Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1996

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

September 1996 7—r

i rj at-'. ''


t- .

Secchl Disks help cottagers monitor lake water quality Are membranes the future for wastewater treatment?

Regina chooses trenchless for sewer rehabilitation Remediation of former missile sites

Waterborne parasites - Part II Biological nutrient removal


FOR A SAFE ENVIRONMENT CALL US! Turbidity/Suspended Solids Analyzer and Sensors

Blanket Level Detectors No moving parts, no

The Royce Model

maintenance, no re-

7011 Suspended Sol ids Analyzer provides

calibration required. Reliable micro-proc

reliable, continuous


operation in waste treatment plants, riv

Continuously moni

ers, lakes and other

essor based electron

aqueous systems, A

tors and controls in terface level in tanks.

user friendly text

Numerically displays interface depth in

screen provides menu

feet, meters or per

strument will read in

centage of total tank depth, Displays either depth of interface or distance from surface to interface.

liter or density per centage and is auto-ranging. With features that include

driven setup. The in

Graphically displays full-depth interface profile on panel-mounted LCD graphical display. Trending Capability.

Applications: • Waste Treatment

• Any tank with a liquid/solid

• Petroleum


• Pulp & Paper

Parts Per Million

Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers

• Mining

either milligrams per insitu calibration, automatic color compensation (Patent Pending), true microprocessor operation, and automatic ambient light compensation (Patent Pending). The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly experienced in ef fluent streams (0-500 mg/l). The Model 73 submersible sensor is for medium ranges typically found in aeration basins (0-30,000 mg/L). The Model 74 in-line sensor is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS line applications (080,000 mg/l).

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen analyzers with features such as automatic cali bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel electronics, and low maintenance seif-cleaning probes. Four channei conversion available. Request Bulletins 9010/ 9040 and 94.

Circle 250 on Reader Service Card

Circle 251 on Reader Service Card

Circle 252 on Reader Service Card

Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

Portable instrumentation for pH,

Continuous Monitoring For

ORP, SS, Interface Level and DO

Gas and Fire

These Battery operated port able Analysers are rugged, water-proof and completely submersible. They are de signed for reliable remote op eration In Waste Treatment


Plants, rivers, lakes, etc. The

Model 500 pH/ORP Is avail able with an assortment of


Sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliable Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Portable Suspended Sol ids/Interface Analysers are Ideal for remote monitoring in

Check these features:

(3 Economical fuses inexpensive food grade . vinegar/non-hazardous buffer)

13 Wide Operating Range ,(.001 ppm to 100 ppm) 13 Low Maintenance


, (self cleaning ceii)


Easy to Install Circle 253 on Reader Service Card

aeration basins, short term

The Crowcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4") 19" Eurocard Rack. The Gas Monitor operates with Crowcon's and other Manufacturers' Gas Detectors, includ

ing infra-red and Gas and flame detector Sensors. Gas

Monitor has a data logging facility which provides for con

diurnal studies and laboratory applications. Each product features digital readout, microprocessor based electron ics with self-diagnostics. All models except for the 711 have analogue and RS232 digital outputs.

tinuous recordings of Gas levels. The System is supplied

Circle 254 on Reader Service Card

Circle 255 on Reader Service Card

with self-installing supporting Software which operates in a Windows environment.

Automatic Liquid Sampiing

BUHLER1023 Sampler

Please ask for details on

Crowcon's Portable single and mulli Gas Detectors.

Siudge Sampier

Wherever it's Needed

The BUHLER 1023 is an all stainless steel station

ary waslewater sampler, and the newest offering

I from EPIC. Rated for -30°C ambient tempera-

wide Range of Applications

is designed to extract samples

cost effective automatic

geted for permanent in

sampling to assist In monitoring municipal

and outdoor applications. The A.C. powered refrig erated unit can accommo

date various size sample

I collection bottles In glass

of sewage sludge from a flow

ing pipeline or alternatively

The Epic 1011T program mable portable wastewater sampler provides

1 tures, this sampler Is tar stallation in both Indoor

The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler


from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine

represents the only really prac

tical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique In its abil ity to sample sludges contain ing a high level of non-homo

and industrial waste-

water. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a

or plastic. An intelligent programmer Is provided which can be off site programmed for multiple sampling; it can also transfer data to and from the sampler's data logger facility. The programmer can be connected directly to a serial printer at site, for printing of data logged In the sampler. ISO 9001 produced.

container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for sub sequent analysis.

Circle 256 on Reader Service Card

Circle 257 on Reader Service Card

geneous suspended solids.

Typicai Applications: • Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs

• Mechanical


device feeds

EPS 1030

Sludge Sampler

• Road tanker loading/dis charge terminals

• Sea tanker loading terminals • Consolidation tank feeds ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

Circle 258 on Reader Service Card


CANCOPPAS LIMITED 1045 SOUTH SERVICE ROAD WEST, OAKVILLE, ONTARIO L6L 6K3 TELEPHONE:(905)847-2740 FAX:(905)827-6984 For more information, circie reply card No. 259

ISSN-0835-605X President STEVE DAVEY

August/September '96 Vol. 9 No. 4 Issued September, 1996


Publisher TOM DAVEY

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Western Canada and

Western US Rep, RON CANTON (604) 274-3849 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON Sales Rep. COLLEEN DAVEY Circulation VIRGINIA MEYER Publisher's Asst. KATHLEEN CARIGNAN

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumier

NOVAMANN (Ontario) Inc. Alan Church, C.Chem,

Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacVIro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng.

Sex, lies and videotapes — do TV journalists really cover their subjects? Editorial Comment by Tom Davey 5 Anti-fouiing system protects valves, pumps and pipes in N.S. ... 18 Corrosion protection for valves and pumps


is high priced disposal a thing of the past? 21 Regina chooses trenchless for domestic sewer rehabilitation .... 22

LCA should be considered for ail infrastructure purchases Municipal sewage and water systems are in a state of crisis Aircraft de-icing facility uses corrugated polyethylene drainage pipe Water industry challenge — waterborne parasites — Part ii Beware the cysts of March UV not only deans water, it destroys viruses and purifies air

26 30


Are membranes the future for wastewater treatment?


How the U.K. is cleaning oily water


32 35 40

Bioiogicai treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters for nutrient removal


New techniques for the reduction of unaccounted-for water


Environmental assessment and remediation of former missile sites in Ukraine


CRA Consultants

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-mcnttily business publication pub lished by Environmental Science & Engi neering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and dis

Lessons learned in applying provincial guidelines to a mature subwatershed


Effective environmental management demands a "preparedness audit"


Computerized operations and maintenance manuals improve performance and costs


Canadian Titanic explorer to open WEFTEC '96 in Dallas



ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, wafer and wastewater treatmenf plant operators and contractors.

Check out our new web site


Canadian Pubiications Mail Saies

Product Agreement No. 18197 Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

Printed in Canada, by Web Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $25.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Envi ronmental Science & Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tei:(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca, web site: http:// www.esemag.com


Departments Ad Index


Product Showcase




R&D News


Industry Update Literature Revie-ws

6-16 72-74



Reader Service Card


Our cover story. Cottagers can measure the water clarity of their lakes using Secchi Disks supplied by the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment & Energy in a cost-effective self-help program. Story on page 80. Photos by Tom Davey. Information presented in ES&E is coliected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


I Mi




The Pafehled *


fMunicip ufactmred under

Sys.tem is


the 01w^eered ' for



, •Removes oil i' qualifV'-' •Traps sedimeit


^ It

'Does not scour •Effective Proven




'' ?"


-WX" .

•Versatilely •inexpensive • •Maintenance







Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

and videotapes — do TV journalists really cover their subjects?

We practised freelance

writing for many years at a country retreat in


kept several horses. Armed with this dual experience, we can confidently vouch for the etymological accuracy of the following items. In the equestrian world, when breed ing concludes,the stallion is said to have covered the mare. On television, when

enviromnental facts are often covered

much the same way as the mare was. The disinformation about environ

mental issues has cost the public far more than it knows. Public hysteria generated by slanted and sensational media cover age has resulted in hundreds of millions being wasted. The Interim WasteAuthor-

mation has been astronomical. A sub

stantial number of proven treatment processes could have been installed for this sum of money and there would be public outrage ifthe real costs ofdistorted media coverage were ever calculated. Good news seems anathema to many television reporters. On the rare occa sion when they do report environmental progress, insertion ofthe conjunction but seems mandatory. For example, a report might say Atlantic Salmon have retumed

Aurora where we also

anchors breathlessly report news stories, they often introduce a reporter, whom they say, has been covering the story. As many scientists know only too well, when the story subsequently unfolds, the

for years, costing many more millions. The cover charge of media disinfor

to the River Thames for the first time in

ity and the Ontario Waste Management Corporation cost Ontarians over $225 million without a spoonful of waste be ing treated or an ounce of solid waste being interred. And it would be easier and cheaper to locate gold, then mine it, than fund the environmental assessments of many landfill proposal hearings which drag on

decades. Then, after an imperceptible pause,the presenter will continue, but enviromnentalists fear that many London ers will still feel it necessary to buy bot tled water for drinking water purposes. As noted, the word but, is a conjunction and conjunctivitis is also the medical name for an eye inflamation, somewhat appropriately known as Pink Eye.




Whether you're pumping highly corrosive effluent or fresh water, you want your pumps to be out of sight — and out of mind. KSB is the world's largest pump manufacturer,


so we know the kind of low-maintenance

reliability you need. At KSB, we manufacture a full spectrum of centrifugal pumps, each customized to suit your specific pumping applications. Through extensive research, KSB has developea wear and corrosion resistant materials which allow our pumps to be used under the most severe operating conditions. From multi-tnousand hp horizontal split case

water pumps, to submersible waste water pun^s ... our pumps are easily installed and forgotten. They keep on performing, year after year. After year.

KSB Pumps Inc.52 West Beaver Creek Rd.,#16,Richmond Hill, Ont. UB 1L9 (905)882-4313 Fax:(905)882-4315 9601

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1996

For more information, circie reply card No. 249 (See page 33)

Industry Update

vironmental issues as Canada welcomes

shops and special events, as well as an exhibition ofimportant achievements in the area of protection ofbiodiversity and sustainable development, will be held within the Congress' theme of "Caring for the Earth". These events will be open to the public from October 17 to 21 at

some 2,000 participants from over 130

the Montreal Convention Centre.

countries to the World Conservation

Among those who have confirmed that they will be participating are Maurice Strong,environment adviser to the president of the World Bank; Sir Martin Holdgate, former lUCN Direc-

World Conservation

Congress coming to Montreal From October 13 to 23, Montreal will

be the site of discussions on global en

Congress. On this occasion, the World Conser

vation Union(lUCN)will be holding its 20th general assembly. Thematic work

tor General; Dr. Stephan Schmidheiny who founded the World Business Coun

cil for Sustainable Development; William Ruckelshaus, former adminis trator of the US EPA; Elizabeth

Dowdeswell, the Canadian Under-Sec

retary-General of the United Nations; and Sir Shridath Ramphal, former sec retary-general of the Commonwealth and member of the Brundtland Commis sion.

For further information, Tel: (514) 287-9107 or 1-800-691-8426.

EMSL opens fourteenth lab EMSL Analytical Inc., headquartered in

Technology Works!

Westmont, NJ, has added EMSL ofBuf-

falo, NY to its national laboratory net

â–ş In An Ultrasonic Level System That Combines Full Capabilities And Low Price The MiniRanger Plus is an ultrasonic level measurement device ojfering a broad range of advanced capabilities, along with high reliability, easy ijistallation and low maintenance - all at


The Buffalo office is NVLAP

accredited for the analysis of asbestos in all matrices using TEM, PLM, and PCM analysis. Lead analysis of paint chip, dust wipes, and air cassettes is also available and ELPAT participation planned. The Buffalo laboratory is man

aged by Tom Spangler. EMSL of Westmont, NJ holds AIHA accredita tion for both asbestos and lead.

OPCEA comes of age at 21st annual meeting

a competitive price.

A 5m measurement range for solids and 10m for liquids

A Advanced Sonic Intelligence'" echo processing software ensures accuracy

A Altemating pump control for up to 2 pumps

A No moving parts reduces maintenance and downtime

A Quick-connect wiring provides for simple installation Pre-calibrated "Quick Start" programming allows easy set-up, with minimal training required

Penny Davey (right), 1995/96 OPCEA President, receives her Past-President's

plaque from incoming president John Carney, BNA Bonfiglioli. Photo- Steve Davey

The versatile

MiniRanger Plus measures both


ES&E's Penny Davey finished her term

liquids and solids to 0.25% of range







730 The Kingsway Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B1

president of the Ontario Pollution Con trol Equipment Association at the An nual General Meeting, February 13, 1996. John Carney of BNA Bonfiglioli took over as president as OPCEA came of age. OPCEA runs the highly successful tabletop exposition at the annual confer

705/745-2431 • Fax 705/745-0414

ence of the Water Environment Associa

The Dolphin System Comverter allows the MiniRanger Plus to be easily programmed via PC or laptop. Technology based. Customer driven.

tion of Ontario.

For more information, circle reply card No. 247 (See page 33)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

are Canadian-made..

100% Solving problems in the waterworks fitting industry is a Terminal City tradition.


-Push Joint D.I.


-Mechanicai .Ioint D.I

Terminal City provides you with access to technical product data through factory consultation.

Terminal City provides you with a complete fitting line-

Compact Ductile Iron—AWWA C153, 4 inch through 16 inch; DITYT® or DIMECH®

Ductile Iron and Grey Iron-AWWA CllO, 4 inch through 24 inch; TYTON Mechanical Joint to 30 inch

Ductile Iron and Grey Iron-ANSI BIB.I, 3 inch through 30 inch; Flanged Fittings Terminal City also provides a variety of "Special" fittings for specific installation needs. One "Special" will do the work of two or more standard fittings.

Make the Right Connection...CALL

IRON WORKS LTD. Manufacturers of Waterworks Fittings, Gate Vaives and Fire Hydrants 1909 Franklin Street,Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1

Phone(604)253-7525 •

FAX (604)253-6365

For more information, circle reply card No. 248(See page 17)

Industry Update Clarke Transport

$2,500 to the ECC. He received the sen tence for violation of section 40 of the

Canada fined and an

Environmental Protection Act.

employee gets jail term

Mark Gettins(not a Clarke employee) who, along with John Done,transported A Newmarket, Ont. court sentenced a the drums, was sentenced to 10 days in Clarke Transport Canada employee to jail and fined $3,500. 90 days in jail for illegally disposing of Richard Case,operations manager of liquid waste and another man to 10 days the Toronto Terminal, was fined $6,000. in jail for transporting the waste.

technology(21% were private serviceproviders, 11% public utilities, 10% operators of environmental and waste disposal facilities in industry,8% opera tors of public facilities, etc). A further 17% of the trade visitors came from the sector that manufacmres envirorunental

and waste disposal technology. Fifty-one percent ofIFAT exhibitors polled intended to take orders during the fair. When asked if they had achieved their trade fair aims, exhibitors gave IFAT 96 above-average ratings.

Clarke Transport Canada Inc., of Record participation Concord, was ordered to pay a total of reported $89,999, including a contribution to the IFAT 96 reported a record number of Environmental Compensation Corpora IFAT 99 will be held at the New tion(ECC). The Crown corporation had exhibitors- more than 1,800 companies Munich Trade Fair Centre in Munichreimbursed the municipality which car (+16%)from 36 countries-and more than Riem from May 4-8, 1999. Contact: ried out the cleanup of the liquid waste. 10,000 trade visitors from 85 countries. According to a survey, 92% of the (416) 291-6359. In order to avoid the cost oflegal dis visitors polled said IFAT 96 was "good" posal, approximately 13 drums contain Hong Kong goes to "excellent". The features which visi ing hazardous materials were first aban doned at night in Brampton, and later tors mentioned most frequently were the underground for refuse transported to Hagersville. One dmm scope and completeness ofthe range of processing leaked a small quantity of liquid onto exhibits, the presence of market leaders, Hong Kong's first underground waste and the fair's role for the entire sector. the ground, contaminating the soil. compaction facility, will boost the colo Attention was focused on sewage treat The discharge was successfully con ny's refuse handling capabilities without tained and cleaned up by the town of ment, solid waste treatment, recycling, taking up valuable commercial land. The and sewers and drains. Haldimand at a cost of $9,837. $50 million(Cdn.)waste transfer station, The survey showed that 67% of the John Done, manager of Health and to be known as Hong Kong Island West, visitors, totalling more than 100,000, Safety for Clarke Transport was sen will be housed in two giant caverns some came from different areas ofapplication tenced to 90 days in jail, six months pro 60 metres underground. The 27 metre bation, and was ordered to reimburse of waste disposal and environmental span of each of them is believed to be the largest in this part of the world. Hong Kong Island West has been de signed to compact up to 1,000 tonnes ofrefuse a day, which is then container ised for shipment elsewhere and dis posal as landfill. The mammoth project is being tackled on behalf of Swire BFI Waste Services for the Hong Kong Gov ernment's environmental protection de

Coming next spring!!!

1997 Ontario Environmental

Expo and Conference March 13-14,1997


Meet Ontario's key environmental protection professionals at the Ontario Environmental Exposition. Exhibitors will include manufacturers, distributors and

service companies who provide products and services to effectively manage and control hazardous, dangerous,toxic materials, air pollution, site remediation, groundwater cleanup and industrial wastewater. Products and services will relate to treatment systems,

remediation, protection, detection, transportation, handling, disposal, training, education, health, safety, emergency response, regulation compliance, engineering, testing and

The alternative design avoided the conventional long, deep excavation approach, and it had the advantage of compactness.

Site work started in May 1995 and Trafalgar used a number of drill and blast rigs to excavate within the hard and abrasive volcanic tuff. The plant is ex pected to be ready for service in mid1997. Another project is reported to be pending in the same rock type but this time the aim is to create an underground water reservoir.

information services.

This event is being hosted by Great West Expo, Inc., producers of EnvironmentalTrade Shows for over 10 years.

ADDENDUM Rita Adrlenne, B.Sc., M.B.A. was one of the authors of the article "The

For further details contact:

City ofKelowna embarks on a water metering public/private partnership", which appeared on page 32 of the

Great West Expo, Inc. Tel: (403) 254-9222, Fax:(403) 256-8495

Reserve your exhibit space now!!

June 1996 issue of Environmental

Science & Engineering magazine.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

ince 1974 Aco has been

providing industry quality plastic(HDPE/XLPE/LLDPE) and FRP storage containers and containment basins. All containers

and basins are designed and built to meet your individual requirements. To our existing customers, we thank you for your continued support. If you are not familiar with Aco call 1-800-542-9942 or fax 1-800-542-4722

and we will send you a complete information package. f

T tp-.i-

1' '-iCsii—

ACO CONTAINER SYSTEMS 794 McKay Road Pickering, Ontario L1W 2Y4

6689 Orchard Lake Road, Unit 171 W. Bloomfield, Ml 48322

*Pour le service a la clientele contacter Matthieu Tanguay, ext. 25 For more information, circle reply card No. 262(See page 33)


Industry Update ES&E Publisher wins top honour at 1996 Canadian Business Press award banquet On June 4, at the University of Toronto, Tom Davey was named the 1996 winner of The Harvey Southam Editorial Career Award at the culmination of the Canadian Business

Press Awards banquet. The citation read: "Tom Davey has repeatedly demonstrated leadership in both publishing and the environment industry. His work ranges from learned papers and presentations, to newspaper articles and broadcasts that translate complex issues into plain language without losing scien tific accuracy. He has worked as a jour nalist in England, Australia, and Canada, in newspapers, magazines, and as an editor for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "As editor of Water & Pollution Control(W&PC)maga zine, he won the first of his many awards for an investigative story written in 1968 that linked detergent phosphates with eutrophication of the Great Lakes and other waterways. In 1970 he became the first person outside the United States to win the prestigious J.H. Neal Award from the American Business Press in New York. He won a second Neal in 1982.

"The Washington-based Water Environment Federation

presented the Schlenz Medal to him in 1980, in Las Vegas, Nevada; again he was the first person outside the United States to win this award.

"Later, the Canadian engineering profession commissioned

him to write the script for its centenary filnt: The Invisible Profession. This film, in French and English, was shown across Canada during the Canadian Engineering Centennial year in 1987. "In 1988, the Davey family launched a new magazine. Environmental Science & Engineering. Tlie AWWA hon oured the magazine with a special citation in 1996 in Wind sor, Ontario.

"The effects of Tom Davey's writing have reached far beyond the enviroinnental community. Over the years, many of his articles have been published by Canadian newspapers, including the Toronto Sun, The Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, Kingston Whig Standard. Muskoka Sun Group, and many others. These articles have drawn the country's atten tion to key environmental issues that affect notjust everyone today, but future generations." The Harvey Southam Editorial Career Award is named in honour of the man who was viewed by many as both a champion ofeditorial quality and a carmg human being. Spon sored by Southam Magazine and Information Group, the Harvey Southam Editorial Career Award recognizes the life time editorial achievement of a businessjournalist. The win ner must have the highest editorial standards and be recog nized for his or her contributions to the Canadian Business

Press tradition of distinguished editorial initiative, leadership and integrity.


Complete Spill Containment For Existing Tanks


The EnvirodikeT^ offers an economical way to upgrade your existing above-ground storage tanks to provide complete secondary containment. The Envirodike's unique patented design is available in a variety ofshapes and sizes to accommodate farm tanks, utility tanks, generator fuel storage tanks, waste oil tanks and fur nace oil tanks. Carefolly engineered all weather shields are an integral part of the design keeping precipitation and debris out of the Envirodike.

by UV absorption No reagent, low operational cost Range: 0- 200 mg/1 Result in 15 seconds, optimum control

Output: 6 relays, 4-20mA, 2x RS-232 Alarm transmission by modem Fixed or portable Minimum maintenance

For more information contact: 1410, boul. Taschereau, 13-200,

SPECTRA ENVIRONMENTAL LTD. 1-800-776-5976 For more information, circle reply card No. 260 (See page 33)


La Prairie (Quebec) Canada J5R 4E8 Tel.: (514) 444-8420 Fax: (514) 444-8422

For more information, circle reply card No. 261 (See page 33)


Why do over 200 _

municipalities in Ontario use the Ontario Clean Water Agency for their water and wastewater services?

Consistent, Reliable Service Open, Responsive Communications Local Customized Attention

Competitive Pricing The Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA) is the largest supplier of water and wastewater services In the province, serving almost 5 million Individual consumers. For more than 40 years, we have provided con sistent, reliable service to our clients.

Today OCWA Is changing In ways that will redefine client service In the Industry. We are committed to setting a new standard for service

Industry Leaders In:


• Operations and Maintenance • Infrastructure

Development • Project Management • Public/Private


A talented team of service experts has been selected to represent OCWA to Its clients. Our new Client Services Representatives will be

located In the field to provide proactive, timely and effective service tailored to the client's needs.

The changes we are making will have a positive Impact on productivity. We are positioning OCWA to offer clients value-added service at competitive prices.

OCWA will continue to draw on Its considerable past experience to the advantage of existing and new clients.

To find out more about OCWA's services, or to meet with a Client Services Representative, please contact us at 1-800-667-0CWA. Ontario








For more information, circle reply card No. 265 (See page 33)

Industry Update Two men jailed for [llegal waste disposal

17 at Old City Hall in Toronto. Quirino Antonio Lopes also received a $75,000 fine for three counts under the Environ

mental Protection Act(EPA).

site For the second time in less than a month, Quirino Antonio Lopes, 65, was sen tenced to jail for charges related to ille gal waste disposal sites. His son, Kenny Lopes, also received a one month jail term for a charge related to an adverse effect from the operation of an illegal waste disposal site. Justice ofthe Peace Peter O'Donnell passed sentence June

Earlier in the month Quirino Antonio

Lopes was sentenced to 90 days in jail and his son Dale Lopes was sentenced to 15 days in jail for violating a court injunction prohibiting them from waste management activities and for failing to clean up a Mississauga property used as

All charges relate to the operation of an illegal waste disposal site at East Lib erty Street, in Metropolitan Toronto. The property is owned by the Canadian an illegal waste site. National Railway(CNR)and was used MacDonald elected by the defendants as a waste disposal site without the prior knowledge of the CEO chairman CNR. The offences took place between Eric A.D. MacDonald, M.Sc., P.Eng., April 13, 1995 and July 6, 1995. has become chairman of the Consulting






Engineers of Ontario (CEO) after an ill ness prevented Michael Provart from assuming the role. Eric MacDonald is the inaugural president of Acres & Associated Environmental Limited, a company newly formed in 1996 by the

merger of Associated Engineering (Ont.) Ltd. and the Environmental Group of Acres International. In his address at the CEO Annual


Meeting, he discussed the changing markets which are developing in the consulting industry and a responsive strategy for success. "The new markets

which are presenting themselves require

aste water slurry being fed into a errick Flo-Line screening machine.



successful consultants not only to retain and update their technical skills, hut also to develop new skills in the areas of fi nancing, management, marketing, total quality management, and business de velopment," he said. Editor's note.


â– 'on corporations control B.O.D.

Bemand) discharges reatment costs, have ous need for efficient,

effectiveieauiDment to

tpp soli^^cSncentraatioh, with over 40 g experience, is now

We were saddened

when Mike Provart, a Vice President of Dillon, tireless worker for the AWWA and a former member of ES&E's Advi sory Board, passed away recently after a long illness. His contributions to our industry will be greatly missed.

XCG announces merger

RecoVei^Sf:processed a waste water stream

0i43MM urethane sc

Effective October 1, XCG Consultants

ifftis equipment teqi

Limited and its operating companies,


W20 Inc., XCG Enviromnental Services


Inc., and XCG Environmental Manage ment Systems, will he integrating opera tions into a single company. K

epvery of:

The new XCG Consultants Limited

will offer existing and future clients the benefit of expertise in a full range of environmental services in four offices in

Mississauga, Kitchener, Kingston and Vancouver.




1586 Griffiths Place

2925 Miners Ave.

9030 Leslie St. Unit 5

Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B IG2

Kelowna. British Columbia VIZ 2T7

Saskatoon. Saskatchewan S7K 4Z6

Phone: 604-769-3848


Phone: 905-771-8400

Fax: 604-769-5859

Fax: 306-931-1 128

Fax: 905-771-891 1

The new president of XCG Consult ants Limited, George Zukovs (W20), together with current XCG principals Stephen Nutt, Richard Rush and Evan Jones (XCG EMS), will lead the new company.

For more information, circle reply card No. 266 (See page 33)

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Industry Update


Getting cash from old credit cards

Proteus waste water treat

ment system is capable of treating municipal

Credit cards, computer housings, plastic pipe and siding can all be recovered and recycled into high quality vinyl prod ucts. Vinyl re-compounders, like Parma Plastics of Guelph, Ontario, are recycling more than 15 million pounds ofindus trial scrap vinyl each year, generating revenues for compa nies that once considered these materials as waste. "Vinyl scrap is a valuable commodity," says Campbell Hendry, Parma's Materials Manager. "Companies and municipalities that generate substantial quantities of scrap are now selling these materials rather than disposing ofthem in landfills." A regional recycling centre in the City of Brockville, On tario, now collects scrap vinyl and sells it for ultimate conver sion into pipe products. "Many municipalities are now realizing that they can col lect their vinyl scrap materials, have it picked up by a Cana dian vinyl pipe manufacturer, and make a few dollars at the same time," says Frank Yorio, Vice President of Manufactur ing forlPEX Inc. "It definitely makes environmental sense!"

waste water to primary, secondary or tertiary

standards. Proteus provides the system as a ser vice tailored to meet both the treatment and

financial needs of each client. Fees are based on

the type of treatment needed, the quality and quantity of waste water generated, the nature of the installation, and financing as required. The combined technical and financial package is known as the "Proteus Solution."


Modular Effluent Treatment System (METS), which is exclusive to Proteus, provides enhanced primary treatment followed by multi-media sand filters, biofilters and an ultra-violet disinfection

system for secondary and tertiary treatment,

Miroslaw Romanowski Medal goes

including a sludge management system.

to WCGR researchers Dr. John A. Cherry and Dr. Robert W. Gillham of the Water loo Centre for Groundwater Research have been awarded the

Miroslaw Romanowski Medal by the Royal Society ofCanada. The medal is awarded for significant contributions to the reso lution of scientific aspects of environmental problems or for important improvements to the quality of an ecosystem in all aspects, terrestrial, atmospheric and aqueous brought about Continued overleaf




Hew subdivisions - at source treatment Closed system - eliminates odour

Small tooturint - efficient, compact system Economical - low operating costs Reliable - modular design Expandable - modular components

Hydromantis can help. We have the people and tools you need to make effective improvements to your wastewater treatment plant. Our engineers are experts at process audits, process optimization, and process design, as well as testing on the desktop, pilot-plant, and full-scale levels. What's more, as the developers of GPS-X and Sim Works, we're experts at using the most advanced modelling tools in the industry to help you get the results you need. Use your money more effectively. It's time for Hydromantis consulting services.

Flexible - modifies to suit treatment Versatile - installation on site Finance nian & service maintenance -

20 to 25 years



Environmental Systems Inc.

