Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 1997

Page 1







Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air poiiution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

May 1997

Recovering Cryptosporidium and Glardia from drinking water Legislation targets materials in contact with drinking water A requiem for lost environmental opportunities - an essay Rock -for ages, an essential commodity Back to odour control basics

Interface level analyzer

Sludge sampler

Dissolved oxygen analyzer

The EPIC 1030

fixed site sludge sampler, which


conforms to ISO

9001, extracts iMTEBfACe Lgyfet MiAlXim

The new model 2511A Interface Level

Analyzer from Royce is the next natural step from the highly successful Model 2500 Blanket Level Detector. The Model

2511A is capable of having the ultrasonic speed-of-sound signal from its transduc ers changed by the user in applications where liquid mediums other than water are in use; it also has four setpoint relays which can each be used as either a "high" or "low" setpoint. Circle reply card No. 250

Automatic wastewater

sludges,including those with a high solids content, from flowing pipelines or through a tank wall. The pat ented positive metering system has no sensors or level detectors to foul up, and the two valves which pass the sludge are purged during samples to prevent any blockage. The 1030 can be programmed to take time- or flow-weighted samples with the option of manual sampling whenever required.

Circle reply card No. 251

Portable instrumentation

for pH, ORP, SS,



The Model 9200 Continuous DO

analyzer provides the ultimate level of monitoring accuracy and aeration control. It offers menu directing setup and trend graphing on the display, simultaneous DO and temperature readout on the dis play, standard automatic sensor mem brane self-cleaning, digital and analog outputs, a sensor output voltage mode, and 4 programmable setpoint relays. Circle reply card No. 252

Turbidity/suspended solids analyzer and sensors

Interface Level and DO These battery op erated portable Analyzers are rugged, water proof and com pletely submers ible. They are de signed for reli able remote op eration in wastewater treatment

The BUHLER 1023 is an all stainless steel

stationary wastewater sampler, and the new est offering from EPIC. Rated for -30°C ambient temperatures, this sampler is targeted for permanent installation in hoth indoor and

outdoor applications. The A.C. powered re frigerated unit can accommodate various size sample collection bottles in glass or plastic. An intelligent programmer is provided which can he off site programmed for multiple sam pling; it can also transfer data to and from the sampler's data logger facility. The pro grammer can be connected directly to a se rial printer at site, for printing of data logged in the sampler. ISO 9001 produced.

Circle reply card No. 253

plants, rivers, lakes, etc. The Model 500 pH/ORP is available with an assortment of Sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliable Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Portable Suspended Solids/Interface Analyzers are ideal for remote monitor ing in aeration basins, short term diurnal studies and laboratory applications. Each product features digital readout, micro processor based electronics with self-di agnostics. All models except for the 711 have analogue and RS232 digital outputs.


The Royce Model 7011 Suspended Solids Analyzer provides reliable, continuous op eration in waste treatment plants, rivers, lakes and other aqueous systems. A user friendly text screen provides menu driven setup. The instrument will read in either mil ligrams per liter or density percentage and is auto-ranging. With features that include insitu calibration, automatic color compen sation (Patent Pending), true microproces sor operation, and automatic ambient light compensation (Patent Pending). The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly ex perienced in effluent streams(0-500 mg/1). The Model 73 submersible sensor is for me

dium ranges typically found in aeration ba sins(0-30,000 mg/L). The Model 74 in-line sensor is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS line applications(0-80,000 mg/1).

Circle reply card No. 254

Circle reply card No. 255

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Process Measurement - Control & Environmental Instrumentation

For more information, Circle reply card No. 256

April/May'97 Vol. 10 No. 2 Issued May, 1997



Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Saies Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Circulation VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Asst. KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

May Day- now a requiem for lost environmental opportunities. Essay by Tom Davey Composting curbside garbage made possible with award-winning biofilter Global environmental management:survival of the fittest in action New enzyme reduces paper bleaching costs and saves the environment

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop Beak International Inc.

Alan Church, C.Chem., QEP.

Church &Troughtlnc. George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2MG&S Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Barry Loescher, Ph.D. Philip Anaiytical Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication pub lished by Environmental Science & Engi neering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mail Sales

Product Agreement No. 18197


22 26 30

Environmental Economics


Canada lifts PCB waste exports ban to United States Environment Canada -25 years of achievement Minimizing water supply costs in rural communities New legislation will target materials in contact with drinking water

35 36 40 43

Back to odour control basics


The new CEPA and its implications for the water and wastewater industry Rock - for ages, an essential commodity The environment and our impact on it- Part II Innovation in analysis of cyanide in wastewater Improving accuracy and reliability of explosive limit monitoring Study demonstrates clay's ability to isolate wastes in deeper cells Dry biofilter used to treat industrial wastewater Air & Waste Management Association 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition Fire systems now threatened by Zebra and Quagga Mussels CWWA - decade of progress Vinyl lung breathes life into lakes Recycling - the statistics are astounding R. V. Anderson improves wastewater operations and maintenance in India

46 48 51 54 56 67 68

70 72 76 21 78 80

New method to recover Cryptosporidium and Giardia from drinking water Expandable trailers widen to become mobile garbage transfer stations

88 90

Philip Environmental and Ailwaste merge Do all businesses need a qualified environmental professional? Federal ministries target over 100 substances in action plan

91 92 94

Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750


Literature Reviews


Printed in Canada, by Web Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means with out written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year,$70.00 for two years,$25.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra)

Ad Index


Product Review




R&D News


All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engi neering, 220 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca. Web site: http://www.esemag.com

Datepad Industry Update

16 4-20

Reader Feedback

Reader Service Card


17, 21, 37

Cover story; Canals played a vital role in the Industrial Revolution and our cover picture shows the longest flight of locks in Britain, totalling 29 operational locks(See page 52). This cover is doubly appropriate as Part II of David Sperling's essay- The environmentand our impact on it-(page 51)also touches on the Industrial Revolution and its role in environmental pollution. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Industry Update Stockholm Water Federation seeks

In Memoriam workers.

student nominees for

My wife Colleen and I have fond memories of the time we spent with Ron

science prize

and his wife Maxine, when we went to

The world's most prestigious water sci ence prize is now open to American, Canadian and Mexican junior and sen ior high school students. A student and his or her teacher will be selected to rep resent each country for the international

Vancouver for Globe '92.

We also spent a lot of time with Ron in Anaheim, California during the 1993 Water Environment Federation conven tion. He was a most enthusiastic tour

guide. I remember the three of us spent a glorious Saturday afternoon at Laguna Beach. The next day, we all went to

Stockholm Junior Water Prize to be

given in the Swedish capital in August. The search for North American nomi

nees is being conducted by the Water Environment Federation(WEF)and ITT Industries, through the International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) program conducted by Science Service

Universal Studios in Burbank. Like a

Ron Ganton, ES&E's Western Canada

Sales Representative, passed away on April 3 after a brief battle with pancre atic cancer. Ron was a valued part of


the ES&E team since our second issue

A panel of Judges from the WEF membership will select the North

in 1988. His honesty and integrity were always appreciated by his clients and co-

couple of over-excited school boys, Ron and I kept going on the Baok to the Euture ride.

Over the years, we really got to know Ron well and I found his comments and

insights on the magazine to be valuable. He will be missed by all of us. Steve Davey, President

American nominees. Entries must be

water quality or conservation projects in written form supported by display material, and all projects will be as sessed on the basis of creativity, scien tific procedure, subject knowledge and presentation.

Nominees chosen to represent the US,Canada and Mexico will win the trip to Stockholm in August (with their

teachers), $500, a one-year student membership in the WEF and an en graved plaque. The Intemational Stock-

holm Junior Water Prize is approxi mately $4,500 US dollars. ITT Industries, through its Fluid Technologies Corporation and ITT Flygt, has long been a participant in the Stockholm Water Festival and a sup porter of global water science. It is a founding sponsor of the International Stockholm Junior Water Prize. Further information can be obtained

through the WEF Public Information Office at(703)684-2400 or through the Internet at www.wef.org.




Occupational health lab is privatized

sludge drying Duske rotary dryers have been used in meat processing for over 14 years. Now, they are custom-engineered to dry many different sludges. Unique single-pass systems reduce moisture content in a

range from almost complete dryness to 20% or higher moisture content, as desired.

NOVAMANN International Inc. of

Mississauga, Ontario has completed the privatization of the Ontario Ministry of Labour's Occupational Health Labora tory. The private lab was selected after evaluation of proposals for the acquisi tion of major assets of the laboratory, along with the provision of testing serv ices to the Ministry.

Evaporative capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 lbs/hour

f)rovide cost-effective systems

or most applications. Duske services include dryer main tenance, plus rebuilding and conversion into our simple design for easier maintenance. Request Bulletin 400 on Duske

Under the terms of the deal, NOVA

MANN will provide occupational health testing services, and other related serv ices to the Ministry of Labour. In addi tion, the company has hired many of the scientists, technologists, and hygienists from the former government run labo

Single-Pass Dryer Systems and Bulletin 200 on Triple-Pass Dryers.

ratory. NOVAMANN has consolidated its

dusl^ engineering co., inc. 10700 W. Venture Dr., Franklin, Wl 53132 USA, Phone 414-529-0240, FAX 414-529-0362

For more information, circie reply card No. 117 (See page 17)

occupational health services group into the newly acquired operation located on Resources Road in the Metro Toronto

City of Etobicoke.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Industry Update Call for Papers

Editorlal Board Announcement

November 11-14,1997. Air & Waste Management Association - Pacific

activities included development of ana lytical methods in support of the acid rain program, contracting out of analytical services, and development of the ana lytical component of the MISA monitor ing regulations. He joined Zenon in 1987 as Business Development Manager and in 1988, headed the start up of Zenon's

Northwest International Section Annual

Conference. Vancouver, BC. Call For

Papers on Environmental Management: Managing Impacts or Managing the Environment.

Contact: Evan Jones

(604) 990-0582, Fax: (604) 990-0583, Email: pnwis97@seacor.bc.ca.

British Columbia laboratory.

Returning to Ontario in 1989, he be came President of Zenon Environmen

tal Laboratories and opened a third labo ratory In Montreal in 1990. In 1993, he was one of the founding members of the environmental laboratory trade associa tion, lAETL Canada, becoming its first

Canada helped Uruguay's oil spill clean up Dr. Barry Loescher has joined ES&E's


Environment Canada was part of an in ternational team responding to an oil spill of approximately 4,500 tonnes of crude oil off the coast of Uruguay. The slick from the spill threatened the Use de Lobus, the largest habitat of sea-li

organic Chemistry from the University of

ons in the world.

variety of responsible positions. Key

Services Corporation. Dr. Loescher is currently Vice President of Philip Ana lytical.

Gary Sergy, an internationallyknown expert on the clean-up of oiled


coast of Montevideo. A Memorandum

The spill occurred February 8, 1997 when a Panamanian tanker, carrying 52,000 tonnes of crude oil, on its way to Brazil, grounded on a rock off the

of Understanding signed only months earlier between Canada and Uruguay, paved the way for Environment Cana da's participation in the spill response.

shorelines, worked in close collabora tion with other team members on the

assessment of damage and selection of countermeasures and cleanup tech-

Editorial Advisory Board. Dr. Loescher received a PhD. in In

Toronto in 1973. He then spent 14 years at the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment, Laboratory Services Branch in a

In 1995,Zenon Environmental Labo

ratories was purchased by Philip Envi ronmental and merged with Barringer Laboratories to form Philip Analytical

Iron Based Coagulants For water and wastewater

treatment, Eaglebrook has the product and the system, too. You'll get outstanding results using Eaglebrook's Ferric Chloride, Ferric Suifate and FerriClear.

From FIjS and corrosion controi to water clarification, Eaglebrook has the answer that's tested, proven and economical.

Find the solutions at Eaglebrook. Phone: 1-888-USE-IRON in Canada 1-800-387-5021 in the U.S.A.

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For more information, circie reply card No. 124 (See page 17)

Reader Feedback Dear Tom, Re: The pipes, the pipes are appalling. March 1997 ES&E.

Your article will find great support, no doubt, from most professionals in the business. But how do we effectively (without scare tactics) get the message across to the general public and our elected officials? I believe we have to create a National Standard for our towns and cities in terms of a set of minimum standards for

water and sewer piped systems. We need to draw the line on what has future

service life and what must be replaced or rehabilitated. The National Research Council has some mandate in this re

gard, but they are struggling themselves for research dollars.

In your article you state that 75% of utilities replace less than 1% of their systems on an annual basis. Our com mitment to correcting this funding prob lem seems to be proportional to the number of years we have to retirement. Many of us have followed the Fed eration of Canadian Municipalities' mis sion for infrastructure renewal only to see a very small percentage of the re cent tri-level infrastructure program ex pended on pipe rehabilitation and re placement. Did we miss the target, again? In an article by Ian C. Warren, Eng land spent 24 million pounds (almost $50 million dollars) in 1993/94 on epoxy lining pipelines; this number will reach 65 million pounds in 1996/97. Maybe we could learn how they man aged to tap the public purse to such an extent?

Congratulations on another great edi torial; I anxiously await each issue of your magazine. Ensor B. Nicholson, P.Eng., City of Moncton Engineering Dept. Dear Tom, I have already got phone calls on my paper on Water quality trends in Quebec rivers, published in the last issue ofESE magazine! (March 1997). It seems to be raising quite a bit of interest indeed and I am very happy that I published the paper in your magazine. I was wondering if you could send a few complimentary copies that I could

circulate within the Ministry. This would give exposure to both my work and your magazine within the Ministry and would anchor the magazine more firmly here. It has been a real pleasure working with you and I am looking forward to

repeating the experience. Jean Painchaud,Ph.D., Ministry of Environment & Wildlife, Quebec City Dear Tom, I thoroughly enjoyed reading your edi torial, The Greeks had a word for it expertise, (November '96 ES&E). You very astutely and eloquently dissect a trap that is becoming far too common in the era of 30-second sound bites and

sweeping pronouncements-the authori tative assertion based on false under

standing or even sheer ignorance. I think we all owe you a debt of grati tude for reminding us of the dangers of letting key issues proceed to debate without the benefit of calm assessment

of the evidence and prudent examina

thought would be of interest only to a small niche market. Since this article

was printed, we have received more than two dozen leads from across Canada and

the US, along with a request for addi tional information from India. With

these leads, we have been actively mar keting this technology which hopefully will generate new business. The article was published in the March '96 issue of ES&E, but the feedback continued for

quite some time. We would like to express our appre ciation for publishing our article. With out your support, we would have been unable to as easily market this technol ogy with any degree of success. G. Baker, Director, Simcoe Engineering Group Limited

tion of credentials. I should note, how

ever, that my gratitude is tempered by the suspicion that you had even more fun writing the editorial than I did read ing it. E.C.L. Muller, President and Managing Director, Scholastic Canada Ltd.

Dear Tom,

A belated congratulations on your Harvey Southam Editorial Career Award. It is a most fitting tribute hon ouring your continuing efforts and lead ership in environmental and publishing endeavours.

Jim Craig, P.Eng., Director, Water Utility, Peterborough Utilities Commission Dear Tom, I appreciated your article entitled What Garbage Crisis? Having read another of your articles, I get the impression that you have much in common with the German social theorist Jurgen Habermas in your views of the state, politics and technology. Thanks for your attention and the well written article.

Mark Olson, Brothers Industries, Inc.

Dear Tom, Our article Coal Tar Contaminated

Croundwater Treatment Process,

Toronto, covered the engineering proc ess developed to contain a coal tar con taminated site in downtown Toronto.

We were proud of our success with this project and felt the experience obtained could be marketable.

The process we developed was ex tremely specialised and as a result we

....Very interesting magazine. Taran Hewitt, Teal EMS, Niagara on the Lake, ON ....Good coverage ofissues. Klaus Davis, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON ....Great educational magazine. Harry Burton, Canadore College, North Bay, ON ....Excellent.

Gus Sutton, President, CCI Ltd., Toronto, ON ..../just love this magazine. Keith Parrott, Town of Redcliff, Redcliff, AB ....excellent magazine. Stewart K. Henry,SKH Consulting, Dalhousie, NB ....consider your magazine excellent and very informative. Gordon Page,Page Technology Ltd., Kaslo, BC ...ES&E remains one ofthe best. James W. Clark, UMA Engineering Ltd., Edmonton,AB ...Excellent Magazine John Crompton, New Mechanical Ltd., Milton, ON ...Keep it up. Germain Cote,Les Consultants RSA, Alma, QC ...Thank youfor your service. A. Wesolowski, CRA Consultants, Waterloo, ON

...I have been lucky enough to have a friend who works at ESSROC pass on this magazine. James R. King, P.E.I. Collegiate Institute, P.E.I.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997



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For more information, circle reply card No. 126 (See page 17)


By Tom Davey

May Day- now a requiem for lost environmental opportunities

Remember May Day

parades in Red Square? Who could forget the

fearsome lines of tanks,

artillery and intercontinental missiles, or the precision marching of legions of heavily armed, impeccably turned out troops? This awesome blend of military hardware and rigorously drilled men annually sent a strong message to the outside world: here is a country with a powerful economy at the leading edge of technology. But there was a Russian joke which told of an open truck filled with shabbily dressed men who brought up the rear of these parades of military might. Observ ing the stark contrast of the smart turn out of the troops with the scruffy men in the truck, one Western observer burst out laugh ing. A Russian caught his arm and whispered fearfully: "Don't laugh. Those are the real wreckers, they are Soviet planners and econo mists."

And now that the ruins of the

Soviet economy are exposed to view, the joke must have a bitter taste to the population. The former USSR was a country with the largest land mass in the world,

its army took Berlin. The Soviets also pioneered space travel when they blasted Sputnik into orbit, followed by Yuri Gagarin, the first

ronmental disasters stretched right across the former Soviet Union and its satellite Warsaw Pact

incidently, held a doctorate in chemistry. Until fairly recently, its economy was second only to that

countries. Widespread air, water and soil pollution emerged as a macabre legacy, with Chernobyl topping it off as the ultimate environmental horror story. It will take an army of philo sophers, historians and political scientists to analyse everything that went wrong in the Soviet Union but a few things are certain. The system repressed human initiative, replacing what Adam Smith called, the invisible hand of self interest with collective farms

of the United States.

and centralized bureaucracies.

man to orbit the earth. This was

years before Allan Shepard made America's first sub-orbital space penetration from Cape Canaveral. Russia also bred literary giants such as Tolstoy, Pasternak, Pushkin and Solzhenitsyn, as well as composers such as Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev, Stravinsky, RimskyKorsakov and Borodin who,

As the Soviet Union was driven

Moscow told farmers when to sow

by socialistic idealism that labour was for the benefit of the people, not profit, one might have thought that its citizens would enjoy increasingly high living standards following World War 11. Some expounded that the people under this regime could now reap the

and how to reap, oblivious to local Bureaucrats set industrial produc tion quotas where quantity took precedence over quality and consumer preferences and style were dismissed as capitalist frills. Germany, devastated by WW II,

rewards of new industries which

then divided in two for decades,

would also have had stringent

provides an almost perfect labora tory to monitor the economic and

environmental controls.

Alas, it never happened. Glasnost revealed a highly edu cated but forlorn and impoverished population whose record of envi

weather and soil conditions.

environmental records of two

distinct political regimes. When The Wall came down decades later.

West Germany had become one of

with far more water resources than

Canada. Lake Baikal, for example, is the largest and deepest lake in the world containing a water volume which perhaps exceeds that of the combined Great Lakes.

The Soviet Union also had vastly more timber than Canada, includ

ing one single forest which could blanket our landmass; and for

many years the USSR was the world's biggest producer of oil, gas, coal and iron ore. Soviet human resources were

equally impressive. This was the nation which fought the German Army to a standstill at Moscow, then carried on with the war until

Changing of the guard at Lenin's tomb. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997






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For more information, circle reply card No. 129 (See page 17)

Essay, cont'd. the most prosperous countries in

environmental problems with left wing nostrums. Many have stated

the world with workers' benefits

unmatched anywhere in the social ist Eden. This opulence was largely achieved initially by the

that the market forces are incom

patible with environmental goals and seek a structured economy in order to protect the environment.

excellence of its automobile

industry whose environmental standards are among the most stringent in the world.

The same cries were heard when

The collapse of the Iron Curtain has revealed hunger, poverty, lawlessness and a corrupted

poverty and hunger were the pressing problems of the day and socialism was hailed as the only antidote. Today, hunger is not a problem in Western countries. To the contrary, the West has a billion dollar industry of weight watching, dieting and health clubs, simply to control eating habits, a situation arising from an abundance of food unprecedented in human history. Santayana's warning that: those who ignore the mistakes of history are doomed to repeat them might be an object lesson to Canadian

environment which is unmatched

environmental activists. We

in the West. All are legacies of Soviet rule, yet many activists and bureaucrats seem to ignore this record as they seek to redress our

'economists' and note that May Day, appropriately, is also known

When the Iron Curtain fell, West Germany was confronted with East Germany's answer to the Volks

wagen - the twin cylinder, 2 cycle Trabant. Derisively known as 'the blue smokers', the Trabants were

slow, unreliable, expensive and uncomfortable. They were also significant polluters until 4 cyhnder VW engines and other improve ments were installed in 1990.

Amazingly, in spite of this dismal record, our political left has managed to assert a territorial imperative over environmental

issues, commanding a moral high ground over market economies

which is quite unsubstantiated by

St. Basil's Cathedral, Moscow, the facts.

should remember the Russian

as the international distress call.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Industry Update Keeping oil out of groundwater The Pine Ridge sub-division in Guelph, Ontario, is located in the middle of a

gravel outwash plain of glacial origin, presenting some unique challenges to the developer. With no stream in the immediate vi

cinity to handle storm runoff, rainfall tended to either evaporate, infiltrate or evapotranspire. Since infiltrated groundwater in the area feeds the headwaters

of a nearby cold water stream, and at least one municipal well, a stormwater installation would have to both minimize

the potential contamination of groundwater and prevent any sediment clogging of the infiltration measures. After assessing several alternatives, consultant Gamsby and Mannerow Limited recommended the installation

of Stormceptor units, based on three factors:

•Efficient performance of the units,con firmed through extensive testing; • Limited space required (not land-con sumptive), due to the Stormceptor sys tem's vertical design; and • Ease of implementation and installa tion. The pre-cast concrete constmction, employing standard concrete compo-

nents, enables the units to be used in place of traditional structures. A total of seven Stormceptor units, strategically located within the Pine

Ridge development, were used to pro tect the 14 hectare (34 1/2 acre) site.

Through the entire construction phase

of the development when sediment loads in runoff water are typically at their highest - the Stormceptor units operated to expectations. The system continues to function extremely well. For more Information, circle reply card No. 132

Golder Associates is helping WE BELIEVE BOTH INDUSTRY AND NATURE SHOULD WIN! _ Golder

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its clients maintain the balance between

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assessment,remote sensing and GIS modelling, plus traditional services,such as surface and

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

environmental needs.

For more Information, circle reply card No. 133 (See page 17)


Industry Update CPPA honors individuals, groups during 25th Anniversary celebration In 1996,3R$ installed Canada's larg

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) honoured key in dividuals and organizations for their out standing contributions to the polyethy lene pipe industry at its 25th annual meeting, March 2-5, on Marco Island,

est composting and recycling biofilter system at Three County Recycling & Composting's facility in Aylmer, On tario. In total, the site installation in

cludes nearly 1,500 feet of perforated and solid 30" corrugated polyethylene pipe and 5,600 feet of 8" pipe manufac tured by Big 'O', Canada's largest manu facturer ofcorrugated polyethylene pipe.


A Canadian agrologist who devel oped a new method for eliminating odours and hazardous fumes from

recycling and solid waste composting facilities, was recognized with the

The Canadian Standards Association

Innovative Use Award.

The unique biofilter system,designed

by Marsun Lipsit, P.Ag., of the 3R$ company in London,Ontario, makes ex tensive use of corrugated polyethylene pipe, which is virtually impervious to the corrosive gases generated by com posting materials. "At its most basic, this biofilter sys tem uses stainless steel fans to draw fresh air into and fouled out of com

posting and recycling facilities through corrugated polyethylene pipes," Lipsit explained. "Then the air is pumped through a 50-foot-wide by 400-foot-long area of buried corrugated polyethylene

Marsun Lipsit

drainage pipes, where it filters through layers of stone and organic material and becomes oxygenated and naturally sweet smelling before it is released into the atmosphere." Lipsit chose polyethylene pipe for the system which had to be non-corrosive, because the composting process gener ates both gases and water vapours. "The exhaust fans are stainless steel and

polyethylene pipe is virtually unaffected in that caustic environment," he said.

(CSA)was also recognized by the CPPA for Significant Regional Specification. Through the development of innovative consensus standards, CSA has been pro viding the manufacturing and engineer ing sectors with quahty specifications hke CAN/CSA B 182.6 Profile Polyethylene Sewer Pipe and Fittings for five years.

Water-recycling building performs well A government office building in Sooke, a Vancouver Island community, has al ready saved more than 75,000 gallons of water by reusing treated wastewater to flush toilets. The building boasts a

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Industrial Services

Solid Waste Management Residuals Management Energy Management Process Control

Water Supply & Distribution Wastewater Collection, Treatment & Disposal Tunnels and Underground Works Systems Analysis Modeling Water Resources Engineering

Air Management Environmental Planning Environmental Site Characterization/Remediation

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 134 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Industry Update state-of-the-art, wastewater-recycling system designed and built by Hill, Murray & Associates, a Victoria-based environmental engineering company. The Sooke building was opened in April 1996. The offices are located in

Announcement Energy and Environmental Research Corpo ration(EER)is pleased to announce the appoint ment of Dusanka Filipovic, P.Eng., as President of EER Canada. Ms. Eilipovic brings over 20 years of professional experience in engineering and project management and technology devel

an area without sewers and the lot was too small to accommodate a conven

tional sewage disposal field. The treat ment equipment is located in a small room in the basement of the building.


Prior to joining EER Canada, Ms. Filipovic held positions with Union Carbide Canada(now known as Praxair) and was founder and senior executive of Halozone Technologies Inc. She

Wastewater from sinks and toilets is

passed through a membrane-bioreactor system, a charcoal filter and ultraviolet sterilizer, and then reused in the toilets.

Water consumption has been reduced by 95 percent. The entire building uses only 17 gallons of potable water a day.

Canada-US protection for the environment announced Canada's Environment Minister Sergio Marchi and Carol Browner,Administra tor of the US Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA), agreed during a recent meeting in Washington, to take action to provide a healthier environment: a) To develop a joint plan of action for

pioneered the development of the Blue Bottle® technology to recover and recycle the ozone de pleting halogenated hydrocarbons. Ms. Eilipovic's achievements have been rec ognized through numerous awards from academia, professional associations, busi ness leaders and policy-makers. EER Canada (also known as CanadEER Limited), established in Markham,

Ontario in 1991, offers a full range of engineering, air pollution control and field testing services to industry and government. Circle reply card No. 135 addressing transboundary air pollution, and in particular, smog. In developing the plan, US smog reduction programs will be evaluated to determine if they

will emphasize pollution prevention. The strategy sets measurable reduction targets and timelines for each toxic sub

should be coordinated with Canadian

c) To address the problem of climate change, by cooperating on ways to re duce greenhouse gases, while stimulat ing economic growth. Canada and the


b)Marchi and Browner signed the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy, which


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

For more information, circle reply card No. 136 (See page 17)


Industry Update US will work together to develop and encourage the adoption of cleaner, more

SOPREMA wins Environmental Achievement Award

It is the first altemative fuel to be rec

better understand the impacts ofclimate change.

SOPREMA, manufacturer of water

ognized as a Clean Air Act compliance tool. Made of soybean oil and other veg etable oils, it is a clean-buming altema tive to diesel fuel that offers significant

proofing and air barrier membranes for

economic, public health and environ

d) To renew and make more effective

buildings and civil engineering struc

mental benefits nationwide.

use of the International Joint Commis

sion (IJC).

tures, has won the 1996 Environmental Achievement Award from the Canadian

Switching the US's entire regulated bus fleet of approximately 56,000 buses

e)To improve Canadian-US cooperation in environmental research and develop

Construction Association. The award rewards the firm's inno

efficient transportation. They will also collaborate on research in the Arctic to


Spills down in Great Lakes system Ontario Environment Minister Norman

Sterling has released the 1995 Spills Action Centre Summary Report, which confirmed a downward trend in spills to the Great Lakes system. In 1995, there were 229 spills - down from a high of 549 in I99I.

