Thorburn

Penny,having a guaranteed price of$4.3 million. The Water Pollution Control Plant

(WPCP) is a conventional secondary treatment plant with a design capacity of 15,900 mVd (3.5 migd). Plant efflu ent is discharged to the Bay of Quinte, an environmentally sensitive water body

The one exception was for total phos phorous which was not meeting the op erating objectives on a consistent basis. Scope of project Consequently,an alternative solution was presented to the City of Trenton which was substantially less in cost. This solution, which was accepted by the City, consisted of modifying the ex isting unit processes and adding tertiary treatment in order to further improve plant effluent quality. This proved to be cost-effective as only limited new tank age and other structural work would be required, since optimum use was made of existing tankage. The following upgrades were com

pleted as part of the turnkey contract: i) Grit Removal

As opposed to constructing a second aerated grit tank, two vortex type grit removal units were installed inside the

original grit tank. This system featured the added operational benefits of auto matic grit removal, it) Screens One new automatically cleaned bar screen was installed in place of one of the two existing barminutors, having the

capacity to treat the peak flows. A manually cleaned screen was installed as a back-up. This screening system provides a cleaner sludge for use as a soil additive.

connected to Lake Ontario.

Project background The City of Trenton completed an initial study which assessed the capabili ties and limitations of the various unit

processes. The outcome was a recom mendation to downgrade the capacity of

the WPCP to 10,900 mVd (2.4 migd). One of the primary reasons associated with down-rating the plant capacity was the observed operation of the various unit processes at rates which were out side recommended ranges as outlined in the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy(MOEE)design guidelines. The proposed solution was to reha bilitate and expand the WPCP by con structing a second treatment train, hav

ing a capacity of4,500 mVd (1.0 migd), in order to restore the original treatment capacity. The construction costs to com

plete this work were estimated to be $9.7 million.

As a result of the magnitude of the proposed project costs, Thorburn Penny were invited to complete a subsequent investigation. It was concluded that although various unit processes were being stressed, the WPCP still had the capability to operate at its original de

sign capacity of 15,900 mVd(3.5 migd). The overall treatment plant performance was meeting the regulatory compliance limits for BOD and suspended solids as stated on the Certificate of Approval. â–

*Thorburn Penny Limited 52

Vortex type grit removal system installation. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

By Jeff F. Mullin, P. Eng. iii) Primary Clarification The primary clarifiers did not have

adequate surface area for co-thickening primary sludge and waste activated sludge(WAS)during peak flow. There fore, a gravity belt thickener was in stalled to thicken the WAS in order to

reduce the solids load to the primary clarifiers. The belt thickener was located in the chlorine room which became sur

plus once ultraviolet disinfection came on-line.

iv) Aeration Tanks

The existing coarse bubble diffused aeration system was replaced with a more efficient fine bubble aeration sys tem in order to improve the organic load ing capacity. In addition, the existing centrifugal blowers were automated, by installing modulating dampers on the blower suction piping. The blower out put is now regulated to match the oxy gen requirements in the aeration tanks and significant energy savings are be ing realized. v)Secondary Clarification In order to reduce the surface settling rate, the weir overflow rate, and the sol

ids loading rate, the length of the sec ondary clarifiers was extended and ad

Fine bubble aeration system. vii) Disinfection Chlorination was originally used to


To avoid these additional costs, a new

In order to implement the recom mended solution, the City entered into a turnkey contract with Thorburn Penny to obtain a guaranteed price for the de sign and construction of the works. The guaranteed price of the contract, which has been successfully completed, was

ultraviolet disinfection system was in stalled which provides disinfection over the full range of flows.

$4.3 million, which was considerably lower than the cost originally proposed. Circle reply card No. 158

provide disinfection. However, as part of the plant upgrade, a new outfall would have been required to create a smaller mixing zone for dispersing residual chlorine contained in the plant effluent.

ditional effluent weirs were installed. A

portion of the existing chlorine contact chamber was used to extend the second

ary clarification tanks. The remainder of the chlorine contact tank was con

verted to flocculation tanks for pre-treatment ahead of the tertiary filters. vi) Tertiary Treatment A new prefabricated, pre-engineered building was constructed to house new tertiary filters and a new ultraviolet dis infection system. Tertiary treatment was incorporated in order to address the pro posed effluent criteria for total phospho rous, suspended solids, and BOD dis charges into the Bay of Quinte.

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Flow Monitoring

Battery-operated radio telemetry for sewer flow monitoring

Earlyin 1997,Aquatic Sciences

Inc. of St. Catharines, Ontario was contracted by Canadian Forces Base Kingston to es

tablish a series of twelve flowmeters at

sanitary sewer discharge points into a municipal sewer tmnk. The meters form part of a municipal sewer use monitor ing program and will help find areas of infiltration and inflow, in combination

with an existing weather station. The criteria for the installation were that:

• The meters had to be installed with a

minimum of supporting infrastructure and cost; • The data had to be stored and trans

mitted to a central location without per sonnel assistance; and

•The battery capacity had to support the data collection, storage and transmission for a minimum of two months without service.

In order to meet the system objec tives, Aquatic Sciences chose the Marsh McBimey Flo-Tote velocity-area meter and the GLB Synthesized Netlink Radio Data System(SNRDS). The FloTote simplified installation by avoiding the need for primary flow measurement instruments, such as Parshall Flumes, with the associated excavation and in

stallation costs. With the GLB SNRDS,

the installation cost and yearly charge

Flo-Tote installed In a manhole.

for telephone lines were avoided. The Flo-Tote contains a 300 day datalogger and communicates via an RS-232 port for download and analysis with proprietary software. Power is sup plied by a 6V carbon-zinc lantem bat tery housed within the meter, along with the datalogger. The Flo-Tote can meas ure flow in any conduit with a continu ous depth of 5 centimetres. Dams are required in low flow situations to ensure that the sensors are adequately sub merged. GLB SNRDS is a radio modem that

communicates via an MX.25 packet pro *Aquatic Sciences Inc.

tocol with other SNRDS in the network.

Technologies Inc.


The MX.25 protocol is a proprietary ex panded version of the more standard

AX.25 protocol used

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Biorem Technologies Inc. of Guelph, Ontario has estab lished a leading position in the bioremediation of con


amateur radio digital

taminated soils with clients in both Canada and the US.

SNRDS can be used for data transfer and

locations. The SNRDS can access re

mote locations by connecting through other units in the radio path. Flo-Tote is manufactured for compat ibility with a telephone telemetry sys tem,requiring modifications to the com munication protocol for use with a ra dio-telemetry system. Marsh McBimey support staff assisted Aquatic Sciences personnel in developing a series ofcom mands compatible with the GLB SNRDS MX.25 protocol and the FloTote datalogger requirements. The battery power supply of the stock Flo-Tote was insufficient to provide for the measurement sensors, datalogger, and the radio link. The standard 6 volt

lantem battery was replaced by an exter nal 12 volt gel cell which would enable operation of the meter and associated communication components for up to 60 days before a battery change. Solar cells will be installed to extend the battery life by trickle charging the battery. Installation of the meters was straight forward, requiring the placement of the sensor element with a retaining ring at

We are seeking a sales development manager to sus tain and expand growth. Position requires a science/ engineering degree plus 3-5 years minimum sales expe

in lieu of hardline

The Flo-Tote was secured to the man

rience in this field with established customer contacts.

connections. A fre

hole access ladder and the data lines

quency in the 460 MHz range was se

were installed in conduit leading to a NEMA 4 box mounted aboveground. The NEMA box housed the battery power supply,SNRDS radio modem and supported the 7 dB directional antenna.

Please reply by mail or fax to:

BIOREM Technologies Inc. R.R.3, Guelph, Ontario NIH 6H9

Fax:(519)767-1824 Attention: Marilyn Funston 54

equipment control using the radio link

lected to reduce in

terference and li

censing complica tions and compat ibility with data col lection frequency al

the outfall into the selected manhole.

Once all 12 flow meters were in

stalled, a SNRDS was employed for data transmission between each flow moni-

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

By John Sferrazza* taring site and a central base station. SNRDS is a radio-based telemetry sys tem for the transmission of digital data between physical locations where hard wired connections are impractical or too expensive. One battery-operated SNRDS transceiver was required at each flow monitoring location along with an antenna tuned to the chosen frequency. A central base station was also installed where all communications and data transfer would be initiated via a PC and communication software at various baud rates.

Although these types ofcommunica tion systems are commonly used for a wide range of applications, such as ve hicle tracking, security systems,railway communications and vehicular remote

control, it is not commonly used (to our knowledge)as part of a large flow moni toring network, as was needed at CFB Kingston. The SNRD system lent itself per fectly to this site and application. Be ing totally battery-operated, easily in stalled and cost-effective, it met all of

the criteria for this particular project. For more information, circie repiy card No. 159

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EAF Systems

New technology developed for optimization of eiectric arc furnace fume systems

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Before EFSOP™ Instailation Rrst Charge

Second Charge Hydrogw CartKsn Monoxide

EFSOP™, is a fundamental change in

Carbon Dioxide

the philosophy of Direct Evacuation Systems(DES),the fourth hole, used as a primary emission capture system in al most all modern EAFs. The system employs continuous fume analysis,flow measurement and temperature measure ment,along with real-time process data, to adjust fume system setpoints and op eration on a minute-by-minute basis. Additionally, the analysis system can be used to control post-combustion sys tems, optimizing furnace combustion and reducing energy costs.

