Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 1997

Page 1






Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters - hazardous wastes - air pollution & drinking water treatment Canada's top award-winning environmentai magazine

March 1997

WEAO, OWWA/OMWA, BCWWA & AWMA Convention Previews Quebec's impressive progress in improving water quality New guidelines restore options for 'Brownfieid' sites Domtar chooses closed loop system

FOR A SAFE ENVIRONMENT CALL US! Turbidity/Suspended Solids Analyzer and Sensors

Blanket Level Detectors

The Royce Model 7011 Suspended SolIds Analyzer provides

No moving parts, no maintenance, no re-

calibration required.

Reliable micro-proc

reliable, continuous

essor based electron ics.

operation in waste treatment plants, riv

Continuously moni

ers, lakes and other

aqueous systems. A

tors and controls in terface level in tanks.

user friendly text

Numerically displays interface depth in feet, meters or per centage of total tank depth, Displays either depth of interface or distance from surface to interface.

Graphically displays full-depth interface profile on panel-mounted LCD graphical display. Trending Capability.

Applications: • Waste Treatment

• Any tank with a liquid/solid

• Petroleum

• Pulp & Paper

Parts Per Million

Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers


• Mining

screen provides menu driven setup. The in strument will read In

either milligrams per liter or density per centage and is auto-ranging. With features that Include Insitu calibration, automatic color compensation (Patent Pending), true microprocessor operation, and automatic ambient light compensation (Patent Pending). The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly experienced in ef fluent streams (0-500 mg/1). The Model 73 submersible sensor is for medium ranges typically found in aeration basins (0-30,000 mg/L), The Model 74 in-line sensor is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS line applications (0-

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen analyzers with features such as automatic cali bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel electronics, and low maintenance self-cleaning probes. Four chan

nel conversion available. Request Bulletins 9010/ 9040 and 94.

80,000 mg/1).

Circle 250 on Reader Service Card

Circle 251 on Reader Service Card

Circle 252 on Reader Service Card

Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

Portable Instrumentation for pH,

Continuous Monitoring For

ORP, 88, Interface Level and DO

Gas and Fire

These Battery operated port able Analysers are rugged, water-proof and completely submersible. They are de signed tor reliable remote op eration In Waste Treatment

Plants, rivers, laltes, etc. The

IVIodel 500 pH/ORP is avail able with an assortment ot

Sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliable Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Podable Suspended Sol ids/Interface Analysers are Ideal for remote monitoring In

Check these features:



fuses inexpensive food grade vinegar/non-hazardous buffer)


Wide Operating Range

aeration basins, short term

(.001 ppm to 100 ppm)

diurnal studies and laboratory applications. Each product features digital readout, microprocessor based electron ics with selt-dlagnostlcs. All models except tor the 711 have analogue and RS232 digital outputs.

Low Maintenance


(self cleaning cell) Easy to Install Circle 253 on Reader Service Card

Crowcon's and other Manufacturers' Gas Detectors, includ

ing infra-red and Gas and flame detector Sensors. Gas Monitor has a data logging facility which provides for con tinuous recordings of Gas levels. The System is supplied

with self-installing supporting Software which operates in a Windows environment.

Please ask for details on

Crowcon's Portable single and multi Gas Detectors.

Circle 254 on Reader Service Card

Automatic Liquid Bampiing

BUHLER1023 Bampler

Circle 255 on Reader Service Card

8iudge Bampier

Wherever it's Needed

TheBUHLER 1023lsan

Wide Range of Applications

all stainless steel station


ary wastewater sampler, and the newest offering -30°C ambient tempera tures, this sampler is tar geted tor permanent In

is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flow ing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine

represents the only really prac tical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its abil

cost effective automatic

sampling to assist in monitoring municipal

stallation in both indoor

and outdoor applications. The A.C. powered refrig erated unit can accommo

date various size sample collection bottles In glass or plastic. An Intelligent programmer is provided which can be oft site programmed tor multiple sampling; It can also transfer data to and from the sampler's data logger facility. The programmer can be

The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler

The Epic 101 IT program mable portable wastewater sampler provides

from EPIC. Rated tor

and industrial waste-

ity to sample sludges contain

water. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples ot most liquids

ing a high level of non-homo

connected directly to a serial printer at site, tor printing ot

Including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them Into a container or sequentially into an array ot 12 or 24 separate containers tor sub

data logged in the sampler. ISO 9001 produced.

sequent analysis.

Circle 256 on Reader Service Card

The Crowcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4") 19° Eurocard Rack. The Gas Monitor operates with

geneous suspended solids. Typical Applications: Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs



device feeds

Road tanker loading/dis 1030


charge terminals Sea tanker loading terminals Consolidation tank feeds ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

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Circle 258 on Reader Service Card


CANCOPPAS LIMITED 1045 SOUTH SERVICE ROAD WEST, OAKVILLE, ONTARIO L6L 6K3 TELEPHONE:(905)847-2740 FAX:(905)827-6984 For more Information, circle reply card No.259

February/March '97 Vol. 10 No. 1

ISSN-0835-605X President STEVE DAVEY


Issued March, 1997

Publisher TOM DAVEY

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON CANTON (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Circulation VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Asst. KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop MDS

Alan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacVIro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication pub lished by Environmental Science & Engi neering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and dis tribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi

Spring Convention Previews Environmental Compliance '97, BCW&WA,Americana '97 OWWA, WEAOandAWMA


Destruction of the public utility concept The pipes, the pipes are appalling. Editorial by Tom Davey Canadian consulting firm positions itself in Malaysia's

6 9

environmental market


Total environmental management- now a vital aspect for Canadian industries


Domtar chooses the closed-loop solution 22 New guideline restores options for Brownfield sites 24 The environment and our impact on it- Part I 27 Every business now faces threats from environmental liability 30 Gullible gulls 32 Substantial progress has been made in Quebec's water quality 34 Canadian pulp and paper companies reduce fossii fuel use by 20% .... 38 Wastewater used for irrigation in Florida 40 PCB transformer replacement vs reclassification 42 Ministers take action on greenhouse gases 46 Philip launches construction of its zinc iron plasma process unit 48 Wastewater modelling software can analyze treatment performance ... 50 The $5.4 billion scrubber/adsorber market


Wetlands preserved by micro tunnelling Thames water aims to surpass EU/UK standards Ontario will transfer all water and sewage works to municipalities Revenue opportunities abound in metering Two-stage dual sludge treatment process for industrial

62 64 77 78

wastewater treatment


Site remediation firms bank on export markets


ronmental officials, water and wastewater

treatment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mail Sales

Official 1997 Ontario Environmental

Product Agreement No. 18197

Tradeshow Guide - Exhibitors, floorplan

Second Class Mail


Registration No. 7750

Printed in Canada, by Web Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year,$70.00 for two years, $25.00 per single Issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engi neering, 220 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax;(905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca. Web site: http://www.esemag.com


Departments Ad Index


Literature Reviews



Product Review

Datepad Industry Update

14 4, 10-14

R&D News

Reader Service Card


54-56, 59-61, 87 66-71

17, 21, 80

Cover story on page 34 by Dr. Jean Painchaud outlines Quebec's impressive strides in improving water quality. The inset highiights the fact that this issue is also the Official Show Guide of the Ontario

Environmental Exposition. ES&E is also sponsoring Compliance '97 Workshops and Training Courses at the Exposition which will be held at the Toronto Congress Centre,650 Dixon Rd,Toronto, March 13-14. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Industry Update a major printing plant in Canada. This

Printing industry cleans up

scale demonstration of Maratek's in-

Through Technology Partnerships Canada (TPC), the federal government is investing $485,000 in a project to be undertaken by Maratek Enviroiunental Inc. ofBolton,Ontario. The project will substantially reduce water-borne emis sions and increase recycling from print ing and graphics plants. Maratek will design and install a pro totype turnkey waste-cleaning system in

house technology. The Maratek system promises ben efits to the printing industry in Canada and abroad, as variations of the system can be installed in virtually any printing plant. This membrane/distillation tech nology will have the capability of pro viding an environmentally friendly treat ment ofall printing plant waste at a lower cost per litre than other methods.

installation will be the first commercial

The total project cost is $1,295,000. The project is expected to create 49 highly skilled jobs and to generate $7 million in aggregate sales over the next three years.

Goider and GiobaiTox form alliance Goider Associates Ltd., a geotechnical and environmental engineering and sci ences firm and founding member ofthe Goider Associates group ofinternational companies, has established a Strategic Alliance with GlobalTox International





Consultants Inc., a Guelph-based firm that specializes in human and environ mental toxicology and pathology. The alliance will integrate two firms that provide comprehensive environ mental services for industry, government and non-government agencies, and al low them to combine their strengths in environmental engineering,sciences and management, with toxicology, pathology and risk assessment.



Hach celebrates

golden anniversary In 1947, Clifford and Kathyrn Hach formed a company that would pro

Waste water slurry


Derrick Flo-Line sct^


foundly influence water quality testing. From the very first hardness test to the


advanced DI^4000 UV-VIS Scanning emanas, wnicn ar

on corporations

control B.O.I^i efhand) discharges! n€-treatment costs, haveT> ous need for efficierl|f cost effective equipment to ce waste water solias solids concentraconcentra- ^ce waste water - a waste water stream using Derrick

. per/jck Corporation, with over 40 ~ ,,p.43MM urethane scregti^i. ars of flije"screening experience,is now>» I ffering this equipment tech

waste water Industry' 'JJ, " wotldwide'Tliio gh utilizing the Derrick

Tluld .,effect

Spectrophotometer, the driving force behind all Hach products is to make water quality analysis accessible for anyone,anywhere accurate answers are needed. Today, Hach offers more than 3000 products for water quality analy sis, including laboratory, field and con tinuous on-line systems. The 50th anniversary edition of the Systemsfor Analysis catalogue features many new products for water quality testing,including the DR/4000 Scarming UV-VIS Spectrophotometer, the DR/ 2010 Datalogging Spectrophotometer, and several new methods for simplified analysis. A comprehensive Web site has been launched at http://www.hach.com. Recognizing the value of taking care of customers around the clock and around

ypical screen oversize recovery of solids from processing waste Water slurry at 50 mesh. THURSTON MACHINE INC.


1586 Griffiths Place

9030 Leslie St. Unit 5

Kelowna, British Columbia VIZ 2T7

Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B IG2

Phone: 604-769-3848



Fax: 905-771-891 1

the world, the site enables visitors .to

learn about the company, product news, dealer locations, technical support, and to provide feedback about product per formance and customer service. Litera

ture requests, quotation requests and technical questions can also be handled via the new Web site. Circle No. 181

For more information, circle reply card No. 151 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997


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Guest Comment

By Tom Eyre*

Destruction of the public utility concept

In the late 19th Century, numer

ous small private companies es tablished themselves to supply water and, later, electricity. Due to a number of problems, mainly finan cial, the municipalities took them over and,in part emulating the business prac tice of the original private companies, formed commissions whose object it was to ensure that everyone could ob tain good potable water at cost - i.e., non-profit. Often, these commissions were endorsed by a vote of the people, change in Schedule M,Clause 33. This a referendum which legitimized them changed the Public Utilities Act by add under the Public Utilities Act. The pub ing the following section: lic utilities, generally known as PUCs, 67 (1) A Municipal Corporation may have for the last hundred years quietly pass a by-law to eliminate the require provided the service, with relatively low ment to obtain the assent of the electors profile but in a highly efficient manner. before the Corporation exercises power Over 200 PUCs exist,jointly supplying under this Act. hydro and water. (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a On January 29, 1996, the Ontario Municipal Corporation exercising its provincial government, through the power with respect to natural gas. Omnibus Bill, Bill 26,changed the rules. Subsequently, Ontario Regulation The furor was on the health care areas, 25/96 also excluded public utilities sup but hidden away was a simple word plying hydro-electric power. At a fell swoop, the provincial government re*Brantford FUG


cut corners on and risk compromising reputation.

with your reputation, or ours! When you specify NEO, you can be certain you are specifying quality valves without compromise. Regardless of the application, call us for immediate, expert attention to your valve requirements; support you should exnect ...and definitely deserve. M/e 're ready for your business.

and wastewafer


aNEOVALVES Tel: Fax: Mont. Tel: Fax: Van. Tel: Fax:


more businesslike world, it would seem

that the providers who can do it most efficiently and effectively into the future would be selected.

Unfortunately, the municipal world is a political one, with major difficul ties in approaching business. When the downloading from the provincial level occurs, they do not look at how they can reduce costs, but at where else they can raise extra revenues. Water has been

well run with, in general, little or no debt, and is an obvious "cash cow" hence, the renewed interest in takeovers.

Having acquired the "cash cow", the municipalities can milk it for projects

and the customers? There will be in

creased rates, but the monies will go

Valves are not a component you want to

â– WE l%E ImEAAl# 1 It's not a risk we're prepared to take either;

of valves for water

dred years' history of providing good potable water at some of the lowest prices in the world. The ironic part is that Premier Harris is reported to be ad vocating greater use of referenda. There is logic in putting water and sewage together. The two are com monly billed together, based upon the water meter reading. However, in a

What will this mean to the industry

Forty years in this business has taught us that valves are critical to the reliability of your project and the long term cost-effectiveness of your plant.

IrIwfcl#I tlm lllPfnE DEAI^V

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certain the future of PUCs with a hun

other than water.



duced the democratic input into the sup ply of water, sewage and transit serv ices. This one-word change made un

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elsewhere. In turn, this will mean less

money for projects, supplies and equip ment - a drying up of water activity. Like paying for garbage, the water rate payer will be subsidizing other taxpay ers. The UK experience has shown that the customer pays more, gets less, and has no say in the operation. In Ontario, one of the factors mak

ing water rates low and customer serv ice good is that locally-elected officials can be asked specific questions on water and, as it is one of their primary interests, action is taken immediately. PUCs use full-cost accounting, while municipalities do not, so with PUG accounts, you can see exactly where the money trails go. Long-range planning - essential in the water industry - is a common fea ture, ensuring that system upgrades occur on time and without debt. This is

definitely something that should not be lost in today's world. You, the public have a duty to yourselves to ensure that your water rates are used only for water.

For more information, circie reply card No. 153 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Money Down the Drain Today's tough economic conditions call for Engineers to review every decision. Even a "straightforward" one - such as which material to specify for storm sewers - can significantly effect development costs. It's unique rib design has a Introducing Armtec's low manning's "n" Ultra FloÂŽSpiral Rib Pipe for today's storm sewer systems. coefficient similar to rigid pipe materials. Ultra FloÂŽ spiral rib pipe Ultra Flo is light weight, is an innovative, flexible inexpensive, easy to get metal pipe which has been and easy to handle. Available proven highly reliable in in long lengths (12m) and thousands of installations.

diameters of up to 2600 mm. It is available in

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For more information, contact the Armtec office near you.

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Editorial Comment

Editorial by Tom Davey

The pipes, the pipes are appaiiing Massive inspection and rehabilitation programs needed

Imagineagourmetrestaurant where wonderful food is expertly pre pared by skilled chefs in a spotless kitchen. Then consider an unlikely

scenario where the same food is then

served from gleaming pots and pans on to chipped crockery and corroded uten sils. Unlikely? Perhaps. But this sce nario could be applied to our drinking water distribution infrastructure.

Not only are many water pipes and sewers badly in need of repair or re newal, but their leakage rate is quite as tounding to laymen. An Environment Canada Survey estimates that unaccountedfor water losses range from a low of 10 percent to a high of 35 per cent. This water, now treated to very high regulatory standards, has been known to leak from pipes which are of ten several decades old. Some of the

leaked potable water may then penetrate equally leaky sanitary sewer pipes. The insane result is that water which

has been expensively treated to potable standards, may make its way to the sewage treatment plant where it has to be treated once more - this

time as sewage - before dis charge into the same water body the water originally was

mendable records in reducing "unac

exponentially over time. Estimates of

counted for water losses." London,

unmet water and wastewater infrastruc

Ontario, using both large and small PVC pipe, also has reported excellent results. The trunk water mains serving MetroToronto - welded steel pipe encased in concrete- are another example of com mendable infrastructure vigilance and long-term thinking. Other municipali ties providing trunk distribution water services, have used high-quality, prestressed concrete pipe with similar re

ture needs range from $38 to $49 bil


Ultimately, reducing leakage could also save large amounts of money. One Canadian municipality with unac counted for water losses of only 12 per cent, saved almost $1 million per year using PRVs(pressure reducing valves). The PRVs ensured fire-fighting safety - while enabling overall nocturnal pres sures to be substantially reduced, so re ducing leakages. In an analysis of Canada's water and

lion. This is the capital needed to en sure that existing capital stock and serv ices are maintained," the Round Table said.

But in one recent Canadian water

utilities survey, 75 percent reported an annual pipe replacement program ofless than one percent of their total systems.

This represents a replacement cycle of in excess of one hundred years, so pipe systems put in before the Wright Broth ers took off might be due for renewal around AD 2003.

The most cost-effective long-term way to ensure the integrity of our water is to embark on massive inspection and restoration of those decrepid water and sewerage systems which are older than the humans they serve. While this will probably protect health more cost-effec tively than many preventative medical programs, it will also provide

By developing drinking water and sewerage systems in past decades, environmental scientists and engineers, it shouid be stressed, have done more to

reduce disease and deaths - especiaiiy in infants - than the medicai profession.

drawn from.

This corruption of potable water is at once a macabre duplication and dis tortion of nature's own hydrological cy cle which has purified water and air since our planet cooled and life forms emerged. It also makes a mockery of the term recycling. Then too, leaking sewer pipe discharges may penetrate groundwater supplies and contaminate well water.

While potholes in roads cause pub lic outrage and immediate political ac tion, equally neglected water and sewer pipes are out of sight and therefore, out of the public's mind. If the public could see what lies beneath the potholes, they would demand remedial action.

Thankfully, there are many munici palities that have maintained vigilant in spection and rehab programs for their infrastructure. Edmonton, Alberta and Belleville, Ontario are said to have com

wastewater system,the National Round

tens of thousands of skilled,

highly paid jobs in engineer ing, construction and manu facturing. Such infrastructure rehabilitation will be good for our economy, our health and the environment.

Like the Round Table, Health Canada also states that, in most

among the best in the world. Public health planning, coupled with the growth of municipal services has re sulted in a high quality water and wastewater infrastructure system in most parts of the country, the report said, but it left no room for complacency. It stressed that the lack of user pay systems in many regions and municipalities across the country discourages conservation of

cases, Canadians enjoy reasonably highquality tap water. I would like to stress that we pay less for our high-quality drinking water than almost any other country in the world. Japanese drink ing water, for example, can cost four times as much as we pay in Canada and many European countries have water bills that are double, even triple, what Canadians pay. By developing drinking water and sewerage systems in past decades, en vironmental scientists and engineers, it

water resources.

should be noted, have done more to re

"As a result, there is a large unmet need to maintain and refurbish existing

duce disease and deaths - especially in infants - than the medical profession. There can be no more effective way to continue this exemplary record, than by a massive inspection and rehabilita

Table on the Environment and the

Economy,noted that Canada's water and wastewater infrastructure services are

water and wastewater infrastructure,

particularly sewage capital stock. By ignoring this need for the last 15 to 20 years, governments have exacerbated the situation since repair bills rise

tion of our water and sewer infrastruc ture.

Other editorial comments by Tom Davey can be seen on ES&E's web site. http://www.esemag.com or reply by Email: esemag@istar.ca

Industry Update Canada and Paprican team up A landmark agreement has been reached between the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN) and the federal government, launching a re search and development program to en sure the continued competitiveness and environmental improvement of Cana da's pulp and paper industry. Through Technology Partnerships Canada (TPC) the federal government

will invest up to $9 million in repay

able contributions for the project at PAPRICAN's facilities in Vancouver,

It involves redesigning pulp and paper manufacturing processes to allow more

B.C. and Pointe Claire, QC. The TPC

of the raw materials to be directed into

funds are leveraging another $27 mil lion in R&D for the project from the private sector. The institute estimates that the project, including R&D invest

the product, with less lost as liquid

ments, will total $88.5 million over five

Progress to reduce the use and emission


Chlorine update of chlorinated substances is outlined in


The TPC investment in the PAPRI

CAN project is for the development, demonstration and commercialization of

pulp and paper technologies designed to eliminate remaining liquid pollutants.

a new federal government report which is now available. The second progress report of the Chlorinated Substances Action Plan from Environment Canada

and Health Canada, outlines initiatives

taken in 1995 and 1996, including the banning of four chlorinated substances and efforts to measure the effects of chlorinated substances in foods and on human health. The Chlorinated Substances Action

Plan is a comprehensive initiative to manage some of the most harmful, highly toxic, persistent and bio-accumu lative substances found in the environ

ment. The federal government contin ues to work with industry and other stakeholders to reduce or eliminate the

most dangerous of these substances, while allowing beneficial uses to con tinue. Contact James Riordan, (819) 953-3353.

U of T has new program in environmental

engineering The Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering at the University ofToronto has launched a new Collaborative Pro

gram in Environmental Engineering for undergraduate students and established a new Division of Environmental Engi neering. Through the new program,stu dents in Chemical, Civil and Mechani

cal Engineering can take an Option that will give them enhanced studies in en vironmental engineering, as well as a Ctyptosporidium is a threat to every surface water supply. Yes, every. Just ask Milwaukee. Las Vegas. Walla Walla. Albuquerque. Braun Station, Texas. CoUingwood, Ontario. Kelowna, British Columbia. And an ever-growing hst of communities caught unprepared. This microorganism has proven itself impervious to conventional water disinfection technologies. If you beheve that regulatory comphance alone will take care of crypto, you're wrong. Even with protected SAFE

watersheds, your community could be the next affected. And your water company could be the next facing serious problems. Get the facts on crypto, and leaim how we can help you avoid the risk.

results of a new

inactlvation technology from Safe Water Solutions,

call (414) 365-2377 or fax (414) 365-2210.


Risk Assessment. In addition, students will choose their elective courses from

For a free copy of independent fesf


solid technical education in their cho

sen discipline. The program consists of six core en vironmental courses on topics such as Applied Ecology,Environmental Chem istry, and Environmental Impact and

For more information, circle reply card No. 156 (See page 17)

a growing list of environmental topics. In their final year, students will work in interdisciplinary teams to address real environmental problems. For more information contact; Pro

fessor Philip Byer, Chair, Division of Environmental Engineering, University of Toronto,Toronto, ON,M5S IA4,Tel:

(416)978-5980, Fax:(416)978-3674. Environmental Science cSc Engineering, March 1997

Industry Update NRC man named NASTT chair Michael Alldritt, P.Eng., assumed the Chair of the North American Society for Trenchless Technology from outgoing chair Bill Gray, January 1997. He has a background in civil engineering con struction project management in Eng land and Canada and currently works

ing year include forging closer links with the 20 other affiliated trenchless

societies around the world, and with

other organizations in North America interested in trenchless.

Insituform gains ISO 9002 certification

with the National Research Council of

Insituform Technologies, Inc.'s Cana dian installation operations have gained

Canada where he is responsible for man

ISO 9002 accreditation for Insituform®

aging technology transfer and innova tion projects in collaboration with nu

and NuPipe® pipeline rehabilitation con

merous companies. His priorities for NASTT in the com

tracting operations. The Canadian of fices use Insituform's proprietary nondisruptive products and processes to re

habilitate underground pipelines with out digging. ISO 9002 registration is granted to

operations that have established and are currently maintaining quality manage ment systems that meet stringent re

quirements. The ISO 9000 series - of which ISO 9002 is a part - was estab lished seven years ago to assure an in ternational standard of quality in an in creasingly global marketplace and is now aceepted worldwide. Insituform's headquarters,research and development center, and its two manufacturing facili ties gained ISO eertification on Decem ber 5, 1995.

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Industry Update Rod Holme elected AWWA President Elect

as all of the Canadian Sections during the election process. Rod is also a Director of Water for People Canada and

ternationally. Though both companies were active outside of Canada, our

has served as a member of the Board of

broader scope of services will put us in contention for major business that here

the Canadian Water & Wastewater

tofore we were unable to solicit."


Close to 500 people are employed at the company, with eight Canadian offices in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec, as well as in Mexico City, Bratislava,

Rod is a member of the Australian

Water & Wastewater Association, hav

ing graduated from the University of Sydney. He believes that he may be the first of their members to become an

AWWA President, buy wryly notes he is definitely the first member ofES&Es Editorial Board to do so!

Slovakia, and Thailand. The new com

pany win now offer testing services that include pharmaceutical, environmental, food safety, industrial, and occupational health, both nationally and intemationally.

Praxair and Trailigaz

Works Association have elected Rod

Merger creates major laboratory company

Holme, Vice President of Proctor &

Chemex Labs(Alberta)Etc. of Calgary,

Redfem in Toronto, as incoming Presi dent Elect. Rod will officially assume

and NOVAMANN International Inc. of

his duties as President Elect at the

in June. Currently completing his sec

with the resulting incorporation. The combined company, headquartered in Mississauga, includes all of the wholly

ond term as an AWWA Vice President,

owned or controlled subsidiaries, with

he will become the 7th Canadian Presi

out divestiture. Each partner company had been operating for over 20 years. "This merger is much more than two companies combining assets," says John Martin, CEO of the new company. "It puts us in a much stronger position in

Praxair, Inc., one of the world's largest industrial gas companies,and Trailigaz, the world's leading supplier of ozone systems, have formed a worldwide alli ance, Praxair-Trailigaz Ozone. It will combine Praxair's expertise in develop ment,engineering and manufacturing of vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) oxygen generation systems, with Trailigaz' advanced ozone produc tion systems. The newly created alliance allows Continued overleaf

The Directors of the American Water

AWWA Annual Conference in Atlanta

dent of AWWA.

Rod was nominated by the Ontario Water Works Association. He has ex

pressed extreme gratitude for the strong support received from OWWA as well

Mississauga, have concluded a merger

form alliance

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Industry Update Praxair and Trailigaz to expand their oxygen-based ozone system operations in the municipal drinking water treat

Ontario Pollution Control Equipment

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Solid Wastes

Canadian consulting firm positions itself in Malaysia's environmental market

Whileeconomic conditions in Canada remain turbu lent for environmental

consulting firms, new in ternational opportunities are opening up in the Asia Pacific (ASEAN) Region where Canadian expertise and integrity are becoming highly valued. A wide range of business opportunities exist for Canadian firms within the Asia Pacific

Region's burgeoning environmental market, estimated at US $7 billion an nually (excluding Japan). Furthermore, key Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand are experiencing the fastest growing econo mies with annual growth rates between 20 and 25 percent. The President of Gartner Lee, Grant

Anderson (top left), was investigating business opportunities and potential joint-venture partnerships in Malaysia during a trade mission in October 1993.

With rapidly expanding economies in the Asia-Pacific Region, basic infrastructure needs such as waste management, waste water, and water supply are under pressure.

term commitment to the country that could only come from a permanent pres ence on the ground.

of waste management operations was undertaken. Teams of environmental

While there, he met Keir Consultants'

In October 1994, after months of re

scientists, planners and engineers, both Canadian and Malaysian, were mobi

President, Andrew Keir. They quickly realized that their combined expertise presented a more attractive package to the Malaysian marketplace. Gartner Lee Keir Asia Inc., was subsequently foimed to seek opportunities in the new and rap idly growing environmental and infor mation management business both within Malaysia and the ASLAN Region. Why Malaysia? Besides being cen trally located in the region, Malaysia is financially stable and English is used as a common business language. And while Malaysians have demonstrated tremendous technical and engineering skills, they have not gained the experi ence or training with respect to environ mental projects. Throughout their market-access ef

search, meetings, planning and negotia

lized to conduct a full audit of solid

tions, Gartner Lee Keir Asia Inc. offi

waste management systems of 42 mu nicipalities. The information collected provided the background for the overall system planning for waste collection and disposal prior to taking over the respon sibility for actually delivering the waste management services. Immediate atten tion has been given to upgrading two op erating landfill sites serving the capital city of Kuala Lumpur, so that there is some interim waste disposal capacity for

forts, the Canadian consortium worked

closely with Enterprise Malaysia Canada (EMC), the Canadian High Commission in Malaysia and the Ontario International Corporation (QIC). The GLOBE Foundation of Canada and Industry Canada also pro vided valuable organizational support for two environmental business trade

missions. However, it was quickly re alized that, while many environmental firms were investigating and position ing themselves in the ASEAN market place, clients were looking for the long16

cially joined forces with one of Malay sia's largest industrial conglomerates, HICOM Holdings Bhd., to form a new joint-venture company,Hicom Environ mental Sdn. Bhd. With large holdings in manufacturing and engineering indus tries, HICOM has a workforce of more

than 12,000 and total gross assets ex

ceeding Cdn $2.6 billion. Since that time, HICOM Environ mental has serviced HICOM's multi-

the short term.

sectorial environmental needs as well as

A primary objective of the team is to incorporate a strategy to progressively reduce the amount of waste generated. This will be achieved by working with waste generators, government, end-use industries, existing private and public recyclers and the general public. The strategy further provides for a unique and pragmatic approach to managing re sidual waste that requires disposal. Another primary feature of the waste management system will be the siting and integration of large scale regional sanitary landfills which will be serviced by strategically located transfer stations, road transport and rail haul. These sites will replace many of the existing dumps which have been operated without any

pursued national and intemational en vironmental projects. These projects have involved waste management,geo graphic information systems (GIS)for property and facility management and linear corridor environmental assess

ments (rail, highways,etc.), radioactive waste disposal, environmental manage ment and planning, and environmental and socioeconomic impact assessments. The most significant of these projects has been the privatization of 70% of Malaysia's solid waste management in frastructure system and assistance with the development of a national compre hensive and fully integrated solid waste management system.

