Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 1996

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL Canada's top award-winning environmentai magazine

June 1996

Toronto hosts the 1996 AWWA Convention and



Thermal dewatering of biosolids at Bird Island STP, Buffalo Kelowna embarks on water metering partnership Wet oxidation for pulp & paper industry wastes Environmental insurance improves bottom line Energy efficient controls for pumping stations

^Conference reports - OWWA,WEAO, AQTE

FOR A SAFE ENVIRONMENT CALL US! Turbidity/Suspended Solids Analyzer and Sensors

Blanket Level Detectors

maintenance, no re-

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aqueous systems. A user friendly text screen provides menu driven setup. The in

tors and controls in terface level in tanks.

Numerically displays interface depth in

strument will read in

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centage of total tank depth, Displays either

depth of interface or distance from surface to interface. Graphically displays full-depth interface profile on panel-mounted LCD graphical display. Trending Capability.


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Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers

The Royce Model 7011 Suspended Sol ids Analyzer provides

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• Waste Treatment

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centage and is auto-ranging. With features that include insitu calibration, automatic color compensation (Patent Pending), true microprocessor operation, and automatic ambient light compensation (Patent Pending). The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly experienced in ef fluent streams (0-500 mg/l). The Model 73 submersible sensor is for medium ranges typically found in aeration

basins (0-30,000 mg/L). The Model 74 in-line sensor is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS line applications (0-

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen analyzers with features such as automatic cali bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel electronics, and low maintenance self-cleaning probes. Four chan

nel conversion available. Request Bulletins 9010/ 9040 and 94.

80,000 mg/l).

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Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

Portable instrumentation for pH, ORP,88, Interface Level and DO

Continuous Monitoring For Gas and Fire

These Battery operated port able Analysers are rugged, water-proof and completely submersible. They are de signed for reliable remote op eration in Waste Treatment

Plants, rivers, lakes, etc. The

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diurnal studies and laboratory applications. Each product features digital readout, microprocessor based electron ics with self-diagnostics. All models except for the 711 have analogue and RS232 digital outputs.

The Crowcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled

Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4") 19" Eurocard Rack. The Gas Monitor operates with Crowcon's and other Manufacturers' Gas Detectors, Includ

ing infra-red and Gas and flame detector Sensors. Gas Monitor has a data logging facility which provides for con tinuous recordings of Gas levels. The System is supplied with self-installing supporting Software which operates in a Windows environment. Please ask for details on

Crowcon's Portable single and multi Gas Detectors. Circle 255 on Reader Service Card

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Automatic Liquid 8ampling

Effluent 8ampler

8ludge 8ampler

Wherever It's Needed The EPS 1021 Effluent

Sampler is designed to extract samples of liq uid from an open chan nel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite container or sequentially into an ar ray of 24 x 1/2 litre con tainers for subsequent retrieval and analysis. Typical applications: • Crude sewage • Settled sewage • Final effluent

• Raw sludge • Most industrial

EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler


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Wide Range of Applications

The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler


of sewage sludge from a flow ing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via

is designed to extract samples

The Epic 1011T program mable portable wastewater sampler provides

the tank wall. The machine

represents the only really prac tical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its abil ity to sample sludges contain ing a high level of non-homo geneous suspended solids.

cost effective automatic

sampling to assist in monitoring municipal and industrial waste-

water. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array oft 2 or 24 separate containers for sub sequent analysis.

Typical Applications: • Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs • Mechanical dewatering device feeds

• Road tanker loading/dis EPS 1030

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charge terminals • Sea tanker loading terminals • Consolidation tank feeds ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

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ISSN-0835-605X President STEVE DAVEY

June/July'96 Vol.9 No.3 Issued June,1996


Publisher TOM DAVEY

Managing Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666

Toronto hosts the 1996 AWWA

Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON GANTON (604) 274-3849 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON Sales Rep. COLLEEN DAVEY Circulation VIRGINIA MEYER


Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumler

NOVAMANN (Ontario) Inc. Alan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CRA Consultants

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-mcntfily business publicaticn publisfied by Environmental Science & Engi neering Publications inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and dis

Convention and Exposition Ocean depths and space explored from Florida's east coast. Editorial Comment by Tom Davey Thermal dewatering of blosollds at Bird Island STP, Buffalo

Canadian Publications Mail Sales

4 18

US city chooses Canadian-designed oil removal system for stormwater project


Minister impresses delegates with her grasp of the Issues


Energy efficient control for pumping stations The City of Kelowna embarks on a water metering public/private partnership Understanding Ontario's Gasoline Handling Act, Regulation & Code Water Industry challenge: waterborne parasites — Part 1

27 32 34 40

Privatization sparks vigorous debate at meeting Analyzing water use to Increase utility efficiency Pulp and Paper Focus Wet Oxidation for the Pulp & Paper Industry Improving the bottom line with environmental


ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.



60 62

72 75

Eurocan installs water treatment plant



Product Agreement No. 18197

Ad Index


Product Review

Second Class Mall



R&D News


Reader Service Card

17, 65

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Web Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $25.00 per single issue;cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Environmental Science & Engineering, 220 industrial Pkwy.8., Unit 30,Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax: (905) 841-7271, E-mail: esemag@istar.ca


Industry Update Literature Reviews




Our cover story. Both Toronto's SkyDome and the John Street Pumping Station are part of the AWWA Convention tours. Few realize the old pump ing station was located at what is now centre field in the bail park. R.V. Anderson & Associates, working with Metro Toronto staff, moved the dec ades old John Street Pumping Station to the foreground of the Dome, with out interrupting service, winning awards for the consultants. Photo Courtesy R. V. Anderson. Inset photo of pipe tapping at Toronto City Hall - Tom Davey, ES&E. Information presented in ES&E is oollected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification, ivlaterial in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Ocean depths and space explored

Whileour seas are

from Florida's east coast swim right into the angler fish's

as the RV J. Seward Johnson sailed in

stressed as never

fearsome teeth.

before, we know more about outer space than

Research indicates that most deep sea creatures are attracted by dim glows but are repelled by bright flashes of light. There are indications that some creamres, which live at great depth, have been permanently blinded by bright lights from submersibles. To

after a trip to the Galapagos Islands, first made famous by Charles Darwin on his voyage in The Beagle. This 204 foot long ship has an 8,000 nautical mile range which can take it to any of

what lies at the bottom of our oceans.

The Harbor Branch Oceanographic Instimtion provides a rare opportunity to see a research facility which has penetrated deep into our oceans and lakes with spectacular results. Located

the world's oceans while accommodat

ing 40 people. Harbor Branch grew from a

on the east coast of Florida about 75

miles south of Cape Canaveral, Harbor Branch has also played a significant role in outer space. Dr. Joe Macinnis, a Canadian medical doctor and underwater

scientist, has participated in Harbor Branch expeditions, including the 1994 exploration and filming of the wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald. The ship — immortalized by Gordon Lightfoot's ballad — foundered during a Great Lakes storm while carrying a

harbor BmCH

load of iron ore. Dr Macinnis said it is

only 25 feet shorter than the Titanic. Harbor Branch submersibles also

explored the wreck of the Lusitania which was torpedoed by a U Boat off the coast of Ireland during World War 1. This wreck has great significance as some historians feel the sinking was a factor in the US becoming involved in the war. But Harbor Branch does more than

explore at great depths. It is actively researching and practising aquaculture to help restock depleted fishing grounds, shellfish beds and other food sources. It also conducts a variety of research projects including bioluminescence, the smdy of light emanating from deep sea creamres Copepods, for example, produce squirts of light that act as decoys when threatened, much as squids squirt ink as selfdefence. Other sea creatures use

bioluminescence to disguise their silhouettes. Some flashes are emitted

One of Edwin Link's eariier submersibles on view beside the research vessel J. Seward Johnson at Harbor Branch.

protect marine life at great depth, an infrared-sensitive video camera and

other equipment have been designed. Other Harbor Branch work involves

underwater geology, mapping the ocean depths and doing wastewater monitoring. Recent developments range from an innovative electric rim marine propeller to the discovery of compounds in sponges which could help to cure cancer. Harbor Branch scientists are also

meeting of the minds of J. Seward Johnson, an immensely wealthy heir of the Johnson & Johnson Company and Edwin A. Link, a pioneer of both aerospace and deep sea technologies. Link is best known for his invention of the famed Link Trainer which simu

lates acmal flight conditions, saving lives, scarce fuel and planes in pilot training. Johnson and Link combined their wealth and talent to develop Harbor Branch, where one in six ofthe

seeking other specimens from the seas which could have medicinal properties of use during organ transplants or as

200 staff members hold Ph.D's.

cancer cures. While rain forests are

Harbor Branch, is also a talented sculptor. His life-like bronze figures, along with an array of modem sculpmres created by his friends, provide an artistic dimension which delights many visitors. The campus sits on 500 acres on the Indian River Lagoon which is, in fact, not a river at all but an esmary

being explored for exotic plants with curative powers, such botanical potential is miniscule compared to the diversity of marine life waiting to be discovered in the vasmess of our

Johnson's son, J. Seward Johnson Jr., now Chief Executive Offtcer of

from dinoflagellates which are part animal, part-plant, single-celled organisms which can cause boats'

Harbor Branch has its own fleet of three submersibles and three RVs

wakes to glow at night. The angler fish, the Melanocetus Johnsonii,

which travel the globe to smdy the

where salt and freshwaters meet. The

marine sciences. R'V stands for

possesses what looks like a light bulb

Research Vessel, not recreational

at the end of a fishing rod. Attracted by the light, many smaller fish then

vehicles, the staffsomewhat ruefully points out. I was at Harbor Branch just

Indian River area generates immense wealth. It comprises a $2.1 billion citrus industry as well as generating $300 million aimually in marine and


Other editorial comments by Tom Davey can be seen on ES&E's new web site. http://www.esemag.coiti


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Editorial Comment, cont'd. boat sales. The waterway also serves as a spawning and nursery ground for ocean and lagoon fish and generates $300 million annually in commercial fish revenues. It also generates 90 percent of Florida's clam harvest, which represents 15 percent of all US clam landings. There are many spectacular homes, and luxurious vessels to be seen along the Indian River. Prince Charles has

stayed in the area while playing at the polo grounds near Vero Beach. These polo groimds have their own Canadian connection, being owned by the Weston family.

Indian River is also part ofthe Intracoastal Waterway which skirts inside several of the elongated barrier islands which lie just offFlorida's east coastline. These barrier islands

While Harbor Branch is world-

to simulate space flights for craft which

and Amelia Earhart. His Link Trainer

had never flown, to destinations no one

anticipated virtual reality almost seven decades ago and revolutionized pilot training. Link's new trainer received a

space program.

boost after President Roosevelt shifted America's infant air mail service from

private hands to the US Air Corps after charges offraud were levelled at some private carriers. But the military pilots had little instrumentation, or training, to cope with the hazards of regular mail runs. Five pilots were killed and six seriously injured during the first week the Air Corps took over the task. After more accidents,

the Florida coasts. The location also affords researchers direct access to the

private airlines. The incident gave Link a chance to

Atlantic Ocean as well as the rich

demonstrate, then sell, six of his trainers, the first ofthousands to be built for the US military as well as governments around the world. Over the years. Link trainers evolved from

via the Panama Canal.

Churchill for their contribution to

Britain's war effort during World War 11. Later the trainers enabled astronauts

had ever been, greatly assisting NASA's Link's engineering genius was also at work on submersibles which vastly extended scientific capabilities in oceanic and freshwater lake research

at depths of up to 3,000 feet. Ironi cally, his submersibles found a further use in the space program when the illfated Challenger crashed shortly after lift-offfrom Kennedy Space Center. At the urgent request of NASA,a Harbor Branch crew was able to locate

and recover wreckage from the stricken space rocket.

protect research vessels and equipment from the many hurricanes which strike

variety of marine life in the Indian River Lagoon. It is also convenient for ships to explore the Pacific Ocean

the biplane era into the jet age and later right into the space age. Link Trainers were praised by Winston

renowned for its undersea exploration, its submersible technology actually can be traced to the fledgling aircraft industry. In his early days, Edwin Link ran a flying school and met such aviation legends as Charles Lindbergh

Roosevelt returned the mail runs to

Harbor Branch is a mere two hour

drive south east of Disneyworld, a shortjourney which can transport visitors from Disney's fantasies to the real world where scientific achieve

ment now outshines the literary creations of Jules Verne.

Inorganic Coagulants For water and wastewater

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Find the solutions at Eaglebrook. Phone (800) 268-5317 in Canada (800) 387-5021 In USA

#1EAGLEBROOr INC. of CANADA For more Information, circle reply card No. 167 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

The First Name In Solids / Liquid Separation Technology

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Belt Filter Press design technology. It features a dependable, maintenance-free pneumatic belt tensioning and center pivot tracking roll system that continuously monitors and also automatically corrects any misalignment of the dewatering belts.

contact the experts at Roediger. TOWER BELT FILTER PRESS FEATURES:

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Pneumatically actuated plows shown lifted up and off the belt for


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Roediger manufactures long-term, low maintenance sludge and slurry handling equipment; Belt Filter Presses

Gravity Belt Thickeners Thermal Sludge Dryers

Individual stainless steel

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drain pans, deflectors or troughs prevent re-wettIng of the preceding and

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Industry Update dorsed a six-month review that showed

Toronto says yes to vinyl

that even imder the most rigorous analy sis, vinyl is safe, valuable, and good for

In an impressive show of support, an overwhelming majority ofToronto City Councillors have voted to continue the

use of vinyl(PVC) pipe for all its mu nicipal and plumbing needs. In the end, Council voted 11 to 5 in favour ofvinyl pipeMore than 25 technical and scientific

experts from across North America pre sented research findings. The vote en

the environment.

Tom Torokvei, Chairman of the Vinyl Council of Canada, stated that

"despite the unfounded claims promoted by Greenpeace and supported by Coun cillor Peter Tabuns and the Board of

Health, Toronto City Council showed economic and environmental leadership in voting to support the continued use of vinyl products."

Vinyl is one of the most tested and researched products on the market to day. Leading agencies such as the National Sanitation Foundation, the Canadian Standards Association, and

Underwriter Laboratories certify vinyl pipe in water and sewer distribution sys tems. In addition, the useful life span of a vinyl pipe is more than 100 years of service making it one of the most used and preferred materials in municipalities throughout North America. A critical issue facing municipalities across the country is the fmancial and health costs associated with watermain

Tap into the source for quality copper sulfate.

breaks. A recent study estimates that more than $650 million dollars worth of

clean water is lost each year as a result of corroding or broken watermains.

University of Aiberta announces new


Engineering program A new program will expand the civil engineering offerings of the University ofAlberta through a specialization in en vironmental engineering. It will add 30 students to the overall Faculty of Engi neering quota, and 30 to the second year quota for civil engineering. The new program will employ a co operative education format with five work terms, for a total of 20 months, during years two through five. When fully implemented, an additional 150 students will be emolled in the faculty. The University of Alberta aims to train technical generalists for work in all ar eas of environmental protection with knowledge of the traditional areas of civil engineering.

When it comes to the water

people drink, it has

to be pure. It has to be clean.

And the copper sulfate used to treat

water supplies must be certified to NSF Standard 60


When the copper

For further information contact:

sulfate is also

Director, Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7, Tel: (403) 492-4235, Fax: (403)

produced under a quality management system that is certified to ISO 9003

you know your best source is Triangle


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The made-inAmerica Brand that's

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more than 75 years. All you have to do is add water. Triangle Brand is a registered trademark of Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation. Š1996 Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation. Always read and follow label direction

Ontario company fined $65,000 for emitting odours Corundol Environmental Ltd., of 55 Vulcan St., Etobicoke, pleaded guilty to emitting odours and was fined $65,000. With the addition of a 20 percent sur charge on the fine, the company must pay a total of $78,000. Corundol was authorized under a

Certificate of Approval issued by the Ministry of Environment and Energy to

For more information, circle reply card No. 169 (See page 17)

Envimnmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

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Public Relations Management

Fully integrated with metering programs

Industry Update accept and process certain classes of

mental conviction. The sentence was

hazardous wastes at its facilities. On

handed down at Toronto Provincial

November 15,1994,the company failed to take proper measures to neutralize, and thereby reduce the odour from, a shipment oftoxic wastes. Beginning around 7:30 a.m. on Nov ember 16, 1994, a strong, unpleasant odour was emitted from the company property. The discomfort prompted some neighboring companies to send their employees home for the rest ofthe day. This is Corundol's second environ


US environmental

Industry behind globally A study conducted by Environmental Business Intemational,Inc.found the US environmental industry's portion ofrev enues from foreign markets is "woefully

behind" other countries' exports as a percentage of revenue. One reason the

study cites for its findings is that US companies have had little incentive to pursue intemational business, given the US market is the largest in the world. The report did note that the global environmental market will grow from $408 billion in 1994 to $572 billion by 2001. r/ie Global Environmental Mar

ket Industry Competitiveness, can be purchased by calling Dan Greenstadt of Environmental Business Intemational, Inc. at(619)295-7685, Ext. 21.

1996 Stockholm Water Prize awarded to

Dr. Jorg Imberger of Australia International

Dr. Jorg Imberger, Director ofthe Cen tre of Water Research at the University of Westem Australia, will be awarded the 1996 Stockholm Water Prize. The

Prize is (US)$I50,000 and will be awarded by H.M.King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden in August. Dr. Imberger receives the Prize for creating a computerized predictive analysis model correlating water motion research with biochemical data. This is

When the water supply is

done to enable scientists to monitor and

your responsibility, you need

improve the sustainable capacity oflakes

to use the most advanced and

leader in the field of environmental en

reliable technology available. Let GLI continuous monitoring

gineering and his research results are applied all over the world", says Bo Krantz, Secretary General ofThe Stock

systems manage your

holm Water Foundation.



and coastal regions. "He is a recognized

Dr.Imberger's extensive research ac tivity and his ability to include interac tion between physical, chemical and bio logical processes, has opened ways for understanding and predicting water qual ity in lakes and coastal waters, and for better management of natural waters.

MOEE releases results

of Canagaglgue Creek sediment study A sediment study released by the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, shows high concentrations of DDT and dioxins/furans in the sediments

ofthe Canagagigue Creek in and around Uniroyal Chemical Ltd. in Elmira. DDT and two breakdown products, DDD and DDE were found in creek

sediments beginning at the dam im poundment area on the Uniroyal Chemi cal property. Concentrations ofDDT in the sediment by the Uniroyal property exceeded the severe effect level of the

provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines 10

For more information, circie repiy card No. 171 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

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Industry Update but decreased downstream.