Hydromantis,Inc. ConsulUng Engineers


200 - 2415 Pegasus Rd., N.E. Calgary, Alberta, Canada

(90.5; 322-0012

T2E 8C3

fx:(903) 322-0031

Tel: (403) 543- 2399 Fax:(403) 543-2398

info@bydromantis.cm wivw.hydroviantis.cm

For more information, circle reply card No. 267 (See page 33)

For more information, circie repiy card No. 268 (See page 33) 13

Industry Update by scientific means. cycling mills in Canada. These mills Dr. Cherry's work deals with the de recycled over four million tonnes in velopment and implementation of new 1995. approaches including sealable-joint steel The new alliance, to be known as sheet pile cells (Waterloo Barrier), for Paper Recycling Mills of Canada conducting field studies ofsolvent con (PRMC),says even greater paper recov tamination and cleanup. Dr. Gillham has ery is possible. Technological advances invented and conducted the pioneering have meant that more grades of paper research on reactive iron technology, can now be recycled and the industry which is now the leading new technol expects this trend to continue. ogy for controlling solvent contamina The recycling mills of PRMC (On tion with minimal long-term cost and tario) want municipalities to think longer maximum water conservation. term when designing their municipal For more information,contact Leanne contracts. Mills, which represent per Gelsthorpe, Communications Officer, haps 70% by weight ofthe end-markets Waterloo Centre for Groundwater for all "Blue-Box" materials in the prov Research, (519) 885-1211, ext. 2892, ince, have invested millions of dollars email: lgelstho@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca. in cleaning, screening, and de-inking technologies. Tojustify this investment to their vari Paper recycling mills ous shareholders, the mills need to be as form alliance certain as they can be of a continuous Two national industry associations have fibre supply. Municipalities want sta formed an alliance to promote greater ble end-markets and fair market prices. paper recycling across the country. The To a recycling mill, anything short of Paper and Paperboard Packaging Envi a three-year contract is the spot market. ronmental Council(PPEC)and the Pa Three to five-year contracts or longer are per Recycling Section of the Canadian preferred. The benefit to a municipal Pulp and Paper Association(CPPA)to supplier is that it will be assured of a gether represent over 90% of paper re continuous market, says PRMC.

Trojan Technologies Inc. gets $2.2 million contract to supply UV4000™ systems to Calgary and Edmonton Trojan Technologies Inc. of London, Ontario, has been awarded contracts

with a total value of approximately $2.2 million to supply large scale ultraviolet disinfection systems to the City of Calgary and the City of Edmonton, Al berta.

Trojan will supply the City ofCalgary with a System UV4000™ worth $1.3 million, to be shipped in late 1996. The City of Edmonton has increased its equipment contract, expanding by 33% the previously announced System UV4000^'^ order, to a revised total con tract value of $3.6 million. The rede

signed system will disinfect to a maxi

mum flow of560,000 MVday. Although there were a number ofen

gineering firms involved in the project, the primary contact for the UV Disin fection portion ofthe project was CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited.

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors Si Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressor & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM,at discharge pressure to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals _ . have been operating with utmost

reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as combustion drying, agitation, fludizing, oxidation vacuum cleaning, sewage aeration, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 60 years. --(I.-.

Contact us today for free catalog!

HOFFMAN ^8^ liuliislrics of C aitada l.iinilcd


58 Bertal Road,

Toronto, Ontario, M6M 4M4,416/763-4681 Fax:(416) 763-0440

For more information, circle reply card No. 271 (See page 33)

Environmental Science & Engineering,September 1996

Industry Update New loading facility kicks off Main Treatment Plant's Biosolids Demonstration Project


Preparedness Support Services

Preparedness Audits Plastic curtaining instaiied below each loading hopper helps reduce odours. Photo by Steve Davey

Metro Toronto's new biosolids truck

loading facility, located at the Main Treatment Plant, was officially opened in August. The $3.5 million facility is the first step toward re-use of biosolids, making it possible for Metro Works to divert up to 50 percent ofthe plant's sewage sludge

from incineration.

• Pre-Training • Pre-Planning

• Chemical Management

Terratec Environmental Ltd. will be

using a portion ofthe biosolids for agri cultural land application. Harbour Remediation and Transfer Inc. is work

Response Training

ing on a project with Falconbridge to remediate mine tailings using Metro's

• Practical

biosolids for alkaline stabilization.

• Hands-On

• Site-Specific • Product-Specific • Common Sense

Harmsco'^ Hurricane Filters Cut Filtration Costs Combination cyclone separator and cartridge filter in a single compact design. Separates dense solids prior to cartridge filtration for extended filter life. Single cartridge filter element is easy to remove, clean and replace! • Three models

• Single cartridge element is cleanabie & reusable in most applications • 0.35 to 150 micron ratings

Emergency Plans • Preparedness • Response • Mitigation • Recovery

Site-specific Product-


• In stock tor immediate delivery For more information:

Tel: (800) 565-5278 Fax:(905)820-4015

Service Filtration

of Canada, Ltd. 4141 Sladeview Crescent / Misslssauga, ON L5L-5T1

For more information, circle reply card No. 264 (See page 33)


53 Upper Mount Albion Road Stoney Creek, Ontario L8J 2R9 Phone:(905) 578-9666 Fax;(905) 578-6644

For more information, circle reply card No. 263


Industry Update Mini-horizontal

Rod Holme to run for AWWA President

directional drilling

the AWWA's record-breaking Annual

manual available

Conference in Toronto in June, he also

The North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT) has announced the availability of a new Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling Manual. "The manual," according to NASTT Chairman Bill Gray,"represents NASTT's initial step in solving a major problem in the Trenchless Technology area — the shortage of trained drill op

commenced his second term as a Vice

erators. The manual can be used as a

President ofAWWA. He wishes to con

tinue this service to the Association by standing for election to become the sev enth Canadian President of AWWA. Rod is a Vice President with the con

sulting firm of Proctor & Redfem, and is also on ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board.

The Ontario Water Works Association

reference text for operator training semi (OWWA)has announced the nomination nars and workshops, and provides the of Rod Holme as a candidate for the necessary background for hands-on field position ofPresident Elect ofthe Ameri training," according to Chairman Gray. can Water Works Association. Rod has served as Chair of OWWA Because they minimize environmen tal and social disruption, and specifically and is currently the Section Director. At traffic delays, trenchless construction comprehensive review ofthe basic prin methods, including horizontal direc tional drilling, often are the preferred ciples involved in mini-horizontal direc tional drilling. Included are illustrations method of infrastructure construction and replacement. These methods are and discussions on safety precautions; being used by utilities to construct or planning, setting up the bore and drill replace communication lines, gas lines, ing the pilot hole; backreaming; drilling and water and sewer lines, rapidly and rod/pipe; tracking; drilling fluid technol ogy; and polyethylene pipe. A glossary economically. The 100-page manual provides a of Trenchless Technology terms is also

OWWAand ES&E wishes Rod every success leading up to the election at the AWWA Board of Directors' Meeting in February 1997. At the AWWA meeting, Steve Bonk, the sixth Canadian to become President, was elected to the AWWA Hall ofFame. included.

Single copies of the manual are $25 forNASTT members.$45 for non-mem bers. Bulk orders of20 or more are $20 per copy.

For additional information or to pur chase the manual, contact (312) 6440828, Fax: (312) 644-8557, E-mail; 75147.2600@compuserve.com.

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© 1995 Phillips Driscopipe,

a division of Phillips Petroleum Company

Offices also in Quebec and Nova Scotia

For more information, circie repiy card No. 270 (See page 33)

Fi%-eiglit reasons. One company. •MANAGEMENT • Single Source Hazardous and Solid Waste Management • Training Services • Waste

Identification and Characterization • Project Supervision • Corporate Sites Program • Compliance Support • Specialized Storage • Preprinted Manifests and Labels • Insite™ Program • Analytical Services • Liabil ity Protection ♦ COLLECTION • Inventory Management • Gas Cylinder Management • Lab Pack Services • Household Hazardous Waste Programs • Lab Pack Consolidation • Small Quantity Pickups • Bulking/Blending • Truck/Rail Transportation Services • Service Centre Network • Parts

Washer Service ♦ RECYCLING • Solvent Recovery • Fuels Blending • Paint Processing and Recycling • Ash Management • Batteries-Oil/Oi l Filter-Fluorescent Tube-Metals Drums ♦ TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL •

Biological • Physical • Sol idification • Thermal • Stabilization • Fixation • Chemicals • Neutralization •

Volume Reduction • Cyanide Destruction • Precipitation • Waste Water Treatment • Secure Landfill • PCB Waste

Services ♦ ON SITE SERVICES • Mobile Dewatering • Thermal Drying • Detoxification • Site and Remediation Cleanup • Asbestos Removal • Tank Management •

Emergency Response • Pipeline Remediation • Industrial Services • Confined Space Entry ♦ MONITORING • Air Monitoring • Industrial Hygiene Monitoring • Computerized Waste Tracking • Environmental Audits • Monitoring Wells

Laidlaw Enviromental Services • Localized Service Across Canada • 1-800-265-5130 or 1-800-361-2209 For more information, circle reply card No. 187(See page 33)

Valve & Pipe Protection

Anti-fouling system protects valves, pumps, pipes and air-conditioning in NS

The air-conditioning systems within the twin office towers

at Purdy's Wharf, one of the most distinctive landmarks

along the waterfront in Halifax, Nova Scotia, have been protected against some of nature's smallest, but most dam

aging creatures - mussels. Like many other buildings in shore I

line locations, the office towers use

seawater as a cooling agent. In the case of Purdy's Wharf, the air-conditioning system is extremely sophisticated and forms part of a computer controlled en ergy management system, designed to optimize electric power consumption. The pumps, piping and valves were made of highly corrosion-resistant

mmii^ :=T.S

materials, but it was realised that mus

sels could be a serious problem if not guarded against and, therefore, the building was originally protected by a chlorine injection system. Later, another solution was provided by Cathelco Ltd., the British specialists in the design and manufacture of electrolytic anti-fouling systems for ships and shoreline appli cations.

Seawater, in volumes of up to 2,500 US gallons per minute, enters the sys tem through submerged inlets on the harbour floor which are 75 feet below the low water mark. It then travels

through two 600 ft. pipelines to the base ofthe towers where it is raised by pumps to the air-conditioning heat exchangers.

The air-conditioning systems in the twin towers of Purdy's Wharf, i-iaiifax. Nova Scotia which use sea water for cooling purposes, are being protected against mus sel growth in pipes and valves by a British made system from Cathelco Ltd.

The Cathelco system prevents barna cles and mussel blockages by using the electrolytic method, avoiding the use of harmful chemicals. Pipework, pumps and ancillary equipment are protected by copper anodes which are fed with an impressed electrical current resulting in the production of copper ions. Although concentrations are less than 24 parts per billion, they are sufficient to prevent cmstacea from settling and multiplying. By locating the anodes at the sea water inlets at Purdy's Wharf, all of the water entering the pipework is dosed

with ions. These are carried through out the system, protecting it against marine growth. Another important reason for the choice of this system was its relative simplicity and safety in operation, and the two to three year pay-back period for the initial capital cost of changing the system. The firm's anti fouling technology has been pioven m over 2.000 marine and shore-based applications. For more information, circle reply card No. 189


ENC ■r ^





ion Services Deiiver Viiiue for the Futere 134 SOUTH ALBION STREET - AMHERST - NOVA SCOTIA ■ CANADA B4H 2X3

1-800-681-6890 ■ INTERNATIONAL: (902) 661-6890 FAX: (902) 661 -6892 ■ EMAIL: encotec@fox.nstn.ca

For more information, circle reply card No. 188 (See page 33)

Environmenial Science & Engineering. Sepleniher 1996

Corrosion Control

By J.R. Pepin*

Corrosion protection for valves and pumps

In any waterworks infrastructure,

valve and pump maintenance is of paramount importance in maintaining the integrity and ef fective performance ofan operating sys tem. Failure predominantly arises from severe corrosion of the various compo nents within the system; therefore, proper corrosion protection of pipes, valves, pumps,joints and fittings is of prime importance to the operator/owner to reduce operating costs within the sys

>">1 ..


Pipeline systems, complete with the necessary fittings, joints, valving and pumping components all form the basis of any waterworks infrastructure. The protection ofthis infrastructure from the ravages of corrosion and the associated high costs of maintenance, service and replacement are an on-going concem for the operator. In particular, valve and pump com ponents suffer from the effects of cor rosion early in the process due to dis similarity of metal within the makeup of the fitting, particularly at the area of the bolts and flanges. Corrosion is caused by the attack on these metal com ponents by chemical reactions, electro chemical reactions and by physical proc esses.

The combination of the metal

with water and oxygen forms ferrous oxides(rust) which, over time, will cre ate the corrosion process, destroying the metal itself and continuing until total failure of the system occurs. The System In order to prevent this phenomenon from occurring, external coatings are applied to the valves, pumps, piping, etc. to create a physical barrier between the metal surface and the surrounding en vironment. These coatings must exhibit certain key characteristics; namely, good application properties, good adhesion to the metal, resistance to damage, chemi cal and thermal stability. They must be environmentally inert, and resistant to cathodic disbonding. The coating must totally conform to the profile of the fitting, exhibit high adhesion in order that no displacement of the coating takes place, be robust enough to withstand handling and backfilling procedures,provide no toxic elements which may deteriorate into the environment, and, most importantly, it "Dense North America Inc.

f Coatings provide effective corrosion protection in treatment plant.

must be able to prevent water from en tering between the coating and the fit ting. Most coatings available generally consist of hydrocarbons or chemically stable high polymers. One of the sim plest methods ofeffective and long-term corrosion protection which exhibits all ofthe necessary key characteristics of a coating is the application of petrolatum tape systems. These products, prima rily formulated from petrolatum com pounds, are by-products of the oil re fining industry, and form a stable gel comprising petroleum jelly waxes and napthanic oils. Petrolatum is a chemi cally neutral and stable, inert mixture of hydrocarbons that will not polymerize or oxidize, thereby retaining its water resistant and dielectric properties over an indefinite period. The application procedure for these products consists initially of a minimal surface preparation by hand wire brush ing the valve or fitting to remove any loose surface scale, rust or deleterious

material which may be present. There are two essential steps involved in proper anti-corrosion protection. They are the application of a priming paste and a petrolatum tape. In the case of irregular profiles such as those existing on pipe flanges, fittings or the bolt pat terns on pumps and valves, a third step should be considered which is the fill

ing out of irregular profiles with a mas tic filler prior to overwrapping with pet rolatum tape.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Priming Paste An initial, liberal application ofprim ing paste is applied to the entire cover age area. The application of the prim ing paste will arrest all existing corro sion and neutralize the metal surface,

while at the same time displacing any moisture present on the surface. This allows operators the ability to apply this system in poor weather conditions, in cluding under water applications. The priming pastes contain passifying agents or additives to promote adhesion and prevent under-rusting of the metal sur face, as well as levelling of threads and

crevices to prevent voids when apply ing mastic or tape. It is to be consid ered essential as the initial step in proper anti-corrosion protection. Mastic Filler

The second stage ofapplication could involve the application of mastic filler. This product is a saturated petroleum hy drocarbon formulated with inert fillers

and fibres, and is used when difficult

contours or profiles such as pumps, bolted valves, couplings, flanges, etc. are present. In order to prevent the en capsulation of air pockets under the fi nal tape wrap, mastic filler is used to smooth the overall profile of the valve or fitting to eliminate recesses around bolt patterns, flanges, etc. prior to wrap ping. It is only used in those applica tions where smoothing of an irregular fitting or profile is required. Petrolatum Tape The final stage in the application is 19

Corrosion Control, cont'd.


the wrapping ofthe entire fitting or valve with a petrolatum tape. These tapes are for the most part hand applied and

Sefton • Willms & Shier BARR I STERS


will not harden, crack or shrink and can withstand mechani


cal strain and vibration. They remain permanently pliable, are highly adhesive, durable and are cold applied. Once the

Environmental Management and ISO 14000 Preparedness, Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law, Land Use Planning and Development, Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation Toronto

4 King Street West, Suite 900 Toronto, Ontario M5H 1B6

(416) 863-0711 Fax (416) 863-1938 Call Donna Shier

Southwestern Ontario 115 Talbot Street North

priming paste and/or mastic filler have been applied, the tape is then spirally wrapped onto the valve or fitting with a

55% overlap of the tape. It can easily be replaced if re moved to inspect the underlying surface. There is no diying time or curing time and backfilling may commence immedi ately after wrapping is complete. These tapes consist of a stitch-bonded, non-woven syn thetic fibre cloth impregnated with petrolatum compounds to produce a soft, flexible material in tape form of various widths. These petrolatum compounds contain fillers and tem perature extenders as well as moisture dispersants and are available in a wide variety of configurations to suit the ap plication. They exhibit excellent chemical resistance to acids, al kalis, salts and groundwater.

Essex, Ontario N8M 205


(519) 776-9020 Fax (519) 776-9027

Valve maintenance costs on a water infrastructure sys tem that are associated with corrosion fatigue are continu ally escalating. Proper anti-corrosion measures employed at the initial stage ofinstallation will do much to help elimi

Call Kirk Walstedt

nate corrosion related problems. For more information,

circle reply card No. 190

For more information, circle reply card No. 237

COSTER ENGINEERING Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Systems 3^3 13 S □


Coster Engineering's Reverse Os mosis Water Treatment Systems in corporate the latest developments in water treatment technologies. We tailor our systems Individually to specifically address each water need. Whether your problem is high TDS, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, sodium ,

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Compact, Skid Mounted industrial/Municipal R.O. Systems 25,000 GPD-350,000 GPD


Industriai R.O. Systems up to 25,000 GPD

For more information, circle reply card No. 191 (See page 33)

Mankato, MN USA 56002

(507) 625-6621 FAX (507) 625-5883

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Disposal of PCBs and other toxins

By Paul J. Pine!*

Is high priced disposal a thing of the past....?

Biological remediation is now a proven technology for costly. The contaminated materials have to be excavated, put in Ministry of Environment and Energy approved containers and loaded on special trucks for transport. Ofcourse, there is the associated paperwork involved. The biological remediation approach eliminates the need to incinerate PCB

transition metals and radionuclides. The process has been proven successful for hexavalent chromium(Cr VI)and also applies to a wide variety of other contaminants such as fer rous iron, lead, zinc, uranium, cadmium and plutonium. The process uses the unique ability of anaerobic sulfatereducing bacteria (SRB) to reduce metals to their lower oxidative states. In many cases, the reduced metal has lower solubility and toxicity and precipitate than a less toxic metal. Subsequent sequestering and immobilization within the soil matrix or bioreactor removes the metal from the groundwater

contaminated soils.

or the soil.

In applying the bioremediation technology, the soils are first pre-treated chemically to ensure that certain environmen tal and soil characteristics are in place prior to the introduc tion of the biological array. Some of these characteristics include temperature, moisture levels and pH as well. Other stages ofthe pre-treatment include adjusting the chemistry of the soil matrix to satisfy the best possible environment for biological activity and access to the contaminant. In recent studies, 10,000+ ppm of PCB-1242 was com pletely remediated in five hours using this patented biologi cal process. In another study, 122 ppm of PCB-1260 was also remediated biologically in 5 hours. These results were repeatable in all matrix(s) and at concentrations well above 10,000kg/dwonarochlorl016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248,1254 and 1260. The treatment can be applied in-situ or ex-situ. These bacteria are registered with the Ministry of Envi ronment and Energy as a Type 1 - Non-pathogenic bacteria. They are harmless to living organisms but have an appetite for organic materials such as, chloromethane, vinyl chloride, methylene chloride, amines,

Biological remediation processes are also available to pro vide for the removal offugitive VOCs(volatile organic com pounds)from the air. Using no carbon fdter media, the bio logical array provides for the effective removal ofup to 99.9% of VOCs. There is no waste or sludge by-product that would have to be treated as a hazardous material for disposal. The era of the dig and dump approach to site remediation may not have come to a complete end, but it has most cer

the remediation ofPCBs in soil, asphalt and concrete. Until now, it has been necessary to send FOB contaminated soils and materials to a specially designated site for incineration. The price charged for this approach can be

tainly been reduced. The introduction of this new and effec tive biological technology has given us an alternative to con sider.

For more information, circle reply card No. 239

3350 Fairview Street Suite 3-165


Burlin0tor, Ontario L7N 3L5 905 336 3&22 fax:

905 336 3644

methanol and trichlorofluoromethane, to name but a few.

The by-product of the bioremediation process is CO,and H,0. There is no mutation of the bacteria and no dangerous

by-products are generated as a result of the consumption of organic materials. When the bacteria are finished their clean up, many ofthem die and form a silicate or sand. They do not



form a hazardous material.

These same bacteria have also been successfully used in

the elimination of pesticides such as heptachlor and lindane which is better known as "Agent Orange". Other pesticides and herbicides that have been remediated include Diazinon, Metolachor, Chloramben, 2-4D, MCPA, MCPP, Picloram, 2,4,5-T and 2,4,5-TP, to mention a few. This biological meth

odology was completely successful in the field. These suc cesses included large volumes ofcomplex matrix(s)to a level below N.D. These samples were measured by GC/EDC Solex

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For more information, circle reply card No. 238 21 (See page 33)

Trenchless Technology

By W.Friesen, P.EngJ,and M. Brand, P.Eng.^

Reglna chooses trenchless for domestic sewer rehabilitation

Much of Canada's infra

in the median of Victoria Avenue, and

sewer sections was done underneath

structure was initially

the public interest in these trees, coun travelled sections of roadway. constructed in the 1940s Three bids for the work were re cil ruled the trees were to stay unharmed. and 50s — some even As a result, the Municipal Engineering ceived and upon review of initial and before the turn of the centuiy Many of department decided that trenchless long-tenn costs, the City awarded a con these underground piping systems are sewer replacement and rehabilitation tract to Insituform Canada Limited (for approaching the end of their design life methods were required. merly IGL Canada Limited) which con which can be extended only by substan The Municipal Engineering depart sisted of relining 16 blocks along Vic ment began their rehabilitation quest by toria Avenue from Elphinstone to Win tial reconstruction or rehabilitation. reviewing maintenance records which nipeg Streets; installing storm sewers to 1995 was a memorable summer for the Municipal Engineering department monitored the performance ofthe sewer intercept catch basins; and renewing ofthe City of Regina. Contractors were system as well as keeping records of some service connections. The work was originally tendered at complaints and repairs. With this infor allowed to bid on various remedial methods for approximately 16 blocks of mation in hand, and the additional use approximately $1.3 million dollars domestic sewer along the oldest part of ofCCTV inspection of the subject sew (G.S.T. included)with sewer work com pletion dates that would allow for road the City, Victoria Avenue. Recorded ers, some of the immediately identifi plans of the homes along this roadway able problems experienced in the sewer way and concrete pavement work to re new the entire road prior to freeze-up. were: showed that this domestic sewer had Trenchless Rehabilitation via CIPP been servicing homes as early as 1905. • Excessive cracking, with some sections having already collapsed. CIPP is a unique process for reha These sewers were originally con bilitating damaged pipeline systems in structed of vitrified clay-tile material • Root penetration at joints. municipal and industrial applications. A ranging from 225mm to 300mm in di • Poor house service to main connec new Cure-In-Place-Pipe is fonned inside tions. ameter. the existing pipe by using fluid pressure, Regina was originally established in • Cross connection of storm catch ba 1883 and was bounded by College and sins and roof drains to the domestic typically water, to install a flexible tube saturated with a liquid thermosetting 4th Avenues and Winnipeg and Pasqua sewer. Rehabilitation of this sewer system resin. This process results in a continu Streets. The population was approxi was planned so as to address and cor ous, tight fitting pipe-within-a-pipe. The mately 1,000 people then, in compari CIPP process is claimed to be cost-ef son to approximately 184,300 in 1995. rect these problems. fective and usually faster than other re In the process of identifying the ex In the early years, prior to construction of the City's Ring Road in the 1970s, tent of rehabilitation required, another habilitation options. question was raised. How far into the This process can be used for stand Victoria Avenue was the main east-west future should the department look in alone structural rehabilitation, to stop in highway connecting Regina to Winni their planning? Due to the common filtration and exfiltration, inhibit inter peg and Calgary. nal corrosion and abrasion, increase The Town Fathers agreed in 1883 that "out-of-sight, out-of-mind" attitude to flow capacity due to its increased flow wards infrastructure, the Municipal En a centre median should be constructed and trees planted within the median. The gineering department decided to carry characteristics, and finally, provide a sewers located immediately underneath out a repair/renewal method for these reduction in maintenance costs because the smooth jointless inner surface will sewers which would achieve a minimum the median are the sewers that were identified for rehabilitation in 1994. At provide a substantial reduction in slime 50 year life. The trenchless sewer replacement and sediment buildup as well as elimi present, two rows ofelm trees, approxi mately 20 to 30 years of age, are within contractors allowed to bid on the project nation of root intrusion. Installation the median. Because of the impact that would be required to replace the exist ing sewer with a new PVC main by ei Guidelines for the use ofthe process these trees also have on other City op erations (such as snow removal). City ther pipe bursting, tunnelling, or coring are provided in ASTM F1216-93, council was asked to consider reducing methods. Cure-ln-Place-Pipe (CIPP) "Standard Practice for Rehabilitation of Existing Pipelines and Conduits by the or eliminating some of these trees. inversion lining methods were also in However, due to the history of the trees vestigated. The CIPP method would be Inversion and Curing ofa Resin-Impreg required to ensure adequate flows were nated Tube". A flexible, resin absorb maintained and that open-cut spot re ent, fabric tube, coated on the outside ^City of Regina, Municipal pairs be done where the ovality of the with an elastomeric material (i.e. plas Engineering Department existing pipe exceeded 7% of the origi tic coating), is manufactured to fit the ^Insituform Canada Limited nal pipe diameter. cross section, length, and required de Excerpted from a paper to be pre Due to the nature of the rehabilita sign thickness for the damaged pipe. sented at the Western Canada Water tion, some open-cut excavation was re The tube (or Insitutube) is impregnated & Wastewater Association Conference quired to reroute catchbasins, roof ("wet-out") under vacuum conditions September 24-27, 1996 Continued on page 24 drains, etc. The relocation of these Regina, Saskatchewan 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

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Trenchless Technology, cont'd. with a liquid thermosetting resin. Wetout is nonnally done at the installer's facility and the resin-saturated tube is transported to the project location using refrigerated trucks. The refrigerated

trucks prolong the pot-life of the resin and ensure no premature curing (i.e. hardening) of the resin-filled tube. For large diameter or very long tubes which are impractical to transport, the wet-out

can be accomplished at the job site with specially designed portable equipment. The resin-impregnated fabric tube is installed in the existing pipe through a manhole or other access point via a tem porary inversion standpipe and inver sion elbow. (Figure 1.) A top inversion technique can also be used where the tube itself forms the


inversion standpipe. Water from a nearby source (typically a hydrant) is used to fill the inversion standpipe. The


force ofthe water column turns the wet-


Figure 1.





out tube inside out. This process is called "inversion" and pushes the tube into the pipe being rehabilitated. (Figure 2.) As the tube travels through the pipe, water is continually added to maintain a constant pressure and maintain tube contact against the host pipe wall. This eliminates any annulus and the need for grouting between the liner and the host pipe. The inversion process results in the elastomeric coating of the tube be coming the new interior surface of the pipe. This inversion process results in no relative movement between the tube and

the deteriorated existing pipe wall. This minimizes any trauma and potential damage to the flexible tube material. Another benefit of the inversion tech

nique is that any incoming or standing water in the existing pipe is forced ahead of the inverting tube and out of the sec tion to be rehabilitated. As a result, no

water is trapped behind the tube that could inhibit the proper curing of the resin or alter the shape of the finished CIPP.

After the tube reaches the termina

Figure 2.

tion point, the water is circulated through a pre-attached recirculating hose. This hose is connected to a port able boiler unit and begins circulation and heating of the water which triggers the curing of the thennosetting resins in the felt tube. (Figure 3.) Once the tube has been cured and

cooled down, the water pressure is re leased and the ends are trimmed. Lat eral or branch connections are reinstated


internally with a remote control cutting device. The installation is now complete and the newly rehabilitated pipe is ready to be put back in service. This process can usually complete one block (or ap proximately 150m)in less than a 24 hour period. There is usually minimum dis turbance to traffic, businesses, or resi dents.

For more information, Figure 3. 24

circle reply card No. 194 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


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Life Cycle Analysis

Should LCA be considered for all

infrastructure purchases?

Buried sewer and water pipe is an invisible asset to all mu

nicipalities, worth billions. But being out ofsight and out of mind has meant that this vital asset

has been seriously neglected. People must learn to appreciate the value of materials and products that will be used to expand buried pipe systems or renew existing services, just as they appreci ate and demand the best health care serv

ices available. With easy access to tech nology and information, municipal and government officials now have the op tion of selecting drainage products and materials on the basis of service life for

specific applications. Produced and in stalled according to accepted standards and manufacturers' specifications, prod ucts should perform as expected. Life cycle analysis(LCA)ofproposed drain age systems is the only way municipali ties can get full value for the taxpayers

lation. Countless systems have been se lected and installed solely on low cost bid through the tendering system, in cluding the lowest cost for drainage products. This approach to selecting systems and materials is long overdue for an overhaul. Each of the four issues identified should not be isolated from

each other when planning and design ing drainage systems. Something must be done to improve the state of our in frastructure at the planning and design stage, not at the point of repair. The good news is that industry and govern ment are doing something about the state of drainage systems through part nerships and new initiatives.

pipe are not treated in a consistent man ner.

There have been numerous requests

for the MTO to review specific parts of the drainage pipe standards, and evalu ate their adequacy with respect to struc tural performance and life span related to highway/road projected life. And there have been other deficiencies iden

tified in the current standards.

In terms of selection of appropriate pipe material and type, very little guid ance or restrictions exist today to pre vent inappropriate selection in type, service conditions and projected life. The recent trend has been to allow easy substitution of pipe materials and types.