EESOP™ leads to substantial savings for the steelmaker, both in energy sav ings and in production increases. Based on conservative estimates, energy sav ings of 20 kWh/ton of steel and reduc tions in tap-to-tap times by 5 to 10% can be expected. The system can also be used as a de sign tool for plants which have inad equate DES systems. By quantifying the amount of heat energy being released to the DES,an accurate analysis of the sys tem shortfall can be made and upgrades can make the maximum use of capital. In some cases, post-combustion, or CO



Management, can even reduce the sys tem shortfall and potentially eliminate or postpone the need for costly upgrades. How EFSOP'^'^ works The most recent advances in instru

mentation are used to measure process parameters which were unavailable even a few years ago. The furnace off-gas is analyzed just before the combustion gap in order to quantify the availability of carbon monoxide(CO)in the off-gas as a result of incomplete combustion of oxygen and fuel in the furnace shell. Some furnace practices and scrap mixes also result in high levels of hydrogen

(Hj) in the off-gas stream. Together, 'Director of Steelmaking Technologies, Goodfellow Technologies Inc.

these combustible gases can make up over 30% of the furnace off-gas, repre-

Graph 2: Off-gas Concentration Profile

After EFSOP™ Installation First Charge

Second Charge


Carbon Monoxide <

Carbon Dioxide

Hydrogen Oxygen

seating a tremendous amount of energy. Considering the chemical energy losses in combination with the high tempera ture of the off-gas,over 2,000,000 BTU/ min(over 500 kWh/min)ofenergy is lost to the off-gas system at peak points in the melts. This represents over 50% of the electrical energy input to the furnace. Oxygen (O,) and carbon dioxide(CO,) are also measured in the gas sample. In addition to off-gas chemistry, the flow and temperature of the off-gas stream is measured. Process parameters from the furnace operating system are also acquired so that a complete picture of the process inputs and outputs is ac quired in real-time. The operation of the DES system has a profound impact on the steelmaking process in an EAF. Despite this fact, in a traditional system,the DES is designed to accommodate the peak heat load and volume requirements based on the most intense period of the furnace practice. The system then is typically designed to operate at this peak level for the en tire duration of the heat. This leads to

high heat losses from the furnace, many of which can be avoided with EFSOP™.

Rather than operating at peak heat removal levels for the duration of the

melt, the DES draft is tuned to match

the actual requirements of the process. At the same time, continuous fume

Electrical Energy(MWh)


analysis of the furnace off-gas allows the steelmaker to conduct controlled postcombustion, or CO Management, cap turing some of the off-gas energy in the Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

By Sara Hornby Anderson* furnace rather than allowing it to escape Graph 3: Lower Rammability Limit of Off-Gas in Dry Duct

into the DES.

Once off-gas profiles have been es tablished, alternative furnace practices (e.g. change in burner ratio, alternative lancing profiles, lime and carbon addi tion, etc.) can be evaluated to optimize the furnace practice. OVBWii.MAXIMUM MEASURED C(MiCEMTRATKXe

At the same time, based on the es

tablished heat load profile in combina tion with GTI's proprietary DBS off-gas simulation package, DECSIM™, the fume system operating setpoints can be altered to match the existing and antici pated heat load profile. By monitoring process data from existing furnace con trol systems, these setpoints can be ad justed in real-time to match the actual furnace practice and accommodate un expected process upsets.Graphs 1 and 2show the offgas concentration profiles before and after the use of EFSOP™,

respectively. As is clear from these pro files, the CO and peaks have de creased substantially while an increase

in Oj and CO^ concentrations were ob served after use of the system. In light of an increase in number of explosions in North American EAF ven tilation systems, a module was recently

wrm A I>K)RE AGSSSSniE PRMTICE soLuncm:atasAse

of posr-ctMi^isnoN
















Ccmcentration of Ciubon Monoxide(% Totd Votume)

developed which includes the assess ment of explosion risks in the ventila tion system. Plots of carbon monoxide concentration vs. hydrogen concentra tion indicating explosive limits were developed, including temperature ef

these plants is included on the graph, including corrective actions recom mended to minimize explosion risks. It is clear that the decrease in CO and concentrations observed between

ted on this graph from two different

Graphs 1 and 2 will result in decreased concentrations at every point in the ven tilation system thereby minimizing ex plosion risks in the ventilation system.

steelmills. Certain information about

Circle reply card No.162

fects,from a fundamental basis. Graph 3shows measured data which was plot


Electrical Engineer

Analytical & Consulting for En V iro nmental IVlicro b iology

Acres & Associated Environmental Limited is a ma

jor consulting engineering group, operating through out Canada and internationally, providing services in the fields of wastewater and water treatment, water resources, site remediation, environmental assess ment and solid waste management.

Due to growth in our Toronto and Niagara Falls offices. Acres & Associated is looking for an interme diate level electrical engineer. The successful can didate will have, as a minimum, a bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering, and 5 to 7 years experi ence in the design and planning of electrical power distribution systems, instrumentation and control (SCADA systems), PEG programming, and will be registered as a Professional Engineer In Ontario. Your experience should be in the area of municipal and/or industrial facilities.

Your skills and qualifications will be recognized through superior earnings and benefits. To explore your potential with Acres & Associated, please reply in confidence to:


Experienced Professional Staff provide consulting for Water & Sewage Treatment Processes Routine Testing using the Latest Technology

Specialty Testing for ~ ■Cryptosporidium & Giardia •Salmonella & Clostridiumperfringens •Air Monitoring for Yeast, Molds & Bacteria Microbiological Identification for ~ •Biofilm in Watermains

•Iron Bacteria & Nuisance Microorganisms •Nitrogen & Sulphur Cycle Bacteria Bathing Beach Testing -

•Rapid E.coli Test (6 hour) CAEAL Certified

.\ny concerns in Environmental Microbiology? Acres & Associated Environmental Limited Suite 525 21 Four Seasons Place

Etobicoke, Ontario MSB 6J8 Attention: Tim J. Sutherns, P.Eng.

Call Us l-8(M)-68()-()77l

1020 Hargrieve Road, London, ON Canada N6E IPS

For more information, circle reply card No. 164 (See page 17)

Mollusk Control

By Daniel J. Butts^ and Donald P. Lewis^

Non-indigenous species continue to threaten North American waterways

Recordsofsightings and iden

tifications compiled by gov ernment organizations indi cate that over 600 non-indig enous species have been introduced to North American fresh waters. Since data

has only been collected in the last 30 years, the actual number is probably significantly higher, and the general trend appears to be on the rise accord ing to presentations at The Seventh International Zebra Mussel and Aquatic Nuisance Species Conference in New Orleans, Louisiana in January, 1997. This annual gathering provides a


Zebra Mussel Distribution ▲ sightings • established colonies

venue for consultants and research sci

entists to present the results of ongoing research and the impacts of the zebra and quagga mussels on the ecology of North American waters as well as mussel con known distribution as of December 1996

trol options for industry. In addition, the conference highlights research on the increasing number of non-indigenous species introductions to North Ameri can fresh waters.

The only way to limit these damag ing occurences is through improved government regulations and increased public awareness of what can be poten tially harmful introductions to the aquatic environment. Unfortunately, only a few states and provinces have implemented comprehensive regulations with regard to non-indigenous aquatic species. The River Ruffe {Gymnocephalus cernuus), which is an example of a bal last water introduction, continues to spread through the Great Lakes,concen

trating within Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. Preliminary study results suggest a significant decline in native fish populations, including yellow perch, following the successful estab lishment of the Ruffe in an area. An em

phasis on better education is essential if we are to turn this situation around.

The introduction of non-indigenous species (including pathogens) through illegal ballast water discharges has re ceived widespread attention. Currently, all commercial vessels entering the Great Lakes are required to complete an open ocean ballast exchange to ensure 'Assistant Manager, Blofouling Div., ^Manager, Consulting Services, Aquatic Sciences inc. 58

that exotic freshwater organisms, which may travel from foreign ports, are ei ther flushed out of the ballast tanks or

exposed to salinities in excess of their critical upper limit. Obviously, this re quirement must be followed to reduce

method of control. The ease of applica tion, low concentrations (drinking water levels of 0.3 ppm to 0.5 ppm)re quired to induce mortality, and zero dis charge requirements, make it one of the safest alternatives.

Formation of dangerous by-products

the risk of introduction.

Zebra and quagga mussels have in creased their range in North America and are presently found as far as Loui siana, Minnesota, Vermont and Quebec City. Colonization into the western United States appears to have been held in check to date, but may be inevitable. The highest concentrations of zebra and quagga mussels are found within Lake Erie and Lake Ontario at levels which

continue to cause problems for indus try. Overall, mussel colonization has upset the natural balance of aquatic eco systems, resulting in fouling of native plants, reduction of phytoplankton abun dance,changes in the abundance of cer tain species of fish and algae, impacts on benthic communities,and changes in water clarity. Control methods continue to take the

form of chemical and non-chemical ap plications. Most research has been de voted to optimizing existing control op tions or developing new non-chemical approaches. The use of chlorine is still reported to be the most cost-effective, widely used, and thoroughly understood

such as trihalomethane (THM) was originally thought to be a concern; how

ever, this is dependent on site specific water chemistry composition. For the most part, this has not been a serious issue in the Great Lakes area. Due to

extremely low levels ofTHM found dur ing the first five years, testing is no longer a mandatory requirement for those industries using chlorine for mus sel control in Ontario. Other effective chemical control methods have included the use of oxidants such as chlorine dioxide and bro

mine based treatments. The advantages of these infrequently used treatment protocols are as yet unclear; however, testing is in progress. One area that has gained attention over the past year has been the effective use of non-oxidizing molluscicides(biocides). To date only a few treatments have been undertaken on a trial basis.