This project officially commenced in January 1997. However, during 1996, an intensive effort to assess the status

environmental controls.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

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Environmental Policles

By Eric W.E. Denman, B.Eng., (Chem), Eng., MBA*

Total environmental management- now a

vital aspect for Canadian industries

Over the past ten to twenty

Environmental Issues

years, environmental inci

dents have received dra

matic coverage in the me dia. Protection of the environment has

become the ever-increasing focus of a growing number of organizations. As a result, the public has become sensitized to and aware of many of the key envi ronmental issues facing industry today. Governments have responded to these trends by enacting stringent legis lation. Not only does today's environ mental legislation encompass tight quantitative norms and performance standards but it also possesses the nec essary legal clout to enforce its provi sions and to severely punish offenders. Recent court cases (Bata Industries, Vamicolor Industries), where corporate executives have been individually and personally fined or jailed, clearly show the direction in which our litigious so ciety is heading. Corporations are now seeking cost-effective means to protect themselves from possible prosecution and corporate managers are seeking ways to protect themselves from in creasingly severe legal penalties im

Environmental Awareness and

"Ownership: • training and sensitization Emergency preparedness and response:

• facility operation • major spills and accidental discharges. Waste Management: • oil/mixed waste

• routine discharges (product transfer, dangerous commodities) • minor leaks and spills

environmental protection are consistent, specific, measurable, realistic, achiev able, and trackable, it is highly recom mended that a specific set of environ mental policies and procedures be de veloped. An environmental policy is analo gous to a law enacted by government. It defines the overall direction to be fol

lowed regarding a particular issue, and is clearly supported from the top of the organization down through the ranks. The cornerstone of an effective En

"Quick and dirty" solutions such as addressing a single problem in a "firefighting" mode are largely ineffective today. A comprehensive Environmental Management Program is the most costeffective and consistent way to: • determine the organization's environ

vironmental Management Program is the existence of such clearly-defined environmental policies. Once appropri ate policies are developed,then environ mental procedures can be drafted to cover any variety of practical issues. An environmental procedure is anal ogous to a government regulation and usually stipulates the details of "who, what, when, where, why, how, and how

mental liabilities,

much" to achieve desired results.

posed by environmental legislation.

• quantify the resulting environmental

Environmental policies and proce

• contractors, suppliers and other third-party intervenors. Insurance and Insurability: • design and integrity. Worker Health & Safety: • worker exposure to dangerous commodities

•right-to-know legislation (WHMIS) Environmental Responsibility and Liability: • due diligence Financial Constraints

dures are useful tools for developing en vironmental awareness throughout the

organization and are an essential ele ment of establishing that the organiza tion is operating with "due diligence" in the environmental field.

A qualified and experienced environ mental manager is instramental in help ing to define the company's needs with regard to policies and procedures. He can also assist in developing such poli cies and procedures in collaboration with other employees in order to suit the organization's particular needs and re quirements. Environmental awareness training An offshoot of the policies and pro

cedures development process is the as pect of environmental awareness train ing. The existence of a Program Coor dinator (or even an Environmental

Group) within a particular organization is not sufficient to guarantee that all lev

els ofthe organization will be aware and sensitive to environmental concerns.

risk and devise and implement appro

priate long-term corrective measures, •ensure constant follow-up on environ

Elements of a Comprehensive Environmental Management Program Management Tools:

mental matters,

• corporate environmental policies

• alert management to impending legis

and procedures • environmental awareness training • risk management: awareness, assessment,preparation,response,

lative trends,

•advise management on environmental matters.

Corporate environmental policies and procedures The foundation in any society is usu

ally a set of established rules and regu lations which govem the way that soci ety conducts itself. For an organization to ensure that its efforts in the area of 'Director, Canadian Operations, Fluor Daniel GTi Canada Inc., Montreal, PQ


• environmental impact evaluation • environmental record-keeping • environmental action monitoring and follow-up Liaison activities:

•impact of proposed legislation • legislative trends • industry input to proposed

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

legislation • industry representation Technical services: • chemical hazards assessment of

consultants' proposals and output • hazardous waste management • solid waste management • environmental regulatory assessments

• storage tank management • site decommissioning •facility and site assessment •remediation programs • effluent monitoring and treatment • emergency response


Environmental Policies, cont'd. Without total commitment to environ

• Employees become aware of environ

mental protection at all levels through out the organization, no program, no

mental practices and are more apt to ap ply them themselves to avert environ

matter how sophisticated, will ever suc

mental problems. • Environmental protection becomes a part of each employee's job,rather than "something the guy in head office takes


What is needed is a coordinated pro gram to introduce the concepts of envi ronmental protection as covered by previously-prepared enviromnental poli cies and procedures, to all levels of the organization. This means that the mes sage is communicated from the top down and from the bottom up. Such training serves many purposes:

care of.

effective way to determine, quantify,and prioritize an organization's environmen tal liabilities is to perform a series of environmental audits on its various facilities and installations.

Environmental audits are being utilized by an increasing number of organizations in Canada, the U.S., and

• The existence and documentation of

world-wide to assess their current envi

such training serves as another valuable element in the "due diligence" frame

ronmental situation. Many different


type of study: environmental audit, en vironmental verification, environmen tal baseline study,compliance study,im pact study, etc. They all mean essen tially the same thing. Benefits of conducting an effective environmental audit program Any environmental audit by itself

Risk management One efficient, thorough, and cost-

Visit Environmental Science

& Engineering Magazine

names are used in connection with this

will do nothing more than provide man agement with a working document. It is then up to management to proceed

on the world wide web.


A successful environmental audit,

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followed by the implementation of cor


•reduction or elimination of risks to the

rective measures, will benefit the com

pany in the following areas: environment,

• improvement of the firm's level of regulatory compliance,

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•improvement of the firm's relationship with government agencies, • reduction of fines or penalties, • protection of the facility, or operation from impairment of operations, • improvement of the public's percep tion of the firm.

Types of environmental audit A full complement of Ro-Flo rotary sliding vane type gas compressors is available to suit your specific digester gas handling needs. Offered in single or two-stage configurations, these compressors are uniquely designed to provide extended operating life while handling a variety of dirty, corrosive gas mixtures. For convenience, the Ro-Flo compressor can be factory equipped with a full complement of accessories to provide you with a completely self-contained package.

An environmental audit must be custom

ized to meet the specific needs of the firm or organization; however,two sim ple parameters are generally employed to define the scope of the work: 1. Level of detail. The amount of de



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tail required is a function of the desired objectives as well as the size and com plexity of the facility or operation in question. An environmental audit may be de signed as a preliminary survey to iden tify major problem areas at a specific facility. On the other hand, a detailed audit may be required of a complex facility which delves into several spe cific subject areas. 2. Qualitative vs. quantitative. An environmental audit may be qualitative in nature; in which case no samples or measurements are taken, but problem areas and potential problem areas(such as visible contamination) are docu-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Environmental Policies, cont'd. mented and reported. A quantitative audit may involve sampling and chemical analysis of air, water, or soil in order to determine com

pliance with appropriate norms. Liaison activities Liaison activities conducted within

the Environmental Management Pro gram consist of two main directions:

terest groups. The approach to this type of activity in an effective Environmen tal Management Program must be gen erally non-confrontational, yet pro-ac tive. The goal of the program is to de velop key contacts and professional working relationships based on credibil ity and professional respect. Technical services comprise a wide

deals generally with situations managed from within the framework of the group and its member companies. External

range of diverse and all-encompassing activities designed to provide timely and

liaison involves direct contact and in

as they affect the industry or the corpo

teraction with external groups such as government, similar organizations, etc.


Most governmentjurisdictions today enact legislation in a consultative mode. Such recently-introduced Canadian fed eral programs as the Workplace Hazard ous Materials Information System (WHMIS) were developed on the basis

of tri-partite agreements between govemment, organized labour, and indus try. Even in the worst-case scenario, proposed legislation is published prior

to final govemment acceptance, offer ing the stakeholders an opportunity to

cases, an external consultant is often

used to complete a fixed mandate. Too often the client is unclear as to the best

way to proceed in order to solve his problem. The consultant's mandate be ing generally unclear gives him almost "carte-blanche" to incur excessive ex

Technical services

Internal and external. Internal liaison

Internal liaison

are required to determine the presence of specific contamination, etc. In such

accurate guidance in technical matters

A large number of technical service questions can be resolved in-house through resources from within the

Environmental Management Program. Such requests may range from simple questions regarding environmental issues to more complex situations re garding technological issues. Occasionally, supplementary techni cal resources can be required to solve

specific problems. Examples would be where sampling and analytical testing

penses, while not necessarily address ing the problem in an adequate manner. The result is that the client pays for some thing he doesn't really want or need. An effective Environmental Manage ment Program would provide the nec essary expertise to define such techni cal problems on behalf of the corpora tion, to write concise, yet clear terms of reference, seek competitive bids from appropriate consultants,evaluate bids on the basis of a set of previously estab lished quantitative selection criteria, guide the consultant during the execu tion of his mandate, and finally, assess the quality of the final delivered prod uct to ensure it meets the client's origi nal requirements.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 295(See page 17)

comment and propose changes.

An effective Environmental Manage ment Program will scrutinize impend ing environmental legislation in key jurisdictions: Canadian Federal, Cana dian Provinces, American States, Euro

pean Community,etc. The ultimate eco nomic,social, and technological impacts of this legislation can be determined, quantified and communicated to com pany management in an efficient and


timely manner. Subsequently, appropri ate recommendations can be made to

mitigate any perceived negative effects. Implementation and monitoring of the effectiveness of the resulting mitigative measures can also be handled by the program, generally under the heading of


Technical Services. External liaison

By participating on appropriate com mittees (such as the Canadian Chemi

cal Producers' Association), by attend ing industry events (technical and busi ness meetings, etc.), and by liaising with govemment officials, the interests of the corporation can be effectively defended and enhanced.

Such activities as described above are

often referred to as "lobbying". Lob bying is an essential aspect to be seri ously considered for any industry group which has a lot to gain or lose at the whim of the legislators and special in-

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 199'^or more information, circle reply Card No. 296(See page 17) 21

Pulp & Paper

By Bob Earner*

Domtar chooses the closed-loop solution

The Bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario, is one of Canada's

most delightful resort areas. Tourists come from all over

North America to enjoy the fishing, swimming and boating alongside some of the best beaches on the Great Lakes.

Few tourists know that nearby, on the Trent River, a pulp and paper mill has been operating since 1927. One of three Domtar Packaging containerboard mills, the Trenton mill

makes corrugated containers. Almost all the wood fibre is recovered for

paperboard manufacturing except some of the hardwood component which stays in the pulping solution as dissolved or ganic material. Over the years, the mill has taken many steps to reduce the quantity of dis solved solids and limit the amount of

effluent discharged into the river. In fact, through a combination of washing and evaporation, the concentrated liq uor makes a very satisfactory dust suppressant and binder for gravel roads. But, about 12 tonnes a day of dissolved organic elements were left unrecovered. Secondary treatment of the mill's ef fluent would have been an acceptable solution. Using bioremediation tech niques and settling ponds, the treated effluent would have met the stringent new standards for suspended solids and impact on the environment and aquatic life. But the colour of the water would

have still been an unappetizing brown and disposing of the sludge from the waste treatment would have created ad

The Domtar mill, on the banks of the Trent River In Trenton, Ontario, employs 130 people from the surrounding communities and produces 150,000 tonnes of corru gating medium paper each year. It contributes more than $19 million annually to the local economy. At Domtar's R&D

Centre in

Senneville, Quebec,laboratory trials on the closed-loop option started in 1991. In theory, the process was relatively straightforward. The water process con taining the unrecovered wood solids could be evaporated, the condensate re turned to the manufacturing process and the concentrated solution of wood fibre

and water readily recovered. Jim McKee, Pulp Mill Superintend ent at Trenton, recalls the fu'st less-than-

successful trials using a small evapora tor in operation at the mill. "After about two hours, we started losing efficiency dramatically. At 15 percent solids, the process water turned into a jelly-like

ditional environmental issues.

substance and wouldn't flow." Addi

Bob Rowbottom, Domtar Packaging's Director ofTechnical and Environ

tional trials were conducted to find fea

mental Matters,said:"We knew that new

government regulations meant we had to reduce our environmental impact, so we started by evaluating how to treat the effluent. In the end, we chose a differ

ent approach, the zero percent solution - don'tjust treat the problem, eliminate it!"

A closed-loop solution eliminates process water from entering the river a solution which would move the mill

well beyond current effluent quality de mands, with some exposure to the risks associated with breaking new ground. *Vice President, Research and

Technological Development, Domtar Inc. 22

sible operating limits and over the next few months, the process was brought under control and losses in the evapo ration system capacity were limited. The trials confirmed the practicality of the system but there was one more hurdle to pass and this had less to do with the engineering and more to do with economics. The closed-loop sys tem was expected to be more costly than the secondary treatment system and pur chasing a new evaporator would have made the project untenable. An evapo rator salvaged from a pulping mill that had been shut down in'Thunder Bay was the final step in justifying the closedloop system. â– The evaporation system the mill uses is known as a horizontal tube falling film

process in which process water cascades down over heated horizontal tubes. There are two bundles of steam-fed

tubes, each twelve feet in diameter and

forty feet long. As the process water flows continuously over the tubes, the water evaporates and the concentrated solution of dissolved solids is removed.

Enough water to fill an olympic-sized swimming pool is processed every two days. The evaporator is powered by a com pressor driven by a 3,500 horsepower electrical motor. As the water evapo rates, it passes through a forty foot long vapour washer and is recirculated through the compressor to feed the heat ing tubes in the evaporator. None of the process water is returned to the river. Condensate from the evaporator tubes is collected in a 500,000 gallon tank and replaces fresh water in mill showers to clean equipment and mechanical pump seals. Once the system has been charged, only small amounts of make up water are required and the mill proc ess system becomes, essentially, selfsupporting. The Trent River is still an essential resource for the mill. The mill draws

water from the river for its cooling sys tems and steam boilers, but this water never comes into direct contact with the

manufacturing process. Trenton is the first integrated chemi cal pulp and paper mill in North America to use a 100 percent closed-loop proc ess water system.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Wastewater and Soil Treatment Options


Solving severe COD problems Wet oxidation has proven very effective in solving severe COD (chemical oxy gen demand) problems in water, soil, sludge and sediment remediation. Wet oxidation is the process where organic and oxidizable inorganic con taminants in liquids (or the solids ex tracted into water)are oxidized by air or oxygen, under elevated temperature and pressure, to low molecular weight com pounds like carboxylic acids, carbon di

the case of soils, metals can be separated easily from the soil matrix and recov ered by precipitation or filtration. Wet oxidation is particularly effective

for waste streams too toxic for biologi cal treatment and too dilute for incinera tion. It can be used where detoxification

is a prime objective or where the COD content ranges between 1% and 20% and

COD reduction is important.

Wet oxidation can be used in a large number of industries, including automo tive, brewing and distilling, chemical, food processing, manufacturing, mining, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, and pulp and paper. "Praxair has access to the best wet oxi

dation technology to meet the customer's particular needs," Kirkwood said. Circle reply card No. 105

oxide and water.

"Recent technology advances, which enable pure oxygen to be used in wet oxi dation, eliminate the need for wasteful

air compression and tail gas clean-up," said Don Kirkwood, Manager Technol ogy and Marketing for Praxair Canada. Where complete oxidation takes place, carbon dioxide and water are the by-products. Where complete oxidation

is not necessary, the products are gener ally water-soluble and biodegradable. In


Safe and effective

control of pH levels Replacing acid with carbon dioxide

(COj) is a safe, effective and economi cal method of controlling pH levels in alkaline process and effluent waters.

Carbon dioxide has many advantages over sulfuric acid. Unlike sulfuric acid, carbon dioxide is a natural chemical and

Praxair has acquired Liquid

Carbonic Industries, making us' the world's largest producer of

is not stored as an acid solution. This

makes it safer and easier to handle, with

no need for acid handling equipment or residuals to worry about. It also means reduced maintenance costs, as less

equipment and monitoring devices are needed, translating into less downtime. And because CO, is non-corrosive to pipes and equipment, it helps extend equipment lif^e. There are also other considerable cost

savings,as up to 48 percent less CO,than sulfuric acid is needed for the neutrali

zation of high pH levels. Moreover,

sulfidity ratios are not affected by CO^. Circle reply card No. 106

carbon dioxide and a good deal more

It vastly expands our -^ability to provide a full menu of atmospheilc^

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us new capacity and expertise to serve

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of Union Carbide, the business became

an independent,publicly-traded company in 1992 and was renamed Praxair. In

1996, Praxair acquired Liquid Carbonic, the world's largest supplier of carbon di oxide. The two companies have merged under the Praxair name, forming one of the largest industrial gases companies in the world.

bve^4 billion, making our future impRjSiuRi Mla^ing o|ir planet more productive.: information please call l-SOO-PRAXAIR e-mail: info @ praxair.com

rratidft, circle reply card No. 104(See page 17)


Site Remediation

By D. Belanger, M.Sc. and C. Elwood, P.Eng.*

New guideline restores options for

Manyindustrial sites areim

Brownfieid sites

printed with contaminants from the poor waste man agement procedures and improper material handling practices of the past. Lands associated with petro leum handling/transfer stations, manu facturing sites, chemical plants and foundries in particular, are known for having been impacted in this way. Referred to as Brownfieid sites, con

taminated properties are frequently lo cated near the cores of old industrial

ized cities. If centrally located, these sites can have tremendous redevelop ment potential, but undoing the past can be difficult and expensive. In many cases, the cost of remediation exceeds

the value of properties. Liability, risk and regulatory issues scare away poten tial investors and lending agencies. Breathing life back into vacant,aban doned or underutilized sites has just be come more feasible. In June 1996, the

Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy (MGEE) released its Guideline for Use at Contaminated Sites in Ontario

(GUCSO). This long-awaited guideline finally gives the site remediation indus try in Ontario an established procedure for restoring contaminated sites. The GUCSO allows for

several different approaches to remediation:

management decisions and techniques are then prescribed to limit exposure and reduce risk. This type of approach has also been adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and is illustrated in the Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative issued in January 1995. CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

(CG&S) recently used the SSRA method to clean up a fuel distribution and lubricants blending facility owned by Shell Canada. Being in Toronto's Harbourfront area, the project had a high .

Breathing life back into

faceted project using several modern technologies including erection of an onsite groundwater treatment plant, iso lating the site with sheet piling and the Waterloo Barrier System, performing soil vapour field screening, and provid ing continuous air monitoring. The project was also completed under a rig orous time constraint of four months.

This risk-based approach not only reduced the cost to Shell, but was ac

cepted by all stakeholders (six parties and their consultants). The approach also became part of MOEE's framework for development of the vacant, abandoned or new guideline.

underutilized sites has Just become more feasible.

1. The Background approach aims to restore sites to naturally occurring background conditions. 2. The Generic approach involves the use of generic soil and groundwater quality criteria which are deemed to be protective of human health and the en vironment in any setting. 3. The Potentially Sensitive Sites ap proach recognizes special site charac teristics (i.e. sensitive environments, rare

or endangered species). 4. The Site-Specific Risk Assessment (SSRA) approach uses risk-based cleanup criteria developed specifically for the property in question. The SSRA offers the greatest oppor tunity for economically restoring indus trial sites. Site-specific data is used to determine the health effects of contami

nant exposure to humans, plants, wild life and the natural environment. Risk *CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited 24

Excavation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at the former Shell Canada property in Toronto's Port Industrial Area.

profile with groups such as the Toronto Economic Development Commission, local citizens groups and the MOEE. Shell's objective was to implement a responsible, timely, and cost-effective remediation in anticipation of Toronto Hydro as the next site user. CG&S led this project through extensive consulta tion, detailed assessment of soil and

In addition, the Shell

site remediation was prec edent-setting in the Toronto Harbourfront area for the redevelopment of Brownfieid sites. It demonstrated that

with the cooperation of industry, gov ernment,and the community,large-scale remediation projects on under-used in dustrial sites can be designed and im plemented in a responsible, timely, and cost-effective manner. Using this ap proach, many of the existing abandoned

groundwater quality, development of site-specific criteria, a human health risk or vacant industrial sites in urban areas assessment based on the site-specific of Canada can be effectively remediated criteria (performed by Angus Environ and redeveloped. Furthermore, this mental Limited),technology review and would limit the use of undeveloped land evaluation, and the preparation of a ("Greenfield" sites) for new industrial/ Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The preferred option which utilized

commercial sites, which will in turn

offsite low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD)and offsite disposal as the remediation technologies,resulted in the removal of only one third of the contaminated soil to significantly reduce the risk. CG&S implemented this multi-

tion, and the destruction of habitat. The

minimize urban sprawl, traffic conges approach used at the Shell site represents a real-life application of sustainable de velopment. For more information,

circie reply card No. 117

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997




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Environmental Perspective

By David J. Sperling, Dipi.T., B.Sc.

The environment and our impact on it -Parti

Thereis a trend now to report

especially those things that impact negatively on all things "green". This essen tially claims that modern technology is


to blame for our troubles and not man

directly. Let's go back in time a bit to when many of our troubles began, back to 18th century Great Britain and the start of the Industrial Revolution when

steam engines were introduced to make life easier for people. The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in 1752 when the iron

master Abraham Darby began smelting with coal {Barrow, 1995). This period was distinguished by many technologi cal inventions, including the spinning jenny and the steam engine. These ma chines and other innovations allowed the

traditional trades of sewing, flour mill ing, brewing, and shoe making to be come mechanized. The real advantage of this period was the thermodynamic conversion of heat energy into kinetic energy.

The benefits of the Industrial Revo

lution included an increased life span coupled with rising birth rates in the city which led to increased population growth. This rise in population, colo nial settlement, and improved transpor tation methods, led to a global trade in resources and manufactured goods which assisted in driving the process of

Two textile factories on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, situated to bring coal to power the looms, then take the finished goods to Liverpool for shipment around the world. Steam-powered battleships of the Royai Navy aiso used coal to protect British interests around the worid. Photo - Davcom Archives

wastes from industry and cities was that Nature can take care of it. Dumping raw wastes into rivers was a common prac tice for centuries. These rivers were also

the sources of drinking and bath water. Epidemics of cholera and other diseases took their toll on the(ab)users of the riv ers but little connection was made be

tween waste discharge and disease. Eventually the practice of drinking wa ter taken from rivers into which sewage was discharged changed so that safer sources of water were available to the

philosophy of the day. As various tech nologies improved, the state of the en vironment got worse. As man strove for better ways to make life easier,the costs to the environment were largely ignored. By the time World War II erupted, the Industrial Revolution had entered the

"Chemical Age". When Japan took over the world's supply of natural rubber, petrochemical companies turned their eyes to crude oil and the products they found they could create from it. Once this happened, a whole new type of pol

public. Unfortunately, waste discharges

lution entered the environment in the

into watercourses continued.

form of man-made chemicals. Much of

the wastes discharged into the water ways and the air had no natural place in the Earth's scheme of things because they were man-made, molecular Fran

end result of this was an increase of air

At the same time, the industry en gines were also spewing out massive clouds ofsmoke and soot as they bumed coal to generate the steam they needed to power the factories that made all the goods the public thought they needed. Just as mankind had been affected by the pollution of the water supply, so also a toll was taken due to pollution of the air supply. In 1911, 1,150 Londoners died from respiratory problems as a re

borne and waterborne pollutants from

sult of the coal smoke in the air; and in

the factories {Heinke, 1989a).

1952, another 4,000 people died from pollution in the air {Miller, 1990). In 1956, London took steps to reduce air pollution and its deadly effects by pass ing the Clean Air Act. World War II and Beyond Few people concerned themselves with the impact that industrialization was having upon the environment,

industrialization {Barrow, 1995). The ultimate benefit of the Industrial Revo

lution for the individual was a higher standard ofliving through higher wages. The increase in wages also meant an increase in the purchasing power of the population. This, in turn, resulted in an increased demand for consumer goods which meant that there was also an in

creased consumption of resources. The

As technology advanced, the Revo lution continued and still continues to

day. It cannot be denied that there were benefits to industrialization, such as the

higher standards of living resulting from higher wages. There is also a negative side as well, the impact that industriali zation has on the environment.

The initial attitude regarding the

"Nature can take care of itself was the

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

kenstein monsters that would have made

Mary Shelley proud. The desired com pounds were no treat for the environ ment either because the philosophy that nature can take care of its own still pre vailed.

After World War II, the petrochemi cal industry went into high gear. Scien tists created novel and effective com

pounds to solve mankind's problems. These included compounds such as DDT(dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), paraquat, eldrin, and dieldrin, etc. to rid the world of harmful insects. These did

theirjob quite well. Unfortunately they are also very effective in killing off other organisms as well-dogs, birds,fish and humans. 27

Environmental Perspective, cont'd. Besides these chemical bad guys, we also created "good" products like nylon, rayon, polyethylene(commonly seen as Saran wrap), polystyrene (Styrofoam), and all the weird and wonderful plas tics that we now absolutely must have in order to survive. In order to get these absolutely essential, can't-live-withoutem products, wastes are created. In the 1960's, discharge of the wastes

are removed from the ground. The iron is smelted using the coal and then rolled

into the water, or burial in drums was a

to form sheet steel which is sent to a

common practice. Now there were two new philosophies besides the original one. They were "Dilution is the solu tion to pollution" and "Out of sight, out of mind". These misguided ideas stem med from the perception that water and air are everlasting, unending things -

manufacturer to form the can. Another

there is so much of it that we will never

harm it; and from the belief that nature

can handle anything we discard. These perceptions were proven wrong in the late 1960's and early 1970's after Rachel

ing at the raw material or resource, to the manufacturer(s), and on to the dis tributor, to the consumer, and finally to the landfill.

If,for example, you were to consider a steel can as it goes through this sys tem, you can see how this works. The iron and coal needed to make the steel

manufacturer fills the can and sends it on to a distributor for sale to the con sumer. The contents of the can are used

and the empty can is discarded. The can returns to the ground from whence its components came but the raw materials cannot be recovered. Not only does our throw-away society discard worn out or

out of mind". Landfills need to be

If one item were to illustrate our

Consumer Demand and Our

like Mount Trashmore, an edifice to

Table 1.



would be a landfill. Think about it, what

created, it can never be used for farm

other society can lay claim to an object

ing again. It's only use upon closure is as a park or golf course. In a landfill, each day's refuse is dumped in an area beside the previous day's refuse, it is then compacted and, at the end of the day, covered with earth to create a cell.

achievement if there ever was one! Solid Wastes

There is an old adage which states that you cannot make an omelet with out first breaking a few eggs. Once you have your omelet, what do you do with

the shells? If the omelet was any prod uct you could think of, like the chair in which you are sitting, the stereo, the computer, your clothes, etc., then the

Once the landfill is full, the whole site

is covered with a thick clay cap and cov ered with vegetation. Approximately I hectare per year is required for every 25,000 people to landfill the generated solid waste (Henry, 1989a).

shells are the wastes that are associated

with each product. What do we do with

This article will be continued in our next issue.

Industrial Impacts Upon the Environment Petrochemical



Emissions to the

Particulate, gas emissions during forging, working

Noxious fumes from

Particulate matter from

Drift of agricultural

Release of noxious

food processing.

surface mining, transportation.


fumes during processing.

atmosphere from refining, processing plants (noxious, toxic).