Canadians cannot go on planning for the short term. Buried infrastructure

should last for more than one genera tion, as it does in Europe and other re gions ofthe old world. Why should suc ceeding generations of Canadians be burdened with the rehabilitation of the

projects of their parents? Why can't we give future generations a gift that will last for more than 75 years? Limited financial resources for capi tal works projects, and designers with vision, are encouraging municipalities to consider life cycle analyses on all major buried infrastructure projects. But there are issues that must be resolved

before taxpayers of this generation will buy into careful scrutiny of pipe mate rial for specific applications, and the use of life cycle analysis in the planning and pre-engineering stage ofa project. Four of these issues include performance, durability, application, and installation of buried drainage systems. There is little doubt that these issues

are inteirelated. How systems and prod ucts perform in conveying effluent from environments, such as recently built housing, or decades-old industrial parks, can be as different as night and day. Performance ofsystems is dependent on durability of products and proper instal 'Ontario Concrete Pipe Association 26

Concrete pipe system installation using existing material for bedding and backfill.

There are two public/private partner ship projects that have been recently launched to address the issues of per formance, durability, application, and installation ofpipe used for sanitary and stonn sewers.

This encourages the use of.supply and installation costs as key criteria govern ing pipe selection: • Weaknesses in current installations are

evidenced atjoints that separate, deform or leak,

MTO and Industry • New technology in support of quality The Ontario Ministry ofTransporta assurance after pipe burial is now avail tion has initiated a two to three year able, yet no standards have been pro project to update pipe drain standards, duced applicable for the transportation warrants and best practice. The Ontario infrastructure. Provincial standards pertaining to storm • As our existing infrastructure ages, sewer/culvert pipes have not been sub most jurisdictions are faced with a dif stantially reviewed for over two dec ficult choice ofselecting a rehabilitation ades. As with any standards, they need method/technology. To ensure the most to be updated periodically to incorpo effective use oflimited resources, a new rate new research findings, new prod method of tendering for the work is re ucts, and revisions based on experience. quired that will specify the end result Concern exists, especially within the (performance), rather than the material pipe producing industry, that these and construction method (e.g., choice of changes are not made in a timely fash replacement versus relining). ion and the various types of drainage • More cost-effective use of existing Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1996

By A. Grant Lee, MClP, RPP* The premature failure of drainage pleted before supporting the results of pipes has implications beyond the ma the research. Industry has taken the ini terial costs ofreplacing them. Adjacent tiative to develop software to help plan and reduce rehabilitation costs. This will infrastructure, such as roads and side ners, designers, and purchasers with the result in considerable savings. walks, is often severely damaged by the task of selecting the right material for a The scope of work includes the re pipe failure, or must be demolished and drainage system. view and update of Ontario Provincial rebuilt to accommodate the pipe repair. With the help of Giffels Associates Standards pertaining to sewer and cul Repairs also cause traffic delays, all add Limited of Rexdale, Ontario, existing vert pipe selection, design, installation, ing to the expense for municipalities and software programs have been upgraded inspection and rehabilitation. Included provincial highway departments. and improved. LCA(Life Cycle Analy is the development ofrelated guidelines, The three-year study will compare sis), WINCAPE(a Windows version of procedures and automated design tools. four different types of pipe materials- Cost Analysis of Pipe Envelope) and Storm drains, sanitary drains and ground concrete, PVC, corrugated steel and SAMM (Spangler & Marston Method)/ water drains (including sub-drains) are high density polyethylene-and develop 3EB have been combined into one com to be treated separately. For each, main guidelines that municipalities can fol puter program caUedPipePac. The new tenance access standards shall be devel low to make more cost-effective deci software is designed to share input data oped. sions about their drainage pipes. and results among each of the three in The project is a public/private sector "The financial constraints on public dependent sub-programs (e.g., 3EB re partnership funded by private sector in works departments ofCanadian munici sults are used to estimate pipe costs in terests and public agencies. The two palities require them to improve the CAPE). principal partners at this time are the service life of their assets and to man Designed for a PC Windows environ Ontario Ministry of Transportation and age the replacement of their infrastruc ment, with analyses produced in metric the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association. ture systems more effectively," Dr. Felio and imperial units, and a choice of eiAs the project gets under ther English or French lan way, other key stake guage text, the program is The premature failure of drainage pipes has holders in the drainage unique in North America. Implications beyond the material costs of pipe industry are expected It is available free ofcharge replacing them. Adjacent Infrastructure, such as and will be placed on the to participate and contrib ute to its financing. A roads and sidewalks, Is often severely damaged Internet for easy access and steering committee led by download. The OCPA pro by the pipe failure, or must be demolished and products, and opening up ofapplication of new materials and technology, will enhance the service life of drain pipes

the MTO, has been estab

lished to review the work

rebuilt to accommodate the pipe repair.

as it is completed. NRG and CCPA

A major study on the durability of sanitary and storm sewer pipes in Canada was launched in Quebec City, on April 26, by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the Canadian Concrete Pipe Association (CCPA). The $600,000 project will compare different types of large diam eter drainage pipes. According to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, the repair and maintenance of these structures cost Canadian towns and

cities between $2.5 billion and $3 bil

lion annually. Choices about what type of pipe material to use are usually based on in stallation costs alone, according to Dr. Guy Felio, head of the Infrastructure Research Group at the NRC, who is managing the project. "Municipal en gineers would prefer to be able to in clude other parameters,such as expected service life, structural performance, quality assurance and maintenance re quirements," he said. "But there is lit tle comparative research on the compre hensive, long-term performance of dif ferent pipe materials in similar environ ments."

said. "This project will provide per formance guidelines for the design and constiuction of drainage pipes and will allow more informed decisions by mu nicipal engineers." Member companies of the CCPA have contributed half the cost of the

project. The balance is being borne by the NRC, with contributions expected from some of the many cities that have already expressed an interest in the project. The study will consist of three phases. In the first, NRC researchers

will collect information from pipe

duced the software in co

operation with the American Concrete PipeAssociation, Canadian Concrete Pipe Associa tion, and Tubecon (the Association of Quebec concrete pipe producers). The software is a usefiil tool for regu lators, specifiers, contractors, and pur chasers. Standards built into the pro gram are those used throughout North America. Data can be selected from de

fault tables or entered manually. The following are the features of PipePac that are expected to be of great interest to planners and engineers: • Easy comparison offlexible and rigid systems.

• Integrated analysis using LCA,CAPE

manufacturers and their customers, as and 3EB. well as review available expert knowl • LCA, CAPE and 3EB programs can edge about the performance and dura be run independently of each other. bility ofthe various pipe materials. The • Choice of analysis in metric or impe second phase will entail field studies of rial units. the pipe materials in several cities across • Choice of language - English or Canada.


After identifying gaps in the expert knowledge and developing performance guidelines, NRC researchers will design an experimental facility to test and con firm their guidelines.

• Choice of standards to follow CSA or ASTM.


The concrete pipe industry in Canada is not waiting for the research to be com

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

• Technical support. • Software can be copied and accessed free of charge. • Built-in support manual and instruc tions using Windows context sensitive Continued overleaf 27

Life Cycle Analysis, cont'd. help, • Calculates earth loads and pipe classes for concrete pipe, • Compares installation costs and life cycle cost, • User friendly Microsoft Windows based program. Here is what the programs can do: 1. Life Cycle Analysis - LCA Time is money. What is the real cost over the project design life for the ma terials you are specifying? Total costs are calculated using present value,

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For more information, circle reply card No. 196(See page 33)

The Acid


The program 3EB(Three-Edge Bear ing) computes earth loads on concrete pipe in accordance with the methods presented in the Concrete Pipe Design Manuals of the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association and American Concrete

Pipe Association, 3EB analyzes under ground pipelines for standard installa tion conditions, negative projecting em bankments, and jacked and tunnelled pipe. Loads are derived using the indi rect design method which relates the supporting strength of the buried pipe to the strength obtained in a three-edge bearing test through the use of bedding factors.

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For more information, circle reply card No. 197 tSfie naae 331

With dependable and durable buried pipe that will perform as expected, fumre generations can put resources into new ventures that challenge our imagi nations, instead ofputting them into cor recting the mistakes credited to short sighted infrastructure planning and en gineering, The projects that have been launched this year in Canada will have a lasting effect. You can take that to the bank.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 198 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Air Pollution

Billions slated for electrostatic preclpltators,scrubbers and adsorbers Over $22 billion (US) will be spent on air pollution control systems, parts and services, between July 1, 1996,and Jtme 30, 1997. The Mcllvaine Company in its Air Pollution Management Report predicts that the Americas segment will spend $6.4 billion, the European-CISAfrica segment will spend $7.7 billion and Asia will be the biggest purchaser at over $8 billion.

Over the last decade, the purchases ofequipment to remove gas phase con








2,911 3,634


6,886 10,825

1,390 6,403

1,545 8,090

1,790 7,743

4,725 22,236

Particulate/Systems Gas Treatment Systems & Parts Other Equipment & Services Total Air Pollution Market

cent of the total. Europe-CIS-Africa segment will account for an investment in gas phase contaminant reduction of nearly $4 billion. Some 37 percent($1.5 billion) of this total will be for scrub

ing. Therefore, the value added and

profitability ofsecondary suppliers rep resents a substantial portion ofthe total. A single large flue gas desulfurization contract will result in as many as

taminants have increased much more

bers and adsorbers to remove acid gas-

one hundred subcontracts. This division

rapidly than have purchases of particulate control equipment. In the

ses and VOCs. 33 percent ($1.35 bil lion) will be invested in NO and SO

next twelve months, the world will

reduction systems. 30 percent ($1.15

spend $6.8 billion for particulate con trol but will spend almost$ 11 billion for elimination of Nitrogen Oxides(NO ),

catalytic air treatment systems. The air consulting segment world

of the large contracts to many subcon tractors, plus the substantial portion of the industry represented by very small companies, results in an industry com prised of large numbers of small sup pliers. These 70,000 companies aver age $300,000 in revenues and employ 700,000 workers devoted to the air pol lution industry. Therefore, air pollution control is a significant industry worldwide. De




billion) will be invested in thermal and

Sulfur Oxides (SO^), Volatile Organic

wide will account for $2.6 billion in to

Compoimds(VOCs)and acid gases. Electrostatic precipitators will be the most popular equipment selection pri marily due to purchases in the Asian sector. 58 percent of the $3.9 billion slated for electrostatic precipitators will be spent in the Asian region. By con trast, purchase of precipitators in the Americas will account for only 18 per

tal revenues. However, this segment represents a big portion of the value added in the air pollution sector. Since there are few outside purchases, most air consulting revenues consist of value added by the consultant. In contrast,

most ofthe revenue in FGD system sales comes from the purchase and resale of components such as pumps and pack

tailed information on this forecast will

be found in Air Pollution Management published by The Mcllvaine Company. For more information, circle reply card No. 327

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For more information, circle reply card No. 199 (See page 33)



By Roger Crawford,P.Eng.

Municipal sewage and water systems are in a state of crisis over the next 10 to 15 years to repair, extend and improve the infrastructure, it is also known that the current rev

enues wiii not generate the capital necessary to renew and improve the infrastructure." And in March 1996, the Ontario Sewer and Watermain

Construction Association had this in part to say in a news release:

"Even with MAP (Municipal Assistance Program), which has provided about $450 miiiion over the past two years, Ontario's 184,000 kilometres (112,500 miles) of sewers and watermains and over 800 treatment plants, worth an estimated $50 biiiion, are failing into alarming disrepairi

it is now estimated that it wiii cost a staggering $1.8 biiiion annually for the next 15 years- more than twice the total $800 miiiion in provincial and municipal funding now allo cated -just to restore and maintain the existing system, excluding any new growth." Whether or not these various reports reflect completely Photo of old iron watermain is dramatic evidence of the need

Inthe early 1980sthere wasonly a spark ofawareness of for infrastructure rehabilitation. Photo courtesy Windsor PUC.

the need for rehabilitation or replacement ofunderground

municipal services. By 1985 the spark had been farmed into flame to the extent that it is now difficult to write

anything on the subject of infrastructure renewal or trenchless technology without either the possibility or probability ofplagiarizing some other author who has written on the sub ject. A 1990 Needs Survey conducted by the United States En

vironmental Protection Agency(USEPA)stated that: "Decades of neglect or grossly inadequate maintenance ofsome systems are two reasons why wastewater coiiection systems now require over 42.9 biiiion dollars worth of rehabilitation and upgrading between now and 2010 at a time when the economy can Hi afford the cost."

and accurately the conditions of infrastructure and cost ofits rehabilitation will be left to the judgement of the reader. Re gardless, the inescapable conclusion is that the need today for renewal of municipal water and sewage systems in the United States and Canada is both urgent and great. The need for renewal as it has become more clearly de fined over only the past few years, has created a huge poten tial market, and provided opportunity to a rehabilitation in dustry which is rapidly increasing in size to respond to the market.

I say potential market because, until relatively recently, the rehabilitation needs have not been particularly well iden tified and documented. And to make matters worse, govern ments at all levels, perhaps out of convenience, have fallen

prey to the "out-of-sight, out-of-mind" syndrome, which has resulted in a reluctance to commit sufficient public funds to a purpose which seemingly may not yield much "bang-for-thebuck".

Only four years earlier a similar Needs Survey conducted Fortunately, organizations such as the North American So by USEPA had set the figure at 12.8 billion dollars for the ciety forTrenchless Technology(NASTT),and more recently years 1985 to 2005! the Centre for Advancement of Trenchless Technologies More recently the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (CATT) at the University of Waterloo have done much to (PCM)issued a"Report on the State ofMunicipal Infrastruc build an awareness of the infrastructure "crisis", through ture in Canada"(January 1996) which it had prepared with research and "hands-on" seminars. Their goals, objectives the Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechan and partnerships are providing a more informed sense of ics, McGill University. Venturing somewhat beyond its title, direction for the rehabilitation industry. the report commented on the state of urban infrastructure in In conclusion, the funding, or lack of funding necessary North America, describing it as a "crisis". In the section dedi to undertake the necessary rehabilitation of municipal infra cated to Water and Wastewater Systems, this in part is what structure has been and continues to be the major stumbling the report had to say: block. Clearly it is now mandatory that municipalities meet "infrastructure in North America has become inadequate this challenge by innovation in going beyond traditional to sustain a growing economy. Huge expenditures are needed to repair, rehabilitate, and replace public facilities,

if the deterioration of infrastructure is allowed to continue,

local governments wiii suffer severe economic consequen ces. it is estimated that the total annual revenues for ail

municipalities for water services provided is around $3 bii iion, and that up to $60 to $100 biiiion may be needed *IPEX Inc. 30

sources of funding. With the increasing availability ofinvestigative and infor mation management technologies suitable for utilization with

municipal infrastructure, it will be interesting to see if the matter of"due diligence" is applied in the same marmer as it has been used very successfully in other areas such as the cleanup of contaminated sites!

For more information, circle reply card No. 224 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


pipe problems using nondisniptive, cost-effective solutions. The most difficult part about some pipe problems is just getting access to ttie pipe itself Insituform Technologies specializes in reha bilitating pressure and gravity pipes which are underground, submerged or located in hard to-reach places. Using our leading-edge technologies, we repair pipes from the inside, in most cases with

out man-entry or excavation. Extensive independent and internal testing consis tently confirms fhe success of our methods.

We take sole-source responsibility for solving your problem, from the develop ment and manufacturing of proprietary products, to the engineering and installa tion ot a solution at your site. Our ISO 9000 quality system assures high quality every step of the way. With experts in all facets of pipe rehabili tation on staff, we have the project man agement expertise and trained installers to solve your problems quickly. Our

exceptionally low accident rate and EMR reflect our commitment to safety. And, our 25 years and 10,000 kilometres of pipe rehabilitation experience are unequaied. That is why insituform is industry's preferred source for pipe reha bilitation. if you are having problems with difficuit-to-access pipes, call us at 1-800-325-1159.


(/mada, Limiled For more information, circle reply card No. 225(See page 33)

Copyright 1996 Insituform Technologies. Inc.

Spills management

By Paul Yaremko*

Aircraft de-icing faciiity uses corrugated poiyethyiene drainage pipe

LesterB.Pearson International Airport in Toronto is Cana da's largest and busiest air

port — but with much more than just air traffic. The airport is ex panding with a new runway and $10 million aircraft de-icing facility. Dufferin Construction of Oakville, On

tario, is working to complete the job by the summer of 1997.

Aircraft de-icing facilities must be designed to protect the environment while maintaining strict aviator safety requirements. When considering all components of the project, the drainage system might not be the first thing to come to mind.

However, the project relies heavily on corrugated high density polyethylene (HDPE) for its sanitary sewer, storm sewer and subdrain systems. Over five kilometres of pipe ranging from 200 to 750 mm diameter is being used on the job. Big "0" Inc., Canada's largest manufacturer of corrugated polyethy lene pipe products, is supplying the pipe. The de-icing facility was designed by Public Works Canada, acting as a con sultant for Transport Canada. Their challenge was to design a drainage sys tem with pipe that provided superior chemical resistance, as the product would be exposed to concentrated solu tions ofglycol used in the de-icing proc

tainment membrane below.

When a

plane is de-iced, it is sprayed with gly col immediately before take off. The excess glycol is collected as it runs off into a series of catch basins which tie

and corrosion resistance made it a natu

into the glycol storm sewer system. The fluid is then carried through corrugated polyethylene pipes (300 mm - 750 mm diameters) to a five celled waste tank. Any glycol that manages to saturate the granular base before reaching a catch basin is collected by a perforated corru gated HDPE subdrain system. The subdrain system is laid on top of the containment membrane, parallel to the glycol storm sewer lines. Pipe for this application ranges from 200 to 250 mm

ral choice for the job.


ess. Corrugated HDPE pipe's chemical *Big '0' Inc.,(a member of the Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association)

The de-icing area is constructed on top of a granular pad with an HDPE con

A twin 200 mm diameter

subdrain system surrounds the base of the waste glycol holding tank. As the waste glycol tank fills, it is pumped into trucks and taken away for treatment. A backup system is main tained to handle unexpected volumes possible through a tank spill or rainfall of historic proportion. The waste tank has a 600 mm diameter overflow sani

tary sewer which can discharge into the Region of Peel's sanitary trunk sewer, west of the airport. This backup over flow sanitary sewer is 1,175 metres long, and crosses under a taxi way and an air port security road. At the deepest point, the sanitary sewer will have 12 metres





' *

â– 'iCr

Although polyethylene sanitary sewer had never been buried this deep at the airport, past use references pro vided by Big "O" showed the design engineers they were not the first to use a 600 mm diameter corrugated HDPE sanitary sewer at these depths. Design information also provided showed it was safe to bury the pipe with 12 metres of cover. Additionally, Big "O" presented Public Works Canada with a technical booklet provided by the Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Associa tion (CPPA) entitled "Structural Design Method for Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe." The document was reviewed by Public Works Canada and reassured

Over 5 km of HDPE was used on the project. 32

them of the suitability of this pipe at these burial depths. For more information, circle reply card No. 226 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996





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Drinking Water Parasites

Gordon R. Finch, Ph.D., P.Eng.*

Water industry challenge — waterborne parasites-Part II

Traditionally engineers have

considered treating water with 0.5 mg/L of free chlo rine for 30 minutes as being adequate disinfection. Today, disinfec tion is defined in much broader terms,

from physical and chemical removal of particles to chemical inactivation of microorganisms in the plant. With knowledge of the infectious dose for causing disease in humans and with an estimate of the concentration of para sites in the source water, the number of

log-units of inactivation by the treat ment processes can be determined to reduce the risk of waterborne disease

to some level such as 1:10,000 or 1:100,000 cases per year. Consequently,

source water quality will affect the re quired degree of treatment within the treatment facility. Multiple Barrier Approach With concern about raw water qual ity, water source protection is being pro moted as part ofthe multiple barrier con*Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton **See ES&E June '96 for part one.

cept. Figure 3 illustrates the broad concepts of the multiple barrier con cept related to surface water treatment when challenged with encysted para sites. Of course. Figure 3 is a simplis tic illustration of water treatment proc esses in general but it facilitates discus sion about the control of parasites that challenge typical surface water treat ment facilities.

Microorganisms as Particles Whether the challenge is from bac teria or viruses or encysted protozoa, it is correct to consider these particles much as colloidal clay or macro mol ecules can be considered particles. Therefore, a major barrier in the disin fection of drinking water is in particle control — in other words, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtra

tion. Understanding the chemistry of coagulation with good process control followed by well-designed (hydraulically speaking)flocculators and clarifiers will lead to excellent preparation of the particles for sedimentation and fil tration removal. A current American Water Works

Association Research Foundation

(AWWARF) project is travelling the


United States collecting particle count, size and distribution data from a number of diverse surface water treatment

plants. Their preliminary findings sug gest that physical/chemical removal of particles in the Giardia and Ciyptosporidium size ranges can be up to 4 logunits or more if the processes are well run, have tight operational control parameters, and have filter effluent turbidities less than 0.1 or 0.2 NTU.

This is a remarkable observation given that the current Surface Water Treat

ment Rule in the United States gives a 2.5 log-unit credit for Giardia removal if there is coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation followed by filtration with less than 0.5 NTU of turbidity in the filtrate. Therefore, in Figure 3, the physical chemical removal processes can be considered to account for about

4 log-units of physical removal of para sites provided there is good process control and the processes are maintained in good operating order. In small communities where a com

plex conventional surface water treat ment plant is not practical, chlorination alone is not sufficient to protect public health when encysted protozoa are the

Treatment Processes

> Potential for challenges from parasites

' pH Is optimized ' Adequate alkalinity > Colloidal surface area

Process Conditions and

• O3

1 log

• Tapered flocculation

• O3/NH2CI 2.5 log • CI2/NH2CI 0.5 log • GI2 alone 0 log • CIO2 alone 1 log • Others Clog

• Aluminum salts • Ferric salts

• Polymers

• CIO2 1 log • Others0 log



• Remove chemically coagulated particles

• Coagulant dispersion • Colloidal particle

• Distribution

system corrosion control

destabilization • Disinfection to

inhibit biolfilms in

Process Objectives • Colour reduction • > Watershed characteristics

• Taste & odour control • Disinfection

•• Agriculture

• Enhanced coagulation

' • Rodents

• Fe2+, Mn2+ Oxidation

•• Wastewater discharges • Rainfall event retum frequency


• Particle aggregation • Adsorption of organics to floe

• Disinfection

• Inhibit biological activity in distribution system

• Enmeshment of particles in sweep floe • Dense, fast settling floe

Figure 3. Multiple barrier concept applied to surface water supplies. Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1996


Drinking Water Parasites, cont'd. search project conducted at the Univer sity of Alberta it was found that for a

contact time of about 5 minutes and an

ozone residual of about 0.5 mg/L (ap

parent CT of2.5 mg-min/L)greater than 2 log-units of inactivation could be ob tained consistently. Chlorine dioxide has also been used to kill Giardia.

Greater than 2 log-units inactivation has been obtained using a CT of about 5 mg min/L.

During the past five years there has been a significant amount ofnew infor mation become available on the chemi

Figure 4. Giardia cysts after exposure to high concentrations of ozone. issue. Particle control can be achieved

with the simple yet effective slow sand filtration process or with high technol ogy membrane processes such as ultra-

Figure 5. Cryptosporidium oocysts af ter exposure to high concentrations of

cal inactivation of Cryptosporidium. Ozone is a very effective disinfectant of oocysts. Like Giardia, ozone appears to act on the surface of the oocyst as illustrated in Figure 5. Ozone condi tions are about fom times greater than those required for Giardia. Chlorine di oxide is second to ozone in effective-

Continued on page 38


filtration or microfiltration. Source Water

Animal Infectivity 22ÂťC


chlorine at pH 8.0 ozone at pH 6.9.




(1.5 mg/L,5 min)

(2.4 mg/L, 15 min)

(1.4 mg/L,5 min),

While a long discourse on source

water protection is possible, this arti cle will focus on common sense. Sani

tary surveys of the source watershed will document risks from sewage and

from agriculmral or other sources of contamination. An alert utility will document these potential risks and de

sign their water intake and subsequent processes to account for "worst case" scenarios. In other words, a well-run

utility will be proactive in anticipating deficiencies and taking corrective action before there is a serious problem. Regulation will not help this common sense approach. Chemical Disinfection

While the water industry has strug gled to redesign chlorination to be effective in controlling encysted para sites, there frequently has been inad equate protection against challenges from these pathogens. Many outbreaks ofgiardiasis have been attributed to sur face water supplies that have only re ceived chlorination. Cryptosporidium oocysts are unaffected by free chlorine




(5 mg/L,480 min) (15 mg/L,480 min)


(2 mg/L,240 min)

Figure 6. The inactivation of '0. pan/am' using ozone, monochioramine and the combination of ozone followed by monochloramine. Animal infectivity 22'C

pH 8.0

or monochloramine under conditions found at most treatment facilities.

Simple concentration and time(CT) products for free chlorine and mono chloramine for 2 log-unit inactivation of Giardia have been reported to be about 40 mg-min/L and 740 mg-min/L, respectively (pH 7, 20°C). Ozone has been shown to be effective for killing Giardia cysts and appears to act at the surface of the oocyst, as shown in Fig

ure 4. In an AWWARF sponsored re36

(5 mg/L, 60 min)





(15 mg/L, 240 min)

(5 mg/L,480 min)

(15 mg/L,480 min)

(1 mg/L, 60 min), monochloramine

(2 mg/L, 240 min)

Figure 7. The inactivation of 'C. parvum'using free chlorine, monochloramine and the combination of free chlorine foliowed by monochloramine. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996




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Drinking Water Parasites, cont'd. ness and has a number of advantages

ants in the control of waterborne

when compared with ozone. Low capi it an attractive alternative to free chlo

parasites. Questions related to the ef fect oftemperature,pH,and water qual ity remain to be answered. Fundamen

rine when only chlorine is used to treat the water. The design requirements for

fection and the effect that chemical

tal cost and ease of operation may make

tal research into the mechanisms of in

chlorine dioxide are about 10 times

oxidants have on this process may help

those required for Giardia. One of the most interesting findings

to devise more effective methods of

controlling the parasites in drinking

is that when disinfectants are used


sequentially as happens in practice,there is greater inactivation than could be explained by the use of the single disinfectants. This synergism is the topic of another AWWARF research project conducted at the University of Alberta. Figure 6 illustrates the effect

Using the global vision of disinfec tion as a series of barriers, future proc ess design and operation will need to focus on quality control, using well de signed and operated unit processes within a treatment facility. More potent

for ozone and monochloramine.

chemical disinfectants such as ozone or

Future Directions

could be promoted in some communi ties. However, this becomes a major political undertaking unless the water shed is owned or wholly controlled by the water supplier. Nonetheless, proactive utility managers will antici pate weaknesses in their systems and take corrective action to prevent the em barrassment ofa major waterborne out break of parasitic disease. Small systems will need to look to wards more sophisticated technology

than simple chlorination of surface wa ters such as slow sand filtration or mem

brane processes to simply and efficiently produce a drinking water that has low microbial risks.

However, much is left to be discov

amine has been well documented.

And one final word: pathogenic bac teria were easily controlled until viruses became an issue in the post-war years. Adjustment in chlorination levels ad equately protected public health. Then the waterborne parasites discussed in this paper became the issue. They are not so easily controlled and require new thinking, modem technology and qual ity control. Beware, the next "super bug" may be around the comer. References available upon request. For more information,

ered about the use ofchemical disinfect

Where feasible, source water protection

Circie repiy card No. 133

Another outcome of this research

chlorine dioxide will become more

was the finding that when free chlorine was used first followed by mono

widely used in water treatment. While chlorine's days as a primary disinfect ant ofsurface waters may be numbered, it will still serve an important role in protecting the quality of water in distri bution systems.

chloramine, detectable inactivation of

C. parvum occurred. These findings are illustrated in Figure 7. It has been found in the same study that Giardia muris, a useful surrogate for G. lamblia, is more readily inactivated when using more than one oxidant sequentially.

The use of monochloramine follow

ing ozone treatment may result in sav ings in operating costs once the syner gism between ozone and monochlor

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environmental needs.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


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A cryptosporidium case history

Beware, the cysts of March

Atypical March day in

Collingwood, Ontario.


The snow filled winter had

been a boon to the region.


Spring skiing's com snow and sunshine were on the minds of many residents and visitors to the Town. For others,the long awaited summer cottage season wasjust around the comer. Anticipation was in the air. Until sporadic reports of people suffering from intestinal disorders be

gan to come into the offices ofthe local Simcoe County District Health Unit. Local media informed residents that

there might be temporary problems with drinking water.

Sampling and testing were done for the widely known Giardia lamblia and its more obscure counterpart, Crypto

sporidium. Since its discovery in 1895, Cryptosporidium has become a major concem in drinking water systems be cause of its resistance to chlorine and

other common disinfectants and to many of the drags used to treat cryptospoAuthored by:

Collingwood PUG, AInley & Associates, Pro Aqua, Zenon Environmental Inc. Announcement

Terry Matthews Microsep International(Canada)Corporation Is pleased to announce that Terry Matthews has recently joined the company as Gen eral Manager of the Bangkok, Thailand of fice. Terry brings over twenty years experi ence in industrial and municipal water and wastewater treatment. His professional ca reer has also Included serving as presidents of both the Water Environment Association

of Ontario, and the Ontario Pollution Con

trol Equipment Association; he is currently a Regional Director for the Water Environ ment Federation.