Thirty-one percent of the 5,000 total spills reported to the Spills Action Cen tre in 1995 had no effect on the envi

ronment and 25 percent were less than 10 litres. Ofthose spills that had a con firmed impact, nearly two-thirds in volved soil contamination and one-fifth

involved water pollution. Containment and clean-up measures are instituted where such impacts occur. The Spills Action Centre operates a 24-hour Ministry of Environment and Energy hotline which provides emer gency response for environmental spills.

The centre can be reached by calling (416)325-3000,or 1-800-268-6060 out side Toronto.

vation in environmental protection with the marketing of its brand new product, ENVIRONAP geomembranes. These bitumen geomembranes are designed to waterproof sanitation ponds and drink ing water reservoirs, and to serve as en vironmental protection screens for landfill sites containing contaminated soil and toxic water.

The geomembranes cover an average surface area of 100 m2. They are com posed of refinery bitumen mixed with SBS(styrene-butadiene-styrene), which provides them with elasticity and lon gevity. Their high chemical resistance to chlorine make them particularly at tractive for use in snow dump sites. They have also been officially certified as nontoxic and appropriate for use in drinking water reservoirs. The geomembranes are manufac tured at SOPREMA's Canadian plant in Drummondville,Quebec. Recently,the largest aerated sanitation ponds ever built in Quebec were waterproofed us ing ENVIRONAP geomembranes.

Envlrodlesel® receives first EPA alternative

to Envirodiesel® fuel would eliminate an

estimated 238,000 tons of air-polluting emissions annually. Since biodiesel can be used in existing diesel engines, it eliminates the need to purchase costly new vehicles and undertake the expen sive re-training required to use other al temative fuels.

According to a recent study con ducted by the Natural Resources Defense Council(NRDC)on the health

effects of vehicle emissions, particulate matter emissions cause an estimated

56,000 deaths annually in the United States. Since the use of biodiesel re

duces bus emissions by 25-45%,it might prevent thousands of deaths each year.

Alberta wins

greenhouse gas reduction award The Govemment ofAlberta was the only province to receive Canada's Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program(VCR) award for its action plan to reduce green house gas emissions. The award, which recognizes Alber ta's leadership in taking steps that di rectly reduce greenhouse gas emissions from govemment operations, was pre

The report can be obtained from the Public Information Centre, Ministry of Environment and Energy, 135 St. Clair

EPA's certification of Envirodiesel® fuel

sented in October, 1996 in Ottawa.

Ave., W., Tel;(416) 325-4000, or Toll-

could be a major event in the commer

free: 1-800-565-4923.

cialization of altemative fuels in the US.

VCR,launched in early 1995 to en courage private and public organizations to voluntarily reduce greenhouse gases from their operations, is a comerstone of the National Action Program on Climate Change. The Alberta govem ment played a leadership role in gain ing support for this initiative with indus try and other governments across Canada. Alberta was the first govem ment in Canada to develop and submit its own action plan to VCR. The Alberta govemment has set a tar get for itself of 14.7 percent reduction in greenhouse emissions from 1990 lev els by 2000. The source of carbon di oxide emissions in govemment opera tions is energy used in buildings, mostly gas and electricity (88 percent); trans portation and travel (nine percent); and waste (three percent).

fuel certification

Alberta plant uses biological aerated filters A new sewage treatment plant in Canmore, Alberta, which was inaugurated February 4, 1997, has been operating since December 1996. The anticipated average daily flow is 9,658mVd. The plant has a peak capacity of 33,384mVd. The core process of the Canmore treatment facility is the Degremont Infilco BIOFOR* Biological Aerated Filters. This is an upflow biological system which has been developed to take advantage of aspects of fixed-film biomass. The Biological Aerated Filter (BAE) treatment consists of a total of eight filter cells, with each filter cell having an area of 40ml The first four are used to achieve primary carbonaceous BOD removal; the second four are to provide nitrification and supplementary BOD removal. The BAE process is guaranteed to meet the following effluent requirements:




< 10

• Total phosphorus 'Ammonia-nitrogen



< 10


mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L (from July I to September 30) mg/L (from October 1 to June 30)

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 1997





















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Date Pad

Chlorination and

WHMIS Workshops May 29-30,1997. Water & Wastewater Treatment in Canada: Forming Success ful Public/Private Partnerships. Park

Basic Gas Chlorination

(4 1/2 days): May 97 - Brampton August 97 - Labrador September 97 - Kingston November 97 - Brampton May 98 - Barrie September 98 - Thunder Bay

Plaza Hotel, Toronto, ON. Contact: 1-

800-871-8601, outside US:(617) 2706200, E-mail: registrar@cbinet.com. June 8-13, 1997. Air & Waste Man agement Association 90th Annual Meet ing and Exhibition. Toronto, ON. Con tact: Maureen Brown (412) 232-3444, ext. 3122, Fax:(412)232-3450.

October 98 - Chatham November 98 - Barrie

Hypochlorination (3 days): October 97 - Kingston

June 8-12,1997. Third AIDIS Region 1 Congress. Puerto Rico. Contact:

November 97 - London

May 98 - Bracebrldge September 98 - Thunder Bay

AIDIS - Canada: (905) 525-9140, ext.

October 98 - Nova Scotia November 98 - Barrie


WHMIS for Municipal Employees (1 day): October 97 - Bracebrldge March 98 - Parry Sound March 98 - Colllngwood April 98 - North Bay at a customer's location If desired.

For further Information please contact: David Durant, P.Eng. Canadian Enviro-Courses Ltd.

31 Ridge Valley Drive Bracebridge, ON, P1L 1L3 Phone/Fax:(705)645-9570 E-mail: cdnenvro@muskoka.com

Ottawa, and the ASCE Freese Lecture

by Dr. James J. Morgan, Jr., California Institute of Technology. The two and a half day Conference will include 34 technical sessions and

approximately 180 presentations.

June 15-18,1997. WEE Specialty Con ference Series - Computer Technologies for the Competitive Utility. Philadel phia, PA. Contact: 1-800-666-0206, Fax:(703)684-2492. June 15-19, 1997. AWWA's 1997

These workshops can also be conducted

July 23-25, 1997. CSCE (Canadian Society for Civil Engineering) - ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) Environmental Engineering Conference -Protecting People and the Environment. The Conference official opening will include comments by the Alberta Min ister of Environment, the Honorable Ty Lund, Dr. Gilles G. Patry, University of

Contact: Chris McLaren, c/o The

CanaGlobe Group Inc., Tel:(403)4878102, Fax:(403)487-2417.

August 3-6, 1997. American Water Works Association/Water Environment

Annual Conference and Exposition. Federation - Joint Residuals and Atlanta, GA. Contact AWWA:(303) Biosolids Management Conference. 794-7711, Fax:(303)794-3951. Philadelphia, PA. Contact: 1-800-666June 24-25,1997. International Sym 0206, Fax:(703)684-2492. posium - Wetlands for Treatment of August 3-6,1997. WEF specialty con Landfill Leachates. Romulus(Detroit), ference - Environmental Laboratories: Michigan. Contact: Martin Draeger, Moving to the 21st Century. Philadel (519) 884-0510, ext. 3426, Fax: (519) phia, PA. Contact: 1-800-666-0206, Fax:(703)684-2492.



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For more information, circle reply card No. 139 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Industry Update Will we still have clean air in the millennium? Scientists from Leeds University in the UK,have developed special equipment to discover whether air is self-cleansing and will be still fit to breathe by the mil lennium.

To collect the data. Dr. Dwayne Heard and his colleagues have been tak ing readings from air samples collected from Scottish, Yorkshire and Irish

shores. Here air carried by the prevail ing westerly winds is believed to be purer than that passing over Europe where it gathers pollutants. Dr. Heard is trying to find out if the atmosphere

the tropospheric production and destmction of polluting ozone. However, measuring reactions be tween trace compounds and other con stituents is complex as the atmosphere is driven by sunlight generating highly reactive, but short-lived intermediates

known as radicals. They have low con centrations and a short life-span. Dr. Heard and his team have invented a new

technology called Fluorescent Assay by Gas Expansion (EAGE), to take read ings of the radicals. Consisting of a mobile laboratory, an air-conditioned can cleanse itself of trace chemicals, box with vacuum pumps and electrical notably in the troposphere. By measur equipment, EAGE searches for the elu ing the oxidising capacity of the atmos sive chemicals including the hydroxyl phere, it may be possible to determine (OH)radical comprising linked oxygen

and hydrogen atoms. FAGE's detection system draws in an air sample which is illuminated by ultra violet laser. This excites the free radi

cals into a higher energy state produc ing a faint fluorescence. EAGE takes a snapshot of this which, when processed by computer, reveals the fingerprint of the hydroxyl radicals. By calibrating their instrument using standard samples, the Leeds scientists can work out how

much hydroxyl is present in air. Even tually, it may be possible to discover if the atmosphere is self-cleansing and how it reacts to pollutants. For further information. E-mail:




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Industry Update Multi-million dollar

cleanup of

been imported over the years from Cobalt, Port Hope and as far away as

human health, and would be considered toxic as defined in Section 11 of the Act.

Ontario's most

als have been leaching into the Moira

Of most significance to municipal water/wastewater systems are aluminum

contaminated land

River. Radioactive waste, toxic chemi

salts, ammonia/ammonium, chlorine

cal waste and collapsing structures con tinue to be hazards on the site. Approxi

and chloramines.

Africa. Arsenic and other toxic materi

The Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy has developed a multi-year plan to contain and manage hazardous wastes at the abandoned Deloro mining and refining site on the Moira River north of Belleville. The plan includes health and safety protection on the site, as well as for its neighbours and people who live downstream along the river and on the Bay of Quinte. Stage one of the cleanup includes a final site investigation,engineering stud ies and approvals, and will be completed by March 1988.

questing chemical/operating data for municipal water and wastewater sys tems (and road maintenance deicing, dust suppression). These questionnaires were prepared

Toronto-based CH2M Gore & Storrie

with the assistance of CWWA's Water

mately $9.23 million has been spent to date on improving the site's condition.

Assessment of each Priority Sub stance will be conducted by some 16 interdepartmental task groups in Envi ronment Canada and Health Canada

National survey targets treatment chemicals Municipal clerks are receiving question naires from Environment Canada re

with the assistance of Environmental

Resource Croups. CWWA will monitor and arrange appropriate representations to the as sessment process for the key water/ wastewater chemicals involved. The results will be used to determine whether

regulatory or other controls are required.

Limited has been selected to undertake

Giant holding tank officially opened

materials, contaminated material has

The largest combined sewage overflow facility in the province of Ontario was opened in Hamilton on November 14, 1996. The dual compartment structure, built at a cost of $25 million, will hold 75,000 cubic metres of waste during rainstorms. The facility became fully operational early in 1997.

Quality Committee and relate only to chemicals designated under the Cana the engineering work, which will posi tion the project for the next stage of dian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) as Priority Substances. cleanup and containment. Under CEPA, such substances must A century of handling hazardous materials has left the Deloro site with be assessed to determine if any of them substantial safety and environmental are entering the environment in a quan problems. In addition to locally mined tity or concentration or under conditions that are harmful to the environment or


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For more information, circle reply card No. 215 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Why do over 200 municipalities in Ontario use

the Ontario ilean Water for their water and wastewater services?

Consistent, Reliable Service Open, Responsive Communications Local Customized Attention

Competitive Pricing Almost 5 million people in Ontario depend on the Ontario Clean Water Agency for safe and reliable water and wastewater services. Today OCWA is changing in ways that we believe wi l l set a new standard for client service in the industry. At the heart of our new service delivery strategy is a dedicated team of Client Service Representatives and certified operators. Our service

Industry Leaders In:

• Operations and Maintenance • Infrastructure

Development • Project Management

professionals are located in the communities we serve, where they need to be to deliver quality service.

Plain and simple, that's the kind of service that adds value for clients. It's fast and efficient. Site-specific, when it needs to be. Open and responsive, always. And it's competitively priced. At OCWA, we're committed to the people we serve. To discuss the kind of service most meaningful

• Public/Private


to you, contact OCWA at 1-800-667-0CWA. A Client Service Representative will respond promptly to your call.

Ontario Clean Water Agency Agence Ontarienne Des Eaux

For more information, circie repiy card No. 216(See page 17)

Industry Update 'Sand-pile physics' could solve contamination

problems The United States Department ofEnergy (DOE), is just completing a joint grant awarded to the University ofDenver and Wier International Earth Remediation,

Inc. The purpose of the grant is to in vestigate how new "sand-pile physics" concepts apply to Wier's RaDEiX "Har monic Compaction" process. This process may be used for the stabilization and volume reduction of

decontaminated hazardous soils, and

recycling of unused industrial waste products. The RaDFiX process safely solidifies waste materials such as soils,

ashes, heavy metals and other contami nated granular materials at production rates while minimizing the cost of

be in a wide range of sizes and shapes, thus transported easily; requirements for water or chemical bonding are mini mal; and, waste loading can be as high as 80-90%.

Potential commercial applications of this new technology are extensive. Vir tually every industry that has any form of hazardous or non-hazardous waste

can be positively impacted by the RaDFiX process. The materials resulting from the RaDFiX process are highly durable. The RaDFiX end-product can be readily fab ricated into a variety of forms such as building block or brick, any structural products (e.g., tile, pipe, fixtures, etc.), roadbase materials, retaining walls, and many other industrial uses. For further information, contact Keith Wier,(303) 331-0943,

granular materials takes place through vibration and mechanical shock waves. Contaminants within the materials are

completely immobilized. The hazard ous waste effectively attaches to the fine particles and is mechanically and chemi cally bonded within the solidified struc ture. The RaDFiX process is quite flex ible, allowing choice of chemical bind ers or heat treatment depending on the application. Grant recipients, Keith Wier and Robert Amme, professor of physics at the University of Denver, note that their research indicates several advantages of using the RaDFiX method of changing the character of contaminated materials.

The advantages include: no residual or secondary waste streams are created; it produces safe,clean end-product for low cost disposal or reuse; end-product can

cubic metres of waste.

The project will be in three phases, with design work continuing until 1999, followed by a three-year construction period. The final phase will cover op erations, treatment and disposal of the waste.

For further details contact: British

Nuclear Fuels pic, Risley, Warrington, England WA3 6AS, Fax: Oil 44 1925 822711.

Turning landfill liabilities into

powerful assets Half a million Canadian homes could be

heated from an estimated one million tonnes of methane released from Cana

chemical additives or heat treatment.

The RaDFiX process actually com pacts material to 40-60% of its original density in a dry state. Fluidization of

stored at the Idaho complex. The facil

ity will also have the flexibility and ca pacity to treat a possible further 20,000

Billion dollar US

nuclear waste clean-up A consortium led by the British Nuclear Fuels company (BNFL) has won a bil lion dollar contract to clean up former

weapons program material for the US Department of Energy. The BNFL consortium, one of four

international groups that bid for the work, was able to draw on extensive

experience built up over many years of decommissioning work at Britain's Sellafield nuclear plant. The US project will involve the design, building and operation of a waste treatment facility at one of America's former weapons re search and design sites, the Idaho National Energy Laboratory. Here, mature waste treatment tech

nologies,including vitrification and en capsulation, will be brought together in one facility to treat about 65,000 cubic metres of contaminated waste currently

Hargrave & Burdick, Environmental Inc., is a Toronto based, nationally recognized specialist in the planning, engineering and scientific services needed for water and wastewater treatment. WATER TREATMENT ENGINEER

Engineers with more than eight years experience can confidentially respond with a one page career profile by fax. If interested, we will 1 provide notification within two weeks. Fax:(416)466-5479.

dian landfills every year. Methane, a very powerful greenhouse gas and a contributor to climate change, is being recovered at 27 sites in Canada.

The methane is already producing electricity and direct fuel for facilities such as cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities and greenhouses. To encourage more such uses. Environment Canada has devel

oped the Guidance Document on Landfill Gas Management for profes sionals involved in solid waste manage ment at all levels.

The Guidance Document on Landfill Gas Management can be ordered by

faxing (819)953-7253. Cost is $29.95 plus shipping and CST.

Municipalities top list of polluters British Columbia's local municipalities

are proving more frequent and chronic polluters than industrial sources, accord ing to the non-compliance report re leased by the environment ministry. The report, covering the period from April I to September 30, 1996, listed 50 indus trial operations in violation of regula tions or their permits, but found 57 municipalities, native bands or trailer parks in breach. Of the repeat offenders, the Greater Vancouver Regional Sewage and Drain age District has the longest list of 13 past citations. "One area we need to con

tinue to improve on a whole is local sew age treatment", admits the provincial Environment Minister.


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


By Veso Sobot, P.Eng.

Vinyl lung breathes life Into lakes

The Chesley Lake Lung, is a

pioneering effort in lake remediation, by Friends of Chesley Lake, Ontario Min istry of Environment and Energy (MGEE)and my company IPEX Inc., a PVC pipe manufacturer. It has shown a capability to dramatically raise oxygen levels and virtually stop blue-green algae pollution which has traditionally im paired many lakes throughout

water quality problems have been a re sult of extensive cottage development over the years, resulting in a build-up of organic matter and sediment on the lake bottom. The settling of this decom posing organic material at the bottom, resulted in the depletion of oxygen by

Specialist with the Environmental Moni toring and Reporting Branch of the MOEE, in a search for the right prod ucts to build the Lung. The harsh freezethaw conditions faced by the Lake Lung in an open lake setting necessitated the need for a product with structural integ rity and longevity. IPEX recommended Ultra-

Rib pipe for flotation pon toons and Vent Ducting for the Lake Lung's body. After five years of testing at lakes in


southern Ontario locations,

The Lake Lung supplies pure oxygen to the cold, bot

the PVC products emerged with pipe integrity intact.

tom waters of the lake,

through a process known as hypolimnetic aeration, while maintaining the lake's stratifi cation. The oxygen is gener ated on shore and distributed

How effective is it?

The proof is the water. Oxygen levels have been re vived. Beach closures due to

PVC lung being assembled.

throughout the lake through the Lake Lung's PVC ducting system. The Lung itself is suspended over the deepest ba sin of the lake.

The Lake Lung will be installed for the 1997 season in Chesley Lake where

early summer. With no available oxy gen,the aquatic food chain and fish habi tat were severely impacted. The seriousness of the problem at Chesley Lake was brought to IPEX's attention by Andy Gemza, Inland Lake



algae pollution have stopped and water clarity has sharply increased. IPEX has donated the lung itself. If you would like to know more about the Lake Lung program, contact Andy Gemza, Tel: (416) 235-5801, E-mail: gemzsa@gov.on.ca.


Sales Engineer - Misslssauga

Sales Engineer - Calgary

EIMCO Process Equipment, a leader in the supply of sedi mentation, flotation, biological oxidation and filtration

EIMCO Process Equipment,a leader in the supply of sedi mentation, flotation, biological oxidation and filtration equipment for water & wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial applications is currently searching for a

equipment for water & wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial applications is currently searching for a dy namic SALES ENGINEER.

In this role you will be responsible for developing and expanding EIMCO's business in the raw water treatment market in Ontario from our Mississauga office. Ideally, you are currently or recently employed in this field with thorough knowledge of your market. An environmental background, including familiarity with MOE regulations is essential along with exposure to technical sales and the ability to interface with consultants. Your powerful, positive attitude is complemented by strong problem-solving skills and a team approach. A pro fessional designation with formation in chemical engineer ing or chemistry is preferred. The successful candidate will join a world class organization and be rewarded with a competitive compensation package. Qualified individuals are encouraged to respond im mediately, and in confidence, to: Human Resources, EIMCO Process Equipment, 5155 Creekbank Road, Mississauga, Ontario, L4W 1X2. We thank all candidates for their interest, however,only those under consideration will be contacted. No phone calls, please. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

dynamic SALES ENGINEER. In this role you will be responsible for developing and

expanding EIMCO's business in the municipal market in Western Canada from our Calgary office. Ideally, you are

currently or recently employed in this field with thorough knowledge of your market. An environmental background, including familiarity with local regulations is essential along with exposure to technical sales and the ability to interface with consultants.

Your powerful, positive attitude is complemented by strong problem-solving skills and a team approach. A pro fessional designation with formation in chemical engineer ing or chemistry is preferred. The successful candidate will join a world class organization and be rewarded with a competitive compensation package. Qualified individuals are encouraged to respond im mediately, and in confidence, to: Human Resources, EIMCO Process Equipment, 5155 Creekbank Road, Mississauga, Ontario, L4W 1X2. We thank all candidates for their interest, however,only those under consideration will be contacted. No phone calls, please.

Odour Control

By Paul Yaremko*

Composting curbslde garbage made possible with award-winning biofliter


ing and recycling facility, now owned and operated by Three Counties Recycling and Composting Inc., was constructed in 1994 on the edge of Aylmer, Ontario. The most innovative feature of this

facility is its newly constructed biofilter to eliminate all odours emanating from the operation. This biofilter is believed to be the largest in Canada. The Aylmer facility is one of only a handful of operations licensed by the MOEE to compost municipal solid waste(MSW), more commonly known as curbside garbage. The license allows them to accept MSW from across Ontario and run up to 24 hours a day, six days a week. Not only are they composting the MSW from the Town of Aylmer, but also receive curbside gar bage collected in the City of Strathroy, Town of Tillsonburg and Malahide Township. At present the materials recycling facility (MRP) is processing about 50 tonnes of MSW a day. The MSW is delivered to the MRF building and processing begins. The first step is to separate the recyclable and non-compostable materials. This is done through the use of a conveyor belt which has a magnet to pick out as much metal as possible. Plastic recyclable materials, metals not picked up by the magnet and any other non-compostable materials are then hand-picked off the conveyor belt. About 60% of the MSW finally makes it into the composting building. The remaining 40% of the MSW consists of about half recyclable materials and half

Marsun Lipsit, P.Ag., with a model of the biofilter he designed which was installed In Aylmer, Ontario. pipes used to control the temperature, moisture content and oxygen levels of the compost heaps. A 900mm diameter corrugated HOPE header pipe is used to supply air to 250mm perforated laterals under the piles. Corrugated HOPE pipes were chosen due to their resistance to the highly corrosive gases and water vapours created by the com posting process. The pipe and custom manufactured fittings were supplied by Big 'O' Inc., Canada's largest manufac turer of corrugated HDPE pipe products. Composting operations were per forming well until some complaints started coming in from the community. There were concerns about odours waft

ing from the operation into town. The facility was looking at a possible legis

ardous fumes created from the recycling and composting operations. This par ticular biofilter system has since been recognized with an industry award from the Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe As sociation (CPPA)for the most innova tive use of corrugated HDPE pipe in North America for 1996. One of the most attractive features

of the biofilter installed by Nethercott Excavating Ltd. of Dorchester, Ontario, is its "green" qualities. The system uses no chemicals and is an all natural proc ess. Biofilters are living ecosystems which need the right moisture content, oxygen level, temperature, and food. One unique green feature of this biofilter's design, is its ability to collect, store and reuse rain water which falls

residuals which are sent to a landfill.

lated shutdown due to a contravention

onto it. The rainwater is stored in a cis

About 80% of the MSW is being di

of Regulation 347 of the Environmen tal Protection Act. The composting was spoiling the quality oflife of neighbours due to the odours. Something had to be

tern and is used to supplement the mois

verted from local landfills.

The remaining compostable materi als are transferred into the connecting composting building. The composting operation is performed in batches which are kept separate by concrete retaining walls; this allows for staggered stages of the process. Under normal operating conditions, the composting process is completed after 21 days. Underneath the composting building is a series of corrugated HOPE sewer 'Product Manager - Pipe, Big 'O' Inc. 22


ture content of the biofilter media. This

feature not only eliminates runoff from the site but reduces the demand for mu

nicipal water. "At its most basic, the biofilter sys

In a first attempt to control the odours, masking agents and essential

tem uses stainless steel fans to draw

oils were tried but did not work effec

fresh air into and fouled air out of the

tively. Time was running out when the biofilter system was given serious con sideration. Marsun Lipsit, P.Ag., an

composting and recycling facilities through corrugated HDPE pipes," Lipsit explained. "Then the fouled air is pumped through a 50-foot-wide by 400foot-long area of buried corrugated HDPE drainage pipes, where it filters Continued overleaf

agrologist with the 3R$ Company in London, Ontario, was contracted to de

sign/build the biofilter system to elimi nate the odour problem as well as haz

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

VOC or Odor Control




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Odour Control, cont' through layers of stone and organic ma terial and becomes oxygenated and natu rally sweet smelling before it is released into the atmosphere". According to Lipsit, "The entire biofilter system had to be non corrosive, because the composting process gener ates both gases and water vapours". Offgasing is an inherent side effect of composting. Decaying materials pro duce methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases, which are dangerous and corrosive in high concentrations. "HDPE pipe is virtually unaffected in that caustic environment," he said.

The biofilter was put into service in November of 1996 and has completely eliminated the odour problem. At present the system is cleansing 35,000 cubic feet of air every minute, which is only 25% of its capacity. Although the biofilter is working perfectly, Lipsit is still improving his system. Currently the biofilter has been divided into four quadrants with differ ent filter media in order to determine any differences in their effectiveness. The

four "flavours" as Lipsit likes to call them are, hardwood chips,compost and

chips, hardwood bark and a compost and

750 mm corrugated HDPE biolfilter header main and perforated 200 mm laterals Installation.

charcoal mix. The main purpose of the wood chips is for bulking. This permits proper aeration so the aerobic bacterial digestive process can break down and oxygenate the gaseous molecules, thus removing their odour.

It is believed this system could last up to three years with proper control of mois ture content and temperature before the filter media would need replenishing. For more information, circle reply card No. 219

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Guest Cominent

Global environmental management: survival of the fittest In action meet the expected absolute growth in demand.

During a recent expedition to Kenya, my horizons about what is an environ mental problem and how this ties into agricultural, economic, and cultural de velopment were further widened. It was a reminder that the ongoing efforts the human animal undertakes to success

fully manage its affairs is a doubleedged sword. To expect that billions of people will not have an influence on the earth is unrealistic. Yet can we provide a basic standard of living and an envi ronmental quality that will protect us, future generations, and other species

Ina reportentitled TheFutureofthe

from our destructive influence on this

Elephants looking for food and water In Amboseli National Park.

enterprises including food production/

Global Environment: A Model-

distribution, health care, and economic

based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Outlook {Bakkes, 1996), it was concluded that effective environmental management will be come crucial for all aspects of mankind's

development. This report states that al though there is considerable room for reducing the pressures on our natural re sources, it is also assumed that increases

in efficiency are largely insufficient to

earth? Is it perhaps possible that we become an overly successful "mono culture" and jeopardize the basis of our existence? How do we continue to be

"the fittest" species in the "jungle" called planet earth? This article explores some of these basic questions of survival and global environmental management.