The highest concentration ofthe most toxic dioxin,2,3,7,8-TCDD— 110 parts per trillion (ppt)- was found in a pond on the floodplain approximately 1.5 km downstream ofthe industrial plant. Fur ther investigation will be conducted dur ing the summer. There have never been any deteetable levels ofdioxins and furans found in raw

or treated drinking water at Mannheim, the fust downstream municipal drinking water supply. Since the discovery of n-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA)contamination in 1989, ministry staff, members of Uniroyal Public Advisory Committee, concemed citizens and Uniroyal Chemi cal Ltd. have co-operated m making signifieant environmental improvements at the site. These include: a new perma nent water supply for Elmira residents, excavation and storage of the buried wastes, containment and treatment ofthe contaminated municipal aquifer on-site,

in organisms in the creek and to map the extent ofcontamination. This will pro vide a foundation for a management ac tion plan and any remediation required.

Designing plants to clear heavy metal

ing monitoring programs for the site. The ministry will also conduct stud ies this summer to measure contaminants

of the soil and store them in shoots and

ment and treatment system, and ongo

In research that could accelerate the de

velopment of these techniques. Smith and Kramer have discovered that A.

Lesbiacum mops up nickel using the contaminations By diseovering how a plant unique tO' amino acid histidine. Nitrogen atoms in the amino acid the island of Lesbos mops up nickel, carry space electrons which they donate Oxford scientists hope to design others to the electron-hungry nickel ion, form that draw metals out of soil much more cheaply and cleanly than is possible with ing a strong bond as they do so. The existing techniques. Dr. Andrew Smith nickel is then imprisoned inside the and Ute Kramer from the Department histidine's molecular cage. The scien of Plant Sciences at the University of tists are now looking at the possibility Oxford, have found that Alyssum of genetically engineering large fastgrowing plants as more efficient hyper lesbiacum absorbs nickel very effec tively from the soil, shuttling the metal upwards into its green tissues above ground. Like other "hyperaccumulators", it absorbs levels of metal that would kill most other plants. No one knows why some plants ac cumulate metals instead ofkeeping them out, but hyperaccumulators could be very useful in environmental cleanup operations, because they take metals out

approval of an upper aquifer contain

leaves which could simply be harvested and disposed of in landfill sites for ex ample. "It might even be possible to extract and recycle the metals," said Dr. Smith.



Syracuse University will study friction properties of PVC geomembranes The PVC Geomembrane Institute(PGI) has accepted a proposal from Syracuse University aimed at determining the in terface friction properties of geomem-



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The Victauiic system gives you more space, more time, and easier access than typical flanged/sleeves combination.

• Significantly lighter than flanged. • No "two-hoUng," alignment hassle, or sleeve couplings. Call your local municipal specialist or Victaulic Company of Canada, 65 Worcester Road, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Phone 4x6/675-5575 Fax 4x6/675-5729.

iCtauliC' An isfi 9001 certified company )1995 Victaulic Company of Canada. All rights reserved.


For more information, circie reply card No. 108 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Industry Update branes. The study will focus particularly on PVC gcomcmbrancs as they compare to other materials.

The union ofthese two organizations results from imconfirmed theories about the interface friction behaviour ofPVC

geomembranes. It has been assumed that due to the flexible nature of PVC geo membranes, they have higher peak and residual interface friction angles. How ever, according to Dr. S.K. Bhatia, civil and environmental engineering profes sor at Syracuse University, "a system atic study is needed to confirm these ob servations."

"The objective of this study is to de termine the shear strength characteris tics of polymer-polymer and polymersoil interfaces. The study will compare five types of geomembranes vs. three types of soil and one geotextile," states Dr. Bhatia. A mimimum of three tests

will be performed at confining stresses ranging from 30 kN/M^ to 150 kN/M^ (4 PSI to 22 PSI)for each interface. The

(Left to right) Ms. Kay Kutchins, V.P.AWWA, Pierre LaJoie of Urecon Ltd., Fulier Award winner, and Michei Emond, President, AOTE/AESEQ.

The Association Quebecoise des Techniques de L'Envirormement exposition and conference was a great success, and the floor space at St. Hyacinthe fully booked. Exhibitors were well satisfied at the flow and quality of visitors. The winner of the AWWA Fuller Award was Pierre LaJoie of Urecon Ltd.

total number of tests will be 60.

The various materials being tested in clude PVC,Faille Finish PVC,Textured PVC, Smooth HDPE and Textured

HDPE. Dr. Bhatia will also be using sand, clay, sandy loam and eight ounce nonwoven geotextile. This study is a timely issue because, according to Dr. Bhatia, the stability of hazardous-waste and municipal solidwaste landfills is controlled by the shear

strength of each component and then-

study was scheduled to begin in Mareh



While this project is funded by the PGI, all testing will take place at the University research site. The nine month

For information on PVC geomem branes or the PGI, please contact Kelly Halloran, at(500) 367-7821.

CALL FOR PAPERS 26th Annual Water Environment Association of Ontario

Technical Symposium/ OPCEA Exhibition

April 13 to 16,1997 — London,ON If you are interested in making a pres entation on:

• case history of irmovative design, operation, maintenance and manage ment of municipal and industrial wastewater,stormwater and biosolids

treatment facilities and equipment. • legal, regulatory and finaneial issues. • operator/management training. Please submit an abstraet to: WEAO Seminar/Conference Committee

63 Hollyberry Trail North York, Ontario M2H 2N9

Closing date for Abstract submission is September 30,1996. For more infor mation, please contact WEAO at(416) 502-1440, or Fax:(416)502-1786. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Our New Mixers Are

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Industry Update become responsible for dealing with their products when consumers dispose of them, either by recycling them or putting

Entsorga attendance up « Kehrmr"hinen

them to other uses.

Attendance rose to 66,000, up 1,000 from the 1994 show; about 9,000 were

from outside Germany. Almost 70% of visitors came from the private sector. The six Canadian exhibitors were happy with their performances at the show. Compared to the last Entsorga show, the trends, according to environmental specialist Jutta Zillgen-Schaefer ofthe Ca nadian Embassy in Germany, include a


tremendous increase in the number of

Entsorga Cologne 1996 was one of the most important trade fairs for the interna tional recycling and waste disposal industry. Nearly 1,300 firms from 18 countries showed their innovations at this fair on the banks of the Rhine. Photo: KolnMesse

To the surprise of many, attendance in creased slightly at the recent Entsorga re cycling and waste disposal show in Co logne, Germany. The pessimism was fed mainly by two concerns as virtually all German municipalities are in deep finan cial trouble. They have had to bear 100% of the cost of sheltering the hundreds of

thousands of ethnic Germans migrating from eastern Europe and Russia. Munici palities are hesitant to make major capi tal expenditures at a time when several major pieces ofenvironmental legislation are about to come into force. The newest

regulation, beginning in October, forces manufacturers, such as auto makers, to

shredders, many more recycled plastic products, and a much stronger emphasis on composting. In water and sewage treat ment, new products launched at Entsorga included a system that uses CO, to pre cisely regulate the neutralization of basic sewage (offered by the Institut fur angewandte Forschung), a solar-powered ventilator/circulator/mixer-settler for re

habilitating sewage and water (from Oloid), a digitized sensor camera for in specting sewage (from Gullyver), and a computer simulation system for reducing the costs — from planning through opera tion — of biological sewage treatment plants(from Ifak Magdeburg). Christopher Cummings


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Don't Change

Industry Update

Your Filter.

AGRA Earth & Environmental wins $1.5 million in international contracts CEO Alex Taylor, has announced that the company's Calgary-based subsidiary,

The second contract is a (Cdn.) $235,000 contract extension for ongo ing work north of the Arctic Circle in

AGRA Earth & Environmental, has been

the former Soviet Union for a French

awarded three intemational environmen

petroleium company. AGRA Earth & Environmental is now providing site in vestigation services to assess ground conditions and locate sand and gravel for construction purposes for a new oil field development in this area of ongo ing oilfield development.

AGRA Industries Limited President and

tal services contracts, together worth

(Cdn.) $1.5 million. The projects are all located in the former Soviet Union.

The first contract is a(Cdn.)$600,000 marine environmental study for KCS

Caspian Sea Consortium, which is con ducting one of the world's largest ex ploration surveys. Participants in the Consortium are AGIP, British Gas, the BP and Statoil Alliance, Mobil, Shell,

Total and Kazakstancaspishelf(KCS), a new state company.

Phase one ofthe project will involve an offshore baseline survey of environ mental conditions in the area, including water quality, sediment quality, and aquatic life. Phase two will involve the provision ofa prelhnmary enviromnental impact assessment of drilling opera tions. AGRA Earth & Environmental will assist the consortium in consider

ing environmentally sound alternatives for the development.

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The third contract is a (Cdn.) $750,000 project, awarded through the Asian Development Bank, to assist the government of the Kyrgyz Republic to review and revise its environmental

management procedures. The project will help Kyrgyz to ensure its environ mental practices are more effective and compatible with western requirements. With western companies showing ever-greater interest in investing in Kyrgyz, AGRA Earth & Environmen tal will provide training, support, and ad vice required to develop standards and procedures for an enhanced environ mental review process.

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Dewatering of municipal waste sludge Dewatering of surface and ground water for portable water treatment Thickening of waste activated sludge Industrial Waste Wastewater treatment

Dewatering of process waste Industrial Fluids

Purification of factory fluids for



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Industry Update process,for example,three tons ofrein forced concrete were dismantled, cut,

How the Berlin Wall

was recycled

crushed and screened in 25 seconds.

Recycling firms have recorded some re markable achievements in recent years.

• One-quarter ofa million old reinforced concrete pylons are being re-processed

The following three mammoth projects

by a mobile Franco-German recycling

were scheduled for discussion at IFAT

centre a year-200 pylons a day. •During the repair and improvement of the Brenner Motorway, roller-crushers

KWH large diameter

HOPE Pressure Pipe to be made In California KWH Pipe(Canada)Ltd., manufacturer

of the world's largest diameter HDPE Pressure Pipe, has announced its acqui 96 in Munich, May 7-11. sition of the assets ofPolaris Pipe Com • The remains ofthe Berlin Wall, more than 100 km in length, which were not break up pre-stressed concrete of high pany with plant facilities in Bakersfield, California. Anew company,KWH Pipe carefully removed and taken home by compressive strength and with an ex (Califomia) Corp. has been formed to souvenir hunters and collectors of tremely high level of reinforcement own and operate the Bakersfield plant. memorabilia, were broken up and recy (steel share between 15% and 17%)into Pekka Maukola,President and Chief cled by semi-mobile crushing and a material which is used as a frostExecutive Officer of KWH Pipe screening plants within a year. In the resistant substructure. (Canada) Ltd., says it will have a sig nificant impact on North America's HDPE pipe markets. KWH Pipe THE FUTURE OF (Canada)Ltd. is a member ofthe world



wide KWH Pipe Group with headquar ters in Vaasa, Finland. It extrudes 63 inche(1,600 mm)diameter HDPE solid


wall pressure pipe,the largest ofits kind in the world.

At start-up,the new KWH Pipe(Cali fomia) Corp. will manufacture only HDPE pipe and fittings from 3/4 inch up to 63 inch diameter as well as man holes and related fabrications.

Waste water slurry being fed into a Derrick Flo-Line screening machine.





renovations, production at the new Bakersfield plant will also include polyethylene natural gas distribution pipe as well as very large diameter polyethylene profile wall pipe with di ameters extending to 96 inches.



The envifo;Qfnentai demands, which are

currehtl)Sibeihg- placed on corporations

SCI-TEC Instruments Inc. announces

and municipalities to control B.O.D. (Bloiogicai Oxygen Demand) discharges and reduce in-piant treatment costs, have

the appointment ofBrian Controls, a division of Peacock Inc., as the ex clusive representatives for Canada for its open path, ambient air, envi ronmental monitoring systems, the Hawk and PerspectUV.

created ai tremendpus need for efficient,

reliable arid cost effective equipment to reduce waste water solids concentra

tions! Derrick Corporation, with over 40 years of fine screening experience,is now capable of offering this equipment tech nology to the waste water industry worldwide.Through utilizing the Derrick «"Fio-Line" screening unit design, high fluid

Recovery of processed carrots from a waste water stream using Derrick 0.43MM urcthane screens.

The Hawk is an infrared toxic gas monitor primarily designed for moni

toring fugitive emissions from heavy industry such as refmeries and smelt ers. The PerspectUV is the first instmment produced by SCI-TEC that incorporates the patented electrooptic core technology that it pur chased when it bought the assets of the ENO company in Rus sia last May. The PerspectUV instm-

^tapacities can be effectively handled-at : mesh openings.-This

Typical screen oversize recovery of fish solids from processing waste water slurry at 50 mesh.





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For further information contact:

Betty Stanley at Brian Controls,Tel: (905) 890-5880. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

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By W. Warren Saint, P. Eng.*

Thermal dewatering of biosolids at Bird Isiand SIP, Buffaio

Themoisture contentofbiosolids produced by me

chanical dewatering equipment often restricts the feasibility of pmsuing alternate biosolids utiliza tion options or makes existing utilization plans in efficient. Increasing the dry solids content of dewatered biosolids usually decreases the volume and always decreases the mass of material to be handled in the next step of the biosohds management program. As the treatment and elimi nation of biosolids represent over half ofthe capital and op erating costs of most municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP),the savings can be substantial. When designing a biosolids management program, it is customary to evaluate and select the preferred ultimate biosohds utilization method. The ultimate use will dictate

the dry solids requirement of the biosolids and this will in turn dictate the types of sludge dewatering equipment, and biosohds stabilization processes, which can ultimately be se lected. For example,composting is most efficient in terms of capital and operating costs when the biosohds have a dry sohds content of 30 to 35%.

rectly over the dewatered biosohds as they tumble through a rotating drum.

Recently, conductive, or indirect, dryers have been gain ing popularity. The indirect dryers differ from direct dryers in that heat is transferred to the biosohds by conduction through a metallic surface. The siuface may be the waU of the dryer, hollow screws, paddles or disks. The interior of the heat transfer surface is usually heated with hot oil or steam.

The advantage of indirect dryers is that, as the heating me Mechanically

I Dewatered


Thermally Dehydrated

When the biosohds are wetter than this, the moisture and energy balance must be supplemented through the use ofin creased woodchip amendment and compost recycle. Like wise, incineration is most efficient when the sludge bums autogenously, without the need for supplemental fossil fuel for combustion. This usually occurs when the dry sohds are greater than 35%. While current biosohds dewatering tech nologies, such as high sohds centrifuges and diaphragm re cessed plate filter presses can achieve 35% sohds,the major ity of biosohds dewatering facilities currently in operahon utilize belt filter press technology which typically achieves 16 to 22% dry solids in municipal WWTPs.

dium is not in direct contact with the biosohds,there are mini

mal off-gases to treat when compared with direct drying. Some types of indirect dryers can receive biosohds di rectly from the dewatering equipment, at as little as 10% dry sohds, and produce a thermally dewatered sludge cake at any dry sohds content up to 95%. At the Buffalo SewerAuthority's Bird Island Sewage Treat ment Plant, CH2M Gore & Storrie, in conjunction with Nussbamner & Clarke, designed and commissioned North America's first full-scale installation of thermal dewatering technology on municipal biosohds. Commissioned in.1992, the installation uses an indirect

dryer consisting of a series of hollow disks heated internally with steam and mounted on a single rotor. The xinit, manu factured by Stord Inc., dewaters 100 wet tormes per day of biosohds produced from the belt presses, increasing the dry

In a new application ofan existing technology,the biosohds can be further dewatered in a thermal dryer to augment exist

ing or proposed dewatering facilities. Thermal dewatering can be used to produce a product at the optimum dry sohds to efficiently satisfy the biosohds uhlizahon plan. HistoricaUy, biosohds dryers have been used to produce a pelletized produet at 90 to 95% dry sohds. The pellets have been used as fuel or low grade fertilizer. The majority of dryers use convective, or direct, heat passing hot dry air di*Project Manager, CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd. 18


(CourtMy 01 Stord,Inc.)

sohds content of the biosohds from 18% to 35%.

As dewatering occurs in the unit by boiling offthe water in the biosolids at 100 degrees Celsius, some 50 tonnes of Continued on page 30 Envimnmental Science & Engineering, June 1996



T •^'3saS5Ez2


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H One Moving Part - Rotor alternately compresses and relaxes specially designed, reslllerrt hose. Sliding friction minimized by liquid lubricantin the housing.

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H High Capacities - Eight models available; flow capacities of.1 through 250 gallons per minute.

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E-mail; directoratenveng.ualberta.ca or phone (403) 492-4235

B High Pressures - Performance up to 220 psig. B Ideal for Abrasive Slurries - Handles abrasive slurries and corrosive acids with minimum wear

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Stormwater Management

us city chooses Canadian-designed oii removai system for stormwater project

The redevelopment of down

town Rockville, Maryland has been a long-term eco nomic goal ofthe city, which is the second largest in Maryland after Baltimore. Montgomery County, the State of Maryland, a private develop ment company, and the city, are jointly

land. Larry Mclntyre, field supervisor of Busy Ditch said: Installation was smooth and fast. It took only 4 hours to install and connect up. There was mini mal impact to traffic or the surrounding utilities."

Stormceptor is a patented pollution prevention technology that removes oil

funding the reconstruction of the infrastructure ofthe Town

Center, which includes roads, sidewalks, storm drains and utilities.

Covering 10 acres,the pur pose of the redevelopment is to create a town atmosphere


that will attract commercial

and residential developmentto the new Town Center.

As part ofthe city's storm

conventional manhole strucmres in the

stormsewer system, reducing the over all cost of stormwater management for new developments and facilitating stormwater quality control retrofits for existing developments. Manufactured from easily assembled concrete compo nents that are pre-engineered for traffic loading, it can be installed in residential,commercial,indus trial, and road projects. Under normal design flow operating conditions, which represent approximately 85% of the aimual runoff volume, stormwater flows into the up per pre-engineered diversion chamber, is diverted by a Vshaped weir down a drop pipe, and into the lower separation

water management program to

chamber. This downward

control nonpoint source run off,this redevelopment project required water quality controls

flow is directed horizontally, by right angle fittings, around


the circular walls ofthe cham

that were both effective and economical. After an exten

ber towards the outlet pipe.

sive review of options, the StormceptorÂŽ System was se lected by the civil engineering designer and the city. The civil engineering de sign firm for the project is

zone, oil, sediment, and other pollutants accumulate in rela

Above and below this flow

tive quiescence. Up to 80% of the inflowing fines and


course sediment load settle

permanently to the floor ofthe chamber,while the petroleum products and volatile vapors rise into the air tight storage

Macris, Hendricks and Glascock of Gaithersburg, Maryland;they chose the sys tem due to its design and con struction flexibility in a retro

fit application. Robert H. Goodin, Director of Rockville's Public Works Depart ment said: "The system will provide effective water qual ity control for stormwater run off, the flexibility to minimize impacts to the existing roads and utilities and a low cost alternative for stormwater qual ity management." The project required three - Storm ceptor 1800 US Gallon units (Model STC 1800). TheSTC 1800unitisapreengineered, precast concrete manhole separator manufactured by CSR - Hy dro Conduit.

area above. Outflows contain

less than 10 mg/litre of oil. Dining high flow condi tions such as intense storms, stormwater flows over the in

let weir and across the upper diversion chamber into the downstream sewer.

and sediment from stormwater runoff, and holds them for safe and easy re

moval. It will not release trapped pol lutants between servicing, even during periods of peak water flow. Designed to replace more costly and less efficient conventional water quahty inlets, and fully tested by Environment Canada's National Water Research Institute, Stormceptor is installed as part of the

The general contractor for the project

storm drain system,does not require the

is Donohoe Construction of Bethesda,

use of valuable real estate, and is both easy and inexpensive to maintain. The equipment is utilized in place of

Maryland and the utility subcontractor is Busy Ditch of Gaithersburg, Mary20


which overflows the weir creates a back

water effect in the outlet pipe from the treatment chamber,ensuring that exces sive flow will not enter the lower treat ment chamber which would otherwise

scour and resuspend the settled sediment and the stored petroleum. During high flows, bedload sediment continues to hit the weir and collect in the lower treat

mentchamber where it remains,with any residual petroleum products, for yearly removal.