Microsep manufactures and designs water and wastewater systems, incorporat

ing their patented "ballast-assisted" olarifiers that are 10 - 30 times smaller than con

ventional gravity clarifiers. Microsep is affiliated

Emergency response water purification unit treats water at the hospital. ridiosis. The ingestion of just one might pose the highest risk, namely, Cryptosporidium oocyst can cause those persons with weakened immune systems. Clearly the hospitals and nurs diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, de ing homes were the priority. hydration and headaches. In the long term, the Collingwood For those with healthy immune sys tems,the cryptosporidic symptoms sim PUC wanted to provide safeguards against any possibility of oocyst inva ply ran their course although the symp

toms may reoccur. However, for indi sion occurring again. An absolute bar viduals with suppressed or weakened rier to oocyst invasion was needed as a immune systems such as the elderly, safeguard. Membrane filtration pro hospitalized or sufferers of AIDS, vides the only absolute barrier to the Cryptosporidium and Giardia cysts in cryptosporidiosis can be fatal. drinking water. Responding to the pub Even though neither Cryptospo ridium nor Giardia were evident in the

Collingwood water supply,"Boil Water" warnings were issued by the Collingwood PUC as a safeguard. Re ports of "stomach and intestinal disor

lic concerns articulated by the Colling wood PUC and the technical require ments posed by Ainley and Associates, Zenon Environmental Inc. was commis

ders" continued to come in from differ

sioned to make the solution a reality. Zenon had the immediate response

ent sources although any link between these and drinking water supply prob lems were tenuous, at best. Radio, television and newspaper

for those who might be at highest risk. Within 60 hours, a Zenon mobile Re verse Osmosis unit and a technical sup

quickly picked up on the story. Time and space were devoted to the exami nation of topics such as cryptospo ridiosis and water purity concerns in society at large. Public awareness was aroused nationwide. Collingwood's residents and visitors were concerned

that the Town's water supply might in deed be compromised. The Colling wood PUC moved quickly to provide residents with a sure, recognized safe guard against the invasion ofthe dreaded cysts. Working long hours together with their consulting engineer, Ainley and Associates, they researched a solution to the problem.

capability needed to provide a safeguard

port team were on their way to the Collingwood hospital site. With the as sistance of the Collingwood PUC and the General and Marine Hospital, ultra-

pure water was on its way to the facility within days of the alert. Meanwhile,Collingwood Operations Staff, together with Ainley and Associ ates, Zenon and their agent. Pro Aqua, worked out a long-term response. The absolute barrier approach was to be ap

plied to any possible, ongoing threat of cyst invasion. Zenon was commissioned to provide the safeguard technology in as short a time frame as possible. Within the space of hours, resources were mo bilized to design and deliver the water

with Commonwealth

It was determined that the solution

Construction, Burnaby, and Is majority owned by Atkinson Corp., San

necessitated both a short- and long-term

purification imits and provide the opera

response. In the short term,the Colling wood PUC wanted to provide a safe guard for those for whom the oocysts

tions know-how needed for the coming


For more information, 40

circle reply card No. 310

peak water use time ofthis holiday town. Circle reply card No. 151

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


The Ultrapulsator floculator/clarifler from Degremont Infilco combines exceptional

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Ultraviolet Disinfection

UV not only cleans water, it destroys viruses and purifies air

New technologies using ultra

ticularly hard by the disease's resur

violet (UV) light are being tested through the Electric


Power Research Institute

National Tuberculosis Coalition ofutili

(EPRI) to help clean up water, destroy airborne viruses and bacteria, including tuberculosis, and purify indoor air by re moving volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

EPRI and the recently formed ties and health organizations, is launch ing a controlled study of the use of UV lighting systems to prevent the spread ofTB. "Tuberculosis could become a real

Water Treatment

With growing concern in the US about health prob lems related to water qual ity, and environmental worry about chlorine disinfectant

byproducts, UV treatment for wastewater is emerging as an effective alternative.

Technology. The air cleaner is effec tive at removing gaseous pollutants such as carcinogens from cigarette smoke and formaldehyde from fumiture and labo ratories.

"In the future, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems will com bine the particulate filtering capabilities of existing air cleaners to remove pol len and dust with the ability of photocatalytic reactors to destroy volatile or ganic compounds (VOCs), odors, car bon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and microorganisms," said Ephraim Heller, president of LightStream in Alameda,Calif,the company responsi ble for product development. Products using the reactor will range

Currently, only 5% ofUS wastewater is treated using an ultraviolet system, but the practice is expected to reach 25% within 10 years. The UV system works by chan Ultraviolet(UV)lamps emit germlcidal UV neling wastewater through a light to destroy DNA in bacteria and viruses network offluorescent lamps such as tuberculosis, whooping cough, and measles. where exposure to UV light quickly kills the bacteria and viruses that health crisis in the next 5 to 10 years," said Myron Jones, are the main contaminants. EPRI's manager of Ad "UV treatment for wastewater will be vanced Industrial programs. the most significant technological ad vance over the next several years, as "We're positive that ultravio many new and existing plants shift to let light inactivates bacteria A water treatment facility In Contra Costa County, Calif, this cleaner and generally more cost-ef such as TB,influenza, mea uses banks made of several thousand fluorescent sles, and legionella. Our lamps that transmit UV light to disinfect water. fective method," said Keith Cams, man new projects will show how to effec in size from portable units to large de ager of EPRI's Community Environ vices that cormect to furnaces or air con mental Center in St. Louis, MO. The tively equip buildings with these UV fix ditioners. These devices have a blower Center provides technical development tures, and examine how effective the fix and support for the healthcare, water and tures are in real life situations with all that moves polluted air through the unit of the variables included." where a bank ofUV lamps illuminates a wastewater industries. Since TB is commonly transmitted photocatalyst at room temperature, and Another promising application is then converts the compounds into harm combining UV with hydrogen peroxide in homeless shelters, the plan is to com to remove organics, such as industrial pare disease patterns in shelters with and less substances such as carbon dioxide chemicals and some pesticides from without UV lamps. Doctors from St. and water, thus cleaning the air. The first product, designated for re groundwater. EPRI is also working Vincent's Hospital in New York City and jointly with the American Water Works Harvard Medical School will direct the moving formaldehyde in medical facili study. ties, will be commercially available this Association Research Foundation in Tests are also being conducted year. Denver to study the use ofUV for treat

ing drinking water against a broad range of bacteria and vimses, as well as para sites like giardia and cryptosporidium, responsible for numerous illnesses and deaths in recent years.

through EPRI's Community Environ mental Center in South Africa, since

African countries are confronting the

bacteria are now resistant to the antibi

highest worldwide death rates fromTB. Indoor Air Quality Another UV technology for purify ing indoor air quality recently won an R&D co-funding award from the

otics. Urban areas in the US are hit par

National Institute of Standards and

Airborne Disease Control

Today, unlike 50 years ago,someTB


EPRI, established in 1973 and

headquartered in Palo Alta, California, manages science and technology R&D for the electricity industry. More than 700 utilities are members of the Insti

tute which has an annual budget ofsome $500 million.

For more information,

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996








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Phone/Fax; (905)892-1177 14 Mllburn Or. Fonfhill, Ontario LOS 1E4

For more information,

For more Information, circle reply card No. 235

circle reply card No.314



Separation Equipment

Water / WasteWater Treatment Systems 9030 Leslie St.. Unit 5 Richmond Hill. Ontario L4B



m no application too small! [jtifle Self-cleanitf^ ,<5p\,ep—"Box Screen"™ ' Unique Laminaii^ ^xqjV&te-BoT SetUer"^^\


Tel: (905) 771-8400 Fax:(905) 771-8911

Continuous Was^ j.t^e.nd-"Bo-x. YiVLer"'^'*

For more information, circle reply card No. 236

web site http://www.esemag.com

For more information about advertising in this section, call Penny Davey (905) 727-4666

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


Membrane Technology

Are membranes the future for wastewater treatment?

Increased public concern over health and the environment is

now combined with a strong de sire to reduce capital, operating and maintenance costs. These concerns have created a need for innovative tech

nologies for building new high quality sewage treatment plants or expanding existing plants at low infrastructure costs, while generating high quality ef fluents which will meet 21st century

operation. Finally,the process is an efficient ter

tiary treatment system, reducing sus pended solids and coliforms to a mini mal level and producing an oocyst and coliform free effluent characterized by its low residual ammonia and phospho rus, even in winter conditions. The

plant's effluent meets the most strict ef-

size of the plant. Based on the munici pality's needs, the ZenoGemÂŽ ZeeWeed'^'^ plants can be designed as pack aged plants or full-scale plants, using frames to suspend the membranes inside existing tanks. The flow is generated from the out side of the membrane to the inside of

the fiber by a small vacuum. The

Conceptual Design of a single step Membrane Bioreactor process.


The Membrane Bioreactor (MBR)

process is a high efficiency activated sludge process which has been operat

^1 Aeration

ing at fiill-scale in industrial and mu

Clarifier Aeration


nicipal applications for the last decade.


The cost-effective application of the


process for the treatment of high flow

To Sludge

wastewaters such as municipal sewage has been developed recently as a unique,

To Sludge




is replaced by

immersed hollow-fiber membrane.

This process consists of a biological reactor integrated with an ultrafiltration (UF)membrane system which replaces

Zenon's single step ZenoGem^'^ producing tertiary quality

Conventional activated sludge multi-step process

producing secondary quality effluent.


the conventional clarifier ofan activated

sludge plant with an ultimate barrier for biomass control. The main operating advantages of this system are that the quality ofthe effluent is independent of the settleability ofthe mixed liquor and that no operating failure can result in the presence of suspended solids in the ef fluent. The lack of sludge settling al

lows operation of the bioreactor in ex treme conditions such as high biomass levels(15,000 - 20,000 mg/L)and high sludge retention time (SRT > 50 days) which would inevitably fail in a conven tional activated sludge process.

Operating at high biomass levels

fluent criteria's(title 22,5,5,3,1)and can be discharged directly or fed directly into a Reverse Osmosis plant for aqui fer recharge. Filtration Membrane Design The microfiltration membrane is the

heart ofthe system. This high flow plant is designed with an innovative, low operating cost microfilter membrane. This 0.2 pm microfilter is revolutionary in terms ofits design and direct immer sion inside the bioreactor but has a mem

brane chemistry which has been used by Zenon for the last decade in difficult to

treat, corrosive industrial effluents. The membrane is an immersed mem

means that the membrane bioreactor is 4 to 7 times smaller than a conventional

brane which is integrated into cassettes

bioreactor or that an existing bioreactor can be upgraded to treat 4 to 7 times

frames or into tanks, depending on the

of modules which are then inserted into

more wastewater without the need of


Because of its higher biomass con tent, the Membrane Bioreactor process can efficiently operate at high organic

loadings which translates into the need for significantly smaller bioreactors. Typical organic loadings are presented below. These are five to ten times higher than conventional municipal activated sludge plants. The MBR plant for sewage treatment is simple in its construction and opera tion. With minimum process equipment, i.e., no clarifiers, no sludge return pumps needing periodic sludge control and no

Activated Sludge ZenoGem™ Design Typical

lower than conventional activated

*Zenon Environmental inc.,

whereas the suspended solids free efflu ent travels through the membrane and is discharged as a tertiary treated efflu

Typical Design Parameters

infrastructure construction. Operating at high SRT allows for sludge digestion to occur within the bioreactor, generat ing digested sludge volumes 50 to 80%

sludge plants, and, in small to medium plants it allows both functions to be combined in a single tank, further re ducing the plant's footprint and ease of

biomass remains inside the tank,





Typical Design

0.1 - 0.3%


2.6 - 5.0 Kg/m3/day

<1.0 Kg/m3/day


1.5-2.5 Kg/m3/day

< 0.5 Kg/m3/day


0.20•0.40 Kg/m3/day

< 0.07 Kg/m3/day

Burlington, Ontario 44

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

By Diana Mourato, Ph.D., and Harry Marshall, C.E.T.' Schematic of ZenoGem® Process for Sewage Treatment Sewage from primary clarifier or

High quality


Suspended Feed pumps

grit removal

Treated water

Growth Dioreaetoi'

Permeate pumps


Clean in Place



1 - 2%


Alum pump

Sludge for disposal or digestion

sludge waste



storage tank 1/10 of volume Blowers

sludge digestion, the ZenoGem® plant is an easy to operate and maintain plant. The entire operation is now based on MLSS control instead ofon SVI,sludge return ratios and strict SRTs.

Plant upgrading strategy Because of its high quality effluent and capacity to operate at > 5 times higher organic loading and MLVSS,the MBR natural application in the munici pal sector is the upgrading of existing activated sludge plants into high rate ZenoGem® plants. Upgrading can be done to either meet higher hydraulic capacity (as high as 5 times the plant's capacity) or tertiary treatment effluent quality or both. BOD Removal

On a typical sewage averaging 200 mg/L BOD, the MBR effluent BOD ranges from non-detectable to 2.0 mg/ L, representing BOD removals of98% to > 99%. Table 1 presents a compari

the conventional plant has a biological activated biofilter process which is con sidered to be a very efficient process among conventional biotreatment proc esses and operates at an HRT of about 12 hours,the comparison clearly reveals the superiority of the MBR process at 2 HRT, on the same effluent. TSS Removal

than optimal conditions. This results in effective ammonia nitrogen removal. In winter conditions, typical permeate ammonia nitrogen ranges from nondetectable to 0.4 mg/1 in worst condi tions. In winter, with a HRT of2 hours, the system typically achieves 96% to > 99% ammonia removal, meeting the strictest tertiary treatment criteria.

Since the MBR effluent is filtered

through a microfiltration membrane,the effluent suspended solids(TSS)are typi cally non-detectable. Even with feed streams containing very high suspended solids (>1000 mg/L TSS), the mem brane permeate remains crystal clear, with no suspended solids. Hence, 100% removal ofsuspended solids is achieved, which is expected since the nominal pore size of the membrane is 0.2 pm. Nutrients Removal

son between the ZenoGem® effluent

The MBR operates at low HRT, with a high SRT and mixed liquor suspended solids concentration which traps the

and a high rate New Brunswick conven tional treatment plant effluent. Although

them to nitrify for survival, even in less

nitrifiers inside the bioreactor, forcing


The microfiltration unit is an effec

tive disinfection tool with the capabil ity to remove oocysts and bacteria from the treated effluent, avoiding in many instances the need to further disinfect

prior to discharge. Viruses are removed by adsorption to the high biomass con tent in the bioreactor. This phenomenon has been reported in the past by other authors (Fane, A.G., 1994). Sludge Yield The bioreactor sludge yield is an important factor in estimating the vol ume of sludge to be disposed and sub sequently on the operating costs. The Continued overleaf

Tablel. Typical BOD^ data obtained in the ZenoGem® plant vs. an activated sludge plant. BOD(mg/L) Date


ZenoGem™ Permeate

Percent Removal

(2 hr HRT)

Conventional Plant Effluent

Percent Removal

(> 8 hr HRT)





not available

not available





not available

not available





not available

not available



















Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


Wastewater Treatment

How the U.K. is cleaning ally water

Continuedfrom page 45. system can be operated on a primary clarified effluent and hence be very ef ficient in digesting the biomass within its bioreactor, or operate directly on nonclarified sludge with a premium to pay in terms of sludge yield. The typical sludge yield in non-clari fied sewage,50 days SRT,is about 0.26

Kg TSS/Kg BOD consumed, combin ing primary and secondary sludge. If the primary sludge is removed prior to the bioreactor, higher SRT can be main tained in the bioreactor with subsequent lower sludge yields (< 0.2 kg MLVSS/

Kg BOD consumed). This is a signifi cantly lower sludge production rate than conventional biological processes that

operate at an average of0.6 kg MLVSS/ Kg BOD consumed. Furthermore, MBR sludge is already concentrated to 1% to 2% solids, which represents a fur ther sludge volume generation reduction of 2 to 4 times, for a total of 6 to 12

times less sludge. Conclusion

The MBR Process has exhibited sig nificant advantages over the designs of conventional wastewater systems in a wide size range of applications. The advent ofthe submerged membrane now allows the designs to be not only costeffective but energy efficient. The op


eration and maintenance costs have been

wm One of tfie small, lightweight hydrocyclones being removed for Inspection.

A system that cleans up oily

water is the result of

pioneering research by the UK's Vortoil Separation Systems Limited. The company, based at Gloucester, England, has been awarded the prestigious Queen's Award for Environmental Achievement for

developing its hydrocyclone separators -the most significant advance in liquid separation technology in the last 25 years.

Originally conceived as a small, high capacity separator for use in marine oil spills, Vortoil hydrocyclones are now

widely used in offshore and onshore oil production facilities to treat large vol umes of contaminated water produced from oil reservoirs or production proc esses. More than 270 installations op erate throughout the world with Vortoil hydrocyclone separators. The hydrocyclones operate by con verting the Kinetic energy of flowing 46

Photograph by Derek Evans

liquids into powerful centrifugal forces, resulting in almost instantaneous sepa

proven to be dramatically reduced while providing an effluent quality that poten tially meets drinking water standards. The option of nitrate removal and phos phate reductions to well below required limits has been married with virtual dis

Clean water and recovered oils exit at

infection to provide a system that meets or exceeds all the current and potential future discharge requirements of all the major regulation agencies. Acknowledgements

opposite ends of the unit. On one North Sea platform, a unit containing 19 cyclone tubes is able to

edge the assistance of the Saint John Sewage Treatment Plant operators and

process about 200,000 barrels of pro duced water a day. The system helps to maintain production levels while at the same time limiting potential harm to the

Ministry of The Environment. References available on request. For more information,


Vortex action inside the tube

causes lighter liquids to flow in the op posite direction to the denser liquid.


The authors would like to acknowl

of the staff from the New Brunswick

circle reply card No.139

The de-oiling system is not restricted to use in oil and gas production and re

fining industries. Other potential appli cations are wide-ranging and include treatment of marine spills,food process ing, as well as enviromnental and indus trial processes. Vortoil Separation Systems Limited For more information, Circle reply card No. 150

For more information about advertising in ES&E,

call Penny Davey (905) 727-4666

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996



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Ions Exchanger




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Montreal (Quebec) M4K 2C3 Canada


For more information, circle reply card No. 140 (See page 33)

Tel: (514) 745-9050 Fax: (514) 745-9427

Wastewater Treatment

Biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters for nutrient removal To provide high carbonaceous BOD, nitrogen and phosphorus removai and to ensure compliance with discharge criteria, the Modified Phoredox process was installed at Haliburton Sewage Treatment Plant and Horizon Poultry Wastewater Treatment Plant in Ontario. Both

treatment plants have met all expectations. Since going on stream, both systems have operated in a stable manner and have yielded an excellent quality final effluent, exceeding all stipu lated discharge requirements. The final effluent is of such quality that it would be suitable for a multitude

of purposes, e.g. irrigating goif courses and agricultural lands.

Biologicalmethods are the most attractive means for treating domestic sewage and many

types of industrial effluents because they can remove a wide array ofpollutants at reasonable operating and capital costs. Research and develop ment activities in recent years have re sulted not only in a better understand ing of the fundamental biochemical re actions involved but also in the emer

Since startup, the two treatment systems, the first of their kind in Ontario, have

operated in a stable manner and have yielded a high quality final effluent, well within stipulated discharge limitations. The Modified Phoredox process is a simplified version ofthe Phoredox proc ess, which in turn is an adaptation ofthe well-known original Bardenpho system. Incidentally, the Phoredox process is usually referred to as the Modified Bardenpho process in American litera ture (Meganck and Faup, 1988). Developed by James Barnard in the

the anoxic zones, a condition necessary to obtain a consistent and high removal of phosphoms, cannot always be en sured. Therefore, the process was modi fied by installing an anaerobic zone ahead of the first anoxic zone, resulting in the Phoredox process, which is both

a nitrogen and a phosphoms removal system. Contacting the incoming wastewater and return sludge in the anaerobic tank promotes fermentation reactions and phosphoms release. The generally accepted theory for biological phosphoms removal is that

gence of novel treatment processes and process configurations. With today's technology, it is possi ble to design biological wastewater treatment systems capable of providing excellent carbonaceous BOD,nitrogen, and phosphorus removals, achieving an effluent quality previously considered unattainable without add-on tertiary processes (Tetreault and Pope, 1995).

1970s in South Africa to provide more than 90% nitrogen removal without us ing an exogenous carbon source, the original Bardenpho system consists of four completely mixed activated sludge tanks in series, followed by a clarifier from which sludge is relumed to the first basin (Meganck and Faup, US EPA, 1987). Anoxic conditions are main

One such innovative wastewater

tained in the first and third basins while

mentation products are derived from the soluble portion of the influent BOD;

the second and fourth basins are aerated.

reaction time is insufficient for hydroly

Mixed liquor not recycled from the sec

sis and conversion of the influent

ond to the first basin flows into the third basin.

cellent phosphoms removal was occur ring, raising the possibility of utilizing the process for biological phosphoras

particulate BOD. The fermentation products are pre ferred and readily assimilated and stored by the microorganisms capable of ex cess biological phosphoms removal, i.e. bacteria belonging to the Acinetobacter genus. This assimilation and stor age is aided by the energy made avail able from the hydrolysis of the stored polyphosphates during the anaerobic period. The stored polyphosphate pro vides energy for active transport of

removal as well.

substrate and the formation of aceto-

treatment system, namely the Modified Phoredox process, was implemented by Conestoga Rovers &Associates for two clients in the province of Ontario, the Town of Haliburton in 1995 and Hori

zon Poultry processing establishment in 1993. The Modified Phoredox process was chosen after a thorough review of wastewater characteristics, discharge criteria regarding BOD and nutrients, and capital and operating costs, comple mented by comprehensive bench-scale treatability studies. Furthermore, the

experience gained at the poultry plant was of great assistance in designing the treatment system for the municipality. *Conestoga-Rovers & Associates Waterloo, Ontario

Complete nitrification is achieved in the second basin and nitrates are reduced

by the endogenous respiration of the sludge microorganisms in the third ba sin. While treating domestic sewage with the Bardenpho system, it was ob served that under certain conditions ex

anaerobic-aerobic contacting results in a complete substrate utilization and se lection of phosphoms-storing microor ganisms(US EPA, 1987). Acetate and other fermentation products are gener ated from fermentation reactions by normally-occurring facultative organ isms in the anaerobic zone. These fer

However, in the original Bardenpho acetate, which is converted to PHB system the development of sufficiently (polyhydroxylbutyrate or poly-Bstringent anaerobic conditions in one of hydroxyvelerate). Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

By A. Lugowski, D. Haycock and E. del Rosso* the wastewater is higher. Municipal Wastewater Treatment The municipality where the 3-stage BNPR process was installed is the Town

The fact that phosphorus-removing

microorganisms can assimilate the fer mentation products in the anaerobic phase means that they have a competi tive advantage compared to other nor mally-occurring microorganisms in the activated sludge system. Hence, the anaerobic phase results in a population selection and development of phosphorus-storing microor ganisms. During the aerobic phase, the stored substrate products are depleted and

of Haliburton in northern Ontario.

While industries are absent, the commu

small lake via a river, had to meet the

following criteria: BOD SS Total ammonia Total phosphorus E Coli

nity is the hub of a very popular tourist area. This domestic wastewater is genMODIFIED PHOREDOX PROCESS AT


the wastewater often coin cided with the nitrification


process, causing pH fluctua

soluble phosphorus is taken up, with excess amounts stored as polyphosphates. An increase in the population ofphosphorus-storing bacte ria is also expected as a re

tions which exerted an ad TUIUBE



sult of substrate utilization.

According to the above mechanism, the level of bio


logical phosphorus removal achieved is directly related to


verse effect on sludge set tling. The chemical addition forpH control was necessary to bring the system back to stable operating conditions. New Treatment Facility The existing treatment works became inadequate when it was decided to ex


the amount of substrate that Rguiel

Ci can be fermented by nor mally-occurring microorganisms in the anaerobic phase and subsequently as

erated not only by the local residents,

but also by the influx of visitors as well

products by phosphorus removing mi croorganisms, also in the anaerobic phase. Since the complete Phoredox system

as the numerous restaurants catering to the tourist trade. The ecology of the surrounding region is very fragile; strict regulations govern the treatment and discharge of wastewaters.

consists of five distinct tanks in addi

Previous Wastewater Treatment

tion to a secondary clarifier, associated capital costs are relatively high. To re duce capital costs, the process has been simplified by omitting the secondary anoxic and re-aeration zones, leading to a configuration called the

Facility The sewage treatment works serving the community previously was built in 1975 as a package plant and operated as an extended aeration process. It in-

similated and stored as fermentation


Modified Phoredox or 3-

stage BNPR (biological ni trogen and phosphorus re moval)process. This system thus consists

pand the sewer service area, a move resulting in an ex pected sewage flow increase of 500%, and when the environmental regulatory authority placed more stringent criteria on the discharge. The current discharge limitations are:

BOD SS Total ammonia Total phosphorus

5 mg/L 5 mg/L < 2 mg/L 0.1 mg/L

E Coli

200 COL/mL

Since the shape and configuration of the existing treatment plant did not al low for expansion, a new facility had to be built. Replacement with the Modified Phoredox sys tem was chosen for the fol



ofan anaerobic basin, an anoxic basin, and an aerated


HDISSOlVmAjR \ ^ ^\



spurra BOX


lowing reasons, in addition to those cited already: • Frequent high organic loadings imposed on the treatment system.




• Quantity of oil and grease

basin followed by a second

ary clarifier. Sludge is recy

in the raw wastewater above ' ANAKOaiC^'i

cled from the clarifier to the anaerobic tank while some

200 COL/mL

However, the plant was frequently unable to comply with the phosphorus discharge limit because the low alkalinity of



15 mg/L 15 mg/L 2.0 mg/L 1.0 mg/L


of the mixed liquor is recy cled from the aerated tank to

the anoxic basin. Although the Modified Phoredox sys tem is less costly than the Phoredox process, its denitrification capacity, as well as its ability to remove phosphorus, are also lower when the organic load of the in coming wastewater is low. However, these shortcomings can often be com pensated for when the organic load of




normal values for sewage


due to the numerous restau


rants in the area. AERAJIW TANK






• Low alkalinity ofthe sewage which would not allow


for full nitrification without I%ure2

eluded a grit channel,conuninutor, aera tion tank, chlorine contact chamber,and

a sludge digester and holding tank. Phosphorus removal was accomplished by the addition of ferric chloride. The treated effluent, released into a nearby

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

chemical pH adjustment. • High chemical dosages re quired to bring phosphorus level down to 0.1 mg/L, with concomitant increase in sludge volume and operating costs. The flow diagram of the new treat ment plant is depicted in Figure 1. As Continued overleaf 49

Clear Solutions


Microsep® clarification technology in the municipal sector provides substantial reductions in cost and installation space. Through accelerated settling of suspended solids and associated contaminants, the Microsep® technology delivers superior performance in a reduced footprint not achievable by

Depending upon the application, Microsep® delivers an array of benefits, including:

conventional methods.

• High efficiency TSS and associated BOD removal • At least an eight fold reduction in installation space • Reduced chemical consumption • Fully automated operation

This footprint reduction results in less than one eighth the installation space while still exceeding the throughput of traditional clarifiers.These benefits have made Microsep® the ideal choice for space constrained sites where land costs are at a premium or expansion limitations are prohibitive.

The Microsep® clarifier excels In the following applications: • Enhanced primary clarification

• Positive odour control " Cost effective CSO treatment.

Whether you need to provide an existing facility with a performance upgrade or require advanced and cost effective clarification technology for a new installation—consider an alternative that is clear and simple.

• Potable water treatment facilities

• Existing plant performance upgrading • Combined sewer overflow treatment systems (CSO).

For more information, circle reply card No. 141 (See page 33)

Microsep International Corporation Worldwide representation with head office at: 4599Tillicum Street, Burnaby British Columbia, Canada V5J 3J9 Tel:(604) 432-7660 Fax:(604) 432-7412

E-Mail: mi_sales@microsep.com


Wastewater Treatment, cont'd. indicated, the treatment sequence con sists of screening, grit removal, equali zation, 3-stage BNPR process, filtration, and disinfection by ultraviolet light ir



Designed for handling 2600 mVday

Influent Effluent Criteria

aluminum sulfate and polymer. Chemi


cal addition can be used for additional


phosphoms removal and polishing ofthe biologically treated effluent or enhanc ing the flocculating/settling characteris tics of the suspended solids. MLSS(mixed liquor suspended sol ids) of the aeration system ranges from 4000 to 6000 mg/L, being 60% volatiles.


The internal recirculation ratio, based on


the wastewater flow rate into the plant, is 200-300%, while the activated sludge return rate is 50-100%. Net sludge pro


Total phosphorus content of the sludges varies from 4 to 6%.

Total cost of the plant was $2.5 mil lion(US). About 25% ofthis figure was spent on earthworks in the very difficult and rocky terrain. New Plant Performance

Construction of the plant was com

pleted in May 1995 and startup com












































(mg/L) Total P

(mg/L) TKN


NO3-N (mg/l)



E. Coll





While processing of poultry is the pre dominant activity, the plant also makes pizzas and pork products. Production of pizzas and pork accounts for approxi mately 15 to 20% ofthe wastewater flow. Previous Wastewater Treatment

Facility The original wastewater treatment

menced the next month. The process

system was constructed in the 1960s and upgraded in 1989. Designed to handle

required 30 days to stabilize and since

the wastewater arising from the process

then has run smoothly with minimal op erator attention. The quality ofthe final effluent has been superior, well within discharge criteria. Moreover, the discharge is free from

ing of 200,000 birds/week, it consisted of grease traps, equalization, dissolved air flotation, extended aeration biologi

pathogenic microorganisms as a result of disinfection by ultraviolet light irra diation. Given the high quality of the discharge, it is expected that eutrophication of the recipient lake will be ar rested and soon reversed. At the cur

rent operational conditions, 20-30% of the influent BOD load is stabilized by denitrification. Furthermore almost fifty

percent ofthe alkalinity consumed dur ing nitrification was regenerated by denitrification, thus eliminating the need for chemical pH adjustment. Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Horizon Poultry plant, the site ofthe second Modified Phoredox system, is located in central Ontario. Only second

ary processing takes place; slaughtering of the birds is performed elsewhere.



