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ENVIRONMENTAL Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

November 1996

Radical changes looming for Canada's consulting engineers The Greeks had a word for it - expertise - an essay on activism Full cost pricing of water & wastewater services How much treated water ends up in the sewer? Creative environmental sentencing


FOR A SAFE ENVIRONMENT CALL US! Turbidity/Suspended Solids Analyzer and Sensors

Blanket Level Detectors No moving parts, no

The Royce Model

maintenance, no re-

7011 Suspended Sol ids Analyzer provides

calibration required. Reliable micro-proc

operation in waste treatment plants, riv

Continuously moni

ers, lakes and other

tors and controls in

aqueous systems. A

terface level in tanks.

user friendly text

Numerically displays

screen provides menu

interface depth in

driven setup. The in

feet, meters or pe

strument wiil read in

centage of total tank depth, Displays either depth of interface or distance from surface to interface.

Graphically displays full-depth interface profile on panel-mounted LCD graphical display. Trending Capability.

Applications; • Any tank with a liquid/solid

• Petroleum

• Pulp & Paper

Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers

reiiabie, continuous

essor based electron ics.

• Waste Treatment

Parts Per Million

interface

• Mining

either miliigrams per iiter or density per centage and is auto-ranging. With features that inciude insitu calibration, automatic coior compensation (Patent Pending), true microprocessor operation, and automatic

ambient light compensation (Patent Pending). The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly experienced in effiuent streams (0-500 mg/l). The Model 73 submersible sensor is for medium ranges typicaiiy found in aeration basins (0-30,000 mg/L). The Modei 74 in-line sensor is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS iine appiications (080,000 mg/i).

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen analyzers with features such as automatic cali

bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel electronics, and low maintenance self-cleaning probes. Four chan nel conversion available. Request Bulletins 9010/ 9040 and 94.

Circle 250 on Reader Service Card

Circle 251 on Reader Service Card

Circle 252 on Reader Service Card

Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

Portable Instrumentation for pH,

Continuous Monitoring For

ORP, 88, Interface Level and DO

Gas and Fire

These Battery operated port able Analysers are rugged, water-proof and completely submersible. They are de signed for reliable remote op eration in Waste Treatment

Plants, rivers, lakes, etc. The

Ivtodel 500 pH/ORP Is avail able with an assortment of

^ Check these features:

^ Economical

h

(uses inexpensive food grade - vinegar/non-hazardous buffer)

[V] Wide Operating Range

^ (.001 ppm to 100 ppm)

FOXCROFT

gj Low Maintenance

^ (self cleaning cell) 13

Easy to install Circle 253 on Reader Service Card

Sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliable Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Portable Suspended Sol ids/Interface Analysers are ideal for remote monitoring in

The Crowcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled

Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4") 19" Eurocard Rack. The Gas Monitor operates with Crowcon's and other Manufacturers' Gas Detectors, includ

ing infra-red and Gas and flame detector Sensors. Gas

aeration basins, short term

Monitor has a data logging facility which provides for con

diurnal studies and laboratory applications. Each product

tinuous recordings of Gas levels. The System is supplied

features digital readout, microprocessor based electron

with self-installing supporting Software which operates in

ics with self-diagnostics. All models except for the 711 have analogue and RS232 digital outputs.

a Windows environment.

Circle 254 on Reader Service Card

Circle 255 on Reader Service Card

Automatic Liquid 8ampiing

BUHLER1023 8ampler

Please ask for details on

Crowcon's Portable single and multi Gas Detectors.

8ludge 8ampier

Wherever It's Needed

The BUHLER 1023lsan

Wide Range of Applications

all stainless steel station

ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

ary wastewater sampler, and the newest offering from EPIC. Rated for

-30°C ambient tempera tures, this sampler is tar geted for permanent In stallation In both indoor

and outdoor applications. The A.G. powered refrig

of sewage sludge from a flow ing pipeline or alternatively

The EpiolCIIT program mable portable wastewater sampler provides

from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine

represents the only really prac tical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in Its abil

cost effective automatic

sampling to assist in monitoring municipal

ity to sample sludges contain

and industrial waste-

date various size sample collection bottles in glass or plastic. An intelligent programmer is provided which can be off site programmed for multiple sampling; it can also transfer data to and from the sampler's data logger facility. The programmer can be connected directly to a serial printer at site, for printing of data logged In the sampler. ISO 9001 produced.

water. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for sub sequent analysis.

Circle 256 on Reader Service Card

Circle 257 on Reader Service Card

erated unit can accommo

The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples

ing a high level of non-homo geneous suspended solids. Typical Applications:

• Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs • Mechanical dewatering device feeds

• Road tanker loading/dis EPS 1030

Sludge Sampler

charge terminals • Sea tanker loading terminals • Consolidation tank feeds ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

Circle 258 on Reader Service Card

EXCLUSIVE CANADIAN REPRESENTATIVE

CANCOPPAS LIMITED 1045 SOUTH SERVICE ROAD WEST, OAKVILLE, ONTARIO L6L 6K3 TELEPHONE:(905)847-2740 FAX:(905)827-6984 For more information, circie repiy card No.259


ISSN-0835-605X

October/November '96 Vol. 9

CONTENTS

No. 5

Issued November, 1996

President STEVE DAVEY

Publisher TOM

DAVEY

The Greeks had a word for it- expertise. Essay by Tom Davey

10

Automatic water samplers help a brewery solve its water consumption problems

18

Creative environmental sentencing: making the punishment fit the crime

20

Publisher's Asst. KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

Site remediation in Downtown Vancouver

25

Technical Advisory Board

Reducing unaccounted-for water through meter replacement

34

Occurrence of disinfection by-products in selected Canadian drinking waters

36

The Long Sauit Wastewater Treatment Plant: A Leading Edge Facility

40

Reducing fume emissions without degrading indoor air quality

56

Level sensor instaiiation on submersible pumps

59

Full cost pricing of water and wastewater services

60

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON CANTON (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative DENISE SIMPSON Circulation

VIRGINIA MEYER

Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop MDS

Alan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought

George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacVIro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ

Shell Service Centre installs state-of-the-art wastewater

treatment plant

66

New landfill standards under review in Ontario

71

P&P industry has risen to the recycling challenges

74

How much treated water ends up in the sewer?

75

Consultants'Forum Leading consultants speak out

mental officials, water and wastewater

Second Class Mall

Debating the future of Consulting Engineering Consultants must adapt to changing markets On being a Consulting Engineer in the '90s

28 29 30

Registration No. 7750

Consultants need new business models

32

treatment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mall Sales

Product Agreement No.18197

Printed in Canada, by Web Offset Publica tions Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $25.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Envi ronmental Science & Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel;

(905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@lstar.ca Web site: http://www.esemag.com

Departments Ad Index

78

Product Review

Classifieds

67

R&D News

Industry Update Literature Reviews

4 47-48

Reader Feedback

Reader Service Card

49, 50, 55, 68-70 45-54 78

17, 65, 77

Our cover story. The Thames Barrier, which protects London from rising water levels and tidal surges, has been undergoing essential maintenance. Since the Thames Barrier's completion in 1983, it has protected the capital from flooding more than twenty times. See page 8. Information presented In ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the Information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material In ES&E only conveys Information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Industry Update PCB exports to the U.S. ok'd Environment Minister Sergio Marchi and Health Minister David Dingwall have announced that the Canada/US

border will soon be open to the export of Canadian PCB wastes. The wastes

and territorial counterparts to develop a national standard prohibiting the landfilling of PCB-contaminated material in concentrations exceeding the interna tional norm of50 parts per million. This national standard would be applied do mestically and to any exports of PCB wastes.

With the border open for exports for

will only be exported for thermal or chemical destruction under US Environ

destruction, Canadian PCB waste own

mental Protection Act procedures. A new Canadian regulation will be pro posed shortly and should take effect in

PCB wastes in storage in Canada by the year 2000.

ers should be able to eliminate all of the

December 1996.

Crypto litigation

An Interim Order under the Cana

looms

dian Environmental Protection Act ban

ning the export of Canadian PCBs to the United States was put in place Novem ber 20, 1995, following a US decision to open its borders to Canadian PCB wastes after 15 years of closure. Fol lowing further changes in US policy re garding PCB waste imports, the Cana dian government is now satisfied that PCB waste exported from Canada to US destruction facilities will be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner, compatible with Canadian regulations. The Minister of the Environment will

seek concurrence from his provincial

The City of Milwaukee is facing a po tential class-action suit as the result of

the 1993 cryptosporidium outbreak which affected some 400,000 people and

Guelph company wins Canada Export Award The quality of H^O used to manufacture computer chips or to process pharma ceuticals needs to be much purer than the water we drink to quench our thirst. "Trace contaminants that pose no prob lem for drinking can clog an industrial boiler, make pharmaceuticals lethal, or reduce the manufacturing yield of semi conductors," said Robert Glegg, the President of Glegg Water Conditioning, Inc. of Guelph, Ontario. Their equipment purifies the water to such a degree that not only does it re quire special processing, it also needs the use of advanced materials in special piping, handling and transport systems. The manufacturing process requires

resulted in 100 deaths. The Wisconsin

state-of-the-art clean room manufactur

Court of Appeals is to decide whether

ing protocols including class 1000 and

or not a class action suit can be filed. If

class 10,000 clean rooms as well as dirt-

the court rules in favour of class action,

free assembly areas.

then everyone affected during the 1993 outbreak could potentially recover dam ages from the city, whether they sue or not. So far only 125 people have sued, while some 5,000 people have filed notices of claim with the city.

In most cases, if a water treatment machine breaks down,the customer has

Harmsco® Hurricane Filters Cut Filtration Costs

to halt production. For a semiconduc tor manufacturer this could amount to a

loss of millions of dollars of output a day. In 1995, Glegg's sales topped more than $112 million, a 164-percent in crease from 1993. Exports make up al most 94 percent of the company's sales, with equipment being shipped to cus tomers in the United States, Argentina, Chile, Mexico,France,England,Ireland and China to name only a few. The com pany employs 250 people, up 40 percent from 1992.

Combination cyclone separator and cartridge filter in a single compact design. Separates dense solids prior to cartridge filtration for extended filter life. Single cartridge filter element is easy to remove, clean and replace!

To recognize the company's achieve ments, Glegg was presented with a Canada Export Award by Art Eggleton, Minister for International Trade, at a

ceremony in Winnipeg, Manitoba, on October?, 1996.

• Three models

• Single cartridge element is cleanable & reusable in most applications • 0.35 to 150 micron ratings • in stock for immediate delivery For more information:

Tel:(800)565-5278 Fax:(905)820-4015

Service Filtration

of Canada, Ltd. 4141 Siadeview Crescent / Mississauga, ON L5L-5T1

For more information, circle reply card No. 104 (See page 17)

Appointment Chem Action,Inc. of Montreal, has been

appointed as the exclusive representa tive for the complete line of Vanton thermoplastic centrifugal, sump and ro tary pumps in the Province of Quebec and the Maritimes.

Chem Action already supplies and services product lines from Alfa Laval pumps. Badger Meter and Prominent Fluid Controls.

For further information, contact Chem Action, Inc. at 8260 Blvd., PIEIX Montreal, Quebec, HIZ 3T6. Tel: (514) 593-1515, Fax:(514)593-1313. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Ultimate Spill Control Products Minimize Waste, Maximize Savings Cost effective, fast acting and safe primary spill response product criteria sought by today's customers requiring hazardous spill containment, stabilization and disposal.

shown a gasoline spill where vapor concentrations were in excess of 100% LEL (lower explosion lim its) were decreased to less than 4% LEL within 30 seconds after the application of A610 Petrobond, significantly reducing the risk of fire or explosion. Nochar's state of the art product range has proven

to be ideal for heavy manufacturers, the military

Now available In Canada are a series high perfor mance, polymer-based solidification agents that

and transport industries.

not only do more for less but have the added bene fits of being non-toxic, non-corrosive and non-abra

Need -

Environmentally Neutral Disposal

sive. Nochar Canada Inc. offers a broad range of environmental protection products in the form of bonding agents, containment supplies and spill solidifiers that have received a number one ranking by Environment Canada's Spill Technology

Costs associated with disposal of hazardous waste, coupled with industry and governmental desire to reduce the amount of hazardous waste

Newsletter.

Today's Hazmat Teams have four key needs that must be met - cost-effectiveness, waste minimiza

tion, safe handling and environmentally neutral dis posal.

Need -

Cost Effectiveness

portation and labour.

In a typical spill scenario the bonding agent cost represents a small percentage of the overall cost equation. Nochar's A610 Petrobond has a pick-up ratio of 15-1 and rapidly bonds the spilled liquid into a dry solid mass. Unlike adsorbents that just soak up the liquid through expansion, Nochar's A600 series of products bonds spills for easy removal with minimal volumetric increase and no 'dripping sponge' effect. For customers, a small quantity of absorbent means more for less - less costs associ

ated with manpower, haulage, storage, collection

A678SRK ^pill/Response K'l

and disposal. In a product and disposal cost com parative study of a 1,000 gallon diesel spill, the A610 Petrobond resulted in savings of more than $3.00 per gallon of spill against commonly-used low cost adsorbents... and these savings did not include such items as less warehousing, trans

sent for disposal is of vital concern to the spill con trol industry. Nochar's products are nonbiodegradable and TOLP-tested. Customers can dispose of the non-leaching bonded dry mass in approved landfills as a special waste, thus reduc ing time and costs associated with handling other types of sorbents which must be disposed of as hazardous waste. Because the resultant mass is

less volatile, it makes for an excellent alternate fuel

source with minimal ash residue (fifteen hundredths of one percent).

Need -

Waste Minimization Low cost adsorbents typically have a one to one pick-up ratio by weight. Nochar's A600 products are third generation polymer-based granular mate rials featuring unrivaled pick-up ratios of up to 15-1. For example, one pound of Nochar's A610 Petrobond will solidify two gallons of diesel fuel as compared to most other polymers and adsorbents with pick-up ratios of only one pound to two-thirds of a gallon. Added to this capability is quicker solidification and bonding into a dry mass with no dripping, resulting in less hazardous residue to handle and dispose.

Nochar's A600 series of bonding agents is designed to fit customers' specific needs. This flexibility and adaptability means products are

available to clean up most liquid spills, from water to petroleum to hazardous chemicals. In today's highly competitive, cost-containment business environment, the bottom line counts... Nochar's

products minimize waste and maximize savings.

Need -

Safe Handling Personnel safety is paramount in any spill situation. Use of non-toxic, non-corrosive, environmentally friendly Nochar products that don't cause irritation or abrasion, provide clear health and safety advan tages for customers. In a volatile fuel spill the potential for an explosion is often as large a prob lem as the spill itself. Independent tests have

^ nochar Nature's Partner in Environmental Protection and Waste Minimization nochar Canada Inc. 4950 Yonge Street Suite 2200, Toronto, Ontario Tel 416-218-5545 Fax 416-221-4668 For more Information, circle reply card No. 105(See page 17)


Industry Update Bacteria degrade fat to keep drains clear A bacterial digester that degrades fat before it can block pipework drains or sewers could be a boon to restaurants and treatment works.

Most restauranteurs rely on gravita tional grease traps to keep their drains clear. These chambers contain panels to block grease floating on the surface of water that drains from the kitchen sinks.

But the traps soon clog up and usually have to be emptied every three weeks.

The biological system consists of two chambers,reports London's New Scien tist. The first separates grease from the rest of the sink effluent in the old way

soluble glycerol and fatty acids that are then consumed. Due to aerated condi

ber which contains grease-eating strains

tions, the bacteria do not produce nasty smells. Already Viridian has installed a number of systems at fast-food chain McDonalds, which says call-out costs

of bacteria dissolved in water. A stirrer

for drain clearance have ceased.

which is then fed into the second cham

in the chamber breaks up solid lumps of grease and feeds air into the water. The chamber is also dosed with small

amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus which keep the bacteria alive. The bugs produce their own detergent-like en zymes which disperse the grease into

Paul Sallis, Viridian business devel

opment manager, acknowledged that powdered blends of grease-degrading bacteria and enzymes are already avail able, but said the additives are expen sive and take time to work.

Corner Brook P&P

pays $750,000 for pollution violations

ATAD

A Newfoundland provincial judge or dered a $750,000 combined fine and pen alty to be paid by Comer Brook Pulp and Paper Limited for its violation of the pol lution prevention provisions under Sec tion 36(3) of the federal Fisheries Act.

a

This is the largest fine paid to date in Canada under the 1992 federal Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations, and reflects the serious nature of the violation.

The company has been out of com pliance with the new regulations since last December 31 because it has failed

i

to be diligent in completing the constmction of a new effluent treatment system. As a result it was charged with deposit ing mill effluent, which is acutely lethal to fish, into the Humber Arm in the Bay

m

of Islands.

Why settle for less?

Introducing the Fuchs ATAD system. Your first choice for effective, efficient and economical sludge treatment.

The company had previously pleaded guilty to the charge in provincial Court on May 7. The Court ordered that a

Quality

$500,000 fine would be imposed on the company for its violation of the Regu

Our Autothermai Thermophlilc Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) process has provided excellent performance worldwide, it's recognized by the EPA as a process that can meet the new Part 503 sludge regulations for land application of municipal wastewater sludge, which includes PFRP and Class A requirements.

$250,000 penalty be imposed on the

Speed Our ATAD system features a sludge holding time of just six days in most cases. That's up to 75% /ess than with other aerobic or anaerobic methods, saving both space and time. And It's easy to operate, which reduces training time and oper ating personnel. Price

lations. It also ordered that an additional

company in order to ensure its compli ance with the Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations. The Court also agreed with Environ ment Canada's recommendation that the

$250,000 penalty would be distributed among three local organizations with environmental interests.

Our autothermai process requires no additional heat, providing significant en ergy savings. The quick digestion cycle uses smaller tanks, further reducing capital costs. No added chemicals or expensive nitrification equipment are needed, either.

Dependable. Fast. Affordable. There's only one choice for sludge treat ment: Fuchs ATAD. More than just A TAD better. Licensed from Fuchs in Canada and

For Sale

the Pacific N.W. of U.S.A. by

SANITHERM ENGINEERING LIMITED 431 Mountain Highway, Suite 4, North Vancouver, B.C., Canada V7J 211 Telephone:(604) 986-9168• Telefax:(604) 986-5377 E-mail: saneng@direct.ca • Web site: www.sanitherm.com

For more information, circle reply card No. 111 (See page 17)

In addition the Court imposed an or der on the company requiring that the new treatment system be fully opera tional and treating mill effluent no later than July I, 1996.

ARUS-ANDRITZ 2m Belt Press, used

very little. Spare parts. $90,000.00. Leonard Boudreau, N.B. Tel: (506) 684-5821, Fax;(506)684-1915.

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, November 1996


Clear Solutions

SMALL CLARIFIER FOOTPRINT... BIG PERFORMANCE

MIcrosep® clarification technology in the municipal sector provides substantial reductions in cost and installation space. Through accelerated settling of suspended solids and associated contaminants,the MIcrosep® technology delivers superior performance in a reduced footprint not achievable by

Depending upon the application, Microsep® delivers an array of benefits, including:

conventional methods.

• High efficiency TSS and associated BOD removal • At least an eight fold reduction in installation space

This footprint reduction results in less than one eighth the installation space while still exceeding the throughput of

• Reduced chemical consumption • Fully automated operation

traditional clarifiers.These benefits have made Microsep® the

• Positive odour control

ideal choice for space constrained sites where land costs are at a premium or expansion limitations are prohibitive.

• Cost effective CSO treatment.

The Microsep® clarifler excels in the following applications: • Enhanced primary clarification

Whether you need to provide an existing facility with a performance upgrade or require advanced and cost effective clarification technology for a new installation—consider an alternative that is clear and simple.

• Potable water treatment facilities

• Existing plant performance upgrading • Combined sewer overflow treatment systems (CSO).

Microsep International Corporation Worldwide representation with head office at 4S99Tlllicum Street, Burnaby

For more information, circle reply card No. 101 (See page 17)

British Columbia, Canada V5J 3J9 Tel:(604) 432-7660 Fax:(604) 432-7412 E-Mail: mi_sales@microsep.com

CONTACT US TO SEE HOW MICROSEP® CAN HELPYOUTAKE A BIG STEP FORWARD WITH A SMALL FOOTPRINT.


Industry Update

Tie

Servicing London's 520 metre wide flood barrier

SEALLESS The Thames Barrier, which protects London from rising wa ter levels and tidal surges, has undergone essential mainte nance.

H No Product Seals - No moving parts in product zone. Oniy hose contacts product.

Down river from the City of London, this unique structure spans the river for 520 metres. Its 10 separate 61 metre, moveable steel flood gates - the four main ones are as high as a five storey building - pivot between piers housing the operat ing machinery. Using a specially-designed cofferdam, engineers worked below the waterline on the Barrier's main bearings, round which the 3,500 tonne flood gates rotate. The work included installation of Condition Monitoring Equipment to provide future advanced warning of any deterioration to these vital

H One Moving Part - Rotor altemateiy compresses

components.

and reiaxes specially designed, resilient hose. Sliding friction minimized by liquid lubricant in the housing.

celerometers and transducers which measure wear in the 2-

fl Self-Priming - Boasts a 28 to 30-ft. lift. H Runs Dry Safely - No detrimental effect from running dry. Can function as a vacuum pump.

M High Capacities - Eight models available; flow capacities of.1 through 250 gallons per minute.

Wh Meters as it Pumps - Linear output. With commerciaiiy available pulse generators and pickup to count shaft revolutions, it's a metering pump.

fl High Pressures - Performance up to 220 psig. I ideal for Abrasive Slurries - Handles

Specially-designed monitoring equipment comprises acmetre diameter bearings and lubricating film, providing ad vanced warning of any deterioration. The condition of these critical items of equipment can now be evaluated quickly and cheaply, without the need to resort to physical examination. Since the Thames Barrier's completion in 1983,it has pro tected the capital from flooding more than twenty times. For more information, circle reply card No. 113

1997 WEAO Conference to be held in London

abrasive slurries and corrosive acids with minimum wear

The 1997 Water Environment Association of Ontario and On

B Low Downtime;Low Parts Cost - Pump

tario Pollution Control Equipment Association Annual Con ference will be held on April 13-15, at the City of London

failure is self-contained; optional hose failure switch shuts off motor. Easy hose replacement. No critical adjustments.

H Send for Catalog & Prices Waukesha/Bredel

PERISTALTIC TYPE HOSE PUMP

Waukesha

Cherry-Burrell A United Dominion Company 611 Sugar Creek Rd. Delavan, Wl 53115 U.S.A. 414-728-1900 • FAX: 414-728-4320

For more information, circle reply card No. 102 (See page 17)

Convention Centre.

The municipal/industrial wastewater treatment plant Op erations Challenge will also be held at the conference. The winning team will represent Ontario in the 1997 Water Envi ronment Eederation Operations Challenge in Chicago. Anyone interested in participating in the equipment exhi bition or the Challenge should contact WEAO,Tel:(416)5021440, Fax:(416) 502-1786.

Visit ES&E magazine on the web http:/www.esemag.com Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


^m ^m.

WM^Xf'

J -y

f applications

The Patented

Stormceptor® Sys.tem is

etrofit •Redevel

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^ •jndustria —•institutioni

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i

1-800-565-4801

''http://www.stormceptor.ca For more information, circie repiy Gard:No:;<103(See ^age 17)


The Greeks had a word for it -

Only experts were

allowed to speak on technical subjects at official meetings of the Athens Citizens' Assembly. On matters of policy, which required value judgment, however, anyone could speak even when it was clear that they had never been taught either policy or judgment. Socrates dis

expertise tion of vinyl, an expert from the PVC industry, Fred Krause, outlined epidemiological studies of the manu facture and use of PVC. He pre sented his case with eloquence.

lease of mercury, a heavy metal, not dioxin, that had caused the casual

ties in Minamata when discharges from a factory entered the marine food chain as highly toxic methylmercury. To confuse a lethal heavy metal with a quite different organic com pound did not incite confi dence in his argument. As for the Seveso 'disaster' in

Italy, I cited academics who

cusses this in Plato's dia

had studied the issue and

logue Protagoras. Things have changed dramatically

found not one single human death from the Seveso explo sion which exposed people

in two millennia.

Recently, Toronto City council, not Metro Toronto,

to TCDD. The effect on hu man health was limited to

187 cases of chloracne. This engaged itself in a debacle which involved a complex was discussed at a WHO conference in Rome, Italy-. combination of epidemiol Somewhat embarrassed ogy and chemistry. A Tumultuous arguments erupted at Toronto's elegant City Hall plethora of non-technical when attempts to ban vinyl pipe were debated. Pipe tapping, in at getting two disasters people vigorously supported foreground, was a more practical contest of wills. Photo - ES&ErrD. wrong in as many minutes, a motion to totally ban the use of backed up with substantial scientific Mr. Cray switched to the long term Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe data. The total volume of dioxin effects of dioxins. He said that some throughout the city. Only after a from all PVC manufacture in North mummies discovered in South heated debate did the city dismiss the America, he said, was only five America, were found to have low levels of dioxin in their remains. To proposal. During the debate there grams. was more nonsense spouted than in His youthful opponent, Charlie day's humans, he stressed dramati Cray from Greenpeace, took to the cally, now had vastly higher levels an evening at Yuk Yuks. podium later. He was charismatic of dioxins in their bodies. The city, of course, has no busi and equally persuasive. He, too, To me this conjured up an inter ness getting into such complex is sues at all. We have a Federal Health used numbers impressively, and con esting scenario. I posited to him that Department, a Federal Environment vincingly, claiming that the manu the South American Indians of that Ministry and at least 20 provincial facture ofPVC produced dangerous day, would probably have had life ministries of health and environment levels of dioxins and the entire pro- expectancies in the mid thirties, with the responsibility, whereas industrialized Innocently, I suggested that his attempts to and knowledge, to deal countries have pushed link health and anthropology might even with these complex is life spans into the 70s. suggest that dioxins were actually therapeutic. Innocently, I suggested sues. It is as if the Town that his attempts to link of Aurora (pop. 30,000), rather well known in equestrian cir duction of PVC should be banned health and anthropology might even cles, were to impose its own completely. Cracks in his arguments suggest that dioxins were actually protocols and standards to regulate emerged when he cited Minamata, therapeutic. equine breeding throughout Canada. Japan, and Seveso, Italy' as places He had talked about dioxin as an Toronto City council ultimately where there had been dioxin 'disas extremely toxic single entity yet showed horse sense by voting ters'. there are some 200 types of dioxins, against the proposal. When the meeting was thrown of which only 13 isomers are con At a much earlier public debate open to the floor for general debate, sidered to be toxic. Isomer 2,3,7,8 to discuss a total ban on the produc I pointed out that it had been the re - TCDD is often referred to as the

Other editorial comments by Tom Davey can be seen on ES&E's web site. http://ww w.esemag.com


An essay by Tom Davey constitutes the difference between a poison and a remedy. Paracelsus dioxins are not to be treated lightly. ironically was the activist of his day. However, to talk about dioxins in Although accused by many of his such wide generalities, when the se contemporaries of charlatanism, riousness of the issue demanded sci Paracelsus profoundly influenced entific specifics, diluted the thrust of the development of medicine. In his argument. This led to a discussion on PCBs. 1526 he was appointed professor of medicine and surgery at the Univer Now the news media have great trou ble, confusing PVCs with PCBs sity of Basel, but was forced to re sign from this position because of his (which has not slowed their breath less coverage of the complex issues for several years). When I men Science is an unmatched tioned that, over 25 years ago, Ca quest to discover truths in a nadians were world leaders in using systematic, unemotional PCBs as fuel in rotary kilns during manner, one variable at a most toxic chemical in the world,so

vigorous scholarship ultimately will correct the errors. For example, barely 30 years ago, few scientists would admit that there was once only one great continent, Gondwanaland, which split up and bumped, slurped and slithered across the oceans cre

ating great mountain ranges and new continents over eons of time. Dr.