For more information,

Circie reply card No. 153

Envimnmental Science & Engineering. June 1996

ENGINEBe FOR PERFORMANCE. INSIDE & OUT. Pipe IS chemically inert and resists abrasion and

Corrugations work with backfill envelope for oufsfanding strengfh.

Smoofh inferior offers

30-50% more hydraulic capacify.

Today it's not just wtiat stormwater drainage

pipe network and save your clients money. And,

pipe is made of that makes the difference. It's

consider the issue of composition. ftDPE is

how it's made, too. That's why it's important to

chemically inert. Unlike metal and concrete, which

take a closer look at corrugated high density

can corrode quickly in chemically-charged

polyethylene (ftDPE) drainage pipe. hIDPE pipe

situations, HOPE is nearly unaffected. This

is the only pipe that's engineered inside and out for maximum performance.

means ftDPE pipe can last up to 30% longer than concrete pipe. In fact, HDPE


On the outside, it's easy to see the difference. The corrugations work hard.


has a projected service lite of 70-r years.

Once you consider fhe ins and outs of

They help the pipe stand up to heavy loads by

stormwater pipe, there's only one clear choice.

working with the backfill envelope to provide out

For more information, call the Corrugated

standing strength.

Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) at

Inside, corrugated ftDPE is smooth, giving

800-510-GPPA today. Technical booklets on

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CPPA Manulacluring Members. Advanr^d Drainage Systems• Big "0" Inc.•Bmce Tile Inc.• Grumpier Plastic Pipe• Century Plastic• Diller Tile Company, Inc.• Francesville Drain Tile Corp. Hancor, inc.• Hawkeye Tile•Ideal Drain Tile Ltd.•Plasti Drain Ltd.•Plastic Tubing Inc.• Plastic Tubing Industries Inc.• Prinsco Inc.•Springtield Plastic Inc. © 1996 CPPA

WEAO Conference report

Photo story by Tom Davey

Minister impresses deiegates with her grasp of regs and technicai issues

Ontario Environment Minis ter, Brenda Elliott impres sed environmental profes

able input from WEAO members to in crease effectiveness in protecting Ontario's water.

sionals at the 25th confer

The Minister stressed three words,

ence of the Water Environment Asso

speeches, with a carefully rehearsed

minimize, clarify and consistency. She intends to minimize duplication and overlapping of services; to clarify the roles of government, determine priori ties and standards settings; and to bring greater consistency to laws,policies and

enimciation oftechnicalities and cliches

standards. She stressed there would be

ciation of Ontario (WEAO) with her grasp of details as well as her political imderstanding ofrealities. Usually min isters read out their staff written

which all too often mask a real

lack ofunderstanding oftech

was particularly pleased to note that MOEE and WEAO had jointly pub lished the Guidance Manual for Opti mization of Municipal Sewage Treat ment Plant Design Operation. The Minister said she was working to encourage water awareness and re duce water consumption. The less water wasted, the less it will cost tax

payers. This would also reduce, defer or avoid costly treatment plant facility expansions. She said she was aware that

nical realities. Brenda Elliott

members ofthe audience rep

has begun to display a deep understanding of her folio. She boldly invites questions

resented environmental com

from some of the most tech

nically minded audiences in the country. She stressed that the gov

panies who were in a strate gic position to expand and compete in a world economy. She noted that the Ontario

Green Industry sector ac counts for half of Canada's

ernment in which she served

green business, which earned

had a great concem for the en

$11 billion in 1995. The en


many press reports had indi

vironmental protection subsector generates about $2.5

cated that the Harris Con

billion in annual revenues. It

She noted that

servative govermnent was an employs about 30,000 people, environmentally insensitive working in 2,000 firms in one. Not so, said the Minis Dean Edwardson, of Laidlaw Environmental Services, 1996/ Ontario alone. She said wa ter, who then outlined some of 97 WEAO president (left) presents a service award to outgo ter treatment and pollution her own business background, ing president, Steve Davey, of ES&E. fields are areas where Ontario before she entered politics, which had no compromise on environmental pro has long estabhshed a strong presence tection. an environmental interest. with global expertise. As evidence ofher determination,she The Minister said her ministry had The ministry has organized interna begun a comprehensive review of min noted that there was now a stricter drink tional trade missions and she cited two istry regulations/approvals processes ing water quaUty objective of100 micro- examples which have already yielded and WEAO was being consulted by the grams per litre for trihalomethanes as tangible results. Armtec ofGuelph have Approvals Branch to improve Certifi compared to a previous objective of350. already signed a $2 million Memoran She said the MOEE staffis working with dum ofUnderstanding to provide exper cates of Approval(C of A)for munici those municipalities which are particu pal wastewater treatment plant construc tise in tunnel stormwater sewer projects tion. She said all 80 regulations are be larly affected by the THM problem. in Jakarta,Indonesia. Candesal Inc., of ing examined under the "Red Tape Re She stressed that air pollution, includ Ottawa, have signed a similar $4.5 mil view Committee", with Dr. Gait over ing smog and ground level ozone, the lion deal to produce clean water from seeing this process. greenhouse effect, as well as drinking sea and brackish water(also in Indone On regulatory reform, she said that water/groundwater protection, would sia). She said partnerships ought to be good progress had been made and pro be top priorities for her. The Western encouraged at every opportunity and posals will be completed by May in time Toronto BeachesTunnel proposal which gave examples of EnviroMetal Tech for public consultations during the sum would collect sludge and stormwater nologies Inc. which markets a metal en mer for a final reform package in the runoff from the west of Metropolitan hanced dechlorination process to the Fall. Implementation of changes will Toronto for treatment and incineration United States,and a groundwater clean start early in 1997. at the Main Treatment Plant on the east ing process invented at the University In addition, her ministry was imder- side of the city was now going ahead. of Waterloo. taking housekeeping amendments to She hoped also to improve efficiency of The Minister said it would be impos make MISA(Municipal Industrial Strat large industrial users of water and sew sible for the government to continue egy for Abatement)regulations simpler erage services to reduce pressure and environmental progress unless the defi to understand and implement. The min capacity. Her goal was to optimize effi cit were reduced. She said it costs about istry will use the same approach to com ciency, effectiveness, and reliability of $9 million annually in interest charges plete municipal regulations with valu existing treatment systems and said she Continued on page 24 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


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WEAO Conference report, cont'd. alone, to service Ontario's debt. In something like five years, that $9 milUon will approach $20 million simply in debt services charges. She said that the government was aiming to get the lowest tax rate in Canada, a balanced budget, the best in vestment climate, along with the high est value with the lowest cost govemment in the country. She said that pro fessionals in both private and pubhc sec tors must take a leadership role and she was counting on this audience to help fulfill these objectives. Following her presentation,the Min ister ceremonially marked the pubUcation of the joint MOEEAVEAO Guid ance Manual for Optimization of Mu nicipal Sewage Treatment Plant Design and Operation. At the awards luncheon on Monday, March 25,the Past President ofthe Wa ter Environment Federation, Mike Pol

len, presented the Arthur Sidney Bedell Award to Gerry Rupke,ofWheelabrator EOS Canada. Gerry is a past president of WEAO. The Bedell Award is given for outstanding service in the sewerage and wastewater treatmentfield.

presented to Cordell Samuels ofMetro politan Toronto. This award recogw/zes operators of wastewater treatment plants whose performance has been

outstanding. Cordell has been a pow erful influence on the organization ofthe highly successful Operations Challenge. Geoff Scott, a past-president of the Water Environment Federation, per formed the induction offour new mem

bers of the 5S Club, the Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovellers. Mike Pollen was inducted along with Peter Nicol, CH2M Gore & Storrie; Lou Romano, City of Windsor; and Gord Speirs, Water Technology Intemational Corp. Interestingly, Peggy Pollen is also a 5S member,being one ofthe few women to hold this distinguished honour. Geoff

noted that the late Governor General, Madam Sauve, had been inducted into the Select 5S Club when,as Minister of Environment,she visited the WEE Con

ference in Miami some years ago. At the banquet, outgoing WEAO president, Steve Davey ofEnvironmen tal Science & Engineering, handed over the gavel to Dean Edwardson, of Laidlaw Environmental Services, WEAO president for 1996/1997. In spite of the OPSEU strike, over 700 attended the 25th Conference, which was held March 24-26, 1996, at the Regal Constellation, in Toronto.

The table-top exposition, sponsored by the Ontario Pollution Control Equip ment Association, was a great success, with all booths being sold out well in advance of the show.

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Energy-efficient controi for a pumping station linked to central computers located at a remote location (Hamilton Street Rail way(HSR)). For station 6B, dual RPUs are used to provide 'hot standby' redundancy. These RPUs commimicate with comput ers located at HSR via telephone lines. (Figure 3). The RPUs have full capa bility ofcontrolling the station. The cen tral computers monitor and perform su pervisory control as required. To minimize hardware and wiring costs, the VFD units as well as the DMS imits are linked to the station control

RPUs via two multi-drop communica tion links for control and monitoring. Various levels of operator interface are provided. The primary one, in the station control room, consists of an in

A large potable water pump

Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth W-H6B Pumping Station.

ing station (W-H6B) with an ultimate capacity of 5mVs, discharging to a closed system, was designed for the Re gion of Hamilton-Wentworth. The ini tial phase, with three variable speed pumping units, was commissioned in 1995. The station includes significant advances in pumping system control. The key issues addressed during the design phase included: i) The need for an innovative layout to achieve the required capacity in the available limited site dimensions.

Drives). The fixed speed pumps (3, 5 and 6) will be installed at a later stage. Isolation valves are provided for the suction and discharge headers. These valves are normally open; however, when closed, they pennit one group of pumps to operate in 'Manual' mode while the other group is in 'Auto' mode. There are two re-circulation(by-pass) lines, each with a control valve. Recirculation is used on the rare occasion when the station demand is lower than

the minimum output of a single pump at low speed. The by-pass lines also assist with surge control measures. On the dis charge side of each pump, there is a check valve and a motorized butterfly valve(MBV). The main electrical equipment in

ii) The requirement to accommodate large suction side pressure variations (100-150 kPa),low night time flows and to work in parallel with another station feeding into the same closed system cludes two main 13.8 kV electrical feed ers, double-ended indoor 3000/4000 (Figure 1). iii) The desire for an energy efficient kVA substation, 5 kV auto-transfer control system, considering the large switchgear, 2000 kW standby generator pumping units in the station (600 kW and three 12 pulse variable frequency each). The facility is unmarmed, with drives. A Digital Metering System operation and control integrated into the (DMS)was implemented to monitor all overall Regional SCADA System. the pertinent power-related parameters. This information as well as the status of Pumping Station Description The pumping station schematic is various switchgear equipment is dis shown in Figure 2. The currently in played graphically on operator screens. Control System Architecture stalled pumps(Pumps 1,2 and 4)are all variable speed (Variable Frequency The control system for the Region's water and wastewater treatment plants and pumping stations is based on Bris 'ACSE MacViro Associates tol Babcock RPUs(Remote Processing ^MacViro Consultants Inc. Units), distributed throughout the plants ^The Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario

and stations.

Environniental Science & Engineering, June 1996

These controllers are

dustrial NEMATRON work-station

mounted in the panel. Equipment con trol and monitoring can be handled from this unit. The main station discharge pressure as well as the flows are also displayed using dedicated digital indi cators.

Operator Interface/ Control Hierarchy

Each piece of equipment (pump, motorized valve, etc.) has a local con trol panel, which is intended primarily for equipment maintenance. This is re ferred to as 'Equipment Level' (or 'Level la') within the overall control hierarchy. Operator panels are also pro vided at the VFD units ('Level lb'). These are primarily intended for VFD maintenance.

Operator interface provided in the station's control room ('Level 2')is the primary one at the station for control and monitoring functions. Finally, remote operation occurs through the Region's central computers via various work-sta tions('Level 3'). ALocaFRemote 'switch' is provided at each operator interface location. This defines the location from where controF

operation is permitted. 'Local' selec tion at a particular location enables con trol from that location and prohibits con trol from a higher level in the control hierarchy. 'Remote' selection at a par ticular level permits control from a higher level in the hierarchy. Station Pressure Control

'Auto' and 'Manual' modes are pro vided for each pump as well as each re27

Instrumentation, cont'd. speed is ramped up until the check valve opens, after which the pump speed is governed by the pressure con



troller. In this way, a pump comes 'on-line' at a speed that is just high

enough to open the check valve. This feature as well as 'gain sched uling' for the control algorithm results in tight pressure control (Âą 5 kPa in 680 kPa). In the design phase as well as in circulation valve. Auto/Manual control

refers to the mode of operation by which the particular equipment is controlled. Pump Auto/Manual Modes In 'Auto' mode, the desired pump

speeds are determined automatically by the discharge header pressure control ler. In 'Manual'mode,the desired pump speeds are set by an operator. As stated earlier, the header isolation

valves will in the future provide the abil ity to operate part of the station (one group of pumps)in 'Auto' mode while the other group is in 'Manual'. There are various other 'interlocks' that need

to be satisfied before a pump is allowed to operate in 'Auto' mode.

pump head. The minimum and maxi mum speed limits that specify this range are calculated on-line from pump per formance curves and monitored param eters such as pump head. This approach maintains overall efficiencies in the midst oflarge changes in, for example,the station suction pres sure. To adapt the minimum and maxi mum pump speeds to the changing con ditions, non-linear equations ofthe form

commissioning,a feed-forward module shown below are solved on-line: was implemented to provide the func AP-(Q) (1) AP = /(Q,N) (2) tion ofslowing down pumps that are on where AP, Q and N are the pump head, line, in an anticipatory manner,when an other pump is switched on, and vice- flow and speed, respectively. Equation versa when a pump is switched off. (1)specifies the operating boundary and However,the pump start-up control de equation(2)is the pump characteristic. scribed earlier and the gain scheduling The function/is parameterised a-priori provides very effective pressure control, (for a given speed N)from pump tests, so that feed-forward control was not using a "least-squares" algorithm. The deemed to be necessary.

parameterisation results in a 3'''' order

Each variable speed pump is limited to operate between minimum and maxi mum speeds. These limits are optimized.

equation ofthe form:

AP - a3(Q)3 + a3(Q)^ + a,(Q)' + a„ (3)

In the rare situation ofextremely low station demand, when the minimum

Introducing the dependence ofQ and AP on N,this equation together with(1) is then solved on-line using iterative

speed for a variable speed pump that is

techniques based on "relaxation". With

'Manual' mode is available at all

Levels in the control hierarchy(ie. Lev els la, lb, 2 & 3) while 'Auto' mode is available only at Levels 2 and 3. Re-circulation Valves Auto/ Manual Modes

The variable speed pumps deal with a large variation in the station demand.

Discharge Header


X Re-circulation/

Re-circulation/' By-pass valve .

By-pass valve

However on the rare occasion when the

station demand is extremely low, re-cir culation is used. The control system is designed to give efficient operation in


such circumstances.

In 'Auto' mode, the desired valve

positions are determined automatically by the same discharge header pressure controller. In 'Manual'mode,the posi tions of the re-circulation valves are set

by an operator. There are various interlocks that need

to be satisfied before a particular recirculation valve can operate in 'Auto' mode. 'Manual' mode is available at

Levels la, 2 and 3, while 'Auto' mode is available at levels 2 and 3. Pressure Controller

The pressure controller consists pri marily of a feedback loop based on a PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) algorithm. Essentially, the output ofthis controller is used to set the pump speeds as well as the re-circulation valve posi tions(in exceptional cases ofextremely low station demand). When a pump is switched on, its 28

Suction Header

P1,P2, P4 Variable Speed Units currently installed P3, P5, P6 Fixed Speed Units to be installed in the future

on-line is reached,the pressure control ler locks the pump at minimum speed and automatically actuates the re-circu lation valves to achieve the (same) de sired header pressure. Thus,the pumps and the re-circulation valves work fully co-ordinated with each other. Further,

this feature allows the header pressure to be reduced during low flow condi tions, resulting in energy savings in these circumstances.

Optimization One of the significant features pro vided for this station is an optimized mode,whereby the pump operating point is kept within a pre-defmed regime,com

mensurate with maintaining pump effi ciency (Figure 4). This is achieved by ensuring the pump operates within an appropriate speed range for a particular

appropriate adaptation of the "relaxa tion" parameter, the solution converges within a specified tolerance in four to twelve iterations. The equation set (12)is solved once for the minimum speed and once for the maximum speed (with different parameters for the operating boundary). To summarize, the above procedure

provides minimum and maximum speeds for a given pump head. The so lution is embodied in a software mod ule that can be turned on or off. These

pump speed limits should not be ex ceeded if the pump efficiencies are to be maintained.

Pump Sequencing As far as pump sequencing is con cerned,'Auto' mode refers to the mode Continued on page 30

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


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Instrumentation, cont'd. deliverable flow is dynamically calculated on-line (using pump performance curves) at the measured head and at maximum speeds which are based on pump efficiencies. (See Figure 4). Other param eters used in the decision-making for switching pumps on/off are the pump speeds and the station header pressure. Again, the automatic sequencing procedure is

Remote Communications

Local Operator Interface Unit





embodied in a software module that can be turned on or off. Communications




Control Room

Pressure Set-point Another factor in reducing energy consumption is to reduce the head against which the pumps must work. There are some savings that can be achieved by reducing the station discharge header pressure at low flow conditions. For this reason, 'Auto' and








VFD - Variable Frequency Drive

QMS - Digital Metering System FIGURES


'Manual' modes are also provided for the pressure set-point. In 'Manual' mode, the desired discharge header pressure is set by an operator, and remains fixed. In 'Auto' mode, the desired discharge header pressure (ie. set-point) is automatically calculated for low flow conditions. The ability to maintain a

of operation whereby pumps are switched on/off automatically as the station load changes. When the sequencer is in 'Manual' mode,the pumps have to be turned on/off by an operator. The sequencer selects pumps from a preferred list, eg. {1,4,2,0,0,0}. In this case, the sequencer will select pumps 1, 4 and 2, in that order, as the load changes. Ifany selected pump fails to start or trips, the failed pump will be bypassed (automati cally) in the selection process.