Also included in the design were provi sions for chemical addition, namely

removed, and the sludge concentration in the activated sludge return is 1-1.2%.

Influent Effluent Design



duction(waste activated sludge)is about 0.5 kg of total MLSS per kg of BOD



of wastewater, the design of the plant is such that it allows for a future expan sion of50% with minimal modifications.


Food Processing



oxide and chlorine had to be applied to

suppress the growth of filamentous mi croorganisms. Moreover, frequent reseeding of the treatment plant was re

quired in order to attain the prescribed effluent quality criteria. These correc tive measures increased the operational costs of the plant by 30-40%. New Treatment Facility A new treatment approach was ne cessitated not only by the substandard performance ofthe existing facility but also by the expansion of the poultry

processing operations from 150,000 lbs

cal treatment, and disinfection with chlo

to 400,000 lbs/week of product. To

rine prior to discharge into a nearby river. The effluent criteria stipulated for the plant and still currently in force are;

overcome the problems at minimal capi tal cost expenditures and to ensure com pliance with the prevailing discharge criteria, the treatment system was refur

BOD SS Oil & grease TKN

15 mg/L 15 mg/L 15 mg/L 15 mg/L

Ammonia nitrogen Total phosphorus

10 mg/L 1.0 mg/L



bished and converted from a conven tional extended aeration to a Modified

Phoredox process(Figure 2). Although chlorine is currently employed for dis infection, it is planned to replace it by ultraviolet light irradiation in the near

future. Although the treatment plant was de Operating parameters are very simi signed to handle the organic loading, high concentrations of oil & grease in lar to those described previously for the municipal wastewater treatment facility. the raw wastewater stimulated the pro All the pertinent modifications were liferation of filamentous bacteria, pre venting the proper settling ofsludge. As completed in 1993 and the total cost in volved was approximately $150,000 a result, upsets became a common oc currence, creating process losses and (US). The advantages ofthe new treatment leading to a deterioration in effluent Continued on page 82 quality. Large amounts of hydrogen per

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


Water System Efficiency

New techniques for the reduction of unaccounted-for water

Operators of municipal water distribution sys

tems are faced with an

ever-increasing need to better understand their systems and to become more efficient. The gradual change from supply side management, where the infrastructure is simply in creased to keep up with demand, to de mand side management, focusing on water efficiency, is an integral part of this responsibility. For example, water system operators now have several new techniques to help them find,reduce and control unaccounted-for or non revenue water.

These new techniques, coupled with traditional methods ofleak detection, al

low system operators to not only sig nificantly reduce their unaccounted-for water but to maintain it at the reduced

levels. In today's world ofever-increas ing costs, tight capital and accountabil ity, efficiency is critical. It is not unusual within NorthAmeri-

can municipalities for unaccounted-for water to comprise between 10% to 30% of the total water supplied. Leakage normally accounts for be tween 30% to 70% of the non revenue

water in a system. As water leaks from a pipe it generates several vibrations or sounds which can be heard by special

water leakage detection is still not an exact science and is influenced by such factors as the experience of the opera tor, the type of equipment, the type of pipe, background noise and the size of

gram of sounding and correlation by either utility staff or by an outside con sultant. This is a process where crews systematically work their way through a system sounding all curb stops, hy drants, valves and other assessable fit

the leak.

There used to be three main meth

ods of leakage detection. The first be ing a type ofcrisis management or wait ing for the water from breaks to surface. Unfortunately, this method can also re sult in road or sewer cave-ins, customer

complaints, supply and pressure prob lems, premium costs for break repair and large volumes ofnon revenue water lost. The second method is an ongoing leak detection program in which utility staff combine leakage detection with other activities. For example, when rou tine valve or hydrant maintenance is carried out, sounding of the local area is done at the same time. This can be

effective, but coverage ofthe system can be sporadic and time can be wasted sounding "good" areas while the "bad" areas go unattended.

The third method is a scheduled pro

tings, listening for the characteristic noise frequencies ofleaking water. This method ofleak detection is arguably the most effective. However, not all sec

tions of a distribution system have pro portional amounts of leakage and, as with other methods, time can be wasted

surveying "good" areas when it might be more cost-effective to spend addi tional time in the "bad" areas. It also

sometimes happens that what we regard as "good" areas are not always so good and the "bad" areas are not always so bad. One drawback to the traditional

methods of leak survey is that there is no way of telling how effective a sur vey has been. If no, or very few, leaks are found during a survey it means either that there were no leaks present or that the survey was not effective. The


instruments. These instruments detect

leak noises transmitted through the soil or by direct contact on the pipe and pin point the leak location accordingly. Leakage detection instruments range from simple geophones to sophisticated computer-based leak noise correlators. Geophones look like a doctor's stetho scope and are designed to listen on fire hydrants or valves for leak noise. The most popular leak detection instrument is the ground microphone type which electronically amplifies the leakage fre quencies and provides some filtering of other noises.

The leak noise correlator, is a micro processor controlled instrument which

uses the time delay ofan induced signal on the pipe to pinpoint the location of

the leak. This technology has improved dramatically over the past five years and can now locate even the most difficult

leaks accurately. However, traditional













*HEATH Consultants Limited 52

Environmental Science

Engineering, September 1996

By David Keeling, P.Eng.' system operator does not know which


is the case. Even unaccounted-for fig

ures cannot give a definite indication since those figures may be caused by


other things such as meter or consump tion estimate inaccuracies.



Over the past few years several new techniques have been developed to pro








vide better and more cost-effective leak




age detection and control programs. Before any major leakage detection project begins, it is important to know














what the true unaccounted-for figures are and whether a leakage detection pro




gram is indeed justified. Depending on the system, there are several things that


should be considered before actually

conducting the leakage detection pro gram.


Often the first step is to test any sup ply meters and large consumer meters for accuracy. In unmetered systems,



temporary metering can be installed to confirm the estimates. Ifthe supply and


consumption figures are wrong,then the unaccounted-for figures may also be wrong and the lost water problem may be bigger or smaller than originally thought. A meter replacement program based on proper sizing may be more


STEP SIX 01:30
















TtMB ON OCTOBEit 21.1S92

cost-effective than a leakage detection program.

are used because water consumption is

be made before surveying each zone as

Other reviews of meter reading lag time, consumption estimates, account

to whether or not there is sufficient leak

ing practices or conversion factors may

at a minimum at night and it is easier to identify and subtract the legitimate flows. If night flows, minus any legiti

eliminate some of the unaccounted-for volumes as well.

mate flows are close to zero, leakage is

down further. Zones (ideally of 1000

also close to zero and an intensive leak

Recently a software program has been adapted to the North American

flows minus the legitimate flows are

to 3000 properties)that can be supplied by one or two feeds can be monitored individually. By successively closing

benefits of various leakage control al

high, then a major leakage detection program may be warranted. When a leakage survey is undertaken, the vol

of pipe and recording the correspond ing reduction in flow on the meter, leak


umes lost can serve as a benchmark or

locations can be narrowed down to a

situation that calculates both volumes of non revenue water and the economic

age survey is not warranted. If night

age to justify the survey and repair costs. This technique can again be broken

valves within the zone to isolate sections

This program was developed over goal for evaluating the leakage survey very small area. The leak or leaks can many years and at great expense by the and for providing concrete cost benefit then be located using traditional meth large British water utilities for the U.K. justification figures. Once the survey ods. A large reduction in flow indicates Leakage Control Initiative. It provides has been completed and the leaks re the existence of a leak within the sec the water system operator with informa paired, the night flow monitoring can tion isolated. This procedure is usually tion indicating which leakage control be repeated to determine the volume of conducted at night and is generally re measures would be the best for his or ferred to as a step test. The advantage of water saved. her particular utility before any pro This type offlow monitoring is gen this technique is that areas and volumes grams are started. This program has erally done using temporary insertion of leakage can be quickly located with proven to be very accurate for North meters and data loggers. out having to survey the entire system. American water distribution systems. Many ofthe new techniques for leak The monitoring offlows can be taken age detection can be used for ongoing Perhaps the best tool for developing one step further for an even more effec the most effective leakage control pro tive survey. Instead of monitoring the leakage control. By monitoring the gram for a particular system is to moni entire system, individual zones can be night flows continuously, unusual in tor minimum night flows. Since leaks monitored. The information obtained creases in volumes are recorded. By flow twenty-four hours a day, the night from this monitoring can then be used watching and knowing the system it can flows, minus any legitimate flows,such to plan a leakage detection program be determined if the volume increase is as commercial cleaning or twenty-four where the zones of high night flows or a leak or something else. Then, by step hour process loads, give a true volume high leakage are surveyed first and the testing and sounding or correlating, the Continued overleaf ofwater lost due to leakage. Nightflows returns are the greatest. Decisions can Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


Water System Efficiency, cont'd. leak can be located and fixed very rap idly. This technique is cost-effective in that the utility is not paying to treat and

transport water that is never used. Nor is the utility exposed to as much risk of road collapse, basement flooding or sup ply problems that can occur from long running leaks. In some countries dis trict flow metering is the most common method of leakage control. The information obtained from the

zone flow monitoring is also very use ful for computer network model calibra tion, operational efficiency and expan sion planning. Another method of ongoing leakage control gaining popularity is pressure control. Most systems are designed to provide a minimum pressure(usually for fire fighting) at peak flow. At off peak periods the pressure in the system in creases. The higher the pressure, the higher the flow through leaks. Several areas have had great success with install ing pressure recording devices that con trol pressure reducing valves (PRVs) allowing them to reduce the pressure in a system depending on the flow. By ad justing the pressure into an area depend ing on flow, these devices ensure that

the minimum pressure at the extremity of the system is maintained at all times but the overall pressure in the system can be reduced. The reduced pressure results in lower leakage losses. The techniques described above have proven to be very effective in signifi cantly reducing the unaccounted-for water in several Canadian water utili

ties and for developing ongoing leak age detection and control programs.

One Canadian municipality, for example, with

of the utility. Each utility has different requirements and is in a different situa tion with respect to water supply, water treatment, system capacity, system con dition and finances. Leakage detection and control programs must be designed to suit the needs of the particular utility. The techniques described here or modi fications to them, have helped several utilities to develop more effective leak age control programs which have re duced their operating costs and im proved their operating efficiency. Reduction ofimaccotmted-for or non

revenue water can be coupled with other conservation programs like public con

unaccounted-for numbers

of only about 12%, realized savings of almost $1,000,000 per year.

servation,ICI audits, residential retrofit

Payback has proven to be very quick. One Canadian municipality, for exam ple, with tmaccounted-for numbers of only about 12%, realized savings of al most $ 1,000,000 per year. Similar tech niques have been used in Europe for many years with excellent results. The best method of leakage detec tion and control is very dependent on the type of system and customer base

programs, etc., to further reduce de mands on the system and both save op erating dollars and defer expensive sys tem expansion. The advantage of re ducing the non revenue water is that more revenues are realized (or costs avoided) without reducing legitimate consumption. Reduced leakage can also reduce in filtration into the sewer system and save money in that area as well. For more information, circle reply card No. 143




• Filtration

• Membrane Systems • ion Exchange

• Lakeside Equipment Corp. • Aeration

• "Rotamat" Screens and Grit Removal

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Schlumberger Industries, the world's largest manufacturer of water meters, Is setting up a service centre at the former CFB Chatham, New Brunswick site.

The new centre will provide a wide variety of services to utilities in the Maritimes, including meter installation, reading and billing serv ices; maintenance, repair and meter replacement services; and tech nical support. "Our nation-wide project management team has installed and tested thousands of meters throughout Canada," said Joe O'Neill, Schlumberger Canada Inc.'s Technical Service Group Director, "and we look forward to servicing Eastern Canada with this new centre." "In addition to the technical side, we offer complete field service and water efficiency project handling capabilities," O'Neill added. "For example, we can develop and implement water conservation programs, provide water audits and rate studies, and conduct system evaluations and performance analyses, to name just a few. We give utilities the best possible products and services, and they In turn can pass that quality on to their clients." "Schlumberger Industries is a solid company which is well-known for its expertise and commitment to customer service," said New Bruns wick Premier, Frank McKenna. "It will be bringing much-needed jobs to this region, and helping to diversify the local economy." Schlumberger, formerly Neptune Meters, has had operations in Canada since 1919 and is the only water meter company In the world which provides specialized services such as meter installation/diagnostic/changeout, AMP program management, revenue management consulting and financial services. It now has three customer service centres headquartered in Canada: the new Miramichi centre, and two others in Kelowna, B.C. and Brampton, Ontario. For more information, contact;


(306)761-3210, FAX:(306)721-5610

For more information, circle reply card No. 227 (See page 33)

Rita Adrienne, Schlumberger Industries Tel: (905) 858-4211, Fax:(905) 858-0428



For more information, circle reply card No. 228 (See page 33)

What if you discovered a new source of cash right under your city streets? There's a lot more to enhancing revenue than replacing water meters. Schlumberger's new consulting business, Revenue Management Service(RMS),Is uniquely quali fied to assist utilities and municipalities looking for ways to enhance revenue without overstretching budgets. This professional service can help you Increase revenue based on meter replacement, sizing, application, and mainte nance with guaranteed results.

From years of experience, RMS has substantial meter accuracy data related to manufacturer, model, age and application.

An Innovative model accurately forecasts revenue gains prior to field testing, providing an opportunity to assess revenue gains before committing to renovation programs. RMS studies distribution system losses and negotiates performance contracts, using its own capital to renovate the metering system.

If you would like to hear more about how to convert your water system losses to cash, please give us a call.

Schlumberger f industries Measurement Division Canada 1-800-363-7886

For more information, circle reply card No. 144(See page 33)


By C. LadanowskP,J. Payne^ and L. Davidson^

Environmental assessment and remediation of former missile sites in Ukraine

Following the collapse of the

Soviet Union, Ukraine was

left with 176 nuclear-armed Intercontinental Ballistic Mis

siles (ICBMs) and 40 nuclear capable strategic bombers. Under the Tripartite Agreement and the Strategic Arms Re duction Treaty (START) Agreement, Ukraine will return the nuclear warheads to Russia and remove and dismantle the missiles from their silos and render the

silos inoperable.

In April 1994, Canada announced a $15 million assistance package as part of Canada's contribution to Western

support of Ukraine's efforts to promote denuclearization and encourage Ukrain ian accession to the Non Proliferation

Treaty (NPT). The assistance program will make Canadian expertise available to address such urgent needs as nuclear waste management, enhanced civilian nuclear-safety systems and environmen tal remediation. The Ukrainians have

expressed a strong interest in Canadian cooperation and technical assistance and they have identified the remediation of former ICBM sites and associated fa

cilities as a priority need. Assistance for the actual process of removing the nuclear warheads and de activating the missiles and their silos is being provided by USA and Russia, who have direct experience with nuclear weapons and their delivery systems. Canada has proven expertise in impor tant complimentary areas of environ mental assessment, monitoring, and remediation of sites contaminated by

Ukrainian driii rig with Canadian-Ukrainian personnel in background. Photo by Laurence Davidson (GIL)

they have sought the assistance of Canada which has the technical capa bility to make a positive, direct contri

need to be carried out in order to suc

cessfully implement a teclmical environ mental assistance project. Current environmental status of

bution to denuclearization efforts.

In May 1994, a Canadian project technical design mission visited Ukraine to discuss the proposed project with the Ministries ofDefence(MOD),Environ mental Protection (ME?) and Foreign Affairs (MFA). The mission visited a decoiumissioned ICBM training site and conducted interviews with some of the

potential training candidates. A proto col was signed establishing the respon sibilities and reporting relationships be tween Ukrainian and Canadian officials,

and identifying specific activities that

ICBM sites and associated facilities

Until 1995, Ukraine had not con

ducted any systematic environmental assessment of its ICBM sites and asso

ciated facilities. However, it is known

from past experience with former So viet military sites that severe environ mental clean-up problems can be antici pated which involve petroleum prod ucts, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesti cides, heavy metals, missile fuels and their oxidants. "Heptyl"(1,1,-dimethyl Continued on page 59

toxic chemicals. The contamination of soil and

groundwater at former ICBM sites through spills and other exposure poses enormous environmental risks. The re

moval of the highly toxic and corrosive agents associated with nuclear missiles




as well as the decontamination of the

sites poses further environmental risks unless undertaken by properly trained and equipped teams of experts. In view of the above, Ukraine has expressed concern about undertaking the environ mental remediation of the ICBM sites

and associated facilities. Consequently, 'Environment Canada,

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Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4V1K1

Tel. (905) 678-2051 FAX (905) 678-0898 Plant Locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton

For more information, circle reply card No. 146 (See page 33)

Remediation, cont'd. hydrazine)fuel and "Amy!"(nitric acid)

oxidizer are commonly used to propel SS-19 missiles which form the bulk of Ukraine's nuclear arsenal. The areas involved are substantial.

EED undertakes engineering research, development, evaluation and demon stration work on technologies for con taining and cleaning up water and soil contaminated with chemicals and oils.

General description of training program

Each silo installation encompasses some

1 square kilometre, and silos are grouped in regiments of 10 over a 60 x 80 kilo metre area. There are 18 regiments de ployed in Ukraine. The sites comprise notjust the silos, but also such areas as: command, control and communication facilities; storage and fuelling areas; liv

ing quarters; and vehicle parks. Many of these sites are suspected to be highly contaminated as a result of spills and improper disposal of fuels and other hazardous chemicals. The problems af fecting ground water, surface water and the local biology must be solved ifthese locations are to be returned to produc tive civilian uses. Goal of the environmental

assessment and remediation project The goal of the Environmental As sessment and Remediation Project (EAR?)is to give Ukraine the independ ent capability to undertake environmen tal assessment and remediation offormer

ICBM sites, including the infrastructure and facilities surrounding the actual ICBM sites. The goal will be achieved by: •providing Ukraine with Canadian tech niques and equipment for continuing environmental assessment and remedi

ation by training and equipping a cadre of Ukrainian engineers, chemists and technologists; and • giving Ukraine the capability to estab lish its own training programs in the fu ture using the small cadre of Canadiantrained experts to introduce to, and train, other Ukrainians in Canadian procedures and technology. Management of environmental assessment and remediation project The EAR? is structured as a Cana

dian public and private joint project to be carried out by the Emergencies Engi neering Division(EED)ofEnvironment Canada and private sector partners Fenco MacLaren Inc.(FMI)and Gartner Lee Limited(GLL). The philosophy for this structure is to promote Canadian techniques and equipment in Ukraine and other eastern European countries with the support of the Canadian gov ernment.

EED is part ofEnvironment Canada's Environmental Technology Centre which provides technical support to pol lution assessment and control programs.

Under the EARP, 18 to 24 Ukrain

ians consisting of engineers and scien tists will be trained in Canada, each for

a 10 to 12 month period. The first group of nine trainees arrived in June 1995

while the second group oftwelve to fif teen trainees will arrive in September 1996.

mation; Laboratory Safety; Steps for Conducting Environmental Site Assess ment; Field and Laboratory Analytical Methods; Personal Protective Equip ment and Clothing; Environmental Phi losophy; Environmental Regulations and Criteria; Identification, Classification and Assessment ofContaminated Sites;

Geophysical Investigation Techniques; Drilling; Installing Monitoring Wells; Sample Collection, Logging and Analy sis; Quality Assurance/Quality Control; Risk Assessment; Steps for Choosing

and Implementing Remedial Technolo gies; Health and Safety; Public Involve

The trainees for the EARP are pri marily from the Ukrainian Ministry of

ment and Community Relations; Site Closure; and Long-term Monitoring. The second part covers training in: English, computers, finances, account ability; project management; and time management in the Canadian workplace. The informal training comprises: tours of companies (e.g., Boart Longyear, Seprotech, Biorem, Wastewater Technology Centre); tours of centres (e.g., National Environmental Emer gency Centre, Canadian Transport Emergency Centre); tours of Universi ties (e.g., McGill, Ottawa, Carleton); demonstration of laboratory analytical instruments (e.g., inductively coupled Defence(MOD)since this is expected plasma spectrophotometer, x-ray fluoro to be the group most closely associated sensor); workshops(e.g., bioremediation, toxicology); evaluation of environmen with the actual remediation of the sites. However, representatives from the tal assessment and remediation propos Ukrainian Academy of Science and als; participation in Canadian environ Ukrainian Ministry of Environmental mental assessment and remediationjobs; analysis of soil and water samples; de Protection are also included. The velopment ofanalytical and remediation Ukrainian MOD has stated that all train methods specific to Ukrainian environ ees will work in environmental assess mental problems; and job shadowing. ment and remediation activities at Preliminary environmental former ICBM sites for a minimum of assessment of former ICBM site two years after the completion of thenA preliminary enviromuental site as training in Canada. The formal or "classroom" training sessment demonstration at a former of the Ukrainian personnel takes place ICBM site (No. 38), near the city of Khmmelnitsky,took place in September primarily at the facilities of the Cana dian private sector partners located in 1995. The facilities at the base included a silo, a command position, a power gen Toronto and at EED in Ottawa. The in formal or "hands-on" training consists erating station with two underground of visits and job shadowing, giving the diesel fuel tanks, a gas station with five trainees an opportunity to visit and work underground fuel tanks; an oil tank; groundwater well; refrigeration building; with staff on active projects in environ mental assessment and remediation.

Approximately 60-70% of their train ing period is with EED while 30-40% is

with the private sector partners. The formal training is divided into two areas:(1) conducting environmen tal assessment and remediation; and(2)

vehicle maintenance area; and under ground complex. The purpose of the demonstration was three-fold:(1)to acquaint the team with the history, layout and environmen tal conditions of a typical Ukrainian launch site and command post; (2) to

business activities in Canada.

provide an opportunity for the Ukrain

The first part covers training in: Workplace Hazardous Materials Infor

ians to obtain hands-on assessment train

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

ing and experience on their own terri59

Remediation, cont'd. the current infrastructure in Ukraine for

the missile and its fuel being removed; their surface sampling and analysis pro

undertaking environmental assessment

gram indicated very little contamination.

and remediation activities.

This information assisted in planning the activities for the preliminary envi

safety of those working in the area. A plan was developed and explained to all members of the team. A grid was set up and a geophysical survey was conducted to determine the presence of anomalies

ronmental site investigation. The base personnel were briefed on planned ac

drums, buried pipes). A soil gas vapour

tory; and(3)to familiarize the team with

Initially, representatives from the

Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Envi ronmental Protection and the Ukrainian

Scientific-Technical Centre(SENSOR) were interviewed to determine past ac tivities on the base and the availability of any reports. A preliminary report by

tivities, questioned whether they were aware of any environmental problems on the base, and requested for assistance with logistical needs.

SENSOR indicated that the first missile

An initial visual reconnaissance ofthe

complex was placed on the Khmmelnitsky base in 1970, with sub sequent modifications in later years and

site was conducted to determine target areas for further investigation. Radia tion and air quality monitoring were

its eventual dismantlement in 1993 with

conducted to ensure the health and

FAX (905)841-7271 for quick response Company Name;

Area Code &Tel:



vapour surveys, boreholes were drilled and monitoring wells were installed in select locations. An elevation survey was conducted to tie in the groundwater levels.

Surface and subsurface water

and soil samples were collected, logged and analysed in the field and EED labo ratories. As part of the work, a Ukrain ian drill rig was used for soil investiga tion near the silo and field analytical equipment was set up in two Ukrainian military mobile analytical laboratories. The results of these analyses indi cated the nature, extent and migration of contaminants. The results generally confirmed the preliminary work by SEN


tively clean: although there was some minor gasoline, diesel and fuel oil im pact around the support buildings.

Postal Code:

Future Plans The Canadian-Ukrainian Team had


□ Municipal & Govt. Official □ Provincial Government □ Federai Government

□ Consulting engineer/consultant D Industrial (Please specify area of activity)

Circle the numbers below for FREE information on the products in the September issue that interest you. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168

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For more information about products, services and articies in this issue (September '96), you can A Mail in the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mail this if faxing is not convenient) Be sure to fill in your name, address and job function and signature. ENViRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkway. 8., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6 60

survey was conducted to determine the

presence of any significant organics. Based on the geophysical and soil gas

SOR that the former ICBM site was rela



(e.g., underground storage tanks, buried

an opportunity to conduct an environ mental assessment investigation at a Canadian site in May 1996 which was the final stage of the Ukrainians' oneyear training period in Canada. The nine Ukrainian trainees returned to Ukraine

at the end of May 1996 and joined the Canadian-Ukrainian Team for a more detailed environmental assessment in

vestigation at a Ukrainian site inAugust 1996 where they implemented their newly acquired skills. A Canadian con sultant, Laurence Davidson (GLL), will stay with the Ukrainian Team to con tinue environmental assessment inves

tigations at other sites from September 1996 to July 1997.

The second group of twelve to fif teen trainees will arrive in Canada for a

one-year training period in September 1996. The Canadian-Ukrainian Team, including both groups of Ukrainian trainees, will conduct an environmen tal remediation demonstration on a site

in August 1997. A Canadian consult ant, Ed Lloyd (FMI), will stay with the Ukrainian Team to continue environ mental remediation activities at other

sites from September 1997 to July 1998. For more information,

circle reply card No. 147

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Watershed Management

By M.D. Conetta, P.Eng^ and P.O. Cookson, P.Eng^

Lessons learned In applying provincial guidelines to a mature subwatershed

Many agencies and munici

palities have recognized the need to protect and re generate natural processes

and habitats of the land and water re

sources under their jurisdictions. Re cently, attempts to do this are being car ried out, integrating environmental con siderations into land use planning on a subwatershed basis.

The City ofScarborough,in Ontario, has taken this process one step further by applying the subwatershed planning process to a mature subwatershed. In June 1993, the City of Scarborough

shed planning process to Centennial Creek. The main focus of this article is

to identify the major challenges encoun tered and to document lessons learned. Evolution of Subwatershed

Planning In the early 1980s, the management of water resources focused primarily on water quantity aspects which basically included impacts on flood and erosion control and on design of major/minor systems. In the mid-to-late 1980s, water quality concerns were recognized as being an integral part of water re sources management to address fisher

early 1990s, it became clear that tradi tional approaches to dealing with water resources management were riot ad equate. The concepts of "watershed" and "subwatershed plarming" were sub sequently introduced which encouraged an ecosystem-based approach to water resources and land use management, within the boundaries of the catchment area.

Figure 1 illustrates how the water

shed plans, subwatershed plans and stqrmwater management and erosion/ sediment control plans fit into the mu nicipal planning hierarchy.

commissioned MacViro Consultants

ies and other water use-related issues.

As noted in the document entitled

Inc. to undertake a study of the Centen nial Creek subwatershed. Unlike pre

By the late 1980s, other concerns were identified related to baseflows, groundwater,stream geomorphology, wetlands, and aquatic/wildlife habitats. By the

"Subwatershed Planning"^ there are

vious subwatershed studies, this

subwatershed has some special consid

broad environmental and economic ben

efits derived from undertaking subwatershed planning. Water management


• It is in a mature state of development since over 85 percent of the catchment area is developed. The evolution to a more integrated comprehensive plarming approach, while ideal for undeveloped areas, is challenging for highly urban

Figure 1. Integrating Water Management Objectives into Municipal Planning Documents Interim Guidelines

ized areas since commitments for fur

ther development require undoing en trenched attitudes ofpoliticians and staff. These require change to achieve new planning scenarios geared towards pro tection, regeneration and enhancements.

i 1

• The Class Environmental Assessment


for Municipal Water and Wastewater Projects' has recently been amended to provide for the preparation of Master

Upper tier Municipal Plan

Plan & by-laws Subwatershed Plan


Cumulative environmental effects are defined as the combined environmental

effects occurring in a defined area over time. The limited experience with CEA has been for specific projects, whereas for this application it is for a plan. The integration of the above-noted aspects presented a special set of prob lems in the application ofthe subwater


Local Official

Plans which included the first two

phases of the Class EA process. This study was extended to include compo nents of additional phases that could be incorporated into the preparation of the Environmental Study Report(ESR). • Integration of Cumulative Effects As sessments(CEA)into the process to as sess the. various planning scenarios.



Official Plan Amendments

Plan of Subdivision


Management & Erosion/Sediment

'MacViro Consultants Inc.

^Glty of Scarborough Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Control Plan

Ministries of the Environment S. Natural Resources 61

Watershed Management, cont'd. and land use planning are considered in terms of the whole ecosystem on a subwatershed basis, irrespective of local

• pressure for further new development and infilling, and • development of a Greenway Strategy

municipal boundaries. Furthermore, sub watershed goals, objectives and tar gets are to be considered prior to or con currently to the formulation of the offi

in a mature subwatershed.

cial plan documents. Regional Setting Centeimial Creek is located in the

eastern part of the City of Scarborough.

It is a tributary of Highland Creek with its natural boundary lying between High land Creek on the west and Rouge River on the east. The main branch of Cen

teimial Creek flows in a southerly direc

tion from Highway 401 and discharges into Highland Creek just north of the CNR tracks.