During the early months of 1997, the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy (MOEE) granted approval for Continued on page 60

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


Fact is, corrugated polyettiylene pipe tias revolutionized ttie

The industry's most respected authorities have joined us in

stormwater drainage market. And for good reasons. Ligtiter

our fact-digging. Authorities like the Southwest Research

weight, easier installation and lower overall installation costs are

Institute (SwRI); Macdonald College, McGill University; the

just a tew ot its benefits. No wonder it's quickly

University ot Western Ontario Geotechnical Research

becoming the stormwater pipe ot choice.

Center and Utah State University. The helpful technical

For 25 years, the GRRA has been working to bring

booklets and our new specification featured below reference our findings - and they're yours tor the asking.

these merits to light. And we've continued to dig into

We're always unearthing something new. And the

what makes our product so effective. Demonstrating that corrugated polyethylene pipe is the material tor

GRRA will keep applying the tacts we dig up to

the next generation. We've kept our industry on the

improve the industry's standards.

leading edge by focusing on research: solid, third party studies on how our pipe performs. They've helped to make the GRRA a

Discover the facts revealed in our studies. Call

800-510-CPPA to request our free literature.

resource you can trust.

Your Information Resource CPPA

4235 Monroe St. Suite 124 Toledo, Otiio 43606








CPPA Manufacturing Members: Prinsco Inc.• Plastic Tubing Industries Inc. • Big "0" Inc. • Plastic Tubing Inc. • Bruce Tile Inc. • Eastern Illinois Clay • Springfield Plastics Inc. Plasti-Drain Ltd.• Ideal Drain Tile Ltd. 'Advanced Drainage Systems• Diiier Tile Company, Inc.•Lane Enterprises Inc.• Francesviile Drain Tile Corp.•Flancor, Inc. ©1997 CPPA

For more information, circle reply card No. 165(See page 17)

Crumpler Plastic Pipe

Mollusk Control, cont'd. the use of one such molluscicide to con

treatment is required at water tempera

trol zebra mussels. The short duration

tures of I5°C to 20°C.

of these treatments can result in mussel

Apart from the environmentally be nign nature of this product, pricing is also an important factor. A trip to your local fertilizer supplier will confirm that on a cost basis there is no comparison between potash and man-made chemi cals. The cost for potash required to complete an eight day treatment is less than $1,000. Non-chemical,control strategies(in cluding physical) continue to gain mo

infestation between treatments; how ever, this treatment can be effective for those water users that can tolerate adult

mussels for short time periods. Ques tions concerning the long-term environ mental repercussions of this product,in cluding sediment toxicity and suspended solids loading, continue to be raised by prospective users. The newest and most surprising dis covery has been that one of Canada's most abundant natural resources, potash, is acutely toxic to zebra mussels, and at relatively low concentrations, appears to be selective as a control agent. Ideally, this product is well suited for semi-static flow applications such as fire water pro tection distribution systems or closedloop cooling networks. In 1996,the first industrial treatments were completed using this product. One study, completed at water tem peratures ofless than 5°C,showed 100% mortality in only eight days, a signifi cantly shorter duration than would be required using most alternatives at these temperatures. Less than two days of

mentum. The use of in-line fine mesh

filters appears to be an easy way to re move veligers from some cooling water systems. Earlier problems concerning frequent backwashing procedures ap pear to have been resolved; however, high flow situations are still a limiting factor. Testing on these products is con tinuing. The use of ultraviolet light continues to attract attention as a viable nonchemical alternative. Earlier research

proved its efficacy at low flows. A full scale installation has been completed by Ontario Hydro and testing begins on its effectiveness in 1997. Final results will

likely be available early in 1998.

Large scale studies using cathodic or 'electrolytic' protection were undertaken in 1996. This technology is particularly useful on concrete structures that can

not be dewatered for extended periods of time and are not,therefore,candidates

for coatings. Results from industrial scale tests showed significant reductions and elimination of older age mussel classes as compared to control samples. Research to fine tune this protocol will continue into 1997. Another alternative method re

searched was the use of pulsed acous tics to prevent primary mussel settle ment. Earlier reports indicated some

promise, and it is felt that this applica tion shows some merit. With further fine

tuning, acoustics may provide a costeffective non-chemical control option. While very few new protocols were presented at this year's conference, it appears that some technologies that have been undergoing development for a number of years will soon be available for commercial application. 1998 may be a good year for those wishing to look at alternative control strategies. For more information, circle repiy card No. 209


For water disinfection, wastewater treatment, odour

control, cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.



Professional Products Division 6400 Northwest Drive

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4V 1K1 Tel: (905)678-2051 Fax:(905)678-0898 E-mail: javex-12info@colpal.com

r i

Plant Locations; Moncton,Montreal, Toronto,Edmonton

more information, circle reply card No. 166

(See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Jl^ater Environment ^ Federation'' Preserving & tt}bandi2g the Global WaterEnvironment

Water Environment federation 70th Annual Conference & Exposition McCormick Place • Chicago, Illinois U.S.A.

Conference Dates: October 18-22, 1997 • Exposition Dotes: October 19-22,1997 • NEW SUNDAY EXHiBiT HOURS •

For more information:


E-mail: confinfo@wef.opg Calf WEE'S Fax on Demand: 1-800-444-2933 OP 1-808-885-8417

(if outside the U.S.) Seiect document #40

Call 1-800-666-0206 op 1-703-684-2452 (if outside the U.S.)


1 998

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS Deadline for Submissions: July 14, 1997 Abstracts are now being accepted by Fax at: 1-703-684-2492 Abstracts are now being accepted by E-mail at: weftecasia@wef.org For Conference Details:

E-mail confinfo@wef.org; Fax requests to 1 -703-684-2471 Call 1-703-684-2452 or 1-800-666-0206

For Exhibiting Information: E-mail expoinfo@wef.org; Fax 1-703-684-2475

Visit WEE'S WEB Site:

Call 1-703-684-2414

Call WEF Fax on Demand:


1-908-885-6417 (outside the U.S.); 1-800-444-2933(U.S. only) Conference Details: Select documents #45 and #46

Over 700 Exhibitors • 80 Technical

Exhibiting information: Select document #47

Sessions • 22 Full-Day Workshops 10 Facility Tours • And more...

Visit WEF's WEB site: http://www.wef.org

For more Information, circle reply card No. 167(See page 17)

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section caii ES&E at(905)727-4666.


Industrial plastics product guide

FREE HiQ Evaluation Software

Fabco Plastics has again revised and updated their 464-page Buyers Guide & Engineering Specifications cata logue. This is a comprehensive list ing of availahle industrial products and illustrates ne\w and technologi cally advanced Items. The catalogue also has an extensive 74-page Engi neering Reference Section and

National Instruments of

fers HIQ® for Windows, featuring ActiveMath™ and visualization tools

for Microsoft Office. HIQ on

Chemical Resistance Chart which will

Office and Microsoft's

OpenGL 3D graphics library making advanced technical calculation, simpler for technical professionals. Call for your FREE HIQ evaluation

Fabco Plastics

software. National Instruments

Circle reply card No. 220

Circle reply card No. 221

data visualization, and documentation solutions more cost-effective and

Industry association

On-site 02 and N2 supply

First Incorporated in 1957, the On tario Concrete Pipe Association (OOPA)is a nonprofit Industry asso ciation. The OOPA promotes the high standards of business practice and the product quality of Its mem bers, and provides technical Informa tion to specifiers, regulators, contrac

systems Praxalr's brochure, "On-Slte Oxy gen and Nitrogen Supply Systems" features cost-effective, reliable and

tors and educators. Producers of

IMPAC centre, which provides

convenient on-site generating sys tems that can reduce overall gas costs by 20-50 percent. Also In cluded is Information on Praxalr's

around-the-clock, remote monitor

ing services to hundreds of North American on-slte customers. Praxair

Circle reply card No. 223

Circle reply card No. 222

Confidence means everything

Air Purification Machines

Designed for offices or large indus trial settings where the removal of heavy-duty partlculate Is necessary. Units produce and control negative or positive Ions which, when Intro

Confidence mc^is cNtn'thing.

fiberglass or anything small enough to he airborne. The MI-1500B and

the MI-1500G are also effective In

eOVAR Waste Manasament

phases of tobacco smoke. Sima Group Circle reply card No. 224

RssJstsnce of


Polyettiylano Pipe Btttjri B


financial strength, leadership in waste management, and release the customer from liability. This combination makes them your best source for waste management. With Bovar Waste Management, you get complete confidence. Bovar Waste Management Circle reply card No. 225

New CPPA technical booklet

Piping for wastewater

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) now has avail able for no charge, the technical


VIctaulic, having supplied pipe cou plings, fittings, and valves to mu nicipalities for 70 years for savings In both Installation and operating costs, offers systems for ductile Iron (500 psi), steel(4000 psi), stainless, PVC, and HDP; grooved AWWA eccentric plug valves to 12-inch,

booklet Chemical and Abrasion

Resistance of corrugated polyethy lene drainage pipe. Chemicals and abrasion are the most common du

oB'fTwoi mf n uw i-rf

Hills Treatment Centre Is a world

Bovar offer a combination of solid

smoke, dust, feather dust, offset powder, oil particles, paper dust,

controlling extreme static electricity. They are also capable of eliminating both the gaseous and partlculate

Bovar Waste Management's Swan leader In handling the widest range of wastes, including transformers.

duced Into the air flow remove

Chenilesi & Abrasion



assist material specialists specifying plastic products In the chemical, cor rosion, and pollution fields.





ActiveX'^"(OLE)for Inte gration with Microsoft

concrete pipe, maintenance holes, box culverts and box sewers, and precast concrete specialty products joined to form the Association.




rability concerns, expeclally when effluent flows at high velocities. Chemicai and Abrasion Resistance

iron BFV to 24-inch, stainless BFV

sets forth Independent data demon strating corrugated polyethylene pipe's resistance to a variety of acidic

to 12-Inch as well as ball and check

substances and abrasive conditions. CPPA

valves; fittings, strainers, couplings

for Water and

Wastewater Treatment

Piping Systems ihSia d ij;

and tools. Victaulic

Circle reply card No. 227

Circle reply card No. 226 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cail ES&E at(905)727-4666.