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By Rene de Vries* Survival in the Jungle Kenya is the country where some of the oldest hominid remains in the world

have been found and is often suggested as the birth place of humanity. Even so, the most complete skeleton of the Homo Erectus, one of the Homo Sapiens' predecessors, featured in Nairobi's Na tional Museum is only 1.6 million years old. From our perspective that is a long time, since at today's life expectancy that is more than 20,000 generations. However,it is mere seconds on the evo

Exaggerated Sense of Importance One person I met in Kenya reminded me that we, Westemers, have an exag gerated sense of importance when we try to answer the questions related to environmental sustainability. Many en vironmental protection measures that we have developed over the last few mil

ably, yet these measures do not neces sarily consider the damage we do to our habitat or the dent we make in our nonrenewable resources. Sometimes we act

as if we are completely separate from our ecosystem. Perhaps our technol ogy has the danger of making us live out of touch with fife's natural processes. This tunnel-vision is likely at the root of many of the environmental problems

lennia in our modern societies are

strictly to protect us from ourselves or against the natural dangers around us. It has made us as a species quite suc cessful, live longer, and more comfort

we have created and could become our

biggest obstacle in our quest for sustain able development;"We have a basic in

lutionary time scale and long after many other species had arrived on this planet. The museum's exhibit on hominids and


in particular the dinosaurs exhibit is a reminder that species come and go and that there are forces beyond our control at work that complete this selection



process. The tension between the natural en

vironment and human development was a lot more noticeable on the frontiers of the African wilderness than in the

sanitized concrete jungle of our Cana dian cities. Nairobi and Mombasa are

cities immersed in the smell of burning wood and garbage. The National Parks surrounding Nairobi that over the years attracted the tourists who have helped Kenya in its economic development are in danger of turning into human enter


Waste water slurry being fed into a Derrick Flo-Line screening machine.:)



tainment centres and overtravelled dust-


Local agricultural practices still in clude the burning of forest and vegeta tion in preparation of the expected wet season. This practice will in the long term only deplete the soil further and open it up to erosion and desertification. Having been deprived of the short rains, large parts of Kenya were dry and many inland lakes had started to dry up under the pressures exerted on them by nature and human civilization. Lake Nakuru,

a lake that used to be known for its huge flamingo population, has turned into a sand plain and the flamingos have flown to nearby lakes. The impressive plains of Amboseli National Park were crowded with mag nificent herds of elephants, wildebeests, and zebras looking for food and water in the swamps at the base of Mount Kili manjaro. This is also the place where the Masai tribe lives in relative harmony with a harsh environment without any of the technological advances to which we have grown accustomed.




The environmental demands, which are

currently being placed on corporations: and municipalities to control B.O.D. (Biological Oxygen Demand) discharges and reduce implant treatment costs, have created a tremendous need for efficient,

reliable and cost effective equipment to Recovery of processed carrots a waste water stream using Derrick

reduce waste water solids concentra

tions. Derrick Corporation, with over 40 years of fine screening experience,is now capable of offering this equipment tech nology to the waste water industry worldwide.Through utilizing the Derrick:: "Flo-Line" screening unit design, high fluid capacities can be effectively handled at i very fine screen mesh openings; This equates to fewer overall units required rijd higher solids/particulate removali,

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Environmental Engineering

ability to live in harmony with our natu ral environment, we have this urge to control without replacing what we take," according to Mr. Bram Weijland, who makes a living in Kenya by exporting vegetables to Europe. This point that nature was making

Conference Protecting People and the Environment July 23-25,1997 Edmonton Convention Centre

Edmonton,Alberta, Canada

gave me renewed vigour to tackle the environmental problems that we are try ing to solve and prevent. To a certain extent it gave me the reassuring feeling that life goes on, even if we manage to spoil our environment and/or undermine the basis of our civilizations. We may think we are very important and quite fun damental for the earth, yet when it all

In co-operation with Alberta Environmental Protection

Aqualta (Formerly Edmonton Water) Canadian Geotechnical Society

City of Edmonton Drainage Branch University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Keynote Presentation ASCE Freese Lecture

Dr. Gilles, G. Patry Dean, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ottawa Dr. James J. Morgan Jr. the Marvin L. Goldherger Professor, California Institute of Technology

comes down to it, we are not. If human

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• Approximately 180 presentations • Suppliers Info Fair

• Technical Tours

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Area Code





Pollution prevention and the integra tion of our enterprises with the natural ecosystem continue to be key to success ful global environmental management. It may be unfortunate and limiting to


Address: Postal



ity manages to make itself a vulnerable "monoculture" or destroy the basis of our existence(and in the process drag many other species down in our fall) this will only open opportunities for others. As the paleoanthropologist Stephen Gould points out, it was only after the (violent and relatively sudden) extinction of the dinosaurs that the earth was occupied by mammals, including humans. If we collectively decide that envi ronmental protection and sustainable development is of low priority, then future generations will be overwhelmed by the size of the global environmental problems we have created. Dealing with our environmental problems once they have overwhelmed us may ironically come at a very high social, economic, and cultural price.


our freedom, but over time we will need


to continue to increase the environmen

Circle the numbers below for FREE information on the products in the May 1997 issue that interest you. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133134 135136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150151 152153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167168

tal rules in our societies. Individuals, private industry, and yes, entire coun tries, in their quest for short-term sur

vival, are self-interested and can only afford to pursue voluntarily the longterm concerns of global environmental management on a limited scale. Only

169170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184185 186187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201202

idealists believe that voluntary global environmental standards will bring the

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desired results.

237238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252253 254255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286287

that if we are not successful at these

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It is not doomsday preaching to say challenges, we could disappear like the dinosaurs. I believe in humanity's ca pacities to plan, adapt, and survive, yet it is intimidating to know that if we don't take our responsibilities seriously, the forces of the jungle will.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Ontario Concrete Pipe Association turns 40

Sewagedisposal methods did not improve until the early 1840s

when the first modem sewer

was built in Hamburg, Ger many. It was modem in the sense that houses were connected to a sewer sys tem, and for the first time, sanitary sew ers were separate from storm sewers. Paris officials had begun to design sew ers at the start of the 19th century to pro tect its citizens from cholera. The chol

era epidemics that later ravaged England in 1854, led London authorities to de

sign and construct a sewer system in 1859.

Many of the early sewers in North America were built in small towns, and financed with local funds. Details of

these early sewerage projects are gen erally unknown because of the lack of accurate records. The oldest recorded

concrete pipe sanitary sewer installation was in 1842 at Mohawk,New York. The

initial conception of engineered sewer systems in America has been credited to Julius W. Adams who designed the sewers in Brooklyn, New York in 1857.

The growing concern for public health peaked in North America with the yellow fever epidemic that broke out in Memphis,Tennessee in 1873. It caused more than 2,000 deaths. In 1878 there were 5,150 deaths from this disease.

These epidemics were largely responsi

concrete pipe installations, precast con crete pipe manufacturing in Ontario be came a recognizable industry sometime in the late 1890s. There are photo graphic records of a concrete pipe manu facturer in the Kitchener area circa 1898.

ble for the formation of the National

From that time onward, precast concrete pipe has been installed in Ontario's ur

Board of Health, the foremnner of the

ban areas. Photos taken in 1924 show a

U.S. Public Health Service. After the

well-organized pipe production facility

Board assisted Memphis in the design and constmction of a sanitary sewer sys tem, 20 major cities in North America had concrete pipe sewer lines by 1880. There was unprecedented growth in residential and industrial development, in the early 1900s, as people migrated to the cities to work. It was during this time that engineers began the task of building water supply and treatment sys tems, as well as sewage collection and treatment systems for Ontario's towns and cities. Sanitary and storm sewers were constructed for public health re quirements and transportation, just as

at Weston Road in north Toronto.

the Americans had done decades before.

Although there is evidence of earlier

As the industry matured, the owners of nine pipe plants founded the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association (OCPA) in 1957, to establish standards for the

manufacture of high quality products. The nine producers were joined by six associate suppliers, and they became the first members. In 1997, there are eight producer and nineteen associate supplier members. In its forty years of service to industry, the OCPA has joined with industry and government agencies to im prove the quality and performance of precast concrete products. For more information, circle reply card No. 230

Ride the wave:

Visit us on nur Wâ‚ŹU

ES&E launches new Web Site The international edition of Environmental Sci



ence & Engineering Magazine is now on the World Wide Web.

ES&E On-line contains the same mix of high quality, authoritative articles and news items as the magazine. However, it will reach a rapidly growing world-wide audience of internet users. At this time, we are offering six time display ad vertisers a free ad on our web site. Interested

browsers can click on your ad and see a full page information sheet on your firm. Or, ifyou are on the web, your banner ad can be linked directly to your site.


We hope you will join us in this exciting new venture.

Check us out at http://www.esemag.com Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


P&P Focus

New enzyme reduces paper bleaching costs and saves the environment

Anew method, which requires a minimal invest

ment, has made it possible to reduce the cost of bleaching paper pulp. The technique uses a new family of enzymes to increase the efficiency of the pulp bleaching agent. According to the manufacturer, Primalco Biotec, it is the only available method which can cope with process temperatures up to 85°C and pH levels of up to 8.5. Lower costs and reduced emissions of environmentally harmful bleaching agents are said to be possible using an en zyme which does not affect the taint or strength of the paper pulp. In order to ensure optimal mixing of the enzyme with the pulp, the company has developed a compact feeder system, the Ecopulp Feeder. This is connected to the bleaching sys tem's control unit automatically, ensuring that the correct amount of the enzyme compound is added. According to the manufacturer, the new enzyme can re duce the amount of chlorine dioxide used in the bleaching process by 15 to 20 percent. This in turn means lower pulp prices of between 0.5 and 1 percent. "Ecopulp is the first enzyme to tackle today's high process CONDITIONS OF USE


Ecopulp Feeder is a compact feeder unit which automatically ensures that the optimal amount of enzyme is added to the pulp.

process is used at the pulp plant. The enzyme can be used in the pre-treatment phase of any bleaching process which uses chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen or ozone.

For more information, circle reply card No. 227


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ES&E no longer publishes a free product re view section. A new advertising format has been created to service this type of marketing. (See page 63 in this issue).


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Temperature (°C) The Ecopulp enzyme reduces production costs and provides envi ronmental savings in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The enzyme can cope with process temperatures of up to a5°C andpH levels of8.5.

temperatures and alkalinity. Other enzymes are unable to cope with these conditions and cannot, therefore, be used by about 65% of the market. Our new family ofenzymes can be used with all kinds of paper pulps and bleaching methods, requiring only a small investment," says Ralf Lundell, Group Manager at Primalco Biotec in Rajamaki, Finland. More efficient bleaching The enzyme works by breaking down the hemicellulose of the pulp, a substance which normally retards the reaction

between the bleach and the lignin contained in the pulp's fi bres. By making the pulp porous and absorbent, the lignin can be more efficiently removed by the bleaching process.

release and print the photo in full colour in our new Product & Service Showcase. This

price includes all typesetting, colour separa tion and final film charges.

With only six items per page, this easy-toread section is an excellent way to promote your products and services to Canada's envi ronmental market-place. Releases in this sec tion are 75-90 words long and are edited to meet ES&E's style and standards. Clients are

faxed a copy of the edited text for approval prior to publishing. Call Penny Davey for more information at(905)727-4666.

Ecopulp is available in two types depending upon which 30

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


INSmJFORM solves your pipe problems using nondisruptive, cost-effective solutions. The most difficult part about some pipe problems is just getting access to the pipe itself. Insitutorm Technologies specializes in reha bilitating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard-to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the inside, in most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Extensive independent and Internal testing consis tently confirms the success of our methods.

We take sole-source responsibil ity for solving your problem, from the develop ment and manufacturing of proprietary products, to the engineering and Installa tion of a solution at your site. Our ISO 9000 quality system assures high quality every step oi the way. With experts in all facets of pipe rehabilitation on staff, we have the project manage ment expertise and trained Installers to solve your problems quickly. Our

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Technologies Limited Š1997 Insituform Technologies, Inc.

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Environmental Economics

Americans will pay $1400 per year in personal environmental costs in year 2000

In the year 2000,each individual in the United States will pay ap proximately $1400(US)per year

- mostly in higher prices of con sumer goods - for clean water and air and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. This is less than families in lead

ing countries such as Germany will pay but much more than the $676(US)spent by the average family worldwide. A new analysis entitled Individual Environmental Expenditures, from the Mcllvaine Company in Northbrook, Illinois, compares the costs with the effects. The conclusion is that United

States citizens will get a lot for their money - 29,200(US) gallons of water

for drinking or bathing during the year. This compares to only 8,000 (US) gallons for the average world citizen.

Environmental Personal Costs and Effects - Year 2000 Item

Per Capita GDP - $/yr.




World Citizen

$ 28,000

$ 5,833

Environmental Cost - %


Environmental Cost - $/yr. $ 1,400 Drinking Water - gal/yr. 29,200 Municipal Wastewater Treatment - gal/yr. 25,000 Power Plant Exhaust Cleaning - cu.ft./yr. 4,100,000 Other Air Cleaning - cu.ft./yr. 8,000,000 Power Plant Water Treatment - gal./yr. 401,500 Pulp & Paper Water Treatment - gal./yr. 8,760 Petroleum Water Treatment - gal./yr. 11,680 Steel Water Treatment - gal./yr. 13,505 Municipal Solid Waste - Ibs./yr. 1,200 Hazardous Waste - lbs./yr. 2,000 US currencies and gallons used in table.



169 8,000 4,000 800,000 1,800,000 80,000 1,600 2,300 2,600 200 300

Not only does the US citizen receive more water but the quality is also above

ing in the year 2000. 1,200 pounds of

These are the direct achievements.

municipal waste will be landfilled or

The indirect achievements are even

average. Some 25,000(US)gallons of municipal wastewater will be treated for

incinerated. This compares to only 200 pounds per year per person in the rest

each of the 250 million Americans liv

of the world.

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greater. Power plants will have to clean

4.1 million cubic feet of exhaust gasjust to provide electricity for the year to one American. Power plants will only clean 0.8 million cubic feet of exhaust gases to provide electricity for the average world citizen. However, electricity us age is proportionally less. Compared to the blackouts and economic stagnation caused by too little electricity, US ex penditures might be considered a bar gain. Consider that the individual yearly electricity bill also includes the cost of treating 401,500(US)gallons of power

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pulp and paper plants must treat 8,760 (US)gallons of waterjust to provide one individual with the paper, tissues and boxes consumed during the year. A car runs on gasoline but it still requires 11,680(US)gallons of treated water for

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the year. To supply one individual for one year with household cleansers, per sonal care products and other consumer products. United States industry must dispose of 2,000 pounds of hazardous waste, says the report.

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Focus on PCBs

Canada lifts PCB waste exports ban to

Canadian polychlorinated

United States

biphenyl wastes may now be exported to the United States

cleaned to the same degree as is required in Canada before they can be recycled. Allowing for the export of Canadian

for destruction under strict

PCB wastes in Canada to be returned to

PCB wastes to the United States for de

the United States for disposal. •1992, Canada enacted the Export and Import of Hazardous Wastes Regula

environmental controls. The new PCB

struction means the volume of PCB

tions and ratified the Basel Convention,

Waste Export Regulations went into ef fect on February 7, 1997. The new federal regulations, pub lished in a special edition of the Canada Gazette, Part II, replace a November

waste now in storage can be eliminated in a more timely and economic manner, while ensuring environmentally sound

which is a global convention dealing with the control of transboundary move

management. Under the NAFTA Commission for

vention provides for bilateral agree

1995 Interim Order under the Canadian

Environmental Cooperation, Canada is working with the US and Mexico on a North American-wide Regional Action Plan for the comprehensive manage

Agreement on the Transboundary

Environmental Protection Act, follow

ing a US decision to open its border to Canadian PCB wastes.

Under the Basel Convention, which

Canada ratified in August 1992,Canada is legally bound to ensure that exported PCB wastes are managed in an environ mentally sound manner. The decision to allow exports to the US for specified destruction only follows the agreement last November by provincial, territorial and federal environment ministers to put in place a Canada-wide ban on landfilling wastes with a concentration of PCBs in excess of 50 parts per million. What the new regs will do The new regulations will ensure that PCB wastes exported to the US are treated as rigorously as they would be in Canada. The regulations ensure that Canadian PCB wastes exported to the US cannot be landfilled, but must be sent

to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved facilities for thermal,

ment of hazardous wastes. The Con ments such as the 1986 Canada-USA Movement of Hazardous Waste. The Basel Convention has not been ratified

by the US. •December 1994,the US EPA proposed What is the difference between to amend its PCB regulations to allow Canadian and US requirements? limited PCB waste import/export; the Both Canada and the US routinely anticipated border opening was midship hazardous wastes (other than PCB 1996 for PCB waste imports. wastes)across the border for destruction • October 26, 1995, without notifying under the 1986 Canada-USA Agree Canada, the US EPA pre-empted its ment. Since 1980, and until recently, regulatory amendments by beginning to the US EPA had a PCB waste import/ grant discretionary permission to some export ban. US hazardous waste disposal companies Canadian and American requirements to import Canadian PCB wastes effec ment of PCBs.

are similar for the treatment and destruc

tion ofPCB wastes. However,there is a difference whereby the US allows landfilling PCB wastes in concentrations greater than 50 ppm. Last November, the federal, provincial and territorial ministers of the environment agreed to a Canada-wide ban on the landfilling of wastes with concentrations of more than

tive November 15, 1995. • November 20, 1995, Canada made an Interim Order under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act to amend

the 1990PCB Waste Export Regulations to stop PCB waste shipments to the US. The Interim Order provided time for Canada to assure itself that PCB wastes,

if exported, would be managed in an en vironmentally sound manner. •February 26,1996,Canada announced that it was waiting for the finalization of new US rules governing the import of PCB wastes. The new US rule open ing their border to PCB waste imports was issued in March 1996. Following a

use of waste manifests and certificates

50 ppm of PCBs. Each jurisdiction is in the process of incorporating this ban in their respective legislation. PCB waste exports Polychlorinated biphenyls were never manufactured in Canada. They were imported from the US in the 1930s and used extensively in electrical equip ment, such as transformers and capaci tors, as well as in hydraulic fluids. Fed eral jurisdiction over PCBs includes transboundary movement of PCB wastes and the management of PCB

of disposal,including any residues from

wastes at federal facilities. Provincial

decontamination of these wastes that

jurisdiction includes intra-provincial shipment and the disposal at provincial

• October 5, 1996, PCB Waste Export Regulations, 1996 setting out the crite ria for PCB waste exports were pub


lished in Canada Gazette, Part I. A 60-

chemical or other forms of destruction,

including new technologies which de stroy PCBs as effectively as chemical or thermal destruction, provided that these methods are EPA approved dis posal operations. The regulations also set out a more efficient and effective tracking system for PCB wastes going to the US. This will be accomplished through prior no tification and consent and requires the

still meet the definition of PCB waste.

There is also a requirement to make al ternative arrangements should a ship ment not be able to be destroyed as set out in the approved notice. The regulations also ensure that Canadian standards for handling PCB wastes are applied to exports. For in stance, electrical transformers must be


careful evaluation of the US rule, the

Minister of the Environment, on Sep tember 26, 1996, announced that the Canadian/US border would soon be

opened to the export of Canadian PCB wastes.

day period for public review and com

• 1990, PCB Waste Export Regulations

ment followed. The Canada Gazette,

under the Canadian Environmental Pro

Part//publication ofthe regulations was February 7, 1997.

tection Act (CEPA) were put in place banning PCB waste exports to all coun tries except the US. The exception was made to allow US government-owned

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

For more information, contact John

Myslicki, Environment Canada (819) 953-1390. 35

Environmental History

Environment Canada -

25 years of achievement June 11, 1996 marked the 25th anniversary of Environment Canada as a federal department; it was established on June 11, 1971. Canada was the second country in the world (after France) to establish a formal Ministry of Environment.

The Department of Environment, as it was then known, began operation with five services drawn from several government departments; Atmospheric Environment Service; Environmental Protection Service; Fisheries Serv ice; Lands, Forests and Wildlife Service; and Water Management Service. Some of the past achievements include the introduction of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with the US, the Montreal Protocol for ozone layer protection, the St. Lawrence Action Plan and the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. In 1996, Environment Canada also marked 125 years of weather services to Canadians, providing a wide range of environmental information including daily forecasts, storm warnings,smog advisories and the UV index.

Important dates in the history ofEnvironment Canada 1971

June 11 - Hon. Jack Davis is appointed Minister of tlie Envi ronment. Robert P. Shaw named Deputy Minister of the En vironment. Elements of other departments are transferred to the new department, i.e., Canadian Meteorological Service from the Department of Transport; air pollution control divi sion from Health and Welfare; water sector from Energy, Mines and Resources; Canadian Wildlife Service from In dian and Northern Affairs.

Weather Service introduces bilingual weather forecasts for Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. Weather Service provides wind chill readings for Saskatch ewan as a pilot project. December 31 - Blair Seaborn named Deputy Minister. 1975

January - Treasury Board authorizes Environment Canada to enter into agreements with provinces to carry out water quality surveys.

June 11 - Department of the Environment begins operation with five services: Atmospheric Environment Service(AES), Environmental Protection Service(EPS),Fisheries Service,Land, Forest and Wildlife Service, Water Management Service. June 23 - Clean Air Act receives Royal Assent.

December 2 - Environmental Contaminants Act receives

October 20 - Jack Davis tells Chemical Institute of Canada

January 22 - Jean Marchand named Minister of the Environ

that,"The polluter must pay." (Joe Greene had said that much earlier.) October 29 - AES Headquarters building(Downsview)offi cially opened. 1972

March - Canadian Environmental Advisory Council is

Royal Assent. December 15 - Ocean Dumping Act regulates dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes. 1976 ment. Romeo LeBlanc remains Minister of State for Fisheries.

September 14 - Romeo LeBlanc named Minister of Fisher ies and the Environment.

Pilot project to establish VHF weather broadcast services in Montreal and Vancouver. This is the start of the Weatheradio


formed to advise the Minister on the state of the environment

May 5 - Opening of the new Canada Centre for Inland Wa ters at Burlington, Ontario. June 5-16 - Minister Jack Davis leads Canadian delegation to United Nations Conference on Human Settlement,at Stock holm. Declaration on the Human Environment sets out 26

principles of international behaviour and responsibility. 1973

January 1 - Reorganization of Environment Canada into two major resource sectors: Fisheries and Marine Service and Environment Services.

December 3 - Dr. Fred Roots named Science Adviser.

December 20 - The federal government establishes Canada's first environmental assessment process to ensure environmen tal effects are taken into account at an early planning stage of projects initiated by or sponsored by the federal government. 1974

April 1 - The government creates the Federal Environmental Assessment Panel under the chairmanship of Dr. Reed Logie. August 8 - Jeanne Sauve replaces Jack Davis as Minister of the Environment. Romeo LeBlanc is appointed Minister of State for Fisheries. 36


January 1 - Canada extends Canadian Fisheries jurisdiction

and threats to it.

to 200 miles.

February - Changes to the environmental assessment proc ess permit the Minister of the Environment to appoint panel members from outside the public service. August - Forest Pest Management Institute established at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.

September 29 - Len Marchand named Minister of State (Environment). 1978

April 24 - Canadian Climate Centre formed in response to growing concern about the impact of climate on food pro duction, water resources, land use and other concerns. 1979

April 1 - Canadian Forestry Service becomes a full service with its own Assistant Deputy Minister. Eastern and Western Forest Product Laboratories become non profit Forintek Canada Corporation funded jointly by federal, provincial gov ernments and the private sector. April 2 - Government Organization Act 1979 creates Depart ment of Fisheries and Oceans by removing Fisheries and Ma rine Service from Department of Fisheries and the Environment. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Environmental History April 2 - Len Marchand named Minister of the Environment. Duties, powers and functions of Minister are revised to in clude, "undertake programs...to ensure that new federal projects... are assessed early in the planning process for po tential effects on the quality of the natural environment and

realistic pricing of municipal water supply and opposes large scale water exports. November - Revised Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement is signed with the US.

the results thereof taken into account."

June - $110 million, five year Action Plan to restore the St.

June 4 - John Eraser named Minister of the Environment. June 5 - Parks Canada transferred to Environment Canada. 1980

March 3- John Roberts named Minister of the Environment.

August 11 - Reorganization: Environmental Management Service becomes Environmental Conservation Service.


June - Minister John Roberts takes Acid Rain caravan on

tour of Ontario, Quebec and the US to educate the public about the need to stop acid rain. December 20 - Jacques Gerin named Deputy Minister.

1988 Lawrence River.

June - Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) is proclaimed. August 23 - PCB fire in St. Basile le Grand leads federal and provincial governments to agree to phase out use of PCBs in Canada by end of 1993. September - Federal, provincial and territorial wildlife min isters agree to a strategy for the Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife(RENEW). 1989

January 30 - Lucien Bouchard named Minister of the Envi ronment.


August 12 - Charles Caccia named Minister of the Environ ment.


June 21 - Federal government issues Environmental Assess

Marcb - Canada signs global convention on transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. Nations agree to treat wastes as near to source as possible. May 15 - Len Good named Deputy Minister.

ment and Review Process Guidelines Order and creates the

October 16 - Five year, $125 million program announced to

Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office.

deal with health aspects of pollution, toxic contamination and clean up in Great Lakes basin.

September 17 - Suzanne Blais Grenier named Minister of the Environment.

November 6 - Alex Chisholm named Science Adviser.

September 17 - Canadian Forestry Service transferred to Agriculture Canada.

December - In a judgment on the Rafferty Alameda Dam project in Saskatchewan, the Federal Court of Canada rules


that the Environmental Assessment and Review Process

August 19 - Genevieve St. Marie named Deputy Minister. August 20 - Tom McMillan named Minister of the Environ

Guidelines Order is no longer discretionary but is a law of general application and enforceable by the courts.


Canada agrees to Vienna Convention for protection of the ozone layer.

FAX(905)841-7271 for quick response


May - North American Water Fowl Management Plan signed by Canada and the US, a 15 year plan to restore water fowl populations by protecting habitat. May 13 - First coastal weather buoy is deployed in Douglas Channel, BC. May 15 - First State of the Environment Report for Canada issued by Environ ment Canada and Statistics Canada.

June - Canada is first nation to ratify Vienna Convention for protection of the ozone layer. October 3 - National Hydrology Re search Centre opened in Saskatoon. December - Proposed Canadian Envi ronmental Protection Act released for

public discussion. 1987


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on the products in the May 1997

issue that interest you. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133134 135136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150151 152153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167168 169170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184185 186187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202

July 11 - Prime Minister Mulroney and Premier Vander Zalm sign agreement to establish South Moresby National Park

203204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218219

Reserve in British Columbia.

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September - Montreal Protocol to pro tect the Ozone Layer commits nations to reduce by 50 per cent by the year 2000 the use of substances depleting the ozone layer. November - Federal Water Policy urges

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Environmental History 1990


Marcli 21 - ECOLOGO program unveils first 10 products to earn the environmental seal of approval, including insulation from recycled wood, cloth diapers and recycled plastic fenc

May - Regulations announced for new chemicals being in troduced to Canada. Chemical companies required to submit


full information on environmental and health effects.

International Arctic Science Committee to promote coopera tion and environmental protection in the north.

May 9 - Mel Cappe named Deputy Minister. June - More than 50 countries and international agencies take part in first international environmental assessment summit in Quebec City. June - Canada signs Oslo protocol to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions. Canada has reduced emissions by almost one third

September 20 - Robert de Cotret named Minister of the

since 1980.

June 18 - Minister of the Environment tables the proposed Canadian Environmental Assessment Act(Bill â‚Ź78). August 30 - Canada and seven other countries establish an


October 6 - Minister Copps announces list of regulations

November 2 - Eederal panel on tanker safety recommends double hulls for oil tankers and stiff penalties for tanker own ers who break pollution laws.

under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, which

December - Canada's Creen Plan is released. Government

require environmental assessment of projects submitted to a federal department for licence, or authorization, or projects funded or proposed by a federal agency.

commits $3 billion over six years for improvement of the

November - Environment Canada launches The Creen Lane


on the Internet. 1991

November - Pacific Environmental Science Centre opens in

February 25 - Canada, US and 23 European countries sign treaty to assess environmental impacts of any project that may negatively aifect a neighbouring country. March 13 - Canada United States Air Quality Accord is

December 22 - Eederal government establishes the Cana dian Environmental Assessment Agency and appoints Michel Dorais as its first president.

signed. April 21 - Jean Charest named Minister of the Environment. June 1 - $100 million Eraser River Action Plan announced. 1992

February - Federal Budget cuts eliminate Canadian Envi ronmental Advisory Council. March - Globe '92 attracts bnsiness and governments from 74 countries to the second biennial conference and trade fair

in Vancouver. Environmental protection is now a $10 billion industry employing between 50,000 and 100,000 in Canada. May 27 - Start of UV Advisory program. Daily Ultra Violet Ray index helps Canadians decide how much time they can safely spend in the sun.



January 19 - Proclamation of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act brings the Act and its regulations into force.

February 20 - Environment and Energy Ministers approve climate change action program. April - Policy on Greening Government Operations is ap proved. April 13 - Ozone layer at near record low. April 30 - G7 Environmental Ministers meet in Hamilton. December 21 - Canada BC agreement combines delivery of federal and provincial laboratory science under Environment Canada.

June - Code of Environmental Stewardship adopted.