Previous to the expansion of High way 401, the headwaters of Centennial Creek originated in the ancient Iroquois shoreline ridge and extended approxi mately to Sheppard Avenue in the East. With the expansion ofthe Highway,the

Challenges encountered The study team encountered many challenges in conducting the Centennial Creek subwatershed smdy. These chal lenges included: • Application of an ecosystem-based planning approach in a retrofit condition where the subwatershed was already in a highly urbanized state ofdevelopment. • Dealing with ongoing development applications and commitment by coun cil and staff to existing land use during the study. At the initial phase of the study there were about 50 development applications to be dealt with. • Some part ofthe creek and valley lands ...there are broad environmental and economic benefits derived from

tennial Creek was eliminated and the

undertaking subwatershed planning. Water management and land use planning are

drainage area reduced from approxi

considered in terms of the

mately 954 hectares to 611 hectares. At

whole ecosystem on a

physical link to the lower part of Cen

present, the Centennial Creek subwatershed has reached a substantially urbanized state of development with

predominantly residential land use. Environmental Issues Most of the Centennial Creek sub-

watershed was cleared for agricultural purposes during the last century or ear lier, resulting in the greatest impact on natural habitat. Clearing of the natural forests and vegetation created stress on the ecosystem. As urbanization pro gressed after the 1950s,further environ mental degradation occurred. Key is sues related to the Centennial Creek subwatershed include:

•low baseflows resulting from diversion of minor system flows north ofHighway 401 and 25 percent ofthe existing catch ment area,

• water quality problems from contami nated runofffrom Highway 401, • potential flooding ofbuilt-up areas due to piping ofthe creek at several locations, •private ownership ofthe creek in some areas affected riparian rights, • development and sustainment of a healthy fish population, • pumping ofstormwater from an exist ing storm sewer system to maintain baseflow in the lower reaches,

subwatershed basis.

are privately-owned which impacted on riparian rights and land management practices. • Cumulative Effects Assessment was a

new concept that had not been previ ously applied to subwatershed studies. • Subwatershed Master Plans are usu

ally carried out to Phase 2 of the Class EA process. For this study, the process continued past the Phase 2 requirements to include components ofthe additional phases that could be incorporated into the Enviromnental Study Report(Phase 4)stage, which would be completed in the future.

•Integrating multi-agency requirements in the study process. In total there were 10 representatives from various agen cies as well as several representatives from different City of Scarborough de partments that were involved. • Many stresses have been placed on the subwatershed over the years which make it difficult and expensive to remediate.

which can act as guidance in more effi ciently carrying out future subwatershed studies:

• The expectation of the subwatershed study for a mature catchment area should be clearly realized by all in volved before the study gets underway. For a developed subwatershed, planning options are normally limited to protec tion, regeneration and enhancement, with few opportunities for protection of existing habitats. • Mature subwatershed studies are typi cally more complicated to undertake; consequently adequate resources/fund

ing should be allocated. •Project organization should be stream lined to increase meaningful smdy in put and minimize cost. Based on our experience, the Steering Committee membership should be confined to only those funding the smdy. An external group, acting in an advisory capacity, would consist of representation from agencies and non-governmental organi zations. Public input would be solicited as required by the Class EA process. • Topographic mapping in GIS format should be available prior to the start of the smdy to avoid delays in schedules and increases in costs.

• The public should be well informed of scheduled meetings and be kept in formed of study progress and findings. Advertisements in newspapers should be supplemented with direct mailings to those directly affected, as well as post ings at key instimtions within the com munity. •A baseline monitoring program should be established prior to the start of the subwatershed smdy to collect reliable data on which the smdy can be executed. If not already available, this program would typically include monitoring of flow and water level data for calibra

tion of computer models and collection of fish and wildlife information.

Most notable are the cut off ofthe head

• Agreement, at the outset, that certain development applications are frozen until the smdy is complete. Trying to make interim decisions on a moving tar get is not efficient. • With scarce funding availability, land purchase is not likely and emphasis should be placed on private steward ships.

waters ofthe creek by Highway 401 and the diversion of some of the minor sys

'Municipal Engineers Association (1993)

References Class Environmental Assessment for Munici


Lessons learned

pal Water and Wastewater Projects. ^Ministry of Environment and Energy et al (1993) Sub\A/atershed Planning.

• preservation and enhancement of an existing wetland and environmentally

study has been recently completed. A

For more information,

sensitive area.

number of observations can be made

circle reply card No. 148


The Centennial Creek subwatershed

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Concrete pipe's survived it all.

They came. They saw. They conquered. Then the Romans sought nothing more than a hot bath. Fortunately, the ancient designers used concrete in Rome's famed aqueduct system, the Cloaca Maxima. Still in

use today, the Roman aqueduct proves that concrete stands the test of time. So too does

today's concrete pipe. It's adaptable to any design. It's environment-friendly. And it creates jobs. The Romans insisted on it. Et Tu?

Concrete Pipe...Here to Stay For concrete pipe manufacturers in your area, contact:

ocp*a Ontario concrete pipe association

102760.2070 @ Compuserve.com

6299 Airport Road, Suite 508, Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1N3 Phone:(905) 677-1010 Fax:(905) 677-1007

For more information, circle reply card No. 328(See page 33)

Product and Service SHoiucase For information on advertising in this section, cali ES&E at(905)727-4666.

PVC gate valve suited for underground applications

Air monitoring for spill sites & confined space

Unlock the mystery of activated sludge


Banch ftÂŤtplrometsr

OivUm ftstplromMar

Gate valves offer an unobstructed full

This extensive two day course, to

port and water hammer is avoided due to the slow closing design. Chemline's PVC gate valve also of fers light weight and corrosion resist ance inside and out. Sizes range from 1 1/2" to 14", flanged. The 8" valve weighs only 66 lbs. so often no extra piping support is required. It is well suited for underground applications due to its heavy duty design. When buried, no corrosion protection is re quired. Chemline Plastics For more information, circle reply card No. 152

be held November 19-20, 1996, in

New transportable bulk containers designed for

Burlington, Ontario, is designed to show the components, protocols and equipment used to set up an effec tive management program for air monitoring at spill sites and in con fined space entry situations. Captain John Hosty, Course Director, was coordinator of Safety and Environ mental programs at Lambton Col lege, Sarnia. CERTA Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 153

Monitor bioactivity at specific con trol points during activated sludge wastewater treatment and know

what's happening during treatment from start to finish. Arthur Technolo

gy's unique respirometry technology provides anticipatory information used to avoid influent toxicity, shock loads, and non-compliance. The in formation maintains stable operation costs. Savings have provided pay back on the respirometer equipment many times over. Arthur Technology,Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 154

Solids/Liquid Separation

Sludge sampler

The Tower Belt Filter Press is de

The EPIC 1030 fixed site sludge sam pler, which conforms to ISO 9001, extracts sludges,including those with a high solids content, from flowing pipelines or through a tank wall. The patented positive metering system

narrow areas

AGO Container Systems has received regulatory approval on its new PTC 135NP narrow profile IBC for the transportation of dangerous goods. The new tote is designed to fit through standard doorways using a standard pallet truck. Also, it is maneuverable enough to fit in narrow areas at the back of the plant often only serviced by drums. The PTC 135NP offers all the same benefits of

ACO's traditional IBCs,but in a small er, more versatile size. Aco-Assman of Canada

For more information,

circle reply card No. 155 64

signed to be an economical, reliable workhorse. The Tower Press, with

its vertical arrangement of pressure rollers, features a maintenance-free

pneumatic belt tensioning and cen tre pivot tracking roll system that continuously monitors and also au tomatically corrects any misalign ment of the dewatering belts. It pro vides a very high cake dryness which minimizes hauling and landfill costs. Roediger For more information,

circle reply card No. 156

has no sensors or level detectors to

foul up, and the two valves which pass the sludge are purged during samples to prevent any blockage. The 1030 can be programmed to take time- or flow-weighted samples with the option of manual sampling when ever required. Cancoppas For more information, circle reply card No. 157

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

'Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, cail ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Bio-organic catalytic

COD method eliminates

Industrial pipes


heavy metals waste

reconstructed without




"CoSysfaiJ Plus

Ecosystem Plus™, a unique bioorganic catalytic system, dramati cally accelerates the biological deg radation of organic wastes and rap idly eliminates most organic odors. A breakthrough in waste treatment technology. Ecosystem Plus replaces

Hach Company's new patented Man ganese III COD method eliminates the mercury, chromium, and silver

The Insituform cured-in-place-pipe process, using liquid thermosetting resin technology, can be engineered

wastes associated with the dichro-

to withstand the corrosive effects of

mate method. The new method uses

a wide range of chemicals. The re

a proprietary cartridge that removes

construction material is custom

chloride interference without the use

manufactured from polyester felt and formed into a tube that fits the pipe

capital equipment requirements and optimizes the throughput of indus trial and municipal plants. It also reduces the cost of complying with regulatory and safety requirements. International Daleco Corporation For more information,

of mercury. Samples can be proc essed simultaneously in less than 90 minutes. Prepackaged reagents are available for 20-1000 mg/L COD. The system can be used with Hach COD reactors and spectrophotometers. Hach Company For more information,

circle reply card No. 158

circle reply card No. 159

turned inside out, within the damaged pipeline. Insituform For more information, circle reply card No. 160

Ultrasonic Level

Transfer Trailers

Centrifugal blowers

hazardous chemicals, minimizes

to be rebuilt. Prior to installation, the

tube is impregnated with the speci fied thermosetting resin. The resin saturated material is then inverted, or


LOaD»i^lWNNIER Running noor SoBQ waste Transfer Trailers

operating temperature to 150° C while maintaining temperature stabil ity over the range. A more powerful signal output and improved echo sen sitivity mean more dusty and steamy applications are now possible. Ma

Brothers Industries custom design all their transfer trailers for specialized applications. These light-weight, steel trailers offer high capacity, strength, and durability. The walk ing floor trailers are equipped with Keith Running Floors. Also avail able are compactor compatible and ejector pushout trailers. Some op tions are covers,taper, wedge,length, width, height, and door styles.

terials and methods of construction

Brothers Industries

Milltronics new Echomax™ Series transducers extend the use of ultra

sonic level measurement into appli cations that were not previously vi able. Echomax^'^' transducers extend

improve chemical immunity and ex pand mounting options. Milltronics For more information, circle reply card No. 161

For more information, circle reply card No. 162

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Four 900 HP Hoffman Multistage Centrifugal blowers in operation at a major Canadian wastewater treatment plant deliver over 43,000 scfm of air to a discharge pressure of approxi mately 9.5 PSIG for the activated sludge process. To respond to the al ways changing oxygen requirements of the system, process variables are constantly monitored and used as feedback to control the air output from the blowers, by modulating the pneumatically controlled inlet butter fly valves. Hoffman Industries For more information, circle reply card No. 163 65

Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Oil and grease Interceptors

Compression-type fire hydrants

Stormceptor Canada have introduced the Preceptor™ line of fibreglass re inforced plastic (FRF) interceptors. Designed to effectively treat process wastewater containing oil, grease,

benefits beyond front line oil and solids separation. Their cylindrical design enhances hydraulic perform

Terminal City's C71 and C7IP com pression fire hydrants now have'new' urethane valves and a'new' surge re lief valve design. They are ULC Approved and are Made in Canada to AWWA Standard C502-85. They can be supplied to depth of bury, and pumper thread is site-specific to area of installation. All working parts are easily accessible for inspection and

ance and reduces the likelihood of

service, without excavation. Cast

resuspension during subsequent

iron surfaces are primer coated to

stripping of the water sample. The AM-100 produces a result within 30

flows. Ideal for internal and exter

minimize corrosion.

seconds. Geostructure Instruments

nal installation. Stormceptor For more information, circle reply card No. 164

Terminal City Iron Works For more information, circle reply card No. 165

food waste and settleable solids,

Vxoceptor™ interceptors provide

New on-line

ammonium analyzer

The AM-100 on-line analyzer uses UV absorption technology to meas

ure ammonium (NH^'') concentra tions in water. A key feature of the system is its complete insensitivity to the turbidity and the coloration of the sample. This is accomplished by conducting the actual measurement in the gaseous pha.se on ammonia gas

(NHj), following a pH rise and air

For more information, circle reply card No. 166

New Analig lead and mercury methods

Stormwater Management

Hydrocarbon removal

The Analig™ methods for detecting

Surface detention/retention of storm-

contamination in sludges, soils, wastewater and drinking water is an easy, low-cost, accurate alternative to other analytical techniques. It re quires no hazardous solvents for ex traction and can be used with any Hach spectrophotometer. A propri etary, analyte-specific membrane captures either acid soluble lead or mercury, allowing interferences to pass through. Measurement ranges are: Lead, 3-600 pg/L; Mercury, 1250 pg/L. Hach Company For more information, circle reply card No. 167

water has been the standard practice for years. Since above ground space is often scarce and its value high, underground construction is becom ing a more common approach. Cor rugated Steel Pipe (CSP) is used for

The Aquarius Coalescer is designed specifically for the removal of hydro carbons. It is equipped with a spe cific high efficiency coalescing me dia. The media is protected by a screening chamber, equipped with a flow-breaker and a distribution zone,

these facilities. The benefits are low

which directs the flow to the coalescer

cost, high strength and easy installa

where coarse particles are separated by gravity. Separation rates which meet efficiencies as good as 99.5% non-emulsified hydrocarbon removal can be achieved. Aquarius For more information, circle reply card No. 169



Videos and a workbook are

available from Armtec Construction

Products that detail the hydraulic de sign of underground detention sys tems. Armtec

For more information,

circle reply card No. 168 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Product and Service Sfiozucase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Debris filters

Flow measurement

Returnable lecture


bottle program


The Beaudrey "W" Debris Filter is designed to remove from the water all the debris that can either pass the intake screens or grow past the

Tiie Schiumberger Industries Meas urement Division has an updated sixpage, full-colour introductory bro chure on its advanced-technology

screens themselves. This includes

flowmeters. Included is basic infor

clams, shells, mussels, oysters, fish,

mation on Schiumberger Coriolis

jelly-fish, seaweed, beer cans, peb bles, concrete chips, etc. With a Beaudrey "W" Debris Filter fitted ahead of a condenser water box,

manual tube sheet cleaning is no

longer required. Continuous tube cleaning perfonnance is much im proved. Delta Equipment For more information,

mass flowmeters and INTEX''^' vor

tex shedding flowmeters. The bro chure tabulates important specifica tions and provides drawings ofsome typical applications. Schiumberger IVIeasurement Division

For more information, circle reply card No. 171

circle reply card No. 170

Gaseous sampling

Filtration systems

pressure, vacuum or both. All mod els will not contaminate the sample as no oil, graphite or other contami nating lubricant comes in contact with the sample stream. Motors are

capable of operating under heavy load conditions. The pump can op erate in any position with minimal noise and vibration. Cancoppas For more information, circle reply card No. 173

lecture bottles. Lecture bottles are

lightweight and portable, averaging 18 inches long and two inches in di ameter. They offer customers a costeffective alternative to standard cyl inder delivery by eliminating cylin der rental charges and minimizing shipping costs. In addition, BOG Gases' returnable lecture bottle pro gram eliminates the high costs ofdis posing of the empty bottles. BOG Gases

For more Information, circle reply card No. 172

Payload Plus Aluminum Transfer Trailer


DIA-VAG" aluminum single, double and 4-stage air moving systems are diaphragm-type sample pumps. Each stage is separate and may be operated individually to produce

BOG Gases offers its customers a

solution for the disposal of empty

Newly designed SERFILGO Guard ian Filtration Systems are engineered to provide efficient, economical re moval of foreign solids and organic impurities from a wide range of chemical and electroplating solu tions. Ghoice of pump style, filter chamber style and several optional

The latest addition to Brothers Indus

features can be combined to offer a

trailer are .125 aluminum with

complete package system. Filter chamber, either PVG or GPVG, may be furnished with cartridges, sleeves, discs, or bag.

aluminum side posts on 15" centers.

tries Transfer Trailer line is the light weight and durable open top "Payload Plus" aluminum-steel compos ite trailer. This trailer offers low tare

weight. A 45'trailer weighs less than 16,000 lbs. and has a high 120 cubic

yard capacity. The sidewalls of this

The sidewall assemblies are buck

bolted together which allows for

For more information,

shock resistance,flexibility, and serv iceability. Brothers Industries For more Information,

circle reply card No. 174

circle reply card No. 329

Service Filtration of Canada

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


(Product and Service Sitozvcase For information on advertising in this section, cail ES&E at(905)727-4666.

All vacuum gas

Industrial hygiene

New line of


water-jet eductors

The All Vacuum REGAL Gas Chlo

From industrial monitor calibration

rinators virtually eliminate the prob lems associated with old pressure type manifold systems. Chlorine gas is never under pressure; the gas is drawn from the tank by a vacuum created by the flow of water through the ejector (where the chlorine is mixed with water). If the vacuum line breaks - if in fact, any part of the vacuum system is damaged - the gas shuts off immediately and auto matically. Chlorinators Incorporated For more information, circie repiy card No. 176

to emergency medical grade oxygen applications, the Praxair Portable Series was designed for situations where mobility, convenience, and performance are critical. The Praxair

Elmridge "TLL" Series Liqui-Jet^'^ Eductors use water or other liquids at pressures of 10 psi or higher as the motive fluid, and operate on the Venturi principle to pump other liq uids or slurries. The high velocity jet of liquid from the eductor nozzle entrains the suction liquid, creating a vacuum, and causing the suction liquid to be pumped. There are no moving parts or packings and no lu brication is required. A wide variety

circle reply card No. 177

circle repiy card No. 178

High-sensitivity moisture analyzer

Programming tools for

RO treatment systems


Portable Series consists of an inte

grated cylinder handle fitted onto a lightweight refillable aluminum gas cylinder. The cap combines the flow control and pressure regulator inside a single, durable, impact-resistant, safety handle. The entire package weighs less than 7 lbs. Praxair For more Information,

of standard models are available.

Elmridge Engineering For more information,

industrial automation


The analytical performance of the new Model 5800 Moisture Analyzer from Ametek has been optimized for the specific requirements ofthe proc ess industry. It features high level sensitivity, multigas compatibility, fast response time, and low mainte nance. The Model 5800 detects

changes in moisture content less than 0.05 ppm in nitrogen, argon oxygen, hydrogen, helium, and many proc ess gases. Response time is very short. Westech Industrial

For more information, circie repiy card No. 179

BridgeVIEW^" is a new graphical software package for building indus trial-strength automation systems for a wide variety ofprocess and discrete manufacturing applications. BridgeVIEW delivers real-time process monitoring, historial trending, online configuration, and programmable logic controller (PLC) connectivity. National Instruments

For more information,

circie reply card No. 180


Reverse osmosis water treatment sys tems from Coster Engineering can be tailored to specifically address all water needs, whether the problem is high TDS, sulphates, chlorides, ni trates, sodium or radium. Modular, microprocessor controlled municipal reverse osmosis (RO) systems are available up to 5 million GPD, in dustrial RO systems up to 25,000 GPD. Compact, skid-mounted in dustrial/municipal RO systems are available from 25,000 to 350,000

GPD. Coster Engineering For more information,

circie repiy card No. 181 68

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

(Product and Service SHozucasc For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Pre-packaged water

Polyethylene pipe

treatment system


Environmentally safe above ground storage Innovoiive .Spill Containment

Protectinji'.Ypur Business and,ri}f.;Er4tfiwmi«nt

The Graver Monoplant packaged water treatment system is pre-engineered with pre-treatment, chemical feed and filters designed to produce potable water. Seventeen standard

Driscopipe" piping systems are said to be among the most durable pipe systems available. Features include: environmental stress crack resistance;

sizes are available to treat from 20

high strength, even at depths over 100 feet; long-lasting leak-free joints;

gpm up to 500 gpm in a single plant.

field-tested Marlex" HDPE extruded

Installation time is minimal be

cause the unit is shipped completely set up. The Monoplant incorporates

pipe; corrosion-resistant. The sys

between the tanks. If a leak occurs,

tems have been field-tested for use

the vacuum is lost, indicating that the tank should be inspected. The outer tank safely contains inner tank leaks, eliminating environmental damage, liability and clean-up costs. Spectra Environmental For more information,

within a single factory pre-fabricated

in the most challenging environ ments: landfill, oil and gas, mining,

steel tank, both clarification and fil tration systems. Ecodyne For more information,

more. Sandale Utility Products For more information,

circle reply card No. 240

The Envirodike™ Double Wall Tank

System incorporates the latest tech nology to provide environmentally safe above ground storage for haz ardous liquids. Its irmer primary tank is sealed 350° inside a secondary outer tank with a permanent vacuum drawn

wastewater, telecommunications and

circle reply card No. 241

circle reply card No. 242

Spill solidlfler

Spill response kit

Wastewater treatment solution

mm A678SBK

K.; LjI

A610 is a granulated polymer that is ranked first among spill solidifiers tested by Environment Canada. A610 does not bond or absorb water

and, therefore, works well on hydro carbon-based spills such as oils, fu els, solvents and oil-based paints on both land and water. A610 bonds with little increase in volume. One

pound/450 grams of A610 bonds up to fifteen pounds/6.75 kilograms of liquid. A610 is certified as incinerable to less than 0.02% ash. nochar Canada

The A677 Petro Bond Spill Response Kit is designed to stabilize, bond, absorb and containerize petroleumbased spills of up to 13 gallons/50 litres. The A677 SRK utilizes both

A600 series bonding agents and A670 stabilizing products. It is con veniently packaged in a U.N. ap

proved 6 gallon plastic bucket with locking safety latch and screw offlid. The bucket is designed to hold the bonded waste after clean up. Kits may be customized for specific con tainment needs, nochar Canada

The Proteus Solution is a completelyautomated, fully-integrated wastewater management system. The Modular Effluent Treatment System (METS)provides enhanced primary treatment followed by multi-media sand filters, biofilters and an ultra

violet disinfection system for second ary and tertiary treatment, including a sludge management system. The METS plant is transportable, is to tally self-contained and does not give off any gases or odours. Proteus Environmental Systems

For more information,

For more information,

For more information,

circle reply card No. 243

circle reply card No. 244

circle reply card No. 245

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


Product and Service Showcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

High speed dry screening

Odour Control

Cross-flow separator


Derrick Model L and K single deck screening machines are available with either 1800 or 3600 RPM vibrators

and in sizes ranging from 18" x 60" to 48" X 120". Machines can be sup

plied with open hopper configura tions or complete dust enclosures with flexible motor seals, gasketed side access doors and removable cov

ers. Where two size separations are required on a single screening unit, a single surface — two cut design can be used. Derrick Corporation For more information,

circle reply card No. 283

Wet abrasive blasting

Sharpshooter has been especially for mulated to be used in controlling odour in landfills, tipping floors, sludge lagoons, composting and holding tanks. When using Sharp shooter along with Addtek's specially designed spray equipment, organic odours are destroyed on the surface of the problem and will not return.

The Aquarius Cro,ss-Flow Separator is used to remove oils and solids from

circle reply card No. 284

residual water. Applications are run off, petrochemical, chemical, me chanical, metallurgical and food processing sectors. This technology takes advantage of the natural ten dency ofoils to float, and dccantation principle for solids. The originality of this process is the combination of flotation and clarification techniques in one system. Its high hydraulic rate permits very small footprint. Aquarius For more information, circle reply card No. 285

New liquid dispensing

Power WWTP simulation


on a PC

When the surface is turned over or

new waste is added, a quick spray over the surface will assure odour control. Addtek Environmental Products

For more information,



d The Torbo method of abrasive blast

ing, when used to remove coatings and painted surfaces, including lead and asbestos, prevents the spread of airborne paniculate material. Lead in the air levels is consistently below

Aco-Assman is now offering the con venience of a complete liquid dis pensing system from a single source. Each system is engineered to exact ing standards to meet your specific requirements. Pumps,meters, vlaves,

EPA/OSHAAction Levels. With the

mixers and controls can be installed

Torbo method, contaminated dust emissions are reduced by 95%, and

to manufacturers specifications and tested prior to shipping. System ca pacities range from 10 to 2500 Imp. gallons. Most basins are rectangular in shape but in special circumstances cylindrical basins are available.

abrasive consumption by up to 50% compared to dry blast systems. Restoration Environmental Contractors

For more information, circle reply card No. 286

Aco-Assman of Canada

For more information,

circle reply card No. 287 70

Hydromantis has ported its GPS-X modelling and simulation software to the PC running under Microsoft Win dows NT. With the GPS-X develop ment system, the engineer builds a plant model by graphically selecting and linking processes from a library of220 mechanistic models. Dynamic simulation and calibration tools im

prove the model's accuracy. Once the model is built and calibrated, the en

gineer interactively simulates the dy namics of the plant for efficiency. Hydromantis Inc. For more information, circle reply card No. 288

Environmental Science

Engineering, September 1996


Major Industrial Effluent By-Pass Suppose your plant had a sewer line with 32 million gallons per day (MGD) of process water flowing through It and you had to inspect the interior prior to starting repairs. Problem: How do you by-pass 32 MGD flow through two blocks of neighbouring towns from one 40"

Do What No Other Centrifugal Pump Can...

X 48" hole while ensuring uninter

rupted plant reliability? That's exactly the challenge that recently faced a major Indus trial complex. Any reduction in flow rates would result in the shutdown

of processing operations. After ex tensive engineering review, every thing was planned, down to the smallest detail. In engineering this by-pass, several key challenges had to be overcome. 32 MGD or

22,400 USGPM, had to be drawn from one restricted location: a 40"

X 48" hole in a single sewer box. This was impossible for any sub mersible pumps. The answer was a special bundle of pipes contain ing nine 12" pipes and four 8" pipes, all welded together to fit in the 40" X 48" rectangular opening. Another challenge was the staging of the pumps. Suction hoses were connected to the

flanged pipes of the Intake bundle. Once the pumps were in place, the discharge piping needed to be run together into four 18" discharge headers that would transport the process water to the destination: a water treatment facility two blocks away. Environmental laws called for

'double wall' containment piping for process water flowing over pub lic land. A system of plastic sheeting was devised to "wrap" the discharge pipes, forming a second layer of containment. The signal was given. One-byone, the Godwin Dri-Prime® pumps automatically picked up their prime and started pumping water from



• Run dry continuously and reliably - unattended. Self-adjusting, oil bath lubricated mechanical seal with solid silicon carbide interface, located outside affects of flow.

• Auto self-prime to 28 feet - reprime on demand. No moving parts. Air ejector priming produces 25 inches of mercury vacuum draw. Install hose, start pumping and leave.

Sales, service and immediate rentals from stock anywhere. GODWIN DRI-PRIME® centrifugal pump models from 2 thru 12 inch, cast iron and 316 stainless steel, diesei and electric. Flows to 5,500 gpm, solids to 3.5 inches and discharge heads to 485 feet t.d.h. Pumps, hose and piping systems can be shipped anywhere the same day ordered. Ask how rental recapture can be applied towards purchase price. 456 Alliance Avenue

2200 - 46ieme Avenue

Toronto, ON, M6N 2J2

Lachiine, QC, H8T 2P3

TEL:(416) 766-7471 FAX:(416) 766-7399

TEL:(514)631-3533 FAX:(514)631-8224

ENVIRO SOLV INC. TOLL FREE: 1-800-563-1093 entire flow was being bypassed, enabling the internal Inspection of the fire-glazed brick sewer lines Godwin-Dri-Primd^ pumps automatically prime to 28 feet dry static suction heads including

the sewer box. Within minutes, the

that were Installed almost a cen

long horizontal suction lines of several hundred feet and will reprime on demand. The selfadjusting, oil bath lubricated mechanical seal Is located away from the harmful effects of the The entire by-pass ran for a to flow, allowing pumps to run-dry overnight - unattended. Pumps are supplied In cast iron and tal of seven days reaching maxi mum flows of 32 MGD,a large-vol 316L stainiess steel and will handle solids to 3-1/2" and heads to 485 feet t.d.h. Pumps to 12 ume by-pass, thought Impossible inch, hose and piping are available for rental or purchase and can usually be shipped the same day, anywhere. For more Information and assistance on municipal and industrial pumping to achieve. systems, please contact RfvIS Enviro Solv Inc at 800-563-1093. For more information, For more information, circie reply card No. 290 circie repiy card No. 289

tury ago.

For more information, circle reply card No. 185(See page 33)

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Disaster Recovery

Peristaltic Hose Pump



A 10-step Checklist for Disaster Pre paredness was developed by the


Professional Liability Agents Net work(PLAN),serving North America, and DPiC Companies, providing pro fessional liability insurance for archi tects, engineers, and environmental consultants. The checklist helps you increase security and safety, and limit risk and losses by planning for unex pected occurrences such as explo


wear. There are no product seals in contact with material being pumped, no seats or valves. Completely selfpriming, the pump even runs dry without detrimental effect.

Circle reply card No. 200

Waukesha Cherry-Burreli Circle reply card No. 201

Trojan ultraviolet disinfection systems

Continuous seif-cieaning

Complete ultraviolet disinfection systems for wastewater treatment. Trojan System LiVSOGG™ utilizes

The Aqua Guard Bar/Filter is a con tinuous, self-cleaning device which uti lizes a uniquely designed filter-rake combination to automatically remove a wide range of floating and sus pended materials from a moving liq

bar/filter screen-head

electronic ballasts and solid state

circuitry with full local or remote sys tem control and monitoring capabil ity. System LiV4GGG™ makes use of variable output, high intensity lamps and innovative fully auto mated self-cleaning technology ideal for primary effluents, CSO,and stormwater applications. Trojan Technologies Inc. Circle reply card No. 202

uid stream,

Aqua Guard Screen

Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 203

Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Treatment

Fabco Plastics have updated their 464-page Buyers Guide & Engineer ing Specifications catalogue, a com prehensive listing of industrial products nologicaily advanced Items. The cata logue also has an extensive 74-page Engineering Reference Section and

is your company in need of more efficient wastewater treatment? ADi

nologies including the nitrogenremoving ADi-SBR system. There

Chemical Resistance Chart which will

are over 60 installations worldwide

for various industries. Request more information today. ADI Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 205

Fabco Plastics

Circle reply card No. 204

Trac-Vac™ versatile sludge removal system for new and existing ciarifiers Versatility, reliability and economy make Eimco Trac-Vac™ sludge col lectors the logical choice when costeffective solids removal is required.