Ken Hare says there was an earlier 'shadow' landmass known

as

Pangaea. Dr. Hare, a former Direc tor of the Institute for Environmen

tal Studies at the University of To ronto, told me that Continental Drift

the manufacture ofcement, Mr. Cray said he opposed the use of any hazfuel. I argued that the high tempera tures and long combustion residence times in kilns, plus the fact that the limestone used in rotary cement

time, using strict protocols, with findings subjected to rigorous peer review and challenges. This makes science and engineering

theories were thought of as heresies when he was a student at King's Col- â&#x20AC;˘ lege, London. But it was systematic research, academic debate and peer review which changed the way we think of our planet. Yes,it was scientists who

HI suited for the battle for

denied evidence of Continental

kilns acts as a scrubber, resulted in

public opinion.

Drift; that X-rays could see through

heterodox teachings. He provoked resentment in faculty members and died in 1541 of injuries after being pushed by a servant from an upperstorey window of the house of a phy

of the day denied the early germ theories and many other advances.

human tissued The medical elders

PCB destruction rates in the order

of 99.9999 percent, required by regulators. Contrary to media gen erated hysteria, there is no evidence that PCBs have killed a single hu man being. Moreover, the PCB epi demiology was from studies on workers who had daily skin contact for up to four decades, notfrom stud ies on laboratory rats and mice, I said.

But the scientific method, used

around the world, relentlessly brought forth new data through peer

sician whom he had offended. Wor

review and debate which trans

thy of note - while his activism did indeed change the face of medical

formed what was once unthinkable

science, his activism was based on science, not stunts.

into accepted reality. This is how we must decide what is hazardous

and what must be banned, not by the stand-up comedies which sometimes masquerade as debates in Toronto's elegant City Hall. There was sim ply no need for council to behave this way; after all, Yuk Yuks is just a few blocks north of City Hall.

clinker. Many wastes, including PCBs, when they are not safely combusted to make products such as

Now epidemiology is a complex area of study which is gradually re vealing new and hitherto unimagined dangers from chemicals. There are disturbing indications that some synthetic chemicals may mimic hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and tamper with 'Seveso, Italy was the site of an explo our endocrine systems. These are sion at a trichlophenol factory in 1976, in which livestock and people were ex issues posing real challenges to en posed to TCDD. It caused 187 cases of vironmental scientists today. chioracne, but apparently no statistically Science is an unmatched quest to significant increase in the rate of discover truths in a systematic, un embryotoxic or teratogenic damage in

cement, have cost hundreds of mil

emotional manner, one variable at a

lions simply to be expensively incin

time, using strict protocols, with findings subjected to rigorous peer review and challenges. This makes science and engineering ill suited in the battle for public opinion where the arena is more appropriate for a

But he repeated his opposition to any hazfuels being used. But is not coal a hazfuel with its high levels of

SOj,PAHs and heavy metals? Ben zene,toluene, xylene are highly toxic chemicals present in gasoline, so what exactly is a hazfuel, I asked? Coal is not only an expensive fuel, but it also produces acid rain as well as a radioactive residual in the

erated, without the valuable heat be

ing recovered and utilized. But what is toxic?

The question was raised over four centuries ago. Paracelsus, a medi eval physician, astutely noted: All things are poison; there are none which are not; it is the dose which

circus than serious intellectual de bate. While individual scientists are

often wrong in their conclusions.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

children born of women exposed to the fallout, compared to worldwide aver ages.

^1 gave a presentation at this 1982 WHO conference in Rome, on how political policies can be shaped by media cover age.

^In 1900, Lord Kelvin, the physicist for whom a temperature unit is named, said X-rays were a hoax, five years after Roentgen discovered the phenomenon. 11


another

reason why we should be#l on your

speed dial. Starting today, Kelly Scientific Resources'" is even more of a scientific resource.We proudly announce that the Oak Ridge Research Institute (ORRI) has become a part of our growing scientific and technical team. You know ORRI as a worldwide provider of highly skilled, fully trained health, physics, scientific, and environmental professionals. And now,you have access to ORRI's services at every Kelly Scientific Resources office. We're ready to effectively manage your temporary staffing in these demanding industries: Environmental,Health & Safety, Energy,and Defense.

Wlien it comes to satisfying your staffing needs,we've got it down to a science. Contact us soon to learn the details-I-800-KELLY-62.

f"Kelly Scientific Resources A unit of Kelly Services

www.kellyservices.com Š1996 Kelly Services, Inc. All rights reserved. An equal opportunity employer.

For more information, circle reply card No. 110(See page 17)


Industry Update United Nations

University in Canada to focus on water On September 20,Deputy PM and Her itage Minister Sheila Copps inaugurated the International Network on Water, Environment and Health(INWEH),the

first program of the United Nations Uni versity(UNU)to be located in Canada. The Network on Water will promote the transfer of knowledge from Canada to developing countries through train ing and educational programs. An initial assessment of training needs and revenue sources suggests the Network on Water is capable of $10M of business per year by the turn of the century. According to preliminary stud ies, up to 50 jobs could be created dur ing the first four years of UNU/INWEH operation. A number of education and training projects in the water area are now under active consideration by UNU

ally due to new projects initiated by the energy management program in 1995. Highlights from the 1995 report in

For more information about the 1995

clude:

Annual Report or the City of Regina Energy Management Program, contact Randy Strelioff, Energy Management

• The Direct Purchase Natural Gas Pro

Coordinator, at (306) 777-7514.

gram saved the City $110,000 in 1995. • Water pumping operation and effi ciency improvements saved $53,000 in

Suncor reduces sulphur dioxide emissions

1995.

• The City has reduced its carbon diox ide emissions by approximately 12 per cent of 1988 levels. The corporate goal for carbon dioxide emission reduction

is 20 percent of 1988 levels, by 1998.

A new sulphur dioxide reduction plant is now in operation at Suncor's oil sands operation near Fort McMurray,Alberta. The $190 million plant uses an innova tive wet limestone process to "scrub"

in Africa, Brazil,Indonesia and Mexico.

The UNU/INWEH headquarters will be located at McMaster University, Hamilton, with support facilities at

A

Environment Canada's Canada Centre for Inland Waters.

Lawn and garden equipment...a pollution source

With Itiue help of our mfornniation experts,

It is a well-known fact that exhaust from

you could be home by now.

internal combustion engines is hazard ous to our health, but not many realize that the use of gas lawn mowers, snow blowers, and similar equipment can pro duce emissions equalling those of sev

Finding the right information takes time, too much tim e. You need a professional to help you.

eral hundred miles from a car.

Extensive work is conducted on

You need CISTI

emissions reduction from small utility engines by Environment Canada's En vironmental Technology Centre, along with research on converting engines to alternative fuels. To reduce evaporative emissions, an inexpensive propane con version kit for these engines has been proposed. It was also discovered that powering an engine by the mixture of gasoline and ethanol can significantly reduce pollution from these small,seem ingly innocent, sources.

CANADA INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION

Our information specialists will do your searching or show you where to look. We also have powerful products and services to make your searching faster and more efficient. And, if you need an article or report, CISTI can supply it from our own collection one of the largest in the world - or from another source.

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For a free brochure call 1-800-668-1222;

and reduces COj

E-mail ci.sti.info@nrc.ca or fax (613) 952-9112

Managing the City of Regina's energy

See our web site at http://vvww.nrc.ca/ci.sti

resources in a cost-effective, efficient

manner continues to be a top priority for the City. The corporation is projected to save $85,500 in energy costs annur- . j- ir

B . B

u

/nn/c

Environmental cjcience & Engineering, November 1996

National Research

Conseil national

Council Canada

de recherches Canada

ARCCARC

For more information, clrcle replv Card No. 106 (See page 17)

13


Industry Update Don't Change Your Filter.

Change Your Mind. FREE DISK OFFER Alfa Laval centrifuges are a w/elcome change from filters. Find out more by requesting our FREE Separation Technology (inicuding Cost/Benefit Analysis) disk.

exhaust gas from its utilities plant, re ducing the facility's sulphur dioxide emissions by over 95%. Suncor's total sulphur dioxide emissions will drop to one quarter of 1994 levels with this ef fort, combined with the changes to the sulphur recovery plants in the upgrader two years ago.

Tokyo's Chiyoda Corporation devel oped the "bubbling tank" technology used at the reduction plant. Inside the new plant, emissions containing sulphur dioxide are "bubbled" through a mixture of limestone and water. The sulphur di oxide reacts with the limestone in the

mixture to form calcium sulphate, a ma terial more commonly known as gyp sum. Suncor is now using the gypsum by-product to help reclaim the plant's tailings pond into dry land.

Centrifuges have applications in many industries. Chemical

Recovery of chemicals, solvents, and catalysts Clarification of liquids Classification of pigments Separation of two immiscible liquids Environmental Waste

Dewatering of municipal waste sludge Dewatering of surface and ground water for portable water treatment Thickening of waste activated sludge Industrial Waste Wastewater treatment

New low-sulphur diesel regulations Environment Minister Sergio Marchi announced new regulations October 1, aimed at reducing air pollutants from diesel fuel. The new regulations require reductions in the sulphur content of die sel fuel at commercial in-yard refueling outlets for light- and heavy-duty trucks and buses. The regulations also cover Canadian retail outlets, a large number of which are already selling low-sulphur diesel fuel.

Air pollutants targeted in the regula tions include paiticulate matter, sulphur

dioxide, volatile organic compounds and

Dewatering of process waste

carbon monoxide. Emission reductions

Industrial Fluids

of between 10 and 30 percent of these pollutants are expected from dieselpowered vehicles. The low-sulphur diesel regulation would require that only diesel fuel con taining no more than 0.05 percent by weight of sulphur be sold for all on-road vehicles, such as light- and heavy-duty

Purification of factory fluids for reuse

Cleaning paint booth water Recycling of waste oil Pulp & Paper Metal & Mineral Mining Dewatering/classifying of clay Dewatering of tailings Coal Burning Electric Utilities Flue-Gas-Desuifurlzatlon -

dewatering of waste slurry Food/Agri-Business Clarification of wine

Fermentation of yeast Dewatering of spent grains,starch Fax or Write 1-416-299-5864

A' Alfa Laval Uniting Vital Technologies A Cemnfiii'al SepamtUm A Heat Transfer A Fluid HamUin^ A Amonuilion Ail'a Laval Separulitni

101 Miliicr Avenue. Scarboroiigti. Ontario. Canadti MIS 4SCi

14

trucks and buses, effective October 1,

1997. Since October 1,1994, only lowsulphur diesel has been available to con sumers at all Canadian retail refuelling

revenue of approximately(US)$45 mil lion.

Utilizing two large rotary kiln fur naces, the operation processes aluminum dross, a by-product of aluminum smelting, on a tolling basis. Aluminum dross is received from smelt

ers, foundries and die casters and, for a

processing fee, recovered aluminum is returned to these smelters or secondary aluminum manufacturers for reuse.

The plant also operates two reverber ating furnaces to melt aluminum scrap and produces deoxidizing products. Deoxidizers are used by the steel indus try to control oxygen content in the steel making process, and as a slag condi tioner.

Sterling calls for release of report on potential harm to Ontario air Environment and Energy Minister Norm Sterling called on his federal counter part, Sergio Marchi, to release a report

detailing threats to air quality in Ontario. According to news articles, a report has been prepared for the International Joint Commission (IJC) on plans to in crease output from several coal-fired power plants in the US Midwest. The report apparently says this could lead to greater air pollution in Southern Ontario. "I cannot tolerate the suppression of important information about potential thi^eats to the health of Ontario citizens

and their environment," Mr. Sterling said. "If the media stories are true, then

the federal minister must take steps to obtain this information and disclose it

to the public of Ontario. "The federal government is respon sible for appointing members to the IJC and must take responsibility for ensur ing that, if there is important informa tion on air quality, it is made public," he said.

The jigs are up for

outlets.

lead sinkers

Philip Environmental acquires US alurriinum processing business Philip Environmental Inc. has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire the aluminum processing assets and busi

PnONE{416)29y-6[OrÂť FA.X(4!6)297-S690

ness of Cousins,Inc. of Ohio. The busi

Also offices in Calgary, Vancouver and Halifax

ness operates aluminum smelting and

For more Information, circle reply card No. 107

deoxidizer manufacturing facilities in Painesville, Ohio and generates annual

Beginning this fall, it is now illegal to use lead fishing sinkers or jigs in Cana da's national parks and wildlife areas. Every year in Canada, loons and other water birds die from eating lead fishing sinkers orjigs which have been acciden tally dropped or lost in the water. The birds get very ill, and can die from eating just one of these devices.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Concrete pipe's survived it aii. f

They came. They saw. They conquered. Then the Romans sought nothing more than a hot bath. Fortunately, the ancient designers used concrete in Rome's famed aqueduct system, the Cloaca Maxima. Still in

use today, the Roman aqueduct proves that concrete stands the test of time. So too does

today's concrete pipe. It's adaptable to any design. It's environment-friendly. And it creates jobs. The Romans insisted on it. Et Tu?

Concrete Pipe...Here to Stay For concrete pipe manufacturers in your area, contact:

OCpt3 Ontario concrete pipe association

102760.2070 @ compuserve.com 6299 Airport Road, Suite 508, Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1N3 Phone:(905) 677-1010 Fax:(905) 677-1007

For more information, circle reply card No. 108(See page 17)


Industry Update Environment Canada urges the use of non-lead fishing sinkers andjigs no mat ter where fishing is done. It will soon be illegal to even have such lead items in your possession while fishing in na tional parks and wildlife areas.

Biofiltration at

Virginia wastewater treatment facility Infilco Degremont,Inc.,(IDI) has been

awarded a $4 million contract to supply a biological aerated filtration system to the City of Roanoke, Virginia. IDI's

"Bioforâ&#x201E;˘ System" will treat a portion of the city wastewater plant's primary

effluent for BODj removal and nitrifi cation as part of a water pollution con trol plant expansion and upgrade project. Construction of the Bioforâ&#x201E;˘ System at Roanoke will begin in the summer of 1977. The total upgrade is expected to be completed by mid-1998, resulting in a plant capacity of 62 million(US)gal lons per day and improved quality of service to approximately 220,000 resi dents. The company says it costs less

than $1.00/gallon of treated flow.

DATEPAD November 13-14,1996. "Fast Forward 2000" Environment and Energy Confer ence of Ontario. Toronto, ON. Con

tact: Roger Scott(416) 327-8073. November 14,1996. Problem Solving: Activated Sludge. A Workshop for Sen ior Operators and Managers. Water Environment Association of Ontario.

Toronto, ON. Contact:(416)502-1440. November 18-21,1996. DNAPL Site

(412) 232-3450. November 21-22, 1996. Canadian Council for Public-Private Partnerships 4th Annual Conference. Toronto, ON. Contact: Michael Shaen (416) 9554490.

November, 1996. Introduction to En vironmental Management Systems focusing on the ISO 14000 Series. November 21 - Toronto (Airport)

Characterization & Remediation - The

November 25 - Vancouver

Waterloo DNAPL Course. San Fran

November 28 - Calgary

cisco, CA. Also December 2-5,1996 -

Contact Canadian Standards Association

Boston, Mass. Contact: Waterloo Edu

toll free: 1-800-463-6727.

cational Services Inc.,(519) 836-3102, fax:(519) 836-3381. November 19-21,1996. L'Association quebecoise des techniques de I'envi-

December 5, 1996. Ontario Water Works Association - Management for Excellence. Mississauga, ON. Contact: Astrid Tallon,(416)252-7060. December 8-11,1996. National Ground

ronnement 19th International Sympo sium on Wastewater Treatment and 8th

Water Association - Annual Convention

Workshop on Drinking Water. Montreal, QC. Contact: AQTE(514) 270-7110. November 19-22,1996. Clean Air'96. Exhibition on Emerging Clean Air Tech nologies and Business Opportunities.

& Exposition. Las Vegas, NV. Con tact:(614) 337-1949. January 16-17,1997. ASTM Sympo sium on Testing Soil Mixed with Waste or Recycled Materials. New Orleans, La. Contact: Bob Morgan,ASTM,(610)

Orlando, EL. Contact: AWMA, Fax:

832-9732.

2nd North American Conference and

The Workhorse SODIUM HYPGCHLORITE

For water disinfection, wastewater treatment, odour

control, cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.

CP

COLGATE-PALMOUVE CANADA INC. Professional Products Division 6400 Northwest Drive

Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4V 1K1

Tel.(905)678-2051 FAX (905)678-0898 Plant Locations: Moncton,Montreal,Toronto,Edmonton

16

For more information, circle reply card No. 112 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


A

I//

lj

i WvSsfe -ij,-""

ilPBsJ

The integration of Philip Environmental's complete range of remedial,invest ment recovery, demolition,

laboratory analysis, and project planning services, with hazardous and non-

these services are brought together through our Environmental Services Group's "Strategic Environmental Management Services" operation.With over 50 locations in North America and the experience and expertise of 3 ICQ people to draw on, Philip Environmental is a major force in all areas of

hazardous waste treatment,transportation

waste management.To find out how our

services, and recycling, provides clients with the most effective way of managing environ mental compliance.Whether it's on an ongoing basis or for emergency situations, all

Environmental Services Group can reduce your cost of environmental compliance call us at I -800-429-5503. Ask for a copy of our integrated services on 3'h" diskette.

For more information, circle reply card No. 173(See page 17)

PHILIP ENVIRONMENTAL

Recycling Solutions for Every Environment


Monitorina and samolin

Automatic water samplers help a brewery solve Its water consumption problems Portable automatic wastewater

samplers have played a critical role in Improving the operating

I

efficiency of Whitbread Brewery, while simultaneously reducing the volume and concentration of

Whitbread Brewery's 80 Its effluent discharged to sewer.

acre site in Blackburn in

the north of England, brews a wide range of popular ales, lagers, bitters, milds, and stouts. The facility has a total output of approximately 2,000,000 barrels per year.

As part of its brewing process, Whitbread draws huge quantities of wa ter from three boreholes at a rate of 2

million imperial gallons per day. It dis

charges approximately 190,000m' per month of effluent to the sewer which is

received and treated locally by North West Water's Samlesbury treatment works situated on an adjacent site. Until recently, Whitbread had moni tored effluent only at the final point of discharge, using an on-line COD ana lyser and pH meter. At frequent inter vals, North West Water(NWW)officials would also visit the site to extract sam

effect on the final outflow to sewer.

Whitbread specified an Epic 1011 port able wastewater sampler from Montec International. Its portability meant the sampler could be moved to different lo cations to identify where the high levels of COD,pH and suspended solids were originating. It was suspected that the high levels of COD were originating in the Brew House. By analyzing samples extracted

ples for analysis, which would be used for charging purposes and to ensure con sent compliance. from the Brew House outflow,the Brew In 1994, escalating levels of COD, ery was able to confirm that unneces suspended solids and pH meant that the sary beer wastage was indeed raising Brewery was in serious danger ofexceed COD,and was able to implement instant ing these limits. The suspended solids remedial action to correct the costly are caused by yeast, filtration powders problem. and grains escaping to the drains; pH is As Whitbread could not explain the affected by caustic cleaning and acidic rising suspended solids, it used the Epic sterilization; and the high COD levels 1011 to monitor at several locations are caused by the yeast and waste beer throughout the site. Analysis attributed which have high oxygen demands. the problem to two main areas, the Brew Urgent action was necessary which House and the Wort Receiver. would enable the Brewery to strictly Further sampling at the Brew House's monitor and control these factors. The Collection Sump indicated that it had be problem was exacerbated because of the come ineffective in retaining solids, and Brewery's many effluent streams which that a certain amount was escaping to are directed to the main discharge point the drain. Sampling at the Wort Receiver via 40 individual drains scattered across outflow revealed that large quantities of the site. Trub, a fine 'silty' material, were also To locate the major problem areas being deposited into the effluent stream. and evaluate plant efficiency, a versatile This sampling information not only monitoring system was required which located and identified the problem ar would allow Whitbread to analyze each eas, it was also invaluable for assessing of the effluent streams and assess their the requirement and urgency for an up 18

graded Sump, and for designing a new Trub Recovery System. Epic samplers also recently played a vital role during an effluent survey at Whitbread's Boddingtons Brewery in Manchester. The survey was designed to control quality levels and thus ensure consent compliance. Previously, effluent from the site was discharged from two main areas, the Brew House and the Racking Depart ment. The Racking Department uses acid to sterilise the barrels, making its effluent fairly acidic. The Brew House, however, uses caustic to clean the ves

sels, making its effluent very alkaline. Routine sampling on the main sewer outflow identified large, inexplicable swings in pH. By sampling both drains individually, the survey confirmed that the high acidic levels were originating in the Racking area. On further investigation, it was discovered that staff were emptying dregs from the bottom of barrels directly into the drains.

Results from the survey are being used to assess the need and urgency for a new treatment plant which will receive all effluent from both areas.

For more information, circie repiy card No. 174 Epic is represented in Canada by Cancoppas Ltd., Oakvilie, ON.

Environmental Science <& Engineering, November 1996


Why do over 200 municipalities in Ontario use the Ontario Clean Water Agency for their water and wastewater services?

Consistent, Reliable Service Open, Responsive Communications Local Customized Attention

Competitive Pricing The Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) is the largest supplier of water and wastewater services In the province, serving almost 5 million Individual consumers. For more than 40 years, we have provided con sistent, reliable service to our clients.

Industry

Today OCWA Is changing In ways that wil l redefine client service In the Industry. We are committed to setting a new standard for service

Leaders In:

excel lence.

• Operations and Maintenance •Infrastructure

Development • Project Management • Public/Private

Partnerships

A talented team of service experts has been selected to represent OCWA to Its clients. Our new Client Services Representatives wil l be located In the field to provide proactive, timely and effective service tailored to the client's needs.

The changes we are making will have a positive Impact on productivity. We are positioning OCWA to offer clients value-added service at competitive prices.

OCWA will continue to draw on Its considerable past experience to the advantage of existing and new clients.

To find out more about OCWA's services, or to meet with a Client Services Representative, please contact us at 1-800-667-0CWA. Ontario

Agence

Clean

Ontarienne

Water

Des

Agency

Eaux

For more information, circie repiy card No. 175(See page 17)


INTRODUCING!Legal Affairs

By Norman A. Keith, B.A. L.L.B.

TM

Creative environmental

VFR [W

sentencing: making the punishment fit the crime

Asenvironmental problems

... an even more EFFECTIVE

... more ECONOMICAL ... and AESTHET/C

alternative to

have grown more wide spread, as public knowledge has increased regarding the extent of non-compliance with regula tory controls, and as environmental emergencies have occurred from time to time, there has been more political will to adopt aggressive approaches to en forcement of environmental laws. No

TRADITIONAL

where is this more apparent than in the

DOMESTIC

increased number of environmental

and

INDUSTRIAL

a

O LOWER CAPITAL COSTS

â&#x20AC;˘ LOWER OPERATING COSTS

ÂŤ SMALL FOOTPRINT

^ MECHANICALLY SIMPLE _ FULLY ENCLOSED

prosecutions. Once the prosecution re sults in a conviction, the courts then ad

dress the penalties and remedies avail able in sentencing. Modern environmental statutes pro vide a wide array of sentencing options, offering the potential for creative, envi ronmentally productive sentences. Un til recently, however, prosecutors and the courts had yet to utilize the wide range of sentencing options available to them. The case law indicates that the monetary fine or punishment continues to be the sentence most frequently imposed in re

sponding to environmental offences.

economical alternative'^'j!

DEEP SHAFT TECHNOLOGY.INC 700,1207 11th.Avenue S;W;

Calgary Alberta

phone::403:244.534^^^^ For more information,

circle reply card No. 176

ness.

Generally, the fines levied by courts against offending parties have risen dra matically and are continuing to rise. The same environmental offence today has a much greater potential fine for a cor poration or an individual than ten years ago. Fines imposed against a corpora tion have remained significantly higher than fines against individual directors of a corporation. In the punishment by fines, however, a blunt "big stick" ap proach governs the complex behaviour and knowledge of companies and indi vidual alike in achieving environmental compliance. Big sticks, especially blunt ones, are rarely if ever the most effec tive means of encouraging environmen tal compliance.

environmental law area.

the courts creative use of fines are: re

general deterrence. General deterrents are very popular as a leading concept be hind modem theories ofsentencing,even though they have some rather obvious limitations. To paraphrase one of my favourite critics of general deterrents, C.S. Lewis has said that punishment through general deterrents amounts to punishing the offender for what others might do wrong in the future rather than for what the offender did wrong in the past. Nonetheless the deterrent theory of punishment prevails. In seeking to achieve deterrents, the courts have imposed fines on the olfend-

fax: 403.245.5156

trademark-ol Deeptbhaft lechnoioQy.Inc

by sending a message to the community that violating environmental laws is not a profitable manner of carrying on busi

determining the manner in which these fines are to be used. Some examples of

of sentences in environmental cases is

cbhtact: LYLE CUTHBERT

nomic sanctions. Secondly, to act as a general deterrent to the public at large,

Since there is the availability and grow ing interest in alternative approaches to dispute resolution across the complete legal spectrum, there are sound reasons to review and analyze the trends and op portunities for environmentally con structive sentencing alternatives in the

The most frequently stated objective

for'infornwtign:on'ith

ing parties for at least two reasons. First, to act as a specific deterrent, by penal izing the party responsible through eco

'Mathews, Dinsdale & Clark

There have been, however, some

glimmers of enlightened application of the monetary penalties in recent years by the courts. The courts, in some in stances, have become more creative in

quiring a convicted company to pay $100,000 to promote the conservation of fish habitat; ordering a company to pay $30,000 to develop a local toxic waste program; or directing a corpora tion to pay their fine to a local school board for the purpose of environmental education. There is little doubt that fines

will continue to be used by the courts in sentencing environmental offenders. A much overlooked power of the courts in sentencing in environmental

prosecutions is the flexible tool of the probation order. The courts have at their disposal a general power to impose a probation order on the offending party that is convicted. In other words, the

court is given a general power to order Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Wastewater Treatment Options

Advertisement

New wastewater treatment system A flexible, new secondary wastewater treat ment system, known as I-SO (In-Situ Oxygenation), is now available. The system was developed in response to the need for an im

specific "hot spots" in the treatment pond for

the oxygen molecules more efficiently and

more concentrated and efficient use of oxy

with better control than traditional systems. Any oxygen that is not dissolved is recy cled by being drawn back into the vortex, ensuring high efficiency utilization. The unit can be dropped into the pond wherever there is a particularly bad "hot spot" of high B.O.D. This is a rifle rather than a shotgun approach to the problem.

gen.