,THi p,'3v'e:i T:f:-!9i5 ftvxer lhai t)'-ios rev;efftirT:;anij ctK!-

• Ssvnaaicjqepfoc^iraiistries.

Concerned about corrosion?

Continuous self-cleaning

Stonhard has a complete line of cor rosion, abrasion and temperature resistant coatings and linings for con crete applications. Flooring systems with wear/chemical and slip resist ance for your production, warehouse, alsleway, locker room, washroom,

The Aqua Guard Bar/Filter Is a con tinuous, self-cleaning device which utilizes a uniquely designed fllter-rake combination to automatically remove a wide range of floating and sus pended materials from a moving liq

and cafeteria areas. We also distrib

uid stream. Identical filter-rake ele

ute Plaslte Protective Coatings which are designed for high performance protection of steel against corrosion. Inside and outside of tanks and proc ess vessels, equipment coating and structural steel protection are just a few of the applications. Act now for a complimentary review of your facllltyl Stonhard Ltd. Circle reply card No. 228

ments are mounted horizontally and vertically on a series of parallel shafts, to form an endless moving belt which collects, conveys, and discharges all solids greater than the selected mesh size. It then mechanically cleans It


self. Parkson

Circle reply card No. 229

Motionless Mixers

Ribbed PVC pipe video Drawing on over 25 years of experi

tal component of any Inline mixing/ control system. Incorporation of the Statlflo mixer allows rapid sampling

ence In the North American water

Circle reply card No. 230

works Industry, REFIAU has pro duced an elght-mlnute video, RAURIB: One Tough Pipe, to ad dress commonly asked questions about ribbed PVC pipe. RAURIB Is a seamless, ribbed PVC storm and sanitary sewer pipe. The video ex amines this Innovative product's fea tures and reviews proper Installation procedures. RAURIB features a minimum pipe stiffness rating of 46 psl(320KPa). REHAU Circle reply card No. 231

Askarel transformer

Corrosion-proof pipe


Blue Brute pipe Is Immune to dam age from naturally corrosive soils, electrochemical action, and galvanic

of dosing chemicals. Statlflo motion less mixers are commonly used In coagulatlon/flocculatlon, flash mixing of dilute polyelectrolyte, alum, caus tic, etc., pH control, disinfection/ chlorlnatlon/fluorldatlon/ozonatlon

and other dilution and dispersion applications. Statlflo Inc.

A new approach to askarel trans former replacement Is discussed as a safer and faster alternative to using the perchloroethylene method. In coop eration with the transformer manufac

turer, PCB Disposal can now offer a turn-key process to replace askarel transformers with dry-type orslliconeInsulated transformers. Where trans

formers are virtually Inaccessible, they are drained, disassembled and re moved In pieces and the new trans formers are assembled on site.

PCB Disposal Inc. Circle reply card No. 232

H^^ewater Pumping Systems

Aqua Guard

The Statlflo motionless mixer Is a vi

and efficient as well as minimum use


bar/filter screen-head

Wastewater pumping systems Gorman-Rupp has been manufactur ing pumps since 1933. Many of the Innovations which Gorman-Rupp Intro duced have become standards In the

Industry. Our self-prlming centrifugal T Series pumps were Introduced nearly 35 years ago to meet the demand for a self-priming, solids handling sewage pump. Today, Gorman-Rupp is the un disputed leader In self-prlming centrifugals. We manufacture a com plete line of above and below ground packaged lift stations as well as a full line of sewage submersible pumping systems.

Gorman-Rupp of Canada Circle reply card No. 234

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

corrosion. This ensures lower main

tenance costs and longer perform ance life. The smooth Interior sur

face of Blue Brute pipe virtually elimi nates encrustants such as calcium

from adhering to its surface. Ulti mately, the water distribution line stays cleaner longer and provides better water quality. Underground stresses that could place rigid pipe In jeopardy can easily be absorbed by the flexible strength of Blue Brute pipe. IPEX Circle reply card No. 233

Water Efficiency Service Programs Faced with Inflating operating costs, while being expected to avoid rate Increases and provide greater, bet ter, and non-tradltlonal customer

service? Schlumberger's Technical Service Group offers complete field service, and project handling capa bilities, from meter Installation to full, ongoing maintenance, management and meter reading services. Cus tomized packages allow a utility to contract for as many or as few senrIces as It needs. Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 235


Overseas Report ties remain under public ownership al beit through a completely different gov erning structure than is currently the norm in Canada (independent Board of Directors vs. a political entity).

The Australian scene...

There was considerable discussion at the Convention of the lessons to be

learned from what is now a solid expe rience base in industry organizational models and the newer extensions to those models that include the establish

ment ofindustry centres and export bases as part of the outsourcing package. The Australian scene also includes technical innovation and research that

is setting trends around the world. These areas include nutrient removal, wastewater effluent reuse, innovative water

treatment processes and coagulants, in addition to the pioneering management changes discussed above. Australia's technical leadership was exemplified by the awarding last year of the Stockholm Water Prize to Dr. Jorg Imberger of the University of Western Australia. The award was based on his development of a computerized model correlating water motion with biochemical activity.

Yarra River, Melbourne, looking west; Southbank development Is on the left. The 17"' Federal Convention of the Australian Water & Wastewater Asso

tracting out).

ciation was held in Melbourne, Victo

community has undergone major changes in the last few years. Most major utilities have been "commercial ized" or "corporatized". Contracting out, public private partnerships, and fi nance/design/build/operate activities are now the normal and accepted way of doing things. Interestingly, most utili

ria, in March, 1997. Of particular inter est to Canadians were the topics cov ered by The Water Business (i.e. envi ronmental and operations issues, asset analysis and modelling, water systems management, customer services, com mercial and business issues and con

The Australian water and wastewater

Rod Holme,

Proctor & Redfem

Pre Treatment


Technology Available

Consulting Engineers

For License PROJECT MANAGER Syd Love has been granted a U.S. patent for an innovative and timely pre treatment wastewater treatment system. Canadian patent is pending.

Thorbum Penny, an aggressive multi-disciplinary engineering firm working in the field of environ mental engineering with a strong emphasis in automation, is seeking a Project Manager for its Milton office.

This technology is available, for license, to a selected group, who will engineer and fabricate in Canada and market the

technology throughout North America and Mexico.

Please address inquiries to: Fax:(905) 273-3815.

Applicants should possess a post graduate degree with a minimum of 5 years experience in the project management of water and wastewater projects for the public and private sectors. Thorbum Penny Limited, a subsidiary of Philip Environmental Inc., is a progressive equal oppor tunity employer offering a competitive salary and a full range of company benefits. Please send your resume to:


Thorbum Penny Limited 400 Main Street East, Milton, ON L9T 4X5 No telephone calls please



Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

are Canadian-made...

100% DITYT"^

-Push Joint D.I

DIMECH'' - Mechanical Joint D.I

Solving problems in the waterworks fitting industry is a Terminal City tradition. Terminal City provides you with access to technical product data through factory consultation.

Terminal City provides you with a complete fitting line-

Compact Ductile Iron—AWWA C153, 4 inch through 16 inch; DITYT® or DIMECH®

Ductile Iron and Grey Iron-AWWA ClIO, 4 inch through 24 inch; TYTON Mechanical Joint to 30 inch

Ductile Iron and Grey Iron-ANSI BIB.I, 3 inch through 30 inch; Flanged Fittings Terminal City also provides a variety of "Special" fittings for specific installation needs. One "Special" will do the work of two or more standard fittings.

Make the Right Connection...CALL


'7en«*Uttai Qittfr iron works ltd. Manufacturers of Waterworks Fittings, Gate Valves and Fire Hydrants

1909 Franklin Street,Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1



For more information, circle reply card No. 119(See page 17)

Water & Wastewater Treatment

Treating water and wastewater at one environmental centre

Environmental centres are fa

cilities which uniquely com bine treatment plants for water and wastewater on one

site. The concept of environmental cen tres has been used successfully by KMK Consultants since the early 1970s when

Table 1

Environmental Centre

Total Construction Cost


$1,000,000 (1972) $7,000,000 (1993/95) $5,400,000 (1996)


Echo Bay

Cost Savings $ 500,000 $1,000,000 $ 800,000

the first centre was installed in the Town of Latchford in northern Ontario to serv

ice a community of 500 persons. Since that time, two other environmental cen

treatment plant was also the natural gravity concentration point for the sewer collection system. The area selected for

which reduces the cost of the building superstructure. Similarly, only one elec trical service and one standby diesel generator set are required. Information is no longer required to be shared be tween two separate plants electronically

tres have been successfully imple mented, including one in the Village of Frankford in eastern Ontario (design pop. 3000),and another currently under construction in the Community of Echo

ter intake above the dam, with the outfall

via modems and leased lines. In addi

for the wastewater treatment plant lo

tion, the need for a second computer and autodialer is eliminated, and program ming costs are reduced. Table 1 illustrates the cost savings

the environmental centre in Latchford

was located at a dam site, which easily allowed for the construction of the wa

Bay in northern Ontario (design pop.

cated below the dam.