Since we landfill so much waste, the

landfill has become an engineered ex ample of the philosophy "Out of site, located in areas with geological features that assist in preventing leachate from escaping. The areas best suited for landfills usually happen to have fertile soil on top of them. Once a landfill is

throw-away society and its accomplish ments, most likely the item selected

created a means to mass-produce prod ucts, those products were discarded upon the end of their useful lives and new items were purchased. Because people felt that they could create a steady supply of products there was no need to retain worn out products or reclaim their raw materials. The throw-away society can be depicted as a straight line, start

Will we ever learn from the past? In the Iron and Bronze ages, broken prod ucts were refashioned into new equip ment. When World War 11 erupted, peo ple patriotically collected materials to aid the war effort. Tin, glass, cloth, paper, and rubber were all important in the 1940's, because there was a war go ing on. Today, the concept of reusing and reclaiming materials is being reintroduced. In the half century between World War 11 and today, we landfilled our trash as though we had an endless supply of raw materials.

materials used to make the product origi nally.

Carson wrote her well-known book

of the Industrial Revolution. Once we


useless items,but it also discards the raw

Silent Spring that detailed the effect chemicals have had upon the environ ment; and also by the now infamous Love Canal tragedy. Throw-Away Society Our throw-away society was bom out

the waste? Most waste is landfilled,

some is incinerated, and some is recy

Plant emissions to

receiving water bodies.


Noxious, toxic fumes from smelting.


Discharge of mill pickle liquors. Other waste disposal to


Wastes often have high organic content.

Dust, pollen escape due to field operations.

Pulp and Paper

Runoff from mine

Runoffof pesticides and fertilizers to

wastes (mercury,

surface water and


water bodies.

tailings. Processing wastes disposed of directly

Heavy metal releases

into water bodies.

(intentional, unintentional).

Contaminated factory

percolation to

Silt from deforested

subsurface water


(groundwater). Silting of water bodies due to poor fanning


Loss of wildlife



Disposal of waste solids, sludges to landfills.

Disposal ofslag, waste products from processing.

Accidental spills during transport, storage

Human Impacts

Dumping mine tailings, processing wastes. Disruption of agriculture, forestry, recreation by open-pit

Erosion of land surface.

Breakdown of

Depletion of organic material, necessary soil microorganisms, etc.

ecosystem in clear-cut areas.

Erosion of unprotected land.


Some products, wastes toxic to many forms of

Health effects of

Health hazard to

Health effects of

released toxins in air

and water.

miners (mercury, asbestos, coal mining).

biocides, polluted


water, etc.

Disruption of life style from emissions to all

three spheres.

(Adapted from Heinke, 1989a)


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997



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Environmental Insurance

Every business now faces threats from environmental iiabiiity

With a growing public

ECS Underwriting, Inc.

awareness of environ

mental concerns, gov ernment emphasis on environmental regulation and increased toxic tort litigation, the need for busi ness and industry to seek proper protec tion is essential. Today, a specialized environmental insurance industry meets

Continued Growth In Gross Written Premiums Millions $200 $170


that need.

However,in past years, the insurance industry's desire to provide environmen tal liability coverages was less than enthusiastic. Concerns about litigation over environmental cleanups and fears that policy language would be misinter preted by the courts sparked insurers to back away from writing pollution insurance.

, $150 $125




The Pollution Exclusion

In the early 1970s, a series of inci dents - Times Beach in Missouri, Love

Fiscal Year









Canal in New York, Jackson Township ECS Underwriting, lnc.'s fiscal year mns July 1-June 30. in New Jersey, to name a few - gener ated greater awareness and concerns regarding environmental incidents. The marketplace. The product offered was surance carriers willing to offer these EIL coverage, which provided coverage coverages. Nonetheless, business and insurance marketplace reacted by modi on a claims-made basis for third-party industry still sought protection for their fying its standard Comprehensive Gen bodily injury and property damage environmental risks. eral Liability (CGL) policy. The Market Today In 1973, a pollution exclusion was caused by a gradual pollution condition Increased industry demand has implemented under the CGL policy only at an insured location. In December of 1980, Congress prompted a resurgence of the environ for those pollution conditions consid passed the Comprehensive Environmen mental insurance industry. The market ered "sudden and accidental". This sup developed new policies such as contrac posedly protected the insurance carriers tal Response Compensation and Liabil against long-term or gradual pollution ity Act, better known as "Superfund". tors pollution liability and consultants exposures, such as those created by Superfund was designed to provide a environmental liability coverages. To day, to cover new and expanding risks, years of waste dumping or chemical comprehensive plan to clean up the na insurance with competitive pricing, tion's most hazardous waste sites. discharges. During the early 1980s,environmen terms and conditions is motivating Environmental Impairment tal toxic tort litigation exploded. In the numerous companies to seek insurance Liability Coverage Environmental Impairment Liability courtrooms, the original intent of the to cover their potential environmental exposures. (EIL)coverage became availAccording to David M. able in 1979. This policy was Now virtually every business-from Rosenberg, executive vice developed for two main rea architectural and engineering firms to president for ECS, Inc., "it sons: • To fill the coverage gap manufacturers and commercial developers - used to be that environmental risk was a problem primarily under the CGL policy created faces potential environmental iiabiiity. for the hazardous waste and by the 1973 pollution exclu chemical industries, but that

sion, and

• To meet the financial responsibility pollution exclusion was eroded until it no longer made sense to distinguish requirements of the Resource Conser vation and Recovery Act (RCRA), between "sudden" and "gradual" pollu which specified limits and coverages for tion conditions. Today, standard pollu hazardous waste treatment, storage and tion policies provide pollution coverage regardless of the type of release, sub disposal facilities (TSDEs). This resulted in the emergence of a ject to other terms and conditions. By 1985, there were only a few in stand-alone environmental insurance 30

has changed dramatically. Now virtu ally every business -from architectural and engineering firms to manufacturers and commercial developers -faces po tential environmental liability." Insurance industry providers have become more sophisticated at meeting the needs of these companies.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

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Drinking Water Quaiity

Gulls are one species of bird

By Russell Holmes, P.Eng.

Gullible gulls

protected by the Migratory

Birds Convention Act in

Canada. The species is also protected by similar legislation in the United States. From about mid March

to the end of July, a colony made up of thousands of Ring-billed Gulls, nests on the islands in the Ottawa River in the

vicinity of the Lemieux Island Water Pu rification Plant. This plant is one of two facilities treating and supplying drink ing water to the urban and suburban resi dents of the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton in Ontario.

In the last ten years, the colony popu lation has increased significantly. Origi nally, the colony was located on only one island but now about a dozen islands

are occupied. Recently,the gulls started showing an interest in colonizing parts of Lemieux Island.

Lemieux Island Water Purification Plant, Intake and low lift pumping station area.

just did not seem to last very long and when they broke, they became a safety hazard. The technique worked reason ably well except along the shoreline

trical power outlet. The distress call is pre-recorded into a solid state integrated circuit and is played over a loudspeaker at an interval of our choosing.

When the distress call was first The gulls pass the time building where the birds landed and nested un played, those gullible gulls immediately nests, raising young,squawking,swim derneath the lines. The installation and ming, flying and eating. Time isn't all maintenance costs were also substantial. took to the air in a flap and left the area. A cheaper, easier and more effective With the distress call being automatithey pass, usually fouling the shoreline cally repeated every minute and the water in the process. or so, the device has been As long as the gulls stay away If only we could talk to the animals from the purification plant 100% effective in keeping the as Dr. Doolittle would do, or in our case water intake, they are not a gulls away from the intake squawk to the seagulls. problem. However, because area for the past two summers. The device has also of the population explosion, they are now wanting to nest near the way to keep the gulls away was needed. been installed on the plant roof with intake, making contamination of the raw If only we could talk to the animals as great success. Dr. Doolittle would do, or in our case Our landfill staff also installed units plant water a concern. squawk to the seagulls. So in 1995, we on their compacting equipment. Ac The legal protection given to the spe cies limits our options for dealing with found a way to do it and it has been cording to Dave Ryan, the technologist the problem. One method used at the working ever since. at the site, the devices have prevented plant for several years was to string thin By accident, we obtained information the gulls from landing in the immediate wires or heavy fishing line over about an environmentally-friendly, low- area around the equipment during the areas where protection was desired. The cost, electronic device called the dumping of garbage. The gulls, how drawbacks associated with this tech BirdXpeller. This device accurately re ever, never leave the landfill site and nique were an unsightly system of wires produces the distress call of our Ring- many ofthem continuously fly above the and poles and frequent problems asso billed Gulls. Similar devices are also equipment. He believes that because the ciated with the lines breaking. The lines available for a number of other species birds are hungry and the trucks are un of birds except pigeons, unfortunately. loading their main source of food, they A unit was purchased and installed near are basically just waiting for a safe op 'Project Mgr., Engineering Services, the water intake by the maintenance portunity to land and eat. Environment and Transportation, staff. The unit is compact, weather re At the water purification plant the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, Ontario sistant and requires only a regular elec- device is more effective because the birds are there primarily to nest and when discouraged, they simply nest

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http://www.esemag.com 32

somewhere else. Overall, the device has

improved the working environment for the equipment operators. Hopefully, keeping the gulls away from their main source offood will help curtail the popu lation explosion as well. For more information, Circle reply card No. 119 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997





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Substantial progress has been made in Quebec's water quality

In 1978,the Quebec Government launched a $6-biIlion program

whose objective was to connect all sewered municipalities to wastewater treatment facilities. The

Quebec Wastewater Treatment Program was gradually implemented, but gained momentum in the mid 1980's. The pro gram is now reaching completion and the objective should be met by 1999. As of 1996, the wastewaters of 80% of the

sewered population are treated, com pared to less than 2% at the onset of the program. In the meantime, major pol


lution reduction efforts were undertaken

by the pulp and paper industry, whose impact on watercourses is significant in the province. On the agriculture side, the Quebec Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food initiated in 1988 a

program for the construction of manure storage tanks. Meanwhile, the use of chemical fertilizers levelled off and be

gan to decrease around the beginning of the 1990's. After 15 years of financial and technical efforts, and with loadings clearly down, the Ministry of the Envi ronment and Wildlife attempted to as sess whether the water quality of Quebec rivers had improved. In the present paper, the water quality indicators se lected for that purpose are phosphorus,

Aux Saumons River at Martinvilie.

nitrogen, turbidity and fecal coliforms. The Ministry of the Environment and Wildlife operates 386 monitoring sta

formation system Atlas GIS 3.0 (see Figs. 1-5). Triangles in Figures 1-5 show statistically significant upward and

tions located in 40 watersheds of south-

downward trends.

em Quebec. Long-term data allowing time-series analysis are available at a

Phosphorus In freshwater ecosystems, phosphoms is the nutrient which generally lim its the growth of aquatic plants and phytoplankton. Its availability thus con trols the rate of eutrophication (i.e. the excessive growth of phytoplankton and aquatic plants) of lakes and streams. Phosphoms abatement was an important objective of the Quebec Wastewater Treatment Program. Trends show that phosphorus concentrations have de creased significantly in Quebec rivers since 1979 (Fig. 1). However, in spite of downward trends, total phosphorus concentrations remain generally higher than the water quality objective(0.03 mg phosphoms per litre) set by the Minis try to avoid eutrophication. Major sources of phosphoms are the as yet untreated municipal wastewaters and agricultural ranoff. The treatment of municipal waste-

smaller number of stations where sam

ples are collected on a monthly basis all the year round. The temporal window used in this study is 1979-1994. The data were treated with WQSTAT 3.0, a software designed for the analysis of time series of water quality data. The trends were detected and tested for sta

tistical significance (P <0.05) with the 'Ministry of the Environment & Wiidlife, Directorate of Aquatic Ecosystems, Quebec

seasonal Kendall test. The trends were

then mapped using the geographic inFigure 1 TRENDS IN TOTAL PHOSPHORUS 1979-1994

no significant trend




waters has resulted in reduced P

loadings in Quebec rivers. It is esti mated that P loading from municipal wastewaters has decreased by 55% be



tween 1979 and 1994. Chemical re

moval of phosphorus is mandatory at most of the larger treatment plants. In 1995,P removal was thus carried out at HULL


Gouvernement du Quebec Minist^re de I'Environnement et de la Faune

Direction des ecosystemes aquatiques


Km 20




52% of all plants. Some P removal also takes place in the smaller plants(mostly aerated ponds) as a result of biological processes. The loss of phosphoms from agricultural mnoff has also been reduced

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

By Jean Painchaud, Ph.D. of abatement. Upward nitrate trends, particularly in the southwest basins, likely result from the large increases in nitrogen-fertilizer use through the late 1980's. Nitrogen-fertilizers sold in Quebec from 1979 to 1990 rose from

Figure 2 TRENDS IN AMMONIA 1979-1994

: no significant trend

50 000 to almost 100 000 tons and then

declined slightly. Similar trends were observed in the United States until the

early 1980's, when nitrogen fertilizeruse peaked (Smith 1993). In Quebec, the ONTARIO

construction of wastewater treatment

plants and, to a lesser degree, manure storage tanks between 1979 and 1994


has led to increased nitrification of

wastewaters and manure, which may have contributed significantly to the rise of nitrate in rivers and streams while re ONTARIO HULL

IGouvernement du Quebec

Minisl6re de I'Environnement

et de ta Faune


Direction des dcosystSmes aquatlques

by the construction of manure storage tanks with a total capacity, in 1996, of 10 million m', which accounts for roughly 40% of the total volume of ma

nure produced in the province. Im proved storage allows better manage ment and optimal use of manure, thus resulting in reduced losses to water courses. However, although storage





some nitrogenous compounds (ammo nia and nitrate) can have serious toxicological effects on human health and aquatic life. Nitrate should never ex ceed 10 mg nitrogen per litre and am monia,0.5 mg nitrogen per litre. These values are very rarely observed in Quebec surface waters. Transient peaks of ammonia, reflecting agricultural ac

contributes to the reduction of nutrient

tivities, are sometimes observed in ru

inputs to watercourses, a fertilization plan balancing manure and mineral fer tilizer applications with crop needs is also required. The application of ma nure in excess ofcrop needs is the prob able cause of high P concentrations ob served in the streams of some agricul tural regions. On the other hand,the use of phosphorus fertilizers has been rela tively stable and even decreased after 1990 in spite of the overall intensifica tion of agriculture over the period 1979-

ral streams. They are also observed downstream of municipal discharges. Ammonia and nitrate show opposite trends (Figs. 2 and 3). While nitrate is largely on the rise, particularly in the agricultural watersheds of the southwest of the province, ammonia shows signs

ducing inputs of ammonia. Turbidity Turbidity reflects the color and sus pended particulate matter content of water. Considering that there is no evi dence of color change over time, turbid ity is considered as a signal of the abun dance of suspended particulate matter. The analysis of the time series shows that downward trends largely outnum ber upward trends (Fig. 4). However,it is noteworthy that upward trends are ob served in agricultural basins,in particu lar those of the Yamaska and U Assomption Rivers. The total area of agricul tural land devoted to row crops(particu larly com)has increased five-fold in the southwest of the province from 1971 to 1991. The Yamaska is one of the basins

where com production has expanded the most over this period. Lands devoted to row crops are particularly vulnerable Figure 3 TRENDS IN NITRATE AND NITRITE 1979-1994

•: no significant trend


The widespread pattern ofdownward trends for total phosphorus is very simi lar to the situation reported by the Geo logical Survey in the United States, where the decline in total-phosphorus concentrations during the 1980's has resulted from reduction in both pointand non-point loads (Smif/i ef aZ. 1993). Nitrogen Nitrogen is the other nutrient in volved in the eutrophication process, although it is not often the limiting nu



trient in fresh waters. However,it is lim

iting in marine waters, where anthropo genic inputs of N account for the eutrophication of coastal zones, a prob lem of global dimension. Moreover,



IGouvernement du Quebec

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Minist^re de rEnvironnement et de la Faune

Direction des dcosystdmes t






Monitoring, cont'd. age tanks has contributed to the reduc

Figure 4

tion of direct losses to the streams. Al


though the downward trends suggest that control of fecal pollution is under way, mostly with respect to point sources, diffuse pollution is still a source of concem, particularly in the context of the current spectacular growth of hog breeding in the province. The applica tion on croplands of large amounts of manure generated by this type of farm ing can lead to the contamination of sur

•; no significant trend


face waters.


Perspectives Our results show that water quality has generally improved in Quebec from 1979 to 1994 in response to pollution control efforts and suggest that the moni toring programs carried out by the Min istry of the Environment and Wildlife were adequate to characterize the trends in water quality indicators. Quebec is the first province to carry out an over

ONTARIO HULL Gouvernemenf du Quebec MinistSre de I'Environnement et de la Faune

DirectJon des ecosystemes aquauques aauatli

to soil erosion and are probably a major source of suspended matter in the water courses of agricultural basins. The effluents from the pulp and paper industry and from municipalities are important sources of particulate mat ter. Quebec harbors almost half of the Canadian pulp and paper industry, which has an importantimpact on watercourses due to its large organic and suspended particles loadings. From 1980 to 1994, however, suspended particles loading decreased by 75% due to treatment of mill effluents. The load of particulate matter from municipal sources also de creased significantly (-80%)during the same period. Wastewater treatment efforts and pollution control programs have thus resulted in major load reduc

US {Smith et al. 1993).

view of the status and trends of the wa

ter quality of its rivers. The overall situ


Although disinfection is not manda tory at all plants, most larger facilities treat their effluents with UV light(chlorination is presently under moratorium in Quebec). Moreover, many smaller plants (aerated ponds) were designed to maximize natural disinfection by sun light and biological processes. Alto gether,in 1995,57% of all stations were designed or equipped to comply to fecal coliforms abatement requirements im posed by the Ministry. Some fecal coliforms reduction also takes place within the other aerated ponds. In raral areas, the construction of manure stor

ation in Canada is not well documented

and the relative performance of the prov inces is thus difficult to assess. Water

quality is much better documented in the United States, where the US Environ

mental Protection Agency reports bien nially to Congress since 1975 as re quired by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The US Geological Sur vey also assesses hydrologic events and stream water quality and publishes de tailed overviews as well as state sum

maries. When compared to the USGS data, the trends observed in Quebec are very similar to those in the US. The sceFrgure 5 TRENDS IN COLIFORM BACTERIA

tions to the rivers.


•: no significant trend

Fecal coliforms

Fecal coliforms are a universally rec ognized indicator offecal pollution and associated potentially pathogenic bac teria. Time series of fecal coliforms are

shorter(1989/90-1994)than those of the other indicators. However, they were included in the temporal analysis be cause of the significance of this indica


tor in terms of the recreational use of

rivers. Only a small number of series showed significant trends due to the large temporal variability inherent to this variable and to the limited number of

data points (Fig. 5). Statistically sig nificant downward trends outnumber

upward trends, which is a positive sig nal with respect to the effect of the wastewater treament program and which is similar to the pattern observed in the 36


IGouvemement du Qu6bec Minist^re de rEnvironnement et de la Faune

Direction des dcosystdmes aquatiques


1/ \ 20




Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Monitoring, cont'd.


nario of pollution reduction programs and the resulting improvement of water quality in Quebec is thus compara




Groundwater Tfechnology Specialists

ble to the overall North-American pattern.

When compared to the water quality data of the Global Environment Monitoring System (United Nations Envi ronmentProgram,see Fraser et al. 1995), whose data bank

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Burlington, Ontario, and whose program is coordinated by scientists of that institution, our data show that the water quality of Quebec rivers is better than in most in dustrialized states. In particular, Quebec rivers appear to be better oxygenated and to receive less nitrogen and or ganic loading than European and other North-American

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The financial and technical efforts devoted to


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Air Pollution

Canadian pulp and paper companies reduce fossil fuel use by 20%

Canada's pulp and paper industry has reduced its use

of non-renewable fossil fuel

by 20% and dropped total energy consumption by 5% per tonne of production since 1990; this is the result of a concerted industry effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO,) emissions responsible for global warming. The numbers are particularly noteworthy as Canada's pulp and paper production increased by 20 percent over the same period. Changes in energy usage were made

pulp and paper comes from renewable bio-energy sources such as tree and bark by-products,sawdust and organic waste, which do not add to the atmospheric burden of carbon dioxide'-. Another

20% of energy used comes from elec tricity. Fossil fuels provide only a quar ter of the industry's total energy use; •in Canada,75% of CO,emissions gen erated by pulp and paper manufacturing come from bio-energy sources; • the industry's recycling elforts have helped reduce the amount of paper go ing to landfills and cut down on carbon

possible by a $20 billion upgrade pro

dioxide and methane emissions result

gram to increase operational and envi ronmental performance, including al

gress on CO^ reduction means that:

ing from decomposing old paper. Since 1989,the industry has invested $1.5 bil lion to increase the recycling capacity of more than 60 Canadian plants and to double their use of recycled paper to 4

• 53% of energy used to manufacture

million tonnes in 1995;

most $5 billion for strictly environmen tal expenditures. Today, industry pro


A .<

ment have more than doubled over the

last six years and now total close to $1 billion annually to improve the growth and protection of forests. This will im prove Canadian forests' ability to absorb and store carbon, rather than allowing it to concentrate in the atmosphere. Industry task force on climate change Global climate change could affect Canada's forests in other ways. The for est ecosystem and the process of photo synthesis and tree respiration, which depend on the earth's climate, could be affected with forests becoming more vulnerable to damage by insects, disease and fire. Species habitat patterns could also change. Timber production could increase or decrease, depending on the availability of water and nutrients, and on the forests' capacity to adapt to an increased rate of change. In order to play a role in stabilizing greenhouse gases, the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association set up,in 1990,a task force on climate change. The task force's mission was to work with member com

panies to establish industry policy and promote voluntary action to limit green house gas emissions and increase the capacity of Canada's forests to act as

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

















Complete mixing gives you the edge As the Biological Nutrient Removal(BNR) process gains popularity in wastewater treatment, the critical role played by mixing becomes even more important.

Complete mixing improves the overall process and prevents short circuiting and dead zones. However, the mixing must be strong enough to ensure good distribution of the tank's contents, yet gentle enougli to minimize the shearing of the floe. Flygt Submersible Mixers are ideal for BNR applications. Why? Because Flygt Submersibles run at low speed, produce low turbulence, and draw in a minimal amount of air. Moreover, they consume minimal power compared to conventional, long-shaft mixers.

Flygt 4600 Series Submersible Mixers are compact, direct-drive units whose principal advantage in BNR applications is flexibility-i.e. the flow can be pointed in any direction to minimize hydraulic losses and maximize the amount of energy utilized for agitation. In anoxic zones, Flygt Banana Blade Mixers are an excellent choice because they provide gentle mixing and outstanding energy efficiency. Currently, some 90 Flygt Submersible Mixeis are being used in BNR processes across Canada. If you're thinking about adopting the BNR process in your facility, you can rely on Flygt Submersible Mixers to provide the suspension in your suspended growth process. For more information, call your nearest Flygt representative today. ITT Flygt

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Sewage Treatment

Photo Story by Tom Davey

Wastewater used for irrigation in Fiorida

A Florida state grant of $300,000(US) will allow St. Lucie County to sell treated wastewater for ir

rigation on North Hutchinson Island. Funds from the South Florida Water

Management District will enable the county to extend pipes from its new plant, which has a treatment capacity of 1.5 US mgd. The plant will pipe treated wastewater to the developed parts of this narrow island. The county must match the grant before it can construct 33,000 feet of pipe for the project. Some of the high rise developments have been alternating between using aq uifers and mains water to irrigate lawns and landscape plants. Some aquifer waters are becoming salinated as they are drawn down. Using mains water for irrigation is expensive in Florida. For example, one small condominium, which will benefit from the program, serves only 150 families in three highrise buildings surrounded by lawns and trees. Many families use condos only during winter months, yet this one


View of tfie filtration section of the plant on North Hutchinson Island, a slim barrier isiand, situated between the Indian River and the Atiantic Ocean. This plant does not discharge to either water body, aii the reciaimed water being used for irrigation. The worid renowned Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute is approximately one mile away on the mainland.

development uses 35,000 US gallons per day, all year round, simply for irri gation. Currently, treated drinking water in the area costs $3.52(US) per thousand US gallons. Reclaimed water will cost

$2.52(US) per thousand gallons. After aeration treatment, the effluent

passes through a sand filtration process before being pumped into the irrigation pipes. When the piping is laid down, the reclamation/irrigation project will save water, money and the environment. While the reclaimed water will have a


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sulphuric odour, experts say it will be safe to apply on lawns and landscape plants. Such reclaimed wastewater will help to recharge the groundwater supplies while the nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphoms which remain in the irriga tion water will be an added benefit.

W.B. McNeill, Jr. president of the McNeil Company Inc., told ES&E that his fiiTn had designed several such plants using sand filtration in other southern

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

pipe problems using nondismpUve, cost-effective solutions. The most difficult part about some pipe problems is just getting access to the pipe itself. Insltuform Technologies specializes in reha bilitating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard-to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the inside, in most cases with out man-entry or excavation. Extensive independent and internal testing consis tently confirms the success of our methods.

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Focus on PCBs

PCB transformer replacement vs

Should the ownersofPCB trans

formers replace askarel trans formers or reclassify them to non-PCB status using the perchloroethylene process? Owners of PCB transformers, particularly in inac cessible locations, had virtually no al ternatives to the perchloroethylene method - until recently that is. PCB Transformer Reclassiflcation

It is common knowledge that

reclassiflcatlon phosgene, chlorine) in a transformer

Factors Affecting Decisions There are several factors that are

taken into account when trying to de cide whether to replace or reclassify an askarel transformer:

•the"hfe expectancy" ofthe transformer; • the "accessibility" of the unit and the logistics of extraction and installation; • the time frame for reclassification;

vault fire;

2)Perchloroethylene is acutely toxic and a catastrophic spill in a transformer sub station could potentially cause serious health problems (central nervous sys tem, kidney and liver damage) or even death (within minutes at 6,000 ppm)for exposed workers; 3) Unlike PCBs, cleaning up a perchloroethylene spill in a transformer substation would

reclassiflcation of a PCB trans

necessitate the use of a self-con

former occurs when the PCB

tained breathing apparatus (SCBA)for all exposed work ers(Material Safety Data Sheet

concentration in the transform er's dielectric is reduced to less

than 50 ppm. This is a formi dable task considering the ini

from the manufacturer states that SCBA should be worn at

any concentration). Not all fa formers are typically 300,000 to cilities will have the specialized 700,000 ppm. Moreover, vari protective equipment available ous provincial environment and the on-site personnel may ministries may have specific not know how to use it in a spill criteria for re-confirming the or fire emergency. "status" of a transformer(PCB Some of these concerns analysis of core, coils, tank, Accessibility need no longer be a problem In office towers, about perchloroethylene, which fins, etc.) when the unit is removed from •the choice of dry-type versus liquid in is the solvent used in the dry-cleaning service, sold, or scrapped. sulated units; industry, have tempted regulatory au Reclassifying an askarel transformer • costs comparisons; thorities to consider banning its use al to non-PCB status involves five basic • the need to up-grade to a larger KVA together. It still remains to be seen steps: rating, and so on. whether this will happen or not. •draining the askarel from the transformer; Insurance Issues Logistics • re-gasketing the transformer; Despite all of the other factors that In addition to the potential health and • retrofilling the unit with perchloro are considered, under current market environmental concerns, there are vari ethylene; conditions, the primary impetus for de ous other contributing factors to consider • installing an external distillation ap ciding to replace askarel transformers is regarding transformer reclassification us paratus next to the transformer until "insurance" related. Owners of PCB ing perchloroethylene. For example: PCB levels are < 50 ppm; transformers are finding that their insur 1) The perchloroethylene must remain • re-gasketing the unit and retrofilling it ance policies will not cover them for in a transformer until the PCB level with a suitable dielectric. environmental contamination created drops and remains below 50 ppm,so the Replacement of the askarel with from spills or fires involving PCBs. potential risks associated with this sol perchloroethylene as the dielectric More importantly,the standard insur vent would be extended for several serves to gradually leach the PCBs from ance policies for buildings and similar years. the porous components of the trans structures would also not cover cleanup 2) The perchloroethylene is kept in a former core. As PCBs leach from the costs associated with spills or fires in transformer as the dielectric fluid even core, they are removed from the per volving perchloroethylene, the replace after the PCBs are reduced to below 50 chloroethylene as the liquid continu ment fluid used in reclassifying askarel ppm and the extemal distillation unit has ously circulates from the transformer transformers. This potential "exposure" been removed; this is to facilitate re-conthrough the external distillation appara is simply not acceptable to most PCB nection of the distillation unit where tus and back through the transformer. transformer owners. PCB levels increase to greater than 50 PCBs are collected for disposal and the Concerns About Perchloroethylene ppm as the transformer core continues process is allowed to continue until the Insurance companies and PCB gen to leach PCBs over time. PCB levels in the perchloroethylene erators have several concerns about us 3)Following reclassification, if silicone drop to less than 50 ppm,a process that ing a chlorinated hydrocarbon such as is used as a replacement fluid and the has been shown to take up to 4 years to perchloroethylene as a dielectric: PCBs leach from the core to levels > 50 complete. 1) Being a chlorinated hydrocarbon, ppm, PCB-contaminated silicone will perchloroethylene would produce toxic have to be dealt with and the draining 'President, PCB Disposal inc by-products (hydrochloric acid. and retrofilling with new silicone and tial PCB levels of askarel trans


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

By Eric A.M. Smith, Ph.D.,* subsequent disposal of the PCB-contaminated silicone is very expensive and time-consuming. Until now, these have been some of

the problems that have prevented PCB owners from tackling their askarel trans formers.