Traditional sparging systems use air or air enriched with oxygen. With this method, it is difficult to get enough oxygen into the water. I-SO, on the other hand, uses pure oxygen, making it far more efficient and cost-

proved way of dissolving oxygen into wastewater, particularly for the pulp and paper industry. In a new installation, I-SO can compete with traditional aerators on both a capital and power usage basis. The low-cost unit can also be used to supplement existing aeration systems to meet stringent environmental standards for biological oxygen demand (B.O.D.) levels. The unit has the capacity to handle up to two tonnes of oxygen a day and can treat a

effective.

The unit consists of three parts-a motor and gearbox, a hooded floatation unit, and a draft tube containing an impeller. Water is drawn into the unit and then pumped down ward into the tank or lagoon. This creates a vortex or whirlpool at the top of the unit. Oxygen is then injected into the vortex and is sucked down into the water. This disperses

radius of about 40 ft. It can be moved to

The first I-SO unit in Canada is installed

at Provincial Papers' mill in Thunder Bay. "We are confident that this new technol

ogy will play an increasingly important role in wastewater treatment in Canada," said Don

Kirkwood, Manager Technology and Mar keting for Praxair Canada.

Circle reply card No. 182

Safe and effective

control of pH levels Replacing acid with carbon dioxide (CO,) is a safe, effective and economical method

of controlling pH levels in alkaline process and effluent water.

PRAXJURISIVm

When COjis dissolved in an aqueous sys

CARBoni/m.J

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actions. Initially, dissolved CO^ forms car bonic acid, which then dissociates into bi-

carbonates, carbonates and hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ions, in turn, reduce the pH. Carbon dioxide has many advantages over sulfuric acid. Unlike sulfuric acid,car

Praxair has acquired Liquid

bon dioxide is a natural chemical and is not stored as an acid solution. This makes it safer

and easier to handle, with no need for acid

Carbonic Industries, making us^ the world's largest producer of

handling equipment or residuals to worry about. It also means reduced maintenance

costs, as less equipment and monitoring de vices are needed,translating into less down time. And because CO,is non-corrosive to pipes and equipment, it helps extend equip

carbon dioxide and a good deal moi

ment life.

Convenient bulk supply systems make it possible to store up to twice as much carbon

It vastly expands our

dioxide as sulfuric acid in the same amount

of storage space, with no increase in weight. And there are considerable cost savings, as up to 48 percent less CO, than sulfuric acid is needed for the neutralization of high pH levels. Moreover, sulfidity ratios are not af fected by carbon dioxide. For more information, circle reply card No. 178 Praxair was founded in 1907 as the Linde

Air Products Company and merged into the Union Carbide and Carbon Co. in 1917. Known as the "Linde Division" of Union

Carbide, the business became an inde

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acquired Liquid Carbonic, another indus try pioneer and the worid's iargest suppiier of carbon dioxide. The two companies have merged under the Praxair name form ing the largest industrial gases company in North and South America and one of the

iargest woridwide.

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'


Legal Affairs, cont'd. the offender to comply with conditions

lish on the front of their newsletter for

that the court considers reasonable and

international distribution, the facts lead

just under the circumstances. As a condition of probation the court may require an offender to publish the

ing to their conviction, the name of the

vent future environmental harm. For

directors involved and the details of the

these reasons this type of probationary condition is likely to continue to have much appeal to the courts. Another option with the probation ary order authority available to the court is to sentence an offender to perform community service. Such an order may

facts of their conviction. Publication of

conviction information, for example, provides the court with an alternative to imposing fines and provides information to the public regarding an organization's poor environmental record. In the well known case ofR. v. Bata Industries Ltd.,

the court ordered the company to pub

penalties and terms of probation. The use of publication as a condition of pro bation is especially effective in circum stances where the reputation of the com pany is a vital component to their suc cess in the market-place. In addition to having a potentially far reaching effect, a condition requiring the sharing ofinformation is consistent with

the fundamental purpose ofenvironmen tal sentencing, which is to deter or pre

be useful in cases where an offender does

not have the economic resources to pay a fine or where an offence is committed

by a public organization. This sentenc ing tool provides the court with a great deal of flexibility in tailoring the sen tence to meet the particular circum

THE FUTURE OF

DERRICK

WASTE WATER SCREENING

CORPORATION

Waste water slurry be

DERRICK

Derrick Flo-Line screeB

FLO-LINE SCREENING MACHINE

stances of the offender, and,to some ex tent, to meet the needs of the affected

community. Although director liability is a rela tively new area in environmental law,the courts have imposed substantial fines and, albeit rarely, prison sentences against directors of corporations. How ever, despite the efforts of the courts to hold directors of corporations responsi ble for environmental damages result ing from their acts or omissions, with respect to fines the courts have been unable to prevent indemnification of corporate directors. The most significant decision on the issue ofindemnification offines against directors is found in the recent Court of

Appeal decision in R. v. Bata Industries Ltd.

emands, which are

to control B.O.P.^ iological"'^ygen Demand) discharges d reducet'lri?f)lant treatment costs, have ieated a tremendous need for efficient

illable and cost effective equipment to

^W'Sksste, water solids ConcentraJgmtek.Corporation, with over 40

a wastr water st

.0.'43MM urethan

Screening experience, is now

g:this equipment arldvVi

llp-Line--

ste wafeillih'dast fi^utilizingjt yerro nit desig"r?,h

pacitie

tors for the amount of the fine. On

hand ed at

frSS?

DERRICK CORPORATION

PHONE:p i 6]f 683-9010 FAX:[716] 683-4991

Bata Industries Limited was

charged and convicted under the Ontario Water Resources Act with permitting the discharge of industrial waste into the ground. Two directors ofBata were also charged and convicted under the OWRA with failing to take all reasonable care to prevent the discharge of the material into the ground. They were each fined $12,000. Furthermore, as part of the company's probation order,inter alia, the court imposed a condition that Bata was prohibited from indemnifying the direc

Bced on corporations

reen-oversize recove

from processing was ry at 50 mesh.

appeal, the Ontario General (Division Court) reduced the fine to $6,000 stat ing that "this would be a sufficient amount to deter them personally (the directors) and to convey a message to other corporate officers and directors who failed to comply with environmen tal laws". The court at the first level of

THURSTON MACHINE INC.

COLLETTE MINING

DAGEX INC.

1586 Griffiths Place

2925 Miners Ave.

9030 Leslie St. Unit 5

Kelowna, British Columbia VIZ 2T7

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7K 4Z6

Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B IG2

Phone:604-769-3848

Phone: 306-683-1966

Phone: 905-771-8400

Fax: 604-769-5859

Fax: 306-931-1 128

Fax: 905-771-891 I

appeal, however, upheld the condition of the probation order providing that the company could not indemnify the direc tors.

Continued overleaf 22

For more information, circle reply card No. 354 (See page 17)

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, November 1996


Terra

Tec

Trade Fair and Forum for Environment Markets

4 w

We have it in our hands.

LEIPZIG, GERMANY - March 4-7, 1997 - Where East meets West Environmental Markets Know No Boundaries Leipzig - the international trading and commercial exhibition centre for more than 800 years - is opening gates to the new and important environment markets of Central and Eastern Europe as well as Asia. The region of the new German States has become a model of environmental rehabilitation around the world.

Terralec is now the leading environmental trade event for these rapidly growing markets. TerraTec - Trade Fair - Focal Points:

TerraTec - Forum - Presentations and Discussions:

- Clean air/water supply and maintenance - Waste disposal/recycling and recovery

- Market-related strategies for international cooperation - Integrated system solutions - Project and information management - Financial, economic and political engineering - Joint venture opportunities -The Needs of Special Economic Regions: The Black Triangle-The Baltic States-Bulgaria-Baikal / Eastern Siberia-Middle East-South China/Canton Region

- Site decontamination

- Survey, control and analysis technology -Automation and process technology -Consulting, engineering, planning, R+D -Trade literature and information

- Insurance, legal and financial services

In 1997, the TerraTec Trade Fair and Eorum are being combined linking the exhibition of products, technology and services with the presentation of international trends and strategies. Come to Leipzig. Take advantage of TerraTec -the ideal event to demonstrate products and technology, to gather information, to open up and develop markets, to find new partners, to expand international business!

For ExhibitorA/isitor/Travel information, TerraTec - Trade Fair and Forum

k

please contact our Canadian Representative:

March 4-7,1997

Dessauer and Company Limited

Exhibition Centre Leipzig

15 McMurrich Street, Suite 1103

Leipziger Messe GmbH • P 0 Box 100720 - D-04007 Leipzig Telephone;(++49341)678-0 • Fax:(++49341)678-82 92

Toronto, Ontario, M5R 3M6 Telephone (416) 960-0018 • Fax (416) 927-0095

For more information, circie reply card No. 179(See page 17)


Legal Affairs, conr Bata sought and received leave to appeal on the indemnification provision in the probation order. The Court of Appeal held that the indemnification provision was improper because the Pro vincial Offences Act provides that the court may prescribe as a condition in a probation order such other conditions relating to the circumstances of the of fence as the court considers appropriate to prevent similar unlawful conduct or to contribute to the "rehabilitation" of

the defendant. The Court of Appeal concluded that, by imposing the prohi bition order against Bata, the intention ofthe court was not to deter Bata or other

corporations from engaging in environ mentally objectionable activities, but rather, the focus of the probation order was on the directors.

In addition, the court also noted that

any probation order made under the Pro vincial Offences Act can only remain in force for a maximum of two years. Therefore, the imposition of a nonindemnification provision as a condition of probation would have Uttle effect. For these reasons the Court of Appeal in the case ofBata struck out such a provision.

\

Therefore, any type of probation or der imposed by the courts in an envi ronmental prosecution needs to be le gally directed at rehabilitation. Reha

fore, the low effectiveness and the poor educational benefit by the threat of im prisonment demonstrates that it should only ever be seen as punishment of last

bilitation of the offender and the envi

resort.

ronment is also the clear intention of en

In summary, as long as governments prosecute for environmental offences, a critical issue will be the appropriate sen tencing and punishment theories and practice. Practical and appropriate sen tences, including creative probationary orders should be sought after as a pri mary focus of the sentencing process. In the writer's view, the mere "big stick" theory of large fines is both inappropri ate and ineffective as the primary or only sentencing approach by the courts.

vironmental legislation generally. Therefore, in the scope of sentencing in environmental offences, the flexibility and authority of a creative,fact specific probation order is arguably the best means to achieve the purposes of the en vironmental legislation. One final thought on the sentencing option of imprisoning an individual ac cused. Although imprisonment is avail able to be used as a sentencing option against individual offenders, the courts have only imposed such a sentence in very limited circumstances. Imprison ment is generally utilized by the courts in situations where the offenders have

acted knowingly and with a contempt for their legal obligations. These situations are rare. Furthermore,the use of impris onment as a tool for general deterrence of future offences or general education

Time will tell if the revenue driven,

cash strapped govemments can place en vironmental improvement in the sentenc ing process above current fiscal inter ests. For the sake of an improved envi ronment,one should hope that the courts start to move in that direction regard less of the motivation and self-interests

of govemments and their prosecutors.

is limited, for obvious reasons, to offic

For more information,

ers and directors of corporations. There

circle reply card No. 181

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24

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For more information, circle reply card No. 180 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Consultants in Action

By B. Conlin, D. Livingstone and B. Boyle*

Site remediation in Downtown Vancouver

Asindustrial operations move away from city centres, they abandon their former facili

Pii

ties and often leave behind

derelict buildings and land. The chal lenge is to transform these areas into residential communities at a reasonable

cost. Such a challenge is now being met at Pacific Place Site in downtown Van

couver, using an integrated, cooperative approach involving an international de veloper and all government levels. In 1986,the City of Vancouver hosted Expo '86, a world fair and exposition. The exposition was constructed on a 66hectare parcel of waterfront land on the north shore of False Creek, the south

east edge of downtown Vancouver. The site represents about one sixth of the area of downtown Vancouver and, prior to development for the exposition, was a mixture of industrial operations and warehouses. Following Expo '86, the entire site was sold to Concord Pacific

Developments Ltd., a major interna tional developer, to be transformed into a residential neighbourhood, known as "Pacific Place".

The development plan for this site recognized that many portions of the site were likely contaminated by past indus trial practices and would require remediation prior to development. The development primarily includes high value condominium apartments; how ever, social housing and schools will also be constructed. In addition, park areas are associated with the develop ment of many parcels, including a sea wall walkway that follows the shoreline along the length of the site. Historical Contamination

The Expo '86 site was home to nu merous industrial facilities over the past century, including several sawmills, a coal gasification plant, an oil gasifica tion plant, wood processing and preserv ing plants, a lead processing and manu facturing plant, and a major railway sta tion and maintenance yard. These in dustries, some in place in the late 1800s, followed typical waste disposal prac tices for their time-often involving dis posal of waste solids and liquids at any convenient location near the plant. Fur ther, approximately two thirds of the site

This remediation project transforms old industrial sites into valuable residential land.

materials, including woodwaste, con struction debris and waste products from various industries, garbage and dredged sediments. Again, at the time of the fill ing, these were both acceptable and de sirable methods of achieving waste dis posal and creating additional land area for industrial use.

In 1989 and 1990, extensive histori cal research of the site was conducted

to identify areas of potential environ

(VOCs) such as benzene, toluene and

xylene; heavy metals, especially lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); chlorophenols,from wood preservation; cyanide; and ammonia. Remediation Planning Following the characterization and delineation of the soil and groundwater contamination, remedial plans were de veloped for each of the nine parcels into

mental concern. These areas were tar

which the site was divided. The reme

geted in the initial site assessments,

industries and fill materials were deter

dial plans were based on the site own er's development plans, and where in situ management of some of the con taminants was contemplated, risk as sessment and risk management methods were employed. The remediation plan ning was conducted at a time when the regulatory agencies did not have specific contaminated sites guidelines; these were developed by the Province in as sociation with the remedial planning for

was land reclaimed from False Creek

mined.

this site.

through dumping of a variety of fill

These included: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), primarily from coal tars; volatile organic compounds

The remedial plans for the site con sidered that only those soils that needed Continued on page 27

*Golder Associates Ltd.

which included the excavation and drill

ing of several hundred test pits and boreholes, installation of numerous

monitoring wells and soil vapour probes. Based on both the historical reviews of

potential contaminant sources and chemical analyses of samples collected from the test programs,the primary con taminants of concern associated with the

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

25


Ainley & Associates Limited

Intermediate/Senior

Consulting Engineers and Planners

Wastewater Treatment Engineer Acres & Associated Environmental Limited is a major consulting engineering group, operating throughout Canada and internationally, providing services in the fields of wastewater and water treatment, water re sources, site remediation, environmental assessment

and solid waste management. Due to growth in our Toronto office, Acres & Associ ated is looking for an intermediate to senior level envi ronmental engineer in the field of wastewater treatment. The successful candidate will have, as a minimum, a T.W. Hardy,P.Eng.

P. William Ainley,P.Eng., Chairman and founder ofAinley & Associates Limited, is pleased to announce the appointment of Terence (Terry) Hardy, P.Eng., as President and Chief Executive Officer. He

will be based in

the firm's

Collingwood office. Prior to joining Ainley & Associates, Terry served as President of the firm's associated company,Ainley Graham and Associates of Ottawa. He brings with him over thirty years experience in en vironmental and municipal engineering, along with a strong background in com

bachelor's degree In Civil or Chemical Engineering, pref erably with a post graduate degree, and 5 to 10 years experience in design and planning of wastewater treat ment facilities. Your experience should be in the area of municipal wastewater treatment and we would con sider experience in industrial wastewater treatment and municipal water treatment a significant asset. Eligibility for registration as a professional engineer is required. Your skill and qualifications will be recog nized through superior earnings, benefits and the po tential opportunity for ownership in the company. To explore your potential with Acres & Associated, please reply in confidence to: Acres & Associated Environmental Limited Suite 525 21 Four Seasons Place

Etobicoke, Ontario M9B 6J8 Attention: Michael J. Hribljan, P.Eng.

pany management.

For more information, circle reply card No. 263

CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental engineers, planners and scientists Industrial Services

Solid Waste Management Residuals Management Energy Management Process Control

Water Supply & Distribution Wastewater Collection, Treatment & Disposal Tunnels and Underground Works Systems Analysis Modeling Water Resources Engineering

Air Management Environmental Planning Environmental Site Characterization/Remediation

Environmental Laboratory

Toronto

Waterloo

Calgary

255 Consumers Road

180 King Street South, Suite 600 Waterloo, Ontario N2J1P8 tel:(519)579-3500 fax:(519)573-8986 directdial: (519) 579-3501 + ext.

555 - 4th Avenue SW,Suite 1500 Calgary, Alberta T2P 3E7

North York, Ontario M2J 5B6 tel: 416-499-9000 fax: 416-499-4687 direct dial: 416 499-0090 + ext.

tel:(403)237-9300 fax:(403) 237-7715 directdial: (403) 237-5691 + ext.

Barrle • London • Ottawa • Thorold • Vancouver

26

For more information, circie repiy card No. 150 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Consultants In action. Gont' to be removed for construction should

Part of Parcel 7 is the site of the new

Parcels 8 and 9 included the collection

be disposed of, and, provided an accept able risk management plan could be implemented, the remainder of the con taminated soils would remain in place.

"GM Place" arena that was opened in 1995 and is home to Vancouver profes sional hockey and basketball teams. The remainder of Parcel 7 is presently un

oil, contaminated with PCB, from the vicinity of a former transformer main

These considerations affected the over

der consideration for the location of

all site development plans as areas of sig nificant contamination were designated for park use, which precluded the exca vation and disposal of large quantities of contaminated soils. This integrated remediation and development strategy required, and received, the cooperation of the developer and all levels of govern ment(municipal,provincial, and federal). Remediation Progress

Vancouver's new convention centre.

To date, remediation has been initi

ated and/or completed in six of the nine parcels. The remediation activities are generally carried out in conjunction with, or slightly in advance of, the de velopment and construction activities. On Parcel 2, the site of a former oil

gasification plant and a railcar mainte nance yard, the pre-construction exca vation of approximately 4,000 cubic metres of oil tar contaminated soil and

In Parcel 9 and the eastern portion of Parcel 8, an area heavily contaminated by coal tar from a coal gasification plant, remediation has largely been completed. The remedial measures that have been

implemented included: (i) a groundwater barrier wall, con structed in sections using sheetpiling,jet

grouting, and deep soil mixing, to re duce the flux of contaminated groundwater to False Creek;

(ii) an impermeable liner cap, with soil vapour venting and surface water col lection capabilities, to reduce the infil tration of precipitation; and (iii) groundwater collection wells and a water treatment plant, to maintain the groundwater level below the top of the barrier wall. Additional remediation measures in

and treatment of 4,000 litres of floating

tenance station. This area is now the

location of a park comprising two play ing fields with an artificial turf surface. The Pacific Place site is an excellent

example of how a former industrial area in the downtown area of a major city, can be developed into a highly desirable residential community. The develop ment of this large tract of land by a sin gle company has allowed consistent planning across the entire site and en sures that both residential apartments and recreational and commercial spaces are provided. This strategy has also led to a reduction in the costs for remedia

ting lands contaminated by former in dustries by using an integrated approach to remediation and development. This incorporated the use of risk rhanagement principles both in the remediation de sign and the development planning. For more Information, circle reply card No. 151

leachable lead contaminated soil was

conducted during the summer of 1993. The pre-excavation allowed the removal of the highly contaminated soils with out interfering with normal construction

ANNOUNCEMENT

excavations. Additional remediation

activities have been carried out during the course of development for each of the buildings constructed on the Parcel, primarily involving the segregation and disposal of suspect or known contami nated soils during building excavations. The former locomotive maintenance roundhouse located in Parcel 2 has been

refurbished and was recently opened as the Roundhouse Community Centre,in corporating both exhibition and recrea tion space. Parcel 2 also includes Van couver's new emergency earthquake saltwater intake and fire pumping sta tion for providing fire protection follow ing an earthquake. Remediation in Parcels 3 and 8(for merly railyard and warehousing areas) has been completed and involved the

Michel Beland,P. Eng.

Robert Poisson,P. Eng.

It is with great pleasure that we announce the addition of Michel Beland and Robert Poisson, to the Thorbum Penny team. Michel who has been appointed as our Ottawa Branch Manager, has over 15 years experience in the environmental field. Previously a senior project engineer with OCWA, Michel has an excellent knowledge of stormwater, water and wastewater treatment process and design. Joining otu Milton office, Robert will be involved in design/build

removal of most of the contaminated fill

projects in the water and wastewater field. His innovative approach to

materials present. A risk assessment and risk management approach has been employed where contamination, in ex cess of the applicable remediation stand

problem solving has been well documented by projects such as the Samia Leachate Treatment Plant and the Rockland Wastewater Treatment Plant.

ards for residential land use, remains.

Thorbum Penny is a multi-disciplinary engineering firm providing specialized expertise in the design and constraction of water and

Parcel 3 is the site of condominium

wastewater infrastmcture.

buildings that have been completed and Parcel 8 is scheduled for construction

THORBURN PENNY

in the near future as a community known as "Intemational Village."

Consutting Engineers

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

For more Information, circle reply card No. 152 (See page 17)

27


Consultants' Forum

Leading consultants speak out

R.D. Gillesple

Eric MacDonald

Rod Holme

Consulting engineers have served Canada well. They were at the forefront in developing remedial projects when water-borne diseases ravaged our urban communities. Now the profession faces some daunting challenges as we

approach a new millennium. We asked some leading consultants to give their views on how their profession will face the new realities In consulting engineering.

P.J. Laughton

K.A. Morrison

Debating the future of Consulting Engineering

I have always firmly believed that

it helps to understand how we got

By Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Limited

where we are when it comes to

trying to determine where we are going. It is also necessary to follow trends outside of our direct spheres of influence, since nothing happens in iso lation. It is an unfortunate fact that many members of the consulting engineering profession are more willing to blame others(including our clients and custom ers) for our industry's woes than to ac cept that irrevocable change has oc

nance costs were not an issue.

These needs have changed, along with the demographics of our society. One of today's imperatives is cost re duction, as the number of capital inten sive projects decreases and the opera tion and upkeep of what we have be comes the driving force. Many design services have become commodities, with too many 'consult curred, and to move ahead and deal with ants' chasing too little work. Down that change. sizing in the public and private sectors In recent history, consulting engi has created new,small, and,frequently, neering came into prominence to offer specialized firms, resulting in more to clients on a consulting basis those 'consulting engineers' than ever before. The Finance/Design/Build/Operate services which they could not provide for themselves. In an era of rapid de (F/D/B/O) market is taking off. I am not going to debate its advantages and velopment, this led to massive construc tion of capital intensive, but subsidized, disadvantages in meeting cost reduction infrastructure. Operating and mainte- and efficiency imperatives, but, without 28

question, F/D/B/O does dramatically change the role of the traditional con sulting engineer. I observed this first hand in Australia several years ago, and accurately predicted that the same trend would finally hit North America - one of the last bastions of traditional con

sulting. The typical team that formed the lead on the major Australian F/D/B/O water and wastewater projects included an in

ternational water/wastewater company, a major contractor and a management/ finance company. Not only did these types of firms lead the consortia, but they had the prime contact with the cli ent. The engineering firms were part of the team, but at the fourth level at best.

In other words, the consulting engineer dropped from a direct relationship with the chent to an indirect, arm's length role as a provider of services. The answer here is simply to recog-

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Consultants' Forum nize that F/D/B/0 design services have become a commodity, and to offer them as such. The resulting lack of opportu nity to provide value(and,consequently, being rewarded accordingly) will not, however, form the basis for a thriving practice. Which leads to today's other impera tive - the use of technology to achieve cost saving and efficiency objectives. It has already been recognized that the socalled 'Information Age' is really the 'Knowledge Age', but the transition from one to the other becomes the challenge. The future of consulting, therefore, lies in a successful transition from pro viding commodity engineering services to solving problems using technology and knowledge. Many traditional serv ices will continue to be provided, but will be bought by clients as part of a larger package. I am sure that you have all read about some of the more obvious examples of technology use today in other industries, such as aviation. American Airlines is

far more successful in using information systems than in actually flying planes, although they continue to do the latter. I can personally attest to this airline's information systems, which were able to readily route my bags to Los Angeles from Toronto, but were unable to get me there - a classic reversal of the usual

cient. Up to now, the necessary infor mation and knowledge was confined to separate areas within our clients' opera tions. Now the synergies of combining operations and information are becom ing more obvious. So water, sewer and roads departments combine information sources within the traditional public

situation!

works context, and then across all mu

To date, a lot of technology use has led to the creation of massive amounts

of data that are not updated and are rarely used. That was when the Infor mation Age first took hold, and collec tion of huge amounts of data was the objective. The transition to knowledge is taking longer,since establishing a cli ent's real needs and prioritizing the data has proven more difficult. It is inevitable that pressures for lower costs will lead to lower prices in our business, resulting in a need for us

nicipal activities. As noted in the recently published book on demographics.Boom, Bust and Echo, an aging and increasingly busy society has less time to deal with details, and will pay for service, reliability and quality. The clients of consultants are the same people, with the same pres sures, and reliable problem solving is in demand. The successful consultants will

be those that recognize and meet that demand. Rod Holme is Vice President of Proctor

to become more efficient. Our futures

& Redfern Limited, a candidate for the

lie in harnessing information and creat ing knowledge for our clients, thus al lowing them, too, to become more effi

position of President Elect of AWWA and a member of ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board.

Consultants must adapt to changing markets

Traditionally, the consulting

industry's role in construc tion projects has been one of advising, making technical recommendations and supplying design documents. Additional services may include inspection and administration. A client, particularly in the public sec tor, enters into a contract with a consult

ing engineer for these professional serv ices related to the project. Under an entirely separate contract, the same cli ent employs a construction company to build the project. This model deliber ately allows no contractual link between consultant and construction contractor.

It works well when both consultant and

contractor are paid out of public funds and where such funds are readily avail able.