Thermal dewatering, continued from page 18

water per day are boiled offin the dryer. The small non-condensible gas stream remaining, after the resulting water va pour is directed to a venturi type con densing unit, is oxidized in the incin erator. By way of comparison, the 50 tonnes of water driven off in the dryer would otherwise have been vaporized and heated in the incinerator, through energy supplied by natural gas, to 600 degrees Celsius. The cost ofthe indirect thermal dry ing system,'including construction and equipment was $995,000 (U.S.). With a payback period ofless than six years, this irmovative project has resulted in similar installations in three other American cities.

With over two hun

dred biosolids incinerators operating in North America, there is great opportu nity to produce energy from autogenous

combustion of biosolids fi^om a process which is generally a consumer of valu able energy. For more Information,

circle reply card No.154


The sequencer will select only those pumps that belong to a pump in 'Auto' mode. For example, with the above pre ferred list, if pump 4 is put into (or de faults to)'Manual , then the sequencer will automatically bypass the selection of pump 4 and will select pump 2 after pump 1. Further, in the future the sequencer will automatically differentiate between variable speed units and fixed speed units in the pump selection process. The decision to switch pumps on/off is based on several parameters. One of the parameters used is the maximum flow from each pump. The maximum desired flow from each pump while maintaining the pump efficiency varies with the station load. This maximum


desired (lower) header pressure even with re-circulation (when the pumps have reached their minimum speeds) is made possible as a result of the inte grated pressure control scheme. Conclusion

The key requirements (other than good discharge header pressure control) of coping with large suction side pres sure variations, very low night-time flows and an energy-efficient control system were accommodated. The control design and software were the key to efficient operation of the pumping station. This efficiency ofop eration when using 600kW pumping units translates into significant annual power savings. For more Information, circle reply card No. 191




















Complete mixing ^ves you the edge As tlie Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process gains popularity' in wastewater treatment, the critical role played by mixing becomes even more important. Complete mixing improves tlie overall process and prevents short circuiting and dead zones. However, the mixing must be strong enough to ensure good distribution of the tank's contents, yet gentle enough to minimize the shearing of the floe. Flygt Submersible Mixeis are ideal for BNR applications. Why? Because Flygt Submei-sibles mn at low speed, produce low turbulence, and draw in a minimal amount of air. Moreover, tliey consume minimal power compared to conventional, long-shaft mixers.

Flygt 4600 Series Submersible Mixere are compact, direct-drive units whose principal advantage in BNR applications is flexibility - i.e. the flow can be pointed in any direction to minimize hydraulic losses and maximize the amount of energy utilized for agitation. In anoxic zones, Flygt Banana Blade MLxere are an excellent choice because they provide gentle mixing and outstanding energy efficiency. Currently, some 90 Flygt Submei'sible MLxeis are being used in BNR processes across Canada. If you're thinking about adopting the BNR process in your facility, you can rely on Flygt Submei'sible Mrxei-s to provide the suspension in your suspended growth process. For more infonuation, call your nearest Flygt representative today.

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For more information, circie reply card No. 104 (See page 17)

Public/Private Partnerships

The City of Kelowna embarks on a water metering public/private partnership elowna, the vibrant hub of

B.C.'s southern Okanogan interior, is a rapidly grow ing eommunity that relies on water for everything from recreation to economic stability. The semi-arid Okanogan Valley is a water-short area and at some point in time, water will be a limiting factor on growth. Although the current population of Kelowna is approximately 95,000, the population of the central Okanogan is expected to double in the next 20 years. Because the cost of supply ing and treating that water is also expected to skyrocket, the City has recognized the need to


act now to avoid a crisis in the future. With no immediate

shortage of water, convincing the community to conserve has proven to be a challenge. With only minimal restrictions on watering in the peak summer months, most people have not been getting the message that water ANNOUNCEMENT

IS a scarce resource.

The average water consumption for a Kelowna household every three months is 160 cubic meters, which is nearly double the amount used in Vernon, a nearby city, that has had water meters for the last two years. In order to combat the problem of water waste and the escalating cost of supply


cause contractors must adhere to

and treatment of water, the City began to develop a water conservation strat egy aimed at reducing water consump

predetermined specifications. After reviewing the relevant project management experi ence, expertise, and financial position of the various bidders, the City of Kelowna decided to embark on a $3.9 million pub lic/private partnership with Schlumberger Industries; this called for the com pany to handle all facets of meter op

tion and wastewater.


By taking immediate action, the City expected to extend the useful life of the existing supply and waste treatment

lation of 11,200 residential meters and 1,200 commercial meters, Schlumber-




Project Manager



Equipment Manufacturer

facilities and to delay the need for a large capital investment. The City ofKelowna adopted a water conservation plan which The management and staff are pleased to announce that the employees of Aqua Tcrrc Solutions Inc. (formerly

recommended the installation of water

meters and billing for water consump tion based on use rather than a flat rate.

the Canadian Environmental Division

Universal metering of water service con

of Intera' Information Technologies

nections would allow for the reduction

Corp.) have acquired the company through a successful management buvout. We will continue to provide the high quality services which you have come to expect over the past 22 years. Aqua Terre Solutions Inc., and its affiliated companies, have a team of over 100 environmental professionals providing a complete range of multidisciplinary environmental services to industry and government worldwide.

of total annual water use by approxi mately 20%. Reduced water consumption would also remedy the City's large power bill which was in the order of$225,000 an nually because of the high pumping

Canadian offices: OTTAWA

Dennis Lafleur, P.Eng.(613) 226-2456

costs associated with unrestrained

water use. Given the potential for re ducing armual water use by up to 30% through a demand-side management ap proach, the total operating cost saving over a 20-year time horizon would be at least $600,000. Once Council committed to the


David McClellan, P.Eng.(416)635-5882 CALGARY

Jim Brewington, P.Eng. (403) 266-2555

'(The nghts to the name "Intera' are ixtw owited 1^* an unrelated company,Intera Inc., of Austin,"DO


plore the possibility of entering into a public/private partnership whereby a private partner would invest the money upfront and regain it over time. The City invited the best and most creative pro posals from the private sector for an agreement sparming 15 years. This approach encouraged propo nents to submit plans with the most in novative and least expensive way to achieve the objectives of the project, unlike the traditional design-tender-build process where ingenuity is limited be

metering program, the City began to explore new ways to finance the $4.25 million project. When a much hoped for government funding request was deniecl, staff started looking elsewhere for a viable solution.

The City of Kelowna decided to ex

In addition to the supply and instal

ger would perform ongoing mainte nance to the metering system, reading services for water and electricity meters, a comprehensive public education pro gram, and 15-year financing. As part of the contract, the City has the option of buying out the contract at the end of each five year period. By engaging the company, the City felt that it would benefit from its know

ledge and abilities for future improve ments in the meter program. The all inclusive costs offered in the

winning proposal were lower than the other bidders and lower than the pro jected costs of the works done by City employees. The City also wanted to benefit from the use of Schlumberger's state-of-the-art technology throughout the term of the contract and the transfer

ofrisk from the City to the private com pany. As the company would be respon sible for the delivery of all elements of the proposal, responsibility was more clearly defined and direct than with the other proposals, allowing for greater flexibility in service provision. For more Information, circle reply card No. 189

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

• 4# •





"lealtii of cor municipal inffa^ slEucture.'W0vdependif3n reliatt|; '« supplies of potable water-pd the\

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Corrosfbn proof, easy'to. in^taU,

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WINNIPEG B (204) 633-3111 FAX (204) 633-3075

MONTREAL B (514) 337-2624 TOLL FREE (800) 363-4343 FAX (514) 337-7886

CALGARY S (403)236-8333 FAX(403)279-8443

SASKATOON ■B (306) 933-4664 FAX (306) 934-2020

TORONTO B (905) 670-7676 TOLL FREE (800) 268-4664 FAX (905) 670-5295

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storage tank rags.

By R.P. Puntis, M.Sc. and M.J. Longland, P. Eng.''

Understanding Ontario's Gasoline Handling Act, Regulation & Code Environmental hazards resulting from the chronic spiiiage and leakage of petroleum products at vehicle fuelling faciiities have gained nationai attention in recent years. The seriousness of the situation has prompted action at aii ievels of govern

Ontario was one ofthe first


provinces to require the up grading of existing under ground and above ground motive fuel storage systems. The 1993

revision ofthe Gasoline Handling Code

(GHC)sets out the most recent upgrade requirements. They apply to all types of fuelling facilities

a number of new Canadian General

Standards Board (CGSB) and Under writers Laboratories of Canada (ULC) standards which have been adopted. These standards relate to a variety of

aspects offuelling facility operation,in stallation and maintenance. The main

part ofthe GSB No. 1 outlines changes to the technical aspects of the GHC. These changes have been developed in response to issues that have arisen since the GHC was revised in 1993. Some of

the technical changes affecting both un derground and above ground storage facilities in Ontario are described below.

Underground Storage Facilities At underground storage tank loca-

piping on the fill lines is required at fa cilities where the fill pipe is located re mote from the tank. Double-walled pip ing is required at all new facilities. Above Ground Storage Facilities Changes to the diking requirements of above ground storage tank facilities reflect the adoption of the new CGSB and ULC standards across Canada. As

well, tank balancing by gravity transfer is now permitted at bulk plants where multiple tanks are located within a com mon dike. Cardlock/keylock facilities located at existing bulk plants which dis pense fuel are classified as retail outlets. These facilities are now exemptfrom the restrictions on the capacity ofclass I and II products allowed in above ground storage tanks. Under the 1993 GHC, all Ontario farms were required to comply with section 10(which details those requirements ap plying specifically to farms).

induing retail outlets,farms, bulk plants, marinas and pri vate ftiel outlets. The upgrade requirements include the in stallation of approved spill containment at dispenser

wells. In some circumstances,

They were not specifically re quired to comply with other sections ofthe GHC. A typo graphic error resulted in the omission of the specific ref

the removal of USTs is man

erence to Section6 ofthe GHC


which deals with all ofthe gen eral requirements for above ground storage tank facilities.

pumps and fill pipes, overfill protection at fill pipes and the installation of monitoring

The deadline for the instal

lation of the upgrade equip ment is December, 1996, for Significant soil and groundwater contamination at a service Gasoline Branch Standard No. imderground storage systems. station. The decommissioning and remediation was com 1 has corrected this printing Issues relating to above pleted on a turnkey basis. error and now requires that groimd systems must be ad farms also comply with section 6 ofthe tions, additional technical changes in dressed by December, 2000. GHC. clude the requirement for weekly prod Interim Changes affecting the Gasoline Branch Standard No.2 uct reconciliation at facilities which Petroleum Industry Ontario Gasoline Branch Standard close on the weekends or holidays and In March 1995,the Ontario Ministry that do not receive or dispense fuel on No. 2 deals with the issue of used oil. ofConsumer and Commercial Relations

(MCCR) issued the Interim Changes and Clarifications to the Gasoline Han dling Act, Regulation and Code. This document comprises two Gasoline Branch Standards and details some im

portant technical changes and adminis trative clarifications to the GHC. In ad

dition, changes affecting petroleum con tractors have also come into effect in the

last year with the inception of the On tario Petroleum Contractors Association. Gasoline Branch Standard No. 1.

The first part of the Ontario Gasoline Branch Standard(GSB)No. 1 lists *ENSAT Canada, Markham, Ontario 34

these occasions. Specifically, a meas

Used oil is defined as waste automotive

lubricating oil, cutting oil, gear oil hy be taken on a Friday night and then again draulic oil or any other refined petro leum-based or synthetic oil. Recent on a Monday moming (prior to reopen ing the facility). studies undertaken both by the MCCR Since the 1993 revision ofthe GHC, and private industry have indicated that urement ofthe contents ofthe tank must

there has been considerable confusion

used oil should be considered as a class

over whether or not to upgrade a facil ity with double-walled piping. GSB No. 1 states that double walled piping and leak detection are not required at facili ties where only one check valve is lo cated immediately beneath a suction pump. Double walled piping is also not required for vent lines and fill pipes as long as the tank is equipped with over fill protection. However,double walled

III product and not a class I product. As a class III product, used oil is now exempt from certain sections of the GHC. For example, used oil stored in an above ground tank is now exempt from requirements related to the specific location of the tank. The fill pipes for these tanks are now permitted to be located within buildings where other Continued on page 39.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

R & D News Optimization of CTMP Effluent Treatment

A general method based upon the Monod kinetic model for optimizing a

two-stage sequential anaerobic-aerobic system for treating CTMP effluent was established by University of Quebec scientists H.W. Liu, S.N. Lo and H.C. Lavallee. Using this method, the total treatment time required for a frxed over all treatment efficiency for a CTMP ef fluent was minimized with respect to the substrate removal in the anaerobic stage,

Study on the biodegradation of a syn thetic wastewater containing 2chlorophenol using activated sludge in the presence or absence of dextrose or phenol as supplemental substrates. Uni versity ofManitoba scientists S.K.Basu

in Environmental Science and Technol

R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quaiity Association Canadienne sur la

Qualite de i'Eau and J.A. Oleszkiewicz found that the

which optimize the two-stage treatment biodegradation rates increased with an of the CTMP effluent are presented in increase in the concentration ofsupple the Water Quality Research Journal of mental substrates. The results indicate Canada.

Biodegradation of 2-Chiorophenol A paper published in Environmental Technology describes the results of a For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Association on

Water Quaiity, Environmentai Technology Centre, Environment Canada,3439 River Road South, Gloucester, ON K1A 0H3, Tei;(613)990-9849, Fax:(613)990-2855.

entists S.W. Keimedy,A. Lorenzen and

EQ concentration in eggs from herring gulls and great blue herons, published

volume ratio between the two stages was These and other factors

National Wildlife Research Centre sci R.J. Norstrom. The results for TCDD-

and the corresponding optimal reactor determined.

uring 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin equivalent(TCDD-EQ)concen trations in extracts prepared from wild bird eggs, has been developed by

that the presence, nature and concentra tion of supplemental substrates are im portant factors influencing biodegrada tion rates of compounds like 2chlorophenol by a mixed microbial population of activated sludge. Measurement of Dioxins in

Environmental Samples A bioassay, that uses chicken embryo hepatocyte primary cultures for meas

ogy, correlated strongly withTCDD-EQ concentrations calculated from chemi cal residue data and lEFs.

The new

bioassay is a cost-effective method for measuring TCDD-EQ concentrations in environmental samples.

Wood Residue Management Guidelines to Protect Water

Quaiity A report, prepared jointly by Environ ment Canada and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, provides guide lines on the storage, use and disposal of wood residue for the protection of fish and fish habitat. Developed as part of the Eraser RiverAction Plan, the guide lines were developed to assist those who generate, store, use, or dispose of wood residue in understanding the scope of


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996




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R&D News, cont'd. their responsibilities and the importance of considering the potential impacts of residue and the resultant leachate to fish

and fish habitat. A companion reference Background Document, which provides the background information for the de velopment of these guidelines, is to be published later in 1996.

Biodegradation of Toluene In Unsaturated Soil

R.M. Allen-King and University of Waterloo colleagues determined biotransformation rates for dissolved

toluene in unsaturated sandy soil. In

dynamic infiltration experiments,trans formation rates under nitrogen-limited conditions and in the presence of suffi cient oxygen appeared to follow zeroorder kinetics. It was shown that tolu

Fate of PAHs in Oily Waste Land Spreading In a paper published in the Canadian

droxide. The research, described in Environmental Technology, examined the effects ofdecreasing solids retention

Journal of Civil Engineering, J.P. Villeneuve and colleagues describe the

time on digester operational efficiency as well as the fate of various nitrogen and phosphorus species in both the sludge and supernatant. Both chemicals were responsible for significant release of soluble TKN and ammonia during

results of their research on the fate of

PAHs in petroleum refinery waste spread on land sites. Using the pesti cide root zone model (PRZM), which simulates the fate of pesticides in the soil,these INRS-Eau scientists predicted that the PAHs would not migrate to depths of more than 40 cm. Although variations in soil texture did not seri

both the solubilization and anaerobic

digestion steps. Treatment of Urban Stormwater Runoff

Scientists from Queen's University, CH2M-Gore and Storrie Ltd., and the

ously affect the predicted concentra tions, the soil organic content signifi National Water Research Institute have cantly influences the distribution of developed lab- and field-scale sub PAHs between the liquid and solid merged anaerobic biological filtration phases and, consequently, their migra (SABF) systems for the treatment of tion through the soil. urban stormwater runoff. The SABF in

ene-degrading microorganisms in creased significantly in both activity and numbers with exposure to toluene. The results described in the Journal of Environmental Quality indicated that the

Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludges

fluent was collected from the outlet ofa

University of British Columbia scien tist D.S. Mavinic and colleagues from Novalec Consultants, Queen's Univer sity, and the University of Manitoba

shopping mall complex stormwater management pond. As described by

total mineralization of toluene was in

studied the enhancement ofthe anaero

Research,the lab- and field-scale SABF

complete. Under conditions where the oxygen concentration was near zero, the transformation rate was insignificant

bic co-digestion of combined primary and high-phosphorus waste activated sludge. Solubilization was performed using calcium hydroxide or sodium hy

units removed organic carbon(10-20%), suspended solids(90%),and ammonium nitrogen (60-95%). Copper and zinc were removed in both units (27-66%)

relative to column residence time.

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R&D News,cont'd. and lead was removed in the field filter

(27%)through a combination of filtra tion, precipitation and complexation.

A New Acute Toxicity Test The hydrolysis offluorescein diacetate by microbial esterase was used by University of Manitoba scientist J.A. Oleszkiewcz and a Polish colleague as the basis for a simple, rapid, and inex

pensive screening test to determine the acute toxicity of chlorophenols to acti vated sludge microorganisms. In the presence of the test chemicals, the hy drolysis reaction was inhibited in pro portion to the dose. As described in Environmental Technology, the results were comparable to those obtained by others for 2-chlorophenol,2,4-dichlorophenol and 3,5-dichlorophenol but were different for 4-chlorophenol. Based on the results, this new test proved to be an accurate and reproducible method for determining the toxicity ofchemicals to activated sludge. Trace Metals In the Great Lakes

tion ofdifferent types of municipal(pri mary,secondary, and mixed)and indus trial (pulp and paper) sludges could be integrated into the acmal chain of treat ment and stabilizatiom of sewage

ducted flow-through colunm tests to in vestigate the products ofdegradation of trichioroethylene in contact with granu lar iron metal. The results obtained by


that the speed ofreaction was relatively

Dechiorlnatlon of Aqueous Trichioroethylene University of Waterloo scientists con

WS. Orth and R.W Gillham indicated insensitive to the initial concentration of

trichioroethylene over the range of 1.3 to 61 mg/L. As described in Environ-

FAX (905)841-7271 for quick response Company Name:

Area Code &Tel:








Signature: ,

J.O. Nriagu and colleagues from the MAIN BUSINESS ACTIVITY

National Water Research Instimte have

found that, despite continuing large in puts from anthropogenic sources, aver age concentrations of many trace met als in the Great Lakes, including cad mium,lead, and zinc, remain quite low.