Transformer Accessibility To date one of the major reasons for deciding to use the reclassification proc ess was the fact that transformers were considered to be inaccessible. When

high-rise office buildings were con structed,the stmctures were built around askarel transformer substations where

transformers were lifted into place by cranes sometimes 30 or more stories off

the ground. Prior to construction, no thought was given to ever having to re place the transformers since PCBs were not an issue at the time.

Consequently, there are several situ ations where askarel transformers are so

far off the ground as to be inaccessible by ground level cranes, or there would be so many problems with removing walls and/or floors, that it would be to

tally unfeasible or the associated costs would be prohibitive. Even if the substation wall was re

moved, attempting to extricate an askarel transformer from a high-rise of fice tower, using a roof-mounted crane to "swing' the unit out and away from the building, would not be considered a very desirable option for the PCB own ers, the regulatory officials or the insur ance companies.

are drained, disassembled and removed

in pieces and the new replacement trans formers are brought to the site in pieces and assembled in the substation.

PCB Disposal has received approval from the Ontario Ministry of Environ ment and Energy (MOEE) to remove and disassemble askarel cores and

No Transformers are Inaccessible

decontaminate and cut transformer tanks

In response to these various challeng ing issues, our company has developed an approach to askarel transformer re placement which will; 1)Immediately eliminate the liability as sociated with PCBs and perchloroethylene; 2) Allow transformers to be removed from any location, regardless of where

to allow for extraction of the units from

any substation location despite site con straints such as size, weight and height restrictions imposed by narrow door ways and small elevators. It is particularly noteworthy that even large transmission transformers can be assembled in situ using the new patented "dry switch" developed by the trans

the transformers are situated;

former manufacturer.

3) Completely eliminate the concern about spills or leaks of liquid-insulated

Case Study Let's now take a look at a project that is currently underway where PCB Disposal is replacing three 1500 KVA askarel transformers that are totally in accessible by any conventional means. Prior to actually initiating the hands-on work,several steps had to be completed including: 1)Submitting a comprehensive informa tion package to the MOEE for review;


In cooperation with the transformer manufacturer, PCB Disposal can now offer a turn-key process for askarel transformer replacement which involves replacing askarel transformers with drytype transformers. Particularly in those instances where transformers are virtu

ally inaccessible, askarel transformers

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Pbone: (514) 348-1807 Fax: (514) 348-3311

For more information, circle reply card No. 130 (See page 17)

Focus on PCBs, cont'd. 2)Issuance of Director's Instructions by the MOEE;

3)Conducting several meetings with the PCB owner, the local utility, the trans former manufacturer and the elevator

specialists to discuss logistics, trans former design, time frames, substation modifications, and health and safety and environmental issues. Work Area

Once everyone was in agreement that all concerns had been adequately ad dressed, work was allowed to begin. The following are some of the key fea tures associated with PCB Disposal's contribution to this transformer replace ment project. Initially, a work area was established in the transformer substation and prior to doing any draining or transformer removal, the entire substation was

cleaned thoroughly. The process in volved sweeping up and removing all floor debris and vacuuming all walls, floors, berms and transformers for re

moval of as much dust as possible to prevent dust from contaminating the core of the dry transformer. A wooden-framed enclosure was built in the transformer substation so that

the working environment was under a

partial vacuum to prevent any odours of askarel permeating to any other parts of the building. The enclosure also helped to prevent any air-borne iron fihngs from the tank-cutting procedure from becom ing lodged in the core of the new trans former.

The workplace enclosure was also vented through two large exhaust fans equipped with large mats of activated carbon to collect any PCBs or chlorobenzenes prior to being exhausted to the atmosphere outside the building. Protective Equipment/Emergency Response Since askarel liquids were involved which meant the presence of tri- and tetrachlorobenzene, the crew was

equipped with standard personal protec tive equipment including safety glasses, neoprene gloves and respirators equipped with organic vapour cartridges and emergency spill-response equip ment was readily available. Transformer Replacement Process Only one of the 1500 KVA trans formers was replaced at a time so that the two other units in the substation

could carry the load for the building while work was completed on the new unit. The following summarizes the

WetWeath Problems?

steps involved in the transformer re placement process: 1) Pieces of the new dry type trans former were transported from the manu facturer's facility and were moved up to the substation by elevator. 2) The pieces of the dry transformer were assembled in the substation.

3) One askarel transformer was de-en

ergized and moved out of its position and the new dry unit was moved into its place for connection and testing. 4)Following confirmation that the new unit was fully operational within specifi cations,the askarel was drained from the

old transformer into 16-gauge drums. 5) The drums of askarel were removed

from the substation, taken to ground level via the elevators and were trans

ported to the Utility's designated PCB storage facility prior to being removed from site for destruction.

6)The top of the PCB transformer was removed and the inside tank walls were

wiped down, solvent-washed and wipetested to confirm PCB residues were <

1,000 ug/sq m in accordance with MOEE's guidelines for residual PCBs on impermeable surfaces. 7)Following receipt of the laboratory's "Certificate of Analysis" and notifica tion to the MOEE of the wipe test re sults, the top 1/4 of the tank was cut away and the section was removed and cut into smaller pieces which were wrapped in sorbent pads and plastic. 8) The process of cleaning, testing and cutting was repeated for the next 1/4 of the tank and so on until the core was sit


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ting in the bottom 1/4 of the tank which then served to function as a spill pan. 9)The core was then disassembled into

its component parts which were wrapped and sealed and the tank and core pieces were removed and trans ported to the PCB facility for storage with the askarel liquid. The process ofremoval,draining and disassembly of the transformer tank and core and coils took two weeks for each

transformer and the entire project took three months to complete. As more owners of PCB transform

L)criRepeGentotfve GeoraPa^orc HYDRCHDGIC Ern^merti

(905)332e«4 Visit HYDRCMjOGIC atthe OPCEA E)£hibitioa

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ers are becoming aware of the insurance issues surrounding PCBs and perchloroethylene and that accessibility is no longer problematic, they are choosing the"Replacement" option for their PCB transformers; it's faster, safer and avoids insurance nullification.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 131 44

For more information, circle reply card No. 292

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Why do over 200_^ municipalities in Ontano use

the Ontario fflean Water^gency for their water and wastewater services?


Consistent, Reliable Service Open, Responsive Communications Local Customized Attention

Competitive Pricing Almost 5 million people in Ontario depend on the Ontario Clean Water Agency for safe and reliable water and wastewater services.

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Today OCWA Is changing In ways that we believe wil l set a new standard for client service in the Industry. At the heart of our new service delivery strategy is a dedicated team of Client Service Representatives and certified operators. Our service professionals are located in the communities we serve, where they need to be to deliver quality service.

Plain and simple, that's the kind of service that adds value for clients. It's fast and efficient. Site-specific, when it needs to be. Open and responsive, always. And it's competitively priced. At OCWA, we're committed to the people we serve.

To discuss the kind of service most meaningful to you, contact OCWA at 1-800-667-0CWA. A Client Service Representative will respond promptly to your call.

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 293

Air Pollution

Ministers take action on greenhouse gases

Federal,provincial and ter ito

rial energy and environment

ministers met in Toronto, December 12, to review ac

tions being taken to address climate change issues under the National Action Program on Climate Change(NAPCC). The Ministers received a report that emissions of greenhouse gases in 1995 were 9.4% above 1990 levels. This was

driven by many factors including the high rate of population increase and Canada's economic growth, particularly in the export sector, resulting in an over all increase in energy con sumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Improvements in energy efficiency in most sectors in recent years have resulted in some slowing in the rate of

over half of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. Ministers agreed to strengthen the VCR and Ecogeste pro grams by targeting broader participa tion, encouraging a higher level of ac tion, and encouraging participants to adopt more consistent and comprehen sive reporting. The principles and strategic direction of the NAPCC have been confirmed by all Ministers. Voluntary and cost-effec tive measures will continue to be impor-

climate change issues. They charged officials with the re sponsibility to: develop actions to ad dress transportation emissions; promote the capture and recycling of hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs);examine intemational emission trading and coordinate public awareness and acceptance meas ures. Officials were charged to continue to work with stakeholders including the Federation of Canadian Municipali ties, who made a presentation at the meeting. International

Cooperation The sources and impacts of climate change are truly global, and they cannot be addressed by Canada in iso lation. Other developed countries, like Canada, are

having difficulty stabilizing

increase of carbon dioxide

their emissions at 1990 lev

emissions. It is projected that, by the year 2000,emis

els. Ministers agreed that in ternational cooperation will be essential both to effec

sions will be about8% above

1990 levels and will rise

thereafter. The projections show improvement since the Ministers met in November

1995, when a 13% increase above 1990 levels had been

forecast. Ministers recognized that cur

tant elements in Canada's approach.

rent actions are not sufficient to meet

"The international scientific commu

Canada's goal of stabilizing emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Minis ters agreed to continue and strengthen efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emis

nity confirms that there is mounting evi

sions - and work towards stabilization.

ensure that Canada's economic,environ

New Climate Change Initiatives At the meeting, all participants tabled their action plans and some outlined new climate change initiatives in residential, commercial, industrial and transporta tion sectors and in government opera

mental and social objectives can be met in the context of growing international momentum to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the post 2000 period." In particular. Ministers emphasized the need to know more about the poten

Ministers recognized the necessity of ongoing federal-provincial-territorial

on global climate", stated federal Envi

consultation to ensure that there is com

ronment Minister Marchi. "We must

patibility between international and do mestic approaches and that these reflect

tions. These measures will focus on

tial environmental, social and economic

impacts of climate change in Canada. The Canada Country Study and the in tegrated regional climate impact stud ies will be critical in understanding what adaptation measures will be needed. Further Progress Newfoundland Ministers Aylward

Strengthened Voluntary Programs Since its creation two years ago, the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program, and its more recent counterpart Ecogeste in Quebec, have engaged over 600 private and public organizations who collectively generate 46

tation initiatives.

dence of a discernible human influence

engaging individuals in solving the problem, supporting action by commu nities, encouraging technology develop ment, promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy, and promoting meth ane capture from landfills and coal mines.

tively address climate change and to protect Cana da's economy and trading position. Working with de veloping countries, Canada will share its technologies and expertise through joint implemen

and Gibbons, who co-chaired the meet

ing, agreed that further progress must be achieved through voluntary pro grams,technological advancements and a broad range of new initiatives. They emphasized that all sectors of society need to recognize the importance of

the interests of all Canadians.

Progress on Reducing

SOj Emissions In recognition of the progress which Canada has made in reducing sulphur dioxide (SO,) emissions, the Ministers agreed that Canada should ratify the International Second SO, Protocol. Ratifying the Protocol reinforces Cana da's strong message to the world that we are serious about controlling acidifying emissions. Canada has already met its year-2000 commitments in the Second Sulphur Protocol and forecasts to 2010 indicate that we will be able to keep emissions below the caps. Ministers expect, in 1997, completion of a re newed national strategy on acidifying emissions for the post-2000 period. For more information,

circie repiy card No. 132

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Environmental Monitoring Equipment


For fast response to your Sales, Service or Rental inquA)^ please call our Technical Hotline: 1-800-215-4469 Visit us on the internet: www.can-am.net

on Iff WiUor S^iotntor


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Aresi-Vetocity Flow Heier The new Sigma 900AV Area Velocity Flow Meter makes your long term flow monitoring needs a breeze. Sigma's area velocity can achieve accuracy's of 2 percent of reading without a primary device. This can be achieved even under full pipe, surcharge or reverse flow conditions

Circle reply card No. 315

Arjay's HydroSense Oil in Water monitor will monitor oil from 1 PPM

to 500 PPM levels. Ideal for continu

ous monitoring of water when low oil levels are critical. Arjay has a full line of products for spill protection, oil/water separators, etc.

During a site investigation, the Photovac 2020 will detect the pres ence of volatile organic compounds down to 0.1 PPM level. Simple to operate, light weight and rugged, the Photovac 2020 is the ideal instru

ment for your projects.

Circle reply card No. 316

Circle reply card No. 317

For more information, circle reply card No. 133(See page 17)


CG&S CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Industrial Services

Solid Waste Management Residuals Management Energy Management Process Control

Water Supply & Distribution Wastewater Collection, Treatment & Disposal Tunnels and Underground Works Systems Analysis Modeling Water Resources Engineering

Air Management Environmental Planning Environmental Site Characterization/Remediation

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255 Consumers Road

180 King Street South, Suite 600 Waterloo, Ontario N2J1P8 tel: (519)579-3500 fax: (519)573-8986 direct dial: (519)579-3501+ext.

555 - 4th Avenue SW,Suite 1500 Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7 tel: (403) 237-9300 fax: (403)237-7715

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direct dial: (403) 237-5691 + ext.

Barrle - Ottawa - Thorold - Vancouver For more information, circle reply card No. 134(See page 17)

Recycling EAF Dust

Philip launches construction of Its zinc Iron plasma process unit

Philip Environmental Inc. has

started construction of its Zinc

Iron Plasma Process (ZIPP) facility in Hamilton, Ontario. ZIPP recovers metals and other re usable materials from electric arc fur

nace residue, a by-product of steel manufacturing. The process, which uses

plasma torch technology provided by Westinghouse Inc., took five years from initial research and development to commercialization. Current methods

of managing electric arc furnace residue

propriate amounts are conveyed into a sealed airlock on the VSF. The materials are converted into

molten metal (pig iron), molten inert slag and volatile metal ox ides which are filtered in a dust collector. The dust collector ma

terials which consist mainly of zinc oxide will be conveyed into a holding silo for further process ing. Data developed from demon stration and pilot tests performed

include stabilization, landfilling and par

in 1994 and 1995 demonstrate

tial recovery of constituent elements. IBDR-ZIPP project The Iron Bearing Dust Recovery Zinc Iron Plasma Process(IBDR-ZIPP) system maximizes the recycling of waste electric arc furnace (EAF) dust which is high in iron and zinc with small

that 100 percent of the by-prod

amounts of lead,into raw material com

modities for industry. Through the ap plication of plasma torch technology and vertical shaftfumace(VSF)efficiencies, briquetted EAF dust is combined with coke,flux and scrap steel to provide pig iron,zinc concentrate, small amounts of

metal processing flux and slag. The process begins by receiving briquetted EAF dust and coke, delivered by truck into an unloading area. Scrap and flux (sand or limestone)are also re ceived by truck. All materials are de

posited on a weigh belt system and ap

ucts produced by ZIPP have value and are saleable.

Pig iron and aluminum flux recovered from the electric arc furnace residue will be sold back

to the steel industry; zinc oxide to smelters; and aggregate to the cement and construction indus

try as a raw material. While the recovery of zinc and iron

from iron bearing dust is the primary di rective, many other materials can be used to supplement the process. Almost any material that acts as a carbon, iron, zinc

or fuel source can be used to supplement the primary process feed material. IBDR-ZIPP plant The IBDR-ZIPP Project Develop ment Program has met Philip Environmental's objectives of raw material con-

version to saleable products. In addi tion to being able to accept numerous feed materials, the process has the fol lowing advantages over other EAF dust technologies. ZIPP is claimed to pro duce:

• a saleable slag that vitrifies contained heavy metals. • slag will consistently pass Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) TCLP tests. • recovers zinc for commodity markets. • recovers pig iron from EAF dust. ZIPP recovers the iron from the dust and up grades its quality by melting scrap along with the EAF charge.

• does not depend on a single stage proc ess to produce marketable products.

The $26 million (Cdn.) facility will Annual Consumption of Raw Preheat


System Heat



Water ..

nc Conce Wash

Evaporation ■ ■ ■

to Market

Electric Arc Fumace Dust 57,000 MT Scrap Metal 26,000 MT

Recycle Clean Gas


Fiiixiiuj Agent

Materials is estimated at:


/7inr Ov

Annual Production is:

Pig Iron 45,000 MT Zinc Concentrate 17,000 MT Aggregate 26,000 MT Aluminum Processing Flux 2,500 MT

be located at the company's Metals Re covery plant. The ZIPP unit is expected to be operational by September 1997. For more information, circle reply card No. 135


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Environmental Problems?

Do you know that 95% of all General Contractors, Architects, Consultants and Engineers have NO Environmental or Pollution Insurance Coverage! Unbelievable, it's true, every day in Canada, environmental remediation work is completed by so-called "professionals" operating without

proper worker training, pollution or environmental insurance coverage. As the person who issued or contracted the work to be done, you could be liable. That's right, you could be sued both corporately and personally in the event of accidents, future contractor employee claims, pollution, contamination and environmental reprecussions resulting from the project being completed improperly. Over 95% of General Contractors, Architects, Engineers and Consultants do NOT have environmental and pollution insurance coverage. They carry only General Liability Insurance and Errors & Ommissions insurance coverage. This insurance does not cover environmental remediation projects or the resulting pollution cleanups and liabilities. Don't risk your future, protect your personal and corporate assets!

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power washing and steam cleaning fire clean-ups, removal, restorations environmental clean-ups industrial fire cleaning and restoration

lead and hazardous coatings removal pharmaceutical decontamination heavy metals decontamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, PCBs, arsenic, silica, chromium, etc.)

pesticide, herbicide, fungicide clean-ups containment and barrier construction

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For more information, circie reply card No. 136(See page 17)


Wastewater modelling software can analyze treatment performance

Imaginethe number ofwastewater

treatment process problems en countered by environmental pro fessionals on a daily basis. Can step-feed improve my treatment proc ess? Can I reduce the amount of sludge sent to the landfill? How can I consist

ently meet my effluent discharge re quirements? There are many tools readily avail able to provide assistance in solving wastewater treatment process dilemmas. One such tool is a unique software pro gram called GPS-X,developed and dis tributed by Hydromantis,

user to integrate various models. For example,there are 6 different suspended growth activated sludge process mod

the user to choose a particular model most applicable to the situation. The majority of the models contained within

ies. The choice of library is also depend ent on the type of system being mod elled and the level of detail required. As an example, the CNP library must be used for modelling biological and chemical phosphorus removal proc esses. For industrial users,the IP library

GPS-X are mechanistic which are more

allows the addition of extra state vari

robust than strictly empirical models. However, empirical models have been used for some process units such as grit

ables as needed for modelling. These additional state variables might include chemicals typically present in a plant discharge stream which may alfect the growth kinetics of an activated sludge

els available to select from. This allows

removal,sand filtration, and disinfection where scientific research is limited.

In the context of GPS-X, state vari-


Inc. in Hamilton, Ontario.

In general, a typical mod elling exercise requires the

Available under both Win

assessment of an extensive

dows NT and UNIX operat ing platforms, GPS-X is a multi-purpose computer pro gram designed for modelling

number of plant and model parameters. Many param



eters can be measured di

rectly while others can be based on typical values


wastewater treatment plants. The program was developed using an object-based mod elling philosophy enabling a user to build a model layout using an easy "point and click" procedure. An object is essentially an icon which symbolizes a specific unit process in a flow diagram. Objects are selected, pasted, and connected on the GPS-

X drawing board until the model layout resembles the actual plant process flow diagram. Relevant data is entered for each object and where applicable, a spe cific model is selected for each unit proc ess.

available from scientific lit

erature. Remaining param eters must be estimated us

ing other techniques. How ever, the accuracy of a cali brated model will decrease

with increasing numbers of estimated parameters. The data requirements for inclu sion into a typical GPS-X Photo - Steve Davey process flow diagram (See Figure 1) fall into one of four categories: physical plant data ables represent the fundamental con stituents present in a treatment system (flow lines, flow patterns, sludge with and include such components as slowly drawal,reactor dimensions); operational biodegradable substrate, heterotrophic plant data (influent flow, wastage rate, bacteria, particulate inert organic car air flow); influent wastewater character bon,nitrate nitrogen, and dissolved oxy istics (basic water quality parameters); gen. A GPS-X library is then a unique and model parameters (kinetic and set of equations which describes the stoichiometric coefficients, settling con dynamic variation of state variables stants). modelled for each unit process in a spe Once a process layout is complete cific layout. There are four libraries and all available data has been input,

GPS-X contains a library of more than 230 process models. These mod els encompass most unit processes found at typical wastewater treatment plants including preliminary treatment, activated sludge and trickling filters, available within GPS-X: carbon-nitro primary and secondary clarification, ter gen (CN); carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus tiary treatment,and sludge conditioning. (CNP); extended carbon-nitrogen The biological process libraries also (CN2);and industrial pollutant(IP). Es contain options for simulation of nitri sentially, the state variables in the dif fication, denitrification, and biological ferent libraries characterize the material and chemical phosphorus removal proc present in different degrees of detail. For example, the CN2 library calculates ni esses. GPS-X is not dependent on a sin gle process model but instead allows the trate and nitrite concentrations inde pendently, whereas total oxidized nitro gen (nitrate plus nitrite) concentrations "Project Engineer, Hydromantis, Inc., Hamilton, Ontario 50

are monitored in the other three librar

GPS-X uses the Advanced Continuous

Simulation Language (ACSL), devel oped by MGA Software, to automati cally convert the objects on the draw ing board into unique FORTRAN code. The program code is then compiled into an executable file by a BUILDER mod ule. A user must initiate the code de

velopment and file build but all proc esses are executed "behind the scenes"

and are transparent to the user. Prior to using the model for process analysis, it

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

By Sandra Ketchen, M.Eng., P.Eng. must be carefully calibrated by the user under steady-state and/or dynamic flow conditions. For assistance,an Optimizer

iscMox I

PK->-:cu Twie

WTWlTE ' )

tool is available within GPS-X which

will automatically adjust designated model parameters to fit a given data set. With calibration complete,the model is equipped to be used for any number of process analyses. The user defines input controls and output graphs as shown in Figure 1 before performing a simulation. GPS-X allows the user to

simultaneously interact with a model simulation as it progresses using sliders and switches. This means that the value

of any defined parameter can be altered at any time during the simulation. As an example, assume a user wishes to ex


soottA _

amine the effect of influent flow on ef

fluent quality from a trickling filter unit. A control slider containing influent flow rate would be defined and output graphs showing effluent constituent concentra tions would be displayed. During the simulation, the user could interactively alter the influent flow using the control slider and monitor the resulting effects on the graphs. GPS-X also contains traditional P,PI,

and PID process controllers as well as more advanced multivariable controllers which can be constructed for a simula tion exercise. These controllers can be

activated to manipulate the dynamics of typical plant operational controls such as dissolved oxygen concentration and solids inventory. All controllers must be tuned by the individual performing the simulation. A MATLAB-based con

troller design module, GMI, can link GPS-X to MATLAB to assist the mod

elling engineer with the design and tun ing of controllers. One other feature of GPS-X worth

mentioning is the new Respirogram Evaluator module. Respirograms record bacterial activity in activated sludge un der certain well defined conditions. The

RespEval module uses advanced nu merical techniques including data filter ing and pattern recognition to charac terize a respirogram. The program then extracts as much information as possi ble from the respirogram including yield coefficients,component concentrations, maximum respiration rates, and half saturation constants. The proper use of these parameter values in the process layout can increase the accuracy of model calibration. This feature is par ticularly useful when applied to an in dustrial process problem where the ki netics for each chemical component in

ager can provide an operator with quick guidance for solving a typical process The GPS-X program has tradition problem without requiring extensive ally been used to assist engineers per forming wastewater treatment process knowledge of GPS-X. The Scenario optimizations and plant audits. Typical Manager is also beneficial for operator training,enabling an operator to analyze applications include estimation of proc ess capacity, identification of process the impact of his actions on the treat bottlenecks, hydraulic load change ment process without actually affecting analysis, bypass reduction, management the process itself. In another unique application, GPSof wet weather flows, and optimization X is being used as the basis of an on of facility operations such as minimiz ing cost of power to an aeration system. line control system for a pilot process The bulk of practical GPS-X experi of a municipal treatment system. A cali ence has been gained in municipal treat brated GPS-X model of the process will ment plant enviroiunents although many be placed on-line connected to an exist successful industrial applications have ing SCADA system. Data from the SCADA system will continuously up also been completed. New applications for GPS-X are con date the GPS-X model parameters us tinually under development. The latest ing the Dynamic Parameter Estimator feature dubbed "The Scenario Manager" (DPE) module. In essence, the model has been developed as a user-friendly will undergo constant calibration using actual plant data and therefore, will al interface between GPS-X and users such as treatment plant operators. A scenario ways be a realistic representation of the is an event which occurs within a plant, plant process. The DPE can track pa usually with some degree of frequency. rameter values to detect changes in the system which may give early warning The scenario within GPS-X is prepack aged with defined input controls and of sensor malfunction or potential plant upset. output graphs. The operator simply en It is often remarked that the accuracy ters the current conditions of the plant within a specific scenario and waits for and quality of a computer model is only the simulation to finish. as good as the knowledge of the indi vidual driving the simulation. However, In a municipal treatment plant, a typi cal scenario might be "How will these using appropriate modelling tools and a realistic level of modelling complexity, excessive storm flows affect the concen tration of suspended solids in the efflu process simulations, more often than ent?" Operators of an industrial not, can greatly assist environmental wastewater treatment plant may have professionals in their daily activities. As the waste stream are unknown.

different concerns such as "I have a cer

these simulators achieve on-line status,

tain amount of chemical in my spill tank.

we may also find assistance with our more complex process control questions. For more information, circle reply card No. 137

How fast can I feed it to the treatment

system without exceeding my effluent compliance limits?" The Scenario Man

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997


Air Pollution

The $5.4 billion scrubber/adsorber market

By the year 2001, the annual market for scrubbers and

World Scrubber/ Adsorber Market 2001 ($ millions)

adsorbers worldwide will be

$5.4 billion, up from $3.6 bil lion in 1996. Included in this total are

particulate scrubbers, absorbers, adsorbers, biofilters, dry scrubbers and condensers. There are 10,000 individual

forecasts supporting this total in a new report, Scrubber/Adsorber World Mar kets 1997-2001. All forecasts are in US dollars.

Many different industries use scrub bers. By 2001, the metals industry worldwide will be purchasing scmbbers valued at more than $1.1 billion. The

next largest industrial segment is the chemical industry. By 2001, purchases in this segment will be just under $1 bil lion. The chemical industry will spend $700 million just for absorbers, $146 million for adsorbers, and $70 million for particulate scrubbers. Sales of dry scrubbers, biofilters and condensers will

be relatively small by comparison. The surface coating industry world wide will also be a big user of scrub bers and adsorbers with sales in the year 2001 exceeding $824 million. The pri mary technology utilized in the control of surface coating emissions will be ad sorption and this will account for $643 million in sales. Municipal wastewater odour control will also be a large seg ment with orders in 2001 exceeding $574 million. Waste combustion will

generate revenues in excess of $338 million.

The forecast does not include repair parts and material revenues which will be substantial for suppliers of nozzles, packing, carbon, zeolites, fans, and pumps.

The report includes all applications except power plants which are included in a separate report. When the power plant scrubber market is combined with the general scrubber/adsorber market, the world total for 2001 is forecast to be

in excess of $8 billion.

The largest markets for adsorbers are the United States, Westem Europe and Japan, where there is heightened con cern over volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions. The fastest grow ing markets for particulate scmbbers and absorbers are the developing countries. Chemical plants, foundries, steel mills, pulp and paper plants, and other basic industries utilize scrubbers. Even in 52

countries with the weakest air pollution control laws, scmbbers are utilized in

new plant constmction. The biofilter industry blossomed in Europe where the technology is widely used for wastewater odour control. Be

cause this technology does not generate a liquid or solid waste for disposal, it is an attractive option where it can be ap plied. The dry scrubber market will be particularly strong in the U.S. The peak year for dry scrubber purchases in the

There are thousands of companies supplying scmbbing systems. Most of these companies are small regional or local companies. There are only a hand ful of tmly global players in the scmbber industry. Many of the suppliers also sell the process equipment. Eor exam ple, Durr and Eisenmann are two of the larger suppliers of carbon adsorbers worldwide. They are also major sup pliers of surface coating systems which generate the solvents in the first place.