As one popular balladeer noted, how ever, "the times, they are a-changing". Industry, looking to be more competi tive, and the general public, seeing its take-home pay eroded more and more each year, are demanding of their legis lators that taxes be reduced. Moreover,

deficit financing to make up for the shortfall in taxes is not an acceptable solution if the overall public debt is to be reduced. Even in times of relatively low interest rates, such as the present, financing the public debt consumes an

By Eric MacDonald, M.Sc., P.Eng. Acres & Associated Environmental

enormous amount of our taxes.

fees, be lower. At the same time the

consultant must learn new skills, previ ously left largely to the contractor, skills related to the ease of construction of a

project, scheduling material delivery and renewed and expanded. Basic services so forth. Keeping abreast of technologi are still needed by the general public. cal advances and learning new skills are The challenge facing governments is requirements not without considerable how to maintain infrastructure and pro costs to the consultant. How they will vide services while reducing taxes. One be met will determine the consultant's success or failure in this changing answer, as perceived by many authori ties, is the involvement of the private market-place. The rate of change in the way public sector in what was previously the ex clusive public domain. Public-private services are provided, and where they partnership, contracting out and priva will lead the consulting industry are both tisation are all terms that are increasingly open questions. Our industry must ad being heard. Another answer is the de just to changes in the market despite sign-build process, long a feature of the the uncertainties that surround them. private sector and now being advocated Success will undoubtedly depend on consulting companies, big and small,ad for public works. In both the private sector involve justing to the new conditions. In this ment in public works,and in the design- regard, it is believed that large designbuild projects and public-private part build process, the engineering consult nerships may preclude the involvement ant's role changes significantly. The cli ent is no longer a government authority of the small firms which represent 70% but a private sector corporation. In the of the Consulting Engineers of Ontario's design-build process particularly, the (CEO)300 or so members. For the other consultant is likely to ije working for a 30% of CEO members, the medium to general contractor. Furthermore, as the large firms,success, or indeed even sur whole purpose of the shift in emphasis vival, may depend on becoming in volved in mergers or joint ventures in to the private sector is to provide serv order to participate in design-build or ices at a lower cost, it would appear logi cal that all costs, including professional privatisation projects. Small firms will. Infrastructure must continue to be

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

29


Consultants' Forum

On being a Consulting Engineer In the '90s

There have been many changes

in engineer/client relation ships that have eroded the sta tus of our profession. In the good old days we were often awarded projects without competition. If there were a competition, price was not a fac tor in the selection process. We were selected, based on our qualifications and experience for the project and also on our past performance. Fees were based on the provincial fee schedule which usually meant the budget was adequate to do a good job. Important design de cisions were made jointly with our cli ents and they accepted joint responsi bility for these decisions. Now there is corhpetition for most projects and price is sometimes the only factor in the selection process. This has had a major impact on our industry. First, there is continuing pressure to re duce costs to be competitive and this has caused salaries to decline relative to

other sectors, as shown in Figure 1. Secondly, the project budgets are usu ally not adequate so we end up putting in a lot of non-paid overtime in an ef fort to stay within budget. Thirdly, the budgets often do not include time to do a thorough investigation, optimize the design and minimize the life cycle cost of the projects so we do not feel as good about our work and we have to accept more risk than previously. Fourthly, the relationship with our clients has changed in many cases from a professional rela tionship where we make decisions to gether and share responsibility, to an almost adversarial relationship in which the client tries to get us to do extra work

professionals. Thirdly, with the increase By R.D. (Sid) Gillespie, P.Eng., President, MacViro Consuitants Inc.

without paying for it and tries to unload what should be shared liabilities solely on us. More of the claims against our professional liability insurance are now made by clients than by contractors.

in Public/Piivate/Partnerships, we now have more private sector clients and in our experience these people appreciate the value of good engineering and are prepared to pay for it. The private sec tor is, in effect, replacing the municipal client as the seeker of real value for the fee rather than the lowest fee.

The amount of work available in the

What then is the solution to our prob

market-place has been shrinking and many firms have had to downsize to ad just. Some of the engineers who were laid off have started up their own prac tice to make a living. Operating from their homes allows them to charge lower fees and obviously increases the com petition for the existing firms. Some of the firms did not recognize that they had to reduce unit costs to be competitive and profitable and these firms have had to sell out or merge to stay in business. Should we be discouraged with the new realities of the market-place? Of course not. The consulting engineering

lem? First and foremost we have be

business is much the same the world

over so we shouldn't feel sorry for our selves for geographic reasons. Sec ondly, the other professions are strug

gling to adjust to the market-place as well, so we are not alone. Architects,

for example, have faced more severe adjustments than consultants. It is a real struggle for young dentists to make a go of it. We have many lawyers and ac countants who are unemployed. So con sulting engineers have not been singled out for worse treatment than the other

come and will continue to become more

productive. Productivity gains come from adopting the new technologies (software, CADD, e-mail, voice mail, cellular phones, etc.) and by working smarter rather than harder. Some of the

application software and some of the databases now available are truly re markable.

Unfortunately these productivity gains have not been large enough to off set the changes in our industry. We have to adjust our salaries, overheads and business practices to be competitive and profitable, adjust our standard of living to be consistent with our salary and then change our attimde to be happy with our new standard of living. We should all stop and question the values of our so ciety. Many members of our profession live in bigger houses and have far more material wealth than virtually any gen eration in history, yet, are they any hap pier? Perhaps by lowering our material expectations we can re-focus our priori ties on improving the quality of life in our society. It can be done.

Figure 1 iCOMPARKON OF SALARIES FOR ENGINEERS $75,000

Consultants must adapt to changing markets, cont'd,

$70,000

typically, need to focus on developing

S6S,m

y'

y" j

niche markets and services as well as

on maintaining a local presence to serve their clients, whilst providing quality services within an increasingly competi tive industry. Times, indeed are a-changing. The challenge to the Consulting Engineers of Ontario is to adapt to those changes while continuing to protect the public interest through professional excellence.

$60,000 1

CO

sn $55,000

A

$50,000

ConKulting Engineeis

r'

$45,000 â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

* Federal Goveinmeiit

Piio\'incial Govenunent

Municipal Government

Electrical Utilities

Educational Institutions

$40,000

Eric A.D. MacDonald, M.Sc., P.Eng., Is President of Acres & Associated Envi

ronmental Limited and Chairman, Con

sulting Engineers of Ontario. 30

1083

19B4

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

Year

Cmtijuirisfm qfSÂŁaJian St^arietfiir Engineen atreported tn the PSO Membership Salary Surv^

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Gartner Lee

"Gartner Lee is a diversified global company providing environmental, engineering and

Limited

operations services to clients worldwide."

"Our Kuala Lumpur office provides a complete range of environmental services including waste system privatization." Grant Anderson, P.Eng., President email: grantan@ibm.net

"Gartner Lee continues to offer engineering, hydrogeoiogy, biology and environmental planning services from our headquarters in Markham and our sateiiite office in St. Catharines."

Robert Leech, M.Eng.Sc., Vice-President email: bleech@ibm.net

"Our success in obtaining environmentai approvals is reiated to our understand

ing of naturai systems and our established credibiiity with review agencies." Deborah Martin-Downs, M.Sc.

Sr. Fisheries Biologist, Principal email: dmdowns@ibm.net

"We are helping Eastern Europeans clean up their missile sites."

Geoff Westerby, P.Eng. Hydrogeologist, Principal email: geoff.westerby1 @sympatico.ca

"Based in Whitehorse, Yukon, Gartner Lee pro vides unique "northern" solutions to northern

environmental problems, servicing the mining sector, First Nations and government." Steve Morison, Senior Geoscientist\Office Manager email: smorison@hypertech.yk.ca

"Environmental solutions must be responsive to public interests and our use of a communitybased planning process allows the resolution of many conflicts." David Osmond, P.P. Bio., Senior Biologist, Principal email: dosmond@ibm.net

MARKHAM,ON (905) 477-8400

ST. CATHARINES, ON (905)688-5460

BURNABY, BO (604) 299-4144

WHITEHORSE, YK (403) 633-6474

For more information, circle reply card No. 153(See page 17)

KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA (603) 202-8444


Consultants' Forum

Consultants need new business models

The consulting engineering

profession practising in the

infrastructure and environ

mental fields, is in a transi

tion that defies prediction. Significant changes are occurring in clientele, his toric business models, and, potentially, the professionalism that has guided the development of our industry. As the traditional sponsor of environ mental infrastructure, public sectors are continuing to respond to pressure for reduced spending, with a reluctance to assume the performance, financial and political risks of developing major capital projects. Such undertakings are being di rected to the private sector, where multi-disciplinary teams are being created to pursue the few larger, revenue generating projects, which are deemed to be financially viable. These teaming arrange ments are also presenting a new dilemma for clients, par ticularly in the public sector, with an increased perception

By K.A. Morrison^ and P.J. Laughton^

added fee proposals, which when

value, there is a natural tendency to cre ate the artificial perception that technol ogy is changing more rapidly than may actually be the case. A well-developed marketing mes sage, focusing on an ability to deliver a highly specialized technological service, allows companies to differentiate them selves from their competition. The re ward may be a more sustainable fee structure when compared to those con sultants relegated to providing commod-

functionally reduces the realized, pay

awarded, with strict maximum limits, roll factor well below 2.

Since market pressures are determin ing the lower limits to the value of con sulting services, it would be more equi table to allow the market to determine

the upper value, without necessarily be ing limited by cost. This value pricing approach is more compatible with payfor-performance. There is a concem that these changes in our business model, are competing with the fundamental princi ples of professionalism, which were intended to transcend the

limitations offees and contrac

tual obligations. These princi ples are absolutes for the pro fession of engineering. The key to any successful consulting practice has always been the quality and capabili ties of its personnel. Although this is one precept that will not change in the future, we are finding that clients expect to be served exclusively by sea soned technical and project management staff who can be

of conflicts of interest. Own

ers who were once relatively assured of the independence of their consultants, now must

R.V. Anderson and Metro Toronto staff designed the award- creative and flexible in devel

oping comprehensive solu give consideration to the po winning John St. Pumping Station outside the SkyDome. tential for competing interests, particu ity-type services, for the lowest "ten tions to their problems, while commu nicating effectively in all forums. larly if the consultant is involved in a dered" fee. partnership proposing to take over the These client expectations (and our These changes in business models are operation and maintenance functions of putting pressure on the professionalism financial constraints) have curtailed our that utility. ability to provide on-the-job training for of consulting engineers. While provin There is a growing trend towards a cial licensing and consulting industry new engineering graduates. Our more pay-for-performance business model for associations grapple with new ways of recent focus has been to recruit and re consulting engineering services. This promoting, developing and regulating tain those experienced professionals is demonstrated by the growing popu membership, emergence of pay-for- who demonstrate the requisite qualities, larity of design-build approaches, where performance is actually taking advantage using various forms of increased em technically, the owner does not buy the of their traditional positions on issues like powerment, broadened ownership and engineering services unless the consult compensation opportunities. fees and consultant selection methods. ant performs by yielding the lowest, The future of the consulting engineer The professional associations have overall project price. The negative fi ing business is almost indeterminate. established industry benchmarks for fees nancial impacts are softened somewhat We do know that there will always be a based on payroll markup factors (i.e. 2 by the use of owner-provided honoraria, need for the technical and project man 2.5), which are no longer adequate to and some contribution to the pre-bid agement skills that have traditionally re cover the overhead and development design costs by members of the designsided within consulting engineering or costs plus the risks borne by consulting build team. However,in the longer term, ganizations. What is not clear, however, engineers. The consulting engineering this approach will lead to a greater vol is the model for delivery of those serv associations coincidentally promote the ume of non-reimbursed, design work. ices that will ultimately evolve from our use of qualifications-based selection and Increasingly,technical specialization, current environment. negotiated fees, which are diminishing and pay-for-performance, are comple scenarios. A growing practice within the *R.V. An derson Associates Limited has mentary issues. While owners seek those industry,is to use qualifications to screen branches in Ontario, New Brunswick, consulting engineers who can truly add the consultants for the most promising P.E.I, and India. Peter Laughton is a value added (i.e. pay-for-performance). member of ES&E's Editorial Advisory 'President, WIce President, R.V. Anderson Associates Limited 32

A final selection is then based on value-

Board.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists,

^XCC

Specializing

XCG CONSULTANTS LIMITED

in the Environment

Environmental Engineer (Water Resources)

Consulting services are offered in the following

XCG Consultants Ltd. is a multi-disciplinary environmental engineer ing company with offices across Canada. The company specializes in a full range of environmental engineering services including: water distribution and treatment, municipal and industrial wastewater treat ment, groundwater and surface water quality, stormwater and com bined sewer overflow management, hydrogeoiogy, site assessments and site remediation. XCG Consultants Ltd. is a dynamic and suc cessful company that offers employees challenging opportunities with

fields of specialization:

• Environmental Planning & Management • Municipal Services • Water and Wastewater Treatment

• Water Resources Engineering • Solid Waste Management • Hazardous Waste Management

excellent remuneration.

XCG Consultants Ltd. has an immediate opening for an environ mental engineer in the Kingston, Ontario office. The successful can didate will be a licensed professional engineer with 3 to 6 years of experience in environmental engineering, specializing in water re sources. An undergraduate degree in civil or chemical engineering is required and a post graduate degree in environmental engineering is preferred. Work experience in water resources, assimilative capacity assessment, surface hydrology, groundwater modelling, combined sewer overflow analysis, and flow frequency analysis would be an asset. Also, experience with computer models such as SWMM,

• Air Pollution Control

• Energy Management MacViro Consultants Inc.

90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600 Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 6H3

Telephone:(905)475-7270 Fax:(905)475-5994

MODFLOW, QLIAL2E and CORMIX would be beneficial.

E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.com

Interested applicants should send their resume in confidence to: XCG Consultants Ltd. 33 Earl Street

For more information, circle reply card No. 264 (See page 17)

Kingston, Ontario, K7L 2G4 Applications by Facsimile will be accepted. Our Kingston fax number is (613) 542-0844. Only resumes of candidates being considered wiii be acknowledged.

Delcan knows what innovation is ail about... In 1953 our international team of engineers and planners designed the first mass transit system in Canada and In 1996 we're back managing Its expansion.

Our structural engineers continue to be recognized for their innovative techniques in bridge design. The Number bridge became an instantly recognizable feature of Toronto's cityscape.

Our state-of-the-art advanced traffic management systems are being used around the world from Toronto to Los Angeles to Atlanta and from Hong Kong to Dubai.

Our environmental engineers are working throughout the world in Turkey, the Caribbean and South America, and at home from Newfoundland to Vancouver Island. They were the first to bring sequencing batch reactor technology to Newfoundland for the Hibernia construction site and the

first to use uitra-violet radiation for stormwater disinfection. Their innovative hydraulic retrofit of the Pickard plant in Ottawa (shown at left) looks as though it was always there. In Western Canada their plants for Chemainus and Crofton will use oxidation ditch technology configured for biological nutrient removal.

A sound knowledge of current and sophisticated technologies coupled with a culture of total quality management provides Deican with a solid foundation from which to meet client's needs.

For more information contact: GeoffAddison, Vice-President, Environmental Division

f

Tel:(416)441-4111 Fax:(416)441-4131

For more information, circle reply card No. 154(See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

33


Water System Management

Reducing unaccounted-for water through meter replacement grams for large meter systems will help ensure the stability of our water systems and sustain our growth.

.pointa

The key to converting losses in

point"'

water measurement to real money lies in identifying revenue gains from meter

replacement, sizing, application and

1,

maintenance. It's a fact of life: as large water meters age, their accuracy de creases. Bearings and gears slowly wear,causing a gradual loss in accuracy. The meter may continue losing accuracy until it reaches an accuracy level of40%

40

to 60%. It may maintain this level of accuracy for years before the meter ac tually stops.

Large meters should not be expected After analyzing the current metering situation, a team of experts can recommend a plan for generating greater revenue.

Asour watersystems approach

the twenty-first century, new technology and techniques will undoubtedly come into play concerning water system per formance and control. The increasing

expense of water and conservation ef forts will definitely create a heightened sense of public awareness. This will dictate that water managers of tomor row be more efficient than their pred ecessors. Good practices and sound pro-

CORROSION PROTECTION SYSTEMS

to have a service life of more than twenty

years. Historically, products are obso lete by that time or replacement parts become expensive and difficult to locate. Residential and intermediate size set

tings are also important, but rarely have the individual impact a larger meter set ting will have on revenue and water ac

countability. Utilities that do understand the importance of retrieving lost rev enue, typically target large meters. While the number of large meters

may be only 1% to 3% of the total

Coverlonr

number of meters in any given water dis

tribution system, these relatively few meters generally account for 30% to 50% of all water sales and utility rev enue. Consequently keeping these

meters at peak efficiency is of utmost importance for both billing and manage ment concerns.

In addition, water usage patterns are

Pipes, flanges, valves and fittings can be burled - but not forgotten. Corrosion will attacteiMaocKcepalrs can be costly.

So protect your valuable assets with Dense Tape and Profiling Mastic. It's long-lasting protection that's easy to apply.

mand for water increases. Is your metering system keeping pace with the additional usage? Billing your custom ers more accurately could help build your cash reserves. Tight budgets often make it tough to invest in newer, more

• No abrasive blasting

• No special equipment or training • Goes on wet or corroded surfaces

• No VOC's, non-toxic

• More cost-effective than paints • Proven long service life

accurate meters, better suited to their

• Meets AWWA Standard C21 7-90

for cold-applied petrolatum tapes

LEADERS IN CORROSION PREVENTION

Call for a literature package. Or, we'l

Toronto: (905) 940-8255

send a technical representative for an on-slte demonstration and analysis of your needs.

Fax:

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sales@densona.com

Houston:

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34

constantly evolving, changing the de mands on the system in place. New fac tories, apartment buildings, shopping centres -every time a city expands, de

For more information, circle reply card No. 155 (See page 17)

applications, or even to repair existing meters. Yet, an opportunity for in creased revenue exists that should be ex

plored. What's the solution? There's a lot

more to enhancing revenue than replac ing meters. The type of large water meter program that works best is the one

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Water System Management that delivers the most reliable results for

the least expense. A good large meterprogram will focus on the future and avoid tradition, as a general rule. Operators will, at times, become satis fied with their present program, not re alizing the extent of system losses as no body is looking for them. A good meter program is one that is flexible and implements a continued sys tem of checks and balances to monitor

program effectiveness. Some things to watch for as indicators that the existing program may not be as effective as pre ferred, or headed for trouble, are: (i) high unaccountable water percentage; (ii) excessive meter parts ordering;(iii) long lead time for parts delivery; (iv) consistent number of reported "dead"

registers/meters;(v)unexpected drop in demand at customer settings;(vi)change in customer base.

Certainly there are numerous other indicators but these are some of the pri mary symptoms of water revenue loss. The process of starting a large meter program involves determining the ex tent of current large meter inaccuracy, looking at the personnel complement

and deciding on a course of action. This may require the use of outside person nel to get everything in line, but program benefits will far out-weigh the trouble in getting there. Schlumberger Industries' consulting business. Revenue Manage ment Service(RMS),assists municipali ties looking for ways to increase effi ciency. This service helps municipali ties increase revenue based on meter re

placement, sizing, application, and maintenance, with guaranteed results. Over the past decade, a wealth of in formation has been uncovered about me

ter inaccuracies through the testing, in stallation and repair of thousands of large water meters of all types and manufacturers. This information has re

cently been integrated into an exclusive database. This data is completely pro prietary, with no other company or or ganization having access to the informa tion. Using the database, Schlumberger has developed a statistical linear regres sion program to plot the accuracy trends over time, using variables such as vol ume used,age, water quality, geographic trends, manufacturer, and type of me ter. This regression program allows for

an accurate prediction of the potential revenue gain in a large meter popula tion by merely looking at the statistical data information for the population. By providing RMS with basic infor mation on the meter population, such as manufacturer, model, type and size, water utility managers can use this pro gram to identify the highest potential revenue gain meters in the system, with out the expense of analyzing the entire system. Once the highest potential rev enue gain meters are identified, a com puterized meter test and flow analysis study are performed. This pinpoints the exact revenue amount lost each year through each large meter under investi gation. The water utility manager can then analyze the results which detail the exact payback for replacing the selected group of large meters. RMS then offers the water utility an opportunity to in crease revenue without investment

through various financing options which include leasing programs or installment payments, based on a portion of the in creased revenue found at the site.

For more information, circle reply card No. 156

Inorganic Coagulants For water and wastewater

treatment, Eaglebrook has the product and the system, too. You'll get outstanding results with Eaglebrook's Ferrous Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Ferric Sulfate and FerriClear.

From FI2S and corrosion controi to water

clarification, Eagiebrook has the answer that's tested, proven and economicai.

Find the solutions at Eaglebrook. Phone (800) 268-5317 In Canada (800) 387-5021 In USA

4h EAGLEBROOK" INC. of CANADA

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

For more information, circle reply card No. 157 (See page 17)

35


Disinfection By-Products

Occurrence of disinfection by-products in seiected Canadian drinking waters

Disinfection by-products are

a source of interest within North America as a result

of their potential to cause adverse health effects. A number of

agencies are concemed about the poten tial of the chlorination process to create chemicals which are hazardous and they are actively looking at alternative ap proaches to the disinfection of water supplies. When chlorine is used for the disin

fection of drinking water, haloacetic ac ids(HAAs)are the second most preva

lent group of by-products (after trihalomethanes). They are produced from the reaction of chlorine with the

humic and fulvic acids, present from natural sources, in the raw water. In ad dition to haloacetic acids and trihalo

methanes, other groups of compounds are produced as by-products. These include haloacetonitriles,

chloropicrin, chloral hydrate, and chlo rinated ketones. A series of mixed chlo

rine and bromine substituted halogenated acetic acids as well as trihalo

methanes are produced if bromide is present in the water or from the bromine present as an impurity in the chlorine. The concentrations of the various dis

infection by-products generated are de pendent on the pH of the water being treated in the process. In general, a low pH of raw water tends to encourage the formation of haloacetic acids during chlorination, while a higher pH of raw water produces trihalomethanes as the primary disinfection by-products. A

future be based on high quality data,the ICR also requires that laboratories gen erating data in support of the rule dem onstrate to EPA their capability in car rying out the analyses. While stringent regulations have not yet been implemented in Canada, regu latory authorities are monitoring for the presence of HAAs, together with other organics in drinking water on a regular basis. The Ontario Ministry of the En M.G. Foster Roberts vironment and Energy has been collect Director, Quality Management ing data from drinking water treatment expected to be implemented under the plants as part of their Drinking Water Safe Drinking Water Act(SDWA)in the Surveillance Program which extends to near future. It calls for the analysis of a all the major treatment plants in the whole range of disinfection by-products, province. Health and Welfare Canada have also initiated national surveys of including HAAs,in drinking water sup the levels of disinfection by-products plies. The proposed maximum contami nant level (for total HAAs)is 60 pg/L. present in drinking water consumed by The Information Collection Rule(ICR), the Canadian public. Otherjurisdictions which has been developed through a are interested in reducing the levels of these contaminants in the drinking wa consortium of US organizations, re quires larger utilities to monitor the ter being generated. Since these studies have not been drinking water produced for an 18 widely disseminated and as part of our month period. internal validation protocol for these Once available, the data will be re viewed in order to assess the following: analyses,a cross-Canada, major city sur a) the occurrence of DBP in finished vey of disinfection by-products,includ ing haloacetic acids, trihalomethanes, water, b) the source water characteristics that

haloketones and haloacetonitriles was

influence DBP formation,

undertaken.

c) validate or improve existing models for predicting the formation ofDBP,and d)a cost-effective monitoring approach. Any future drinking water regula tions will be based on the results of the

Approach A series of water samples were taken either from a sampling point within the water treatment plant or from a distri bution point within a city water supply.

data generated during the ICR period. In order that regulations adopted in the

Samples were obtained from 4 differ-

All water sources were chlorinated.

number of other variables will also in

TABLE 1

fluence by-product yields. These can include chlorine dose, the organic mat ter content in the water supply and the

Concentration of Haloacetic Acids (pg/L) TOC

MCAA

MBAA

DCAA

TCAA

BCAA

DBAA

Total HAAs

<0.8 <0.8

6.9 8.0

<0.6

<0.4

10 10

15 11 12 <0.4

23 9.0 26 <0.4

<0.6 <0.6 <0.6

<0.4

<0.4

3.1 2.4 <0.4

<0.6 <0.6 <0.6

<0.4

41 11

66 1.0 4.8

5.8 <0.6 0.6

5.3 6.8 6.2

2.6

mg/L]

temperature.

Alberta -T river

1.1

<1

Toxicological studies have shown that some of the HAAs, especially

Alberta - 2-river Alberta - home treatment

0.9

<1

<

<1

British Columbia - surface water

1.9

<1

dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic

British Columbia -groundwater

1.0

1.0

<0.8 <0.8 <0.8

acid, may be animal carcinogens. They also pose an aesthetic problem, since they impart a strong taste to drinking

British Columbia - surface water

1.2 0.7 4.4 2.9

<1 <1 6.0 <1

<0.8 <0.8 1.5 <0.8

1.6 2.3 1.8 2.3

<1 <1 <1 <1 2.3

<0.8 <0.8 <0.8 <0.8 <0.8

water at low concentrations.