950). The concept of combining treatment

The use of an environmental centre for water and wastewater treatment of

plants onto one site was first developed

fers communities significant savings in both operating and capital costs, as one environmental centre typically costs less to construct and operate than two sepa rate treatment facilities. Capital costs are reduced through the need for only one control and administration facility.

in the Town of Latchford based on sev

eral key factors such as financial limi tations, and the fact that the most suit

able water supply source for the water *KMK Consultants Limited

centres, indicating the significant eco nomic benefit of utilizing the concept of a dual treatment site. All facilities

were constructed utilizing package plants for water treatment. For wastewater treatment, extended aeration

plants are used in Latchford and Frankford, while Echo Bay is being constructed using rotating biological contactors. A combined facility covers less land than separate plants, with the plants sharing a com





mon buffer zone. Reduced land


requirements can ease the task of finding suitable sites, and also lead to greater public sup port for the proposed works through the reduced impact on the community. The provision of both plants on one site also offers a unique educational op portunity for school groups to




see how both water and waste-

□ Ur □ □

water facilities work in combi








No. 2






realized at each of the environmental

nity. Benefits on the process side include the ability to dispose of water sludges to the wastewater treatment plant at times that minimize the impact on plant hydraulics and the treatment process. The water sludge may in addition aid the wastewater

plant operation by enhancing settleahility of the wastewater solids. Only one sludge, the Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

By P. McGrenere, S. Atlin, and S. Salenieks* combined product of the water and wastewater treatment plant, needs to be considered for ultimate disposal. The operating costs of an environ mental centre are lower than the com

bined cost to operate two separate facilities. This is particularly noticeable in smaller communities where plants are generally staffed part-time with usually only one person to operate both the water and wastewater plants. With an environmental centre, only one location requires site maintenance and travel time between two separate plants is elimi nated. The use of only one plant con trol and administration building also re duces the costs associated with heating and lighting of the building. The shared use of chemicals, particularly for coagu

cross contamination. In the case of the

Echo Bay environmental centre, the in take and outfall are located within a lake

separated by a distance of 800 metres, but with no physical barrier separation such as a dam would provide. To en sure the potential for cross contamina tion was minimized, the outfall in Echo

Bay was designed with a diffuser to pro vide maximum dispersion and dilution

to providing water and wastewater serv icing to communities. The provision of both treatment plants on one site offers economical as well as social benefits to

the community. However,the potential to use the concept of an environmental centre must be examined closely to clearly define issues such as the place ment of intake and outfall pipes, and to determine whether the idea is achievable

given site specific conditions.

within a one metre radius.

Overall, environmental centres offer

an innovative, cost-effective approach

For more information,

circle reply card No. 120

lation, can also result in reduced chemi cal costs due to benefits from bulk de

livery and requirement for delivery to only one site. Certain issues must be considered in

the design of an environmental centre. Of key importance is the elimination of potential for cross contamination of wastewater into the potable water sup-

The operating costs of an environmental centre are lower than the combined

cost to operate two separate facilities. ply. This was alleviated in the Echo Bay design by providing a utility corridor between the inground water storage res ervoirs and the wastewater treatment

plant tankage to ensure a complete bar rier separation. The other two plants have more physically separate wastewater treatment facilities, but still share

a common site and operation and con trol building. For all plants, direct ac cess to the locker room from the waste-

water treatment plant is provided to al low the operator to clean up prior to entering the water plant. The laboratory facilities are also designed to eliminate contamination potential by providing separate colour coded counters, glass ware, and sampling equipment for each treatment facility. The siting of the intake and outfall is of extreme importance in the considera tion of an environmental centre. Both

the Latchford plant and the Frankford plant are situated near dams, which al lows for the water intake to be located

upstream of the dam, with the sewage

Cryptosporidium is a threat to every surface water supply. Yes, every. Just ask Milwaukee. Las Vegas. Walla Walla. Albuquerque. Braun Station, Texas. Collingwood, Ontario. Kelowna, British Columbia. And an ever-growing bst of communities caught unprepared. This microorganism has proven itself impervious to conventional water disinfection technologies. If you believe that regulatory compliance alone will take care of crypto, you're wrong. Even with protected SAFE

watersheds, your community could he the next affected. And your water company could he the next facing serious problems. Get the facts on crypto, and leani how ^ we can help you avoid the risk.

For a free copy of independent test results of a new

Inactivation technology from Safe Water Solutions,


call (414) 365-2377 or fax (414) 365-2210.


outfall located downstream to ensure no

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

For more Information, circle reply card No. 121 (See page 17)


Cover Story

By Bill Borlase*

Winnipeg faced Fiood of the Century

MotherNature has not been kind to Southern Mani toba in 1997! After fac

ing the "Blizzard of the Century" in early April, Manitobans along the Red River also faced the "Flood of the Century" in late April and May. Most of the time the Red River flows

quietly, with residents giving little thought to the river's potential for dis astrous flooding. Occasionally,the river overlaps its banks, creating havoc in low-lying developments and threatening residential areas with devastation.

All the major floods on the Red River have occurred during the spring runoff period, usually due to a coincidence of adverse hydrologic and climatic factors. The most devastating flood in Winni peg's history occurred in the spring of 1950. Even higher floods happened in 1852 and 1826, but the City was still relatively undeveloped. The flood of 1997 was second only to the flood of 1826.

Following the 1950 flood, major flood protection works have been con structed to protect Winnipeg. These in clude the Red River Floodway, Portage Diversion and Shellmouth Dam. This

year was a real test of the Winnipeg Floodway! Without the flood protection works. *Water & Waste Department, City of Winnipeg

The only access tc the water intake facility is by rail and during the ficcd, the rail line was lest in many iccaticns. Photo - Laurie Nowlckl

flood waters in Winnipeg could have reached a height of34.5 feet above James Ave. datum(normal winter ice level). In 1950, flood levels reached 30.5 feet above James Ave. datum. This year,lev els within Winnipeg reached 24.5 feet above datum as a result of the protec tion afforded by the floodway et al. This was still a major flood event as many secondary dykes are only con structed to 19.0 James Ave. datum.

Much riverbank property was flooded and water levels reached the main gird ers on many bridges. One of the City's main bridges was damaged and is still

out of service.

To defend against the floodwater, over 800 homes had to be protected with temporary dykes of sand or clay. To this end,the City used 81,000 tonnes of sand to make 5.5 million sandbags. Many dykes were over 8 feet high. Most dykes were constructed by hand utilizing the efforts of civilian volunteers and the

military. In the end, only 30 homes within the city of Winnipeg were lost to the floodwaters. Unfortunately, many more homes outside the city limits were se verely damaged by the flood. As a result of the flood levels, two of

the City's three wastewater treatment

plants lost their secondary capacity to treat the volumes of sewage being pumped. With receding water levels,

these plants are now back to normal operation. Throughout the entire flood event, the City's water supply was not compro mised. The source of the City of Win nipeg's water supply is Shoal Lake, lo cated on the Manitoba-Ontario border

some 97 miles east of Winnipeg. The only access to the water intake facility is by rail and during the flood, the rail line was lost in many locations. Other than access, there was no interruption to the quality or quantity of the water supply. The blizzard is over, the flood is over,

The City used 81,000 tonnes of sand tc make 5.5 miiiicn sandbags. Photo - Laurie Nowicki


what's next? Drought,tornadoes, orjust mosquitos? â– Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Go with

theflo^I Less retention time,

less space, lower cost

The ActifloÂŽ process, compact,flexible and very easy to operate, will solve the most severe potable water treatment problems while meeting your economic objectives. Micro-sand serves as both seedforfloe formation and ballast to encourage rapid settling which greatly reduces the footprint ofthe plant. The process is very stable and produces a clarified water ofhigh quality.


b.V-'--- ;•

For more information,

circie repiy card No. 122

John Meunier 6290 Perinault Street, Montreal(Quebec) H4K1K5 Tel.:(514) 334-7230 Fax.:(514) 334-5070

P&P Focus

By P. Michaud, J. Bourbonnais^ and L. Araneda^

Nutrient dosage in puip and paper piants by monitoring COD on-iine

There are many advantages in


monitoring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of a wastewater stream on a con

tinuous basis. The most important ones are related to cost savings in operating the wastewater treatment plant. In fact, knowing the COD level and the flow rate of a wastewater stream allows for a bet

ter optimization of nutrient dosage and oxygen injection within the treatment process.

During the past five years, the pulp and paper industry has invested mas sively into wastewater treatment sys tems to meet the new standards imposed by provincial authorities. These new systems now need tighter monitoring methods in order to be operated in the most efficient manner. Among the most important parameters to measure for proper treatment of an effluent are flow and organic pollution loading. The or ganic pollution loading of the effluent can be expressed in many different ways and the most common form is COD as

mg/1. To date, measuring the COD con centration has relied on sampling and performing a laboratory analysis. Un fortunately, most laboratory analysis takes too much time to permit any ad justment of the treatment process. Other on-line technologies have failed to be realistically applicable in the pulp and paper industry because of the difficult nature of the effluent(high lev els of suspended particles and fibres)and the complexity of the method used by some analyzers to obtain the measure ment. The nature of the pulp and paper effluent requires the use of a simple and robust technology. A more recent tech nology based on ultraviolet (UV) ab sorption now offers a very promising al ternative to the pulp and paper industry. A new type of analyzer known as the CT-100 uses optical techniques to rap idly and reliably measure the concen tration of dissolved organic pollution in a stream. Organic pollution in water is known for absorbing light at a very spe cific wave length in the UV spectrum. More specifically, absorption at 254nm has been recognized as a reliable method to measure organic pollution. ^GeoStructure Instruments,

^Kruger 70


A CT-100 analyzer was recently installed at the Kruger plant in Bromptonviile, Que bec, for evaluation.