U.S. will be 1998 when the order level

The world market leaders have, in

will exceed $111 million. This surge is due primarily to the need to retrofit large

many cases, grown through acquisition. Monsanto Enviro-Chem acquired Calvert. EL. Smidth acquired AirPol, and Lab acquired Belco. U.S. Filter acquired both Davis and Wheelabrator Clean Water recently (but not the air pollution control division of Wheelabrator Clean Energy). American

numbers of municipal waste incinera tors with dry scrubbers to remove hy drogen chloride, sulphur dioxide, and other acid gases. Asia is the fastest growing region for scmbber/adsorber purchases. Develop ing countries such as India and China are rapidly increasing scrubber pur chases. More developed countries such as Japan, Taiwan, and Korea are putting intense pressure on plants to remove VOCs. South America is a small market for

most applications. However, metal smelting and mining industries' scmbber purchases will be substantial in the next five years. The most elaborate and efficient systems will be sold in Europe. Europeans favour wet scrubbers over dry scmbbers for waste incinerators be cause of the higher efficiency. The most sophisticated systems use two scmbbers and one adsorber to remove hydrogen chloride, sulphur dioxide, and dioxins, all separately.

Air Filter now has Asian owners. Eor more information on Scrubber/

Adsorber World Markets 1997-2001,

contact: The Mcllvaine Company, Fax: (847) 272-9673. Largest Intemationai Suppliers of Scrubbers and Adsorbers Segmented by Region of Corporate Headquarters: Americas Research Cottreil Carbon U.S. Filter

Air Cure


Monsanto Enviro-Chem

Environmental Elements

Europe Durr

F.L Smidth




Lab Asia

O.Y.L. (AAF) Chiyoda

Mitsubishi Ebara

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Classifieds FILTER MEDIA

Odour / VOC Control Via Bloflltration



nthrafilter ^


pollution control





printing, laquering food processing

sewage treatment

Media & Coal Ltd.




low maintenance biofiiters for air

TEL:(519)751-1080 FAX;(519)751-0617


Tel; (613) 488-2743 Fax:(613) 488-3333


2983 Baseline Road, St. Pascal Baylon, ON KOA 3N0

For more information, circle reply card No. 141

For more information, circle reply card No. 138



Quality, On Site, Water/Wastewoter




TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

tina High Pressure Water Jetting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

Waste Water Treatment

Educational Services

Sponge Jet Cleaning

Utility Operation & Safety Training

For more information, circle reply card No. 142

EXAMPREP Cerlilication Courses

No Fee Training Audits & Consultations Professional Adult Educators CEU Accreditation Since 1987

Davidson iLnvironmental '


Phone/Fax: (905)892-1177 14 Mllburn Dr. FonttilD, Ontorlo I.OS 1E4

For more information, circle reply card No. 139



• Monitoring Wells • Recovery Wells

• Municipal Well Drilling •Industiial Well Drilling

• Gas Extraction Wells

•Construction Drilling

• Deep Monitoring Well Specialists R.R. #1 (Bflst Place)

• Well Testing and Rehabilitation

Waterloo, Ontario

(519) 664-1422


147 North Street West


Davidson "Since 1900"

Wingham,Ontario (519) 357-1960

For more information, circle reply card No. 143


FAX (905)841-7271 for quick response

Biosoilds and Waste Utilization • Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & industrial Wastes.


Airea Code





Mail — P.O. Box 60069

Oakville, Ontario L6M 3H2 Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakville, Ont. L9T 2X5


Phono:(905) 878-2800/Fax:(905) 878-7332

For more information,

circle reply card No. 140


City: Prov: Code: Circle the numbers below for FKEK information on the products in the March issue that interest you. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133134

For more

135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167168

information about advertising in this

203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218219

section, call

237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252253

169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201202 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235236 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269270

Penny Davey at

271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303304

(905) 727-4666

305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337338

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997


Product and Service Showcase Wet abrasive blasting

The Torbo method of abrasive blasting, when used to remove coatings and painted surfaces, including lead and as bestos, prevents the spread of airborne paniculate material. Lead in the air lev els is consistently below EPA/OSHA Action Levels. With the Torbo method, contaminated dust emissions are reduced

by 95%,and abrasive consumption by up to 50% compared to dry blast systems.

Traveling hood filters

Enhanced coagulation

The Eimco Traveling Hood Eilter ad vances the standard of polishing filter design by eUminating the traveling bridge used to transport the backwash hood and pump in most low-head,continuous duty fdters. By using the proven Trac-Vac® pneumatic drive system to propel the backwash hood, this filter simplifies op

Restoration Environmental

eration and reduces both maintenance


costs and capital expense. Eimco For more Information, circle reply card No. 226

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 225

Self-contained water

With stricter regulations for organic re movals on the horizon, now is the time

to explore the benefits of enhanced co agulation with iron salts. Eaglebrook's fast-reacting iron salts demonstrate supe riority for removal of precursor organics while providing clear water and a more manageable sludge. Eaglebrook Inc. For more Information, circle reply card No. 227

Successful compact design

Corrosion protection systems

Thirty-six months after having launched a new boiler feed water pump, KSB sold the 360th HGM unit. The compact type

Denso Tape and Profiling Mastic pro vides long-lasting corrosion protection for buried pipes, flanges, valves and fit tings, that is easy to apply. No abrasive blasting is required, nor any special equipment or training. The system is more cost-effective than paints, with no

treatment units

Graver Monoplants by Ecodyne are preassembled into self-contained water treat

ment units easily transported and quickly

series answers the trend towards a radi

installed. Standard sizes treat from 20

feed and gravity backwash systems. Ef fluent turbidity is less than 1 JTU. Ecodyne Limited For more Information, circle reply card No. 228

cal reduction in the peripheral instrumen tation and monitoring systems, in line with the market's increasing cost aware ness. This "maintenance free" concept is achieved by using lubricated internal radial bearings. KSB Pumps Inc. For more Information, circle reply card No. 229

New water-jet eductors

Oil/water separators

gpm to 500 gpm. Each Monoplant con tains clarification, filtration, chemical

Elmridge "TLL" Series Liqui-Jet™ Eductors use water or other liquids at pressures of 10 psi or higher as the mo tive fluid, and operate on the Venturi prin ciple to pump other liquids or slurries. There are no moving parts or packings and no lubrication is required. A wide variety of standard models are available, generally from stock, and special units are also available.

Elmridge Engineering Inc. For more Information,

circle reply card No. 231 54

VOCs. It meets AWWA Standard €217-

90 for cold-applied petrolatum tapes. Denso North America

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 230

Turbidity monitoring systems

The ABB 4670 Series Turbidity Monitor is supplied with dry calibration standard

McTighe Industries provides an oil/ water separator capable of constant op eration with no attention, and a minimum

of maintenance. Separators equipped with the McTighe Petro-Pak™ can be ex pected to remove oil particles down to 20 microns in size and produce an efflu ent quality of less than 10 ppm of free oil. McTighe Industries For more Information,

circle reply card No. 232

with unit values as low as 1.0 to 2.0 NTU

for final and filtered water applications. The dry standards can be used in multi ples of the same unit, thereby reducing costs. The ABB system has high immu nity to sample temperature fluctuations, a major factor in accurate performance below 0.1 NTU.

Metcon Sales and Engineering For more Information, circle reply card No. 233

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Advanced chlorine

Odour control systems

Total chlorine residual


scrubber technology

Duall Division of

Metpro Corpora tion, designs cus tomized odourcontrol scrubbers to meet customer-

specific needs. The Duall MultiDirectional Model PT500MD Scrubbers in clude:

The Powell Sentry 2000 Chlorine Scrub ber has a unique four stage, single pass, horizontal packed bed design with high efficiency packing material. It is the only Chlorine and Sulfur Dioxide Scrubber tested with U.S. EPA Reference Meth

ods-tested at full scale 3,000 ACFM air

flow rates with 2,000 lbs. Its low profile construction makes it suitable for exist

ing installations. Safety is enhanced by using a lower pressure caustic pump at

5psi. Its unique composite construction tank provides double containment of scrubbing solution,and impact protection and more structural strength. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 182


tional air flow resulting in efficiencies as high as 99.9%. • Sizes up to 5000 CFM. • Compact skid-mounted design with chemical feed system and controls. •Low-profile compact design with mini mal space requirement,for easy installa tion in existing sites. •Structural design is based on operations at a maximum process temperature of 120°F.

Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 183

ProMinent's Total Chlorine Residual

Analyzer monitors total chlorine residuals from 0-10.0 ppm. It features a

temperature compensated (5 to 55°C) Amperometric triple-electrode membrane style chlorine sensor with integrated preamplifier. The measuring signal is al most pH independent over the pH range 5.5 to 9.5. No reagents or buffer are re

quired. The chlorine monitor features an LCD display, calibration span potentio meter and a 4-20 mA event output. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 184

Spill containment liner

Drinking water particle counting systems


VOST Stack emissions

sampling tubes

The frame supported Insta-Berm™ is a practical and inexpensive liner for spill VOST200

containment. The Insta-Berm is ex

Tenax/Charcoal VOSTTDO

The Hiac/Royco Particle Counters pro vide you with an on-line, rugged, high resolution sensor. The on-line system uses the largest flow passage and larger micron size range. The AccuCount soft ware was developed for and provides sig nificant data for water treatment plants. Software support for4 particle size chan nels and up to 32 stations. Software of fers: Real-time data display, real-time alarms, log removal calculations, back wash status flag, etc. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 185

Supelco's VOST air sampling tubes are designed to meet EPA SW-46 Method for the sampling of emissions for hazardous waste incinerator stacks. The high-pu rity adsorbents used in the VOST tubes provide consistently low background lev els. VOST 100 tubes are packed with

35/60 Tenax®TA that traps volatile and semivolatile compounds with a low af finity for water and methanol. VOST 200 tubes are packed with 35/60 Tenax®TA and 20/40 petroleum charcoal to trap the more volatile compounds. By placing these two traps in series during sampling you can collect up to 20 L of emissions. Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. For more information, circle reply card No. 186

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

tremely durable and versatile, and is used for industrial storage and containment. The liner can contain up to 26,600 US Gallons(100,595 litres) and is offered in various sizes. The Insta-Berm is also offered with air inflated construction

whereby the hner walls are supported by air inflated tubes. The frame-supported Insta-Berm is extremely cost-efficient two thirds the cost of air inflated type berm for any given size. Deployment takes approximately 90 minutes for a two-man team. Custom constructions

can be made to your requirements, e.g. a gate allowing vehicles or mobile equip ment to be driven into and out of the berm

for storage or washdown. SET Industries Ltd.

For more information, circle reply card No. 187 55

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, cali ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Stamp Out Indoor Air

Pump Station

Pollution with our

Flow Monitor

Oil and grease interceptors

Proven Solution The Living Air Model XL-15

Chemical Free (not a filter) Portable electronic units send ozone and

ions into indoor environments replenish ing the air like "Mother Nature" does outdoors. Systems are available to pu rify most indoor environments of smoke, dust, chemical gases, odours, and bacte ria. Units are effective on areas ranging in size from 100 to 20,000 square feet. Fresh n' Clean Indoor Air 1-800-820-0699 Dealers Welcome

Isco's newest product is the Model 4501 Pump Station Flow Monitor. It is now easy to accurately measure the influent

flow at the pump station and the pump ing rate for each pump. Pump activity data is stored in the 4501's memory for later retrieval and analysis using a PC with Isco's Pumplink software. By de tecting abnormal pump activity, the 4501 can help conduct preventive maintenance before serious problems occur. Nortech Control Equipment,Inc.

For more information,

For more information,

circle reply card No. 188

circle reply card No. 189

Automatic wastewater

New metal-free


COD method

The BUHLER 1023 is one of a range of automatic wastewater samplers manufac tured under a Quality Management Sys

The Manganese III COD Method virtu ally eliminates disposal of hazardous metals waste. Patented Manganese III COD Reagents eliminate the use of char acteristic heavy metal oxidizers, catalysts and chloride removal agents, such as mercury, chromium and silver. In less than 90 minutes an analyst can complete up to 25 COD tests by using Hach's COD Reactor and colorimeter or spectrophotometer. A new specification sheet

tem that conforms to IS09001. The 1023

sampler is ideal for permanent installa tion at factories, wastewater treatment

plants, combined sewer overflows and river monitoring stations. It is a mainspowered refrigerated unit which can ac commodate various glass or plastic bot tle formats. An intelligent programmer is also provided to program the unit and to transfer and download data. A serial

link to a printer allows sample data to be printed on site. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information, circle reply card No. 191 56

Stormceptor Canada has introduced the

Preceptor™ line of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) interceptors. Designed to effectively treat process wastewater con taining oil, grease, food waste and

settleable solids,Proceptor™ interceptors provide benefits beyond front line oil and solids separation. Their cylindrical de sign enhances hydrauhc performance and reduces the likelihood of resuspension during subsequent flows. Ideal for inter nal and external installation.

Stormceptor For more information, circle reply card No. 190

Dissolved air flotators

describes how the new method works and how Hach's exclusive Chloride Removal

System eliminates the use of mercurycontaining reagents. Average recovery rates of known compounds using the Manganese III COD Method and Hach's USEPA-approved Dichromate COD Method are compared.. Hach Company For more information, circle reply card No. 192

Aquarius has a complete line of DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATORS:

Circular, rectangular, with and with out lamella. These flotators are used

in many industrial areas: Separation offats and solids in the food process ing industry; recovery of oil, greases and valuable chemicals in the petro leum, chemicals and metals indus

tries; fibre recovery and de-inking in the pulp and paper industry; process water clarification in all industries;

and sludge thickening, especially on backwash water. Aquarius For more information, circle reply card No. 193

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Zebra Mussels

Odour Control CONTR

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is detailed in a technical bulletin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include; storage and air collection needs.


A "Solution" for


To help control zebra mussels, one solution involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite, which kills the larvae. We are

consulting with experts to estab lish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept informed

Canada Inc.

of the latest information, please

Circle reply card No. 200

contact us.

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 201


Cyanide Removal

Environmental services

Using sodium hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes


is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

ages, equipment, as well as stor age, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 202

Environmental services outsourcing is an approach that is gaining in creased attention from Canadian

companies, as they search for inno vative ways to reduce costs and in crease productivity. This publication introduces Laidlaw Environmental

Services' iNSITE™ service, which

heips companies effectively manage their environmental programs, while increasing focus on their core busi ness.

Laidlaw Env. Services

Circle reply card No. 203

CEOTEXTILES for.Clvfl Engineerfng An>llcatloni


Serving the Pulp & Paper Industry

FREE 1997 Instrumentation

This 8-page, full colour brochure provides a detailed look at how Praxair industrial gases and tech nology provide economical and en vironmental soiutions for the Pulp & Paper Industry. Some of the featured gas applications include oxygen/ ozone bleaching and wastewater treatment; oxygen for chemical recovery, white and black liquor oxidation, and lime kiln enrichment; and nitrogen for chemical transfer, cleaning and purging pipelines, and blanketing chemicals.

The National Instruments 1997 cata

Reference and Catalogue logue features the company's LabVIEW®, LabWindows'®/CVI, and

HiQ'® application software products. New software packages include BridgeVIEW^" and Lookout™ for in dustrial automation. In addition, our

new line of IMAQ™ products features a complete hardware, software and driver software solution for imaging. Hardware products inciude GPiB, DAQ, VXI, and new serial interfaces for industriai communications appli


cations. National Instruments

Circle reply card No. 204

Circle reply card No. 205

Armtec Announces New Line of Geotextiies

Advanced membrane systems for municipal wastewater

Available from coast to coast in


Canada, Armtec woven and non-

As a major supplier of membrane separation equipment, ZENON offers a wide range of systems including microfiitration, ultrafiltration,

woven geotextiies are manufac tured from polypropylene, to the highest industry standards. With this comprehensive line, Armtec is able to provide a full range of geotextile products to suit every application, from erosion control and soil stabilization, to chip seai and asphalt overlay applications.

systems. While all our systems are cost-effective, reliable and easy to operate, some of our processes and membranes offer truly unique solu tions for meeting the chalienges faced by municipaiities.



Circle reply card No. 206

Circle reply card No. 207

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

nanofiitration and reverse osmosis


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. WHMIS "Self Study" Course Canwit's "Self Study" Course in WHMIS Is an Ideal way to meet the training needs of your employees. Developed from 6 years of experi ence teaching WHMIS to a crosssection of employees, our "Self Study" Course Is effective, easy to use and an economical solution to

WHMIS training requirements. Em

SelfStudy Coitrse

ployees will learn about MSDS's,

WHMIS labelling, hazardous mate rials classifications and hazard sym bols, exposure risks, and safe han dling of hazardous materials. Canwit Consulting Corp. Circle reply card No. 208

EIMCO Flexscour Underdralns ...The Uniform Choice for AirA/Vater Backwash EIMCO Hexscour Underdrain


The underdrain Is the heart of every granular media filter. If the under drain Is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years of continuous service. If not, the underdrain and perhaps the en tire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour filter underdralns provide a durable, corrosion-resistant system for col lecting filtered effluent and accu rately metering uniform air/water backwash flows.

Elmco Process Equipment Circle reply card No. 210

FREE Booklet on Corrugated Polyethylene Drainage Pipe Hydraulic Con^deratlons

For Corrugated

PolyeUiyiena Pipe BrsqM K )0U by rw CPFA. tnsigniiHnbstrirVaik ssscialiondttoMIIO uWEised non-onndeo 'rtoiMfion acui the US9nl

iRss^QMn d axiugased Bo^*PiÂŤrtpipe.

You HonratiiiA RescuR

Dual wall (smooth Interior) corru gated polyethylene drainage pipe offers significantly more hydraulic capacity than traditional pipe mate rials. This booklet addresses hy draulic considerations for high den sity polyethylene (HDRE), Including discharge curves, conveyance method,self-cleansing velocities and value considerations, with a com parison on Manning's "n" values. CPPA

Circle reply card No. 212


Activated Sludge with RESPIROMETRY

Unlock the Mystery of Activated Sludge Monitor bloactlvlty at critical loca tions In activated sludge during wastewater treatment and know

what's happening during treatment from start to finish. Arthur Technolo

gy's unique resplrometry technology provides anticipatory Information used to avoid Influent toxiclty, shock loads and non-compliance. The In formation maintains stable opera tion, simplifies troubleshooting and saves big on energy use and opera tion costs.

Arthur Technology, Inc. Circle reply card No. 209

ECO/LOG Canadian Environ

mental Legislation on CD Introducing an environmental legis lative service on CD-ROM that con

tains over 680 federal and provincial environmental acts, regulations, guidelines and objectives on one convenient disk... and updated 6 times a year. ECO/LOG on CD lets you search the database, make sim ple or complex queries, "hotlink" to other pieces of legislation, print or save the Information and download

for reports. It uses the easy-to-use FolloVlews search software.

Southam Magazine Group Circle reply card No. 211

Utilities Management Philip Utilities Management Corpo ration (PUMC) provides municipal and industrial clients with cost-

effective methods of ensuring high quality water supply and wastewater treatment. Our experienced staff of scientists, engineers and technicians provide single source services to ensure a continuous supply of pot able water as well as wastewater

treatment to meet all regulatory requirements. Philip Utilities Circle reply card No. 213

Specialty Gas Suppliers Catalogue


Whatever your requirements In specialty gases and gas mixtures, you can find It all In this catalogue. Air LIqulde Canada, one of the larg est specialty gas suppliers, presents a spectrum of products and useful

Insltuform Technologies specializes In rehabilitating pressure and grav ity pipes which are underground, submerged or located In hard-toreach places. Using our advanced technologies, we repair pipes from

technical Information. You will also

the Inside, In most cases without

find typical and Innovative applica

man-entry or excavation. Our solu tions, which are proven nondis ruptive and cost-effective, address many of your most serious pipe prob

tions such as calibration standards

for environmental monitoring. To order, call your nearest Air LIqulde Canada sales representative. Air Liqulde Canada Circie repiy card No. 214


Unlock the Mystery of

Nondisruptive pipe


insltuform Technoiogies Circle reply card No. 215

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Product and Service Showcase Package potable water treatment plant

High speed dry screening

Derrick Model L and K single deck screening machines are available with

The Degremont Infilco Pulsapak®, a package potable water treatment plant, produces a very high quality of water, utilizing technology equivalent to that

either 1800 or 3600 RPM vibrators and

used in large installations. The Pulsapak

in sizes ranging from 18" x 60" to 48" x 120". Machines can be supplied with open hopper configurations or complete

is the result of a combination of two

PVC piping

RAURIB's ribbed design delivers excep

tional strength - minimum rating of 46 psi/320kPa - and is equivalent in pipe stiffness,impact,and flattening resistance to SDR 35. Composed of high-quality PVC,its smooth interior allows superior flow rates over competing materials.

gasketed side access doors and remov able covers. Derrick Corporation For more information, circie repiy card No. 234

proven Degremont technologies: the Pulsator® Flocculator-Clarifier, equipped with tube settling modules; and the sand and anthracite dual media gravity filter. Degremont Infilco Ltd. For more information, circle repiy card No. 235

RAURIB is light in weight and easy to field-cut due to removable gaskets; its longer length, 13', reduces the number of joints. Rehau For more information, circie repiy card No. 236

On-line COD Monitoring

Liquid Samplers

Flood-proof lifting stations

For more information, circie repiy card No. 237

Sirco PVS series portable samplers in corporate a patented vacuum/compressor sampling system. The sample travel is limited to the intake hose, metering chamber and distribution spout,eliminat ing sources of cross-sample contamina tion such as pumps, valves and distribu tion plates. Southwell Controls Ltd. For more information, circie repiy card No. 238

Proof Lifting Station automatically re moves sewage from areas below the back-wash level. It is easy to transport, with small dimensions and passes through a standard door opening. A range of inflow ports at different heights and stepped in different diameters, designed for DIN push-on sleeve connection sys tem. ABS Pumps For more information, circie reply card No. 239

Dissolved oxygen analyzers

Backflow preventers

Comminutor protection

dust enclosures with flexible motor seals,

The DATALINK CT-100 Organic Pollu tion Monitor uses the UV absorption technology to measure the concentration of organic matter dissolved in water. It does so without the use of reagents allowing low operational costs. Optical absorbance is strongly correlated to COD, particularly for municipal wastewater applications. Geo Structure Instruments

The Sanimat Series 1500 - 3700 Flood-

pia..L. I W- - ■






nomical retrofit alternatives for Wastewater Treatment

The Model 9200 Continuous DO

Plants. They can

analyzer provides the ultimate level of monitoring accuracy and aeration control. It offers menu directing setup and trend graphing on the display, simultaneous DO and temperature readout on the dis play, standard automatic sensor mem brane .self-cleaning, digital and analog outputs, a sensor output voltage mode, and 4 programmable setpoint relays. Cancoppas Limited For more information, circie repiy card No. 240

replace various models of existing In-

The design of Flomatic Backflow Preventers streamlines the number of

working parts, which reduces the need for maintenance and repair. The top-entry cover allows access to both the check valve and relief valve. Flomatic's Mod els RPZ and DCV are rated for a maxi

mum pressure of 175 PSI and a maxi mum temperature of 180° F. Neo Valves

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

For more information,

circie reply card No. 241

Channel Vertical Bottom Discharge Units. Made of rugged cast-iron and stainless steel, the Grind Hog is easy to install. Motor options are available for

flood protection. With the Kwik-Lift re moval system, no confined entry permit, equipment and associated expenses are required. G.E.T. Industries Inc. For more information, circie reply card No. 242


Product and Service Showcase Four-Gas Portable Instrument

Modular UV Disinfection

The new model 25IIA Interface Level

The SA2000 is Scott's new Four-Gas

Analyzer from Royce is the next natural step from the highly successful Model

Portable Instrument and Data Logger. The instrument simultaneously monitors: combustible gases and vapours, hydro gen sulfide, oxygen, and carbon monox ide. The advantage to the SA2000 is that each time your staff uses the detector the time, date, and gas testing results are re corded and can be downloaded to give you a hard copy for your records.

new, modular, high capacity disinfection system that incorporates significant ad vances in ultraviolet technology. The

60-inch long ultraviolet lamps. Reduced maintenance and minimal fouling are made possible by special sleeves and by the TH-lC's unique turbulator flow pat tern. It is compact and ideally suited for use by mobile forces and in disaster re

Heath Consultants Limited

lief. Safe Water Solutions L.L.C.

Interface Level Analyzer »00£L2S1U

ill ■>

|h 0(^iS ■■


Safe Water Solutions' Model TH-1C is a

2500 Blanket Level Detector. The Model

2511A is capable of having the ultrasonic speed-of-sound signal from its transduc ers changed by the user in applications where liquid mediums other than water are in use; it also has four setpoint relays which can each be used as either a "high" or "low" setpoint. Cancoppas Limited For more Information, circle reply card No. 260

Low profile overflow screen

unit's disinfection chamber contains 18

For more Information, circle reply card No. 261

circle reply card No. 262


Total chlorine sensor

For more information,


Methods of moni ProMinent

toring total chlo rine in process streams involve

the use of condi

The Model OS-LP low profile overflow screen is specifically designed for screen ing combined and sanitary sewer over flows which require maximum hydrau lic capacity. The spacing between bars of an existing installation can be easily modified with the modular sectional de

sign. Self-adjustable combs provide thor ough cleaning between the bar spaces, and a self-cleaning trough collects and carries away screenings downstream to

OPTIFLOC™ is the first system that has been designed specifically to provide a high shear mixing zone for contacting polymer with sludge. The high intensity mixing zone generated by the rotating impeller provides almost instant disper sion of the polymer solution within the sludge matrix. The net effect is a sub stantial reduction in polymer require ments and improved dewatering perform

tioning buffers prior to the sen sor. This method

can be replaced with a new envi-

ronmentallyfriendly process that does not require the addition of buffering solutions. This new sensor monitors free residual and com

bined chlorine (chloramines) to give an immediate reading of the total chlorine



ProMinent Fluid Controls

For more Information, circle reply card No. 263

Water Technology International Corp. For more Information, circle reply card No. 264

Influent-Cleaning System

AV Flow Meters

the screen. John Meunier Inc.

For more Information, circle reply card No. 265

Sewage pumps

Parkson ' s BioGuard™ Influ

ent-Cleaning System significantly reduces municipal wastewater


costs and improves plant operation by removing unwanted solids from influent streams. The screened solids are washed

to virtually eliminate fecal matter, and compacted to reduce the volume for dis posal to landfill. Further benefits include minimizing odours and insect problems due to the totally-enclosed system design,

and protecting operating personnel. Parkson Corporation For more Information,

circle reply card No. 266 60

American Sigma has added four new area

velocity flow meters to its existing prod uct line. The line starts with the choice of a unit with or without a full featured

display and keypad. Then there is a choice of meters that range from small (4 1/2" diameter) and lightweight with a single depth/velocity sensor to a longterm meter that will support up to three depth/velocity sensors.

Dependable J Series solids handling sew age pumps are available in either vortex or axial flow pump configurations. Pumps are available in 3", 4", and 6" sizes, capacities to 2300 gpm., heads to

Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Gorman-Rupp Canada For more Information, circle reply card No. 268

For more Information, circle reply card No. 267

205 feet.

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, March 1997

Product and Service Showcase Water well cleaning device

Stormwater run-off a

The Downstream

highly effective and environmentally-safe system that will thor oughly rid a water well casing's perforations and surrounding water bearing formations of

Defender™ from

to capture settleable solids, floatables, oils

mineral bacterial fine

and grease from



sand and other depos its. The patented SONAR-JET system accomplishes this by combining a mild "har monic" frequency of shock waves with pulsating, horizontally directed gas pres sure "jets". International Water Supply, Ltd. For more Information, circle reply card No. 269

H.I.L. Technol

ogy is a treatment device designed

Eckoustic® Functional Panels can quickly add sound absorption to compressor

stormwater run

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rooms, blower rooms and pump rooms. In administrative areas, work can be car ried out more efficiently with EPFs pro

ment systems,it requires a fraction of the land area of storage tanks and detention ponds. Standard sizes are available, each designed to treat a predetermined design flow to a predetermined solids removal efficiency. H.I.L. Technology,Inc. For more Information,

viding acoustic control. Positioning EFTs outside a facility can provide excellent acoustic screening. The noise arising from generators can be absorbed by EPFs, reducing the area's db level.