The United States Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA)has proposed the Stage-1 Disinfection/Disinfection By-Products Rule (D/DBP), which is

Ontario - groundwater Ontario - river Ontario- Northern coloured Ontario-lake water Ouebec - Lake surface water

Quebec - Riv. des Prairies Quebec - 3-St Lawrence R Quebec -4- St Lawrence R

Key: *Zenon Environmental Laboratories,

A division of PHiliP Analytical Services 36

2.8

MCAA MBAA

Moncchloroacetic acid Wlonobromoacetic acid

DCAA

Dichloroacetic acid

1.1

4.6 0.7 6.8 22

25

<0.6

3.3 2.0

<0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4

<

38 21 38 <

<0.4

120 12

<0.4 <0.4 <0.4 0.4 <0.4

6.5 13 7.5 17 51

TCAA

Trichloroacetic acid

BCAA DBAA

Bromochloroacetic acid Dibromoacetic acid

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


By M.G. Foster Roberts, E.G. Oliver, and V. Furtula* TABLE 2

Concentration of Haloacetonitrlles and Haloketones(pg/L) TOC TCAN (mg/L) Alberta -1- river

1.1

<0.2

Alberta - 2-river Alberta - home treatment British Columbia - surface water

0.9

<0.2 <0.2 0.3

British Columbia -groundwater

1.0 1,2 0.7

<0.2

4.4

<0.2

2.9 1.6

<0.2

British Columbia - surface water

Ontario - groundwater Ontario - river Ontario- Morthern coloured Ontario-lake water

Quebec - Lake surface water Quebec - Riv. das Prairies Quebec - 3-St Lawrence R Quebec - 4-St Lawrence R

Key:

<

1.9

2.3 1.8

2.3 2.8

<0.2 0.2

<0.2 <0.2

<0.2 <0.2 <0.2

CH

1,1-DCP

CP

DCAN

TCP

BCAN

DBAN

0.5 0.4

0.2

0.3

<0.3

<0.3

<0.2

<0.2

0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2

<0.3

<0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3

<0.2

<0.2

0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 1.0

<0.2

<0.3

2.1

7.7 1.1 1.5 1.2

TOTAL HAN

<0.4 2.5 <0.4

2.0 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 3.1 1.5 2.4 1.9 2.2

<0.2 1.0 0.9 0.6 <0.2 1.9 1.5 <0.2 <0.2 0.9

<0.2 0.6

0.2 0.3 <0.2 0.4 <0.2 0.3

<0.3 <0.3 0.3 3.1 <0.3 3.5 1.6 0.8

1.3 0.6

<0.2

<

<0.2

3.8 1.2 6.9

<0.2

<0.3

<0.2

<0.3 0.8 <0.3

<0.2

<

<0.2 <0.2

16

0.7

0.4

0.3 1.7

0.6 2.0

0.6 <0.3

0.8

0.6

<0.2 <0.2

2.6

2.8

<0.3

<0.2

4.4

6.8 4.1

0.2

6.0

5.0 8.5

Total organic carbon (TOC) was analysed by performing an oxidation of the sample by persul phate in the presence of ultraviolet light using SM

53IOC. The CO, pro duced, is passed through a semi-permeable mem brane and causes a pH change in the presence of phenolphthalein; the col our change is measured at 550nm. The TOC value

is calculated by compari son with a series ofstand

TCAN

Trichloroacetonitrile

DCAN

Dichloroacetonitrile

ards analysed in the same

CH

Chloral hydrate 1,1-Dichloro-2-propanone Chloropicrin

TCP

1,1,1-Trichloro-2-propanone

way.

BCAN DBAN

Bromochloroacetonitrile Dibromoacetonitriie

1,1-DCP CP

ent types of sources within Ontario. These included a Lake Ontario supply, a groundwater supply, a river supply and a highly coloured northern water supply. Samples were also taken from three different distribution points in British Columbia,two being surface waters and one being a groundwater; four different sampling points in Quebec and two dis tribution points in Alberta both derived

derivatized with each set of samples. The analysis of trihalomethanes and other disinfection by-products was car ried out by EPA Method 55 L. This

TABLE 3

TOC

Alberta -1- river

before and after treatment with a home

British Columbia -groundwater

drinking water treatment system, con sisting of a charcoal filter followed by ion exchange and reverse osmosis. The samples were preserved and analyzed within the required hold times. All results were generated by using standard methods as approved by EPA in support of their Information Collec tion Rule. The performance character

British Columbia - surface water

required to validate the method. In a blind check sample programme submit ted by EPA in support of their accredi tation programme for disinfection by products, excellent accuracy was dem onstrated for all methods used to de

CHCI3

CHCI2Br

CHCIBr2

Bromoform

14

<1 <1 <1 <1

<0.5

<0.5

14

<0.5 <0.5

<0.5

13

<0.5

<

<0.5

23

<1

<0.5

<1 <1 19 <1 8.8 9.0 3.8

<0.5

<0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5

87

34

1.1

<0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5

5.4 0.9

<0.5

(mg/L)

rinated drinking water sample was taken

istics of each method were within those

tal HAAs found in the Alberta river

Concentration of Trihaiomethanes (pg/L)

Alberta - 2-river Alberta - home treatment British Columbia - surface water

from river water. In addition, one chlo

Results

All samples were analyzed for all parameters and the re sults of the haloacetic acid analysis are presented in Table 1. The levels of to

Ontario - groundwater Ontario - river

Ontario- Northern coloured Ontario-lake water Quebec - Lake surface water Quebec - Riv. des Prairies Quebec - 3-St Lawrence R Quebec -4- St Lawrence R

1.1 0.9

13 <1 23 12 23 <1

<

1.9 1.0 1.2 0.7 4.4

69 34

2.9 1.6

13

2.3 1.8 2.3

12

33 15 33

2.8

method involves the micro-extraction of

an aliquot of the sample with a small volume of MTBE,followed by the di rect injection of the extract into a GC/ ECD system. Again, a set of standards is also extracted from aqueous solution in order to provide accurate quantifica tion of the analytes in the sample.

velop this data set. For the analysis of haloacetic acids,

<0.5 <0.5 <0.5 6.8

6.4

9.4

2.3

Total THMs

<0.5

12

23 <

29

28 38 30 36

water are similar in both samples; the levels in BC surface waters are higher but consistent in both samples from dif ferent treatment plants. In the BC groundwater, the levels of HAA are lower than found in surface water sup plies and this trend is also observed in Continued overleaf FIGURE 1

Comparison of TOC with Disinfection By-Products(DBP)

SM6233B was used'. This method in

volves extracting the sample with me thyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) at an acidic pH in order to extract the acidic organics. The acids are then methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/ ECD. The contaminants are quantified on one column and confirmed by analy sis on a second capillary column with differing polarity. In order to ensure accurate results, a series of calibration standards are also extracted and

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

Total DBP

Total HANS Total THMs Total HAAs

1.2

1.6

1.8

1.9

TOC CuDcentration(mg/L)

37


Disinfection By-Products, cont' the Ontario groundwater, where no F1(;URE2

HAAs were found.

This Ontario

RegressioD Line for TOC vs DUinfectioo By-ProducLs

groundwater contained very low TOO and is subjected to an aeration process followed by chlorination. The only other sample which showed no trace of HAAs was the Alberta tap water (chlo rinated) which had been passed through a home water treatment system. This system reduced the levels from 10 pg/L

100

I

1 150

|*v

i,

1

Predicted | Y

D

1 1

to none detectable.

i too

The highest levels found derive from an Ontario river water supply. This sample was the only one which had lev els above the target maximum accept able concentration of60|ig/L total HAA planned for the US. Two of the sam ples from Quebec derived from the same

■ ♦

50

♦ ♦

■• ■

♦ ♦

n.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

TULms/L

source, the St. Lawrence River. The lev

els of HAAs were quite different in the two samples. The treatment process for

and haloketones found were much lower than the levels ofHAAs observed. These

results are shown in Table 2. Samples which contained high levels of HAAs, in general also contained high levels of HANs. Similar commentary can be made in regard to trihalomethane used ozone as well as chlorine for dis infection. The sample with lower lev (THM) results which are found in Ta els of HAAs(17|ig/L)came from a treat ble 3. The two surface water samples ment process which used only chlorine analyzed from BC contained higher lev disinfection was found to be different

for the two samples and the one that pro duced the higher HAA levels (50pg/L) came from the treatment plant which

for disinfection.

The levels of haloacetonitriles(HANs)

els of HAAs than THMs,as did Ontario lake and river water, while Alberta river

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water showed the opposite trend. The levels of disinfection by-prod ucts detected in this set of samples in creased as the levels of TOC found in

the sample increased. The plot which demonstrates this phenomenon is pro vided in Figure 1. Regression statistics were carried out on the data to review the correlation of TOC with the total con

centration of disinfection by-products. The correlation coefficient was found to

be 0.86, while the slope was found to be 0.02.and the intercept was 0.81. The re gression line is presented in Figure 2. Conclusions A wide variation was found in the

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


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Wastewater Treatment

The Long Sault Wastewater Treat! the preferred alternative, and the recom mended conceptual design. M.S. Thompson & Associates also produced the detailed design drawings and speci fications for the new plant.

The design parameters were estab lished according to the Ontario Minis try of the Environment and Energy (MOEE) policy and through a detailed Receiving Stream Environmental Im pact Assessment. Wastewater Treatment Processes

Preliminary treatment consists of twin automatically cleaned bar screens. A bubbler system detects an accumula tion of debris on the screen, activating the cleaning rake as required. Material removed from the screens is transferred

to a screw compactor and disposed in a Aerial view of the Long Sault Wastewater Treatment Plant with surrounding resi

collection bin. Odours are controlled

dences and boating facilities.

using spray wash jets and odour control

The Long Sault Wastewater Treatment Facility utilizes innovative "leading edge" treatment processes with proven capabilities in Europe and the United States but

unique to Ontario. The plant uses a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)process for the liquid train and autothermai

thermophiiic aerobic digestion (ATAD)for the solids train - the first plant in Canada to employ both these processes. The result is an ultra-modern facility that cost-effectively produces a high quality effluent in an aesthetically pleasing and operator friendly environment.

LongSaultis a quaintresiden

tial community of approxi mately seventeen hundred persons located in eastern Ontario, eight kilometres west of Corn wall. It is situated on the bank of the St.

Lawrence River at the entrance to the

St. Lawrence Parkway. The previous thirty-year old wastewater treatment plant was operating in excess of its hydraulic capacity and was urgently in need of replacement. High Technical Manager, NVC Projects ^Principal, XCG Consultants Ltd. ^Managing Director, Amblo Bloflltratlon Ltd. "Director, M.S. Thompson & Assoc. Ltd. 40

infiltration/inflow into the existing col lection system was causing sewage backups into basements and washing out the biological activity of the secondary process. It was also situated in a sensi tive location between a yacht club, a marina, and a residential neighbourhood and had been causing odour and aes thetic problems. However,since the ex

isting sewers directed wastewater to this location, a different site for a new plant would have required a new pumping sta tion and forcemain.

Long Sault is part of Township of Cornwall which has a large rural popu lation, mostly serviced by private water supply and sewage disposal systems. Therefore an important feature of the new plant would be the ability to accom modate septage while ensuring that no odours affected neighbouring land use. The need, then, was a sewage treat ment plant that could accommodate ex cessive wet weather flows while main

taining biological activity, housed in an architecturally-pleasing structure with an odour control system. The firm of M.S. Thompson & As sociates Limited, part of the Thompson Rosemount Group, was retained to carry

hoods. The foul air is drawn to the

biofilter for treatment. The process also includes dual "vortex" grit removal chambers with periodic transfer of the settled grit to the collection bin. Flow Measurement and Sampling Hydraulic flow into the treatment plant is metered through two parshall flumes utilizing ultrasonic flow meas uring equipment and transmitted to the office monitoring system and the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for process control. Raw influent and treated effluent samples required for compliance and performance testing are collected automatically by refrigerated samplers. Liquid Treatment System An analysis of historic loadings at the Long Sault plant suggested that, during the first several years, a new treatment facility would receive very dilute sew age, would operate at a fraction of the ultimate design loading and would re ceive high peak flows under wet weather conditions. Over the plant's design life, however, wastewater strength would inDesign Standards a Parameter

Design Influ Values

out a Class Environmental Assessment in order to determine the best course of

Average Daily Flow

action for the municipality. The envi ronmental assessment process led to the production, circulation and review of an Environmental Study Report outlining the alternative solutions to the problem.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (5-day) Suspended Solids Nitrogen (TKN) Total Phosphorus (as P)

Peak Flour Flow

2,700 m3/ 11,500 m3,

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

lOOmg/L IIOmg/L 35 mg/L 5 mg/L


By G. Higgott\ S. Nutt, P.Eng.S C. Pride, Ph.D.®, and G. Walsh, P.Eng."

lent Plant: A Leading Edge Facility crease as extraneous flows were re

moved from the collection system and new services installed. In addition, the

plant was expected to receive significant quantities of hauled sewage from private sewage disposal systems in the service

Jr

area. To meet these demands, it was

necessary to select a treatment process that would be sufficiently flexible to ac commodate the changing loading con ditions over the 20-year design period. A review of wastewater treatment

process options suitable for Long Sault suggested that the SBR process would be ideal for this application. Although this process is relatively new to Ontario, it has been widely applied in the United States over the past twenty years. It is a fill-and-draw activated sludge treatment system in which aeration and clarifica

tion occur in the same tank. The Long

Two 26 nf ATAD reactors designed for stabilization of 7rrf/d of thickened sludge.

Sault Wastewater Treatment Plant is the

moves the treated and clarified effluent.

The Long Sault plant utilizes two UV

first large-scale application of this tech nology in Ontario.

The Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System (ICEAS), developed by Austgen Biojet, was selected. The ICEAS process is a modified SBR proc

banks of 96 lamps each, automatically controlled to provide disinfection for normal and storm flow modes of opera

ess wherein wastewater inflow to the

operating and backup/cleaning.

Relative to conventional extended

aeration, activated sludge processes, the SBR process offered the following ad vantages:

• the flexibility to handle wet weather

reactor is continuous while discharge is intermittent. This ICEAS process per

flow peaks through automatic changes to the cycle time and operating sequence;

the need for motorized influent valves,

•a reduced risk of biomass washout un

der peak flow conditions; •the flexibility to handle future increases in loadings due to growth and hauled sewage discharges; • the capability to achieve phosphorus removal biologically, thereby minimiz ing chemical dosage requirements; •simplicity of operation due to the batch operating mode and the lack of second ary clarifiers with return sludge pumps; and

• a smaller footprint. Mixing and aeration is provided by fine bubble diffusers. The wasting of sludge is performed by a solids-handling submersible pump (scraper systems are not required). A decanter system re-

Operating Parameters Design Effluent Quality

Typical Effluent Quality

mits continuous inflow which eliminates

allows up to 30% greater throughput and enables the use of only one basin dur ing periods of low flow or basin main tenance. The SBR is programmed to operate on a shorter time cycle during periods of high storm flow. The plant experienced a peak spring run-off storm flow of seven times de

sign flow with very little loss of biomass. Since startup to the present, eight months later, the SBR system has pro vided a consistent and high quality ef fluent over a wide range of hydraulic loading. Average BOD,SS,TP and am monia results are 3.6, 2.3, 0.7. and 2.6 mg/L respectively. The SBR process is an excellent ex ample of keeping things simple which resulted in lower costs and superior treatment. Results are consistently bet ter than design and compliance limits. UV Disinfection

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is ex

15 mg/L 15 mg/L 4 mg/L 1 mg/L

2.3 2.8 3.0 0.5

mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

tremely effective in killing bacteria, vi ruses, yeasts and moulds. This disin fection method is being used more ex tensively as worldwide concern about the possible harmful side effects of tra ditional chlorine disinfection grows.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

tion. The banks are alternated between

Sludge Treatment and Management System Gravity Belt Sludge Thickening Waste activated sludge(WAS)is re moved from the SBR process on a regu lar basis at a rate controlled by the plant operator to maintain optimum treatment conditions in the SBR basins. The WAS

is collected in a holding tank and is pe riodically thickened from about 0.5% solids content to about 5% prior to be ing fed to the sludge digestion reactors. This results in an 90% reduction of the volume that must be treated in the reac

tors, thereby making the digestion proc ess very cost-effective. The plant op erator can control the gravity belt speed as well as the WAS and polymer feed rates to achieve the degree of thicken ing desired. Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion Waste activated sludge requires stabilization prior to disposal and either aerobic or anaerobic digestion have been among the most commonly used proc esses. The former has generally been used in small plants and the more costly anaerobic digestion used in larger facili ties.

The original wastewater treatment Continued overleaf 41


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F

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Y

G

T

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UBMER

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Complete mixing gives you the edge As the Biological Nutrient Removal(BNR) process gains popularity in wastewater treatment, the critical role played by mixing becomes even more important. Complete mixing improves the overall process and prevents short circuiting and dead zones. However, the mixing must he strong enougli to ensure good distribution of the tank's contents, yet gentle enough to minimize the shearing of the floe. Flygt Submersible Mixers are ideal for BNR applications. Wliy? Because Flygt Submeisibles mn at low speed, produce low turbulence, and draw in a minimal amount of air. Moreover, they consume minimal power compared to conventional, long-shaft mixers.

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For more information, circie repiy card No. 161 (See page 17)


Wastewater Treatment, cont'

1

provided by XCG Consultants Lim

plant stabilized its sludge in a singlestage mesophilic anaerobic digester prior to land application. The design for the new facility originally considered two-stage mesophilic anaerobic diges

ited.

Thermophilic temperatures have been easily maintained in the reactors, with no addition of external heat,even

tion and conventional aerobic digestion. In reviewing these options, it was rec

though sludge loadings are currently

incur high operating costs associated

well below design level. Volatile sus pended solids destruction has aver aged 40% and when direct swabs of the digested sludge are spread over total coliform and E-coli agar, no

with aeration.

colonies have been detected.

ognized that anaerobic digestion would involve significant capital cost while conventional aerobic digestion would

bberwnk 1

AVBI®

The ATAD produces a low-patho In light of these cost concerns, the feasibility of the Fuchs autothermal gen, homogenous stabilized biosolid thermophilic aerobic digestion(ATAD) that conforms to US EPA Regulation 503. This permits the sludge to be ap process was assessed. The ATAD proc plied to land without management re ess is a two-stage aerobic sludge stabili strictions for pathogen control. A pro zation process that operates at thermo grammable logic controller automati philic temperatures (40 to 80°C) with cally monitors and controls the ATAD out supplemental heat. The process re lies on the heat released from the sludge process. The final biosolids management as a result of biological decomposition. The ATAD process was ultimately train incorporates six months'ofon-site selected for implementation at the Long sludge storage. It is easily pumped with 475 - 700 Us biofilter odour treatment no visible signs of caking in storage. Sault plant because: Plant Support Systems •it was estimated to have lower life cy The Long Sault biofilter is designed cle costs than either anaerobic or con

Odour Control

ventional aerobic digestion; • substantially smaller digestion tanks would be required due to the relatively short hydraulic retention time (7 days) needed to achieve stabilization;

• substantially smaller sludge storage tanks would be needed to provide six months' storage due to the high solids content(typically 5%)of the sludge; and

•a greater degree of sludge stabilization

to handle 475 to 700 L/s of air. The

Biofilters have been in use for odour control in German and Dutch wastewater

treatment plants for decades. Much of this German experience has been incor porated into the design of the Long Sault biofilter through the German connec tions ofAmbio Biofiltration Limited,the

designer and supplier of the system. In biofiltration, humid odorous air is

passed through an organic filter bed of

would be achieved at thermophilic tem

at least one metre in thickness. It is in

peratures compared to conventional

this media where micro-organisms me tabolize the offending compounds, breaking them down to harmless and odour-free species such as carbon diox

aerobic digestion. The Long Sault ATAD system is the first application of this technology in Ontario. Process design support was

ide and water.

PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

DISINFECTION

SECONDARY TREATMENT - SBR Reactors providing

- UV Lamps

Wastewater Out to Lake St.Lawrence

WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT - Thickening - ATAD - Digestion COMMISSIONED IN

THE FACILITY

- Pathogen Destruction

IS A TECHNOLOGY LEADER:

- SBR process (first large scale municipal installation in

Land

- Fully housed facility HYDRAULIC DESIGN CAPACITY - Average Flow: 2,700 M'/D -Peak Flow: 11,500MVD

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

The facility is providing superior treatment well within MOEE requirements

LONG SAULT WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT PROCESS DIAGRAM

BIOLOGICAL ODOUR TREATMENT

Aftnosphere

This section is comprised of three separate filter beds in series, each 1.3 m thick, and each with a secondary sprayer at the top of the bed for additional humidification. The air passes down through the first bed, up through the sec ond bed,and down through the third bed before being exhausted from the build ing through a duct to the roof. All air released from the plant is treated. The total bed volume is eighteen three to five years. The biofilter's op erating costs are those primarily as sociated with energy to run the fans. Maintenance is mostly associated with greasing fan bearings and checking water lines and nozzles pe riodically for plugging.

control panel where warnings are is sued for low or high water in the con ditioning section and in the event of

DIGESTED SLUDGE STORAGE

- Biofilter Air Treatment(new technology from Europe)

passes through a warm water spray. The humidified air then enters the filter beds.

The unit is connected to the main

To Agricultural

Ontario)

- ATAD process (first in Eastem Canada)

conditioning section, the air is humidi fied to 100% RH and warmed as it

cubic metres and its life is between

Treated Wastewater

biofilter is made up oftwo parts, the con ditioning unit and the filter beds. In the

i

fan failure.

Analytical results indicate good performance. High ammonia levels generated in the ATAD system trans late into about 100 ppm entering the biofilter. Upon leaving the last filter bed, the ammonia is reduced to 2

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

43


Wastewater Treatment, cont' ppm or less,indicating greater than 98%

Long Sault SIP - Equipment Suppliers

removal.

Noise and Vibration Control

The overall design sound level crite ria for the plant was established as 40 dBA at the closest critical receptor. Due to the low sound level require ment, every piece of equipment, from the smallest ventilation unit to the loud

est blowers, was investigated and re viewed for its contribution to the over all sound level. Careful consideration

was given to the selection of materials of construction and sealing details as well as window and door types. The aeration blowers selected were

rotary lobe, positive displacement type which are inherently noisy and emit pre dominantly low frequency components. The blowers were located in a separate blower room within the main building, designed to control the transmission of noise not only to the environment but also to other adjacent areas within the plant. The blower inlets were individu ally piped to atmosphere and fitted with filter/silencers and two reactive-absorp tive silencers in series. The blower dis

charge was piped to process and fitted with a high performance reactive-

Equipment

Manufacturer

Supplier

Screens & Grit Removal SBR

John Meunier inc.

John Meunier Inc.

Austgen-Biojet Sanitherm Eng.

Napier-Reid Ltd. Sanitherm Eng.

ATAD

Gravity Belt Thickener UV Disinfection Ultrasonic instruments

Positive Displacement Pumps Centrifugal Sludge Pumps Odour Control Biofilter

Automatic Samplers Laboratory Equipment Effluent Discharge Pumps

Mabarex Fischer Porter

Fischer Porter

Greyline instruments inc.

Greyline Instruments Inc.

Seepex

Brier Hydraulics Ltd.

Wemco Ambio Biotiitration Ltd.

Fisher Scientific Ltd.

Tech-Ira Services Inc. Ambio Biotiitration Ltd. Can-Am Instruments Ltd. Fisher Scientitic Ltd.

F.E. Myers Company

F.E. Myers Company

American Sigma

absorptive silencer. The standby gen erator exhaust system was also fitted with high performance silencers.

lection bin, itself a licensed trailer with

a tarpaulin cover, for haulage to the waste disposal site. The plant has a laboratory equipped

Other Plant Features

The plant's operation is enhanced by computer-aided monitoring, event re cording and process control. Septage is received and pumped from tankers inside a heated garage and au tomatically blended with the influent. Another exterior door enables township utility vehicles to hitch to the grit col

with a fume hood and scientific instru

ments. This enables the plant operators to carry out analysis for monitoring and informed control of the processes. The plant was built and commis sioned in 1995 for $5.8 million.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 162

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Laboratories

R&D News

J - Comprehensive Environmental Analysis J - Specializing in Dioxin/Furan and Ultra Trace Metals i *

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Denitrlflcatlon in Activated

Siudge Systems McMaster University scientists P.S. Barker and P.L. Dold have published a literature review of denitrification be

haviour in biological excess phospho rus removal activated sludge systems in Water Research. The review of results

of microbiological studies and many continuous and batch reactor experimen tal studies indicates that a significant fraction of the polyP organisms can use nitrate as an electron acceptor in the ab sence of oxygen for oxidation of stored PHB and simultaneous uptake of phos phorus. Further study is required to quantify the extent of denitrification.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

45


R&D News, cant'

Consultants

pulping effluent had a different COD/

Ainley & Associates Limited

VSS ratio and thus interfered with sohd COD results.

Consulting Engineers and Planners

Source of PAHs in St. John's Harbour

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design engineering

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Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) cataly ses the oxidation of phenols by hydro gen peroxide, resulting in the formation of water-insoluble polymers which can be separated by coagulation and sedi mentation. McGill University scientists V.A. Cooper and J.A. Nicell examined the feasibility of the enzyme process to treat foundry wastewater containing phenols (330 mg/L as phenol). As de scribed in Water Research, up to 99% of the phenolic contaminants could be removed despite the presence of other contaminants such as organic com pounds and iron in the waste matrix. In addition, high purity HRP achieved more than 65% removal of COD.

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The near-field mixing of effluent from buoyant and non-buoyant flows from outfalls discharging into a cross-flowing ambient current in trapezoidal channels has been investigated by S.T.A. Caiyad, J.A. McCorquodale and H. Cerges. These University of Windsor scientists scaled a physical model to represent a typical large outfall into one of the con necting channels of the Creat Lakes sys tem. Empirical expressions for the jet trajectories, minimum dilutions, and plume widths were derived as described in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engi neering. The calibrated model was veri fied by comparison with field data and results of other near-field models.

Continued on page 51 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Water and wastewater

treatment partnerships Philip Utilities creates partnerships with clients in the management and operation of water and wastewater treatment facilities. Services include

upgrading and operating existing plants, designing and building new faciiities, training employees and putting the financial package to gether. Philip's aiiiance with the Wastewater Technology Centre pro vides access to the world's leading technology in the treatment of wa ter, wastewater and sludge. Philip Utilities Management Corporation Circle reply card No. 200

oxidation, and lime kiln enrichment;

and nitrogen for chemical transfer, cleaning and purging pipelines, and blanketing chemicals. Praxair

Circle reply card No. 201

Process alarm monitor

Measure for Windows

Acquire data directly into your

available in 6, 12 and 24 channel versions. The instrument provides a

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channel. Peek Measurement

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insituiÂŤ8Âť

This 8-page, full colour brochure provides a detailed look at how Praxair industrial gases and tech nology provide economical and en vironmental solutions for the Pulp & Paper industry. Some of the fea tured gas applications include oxy gen/ozone bleaching and wastewater treatment; oxygen for chemi cal recovery, white and black liquor

The Model 4400 alarm monitor is

high integrity method of monitoring critical processes, such as vibration, temperature and pressure on pumps, compressors and turbines. Features include a universal conditioning card for RTD, thermocouple, current and voltage inputs; rate of change and time stamped alarms; nominal 24 volt transmitter power and 2 alarms per

iraiuronm

Serving the Pulp & Paper Industry

National Instruments plug-in data acquisition boards or any serial instrument for your acqui sition. Set up your acquisition and control operations with easyto-use dialog boxes. Automate your experiments with VBA. A free demo disk is available. National Instruments

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No digging, no disruption, no problem

Ultra Rib (8"-24") pipe & fittings

With Insituform cured-in-piace-pipe (CiPP), you automatically eliminate potential long-term reliability prob lems. With no digging and no joints, there's no settling of bedding and backfill. No uneven sagging of pipe segments. No opening up of joints. Where the application requires, insituform CiPP can provide enough strength to stand on its own, resisting both soil loads and high groundwater conditions, even after the host pipe has completely deteriorated.

IPEX Ultra-Rib Is a PVC gravityflow pipe with concentric rein forcing ribs that provide superior

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Ultra-Rib's excellent

joint performance provides un surpassed protection against in filtration and exfiltration.

UltraRib combines the benefits of

optimized strength and economy with excellent flow rate. IPEX Inc.