□ □ □

Municipai & Govt. Officiai Provincial Government Federal Government

□ Consulting engineer/consultant □ Industrial (Please specify area of activity)


As discussed in Environmental Science

and Technology, these metals are rap idly scavenged by the seston(suspended particulates) and have a rapid turnover rate in the water column. Factors that

Circle the numbers below for FREE information on the products in the June issue that interest you.

affect the distribution ofdissolved trace

metals include water depth,seston abun dance,and biological processes. In sum mer, there is a marked depletion ofzinc (and other bioactive metals) in the epilimnion of the offshore waters.

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185

Chemical Stabilization of

186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202

Sewage Sludge

203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 21^ 214 215 216 217 218 219

Research by N.Meunier,R.D.Tyagi and J.F. Blais on a new acid treatment proc ess for residual sludge from industrial and municipal wastewater treatment was undertaken at INRS-Eau. The smdy,re ported in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, demonstrated that sludge acidification with sulfuric acid causes a

very rapid hydrolysis and mineralization ofthe biomass resulting in a significant reduction in sludge solids. This simple and efficient process for a partial digesFor more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Association on Water Quality, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada,3439 River Road South, Gloucester, ON K1A 0H3, Tel:(613)990-9849, Fax:(613)990-2855.

220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253

254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 332 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338

339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355

For more information about products, services and articles in this issue (June '96), you can A Mali in the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mail this if faxing is not convenient) Be sure to fill in your name, address and job function and signature. ENViRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 industrial Pkway. 8., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


R&D News, cont'd.

RC4 pH Recorder The Analytical Measurements RC4 is a pH recorder with 4 set points and 4 re lays to provide a 2-way neutralization, and 2-way alarms. The second set of relays can be ar ranged to activate other pumps or valves in the event that control has not been

effected with the "primary" set of relays. For more information,

mental Science and Technology, the

principal degradation product was ethylene,followed by ethane with substan tially smaller amounts of C1-C4 hydro carbons. About 3.0-3.5% of the initial

trichloroethylene appeared as chlorin ated degradation products including the three trichloroethylene isomers and vinyl chloride. The chlorine mass bal ance was generally between 98 and

circle reply card No. 228


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Lawson in Environmental Technology. This sampler offers several improve ments over conventional in situ pore water sampling devices, particularly for the collection of a large sample volume (30 ml), simplification in the assembly ofthe sampler and recovery of the sam ple, and minimization of the risks of sample contamination. The sampler sig nificantly reduces the labour and equip ment involved in pore water sampling, especially during retrieval of samples.!

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Enviwnmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Fuel storage tank regulations, cont'd, from page 34 class 1 products are being handled or where ignition sources are nearby. GBS No. 2 stipulates that used oil will have to comply with the requirements ofclass III products and the remainder of the GHC. Administrative Clarifications

In response to recurring inquiries,the MCCR also published Administrative Clarifications to the Gasoline Handling Act Regulation and Code. Most impor tantly, the clarifications deal with issues such as the application ofthe GHC and the jurisdiction of the MCCR and its relationship with the Ministry ofEnvironment & Energy. For example, the Gasoline Han dling Act(GHA)and its regu lations do not apply to storage tanks associated with refinery operations, or to facilities that do not handle fuel(or have not

mental Protection Act administered by theMOEE. In order to clarify roles, and to reduce cost and confusion to indus

try, the concept of a lead agency has been developed to handle leaks or spills. Where a site continues to operate under GHA, MCCR will be the lead agency and may require a report show ing the total extent ofthe contamination on-site and off-site. If contamination

levels are higher than allowed by Branch Standard GH 13, the report must con tain a remedial action plan or a site man agement plan. In the event that contami-


The most recent interim changes to

the GHA,Regulation and Code were ap proved by the acting director of the MCCR,Ken Taylor, P.Eng. They came into effect March 31, 1995. MCCR sources indicate that further revisions

are currently being considered. For ex ample, the length oftime that a fuelling facility can be out of service before it must be removed is expected to be ex tended from one to two years. A facil ity owner or operator should consult with a qualified consultant and/or con tractor for a comprehensive review and interpretation of these and other upcoming important changes. Ontario Petroleum

Contractors' Association The Ontario Petroleum Contractors' Association

(OPCA) is a voluntary or ganization which was estab lished in 1994 to regulate the petroleum construction in dustry. In response to con cerns expressed by the On tario Ministry ofLabour,the

handled fuel within the last six

months). This means that used oil storage tanks at car dealerships where gasoline and associated products are not, or have not in the last six months,


been dispensed or distributed As a class Hi product, used oil is now exempt from certain OPCA has, in collaboration with the Ontario Training are not regulated under the sections of the GHC. nation has or has the potential to have and Adjustment Board (OTAB), estab GHA. There have been many questions an adverse impact off-site, MOEE will lished a series of training programs for concerning the upgrade requirements of become the lead agency for all remedi individuals engaged in the practice of decommissioning and/or upgrading,re the GHC. Much of the confusion has ation. Owners and operators should be pairing or installing petroleum storage resulted from the interpretation of the notified accordingly. Groundwater con tamination may have the potential for facilities. term "modification". Since the intro Registration in the OPCA/OTAB cer duction of the 1993 GHC, many have serious off-site impact. tification program is planned to be a considered that the installation of the Where the facility will be closed per equipment required to upgrade the fa manently, MOEE will be the lead mandatory requirement (effective Au gust 1996) for these individuals. It is cility constitutes a modification to the agency. The owner or operator is re system. This, in tum, implies that the quired to notify the MOEE, the Fuels essential that clients ensure that their facility must also comply with all ofthe Safety Program of the MCCR, and the project is in the hands of a properly qualified company which employs sections of the GHC as revised in 1993. local municipality of the intent to In the administrative clarification

decommission the site.

The Director

document, a modification is defined as

must be notified when the equipment is

not including work requiredfor the re pair of equipment, the installation of approved containment equipment, over fillprevention devices, leak detectionfor submersible pumps, or the replacement of dispenser/pumps with another ap proved model. The spreading ofthe dis pensers on an existing island constitutes a layout change and would be consid

removed. In addition, a site assessment

ered a modification. The 13 page docu ment goes on to detail as many as 47 different clarifications affecting all sec

The report will be expected to detail the

tions of the 1993 GHC.

Revisions to section 12 of the GHC

report that identifies the extent of con tamination and the recommended action

to remediate the site must be provided directly to the MOEE. In practice, the MOEE will accept a decommissioning/remediation report signed by an engineer or hydrogeologist after the site has been decommissioned.

The selection of a qualified and ex perienced contractor and,in many cases, consultant, is probably the most impor tant step when embarking on a storage system compliance,upgrade or replace ment program. With increasing fre quency, companies are ttmiing to envi ronmental firms which can not only identify potential environmental con cerns, but can also evaluate and imple

activities undertaken at the site includ

ment cost-effective solutions to these

ing any remediation. In this case, the analytical results should show that the levels of contaminants remaining are

concerns. This"turnkey" approach can provide valuable benefits and cost sav ings, enabling tank owners to address compliance issues in an expedient man ner while avoiding the need to conduct business with multiple parties. For more information, circie repiy card No. 111

attempt to clarify the roles of both the

below the criteria listed in the MOEE's

MCCR and the MOEE. In addition to

Interim Guidelinesfor the Management of Petroleum Contaminated Sites in

the GHA,owners and operators are also subject to the provisions ofthe Environ-

licensed and/or certified individuals or sub-contractors.


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


Drinking Water Parasites

Gordon R. Finch, Ph.D., P.Eng.

\NaXer industry challengewaterborne parasites — Part I

Waterborne disease has plagued humankind

since before recorded

history. However, the

introduction ofsimple water supply tech nologies such as wells,filters, and chlo

So the dilemma is to balance these difficult issues. We will leave the de bate of that issue to another time. This article will focus on the issues related

rine disinfection has made classic

to the former problem: how do we meet the challenge of these modem, microbial giants?

waterborne diseases such as typhoid fe ver, cholera, and dysentery unusual in

Glardia lamblia Until human volunteers established

the industrialized world. However, with

the infectivity of G. lamblia in the 1950s, it was commonly thought to be a nonpathogenic inhabitant ofthe gut. Today G. lamblia is widely recog nized as the most frequently identi

increased standards of living and the

of Giardia in warm-blooded vertebrates:

the trophozoite and the cyst. The trophozoite commonly inhabits the duode num while the cyst is found in the small and large intestine and the feces. Gia rdia lamblia is about 12 to 15 pm long and 6 to 8 pm wide. Trophozoites di vide by longitudinal binary fission. The cyst is the normal infective stage in the transmission of giardiasis to new hosts. Giardia cysts are ovoid in shape

and have a length of 8 to 12 pm and a diameter of 7 to 10 pm depending on the species (Figure 1). The cyst wall

fied cause of waterborne disease in

varies from 0.3 to 0.5 pm in thickness

North America. However, an inter esting fact is that unknown agents

and electron microscopy has shown it to be composed ofthin fibrous elements interspersed with fine particles. After emergence from the cyst, the organism undergoes cytokinesis within 5 to 30

remain the most common cause of

waterborne disease in North America. Several waterborne outbreaks of

giardiasis have been identified in the .. ..


minutes after the initiation of excystation. Thus,each mature cyst yields two trophozoites. Giardia lamblia have been isolated


from wild animals that inhabit aquatic environments such as muskrats and bea

Figure 1. Giardia lambliacysts.

vers. In Banff, Alberta, the giardiasis

emergence of diseases such as AIDS, the desire to improve the level of public health is great. Fur thermore, the purveyors of water to

outbreak that resulted from the beavers

occupying the local water supply was know as "Beaver Fever". Sewage con tamination ofa water supply can also be an important source of concern.

homes must be aware that there is

an expectation of a quality product delivered to the point of use. The organoleptic properties should be

The median infectious dose of Gia


neutral and the water should be free

of microbial pathogens. Also, longterm consumption of such water should not increase the lifetime risk

Figure 2. oocysts.

of cancer or other illnesses.

Unfortunately, since the 1980s encysted waterbome parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium

parvum have presented a challenge to water suppliers. These tiny microbes have forced the water industry to take notice of two important problems: •increasing the concentration ofthe dis infectants during treatment may help prevent the transmission of disease by the water route; but

• by-products ofthe unwanted reactions between naturally occurring organic material and the chemical disinfectant

may be carcinogenic in humans. *Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. University of Alberta, Edmonton 40

rdia cysts in humans is thought to be between 50 and 100 cysts, though some people can be infected with as few as 10. There is drug therapy that is avail able for giardiasis but those that have used it have reported that "the cure is

Cryptosporidium parvum

past 20 years. The outbreaks have oc curred as a result of a variety of condi tions including use of untreated surface water, contaminated water distribution systems, and treatment deficiencies. Outbreaks and cases of giardiasis from systems using untreated surface waters or surface waters which have only been treated with chlorine, account for the

majority of reported incidents of waterbome giardiasis. Some ofthe best documented North American water

worse than the disease".

Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium has become recog nized as a frequent cause of waterbome disease in humans. Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks from surface water supplies have been documented in the United States and Great Britain and it has been

speculated that many other cases of waterbome outbreaks of gastroenteritis may have been caused by Ciyptosporidium. The water supply conditions

bome outbreaks of giardiasis include

under which the outbreaks have oc

those of Rome, New York in 1974-75;

curred have been similar to those for the

Camas, Washington in 1976; Berlin, New Hampshire in 1977;Banff,Alberta

fact that concurrent infections ofGiardia

in 1982; and Edmonton, Alberta in 1982-83.

There are two stages in the life cycle

giardiasis outbreaks. Of interest is the

and Cryptosporidium have been ob served in some patients. Continued on page 42

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

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Drinking Water Parasites, cont'd. manifestation of the disease, but even

tually the immune system catches up cystation of the oocysts in the intestine (typically one or two weeks) and the of the host, replication within the host, host spontaneously clears the infection. Ofparticular note at this point is that gamete formation, fertilization, oocyst while immuno-competent individuals wall formation, and sporozoite forma

trated pellet (usually about 1 mL) is resuspended and centrifuged again us ing a Percoll-sucrose gradient(specific gravity 1.1) whereby the parasites are separated from the water column. The layer containing the parasites is then

tion. Of most interest to the water sup

are at little risk of serious disease from

removed and treated with a fluorescent

ply industry is the oocyst. The oocyst

encysted parasites, a significant propor tion of the population have deficient immune systems. Perhaps most well known are people with AIDS. However,

antibody that attaches to Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Micro scopic examination using ultraviolet lamps and the appropriate filters reveals objects that are ofthe size and shape of the encysted parasites. The number of parasites in the sample water can then be obtained by relating the sample size that was counted back to the original sample volume.

The life cycle of Cryptosporidium can be summarized by six events: ex-

occtus in two forms,one with a thin wall which is autoinfective within the host and is not believed to survive outside of the host. The other is a thick-walled

oocyst which is capable ofsurviving for several weeks in the environment and is the main means for transmission of

the parasite. The oocyst is approxi mately 5 pm in diameter but can vary from this size and can be elongated de pending on the species (Figure 2). It has been observed that oocysts are ca pable of passing membrane filters greater than 1 pm in pore size. C. parvum appears to lack host specificity and has been shown to be able to cross-infect rodents, ruminants,

and humans. Domestic cattle and pigs have been implicated in outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis as has water contami nation from sewage. Prepatent and patent periods have been reported to range from 2 to 10 days and 1 to 33 days, respectively, depend ing on the host. At this time, there is little known about the infective dose of

oocysts required to cause infection in the hosts. One study that used immunocompetent volunteers reported that the median infectious dose was approxi mately 130 oocysts per volunteer. Some people can be infected with as few as 30 oocysts. There is currently no effec tive drug therapy for cryptosporidiosis. It is interesting to contrast the infec tious doses required to develop clinical symptoms ofparasitic diseases with the bacterial diseases. Large infectious doses are required to overwhelm the im mune system in the case of bacteria. Very low concentrations of parasites in

once one understands that the very young and very old, cancer patients, transplant patients and others who are

In our next issue, Dr. Finch wiii discuss control techniques for waterborne parasites. on immune-suppressing chemotherapy are susceptible to very low infectious doses of encysted parasites, there is a significant proportion ofthe community that may be at risk from waterborne parasites. Of great concem is the fact that there is no drug therapy available for patients with cryptosporidiosis: im mune-deficient people may have chronic parasitic illness that lasts for weeks or months or they may even die.

reported to be fi^om 22 percent for mem brane filters to 52 percent using wound filters. Filters would probably recover greater than 70 percent of the cysts but cysts are lost in intermediate processing steps. Cryptosporidium recoveries have been reported to range from 9.5 percent in river water to 59 percent in tap water. In recent studies in the United States

it was found that, when spiked samples

Detection and Occurrence of

were sent to a number of certified labo

Parasites in Surface Waters

ratories, there was little consistency in the final results with wide ranges on the recoveries and accuracy. One may ques tion the usefulness of obtaining tests on

Establishing risk of contracting the illness associated with waterborne para sites through the water supply requires knowledge ofthe numbers ofinfectious

the source and finished water in view

units in the source water and in the fin

ofthe nature ofthe methods that are cur

ished water. The following discussion highlights some of the issues related to finding a few parasites in a large vol

rently available. The detection of cysts or oocysts in a sample provides no information about the viability of the parasite and its abil ity to cause an infection. Several meth

ume of water.

Detection of cysts and oocysts in water samples involves two basic steps: concentration ofa sample of water since cysts are typically in low numbers; and a means ofidentifying cysts and oocysts in the concentrated sample. The refer ence method for concentrating encysted parasites has been filtering large vol the source water make them a health risk umes of water using wound filters. Be but can also make them hard to detect tween 100 and 1000 L of water(the less relative to bacteria. pristine, the smaller the volume)are fil Immune-Deficient Hosts tered through a 1 pm nominal pore size, The nature of parasites is that only yam-wound, polypropylene filter at the one infectious cyst or oocyst is neces sampling station. The filter is then sent sary to set up the life cycle in a host. to a specially certified laboratory where One reason people do not display clini the filter cartridge is opened and the con cal symptoms is that a healthy immune tents are washed repeatedly until all system will prevent the organism from (presumably) of the captured particles successfully completing its life cycle. If are collected in the wash water. The several cysts or oocysts start life cycles wash water is concentrated by centrifuat once,the immune system may not re gation. spond fast enough to prevent clinical Then a small volume of the concen 42

The use of membrane filters has also

been advocated for cysts and oocysts. Recoveries of Giardia cysts have been

ods have been used to estimate the vi

ability of cysts and oocysts including vital dye exclusion,in vitro excystation, cyst morphology by light microscopy, the uptake or exclusion of fluorogenic dyes,and animal infectivity models. Of these methods, only the animal models provide direct information about the ability of the organisms to cause an in fection in the host.

There have been many surveys con ducted throughout the world on the in cidence of waterborne parasites in drink ing water. Given the tenuous nature of the methodology used to coimt parasites in drinking water, the best that one can conclude is that encysted parasites are ubiquitous in surface waters and that drinking water treatment processes should be designed to withstand chal lenges from these organisms.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996








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(905) 727-4666 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

For More Information Call Toll Free: 1-800-668-0639 Ontario • Quebec • British Columbia 43


Product Review High flow fine screen






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essential organics in the waste stream.