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Self-cleaning Fine Screens With

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Potable water sampling


Wallander Step Screen® the slot

Integrated Consulting Services Group

width can be se

lected as 1,3, or 6

mm depending on requirements. It can be used for


take water up to 2500-35000 gpm. High solids removal efficiency is achieved by the pre-coating effect. Superior serviceability is provided since the Step Screen can be tipped up and the step laminae easily replaced. Dagex For more Information, circle reply card No. 272

KMK Integrated Consulting Services Group is a group of professional firms offering total environmental project man agement to our clients throughout Ontario. The primary firms are KMK Consultants Limited (Municipal and Environmental Engineering), KMK Environmental Services (Process and Energy Auditing and Optimization Specialists) and KiMK SCI Consulting (Ecological Planning and Landscape Architects). KMK For more Information,

Centrifugal Blowers

When sampling potable water, use the Whirl-Pak Thio-Bag, made of unbreak able, sterile polyethylene. Patented "Puncture Proof Tabs" protect the bag against piercing. Each bag contains nontoxic, non-nutritive, sodium thiosulfate

to neutrahze chlorine. Thio-Bags are now available in two sizes: B0I040WA holds

100 ml, and B01254WA holds 300 ml. Nasco Plastics

For more Information,

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circle reply card No. 274

Portable pH Meter

Grooved end plug valve

The pH Meter, Model 107 is a 9V

battery-operated, hand-held 6" high X 4" wide x 4"

deep unit in a leather carrying Lamson Multi-stage and Turbotron Cen trifugal Blowers provide clean, dry and oil-free air/gas at variable flow rates, with volumes up to 50,000 CPM. The blow ers are dependable, trouble-free and quiet, with a very high-efficiency design. Installation is easy and no maintenance is required. The housings are made of heavy duty cast iron. Pencon Equipment Co. For more Information, circle reply card No. 275

case. Features in

clude: 2-12 pH scale, 0-100°C

temperature compensation; Gel filled pH electrode with 30" lead and Buffer solu

tions; pH Indicator and Recorder-Con trollers and field Meters available.

Analytical Measurements Canada Ltd. For more Information, circle reply card No. 276

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

The Series 365 Vic-Plug™ grooved end eccentric plug valve is available in 3" through 12" sizes and is rated to 175 psi. Vic-Plug has a rugged cast iron body that conforms to AWWA C-509 end-to-end

dimensions, making it ideal for retrofit ting on older wastewater systems. Grooved ends,conforming to AWWA C606 rigid radius groove dimensions, re duce weight, assuring fast, easy installa tion. Victaulic of Canada

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 277 61

Wastewater Infrastructure

Wetlands preserved by micro tunnelling

With a growing population

of 100,000, Cambridge, Ontario had what ap peared to be a simple en gineering problem. A 25-year old pumping station in the city's southwestem comer was inadequate for the neigh bourhood's growing needs. The obvi

objected to the sewer project. Midway through the public hearings, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources declared the wetlands a Provincially Significant Environmentally Sensitive Area. There

Cambridge supplied 750 mm reinforced concrete pipe for the project, and Re gional Sewer & Water Main Construc tion Ltd., Cambridge, was hired as the

could be no reduction in wetland area

Approximately three-quarters of the open-cut work was completed by late February, 1996, prior to the micro tun nelling segment. The 360 tonne jacks expected for the job were delayed at another project, so Iseki substituted 270 tonne jacks instead.

or function.

After retaining the services of CH2M

ous solution was to run almost one mile

Gore & Storrie to make recommenda

of concrete sanitary tmnk sewer pipe along a small, twisting stream named

tions and administer the contract, the

City of Cambridge elected to proceed

Devil's Creek. The new line

would connect with a larger tmnk line that led to the city's sewage treatment facility. The proposed path, however, was bisected by a narrow, marshy valley. That small stretch ofland, approximately 221 m wide, de layed construction on the project for more than four years. The valley contained a wetland that was home for species of endan gered plant and animal life, in cluding a rare type of salaman der, the 75 mm long, blue-spot-


A 39-inch, outside diameter

Unclemole with slurry tanks, a control cabin and other support equipment completed three drives. The first bored a length of 32 m beneath CP Railway tracks through silty sand with some cobbles. The final drive

was 39 m long through wet sand under a highway embankment. In both cases, the Unclemole per formed easily at jacking depths of about 15 m.

The Iseki micro tunnel ma

ted black salamander, and beech

chine met some problems during

trees that dated back to the gla cial period. Where municipal improve

the second drive, which bored a 144 m stretch below a creek bed

of silty sand and sandy clay. Because an investigative soils re port could not be done within the environmentally sensitive area, the machine was advancing upon the engineers' best ideas of what

ments collide with environmen

tal concerns, Canadian law re

quires municipalities to follow a rigorous process to prove that constmction plans will cause no long-term harm to the ecosystem. The proposed sewer line could not change the wetland's water table, de stroy the beech forest, or disturb the habi

it would encounter. The Uncle

with an open-cut installation outside the protected areas,and micro tunnelling the 221 m that traversed the most sensitive

tat of the salamanders and other endan

section of the wetlands. At $2.4 mil

gered creatures. Even before engineering proposals were drafted, the Devil's Creek project empted into a major environmental con troversy. Groups ranging from sports man organizations to preservationists

lion, this was the least expensive option to which all parties eventually agreed. Tenders were issued in late November

1995, and construction began in midDecember.

Waterloo Concrete Products of

mole surmounted watermelon-size boul

ders, but shifted when it came upon a higher boundary of gravel. Regional Sewer quickly thwarted the obstruction, hoisted the machine back on line and

grade, and resumed boring. Iseki continually provided technical support to the Regional Sewer operators, and the crew had the jacking cycle down to 30 minutes. Normally, the crew noted, each section took 45 minutes.

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The railroad embankment had sepa rated the valley's natural pools from the upland forest. Micro tunnelling ben efited the salamanders by creating a new pool on the upland side of the tracks, which is an ideal breeding ground. The complete sewer line was flushed, in spected, and went into service on April 19, 1996. Landscaping and replanting in open cut installation areas, were com pleted by May 10. For more information,

circle reply card No. 144 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997



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Drinking Water Thames water aims to surpass EU/UK standards Drinking water of a quality even higher than the strictest European Union/ United Kingdom standard is the goal behind new and advanced treatments

that have been tested and developed at a specially-built research centre in southern England.

as farmers, to offer alternative environ-

Advanced Water Treatment processes at

mentally-friendly solutions. It also be gan developing technologies that would be suitable for large-scale water treat ment, making water brighter, better tast-

its works. These are Ozone, Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and the

Thames Water's Advanced

Thames Water Superfilter. Ozone, an activated form of oxygen, breaks down natural and synthetic organic ma terials like pesticides, into smaller particles that can be easily re

Water Treatment(AWT)Centre at


Kempton, west London, was pur pose-built to enable large-scale trials of new processes. Constructed by Thames Water's subsidiary, PWT Worldwide, the Kempton centre has proved invalu able in assessing techniques for the treatment oflarge amounts of water.

GAC is a high-quality absorp tion medium made from natural materials that when used with

ozone, becomes biologically ac tive, enhancing natural purification processes. The Superfilter works by placing GAC between layers of sand in filter beds. This has proved highly effective in the removal of pesticides.

Conventional water treatment takes the form of a combination of

physical and biological processes backed by the extra safeguard of chemical disinfection. One prob

Thames Water's aim is to sur

pass the EU/UK standards of one part in 10,000 million for any in dividual pesticide, irrespective of lem that arises is that small traces toxicity. This rigorous requirement of soluble pesticides sometimes Thames Water's Advanced Water Treatment Centre. Photo: Brian Bell represents only one jugful of any enter the public supply through riv ing and removing trace substances such pesticide in the whole of the UK water ers and underground water sources. supply and amounts to a virtually zero To deal with this, Thames Water, the as pesticides. pollutant standard. Thames Water is investing £350 mil UK's largest water services company, Circle reply card No. 146 contacted large users of pesticides, such lion ($700 million Cdn.) to install the


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A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS The issue of zebra mussels

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We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on this subject. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control the spread of zebra mussels.

hypochlorite, which kills the

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Yes, please keep me informed on the use of JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite for controlling zebra mussels For current project □ For future project □ For research purposes □ Your name Title

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Mail to: Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. 255 Wicksteed Ave., Toronto. Ontario M4H 1G8

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R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Qnality

Engineering, Consulting,Procurement,Project Management

Association Canadienne sur la

Qualite de I'Ean

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McGill University scientists R. Zaloum, A.-F. Coron-Ramstiim and R. Gehr used

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factory. For an average total COD of 1000 mg/L and an HRT of eight days, the SRB-filtration system yielded an overall efficiency of 94.5%. Through

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Photodegradatlon of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans The aquatic photochemistry of 2,3,7,8tetrachlorodihenzofuran and of 2,3,4,7,

8-pentachlorodihenzofuran was studied in the laboratory using a xenon light source and under sunlight conditions and in the field at the Experimental

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under sunlight conditions. University of Winnipeg scientists K.F. Friesen, M.M. Foga and M.D. Loewen found that both congeners experienced enhanced deg radation rates in lake water. Photo-

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product analysis confirmed reductive dechlorination as the degradative path way for both PCDFs. The results re ported in Environmental Science and Technology show that reductive dechlo rination, C-O cleavage, and hydroxylation all play a role in the photolytic transformation of PCDFs and the henzofuran nucleus in natural water.

Water Quality Guidelines The publication of two water quality guidelines hooks has been recently an nounced. The 6th edition of Guidelines

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able in both English and French. The Guidelinesfor Canadian Recreational Water Quality deal with the microbio logical, physical and chemical health

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hazards of recreational water use. Pre

pared by the Working Group of the Fed eral-Provincial Advisory Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health, information is provided on microbiological characteristics, nui sance organisms and microbiological sampling and analysis. Measurement of Biodegradable Dissolved Organic Carbon A study by R.G. MacLean, M. Prevost and P. Niquette was undertaken to evalu ate a newly developed biofilm reactor for the measurement of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) in drinking water. This method enables rapid BDOC determination which would be ideally suited for the dynamic measurement of treatment plant BDOC variations in cases where reactor per formance is stable with changing water quality. As described by these Ecole Polytechnique scientists in Environmen tal Technology, the biofilm reactor op erates best at constant temperature (1923°C). BDOC values obtained using a suspended-inoculum BDOC measure ment technique correlated positively

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with biofilm reactor BDOC values al

though significant scattering was ob served.

Anaerobic Dehalogenation of 2-Chlorophenol A paper published by K. Themel, R. Sparling and J. Oleszkiewicz in Envi ronmental Technology describes the 2chlorophenol degradation potential of mixed fermentative(non-methanogenic) anaerobic cultures derived from sewage sludge. These University of Manitoba scientists found that, under mesophilic conditions, 2-chlorophenol was de graded in mineral salts medium at con centrations five times greater than those utilized by known anaerobic chlorophenol and chlorobenzoate degraders. The end product of the deg

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radation was acetate rather than carbon

dioxide. The degradation was fermen tative and thus did not require sulfate or nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. Effect of Zebra Mussels on Environmental Conditions

Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy scientists have monitored the effects of colonization and subsequent

population density increases of Dreissena (zebra and quagga mussels) Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997



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annually at a site in eastern Lake Erie near the Niagara River. Changes de


•Infrastructure • Communities

scribed by E.T. Howeii and coiieagues in the Journal ofFisheries and Aquatic

•Environment •Facilities

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tal organic carbon,PAHs and some met als, seccbi disc transparency increases, and decreases in cbioropbyii a concen tration and in numbers of native bivalves


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Phenolic Compounds Leeches (Nepheiopsis obscura Verriii) were evaluated by S.M. Frabacs (Econotecb Services) and K.J. Hail (Westwater Research Centre) as poten tial biomonitors of cbiorinated phenolic compounds discharged from bleached pulp mills using semi-static laboratory bioassays of one week duration. The effect of factors such as contaminant


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concentration, water pH, water tempera ture, and leech weight upon bioconcentration were examined. There was a

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Ecosystem Sources of Mercury V.L. St. Louis and coiieagues from the University of Manitoba, the Freshwater Institute, Fiett Research Ltd., and

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ently sinks for methyl mercury. The an nual input of methyl mercury from wetlands is larger than the annual up take of mercury by fish and is similar to the amount of methyl mercury produced


McMaster University scientist P. Brassard, together with F. Rosa and A. Mudroch of the National Water Re

search Institute, have proposed a sim68

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997


R&D News pie model to predict the rate of oxida tion if acid mine tailings were disposed of on the bottom of a meromictic pit near Ignace, Ontario. The model described in Environmental Technology predicts that,if the pit were filled with these tail ings to a depth of 16 m, the calcite in the tailings would be able to neutralize the generated acid for a period of sev eral thousand years.Thus impoundment appears to be a practical and feasible technique for environmentally safe dis posal as long as the meromictic charac ter of the pit can be maintained.


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other hand, variation in solids retention

time from 5 to 20 days had little effect on particulate solubilization. These,and other results are published in Environ mental Science and Technology.

Effect of pH Recovery on Phytoplankton Experimental acidification of a lake in the Experimental Lakes Area of north western Ontario from 6.7 to 5.1 caused



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Ereshwater Institute scientists D.L.


Eindlay and S.E.M. Kasian incremen tally increased the pH to assess the ef fect on the phytoplankton community.








As described in the Canadian Journal

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Blosorption of 2,4 Dichlorophenol University of Ottawa scientists Z.Ning, K.J. Kennedy and L. Eemandes investi gated equilibrium sorption isotherms and sorption kinetics of 2,4-dichloro-

phenol on live and chemically inactiEnvironmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

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vated anaerobic granules using batch serum bottle tests. A general metabolic inhibitor, sodium azide, was used to in activate the biological activity of the anaerobic biomass. Experimental results published in Water Research showed that the differences in the biosorption of live and chemically inactivated anaero bic granules were not significant sug gesting that anaerobic biosorption is mainly a physical-chemical process and that metabolically mediated diffusion in the process is negligible.

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An experimental site representative of







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tigated for possible groundwater con tamination due to the disposal of liquid waste from farming operations. Memo rial University scientists P. Morin and P. A. Ivany, together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Research Centre's G. Bishop, interpreted the data obtained using nonparametric statistical methods. Back ground concentration levels and indi vidual well signatures have been defined and used for subsequent detection of changes in chemical concentration of

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selected contaminants. The results, de

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A paper published in the Water Pollu tion Research Journal of Canada de scribes the results of a field scale dem

onstration of the DARAMEND™ 70

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

R&D News


bioremediation technology. The paper


by Grace Dearborn Inc. scientists P.

• Assessment and Control

Bucens, A. Seech and I. Marvan de scribes the treatment of 90 tonnes of

• Air Pollution Dispersion Study

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sediment dredged directly from Hamil ton Harbour without any pretreatment. The treatment, conducted in a high-den sity polyethylene lined treatment cell covered by a steel framed greenhouse, involved amending, tilling and closely

• Odour Panel Evaluation ROWAN WILLIAMS DAVIES & IRWIN Inc. Consulting Engineers 650 Woodlawn Road West


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controlling the sediment water content. After 300 days of treatment, the level


of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocar bon contamination was reduced by 90%.


Trace Elements in Lake Erie Sediments

J.M. Azcue, F. Rosa and A. Mudroch

have determined concentration profiles


Consulting Engineers & Architect

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■ Environmental Site Assessment/A uditing


Spring Conferences

Spring Convention Previews Environmental Compliance '97 and Ontario Environmental Exposition March 13-14,1997 Toronto Congress Centre,Toronto, Ontario The first major spring conference - • Environmental regulation & compli Environmental Compliance '97, will ance - the new reforms. take place at the new Toronto Congress • Contaminated site assessment and

for Compliance '97 and Ontario Envi ronmental Expo reports widespread in


tendance. Thousands of visitors are an

Environmental Science &

Engineering Magazine will be sponsor ing this conference for the 5th consecu tive year. This year. Compliance'97 will


terest in both^hoQtlLsales and show at

ticipated to attend this exhibition. This decommissioning guidelines. issue of Environmental Science & • Environmental Health & Safety Au Engineering Magazine is also the be combined with the Ontario Environ diting - The Complete Course. Official Show Guide and a list of ex mental Expo, enabling conference del • Spill Management: Planning, report hibitors and a floor plan can be found egates to view, first hand, a wide array ing and response. on page 87. ofenvironmental products and services. •Due Diligence in EH&S Management: Eor conference registration, please The Toronto Congress Centre is a Environmental Due Diligence. contact ES&E at (905) 727-4666, Fax: new building with modern seminar and •Due Diligence in EH&S Management: (905) 841-7271. For exhibition booth sales or a free exhibition facilities, along with ample Health & Safety Due Diligence. parking,and minutes away from Pearson • The training and certification of envi attendance pass, contact Great West Expo at 1-800-298-1232. International Airport. The Congress ronmental professionals. Centre is opposite the International • Storage tanks in Ontario: A practical Plaza hotel, formerly the Skyline hotel, guide to compliance. Some 450 registrants attended last on Dixon Road near the 427 Highway. Americana '97 Environmental Compliance topics year's Environmental Compliance Con ference, representing a broad cross sec include: Trade Show and tion of industries and municipalities. • ISO: Practical steps towards imple Conference Many delegates have already registered menting ISO 14001. • 'Brownfields' and Ontario's new

March 18-21, 1997 Montreal Convention

Centre, Montreal, Quebec


Americana '97 will be held in conjunc tion with the annual AQTE/AESEQ* conference.


Many visitors, exhibitors and foreign delegations are expected from around

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the world, with more than 140 technical

conferences scheduled to be presented. In addition to the exhibitors' booths,

technical sessions will fall into eight main categories: • Drinking water, municipal and indus trial wastewater treatment.

• Air pollution control. • Hazardous and solid wastes. • International markets.

sentative concentrations

• 6th Symposium on groundwater and

of solids. The environ

soil remediation.

mentally sealed touchpad controller guides the opera tor through programming sequences via a 2 line L.C.D.

• GLAP and SLAP projects (Great Lakes Action Plan and St. Lawrence

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Eor more information contact: Jean-

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Pierre Dubois, Tel: (514) 270-7110, Fax:(514) 270-7154. 'Quebec Environmental Technology Associa tion and Quebec Environmental Industry Services Association.


For more information, circle reply card No. 111 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

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The high rise rate of this soUds contact floculator/clarifier reduces surface

requirements, resulting in substantial cost savings. With its unique pulsing action, the Ultrapulsator provides a concentrated and homogeneous sludge blanket, internal sludge recirculation, and the pohshing action of tube-settUng modules. Whether your objective is to improve the quaUty of your water or to increase the capacity of your facihty, Degremont Infllco has a water purification system to meet your needs. For more information, call our offices today.

Features of Ultrapulsator technology include: absence of submerged mechanical moving parts m the clarifler;

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Spring Conferences WEAO^'s 26th Annual Symposium and



0PCEA2 Exhibition

Association of

Ontario /

April 13-15,1997 Convention Centre and Delta-Armouries Hotel, London,ON This annual symposium and equipment exhibition provides a forum for the pro fessionals to network with each other

and gain a first hand knowledge on the latest issues, trends and technologies for wastewater treatment and pollution pre vention. Ontario Environment Minis

ter Norman Sterling has been invited to give the keynote address.

Technical Program Sessions will cover:

•Design/build - An alternative approach to project execution.

•Planning for the future - Master plans and the class environmental assessment

(EA)process. • Advances in nutrient removal.

• New technologies. •Industries - Dealing with environmen tal issues.

Operations' Challenge combines the various skills required by modern operators. • Professional wastewater operators Two teams from last year's WEAO contest went on to win additional honours at the


WEF Conference In Dallas, Texas. A team from Ottawa-Carleton placed first, fol lowed by a team representing Metropolitan Toronto.

• What's happening to the brown stuff (Biosolids)?



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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Spring Conferences •Innovative approaches to saving capi tal costs of expansions and upgrades. • Contracting utility operations. • Use of technology for achieving oper ating efficiency. • The international market: Partnering

Ontario to compete in the international challenge to be held in October, 1997 in Chicago. Last year, the teams from Ottawa Carleton Region and Metro To ronto did Ontario proud by winning the first and second places in Division II, in

for success.


•Professional development. • Watershed management.

A hands-on operators training work shop on servicing and troubleshooting gas chlorinators will be held. Training time and CEUs will be awarded to par ticipants. Equipment Exhibition The Equipment Exhibition is another highlight of this important annual event, organized by OPCEA. Equipment sup

Operations Challenge The challenge is organized by the Professional Wastewater Operations Division (PWOD). It consists of 5 events: process control,laboratory,safety, maintenance and collection system. The winning team will represent

British Columbia Water & Waste Association

April 21-23 Victoria Conference Centre, Victoria, British Columbia

pliers, consultants, utility operating companies, publishers and laboratories will be on hand to unveil and answer

questions about their latest products and services. The exhibition will be held in

the afternoon of April 14 and all day on April 15. Tours will include Gorman-Rupp's manufacturing facility, and the Adelaide Wastewater Treatment Plant which uses

Trojan's high intensity UV. For more information contact Sandy Pickett at (416) 502-1440, Fax: (416) 502-1786. 'Water Environment Association of Ontario

^Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association

Island Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Block K - SCADA & Instrumentation - The Continuous Measurement of

Turbidity in Mountainous and Urban Streams.

Full-Scale Activated Sludge Facilities. - Start-up and Operation of BC's First Municipal Sequencing Batch Reactor The conference theme is Visions - (SRB). The Next 25 Years. There will be three - Upgrading of a Wastewater Treatment days of technical seminars, MSG dis Facility in a Cost-effective Manner:The plays and tours, as well as a spouse/ Keremeos Experience. youth program. Block G - Solid Waste Monday,April 21 - Landfill Gas Management at the

The BC Water and Waste Association is

holding its 25th Conference and Manu facturers' Display in Victoria, BC.

Block A - Water Treatment

Hartland Landfill.

- Pilot Water Treatment Study for the City of Kamloops. - Pilot Testing of a Two-Stage Filtration

- Campbell River Landfill - Closure

Process for Small Communities.

- Micro Filtration -A New Technology for Treatment of S. Thompson River Water at Kamloops Block B - Wastewater Treatment

- Sicamous Community Wastewater


- Use of Public/Private Partnerships in Solid Waste Management - A Case Study. Block H - Operators - Operators Development Program. - Safety - The Times are Changing. - Unidirectional Flushing of Water

- Integration of Water/Wastewater SCADA Systems and Wireless Imaging. - Plant Wide SCADA System for the Regional District of Nanaimo French Creek Water Pollution Control Centre.

Block L - Operators - Why We Practice Cross-Connection Control.

- Upgrading Municipal Treatment Plants with MBR Technology. - SCADA System Installation at the City of Prince Rupert. Wednesday, April 23 Block M - Water Supply Infrastructure

- Development of a Water Main Re placement program - More Than Intui tion.

- Masset Water Treatment Plant Expan sion - Should a Small Community Be



- Wastewater Treatment Systems in a

of Arcata Facultative Oxidation Ponds.

Block I - Water Supply and Operations - Proposed BC Memorandum of Under standing on Water Use Efficiency.

Block C - Public/Private Partnerships

- Environmental Codes of Practice and


for Wastewater Treatment In BC

Best Management Practices for Use of

- Pressure Sewers - A Proven Alterna

- The Municipal/Regional District Per spective. - The Provincial Perspective. - Industry Rising to the Challenge. Safety Competition Ttiesday, April 22

Rechlorinated Water.

tive Solution for a Variety of Small Community Sewage Disposal Chal lenges. - Use of Uni-Directional Drilling Proc ess for Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation. - Application of Hydroxyl Radicals for

Performance-based Environment.

- Solids Accumulation Within the City

- City of Penticton Water Treatment Plant - Construction, Start-up and Op timization.

Block J - Wastewater Issues

Block E - Water Treatment

- Techniques to Improve Sewerage Sys tem Planning.

- Optimizing Granular Media Filtration.

- Odour Control Alternatives for Waste-

- Membrane Treatment Without Pre-

water Treatment Plants and Collection


Block F - Wastewater Treatment

Systems. - The Development and Construction of Extended Thermophile Anaerobic Di gestions to Produce High Grade (Class

- Practical Aerated Denitrification in

A) Biosolids at the GVRD's Annacis

- Inactivation of Cryptosporidium Using the Hydroxyl Process.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Their Own General Contractor?

- Water Pipeline Crossing of the Pitt and Fraser Rivers. Block N - Wastewater - Innovative

the Observation of Industrial Waste-

water Systems. Technology Transfer - Watershed Management. - Liquid Waste Management Planning. For more information contact

Catharine Gibson at (604) 936-4982, Fax:(604)931-3880. 75

Spring Conferences OWWA/OMWA* 1997 Joint Annual Conference


Changes and Challenges - May 4-7 Sheraton Hamilton Hotel and Hamilton Convention Centre

The 1997 Joint Annual Conference of

- An Update of Waterloo's Mannheim Program. - Life Cycle Costing of Groundwater Systems. Operations & Management - Chlorine Safety. - Infrastructure Asset Management Strategy For Hamilton-Wentworth. - Operational Optimization Study For

the OWWA - Ontario Section, AWWA.

and the OMWA,takes place May 4-7. The four-day conference features addresses from several well-known

speakers including Norman Sterling, Ontario Minister of the Environment &

Energy. May 4 - Co-Chairs Reception May 5 - Conference Opening Keynote Address: Norman Sterling,

The Water Treatment & Distribution

Systems In Ottawa-Carleton. - The Mechanics of Partnering.

Ontario Minister Of The Environment

& Energy.


- Balancing THM Formation With Disinfection Efficiency: A Modelling Approach.

Concurrent Sessions - OMWA - What Your Customer Needs To

Know - The Eive Point Program. - Getting Your Utility Competitive And Staying There.


Norman Sterling fields media questions about the government's plan to transfer water & wastewater plant ownership to the municipalities. Photo - Steve Davey

- Canadian Case Histories of Sedimen tation & Backwash Water Treatment


using Laminar Flow Parallel Plate Tech nology. - Innovative Flectrotechnologies For The Inactivation of Cryptosporidium Parvum Occysts In Water. - Application of Particle Counting For Optimizing Filtration. May 7- Tours •Canadian War Plane Heritage Museum

- The Internet And Its Practical Role In

- Panel discussion with full audience

• New Steam MuseumAVater Plant

The Water Industry - A Case Study.


• Historic & Points of Interest Tour of

- After The Sale of OCWA - Who

Picks Up The Pieces? - Where Have All The Utilities Gone?

- The Government's vision for the

Automation & Distribution

waterworks industry. - The utility viewpoint. - The municipal viewpoint- a York Re gion update. - The consumers viewpoint on full pri

- Meter Maintenance Management. - Fire Protection Issues - A Peterbor

ough Perspective. - Run Like a Business-The Importance Of Computerization.

Research Forum

Concurrent Sessions

- In-Situ Survival of Cryptosporidium Parvum In Treated Drinking Water. - Estimating Disinfection Capabilities

Greater Hamilton

For Giardia Inactivation: An Examina

Small Systems & Groundwater - Water Quality Testing Options For Municipalities. - Optimization of Treatment Plants For

tion Of Six Methods.

Control of Trihalomethanes.

- Drinking Water Quality In Distribu tion Systems: Critical Parameters using

- Artificial Recharge For Water Supply

For more inforation contact Astrid

Tallon, OWWA, Tel: (416) 252-7060. Fax:(416) 252-3908. "Ontario Water Works Association, A Section of AWWA, and the Ontario Municipal Water Association.

The SANCHO Model.

- Bench-Scale Testing ofPolyaluminum Chloride As An Alternate Coagulant. - An Approach For Interpreting Results From Model Distribution Systems.

Air & Waste Management Association Air & Waste ManaeemefltAssodation

- Ontario Section

- Optimization of Backwashing Strate gies For Full-Scale Biological Filtration.

Regulatory Reform: New Approaches for Environmental Protection

- Sequential In-Situ Treatment Of A

Friday, April 11,1997

Multicontaminant Groundwater Plume.

- Pilot Plant Study For The Control Of NPOC And Aluminum In Drinking Water Treatment.