Circle reply card No. 205

Circle reply card No. 204

Hydraulics technical booklet available from Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association Hydraulle Canslderatloits

For Corrogatod Poliratbyleno Pipe

The technical booklet "Hydraulic Considerations for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe" is now available from the CPPA at no charge. The booklet discusses the advantages of designing with corrugated polyethy lene pipe, it specifically addresses discharge curves, conveyance method,self-cleansing velocities and value considerations, with a compari son of Manning's "n" values. CPPA

Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

Environmental Management Philip Environmental provides inte grated environmental management services to generators of both haz ardous and non-hazardous wastes.

They deliver technology based solu tions, for continuing or single event problems, reducing the costs of en vironmental compliance. Through the partnering process,the transpor tation, processes, technologies, ex pertise and experience are provided that allow clients to focus on their

base business, while improving prof itability and regulatory compliance. Philip Environmental Circle reply card No. 207 47


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Ontario Clean Water Agency

HAZCO monitoring equipment Rental, sales & service

The Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) Is the largest supplier of water and wastewater services In

HAZCO Canada, Inc. Is a nation wide company which provides

the province, serving almost 5 mil Consistent, Reliable Service Open, Responsive Communications Local Customized Attention

Competitive Pricing

lion Individual consumers. A tal

ented team of service experts has been selected to represent OCWA

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consistent, reliable service; open, responsive communications; local customized attention; and competi tive pricing. OCWA Circle reply card No. 208

INSTfi

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Digital correlation transit time fiowmeters

The Polysonlcs DOT transit time fiowmeters combine digital signal processing with correlation detec tion methods. Key features Include: ±0.5% of velocity accuracy, +0 to 50 ft/s flow range, 0.001 ft/s flow sensitivity, bl-dlrectlonal flow meas urement and TImeGate diagnostics and waveform analysis. The port

Terra Tec Trade Fair and Forum

Terra H Tec Trade Fair

able model Is sealed to NEMA 6,

Incorporates a 65,000 point data logger and provides up to 16 hours continuous battery operation.

^ 4.-7 March 1997 1 ExhibHjon Centre Leipzig

Peek Measurement

Terra Tec Trade Fair

Circle reply card No. 210

Circle reply card No. 211

StralnPress® SludgeCleaner Reusing sludge means cleaning it first, and Parkson has a unique product for doing just that. The StrainPress SludgeCleaner removes from primary or secondary sludge etc., the nonorganic solids, e.g. plastics, papers, rags, that may settle or float In downstream proc

It's the BIG ONE! Fiuio HAKtice

rotor/shaft/nut area, bl-dlrectlonal

pressed and extruded as a dry product that can be disposed of with trash and screenings from other sources In the facility. The cleaned sludge can then be processed further to produce what the EPA has defined as "Class A sludge". Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 212

Degreasing & cleaning bath regeneration systems ThesoluHon

Aqueous solution degreasing and cleaning baths can now be reliably and economically regenerated with a cross flow filtration system offered by Filter Innovations Inc. Filter In novations' system Is unique In that It employs the use of resilient car bon composite tubular membranes which are capable of withstanding highly corrosive fluids across the full pH range up to temperatures of 165°C.

Filter Innovations Inc.

Circle reply card No. 214

48

Waukesha Cherry-Burrell 420/520 high capacity pumps feature sealed operation, and 316L body and cover with 88 alloy rotors. Designed for applications from tomato process ing to slurries and sludges at tem peratures of -40 degree F to 300 degree F, the 420 moves 1.62 gallons of product per revolution

esses. These trash solids are then com

to degrea^irtg botKs $olutio(u

Linking the exhibition of products, technology and services with the presentation of International trends and strategies, TerraTec features all areas of environmental activity. In cluding air, water, waste disposal, recycling, decontamination, energy management, automation, process/ survey/analysis and control tech nologies. With detailed focus on six economic regions In Central and Eastern Europe and Asia, Interna tional opportunities will be targeted to bring world-wide experts together.

while the 520 model moves 2.38

gallons per revolution. Waukesha Cherry-Burell Circle reply card No. 213

IMTVgflSAi pH DOSGi pMa «nreii WTowAne

Universal pH Doser Analytical Universal pH Doser Is a pH Indicator, with 0-14 pH scale, and bellows Metering pump, mounted on a metal frame. One relay for activat ing a pump,for control of either down or up scale. Proportional control on the pump can be used to minimize the amount of chemical being used, as the pH reading approaches the required set point. A complete line of pH and ORP Meters are available: Indicator, Recorder Controllers, Sampling and Field Meters. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 215

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Gas shutdown systems

Turbidity monitoring

Total chlorine residual

systems

analyzer

Gas storage demands the highest safety standards. Now,following close collabo ration with Health and Safety executives, water companies and safety officials, a comprehensive shutdown system has been developed by Capital Controls to meet the most stringent safety require ments. The modular system ensures safe, rapid shutdown of both ton containers and cylinders used in the storage of chlorine, sulphur dioxide and other hazardous gases and liquids. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 265

Turhidity monitoring in water treatment plants is essential in the drive towards high water quality standards. The ABB 4670 Series Turbidity Monitor is supplied with dry calibration standard with unit

ProMinent's Total Chlorine Residual

and filtered water applications. The dry standards can be used in multiples of the same unit, thereby reducing costs. The ABB system has high immunity to sam ple temperature fluctuations,a major fac tor in accurate performance below 0.1 NTU. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 266

Analyzer monitors total chlorine residuals from 0-10.0 ppm. It features a temperature compensated (5 to 55°C) Amperometric triple-electrode membrane style chlorine sensor with integrated preamplifier. The measuring signal is al most pH independent over the pH range 5.5 to 9.5. No reagents or buffer are re quired. The chlorine monitor features an LCD display, calibration span potentio meter and a 4-20 mA event output. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 267

Drinking water particle counting systems

Extended aeration

Ultra high rate ciarifier

The Hiac/Royco Particle Counters pro vide you with an on-line, rugged, high resolution sensor. The on-line system uses the largest flow passage and larger micron size range. The AccuCount soft ware was developed for and provides sig nificant data for water treatment plants. Software support for 4 particle size chan nels and up to 32 stations. Software of fers: Real-time data display, real-time alarms, log removal calculations, back wash status flag, etc. Metcon Sales and Engineering For more Information, circle reply card No. 268

values as low as 1.0 to 2.0 NTU for final

system

Unlike the stop-and-go flow in conven tional SBRs, flow, and processing through Austgen-Biojet's Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System

(ICEAS®) is continuous. All processes are performed in a single hasin. A con tinuous supply of carbon to the biomass is provided throughout the aeration, set tling and decanting phases. No added chemicals are needed. The ICEAS sys tem cuts aeration costs by up to 50%. Austgen-Biojet For more information, circle reply card No. 269

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, November 1996

The Microsep® Ballasted Floe Reactor (BFR)^"is an ultra-high-rate ciarifier for municipal and industrial water or wastewater treatment. The high efficiency of this patented system results in a technol ogy 8 to 12 times smaller than conven tional clarifiers and provides significant operating and capital cost savings. Microsep International For more Information, circle reply card No. 270 49


Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, cail ES&E at(905)727-4666. New bulletin for

Sludge blanket level

designing separation

control

Revolutionary magmeter

vessels Designing Enirainmcnt Separation Vessels

The new 8-page Technical Bulletin 105 from AMISTCO discusses the construc

tion and performance variables involved in designing efficient entrainment and separation vessels. Numerous horizon tal and vertical knockout drum configu rations are illustrated and discussed.

Design factor formulas and practical per formance limits are provided that take into account operation constraints and cost efficiency. AMISTCO For more information, circie repiy card No. 271

Spill solidifier

Series 602 Sludge Depth Meter described on a 4-page data sheet, continuously monitors the sludge blanket level and pro vides on/off desludge pump control. Switching the pump on when the sludge level gets too high is an obvious require ment, but switching it off before pulling a core hole and pumping water is not so obvious but is equally important. Redilution caused by excessive pump run time can be eliminated by closely con trolling the sludge/liquid interface using the Model 602 which has high and low set-point relays; 4-20 ma output; LCD readout; and an RS-232/485 serial port,

The New Unimag from Isco completely

eclipses existing magmeter systems in concept and practical application. Unimag eliminates concern regarding electrode fouling, vibration effects and linear malfunction. Unimag features

unique interchangeable sensors with no need for recalibration. Unimag also comes with the powerful model 4401

housed in a NEMA-4X enclosure.

converter.

Markland

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 273

For more information, circie reply card No. 272

Spill response kit

Dissolved air flotators

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A610 is a granulated polymer that is ranked first among spill solidifiers tested by Environment Canada. A610 does not bond or absorb water and, therefore,

works well on hydrocarbon-based spills such as oils, fuels, solvents and oil-based

paints on both land and water. A610 bonds with little increase in volume. One

pound/450 grams of A610 bonds up to fifteen pounds/6.75 kilograms of liquid. A610 is certified as incinerable to less than 0.02% ash. nochar Canada

For more information, circle reply card No. 274 50

The A677 Petro Bond Spill Response Kit is designed to stabilize, bond,absorb and containerize petroleum-based spills of up to 13 gallons/50 litres. The A677 SRK utilizes both A600 series bonding agents and A670 stabilizing products. It is con veniently packaged in a U.N. approved 6 gallon plastic bucket with locking safety latch and screw off lid. The bucket is designed to hold the bonded waste af ter clean up. Kits may be customized for specific containment needs, nochar Canada

For more information, circle reply card No. 275

AQUARIUS has a complete line of Dis solved Air Flotators: circular, rectangu lar with and without lamella. They can be used for: the separation of fats and sol ids in the food processing industry; recov ery of oil, greases and valuable chemicals in the petroleum, chemicals and metals industries; fiber recovery and deinking in the pulp and paper industry; process wa ter clarification in all industries; and

sludge thickening, especially on back wash water. For small applications, the flotators are all pre-piped skid mounted. On large installations, accessories can be assembled in a concrete reservoir.

AQUARIUS For more information,

circle repiy card No. 276

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


R&D News, cont'

Consultants

Continuedfrom page 46 Removal of Nutrients in

Wastewater by a Photobioreactor

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD.

Laval University scientists studied the use of solar biotechnology for the re

Consulting Engineers Specialists In a comprehensive range of

moval of nutrients ffom domestic

Environmental and Municipal Engineering

wastewaters. S. Sylvestre, P. Lessard and 115 Huronforio Street, Suite 201. Collingwood. Ontario L9Y 2L9

J. de la Nolle grew a culture of cyanobacteria, P. bohneri, on synthetic and

181.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327

wastewater media to assess the removal

performance and to determine the dy namic behaviour of nitrogen and phos phorus. As described in Environmen tal Technology, very good removal efficiencies were achieved for all nitro

gen and phosphorus pollutants. Fifty to

CGSS CH2M GORE & STORRIE UIVHTED

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sixty percent of the total removal could

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be accounted for by ammonia stripping

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and phosphate precipitation. Analysis of Aromatic

Hydrocarbons in Water Analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers(BTEX)in water using automated solid-phase microextraction has been shown to be fast

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tilled water. Using this protocol, remediation projects with samples con taining free-phase or high concentrations of BTEX can be routinely analysed. Pollutants in Highway Runoff A field study of highway runoff was undertaken by National Water Research Institute scientists at sites along the QEW highway in Burlington, Ontario over a period of 16 months. Among the six metals studied by J. Marsalek and his colleagues,the highest mean concen trations in whole-water samples were observed for zinc (0.337 mg/L), copper

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Concentrations of 16 PAHs in whole water varied from non-detectable

Gunther Funk, Senior Hydrogeologist, Cffice Manager (905) 688-5460 email: gunther.funk@sympatico.ca

(0.010-0.030 pg/L) to mean values greater than 0.5 pg/L. In whole-water samples,the mean concentrations of the three most ubiquitous substances, phen-

Gloucester, ON K1A0H3,Tel:(613) 990-9849, Fax:(613)990-2855.

Pacific Region

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(0.136 mg/L), and lead (0.071 mg/L).

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer,Canadian Associa tion on Water Quality, Environmen tal Technology Centre, Environment Canada, 3439 River Road South,

T8i;[41B)441wt111 Fax; [416)441-4131

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Technology, R.S. Ranjan and colleagues at the University of Manitoba describe a protocol based on two dilutions, the first using acetone and the second with dis

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

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51


R&D News, cont']

Consultants

Noise Vibration and Acoustics 2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 1, Suite 203 ENGINEERING Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1P7 (905) 826-4044, Fax 826-4940 Noise Vibration Acoustics Howe Gastmeier Chapnik

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anthrene, pyrene and fluoranthrene, were 0.397, 0.454 and 0.503 |ig/L, respec tively. These and other results were pre sented at the 31st Central Canadian Sym posium on Water Pollution Research. Removal of Pollutants by Ultratiltration

In a paper published in Environmental Science and Technology, Zenon Envi ronmental Inc. scientist K. Volchek and

Experts at wastewater process audits, process optimization, and process design

a German colleague review the applica tions of separation techniques using ultrafiltration in conjunction with func-

Hydromantis,Inc. • CAWQ ACQE

Consulting Engineers 1685 Main Street West, Suite 302, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 1G5

Tel:(905)522-0012 Fax;(905)522-0031

info@hydromantis.com

R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality

^SINTERA Consultants Ltd. Environmental Scientists and Engineers ■

(613) 232-2525

Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

Site Remediation

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Qualite de I'Eau

Ottawa

■ Fractured Rock Hydrogeology I Environmental Management and Compliance ■ Hydrogeoiogic/Performance Assessment Modeling ■

Association Canadienne sur la

Toronto

(905)513-9400 Calgary (403) 262-4885

Risk Assessment

INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD. MONTREAL

BARRIE

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Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving ttie Groundwater industry for Over 60 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,

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tional soluble polymers for the removal of environmentally relevant and toxic substances from water. The types of in teractions of the soluble polymers with low molecular weight compounds, the criteria for selecting the appropriate polymeric agents, and the binding con ditions are discussed. Several factors

influencing the separation of the target substances are evaluated and high lighted. Chemical, electrochemical, and thermal regeneration aspects are also covered. Finally, an overview on vari ous preparative and analytical applica tion examples is presented. Determination ot Environmental Nitrate

ISIJagger Hims ■I LIMITED

In a paper published in Environmental Technology, G.J. Sorger and colleagues at McMaster University describe a sim ple, sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive assay for environmental nitrate in solu

Environmental Consulting Engineers • Was/e Management • Water Supply

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• Geo-Environmental Engineering

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tion. The method is based on the reduc

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Fax.

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tion of nitrate to nitrite in vivo by nitrite deficient Neurospora mycelia. Water samples are amended to contain ingre dients necessary for the growth of Neurospora except for nitrogen which is provided by the endogenous nitrate. Myceha are incubated with this amended water sample and allowed to convert the endogenous nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite is then measured colourimetrically. Removal ot Sediment from Stormwater

A paper presented by G. Bryant and col leagues from Stormceptor Canada Inc., Donald G. Weatherbe Associates Inc,

52

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


R&D News, cont'

Consultants

and the Ontario Ministry ofTransporta tion at the 31st Central Canadian Sym

LAFONTAINE, COWIE, BURAHO

posium on Water Pollution Research

& ASSOCIATES LIMITED

described the results of a field study to determine the effectiveness of the

Stormceptor* system to remove sedi mentfrom water. The monitoring results indicated that there is a linear relation

ship between the sediment removal effi ciency of the system and the volume of

CONSULTING

Water Supply Transportation Land Development

Structure of Floes in Wastewater

and colleagues from the National Water

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In a paper published in Environmental

Science and Technology, Ryerson Poly technic University scientist S.N. Liss

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wet storage in the Stormceptor® per im pervious hectare of upstream drainage area. The grain size of the sediment sam ples indicated that the system can re move sediment of size less than 10 pm.

ENGINEERS

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PROVIDING PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR SITE REMEDIATION, WASTE AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT

Research Institute and McMaster Uni

versity describe a new technique to

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LENDER

study the structure of floes on a submicron scale. This permits a better un derstanding of the role of floe

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Fax; 519-336-4311

E-Mail; mroehieri^btech.net

ultrastructure in outward floe behaviour

for wastewater systems. Results have demonstrated that floe pores were com posed of complex matrices of polymeric fibrils (4-6 nm diameter) when viewed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. These fibrils provide the dominant bridging mechanism between organic and inorganic components and contribute to the extensive surface area of the floes. Air-Water Fluxes of

an environmental consulting firm specializing In; ♦ Air Quality Management ♦ Environmental Management Systems ♦ Property Liability Management

Process Assessments

Hazardous Materials

Management Systems

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment

Hexaohlorocyclohexanes In Lake Ontario

Atmospheric Environment Service sci entist J.J. Ridal and colleagues from the

MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham. Ontario L3R 6H3 (905) 475-7270 • Fax:(905) 475-5994 E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.com

National Water Research Institute inves

tigated the seasonality of the air-water gas transfer of hexaohlorocyclohexanes (HCH)in Lake Ontario. These organochlorine pesticides were measured in air and water samples collected on weekly cruises on Lake Ontario from May to October 1993. As described in Env/ron-

mental Science and Technology, on av erage the air-water gas transfer of HCH was depositional in May and early June, reversed to volatilizational by August, and returned to depositional in October.

MALROZ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

•Hydrogeology • Waste management •Engineering geology •Environmental audits

MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St.. Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabiiitation Marshall Macklin

These scientists estimate that 15 kg of a-HCH were removed and 37 kg of y-

Monaghan

HCH were added to Lake Ontario by airwater gas transfer during this period.

CONSULTING ENGINEERS • SURVEYORS • PLANNERS

Removal of Turbidity In

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering,

Water Treatment

Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

University of Alberta scientists S.

TORONTO, EDMONTON

Suthaker, D.W. Smith and S.J. Stanley used a two-phase pilot scale study to

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(905) 882-1100

Fax:(905) 882-0055

53


R&D News, cont'

Consultants

select new filter media for a water treat

ment plant in Edmonton. The design and planning of the study described in the Canadian Journal ofCivil Engineer ing had to consider constraints posed by upgrading the existing facility which dictated the media depth and the allow able bed expansion during backwashing. Based on preliminary results, a crushed quartz and a dual-media consisting of anthracite were selected for detailed

study. Crushed quartz consistently pro vided the best effluent quality while the dual-media provided longer filter runs.

ODOUR PROBLEMS? Assessment and Control

Air Pollution Dispersion Study Monitoring and Field Sampling

Determination of Dissoived Trace Eiement Concentrations Scientists from Centre Saint-Laurent,

Odour Panel Evaluation ROWAN WILLIAMS DAVIES & IRWIN Inc. Consulting Engineers 650 Woodlawn Road West

Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1K1B8 Contact: Anton Davles, Ph.D., P.Eng., Principal

RWDI

the Geological Survey of Canada, and the U.S. Geological Survey have found that a number of factors associated with

Telephone: {519) 823-1311 Facsimile:(519) 823-1316

filtration other than just pore size can produce significant variations in the

CIVIL/ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

"dissolved" concentrations of such ele

CONSULTANTS

ments as Fe, Al, Cu,Zn,Pb, Co, and Ni

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in natural water samples. As described by K.R. Lum and his colleagues in En vironmental Science and Technology, the bulk of these variations result from

SIMCOE ENGINEERINB BRGUP LIMITED

Consulting Engineers & Architect

associated trace elements in the filtrate.

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architects

planners

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Dilution and sorption/desorption from filters may also be factors. Such fac tors may result in significant errors in measuring the true concentrations of dissolved chemical substances.

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

MILTON; TORONTO:

the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally

Enhanced Effectiveness of Stormwater Retention Ponds

in a paper presented at the 31 st Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollu tion Research, results were presented of a study on the introduction of baffles in an existing stormwater retention pond to increase its effectiveness for pollu tion control. Scientists from Queen's University and the National Water Re

Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment

search Institute installed baffles in the

MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

tended about one-third of the width of

TEl:(905)668-9363• WHITBY • Fax (905)668-0221 COBOURG •TORONTO • KINGSTON • WATERLOO BRACEBRIDGE•OTTAWA •SAULT STE. MARIE • SIMCOE

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Kingston Township pond which ex the pond and divided the pond roughly into quarters along its length. As de scribed by R.R. Matthews,this increased the length to width ratio from 1.5 to 1 in the original pond to 4.5 to 1 after the retrofit and significantly improved the removal of pollutants. For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer,Canadian Associa

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE PLANNING & ENGINEERING ATLANTIC CANADA • CENTRAL CANADA • PRAIRIES • PACIFIC COAST

54

tion on Water Quality, Environmen tal Technology Centre, Environment Canada, 3439 River Road South, Gloucester, ON K1A0H3,Tel:(613) 990-9849, Fax:(613)990-2855.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in tliis section, cail ES&E at(905)727-4666. Communications Software

Enhanced coagulation

New effluent pump Designed for pumping septic tank effluent and

Milltronics Dolphin communications software is a new Windowsâ&#x201E;˘ based soft

ware package that allows automatic pa rameter setup for the company's ultra

With stricter regulations for organic re

sonic level measurement instrumentation.

For more information, circle reply card No. 277

to explore the benefits of enhanced co agulation with iron salts. Eaglebrook's fast-reacting iron salts demonstrate supe riority for removal of precursor organics while providing clear water and a more manageable sludge. Eaglebrook Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 278

Wastewater treatment

Sludge digestion

The software interfaces with a level unit

using a ComVerter, an infrared commu nication link adapter that eliminates the need to open the unit's enclosure or use tools. Milltronics

T

movals on the horizon, now is the time

light duty dewatering, this new rugged light weight pump uti lizes a high torque capacitor 1/2 hp motor and heavy duty ball bearings. The stainless steel

motor housing and cast iron volute help resist the effects of abrasive effluent.

Solids up to 3/4" can be quickly and eas ily pumped. CSA approved. ABS Pumps Corporation For more information, circle reply card No. 279

Uitracompact 4-way gas monitor

PROCESS

CmCULAR FtOTATKJW Ct^fllRER

Crowcon's Custo

dian, an

ultra-

compact 4-way personal gas moni tor, protects work ers from multiple gas hazards in confined spaces. Users specify up to

The VERTREA'P" reactor is a sub-sur

The VERTAD'''" reactor provides auto-

face air lift bioreactor employing conven tional activated sludge principles. Influ ent and air introduced at depth results in high oxygen transfer rates making

thermophilic aerobic digestion technol ogy to reduce and pasteurize waste biomass to class A requirements. The maintains

monitor specific toxic and flammable gases, and oxygen. Alarms are program

VERTREAT^" more effective than cur

rent technology. VERTREAT^"reactors use only 10% ofthe land usually required. Deep Shaft Technology For more information, circle reply card No. 280

thermophilic temperatures by using the surrounding geological mass as a ther mal flywheel and inherent heat exchange. Deep Shaft Technology For more information, circle reply card No. 281

ings. An internal pump option offers dif fusion or pumped operation in ambient and remote sampling modes. Cancoppas For more information, circle reply card No. 282

Transfer Trailers

Thermal modelling

innovative chain & flight

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four sensors to

mable for instantaneous and OEL read

coliectors

Brothers Industries custom design all their transfer trailers for specialized ap plications. These light-weight, steel trail ers offer high capacity, strength, and du rability. The walking floor trailers are equipped with Keith Running Floors. Also available are compactor compatible and ejector pushout trailers. Brothers Industries

For more information, circle reply card No. 283

Thermal desorption is a widely accepted remediation technology for many types of soil and petroleum-based contami nants. Enco-Tec has addressed the areas

ofconcern over expense and commitment by clients with the development of a ther mal desorption simulator, with which project-specific samples can be taken and a complete simulation run. Enco Tec Environmental

Technology Systems For more information, circle reply card No. 284

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

EIMCO has added new design features and materials options to its chain and flight collection systems. Complete sol ids removal systems are available for rec tangular clarifiers, incorporating an ex panded range of non-metallic materials and improved solids discharge mecha nisms. Operation and maintenance ex penses are substantially reduced. Eimeo Process Equipment For more information,

circle reply card No. 285 55


OH&S

By Murray Thomson, Ph.D.*

Reducing fume emissions without degrading indoor air quality (worker comfort),and interior fume con centrations (indoor air quality) to pro vide an integrated solution. CFD modeling uses a computer to numerically predict fluid flow and heat transfer with the basic equations of mass, momentum and energy conserva

Figure 1: Steel Meltshop Ventilation TradeofTs Environmental Impacts . .

emissions

tion. Because CFD uses fundamental

to baghouse

Indoor

namics, wind flow around buildings, combustion, particle settling and mix ing of two liquids. CFD solves by the equations dividing up time and distance

Air Quality

into discrete intervals. The more inter

Costs

Worker comfort outside air

equations, it is a general use tool with wide applications, including aerody

'cold

Wewere recently asked by

Melting Furnace

a major U.S. steel com pany to help reduce the

offs within a steel meltshop facility. Fume from the steel melting furnace rises up into a canopy hood. If the fume

fume emissions from its

misses the hood, it will rise and exit the

steel meltshop building. The steel com

pany needed to reduce environmental impacts without degrading indoor air quality or worker comfort. Our firm, Goodfellow Consultants,Inc. used com

putational fluid dynamic(CFD)model ing to provide an integrated approach to the analysis of process building fume control options. Using CFD modeling, the design alternatives were evaluated for their effect on emission levels, in

building through roof vents. The hood cannot be placed directly above the fur nace because ofinterferences during the charging of the scrap steel into the fur nace. Environmental impacts, costs, in door air quality, and worker comfort are all related. Increasing the air flow into the building will reduce the interior fume

vals, the greater resolution, hence the need for fast computers with large amounts of storage. The recent avail ability ofinexpensive but powerful com puters has allowed the use of CFD for environmental problems. CFD must be compared to the alternative which is scale model testing(such as air or water models) or pilot scale testing: Advantages

• Cost savings result from not needing to build scale models to test designs. • Speed improves as it is quicker to modify a CFD model than rebuild a scale model.

• CFD provides complete information (such as pressure, velocity, etc.). Ex perimental measurements are often re quired at inaccessible locations and can

concentrations but can increase emis

disturb the flow.

sions if cross-drafts deflect the plume away from the hood. In winter, this

• Realistic conditions (i.e. full scale): Water models are often 1/100th of full

door air pollutant levels, and indoor tem peratures. The most effective design al ternative can be further refined until op

greater inflow can increase cold drafts

scale, use water instead of air, and are

at the floor level, degrading worker com fort. Increasing the canopy hood venti

isothermal.

timal results are obtained.

lation rate will reduce emissions but will

• Accurate mathematical model of ba

significantly increase capital and oper ating costs. Closing the roof vents re

sic phenomenon needed. For example,

Managers of large industrial facili ties must reconcile demands for: •reduced emissions to the environment

such as fume exiting through roof vents, • higher productivity which may result in more heat and emissions per unit floor area,

•reduced costs which limits the amount

of environmental control equipment, • improved occupational health which requires good indoor air quality, • improved worker comfort such as mini mizing building temperature extremes. Figure 1 shows the ventilation trade*Goodfellow Consultants, Inc.