FREE 1996 Instrumentation

Reference and Catalogue The National instruments 1996 cata

logue features new versions of LabVIEW®, LabWiNDOWS®/CVi, and

HiQ® application software products. Other new software products include Measure™, a new spreadsheet add-in for direct data acquisition and control, and VirtualBench™, a family of Win dows-based turnkey virtual instru ments. New hardware products in

Hundreds of units installed in new

and existing ciarifiers have earned a reputation among engineers, op erators, and administrators for flex

clude GPIB, DAQ,and VSi interfaces; new PCMCIA and MXi-2 interfaces;

munications applications.

plus Return on Investment

ADi-BVF® digester and the high-rate ADi-Hybrid reactor, and aerobic tech

assist material specialists specifying plastic products in the chemical, cor rosion and pollution fields.

National instruments

Technologies Systems inc. can supply and install anaerobic and aerobic treatment sys tems to suit your needs, including two anaerobic systems - the low-rate

and illustrations of new and tech

and serial Interfaces for industrial com

identical filter-rake ele

ments are mounted horizontally and vertically on a series of parallel shafts, to form an endless moving belt which collects, conveys, and discharges ail solids greater than the selected mesh size, it then mechanically cleans it self.

Industrial plastics product guide



dia or corrosive acids with minimum

sion, flood, fire, or other disaster. Security Insurance Co.of Hartford



Waukesha/Bredei Peristaltic Type Hosepump series, which is finding increasingly broad application in handling effluent, slurries and sludges; i.e., "unpumpabies". This unique pump handles abrasive me


ible design, ease of Installation and dependable operation. Elmco Process Equipment Circle reply card No. 207

Circle reply card No. 206


Envinmniental Science & Engineering. September 1996

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. ODOUI COIVTRO

Odour Control

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is

Zebra Mussels

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS

detailed in a technical bulletin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air


collection needs.

To help control zebra mussels, one solution involves the use of JAVEX-

12 sodium hypochlorite, which kills the larvae. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept in formed of the latest Information, please contact us.

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 208

Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 209


Cyanide Removal

Noise reduction lessens

Using sodium hypochlorite

worker fatigue

(JAVEX-12) to effectively and

Eckoustic Functional Panels -

quickly remove cyanide wastes

(EFPs)- the practical, efficient so

is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

lution to noise reduction needs.

ages, equipment, as well as stor age, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive

Eckel's sound absorbing EFPs pro vide a more comfortable acoustic


Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 210

environment. By reducing noise lev els, thereby lessening worker fa tigue, EFPs promote safety and help improve productivity. EFPs can quickly add sound absorbing to com pressor rooms, blower rooms, pump rooms and administration areas. Eckel Industries

Circle reply card No. 211

IVaii.sportation Dangerous(hmkIs

TYainer Manual

IDG Trainer Manual

Piping for wastewater

The Canwit TOG Trainer Manual


covers It alll Easy to use, the com prehensive coverage of the TDG legislation is divided into 6 sections: Introduction to the Act and Regula tions; Classifications of Dangerous Goods; Safety Marks; Documenta tion; Dangerous Occurrences and Special Requirements. Your TDG

VIctaullc, having supplied pipe cou plings, fittings, and valves to munici palities for 70 years for savings In both installation and operating costs, offers systems for ductile iron (500 psi), steel(4000 psi), stainless, PVG, and HDP; grooved AWWA eccentric plug valves to 12-Inch,

Trainer Manual is cross-referenced

Iron BFV to 24-Inch, stainless BFV

with the Act and Regulations and

to 12-Inch as well as bail and check

includes overheads and "Trainer

Aids" throughout each section. Canwit

Circie reply card No. 212

Advanced membrane systems for municipal wastewater treatment

As a major supplier of membrane separation equipment,ZENON offers a wide range of systems Including microfiltratlon, ultraflitration, nanofiltratlon and reverse osmosis systems. While ail our systems are cost-effec tive, reliable and easy to operate, some of our processes and mem branes offer truly unique and costeffective solutions for meeting the challenges faced by municipalities.

for Water and Wastewater Treatment

Piping Systems ;


valves; fittings, strainers, couplings and tools.


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Kitec Composite Pipe and Connectors

KItecÂŽ combines metal and plas tic to create a composite piping system for a wide range of appli cations - hot and cold water

plumbing, hydronic heating, water service tubing, compressed air, and industrial process piping. Kitec can be concealed in walls,

floors or ceilings, encased In con crete, or surface mounted, and It


can be used indoors or outdoors. IPEX Inc.

Circle reply card No. 214

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666.


./ y t ^

"tiiiif ."if

Canadian Environmental

Free Data Acquisition

Technology Update

Software Tool

Managing hazardous waste in the 1990s demands a multifaceted ap proach. Responding to business' wide-ranging needs with an array of services and technologies has gained Laidiaw Environmental Serv ices a prominent position within the waste management industry. This service profile presents a number of key management opportunities available to waste generators, in addition to providing an oven/iew of the company's capabilities.

DAQ Designer 96 Is a free sys tem configuration software tool for the PC that takes you through your application step-by-step, asking you questions, and rec ommending ail the right equip ment, including: PC piug-ln DAQ

Laidiaw Environmental

Circle reply card No. 217

boards, PCMCIA DAQ cards,

signal conditioning and sensor interfacing, cabling and soft ware.

National Instruments

Circle reply card No. 216


Universal pH Doser

Non-Disruptive Pipe

Analytical Universal pH Doser is a pH indicator, with 0-14 pH scale, and a bellows Metering pump,

Rehabilitation This brochure outlines insituform's

mounted on a metal frame. One

with difficuit-to-access industrial

relay for activating a pump,for con trol of either down or up scale. Pro portional control on the pump can

pipes, insituform's proprietary, nondisruptive technologies are used worldwide to stop leaks, achieve containment and provide structural integrity to damaged pipes. The company's processes are installed without excavation. They are gen erally safer, more economical and less disruptive than conventional

capabilities for solving problems

be used to minimize the amount of

chemical being used, as the pH reading approaches the required set point. A complete line of pH and GBP Meters are available: indica

tor, Recorder Controllers, Sampling and Field Meters.


Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 218


Groundwater containment

Water Efficiency Service Programs

Circle reply card No. 219

Waterloo Barrier™ is a low perme ability cutoff wail for groundwater


Faced with inflating operating costs, while being expected to avoid rate in creases and provide greater, better,

containment and control, it is a new

design of steel sheet piling featur ing joints that can be sealed after

and non-traditional customer service?

Schiumberger's Technical Service Group offers complete field service, and project handling capabilities,from meter installation to full, ongoing main tenance, management and meter reading services. Customized pack ages allow a utility to contract for as many or as few services as it needs. Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 221

the sheets have been driven into the

ground. The product was devel oped by researchers at the Univer


sity of Waterloo and has patent/pat ent pending status in several coun tries. Canadian Metal Roiling Mills assisted in its development and are currently the sole manufacturer. Canadian Metal Rolling Mills Circle reply card No. 220

ISCO Total Organic Carbon Analyzer


Aiumlnlzed Steel Type 2

The New EZ-TOG Analyzer is de signed for continuous on-line meas urement of TOC. An 80 character, back lit display makes programming


iMlftis Made Eaiy

and set-up easy. Measurement of TOC is made by UV-sodium persuifate oxidation in a patent-pending reactor system and an enhanced non-dispersive infrared detection method. Up to 8 programmable out puts can be programmed for any combination of 18 system param eters.

Nortech Control Equipment Circle reply card No. 222 74

Meet the storm drain pipe material that

Blves long service life and lasting value •


Type 2

Aiuminized Steel Type 2 is similar to galvanized steel, the difference being that it is hot dip coated in com mercially pure aluminum ratherthan zinc. This results in a pipe with the strength of corrugated steel, but adds the superior corrosion resist ance of aluminum. An excellent al

ternative for more aggressive envi ronments. For more information on

this product and its application, con tact Armtec Construction Products. Armtec

Circle reply card No. 223

Enviroiimoital Science & Engineering, September 1996

R&D News

• CAWQ ACQE R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality Association Canadienne sur la

Qualite de I'Eau

Laboratories and Technology, the bacterium isolate degraded 43% of the carbazole to CO, after three days of incubation. Numer ous aromatic and heterocyclic com pounds were tested as growth substrates

sists ofat least 85% humic materials,5%

hydrophilic acids, and 3-4% nitrogenous compounds. The biotreated effluent still

has a high COD of at least 1100 mg/L

O, but a relatively low BOD^(less than

for the isolate but few supported the

100 mg/L) as expected after biological

growth of this bacterium. Anthranilic

treatment. These and other results were

acid and catechol served as growth substrates and were positively identified as intermediates of carbazole degrada tion by the isolate.

presented to delegates attending the 31 st Central Canadian Symposium on Water

Characterization of Treated GIMP Effluent

Removal of Organochlorines from Pulp Mill Effluent F. Taghipourand G.J. Evans have inves tigated radiolytic treatment for the re moval oforganochlorines from pulp mill effluent. These University of Toronto

after biological treatment. The experi

scientists irradiated biotreated and un

mental results showed that the DOC con

P.M. Huck and colleagues at the Uni

versity of Waterloo have developed a thorough characterization ofthe organic matter remaining in a CTMP effluent

Pollution Research.

Removal of Toxics in Sludge Digestion The removal of cresols, chlorophenols, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds, phthalates, and polyaromatic hydrocar bons during aerobic and anaerobic di gestion of municipal sludge was inves tigated by WJ.Parker(Carleton Univer sity), H.D. Monteith(Enviromega Ltd.),

treated effluent as well as E-stage and C-stage filtrates from a pulp mill in a cobalt-60 v-cell. As described in Envi

movals of more than 95%, 90%, 70%,


and 60% were obtained for these four


ronmental Science and Technology, re

effluents respectively using doses up to 60 kGy, An increase in organochlorine removal was observed at high pH and in the absence of oxygen. In treated efflu




ent, AOX removals of 96% were

achieved at pH 12 in the absence ofoxy gen with a dose of 10 kGy.

Restoration of a Degraded Ecosystem Collingwood Harbour, located on the southern tip of Georgian Bay, has be come the first of43 Great Lakes Areas of Concern to be declared restored. A

paper by G. Krantzberg, Ontario Minis try of Environment and Energy, and E.




For More Information Call Toll Free; 1-800-668-0639 Ontario • Quebec • British Columbia

Houghton, Collingwood Public Utilities Commission, was presented at the 31st Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research describing the reha

bilitation and restoration ofCollingwood Harbour's ecosystem. Critical compo nents ofthe restoration plan included op timization ofphosphorus removal at the Collingwood wastewater treatment plant and sediment removal from the harbour



through the use of an environmentally sensitive dredge which was tested for the first time in North America.


Bacterial Degradation of Carbazole

SINCE 1981

University of Alberta scientists L.M. Gleg,A. Otter and P.M. Fedorak isolated a carbazole-degrading bacterium from


a creosote-contaminated soil. This or

ganism utilized carbazole as a sole


source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. As described in Environmental Science


TEM - PLM - PCM - SEM - Flame AA - Graphite Furnace

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996


R&D News, cont'd.

Laboratories / Consultants MDS Environmental Services Limited


Quality Environmental Laboratory Analysis

and a U.S. colleague. As reported in the Canadian.Journal of CivilEngineering, anaerobic digestion removed seven com

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compounds except the cresols, 2,4,5trichlorophenol, and bi,s-2-ethylhexylphthalate, were essentially eliminated. Monitoring Wastewater Toxicity S.L. Wong, J.F. Wainwright and L. Nakamoto monitored the toxicity of four wastewater discharges in the Bay of Quinte, two from municipal sewage treatment plants, and one each from a chemical company and a pulp and pa per company. These Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy scientists utilized algal assays to estimate the tox icity at 100% effluent concentration. As described in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, the paper processing effluent was the most toxic at about 100 times

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

R&D News, cont'd.


Universities of Toronto and Windsor

report on the recovery oftwo small lakes

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

at Sudbury located close to a nickel-cop per smelter which closed in 1972. At that stage, the two nearby lakes had a very low pH and were devoid of zooplankton and fish. After the closure of the smelter, the concentrations of cop per and nickel began to increase slowly as did the pH which is now at 7.2-7.3. By the 1990s, the lakes contained 13 phytoplankton species and 14 zooplankton species. There are now some

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Monitoring Biofiltration Processes

In a paper published in the Water Qual ity Research Journal of Canada, Y.L. Bihan, P. Lessard and M. Lavoie de scribe results of their research to deter

mine the applicability of biochemical tests for use in monitoring biofiltration. The results show that dehydrogenase and hydrolase could serve as tools for moni toring and operating a biofilter. These Laval University scientists developed a relationship between dehydrogenase activity and percentage removal of

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BOD,in the biofiltration process. Their results also indicate that, depending on the biochemical test used, it would be possible to predict the performance ofa biofilter for a period between two to four days. Trace metals In Street Sediment

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amined street sediment collected in Sault

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

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R&D News,cont'd.


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Freeze-Thaw Sludge Conditioning A paper by Ecole Polytechnique's M.A. Desjardins and EG. Briere describes the conditioning and dewatering of bio logical and chemical sludge from fac ultative aerated lagoons using a natural freeze-thaw cycle with drying beds. The results published in the Canadian Jour nal of Civil Engineering highlight the excellent efficiency of this conditioning method. After the freeze-thaw process and draining, a virtually odourless sludge containing more than 30% sol ids is produced. The process also elimi nates the gelatinous consistency of chemical sludge. The filtrates, which are clear and contain low levels of sus

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Gelinas have examined the utility of us ing acid mine drainage water as a

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• Environmental Science


C. Bouchard, J.-B. Serodes and P.

Biodegradability University of Regina scientists have un dertaken a study to evaluate and com pare aerobic biodegradation of petro leum refinery and municipal wastewaters using an automatic laboratory respirometer. V. Mahendraker and T. Viraraghavan acclimated seed activated sludge with a small quantity of the wastewater under study in fill and draw Continued on page 83

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

The 9th Annual

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For more information, circle reply card No. 186(See page 33)

Cover Story

Waterfront cottages could see massive devaluation if water clarity is threatened

The lure of water is undeniable for cottagers and

homeowners. Throughout the world, from the

French Riviera to Australia's Gold Coast, from Vancouver to Nova Scotia—and in countless fresh

water lakes across Canada — water attracts development. Because we evolved from the first oxygen-producing stromatolites in our oceans, billions of years ago, a primor

dial affinity for the water was, perhaps, imprinted on our sub

water quality and scenic ambience which drew homeowners to the location in the first place. It need not be sa We have proven technology to protect, or restore, most ofthe polluted, or stressed, waterways. The recovery of Lake Erie is encour aging evidence ofachievable remediation through nutrient re moval at our sewage treatment plants. The loss of value in real estate from a reduction of water

conscious. Undeniably, people the world over will pay a great deal to

quality can be startling when measured by the Secchi Disk, invented by an Italian physicist to measure water transparency. Af

have a home with a view

ter the disk is thrown

into the water, the read

of water.

ings give an accepted measure of water clarity at various depths. Re

The opulence of Canada can be breath

taking. To sail across our many lakes is to re veal an astonishing ar ray ofimpressive homes and cottages,some with seaplanes moored at the edge of their lawns. While many homes are

search work undertaken

during a Master's thesis at the University of Maine, indicated that

every one metre drop in Secchi Disk transpar ency could translate to a 10 to 15% drop in wa terfront property values. For upscale cottage com munities, where proper ties frequently range

in architectural har

mony with the natural beauty of the surround ings, there are ominous signs that some lakes are from $500,000 to $1 becoming stressed. Mesotropby, the grim Sampling begins, using a Secchi Disk at Clear Lake in Parry Sound, Ont. million, the total cost of environmental neglect precursor of eutrophy, could run to millions. There have been many examples where that natural aging destiny ofall water bodies, is clearly accel erating in many lakes, perhaps stimulated by run-off from the neglect of septic systems or lawn runoff has transformed lawn-fertilizing operations, or from poorly constructed septic priceless aquatic assets into expensive real estate liabilities. Try selling your dream cottage after a matted carpet of weeds be systems. Patches of the ubiquitous eiirasian milfoil are increasingly gins to reach out from your shoreline. Waterfront homeowners on serviced lots are luckier as nu evident in shallower waters, especially near shorelines. The sheer number ofsmall sailing craft, and indeed the seaplanes trient rich sewage is pumped miles away for proper treatment. themselves, are definite suspects as carriers in the increasing But even on serviced lots problems may stem from proud proliferation of many species of weeds in these lakes. gardeners who lavish both fertilizers and herbicides to bring Buildings in sensitive areas need stringent pollution con about their perfectly green lawns. Unhappily, aquatic plants trols. Activities such as lawn fertilizing can threaten the very also respond to lawn fertilizer and herbicide run-off which has serious consequences to fish and wildlife. For the majority ofcottagers who are located on unserviced How's Your Lake? Nutrient Loading and How to lots, a great deal of waterfront protection can be achieved Interpret the Secchi Disk and Water Samples simply by maintaining and upgrading septic systems and by If the Secchi Disk If Chlorophyll A tests Your Lake is... maintaining natural vegetation between the cottage and the disappears at... show density of... 5 metres or more

3 - 5 metres

0 - 3 metres


Up to 2 micrograms per litre (low algal density) 2 - 4 micrograms per litre (moderate algal density)

4 or more micrograms per litre (high algal density)


Ollgotrophic Moderately enriched,

Mesotrophic Enriched,



Recent research indicates that sophisticated septic systems could achieve a very high order of pollution removal which could match or exceed the treatment effectiveness of a mu

nicipal facility. While this is encouraging for the future, regular removal of septage from tanks is recommended and regular maintenance inspections are vital. My cottage neighbour recently dug up his tile bed to find the tiles were completely filled with silt and sand. He quickly replaced it with a modem plastic system. It cost less than one Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

By Tom Davey Low Phosphorus Use

High Phosphorus Use Human waste

Dishwasher using powdered detergent and used once a day Lawn (30 m x 30 m or 100 ft. x 100 ft.) fertilized once a year using fertilizer containing 10 percent each of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium Lot cleared of trees

Household products containing phosphates used regularly Total Phosphorus Loading

535 g

Human waste

650 g

No dishwasher (or dishwasher using phosphate-free detergent)

535 g og Og

No fertilizer

1,960 g 30 g Trees not cut down

180 g 3,355 grams

Phosphate-free household products used Total Phosphorus Loading

20 g 20 g 575 grams

Look at the potential difference — just one 'high-phosphorus" cottage can have the same impact on a lake as six "low-phosphorus" cottages. thousand dollars, but his simple action will do a great deal to

protect his(and our) waterfront. But few cottagers seem in terested in septic upgrades and universities are often slow to translate their research findings into lay language. Far too

many cottagers neglect the routine cleaning so necessary to protect our precious waterways. Recreational lakes, in fact, are microcosms of Canadian

environmental spending priorities. Underfunding means that valuable lakeshore properties will inevi tably become less desirable, gradually

losing millions in /

\ real estate values

as they deterio- / â– \ Such de valuation has al- I Secchi^T^Disk I ready taken place in many North \ j American inner cities where real esplummetted because Wouldn't it be ironic if

/ tate prices have of urban decay. coveted vacation proper

ties in this country experienced similar losses because of de graded waterways? How do you know if your lake is in danger?

see how much "chlorophyll a"(the amount of green pigment in most plants and algae) is present. The higher the density of chlorophyll a, the more nutrient-enriched is your lake. Volunteers simply supply the ministry with water samples and Secchi Disk readings about six times each season (from May to September), permitting annual'check ups' ofthe health of the lakes, and the ministry analyzes the data. This fine program combines the self-interest of cottagers, with the experienee and knowledge of ministry scientists. If there is a more cost-effective way to protect the environment, I have yet to hear about it. If homeowners on our lakes could only link the environ mental facts of life with economic realities, they would de mand immediate action to restore and protect our precious water bodies. While public concern about the environment remains high, the truth is that actual spending on real pollu tion abatement projects and R&D is minuscule compared to other costs, especially debt servicing costs.

The Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy's Dorset Environmental Science Centre, is wedged between Haliburton

Highlands and Muskoka. It is at the heart ofsome ofthe most expensive waterfrontage in Canada. While it would be pro hibitively expensive for the ministry to regularly sample the thousands of lakes in the area, the Dorset Centre has imple

mented a unique cost-effective, self-help scheme where it en courages cottagers to monitor their lakes and report findings. There's a simple way to determine if a lake is oligotrophic (has few nutrients), mesotrophic (has more nutrients), or eutrophic (has too many nutrients). Regular testing must be done to measure water clarity and how much algal growth is taking place because of excess nutrients. If the water seems to be losing its clarity through the years, there are too many algae — indicating the lake is over-enriched with nutrients. To measure water clarity, use a Secchi Disk. It's a round, flat disk. The surface is divided into quarters, painted alter nately solid black and solid white. A standard Secchi Disk is 20 centimetres (almost eight inches) in diameter and is mounted on metal. (See drawing.) Away from shore, the disk is lowered into the water and the depth at which it disappears from view is noted. If the disk disappears at a relatively shallow depth (see chart), that indicates there's a lot of algae growing in the lake and is an indication of too many nutrients entering the water. Cottagers need to know just how dense the algal growth is in their lake and their associations should supply water sam ples regularly to the MOEE where they can be analyzed to Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

The Secchi Disk has been lowered onto an old crib. 81

Wastewater Treatment, continued from page 51 Biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters for nutrient removal system became apparent soon after startup. The presence of the anaerobic

mentation and digestion of oil & grease into fatty acids in the anaerobic and an oxic zones, along with the breakdown of

Moreover, since the discharge from the 3-stage BNPR process contains less organics and suspended solids than from the previous biological unit, chlorine consumption for disinfection is 30% lower. Sludge production has declined by 40% and overall the system is con suming 40% less energy than before.

other carbonaceous matter in the waste,

New Plant Performance

has improved denitrification and has en hanced biological phosphorus removal. Since the TKN loading of the

The new treatment system is produc ing a final effluent of excellent quality, meeting all discharge requirements. A portion ofthe effluent is used to irrigate grassy areas at the site. Furthermore, given the excellent quality of the effluent, the discharge could readily be utilized for a multitude ofpurposes, including irrigation ofpub lic parks, golf courses, and agricultural lands; dust control and concrete produc tion on construction projects; toilet and urinal flushing in commercial and indus trial buildings; and as evaporative cool ing water in utility power stations and other industrial sites(United States Golf

and anoxic selector zones eliminated the need for the addition of chemicals to control filamentous bacteria. The fer

wastewater is greater than in typical mu

nicipal sewage, much higher alkalinity than available under normal circum

stances is required for nitrification to be completed. Oxidation of TKN from 100 mg/L to 10 mg/L may require up to 600 mg/L of alkalinity, which is sel dom available in wastewater and has to

be provided by using sodium hydrox ide or lime. However, with denitrifi cation included in the treatment se

quence, approximately 50% of the sys tem alkalinity can be recovered, produc ing adequate buffering capacity. Be cause the system pH is self-controlling, periodic addition of sodium hydroxide or lime is no longer needed.

Association, 1994: US EPA, 1992).

Table 1 summarizes the discharge re quirements for the two wastewater treat ment plants and the typical monthly

average characteristics ofthe influent to the three stage BNPR process and the final effluent. The aforementioned case histories

clearly demonstrate that the Modified Phoredox process is a most suitable tech nology for treating municipal and indus trial wastewaters in order to remove

carbonaceous BOD,nitrogen, and phos phorus. The process is versatile, stable, easy to operate, and can be fully auto mated. Individual components of the overall treatment train are straightfor ward.

Compared to conventional activated sludge and extended aeration, the Modi fied Phoredox requires about 30-40% less oxygen. Unlike some other con ventional biological treatment systems, chemical addition can be eliminated for

pH control and the need for chemical phosphorus removal is very modest if not completely eliminated. Conse quently, while associated capital costs are comparable to those ofconventional biological treatment methods, operating costs are significantly lower. For more information,

circle reply card No. 142

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riT-.M'f -If TI'MI

Environmental Science & Engineering,September 1996

R&D News, cont'd.


Continued from page 78.

type reactors. As described in the Water Quality Research Journal of


Canada, each wastewater sample was diluted and oxygen uptake was recorded until the beginning of the endogenous

Environmental Scientists and Engineers

phase. A comparison ofthe kinetics led to an assessment of relative biodegrad-

ability ofthe wastewaters. This will be useful in understanding the impact of refinery wastewater discharge to munici pal wastewater treatment systems.

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the overall removal of resin acids in

batch assays. As described in Water Research, both types of biomass exhib ited resin acid partitioning rates that were significantly greater than the rate of re moval by degradation. With nonacclimated anaerobic biomass, partition ing was the sole mechanism for resin acid removal. Dehydroabietic acid was the resin acid least strongly associated

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Bioaugmentation refers to the continual addition of a microbial species to a bioreactor which cannot maintain a

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mm'mmm wmm

Measurement of Mercury in Interstitial Waters

The suitability of using a dialysis tech nique for the close interval sampling of total dissolved mercury in interstitial waters was evaluated by S.Montgomery, A. Mucci and M.Lucotte. As described

in Water, Air and Soil Pollution, field tests were conducted in flooded soils of

Environmental Science


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entists T.A. Constantine and K.L.

Murphy described a specific application in which waste activated sludge from a fully nitrifying system is donated to a system with a low solids retention time (SRT) which does not nitrify. Results are described in which a non-nitrifying system is continuously seeded with autotrophs permitting that system to achieve complete nitrification through on-site bioaugmentation.




Water Supply Transportation Land Development

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Engineering, September 1996


R&D News, cont'd.


Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in ttie Environment MacViro Consultants Inc. 90 Allstate Parkway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905) 475-7270 E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.conn

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two hydroelectric reservoirs, in lake sediments and in peat bogs. Using a di alysis technique, these University of Quebec scientists were able to generate close interval vertical profiles of total dissolved mercury. The concentrations in both artificial and natural systems are similar and independent of the sampling environment, the depth of the overlying water column, and the history of the res ervoir impoundment.

•Site decommissioning & rehabilitation


In a paper published in the Water Qual ity Research Journal of Canada, W.M. Zahid and J.J. Ganczarczyk report that the presence of organic particles in the feed to an RBC unit adversely influenced the physical and attachment properties of the biofilm as well as the unit per formance.

Marshall Mackiin


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Fax:(905) 882-0055

The biofilms exhibited a

fluffy, loose filamentous structure which was continually eroding. These Univer sity of Toronto scientists suggest that the entrapment of the particulate organics by the biofilm matrix causes the subsequent development of oxygen-depleted zones and structural flaws within the biofilm. Solar Radiation Disinfection of Potable Water

University of Waterloo scientists S.K. Shah, E.A. McBean and W.A.Anderson studied the efficacy of water disinfec tion using solar radiation for potential household or individual use in regions where treated drinking water is unavail able. Small samples of sterilized water were contaminated with£. colt and then

exposed to solar radiation. As reported in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engi neering, bacterial counts could be re duced from several thousands to less


than one per millilitre during one day of solar radiation. Although the process is not likely to be a suitable alternative to

Assessment and Control

Air Pollution Dispersion Study • Monitoring and Field Sampling

conventional chemical disinfection, it

. Odour Panel Evaluation

may be applicable in situations where


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For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Quality, Environmen tal Technology Centre, Environment Canada, 3439 River Road South, Gloucester, ON K1A0H3, Tel: (613) 990-9849, Fax: (613) 990-2855.

Check out our new web site


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

DATE PAD the Love ofthe Earth". The Composting

nual Conference. Charlottetown, PE.

dian Environment Industry Association, Environment Canada. Wirmipeg, MB. Contact: CEIA (613) 723-3525.

Contact: B. Rooney (902)421-6918.

October 22-25, 1996. Watercourses

September 22-27,1996. Contaminated

Conference. Canadian Water Resources

Antler(416) 535-0240. October 24,1996. Water Environment

September 22-24, 1996. Atlantic Canada Water Works Association An

Council of Canada's Annual Confer

ence. Toronto, ON. Contact: Susan

and Hazardous Waste Site Management

Association, BC Branch. Vancouver,

Association of Ontario Seminar on

Short Course. Toronto, ON. The Asso ciation for the Environmental Health of

BC. Contact: Adrian Chantler (604) 681-4196.

Soils, the National Ground Water Asso

October 22-25, 1996. POLLUTEC -

Legal Issues. Mississauga, ON. Con tact:(416) 502-1440 October 28-29, 1996. Annual Confer

ciation. Contact: GOwen Environmen

12th International Exhibition of Envi

ence of the Canadian Environmental

tal (613)567-4890.

ronmental Equipment, Technology and Services. Lyon, France. Contact:

Auditing Association. Toronto, ON. Contact:(905) 567-4705. October 29-30,1996. Calgary Environ

September, 1996. Water Filtration and System Operations for Small Water Sys

Promosalons Canada 1-800-565-5443,

Fax:(416)929-2564. October 23,1996. ProcessAudit Work shop. Water Environment Association & Waste Association (604)936-4982. September 24-27, 1996. "Innovation, ofOntario, Ministry ofEnvironment and Technology and Application" Western Energy, Great Lakes 2000 Cleanup Fund. Mississauga, ON. Contact: Tony Canada Water and Wastewater Associa tion 48th Annual Convention. Regina, Ho(416)235-6237 orMano Manoharan SK. Contact: WCWWA (403) 259- (416) 235-5829. October 23-25,1996. "Compost... for 4041.

tems Two-Day Seminar. Prince Rupert,

mental Tradeshow & Conference.