May 6 - OWWEA Breakfast and Early Bird Session Interactive Workshop -"How To Initi ate And Maintain A Water Efficiency Program In Your Community". Plenary Session

7:30 a.m. - 4:00 p.m., Metro Hall, Toronto

This is the first workshop in a series to advance awareness and understanding of, and thinking on this very topical issue of regulatory reform. Hear government, industry, FNGO, academia, legal, environmental services representatives express their viewpoints and most importantly, have your voice heard on:

• mechanisms to complement and support regulations • principles and criteria for application of mechanisms

Privatization-The Debate Continues

Technical Committee contacts:

Moderator Michael Enright - "As It Happens", CBC.

Peter Baltais (416)968-8278, Syd Barton (905)822-4111 For registration and information: Tel:(905) 729-4176, Fax:(905) 729-4119


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Water & Wastewater Operations

Ontario will transfer all water and sewage works to municipalities

Ontario municipalities wil be

given full title to provincicially owned water and sew age treatment plants serving

their communities under a new act in

troduced January 15, by Environment and Energy Minister Norman Sterling. "The quality of our water is not ne gotiable. When we turn on the taps, we expect clear, drinkable and safe water. Municipalities take this responsibility seriously and have clearly demonstrated their ability to provide outstanding wa ter and sewage treatment services to their communities," said the Minister.

Municipalities already own threequarters of the water and sewage plants in Ontario. The remaining plants, which are being transferred, represent about a quarter of the total in the province. "The province will no longer be in the posi tion of being regulator, owner, operator and funder. This will consolidate own

ership at the municipal level, where it makes the most sense and will allow the

province to focus on setting and enforc

ing tough standai'ds," he emphasized. Under the proposed law, municipali ties that propose to sell part or all of their water or sewage assets to the private sector will first have to repay any pro vincial capital grants received since 1978. This will protect the investment of the taxpayer and encourage contin ued public control of water and sewage

they are delivered, so that the taxpayer receives value - the best possible serv ice with optimum efficiency and least cost. Clear and consistent assignment of responsibilities will result in better delivery and increased accountability. It is a better deal for the taxpayer," he con cluded.

Facts and Figures


In other provisions of the Water and The implications are enormous. On Sewage Services Improvement Act, tario's water and sewage systems are 1997, responsibility for septic system in highly regarded both nationally and in spections and approvals will be appro ternationally. The province has: priately transferred to municipalities, on October 1, 1997. Municipalities will • 500 water treatment plants, •437 sewage treatment plants, have the ability to include new or ex panded septic systems within a "one- •200,000 kilometres of watermains and sewage pipeline, stop" approvals service. "This govern • some 75 percent of all plants are mu ment will ensure that public health and the environment are protected through nicipally-owned; the rest are provincially-owned. The Ontario Clean tough standards, training and certifica Water Agency currently holds title to tion for septic system installers and in approximately 230 water treatment and spectors," said Mr. Sterling. sewage treatment facilities or 25 percent "We are restructuring water and sew age services to improve the way that of the total.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Tel;(705) 325-6181 • Fax:(705) 325-2347 For more information, circle reply card No. 114 (See page 17)


Drinking Water Management

Revenue opportunities abound in metering

Asour water systems ap

proach the twenty-first cen tury, new technology and techniques will undoubt edly come into play concerning water system performance and control. The increasing expense of water and conser vation efforts will definitely create a heightened sense of public awareness. This will dictate that water managers of tomorrow be more efficient than their

predecessors. Good practices and sound

programs for large meter systems will help ensure the stability of our water sys tems and sustain our growth. The key to converting losses in wa ter measurement to real money lies in identifying revenue gains from meter re placement,sizing, application and main tenance. It's a fact of life - as large water meters age, their accuracy de creases. Bearings and gears slowly wear,causing a gradual loss in accuracy. The meter may continue losing accuracy until it reaches an accuracy level of40% to 60%. It may maintain this level for years before the meter acmally stops. Large meters should not be expected to have a service life of more than twenty years. Historically, products are obso lete by that time or replacement parts become expensive and difficult to locate.

rate meters better suited to their appli cations, or even to repair existing me ters. Yet, an opportunity for increased revenue exists that should be explored. What's the solution? There's a lot

more to enhancing revenue than replac ing meters. The type of large water me ter program that works best is the one

palities looking for ways to increase ef ficiency. This service helps municipali

that delivers the most reliable results for

replacement, sizing, application, and

the least expense. A good large meter program will focus on the future and avoid tradition, as a general rule. Op

maintenance. Industries has uncovered a wealth ofin

erators will at times become satisfied

formation about meter inaccuracies

with their present program, not realiz ing the extent of system losses as no body is looking for them.

through the testing, installation and re pair of thousands of large water meters of all types and manufacturers. The in formation regarding the accuracy per

ment concerns.

In addition, water usage patterns are constantly evolving, changing the de mands on the system in place. New fac tories, apartment buildings, shopping centres - every time a city expands, de mand for water increases. Is your me tering system keeping pace with the ad ditional usage? Billing your customers more accurately could help build your cash reserves. Tight budgets often make it tough to invest in newer, more accu 78

ties increase revenue based on meter

Over the past decade Schlumberger

formance for these various meters has

recently been integrated into an exclu sive database. This data is completely proprietary, with no other company or organization having access to the infor mation. Using the database,Schlumber ger has developed a statistical linear re gression program to plot the accuracy trends over time, using variables such as volume used, age, water quality, geo graphic trends, manufacturer, and type of meter. This regression program al lows for an accurate prediction of the potential revenue gain in a large meter population by merely looking at the sta tistical data information for the popula

BGlHUlfiHl .8


.2 r o ffM




Residential and intermediate size set

tings are also important, but rarely have the individual impact a larger meter set ting will have on revenue and water accountabihty. Utilities that do understand the importance ofretrieving lost revenue typically target large meters. While the number of large meters may be only 1% to 3% of the total number of meters in any given water dis tribution system, these relatively few meters generally account for 30% to 50% of all water sales and utility rev enue. Consequently keeping these me ters at peak efficiency is of utmost im portance for both billing and manage

nel to get everything in line, but program benefits will far out-weigh the trouble in getting there. Schlumberger Indus tries' consulting business. Revenue Management Service, assists munici


A good meter program is one that is flexible and implements a continued sys tem of checks and balances to monitor

program effectiveness. Some things to watch for as indicators that the existing program may not be as effective as pre ferred or headed for trouble are: (i) high unaccountable water percentage;(ii)ex cessive meter parts ordering; (iii) long lead time for parts delivery;(iv)consist ent number of reported "dead"registers/ meters;(v) unexpected drop in demand at customer settings;(vi)change in cus tomer base.

Certainly there are numerous other indicators but these are some of the pri mary symptoms of water revenue loss. The process of starting a large meter program involves determining the ex tent of current large meter inaccuracy, looking at the personnel complement and deciding on a course of action. This may require the use of outside person

By providing RMS with basic infor mation on the meter population, such as manufacturer, model, type and size, water utility managers can use this pro gram to identify the highest potential revenue gain meters in the system, with out the expense of analyzing the entire system.

Once the highest potential revenue gain meters are identified, a computer ized meter test and flow analysis study is performed. This pinpoints the exact revenue amount lost each year through each large meter under investigation. The water utility manager can then analyze the results which detail the ex act payback for replacing the selected group of large meters. RMS then offers the water utility an opportunity to in crease revenue without investment

through various financing options which include leasing programs or installment

payments based on a portion of the in creased revenue found at the site.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 115

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

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Wastewater Treatment

By S.W. Zuckut, Ph.D.^ & R. Schultze-Rettmer, Ph.D.^

Two-Stage dual sludge treatment process for industrial wastewater treatment

In more than fifty ful -scale instal

lations of industrial and munici

pal wastewater treatment plants, the Adsorption/Bio-oxidation Process has proven to be a cost-efficient alternative to standard activated sludge technology. This patented process re duces COD and BOD very effectively, while being largely resistant to toxic shocks and pH fluctuations. These fea tures, together with the capability of breaking down certain complex chemi cal pollutants, make it ideally suited for treatment of certain types of industrial wastewater. The process has been in stalled successfully in the following in dustries; Pulp and paper mills, textile industry,leather manufacturing, brewer ies and grease processing. Process History and Features The principles of this innovative process were first researched at the mu nicipal treatment plant of Krefeld, a city in western Germany. The wastewater at Krefeld was characterized by a high portion of industrial wastewater with a great degree of volatility in COD, pH, and toxicity. More than 50% of the to tal flow originates from various indus trial dischargers, such as metal indus

A 4 MGD textile processing wastewater treatment plant In Taegu, Korea.

tions in these two stages are distinctly different, reflecting the different oper ating conditions. The F/M ratio in the stalled on a full scale at the POTW Krefeld in 1981 at a design flow of adsorption stage typically ranges from 180,000 m%(48 MGD), and achieves 2 to lOg BOD/g VSS/day. In the sec tertiary treatment standards, including ond stage, biological oxidation takes place at a much lower F/M ratio of less nutrient removal. than O.lg BOD/g VSS/day. Building on the strengths of this proc The adsorption stage is characterized ess technology, subsequent research ef by a short hydraulic retention time forts yielded process technology refine (about 30 minutes), and a young sludge ments that formed the basis for success ful installation and operation of the AB age(3 to 12 hours), resulting in an acti tries, textile industries, circuitboard Process in many municipal treatment vated sludge that is dominated by bac manufacturers, chemical industries, plants in Europe with a high content of terial microorganisms. In addition, this food processors,fertilizer producers,etc. industrial wastewater (up to 90%), as stage is preferably operated at an oxy The conditions of the influent were so gen content close to zero. The unique well as treatment plants that treat indus extreme that ordinary biological treat operation of the adsorption stage yields trial wastewater exclusively. ment was not considered feasible. the following features that particularly The AB technology can be catego The problematic wastewater in rized as a two-stage, dual-sludge acti benefit industrial applications: Krefeld stimulated research of activated vated sludge treatment system. It con • Very high bacterial activity. sludge process technologies under the sists of a first stage, the adsorption stage, • High BOD/COD removal efficiency guidance of Boehnke in Aachen, Ger with a very high food-to-microorganism at small treatment volumes. many. The objective was to find ways (F/M) ratio followed by a second stage •Excellent handling of toxic, non-toxic, to treat the wastewater biologically in a for biological oxidation(Figure 1). This or pH shock loads. cost-effective fashion and avoid the ex second stage has been named "Bio- • Generation of easily settling sludge. tra burden on the environment that origi oxidation Stage". Biomass composi- • Reduced chemicals requirements. nates from addition of chemicals. The result of the research efforts was the

tion/Bio-oxidation Process", or "AB™

Process". The AB Process was first in

Figure 1

development of an innovative process


which made Krefeld's wastewater bio

logically treatable for the first time. Based on the predominant treatment processes in the two stages of this new process, it has been named the "Adsorp-



^President of AP Technologies, inc., Los Angeles, California ^Independent consultant for industrial wastewater treatment,

Aachen, Germany 80

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Wastewater Treatment In this application,the average waste-


water flow rate was 2000 m3/d, with a

Raw Influent 400 T

Greater Molecular Complexity



sate for a lack of nutrients in the incom



400 400

BE 800






After Stage A

200 --

Oil -P200


BOD and COD concentration in the in

fluent ranging from 600 to 1,200 mg/1. Dosing of phosphoric acid and urea to the adsorption stage was integrated in the treatment process design to compen ing waste stream. The existing treatment facility was converted to an AB design and ex panded. The objectives were to utilize elements of the existing treatment facil ity whenever possible,and recycle waste sludge and process water for reuse in the paper manufacturing process. After the conversion, the main treatment units


were as follows:

400 T

•Grit removal and pretreatment with flo tation: The sludge resulting from flota tion is recycled into the paper manufac turing process.

Effluent final sedimentation (after Stage B) 200





0 200

1 acetic acid


• First aeration tank: This tank utilizes m 800




half of the old aeration tank. Nutrients, 1400

Time (spectral number)

9 capryllc acid

2 l-butyric acid 3 n-butyric acid

10 cresol

4 l-valeric acid

12 lauric acid

5 n-valeric acid

13 ctiloro-cresol

6 l-caprolc add 7 n-caproic acid 8 phenol

14 phenylacetic acid 15 myristic acid 16 palmitic acid

11 benzole acid

• Destruction of difficult-to-decompose substances.

The high removal efficiencies of BOD/COD are achieved because prima rily bio-chemical and physical reaction mechanisms, such as adsorption, flocculation, and coagulation are uti lized. The adsorption stage is an excel lent buffer against shock loads as the bacterial population adjusts quickly to changing operating environments. In typical installations, 80% of the waste sludge is withdrawn from the ad sorption stage. This relatively young sludge is easily settleable and digestible. Thus, sludge handling cost is reduced. Furthermore, the AB Process requires fewer chemicals since biological and physical reaction mechanisms are uti lized as much as possible. In installa

utilizes the old final clarification tank. •Second aeration tank: This tank func

Figure 2

substances, detergents, surfactants, and long-chain aliphatic compounds. Figure 2shows research results of treat ing a wastewater that contained organic acids of various complexities, using the AB Process. The center diagram illus trates that the adsorption stage breaks down complex molecules to shorterchain molecules, and that the subsequent bio-oxidation stage removes most of these less complex molecules. The following two examples illus trate the application of the AB Process for wastewater treatment at a pulp and paper mill that used recycled paper as input, and for wastewater treatment from textile dyeing companies. Case Studies

1. Retrofitting the Treatment Plant ofa Pulp and Paper Mill. In Waegwan, a city in South Korea, tions that treat industrial wastewater ex-, clusively, nutrients are often added to a pulp and paper mill had difficulties treating the wastewater it generated. build and maintain the microbial popu lation. This mill used exclusively post-con Furthermore, the microbes in the sumer paper to manufacture new, highadsorption stage very efficiently break quality paper. At the treatment facility, down complex chemicals that are flow rate as well as organic pollutant difficult to destroy by other biological load drastically exceeded the design ca or chemical processes. Examples of pacity of the existing single-stage acti such chemicals are dyeing and sizing vated sludge system. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

nitrogen and phosphorus are added to this first aeration tank. This stage functions as the adsorption stage, and therefore is operated with a high sludge loading. • Intermediate clarification: This stage

tions as the bio-oxidation stage, and was newly constructed. • Final clarification: This clarifier had

to be newly constructed. The effluent from the treatment plant is partially utilized as operating water in the pulp and paper mill. All of the excess sludge from both clarifiers is added to the pulp; thus additional sludge processing and disposal is not required. The final effluent parameters from the wastewater treatment facility were measured in the following ranges, de pending on operating conditions: BOD = 20-40 mg/1; COD = 40-70 mg/1. This example shows that the adsorption/bio-oxidation process can be suc cessfully retrofitted to an existing indus trial treatment facility. The utilization of existing tank and equipment, com bined with the reuse of sludge and ef fluent in the pulp and paper manufac turing process, results in cost-effective wastewater treatment while meeting the permit requirements. 2. Textile Processing Wastewater Treat ment

In several locations in Korea, the AB

technology was used in pilot studies to treat wastewater from textile dyeing op erations. The pilot plant consisted of Continued overleaf 81

Wastewater Treatment, cont'd. six tanks with a total treatment volume

of 35 ml The objective was to test vari ous activated sludge designs with one, two,and three stages with various wastewaters. Comparisons of treatment effi

Figure 3 A-STAGE

equalizing tank



settl Ing






aeration N + P

ciency, construction cost and operating cost showed that the AB technology


precipitation Al-salt

achieved the desired results with 35%

0 hr

smaller treatment volumes compared to the treatment altematives studied. These

findings resulted in significant construc tion cost savings ofsubsequent full-scale installations, as well as lower space re quirements. After the successful pilot tests, full-

excess sludge retention time

2 hr

2 hr

20 hr

6 hr

3 hr

scale installations of the AB Process fol

lowed in various industrial applications

facility with a design flow of 15,000 mV

agents such as polyvinylalcohol. In gen

in Korea, such as wastewater from tex

d (4 MOD). Here, an existing single-stage plant

eral, these substances are difficult to

tile dyeing and processing, leather tan ning, and pulp and paper. This case study focuses on industrial wastewater treatment at the city of Taegu, Korea, as the wastewater from textile manufacturing contained some very difficult-to-decompose substances,

that was overloaded was retrofitted to

utilize the advantages of the AB tech nology. Key parameters of the waste-

water influent were: BODj=1600 mg/1,

break down biologically, and even dif ficult to remove using common chemi cal precipitation. The application of the AB Process proved that it can handle even these and

COD 3500 mg/1, pH 10-11,temperature

other chemicals and total BOD removal

40° C, color blue to black. Most of the

of more than 98% was achieved in a

and thus was the least amenable to bio

textile dyeing operations used polyes

compact treatment process design(Fig

logical treatment. The Taegu Industrial Complex II is an industrial park com prised of 22 textile dyeing companies, generating wastewater that required a

ter fabric. Thus, more than 55% of the

ure 3). Effluent BOD was 24 mg/I. Textile processing wastewater con tains a very high content of non-biode gradable substances, so that COD can not be reduced below 120 to 350 mg/1, depending on influent concentration. Even though these substances are mostly

BOD in the wastewater were polyester hydrolysis products such as terephthalic acid and diethylenglycol, and sizing

non-toxic and do not affect the bio-

cenosis, they should be eliminated from the wastewater to maintain the purity and appearance of a receiving stream. Studies with the AB Process have shown

that it can assist in achieving this objec tive. The following two measures can be employed: 1. The first aeration tank is operated with minimum oxygen transfer and pro longed retention time. 2.An anaerobic(septic)tank is installed prior to the first aeration tank, and re turn sludge from the settling tank of Stage A is added to this anaerobic tank.

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cult-to-decompose substances were bro ken down into simpler, more easily di gestible molecules, that subsequently were easily metabolized in the follow ing bio-oxidation stage to COD levels of 40 mg/1 or lower. In summary, above case studies illu strate that the AB Process is capable of treating complex wastewaters to exceed the discharge requirements, while requir ing small treatment unit volumes and as suring stable and low-cost operation. For more information,

circle reply card No. 166 82

For more information, circle repiy card No. 165 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Zenon Wastewater Treatment for

Municipalities and Developments.

Increase capacity at lower costs while meeting stringent effluent criteria


ZENON membrane technology is making possible what was impossible using conventional wastewater treatment technology. In municipalities and developments around the world, Zenon is producing wastewater effluent exceeding the highest effluent quality standards - and more stringent future criteria - while dramatically reducing chemical, energy, construction and ongoing operational costs, it delivers:

II •B.O.D.< 2 mg./L

•TP < 0.07 mg./L


•IN <2 mg./L

In existing treatment facilities, retrofitting with Zenon technology is dramatically increasing wastewater treatment capacity without increasing infrastructure size. Zenon mem brane technology is simplifying the purification process to meet ever increasing needs for cleaner sewage effluent, and water reuse and recycle. Zenon plants are not only renowned for their consistency and reliability, they can operate with minimal daily site super vision while meeting the strictest regulatory requirements. Zenon membrane technology, it is preserving waterhumankind's most essential commodity -for municipalities and developments around the world.

"Membrane technology compacts and simplifies

the process and gives us much easier control with

guaranteed reliability" George Stuart, Chairman Mt. Washington Resort

Vff^ater for the war u r///////

Canada: 905.639.6320 Fax: 905.639.1812 USA: 313.769.0700 Fax: 313.761.7842

For more information, circle reply card No. 167(See page 17)

Government Affairs

CIDA supports initiatives to help solve Mexico's water probiems Mexico. The companies are Zenon En

vironmental Inc. and Water Technology International, both of Burlington, and Terratec


Ltd. of


The first project, to be financed with

$99,000 from CIDA,is a viability study of potential joint ventures in which Zenon would help Mexican partners switch from conventional water treat

ment to the cost-effective, membrane-

based technologies developed by Zenon. With previous CIDA support,Zenon has already successfully penetrated and im plemented joint ventures in Egypt and Brazil.

standing (left to right): Ricardo Ramirez-Leal, Mexican Consuiate; Bruce Jank, Water Tech nology International: Phil SIdhwa, Terratec Environmental Inc. Sitting (left to right): Andrew Benedek, Zenon Environmental Inc.; Don Boudria, Minister for International Cooperation.

The Canadian International Develop

initiatives by three Ontario companies to develop water treatment projects in

ment Agency(CIDA)is supporting two

Action being taken to

recommendations for action came from

reduce the threat from four toxic chemicals

representatives ofindustry, non-govern mental organizations, provincial govemments and other federal departments. The four substances targeted for ac

The second project, which is receiv ing $182,000 under CIDA's industrial cooperation program, will enable a con sortium of Water Technology Interna tional and Terratec Environmental to

conduct a viability study for its deliv ery of sludge management services in Monterey, Mexico.

Environment Canada is proceeding with recommendations to significantly re

tion have been assessed and declared

based regulations to reduce the use of PERC in the dry cleaning sector by 70% by the year 2001. Trichloroethylene(TCE),is a suspected carcinogen. Over 90% of the TCE con sumed in Canada is used as a degreasing

duce the release of four toxic chemicals

toxic under CEPA:

solvent. The recommendations include

into the environment.

Tetrachloroethylene, a suspected car cinogen is also known as perchloroethylene, and commonly called PERC. It is a solvent used predominantly by the dry cleaning industry. The recommen dations include developing technology-

developing regulations to control quan tities of TCE used in solvent degreasing operations by establishing a quota to re duce consumption of TCE in degreas ing operations by 65% by 2001. Benzidine, a carcinogen, is used in the manufacture of dyes. It is no longer manufactured in Canada. Regu

A mix of federal regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection

Act (CEPA), national standards and other measures will be used to reduce the release of the toxic substances. The


lations to restrict its use to lim

ELMRIDGE manufactures and stocks Jet Eductors and Ejectors for use with water,

ited applications in research and development are recommended.

steam, compressed air and other motive fluids.

In addition. Health Canada and Environment Canada will exam

Applications include:

ine the risk of its release from



products imported into Canada


to determine whether further


action is necessary.


3,3-dichlorobenzidine(DCS),a suspected carcinogen,is used in the making of pigments. There


is only one plant in Canada cur rently using DCB; it is in On


tario. The recommendations in ®


Toll Free:

1-888-EDUCTOR (338-2867) Local: (416) 749-7730 Fax: (416) 749-2550

ELMRIDGE Engineering Incorporated, 3625 Weston Road, Unit 15, Weston, Ontario CANADA M9L IV9

clude negotiating an agreement with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, the plant and the affected commu nity to better manage the use of this substance.


For more information, circle reply card No. 168 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

We Sell Satisfaction by the Metre. Every metre of pipe from REHAU comes complete witti expert service and customer satisfaction. REHAU takes ttie stress out of municipal waterworks and industrial jobs withi: • State-of-the-art, locked-in gaskets • Fast and accurate quotes • Speedy delivery • Expert technical assistance • Pipe, fittings and accessories

Over 25 years of experience serving the waterworks industry have made us a leader in quality and service. So if you need pipe, and you need it now, call REHAU for the nearest distributor in your area.

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For more information, ciroie repiy card No. 169(See page 17)


mission STHTEmEOT



pi EiivtroGlicrabial


Services inc. is

dedicated tn providinQ


the most accurate


and precise analytical


& consnlting services

ERR lURTER RRD to define & salve


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

For more information, circle reply card No. 170 (See page 17)


Site Remediation

By Brian Wanless*

Site remediation firms bank on

Ask anyone in the site

remediation industry and they'll probably tell you how tough business in Canada has been lately. A slow eco nomy,lack of new constmction projects, and the absence of strong regulations have all conspired to keep the lid on domestic market growth. Combine that slow growth with an overabundance of companies in the business and the re sult has been low profit margins for most companies.

export markets Revenues by Region 80^0

â–Ą Canada 40%

â– d I:


0% 1994


â– Export Markets


only because of the growing economy, but because of the presence of other Canadian companies in that country. In Eastern Europe the market may be driven by economic issues as well. Large areas of soil that might otherwise be productive are sitting idle because of

related to site remediation activity, is

ready doing quite well in export mar kets. According to a survey of Cana dian site remediation companies with revenues over $10 million (revenues

somewhere in the range of$400 to $500

refers to income from site remediation

million per year. That represents about

the area of US$6.5 billion. It is a bit

products or services only and does not include income from other operations), export revenues accounted for an aver age 27% of corporate earnings from site

lower than the usual 10:1 US-Canada



ratio for market size, but not unexpected given the regulatory differences in the

The same companies expect export revenues to grow to 30% of total earn ings in the coming year. That is up 6 percentage points in two years. Longer term forecasts are probably for more growth in the export arena. For smaller companies (revenues less

Canadian companies differ on how they plan to approach these markets, al though one factor is clear - competitive,

The Canadian market for site reme

diation services, including consulting services such as audits and assessments

6% of the US market, which Environ mental Business Journal estimates is in

two countries.

Precise estimates of market growth are not available but by most accounts it has been a slow year for the industry, and many companies expect it to be just as slow next year. Much of the indus try's domestic revenues are tied to real estate transactions, and this has been a

declining market in most parts of Canada (with the exception of B.C.). Combine that with governments' phas ing out programs such as the National Contaminated Sites Remediation Pro

gram and there has not been much room for confidence in the industry. Slow market growth has made mar ket competition even more intensive in

than $ 10 million), export revenues made up less than 10% of total income in 1995. That reflects the difficulty that small companies have in getting into foreign markets as well as the high cost associated with export marketing in gen eral. On the other hand, export revenue growth is a large pait of their plans for the future. On average, these compa nies expect export revenues to make up 15% of overall income in the next year. That is up from 4% of income in 1994.

Canada. Prices for soil remediation

While the US market remains a fa

services, particularly for some of the

vourite destination for Canadian export ers, other markets are beginning to at

more common contaminants, are some

times well below cost. And dig and dump firms still capture a large part of the market. Quite frankly, there are just too many companies serving too small a market.

It is no surprise then that many com panies see the export market as the only real opportunity for revenue growth. In fact, many companies in Canada are al*Vice President Business Services, Ontario Centre for Environmental

Technology Advancement 86

tract a lot of interest. Southeast Asia is

mentioned in almost every conversation about growing site remediation markets, followed closely by Eastern Europe. The former has the lead right now be cause that is where the money is. In the long run, however, Eastern Europe could turn out to be the largest market anywhere for site remediation services and products just because of the sheer size of the problem. Latin America is another potential growth market. Many Canadian firms are targeting Chile, not

contamination. Remediation would cre

ate some badly needed agricultural re

low cost solutions will be the order of

the day in both the US and other export markets. In almost every case, it comes down to the ability of the customer to pay for the clean-up. Government cut backs in developed countries or just lack of government funding in developing economies restrict the amount of money available for site remediation. And most

private sector customers would prefer to wait as long as possible before com mitting funds, in the hope that less ex pensive solutions will appear (or maybe regulators and/or the problem will dis appear). The need for low cost solutions is

driving research into new technologies. Passive systems, such as phytoremediation, may be ideal for large, contami nated sites in developing countries. In the US, there is a lot of interest in cap ping as a solution for some of the larger contaminated sediment problems be cause of its initial low capital cost. Bioremediation technologies are currently very popular and becoming more so as the credibility of companies providing these technologies improves. With all the competition in Canada, companies have had to be both innova tive and efficient in meeting customer needs.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Product and Service Showcase Centrifugal blowers

Compression-type fire hydrants


Water purification The Ultrapul-






urethane valves and a

'new' surge relief valve design. They are ULC Approved

Four 900 HP Hoffman Multistage Cen trifugal blowers in operation at a major Canadian wastewater treatment plant de


liver over 43,000 scfm of air to a dis

charge pressure of approximately 9.5 PSIG for the activated sludge process. Process variables are constantly moni


Made in

Canada to AWWA

Standard C502-85.

air output from the blowers, by modulat ing the pneumatically controlled inlet butterfly valves. Hoffman Industries For more information, circle reply card No. 216

They can be supplied to depth of bury, and pumper thread is site-specific to area of installation. All working parts are easily accessible for in spection and service, without excavation. Terminal City Iron Works For more information, circle reply card No. 217

Stormwater Management

Internet Site

tored and used as feedback to control the

sator flocculator/

Terminal City's C71 and C71P compres sion fire hydrants

clarifier from offers

great operational flexibility and ease-of-use. The

high rate of this solids contact flocculator/ clarifier reduces surface requirements, resulting in substantial cost savings. With its unique pulsing action, the Ultrapulsator provides a concentrated and ho mogeneous sludge blanket, internal sludge recirculation, and the polishing action of tube-settling modules. Degremont Infilco Ltd. For more Information, circle reply card No. 218

Gravity-flow pipe IPEX Ultra-Rib

Surface deten tion/retention of

pipe can be used

stormwater has

to convey storm water in urban ar







been the standard

eas where tight joints are required.

practice for years. Since


Ultra-Rib can also

ground space is often scarce and

its value high, un derground con struction is be

coming a more common approach. Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) is used for these facilities. The benefits are low cost, high strength and easy installation. Videos and a work book are available. Armtec

For more Information, circle reply card No. 219

Packaged Sewage Pumping System

ITT Flygt Canada has set up a new Internet site that provides a wealth of in

formation on submersible pumps and agitators. It features international case stories and useful engineering tools. Al ready available to registered users, is the site's databank,the dimensional drawings of over 300 pumps and agitators. This program greatly simplifies pump station design work. The site can be viewed at: www.ittflygt.ca. ITT Flygt For more Information, circle reply card No. 220

Reducing PCB Management Probiems

be used as piping for storm water

management applications where water is temporarily stored underground and then released at a controlled rate.


groundwater recharge is required, perfo rated Ultra-Rib is also available., IPEX

Ultra-Rib pipe can also be used to con vey domestic sanitary sewage. Its tight joints provide protection against infiltra tion and exfiltration. IPEX Inc.