Council of Federal Libraries institutes the Agatha Bystram Award to honor leadership role of former departmental li

June - Rio Summit United Nations Conference on Environ

brarian of Environment Canada.

ment and Development at Rio de Janiero, Brazil. Canada signs Biodiversity Convention.

January 25 - Sergio Marchi named Minister of the Environ


March - Environment Canada announces National Pollutant

1996 ment.

June 11 - Environment Canada 25th Anniversary as a federal

Release Inventory to track emissions of 178 substances that

department established on June 11, 1971.

threaten health or the environment.

July 30 - The Barge Irving Whale successfully raised 26-

March - Canadian Meteorological Centre in Montreal ob

years after sinking to the bottom of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

tains a $43.6 million super computer for use in weather fore

September 19 - Canada signed with eight Arctic members,

casting and study of air quality.

the Declaration on the establishment of the Arctic Council. October 1 - Environment Minister announces new low sul

June - First Weather Services Office in Canada opens at Kelowna, BC. June 25 - Pierre Vincent named Minister of the Environment.

phur diesel regulations to improve air quality.

Nick Mulder named Deputy Minister.

dangered Species Protection Act, the first-ever federal legis lation to give comprehensive protection to endangered spe

June 25 - Parks Canada transferred to the new Department of Canadian Heritage. July - Environment Canada signs agreement with Hewlett Packard for transfer of technology developed by scientists at River Road Environmental Technology Centre. Royalties will fund further research by DOE. November 4 - Sheila Copps named Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Environment.

December - Environment Canada and partners establish three regional technology centres,including Canadian Environmen tal Technology Advancement Corp. in Winnipeg. 38

October 31 - Environment Minister tables the Canada En

cies from coast to coast.

November 20 - The Canadian Council of Ministers of the

Environment approve in principle, a Canada-wide Accord designed to harmonize environmental protection across Canada. December 10 - Environment Minister introduces a bill to

modernize and strengthen the Canadian Environmental Pro tection Act(CEPA) to better protect the health and environ

ment of Canadians from the threat of pollution.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

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Drinking Water

John D. Krug, P.Eng.*

Minimizing water suppiy costs in rurai communities

Residentsin rural communities

with poor local groundwater

are often forced to live with

inadequate supplies of safe water from private wells, or they must purchase potable water from local dis tributors. One of the major difficulties in providing potable water to low den sity areas is the prohibitively high cost of construction of long lengths of dis tribution piping. A cost-effective solu tion to this problem was developed and installed to service the hamlet of

Carlsbad Springs, a small community located in the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton (RMOC). The two most notable features of the Carlsbad

Springs alternative water supply system are reduced infrastructure needs and economical installation methods.

Carlsbad Springs is located approxi mately 20km from the RMOC's central water supply system. It has a long his tory of well-water quality and quantity problems. Several conventional system altematives(an extension of the regional system, a communal well system and private connections) were initially in vestigated for providing water to the area. However, all these options were found to be prohibitively costly. In 1993, a study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of providing pota ble water to the area from the central

supply using a "trickle-feed" or"steadyflow" system. The steady-flow system design is unique in that it requires a small storage tank (or cistern) and pres sure pump to be installed in each indi vidual dwelling. The tank, which pro vides "balancing" storage inside each home, is filled at a steady rate from the distribution system. Also, since inhouse plumbing fixture pressure is pro vided by the pressure pump,higher than normal pressure losses can be tolerated in the main distribution system. By re ducing peak flows and allowing higher velocities in the distribution system, watermains can be sized smaller than

The Chain Trencher with a 200mm HOPE pipe in the chute with the chain and chute exposed. tion costs can be reduced significantly.

watermain materials, and an assessment

This construction method is limited to

of the material and appropriate jointing methods was required. HDPE pipe has a number of advantages over other pipe

smaller diameter pipes, probably less than 300mm diameter,and requires long continuous pipe sections such as those which may be provided by high density polyethylene(HOPE)pipe material with butt-fused joints. The production rates for this installation method are much

higher than a conventional open-cut method, with a corresponding reduction in construction costs. It is noted that

during construction of the Carlsbad Springs system, over 1200m of watermain was installed in a single day using the chain trencher. By combining the steady-flow water supply technology and the chain trencher installation method, it was es

timated that capital costs for Carlsbad Springs could be reduced by up to 66% from conventional water supply instal

materials in that it is flexible, resistant

to corrosion and very smooth-walled. Butt-fusing watermain sections and electro-fusing service saddles eliminates all gasket-type joints, providing a leakfree system, which can significantly re duce unaccounted-for-water in long lengths of piping. To ensure that the chain trencher rep resented a feasible method for install

ing watermains to the necessary depth, a field test installation was undertaken in the fall of 1994. Watermains were

successfully installed 2.4m beneath the road shoulder between the paved road way and a 2m deep ditch. Because the excavated trench was only 380mm(15") wide, this resulted in minimal distur


bance to the paved road surface or the

The steady-flow water supply tech nology used in Carlsbad Springs is new to Ontario, although it has been success fully used for water supply systems in


western Canada. As such, the Province

This test did, however, point to the need for implementing construction methods and restoration methods which

would normally be the case for a con ventional system. By using a chain-trenching excava

of Ontario provided partial funding for this alternative water supply system.

tor, similar to that often used to install

The remainder of the costs were borne

agricultural drains, watermain installa-

directly by the home-owners benefitting from the system. It is also noted that high density polyethylene is not in

would minimize the impact to the road surface. This required special needs in different areas, depending on the local soil conditions. During the construction of the Carlsbad Springs system, it was found that directional drilling also proved to be a feasible and cost-effec

cluded in the RMOC's standards for

tive method for installation of the HDPE

*Director, Municipal Engineering Ainley Graham and Associates 40

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Drinking Water, cont'1 pipe, particularly in areas where ground

and water efficient fixture in

conditions and surface restoration re

stallations. The sensitivity analysis compared the cost per home for the various al ternatives. The preferred design flow rate was deter

quirements did not suit the trencher in stallation method.

During the development of the steady-flow system for Carlsbad Springs, several alternative design cri teria were considered. The system is designed to provide each home with

mined based on the esti

mated demand of a six-per son household, and the as

water at a constant rate over a 24-hour

sumption that each indi

period. The water is stored in the cistern and pumped to fixtures when needed. As

ing to the project should re

vidual household contribut

water is drawn from the tank,it is refilled

ceive identical water flow.

continuously, day and night as required. To establish the optimum combination of flow rate and storage tank size,a detailed analysis of in-house water uses was first undertaken. Water consumption and us age rates were initially estimated for dif

Smaller storage tanks were ÂĽ preferred, as these are less costly, may be moved through doorways more easily and The Chain Trencher installing a 250mm HDPE pipe lessened the potential for long

ferent fixtures, such as toilets, showers,

in the road shoulder.

retention times in the tanks

laterals was $2.9M, or $86/m for the

narios were then assessed, based on vari

which could impact water quality. The selected flow rate, required to meet the demands of a six person home with a 550L cistern, was found to be 2700L/day.

ous numbers of uses and times of uses

Recommended tank sizes for smaller

were as low as $50/m for 150mm diam

for the different fixtures, which vary by the number of persons living in a house

homes varied from 450L to 550L.

eter pipe. In-house component costs, including the storage tank, meter set, flow controls and pressure pump varied from $1200 to $1500 per home. To ensure that the steady flow sys tem functions as designed, a year long monitoring program has been initiated. This includes monitoring of the water levels in the in-house storage tanks to ensure that the supply rate and tank sizes are adequate to meet the individual user needs. A water quality monitoring pro

baths, dishwashers and clothes washing machines. Alternative water demand sce

hold. The assessment also evaluated the

impacts of existing fixtures versus the newer fixmres designed to reduce water use.

Since the steady-flow system for Carlsbad Springs was developed to

Within each home, several simple components are required so the steadyflow system can function as designed. The supply pipe requires a pressure re ducing valve and flow regulating valve to maintain a constant in-coming flow. The storage tank includes high and low

minimize the risk to health, it was de

water cutoff switches, set to shut off the

signed to provide potable water for inhouse use only. Outdoor uses and fire protection are not considered in the de sign. Home-owners are, however, per mitted to maintain their existing private wells for outdoor use, provided they are

incoming supply when the tank is filled, and set to shut down the pressure pump when the tank level drops below a speci fied minimnm.

disconnected and isolated from the in

The Carlsbad Springs project in volved the installation of approximately 33.5km of HDPE watermain ranging

door plumbing.

from 75mm to 200mm diameter. Over

Because of the variables involved,

550 service laterals were also installed

sensitivity analyses were undertaken to determine the optimum combination of incoming flow rates, storage tank sizes

as part of the project. The total cost for supply and installation of all watermains, appurtenances and service


entire system. Watermain installation costs alone, using HDPE pipe and the chain trenching excavation method,

gram has also been initiated, which will measure specific water quality param eters to ensure that the consumers are

receiving high quality water at-the-tap. The biggest advantages of the steadyflow system are likely to be realized in areas where long lengths of distribution piping are required to service sparsely developed areas. Aside from the saving in smaller diameter watermains (in stalled by means of a chain-trencher), other high-cost items such as booster

pump stations and reservoirs may also be avoided in these cases. In view of

the potentially high costs of servicing rural and/or remote areas with potable water, this technology could be ex tremely beneficial in reducing costs to feasible levels. Since the steady-flow

system offers the potential for signifi cant cost savings when compared to

o >

conventional distribution systems, it is felt that the technology warrants serious consideration for other rural areas in the 10



TIME OF DAY (hours)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


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Drinking Water Report

New legislation wiii target materials in contact with drinking water

Health Canada has proposed

Drinking Water Materials Safety Legislation which

sumer to operate and maintain these devices safely.

would set national health-

based performance standards for drink ing water materials, water treatment

ance of water treatment devices and the

safety of additives and of system com ponents marketed in Canada, whether manufactured domestically or imported

devices, water treatment additives, and

water supply system components. These materials would be certified by accred ited third-party organizations. Q. Why is it required? A.The purpose of the Act is to prevent unsafe drinking water materials from being sold in or imported into Canada. Some drinking water materials may con taminate drinking water, e.g. by leach ing lead, or they may fail to destroy micro-organisms - this could put the health of Canadians at risk.

There is no federal law mandating the safety of drinking water materials. Cur rently, only 30% of product models of components and devices sold in Canada are certified to accepted North Ameri can health-based standards.

Q. What are they? A. Drinking water materials under this proposal, are products that touch our drinking water. Under the Drinking Water Materials Safety Act, these prod ucts fall into three categories: treatment devices,treatment additives, and system components.

•Treatment devices are used by consum ers to treat water, for example, water pitcher filters.

ter material industry. Q. Where will it apply? A.Mandatory standards will, where nec essary, regulate the safety and perform

from abroad.

Q. When will it he done? A. Implementation of this legislation will be phased in over two to five years. Consultation will be held with stake

Q. Who will benefit? A.This initiative will provide enhanced health protection for all Canadian con sumers. Consumers will also be pro tected from false or misleading health and safety advertising and promotional claims. Government action will ensure

harmonized standards resulting in a level-playing field for the drinking wa

holders throughout the process. Q. What will companies have to do? A. Manufacturers wishing to sell prod ucts in Canada will have them tested and

certified that they meet the health stand ards referenced in the regulations. Cer tification will be granted by a third-party organization accredited by the Standards Council of Canada.

Peterborough well drilling company fined $10,000 A Peterborough well drilling company was fined $10,000 in December 1996, and placed on probation for two years after pleading guilty to 18 counts involv ing environmental discharges,improper well construction and faulty reporting practices. The company,Faulkner Well Drilling Co. Ltd., was charged in May

porting information on the well records or in improperly testing the well yield. Faulkner Well Drilling was fined $4,000 under section 14(1)of the Envi ronmental Protection Act for discharg ing silt and sandy water that was likely

1996 with 77 counts under the Ontario

posed for various offences under the

Water Resources Act and the Environ

Ontario Water Resources Act and its

to harm the environment. The remainder of the fine was im

regulations, including: Charges were laid following an in • using improper methods to test well • Treatment additives, such as chlorine, vestigation by the Ontario Ministry of water yield; are used at municipal treatment plants Environment and Energy of about 220 • failing to properly case wells; and in private wells. wells built in 1994 and 1995 by Faulkner • providing false information on well •System components range from house Well Drilling. The investigation was records; hold plumbing and faucets to municipal spurred by complaints from owners of •failing to notify the ministry or the well pipes, pumps and storage tanks. wells constructed by the company owner of natural gas being encountered; Q.Is our tap water safe? •failing to install a flow device. throughout south eastern Ontario. A.Health Canada says yes,in most cases Many people living in Ontario de The investigation found that: Canadians enjoy reasonably high qual • A small portion (one to two percent) pend on wells as their source of drink ity tap water. The purpose of this legis ing water. There are approximately of the audited wells had construction lation is to ensure that it does not be violations that led to water quality and 750,000 water wells across the province. come contaminated by the materials it environmental problems. Owners with Each year about 10,000 to 20,000 new comes into contact with. identified water quality problems were wells are reported. These include Q.Is my treatment device unsafe? drilled, bored and dug wells. notified during the investigation. A. If not used or maintained correctly, Once the well is constructed, it is the • In another 10 to 12 percent of the au water treatment devices may become well owner's responsibility to monitor dited wells,improper construction prob breeding grounds for potentially harm and maintain it to prevent contamina lems were identified that could lead to ful bacteria. The Act will ensure that tion of the well or the aquifer. Well an increased risk of well supply con appropriate labelling and maintenance tamination. owners can have their water tested by instructions, from a health perspective, • In ninety-five percent of the audited local health units or send samples to a are provided with these products. How private laboratory for analysis. wells, there were problems either in re mental Protection Act.

ever, the onus would still be on the con

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Back to odour control basics

Odour is perhaps the most

pressing of all air quality problems. The presence of odour in ambient air may or may not represent a health risk but no other air pollution problem will provoke such an immediate response. People in the wake of an odorous source are quick to respond to facility managers and regu latory agencies. The key to controlling odour sources is to be able to quantify them. Often it is possible to control odour sources with simple and inexpensive methods but the level of control required cannot always be easily judged. A response to odour is a subjective

strate the typical scatter of results asso ciated with odour panel testing. It is possible to collect odour sam ples from nearly any source either by direct sampling from ducts and stacks or by using a flux chamber which can quantify the odorous off-gasing from any solid or liquid surface. It is not always necessary to make measurements of specific odour sources since odour emissions can frequently be estimated using published data. This is possible if the chemical emission rates are known or can be easily estimated with standard methods. Odorous emis

Operational changes are often over looked since they tend to cause prob lems with production or personnel or they may simply not be possible. They include techniques such as replacing odorous solvents and chemicals with

alternative compounds. Rescheduling certain odorous processes so they do not coincide with one another may be ben eficial. It may not be any one specific process that triggers odour complaints but a cumulative effect of two or more processes.

Dilution is usually the least expen sive method of dealing with odorous

sions which are a result of one particu lar compound are easily quantified in

sources from enclosed structures. If it

matter and varies from individual to in

this manner.

emissions from a facility via fumehoods

dividual. Odour strength can be meas ured in an objective manner based on the statistical analysis of a group re sponse to a specific odour. The concen tration of an odour is typically expressed in terms of odour units(OU)per cubic metre of air. An odour unit is the quan tity of odorous substance that, when dis persed in one cubic metre of odour-free air, becomes just detectable by a 'nor mal' human observer whose sensitivity to the odorant represents the average of the population. The threshold of odour

fectively quantified, wind tunnel testing or numerical modelling may show that the off-site impact of the odour is not serious enough to require any controls at all. This will not likely be the case however,if a facility has an odour com plaint history. If an odour source is emanating from a building or enclosed structure via stacks, windows, vents or other aper tures in the building, it is always possi ble to mitigate the problem. Outdoor or

with enough non-odorous air before they exit the building, the odour problem is solved. This can often be accomplished with a few simple changes to existing mechanical systems. Low flow odour sources, such as small paint booth ex hausts, can be ducted into high flow air

detection is thus defined as 1 OU/m'.

uncontained sources such as landfills,


Odour strength is determined by col lecting samples of odorous emissions in sampling bags and submitting them to a test panel. These panels are typically made up of six to nine members, all of whom have been screened through a standardized test for olfactory sensitiv ity. This ensures that the results are con servative since odour panels are made up of individuals with "better noses" than the general population. The panelists are given increasing concen trations of the odour sample through one randomly selected 'smelling' port in a two or three port system. The panelists are requested to choose the port from which they believed the sample was coming. The other port(s) contain pure odourless air. When all the panelists have detected the odour, the responses are plotted up and a curve is fitted through the points. Some typical odour response curves are depicted in Figures 1 and 2. The figures demon

sewage treatment plants or composting facilities present a much greater prob

Regulatory agencies may have a problem with simply diluting an emis sion source if it also represents a chemi cal hazard as well as an odour impact.

Once an odour source has been ef


is possible to collect all the odorous or other ducted exhausts and dilute them

exhausts, such as waste heat vents, and

completely eliminate an odour problem. Redesign of the exhaust system to throw the exhaust plume higher into the air can also be effective in reducing odour im

Sources from buildings can be typi cally mitigated in one of three ways: operational changes, dilution, or instal

In this case, control methods that reduce

lation of control devices.

trol technologies most often used to

the emission rate are needed. The con

"Rowan, Williams, Davles & Irwin Inc.

Guelph, Ontario 44

Sampling PAHs and odour from diesei truck exhaust. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

By John DeYoe* mitigate odour sources fall into three categories: adsorbent collectors, wet

Figure 1 Mushroom Substrate Compost-Flux Sample

scrubbers and thermal destruction.

Adsorbent collectors are typically composed of activated charcoal(or simi



lar materials)inside a large canister. The charcoal in these collectors traps the odorous gases and they generally have the cheapest initial cost ofthe three tech nologies mentioned. However,the char coal must be regenerated or replaced based on the quantity of emissions that




1 1






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are collected in the charcoal. The ex

M y

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haust stream that passes through the



charcoal must also be free of moisture and oil mists or the charcoal will lose

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its effectiveness very quickly. Wet scrubbers come in a vast array of configurations and essentially bring

i—i—i i i




Concentration Ratio %(Co/Cd*100)

the exhaust stream into contact with a

huge surface area of water. The odor ous compounds in the exhaust are dis

* The concentration ratio % is the inverse of the dilution ratio times 100.

solved in the water and the effluent can

incinerate odorous compounds in a com

be expelled directly to the municipal sewer system or treated first if neces sary. Wet scrubbers are extremely ef fective with amines and reduced sulphur compounds which are often the cause

bustion chamber or oxidize them in a

heated catalytic bed. Thermal destruc tion may cause additional air quality problems as a result of the combustion products formed.

of odorous emissions. Wet scrubbers

Unenclosed odour sources such as

cannot deal nearly as effectively with odour problems caused by organic sol vents and, depending on the composi tion of the exhaust, may simply change an air quality problem into a water qual ity problem.

landfills, sewage treatment plants and composting facilities are frequently

Thermal destruction of odorous com

pounds in emissions is usually very thor ough but often is the costliest option of the technologies outlined. There are many different types ofthermal destruc tion technologies available which either

more difficult to deal with. Odour emis

sions from these types of sources gen erally have to be handled through modi fying operational activities. One method of dealing with these sources is to limit the off gasing surface area to as small an area as possible. The

site odour impact. This method is par ticularly effective when dealing with the odour problems emanating from the working face of landfills. Many unenclosed odour sources are caused by biological activity and cover ing the odorous surface may limit the oxy gen available. The restriction of oxygen may trigger a change in the biological ac tivity from aerobic to anaerobic (without air) activity. This can have disastrous ef fects in terms of odour impact since the byproducts of anaerobic biological activ ity often include reduced sulphur com pounds which are extremely odorous. In composting operations, and other similar

surface odour flux should be determined

activities, odour can sometimes be con

to find the largest practical area which can be exposed without having an off-

trolled by increasing the material's expo sure to the air which ensures that all the

biological activity is aerobic.

Figure 2 Helicopter Exhaust - Port Engine

There are industrial "deodorants"

which can be used as a spray treatment on odorous surfaces; however, these

treatments are expensive and may or may not mask a particular odour. Also, regulatory agencies generally want to see a reduction of odorous emissions,

Concentration Ratio %(Co/Cd*100)

'The concentration ratio % is the inverse of the diiution ratio times 100.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

not simply a masking of them. They may also require that you demonstrate that there is no adverse impact as a re sult of emissions caused by the deodor ant. Nevertheless,these deodorants may provide effective short-term solutions for specific cases. In summary, the first step in odour control is proper characterization. Fol lowing the characterization, an appro priate control technique may be devel oped,based on the odour strength,chemi cal composition, and type of source. Circle reply card No. 111 45

Environmental Law

The new CEPA and its implications for the water and wastewater industry

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) was passed in 1988. In order to

provide for new develop ments, the 1988 Act stipulated that within five years of enactment, a Par liamentary Committee would undertake a review of its provisions. In June 1994, the House of Commons Standing Com mittee on Environment and Sustainable

Development began a comprehensive review of CEPA,including public hear ings across Canada. Based on the re sults of that Committee's report,the fed eral goverment has developed the new Canadian Environmental Protection

Act, which was presented in Parliament for first reading on December 10,1996. Built on the foundations of the origi nal CEPA, the new legislation encom passes four major areas of change: • pollution prevention; •controlling toxics, pollutants and waste;

•improved enforcement; and •greater citizen participation. A number of the changes in each of these areas have the

ing and implementing controls to man age toxic substances within three-anda-half years of their being found to be toxic. Regulations governing the assess ment and testing of new substances en tering Canada will be extended to sub stances whose use or volume of use has

changed dramatically. One quarter of Canadians place wa ter quality as a priority item on the govemment's environmental agenda. The new CEPA responds to this with provi sions to protect the marine environment from airborne and land-based pollution. The legislation also specifies what can be disposed of at sea, and specifies that the disposal of waste at sea must be shown to be the environmentally pre ferred and practical option. Biotechnology (the use of living or ganisms or parts of living organisms for

To resolve environmental infractions

more quickly and economically,the new Environmental Protection Alternative

Measures Program (EPAM) permits some violators to negotiate with the fed eral government to correct the violation. Those who cause serious or irreversible

harm to the environment, or who are

repeat offenders, are not eligible for EPAM.

CEPA will continue to provide au thority to make certain offences ticketable and to establish fines for these of

fences. The Act also permits Environ mental Protection Compliance Orders, legal orders used to stop illegal activi ties or to require action to correct a vio lation.

Public participation and right to sue The new CEPA offers greater opportunity than ever to participate

The new legislation provides expanded powers for inspectors, including the use of inspection warrants, and creates a new category of officer with additional powers of investigation.

potential to affect the water and wastewater industry. Pollution prevention The priority approach adopted in the

assessed under the new CEPA for both

health and environmental risks before

is, an anticipate-and-prevent approach from the beginning of a process. It at tempts to ensure a shift from reactive to proactive, preventative thinking. The new CEPA provides the authority to re quire pollution prevention plans for sub

entering the Canadian marketplace. It provides the authority to develop regu lations addressing the safe and effective use of biotechnology. This provision has the potential to affect wastewater treat ment plants in the future, as living or ganisms are incorporated into waste-

stances declared toxic under CEPA

(Chlorinated Municipal Effluents are one such substance). In addition, vol untary pollution prevention planning is recognized with an awards program for industry, and a national pollution pre vention clearing-house is established. Industry can share knowledge of pol lution prevention technologies through this clearing-house. Controlling toxics, pollutants and waste

In the new CEPA, changes to the process of identifying, screening and assessing toxic substances have been incorporated in order to make the assess ment process more efficient and timely. The new CEPA provides for develop

in decisions made under

CEPA. Canadians will have

the right to sue for damage to the environment when the

government does not enforce its laws, and have greater rights to take action against violators. There is also the

products and services) products will be

new CEPA is Pollution Prevention, that


ditional powers of investigation.

provision to create a new comprehen sive public registry ofenvironmental in formation published under CEPA. Assessment

such as the sudden release of a hazard

The original CEPA had a number of provisions which applied to the wastewater industry in particular. The new CEPA changes the focus of some of these provisions, emphasizing pre vention of pollution, taking into account advances in technology, and improving enforcement of CEPA provisions. The water and wastewater industry should remain attentive to CEPA requirements, and be prepared to meet all the implica

ous substance into the environment. The

tions of these.

legislation will now cover prevention, preparedness,response and recover, and provide authority to adopt regulations, standards, guidelines, and codes of prac tice related to environmental emergen

It is also important to note that the new CEPA provides greater access for

water treatment processes. The new CEPA addresses concems

about how government and industry re spond to environmental emergencies,


Improved enforcement The new legislation provides ex panded powers for inspectors,including the use of inspection warrants, and cre ates a new category of officer with ad

consultation, review and comment on

action taken or proposed under CEPA. The water and wastewater industry may wish to take advantage of the increased opportunity to contribute to environ mental decision-making, and to moni tor CEPA initiatives. Canadian Water & Wastewater Association

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997



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Focus on Mining

Rock- for ages, an essential commodity

The use of rock by man as a building material dates back to

ancient times. Consider the

pyramids in Egypt, the Greek and Roman edifices, not to mention the

cities of the Aztecs and Mayans of the Americas. This rock was typically obtained from quarries. Today rock is just as, if not more,im portant to our society than in ancient times. Its numerous uses include aggre gate for roads, concrete, cement and as phalt; clay/shale for bricks;limestone,and sandstone for building blocks; and mar ble for facing. In most geographic areas the greatest demand for rock is as an ag gregate which is fundamental to the growth and repair of our infrastructure as

operation. Noise, dust and odour/emis sions are typically related to operations. A quarry developed above the ground water table and separated from surface water courses is unlikely to affect those resources, but may affect vegetation/habi tat and wildlife. However, as economics

drive the process, the size and depth of quarries continue to in tract the full thickness

of the resource. Such

operations usually in volve de-watering and may also interfere with surface water resources.

Quarries which ex tend below the ground

well as for residential,commercial and in

water table are de-

watered to maintain dry operating conditions. A portion of the accu mulated water may be used for aggregate processing. Dewatering of an excavation usually re sults in a lowering of the ground water table around the quarry. The

Greater Toronto Area. As namral depos its of sand and gravel are depleted, the emphasis shifts to the quarry for meeting our growing demand. The siting and/or expansion of a quarry, be it for aggregate or for other uses, can be a daunting affair for the pro fessional. Not only are there numerous approvals required to address planning and environmental legislation in many jurisdictions, but there are also the public

water table is lowest at the face of the excava

tion and generally recovers exponentially with distance from the face. Based on

studies at various quarries in Ontario, the measurable changes in the ground water table are usually limited to a distance of 500 to 1,000 m away from the face of the

concerns that must be resolved. Quarries


can be almost as controversial as landfill

It is noted that physical features such as the Niagara Escarpment, lakes and large rivers can represent major hydrogeological boundary conditions which would normally limit the extent of the cone ofinfluence. The following sections discuss the effects of typical quarry op

sites. Public opposition can be as intense. However, with a knowledgeable and ex perienced team of professionals, the is sues can be addressed and the necessary approvals obtained. One of these issues is environmental

protection. Although the environment is broadly defined, the principal areas of in terest with respect to quarries are noise, dust, odour/emissions, vegetation/habitat including wetlands, wildlife, water qual ity, and water quantity associated with both ground water and surface water resources. The impact of a quarry on the envi ronment depends in part on the nature of the physical setting and the type of quarry 'Principal, dagger Hims Limited 48

balance in the wetland. However, this

type of a feamre may be affected hydraulically by loss of surface water run-off. This aspect can be determined in advance and mitigated if necessary.

crease in order to ex

dustrial buildings, most of which require some form of aggregate. Based on a report prepared by The Oak Ridges Moraine Aggregate Committee, the projected annual production of aggre gate in Ontario for the period 1996 to the year 2000 is 192 million tonnes, of which 72 million tonnes will be consumed in the

wetland is separated from the ground wa ter table, a lowering of the water table should not measurably affect the water

erations on natural and man-made features

which must be addressed as part of the approvals process. 1. Wetlands can occur as a.perched fea ture or as a ground water discharge fea ture. A perched wetland consists of an isolated water system usually in a topo graphic depression, the bottom of which is covered by a low permeability soil. It is sustained by surface water run-off and is separated from the underlying natural ground water table. Since the perched

A wetland which receives ground wa ter discharge as input to the water balance may be more sensitive to a lowering of the ground water table. A lowered water table would reduce the ground water dis charge to the wetland and thus alter the water balance. The magnitude of the al teration can be estimated, based on de

tailed hydrogeological investigations. If necessary, remedial measures such as a ground water recharge system or a cut off wall, can be incorporated into the site plans to provide protection to a wetland. 2. Watercourses can occur as both influ

ent and exfluent streams/rivers depend ing on their position with respect to the local hydrogeological setting. An exfluent water course occurs above the surround

ing ground water table, and thus should not be significantly influenced by a low ering of the water table. However,the change of watershed area can alter the flow characteristics. For an

influent water course, which receives

ground water discharge, the lowering of the ground water table will result in a

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

By Douglas E. Jagger, P.Eng. diminution of water from discharge, and may ultimately result in leakage from the water course through the bottom

through a ground water recharge system. 5. Water wells are the principal source of

sediments. The amount of water loss

dustrial development in rural areas. Most quarries are also located in rural areas.

needs to be assessed with respect to the

water for residential, commercial and in

low flow characteristics of the water

The limestone and dolostone rock forma

course and to changes in the aquatic en vironment. The significance can be de termined through detailed hydrogeological studies and, if necessary, remedi

tions that are mined in quarries for aggre gate in southern Ontario are often ground water aquifers and thus also represent the water source for many wells. Where this situation exists, ground water lowering may affect the water sup ply of wells in the following ways:

ated as discussed under wetlands.