Mississauga, Ontario 56

Disadvantages

CFD turbulence models are not accurate

duces emissions but will increase inte

under all conditions. The development

rior dust concentrations and tempera tures. The optimal design will balance

of turbulence models that are accurate

for a wide range of conditions is an ac

these tradeoffs.

tive area of research.

New approaches are needed to find • Computational methods may not han dle chemical reactions and complex the optimal solution. Conventional tech niques often lack accuracy and look at geometry. For example, a model of only one local aspect of the problem. combustion chemistry exists but it is too complex for today's computers to han Many conventional techniques sepa rately consider environmental impacts, dle. Assumptions must be made to make worker comfort, and indoor air quality. the problem solvable within a reasonable New techniques such as Computational time frame on existing computers. We developed a 3D CFD model of Fluid Dynamic Modeling(CFD)can si the entire meltshop to study the effecmultaneously predict emissions (envi Continued overleaf ronmental impacts), temperature Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Reach Canada's multi-billion doiiar

environmental protection market at the

Ontario Environmental

Expo & Conference Book your exhibit space now!!

March 13-14,1997•Toronto Congress Centre

Meet key environmental protection professionals at the Ontario Environmental Exposition in Toronto, March 13-14,1997.

^t Who Will Be There? Exhibitors will Include manufacturers, distributors and service companies who provide products and services to effectively manage and control hazardous, dangerous materials, toxic materials, air pollution, site remediation, groundwater cleanup, laboratory services and industrial wastewater.

Products and services will relate to treatment systems, remediation, protection, detection, transportation, handling, disposal, training, safety education, health, safety, emergency response, regulation compliance, engineering, testing & information services.

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Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3V6

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Phone•905-727-4666 Fax •905-841-7271


INTRODUCING ■ OH&S,cont d Figure 2: Fume Concentration Contours along the Centerline of the Meltshop

Curtain Wall

Canopy Hood Roof Vent

...foramore effective subsurface thermophilic aerobic digestion process

an

conventional ATAD

Scrap

production of

Doors

Scrap Doors

EFFECTIVE ECONOMICAL AESTHETIC • LOWER CAPITAL COSTS

tiveness of steel meltshop ventilation design alternatives. Input to the model includes building geometry, air flows in and out of the meltshop,and heat inputs to the building. Air flow boundary con ditions were measured on site during a ventilation survey. The model includes

• LOWER OPERATING COSTS

buoyancy which drives the fume up into the canopy. It provides fume and tem perature profiles across the meltshop in

• SMALL FOOTPRINT

• MECHANICALLY SIMPLE

addition to the fume emissions to the • FULLY ENCLOSED

outside from the roof vents. The model

of the current design was validated with temperature measurements and video taping offume migration. Figure 2shows the fume concentra

• ONLY ONE BIOREACTOR

tions on a slice across the centre of the

meltshop. The hot buoyant plume from the furnace rises up into the canopy hood. Some fume migrates horizontally

3

V for'in formation:omthisy economical alternative

I contact:jlYLE CUTHBERT

\■T

I

1- ~

^

DEEP SHAFT TECHNOLQGY IIMC.J 700,1207 11th Avenue S.W.

S

Calgary Alberta

phone 403 244 5340, fax: 403.245.5156

f^^^^^tt;^erna"r|^o|;[Z@^Shafptechnolo^^r^^^« For more information, circie reply card No. 165

release, and increased forced ventilation.

The CFD model predicted the fume emis sions,concentrations and indoor tempera tures. A combination of controlled air

inflows and reduced heat releases pro vided the best solution, reducing fume emissions and indoor temperature ex tremes at a reasonable cost without de

grading indoor fume concentrations. In summary, CFD is a versatile tool. It can provide: •in-depth understanding of problem; by graphically displaying the interior flows, the user quickly sees how the contami nants and heat migrate through the facility, • verification of measurements by sup plying data to check and explain unusual measurement results,

• evaluation of alternatives by calculat toward the far roof vent. The fume does ing the effect on the design objective as not rise because hot air from the casters each design parameter is modified, is trapped between the canopy hood and •reduced costs by reducing the need for the curtain wall. Air currents down the scale model testing, meltshop push the fume toward the far • shorter design times by reducing the roof vent where it is emitted as it rises need for scale model testing, up out the roof vent. Similar flows re • greater confidence by better under sult in emissions through the other roof standing the problem and the effect of vent. These flows were verified through the design solution, observations inside the meltshop. Fume • effective communication tool by and temperature contour plots, along graphically displaying the air flows,con with flow vector diagrams, provide the taminants, and temperatures so that any user with a greater understanding of the observer can understand the problem and fluid flow within the meltshop which suggested solution. creates the fume emissions. Computation fluid dynamic modeling Design alternatives were ranked for provides an integrated analysis of envi their effects on temperature,fume con ronmental impacts, worker comfort, and centrations and fume emissions. The indoor air quahty for an optimized proc design alternatives include: reducing heat ess building fume control. releases, closing the roof vents, reduced For more information, natural ventilation,reduced fumacefume circle reply card No. 183 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Pumping Systems

Level sensor installation on

submersible pumps

Although designed to be rugged and easy to install, level sensors are of

ten mislocated in the well. This can

Typica l elevation settings for Flygt level sensors when installed in a wetwell with Flygt "CP" style pumps.

lead to numerous pump problems, in cluding erratic operation and reduced equipment

Upper guide bar bracket

Access cover

life. Cable holder

Probably the most common problem stems from on-site confusion as to which sensor is re

sponsible for what function. To avoid this type of confusion, it is recommended that each level sen

sor cable be clearly marked in a permanent man ner as to its function, and that this be done at a

location at the top of the well which can easily be seen by maintenance personnel. Level sensors must always be located in the least turbulent part of the well, out of the direct path of rushing water from inflow pipes or any other disturbances which could cause false acti

vation or premature cable failure at the point where the cable enters the sensor casing. In addition, level sensors must be hung at proper elevations to maximize pump operations, while minimizing the total number of equipment starts per hour. Depending on equipment size and model, 10-15 evenly spaced starts per hour pre vent undue heat build-up in the motor, resulting from starting current which is normally 5-6 times that of running current. If the low-level sensor is set too high or'pump on' sensors set too low, the combined result will be a shortened pump cycle, with the number of starts per hour increased need lessly. The elevation at which the low-level shut-off

sensor is hung may be influenced by certain hy draulic factors or possible local guidelines. Un

Intermediate

guide bar bracket(for guide bars over 20'long)

High level alarm on

Lag pump on

pump on

ITT Flygt HDL type check valve Standard class 125

C.I. flange (nominal size) Low level shut-off

der normal conditions,the low-level sensor is usu

ally hung at a height level with the top of the pump volute.

Under certain system conditions(or with some models equipped with particular impellers), full draw down to the top of the volute can cause vi bration and possible damage to the pumping units. Vibration or noisy operation during the final stages of pump-down is often the result of a natural hydraulic phenomenon called cavitation.

Certain impellers may require higher than normal lowlevel sensor placement to satisfy pump inlet net-positive suc tion head requirements, which will usually minimize vibra tion caused by cavitation. Keep in mind that further upward adjustment of the low-level sensor may also have to be made due to warmer than usual pumped liquids or in the wet wells of pump stations located at high elevations above sea level. Temperature and elevation are both factors which will af fect the operating point at which a pump will cavitate. In creased temperature will increase the vapour pressure of the liquid, while higher elevations reduce atmospheric pressure. These are both negative factors which can be compensated for by increasing the net positive suction head available at Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

elevation

the pump inlet. Sometimes an adjustment can be made to a valve located in the piping on the outlet side of the pump, which may fur ther assist in reducing this type of hydraulics-related prob lem. This shut-off valve is normally set in the fully open position and only closed to isolate the wetwell in the event work is to be performed. Try closing the valve slightly in stages, while watching for improved pump performance which may occur as a result. The best combination of valve adjustment and sensor height should result in very little vibration and noise, and a minimum reduction in GPM,while

keeping the low-level sensor at the lowest possible height in the wetwell.

Cavitation or vibration during the final stages of drawdown can also be caused by obstructions, or any other limiting fac tor, at the inlet or suction side of the pump. For more information, circle repiy card No. 166 59


Water & Wastewater

By M. Loudon, P.Eng.,^ MBA and M. Fortin, M.A.^

Full cost pricing of water and wastewater services

Fullcost pricing for water and

Figure 1 Comparison of International Water Price and Use Rates

wastewater systems is "in".

The Federation of Canadian

Municipalities stated,in 1993, that they will"...promote water rates that reflect the full cost of purification, stor age, distribution and sewage treat ment..." The policy of the American Water Works Association is that every water utility should receive sufficient revenues from water service and user charges to enable it tofinance all oper ating and maintenance expenses and all capital costs. Why the increased emphasis on full cost pricing? Several forces are at play;

$1.4

Water Use $1.2

Water Price

$1.0

\

$0.8

$0.6

200 g D

$0.4

full cost pricing to reduce consumption is the message of water efficiency advo cates who point to Canada's low user rates and high usage levels (Figure 1). Their message is reinforced by senior government cuts in grants and transfers

for water systems and by municipal council aspirations to hold the line on mill rates. The outcome is an increased

interest in full cost recovery from user rates.

The move to full cost pricing will af fect the way in which we manage our water and wastewater utilities. But first

we must know what we are talking about. Full cost pricing concems two sides of the financial ledger. On the cost side, the accounts must represent all of the

costs of the water and wastewater sys tem, namely all operating, maintenance, administration and capital-related costs. On the revenue side,full cost pric ing implies that costs are fully recovered through user rates for water and wastewater services. Full cost pricing policies must address both sides.

$0.0

U.S.

U.K.

Canada

France Sweden

West Germany

• A portion of investment costs is cov ered by capital grants -25% in the case of surveyed municipalities. No one ex in water rates for 1996 of 2.2%. (Ap pects a utility to tum its nose up at a parently, the water plants on Lake On grant. But senior government grants,so tario have a great view and thus a higher long as they last, move us away from full assessment based on market value.) cost pricing. And they may not last that • A portion of administrative overheads, much longer. The Toronto S'tor reported which have traditionally been recovered that federal and provincial funding for from the property tax, should rightly be municipal water and wastewater facili recovered from utility revenues. For ties has been cut by more than 60 per example,in an Ontario regional munici cent since 1989(April 6,1996)and that pality, an amount equivalent to 7% of further cuts are proposed by the Ontario OM&A costs has been added to the government(April 9,1996). water budget to recover central admin • Insufficient system investment is anistration costs. Continued overleaf the low side if market value assessment

is being introduced. MVA in the Re gion of Niagara resulted in an increase

Figure 2

Comparison of Typical Utility Charges $800

The Cost Side

Costs are broadly classified either as operations, maintenance and administra

tion(OM&A)costs or as capital costs. An analysis of financial reports from Ontario municipalities surveyed by the authors revealed that OM&A costs rep

$600

$400

resent two thirds of total annual costs

on average while capital costs accounted

for the balance. These reported costs may under-represent total system costs for a variety of reasons: • Charges for property taxes can be on ^R.M. Loudon Ltd., Willowdale, ON

^Consulting Economist, Guelph, ON 60

$200

$0

Electrical

Gas

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


W,'e've taken SBR efficiency to the next level with our Inter

mittent Cycle Extended Aeration System aCEAS®). Unlike the stop-and-go flow in conventional

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1. Higher System Capacity. All processes from aeration to

neously, which increases flow capacity by 25% or more com

6. Costs Less To Operate. Aeration accounts for approxi mately 80% of the energy costs in an SBR system. The ICEAS system cuts that cost by up to 50% because of the efficiency

pared to conventional SBRs.

of the SANITAIRE diffusers.

2. Less Tankage Needed.

7. Easy To Control. Microprocessor controls can substantially reduce labor

settling to decanting are per formed in a single basin. Filling and decanting are done simulta

Conventional SBRs need extra

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processing is done. ICEAS can

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SBR

5. Needs Less Maintenance.

Aeration is uniform and essentially trouble-free with high-efficiency,

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tion, settling and decanting phases. No added chemicals needed.

9. Expands Easily. Because each basin is a complete, modu

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Water & Wastewater, cont' other factor resulting in artificially low pared to industry values such as those The experience in England indicates that costs. Just over 20% of surveyed mu recently published by the AWWA in their privatization does not necessarily lead nicipalities reported that their user rates 1995 Canadian Utility Profile. to lower charges. The February CWWA were too low to generate sufficient rev • A new cost, profit, will appear in our Bulletin notes that in some areas ofEng enues to repair and replace existing in utility accounts with the move towards land, average household billsfor water frastructure. Capital planning that looks privatization. A British accounting as increased by more than 45% in real ahead 5 to 10 years is required to keep sociation journal reported that 1985/86 terms between 1989 and 1995. abreast of infrastructure replacement profits were 19% of annual water sys •Some have argued that a water royalty requirements. Statistics that provide a tem costs in the UK. The Economist should be charged on water users to cap measure of system condition, such as magazine (February 24,1996)reported ture the "intrinsic value" of water. Mani annual breaks per km of water main, water system profits in 1994 of 25% toba tried to impose an annual water roy guide the capital planning process. Main ($2,300 million) on water sales of alty of $l/cubic decametre of capacity break statistics can indicate the need for $9,300 million. The same article pre on municipalities. Following protests, infrastructure investments when com dicted a profit margin of 20% for 1995. Manitoba discontinued this charge. Ontario Hydro already pays a water rental charge at hydro-electric stations based on installed capacity and benefit.

HUMIDITY

PROBLEM?

It paid $120 million in rental fees last year to the Ontario Ministry of Natural

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QUALITY (I.A.Q.) STRUCTURAL PRESERVATION DEHUMIDIFICATION

What cost level is "right" for a util ity? There are no generic industry guide lines providing a magic answer to this question. But there is value in bench marking - making comparisons with other utilities to see how the local per formance on specific tasks and costs compares to average and superlative per formance levels. Benchmarking stud ies are generally considered to be a way of identifying how to carry out tasks more cost-effectively, but they may also indicate that insufficient work is being done and that costs should be higher in certain areas of operations. The Revenue Side

Water and wastewater revenues origi nate primarily from user charges, prop erty taxes or senior government trans fers and grants (both of the latter have diminished in recent years). Under a full cost pricing policy, virtually all revenues originate from user charges. Utilities often use the property tax to recover the cost of capacity provided for fire protection. This practice is consist ent with full cost pricing since fire pro tection services benefit property owners in proportion to the value of their pro tected property. Cost recovery through

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ORY-O-TRON® A REGISTERED TRADE MARK OF DECTRON INC. 62

For more information, circle reply card No. 168 (See page 17)

tion to fire protection costs is in propor tion to the benefit that they receive. Only 12% of municipal water depart ments in our survey use the mill rate to recover water system costs while over Continued on page 64

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


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Sales of sedimentation & centrifugation equipment to exceed $4 biiiion Annual sales of centrifuges, clarifiers, hydrocyclones and dissolved air flota

tion systems will exceed $4 billion per year by the year 2000 up from just over

Asia is presently the smallest of the three major world regional markets. However, by the year 2000, Asia will equal the Americas and will be larger

$3 billion in 1995. South America and

than the United States and also will be

East Asia will be the fastest growing geo graphical market segments, according to the forecast by the Mcllvaine Company appearing in its new report. Growth in the mining industry will

larger that the combination of Europe and Africa. Asian growth will be particu larly large in clarifiers, thickeners and cy

drive the South American market

2000, but this will still be less than the

whereas, in East Asia the growth will be more diversified. Huge Asian expendi tures in sedimentation and centrifugation equipment for municipal water and wastewater, chemicals, pulp and paper, food, metals and power will supplement mining expenditures.

decanter centrifuge market in Europe. The market for hydrocyclones in

clones. Annual sales of decanter centri

fuges will rise to $ 192 million in Asia in

South and Central America in 1996 is

projected at $66 million. This will ac count for nearly half of the total of $ 145 million in sales of cyclones anticipated for the Americas segment. The world

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

wide trend toward the use of recycled paper is reducing the opportunity for dis solved air flotation systems for virgin pulp mills but greatly increasing the op portunity for the application of flotation to de-inking in the recycling process. The trend toward incineration of

municipal sludges and the need for drier filter cakes has given the high solids decanter centrifuges an advantage over belt filter presses. Mcllvaine predicts that municipal wastewater treatment plants in Europe and Africa will pur chase decanter centrifuges valued at more than $61 million this year. For more information, contact: The

Mcllvaine Company, Fax: (847) 2729673. 63


Water & Wastewater, cont' and connection charges and local im provement charges. There is a trend in the industry away

Figure 3 The Potential Impact of Full Cost Pricing $300

I

i^

from reliance on the mill rate as a rev

Profit($29)

Market Value Assessment($2)

enue source. In 1975, 60% of munici

and a Water Royalty ($1)

palities used the mill rate as a source of water revenues; today, about half do. Municipalities in our survey recovered less than 9% of revenues from property

Infrastructure Replacement($17) Loss of Grants($26)

Central Administration Costs($10) $200

Water Costs in Existing Property Taxes($10)

Existing Cost to the Residentiai user - $231

$100

Estimated Fuli Cost = $317

$0

40% of Public Utility Commissions charge costs to the mill rate. This dif ference is not surprising. To the FUG the mill rate represents a source of new revenue. The municipal water depart ment views a charge against property taxes as an inter-departmental transfer. The mill rate is used by many muni cipalities to recover all or a portion of wastewater system costs. About a third

taxes.

Municipalities moving away from the property tax are relying more on user charges as a revenue source. There are a variety of user charges related to dif ferent aspects of service. The principal user charges are, however,the user rates. These are the charges on our water bills that we normally associate with water and wastewater services. User charges are now the major revenue source for most municipalities. In our survey,91%

Existing Water BUI ($221)

of Ontario municipalities did so in 1990. of revenues came from the user rates. This practice does not conform to a full The average water bill for a metered cost pricing policy. There are, however, customer using 60,000 gallons annually certain charges normally associated with (23 cubic metres monthly)in the munici property that are a form of user pay, palities responding to our survey was namely charges to recover capital costs. $221 per year in 1994. Charges for These are payments by benefiting par wastewater services are comparable. At ties towards the cost of providing capi this level, water and wastewater services tal facilities for new servicing. They are a bargain in comparison to charges include development charges, frontage for other utilities (Figure 2). They are valve GXOOven/SHOULDEREO

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Water & Wastewater, cont'd. still a bargain when we add in estimated costs that would be required to bring our average customer charge up to a "full cost" charge (Figure 3). Municipalities like to keep their charges low and often compare their charges with other municipalities to de termine if their rates are "competitive". But is this good strategy or a sound ba sis for a cost recovery policy? The typi cal conclusion that low rates are good may result in under-investment in a wa ter system. This was the conclusion ar rived at when the City of Miramichi in New Brunswick compared their rates to others. They realised that their charges were too low and that they should be more in line with the other municipali ties if they were to have sufficient funds to operate, maintain and invest in their water and sewer systems. Respondents to our survey who indicated that their

mote full cost pricing as one means of achieving water efficiency. Crusaders against the federal and provincial defi cits favour full cost pricing policies for fiscal reasons. As a practical matter of maintaining solvency, utilities have al ways recovered their reported costs. The evidence suggests that, in Ontario, they do so now primarily through user rates, capital cost recovery charges and a va riety of other user charges. Current cost recovery practices are consistent with full cost pricing policies simply because

revenues were not sufficient to cover nec

budgeted costs must be fully recovered. If we fall short of full cost pricing, it is because our utility accounts do not recognise all costs. There are certain costs that may be added in the future for

essary repair and replacement costs said that their rates would have to increase by 20% to 50% to cover these costs. Rates

for all but one of these respondents were below the survey average. Summary Water conservation enthusiasts pro

be reflected in the rates when they ap

pear in the accounts, but not until then. Senior government policy changes with respect to grants and transfers are also likely to add to water costs that are recovered through the user's water bill. But grants and transfers already come out of our pockets. Full cost pricing sim ply means that these funds will come out of the right pockets, which is an appro

priate outcome so long as we recognise the legitimate need for financial support in cases where financial hardship pre vents smaller communities from achiev

funds will come out of the

ing minimum standards of water and wastewater servicing. The most significant departure from full cost pricing occurs when utilities fail to maintain their capital stock. There is some evidence that this is happening and

right pockets.

that low rate revenues contribute to the

But grants and transfers already come out of our pockets. Full cost pricing simply means that these

problem. Low user rates are generally good for the customer but not if it means that servicing standards cannot be main tained due to infrastructure deterioration.

This article is based on a presenta tion at the OWWA/OMWA Joint Annual

Conference, 1996.

instance as a result of the move to mar

ket value assessment or privatisation.

For more information,

There is no doubt that such costs will

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Wastewater Treatment

By Bob Willcocks, P.Eng.*

Shell Service Centre installs state-of-the-

art wastewater treatment plant

ShellCanada Products Ltd.re

placed an existing septic sys tem at its Highway 401 Serv

ice Centre west of Trenton,

Ontario with the latest and most sophis ticated in treatment plant technology. Acres & Associated Environmental was involved in the new treatment fa

cility from the outset of the project, pre paring a preliminary design which re viewed the plant's impact on groundwater and the surface water of nearby cold water creeks, and, following con ditional approval, completing the design which was tendered in early September 1995. Prior to the completion of design of the secondary components of the treatment works. Shell had pre-ordered the two package treatment units from Jet-tech Inc. of Kansas City. Jet-tech is represented in Ontario by C&M Envi ronmental of Barrie.

The wastewater,treatment facility consists of two Sequencing Batch Re*Acres & Associated Environmental

r -

actor(SBR)units,followed by an efflu ent holding and pumping facility which discharges effluent to an effluent filtra tion/infiltration pond. The previously existing septic tank and pumping station were modified to act as a pretreatment equalization tank and SBR feed facility respectively as all processes are batch fed. Wastewater originates primarily from the washrooms in the service centre.

The entire treatment facility is fully computerized and can be remotely op erated from external PC links through modem connection. The internal plant control is provided by proprietary soft ware furnished by Jet-tech. This is in turn linked to an on site PC through 'Wonderware'software. The computer ized system not only provides for remote control but also allows alarms and proc ess parameters to be monitored from a remote location. This allows the facil

ity to operate without direct operator control.

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The filter ponds provide storage for approximately one day offlow under de sign conditions. Effluent is distributed over the special sand filter media which removes effluent suspended solids be-

fore the effluent passes into the soil be low the ponds. There is also a layer of stone below the sand which acts as sup plemental storage until the water can percolate into the soil. Effluent which is discharged from the SBR treatment

process has been fully denitrified and chemically treated to lower the effluent

phosphorous levels to meet an antici pated final quality of 10,10,0.5 and 15 mg/L for BOD,SS,TP and Total Nitro gen respectively, to meet Ontario's most stringent effluent criteria. This facility is one ofthe first privately owned facilities which the Ontario Clean

Water Agency (OCWA) has agreed to operate on a Contract Basis. The need to meet stringent effluent quality criteria necessitated the selection of more non-traditional treatment tech

nology. In addition, the facility had to be fully automated and operable from offsite computer links in order to reduce operating costs. The design capacity is 140 mVd (40,000 gallons) and the de sign had to be suited to handle flows as low as 5,000 gallons during the winter. For more information, circie reply card No. 109

• Turndown of 1:1,000

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67


Product and Service Showcase Static tube aerator unit =°

'

o

t °o

The

Stainless steel pump

New prepared turbidity standards

POLCON®

"HELIXOR" Unit is a sub-surface mix

ing/aerating device, constructed of 12

inch

diameter

moulded poly propylene, incorpo rating an integral monolithic

W,■

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component through out its interior length.

S'

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HELIXORs are an

chored vertically and are supplied with compressed air at their base, creating a turbulent flow of air/

gas/liquid. Its key features are efficient

oxygen transfer and complete mixing conditions; low capi tal costs due to sim

plicity of installation and start-up; no mov ing parts underwater significantly reducing O&M costs.

Polcon® Aeration Systems For more information, circie reply card No. 295

Hach's new StablCal™ Turbidity Stand The ITT Elygt 3041 submersible pump is specially designed for corrosive liquid dewatering applications. The hydraulic and motor sections are integrated into a compact, space-saving unit which is re sistant to both corrosive and warm liq uids. All parts that come in contact with the liquids are made of corrosive resist ant stainless steel. With heads up to 20 metres and a capacity up to 7 1/s, Elygt's 3041 can handle most dewatering pump ing applications found in the chemical, pulp & paper and mining industries. ITT Flygt For more information, circie reply card No. 296

ards offer light-scattering properties iden tical to those of traditional formazin pri mary standard, but are stable at values as low as 1 NTU for two years from date of manufacture. StablCal Standards incor

porate the same suspended particulates found in formazin, manufactured using proprietary methods that stabilize the suspension. The standards are made un der controlled conditions to ±5% accu

racy. StablCal Standards are not instru ment specific; their performance matches formazin regardless of the turbidimeter used. Hach Company For more information, circle reply card No. 297

Oil and grease Interceptors

Portable mixers

deck screens

Stormceptor Canada have introduced the

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The Derrick triple deck screening ma

Pmceptor™ line of fibreglass reinforced

or base-mounted on beams, tank walls or

chines are available in Models A, C or

plastic (FRP) interceptors. Designed to effectively treat process wastewater con taining oil, grease, food waste and

other supports. Angle of entry may be adjusted to meet specific mixing require ments. These portable mixers find use in a variety of industrial applications:

Triple

D. Vibrators are either 1200 or 1800

RPM. All the decks are easily accessed through side doors. A reduced overall unit height is accomplished through uti lization of a dual vibrator "straight line" conveying action. With no exterior belts or drive mechanism there is no possibil ity of motor contamination by potentially damaging dust or chemicals. Derrick Corporation For more information, circie reply card No. 298 68

settleable solids, Pwceptor™ interceptors provide benefits beyond front line oil and solids separation. Their cylindrical de sign enhances hydraulic performance and reduces the likelihood of resuspension during subsequent flows. Ideal for inter nal and external installation.

Stormceptor For more information, circle reply card No. 299

waste treatment, water treatment and

batch chemical preparation. These porta bles are also ideal for mixing materials from 1 to over 25,000 CPS viscosity, in cluding paints, varnishes, polymers, tex tile sizes and dyes, pharmaceuticals and soaps. Delta Equipment For more information, circie reply card No. 300

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Product and Service Showcase Submersible mixers

Oil/water separators

New metering pump The new Sigma Series

Motor

Driven,

Dia

phragm Metering Pump from ProMinent® effi

ciently links this pump to auto

mated

KSB modular submersible motor driven mixers allow numerous combinations of

drives and hydraulic units. The high efficiency blades feature an ever-clean design, throwing off fibres, eliminating clogging and avoiding solidity problems. The mixers prevent the settling of solids in pump sumps and storm tanks, depos its on tank walls and improve the thick ening processes. KSB Pumps For more information,

process

control.