For more Information, circle reply card No. 221

Better pretreatment compliance Sigma's


MAX introduces an era of smart

Gorman-Rupp's new J Series Packaged Submersible Pumping System places controls and valves above ground in an attractive, vandal-resistant fiberglass en closure. This design permits safe and easy access to controls or valves for main tenance or service. Compact, economi cal design reduces site space require ments by eliminating the need for a sepa rate valve pit. Gorman-Rupp of Canada For more Information, circle reply card No. 222

in Canada or elsewhere.

sampling. Param eters such as pH, temperature,ORP, dissolved oxygen and conductivity can be internally logged and used to trigger sampling. Users can set high and low trip points which activate sampling and confirms a violation. And, with the unique "trouble bottle" mode, a normal sampling routine can be run and any out of limits samples can be segregated from

Laidlaw Environmental Services

the rest. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Laidlaw Environmental's extensive PCB

options in Canada and the United States can provide generators with one source capable of serving all their PCB treatment and disposal needs. High level PCB liq uids, solids, capacitors and transformers can be thermally treated at Laidlaw's Clive, Utah incinerator for sub.stantially lower cost than other options available

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

For more Information,

For more Information,

circle reply card No. 223

circle reply card No. 224 87

Show Guide

The Ontario Environmental Expo & 5th Annual Compliance '97 Conference - March 13-14 Toronto Congress Centre, 650 Dixon Rd., opposite International Plaza For the past five years,ES&E's Annual Environmental Com pliance Conferences and Workshops have been vitally im portant to Canadian environmental managers,consultants and those with responsibilities for environmental health & safety compliance. Last year, our workshops attracted the highest number of attendees, speakers, and delegates since we began. Some 500 registrants participated in one of the most targeted and practical environmental due diligence training opportunities available.

Why this growth? Environmental training has become a necessity for any organization committed to maintaining in dustry standards. Our due diligence workshops offer an ideal opportunity to cost-effectively update management skills or to train (or refresh) workforces.

This year. Environmental Compliance'97 will be expand ing into first-class conference, training, and tradeshow facilities at the new Toronto Congress Centre (conveniently located at 650 Dixon Rd. - just minutes from Toronto's Pearson Intemational Airport). Our training sessions will be held in conjunction with the 1997 Ontario Environmental Exposition. Workshop attendees will be able to tour the Exposition at no extra cost - and see for themselves, the latest in pollution prevention

NASCO's Swing Sampler And Sludge Judge* Go To Great Lengths!

and control techniques. Tom Davey, Publisher, Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (905)727-4666

I am proud to have been involved in environmental exhibi tions and conferences in Toronto going as far back as 1987. It gives me great pleasure to be involved with such a pres tigious event as Compliance '97 Conference & Workshops and the Ontario Environmental Expo. Industry supportfrom groups such as the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment As sociation and Environmental Science & Engineering Maga zine have created a strong show of support for this event.

This year's conference will once again be enhanced by a series of quality seminars and workshops. The exhibition portion of the show will be well attended, with registration being offered free in advance of the show. If you have yet to register, simply fax your name, company name, address, phone number and title to (403)256-8495 and your creden tials will be forwarded to you prior to the show opening, avoiding any need to line up at registration. We look forward to seeing you at this year's event. Don McCaffrey, Director, Great West Expo 1-800-298-1232


prove CTIOW

Standard units are fabricated out of carbon steei. Various alternates

include stainless steel, U.L. 1746 listed composite single wall and double wall, and U.L. listed jacketed secondary containment. Epoxy interior and exterior coatings and Sti-P3 cathodic protection systems.

M W!



SWING SAMPLER-lf you need to collect a sample from a horizontal Howing stream, such as a sewer, the new NASCO Swing Sampler is just what you need! The end of the sampler swings,

allowing collection of liquids, powders, or small solids from differ ent angles, including 90°. The pole extends up to 12 feet.


At McTighe we don't just sell oil-water-separators, we sell engineered systems and service. Our equipment is designed and engineered to meet your specific requirements. Contact us for help in designing and engineering the right system for you. STRATEGICALLY LOCATED PRODUCTION




accurate samples of suspended solids, providing a visual sample, level by level, of the whole tank. It comes in 5 foot sections (with a 2'A foot top section also available) for taking readings at any depth.

10 TO 4500 GPM

For more information and to receive a FREE 1996-97

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(ZdCO Plastics 454 Bleams Road West, New Hamburg, Ontario NOB 2G0

For more information, circle reply card No. 172 (See page 17)

P.O. Box 928 • Mitchell, SD 57301

Indu/trlSr inc.

Phone:(605)996-1162 FAX No.(605)996-1908

For more information, circle repiy card No. 173

(See page 17)

Reach Canada's multi-billion doiiar

environmental protection market at the

Ontario Environmental

Expo & Conference Book your exhibit space now!!

March 13-14,1997•Toronto Congress Centre

Meet key environmental protection professionals at the Ontario Environmental Exposition in Toronto, March 13-14,1997.

^t Who Will Be There?

For more Information, circle reply card No. 171 (See page 17)

Exhibitors will Include manufacturers, distributors and service companies who provide products and services to effectively manage and control hazardous, dangerous materials, toxic materials, air pollution, site remediation, groundwater cleanup, laboratory services and industrial wastewater.

Products and services will relate to treatment systems, remediation, protection, detection, transportation, handling, disposal, training, safety education, health, safety, emergency response, regulation compliance, engineering, testing & Information services.

For Exposition Details;

For Conference Details:

Great West Expo, Inc

Environmental Science &

201, 279 Midpark Way S.E. Calgary, Alberta,T2X 1M2

Engineering Magazine

Phone •403-254-9222

•800-298-1232 Fax •403-256-8495

220 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Unit 30 Aurora, Ontario Phone •905 727-4666 Fax-

905 841-7271

Show Guide Laboratories of Canada

CleanSolls Limited Contact: Gordon Weis

2395 Speakman Dr., Mississauga,

Contact: Richard Chute

225 Sheppard Avenue W.,

Ontario L5K 2B3 905-822-4111 0x1664

351 Joseph Carrier Blvd.,

North York, Ontario, M2N 1N2

Vaudreuil-Dorion, Quebec J7V 5V5



Products/Services: Specializing in the thermal treatment of petroleum contami

ACPO Contact: Brian Bobbie

Alpine Industries


Booth: 203

Booth: 411

Booth: 100

C.M. Safety

Contact: Louis Diiiemente

Booth: 300

131 Royal Orchard Blvd., Thornhill,

Consultants Inc.

Ontario L3T 3E1 905-886-7281 Fax; 905-886-1510

Contact: Bob Durham

RR #1, Cambridge, Ontario, N1R 5S2 Products/Services: Training for per sons working on contaminated sites (Hazwoper) 29CFR 1910-120, OSHA Compliance, on-site specific training, Bacharach air monitors & equipment, health and safety training courses.

Booth: 54

Environmental Co. Ltd.

Contact: Dave Simpson #12, 91 Anderson Avenue, Markham, Ontario 905-294-1910

BOC Canada Ltd.

Canadian Centre

Booth: 36

nated soil at a fixed site in Hamilton and with mobile units for on-site remediation.

The CleanSolls Thermal Desorber proc



Booth: 40

Booth: 112

esses all types of soil reducing hydro carbons to residential standards. Com

plete MOEE permits, large or small projects, soil analysis and certificate of destruction, final disposal or treatment and recycle as backfill. Clemmer Industries Contact: Mike Walsh

Booth: 210

446 Albert Street, PO Box 130, Waterloo, Ontario, N2J 4A1

Contact: Calvin Knaggs 5975 Falbourne Street, Unit 2,

for Occupational Health & Safety


Contact: Elanor Irwin

Products/Services: Storage tanks &

Mississauga, Ontario, L5R 3W6

250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario 905-572-2981 Products/Services: CD ROM products. MSDS database, TOXLINE database,


HSDB, Canadian Health & Safety Leg

302-111 Research Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 3R2

905-501-2556 Fax: 905-501-1225

Products/Services: Special gases EPA protocol calibration gases and NiST traceable mixtures, high purity regulations, environmental gases.

islation PLUS Standards CD ROM.

Clifton Associates

Booth: 306

Contact: Darrell McClarty


Pierre Berton


Ecosite inc. Contact: Loui Simeard

Booth: 105

965 Ne\wton Avenue, #270, Entrance


Quebec City, Quebec 418-872-3600 Products/Services: Mission is to spe

Etrog Room


cifically intervene in the rehabilitation of

To Leonard Cohen Hall

40 35


36 41




45 47








6299 Airport Road,Suite 508


Mississauga, Ont. L4V 1N3

Hall A 401 100


400 301

300 201

200 101


402 303

302 203

202 103


404 305

306 205

204 105

102 104

(905)677-1010 Fax (905) 677-1007



108 415

416 307

316 217

210 107


414 315

314 215

214 115


417 131 129 127 125 123 121 119 117


For more information, circie repiy card No. 178

Storage Tank

Experts Fire Prevention Specialists Investigations/Audits Design/Installation

Turnkey Engineering

Decommissioning Remediation

& Construction ENSAT

90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600 Markham, Ontario C o

L3R 6H3

Phone:(905)513-1376, PAX:(905)475-5994 E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 174(See page 17)

Golder Associates is helping its clients maintain the

WE BELIEVE BOTH INDUSTRY AND NATURE SHOULD WIN! , Golder ^Associates Geotechnical, Environmental & Mining Solutions

1 800 414-8314

balance between

industrial development and the environment. With innovative

services like environmental risk

assessment,remote sensing and GIS modelling, plus traditional services,such as surface and

groundwater management, strategic planning and biological assessments,site assessment and remediation,and environmental

impact analysis, Golder Associates has the expertise that clients have trusted for over 35 years. With the integrated team of environmental and geotechnical specialists behind our name,our professionals can meet all of your

Offices throughout Canada, the United States, Europe and Australia.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

environmental needs.

For more information, circle reply card No. 175 (See page 17)


Show Guide contaminated sites and treatment of con

taminated matrix. Wide range of serv ices include, verification conformity au dit, site characterization and environ

mental audits, treatability studies, tech nical assistance, consulting and analy

Products/Services: Provides turnkey environmental engineering and con struction services for underground and above ground storage tanks. Facility decommissioning remediation, design

& Engineering Magazine Contact: Steve Davey 220 Industrial Pkwy S., Unit 30,

and construction.


sis services, in situ oil treatments,

Injecsol process, pile treatments, bio-


reactor of contaminated waters etc.

Safety Products

Booth: 300

Contact: Bob Durham Ensat Contact: Richard Puntis

Booth: 215

RR #1 Cambridge, Ontario, N1R 582 519-624-0563

90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 905-513-1376

Products/Services: Disposable Gar ments - Chemical splash garments us ing Dupont's Tychem protective fabrics.

Environmental Science

Booth: 35

Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3V6

Products/Services: Canada's top award-winning magazine for environ mental professionals. Articles cover water and wastewater treatment, air pol lution control, site remediation, groundwater issues, pulp and paper issues, occupational health and safety and stormwater management. Environmental

Booth: 301


Contact: Renee Lochhead

#402, 99 Atlantic Place, Toronto, Ontario 416-516-2337 Products/Services: Environmental

Data Manager for Windows, Environ mental Auditor(EA) for Windows, Com puterized EA-ISO Version etc. Fluorescent

Booth: 415

Lamp Recyciers Contact: Neil Ryen IIOTurnbull Court, Unit 15,

Cambridge, Ontario NIT 1K6 519-622-9924, Fax: 519-622-8050 Products/Services: FLR has devel

With the help of our information experts, you could be home by now. Finding the right information takes time, too much time. You need a professional to help you.

oped a process for the safe recycling of fluorescent lamps. These lamps contain hazardous amounts of mercury and mer cury vapour and regulations restrict mer cury from entering landfill. FLR sepa rates and recycles the glass, mercury, phosphor, aluminum and brass conponents. Flexible arrangements can be made for the removal of lamps from your location. Forceworks Environmental Services

Booth: 414

Contact: Paul Cochrance

A207 5601 Dalton Dr. N.W.,

Calgary, Alberta, T3A 2E2 403-288-5722


Fryston Canada Inc.

Booth: 404

Contact: Adelia Arruba

7370 Bramalea Rd, Suite 30,

Our information specialists will do your searching or show you where to look. We also have powerful products and services to make your searching faster and more efficient. And, if you need an article or report, CISTI can supply it from our own collection - one of the largest in the world - or from another source.

For a free brochure call 1-800-668-1222; E-mail cisti.info@nrc.ca or fax (613) 952-9112

See our web site at bttp://www.nrc.ca/cisti

H^H B . B


National Research Council Canada

Conseil national de recherches Canada


For more information, circle reply card No. 176 (See page 17)

Mississauga, Ontario, L5S 1N6 905-612-0566 Fax: 905-612-0575


Associpdes Colder Associates

Booth: 316

Contact: Kathy Graham 2180 Meadowvale Blvd., Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 583 905-566-4444, Fax: 905-567-6561 Products/Services: Risk Assessment, Environmental Management Planning, Environmental Impact Assessments & Management, Environmental Site En hancement, Biological/Biophysical As sessments, Water Resources Manage ment, Archaelogical Services, SocioEnvironmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

Show Guide economic Assessment & Public Consul

Lord & Partners


Contact: Barry Young

overcome the barriers involved In the commercialization of new environmen

RR #1 Hekkia Road, Rosseau, Ontario, POC 1J0 705-732-1390

tal technologies. OCETA provides a comprehensive range of technology

Green'Port Environmental Contact: Marc MIttleman

Booth: 214

Booth: 51

transfer services to Ontario-based de

velopers of environmental technologies.

16 Melanle Drive, Brampton, Ontario,

udCO Plastics

L6T4K9 905-799-2777

Nasco Plastics

Greenware Booth: 101 Environmental Inc. Contact: Robert Ganzhorn

145 King Street East, #200, Toronto, Ontario, M5C 2Y8 416-363-5577 Products/Services: Environmental

contractor specializing In site decom missioning, In situ bloremedlatlon, con taminated sediment capping, under ground tank removal, groundwater treat ment,contaminated soli excavation & re

moval, vapour extraction, leachate col lection systems, zebra mussel control systems, underwater services. Harold Marcus Limited

Booth: 315

New Hamburg, Ontario, NOB 2G0



705-725-0917, Fax: 705-725-1068

Products/Services: Whirl-Pak sterile

Products/Services: The Ontario Pollu

sampling bags and related Nasco sam pling products. These single service bags are made of unbreakable polyethylene and are used for a wide range of sampling needs for liquids and solids. All bags have patented "Punc

tion Control Equipment Association Is comprised of over 120 firms engaged In

PCB Containment


Contact: Gil Cossette

Products/Services: Transportatlon

1131 Derry Road East, MIsslssauga,

Booth: 37

Ontario, L5T 1P3 905-564-4700

Products/Services: Monitoring equip

2411-First Street, RR#1, St. Catharines, Ontario, L2R 6P7 905-684-8568, Fax: 905-684-8560 Products/Services: Vandal resistant, Easl-Set Precast Concrete Hazardous

Buildings. Industrial

Booth: 106

Hygiene News Contact: Norberta RImbach

8650 Babcock Blvd,

Pittsburgh, PA 15237-5821

Booth: 415

110 Turnbull Court, Unit 15,

Cambridge, Ontario, NIT 1K6 Nortech Control

Contact: Peter Belanger


Technology Inc. Contact: Nell Ryen

Equipment Inc.

Booth: 45

environmental and related equipment In

ity. Other products Include water and sludge sampling equipment, such as Sludge Judge and Swing sampler.

R.R. #3, Bothwell, Ontario, NOP ICQ

Hy-Grade Precast

the manufacture and/or distribution of

ture Proof Tabs" and documented steril

Contact: John Scott


Booth: 200

Contact: John Carney P.O. Box 137, Midhurst, Ontario,

Contact: Tim Bailey 454 Bleams Road West,

Booth: 46

services with trucks.

Ontario Pollution

Control Equipment Association

ment for environmental control for both

air and water, wastewater sampler, open channel flowmeter, water quality moni tor, gas detector, gas analyser, etc. OCETA

Booth: 47

Contact: Victoria Gagnon

519-622-9924, Fax: 519-622-8050 Products/Services: CON TECH pro

vides complete PCB reduction and de struction services. Fluorescent light ballasts which contain PCB materials

are reduced to their smallest compo nents, residual PCB material Is

repackaged ready for destruction. CON TECH also provides PCB destruction services which Include waste water

preparation, loading, transportation, and final destruction, of all PCB equipment

63 Poison St, 2nd Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5A 1A4 416-778-6656, Fax: 416-778-5624

and materials.

Products/Services: Ontario Centre for

Equipment News

Environmental Technology Advance ments(OCETA) Is a private sector, notfor-profit corporation committed to help ing small and medium sized enterprises


Booth: 106

Contact: Norberta RImbach

8650 Babcock Blvd, Pittsburgh, PA 15237-5821

412-364-5366, Fax: 412-369-9720

412-364-5366, Fax: 412-369-9720


Booth: 416

Contact: Stephana Rodrlgue 7565 Avenue M.B. Jodoln, Anjou, Quebec, H1J 2H9 514-355-6100, Fax: 514-355-7119

RR #1, Cambridge, Ontario N1R 5S2 Tel:(519)624-0563 Fax:(519)623-6896

Your one-stop companyfor quality consulting and training. Specializing in 40-hour and 8-hour Contaminated Site (Hazwoper)courses

Levitt Instruments Contact: Paul Kroes

Booth: 314

2872 Bristol Circle, Oakvllle, Ontario,

Compliance with EPA, Environment Canada, OSHA Regulations

L6H5T5 905-829-3299 Products/Services: "Leak Tracker" fu

For more information, circle reply card No. 179

gitive emissions monitoring systems, Foxboro FID/PID and MIRAN analyzers, Ohmlcron Immunoassay kits, Petro-

Sense portable and continuous Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon analyzers, TSI Indoor Air Quality monitors, Pace analyzers for lead In water, soil or dust.

Authorized Distributor of Bacharach Air Monitors

Systemo PLUO

Calibration Gases and accessories,

For all your environmental sampling needs

Telog Water Level Tracker, Power Qual ity Recorders and Multi-Channel Log


• Glass & Plastic Bottles • Vials • Precleaned Containers

•Tedlar Sampling Bags • Chromatography Products Canada's most modern Pre-Cleaning Manufacturer

Box 839, New Hamburg, Ontario NOB 2G0 1-800-604-3645

Fax:(519) 634-5779

gers etc.

For more information, circle reply card No. 180 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997


Show Guide Rainbow Environmental Products

Booth: 403

Contact: Jeff Brown

P.O. Box 6247, Fairfield, NJ 07007, 201-575-8383

Tanknology Canada (1988)Inc. Booth: 201 2650 Meadowvale Blvd., Unit 12A,Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 6M5 905-819-8811

Region of Peel Contact: Dwayne Cromwell 10 Peel Centre Drive, Brampton, Ontario, L6T 4B9

Booth: 217

905-791-7800, Fax: 905-791-2398

Teck Corporation Contact: Bruce Downing 600 200 Burrard St., Vancouver, B.C., V6C 3L9

Products/Services: The Regional Municipality of Peel provides

604-687-1117, Fax: 604-640-5382

services and reference materials to businesses interested in waste

Products/Services: Environmental Data Management software.

reduction. Services available include; free waste assessments, waste reduction seminar, breakfast meetings.

Restoration Environmental Contractors

Booth: 53

Booth: 417

The Cannlngton Group Contact: Tracy Smith 130 Ram Forest Road, Gormley, Ontario, LOH 1G0

Booth: 400

905-841-1848, Fax: 905-841-1062 Products/Services: Environmental remediation and construction

Contact: Don Bremner

services and excavating services.

71 Fred Varley Dr., Unionville, Ontario, L3R 1S6 1-800-894-4924, Fax: 905-477-6295

Thermo Tech Waste

RLF Canada

Booth: 52

Contact: Chris Young 50 O'Connor St., #1011, Ottawa, ON, KIP 6L2, 613-569-7073 Sima Inc.

Booth: 411

Booth: 307

Contact: Ed Kroeker

101, 195 County Gt. Blvd., Brampton, ON, L6W4P7,905-450-8866 Products/Services: Turn-key plant and tech. for converting nonhazardous wet organic waste to value added feed/fertilizer prods.

Contact: Louis Dillemente

University Of Waterloo Booth: 405 Contact: Bill Unger 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1

131 Royal Orchard Blvd., Thornhill, Ontario, L3T 3E1 905-886-7281, Fax: 905-886-1510

519-888-4026, Fax: 519-576-4103

System PLUs

Systems Pius

Booth: 49

Contact: Shelia Hannon

Box 839, New Hamburg, ON, NOB 2G0

Products/Services: Why not get the Waterloo advantage working on your team? We assist companies and organizations by supply ing "just-in-time" human resources (Waterloo's multi-disciplined Environmental Co-op students) for summer, short or long term projects or work load peaks.

519-634-5708, Fax: 519-634-5779

Products/Services: Systems Plus manufactures and distributes containers, bags and accessories for environmental sampling, in cluding a wide range of teflon lined closures and Tedlar gas sample bags. Pre-cleaned glass & plastic containers and vials are a specialty.

Ustman Industries

Booth: 201

Contact: Peter Sutherland

94 Crescent Dr., Welland, Ontario, L3B 2X3 1-800-237-8731, Fax: 858-5486

York University

step screenÂŽ- self-cleaning fine screen

Booth: 410

Contact: Faisal Shaheen

5205 Middlebury Dr., Mississauga, Ontario, L5M 503,416-650-3526



'Ik ''Ik

Positions of moving laminas (drafted in black): A-neutral, B-lowest, C-front,

D - top (screenings offloading)

Self-cleaning action and advance coirected screenings take niaoe between points B

and intake water

Ad Index

Through flow Air Liquids

For tank/channel

1, 3 or 6 TTiTn




slot width

26,58 Elmridgs

Ambio Bloflltsr Anthrafiltsr


ensures much higher degree of screening

82 Ecodyne 43 Eimco

ABS AC Carbons

area up to 60% Continuous

Pre-coating effect than the actual

For wastewater

provided Compact+StainlesE

Aquablast Aquarius Aquatic Armtsc Arthur Tschnology

53 Ensat 91 53 Env. Training Instltuts.. 53 53 GAP 85 63 GET Industries 29 21 Geo Structures 13 7,57 GL&V 77 58 Golder 91

Gorman Rupp 2 Great West Expo 58 Hach

Can Am Instrumsnts.... 47


Cancoppas Canwit Consulting

CH2IVI Gors & Storris ... 47 Heath

Serration Equipment & nater/Wastewater Treatment Systems

yr/ I


fL\ 1905-771-8400

Fax: 905-771-8911



9030 Leslie St.,Unit 5, Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1G2

For more information, circie reply card No. 177 (See page 17)

McTighe 29 Nasco Plastics 58,96 Nat'!. Instruments 84 Nat'l. Research Neo Valves


88 88 57

92 6




Parkson Pencon

14 20

Philip Utilities Praxair

33 Prominent 89 Rehau 95 Restoration 14 Safe Water Solution

25,58 23,57 11 85 49 10

CM Safsty 93 MIL Technology 44 Southam 31,58 Colgats Palmolive .. 57,65 Hoffman 12 Southwell 72 CPPA 58 Insituform 41,58 Standards Council 38 Davidson Env. 53 Int'i. Water Supply 37 Stormceptor 8 Dagsx 94 IPEX 5 Systems Plus 93 Dsgrsmonf 73 ITT Flygt 39 Terminal City 79 Dsnso


Eagiebrook Ecksl


John Meunier 4 KMK Consultants

37 KSB Pumps 43 Laldlaw

17 Terratec 64 Victaulic 13 Water Tech. int'i

18,57 Zenon

53 74



Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1997

□ nflFRcW'NTS



t I \l)



to .K

tP lu


to Wi

1 I

Innovative Turbidity


Calibration Standards Ready-to-use, safe StablCaP Standards are dilutions of formazin primary standard prepared by a proprietary method that makes very low concentrations stable for a period of two years. They come in values specific for calibrating Hach (or other) turbidimeters and give readings equivalent to formazin over the entire measurement range. Just pour and calibrate. The sealed vial packaging eliminates exposure to formazin.


to to




Pi K

31 0]




fs >

The new Manganese m COD Method eliminates handling and disposal concerns associated with heavy metals waste. Results are provided in less than 90 minutes.

Advanced Spectrophotometers and Colorimeters

Hach's new DE/2010 Datalogging Spectrophotometer (shown above) offers many new capabilities over its predecessor, the DR/2000, including: storage, recall, and printing of up to 1000 results; reduced reagent usage and waste disposal; and user upgradeable software. Pocket Colorimeters are now available for Pocket Colortmeter


testing monochloramines, aluminum, pH and chlorine, manganese (LR), and ammonia.



Breakthrough in COD/BOD Wastewater Testing


Hach has developed another exclusive COD

metliod. Based on Mn^^, the procedure elimi nates the use of mercury, silver, and dichromate reagents, thereby significantly cutting waste disposal costs. Turnaround time, including digestion, is under two hours. Tlie method uses a Hach COD reactor, filtration apparatus, and spectrophotometer or colorimeter. The BODTrak™ apparatus uses mercury-free pressure sensors and automates data acquisition, continuously measuring BOD and electronically storing data for later analysis.

Si tfls New StablCal Standards in hulk 500 ml bottles

eliminate the time and labor ofpreparing dilutions, with complete confidence inperformance and results,


1997 Products for


Analysis Catalog.


Comprehensive, 448-p. catalog covers other new products, including tests for lead, mercury, and silver, plus Hach's entire line of analysis systems. Contact your Hach representative for a copy.

P.O. Box389

Loveland, Colorado 80539 USA Telephone: 970-669-3050 Fax: 970-669-2932

Sales outlets throughout Canada. Sen/ice Centre in Winnipeg.

E-mail: intl@hach.com






ISO 9001 Certified

For more information, circie reply card No. 150 (See page 17)


b| Ni


m lol HLORIDE □

Process Technology for Treatment Economy




EIMCO Products for Water and Wastewater Treatment Include: Grit Collection Systems Floaculators & Mixers

Primary & Secondary Clarifiers Soiids-Contact Clarifiers

Trac-Vac"^ Suction Sludge Collectors MetalWeave"Flow Control Baffles

Dissolved Air Flotation Systems Inclined Plate Clarifiers

Sludge Thickeners Gravity Belt Concentrators Low-Speed Surface Aerators Elastox" Membrane Diffusers


ÂŁIMC0products help environmental

professionals manage natural resources and financial ones with equal success. As

Beltpress Filters Rotary Distributors

CarrouseT^Biological Oxidation Process Bardenpbo'^Biological Nutrient Removal Process

Anaerobic Digester Covers & Mixers Filter Presses

Rotary Vacuum Filters Granular Media Filters

Ion Exchange Systems

Mixed Dxidant Disinfection Systems Tankage & Mechanism Erection Services Process Testing Services

treatment standards for water and wastewater

become more strict and municipal revenues more scarce, each investment in treatment capacity must yield higher,more rehable returns.EIMCO provides a comprehensive array of equipment, processes and services, each designed for the highest stan dards of dependable performance, efficient opera tion and long-term economy. For more information on EIMCO processes, equipment, and services, contact your local sales representative.

5155 Creekbank Road ' Mississcuga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2

(905) 625-6070• FAX:(905)625-3519

For more information, circle reply card No. 149 (See page 17)


A Division ofBaker Hughes Canada Inc.