3. Lakes and ponds are features that are important to the environment. Ponds are

• Close to the excava tion where the draw

down is the greatest, shallow wells could

become dry, and deeper wells may lose capacity.

respect to ground water movement. • Pumping test or tests to simulate the drawdown effects of the quarry. A typical test may have a duration of several weeks. •Ground water level and chemistry moni toring. • Surface water monitoring. Based on these data, the quarry can be conceptually or numerically modelled to assess potential impacts on the ground water and surface water resources. Part

of the assessment would include a water

budget to account for water accumulation in the base as the quarry expands, and water use for processing and discharge. Water accumulates in the quarry from ground water discharge and precipitation. In Ontario, for situations where more

than 50,000 litres per day of water are • Further from the ex used, a Pennit To Take Water is required. cavation where the Likewise,any water that is removed from drawdown is much less the quarry requires a Certificate of Ap pronounced, shallow proval for discharge. and deep wells may Rehabilitation is probably the singleboth lose some degree most important measure to minimize the of capacity. However, long-term environmental impacts associ the effects may not be ated with the development of a quarry. By noticeable to the well its nature, a quarry could seldom be re owner, particularly in turned to its original use or condition. the case ofdeeper wells. Thus, a new land use is often planned. In most cases, the Some possible after-uses include: water supply can be re • Aquatic, that is a lake. stored by deepening the • Fill. Some quarries are suitable and can well. Other remediation be approved as "inert fill" sites or as methods such as artifi landfill sites. An example is the Glenridge cial recharge, trucked Quarry Landfill Site in St. Catharines, water stored in a cistern

or a communal system

more sensitive to quarry dewatering than lakes, mainly due to their smaller size. Aside from aquatic resources, ponds can also act as reservoirs that regulate re charge into the ground water system. During wet periods, water is retained in ponds and then released gradually into the ground water system during drier periods. Ponds are similar" to wetlands in that they can occur as either a perched feature or as a ground water discharge feature. Lakes, on the other hand, are potentially sensitive to the loss of surface water run

off through the reduction of the catchment area and loss of ground water discharge. Effects can be determined in advance and

remediated if necessary. 4. Springs occur as a result of ground water discharge often near the contact between two rock formations, at bedding planes or major fractures in the rock on an exposed rock slope or escarpment. A quarry operation could reduce the ground water flow to the springs. The degree to which a spring is affected is site specific. This effect can be remediated if necessary

are available.

As part of the approval process in many jurisdictions, the quarry site must be studied to determine the potential en vironmental effects. Even without con

trolling legislation, a prudent owner will conduct such studies to limit future liabil

ity. The nature and level of detail of hydrogeologic studies to address the types of concerns noted above are site specific. However, some of the methods available are discussed below.

• Geologic mapping of surficial features to determine the degree and nature offrac tures, the presence of anomalies such as sinkholes or karst topography, and other pertinent features. • Borehole drilling for stratigraphic con trol. Core samples can be used for qual ity testing. A ground water monitor or monitors can be installed in the borehole.

• Surface and downhole geophysics to provide additional structural and stratigraphic data. • Pressure packer hydraulic conductivity testing to provide a profile of the rock with

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Ontario. • Passive.

• Enhanced.

Buschart Gardens in

Victoria, British Columbia is an example of an enhanced land use. • Natural environment. Rehabilitated

quarries can provide valuable habitats for unique plant and animal communities and may act as havens for rare or endangered species. An example is the Kerncliff Quarry in Burlington, Ontario. The quarry will continue to be an im portant source of building materials for generations into the future. The quarry can also co-exist with the environment

when properly planned, developed and operated. There may be some short-term impacts, though many, if not all, can be mitigated. Proper rehabilitation can pro vide a unique and valuable environmen tal resource for future generations to en joy. What a thrill to stand on the brow of an abandoned quarry carved into the edge of the Niagara Escarpment, watching a red-tailed hawk soar along the face in search of food!

Circle reply card No. 114 49


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Environmental Perspective

By David J. Sperling, Dipl.T., B.Sc.

The environment and our impact on it - Part a In Part I, the author linked our

fluorine in their bodies and as a result

environmental problems with

develop fluorosis which causes occur rences of poor health and associated lower animal value or poor survival ca pability in animals such as cows and sheep {Moroz, 1989). As well as attacking living things, atmospheric pollutants also affect ma terials. Sulphur and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere form acidic compounds

the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. In Part II he takes a

multldisciplinary approach to the various factors influencing environmental deterioration,

beginning with air pollution.

Air pol utants are defined as

being substances that, when present in the atmosphere, adversely affect the health of humans, animals, plants, or microbial life; damage materials; or interfere with the enjoyment or use of property {Moroz, 1989). The earliest anthropo genic air pollutant was smoke. Manmade air pollution started when our an cestors first used fire for warmth and

cooking. In London, England, coal smoke combined with the fog to create what is now known as smog. From the late 1880's to the mid-1950's, smog-related deaths were quite prevalent. In 1952, the London smog disaster occurred. On Thursday, December 4,1952,a tempera ture inversion formed over the city of London resulting in the formation of a

fog. Since there was a high usage of coal-fired heating and power production systems, the levels of particulates and sulphur dioxide increased, resulting in high levels of pollution in the air. This sulphur dioxide-laden smog irritated human respiratory passages and was the

that attack metals. These acid com

pounds are commonly termed "acid rain". Oxidants, such as ozone cause synthetics such as plastics, and rubber

water vapour, but there are 20 green house gases which also contribute to the greenhouse effect. These gases include

carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide (N^O), methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, many CECs and low altitude ozone. Methane is 20-30 times more

effective than carbon dioxide at trapping radiation, and CECs are up to 20,000 times as effective as carbon dioxide

{Barrow, 1995). This is the process that has kept our planet warm for millions

of years. The CO^, water vapour,ozone, and several other naturally occurring

to undergo accelerated aging which af

gases absorb some of the heat which

fects both the strength and colour of the materials {Moroz, 1989).

radiates from the earth's surface and re

The Greenhouse Effect

When people hear the term air pollu tion, the phrase 'Greenhouse Effect' comes to mind and with it the phenom ena of global warming. Solar energy passes through the atmosphere where some wavelengths are absorbed by water vapour,dust, and gases, and some is reflected away by clouds. The remain ing incoming radiation reaches the earth's surface and 70 percent is reradiated back at a longer wavelength. It is a portion of this longer wavelength energy which is 'trapped' in the lower atmosphere by water vapour and green house gases, which maintains global temperatures. About 90 percent of the natural greenhouse effect is due to

flects it back. Since fossil fuel emis sions have resulted in an increase of

these greenhouse gases in the atmos phere, this process of trapping and re flecting heat has increased and has been seen as a potential cause of global tem perature increases. Ever since the start of the Industrial

Revolution in the 1750's, the threat of

global warming has increased, but glo bal warming is a natural process which human action has speeded up. Paleoecology studies of ice cores and sealevel changes indicate that the global mean temperature and atmospheric gas composition varied along with regional climates well before humans started

polluting the world(Barrow, 1995). Vol canic activity, similar to the 1991 Mt.

cause of death for 4,000 elderly people and those with chronic respiratory prob lems by the time the fog lifted 5 days later (Peavy et. ai, 1985). Later,fuel sources include more than

just coal. Oil, gasoline, and natural gas are other fuels, each of which add new

pollutants into the atmosphere. Sulphur


dioxide (SO^), nitrogen oxides (NO^), carbon dioxide(CO^),and carbon mon oxide(CO) are all released into the air we breathe.

Airborne pollution also affects plants. An example is fluorine, which affects plants at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than the concentra tions of fluorine which affect human

Canals were the arteries of the early Industrial Revolution. Pack horses, limited to

health. In some plants, low concentra tions of fluorine are taken up by the

100 kg. loads, could now transport loads of 100 tonnes when towing barges. Sin gle cylinder diesels later displaced the horse. Today, the canals are used mainly for

plants which are then eaten by herbiv

pleasure craft. George Orwell visited this area where he wrote "The Road to WIgan

ores. These herbivores concentrate the

Pier". Photo - T. Davey.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Environmental Perspective Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines has caused climatic changes to occur at many points in the earth's history. The atmosphere is composed of 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen,0.9 percent argon, and 0.1 percent trace gases which are involved in global warming. The amounts of these trace greenhouse gases have varied before humans appeared on the earth as a result of volcanic activity, fluctuations in biogeochemical cycles, or climatic changes {Barrow, 1995). A large majority of the greenhouse gas-related climatic change is caused by carbon dioxide, about 55 percent in 1993. Since the beginning of the Indus trial Revolution,carbon dioxide concen trations have risen from 250 ppmv (parts per million by volume) in 1750, to 315 ppmv in 1957,to 346 ppmv in 1985,and to 350 ppmv in 1989. The predicted carbon dioxide concentration for the

year 2000 is about 560 ppmv unless ac tion is taken to reduce emissions {Bar row, 1995). Methane levels are thought to have risen from 800 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) in the 1750's to 1700 ppbv by the late 1980's. Methane emissions are generally the result of the decompo sition of organic material by micro-or ganisms under anaerobic conditions (i.e. rice paddies,swamps,coal mines,land fills, and animal digestive tracts). Ap proximately one-fifth of the anthropo genic sources of methane emission are the result of inefficient combustion of

hydrocarbon fuels,charcoal making,and leakage from oil and gas fields and pipe lines {Barrow, 1995).

Man-made air pollutants such as

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are pend on comes from the aquifers sup found in aerosol propellants and refrig plying freshwater lakes and rivers which eration coolants also play a role in en provide a total of about 7,000 cubic kilo hancing the greenhouse effect. These metres or less and one five-thousandth of all the world's water {McMichael, compounds, when released into the at mosphere react with the ozone layer 1993). present in the stratosphere. This ozone The list of pollutants that have en layer forms when solar ultraviolet(UV) tered the water is vast and varied. Be radiation breaks molecular oxygen(O^) fore the operation of sewage treatment into atomic oxygen(O), which combines plants, raw sewage was dumped directly with molecular oxygen to form ozone into the nearest surface water body, (O3). Through a cycle offormation and which usually doubled as the local decay of ozone, a continuous layer of water supply. This usually promoted the spread of diseases such as the cholera The amounts of these trace epidemic which occurred in 1854 in greenhouse gases have varied London, England {Peavy, et. al, 1985). As industrialization increased, espe before humans appeared on cially during and after World War II, the the earth as a result of contaminants entering the water did so volcanic activity, fluctuations at high levels since it was erroneously in biogeochemical cycles, thought that nature could handle what or climatic changes. we dumped. ozone is formed which reduces the Water pollution comes from two amount of harmful U V radiation reach source-types: direct discharge and indi ing the earth's surface. The CFCs in the rect discharge. atmosphere, upon entering the strato Direct discharge or point sources are sphere, break up to release chlorine sources that are stationary and include which attacks ozone and strips it of its such facilities as refineries, industries, third oxygen atom. This loss of ozone sewage treatment plants, etc. Indirect results in increased levels of solar discharges include surface runoff offer radiation reaching the earth. Not only tilizers and pesticides from farmland, is this a health risk for organisms, but it and runoff from parking lots. Indirect also increases the amount of heat in the discharges are hard to locate and control. atmosphere. This could lead to shifts in If sufficient nitrogen and phospho climate and increased flooding {Hare, rous enter a water body, the algal com 1989). munity explodes to form enormous al Water Pollution gal blooms which leads to the occur Of all the water present on the earth, rence of eutrophication in the water 98 percent is saltwater and most of the body. This algal growth can do many remaining 2 percent is present as polar things: it makes lakes aesthetically and glacial ice. The freshwater we de unpleasing in both odour and appear-

Cover Story

Pumping keeps historic canal locks open Canals played a pivotal role in the Industrial Revolution and this engi neering heritage is being preserved in the UK. This flight of 29 canal locks in western England - the longest in Britain -built more than 180 years ago, is working better than ever, thanks to modern engineering and pumping techniques. Two electric pumps now recycle the huge amounts of water used by the locks and the result is that they can be open to boats every day. When working together,the pumps can raise 5,(X)0 gallons(over 22,700 litres) a minute to the top of the flight, two and a quarter miles away (about 3.6 km)from the pumping station. This equals filling a lock with 55,000 gallons (nearly 250,000 litres) of water every 11 minutes. The new British-designed backpumping system resolves a long standing problem of inadequate water supply that reduced the use of the locks to only three days a week to conserve water. Installing the backpumping system at Devizes,Wiltshire, is the start of a projected multi-million pound restoration scheme that would in clude engineering works, refurbishment of historical structures and improvement of access to the canal environment. 52

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Environmental Perspective ance, it can be toxic to cattle, affect the

started. Unfortunately, a similar initia

taste of the water, clog filters, and in crease the amount of chemical usage needed to treat the water {Henry, 1989).

tive for the control of emissions into the

In addition to nutrients, we have al

air did not survive long enough to do any good. While effective legislation is a good start, we need the commitment to

lowed toxins to enter our waterways.

adhere to it. In order to follow the laws,

The most insidious of these are the com

all of us have to change our attitude. There is legislation, in the form of the Environmental Assessment Act(EA Act), which requires very in-depth ex aminations of all positive and negative environmental impacts, altemative tech-

pounds that do not break down, but ac cumulate in the environment instead.

Some, like mercury and cadmium are naturally occurring,others such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are not. Between 1953 and


ronment? One option is to have an "en vironmental impact tax": the greater the impact a product has on the environ ment, the greater the tax. Embracing the practice of sustainability and the sustainable environment is another solution. In this practice, more care is taken regarding the use of natural resources and undertaking man agement practices that better use exist ing resources. These practices include a greater emphasis on reusing and re claiming materials, and on farming practices that use fewer chemical

1983, Japanese indus

pesticides and fertiliz

tries released effluents


high in methyl mercury into Minimata Bay. These methyl mercury compounds entered and

the residents. Between

Sustainable manage ment is the process of using materials (i.e. trees, only cutting what can be replaced) with out creating surpluses. In any ecosystem there

1953 and 1969, 111

is a built-in mechanism

accumulated in the fish

used as a food supply by

cases of mercury poi soning were recorded {Heinke, 1989b). The regular consumers of mercury-tainted fish

called the carrying ca pacity. This is the maxi mum population of a particular species that a given habitat can sup suffered what became port over a given period known as 'Minimata of time. This also ap disease' which results in plies to our ecosystem, nerve damage, anemia, and we have to recog and birth defects due to While the London cholera epidemic was a tragedy In the mid 1800s, the nize just what the car the accumulation of incident gave rise to an important step in epidemiology. Suspecting the rying capacity is. mercury in their bodies. source of disease was contaminated drinking water, John Snow deliber In order to prevent ately broke the handle of a water pump in Broad Street, preventing its use There were 43 deaths at further environmental and firmly linking cholera to contaminated drinking water. tributed to mercury poi problems, we need to be soning {Barrow, 1995). nologies, etc., for all new projects and able to determine the potential problems modifications to existing facilities. This before they arise. The dependence on Remedies/Solutions legislation is designed to allow the pub technology to fix a problem later is no Now, many people are busy finding fault with each other, passing the blame lic an opportunity to contribute in the longer a viable and acceptable solution. back and forth, instead of realizing the protection of the environment, but, in We engineered a 'solution' to the gar obvious, we are all to blame for the order to be effective, legislation like the bage issue; now we have landfills which present state of the environment. There EA Act needs public participation. require an engineered solution to the problem of leachate. are also people who just find the faults There is also a need for more environ In most environmental legislation and broadcast them without effectively mental legislation which addresses the working towards solutions. A case in myriad of sub-units that make up the there is the clause due diligence which essentially requires those in positions of point is Greenpeace whose members environment. pull stunts such as hanging from bridges We have to consider the full cost of responsibility to do everything possible or tying themselves to vehicles or trees the things we need. This includes the to ensure that events that can have nega tive impacts on the environment are pre to highlight various issues. But they costs to the environment from the ex vented. If a person is found not to have present them in a manner that isn't al traction and processing of the raw ma ways taken very seriously by the public terials; the manufacture of products; the been duly diligent in the performance of their duties, they can be charged. The and industry. transport at all stages; and the final im Some progress has been made to pact when the product is disposed of. same due diligence can be applied to eve clean up our act. In Ontario, through These costs involve the impacts made ryone,so as to ensure that we take every the Clean Water Regulations, formerly on air and water quality and the effects step possible to ensure a safe, clean en vironment for future generations. called the Municipal/Industrial Strategy of any wastes or by-products. A prod for Abatement (MISA) the process of uct may only cost a few cents to pro These are a few, but by no means all, setting strict discharge limits on all in duce, but how do you put a price on the of the possible solutions we need to dustries and municipalities has been impact that item has on the whole envi undertake to protect the environment. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Analytical Innovation

By Russell O. D'Souza*

Innovation in analysis of cyanide in wastewater

Many industries generate wastewater with some

concentration of cyanide, which, if not prop erly monitored by the industry, may result in pollution, sewer-by-law violations, heavy sur charges and possibly fines. Results of interlaboratory testing and client concerns about the accuracy ofcyanide results gen erated by many labs, have been the main motivating factors in the development of a new improved method for cyanide analysis. The method vastly improves on standard lab proce dures since its quickness and accuracy translate to greater accessibility to cyanide testing and cost savings. Thiocyanate (SCN)removal is an important sample pre paratory step in cyanide(CN)analysis since its presence skews the results. The SCN ion reacts with Chloramine-T to give a positive error equivalent to its concentration, and,if not prop erly treated prior to analysis, can make the final cyanide re sults appear to be much higher than they actually are. Thiocyanate can also decompose to sulphide and cyanide ions when exposed to strong acids and ultraviolet irradiation. Sulphide gives a positive interference in the test as well. For industries that tend to have SCN present in their waste streams, this preparatory step can mean the difference between com*CG&S Research Centre

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pliance and non compliance with regards to discharge. Removal of sulphide is done by precipitating the sulphide with lead carbonate and is a relatively simple procedure which is outlined in most methods for CN analysis. SCN removal is usually achieved by the addition of tartaric acid to the sam ple prior to distillation. The tartaric acid reacts with the SCN to prevent it from breaking up and being distilled off as Hy drogen cyanide (HCN). The conventional distillation step, however, is an expensive and lengthy process. In addition, the apparatus occupies valuable fumehood space and requires delicate glassware, driving the operating costs up. Several laboratories use a screening method to detect the presence of SCN, and employ the removal step (by distilla tion) only when its presence has been detected. The biggest drawback of the screening method is that it does not always detect concentrations of SCN below 1 ppm,its typical range being between 1 and 10 ppm. It therefore assumes that SCN is not present below 1 ppm. The results of an interlaboratory round robin analysis of CN standards prepared with a SCN spike, show that of the laboratories that participated, 60% did not remove the SCN interferrent sufficiently to provide results of the analyte(CN). This inconsistency between laboratories could be due to (a) inaccuracy of the screening technique,(b)inability of the au tomated analyzing system to remove the SCN, or (c) the omission of the tedious distillation step. CG&S Research Centre's preferred method for cyanide analysis uses the traditional distillation step followed by au tomated colorimetric analysis. The method uses a block heater that holds multiple microdistillation tubes, and occupies the space that a single conventional distillation apparatus would utilize. A distillation time of 30 minutes in the presence of tartaric acid prevents the SCN from decomposing into sul phide and cyanide ions. The use of a Technicon AA II Autoanalyzer assures the analyst of 40 unattended CN determinations in a two hour run, with a detection limit of at

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least 5 ppb. The method is flexible enough to allow the distillation to be done in microdistillation tubes, custom-made by a glassblower to accommodate the user's special needs. The appa ratus allows the user flexibility with regards to sample size, preconcentration of the analyte to lower detection limits, and the use of a trapping solution of choice to suit any conven tional or





microdistillation tubes also allow the user to perform CN analysis on soil samples as well. As part of the QA/QC protocol, the method suggests that a 100,000 ppb sample of SCN be analyzed at the beginning of the run to monitor the removal of SCN in the samples. Improper application of the method would be evident imme

diately by the appearance of a large off-scale peak,thus warn ing the analyst that something has gone astray. In conclusion, the method developed at the CG&S Re search Centre allows the user a quick and reliable method for cyanide analysis, without the use of expensive and delicate glassware, valuable fumehood space and time. For more Information, circle reply card No. 110 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Zenon Wastewater Treatment for

Municipalities and Developments.

Increase capacity at lower costs while meeting stringent effluent criteria. 'enon membrane technology is making possible what ■was impossible using conventional wastewater treatment technology. In municipalities and developments around the world, Zenon is producing wastewater effluent exceeding the highest effluent quality standards - and more stringent future criteria - while dramatically reducing chemical, energy, construction and ongoing operational costs. It delivers: • B.O.D.< 2 nig./L

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In existing treatment facilities, retrofitting with Zenon technology is dramatically Increasing wastewater treatment capacity without increasing infrastructure size. Zenon mem brane technology is simplifying the purification process to meet ever increasing needs for cleaner sewage effluent, and water reuse and recycle. Zenon plants are not only renowned for their consistency

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Pulp & Paper Monitoring

By Brian Bowen*

Improving accuracy and reliability of explosive limit monitoring

Howe Sound Pulp Mill has

dramatically improved ac curacy and reliability in monitoring the lower explo sive limit (LEL) of noncondensible gases that are collected from around the mill and burned in the power boiler. In the past, the mill used an in-situ type catalytic bead cell to monitor these gases. This instrument was susceptible to poisoning which caused unreliable readings and made it necessary to vent gases to the atmosphere. Switching to a drawn-sample gas detection sensor has eliminated these difficulties. The new

instrument runs hot enough to eliminate condensation and particulate clogging it has not failed since it was installed.

Howe Sound is one of the oldest pulp mills in British Columbia. It is located 13 miles north of Vancouver on the

banks of the Howe Sound. Six years

ago, the mill underwent a $1.3 billion modernization that made it one of the

most advanced pulp mills in the world. It is owned by a joint venture between Canfor Ltd., a Canadian company, and Oji of Japan. The mill is one of only

View of Howe Sound, one of the oldest pulp mills In British Columbia. It Is located 13 miles north of Vancouver on the banks of the Howe Sound. Six years ago, the mill underwent a $1.3 billion modernization that made It one of the most advanced pulp mills In the world. that their concentration in the digester management ordered that the monitor

can approach or even exceed the LEL. This could cause an explosive condition in the system. When the collection system was first installed, Howe Sound used an in-sItu

sistent success selling into the Japanese newsprint market which has the most demanding quality standards in the

type catalytic sensor to monitor the LEL of noncondensible gases in the collec tion system. This instrument used a catalytic bead sensor that increases its electrical conductivity when it comes


into contact with combustibles. The

two in North America that has had con

Located in one of the most beautiful

and environmentallyconscious areas of the world,the Howe Sound mill several

years ago installed one of the world's most advanced effluent systems. The kraft cooking process applies heat to a mixture of chips and white and black liq uor in digesters. Noncondensibles are produced by the chips during the cook ing process. After cooking is completed, the concentrated non-condensible gases are sent to the kiln or power boiler for destruction. The low concentration

gases which are collected from tank vents are driven by a fan through a 30 inch stainless steel pipe into the power boiler where they are used as an air source for combustion.

Under normal conditions, the con centration of noncondensibles is under

12% LEL. Occasionally a surge of noncondensibles may be produced so *Howe Sound Pulp Mill, Vancouver, British Columbia 56

problem was that moisture and particu late contamination in the gas stream would frequently react with the catalyst and coat the sensor, a phenomenon known as poisoning. This caused the sensor to "go to sleep" or continue to give low readings regardless of the ac tual LEL. This made it necessary to fre quently calibrate and repair the sensor.

ing system be upgraded. A consultant recommended purchas ing a sampling system that would avoid any possibility of the instrument becom ing a source ofignition and also improve reliability by allowing the instrument to be placed in a controlled environment. The consultant further recommended a

Model ETA flame sensing system from Control Instruments Corporation, Eairfield, New Jersey because it runs at higher temperatures than any other type of monitoring system,avoiding problems with condensation and clogging. Based on this recommendation, Howe Sound

it necessary to release gases into the at mosphere. Local regulatory authorities must be notified whenever a gas release of more than one hour occurs. In prac

purchased the gas detection sensor. The ETA sensor contains a carefully metered pilot or sensing flame. This flame bums continuously inside a small chamber of the sensor housing. Elammable vapors are drawn from the sam ple point into the chamber where they are incinerated by the flame. A tempera ture detector measures the resulting change in flame temperature and trans

tice, Howe Sound notifies the authori

mits this information to a control moni

The resultant continual downtime made

ties for any release lasting longer than

tor where it is displayed in standard 0%

one hour.

to 100% LEL format.

Another concern was that the cata

lytic system might be a possible source of ignition itself. This concern intensi fied when a mysterious explosion oc curred in a heat exchanger in the line leading to the kiln. This explosion did not injure anyone but caused a consid erable amount of damage. Howe Sound

From a safety standpoint, the sens ing flame technology has no equal. Should a problem of any kind arise, a loss of fuel, air, sample flow or powerthe flame temperature will change and the control monitor will immediately respond. By contrast, catalytic sensors Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Water Treatment Options

Ozone for water treatment and safe pulp bleaching Ozone (O3) is the bleaching agent of choice for TCF (totally chlorine free) pulp and has the potential to play a key role in closed pulping systems. It is also ideal for the treatment of municipal drink ing water and industrial wastewater. Praxair, one of the world's largest in dustrial gas companies, recently an nounced the formation of a worldwide

specially designed ozone generators. Ozone can be generated using air or oxy gen. Air is generally used for small vol ume, low concentration ozone require ments. Oxygen is used for large volume, high concentration ozone requirements such as those typically found in indus trial and municipal applications. When oxygen is used as a feed gas.

the gas preparation equipment associated with air is eliminated, reducing the capi tal cost of ozone generation. Customers will also benefit from cost-saving efficiencies associated with the advanced

technologies, services and expertise of the new alliance.