In the CT-100, a sample is circulated in the measuring cell while the light source of the analyzer is activated. The portion of that light passing through the measuring cell is detected using special photodiode arrays. Automatic compen sation for the turbidity of the sample is applied by the instrument in the calcu lation of the reading. The display and the analog output of the analyzer are then refreshed. The reading process takes approximately 15 seconds and the interval between readings is entirely pro grammable from two minutes to several

under minimal supervision and mainte nance. The system was installed at the inlet of the secondary treatment. An other aspect was to establish the corre lation between the reading of the CT100 in absorbency per metre(abs/m)and the Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg/1). During the test, the analyzer operated continuously for a total of eight consecu tive days. While transmitting over the current loop, the analyzer was also pro grammed to store data into its internal memory. The graph presented in Figure 1 shows the collected data for the com

plete period. It presents the variation of tive to flow variation, no reagent is in the organic pollution level versus time on volved, no special processing of the the upper curve of the graph. The lower sample is required. curve shows the percent of light trans The CT-100 can be equipped with an mission through the measuring cell. From this figure, we can clearly see automatic washing system. The main purpose of this module is to keep the the evolution of the COD level in the measuring cell clean at all times and effluent. We can also identify three minimize operator intervention. The events (27/4-20h, 28/4-8h58, 1/5operation of this system is entirely con 12h52), where there have been incidents trolled by the analyzer. It uses a low The installation parameters were as follows: concentration acid solution as clean • Reading interval: 5 minutes ing agent. The cleaning cycle • Pre-pumping period: 1 minute interval is determined by the opera • Cleaning interval: 6 hours tor based on the nature of the • Rinsing solution effluent. pumping time: 35 seconds Case Study • Inlet strainer opening: 1 mm A CT-100 analyzer was recently • Pre-filtration: None Peristaltic pump installed at the Kruger plant in • Pumping method: • Tubing length: 12 feet Bromptonviile, Quebec,for evalu 4-20 mA connected ation. The goal was to verify that • Output: to existing DCS the analyzer could operate effi ciently with the typical plant wastewater, Continued overleaf hours. The result obtained is insensi

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997


. .v;.

•*" . ^ • •'4*



# .-r *T

"»»v# ;







..--^trr well'^eingdepends,on the;,

•'health of our muriidpal irifra; structure. We-dependiTon reliadjg^ supplies of potable water and tlie*


effective removal of sewag^.,.

1- ; \


Corrosion proof, easy'to instaU^ i ■ 'and costoffectlYe, IPEX pipe and" fittings can,help restore tlfe- ,, ," ' • •

infrastructure back to' healths;,

assuring it ofa long arid health/.^ life for years l!o.come

•i*' P C o m mi LI e d il(f K x c o 11 e n c «

http:/Av,\*\v?ipexinc.com VANCOUVER ■B (604) 534-8631 TOLL FREE (800) 663-5864 FAX (604) 534-7616

EDMONTON ■B (403) 468-4444 FAX (403) 465-5617

WINNIPEG ■B (204) 633-3111 FAX (204) 633-3075

MONTREAL ■B (514) 337-2624 TOLL FREE (800) 363-4343 FAX (514) 337-7886

CALGARY •s (403) 236-8333 FAX (403) 279-8443

SASKATOON •B (306) 033-4664 FAX (306) 934-2020

TORONTO ■B (905) 670-7676 TOLL FREE (800) 268-4664 FAX (905) 670-5295

SAINT JOHN ■B (506) 633-7473 (PIPE) TOLL FREE (800) 561-7473 (PIPE) FAX (506) 633-8720

For more information, circie repiy card No. 123 (See page 17)

ST. JOHN'S o (709) 747-7473 (PIPE) FAX (709) 368-9111

P&P Focus, cont' in the process causing the turbidity of the sample to be such that very little or no light(% transmissivity) was passing through the cell. Although it was im

Figure 1 Organic pollution vs Time 200.0

possible to obtain a measurement under

these particular conditions, the analyzer detected them and triggered its Malfunc tion status relay. In a permanent instal lation, appropriate action could have

125.0 150.0

100.0 120.0

been initiated at these moments to avoid

100.0 1


overloading the treatment process. It is also possible to add, as an option, a sec ond analog output proportional to the turbidity. During the evaluation period, a num ber of laboratory COD tests were per formed and the results were compared to the analyzer's readings. The correla tion calculated using linear regression showed an R Squared of 0.85 for 50 observations. After eight days of op eration, the system showed no signifi









T ime

cant accumulation of dirt that could have

caused clogging and the measuring cell was perfectly clean. The maintenance performed on the system has consisted of cleaning the inlet strainer once a day and filling up the rinsing solution jug twice during the period. Although the analyzer automatically

compensates for the sample turbidity, a minimum oflight must be passing through the cell for the measurement to be pos sible. When no measurement is possi ble, the analyzer triggers the appropri ate alarm to notify the control system. Knowing about COD concentration

on a continuous basis makes possible the optimization of a treatment process. Significant cost savings are associated with the reduction of nutrient, and oxy gen consumption. For more information, circle reply card No. 124

â–Ą I wish to receive further information on the Canadian Pavilion â–Ą I wish to visit the show and receive

all necessary information


First name:

30 September Company: .

3 October 1997

Paris-Nord Exhibition


Center - France

13 international

Post Code: .


exhibition for

m Miller Freeman A UnilnJ

Ic McJij

Country: ..., environmental


You supply the products, we deliver the demand .At the heart of the

61% of visitors

are buyers

environment market




and services

for industry

After its success in 1996,1,700 exhi

Pollutec's exhibitors are very pleased

bitors and over 50,000 trade visitors

with visitors quality. 61% of visitors to previous Poliutec state that they

the only major show for the environ

bought equipment, technology and

ment industry in Europe in 1997.

services following their previous visits

This will ensure more international

(Bipe Conseil survey).

visitors and exhibitors.

participated at the show. Poliutec is Promosalons Canada

1200 Bay Street, Suite 503 Toronto ON M5R 2A5 In association with:

Tel: (416) 929-2562/1-800-565-5443 Fax: (416) 929-2564

Canadian complies may be interested in joining the official Pavilion organized by the Embassy and Industry Canada.


For more information, circle reply card No. 125 (See page 17)

Internet: http://www.pollutec.com

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

ISO 14001 Environmental

Management Systems

Auditing, Planning Training Communications Services for



ISO 14000"

Significant Environmentai impacts Auditing

Management Systems and

• Environmental

Identified Activities, Determined



Aspects and Predicted Impacts



Preparedness and Compliance

ISO 14001

• HAZMAT Response, Environmental Impact -Debriefings, Reviews and Assessments

• Best Chemical

Management Practices(BCMP)

In the 1980s, Spill Management Inc. developed an "Environmental Preparedness Matrix" based on what

Pianning • Response Strategies • Mitigation Measures • Communications, Internal / External


emergency responders "need to know" rather than what is "nice

to know" when dealing with hazardous material incidents.

• Industry, Site Specific • Product,

Chemical Specific • Emergency Response Team Specific

for "Competence and Confidence'

Experience indicated that fortyhour site remediation courses,

adapted firefighters' courses and other generalized programs did not meet specific industrial needs.

jeneralized approaches do not consider the high levels of knowledge, experience and competence of ndustrial personnel. Spill Management analyzed the potential impacts of industrial activities and hen built training programs around the capabilities of plant personnel. The result was individualized raining programs for more than 60 types of industries based on their needs, chemicals and

mvironmental conditions.

ATien Spill Management designed its first site-specific and product-specific training programs, an irganization's needs were assessed on risks, hazards, potential losses and mitigation difficulties. This approach complements ISO I400I Standards for Environmental Management Systems which require a similar 'ocus for each industrial operation.


'"'PP®'" Tel. (905)578-9666

*-81 2R9 Fax (905)578-6644

For more information, circle reply card No. 104(See page 17)

P&P Focus

By P. Chappie, M.A., N. Gondik, B.Sc., and G. Vance, Ph.D.

Essential oils for odorous gases in pulp & paper could be an accessible alternative

Pulp and paper operations are

known to generate fugitive, point source, or process upset emissions of sulphur com

pounds. In its recent bulletin Odour Impacts-An Overview, the Science and Technology Branch of the Ontario Min

istry of Environment and Energy in cludes "pulp & paper plants" in its list of "operations that commonly result in odour impacts." Sources of odorous

emissions include the black liquor recovery process, from brown stock washers, and from effluent treatment


systems, digesters and lime kilns.