EC. Contact: British Columbia Water

Calgary,AB. Contact: Southex Exhibi tions 1-800-387-2446.

October 30-31, 1996. Environmental Certification for Competitiveness Con ference. The Canadian Council for Hu man Resources in the Environment

Industry and Industry Canada. Toronto, ON. Contact: CCHREI(403)233-0748.

September 25-27, 1996. "Visions for the Future: A Waste Reduction Confer


ence" - The Recycling Council of Al berta and the Tire Recycling Manage

Consulting Engineers

ment Board. Edmonton, AB. Contact:

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October 5-9,1996. WEFTEC'96 - 69th Annual Conference & Exposition ofthe Water Environment Federation. Dallas,

UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone; (905) 238-0007

TX. Contact: WEF 1-800-666-0206.

October 7-10, 1996. ISA'96. Interna tional Conference & Exhibition of the

International Society for Measurement & Control. Chicago, IL. Contact: ISA (919) 549-8411. October 7-8, 1996. British Columbia


Water & Waste Association Seminar on

Water Use Efficiency Planning. Kamloops, BC. Contact: BCWWA (604) 936-4982. October 17-21, 1996. "Caring for the

Environmental Science &

Engineering magazine is now on the

Earth". The World Conservation Con

gress ofthe lUCN. Montreal, QC. Con tact: Francois Taschereau (514) 843-

world wide web. Check us out at


October 21-24, 1996. 18th Canadian Waste Management Conference. Cana Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

http://www.esemag.com 85

Emergency response strategies

By Cliff Holland'

Effective environmental management demands a "preparedness audit"

Auditsare es ential in running any business effectively and

environmental audits are no

exception, particularly when a company is taking steps to prepare emergency response plans, correct inter nal deficiencies and prepare for environ mental emergencies. Commissioning an environmental audit does not mean that

a company's environmental problems are solved; in fact, they may have just begun. The result can be a thick report and a

lenge an incorrect MSDS. A Preparedness Audit, on the other hand, would include that sort of detail.

It would include an inspection and as sessment of chemical-handling prac tices, a detailed review of chemical in ventories and critical assessment of

emergency response supplies. The Pre paredness Audit would look at the cor porate ability to meet responsibilities, including the capabilities of personnel, their level of training, assessments of response supplies and equipment as well

lot of worthwhile infor

mation that may not lead corporations to their de sired goals. For instance, auditors who merely fol low detailed checklists

may overlook vital pieces ofinfonnation relating to emergency preparedness,

tions has contributed

simply because it is out side their area of exper tise. Auditors without ex

tensive industry experi ence may assess chemical inventories in the work

they are prepared to respond and train before calling in outside agencies. They will then have to evaluate auditing firms to ensure they have high levels of prac tical knowledge combined with an un derstanding ofspecific chemicals, proc esses and emergency response. lh.e PreparednessAudit the company receives must not be limited to legisla tive requirements. It must be a userfriendly document,suitable for quick ref erence while serving as a guide to im plement chemical and waste manage ment changes as well as hands-on training pro grams required by emer gency responders. Compliance with oc cupational health and safety rules and regula


greatly to far fewer chemical spills and envi ronmental emergencies than in past years. There is a danger, however, that a company which meets all ofits legal compliance obligations may not be prepared to deal with the

place and substantiate real world. compliance with storage When something com regulations but may be pletely unforeseen hap unaware of the implica tions of a spill. For With the firm foundation provided by a completed Preparedness Audit, pens, the company must example, an acid tank a company can evaluate its response capability and define levels of have the resources and capability to deal with the may have containment, corporate authority and responsibility. as the evaluation of procedures and re hierarchy of the emergency. This in but what steps have been taken to pre cludes identifying the roles of adminis vent corrosive mists from damaging sponse guidelines. product or equipment in the event of a Based on the level of inspection and trative responders such as communica assessment, the auditors would be able tions officers, emergency managers and spill? The answer to sorting the wheat from to detail on-site risks and hazards. They response team. the chaff may lie Preparedness Au would identify specific needs and make With the firm foundation provided by dit. This assessment deals specifically recommendations for training, supplies, a comptetedPreparednessAudit,a com with the level of preparation required to equipment and response procedures. pany can evaluate its response capabil deal with an emergency and includes The company is then prepared to im ity and define levels ofcorporate author recommendations for improvement. plement a hands-on training program, ity and responsibility. It can determine For instance, an industry has, or prepare site-specific emergency re the need for outside contractors as well should have, a complete and up-to-date sponse plans and develop response pro as for internal training programs. inventory ofchemicals with supporting cedures. The roles and responsibilities Effective response to a chemical spill Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). of management and internal response will help a company to reduce or avoid What may be missing, however, is de teams, as well as the need for external costly litigation and cleanups. A plant tail on the age ofthe chemicals, storage agencies, support services and special may be able to carry on operations, conditions and requirements and the ac ized resources necessary during an emer rather than shut down as a result of an gency can be clearly identified. curacy of MSDS infonnation. Inexpe incident. The company will also have a rienced auditors would not likely chal Companies looking forPreparedness better public image as a concerned cor Audits will have to examine their own porate citizen. needs and their response capability. For more information, *Presldent, Spill Management Inc. They will have to determine to what level circle reply card No. 129 Stoney Creek, Ontario 86

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

If this is •••

nochar Nature's Partner in Environmental Protection and Waste Minimization nochar Canada Inc. 4950 Yonge Street Suite 2200, Toronto, Ontario Tel 416-218-5545 Fax 416-221-4668

For more information, circle reply card No.272(See page 33)

Operations and Maintenance

By W.J. Hargrave and C.R. Burdick*

Computerized operations and maintenance manuals improve performance and costs

Operations and maintenance

manuals are an essential

These site specific information systems have many benefits, some of whieh are listed in Figure 1.

component of good plant performance. Computerized O&M manuals ean improve effieiency

(OID)? OID is information on a subjeet

and reduce costs.

converted to an electronic format so that

What is Online Interactive Document

this active fonnat makes it easier to un

derstand, and remember. Operation and maintenance manuals, contract specifi cations, government regulations and training tutorials are examples of docu ments that benefit from being converted to OID. O&M manuals are the fo

Recent surveys have shown that

cus of this article.

80% of the work force now use

Online Interactive Documents

computers on thejob. Through our jobs or with computers at home,

• easier access to information

most of us are familiar with how

• information easier to understand

accessible information is from the

• higher rate and degree of learning

Internet and how quickly we can retrieve precisely the infonnation we want. Also,a vast array ofgen Figure 1. Important benefits of OlDs eral knowledge is available on CD-ROM it is displayed on your eomputer as a such as encyclopedias, atlases, art, text combination of text, hypertext, graph books and training courses. In a similar ics, animation, photographs, video and sound. A topic that has extensive infor fashion, we ean now develop cost-effec mation that is used frequently, and has tive online interactive documents for specific material within this infoimation very specific applications such as the op erations and maintenanee manuals for in

that is difficult to find, is a candidate for

dividual water and wastewater facilities.

conversion to an OID. Search tools in the OID increase the

access to specific information at one or many locations within the document,and

'Principal, Hargrave & Company, Environmentai Inc.

O&M manuals, which are re

quired in some jurisdictions, can ensure for owners and managers consistent enhanced performance and maximum use of their water

and wastewater systems. The use of OIDs for O&M manuals for

plant facilities increases the benefits to owners, managers, operators and tech nicians by improving the utility of the documents. Properly developed OIDs can be a powerful learning tool that im proves staff performance, motivation, and flexibility. OIDs can be integrated with mainte nance management programs for better control of costs and budgets. OIDs asContinued overleaf





Americana M E ET I N e- p L A cE

is the






for firms and organi

zations to learn about new environmental

technologies. Its 1995




enormous Americana

success the


in the environmental industry.


north Bt


- H t B ® ^*\s a"**

■"" -"Sot.:-'-" 6,0 a'







Vlad Stritesky, P.Eng., President of Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd. is pleased to announce that Alex Giffen, P.Eng., has joined the company as Manager of the Enviromnental Division. A 28 year veteran in the Environmental field, Alex will be responsible for the administration, technical output, and management of all environmental engi neering projects. Trow, founded in 1957, is a Canadian owned, multi-disciplinary finn with lo

ricana 97,911 Jean-Talon Street East, Suite 220, Montreal (Qc) Telephone: (514) 270-7110

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For more information, circle reply card No. 273 (See page 33)


cal offices in Canada, the United States and Colombia.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996



XCC Consultants Ltd. Environmental

Engineering Consultant:

~>^3® ai/B


SOME THIH6S WILL HOT CHAH6E e same staff will continue to provide you witli teclinicoi expertise developed through yeors of experience; •personalized service from principols ond ossociotes; ond, •high quality results. AHD SOME THIH6S WILL BE BETTER

XCG con now offer our volued clients speciolizotion in o full ronge of environmental engineering services from alf of our offices across Canada. We speciolize in •drinking woter quolity ond treotment •woter distribution system onolysis • municipal wostewoter treotment storm woter and combined sewer overflow monogement

hydrogeology ond groundwoter investigotions Environmentol Monogement Systems "' solid and hazardous waste monogement • * site assessments and auditing site remediotion ond decommissioning *

vvoter resources management

oir resources ossessment ond mqnogemenf

•Industriol wostewoter treotment

The XCG Consultants Limited management team: President - George Zukovs, M.Eng., P.Eng. Prindpal - Stephen Nutt, M.Eng., P.Eng. Prindpal - Richard Rush, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Prindpal - Evan Jones, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. e invite'you to col] ony of our offices ocross Conodo for more informotion obout the odvontoges of working witj (CG Consultonts Limited.

XCG CONSULTANTS LIMITED A unique engineering company specializing in cusfomizing solutions to meet all of your environmental needs -.Port Credit

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Kingston. Ont. K7L 204 21: (613) 542-5888

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Operations and Maintenance, cont'd. sist operators and technicians because plant information,even for normally in accessible areas, is readily available through such means as drawings, pho tographs and videos. The format of the documents can greatly improve commu nications among the many people re

Haigiave & CompaRy Online Inlctaclive Document


I £ile £dit BookiQatk Qptiom He^


quired to operate and maintain most fa cilities and can also help to define du ties and responsibilities. Depending on how the OIDs are prepared, they can be updated and expanded easily.


O&M Manuals

Many regulatory agencies require that water and wastewater plants have O&M


manuals. The intent is to document all


of the plant's designed capabilities, to promote good plant performance and to maximize the use of the plant facilities. Even without government requirements,

good O&M manuals make sense be cause they can greatly help with daily operations and emergency conditions. Although good O&M manuals are an essential component to enhanced system

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Figure 2. Water treatment plant footprint with hypergraphic hot spots. ing the problem. capabilities and perfonuance,our expe Over time, an "expert system" rience suggests that for most water and wastewater systems they are often not evolves that provides detailed guidance to all operators for their particular plant. available, or they may be poorly writ ten, or difficult to use. Information is This process yields higher efficiency and not useful if finding or understanding it greater consistency in plant perform ance. SOPs are not unlike the commonly is difficult. Effective O&M manuals must be

used maintenance work orders, which

complete, accurate and understandable.

are also called Standard Maintenance

Some standardized formats are useful

Procedures (SMPs). O&M manuals developed as an OID

models or outlines for the preparation of O&M manuals but these only repre sent a generic shell into which site spe cific information is inserted. The sig

have tremendous benefits, some of which are:

•identical text as the hard copy versions

(2 days): November 96 - Bracebridge May 97 - Brampton

nificant effort comes in the collection of

ofO&M manuals;

data and the great care that must be taken in the preparation and writing of the

• technical reference information that

October 97 - London

documents. The O&M manuals must be

Hypoohlorination (3 days):

updated periodically. There is an increasing trend to optimizing water and wastewater treat ment plant performance to improve

supports all processes and equipment; • graphics with exploded views ofequip ment and part numbers; • photographs of equipment that are usually difficult to see, i.e., submerged,

October 96 - Chatham December 96 - Ottaiwa March 97 - London

efficiencies and reduce costs. There is

• pop-up screens with definitions of

April 97 - Bracebridge October 97 - Kingston

also an emphasis on maintaining the capital assets. An important method of

• browse buttons to allow the user to read

WHMIS for Municipal Employees

accomplishing this is by using O&M manuals that contain Standard Operat ing Procedures(SOPs); this is where the best practices and ideas for operational activities are carefully documented. The SOPs are usually developed and verified through a consensus among own ers, managers, operators and technicians. Using SOPs clearly defines responsibili ties and this leads to staff empowerment and greaterjob satisfaction. Ifa problem arises that cannot be adequately ad dressed by an existing SOP, then, after

(1 day):

November 96 - Collingwood March 97 - Bracebridge These workshops can be conducted at a customer's location. We will also be

conducting Ammonia, Fluoridatlon, and Certification Exam Preparation Work shops. For further information please contact:

David G. Durant, P.Eng., Canadian Enviro-Courses Ltd.,

Bracebridge, Ontario Phone/Fax:(705) 645-9570 E-mail: cdnenvro@muskoka.com

the problem is solved,the SOP is revised to include the knowledge gained by solv-


or buried; terms, units, and abbreviations;

related topics; • search engines to find needed infor mation quickly; • process simulation to predict plant per formance under different conditions;

• the ability to review and print SOPs; • a detailed index of equipment manu facturers' literature.

In an OID,there is almost no limit to how much information and the various

ways to present the information about a particular water or wastewater system. Development of an OID

Preparation of an OID requires planContinued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

Environmental Problems?

Do you know that 95% of all General Contractors, Architects, Consultants and Engineers have NO Environmental or Pollution Insurance Coverage! Unbelievable, it's true, every day in Canada, environmental remediation work is completed by so-called "professionals" operating without proper worker training, pollution or environmental insurance coverage. As the person who issued or contracted the work to be done, you could be liable. That's right, you could be sued both corporately and personally in the event of accidents, future contractor employee claims, pollution, contamination and environmental reprecussions resulting from the project being completed improperly. Over 95% of General Contractors, Architects, Engineers and Consultants do NOT have environmental and pollution insurance coverage. They carry only General Liability Insurance and Errors & Ommissions insurance coverage. This insurance does not cover environmental remediation projects or the resulting pollution cleanups and liabilities. Don't risk your future, protect your personal and corporate assets! Trust us, across Canada and the United States, we are experts in environmental remediation, asbestos abatement,industrial/commercial fire cleanups and restorations and lead abatement. We camj the best long term asbestos and "Environmental Impairment Occurrence Insurance Coverage in Canada.

The experts in building and facility decontamination asbestos abatement and removal contractors

lead abatement and lead paint removal chemical clean-ups plant decommissioning environmental impairment occurance insurance urea formaldehyde foam (UFFI) removal, cost estimates, inspections asbestos encapsulation and repair hazardous waste spill clean-up contaminated soil remediation

power washing and steam cleaning fire clean-ups, removal, restorations environmental clean-ups industrial fire cleaning and restoration

lead and hazardous coatings removal pharmaceutical decontamination heavy metals decontamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, PCBs, arsenic, silica, chromium, etc.)

pesticide, herbicide, fungicide clean-ups containment and barrier construction

histoplasmosis (pigeon, seagull, bird, bat droppings) dust collectors — removal and cleaning underground storage tank (UST)removals estimates — budgets costs of removal experienced at presentation of expert opinion expert court testimony Supreme Court experience commercial fire clean-ups

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For more information, circle reply card No. 275(See page 33)

Operations and Maintenance, cont'd. ning. Early discussions are important to agree on the information and to cus tomize the presentation before the work is started. Some aspects that need to be carefully decided are: • project budget and schedule; • the audience definition - who will use

the online documentation;

• to what degree infomration will be bro ken down and how well it is layered; • what infonnation will be presented on main, secondary and pop-up windows; • the size and position of screens; • methods used to access information;

• the number, subject, and location of graphics, photographs and videos; • the resolution and colour depth of graphics, etc.; • whether it is a stand alone system, or will it be integrated into a network; • the various stages of review during development. The word processing text files of an O&M manual are the starting points for the preparation of an OID. This mate rial must be segregated, often rewritten and formatted into hypertext topics, pro cedures, references and indexes for ef fective online presentation. Technical

glossaries are incorporated throughout the text with pop-up definitions. Spe

cialists in the water and wastewater field

should prepare the reformatting of in formation so that topics are properly broken down and linked along with meaningful key word indexes. Each user of an OID has a different

preferred method offinding information. Some people prefer to use the table of contents. Others will use the topic, or key word index to fmd information. Still others prefer to use a graphic interface to navigate their way to the information they need. Therefore, an effective OID is designed to provide access to the in fonnation from multiple entry points. For this reason, OID information is built

and presented in layers. Again, experts in training and communications are re

quired to properly reformat text so it will provide the maximum benefit as online

OIDs can be integrated with SCADA and maintenance management programs for better control of costs and budgets, which can provide a cost-effective re turn for the investment in the OID.

Project Examples The computer and software are now readily available for OID applications. The OIDs range in size from I to 200 megabytes depending on the plant size and the number of graphics and videos included. This is well within the capa bilities of most computers used for SCADA,etc. Most ofthe computers can simultaneously do multiple tasks so the OIDs are immediately available to the user even ifother programs are running. Two OIDs will serve as examples; one is for a 160 ML/d water treatment

vided where the user can add immedi

plant and the other is for a 5 ML/d water pollution control plant. The water plant O&M manual and the OID are being prepared at the same time. The wastewater plant O&M manual was pre pared by others and is being converted

ately any comments or changes to a spe

to an OID. Each OID will be used as


OlDs must be periodically revised and updated to keep the information cur rent. A pop-up note pad can be pro

cific topic. When the text is saved, a marker is placed next to the topic title. These temporary revisions can be used regularly to update the hard copy ofthe O&M manual and the OID.

training tools along with supporting op eration and maintenance needs. Both

manuals will have multiple entry points using the table of contents, indexes and graphics. Each has text screens that de scribe the plant components. Some of the screens have a button(s) that, if

Lamella^ Gravity Settler/Thickener

pushed,can provide details on the theory of this particular process. Figure 2 illustrates the hypergraphic footprint of the water treatment plant. This graphic directs the user to specific infonnation about the plant areas and is provided as an option to using the table of contents. To fmd the standard oper ating procedure for backwashing a fil

ter, f^or example,the plant operator only has to click on the filter area of the

Over 20 years ago, Parkson introduced the "inclined plate" gravity settler/ thickener that was destined to revolutionize the water treatment industry. And it didi The Lameila Gravity Settler's unique flow distribution and simplified siudge removal technique, insured optimum performance to some of the largest corporations in America. It did then, and still does nowl

The same great product is now backed by 20 years experience In the field. Call us now for more Information.

>IPARKSON Represented In Canada By Axel Johnson (Canada) Inc. and Its representatives. 9050, Ryan Avenue. Dorval, Quebec HOP 2M8 Tel.:(514)636-8712 Fax.:(514)636-9718


For more information, circle reply card No. 276 (See page 33)

graphic tojump to the section for filtra tion and backwashing. In the water pollution control plant manual,an aerial photograph ofthe treat ment plant has been incorporated in the top layer with hotspot pop-ups that iden tify each process structure, and equip ment within the building structures. Buttons are provided next to groupings of processes such as preliminary treat ment, secondary treatment, and tertiary treatment that, when pushed,jump to ap plicable sections in the manual. These are examples of how you can have vari ous types ofpresentation ofthe material and different ways of getting to infor mation.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 277 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

WEFTEC '96 Preview

By Steve Davey

Canadian Titanic explorer to open WEFTEC '96 in Dallas

Canada's Dr. Joe Maclnnis,a

Technical Program Session topics at WEFTEC '96 will

medical doctor and interna

tionally recognized expert on deep sea diving, will be keynote speaker at WEFTEC '96 in


• Wastewater treatment research

• Municipal wastewater treatment • Residuals and biosolids management • Collection systems • Remediation of soil and groundwater

Dallas, October 5-9. Attendees of the 1995 Water Envi ronment Association of Ontario confer

ence were spellbound by his recounting of expeditions to the Titanic and the Edmund Fitzgerald, a Canadian ship made famous by songwriter Gordon Lightfoot. Dr. Maclnnis has spent the last 30 years studying human performance in high-risk environments. Since 1964 he has been involved in some of the deep est and longest dives ever made,joining that small group ofpioneers whose work in physiology opened up the ocean depths. Dr. Maclnnis was a consultant to the

Titanic discovery team and the first Canadian to explore the world's most famous shipwreck. In 1991, he was coleader of the most daring deep diving

• Industrial wastes

• Surface water quality and ecology • Management • Innovative and alternative technology • Facility operations • Topics of current interest • Regulatory issues and federal project ever conducted, a seven million dollar expedition to film Titanic in the IMAX fonuat.

Currently he is working with the International Joint Commission on a

science education project to accelerate the cleanup of the Great Lakes; speaker fees will support this effort.


•International & public education issues Tour Highlights Delegates can tour any of nine of North Texas' most interesting treatment facilities: •The Cole Park Detention Vault was

He has written five books on the ocean and articles for Scientific Ameri

conceived, developed and constructed as an innovative solution to the City of Dallas' stormwater management prob

can and National Geographic.

lem associated with the reconstruction


• 100% Canadian Ownership • Dedicated A4anagement Team •Total Capability: Sales, Design, Engineering and Manufacturing • Committed to Customer Service

• Full Quality Assurance Programme •85 Year Track Record

• Experience in Export


Anaerobic digesters Clarifiers Detriter


Pumps Degriting

Travelling Bridges

State-Of-The-Art Rectangular Suction Secondary Clarifier

174 West Street South, Orillia, Canada L3V 6L4

(705)325-6181 Toronto:(416)777-6847 Fax:(705)325-2347 PROCESS EQUIPMENT GROUP INC.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1996

For more information, circle reply card No. 278 (See page 33)


WEFTEC '96, cont'd. ofus Hwy. 75. The stormwater vault is located 30 m below a city park and pro vides 269,000 m'ofstorage in 13 paral lel galleries. • The Central Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant has recently expanded to treat 511 ML/d (135 mgd) to levels of7 mg/L CBOD. 15 mg/L TSS and 3/5

mg/L (seasonal) NH^N. The plant fea tures a single stage activated sludge

process enhanced for ammonia nitrogen removal, followed by sand filtration, carbon absorption, chlorination and dechlorination. Special features of the

plant include granular activated carbon filtration to reduce toxic compounds. •The TCWCID is one ofthe largest pro viders of surface water in Texas. A

pilot-scale constructed wetlands project, operated since December 1992, is test ing the use of constructed wetlands for water quality enhancement of proposed Trinity River diversions to supplement the yield of Richland-Chambers and

Operations Challenge '96 Tuesday, October 8, 1996 9:15 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.- Dallas Convention Centre - Exhibit Hall

See how operators and technicians overcome flooding, a sewer collapse, process failure and other emergencies Tension and drama fill the air during this annual WEFTEC event, as operators compete for pride and the right to hoist the trophy awarded to the team demon strating the best combination of precision, speed and safety. Operations Chal lenge has grown from a 22-team event in 1988 to its current 40-team, two-division

format. Each two-to-four member team has endured months of study and practice, and their fast-paced, precision work before the scrutiny of judges never fails to set the convention center buzzing with excitement. • The American Airlines Maintenance

wastewater collection lines in the .streets

Facility was constructed in 1991 at Al liance Airport in Fort Worth. The treat ment plant facility treats flows generated from the maintenance operations and was designed to handle flows of 1.9 ML/ d (0.5 mgd). The plant was designed to be operated 12 hours per day and to store waste flows during weekend operations. • City of Fort Worth Wastewater Col lection System — see what innovative technology can do to repair 3,900 km of

of Fort Worth. Highlights include de scriptions oftwo mnncl projects beneath downtown Fort Worth.

• City of Garland Rowlett Creek WWTP — visit the advanced biological process Rowlett Creek WWTP with a rated ca

pacity of91 ML/d(24 mgd)and see how city operators are employing organiza tion re-engineering, off-the-shelfcontrol teclmology and out-sourcing to continu ously improve their competitive advan Cedar Creek Reservoirs. tage in relation to the growing chal lenge of privatization. • The Village Creek Wastewater ELMRIDGE manufactures and stocks jet eductors and ejectors for use with water, Treamrent Plant provides service to


steam, compressed air and other motive fluids Applications include:

750,000 customers in Fort Worth

and 23 wholesale contracting enti


ties. The conventional activated



sludge treatment process produces approximately 100 dry metric ton (110 ton) of biosolids each day.


• The Southside WastewatcrTreat-



ment Plant is the newer of Dallas'


two wastewater treatment plants.


The first section is an activated

ELMRIDGE Engineering Inc.


3625 Weston Road, Unit 15 Weston, Ontario CANADA M9L 1V9

Tel: (416) 749-7730

sludge treatment proce.ss 340 ML/ d (90 mgd) design capacity, fol lowed by filtration, chlorination and dechlorination.

Fax: (416) 749-2550

For more information, circle reply card No. 279(See page 33)

For further information, call 1-800-666-0206.





Coster Eng





Hydromantis Insituform iPEX KSB Pumps Laidlaw Env Microsep Int'i

ADI Systems




Americana '97




Analytical Meas






Delta Derrick

16 12

Aquablast Aquarius Armtec

43 47 25, 74

Brothers Industries


Can Am Ins






Eckel Industries


Eimco Elmridge

72, 96 94


Militronics MOEE

6 82

National Instruments



Victaulic Watergroup


Certa Inc Chemline Plastics

21 28

GL&V Golder

93 38











Ont. Clean Water

58, 73

10 15 4 7




Spectra Spill Management Stormceptor Terminal City

Nortech Control

72 10

Cdn. Metal Rolling

15 79

Nochar Canada




72, 92

Proteus Env Restoration RMS Envirosoiv Sandale

13 91 71 16

54, 55, 74 72

Service Filtration Southex


Env. Training

73 90

72, 74

Schlumberger Security insurance

Encotec Fabco Plastics Geostructure

Canwit Cdn. Env. Courses

13 31, 74 23, 73 5 17, 74 50

Waukesha Wiiims & Shier XCG/W20



37, 72 88

58, 73 54 72 20 89

34, 73

Environmenud Science cS Engineering. September 1996

Sample Group




315 316


0.050 mg/L An. Surfact 0.050 mg/L An. Surfact



mg/L An. Surfact



mg/L An.


198 198



0.050 0.050





198 198

0.050 0.050

414 426



0.050 0.050

431 442 445







mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L




An. Surfact J An. An. Surfact 1 An. Surfact J An. SurfaC 5 An. Surf<> An. An. An. An.


Date Stored


15-JUL-96 09:46:4


15-JUL-96 09:52:2 15-JUL-96 10:04:1 15-JUL-96 10:22:4 .-JUL-96 13:46:4 -JUL-96 14:10:0

Surfact j


JUL-96 14:22:3 9-JUL-96 14:46:1 JUL-96 15:02:5 JUL-96 07:35:5

2-JUL-96 07:39:2 22-JUL-96 07:58:2 22-JUL-96 08:11:1 22-JUL-96 08:26:2

New Hach


Datalogging Spectrophotometer.



s< a successo successc r

to the popular DIV200(), the DR/2()10 DattJo^ing

Spectrophotometer offers even more performance, eon\'enienee and economy. It assures data integrity iiy storing, recalling and

downloading up to 1000 sample readings. ^ The DR/2010 comes with 120 preprogrammed methods and can store up to 50 custom

calibrations. Onscreen prompting guides users through procedures

! available in multiple languages. ^ The DR/2010 is designed for laboratory' or field use. Ru^ed and compact, it uses line power or batteries. Ilach also offers 12 different DREL Portable Laboratories, which are equipped with a DR/2010 and the reagents, apparatus and

The water

labware required for specific applications. For more information,

quality analysis leader just got better.

contact your local distributor or Ilach Company in the USA

(telephone: 970-669-3050; fax: 970-669-2932; e-mail: intl@haeh.eom). In Europe, call (32)(S1)44.71.71 or fax:

[HACH. (32)(81)44.13.00. Request literature 3308. ISO 9001 Certified

For more information, circie reply card No. 280(See page 33)

Innovative Chain & Flight Coliectors Skim Excess 0 & M Expense from Rectanguiar Giarifiers New materials options and positive skimmings discharge systems slash routine maintenance and extend

service life for these solidscollection workhorses.


Afit's been some time since you've considered chain and fight collection systems, EIMCO engineers have added new design features and materials options that will make the reacquaintance worth your while. EIMCO manufactures complete sohds removal systems for rectangular clarifiers,incorporating an expanded range of non-metallic materials and improved solids discharge mechanisms that reduce operator attention and extend mechanism life.

(Photo Top Left): UHMWP Sprockets. Also available: Nylon, cast iron, and other combinations. (Photo Above):More corrosion - resistant materials.

Chain: Acetal, Nylon, Promel, stainless steel, steel, others. Flights: FRP, steel, redwood, laminates.Return Rails: FRP, stainless steel, hot dip galvanized. Complete corrosion-resistant structuralpackage.

For more information on positive solids removal ■with chain & flight collectors, contact your EIMCO sales representative.



More skimming options: helical, spiral, rotatingpipe, integral and auxiliary "C-Cup"systems.

lEQ Main Office • 5155 Creekbank Road • Mississauga, ON • (905] 625-6070 • FAX: (905] 625-3519 Western Office • 220-259 Midpark Way S.E. • Calgary, AL • (403) 256-6812 • FAX: (403) 256-7071 Eco Equipement FEP Inc. • Terrebonne, QC • (514) 477-7879 • FAX: (514) 477-7880 Ariantic Purification Systems Ltd. • Dartmouth, NS • (902) 469-2806 • FAX: (902) 463-3529


For more information,

circie repiy card No. 281 (See page 33)