For more information, circle reply card No. 191

alliance with Trailigaz, the world's lead ing supplier of ozone systems. This alli ance offers the combination of Praxair's

expertise in the development, engineer ing and manufacturing of VPSA(vacuum pressure swing adsorption) oxygen gen eration systems (integral to producing high quality ozone as a disinfectant and bleaching agent)and Trailigaz's advanced ozone production systems. Ozone is created when oxygen mol ecules are subjected to high voltages in



Oxygen wastewater treatment More restrictive environmental regula tions have many industries looking for ways to improve their wastewater treat ment systems. Oxygen-based systems, like Praxair's new I-SO (In-Situ Oxygenation) unit together with an on-site VPSA (Vacuum Pressure Swing Ad sorption) oxygen plant, offer a cost-ef fective and efficient solution. They re duce capital costs by half and power costs by a third over air-based activated sludge systems. I-SO was developed in response to the need for an improved way of dis solving oxygen into wastewater and delivers an oxygen utilization rate greater than 90%. In a new installation, I-SO can com

pete with traditional aerators on both a capital and a power usage basis. The low-cost unit can also be used to sup plement existing aeration systems to meet stringent environmental standards for BOD (biological oxygen demand) levels. The unit, which can treat a ra

dius of about 40 ft., can be positioned in the wastewater pond wherever there is an area of low-dissolved oxygen. Be cause of its simple design, the I-SO sys tem is easily retrofitted into all types of air-based treatment systems. This means that I-SO is ideal for increasing the capacity of existing treatment fa cilities without significantly increasing capital and operating costs. For more Information, circle reply card No. 192

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Pulp & Paper Monitoring, cont' and other "indirect" measuring systems can be thoroughly corroded, obstructed or poisoned, yet still register normal readings. The housing of the FTA is heated to

vides quicker response. Another advan tage of using remote sampling rather than an in-situ instrument is that it elimi nates the need to isolate the instrument

400°F, so samples with dew points of 380°F or less cannot condense or clog the system. An alternate design oper

while maintenance is being performed. Howe Sound engineers originally installed the sampling line for the new instrument on the negative or vacuum

ates at SOOT. The sensor can be in

side of the fan that drives the noncon-

stalled very close to the pick-up point, reducing the possibility of plugging the

densible gases into the kiln. They quickly discovered that the meter pres sure variations in the line caused pul sating readings. Then they moved the sampling to the positive side of the fan butfound that too much water vapor was forced up the sampling line. Finally, they added a balancing line from the

sampling system. The detector cell

opens for cleaning simply by removing four bolts and disconnecting three fit tings. The flame arrestors also unscrew quickly for cleaning. Installing the sen sor close to the pickup point also pro

positive to the negative side of the fan, picked a point on the line with zero pres sure and installed the sampling line there. The result was an extremely steady sampling rate which produced steady readings.

The gas detection sensor has pro vided extremely reliable and accurate performance. The gas detection sensor is calibrated once a week because of

safety regulations even though the sen sor is very stable with less than 5% drift per year. The only unscheduled down time up to now came when a breakdown in one area of the plant sent a large amount of water up the sampling tube. The flame will normally boil off water; however,in this case the amount was so

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large that it knocked out the flame which produced a flame out alarm. Engineers purged the instrument and sampling line and had the instrument back in opera tion in two hours. This was the only time that the sensor has been out of serv

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ice on an unscheduled basis since it was

installed several years ago. To further improve environmental performance, Howe Sound will soon install a second gas detection sensor.

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Arjay's HydroSense Oil in Water monitor will monitor oil from 1 PPM

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During a site investigation, the Photovac 2020 will detect the pres ence of volatile organic compounds down to 0.1 PPM level. Simple to operate, light weight and rugged, the Photovac 2020 Is the ideal instru

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Product and Service Showcase Mechanical joining of pipe

Sewer management software


GAC adsorbers Protect® offers

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Sewer system evaluation studies for ca pacity or infiltration and inflow typically require endless hours of processing col lected field flow data. The powerful da tabase and graph template features of American Sigma's new Vision™ sewer management software cut hours into min utes. This allows users to handle more

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disposable, inex pensive, and ver satile design. It is the practical solu The Vic-Ring® system permits mechani cal joining of pipe up to 84" using an applied steel ring as a gripping area for large pipe. Many valve manufacturers offer large diameter valves with shoul

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discharges, organic vapor emissions, and odour control applications. Contami nated air can simply be piped to one or more adsorbers which contain specially selected activated carbon. The liquid phase adsorption system is both efficient

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Flumes - flow measurement

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Maintenance hole frames

Zebra mussel control

Enviro Frame maintenance hole frames, Monitario Technical Services Inc. has

been building flumes and flow measure ment systems for the past nine years throughout Ontario. Any size, shape, flow range and accuracy can be accom plished through this site specific design approach. Systems installed have dimin ished sewer use surcharge costs and brought discharge points into full com pliance. Monitario Technical Services Circle reply card No. 158

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The Calgon mollusk control team surveys your plant water systems and makes ap propriate treatment recommendations. The products used are approved for the control of zebra mussels. Calgon pro vides all necessary chemicals,equipment, and labour. The treatment period is 24 hours. Two treatments per season will provide complete control of zebra mus sel fouling. Calgon Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 160

Modular UV Disinfection

Submersible mixers

made from recycled rubber attached to a precast concrete base, reduce traffic-re lated impact loads on the structure by up to 80%. This feature reduces mainte

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Solutions to UST problems ENSAT Canada

has developed a diverse group of underground storage tank (UST) special ists and equip ment inventory. As UST regula tions continue to

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a Safe Water Solutions' Model TH-IC is a

new, modular, high capacity disinfection system that incorporates significant ad vances in ultraviolet technology. The unit's disinfection chamber contains 18

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Amamix®/Amaprop® mixers have been

successfully proven in environmental engineering projects for treatment of municipal and industrial sewage and wastewater effluents. They allow numer ous combinations of drives and hydrau lic units, making optimal selection pos sible for each application. The mixers

utilize existing approved KSB standard submersible pump motors.. KSB Pumps Circle reply card No. 163

Circle reply card No. 162 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Product and Service Showcase Protective pipeline coating

Composite pressure pipe

Wastewater Sampler

compressor liq uid sampling

KitecÂŽ is a multipur pose pressure pipe which uniquely unites the advantages


of both metal and

SIRCO's pat ented vacuum/


bines superior transport veloci





7000 is a specifi cally-formulated VOC-free 100%

solids epoxy coating for the

plastic. Made of an aluminum tube lami

protection of girth welds,

ties and volu

nated to interior and

metric measure

exterior layers of plastic, Kitec pro vides a composite piping system for a wide range of applications, often beyond the scope of metal or plastic alone. The aluminum tube provides a complete oxy gen barrier and prevents permeation. Also, the aluminum mbe allows the pipe

and river crossing pipe and fabrication in all pipeline situations. With no isocyanates or phenols, Denso Protal 7000 is safer for the operator to use, and elimi nates iso-cyanate pollution caused by spraying or accidental spillage or poten tial groundwater contamination.

to be located with a metal detector. IPEX

Circle reply card No. 166

ment of each

sample to ensure accurate, repre

sentative sampling,independent of varying head at the sample intake. The touchpad controller is housed in an envi ronmentally sealed enclosure, with a two line alpha-numeric LCD display provid ing clear programming instructions. Southwell Controls Ltd.

valves and road

Denso North America

Circle reply card No. 165

Circle reply card No. 164

Canadian enviroOSH

Oil and grease interceptors

Backwashable filters


E S C O ' s

Stormceptor de

micro filter is a

remove and con


tain more than

from the tradi

90% of free oil


and grease and

which employ cartridge type throwaway filter

80% of total sus

pended solids (TSS) in run-off

Available on CD-ROM and the World

Wide Web (including Intranet)- all the Canadian legislation you need. Access more than 20,000 pages of environmen tal and health & safety legislation any time you need it-right on your own com puter. Provides up-to-date consolidated text of acts, regulations and guidelines for all Canadian jurisdictions. National and regional collections available. CCOH&S

Circle reply card No. 167


Ferric chioride soiution

Eaglebrook's Ferric Chloride is a manu factured product, manufactured to your specifications. The concentration of iron can be varied up to the solubility limit of Ferric Chloride. The free acidity can be increased or reduced as the simation re

quires. The level of impurities can also be controlled. All products meet AWWA standards for Ferric Chloride. However,

Faglebrook can also produce a premium Ferric Chloride meeting industrial stand ards for the electronic industry. Eaglebrook Inc.

Circle reply card No. 170



vices are able to

concept filters

media. The filter


is backwashable

space is required due to the sys

filter elements

tem's vertical de

can be fully reju


sign; The pre-cast concrete construction, employing standard concrete compo nents,enables the units to be used in place

and, as such, its

venated in a mat

ter of minutes.

Circle reply card No. 168

Plastic elements of required openings are retained on a candle assembly. Dagex Inc. Circle reply card No. 169

New portable laboratories

Vortex mixing system

of traditional structures.


Rugged instru mentation and

wide-ranging capabilities characterize 12

new portable laboratories now available from


Equipped with the


Datalogging DR/2010 Spectrophotometer and every thing needed to run critical water quality tests, the Hach DRFLs (direct-reading environmental laboratories) pack every thing needed to deliver fast, accurate, easy testing into a durable carrying case. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 171

The JetMix Vortex Mixing System can be used in bio-solids storage, anaerobic digesters, flow equalization, aerobic di gesters with supplemental air, leachate systems, and other situations where sol ids su.spension is important. Benefits of using the JetMix system include: Inter mittent operation saves up to 90% in power consumption; no need for sched uled maintenance on equipment inside storage tanks; multiple tank mixing us ing a central pumping facility; the opera tion is not dependent on tank levels. Greatario Engineered Storage Systems Circle reply card No. 172

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1997

Product and Service Showcase New test kit for silver

Landfill gas compressors

The new Royce Model 9100 DO Analyzer is an economically priced sys tem that was designed to provide the specifications normally required for the typical applications for continuous moni toring and control of DO. It is a digital readout,fully automatic instrument with

The new RapidSilverTM Test Kit provides a simple effective way to test for silver in the 0 to 50 ppb range. The visual com parison test is ideal for natural water, drinking water, wastewater, pool and spa water, landfill leachates, and other appli

features such as: 0-100 PPM or 0-999%

cations where trace amounts of silver

Many operations have already discovered the hard way that landfill gas is one of the most difficult jobs a compresser can be required to perform. Casing corrosion, bearing failures, and frequent, costly overhauls not only cut into profitability, but create an ongoing nightmare for op erations personnel. Ro-Flo® sliding vane type compressers are the best way to han dle landfill gas and turn it into a fuel source. Pencon Equipment Company Circle reply card No. 175

DO analyzer controller


Saturation DO range, push-button auto

must be detected. Its colorimetric method

matic calibration, automatic altitude and

salinity correction, and self-diagnostic electronics. Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 173

requires less skill, expense and sample preparation compared to standard silver methods. Hach Company Circle reply card No. 174

Used oil storage

Level Transmitter

Myers Waste Oil Storage system is an above-ground contained tank system en gineered to provide long-term safe and reliable storage of used oil and other en vironmentally hazardous petroleum prod ucts. The Myers system was the first ULC listed system in the marketplace. As a result ofcontinued development,it now includes a complete line of products that provide ideal storage solutions for just about any industrial application. King Metal Fabricators Circle reply card No. 176

The loop-powered Series PLT Piezoresistive Level Transmitter from Dwyer In struments measures and controls process levels by sensing the hydrostatic pressure

output signal proportional to hydrostatic pressure and specific gravity of the fluid for indicating, recording or control pur poses. Pressure readings are unaffected by temperature from 0 to 180(F (-18 to 93(C). Davis Controls Ltd. Circle reply card No. 177

is the result of a combination of two

Water & wastewater services

Advanced membrane systems

New effluent pump

in a tank and is accurate to ±0.25%. The 2-wire transmitter delivers a 4 to 20mA

As a major sup plier of mem brane separation equipment,

Ontario Agence dlean






ZENON offers

a wide range of systems includ ing microfil-

The Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA)is the largest supplier of water and wastewater services in the province, serving almost 5 million individual con sumers. Today OCWA is changing in

ways that will redefine service in the in dustry. Our new Client Services Repre sentatives will be located in the field to

provide proactive, timely and effective service tailored to the client's needs. OCWA

Circle reply card No. 179

tration, ultrafiltration , nanofiltration

and reverse osmosis systems. While all our systems are cost-effective, reliable and easy to operate, some of our proc esses and membranes offer truly unique solutions for meeting the challenges faced by municipalities. ZENON Circle reply card No. 180

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Package potable water treatment plant

The Degremont Infilco Pulsapak®, a package potable water treatment plant, produces a very high quality of water, utilizing technology equivalent to that used in large installations. The Pulsapak proven Degremont technologies: the Pulsator® Flocculator-Clarifier,equipped with tube settling modules; and the sand and anthracite dual media gravity filter. Degremont Infilco Ltd. Circle reply card No. 178

Designed for pumping septic tank effluent and

light duty dewatering, this new rugged light weight pump uti lizes a high torque capacitor 1/2 hp motor and heavy duty ball bearings. The stainless steel motor housing and cast iron volute help resist the effects of abrasive effluent. Solids up to 3/4" can be quickly and easily pumped. CSA approved. ABS Pumps Corporation Circle reply card No. 181


Product and Service Showcase Water resources management

Water quality and the protection of water resources are recognized as funda mental environmental issues facing society. Golder Associates provides wa ter resources planning and management services to a broad range of institutional and industrial clients on projects involv ing the development of major reservoirs, hydroelectric facilities, municipal and industrial water supplies, recreational facilities, residential communities, con.servation areas. Golder Associates

Screening machines

Pipe design software

Derrick multiple deck machines are uti lized for a wide range of screening ap plications. The double deck design is

Pipe Association allows you to design concrete pipe in accordance with ASCE,

used in cases where the finer screen deck

buried condition, using the direct design method. Pipe Culvert Analysis and Re inforcing Design(PIPECAR)determines

Software from the American Concrete

must be protected from coarse oversize particles of a heavy oversize load. This double deck arrangement assures control led product specifications in industries where quality and production are criti cal. Derrick Corporation

Circle reply card No. 182

Circle reply card No. 183

Least cost analysis software

Odour removal

SIDD and AASHTO standards for the

moment,thrust, and shear stresses due to

pipe weight, soil weight, fluid weight, live loads and internal pressure up to 50 feet of head. ACPA

Circle reply card No. 184

Vertical laminar flow separator



Odorgard™ Sys tem is used to ret

rofit existing packed tower odour scrubbers, 99.9% removal of

H,S, mercaptans

The Least Cost Analysis(LCA)program from the American Concrete Pipe Asso ciation evaluates the costs associated with

each alternative pipe material based on design components and project require ments. It incorporates project design life,

and ammonia is

guaranteed in a single column. No chlorine or

Circle reply card No. 185

chlorinated compounds are emitted. The Odorgard system is especially suited for removing odours associated with sewage plants, fine chemicals, paint resins, metal foundries, food processing, and chemi cal and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems Circle reply card No. 186

Industrial gases

Borehole log plotting

material service life, economic factors,

traffic costs and other project-related items. Total costs are calculated using present worth, annualized costs or future value methods. ACPA


gases and tech nology provide

borehole log plot ting program for



economical and



designed to easily create and edit

Pulp & Paper In dustry. Applica

logs which are stored in indi


vidual files. Each

oxygen/ozone bleaching and wastewater treatment; oxygen for chemi cal recovery, white and black liquor oxi

log can contain header/footer information, soil descrip tions, soil symbols, sample data, moni toring well data, text & graph columns. Formatting for each borehole is control led by the template for the log, which can be easily changed. GAEA Environmental Engineering Circle reply card No. 189

nitrogen for chemical transfer, cleaning and purging pipelines, and blanketing chemicals. Praxair

Circle reply card No. 188



It is

solutions for the

dation, and lime kiln enrichment; and

ment forces come into contact with the

sides. At this point, the displacement speed of the particles is zero. Aquarius Circle reply card No. 187

Odour Control

Praxair industrial


The Aquarius Verti-Lamellar is used to remove oils (99% at a density of 0.85) and solids (80 [a) from residual water at high velocity. It is a lamellar unit with vertical plates. These plates divide the flow into thin sheets of water, increasing contact and friction against the fixed sides. The particles subjected to displace

The use of Hypochlorite (JAVEX-I2)to treat odours is detailed in a technical bul

letin from Colgate-Palmolive. Systems are discussed that dispense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include storage and air collection needs. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 190 62

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1997

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Stamp Out Indoor Air


The Ultimate Wastewater

Pollution with our



Proven Solution The Living Air Model XL-15

The new 6700 Sampler from ISCO is so full of features that any other sampler might look obsolete when compared to

Chemical Free (not a filter) Portable electronic units send ozone and

ions into indoor environments replenish ing the air like "Mother Nature" does outdoors. Systems are available to pu rify most indoor environments of smoke, dust, chemical gases, odours, and bacte ria. Units are effective on areas ranging in size from 100 to 20,000 square feet. Fresh n' Clean indoor Air 1-800-820-0699 Dealers Welcome

For more Information, circle reply card No. 140

Turnkey services

The Nev/ Unimag from Isco completely eclipses existing magmeter systems in concept and practical application. Unimag eliminates concern regarding electrode fouling, vibration effects and linear malfunction. Unimag features unique interchangeable sensors with no need for recalibration. Unimag also comes with the powerful model 4401 converter.

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. For more Information, circle reply card No. 141

Better fluid dynamics for the BNR process

it. Features include: Maximum vertical

lift of 29 ft., line velocity of 2 ft./sec. at head heights of 25 ft., two-part program, plug-in module for flow & pH, built-in datalogger, compatible with YSI multiparameter water quality probe,CFC-free refrigerated unit, rain gauge port,random interval sample collection, and noncontact liquid detector. Nortech Control Equipment Inc. For more Information,

circle reply card No.142

Pipe rehabilitation


As the demands placed upon utilities and municipalities increase, more and more customers are looking for turnkey solu tions for their operations and mainte nance needs. Schlumberger can provide total turnkey capabilities and responsive ness, through single source representa tion of all meter products, meter related services including: reading and billing, project management, and financing through public-private partnerships. Schlumberger also offers demand-side management programs in public educa

Before the introduction of propeller pumps for the Biological Nutrient Re moval process, many systems featured conventional pumps, installed in spe cially constructed sumps, with civil en gineering costs and, also the need for large volumes of fluids to be raised un necessarily. ITT Flygt's 4600 propeller pumps need no special sumps. With low head, installation is simple. The pump is

tion, ULF toilet installations and home

mounted in front of a hole in the retain

assessments. Schlumberger Canada For more information, circle reply card No. 143

ing wall between two basins, or in front of a transport pipe. ITT Flygt For more information,

Insituform Technologies,Inc. specializes in repairing and rehabilitating pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard-to-reach places. Using our advanced technologies, we repair pipes from the inside,in most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Our solu tions, which are proven, nondisruptive and cost-effective, address many of in dustry's most serious pipe problems. Insituform Technologies For more information, circle reply card No. 145

circle reply card No. 144 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Product and Service Showcase Advanced wastewater treatment

Sludge Dryers

Area velocity flow meter American Sigma's Doppler technology advancements are

now available in a flow meter that is

only 4 1/2" in diam eter and weighs 8 lbs. Add the easy setup and data retrieval

Searching for adequate solutions for the advanced treatment of industrial and

municipal wastewaters, AQUARIUS ap plied its thorough knowledge of biologi cal processes to the UNITANK® system. It can be used for the biological treatment of a variety of wastewaters, including those from the agrofood, biochemical, chemical, textile, paper and petrochemi cal industries. Aquarius Circle reply card No. 146

Joint sealing precast concrete drainage

features, and collec tion system crews will be able to sig nificantly improve their monitoring pro ductivity. Designed with Sigma's one megahertz Doppler and active probe elec

tronics, the low profile depth/velocity probe causes a minimum flow distur bance reducing maintenance frequency. Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 147

ISO 14001 software

ProMinent Fluid Controls' new Ml

formed rubber

chemical metering package allows for the safe and easy in tegration of an entire metering pump sys tem into any appli



manholes, in


spection cham

comes standard with

bers, box cul


verts, ogee pipes, tunnels and shafts. The strip is applied between primed surfaces. Under compression, it deforms through the joints to provide a flexible, watertight seal. Denso North America

Circle reply card No. 149

Duske Engineering, Inc. Circle reply card No. 148

Chemical metering

Tokstrip is a pre bitumen strip that provides watertight flex iblejoints to pre

Duske rotary drum dryers convert waste

sludge into environmentally desirable products of value. A new Duske/Cemen Tech CSD-3000 Rotary Dryer in Leam ington, Ontario, produces 2-3 TPH of NVlro Soil-a patented,lime-stabilized fer tilizer. The Duske dryer reduces drying time from days to minutes, simplifies odour control and reduces space required by windrows.

The Ml


valve, calibration column,and suction

and discharge mani folds as stock items.

Coupled with ProMinent's extensive metering pump line, capacities of 20 to 633 litres per hour can be achieved. ProMinent Fluid Controls

;gc. esa


1 ■SSSTTS" ✓


isssTiTr ✓

ISOsoft 14001 helps you develop and pro-actively manage your Environmen tal Management System(EMS)based on the requirements ofISO 14001. ISOsoft 14001 allows you to maintain records for each element of the standard including; Environmental aspects, objectives and targets, training awareness and compe tence, document control, nonconformances, etc. lutelex Technologies Inc. Circle reply card No. 151

Circle reply card No. 150

Secondary containment systems

Regenerative catalytic

Ultracompact 4-way gas monitor


Tougher federal

Crowcon's Custo


dian, an ultra-

legislation is coming! ACO

space saving

compact 4-way personal gas moni tor, protects work ers from multiple gas hazards in confined spaces. Users specify up to


four sensors to

tank containment systems and custom de signed overflow protection applications to suit your specific needs. Be prepared, get ACO's trained staff working for you now. ACO Container Systems For more Information, circle reply card No. 152

monitor specific toxic and flammable gases, and oxygen. Alarms are programmable for instanta neous and OEL readings. An internal pump option offers diffusion or pumped operation in ambient and remote sam pling modes. Cancoppas

has an extensive

range of PE/PP/ FRP contain



Circle reply card No. 153 64

It is a simple process to convert a regen erative thermal oxidizer to a regenerative catalytic oxidizer with the DynaCycle® Catalyst. It only takes from 1 to 2 days from shutdown to start-up. Fuel costs can be reduced by up to 95%,or the flow rate can be increased by up to 30%. NOx and CO formation is reduced, as is wear and

tear on the equipment. Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems

Circle reply card No. 154 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Literature Review For Information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Odour Control

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochiorite (JAVEX-12) is

Zebra Mussels

A "Soiution''for ZEBRA MUSSELS

detailed in a technicai bulletin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochiorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air

To help control zebra mussels, one solution involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochiorite, which kills the larvae. We are

Canada inc.

consulting with experts to estab lish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept informed of the latest information, please

Circle reply card No. 200

contact us.

collection needs.


Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 201


Cyanide Removal Using sodium hypochiorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes

Canadian Environmental

Technology Update


is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

ages, equipment,as well as stor age, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

^ w

«M"a ^ ofUiidliiw


P-&tvir<minnial ^


» / / , - ''

Circle reply card No. 202 iH ■ ' ■ ffli.

Managing hazardous waste in the 1990s demands a multifaceted ap proach. Responding to business' wide-ranging needs with an array of services and technoiogies has gained Laidlaw Environmental Serv ices a prominent position within the waste management industry. This service profile presents a number of key management opportunities avail able to waste generators, in addition to providing an overview of the com pany's capabilities. Laidlaw Env. Services

Circle reply card No. 203

Drier cake at higher hydraulic loading rates than two-belt dewatering filters

Specialty Gas Suppliers Catalogue

Conventionai two-beit dewater

ing filters simply don't handle di lute sludges efficiently. When a low-solids feed is compressed too quickly the result is often lat



Whatever your requirements in specialty gases and gas mixtures, you can find it all in this catalogue. Air Liquide Canada, one of the largest specialty gas suppliers, presents a spectrum of products

eral extrusion. The EimcoSDP™

and useful technicai information.

filter solves this dilemma by cou pling a compact two-belt dewatering filter with a separately driven, fourteen-foot gravity belt thickener(GBT).

You will also find typical and inno vative applications such as cali bration standards for environmen

tal monitoring. To order, call your nearest Air Liquide Canada sales representative. Air Liquide Canada Circle reply card No. 205


Circle reply card No. 204

Utilities Management Philip Utilities Management Corpo ration (PUMC) provides municipal

Unlock theI IMystery of Activated Sludge Siu'dge iWith

and industrial clients with cost-


effective methods of ensuring high quality water supply and wastewater treatment. Our experienced staff of scientists, engineers and technicians provide single source services to ensure a continuous supply of pot able water as well as wastewater

treatment to meet all regulatory requirements. Philip Utilities Circle reply card No. 206

Unlock the Mystery of Activated Sludge Monitor bioactivity at critical loca tions in activated sludge during wastewater treatment and know

what's happening during treatment from start to finish. ArthurTechnolo-

gy's unique respirometry technology provides anticipatory information used to avoid influent toxicity, shock loads and non-compliance. The in formation maintains stable opera tion, simplifies troubleshooting and saves big on energy use and opera tion costs.

Arthur Technology, Inc. Circle reply card No. 207

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cail ES&E at(905)727-4666. StrainPress® SludgeCleaner




Reusing sludge means cleaning it first, and Parkson has a unique product for doing just that. The StrainPress SludgeCleaner removes from primary or secondary sludge etc., the nonorganic solids, e.g. plastics, papers, rags, that may settle or float In dowrnstream processes. These trash solids are then compressed and extruded as a dry product that can be disposed of with trash and screenings from other sources In the facility. The cleaned sludge can then be processed further to produce what the EPA has defined as "Class A sludge". Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 208

FREE HiQ Evaluation Software

-i-iaai ?i

National Instruments of

fers HiQ® for Windows, featuring ActiveMath™ and visualization tools

for I\/licrosoft Office. HiQ on





ActiveX^"(OLE)for Inte gration with l\/licrosoft Office and Microsoft's

OpenGL 3D graphics library making advanced technical calculation, data visualization, and documentation solutions more cost-effective and simpler for technical professionals. Call for your FREE HIQ evaluation software. National Instruments

Circle reply card No. 209

Air Purification Machines

New municipal applications

Designed for offices or large Indus trial settings where the removal of heavy-duty partlculate is necessary. Units produce and control negative or positive ions which, when intro

brochure A new brochure from JWC Environ

duced into the air flow remove

mental covers municipal applications served by its solids reduction equip ment. The six-page brochure fea tures photographs of various appli

smoke, dust, feather dust, offset

cations, as well as schematic draw

powder, oil particles, paper dust, fiberglass or anything small enough

ings to illustrate the use of Muffin Monster grinders® and Channel Mon ster® screening systems in munici pal wastewater treatment plants. The Muffin Monster line of products reduces raw sewage and other sol ids into fine particles.

to be airborne. The MI-1500B and the MI-1500C are also effective in

controlling extreme static electricity. They are also capable of eliminat ing both the gaseous and particulate phases of tobacco smoke. Sima Group Circle reply card No. 210

Environmental Law in1996



JWC Environmental

Circle reply card No. 211

Special Report on Current Environmental Law


This comprehensive, 100-page re port features easy-to-understand




summaries of new and revised en

vironmental legislation that came into force in 1996. It also alerts you

to proposed legislative activity for 1997, allowing you to plan your com pliance requirements well in ad vance. Written by the national law firm McCarthy Tetrault, this extensive report provides a Canada-wide view of changing environmental acts and regulations.


Southam Information Products

Circle reply card No. 212

Askarel transformer

replacement A new approach to askarel trans former replacement Is discussed as a safer and faster alternative to using the perchloroethylene method. In coop eration with the transformer manufac

turer, PCB Disposal can now offer a turn-key process to replace askarel transformers with dry-type orsilicone-

US of


Insulated transformers. Where trans

and OPTlMaf^^'

formers are virtually Inaccessible,they are drained, disassembled and re

moved In pieces and the new trans 1 800 563-PCBs

formers are assembled on site.

PCB Disposal Inc. Circle reply card No. 213


Pat McGrenere Executive Vice President

Brampton, Ontario

Head Office


E-mail:kmk & kmk.on.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 232 (See page 17)

Proposed Secure Landfill

Study demonstrates clay's ability to isolate wastes in deeper ceils

Operational and design changes have been incorpo

rated into Laidlaw Environmental's EA for the continu

ation of hazardous waste landfill serv

ices at its Lambton Facility in Ontario. "But the strength of the proposal con tinues to be the site's natural capacity for isolating hazardous wastes from the en vironment," says Blake Nesbitt, techni cal manager for Laidlaw Environmental. A massive watertight deposit of clay, known as the St. Clair Clay Plain, lies beneath the Lambton Facility, becom ing thicker as one moves from east to west in Lambton County. The most significant change between the proposal and existing operations is that the cells would be built to a depth of 24 metres(80 feet), about six metres (20 feet) deeper than the existing landfill.