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Peitonite* is the commercial name given to pre-formed bentonlte bails, the bentonlte used being ofthe high soditim mineral type which has demonstrated effective sealing properties after drill ing operations. Typical applications are: sealing ofail types of piezometer holes, sealing of large size dewatering wells and of weiipoints, sealing the bottom of open end caissons, and sealing of detri-

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


Product Review mental infiltration through rocks. Studies have been made of the high quality seals obtained with bentonite pellets, without the need for any special tamping tools. The bentonite balls are ofuniform size and shape and their small size, spherical shape and high density improve their settling characteristics in

Ainley & Associates Limited Consulting Engineers and Planners Water Supply and Sewage Treatment Environmental Assessments - Roads and Bridges Structural Engineering - Land Use Planning Our expertise covers a// aspects of OV/i, Mun/cipai and Environmentai Engineering and Land Use P/anning

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Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

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R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

Enyironmental and Infrastructure Specialists Westech Industrial's new Solarton's

Planning and Management Design and Construction Operations and Optimization

Model 7827 process viscometer simul taneously measures viscosity, density, and temperature. The Model 7827 is designed for applications requiring con

Water and Wastewater,Transportation and Urban Development Technologies Toronto (416) 497-8600, Welland, Ottawa. Oshawa. Sudbury (Dennis), London, Moncton (Touchie),

tinuous, on-line measurement ofviscos

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ity in pipelines and tanks. Its operation is based on field-proven vibrating ele ment technology and has no moving parts. This sensor also simultaneously measures density and temperature ofthe

Atju^tic SciencesInc.

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fluid. Line viscosity and density meas urements are converted to standard con


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Environmental Audits

gas feeders

Toxioity Testing

Aquatic Contaminant Remediation Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Environmental Engineering Stormwoter Management Impact Assessments

PO Box 2205, Stn B, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2lv1 6P6 Phone (905)641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T 71-18 (519)383-7822







biopiles, landfarming bioslurry reactor processes biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects


Specializing in the design, development, and implementation of bioremediation systems

• focusing on degradation of pfasticizers, petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAf-fs

The ADVANCE* Series 200 direct con-

tainer-mormted gas feeders from Capi tal Controls, provide a safe and accuEnvironmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

450 Phillip St., Unit #11, Waterloo, Ontario N2L5J2 Phone;(519)746-8973 Fax:(519)746-1222 45


Product Review

rate means for feeding chlorine, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, or ammonia

the plant downtime typically associated with hard wiring a pair of RS-232/RS-


485 field devices.

The Series 200 gas feeders carry a lifetime guarantee on springs and dia phragms and a three-year equipment warranty. Each gas feeder is installed rapidly and easily. Multiple application points are quickly and easily accom plished by the addition of a flowmeter and ejector. Mounting for cylinders or ton containers provides a safe vacuum feed from the source to the point of ap plication. The Series 200 features maxi mum safety with its all vacuum opera tion. Capital Controls Company For more information, circle reply card No. 119

The product utilizes a sophisticated radio communication technique termed "spread spectrum". Operating at 900MHz,the transceivers may be radio

ter case is molded of rugged black bakelite and provided with an easy-grip, adjustable handle for carrying or for use as an angle support when using the in strument at a bench or desk.

Analytical Measurements For more information,

circle reply card No. 120

Rugged, reliable pH meter

Wireless communication

Analytical Model 707 Big Scale pH Meter is a rugged, reliable instrument, featuring a big 7" scale, continuous from 0-14 pH and a polyethylene-shielded pH Probe Unit that eliminates ordinary pH

bridge provided

electrode limitations.

Model 707 is simple to operate, with only two operating controls. It incor porates a high output amplifier with sen sitive meter elimination. Compact me-

The CK-232/CK-485 Wireless Indus trial Transceivers from Wireless Scien

tific, provide a "wireless communication bridge" between RS-232/RS-485 indus trial devices. The technology allows

linked in order to communicate data up to a range of 15 miles. The product may be used where new RS-232/RS-485 field

devices are being installed, or it may be

RS-232/RS-485 field devices to com

used to replace aged wiring. Paired transceivers may be linked in a pointto-point or point-to-multi-drop configu

municate data wireless, via radio telem etry, thereby eliminating all wiring,rigid conduit, installation labor expense, and

ceiver configurations allow for wireless multi-drop networks, even for RS-232

ration. Also, point-to-multi-point trans

industrial devices. Brian Controls

For more information,

circle reply card No. 121

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers

Money back guarantee offered

Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering




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(416) 499-4687 fax (416) 499-9000 phone

Capital Controls are offering a money back guarantee on a CHLOR-A-VAC^ Chemical Induction Unit ifthe unit fails

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Biofiim Wastewater Treatment

80% reduction in organic load (BOD) using simple technology proven at more than 1,000 installations worldwide. Installs Into existing septic tank and solves many problems of odours and drainage in older leaching fields.

to provide a 20% chemical savings. CHLOR-A-VAC chemical induction

units provide improved vacuum feed chlorination/dechlorination through high efficiency mixing ofgaseous chlorine or sulfur dioxide with process water. The units can also be used to feed

liquids such as sodium hypochlorite and bisulfite solutions. Light capacities are available for the units, which have an ISO 9001 Certification.

Capital Controls For more information,

circle reply card No.122 46

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Water Emiroiunent Federation'' Preserving &Enhancing the Global MUer Environment



THE LATEST INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY FOR • Biosolids and Residuals Management

• Regulatory Trends • Safety & Health

• Pretreatment

• Industrial Wastewater

• Collections Systems

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69th Annual Conference & Exposition Dallas Convention Center • Dallas, Texas U.S.A. Conference Dates: October 5-9, 1996

Exposition Dates: October 7-9, 1996

For general inquiries, call

1-800-666-0206 (select menu option #4) or 1-703-684-2452 if outside the U.S. or eimail confinfo@wef.org

For complete WEFTEC '96 details, see our web page at http://www.wef.org For conference technical program information by FAX call 1-800-444-2WEF(2933) or 1-908-885-6417 (select document #40)

For more information, circle reply card No. 113(See page 17)

^Advertisers Product and Se^rvice S/iozvease For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Discrete interval sampler

Enhanced Natural

Automated thermal


desorption equipment

"END™ (Enhanced Natural Degra dation)" combines microbiological processes with chemical and physiochemical processes. This technology utilizes specially de signed equipment to remove sepa rate-phase material, while maintain ing a capture zone for dissolved con

The ACEM 900 system combines sample adsorption and thermal desorption techniques with gas chromatography. Monitoring of a single source, multiple sources, or a mix ture of sample types at the parts per billion or sub-ppb level can be ac complished either on- or olf-line, and


with automated calibration.

Groundwater is pumped to the surface, where it is treated and then

Each sample is collected on a high capacity sorbent tube and transferred to a narrow-bore capillary tube packed with similar adsorbent mate rial. Supelco Canada For more information,

returned to the subsurface via wells

or infdtration galleries. Groundwater Technology For more information, circle reply card No. 133

This reel mounted, stainless steel sampler is pressurized with a hand pump before entering the well. No water flows through the sampler on the way down the well. Once the desired depth is reached, pressure is released and hydrostatic pressure al lows the sampler to fdl with water directly from the sampling zone. The sampling device is ideal for collecting from distinct levels in a well or below an oil/product layer on the surface of the water. Soiinst Canada Ltd.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 134

circle reply card No. 135

Plug valves meet AWWA

Ultrasonic liquid level



Submersible pumps for wet pit installation

Vic-Plug''''^ grooved-end eccentric

The Probe is Milltronics' non-con

plug valves from Victaulic feature circular ports for superior flow char They are the only plug valves avail

tacting, ultrasonic level measurement device for liquids. Available for haz ardous or sanitary applications, ranges up to 24 feet, and now is of

able that meet AWWA C-509 end-to-

fered with HARTÂŽ communications

end dimensions with grooved ends that conform to AWWA C-606 rigid specifications. This design makes them especially suitable for retrofit ting older wastewater systems. The resulting weight reduction also greatly facilitates installation com pared with flanged valves. Victaulic For more information,

protocol. The self-contained unit provides a reversible 4-20 mA out put proportional to liquid level or space, and can interface with virtu ally any analogue input device. Only two buttons are needed to calibrate, 1) to set the unit's 4 mA value, 2)to

acteristics and minimal turbulence.

circle reply card No. 136

set the 20 mA value. Milltronics

For more information, circle reply card No. 137

ABS submersible pumps are specifi cally designed for installation in wet pits. These pumps can handle pump ing unscreened raw sewage, storm water, or similar liquids. Spherical solids from 3" to 6" can be easily pumped without clogging. The size of the solids being pumped depends on the size of the pumps. Since the pumping station is below ground level, the surrounding environment appears clean and undisturbed. There is no danger to the pumps if the sta tion floods. ABS Pumps For more information,

circle reply card No. 138 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996




The 9th Annual

Calgary Environmental Tradeshow & Conference October 29th and 30th, 1996


Calgary Convention Centre

It's a key Western Canadian exhibition

you can't afford to miss!

Six Good Reasons To Exhibit Sell to hundreds of environmental

1 professionals who are looking for effective solutions to their environmental problems.

Launch new products at one of Canada's 2leading environmental marketplaces. Network with other exhibitors to create

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Reinforce your presence in the environmental

4 marketplace. 5 Shorten your sales cycle and develop hundreds of new leads.

6 Gain recognition and visibility as a leader in your field.

Research confirms it! Buyers and decision makers use the Calgary Environmental Show and Conference to improve their efficiency and competitiveness.

Calgary Environmental Tradeshow & Conference October 29th and 30th, 1996

Calgary Convention Centre

To register FREE orforfurther information call orfax: Southex Exhibitions

Pat Atkinson, Show Manager Suite 300,999 - 8th St. S.W. Calgary, Alberta, Canada Toll Free: 1.800.387.2446 Tel: 403.244.6111 Fax: 403.245.8666 Edmonton Sales Office

Bruce Day Tel: 403.469.2400 Fax: 403.469.1348 Calgary Sales Office Delia Gray Tel: 403.244.6540 Fax: 403.245.8666 Toll Free in North America 1.800.387.2446

For more information, circle reply card No. 114(See page 17)

^Advertisers Product and Service SHoivcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Economical sludge dewatering

Temporary pump systems

Largest gate valves

for rent

in the world

The DRAIMAD is H2Flow's answer

GODWIN Dri-Prime centrifugal pumps auto-prime to 28 feet dry static lifts, through long suction lines; they reprime on demand and run dry overnight, unattended. Large flows are now possible from small man holes. Supplied in cast iron and 316L stainless steel, pumps to 12 inch hose and piping are available for rental or purchase. Pump applications include: sewage by-pass, mine dewatering, petro-chem transfers, temporary fire water, hydrostatic testing, and emer gency spills. RMS Enviro Solv For more information, circle reply card No. 140

The Neo-Seguro Resilient Seal Gate Valve is available in sizes up to 60" The design of this valve provides 100% full bore plus 100% bubbletight shut-off. They are available in both N.R.S. and O.S. & Y., with flanged, mechanicaljoint or Victaulic ends. These valves are on display at

Better fluid dynamics for the BNR process

New integrated water monitoring system

to sludge dewatering for the smaller systems. This compact, stainless steel, high quality unit provides af fordable dewatering for installations producing as little as just a few pounds ofsolids per day,to ones pro ducing hundreds of pounds of solids per day. The complete DRAIMAD system will inject a polymer into a sludge stream which is then directed into a hood to distribute the sludge into specially fabricated disposable bags. H2Flow Equipment For more information, circle reply card No. 139

Noise control panel systems

the AWWA conference in Toronto in June. Neo Valves

For more information, circle reply card No. 141


Eckoustic Functional Panels(EFPs) are sound-absorbing, fire resistant panels which can be spot located on walls or ceilings to achieve effective noise control. Since EFPs are inde

pendent panels, they can be put into place without disturbing existing utilities.

They can be added to barriers to increase noise reduction capability. Special aluminum EFPs, for exam ple, have been attached to concrete in sewage treatment plants. Eckel Industries of Canada

For more information,

circle reply card No. 142 50

Before the introduction of propeller pumps for the Biological Nutrient Removal process, many systems fea tured conventional pumps, installed in specially constructed sumps, with civil engineering costs and, also the need for large volumes of fluids to be raised unnecessarily. ITT Flygt's 4600 propeller pumps need no spe cial sumps. With low head, installa tion is simple. The pump is mounted in front ofa hole in the retaining wall between two basins, or in front of a transport pipe. ITT Flygt For more information, circle reply card No. 143

The new IscoAfSI System 21 com bines sampling, flow, and rainfall measurement technologies from Isco with multi-parameter sensing tech nology from YSI. System 21 features a rugged YSI 600 Multi-Parameter Water Quality Monitor for accurate measurement of pH, dissolved oxy gen, conductivity, and temperature. When configured using an Isco 6700 Sampler or 4200 Flow Meter, Isco rain gauge, and the YSI 600, System 21 will display a multitude of data for retrieval and analysis. Isco For more information, circle reply card No. 144

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Product Review


Rental, sales and repair catalogue available



Eastern Region







Tel: (416) 441-4111


Fax: (418] 441^131



Pacific Region




Fax: (804) 525-9458

Offices across Canada and Overseas


• Planning • Engineering

HAZCO Canada is a full-service, na

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For more information,

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M 2N 6 N5

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changing reguiatory climate. Give me a cail." Bill Balfour, P. Eng., Principal (905) 477-8400, ext. 211 email: gartnerl@hookup.net

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Tel: (905) 858-4424 Fax: (905) 858-4426

Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 7G2 Canada

Noise Vibration and Acoustics

National Instruments have introduced a collection of virtual instrumentation

tends Visual Basic from a general-purpose programming tool to a world-class viitual instrumentation development en vironment. ComponentWorks consists of four major functional components for building virtual instruments: data acqui


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Tel: (Ba4] 525-9333

Noise vibration Acoustics

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 1, Suite 203 Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1P7 (905) 826-4044, Fax 826-4940

Howe Gastmeier Chapnik



sition (DAQ) controls; GPIB instrument drivers; analysis libraries; and user in terface controls for creating real-time graphs, meters, knobs, tanks, thermom eters, and gauges in Visual Basic. National Instruments

For more information,

circle reply card No.124 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


Consultants Ltd.

Environmental Scientists and Engineers Environmental Audits/Site Assessments

Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Environmental Management and Compliance Hydrogeologic/Performance Assessment Modeling Site Remediation

Risk Assessment


(613) 232-2525 Toronto

(905) 513-9400



Product Review Dry pit installations






Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,

Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138

Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

ISIJagger Hims mm


ABS Submersible Sewage Pumps are available for vertical dry pit installation. The unique waterjacket cooling system does not require any external connec tions and is designed to ensure adequate cooling under full load motor condi tions. Clog-free circulation of the pumped medium for the cooling jacket is achieved by a specially-designed impeller back vane. Dry pit installations with ABS model submersible pumps will not be damaged should water enter the pit. These pumps are ideally suited for modernizing pump stations historically subject to flooding and when dependable elog-free solids handling pumping is required.

Environmental Consulting Engineers 'Wa.sie Mami^cmeni

• Water Supply

• Industrial Minerals and


• Environmental Property Assessment Remediation

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Toll Free (800) 263-7419

Toll Free (800) 668-2598

Toll Free (800) 545-5406

Environmental Management Consultants

for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.


Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869 Kitchener (519)743-6111 (519) 743-3330 Cobalt (705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750

Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

ABS Pumps For more information,

circle reply card No. 125


compliance problems


Solutions to LIST


Water Supply Transportation Land Development

Environmental Planning Investigative Engineering

Water Pollution Control

Structural, Mechanical, Electrical

Water Resources

3280 Devon Dr. WINDSOR, Ont. N8X 4L4 Tel (519) 966-2250

Municipal Services

553 Southdale Rd. E. LONDON, Ont. N6E1A2 Tel (519) 680-3580 Fax (519) 680-3682

Fax (519) 966-5523














P.O. Bag 4300. Lakcrield, Omano Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fax 705-652-6365





Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment

ENSAT Canada has developed a diverse group of underground storage tank (UST)specialists and equipment inventoiy. As UST regulations continue to be phased in through December 1998, demand for turnkey solutions to UST compliance problems continues to be strong. Many companies are system atically closing older UST systems and upgrading these systems with new state-

MacViro Consultants Inc.

of-the-art equipment. ENSAT routinely conducts closures and installs new sys





90 Allstate Parltway, Suite 600, Markham, Ontario L3R 6H3 (905) 475-7270 • Fax:(905) 475-5994 E-Mail: 103700.2767@compuserve.com

tems for clients all over Canada. ENSAT crews are licensed and certified where


Enviwnmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Product Review


appropriate by provincial and munici pal government agencies and equipment

•Hydrogeoiogy •Waste management •Engineering geology


ENSAT generally pumps out and cleans all USTs being excavated for clo sure on-site before they are moved or transported. Although more expensive and time consuming, this approach greatly reduces the risk of an accident and minimizes clients' liability.


•Environmental audits MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 304 Tei:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabilitation

ENSAT Canada

For more Information, Marshall Macklin

circle reply card No. 126

How to get more


bioremediation action from



Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Commerce Valley Drive East


Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

Ttiorntiill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(905) 882-1100


The powerful Brown Bear horizontal auger tractor is designed for: • mixing of inoculants or nutrients, •liquid application and incorporation in a single pass, • greater capacity with angled auger head, • particle size reduction with paddle au ger design, • self propelled and attachment models available. Brown Bear Corp. For more Information,

ODOUR PROBLEMS? Assessment and Control

Air Pollution Dispersion Study Monitoring and Field Sampling Odour Panel Evaluation

circle reply card No. 127

ROWAN WILLIAMS DAVIES & IRWIN Inc. Consulting Engineers

Stainless steel pressure

650 Woodlawn Road West



Gueiph, Ontario, Canada N1K1B8

Contact: Anton Davies, Ph.D., P.Eng., Principal

Telephone:(519) 823-1311 Facsimile: (519) 823-1316



Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Monor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. L1W 5W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fox: 905-831-0531

Ametek/USGauge series 540 and 550 liquid-filled gauges combine low cost and high accuracy with rugged stainless steel case and movement materials for

corrosive and high vibration environ ments. Typical applications include pumps, compressors, HVAC, gas processing, petro-chemical processing, pulp and paper, and power generation. The austenitic stainless steel (alloys 316 and 316L)parts that contact corroEnvironmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


Consulting Engineers * Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems * instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Wafer Resources • Water Pollution Control

* Environmental Planning

• Water Supply










Product Review

cap), are certified to conform to mate

sulfide. The instrument is designed to operate continuously for one year from

rial standards as outlined in NACE MS-

the date the unit is activated.

sive medium (socket, bourdon, and end

01-75. Fill fluids include mineral oil,

Once activated, the instrument will

glycerin or silicone. Dry (unfilled) gauges can also be supplied, off-the-

2) The association's manufacturing members. In addition, resources for

obtaining specific information on how to order corrugated polyethylene pipe are provided. 3) Complete text of technical booklets published by the CPPA. CPPA For more information, circle reply card No. 130

For more information,

automatically operate without requiring battery or sensor changes. No calibra tion is required. GasBadge makes au tomatic adjustments for normal sensor aging and temperature change. Under

circle reply card No. 128

alarm conditions, both audible and

Internal visual Inspections

Renewable personal gas alarm

visual alarms are activated to warn the

CPPA Internet website now

AcuFlow Diagnostics can inspect the inside of any equipment or system, us ing various types of CCTV cameras and fibrescopes. Their conventional cam eras can go as small as 1 3/8" and as long as 300 ft. Their fibrescopes can

accessible The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe As sociation (CPPA) has established an Internet website, allowing browsers to

articulation capabilities at the end of the probe, allowing for a full 360 degree picture of the equipment being in spected.

shelf, in 2 1/2" and 4" sizes with dual scale kPA/PSI dials. Brian Controls

user of potentially hazardous environ ments. Industrial Scientific

For more information,

circle reply card No. 129

access information and technical litera ture from the association. The CPPA's

Industrial Scientific's GasBadge Renew able Personal Gas Alann, is a non-dis

play CSA-approved instrument that is virtually maintenance free. GasBadge continuously monitors the atmosphere for potentially hazardous levels of car bon monoxide, oxygen and hydrogen


web site address is;

http://www.cppa-info.org The site is divided into three sections:

1) Answers to the questions about cor rugated polyethylene pipe, including in stallation practices, service life, costs, material properties, and standards.


Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t o tt e n sims

There is no need to disconnect exist

ing pipework from a system; this re duces the downtime on equipment or a process. Liquid systems can be in spected while under pressure. A video record and still photos are made avail able. AcuFlow Diagnostics For more information, circie reply card No. 131

Document delivery partnership The Canada Institute for Scientific and



access an area as small as 3/8" and have

TEL:(905)668-9363 • WHITBY • Fax (90S) 668-0221

hubicki associates



Technical Information (CISTI) has an agreement with UMI to supply copies of articles, indexed in SwetScan, that CISTI does not hold in its collection. SwetScan is an online table of contents

service for over 14,000 journals in all disciplines worldwide. CISTI is the ex clusive agent for SwetScan in North America.



CISTI can supply the complete arti cle for about half the journals, those re lated to science, teclmology, engineer ing, and medicine. CISTI For more information, circle reply card No. 132



Innovative Consulting in Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc.


Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774 Kitchener, Ontario

P.O. Box 1373,

Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7H6 Toil Free: 1-800-533-4550

» Corporate Environmenial Policy Developmem • Lind Application of Wastewater » Phase 1 Environmental Audiis and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

► » » »

Phases Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment Ha7xtrdous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Opiimizxiiion Waste Ciiaracierization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the .^Rs. Hydrogeologv' and Croundwater Investigations

Internal Video Inspection of Piping and Mechanical Systems. For more information,


circle reply card No. 159

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors St Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centritugol Compressor & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM,at discharge pressure to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as combustion drying, agitation, fludizing, oxidation vacuum cleaning, sewage aeration, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 60 years.

U It


f r F!1 i IT FIT/

Contact us today for free catalog I 58 Bertal Road,

HOFFMAN liuluslrics of C anacia l.iinid'd



Toronto, Ontario, M6M 4M4,416/763-4681 Fax: (416) 763-0440

For more information, circie repiy card No. 226(See page 17)

The Workhorse w.J


For water disinfection, wastewater treatment, odour

control, cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.



Professional Products Division 6400 Northwest Drive

Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4V1K1

Tel.(905)678-2051 FAX (905)678-0898 Plant Locations: Moncton,Montreal,Toronto,Edhnonton

For more information, circle reply card No. 115(See page 17)

Advertisers 'Product and Service Sfuozvcase For information on advertising in this section, call ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Economical potable water sampling

Self-contained filter plant

Free CD-ROM for one-

stop software shopping

IT r

The Whirl-Pak Thio-Bag, made of unbreakable, sterile polyethylene, is used to sample potable water. Pat ented Puncture ProofTabs protect the bag against piercing. Each bag con tains EPA-approved, nontoxic, nonnutritive, sodium thiosulfate to neu tralize chlorine. Thio-Bags are now

General Filter's AERALATER* is a

A multimedia CD-ROM for windows

completely self-contained filter plant for treating groundwater supplies. It

95/3.1 PCs and Macintosh/Power

combines all ofthe flinctions ofaera

tensive infonnation and demonstra

tion, detention, and filtration in one

tion versions of National Instruments

unitized, packaged unit.

application software packages.


Macintosh computers gives users ex

AERALATER can be used for iron

The Software Showcase includes

data on: LabVlEW* graphical instm-

available in two sizes: B01040WA

and manganese removal, odour re moval, and VOC and dissolved gas

holds 100 ml, and B01254WA holds


300 ml. Nasco Plastics

For more information,

During normal operation, water from the groundwater source enters

mentation; Lab Windows"/CVI visual development software; ComponentWorks^'" for Visual Basic 4.0; Measure''''^' for Microsoft Excel; and,

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the AERALATER and into the aera

ViitualBenclV^ turnkey virtual instru

tion section. General Filter

ments. National Instruments

Multi-function pump

For more information,

For more information,

circle reply card No. 146

circle reply card No. 147

Sludge dewatering

TOC measured quickly and accurately



On-iine TOC Andyier ^TOC-4000^

ItÂŽ The ABS Multi-Function Effluent

Pump is effective for both effluent and solids handling, up to 1 1/2". Constructed of AISl 316 stainless

steel, including shaft and hardware, Viton 0-rings and silicon carbide/ Viton mechanical seals. The impeller is constructed ofpolymide for pump ing effluent containing light chemi cal concentrations. This Multi-Func

tion pump is ideal for applications that require special materials ofcon struction in marine, commercial,and industrial applications. ABS Pumps For more information, circle reply card No. 148 56

Consolidated Giroux's equipment, including belt presses, produces a dry cake suitable for disposal by land ap plication, landfill, or even incinera tor. The company can substantially reduce the sludge volumes and the corresponding costs of handling, hauling and disposal. The company has agreements with owners of belt presses, centrifuges, etc., which al low the supplementing ofequipment if the need arises. Staff will survey sites at no cost and design programs..

The TOC 4000 offers flexible, user-configured sampling and pa rameter protocol, to allow for changes in future needs.

Consolidated Giroux

Mandel Scientific

For more information, circle reply card No. 149

The Shimadzu On-line TOC 4000

Analyzer quickly and accurately measures Total Organic Carbon in aqueous matrices. The Total Carbon combustion tube is heated to 680°C.

The NDIR signal (analog signal) is converted to a peak profile and the peak is calculated by the data proc essor.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 150 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Portable instrumentation for

pH, ORP, SB, Interface Level


and DO

Gorman-Rupp has the wastewater pumping system to fit your needs Gorman-Rupp manufactures a com plete line of pre-englneered,factorybuilt packaged lift stations. Whether It's a small or large wastewater col lection system, we can provide an efficient, reliable pumping system In cluding motors, controls, valves, and piping ready for hook-up on site. Gorman-Rupp lift stations feature self-prlming, sollds-handling T-Serles pumps specially designed for de pendable wastewater handling. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. Circle reply card No. 217

These battery operated portable analysers are rugged, water-proof and completely submersible. They are designed for reliable remote op eration In waste treatment plants, riv ers, lakes, etc. The Model 500 pH/ ORP Is available with an assortment

of sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliable Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Portable Suspended Solids/Interface Analysers are Ideal for remote monitoring. Cancoppas Limited Circle reply card No. 216

Automatic Liquid Sampling

Environmental services

Wherever It's Needed


The Epic 101IT programmable port able wastewater sampler provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist In monitoring municipal and Industrial wastewater. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids Including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them Into a container or sequentially Into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for subse quent analysis. Cancoppas Limited Circle reply card No. 218

Environmental services outsourcing Is an approach that Is gaining In creased attention from Canadian

companies, as they search for Inno vative ways to reduce costs and In crease productivity. This publication Introduces Laldlaw Environmental

Services' INSITE™ service, which helps companies effectively manage their environmental programs, while Increasing focus on their core busi ness.

Laidlaw Env. Services

Circle reply card No. 219

Turbidity Measurement GLI offers a system that is ideal for critical monitoring and con trolling of raw water, and final product clarity. IVIunicipal wa ter treatment facilities and ul

tra-pure water treatment sys tems in pharmaceutical and food are typical applications.

Motionless Mixers Tneprovvti iiTOiioiiless mixer Uiat

b'tngs new elfidency and iÂťslssvings tn Ibc process ii'tfiisfries.

The Statlflo motionless mixer Is a

vital component of any Inline mixing/ control system. Incorporation of the Statlflo mixer allows rapid sampling and efficient as well as minimum use

of dosing chemicals. Statlflo motion less mixers are commonly used In coagulatlon/flocculatlon,flash mixing of dilute polyelectrolyte, alum, caus

tic, etc., pin control, disinfection/

Great Lakes Instruments


Circle reply card No. 220

and other dilution and dispersion applications. Statlflo Inc.

Circle reply card No. 221

The Complete Systems Approach To Dewatering Ths FInt Name In Solitfs/Uqulfl Separation Tscftnalogy i>r MgMtiAal aa)laifaimaUia'kaUm

By choosing a Roediger system, you'll get single source account ability. We link our know-how with yours to choose the right approach for your individual cir cumstances; we furnish the cor

rect equipment, and we make sure that it works right...now and into the future.

Roediger Circie reply card No. 222

Rehau's RAURIB'^ PVC storm

and sanitary sewer pipe RAURIB's ribbed design delivers exceptional strength - minimum rating of 46psl/320kPa - and Is equivalent In pipe stiffness, Impact, and flattening resistance to SDR 35. RAURIB Is light In weight and easy to field-cut due to removable gas kets; Its longer length, 13', reduces the number of joints. Composed of high-quallty PVC,Its smooth Interior allows superior flow rates over com peting materials. Rehau

Circle reply card No. 223

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section caii ES&E at(905)727-4666. Disaster Recovery

Peristaltic Hose Pump



A10-step Checklist for Disaster Pre paredness was developed by the Professional Liability Agents Net work(PLAN),serving North America,


and DPIC Companies, providing pro fessional liability insurance for archi tects, engineers, and environmental consultants. The checklist helps you Increase security and safety, and limit risk and losses by planning for unexpected occurrences such as explosion, flood, fire, or other disas



wear. There are no product seals in contact with material being pumped, no seats or valves. Completely selfpriming, the pump even runs dry


without detrimental effect.

Security Insurance Circle reply card No. 200

Waukesha Cherry-Burrell Circle reply card No. 201

Trojan ultraviolet disinfection systems

Continuous self-cleaning bar/filter screen-head The Aqua Guard Bar/Filter is a con tinuous, self-cleaning device which uti lizes a uniquely designed fiiter-rake combination to automatically remove a wide range of floating and sus pended materials from a moving liq

Complete ultraviolet disinfection systems for wastewater treatment. Trojan System LIV3000™ utilizes electronic ballasts and solid state

Industrial plastics product guide Fabco Plastics have updated their 464-page Buyers Guide & Engineer ing Specifications catalogue, a com prehensive listing of industrial products and illustrations of new and tech

nologically advanced items. The cata logue also has an extensive 74-page Engineering Reference Section and Chemical Resistance Chart which will

assist material specialists specifying plastic products in the chemical, cor rosion and pollution fields. Fabco Plastics

Circle reply card No. 204

FREE 1996 Instrumentation

Reference and Catalogue The National Instruments 1996 cata

logue features new versions of LabVIEW®, LabWINDOWS®/CVI, and

HiQ® application software products. Other new software products include Measure™, a new spreadsheet add-In for direct data acquisition and control, and VirtualBench™, a family of Win dows-based turnkey virtual instru ments. New hardware products in clude GPIB, DAG,and VSI Interfaces; new PCMCIA and MXI-2 interfaces; and serial interfaces for industrial com

munications applications. National instruments


dia or corrosive acids with minimum

circuitry with full local or remote sys tem control and monitoring capabil ity. System LIV4000™ makes use of variable output, high intensity lamps and innovative fully auto mated self-cleaning technology ideal for primary effluents, CSO,and stormwater applications. Trojan Technologies Inc. Circle reply card No. 202



Waukesha/Bredel Peristaltic Type Hosepump series, which is finding increasingly broad application in handling effiuent, slurries and sludges: i.e., "unpumpables". This unique pump handles abrasive me

uid stream. Identical filter-rake ele

ments are mounted horizontally and vertically on a series of parallel shafts, to form an endless moving belt which collects, conveys, and discharges all solids greater than the selected mesh size. It then mechanically cleans it self.

Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 203

Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Treatment



Is your company in need of more

Return on Investment

efficient wastewater treatment? ADI

Systems Inc. can supply and Install anaerobic and aerobic treatment sys tems to suit your needs, including two anaerobic systems - the low-rate ADI-BVF® digester and the high-rate ADI-Hybrid reactor, and aerobic tech nologies including the nitrogenremoving ADI-SBR system. There are over 60 installations worldwide

for various industries. Request more information today. ADI Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 205

Trac-Vac™ versatile sludge removal system for new and existing clarifiers Versatility, reliability and economy make Eimco Trac-Vac™ sludge col lectors the logical choice when costeffective solids removal is required. Hundreds of units installed in new

and existing clarifiers have eamed a reputation among engineers, op erators, and administrators for flex

ible design, ease of installation and dependable operation. Eimco Process Equipment Circle reply card No.207

Circle reply card No. 206


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. The Pulsapak Package

The Densadeg High-Rate lAMAITRISE





The Densadeg high-rate clarifier and thickener combines mixing, clarification, and thickening in one compact unit, cutting your capital and operating costs sub stantially. External sludge recirculation produces a dense sludge - a much reduced vol

The Pulsapak produces a very high quality of water utilising technology equivalent to that used In large instal lations. The Degremont Infiico Pulsa pak water treatment plant is the result of a combination of two proven Degremont technologies. The first is the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, equipped with tube settling modules.

ume of solids so well condi

The second is a sand and anthracite

tioned, that it can be directly m DcqPeiNMlt


dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak


is available in six standard sizes treat

Degremont Inflico Circle reply card No. 208

ing flows from 150 to 500 US gpm. Degremont Infiico Circle reply card No. 209

The Ultrapulsator

IPEX Centurion Pressure Pipe


350mm - 900mm (14" - 36") IPEX Centurion large diameter PVG pressure pipe is Ideal for distribution lines, transmission pipe, force mains, irrigation systems, and fire protec tion lines. The pipe is easy to in stall, and is immune to naturally cor

The Ultrapulsator provides a highly effective approach to water purifica tion problems. It effectively removes turbidity, colour, and organic mate rial from municipal and Industrial water supplies. The Ultrapulsator is a very high rate clarifier which com bines the advantages of highly con centrated and homogeneous sludge blanket and internal sludge recirculation with polishing action of tube settling modules. Degremont Infiico Circle reply card No. 210




Circle reply card No. 211

Water Efficiency Service Programs

available from CPPA

The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Association (CPPA) now has avail PwlHtlUlm Pipe

able a new technical booklet at no

charge: Hydraulic Considerations For Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe. The booklet discusses the advan

tages of designing with corrugated polyethylene drainage pipe. Dual wall (smooth interior) HDPE offers up to 50% more capacity than com parably sized corrugated steel and significantly more capacity than con crete pipe. CPPA

Circle reply card No. 212

rosive soils, electrochemical action

and galvanic corrosion. It easily accepts cast-iron OD-sized fittings. For complete details, see the colour brochure available in English and IPEX Inc.

Hydraulics technical booklet


Potable Water Treatment


Faced with inflating operating costs, while being expected to avoid rate increases and provide greater, bet ter, and non-traditional customer service? Schlumberger's Technical Service Group offers complete field service, and project handling capa bilities, from meter installation to full, ongoing maintenance, management and meter reading services. Cus tomized packages allow a utility to contract for as many or as few serv ices as it needs.

Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 213

It's the BIG ONE!

Water Meters, Systems

Waukesha Cherry-Burrell 420/520 high capacity pumps feature sealed

and Services Overview

rotor/shaft/nut area, bi-directional

operation, and 316L body and cover with 88 alloy rotors. Designed for applications from tomato process ing to slurries and sludges at tem peratures of -40 degree F to 300 degree F, the 420 moves 1.62 gallons of product per revolution while the 520 model moves 2.38

gallons per revolution. Waukesha Cherry-Burrell Circle reply card No. 214

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Our mission Is to offer solutions for

water utility customers by providing superior methods of metering, serv ice, and improving customer effi ciency. Schlumberger leads the in dustry with meter design innovation, advanced reading systems for utili ties of every size, and complete management services for utility op erations, maintenance, and admin istration.

Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 215


Conference Report

Privatization sparks vigorous debate at meeting

The most popular and well-

creases to their initial negotiated waste-

utility, and

attended session at the April

water treatment fee will not exceed the

21-24 Joint Annual OWWA/

inflation rate.

• set rates based on actual/full cost of service.

OMWA* Conferenee in Lon

Dr. L.D. McMullen, CEO and Gen

don, Ontario, was unquestionably a 3hour plenary session titled Privatization — Is it in the Best Interest ofthe Water

eral Manager of Des Moines (Iowa) Waterworks emphasized that choosing any ofthe possible privatization options

works Customer and the WaterworksIn

must be a business decision. He listed

dustry? Chaired by TVO per sonality Steve Paikin, this emerged as a highly relevant issue which attracted vigorous input from the audience. John Dowd, a Senior Vice President for Wheelabrator

Water Technologies Inc., de scribed the advantages of pri vatization using his firm's ex periences in taking over a Dayton,Ohio area wastewater treatment plant. In the early 1990s, it was

Leonard Hyman, of Fulcrum Inter national, described the Thatcher govemment's privatization program in the United Kingdom. He listed the primary factors driving the privatization trend in the UK as:

• need to improve efficiency, • government's need for cash, •suggestion that governments should focus on social pro grams,

•unpopularity of monopolies vs. popularity ofcompetition, and

•federal government encour ages widespread ownership. He stated that the formula

used to pay British privatized utilities was an incentive to

maximize operating effi was needed to repair/upgrade ciency, but was also an incen TVO personality Steve Paikin (left), brought a professionalapproach tive for utilities to cut comers. US wastewater plants. Fed to the privatization debate, an issue which will dominate the water eral officials, noting that Industry In the next few years. Although the water compa wastewater service rate in nies had to come up with creases were constantly higher than the the five major factors which were driv enormous capital to upgrade the water inflation rate, announced a program to ing US municipalities to privatization: systems that they took over, the com encourage private sector involvement. • government regulations, pensation formula guaranteed them A selected pilot project was the Dayton • escalating operating and capital costs, enormous profits. Critics claim that the area wastewater treatment plant as • public confidence (lack of) in drink government sold facilities at cut rate ing water quality, sumed by Wheelabrator. prices, allowing the private sector to Because ofthe complexity ofthe ar • increasing water demands, and generate huge profits. Supporters ofthe rangements, it took 2 1/2 years to put • developments in water efficiency and government move believe that it pro the transaction together. The plant(but improved treatment techniques. vided the opportunity for large-scale pri not the associated land), was purchased McMullen stressed that the public vate sector involvement and investment. outright by Wheelabrator. The proceeds perceives non-profit and government On the whole, Hyman concluded that ofthe sale went primarily to the city and utilities as ineffective, inefficient, tend the UK privatization initiatives were county, with a modest residual going to ing to take excessive risks, and seriously successful, but that they could have been flawed with personal "perks". He be the federal government. even more successful. Wheelabrator took over the operation lieves that municipal utilities need to Neil Freeman, a University of To and maintenance ofthe plant,leasing its think like a private sector company. ronto professor and utility consultant, services to the municipalities served by Knowing what the competition is doing reviewed his just-published report the plant. The municipalities set waste- is a must. Benchmarking is an effective Ontario's WaterIndustry, Modelsfor the water rates based on their costs from way ofdetermining ifany aspect ofone's Next Century. The report had been com Wheelabrator. Wheelabrator guarantees operation can be improved by modifi missioned by the Ontario Municipal that the plant will comply lully with all cation or by "outsourcing". In explain Water Association. He started by ex environmental regulations. It also is ing that utilities frequently do a lot of plaining that the Ontario Govermnent's required to undertake plant expansions "dumb things", he used the example that "Common Sense Revolution" was a as required, but the municipalities are you should not use an auto mechanic to public policy watershed. The two im not required to pay for such works until plow snow(a case where contracting out portant applicable concepts are: full performance has been reached and is likely warranted). • the level of government that provides approved. McMullen summarized what munici a service should be responsible for its According to Wheelabrator, any in pal utilities need to do: financing, and • think and operate like a private utility, • only those services that cannot be di • operate as efficiently as possible, rectly charged to users based on actual 'Ontario Water Works Association/ • do things that make sense for your use should be financed by general tax Ontario Municipal Water Association estimated that $170 billion


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


Freeman believes that the public util ity system complements Ontario's cur rent political and economic climate. His principles for the governance of public utilities are:

• should be governed by elected com missions(not appointed), •all related services should be integrated into a single conunission, and •should be organized and sized to gain

detailed set of regulations had to be es tablished by the provincial goverrunent before the privatization process is intro

ing factor. However, Ontario's Bill 26 now penalizes the public utility by per mitting mimicipalities to divert utility


revenues to other uses.