In 1996 the Rolland Paper Mill in St.Jerome, Quebec, installed two Ecolo®

airSolution® perimeter systems to deal with odours at the final effluent treat

ment stage, one around a lagoon and one

around an emergency basin, having a combined capacity of4 million gallons. The components ofeach system include a hydraulic pump, an airSolution® res ervoir, a timer to turn the system on and off automatically, a series of atomizing nozzles strung on 8 ft. posts at 20 ft. in tervals, and a length of 1/4 in. nylon hose. The two systems have more than *Ecolo® Odor Control Systems Worldwide, Mississauga, Ontario ESCO



for Intake Water/


Wastewater I Sludge

for WaterAiVastewater

Step-notched laminas

Uses microgrooved, thermoplastic discs as




adjacent fixed blades achieving all in one: •solids separation •solids advancing •solids dewatering •screen self-cleaning

Odour control systems installed around the perimeters of two effluent lagoons at the Rolland Paper Mill in St.-Jerome, Quebec. Inset: A pole-mounted atomizing nozzle sprays alrSolutlorP to neutralize sulphide gases. 100 atomizing nozzles, took a week to install, and operate during the "outdoor odour season" from May to November. Denis Berthiaume, the manager responsible for effluent treatment, initi ated the acquisition of the systems in response to odour complaints from resi

dents in the two affected municipalities, with supportfrom their respective coun cils, the provincial government and mill employees. Previously, M.Berthiaume

Consists ofonefollowing the other or working independently with option to be containerized: Custom Build


Laminarv Plate-

SandBox^ ' Filter



Positive Sand Wash


Optional chenucal

Screw sand

enhancemerLt/spin _ . . I, x~—Reject





Option Dirty sand

air-lifting Flow'i X



high tolerance to sand; high through flow area (to 60 %); high solids removal efficiency achieved by blanketing effect; 1, 3

replaces cartridge, sock & bag; modular design & automation permit continuous operation; less than 5% reject; 316 SS

& 6 nun slot opening


Separation Equipment & Water/WasteWater







How does the system control odours? Fine droplets (<20 microns) atomized at each nozzle are carried by air currents, react on contact with molecules of gas

reduces foot print by up to 90%; reduces

uninterrupted flow; no backwash; high total installed cost; quality effluent; high eliminates shorthydraulic and solids circuiting; near loading; vigorous maintenance free; no washing of reject consumable parts; sand; small amount pre-fabricated; fast of reject water; installation / start up automatic operation Fax:(905) 771-8911 Tel:(905) 771-84-00 e-mail: dagex@istar.ca


For more information, circle reply card No. 238 (See page 17)

pair of electrons available for forming a bond with an electron-pair acceptor. A proton or hydrogen ion (HQ of hydro gen sulphide appears to be such an acceptor. In less than two seconds a compound containing non-odorous hydrosulphide ions (HS) is formed

ti' Clean 4 sand

^ Solids


source" that will reduce odours further.

eous hydrogen sulphide (H^S) rising

Box™ Settler


ues to search for modifications "at

from the lagoons. The Lewis base incorporated in this formulation has a

for Water / Wastewater

ofinnovative design

particle retention. Discs are separated for a very short backwash cycle

In accordance with standard indus

try practice, M. Bertiaume also contin


filter elements with 5


masking agents, oxidants and aeration.

Following installation of the systems, complaints declined by about 80%.

DAGEX compact/low profile/modular design



had experimented unsuccessfully with

which, in the presence of atmospheric oxygen (O^), is oxidized into sulphate ions(SOq). These sulphate ions eventually biodegrade to elemental sulphur and oxygen. Some droplets settle on the surface of the lagoons where they inter cept and neutralize odorous gases as

they rise to the surface. The droplets contain a precise and proprietary blend of several hundred essential oils which, being aromatic,present a pleasing scent on initial release.

For more information, circle reply card No. 105

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

Product and Service Showcase Gas shutdown systems

Odour control systems Duall Division of

Total chlorine residual


Metpro Corpora tion, designs cus tomized odourcontrol scrubbers to meet customer-

specific needs. The Duall MultiDirectional Model

Gas storage demands the highest safety standards. Now,following close collabo ration with Health and Safety executives, water companies and safety officials, a comprehensive shutdown system has been developed by Capital Controls to meet the most stringent safety require ments. The modular system ensures safe, rapid shutdown of both ton containers and cylinders used in the storage of chlorine, sulphur dioxide and other hazardous gases and liquids. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information,

circie repiy card No. 214

Advanced chlorine

scrubber technology


MD Scrubbers in clude: •


tional air flow resulting in efficiencies as high as 99.9%. • Sizes up to 5000 CFM. • Compact skid-mounted design with chemical feed system and controls. •Low-profile compact design with mini mal space requirement,for easy installa tion in existing sites. •Structural design is based on operations at a maximum process temperature of 120°F.

Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle repiy card No. 215

Drinking water particle counting systems

ProMinent's Total Chlorine Residual

Analyzer monitors total chlorine residuals from 0-10.0 ppm. It features a temperature compensated (5 to 55°C) Amperometric triple-electrode membrane style chlorine sensor with integrated preamplifier. The measuring signal is al most pH independent over the pH range 5.5 to 9.5. No reagents or buffer are re quired. The chlorine monitor features an LCD display, calibration span potentio meter and a 4-20 mA event output. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circie repiy card No. 216

Turbidity monitoring systems

The Powell Sentry 2000 Chlorine Scrub

ber has a unique four stage, single pass, horizontal packed bed design with high efficiency packing material. It is the only Chlorine and Sulfur Dioxide Scrubber tested with U.S. EPA Reference Meth

ods-tested at full scale 3,000 ACFM air

flow rates with 2,000 lbs. Its low profile construction makes it suitable for exist

ing installations. Safety is enhanced by using a lower pressure caustic pump at 5psi. Its unique composite construction tank provides double containment of scrubbing solution, and impact protection and more structural strength. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circie repiy card No. 217

The Hiac/Royco Particle Counters pro vide you with an on-line, rugged, high resolution sensor. The on-line system uses the largest flow passage and larger micron size range. The AccuCount soft ware was developed for and provides sig nificant data for water treatment plants. Software support for 4 particle size chan nels and up to 32 stations. Software of fers: Real-time data display, real-time alarms, log removal calculations, back wash status flag, etc. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 218


Turbidity monitoring in water treatment plants is essential in the drive towards high water quality standards. The ABB 4670 Series Turbidity Monitor is supplied with dry calibration standard with unit values as low as 1.0 to 2.0 NTU for final

and filtered water applications. The dry standards can be used in multiples of the same unit, thereby reducing costs. The ABB system has high immunity to sam ple temperature fluctuations, a major fac tor in accurate performance below 0.1 NTU. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 219



Tel:(905) 738-2355, Fax:(905) 738-5520

P&P Focus

Landmark $88 million research drive

underway to develop closure technologies

A five-year, $88 million re

search program to develop next-generation pulp and paper mill technologies that

technologies - they are many and var ied and could be phased in over many years - will reduce water, energy and chemical usage and further reduce ef

will shift the environmental focus from

fluent and emission volumes.

pollution treatment to prevention,is now well underway. The program, a joint undertaking by industry, government and industry sup pliers, will be carried out by the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican), the industry's research arm. One of the largest research projects of its kind in the world, it aims to de velop closed-cycle technologies which

The strategic aim of system closure research is to achieve paper mills which generate virtually no effluent. "This pro gram will attempt a great technological leap towards the ultimate goal of being able to operate any mill virtually efflu ent-free," says Arild Nielssen,President and CEO of Canfor Corporation, a Paprican board member and Chairman of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Asso

can be commercialized at mills across


Canada and later exported, creating sig nificant economic spinoffs. System closure is the concept of re ducing pollution at the source by devel oping efficient ways to re-use more wa

If these new technologies prove suc cessful, they could be incorporated pro gressively by existing mills as capital budgets allow. New mills could incor porate them from the start. Nielssen described the investment in system clo sure development as good environmen tal policy that also makes economic sense for the $29 billion industry, the

ter and other elements in the waste

stream. Today, that waste stream is treated and purified prior to discharge. The future installation of system closure

largest contributor to Canada's balance of trade.

"To the extent that system closure could mean environmental gains over and above the changes this industry has achieved in the last few years, it's great for the environment," says Nielssen. "To the extent that it also boosts the glo bal competitiveness of one of Canada's largest industries, it's a win for industry and all Canadians."

System closure research was launch ed less than a year after Canadian pulp and paper mills completed one of the largest privately funded pollution abate ment programs in the country's history. That $5-billion investment in new

bleaching technology and secondary treatment facilities from 1988-95,effec

tively eliminated dioxins and furans and sharply reduced other pollutants in ef fluent streams coast to coast.

"This massive investment improved our performance so dramatically that the water discharged by Canadian mills is

Environmental Monitoring Equipment


For fast response to your Sales, Service or Rental inquiry, please call our Technical Hotline: 1-800-215-4469 Visit us on the internet: www.can-am.net

Oil iff llVirer Hhmitor

Ihmtgeroufs Vntnnirn

Aresi'Veioeity Fl##ir Mefer The new Sigma 900AV Area Velocity Flow Meter makes your long term flow monitoring needs a breeze. Sigma's area velocity can achieve accuracy's of 2 percent of reading without a primary device. This can be achieved even under full pipe, surcharge or reverse flow conditions Circle reply card No. 315


Arjay's HydroSense Oil in Water monitor will monitor oil from 1 PPM to 500 PPM levels. Ideal for continu

ous monitoring of water when low oil levels are critical. Arjay has a full line of products for spill protection, oil/water separators, etc. Circle reply card No. 316

For more information, circie reply card No. 107 (See page 17)

During a site investigation, the Photovac 2020 will detect the pres ence of volatile organic compounds down to 0.1 PPM level. Simple to operate, light weight and rugged, the Photovac 2020 is the ideal instru

ment for your projects.

Circle reply card No. 317

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997

P&P Focus tion targets, pulp and paper is a leading

fibre, and by recovering residual fi bre from process waste water.

industrial sector. Canadian mills have

Also, less water will be con

sumed by mill operations. Canadian mills have slashed their water con

sumption per tonne ofoutput by over 60 percent since 1960. Closed cy cle concepts can achieve further dra matic reductions.

Nielssen noted that the drive to

wards closed cycle is indicative of how far the Canadian pulp and pa per industry has come this decade in undertaking environmental lead ership. He listed some of this year's key developments: • The industry has been a driving force behind the just-approved na tional standards for sustainable for

est management developed by the Canadian Standards Association.

• Canadian pulp and paper producFrom treatment to prevention. Photo T. Davey ers are helping shape an internano longer a major environmental con- tional standard for sustainable forest management based on ISO 14000. cern," said Nielssen. The next logical step, the closed cy •Paper producers are implementing volcle mill, hopes to reduce pollution at untary action plans to preserve source. Fibre usage will improve in two biodiversity and reduce greenhouse gas ways: by achieving greater yield from emissions linked to global warming. In the case of greenhouse gas reduc both virgin wood fibre and recycled

cut use of non-renewable fossil fuel by 20% and dropped total energy consump tion by 5% per tonne of production since 1990, the result of a concerted effort to reduce earbon dioxide emissions.