Smaller waste placement zone Changes to the continuous trench landfilling method,to produce a smaller waste placement zone, are also pro posed. The proposal would see the con tinuation cell divided into subcells, with

waste placement operations conducted from side to side, rather than the cur

rent end-to-end approach. The deeper cells also required design changes to ensure stability of cell walls. In the new cells, the sidewalls will not

be as steep, and a level bench will be constructed at the 13 metre (40 foot)

Cross-section of proposed continuation Celi 18, shows the modified, continuous trench iandfiliing concept in deeper subcelis, beside the iandscaped, boundary screening berm. level to further stabilize the slope. This design change resulted from extensive testing and analysis to confirm that the site's massive clay deposit will provide a comparable level of environ mental protection to that demonstrated by existing operations. Through computerized groundwater

Announcement Monsanto Unit acquires Netherlands-based ClairTech Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems, Inc., a wholly owned unit of Monsanto Com

pany has acquired ClairTech B.V. of Woudenberg, The Netherlands. ClairTech is an industry leader in bio logical filtration with over 70 systems designed and sold throughout the world over the past eight years, representing approximately five million dollars of sales per year. ClairTech's Bioton™ systems are used on industrial and municipal applications to remove VOCs and eliminate odours.


Enviro-Chem Systems Inc. provides en gineering, construction and proprietary

equipment for a variety of industrial processes and environmental systems. The proprietary ClairTech biofilter technology complements EnviroChem's present air pollution control sys tems. These systems include Brink'® fiber bed Mist Eliminators,DynaWave® engineered scrubbing systems, Calvert Collision Scrubbers, Calvert Mist

Scrubbers, DynaCycle® regenerative catalytic oxidizers, wet electrostatic precipitators, Odorgard™ scrubbers and Enviro-Chem's own DynaZyme® biofilters.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Circle reply card No. 235

modelling, Laidlaw have projected the potential impact of the proposed landfill on the underlying groundwater for up to 10,000 years. The studies were ex tensive and used the latest technology to ensure they were the best available. The analysis confirms that the advanced design will continue to provide a high level of environmental protection. Independent review Independent experts, funded by Laidlaw Environmental on behalf of in

terested intervenors,including area resi dents, reviewed all aspects of the de tailed reports. The analyses indicated that chlorides (salt) would not reach the aquifer for 600 to 800 years and that Boron and fluo rides would not reach the aquifer for 3,000 to 5,000 years. "Even though the levels predicted are extremely low,our proposed design will include measures to ensure the materi

als remain on site," says Blake. Groundwater from the site would be

restricted by a series of pumping wells, which will maintain a slightly negative pressure at subsurface levels. For more information, circle reply card No. 236 67

Wastewater Treatment

By David G. Ledingham, REng.*

Dry biofliter used to treat Industrial wastewater

Industrial wastewater in the food

cleaning or replacement without a sys

conditions required to maintain an

industry, with its high BOD^ lev

tem shutdown.

aerobic environment.

els due to entrained animal-

•A unique design to allow the user to install the system in relatively small

damentally different is its answers to

derived wastes, fats and pro teins, poses costly treatment problems along with potential

What also makes the DBF so fun common conventional trick

ling filter problems. For ex ample, trickling filters may have trouble working in cold climates. The new DBF sys

environmental risks.

In the summer of 1988, a

large duck farm was experi encing serious air and water pollution problems. The farm was discharging wastewater with bird manure and organic

tem can be winterized and be

supplied with warm air to maintain an optimal tempera ture in the filter core.

Another of the more diffi

waste which overloaded the

existing aerated open pond

cult problems plaguing con ventional trickling filters is core clogging. Clogging and the resultant "ponding" nor mally requires a system shut down for cleaning. This is both difficult, time consuming and often results in damage to the delicate and expensive fil ter media. This problem is eliminated in the DBF system. Whenever any module shows signs of clogging:

wastewater treatment system.

While adequate in summer, during colder weather the ponds became septic, creating a strong objectionable smell. The farm was facing growing sewer surcharges as well as en vironmental complaints from the local community. A Mississauga based R&D Company, Front Wave Inc., was approached for assistance in rectifying the problems.

• it is isolated, • removed from the stack,

Front Wave conceived a modi

fied, all-season trickling filter design as a solution. When the new system was commis

•the clogged filter cartridge is removed and replaced in a matter of one or two hours

with a clean cartridge. Only one stack is isolated duced from 4,000 mg/L to at any one time and the balance One set of columns in DBF system. about 15 mg/L in summer and of the system continues to op 50 mg/L in winter. The odour prob increments. l/8th, 1/4 or 1/2 of the erate normally. Removal of one stack lems disappeared as well as the threat system will work until the balance is from a small 16 stack system would of large sewer use fines. installed. result in a temporary reduction of6% The duck farm episode was the first •Air injection into each module makes to 7% in the system's treatment effi step in the development of the Dry it possible to install a vertical column ciency. Biofilter(DBF)which is the patented, 20,30 or even 40 feet high when there With the DBF system, a plant op third generation refinement ofthe well is shortage of floor space but a lot of erator can effectively respond to ma proven waste treatment process gen headroom. This would be impossible jor changes in contamination levels erally known as the "trickling filter". with conventional trickling filters be without making changes in hydraulic The DBF is now patented in the US cause even at a 12 to 14 foot filter core loading or suffering the effects of a (Patent #5,609,753) with patents pend depth there would be an acute short shutdown by; a)increasing the number ing in Canada, UK and Poland. DBF age of oxygen, thereby removing the of modules, thereby improving the has a number of key features setting it apart from conventional trickling fil Table 1 ters. The chief patent claims are: Stage/Stack# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 •A system with modular design where BODj influent mg/L 3200 2300 1800 1350 1020 760 540 320 individual sections can be removed for BODj removed mg/L 900 500 450 330 270 220 210 110 sioned in 1990,the annual av

erage BODj levels were re

*Vice President - Engineering, Dry Biofilter Inc. 68

% removed per stage









Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

residence time in each column, or b)

changing the developed surface of the filter packing and/or increasing the recrrculation rate. Other responses to wastewater fluctuations include alter

ing the number of individual columns or adding a complete new line of col umns, giving operators complete flex ibility and control.

PIRANHA For years, the voracious Piranha

Since the success at the duck farm,

has struck fear into the hearts of South

the DBF has undergone further devel opment and testing. A major "Proof ofthe Concept" test took place in 1993 with the cooperation of several univer sities. A typical set of results is shown

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in Table 1.

The food processing industry is the chief target client for the DBF. Wastewaters generated from this industry contain large amounts of organic material and companies must often pay large surcharge fees or fines levied by municipalities. A commercial sized 30-50 m^(8,000 - 13,000 usg/day) DBF wastewater treatment system commenced operation

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circle reply card No. 237 ACTVAl t DAY - AVntAOi IHfLUENT/ttTUlEKT VAtUBS

mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/I mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l No.t

3,350 2,«20 2,2!0 t,947 1.733 1,558 1,420 1,300 1.200

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Environmental Science &. Engineering, May 1997





A&WMA Convention Preview

Air & Waste Management Association

90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Ontario - June 8-13,1997

A&WMA's Annual Meeting & Exhibition will attract en

David Crombie, a leading Canadian policymaker and former Mayor of

vironmental professionals


year's meeting in Toronto marks the 90th Anniversary of the founding of the Association by a group of Canadian and American smoke inspectors. By hold ing the meeting in Toronto on this momentous occasion,the Association is

confirming the strong bond that endures

Waste Issues

Technical Program

from around the world. This

• Program Administration • Pollution Prevention

• Hazardous, Radioactive & Mixed

Air issues


•Critical Review: Ambient Particles and

• Municipal & Medical Waste

Health: Lines That Divide, presented by

• Site Remediation & Closure

Dr. Sverre Vedal,Professor of Medicine,

Business Risk Management

University of British Columbia. • Biogenic Nonmethane Hydrocarbons in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer.






Environmental Liability Education

members, says Richard Baldwin,

To provide opportunities for attendees to participate in ethical di

A&WMA President.

lemma discussions. Ethical Mo

between American and Canadian

In addition to celebrating its an niversary,the meeting will continue to present cutting-edge environ mental papers and exchange of

ments will be scheduled into ses

sions where open time periods are available again this year. These are only a few of the pa pers and subjects to be discussed and debated at this large interna

critical technical information. The

1997 Technical Program Commit tee, headed by John Martin of

tional conference.

Highlights include: International Workshop which

NOVAMANN International Inc.,

has prepared a program of nearly 1,100 papers that will provoke dis cussion and present accounts ofen vironmental issues and programs in

deals with Innovative Environmen

dozens of countries.

The Annual Meeting offers an opportunity to strengthen profes sional relationships, deepen knowl edge of advancements in the field, and participate in discussions ofen vironmental issues.

Photo courtesy CH2M G&S.

• Recent Developments in Air Quality This year's theme,Science and Tech nology: The International Language, Modeling. reflects the spirit of the air, waste and • Residential Indoor Air Quality environmental management fields, and Emissions and Exposure. the opportunities that lie within. • US/Canadian Acid Rain Update: Some 450 exhibitors of environmen Trends in Emissions and Deposition. tal services and equipment are expected. • Recent Developments in Computer Professional development events in Programs for Noise Impact Assess clude continuing education courses, the ments. QEP certification exam, and a number • Relationships between Indoor and of technical tours to nearby facilities. Outdoor Air Quality. The guest program this year will fea •Atmospheric Chemistry: Emerging Is ture a dinner cruise, winery tours,a visit sues. to Niagara Falls, and of course, the cul • Current Research in Atmospheric Vis turally diverse nature of the host city. ibility. The Annual Meeting officially begins Other areas to be discussed include: in the Metro Toronto Convention • Emission Control Technology Centre at 9:00 a.m. on Monday, June 9, • Optical Sensing with the Opening Session,including the • Sources Association's Annual Business Meeting • Toxic Air Pollutants and comments from Association Presi dent Dick Baldwin and First Vice Presi

• Measurement

dent Bill Zegel. Following the Business Meeting will be the Keynote Address by

• Effects


Environmental Management • Industrial Processes

tal Technologies from a Regulatory Perspective, Tuesday, June 10. Government Employee Forum gives an opportunity for government employees to discuss important air and waste manage ment issues, Sunday, June 8, from 1:00 to 5:00 p.m. "The forum will be open to government officials only and will be led by a panel of Cana dian and US government agency lead ers who will facilitate discussions on

issues such as permitting, enforcement, and training. International Forum will discuss

International Environmental Agree ments and Business-What's Happened and What's Next, Wednesday, June II, 7:00 p.m. This is a special forum, or ganized by the Canadian Global Change Program (CGCP)of the Royal Society of Canada.

Is the Air Killing Us? a public fo rum will be held Wednesday, June II, 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. Brownfields Redevelopment Workshop,Saturday and Sunday, June 7-8. Recent brownfields initiatives seek

to unleash the power of the marketplace to turn a societal problem into a benefit. For more information, contact the

Association at Tel:(412)232-3444,Fax: (412)232-3450. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

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Restoration Environmental Contractors are recommended by over 150 Environmental Consultants, backed by 100% Performance Bonding and $5 million in Environmental & Pollution Impairment Occurrence Form,General Liability Insurance Coverage. So be proactive, protect your personal & corporate assets. Protect your future! As a Building Owner,an Architect, a Consulting Engineer, a Property Manager or an Environmental Consultant, we offer good value for your budget,caU us today! Specify the new Torbo System for your next Lead & Asbestos project. Call us to order our Business Profile Information and Reference Package,today! asbestos abatement and removal contractors

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Mollusk Control

By Daniel J. Butts^ and Donald P. Lewis^

Fire systems now threatened by Zebra and Quagga Mussels

The introduction of the zebra

mussel (Dreissena polymorphd)to North America in 1986 has had a dramatic im

pact on water users throughout the con tinent. This non-indigenous bivalve is thought to have been introduced to Lake St. Clair from transoceanic ballast dis

charge. In ten years it has colonized the entire Great Lakes system, the Missis sippi River and associated tributaries, and now threatens inland waterways throughout North America. More recently, a second ex otic dreissenid, the quagga mussel {Dreissena bugensis), was identified in the Great Lakes, (May and Marsden, 1992). As a result of the mus

sels' ability to block indus trial and municipal water intakes and service water

piping, significant sums of money have been expend ed to develop methods of controlling infestation. Methods have included

mechanical cleaning,chlo rine, thermal treatments,

ultraviolet light, cathodic protection, and molluscicides, among others. Tra ditional methods of chemi

These systems were initially considered

dergo treatments during busy summer

to be immune to mussel colonization


because of their stagnant nature, how ever, recent data has shown otherwise. Scientists have developed a method to assess fire protection systems using dissolved oxygen as an indicator. Many surveys have shown that,in fact, signifi

The potash solution A new approach to treating semistatic systems has been developed us ing potassium (K-i-) in the form of com mercially available potash. Initially used to optimize the effects of oxidants cant amounts of fresh water are moved (i.e., chlorine), experiments found that potassium alone worked better and faster through these piping networks as a re than oxidants and, at low levels, ap sult of intermittent use (i.e., dust con trol, cooling water, vehicle washing) peared to be relatively selective as a molluscicide. The low cost,

benign nature, and com mercial availability of this product have generated widespread enthusiasm among industrial water us ers. In addition, potash is naturally occurring in the environment at detectable

levels(>2 ppm - parts per million) and has been used

by the farming industry for decades. Each year mil lions of tons of potash are applied as fertilizer to aid the agricultural process. The mode of action for

potassium toxicity to bivalves is presently under study. Early research sug gested that potassium chlo ride(KCl)toxicity to zebra

mussels resulted from ces cal control using oxidants, sation of ciliary activity specifically chlorine, have Sampling ocean-going vessel ballast water to detect the potential of which resulted in a reduced been very successful in new exotic species entering our waterways. oxygen supply to the gills, treating once-through sys leading to asphyxia, (Fisher et ai, tems. Research continues with the goal and/or leakage. In addition, most sys of identifying viable methods that will tems are flushed or flow tested on an 1991). Studies also point toward irre annual, semi-annual or more frequent versible destruction of gill epithelius reduce or eliminate the use of chemi leading to asphyxia as a probable cause cals as a control option. basis. In this way, zebra mussels colo nize intermittent flow systems, become of mortality,(O'Donnell etal, 1996). Fire systems at risk Following the discovery of potassi Systems that are semi-static in nature, established, and are maintained by these sporadic infusions of fresh water. um's toxic effect on the zebra mussel, such as closed-loop cooling or fire pro Semi-static water systems have been bench scale testing was undertaken to tection distribution systems, present dif determine the lowest effective concen ferent challenges in terms of control and difficult to effectively treat using tradi trations for acute and chronic control. monitoring strategies and have recently tional methods, such as oxidants, be Results showed that potassium concen become a major focus of zebra mussel cause it is necessary to maintain con control. Fire systems in particular are tinuous chemical injection and flow trations of 30 ppm on a continuous ba sis were sufficient to prevent primary easily disrupted by infestation since only through these systems to ensure suffi cient residual levels for the duration of settlement, while 40 ppm would cause a small amount of shell material is re acute mortality within two weeks at quired to obstruct a fire hose nozzle or treatments. In addition, treatment us sprinkler head during emergency use. ing oxidants or non-oxidizing biocides water temperatures above 15°C. In is only an economical solution when creasing the concentration to 100 ppm produced 100% zebra mussel mortality used under warm water conditions ^Assistant Manager, Biofouling Div., in 48 hours under the same water tem (>15°C). In many cases it is not con ^Manager, Consulting Services, perature conditions. venient for industrial water users to un Aquatic Sciences inc. 72

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Environmentally Preferred Fire system treatment In 1996,Aquatic Sciences conducted the first industrial fire system treatment for zebra mussel control utilizing pot ash in Canada. This system had not been treated for zebra mussel control during the reproductive months of 1995. The client felt it was necessary to proceed with the trial immediately, before any significant shell growth occurred. The treatment began in March with water temperatures at <5°C for the duration of the program. Prior to commencement of the pro gram, an assessment was made of the

fire protection system to determine which areas were susceptible to coloni zation. Dissolved oxygen data was col lected at various points throughout the system and areas of concern were de

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termined. Once the treatment area was

identified, approximate volumes of sit ting water were calculated to determine amounts of potash required. Next, a valve manipulation strategy was de signed in order to route water through the system with minimal disruption of normal operations, while still reaching

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Continued overleaf

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Mollusk Control, cont' In a turnkey operation, portable me tering equipment was installed on site for delivery of the potassium rich solu tion to the fire water system. Equipment included a metering panel and a chemi cal holding tank with spill containment. Biobox monitors were placed at the system extremities and were used to as sess the effectiveness of the treatment. Each biobox was seeded with live zebra mussels. Mussels were allowed

48 hours to acclimate prior to com mencement of the treatment.

A predetermined flow was then in duced at the system extremities through the operation of fire hydrants. Potas sium solution was metered into the sys tem at a concentration known to cause

mortality in adult mussels. Samples were collected at flushing hydrants to determine when the system was fully charged. Once an adequate concentra tion was detected at the system extremi ties, flow was turned off. Potassium

injection continued as more hydrants were flushed to charge up smaller branch lines, and to cover all areas of concern.

Once all areas of concern were

charged, potassium injection and hy-

Hydrant flushing during the studies.

drant flushing were stopped. A small flow was maintained (1 L/min) at each biobox monitor. Samples were collected shortly thereafter at various locations throughout the system to determine if leakage of fire water, and therefore de pletion of potassium concentrations, was occurring. If depletion was occurring, potassium injection was resumed at low levels on a continuous basis.

Examination of seeded zebra mussels

was performed every 24 hours. Mus sels showing signs of potassium intoxi cation were removed from bioboxes in

groups of ten and placed in recovery chambers containing untreated water. Latent mortalities were determined at 24

and 48 hours. Total zebra mussel mor

tality (100%) was determined to have been reached when no recovery was

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Mollusk Control observed after 48 hours.

At water temperatures of 5°C, 100% mussel mortality was achieved in only eight days. Use of an oxidant at these temperatures would require six to eight weeks of treatment to induce this high mortality figure. Perhaps the most important benefit of potash use is that at low concentra tions it is environmentally benign. The product is selective as a molluscicide and in one study was even used to pre vent mussel infestation within fish

hatcheries and also to prevent dispersal of veligers during fish transport, (Waller, 1996). It has also been reported that chloride salts were generally the most

get organisms at 100 ppm, elaborate detoxification strategies are not required in order to preserve the well-being of the receiving water body's aquatic en vironment. To date, potash has not been used in once-through systems. Treated fire water has therefore not been dis

charged directly to the water course but has been discharged to the ground or to much greater volumes of water within plant systems, making it undetectable at discharge. Benefits from the use of potash as a

effective and safest chemicals tested for

control of zebra mussels in the presence of fish (Fisher et ai, 1996). Preliminary toxicity testing using standard acute and chronic methods with

rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia duhia, and fathead minnows, has produced encouraging results with no effect limits greater than 100 ppm. Since potash is not toxic to non-tar-

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control option are considerable. This product reduces the overall time re quired to treat a system and attain fa vourable results even during the dead of winter. The ease of application and port able nature of the treatment system eliminate capital costs and disruption of normal operations. In addition, the cost of commercially available potash is sig nificantly lower than oxidants or other toxic chemicals.

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CWWA Anniversary

By Bill Gates*

Cy\l\NA - decade of progress

The Canadian Water and

FACE members and other key stake

Wastewater Association cel

holders in the water and wastewater in

ebrated its 10th Anniversary in 1996. But the origins of

dustry. The report recommended the creation

CWWA can be traced to the Federation

of the Canadian Water and Wastewater

of Associations on the Canadian Envi

Association(CWWA),intended to rep

ronment(FACE) which started in 1971 and operated as an organization until 1986. FACE focused on training and educational materials in Canada and rep

resent the municipalities or agencies

resentation of its members to the fed

eral government. In 1985, Health and Welfare Canada and Environment Canada commissioned

across Canada which own and manage water supply and wastewater systems. It was further suggested that the utility

ties(FCM)should arrange for a work shop among interested people in the in dustry for the purpose of determining the best course of action to reshape FACE or develop a new association. The Directors of FACE were very supportive of the process and with the help of Environment Canada,organized a meeting in Montreal in Eebruary 1986. Members of the FCM staff and repre sentatives from the suppliers of water and wastewater services were in attend

ance, and subsequently took a leading role in the development ofCWWA. The

a Report titled Canada's Water and Wastewater Industry and its Associa tions. The report was prepared by Brian

or "owner members" would control the

Executive Board of FACE took the de

Association. It was also recognized that regional associations linked with Ameri

cision to support the creation of the new

Grover of R.L. Walker and Partners.

can Water and Wastewater Association

A memorandum of understanding be tween FCM and FACE was prepared and executed setting out the framework

association - CWWA.

The "Grover Report", was finalized

and (then)Water Pollution Control Fed

in December 1985. However, a draft of

eration in Canada should have represen

the report had been issued earlier to

tation in the new association.

of the new association. As a result of

The report concluded that FACE and the Federation of Canadian Municipali-

the memorandum of understanding, a meeting of an interim Executive was

'Halifax, NS

held in Toronto on November 18-19,

1986. At that meeting, the following were elected to CWWA's first Execu

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tive Committee: Bill Gates, President,

Halifax, NS; A1 Schwinghamer, Vice President, Moose Jaw, SK; Bob Fergu son, Vice President (later President), Metro Toronto, ON;Gerry LePage,Sec retary-Treasurer, Pierrefonds, QC. The official name of the Association was confirmed: Canadian Water and

Wastewater Association (Association canadienne des eaux potables et ustes). Meetings were held by the Associa tion Executive in major centres across Canada to solicit supportfrom the larger municipalities for CWWA and also to finalize the constitution, the Associa

tion's objectives and fee structure. By the end of 1987, CWWA was well or

ganized with a strong commitment from municipal water and wastewater systems across the country. In the early days of the association, the executive members gave freely of their time and talents with their munici

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pal organizations paying all their ex penses. However, within several years, the association was able to develop a sound financial base with expert paid help. Today, the association is effectively fulfilling and expanding the role which was envisioned in 1986 by the found ing members - being the national voice of the municipal water and wastewater community. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Smart Thinlting Professor Edwina Higgins and her team uncover concrete proof of intetligent fife oo ether ptanefs.

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By Robin Daddar*

Recycling - the statistics are astounding

Everfelt guilty about throwing

away recyclable material in the wrong waste container or, just not bothering about recy cling? How much difference does one pop can or one glass bottle or some paper make? Quite a lot as it turns out. By not recycling one aluminum pop can, you waste as much energy as there is in half a litre of gasoline (good per haps,for about 20 kilometres). The en ergy saved by recycling one glass bottle will light up a 100 watt light bulb for 4 hours. Recycling 54 kilograms of pa per will save the life of one average sized tree (each person in Canada uses about 270 kilograms of paper a year). In Canada,only about 2% of all solid waste is recycled, compared to 11% in the US and over 50% in Japan. Every year Canadian industries pitch out 6.6 million tonnes of waste - that's enough to fill 2,300 football fields, to the tops of the goal posts! In Ontario alone,there are 20,000 registered generators of haz*M&M Protection Consultants

ardous waste - producing a total of 1.3 million tonnes of hazardous waste. In

dustry and municipalities generate 1.4 million tonnes of sewage sludge annu ally. Each Toronto household produces on average, 1 tonne of garbage and 9 gallons of hazardous waste annually. Garbage collection and tipping fees have soared in recent years-it may cost about $150/tonne to haul away garbage. An organization (with 500 employees) faces an annual garbage disposal bill of $10,000- and that is only for non-haz Eew realize how much we rely on water. It takes 3,000 litres of water to

produce 1 barrel of crude oil; 250,000 litres of water to produce 1 tonne of steel; 770,000 litres of water to produce 1 tonne of high quality paper; yet 1 litre of oil could contaminate 2,000,000 litres of water!

our waters. With this environmental

catastrophe staring us right in our faces, it makes more sense than ever to prac

Perhaps you should know that, of the

Repair - Recycle/Reclaim - Refuse - and be Responsible for waste management. Not only does recycling reduce gar bage, it has many other benefits - ben efits such as conserving energy, reduc ing pollution, saving forests, reducing the greenhouse gases and conserving our precious water. Consider: •recycling 1 tonne of anything means 1

30 million litres of motor oil sold in

tonne less landfill,

Ontario in one year, less than 1 million litres was returned for recycling. Where does all the rest of this waste oil go?

• recycling 1 tonne of waste materials saves 3 m^(27 ft^) of landfill space, • by recycling 1 tonne of steel cans, 1.5 tonnes of raw ore mined and the energy equivalent of3.6 barrels of oil are saved, • when steel, copper and aluminum are made from recycled materials instead of virgin ore, the savings in energy are 74%,90% and 95% respectively, • when scrap iron is used instead of ore to make steel, mining wastes are reduced by 97%, air pollution by 86%, and water pollution by 76%,

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•using recycled glass to make new prod ucts, results in 30% energy savings, • when waste glass is used in the manu facturing process, stack emissions are significantly reduced, resulting in less air pollution, and because lower tem peratures are needed to operate the fur naces, less energy is required.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


Science & Engineering Magazine June 1997 Issue Drinking Water Treatment

The Pulp & Paper Industry

Public concern over drinking water safety gives impetus to the development of new and improved drinking water technologies and equipment. Threats to public health from Cryptosporidium, Giardia, bacte ria and viruses, not to mention organics, show an ever increasing need for upgrading treatment and disinfection technologies. Billions will have to be spent on our drinking water infrastructure to simply maintain present standards.

Few industries have a larger economic impact on Canada than the Pulp & Paper sector. P&P annu ally brings in hundreds of millions of export dollars. While this sector has responded to increasingly stringent environmental controls

ES&E's June issue will feature case

histories on how drinking water quality can be improved. Also, there will be coverage of disinfec tion, distribution and other water

quality related topics, including AWWA convention coverage. Our June issue will be must reading for drinking water professionals and a great advertis ing opportunity for your products and services.

with massive investments,there is still much to be done.

The sheer size of the P&P indus

try, and the myriad of conditions it encounters, makes this sector a huge

market for environmental consulting services, equipment and treatment technology. ES&E has developed a tradition of environmental coverage on P&P issues. Our June issue will con tinue this tradition of editorial excel

lence, making it an ideal place to adver tise your products and services.

Scheduled Editorial Lineup' Analytical detection Biosolids dewatering Drinking water treatment Environmental approvals

industriai wastewater instrumentation

Flow measurement

Oil/water separation PCB management Pump and valve maintenance Solid waste management

Focus on pulp & paper industry

Stormwater & combined sewer overfiows

Groundwater remediation

Water supply development

Environmental insurance

To reserve space, or for further details, phone us before June 2,1997. Steve Davey President

(905) 727-4666

Penny Davey Sales Manager (905) 727-4666, Fax: 841-7271

220 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6 Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax: 841-7271 E-mail: esemag@istar.ca Web site address: http://www.esemag.com *subject to change

Industry Update R.V. Anderson improves wastewater operations and maintenance in India facilities,lagoons,and existing and pro posed marine outfalls. These assess ments were used to define existing op erating water quality and environmen tal conditions and to prepare an effec tive monitoring program. The issue of safety and preventative maintenance is especially important and was given the highest priority in terms of current facilities and operations, and defining training programs and operat ing manuals necessary to ensure longterm improvements. Sewage septicity and sedimentation problems were evi dent at several major facilities includ ing one of the largest stations, the Love Grove Pumping Station, with a 1440 MLD peak capacity. Existing opera tional difficulties have been examined

Bombay street scene. Photo - Ken Morrison

Mumbai,formerly Bombay,is a bustling city of 12 million people. In 1995 the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) awarded R.V. Anderson Associates Limited (RVA) a

$3 million contract to upgrade the Corporation's sewerage operation and maintenance services.

and remedial solutions recommended in

The project will raise the capability and efficiency of Bombay's Water Sup ply and Sewerage Division(WSSD)to operate, manage and maintain the sew erage collection system in Bombay. The project team carried out techni cal assessments for all major facilities including pumping stations, treatment

order to avoid health problems and con tinued equipment deterioration. The project team identified the nec essary training programs for O&M per sonnel and for related personnel from other local government levels. For more information,

circle reply card No. 234

â–Ą 1 wish to receive further information on the Canadian Pavilion â–Ą I wish to visit the show and receive


JkiteS indu^Mry

30 September -

all necessary information


First name:


3 October 1997 Paris-Nord Exhibition

Address: ...