The

Sigma covers most temperature and chemical resistance requirements using the liquid end mate

McTighe Industries provides an oil/wa ter separator capable of constant opera tion with no attention, and a minimum

circie repiy card No. 286

For more information, circie repiy card No. 287

of maintenance. Separators equipped with the McTighe Petro-Pak™ can be ex pected to remove oil particles down to 20 microns in size and produce an efflu ent quality of less than 10 ppm of free oil. McTighe Industries For more information, circie repiy card No. 288

Dissolved oxygen analyzers

Laboratory filter press

50th anniversary catalogue

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Sigma delivers 59 - 413 litres per hour, at full capacity, and reproducible accu racy better than ± 2%. ProMinent FInid Controls

Hach's new cata

logue Products for Analysis 1997, marks the

The Royce Model 9010 DO Analyzer is a microprocessor-based instrument capa ble of measuring PPM levels of DO up to 99.9 PPM. It can continually control and maintain the level of DO in the aque ous system being monitored. The Model 9010 provides two standard high/low setpoint control relays for use in control ling external aeration devices, pumps, valves, movable weirs,or other electronic

equipment. Cancoppas For more information, circie repiy card No. 289

Self-cleaning fine screen

STEP SCREEN® is one of the most ad

vanced concepts for separating solid par ticles from wastewater/sludge/slurry. The STEP SCREEN® is unique in that the step shaped laminas (blades) form a screen upon which the caught particles build a blanket. Flow capacity is much higher than a conventional bar screen due to the greater effective opening through flow area (up to 25%). Dagex Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 292

A small capacity, O.OI cu. ft. plate and frame filter press is available from SERFILCO for evaluating the filterability of treated metal hydroxide sludges

company's 50th year of providing products to sim plify water qual ity analysis. It lists over 3,000

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products, cover ing the company's extensive line offield, laboratory, and process systems. New items include: DR/2010 Datalogging Spectrophotometer, 1900 WPC Process Particle Counter,new procedures for lead and mercury,and more. Hach Company For more information, circie repiy card No. 291

New water-jet eductors

Rugged, reliable pH meter

and the determination of moisture con

tent. The Laboratory Filter Press allows evaluation and lab analysis of influent, sludge moisture, metals content, and ef fluent quality before commitment to in vest in a production size press. Service Filtration of Canada

Elmridge "TLL" Series Liqui-Jet^'"' Eductors use water or other liquids at pressures of 10 psi or higher as the mo tive fluid, and operate on the Venturi prin ciple to pump other liquids or slurries. There are no moving parts or packings and no lubrication is required. A wide variety of standard models are available, generally from stock, and special units are also available.

Elmridge Engineering Inc. For more information, circie repiy card No. 293

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

Analytical Model 707 Big Scale pH Me ter is a rugged, reliable instrument, fea turing a big 7" scale, continuous from 014 pH and a polyethylene-shielded pH Probe Unit that eliminates ordinary pH electrode limitations. Model 707 is sim

ple to operate, with only two operating controls. It incorporates a high output amplifier with sensitive meter elimina tion. Analytical Measurements For more information, circie reply card No. 294 69


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Chemline's new solid plastic SB Series Back Pressure/Relief Valves are an ex

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cellent choice for chemical dosing lines 1/2" to 4". They offer reliable opening and adjustable relief pressures of3 to 150 psi. All-plastic construction offers high chemical resistance. They are hydraulically designed for low hysteresis, no flut ter, and low over-pressure to fully open.

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The Sharpies® MaxiMizer® DS centiifuge has achieved a breakthrough in dewater ing technology by exceeding 30% dry sol ids. The Sharpies® MaxiMizer® DS is a fully automated system that requires only minimal operator attention. It also pro vides environmental benefits; the unit's

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enclosed design contains troublesome aerosols and unpleasant odours. Alfa Laval Separation For more information, circle reply card No. 303

New web-based service

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Duske rotary drum dryers convert waste sludge into environmentally desirable products of value. A new Duske/Cemen Tech CSD-3000 Rotary Dryer in Leam ington, Ontario, produces 2-3 TPH of NViro Soil, a patented, lime-stabilized fer tilizer. The Duske dryer reduces drying time from days to minutes. Duske Engineering For more information, circle reply card No. 305

MAXMAG Magnesium Anodes are proven protectors in the fight against pipeline corrosion. They are available in a complete line of sizes, shapes and weights. They are made to strict stand ards of chemistry, production control, testing and certification. Interprovineial Corrosion Control For more information, circle reply card No. 306

Temporary pump systems

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Integral Anoxic Reactor oxidizes car bonaceous BOD, ammonia and organic nitrogen; reduces nitrite and nitrate ni trogen; restores alkalinity; recovers chemically bound oxygen; and reduces

Municipal valve installation and mainte nance can be simplified with AWWA grooved and shouldered valves and

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Eimeo Process Equipment For more information, circle reply card No. 308

Victaulic® couplings. Only 4 to 12 bolts are needed rather than the traditional 18

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Landfill Regulations

By Steve Hollingshead, P.Eng.

New landfill standards under review In Ontario

The current Ontario govern

ment is embarking on ambi tious and sweeping reforms to the province's environ mental legislation that encompass such diverse areas as spills, pesticides con

tainty involved in gaining approval for

and post-closure care, and financial as

a new landfill. In this article, we criti

surances.

cally examine the proposed new legis

Industry, as well as some municipali ties, have been pushing the government for some time to move away from its current performance standard approach towards a design standard. Under our current performance standards, landfill

lation to determine if the government has delivered in these key areas. Major components of the proposed trol, air quality, energy, water quality, new regulations are: environmental rights, environmental as • Restrictions on locating landfills too sessments and landfills. To address close to public airports, hazardous lands landfills, the Ministry of Environment such as flood plains, and environmen and Energy (MGEE) released a docu tally sensitive areas such as wetlands; ment entitled Proposed Regulatory • Specific methods by which sites have Standardsfor New Landfill Sites Accept to be tested and evaluated; ing Non-Hazardous Waste in June, 1996. • "Generic" design specifications for These proposed new regulations to On small and medium-sized landfill sites that tario's Environmental Protection Act feature a single composite liner system; have been under public review and dis • "Generic" design specifications for cussion since that time, and have gener large landfill sites with a double com ated considerable debate. posite liner system; The objectives that the government •An option to develop a site-specific de sign, as is currently done, but with even set for its new regulations were to re duce the time, cost and degree of uncer- more stringent requirements than pre viously; and • Standard requirements for site opera *Senior Engineer and Principal, tions, monitoring, public liaison, closure Gartner Lee Limited, Markham, ON. Transfer Trailers Brothers Industries custom

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proponents have to come up with a de sign best suited to the characteristics of the site. Then they have to demonstrate to the government that their design would meet all of the province's envi ronmental impact policies, such as the Reasonable Use Guideline and the

Engineered Facilities Policy. With a design standard, a proponent could simply select and build a landfill from an approved set of specifications. On the face of it, moving to a design standard appears to be the best way to meet the government's objective of re ducing time, cost and uncertainty in the approval process. However, this also represents a fundamental shift in regu-

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Landfill Regulations, cont'd. certain. The government is also propos ing environmental assessment reform but, unfortunately, the new landfill standards do not appear to help much in that area. In fact, there is no linkage at all to the EAA that would indicate how the landfill standards would be treated

Highly engineered landfills lined with clay and geomembranes are a main thrust of Ontario's proposed new landfill regulations. latory philosophy for Ontario. lion per hectare. The MOEE's two "generic" landfills Costs this high may be ample justifi are a move towards a design standard cation for most proponents to by-pass approach, even though they are nothing the MOEE's two generic designs and more than two examples of designs that invest in a site-specific design, hopefully would otherwise meet the current per for sites that are better than the worstformance standards on typical sites. The case sites assumed by the MOEE. problem is that, in order to be conserva By specifying exactly how landfill tive, the typical sites that were chosen sites should be tested and evaluated, the truly represent worst-case possibilities. government is simply entrenching into Some sites in Ontario may be this poor, regulation what was already good com but better locations can be found mon practice under the former approv throughout most of the province. Some als process. It is unclear how this will of the site features that the two generic make approvals much quicker or cheap er, other than for those who lack experi designs do not account for are: the pres ence of fine-grained soils that provide ence or expertise in good waste man natural attenuation of leachate beneath agement practice. On the other hand, the landfill; the possibility of a site suit the prescriptive nature of the proposed new regulations(dictating the minimum able for a natural or engineered "hydrau lic trap" design; and locations where number and depths of boreholes, for larger buffer zones can be supplied for example) will limit the flexibility for leachate attenuation purposes. In these experienced practitioners to carry out cases, and many others, finding a better programs suited to the wide variety of site will mean that the MOEE's two ge site conditions found throughout the province. It will also hamper the Min neric landfill designs are too conserva tive, and too expensive, as we shall see. istry staff in applying experience and Why did the MGEE not develop Judgment to an approval, as they previ standard designs suitable for a wider ously could by using the flexibility in variety of sites? Probably because these herent in working with guidelines rather would require more sophisticated analy than regulations. sis to set up the standards, and more ex Links to the environmental tensive and complicated siting criteria assessment process In our view, the clamour for design - complexity that would not contribute to streamlining the approval process. standards may really have been a reac A conservative, worst-case assump tion to the frustrations that were rooted tion about the type of site is the safest in the application of the Environmental way to develop a standard design, but Assessment Act(EAA)and the associ one of the key trade-offs is cost. By our ated environmental hearings procedures, estimate, the capital construction cost for not the Environmental Protection Act. the MOEE's single composite liner sys While the EAA is a fundamentally tem alone is more than $800,000 per sound and progressive piece of legisla hectare, which is very expensive for a tion, deserving of our support, there is small to medium-sized landfill. For no doubt that its original intent and scope larger sites, the MOEE's double com have been badly misused. As a conse posite liner system capital construction quence, landfill site approvals have be come lengthier, more expensive and less cost works out to an estimated $ 1.2 mil 72

in an environmental assessment process. A good example to illustrate this point is to examine what might happen if a search were set up to locate a site for one of the MOEE's "generic" landfill designs. The use of these designs man dates certain site requirements; for in stance, the ground water beneath the site must contain less than 50 mg/L of chlo ride. As the selection process advances through each stage, background chloride levels can be estimated based on re

gional information, but actual testing can only be afforded on a limited number of sites. Presuming that the MOEE's "ge neric" design cannot be altered, the en tire environmental assessment process may have to be re-worked if the testing eventually shows that the chloride re quirement cannot be met at the remain ing site(s). Back-tracking in an EA is time-consuming and expensive. The government faced a difficult challenge - to come up with a practical and affordable landfill design standard without compromising Ontario's already high level of environmental protection. By taking the safest route and aiming their "generic" designs at a worst-case site, an even more conservative stand

ard has been set, one whose price tag few landfill proponents will be able to justify. Therefore, site-specific landfill designs will likely continue to be devel oped that better suit the wide range of conditions found throughout the prov ince, following a process similar to what we already have now (but unfortunately made less flexible by the proposed regu lations). As a con.sequence, the time and cost savings anticipated by the govern ment may never be realized for most landfill proponents. The government should be credited for making a serious effort at reforming a waste management approvals process that is currently taking too long, costing too much, and lacking any certainty to the outcome. Changes that are underway to the environmental assess ment and hearings processes have the potential to result in significant improve ments. Unfortunately, the proposed new landfill standards will probably prove much less effective.

For more information,

circle repiy card No. 246

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


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Pulp & Paper

P&P industry has risen to the recycling challenges

Two national paper industry associations have formed an

alliance to promote greater paper recycling across the country. The Paper and Paperboard Packaging Environmental Council (PPBC) and the Paper Recycling Sec tion of the Canadian Pulp and Paper As sociation (CPPA) together represent over 90% of paper recycling mills in Canada.

In 1995, these mills recycled over four million tonnes of old corrugated containers, boxboard, paper bags,news papers, magazines and printing and writing papers from industrial,commer cial, institutional and residential sources. The new alliance, to be known as

process of establishing several regional committees (Western Canada, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic Canada) to focus on local recycling opportunities.

By filling their recycling bins, North Americans have created an urban for

est; by buying recycled products, they have spurred North American produc

ers to invest $11 billion in making recycled-content paper and packaging. The results are impressive. Canada is the largest importer of recyclable paper and a leading exporter of recycled-content paper. In 1995, overall consumption of recovered paper at Canadian mills in creased slightly to reach 4.1 million tonnes.

Paper Recycling Mills of Canada (PRMC),says even greater paper recov ery is possible in Canada. Technologi

A papermaking flashback The first paper mill in North America, a mill built near Philadelphia in 1690, used old rags and recovered paper made

cal advances have meant that more

from cotton and linen as its raw mate

grades of paper can now be recycled and the industry expects this trend to con

rial. As well, paperboard mills have been using recovered paper and paper-

tinue. The national alliance is in the

board for decades.

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Over the past six years, the Canadian pulp and paper industry has invested $1.5 billion in recycling and de-inking facilities. Today, about 60 mills in Canada use recovered paper either en tirely or partially as their source of fibre. Recycling objectives The concept of saving trees through recycling is highly misleading as the li on's share of the fibre used in paper pro duction comes from sawmill waste, in

cluding woodchips. The primary objec tive of recycling was, and still is, to lighten the burden on landfill sites, and thereby decrease the environmental im pact. But we should not underestimate the importance of recycling as an effec tive component of forest management. In 1989, there was only one news print mill in Canada capable of recy cling. Today, there are at least 23. In 1990, 65,000 tonnes of printing and writing papers contained a certain per centage of recycled fibre. In 1993, that figure had risen to 900,000. Where will the future recovered pa per stock come from? Canada already imports almost 2.0 million tonnes from the US, principally from border states, making Canada the top world importer of recovered paper. That's half the re covered paper Canada uses, and that stock is not guaranteed. Overseas pro ducers are bidding for US recovered pa per, and US producers will need another 9.0 million tonnes a year by the end of the decade.

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Raising North American recovery rates for recyclable paper is a partial solution but also a formidable challenge. Canada and the US recycle some 40 per cent of their paper. Germany and Japan recycle over 55 percent, but have more densely populated areas. In big cities, virtually all paper should be recycled, but a great deal isn't. Sev enty percent of office waste is landfilled. While many large buildings recycle, smaller buildings tend not to. Many curbside programs have begun taking all grades, but consumers do not necessar ily know that. Once, only newspapers, magazines and cartons were wanted.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Water

By H. Geerts, M.Sc., R.A. Goodings, REng., and R. Davidson, P.Eng.*

How much treated water ends up

Ananalysis using daily water and wastewater records can

provide the answer to the question, "how much treated water ends up in the sewer?" while helping municipalities to anticipate the impact of water conservation on servicing requirements. To the uninitiated, the answer seems

straightforward enough. The ratio of wastewater flow to water demand

should roughly be 1.0, given the volume of water consumed is approximately equal to the sewage generated. A 1993 Water Environment Associa

tion of Ontario (WEAO) survey re vealed a surprising amount of deviation from this. Of fifty municipalities sur veyed, forty-five reported ratios of an nual wastewater treated to water pro duced ranging from 0.5 to 2.0, and five from 2.0 to 4.0. Those familiar with water and waste-

water servicing know that simple ratios such as these fail to provide a perspec

in the sewer? the "extremes"), first cut estimates on the contribution of inflow/infiltration (1/ I) to the STP and the amount of water

of 39% from groundwater and storm-

used for irrigation could be made. In the sample communities, the ratio of annual sewage flow to water produced

wet weather events but contributed

water sources (I/I). C2 was found to have little flow from

groundwater flows to the STP to the tune of 22% of total flows over the year. Wet weather I/I was certainly a prob-

was 0.88, 1.09 and 1.22 (Table 1). Su-

Table 1

Municipality Populatlon Annual Sewage to Water Ratio Actual % of Water to STP % Flow to STP from I/I

Total I/I (dry weather) Total I/I (wet weather)

01

02

03

19,000

71,000

45,000

0.88 61%

1.09

1.22

75%

51% 49%

39% 15.6% 23.4%

25% 22.3% 2.7%

23.7% 25.3%

perficially, the relationship between wa ter and wastewater appeared reasonably

lem for CI and C3. These communi

close to 1:1 in all communities.

ers which partially account for their high wet weather flows. Age of their sewer systems is another factor. The Figure provides a profile of the

ties, however, have some combined sew

However, when the statistics on these

three municipalities were analyzed, it was found that CI, instead of having what appeared to be a good water to sewage ratio, in fact, had a system of

water users and wastewater contribu

tors in C2 and C3. Note the major dif ferences in the per capita water and

sewers that contributed an excess flow

tive on real life. Ratios tend to obscure

the reality of our less than perfect world - a world with leaky sewers, water loss, inaccuracies in metering and the need for large volumes of water for irrigation - and should be largely ignored. The path from water treatment plant to sew age treatment plant (STP) is far from predictable. It is only by disaggregating daily water demand and daily wastewater flow that their relationship can be understood. In a desk top analysis, CH2M Gore & Storrie disaggregated several years of daily water production and wastewater treatment records for three Ontario com

munities, referred to as CI, C2 and C3.

In order to compare water use to sew

age flows under normal conditions, ex treme daily water demand and sewage flow figures needed to be tagged and ex cluded. Extremes were experienced on the water side on days when demand for irrigation elevated water demand, and on the wastewater side, when precipita tion occurred, resulting in excess flows to the STR

By estimating dry weather waste-

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water flow and normal water use, and

comparing these with yearly averages (i.e. average over 365 days, including

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For more information, circle reply card No. 242 (See page 17)

75


Water, cont'd. Profile of Community Population 71,000(02) WATER PLANT

Profile of Community Popuiation 45,000(C3)

STP TREATMENT

WATER PLANT PRODUCTION

(75%)

(63%)

PRODUCTION

(82.6%)

STP TREATMENT

(51%)

^ 4S4 Udi FLOW FROM

407 l_/c/d

407 L/c/d

464 L/c/d WATER USE

LC

NORMAL

FLOW FROM

WATER USE

WATER USE

IN HOMES/ICI

IN HOMES/ICI

NORMAL ^

I—^

'

IN HOMES / ICI

fNOUSTRY t

WATER USE IN HOMES/ICI

(49%) ^MNHOLE

(10%)

(24%)

133 L/c/d

49Uc/d

(7.4%) 37 L/c/d

• IRRIGATION

TOTAL 493 L/c/d

TOTAL 540 Uc/d

I/I -2.7% WET WEATHER 22.3% DRY WEATHER

(1/1)

FLOW FROM I/I

178 L/c/d

FLOW FROM I/I

• UFW

442 L/c/d

MANHOLE

(25%)

(1/1)

• UFW

^

(13.4%)

/

99 L/c/d TOTAL 493 L/c/d

• IRRIGATION

TOTAL 906 L/c/d

I/I - 25.3% WET WEATHER

23.7% DRY WEATHEF

if unaccounted for water(UFW)included unmetered services(and not just leakage), some would end up at the STP. This would result in a small reduction in the amount of flow assumed to come from the intlow/intiltration (I/I). wastewater figures. Evidently,each mu nicipality has unique characteristics that affect servicing more than is immedi ately apparent to the consumer. For example,it is commonly assumed

flows to the STP(as in C3), and domes tic and industrial/commercial water con

that water conservation in homes will

sumption equally split the remaining 50%,then the impact of conservation of domestic water would be seriously blunted by the 75% of annual waste-

have a direct influence on flows at the

water from industrial and I/I sources.

STP. However, if I/I comprises 50% of

The real reduction in wastewater will be

1/4% for every gain of 1% in reduction of domestic sewage flows. This com munity may get a bigger "bang for its buck" by attacking its I/I problem. In communities with other characteristics,

residential conservation programs could be the most effective measure to reduce water demand or wastewater flow.

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Water, cont'd. It is important to appreciate that the methodology presented is intended to

tization contracts must consider, and be

update the analysis inhouse in the future.

accountable for such influences. Even

generally characterize water and wastewater systems for planning purposes.

municipalities owning their own treat ment plants need to know whether they should invest in reducing I/I or in ex panding plants to meet future require ments. Profiling water and wastewater systems using the system described can provide the information required to help

The answer to the question "how much treated water ends up in the sewer" is within the notebooks and spreadsheets of each individual municipality - and cannot be deduced from any studies, trends or literature. Suffice it to say that rarely is the relationship between water and wastewater as close as it appears.

Meter errors, service area differences, the influence of wet industries and other

variables point to the need to temper re sults with judgement and systemspecific experience. In fact, the extreme sewage to water ratios derived from the WEAO survey likely reveal more about the existence of such data problems or local anomalies than about the actual

relationship between water and waste-

make these decisions.

Reference: Water Environment Association

with minimal effort and cost. Once an

of Ontario. Survey of Municipal Sewage Systems in Ontario - 1993.

initial program is developed for a com munity, municipalities can maintain and

circle reply card No. 244

The proposed analysis can be done

For more information,

water.

Nevertheless, with some tailoring to reflect local conditions, the community profiles generated through this exercise provide a valuable perspective for evalu ating future servicing options,establish ing water conservation policies, setting water and sewer rates and undertaking capital planning. The profiles are also valuable educational tools for demon

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APPOINTMENT Mike Douglas has been appointed Man aging Director of Praxair Canada's In

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For more information about products, services and articies in this issue (November '96), you can: A Mail in the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mail this if faxing is not convenient) Be sure to fill in your name, address, job function and signature. ENVIRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkway. 8., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996

11


Reader Feedback Dear Tom, Congratulations on your receipt of the 1996 Harvey Southam Award. I know that our editorial director Kristin has al

ers-in-law, a Godiva of Peeping Toms), none is suggested for chemists or engi neers. Is there a message there? H.R. Eisenhauer, Ph.D.,

AD INDEX ABS Pumps

61 75

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Ainley & Associates

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ABJ

ready expressed our congratulations but I didn't want the opportunity to pass without adding my own. You must by

R&D News Editor,

now be the most decorated hero in the

Dear Tom,

war on illiteracy. We, of course, con tinue to enjoy your emanations. Once again, congratulations and best

Re: ES&E March Editorial Comment

Anthrafilter

Aquablast

wishes.

I found a quiet moment this p.m. and used it well to read your last editorial. Congratulations on another wonderful

Michael A. Walker,

effort.

Executive Director, The Eraser Institute, Vancouver

critical of the fourth estate. I'm sure

Dear Sir, Re: "Collective noun urgently neededfor lawyers" ES&B, March 1996. It has been said that nothing quenches a red-hot debate like a few cold facts. The

need you identify has already been ad dressed. In the 1991 edition of James

Canadian Association on Water Quality

Analytical Measurement

I do believe you may be just a bit too

CPPA

78

65 16 47

Colgate Palmollve

67,74

Dear Tom,

Davidson Environmental....

67

Congratulations for winning the 1996 Harvey Southam Editorial Career

Davis Controls Dectron

66

ment in the March edition of ES&E

slough (pronounced slu). Colin Kent, P.Eng., Ainley & Associates Limited

you were seeking: a surplus of lawyers. Other collective nouns describing your own profession include: •an erudition (or a rejection) of editors • a column ofjournalists • an optimism of publishers • a sufficiency (or vanity) of writers Although collective nouns are pro posed for a wide variety of persons(e.g. a chatter of MPs,a pestilence of Moth

2 26

Dagex

Dear Tom,

viduals. Included is the collective noun

2 66 44 67

Cancoppas

MacViro Consultants Inc.

magazine and your urgent need to come up with a collective noun for lawyers, I offer the following: A slough of liti gators. Our colleagues from Western

to consult my copy of Eric Partridge, Usage and Abusage, Penguin Books (reprinted 1979). This book lists ac cepted group nouns for about 100 spe cies of birds, mammals,fishes, and rep tiles (p. 298-299). For persons, there are a few gener ally accepted terms such as crowd and host. However, the book goes on to list nouns that have been suggested by vari ous authors to describe groups of indi

.71,73

Can Am Instruments Canadian Centre Canadian Water Treatment CH2M Gore & Storrle Chemllne Plastics

tions as to the authority for some of Mr. Lipton's collective nouns. His barren of mules and pass ofasses strike me as being somewhat suspect. Bill Patterson, P.Eng., King City, Ontario

March 1996 issue of ES&E, 1 hastened

Brothers Industries

Cancoppas

some are reputable although I've not met any! Well done. Howard Shrimpton,

Lipton's book An Exaltation of Larks, Award, it was well deserved. you will note that he refers to an elo Michel Bakhos, quence oflawyers and to an escheat of ITT Flygt lawyers. The tone of your article indi cates that you yourself might prefer a Dear Tom, superfluity ofsolicitors. With reference to your editorial com I must confess that I have reserva

Having just read and, as always,enjoyed your Editorial Comment, Collective noun urgently neededfor lawyers, in the

Aifa Laval Ambio Biofiitration

Canada will be familiar with the word

Dear Mr. Davey, I thoroughly enjoyed reading your edi torial regarding Harbor Branch(page 4, June 1996 issue). I shared it with our Managing Director and he and I are both pleased with how well the article was written.

Katherine Morton,

Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc. Dear Tom,

I have just caught up with my back cop ies of Masthead and discovered you had won the Harvey S. Southam Editorial Career Award, June 4.

Congratulations, mate. You must be very pleased. It's good to see a science and technology editor gain recognition. I wasn't at the KRW Awards this year but would have liked to have been there

to shake your hand. Tom Kelly, Kelly Technical Communications

Deep Shaft Delcan Delta Denso Derrick Duske

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33

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1996


Sample Group

Concentration

Pr!:^7ram

Wavelength

Date Stored

314

198

0.050

mg/L An.

315 316

198 198

0.050

mg/L An.

Surfact

198

mg/L An. mg/L An.

Surfact

320

0.050 0.050

15-JUL 96 09 46:45 15-JUL 96 09:52:22 15-JUL 96 10:04:13

Surfact

15-JUL 96 10 22:49

328

198

0.050

372

198

Surfact Surfact

96 13 46:45 96 14 10:07

398

198

405

198

mg/L 0.050 mg/L 0.050 mg/L 0.050 mg/L

412

198

0.050

414

198

426 431 442

198 198 198

0.050 0.050

445

198

An. An. An. An.

mg/L An.

mg/L mg/L 0.050 mg/L 0.050 mg/L 0.050 rog/L

605nm

Surfact

Surfact

9-JUL 96 14 :22:31

Surfact

19-JUL 96 14 :46:12

SurfaC

19-JUL 96 15:02:54 22-JUL 96 07 :35:52

An. An. An. An. An.

2-JUL 96 07:39:21 ^2-JUL 96 07:58:29 22-JUL 96 08:11:13 22-JUL 96 08:26:21

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Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 1996  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 1996  

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