The development of system closure technologies would have positive impli cations for global warming. Research ers hope that additional energy effici encies will lead to further reductions in

CO^ emissions. 'The five-year research program will be all-encompassing, developing tech nologies which can be retrofitted to any type of mill: pulp, integrated paper or board mills and other non-integrated paper mills. Canadian pulp and paper producers have committed $12 million annually for program research. The federal gov ernment will contribute a further $3

million annually in the form of repay able grants. In addition, Paprican's pi lot plant in Montreal will be expanded at a cost of $13 million ($7 million for

equipment and $6 million for building expansion). ■





ASL provides a wide variety of specialized testing procedures & technical support

Canadian Environmental

Auditing Association Association canadienne de verification environnementale

Application Deadlines for 1997

for environmental

Environmental Monitoring Site Assessment Analysis Mobile Laboratory Services Occupational Hygiene Consulting Drinking Water Analysis

professionals seeking superior service and data quality.

The next deadline for the submission of

applications for the professional designation of Ceitified Environmental Auditor(CBA)is:

August 8, 1997 To receive CEA application forms or for further information about the certification

SCC/CAEAL Accredited

program and/or association membership, please contact the CEAA at(905)567-4705, fax:(905) 567-7191.

/ISi analytical service laboratories ltd. 1988 Triumph Street, Vancouver, B.C. Canada V5L 1K5

Tel:(604)253-4188 Fax:(604)253-6700 e-mail: info@asl-labs.bc.ca



Call Toll Free 1 -800-665-0243

Spefcialists in Environmental Chemistry

For more information, circle reply card No. 148 (See page 17)

Certified Environmental Auditors are qualified to perform ISO 14000 and other environmental audits to meet the needs of business and industry. For more information, circle reply card No. 108

(See page 17)

Biosolids Management

Vortex mixing system for municipai/ industriai biosoiids

The JetMix™ Vortex Mixing System can be used in bio

solids stabilization and stor

age, anaerobic digesters,flow equalization, aerobic digesters with sup plemental air, leachate systems, and other situations where solids suspension is important. The concept was designed in re sponse to problems arising from at tempts to mix large tanks effectively. The inability of conventional mixing systems to develop a homogenous mass or even keep solids in suspension dur ing continuous operation led to a search for alternate approaches. JetMix has repeatedly shown an ability to generate a homogenous mass from stratified tanks within 24 to 48 hours of initial

operation. This results in significant savings in mixing energy costs. The operation is not affected by the liquid level of the tank, making it ideal for varying water levels found in flow equalization and storage tanks. Complete mixing can be achieved as long as the motive pumps have liquid available. If another supply of water is available, the

piping, can be provided in a variety of materials and configurations to suit the particular application. Locating the pump outside of the tank simplifies maintenance. Where coarse solids are

nozzles can also be used to clean tanks.

not a factor, the type of pump can be varied to match existing pump types for spare parts. However, particularly with municipal biosolids,the presence ofrags or long fibrous masses usually dictates that a chopper type pump be used. This

The pump, as with the nozzles and

assures that fibre masses will not re-form


Ad Index ABS Pumps


EER Canada

Acres & Assoc



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Am. Concrete Pipe .... 25

Env. Training instit. ... 37

Foilutec "97



Fabco Plastics





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7, 63


. 15, 62

Safe Water


previous systems paid for the retrofit after the first year of operation. The

67 21





Schlumherger..... 49, 63



SEW Eurodrive ..





Cdn. Env. Audit 77 CH2M Gore & Storrie . 55



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National instruments.. 62 32

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Davidson Env

WEFTEG'97 Zenon

An increasing number ofinstallations involve retrofitting existing tanks. JetMix can be fitted to both above grade and in-ground installations. Users re port that the savings alone compared to

. 40, 63

Greer Galloway


and create plugging or maintenance problems. The efficiency of the mixing pattern reduces the amount of energy required compared to conventional systems. With biosolids or other applications with intermittent mixing requirements, the reduction in energy compared to con tinuous operation is very dramatic. Applications involving slow settling solids can also take advantage of the intermittent operating capability of JetMix, running the mixer on a timed


. 17, 62 61


materials of construction of the tank are

not a factor in introducing the JetMix since it does not rely on the tank walls or roof to support machinery or operat ing equipment. Benefits of using the JetMix system include; intermittent operation saving up to 90% in power consumption, no need for scheduled maintenance on equip ment inside storage tanks, multiple tank mixing using a central pumping facil ity, and the fact that operation is not de pendent on tank levels. The JetMix system is distributed in Canada by Greatario Industrial Storage Systems. For more information, circle reply card No. 147

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1997



0| otJ


NEW HACH SYSTEMS FOR WATER ANALYSIS Innovative Turbidity Calibration Standards Ready-to-use, safe StablCal™ Standards are dilutions of formazin primary standard pre pared by a proprietary method that makes very low concentrations stable for a period of two years, They come in values specific for calibrating Hach (or other) turbidimeters and give readings equivalent to formazin over the entire measurement range. Just pour and calibrate. The sealed vial packaging eliminates exposure to formazin.

■ •I—!



F iw













pi fa-;


The new Manganese HICOD Method eliminates handling and disposal concerns associated with heavy metals waste. Results are provided in less than 90 minutes.

Advanced Spectrophotometers and Colorimeters Hach's new DR/2010 Datalogging Spectrophotometer (shown above) offers many new capabilities over its predecessor, the DE/2000, including; storage, recall, and printing of up to 1000 results; reduced reagent usage and waste disposal; and user upgradeable software, Pocket Colorimeters are now available for Pocket Colorimeter

P y P

testing monochloramines, aluminum, pH and chlorine, manganese (LR), and ammonia.

k Mi


Breakthrough in COD/BOD Wastewater Testing Hach has developed another exclusive COD method. Based on Mn^^, the procedure elimi nates the use of mercury, silver, and dicltromate reagents, thereby significantly cutting waste disposal costs. Turnaround time, including digestion, is under two hours. The method uses a Hach COD reactor, filtration apparatus, and spectrophotometer or colorimeter. The BODTrak^" apparatus uses mercury-free pressure sensors and automates data acqui sition, continuously measuring BOD and electronically storing data for later analysis.

pi New StablCal Standards in bulk 500 ml bottles

eliminate the time and lahor ofpreparing dilutions, with complete confidence inperformance and results.

1997 Products for

Analysis Catalog.


N m


Comprehensive, 448-p. catalog covers otlier new products, including tests for lead, mercury, and silver, plus Hach's entire line of analysis systems. Contact your Hach representative for a copy.




hi:' >►: tn-

□1 HACH COMPANY P.O. Box 389 ISO 9001 Certified

Loveland, Colorado 80539 USA Telephone: 970-669-3050 Fax: 970-669-2932

Sales outlets throughout Canada. Service Centre in Winnipeg.

E-mail: inti@hach.com

d fS




1 1—(■

N- ' j -K fa

NEW HACH 1900 WPC Particle Counter - See page 32 for details ALKALINITY □ BACTERIA □ BOD O BROMINE □ COD □ CARBON DIOXIDE □ CHLORIDE A734

For more information, circle reply card No. 338 (See page 17)


The Carrousel® denitIR'' System with Integral Anoxic Reactor

Controls Effiuont

Nitrogon and MIxod Liquor Alkalinity For wastewater treatment applications where strict nitrogen effluent limits, high influent nitrogen, or low influent alkalinity require denitriJBcation, EIMCO denitIR Systems offer an elegantly simple solution. The modified CaiTousel basin shown here features an integral anoxic reactor where nitrates are biologically reduced and alkahnity restored in a single-basin system without recycle pumps or piping.

danltlR System Description 1. DenitPification Zone Screened, degritted wastewater and return activated sludge contact nitrate-rich, anoxic flow from the Carrousel basin. The combination of a dense biomass, nitrates and an abun dant carbon source(BOD)under anoxic conditions creates the ideal environment for high rate denitrification. Alkalinity is restored along with much of the oxygen previously bound

denitIR Systems with In-Rasin Denitrification:

in nitrates. AEROBIC




Control Gate

BOD,Ammonia and

Organic Nitrogen

• Denitrify(Reduce)Nitrite and Nitrate Nitrogen

- Mixer


Oxidize Carbonaceous


® Restore Alkalinity 2. Aerobic Zone The proven Carrousel System achieves efficient oxidation of BOD and complete nitrification. Carrousel System design allows aerator power draw to be reduced by more than 50% without loss of mixing. Oxygen transfer can thus be adjusted so that the mixed liquor reaches an anoxic condition before passing the denitrification zone diversion gate.

Recover Chemically Bound Oxygen * Reduce or Eliminate Alkali Addition

3. Anoxic Fiow Controi Gate Nitrate recycle rate is easily controlled by an adjustable gate on the denitIR wall which controls flow into the by-pass channel. This by-pass directs a portion of the main channel fiow to the anoxic zone. Carrousel System aerators provide all necessary circulation.


Main Office • 5155 Creekbonk Road • Mississauga, ON •(905)625-6070• FAX:(905)625-3519 Western Office • 220-259 Midpork Way S.E.• Calgary, AL•(403) 256-6812• FAX:(403) 256-7071 Eco Equipement FEP inc.•Terrebonne, QC •(514)477-7879• FAX:(514)477-7880 Atlantic PuriBcation Systems Ltd.• Dartmouth, NS•(902)469-2806• FAX:(902)463-3529

For more information, circle reply card No. 109 (See page 17)


PROCESS EQUIPMENl A Division ofBaker Hughes Canada Inc.