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13 international

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services following their previous visits

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Canadian companies may be interested in joining the official Pavilion organized by the Embassy and Industry Canada.



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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

On June 8J3 ^ Environmental ProiHHOTtils fro

ground the world will meet in ^^mto to clear the air... AND CLEAN THE EARTH. ^The Air & Waste Management Association's

|90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Science & Technology:

fre than 7,000 environmental professionals <* A quality technkarprogram *> The latest technology on display,

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Street/P.O. Box


Air & Waste iv/lanagement Association's

90th Annual

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rvioeting 3c Exhibition

June 8-13, 1997

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For more Information, circle reply card No. 138 (See page 17) ig..


« 1 •:« 1S)


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R&D News

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, architects, technology managers


Environmental and Infrastructure Specialists Planning and Management Design and Construction Operations and Optimisation

R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality

Water and Wastewater,Transportation and Urban Development Technologies Toronto (416)497-8600; Welland; Ottawa; Sudbury (Dennis); London; Moncton (Touchie); Fredericton (Touchie); Charlottetown (Atiantech); Mumbai, India(PHE Consuitants)

Association Canadienne sur la

Qualite de I'Eau

Atfu^tic SciencesInc. Hology Environrrental Audils

Tojdcity Testing

'Environmental professionals working Witt) Industry to Improve water qualtty'

Aquatic Contaminant Remedbtion Sewer Use Bytaw Consutting Water and Wastewater Engineeiing

Removal of Conforms by Biofiitration

A paper by M.L. Tremblay, P. Lessard and M.C. Lavoie in Environmental

Environmental Engineering Stormwater Management Impact Assessments

Technology presents some results on fecal coliform removal from wastewater

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using a full-scale commercial process in volving primary settling, biofiitration and ultraviolet disinfection. These Laval

University scientists observed an aver age fecal coliform reduction of 56% which is low compared to removal





efficiencies found in the literature for


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independent of the wastewater charac teristics and removal of suspended sol


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Water Research Institute scientists, shows that vehicular emissions and coke


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ovens are the major contributors to PAH levels in street sediments. The result of source contributions follow the indus trial activities and vehicular traffic den

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Predicting Activated Sludge Performance

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A paper presented at the 32nd Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollu tion Research described the work of

Hydromantis scientists E. Giroux and 1. Takacs and an American colleague to develop a method to obtain kinetic and stoichiometric parameters for individual chemical components in industrial acti vated sludge processes. The method is based on a respirometric technique. The Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


R&D News, cont' parameter extraction work was success ful in providing reliable estimates of these parameters for all components. The parameters were incorporated in a custom dynamic model of the Selkirk Wastewater Treatment Plant. Operators will use the model through the Opera tor InterfaceT"^ to predict plant capacity


and effluent concentrations for total

COD and individual components. Control of Combined Sewer Overflows

Canadian Water Treatment Corporation

The Regional Municipality of HamiltonWentworth is implementing a compre hensive program to reduce pollution caused by combined sewer overflows. This will include implementation of a real-time control system to enable maxi mum utilization of the storage available

West Coast based design consultancyfor drinking, process and wastewater treatment systems

Municipal, Marine,Indnstrial, Domestic,Agricultural For more information, please contact: Ben Baines, President, at Unit 307 - 675 North Road, Coquitlam, B.C., V3J 1P6 Tel./Fax;(604)939-6175 • E-mail: Ben_Baines@bc.sympatico.ca

within the combined sewer network. A

paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada by Re

gional scientist M.Stirrup, together with Z. Vitasovic and E. Strand of Reid


Crowther Consulting Inc., discusses some of the more important aspects re lated to the design and implementation of the Region's real-time control system, and focuses mainly on the development of the necessary hydrologic and hydrau


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lic simulation models.

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Biodegradation of Sulfolane Sulfolane is used as a solvent in proc esses for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from sour gas. Because of its

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high water solubility, soil contamination by sulfolane quickly leads to ground-


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nated aquifer at a gas plant to determine if they contained sulfolane-degrading microbial populations. These Univer sity ofAlberta scientists found that each environmental sample yielded microbial populations that degraded sulfolane. The degradation rates, presented in Environmental Technology, were stimu lated with nitrogen and phosphorus sup plementation.

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Enzymatic Oxidation of Aqueous Phenol Peroxidase enzymes catalyse the oxida tion of aqueous aromatic compounds by hydrogen peroxide. The primary objec tive of the research reported by J.A. Nicell and I.D. Buchanan to delegates at the 32nd Central Canadian Sympo sium on Water Pollution Research was

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997



R&D News, cont'd.





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nisms of peroxidase. The model, de rived by these McGill University scien tists for a generic substrate and generic peroxidase, was applied to the oxidation of phenol by horseradish peroxidase. The model successfully predicted the removal of phenol under several differ ent reactor configurations including plug-flow and continuous stirred tank


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Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design

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added to soil subjected to bioremedi ation. Ammonium nitrogen soiutions were introduced into soil samples by these Concordia University scientists by applying a DC eiectricai field for 27 days. Analysis at the end of the experi ment showed that the ammonium dis


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


R&D News, conr tribution in soil was relatively uniform and was related to the initial concentra

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McMaster University and University of Waterloo scientists explored a potential alternative technology for wastewater treatment which involves coprecipitation with colloidal iron hydroxide fol lowed by aging at elevated temperatures and high pH to produce crystalline iron oxides. Such crystalline oxides, in ad dition to having reduced sludge volume, may also incorporate metal ions and metalloid oxyanions. C.R. Paige and colleagues measured the rate of trans formation of iron hydroxide model wastewater solids contaminated with

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R&D News, cont'd. periods, of 7 days duration each, were selected to cover a full range of seasonal river conditions. As reported In Water Research, leeches provided direct evi

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been able to determine copper and lead speciation directly In model solutions of copper-nitrilotrlacetlc acid and leadnltrilotriacetlc acid complexes and in snow samples. The techniques Investi gated utilized rotating disk electrode voltammetry with a mercury thln-film electrode on a glassy carbon substrate combined with anodic stripping voltam metry using square-wave, differential pulse, and staircase waveforms. As de Technology, the preferred method per mits in situ determination of speciation with the least possible disturbance to the chemical equilibria Involved. Monitoring Wastewater Treatment Process Dynamics A study by University of Waterloo sci entists B. Tartakovsky, L.A. Llshman and R.L. Legge was undertaken to as sess the application of multiple excita tion - multiple emission fluorometry for monitoring wastewater treatment proc ess dynamics by following organic con sumption and blomass production on line. Analysis of the batch kinetics pub lished In Water Research suggests that this approach Is valid and revealed some dynamic features of protein utilization and blomass accumulation under aero

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A paper published In the Water Pollu tion Research Journal of Canada by J. Schmidt(James W. Schmidt Associates Inc.), P. Seto(Environment Canada)and

D. Averill (Water Technology Interna tional Corp.) describes a pilot-scale study of satellite treatment options for the control of combined sewer over

flows. The technologies evaluated dur 86

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997


R&D News, cont'd. ing two experimental seasons in 1994


and 1995 included a vortex separator, a circular clarifier, a horizontal-flow plate clarifier, and an inclined rotary drum

Assessment and Control

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PCBs in Lake Sediments

D.C.G. Muir and colleagues from the


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while those for di- and trichlorobi-


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drainage volumes were reduced 24% and the nitrogen concentration was re duced by 25% compared with the drain age treatments. When combined with conservation tillage, even greater reduc

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mize the effect of dry summers on crop growth and reduce nitrate contamination of drainage water.

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control



For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer,Canadian Associa

tion on Water Quaiity, Environmentai Technoiogy Centre, Environment Canada, 3439 River Road South, Gioucester, ON K1A0H3,Tei:(613) 990-9849, Fax:(613)990-2855.

■ Industrial/IVIunicipal Wastewater Management • Watershed and Stormwater Management


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

891-2400 821-1127


Hydrogeoiogy and Groundwater Investigations Environmental Site Assessment / Auditing Remediation and Decommissioning Environmental Management Systems 87

Parasite removal

By Garry Palmateer, M.Sc.*

New method to recover Cryptosporidium and Giardia from drinking water

Ourmunicipal watertreatment

systems are not fail-proof when it comes to eliminat

ing waterborne parasites in potable water. Two protozoan parasites in particular are known to break through the system and cause disease in those drinking from this water supply. â– Cryptosporidium parvum, a coccidian parasite with a world-wide distri

from two to ten. The "Achilles heel" of

this complex, multi-step procedure was the difficulty encountered in removing the oocysts and cysts from the poly propylene-wound fibre filter that the large volume of water had been filtered through. This method also required two and a half days to analyze one sample for these parasites. In contrast to the EPA method,a new

bution,is transmitted via the

fecal-oral route through wa ter, which is considered the

major mode of dissemina tion of its oocysts. Each oocyst contains four sporozoites that are resistant to many drinking water treatment processes and which can cause gastro

tents, the Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts are selectively stained with a monoclonal antibody stain com plex. GAP staff have developed a field sampling kit containing a filter that was designed by the Millipore Corporation specifically for the recovery of Crypto sporidium and Giardia from water uti lizing the filter dissolution concept. The simplicity of the sampling kit, which contains pressure tubing connected to a back pressure gauge, a water vol ume totalizer and the special Millipore filter, makes the sampling procedure very "user friendly". In twenty-four hours, the results of the testing can in

intestinal illness that can be

dicate the concentration,

come life threatening in in dividuals with impaired im mune systems such as can cer, AIDS patients and per sons having transplant op

usually expressed per 100 li tres, of the Cryptosporidium oocysts and/or Giardia cysts



Field sampling kit.

Cryptosporidium has been linked to many waterborne disease outbreaks, the most notable being in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where 430,000 residents became ill, 105 of whom died. Closer to home, a 1993 outbreak in

procedure has been refined that offers a percent recovery averaging approxi mately sixty and allows up to five sam ples to be processed in one day. This process is now being offered by GAP

Kitchener-Waterloo resulted in an esti

EnviroMicrobial Services Inc.

mated 1000 persons becoming ill. Do mestic cattle have been implicated as a source of the Cryptosporidium oocysts. Giardia lamblia is a flagellated pro tozoan parasite of the small intestine that exists in two forms - a cyst, which is the resistant, transmissive stage, and a trophozoite, which is the feeding, mul tiplying and pathogenic stage that results in diarrhea for its host. Again, the in

The GAP staff have been actively involved in the development of a Cryptosporidium and Giardia recovery procedure with colleagues from the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agricul

fection is caused via the fecal-oral route and waterborne outbreaks have been

well documented. This parasite is found in humans, domestic pets and wildlife. Traditionally, the US Environmental Protection Agency method, which has been evaluated world-wide, was used to

confirm the presence of these parasites. The percent recovery of Crypto sporidium and Giardia using this method was found to consistently range

ture and Rural Affairs and the Univer

sity of Guelph. This team of scientists developed and refined a method called the Membrane Filter Dissolution Tech

nique. It was conceived by John Aldom and Abdul Chagla, of the Ministry of Health, and has been optimized and field-tested by GAP staff, Garry Palmateer and Shelley Unger, in many water treatment plants managed and operated by the Ontario Clean Water Agency. The field testing, which revealed the OCWA plants to be free of the parasites, clearly demonstrated the advantage of the technique. More than one thousand litres of water are filtered, then the fil

*GAP EnviroMicrobial Services Inc., London, Ontario

ter is dissolved and all of the filter resi

due is captured. From the residue con

Cryptosporidium is con firmed by demonstrating the presence of the four sporozoite nuclei within the oocyst. If the viability of the oocysts is re quired, a further test is performed that exhibits the potential for excystation of the sporozoites from the oocyst. The oocysts are incubated in a medium that promotes the rupturing of the oocyst wall, which allows the sporozoites to exit the oocyst. This process only oc curs if the oocyst is viable. The complete method of recovery and identification, including the viabil ity testing, takes forty-eight hours. The method used above relates to the

testing of treated water. A similar pro cedure (where only 100 to 200 litres of water are filtered) is employed for the source-water of the treatment plants. Field sampling equipment, including portable gas-powered pumps,is utilized to conduct the sampling in remote ar eas.

When monitoring is needed for sur veillance purposes as part of a Quality Control/Quality Assurance program, or when a potential outbreak occurs, trained field and laboratory staff can provide this service on a 24 hour basis. For more information, circle reply card No. 130

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

^w .

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Schlumberger is a multi-billion dollar company with the resources to offer attractive financing programs for customers battling shrinking budgets. Meter Maintenance,


SOLUTION Revenue Management Service

ULF Toilet Program

ULF toilet replacements yield a high volume of water savings. With the "Switch Your Fixtures" program, we can coordinate the entire replacement project.

SOLUTION Home Assessments

Schlumberger's Technical Service Group continues to offer an extensive utility service portfolio




Assessors with the "Home Inspections" program visit homes to identify ways of saving money. They recommend water and energy saving hardware.

You could be losing thousands of dollars a year through inaccurate large water meters. Our RMS program will help increase revenue through meter replacement, sizing, application and maintenance with guaranteed results and no upfront investment.

Call us today for your innovative solution Schlumberger Measurement Division Canada TOLL FREE 1-800-363-7886

technical service

group Schlumberger For more information, circle reply card No. 128(See page 17)

Garbage Transfer

Expandable trailers widen to become mobile garbage transfer stations

The X-Series Trailer acts as a

Rear view of walls closed and open

mobile garbage transfer sta tion. It has the ability to ex pand to "swallow" garbage trucks during unloading, without spill age. It also has both portability and flex ibility which are not present with per


manent transfer stations.




Brothers Industries, based in Morris,

Minnesota, developed the X-Series transfer trailer. Normally 102" wide, this trailer expands to 122" wide so that refuse packers can be backed inside for unloading.



The sidewalls of the X-Series trans fer trailers consist of three sections tied




together with hinges that run the full

height of the sides. Hydraulic cylinders provide the power, moving the rear sec tion of each sidewall in and out 10

inches, giving a total width increase of 20 inches. The added width gives the driver of the packer ample clearance to back the truck directly into the rear sec tion of the trailer. Once the packer is unloaded,the cylinders return the trailer to its legal(US) 102" width. The trailer was developed in response to customer requests for a way to reduce the amount of refuse that is spilled when a packer transfers its load into the trailer.

The refuse can be loaded well ahead of the rear threshold and then carried for

ward by the live floor. Four Models The X-Series comes in four standard

models: 45-ft, 48-ft, 50-ft, and 53-ft, With these standard lengths, these trail ers have capacities ranging from 117 to 138 cubic yards. To widen the rear of the trailer, the operator first unhooks the header of the rear door frame. This frees the rear section of the sidewalls so

The steel Load Runner trailer is made

of corrugated high-strength (50,000 psi yield) 14-gauge material. The corruga tions provide a two-inch sidewall, com pared with a standard three-inch or fourinch sidewall when conventional sheet-

and-post construction is used. The thin ner sidewalls increase the capacity of a 45-ft. trailer by five cubic yards. To reduce the amount of drag on the

that they can move

sidewalls as the live floor moves the



of the

load, inserts are used to seal gaps in the corrugations. The inserts - steel strips with flanges that rest against the inside of the corrugation -are welded in place to form a smooth,snag-free interior wall. A tapered design helps the unloading process by making the rear of the trailer

one on either side of the trailer. The con

trol levers are in

four inches wider than the nose, the live

stalled just ahead of

floor is better able to unload the cargo. "Slippage is a factor with live floor systems," says Jerry Lesmeister, Broth ers vice-president. "The tapered side-

the rear section of the sidewall.

While the hydrau lics can be powered from the tractor, as an option. Brothers of

walls reduce the friction between the

walls and the load. By reducing slip page, we reduce wear. And if we can

fers a trailer-mounted

reduce wear, we can extend the life of

auxiliary gas or diesel engine. Other options

the live floor."

include lift axles, a


In addition to the X-Series, the com

pany offers conventional transfer trailer designs made of steel or aluminum.


sidewalls is regulated hydraulically from two control panels -

X-Series Trailer can be loaded from the top, rear or both.

and heights are offered.

choice ofsuspensions, and mobile loading ramps. A variety of trailer lengths, widths.

The expandable trailer has drawn at tention internationally, too. The firm is negotiating license agreements to manu facture the trailer in Europe. For more information, circle reply card No. 127

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Environmental Business

Philip Environmental and Aiiwaste merge

Philip Environmental Inc. and

mental. "Aiiwaste significantly expands our industrial service capabilities and offers a strong infrastructure. Its 130

Aiiwaste Inc. jointly an nounced March 6, that they have signed a definitive agreement to merge, creating the larg est integrated resource recovery and in dustrial services company in North America. The combined company will

locations can collect materials which can be forwarded to our network of metals

and by-products processing and recov ery operations. This is a classic oppor tunity for two companies with limited overlap of customers and an array of complementary services and specialized industry focus to combine forces. Together, we will exploit our strengths in serving industrial companies that rec ognize the value of third-party solutions to their non-revenue producing activi

have annualized revenue in excess of

$1.6(US)billion, approximately 8,000 employees and 215 operating locations throughout North America, Western Europe and South America. Philip is a fully integrated Hamiltonbased resource recovery and industrial services company providing metals processing and mill services, solid and liquid by-products recovery and indus trial and remediation services to all

major industry sectors. Aiiwaste is a

Allen FracassI fielded a host of complex questions from publications across North America during a conference call the day of the merger. ES&E was part of this unusual press conference.

Houston-based, diversified industrial

resource and services company with 130 locations throughout the United States, Canada and Mexico.

Under the terms of the agreement,

factured or processed product. The newly combined company will organize into two major operating divi sions: Metals Recovery and Industrial

each share of Aiiwaste stock will be

Services. The Industrial Services divi

exchanged for 0.611 shares of Philip

sion will be comprised of the operations of Aiiwaste and Philip's existing By products Recovery and Environmental Services Groups. The Metals Recov ery division will encompass all of Philip's steel, copper and aluminum processing and mill services activities. An integration team comprised of key management from both companies has been formed to steer the integration

Environmental, based on a fixed ex

change ratio. Based on the closing price of Philip stock on March 5, 1997, the transaction values Aiiwaste at approxi mately $540(US)million including the assumption of an estimated $133(US) million in debt. The transaction is ex

pected to close in June, 1997,and is sub ject to, among other things, US and Canadian regulatory approval and share holder approval of both companies. The merger blends complementary operational strengths and creates a port folio of services to respond to the grow ing trends for outsourcing and supplier reduction in the industrial marketplace. Both companies expect significant op erational synergies for the combined company and increased earnings in the first year following the consummation of the transaction.

from the traditional environmental serv

ices sector to respond to the needs of large industrial companies which are under pressure to operate in the most cost-competitive and efficient manner. This has led to increased outsourcing of services that are non-revenue producing, but essential to companies whose pri mary source of revenue is a manu-

"Our companies are a perfect fit. There are powerful synergies in combining our respective core competencies, markets and geographic strengths. Allwaste's strength in industrial services and dis tribution is supported by Philip's tech nology leadership and operating strength in the recovery and reuse of industrial by-products." Philip Environmental and Serv-Tech also announced that they have signed a definitive merger agreement. In 1996, Serv-Tech generated revenue in excess of $140(US) million and provided in dustrial and environmental services

from twenty operations, situated mainly in the Gulf Coast region of the United States.

company that will be a powerful force in providing a broad range of industrial and resource recovery services," said

Serv-Tech provides innovative spe cialty industrial and environmental serv ices and products to the hydrocarbon processing, oil production,food, power, and pulp and paper industries primarily

Allen Fracassi, President and Chief

concentrated in the Gulf and West Coast

Executive Officer of Philip Environ

regions of the United States.


"With this transaction, we create a

Philip Environmental's recent purchases Annual revenue

($million US)


Purchase date


Aiiwaste inc. Serv-Tech Inc. Conversion Resources Warrenton Resources RMF Global inc.

March 6, 1997 March 6, 1997 February, 1997


February, 1997 February, 1997

Flouston, Tx Flouston, Tx Cleveland, Oh Warrenton, Mo Toledo, Oh

February, 1997 January, 1997

Richmond, Va

Allied Metals Ltd.


Luntz Corp. Alcan Alloys Instel SW Partnership

December, 1996 December, 1996 October, 1996

85 120 175 125 130

The industrial services market is es

timated by industry sources as approach ing $50 (US) billion. It has emerged

ties," he said. Robert Chiste, President and Chief Executive Officer of Aiiwaste, stated,

Reynolds' Metals Ltd. (processing facility only)

Enviwnmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

Canton, Oh

Guelph, Ont. Flouston, Tx

140 100 62


Guest Comment

By Alan Church, C.Chem., QER*

Do all businesses need a qualified environmental professional?

In their attempts to unshackle industry and relieve tax

burdens, governments the world over are resorting to programs of self-regulation. Good news you say, for surely these will mean a more measured and efficient approach to such areas as environmental control. I agree, but with the following highly significant caveat. If government personnel are not to be directly involved in permitting and auditing processes, who, in industry, will authorize and stand responsiblefor such activities as appropriate and adequate safeguards to the environment on an ongoing basis? As we have been regulated, plant personnel have had the warm comfort of knowing that as long as all their applica tions were complete and truthful, when accepted by the gov ernment, they would often be partnered at the front line in defending any subsequent accusations of polluting. The gov ernmental agency, having been responsible for accepting the permitting, was often tacitly responsible for defending their action.

When we are self-regulated, this partnership is much less likely to materialise,leaving industries alone in the dock with their accusers.

*Church & Trought Inc.

Considerable dialogue has occurred over the last few years in an attempt to identify and certify those individuals most qualified to assist industry in establishing creditable and defendable environmental programs. For instance, associations for auditors have been formed, and standard practice codes such as the ISO series are growing in acceptance. Unfortunately, because detailed and widespread environ mental concerns are relatively new to our society, until re cently there have been few accredited courses offered, and those that were, tended to be rather narrowly focused on cer tain disciplines. Industry needs to know that its key environ mental watchdogs are capable of seeing the big picture as well as understanding the detailed technical events occurring. As an analogy to the now mature world of financial control, most industry expects its accounting expertise to be able to do much more than just understand the bookkeeping, and would be poorly served by a CFO(CA) whose only outlook on life was the accurate summing of the ledger. And so, too, with the world of environmental control.

Internally, and for its consultants, industry must pick well both its front line troops and its generals. No longer can the key environmental person in the operation be selected from the boiler house staff because he "knows the plant" and has the time to add environmental responsibilities to boiler con trol, lawn maintenance and snow clearance.

MO, Technical

mo Services INC.

63 Mclntyre Place Unit 8, Kitchener, ON. Canada N2R 1J5 (519)748-8024 fax(519)895-1080

MONITARIO has the expertise to: • retrofit your existing sewer • design for all flow rates •

fabricate to better than 0.5% tolerance

• install and configure for many years of accurate reliable operation • calibrate and guarantee accuracy to full third party satisfaction. MONITARIO has built over 100 flow metering stations throughout Ontario. These instailations require proof of accuracy to +-5% of the actual flow. This proof must be given to Municipal, Provincial and Federal regulations authorities.

Call today to discuss your open channel flow metering requirements and arrange a site visit

To answer the call for the identification and regulation of experienced,dedicated and knowledgable environmental pro fessionals, the Institute ofProfessional Environmental Prac tice has been founded. It operates out of Pittsburgh, PA and provides the designation QEP(Qualified Environmental Pro fessional) to its members. Although only four years old, the Institute claims over 650 fully qualified members and is grow ing very rapidly, doubling within the last year. Membership already has an international flavour with examination cen tres in the US, Canada, Mexico and the middle east.

Acceptance to the Institute requires a technical degree plus a minimum offive years of environmental experience,capped by a six hour written examination, or for selected senior pro fessionals, by oral examination. Key to acceptance is that individuals must demonstrate not only mastery in their areas of technical specialization, but also in-depth knowledge of all major areas of environ mental technology. Qualified QEPs are "big picture" envi ronmental professionals. Further,the designation,once earned is not for life. QEPs must re-certify every five years to re main in good standing. In this way, fossil environmentalists will not be formed as they pursue subsequent careers as say stockbrokers, to the detriment of the practising profession als, and most specifically, our clients and employers. And so I believe, all you out there in industry and com merce, do or will need the service of Qualified Environmen

tal Professionals, and to ensure proper selection, an excellent discriminator is the QEP logo, that can be worn only by cur rent and dedicated individuals in the environmental field.

For more information, circle reply card No. 125 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

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(905) 727-4666 93

Government Update

Federal ministries target over 100 substances in action plan

The Chlorinated Substances

Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents

policies show a trend toward effluent

Action Plan is part of an over (CWWE) and the Polyvinyl Chloride all federal strategy to protect (PVC)sector.

dechlorination and alternative forms of

human health and the environ

ment. This science-based action plan includes both regulatory and nonregulatory measures, targeting over 100 chlo rinated substances of concern. The

Canadian Water & Wastewater Associa

tion reports that the Action Plan has five components:

•targeting critical uses and products; •improving scientific understanding; • studying public health and socio economic effects;

• better informing the Canadian public;

Recent discussions centre around the

Canada released a second Progress Report in October, 1996, describing the

development of federal-provincial agreements under which each province would outline a plan of action for mu nicipalities to reduce or eliminate their discharges of chlorinated effluents. The agreements would establish a time frame for implementation and would require a periodic progress review. Polyvinyl Chloride Sector A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) has been drafted between the Vinyl Council of the Society of the Plas tics Industry of Canada, Environment Canada and Industry Canada. The MOU

current status of the Chlorinated Sub

stances Action Plan. The following is an update (taken from the Progress Report) of the targeted actions involv ing Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents and the PVC sector.

Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents

Chlorinated effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants and indus trial sources were assessed and declared toxic under the Canadian Environmen


• promoting and leading international

tal Protection Act (CEPA) in January 1994. Due to insufficient information


on industrial discharges, the focus was on Chlorinated Municipal Effluents ted substances within a set timetable. (CME). The CME issue is currently being addressed through the CEPA-FedAmong the substances and products tar geted, and of particular interest to the eral Provincial Advisory Committee water and wastewater industry, are (FPAC). Current changes in provincial The goal of the plan is to eliminate or significantly reduce toxic chlorina

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Davis Controls .... Derrick

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66, 73

ment and the Accelerated Reduction/

Elimination ofToxics(ARET)program. Member companies would also im plement responsible environmental management and product stewardship practices to address the environmental impact of their industry, ensuring that releases from various stages in the life cycle of PVC plastics are assessed and managed properly. The proposed MOU includes the es tablishment of a public advisory com mittee comprised of a range of individu als from environmental organizations to


16, 65




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The PVC sector MOU is also of in

terest to municipalities, as many use PVC pipe within their water distribution sys tems. The cradle-to-grave approach en couraged by the Vinyl Council in the MOU may have impacts on municipal decisions to use PVC pipe,or the disposal of PVC pipe at the end of its hfe cycle. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1997

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Process Technology for Treatment Economy

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# Primary & Secondary Clarifiers # Solids-Contact Clarifiers

« Trac-Vac" Suction Sludge Collectors % MetalWeave" Flow Control Baffles

s Dissolved Air Flotation Systems % Inclined Plate Clarifiers

i Sludge Thickeners 9 Gravity Belt Concentrators % Low-Speed Surface Aerators Elastox" Membrane Diffusers


£IMC0products help environmental

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Beltpress Filters Rotary Distributors

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become more strict and municipal revenues more scarce,each investment in treatment capacity must yield higher,more reliable returns.EIMCO provides a comprehensive array of equipment, processes and services, each designed for the highest stan dards of dependable performance, efficient opera tion and long-term economy. For more information on EIMCO processes, equipment, and services, contact your local sales representative.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 115 (See page 17)


A Division ofBaker Hughes Canada Inc.