Freeman concluded his remarks by highlighting the dilemma facing munici

pal utility systems. Public utilities must compete with private companies, with eeonomy of operation being the decid

maximum efficiency.

ES&E acknowledges the assistance ofSteve Bonk in this report. Steve was the 6th Canadian President of the AWWA.

Minister announces

His principles for financmg a publie

stricter drinking water quaiity objectives for THMs

utihty are: • all income must be dedicated solely to the services rendered, •full cost accounting/full cost recovery, a must,

egy for Abatement (MISA) industrial

• total/full aceountabihty and transpar

abatement regulations to make them simpler to understand and implement. The same approach would be applied to municipal regulations. She outlined a comprehensive review ofministry regulations/approvals proc esses and said all 80 regulations were being examined imder the Red Tape Re


•management of all accounts via an in dustry standard, • rates set to meet costs, no profit, • freedom to borrow and raise capital. Freeman reviewed the results of a

number of public opinion polls that he had conducted on utility operations and fmancing. The polls were conducted only in Ontario. a)Should water revenues be used solely to fmance the water system or to fund other municipal services? Results — Water only 77% Other services Don't know

18% 4%

b)Who should control water systems? Results— Municipal officials 76% Private agencies 19% No response 6% c)Should water be sold at cost, or for a profit? Results —

At cost


At profit


Don't know


John Anderson (above) CH2M Gore & Storrie received the covetted Fuller

Award and Mike Auger gained the Howard Award.

Brenda Elliott, Ontario Minister of Environment and Energy, was the key note speaker at the OWWA/OMWA 1996 Joint Annual Conference in

London, Ontario. She noted that this armual conference dates back more than

75 years and, as environment minister, she was gratefiil for the expertise and advice that have developed over three quarters of a century.

Freeman believes that public utility

She said her role was to minimize

commissions are more effective than

be offered through the PUC system. He

duplication and overlapping of efforts, clarify the role ofgovernment,and bring greater consistency to laws, policies, and standards without any compromises on environmental protection. As an exam ple, she said there would be a stricter drinking water quality objective of 100 micrograms per litre for trihalomethanes as compared to previous objectives of 350. Her ministry was developing

stressed that the hidden cost of

standards to eontrol health-related out

franchising or privatizing a public util ity is the regulatory headaches. In the question and answer period that followed, the entire panel agreed that Ontario had only the most rudimen tary regulation for utility privatization.

breaks, such as those resulting from cryptosporidium. The Municipal Assistance Program

either privatized or council-operated utilities. The PUCs are generally small, flexible and do not have the degree of conflicts and municipal business faeing cmmeils. He submits that utility cus tomers must have a voice(since the serv ice is a monopoly, without "exit" privi leges), and that such a voice can only

They concurred that a comprehensive.

was now consolidated with MOEE to

streamline and clarify the program. Housekeeping amendments are being made to the Municipal Industrial Strat-

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

view Committee, with Dr. Gait oversee ing. On regulatory reform, she said good progress had been made and reform pro posals will be completed in time for public consultations during the summer. The final reform package would be ready in the Fall and MOEE would start

implementing the changes at the begin ning of the new year. On laboratory downsizing, she said that three regional labs are to be closed and routine analyses will be tumed over to the private sector. Her ministry will maintain sewage and water inspection programs and the Drinking Water Sur veillance Program to ensure the high standard of performance continues.

Her personal environmental goals would focus on reducing smog and ground-level ozone, global climate change, and drinking water/groundwater protection. She was working to encourage water awareness and reduced water consumption. "The less water wasted, the less it will cost taxpayers", she said. She hoped to improve the ef ficiency of large industrial users of water and sewage services, to reduce pressure on treatment capacity, optimize efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of existing treatment systems. She sought MOEE/OWWA coopera tion in improving water treatment and in spreading technology to drinking water commimities, which means bet ter water for more people at less cost. 61

Water Metering

By David Allen, P. Eng.*

Analyzing water use to increase utility efficiency

Thewater industry is now ex

periencing what the business sector experienced 20 years ago: an explosion in the use of computers. This situation is giving utilities the chance to address almost any

problem or application. The new technology includes sys tems that increase and improve the man agement ofrevenues by monitoring, re cording,storing and analyzing data from water meter use patterns. This proc ess is called "flow profiling", and it enhances the operation of a utility's "cash registers" or water meters by: • maximizing operating efficiencies; • optimizing water-meter

fmance, water conservation, and even engineering. The typical problems that utilities are confronting include: Water theft:

Water theft occurs in a

variety of forms, from tampering with water meters to tapping unmetered fire lines. Fire lines without meters are typi cally installed with a detector check valve and a by-pass meter, but they do not indicate the amount of water used,

only that consumption has occurred.

ited information or have been too ex

sists ofa recorder,transmitter(for send ing meter data to the recorder), and PC software. To conduct a flow profile,the recorder is programmed for the length of time it is to be in the field. Then it and the transmitter are retrofitted onto

the flow meter. Once the profiling is complete, the data can be retrieved by: • a lap-top computer, • an office PC, or • a data-transfer unit(DTU). The DTU is used for collecting mul

tiple profiles. User-lfiendly software, with pull-down menus that export data to spreadsheet software programs for presentation in graphical or tabular re ports simplifies system use. Solving application problems Depending on the application, one or more utility departments can benefit by conducting flow profiles on water me ters. These departments include cus tomer service, metering, distribution. 'Product Manager, Schlumberger Measurement Division 62

tive customer relations. A customer with

an undetected fixture leak (toilet,faucet, or lawn-sprinkler head)usually surmises one reason for an imusually high water

bill: a faulty meter. The customer, pro voked by the high bill into being tough-minded, will contact the util ity, claiming not to have used "that much!" water. Where the utility can not get the customer to pay the high water bill, that revenue may have to be written off as a bad debt (adding to the unaccounted-for water rate). By profiling the customer's use pattern (that is, by documenting the leak), the utility can prove that a leak, and not a faulty meter, is causing the high water use. The outcome is bet ter customer/utility relations and a better basis for collecting the revenue. In addition, the utility saves the time and trouble of changing out the me ter to prove it is not at fault. Correct meter sizing


• increasing revenues. Previous approaches (such as chart-recorders, telemetry, and SCADA systems) for analyzing me ter data generally have provided lim

pensive for the average utility. By adopting a flow-profile system, many utilities are now reclaiming rev enues they would otherwise he losing for many reasons, ranging from bill ing disputes to improperly sized meters. Typically, the profiling system con

dicates a leak. A test done at a Toronto

area brewery showed a 30 gpm consist ent flow during the night when no pro duction was taking place. Besides their economic costs, imdetected leaks can create counter-produc

Whether on purpose or by accident,such use, besides costing money,poses a con siderable threat to the potable-water sup ply because the connection has no backfiow preventer. The customer suspected of stealing water likely will attribute the loss to leaks, unless the utility has flow-profiled

documentation of theft. For example, documentation showing consistent use between midnight and 6:00 AM might indicate that the water is being used for a third-shift operation. Iftheft is occur ring, an appropriate meter can be in stalled to record all water used by the end user.

Leaks: Leaks are among the major fac tors contributing to unaccounted-for water. They can be detected by moni toring flows and consumptions at a dis tribution master meter and subtracting the consumption registered by the enduser or billing meters in a specific area. The difference represents a water loss

Oversized or inaccurate meters con tribute to the unaccounted-for water not attributable to leaks or theft.

Large meters routinely make up one percent of the meters in a system, but account for 60 percent ofmany utilities' revenue. Obviously, to maximize rev enue, it is important that the large me ters be maintained for accuracy. Accu

racy,in large part,can be ensured by siz ing and applying meters correctly; and correct sizing can be ensured by flowprofiling. Almost every system has its share of oversized large-diameter water meters. Oversizing occurs when replacing me ters without regularly re-evaluating the customer's use pattern. A manufactur ing process that requires large volumes of water may have been discontinued. Where the installation consists of a 4" turbine water meter installed in a 4"

line, typically a new 4" turbine meter will replace it. The utility rarely resizes

due to leaks; or else, the meters are in

the meter to match the consumer's use


pattems. Apparently, utility managers often neglect to consider that, over time. Continued on page 64

Also,an abnormally high use profile during off-peak consumption periods in

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Concrete pipe's survived it all.


They came. They saw. They conquered. Then the Romans sought nothing more than a hot bath. Fortunately, the ancient designers used concrete in Rome's famed aqueduct system, the Cloaca Maxima. Still in

use today, the Roman aqueduct proves that concrete stands the test of time. So too does

today's concrete pipe. It's adaptable to any design. It's environment-friendly. And it creates jobs. The Romans insisted on it. Et Tu?

Concrete Pipe...Here to Stay For concrete pipe manufacturers in your area, contact:

ocp*a Ontario concrete pipe association

102760.2070@ compuserve.com 6299 Airport Road, Suite 508, Mississauga, Ontario L4V1N3 Phone:(905)677-1010 Fax;(905)677-1007

For more information, circle reply card No. 158(See page 17)

Water Metering, cont'd. end-user consumption patterns also can change. Where the 4" meter was once required,a 1 1/2" meter may be adequate now.

Maintenance procedures require an accuracy test at specific flow rates as per the AWWA M.6 manual. Although the meter may be accurate at the flow ranges being tested, in actual conditions, water volume passing through the meter may be well below these ranges. The result is an inaccurately registered water flow. For correctly sized meters,the maxi mum continuous flow should not exceed

50 percent ofthe meter's flow capacity. In addition, no more than 5 percent of the flow should occur below the meter's

minimum flow rating. Compound meters must meet yet an

other proper size criterion; 80 percent ofthe total flow should pass through the turbine side, and 20 percent should pass through the disc side. Ratios other than this indicate a problem of over or undersizing. Meter replacement programs

Utility managements often do a pay back analysis when they consider chang ing out old or inaccurate water meters. New meters, by capturing lost revenue can ultimately pay for their purchase. The payback time (break-even point)

Table 1 - Meter use as it depends on meter type Type


Positive Displacement Turbine

Low-to-moderate flows(nutating disc), residential, light commercial Consistent moderately high flows; commercial,


Large fluctuations(from low to high flows)


depends on the amount of the extra in come that the new meters earn. If the

extra eamings per meter are $X per year and the cost to buy and install it is $Y, then the break-even point is Y/X years. Lost sewage revenue also should be con sidered, since sewage revenue directly depends on the accuracy of the meter. Lost revenue is a direct function of

meter inaccuracy. Therefore, calculat ing the break-even point requires know ing the meter's (in)accuracy. Histori cally, management has used an accu racy-averaging method for this analy sis. This consists oftesting meter accu racy at the low/intermediate and fullflow ranges. The results of these accu racy tests are then added and divided by three. The tests, however,fail to account for the slight bell shape of the meter accuracy curves. As a result, tested ac curacies may be deceptively high. The



method consequently tends to yield overly-conservative payback periods, which may discourage utilities from changing out meters even as they con tinue to lose revenue.

The data from flow profiling gives the correct payback period because it provides tme accuracy averages for each flow range. It also provides an acmal distribution of flows within the three

meter ranges. These two data sets can be used to calculate the real accuracy profile ofthe meter as it is being used in the specific application. Other benefits

Water-use analysis of flow-profiled data can help with a variety ofother ap plication problems, including: Proper meter-type: The three most common types ofmeters used today and their applications are shown in Table 1. Given this choice, utility managements sometimes have problems, without ac curate profiling data, selecting the right type of meter for the right application. Demand metering: Billing large con sumers by time-of-use or demand me tering based on flow-profile data can quickly and potently affect water-con servation efforts. It can also:

m w

• reduce energy costs, by shifting con sumption pumping to off-peak rates; • manage water use in the distribution system; and, • minimize the cost of implementing water-conservation programs aimed at reducing total consumption or reducing peak usage. Peak-use analysis: Peak-use analyses have wide application and are typically used to:

• trouble-shoot flow and pressure prob lems;

•determine where water is used through out the distribution system; and • determine the maximum, minimum

and average consumption oflarge indus trial users.

AquaticSciencesInc. 45 HANNOVER DR.ST. CATHARINES ON. CANADA L2W 1A3 PH(905)641-0941 FAX (905)641-1825


For more information, circie repiy card No. 198 (See page 17)

This data can be used to justify the expansion of distribution lines or to ad dress low-water-flow or pressure prob lems.

For more information, circle repiy card No. 190 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


By Tom Davey

Toronto hosts the 1996 AWWA

Convention and Exposition June 23-27,1996 Metro Toronto Convention Centre

Theoldest,largest and mostsuccessful environ

mental body in the world -The American Water Works Association — is expected to draw over 10,000 delegates from around the world to Toronto, June 23-27. AWWA actively began saving millions of lives some nine decades before the current crop of environmental bodies was spawned. AWWA began in 1881 in St. Louis, Missouri when waterbome diseases were rife. Since then, AWWA activities have virtually wiped out

many ofthe diseases once endemic in our urban communi ties. The AWWA Research Foundation actively pursues

both scholarly and practical research work on drinking

open, the sale of exhibitors' booths broke all records. As we went to press, the list ofexhibitors on the following pages was made available to us. AWWA Technical Program Highlights

This year's technical program touches on the most important issues facing the water supply industry today, including the deregulation of water utilities; emerging treatment technologies; public notification programs; surface water issues; designing distribution systems; public policy issues; water quality and treatment research; pipeline repair and unconventional water treatment technology. Here is a brief sample of what water industry professionals from around

water treatment and

public health issues. Canadians have always been prominent in

the world will be discuss

Steve Bonk being the

ing; • A thinking man's

sixth Canadian elected to

alternative to a traditional

AWWA affairs, Ottawa's

management audit.

the position of President.

• Status of the

Over 170 Canadians from Halifax to Vancouver

Groundwater Disinfection

volimteered to work on the


local arrangement commit

• Developing leadermanagers: the key to the competitive edge. • Overcoming adversarial relationships in labor management partnership. • Update on the Informa

tees. John Anderson, of CH2M G&S and Mike Thome of Metro Toronto,

were co-chairs ofthis huge committee.

Major General Lewis MacKenzie will open the

tion Collection Rule. • Ozone and NOM:

General Session with his

speech on "Lessons in Leadership". General MacKenzie is justly famed for his military and political expertise and his outspoken manner is certain to make the opening a memorable occasion. Other highlights will feature Rick Pitino, considered by many to be the best young basketball coach in the United States. Perhaps Americans in the audience might get to know that basketball is actually a Canadian invention. The armual Banquet is usually an elegant yet relaxed evening when delegates, organizers and exhibitors can

enjoy good food and see the finale of AWWA President's Karl F. Kohlhoffterm as he passes the gavel to Rocky Wiley. While it is rare for an AWWA Conference to be held in

Toronto, Canadians can be proud that six of their country men have held this high office with distinction. One Canadian, Dr. A.E. Berry is the only person ever to be

chemistry and process impacts. •Irmovative conservation strategies in Ontario. • Giardia and Cryptosporidium. a^si

• Microfiltration technology: optimizing treatment through alternate technologies. • Privatization and the municipal utility: friend or foe? • A National Compliance forecast for arsenic. Facility Tours

Don't miss seeing some of Canada's most progressive water treatment plant facilities, along with such sites as the 68,000-seat SkyDome and the Piekering Nuclear Generat ing Station. • R.C. Harris Filtration Plant and Metropolitan Toronto Archives.

• SkyDome and John Street Pumping Station.

elected President of AWWA and what is now the Water

• Lome Park Water Treatment Plant.

Environment Federation.

For more information, contact AWWA Annual Confer ence and Exposition, 6666 W. Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado, 80235, USA. Tel:(303) 347-6160.

Exposition Five weeks before the conference was scheduled to

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996


AWWA Exhibitor List Exhibitor ABB

Exhibitor Booth # Ashiand Chem. Co 1448 Assoc. of Boards of Certification... 412 Autocon Industries 2245 AWWA Research Foundation 2516

Booth # 214

ADI Group


Advance Products Advance Tank & Construction

1548 2420

AirSep AIco Engineering & BIF

2341 2535


2448 137

Badger Meter Bailey & Febco Divs. of CMB Bailey-Fischer & Porter

1223 2017 2055

Exhibitor Central Plastics

Chem Scan Process Analyzers .... 235 Chem. Services

1443 1942 1644 455 1842 2348 1747 931

Bennett & Williams


Berkeley Pumps


American AVK Co

Bermad Control Valves Bermex Contract Services

2126 1153

Chlorine Institute CiFEC C.I.M. industries Cia-Vai

Bibby/Laperie U.S.A Bingham & Taylor/ Opeiika Foundry


Comcore Utility Products


Ames Ametek

436 444

Analytical Serv. 2242 Anatei Corp 2330 Anderson Coiumbiana Trading ... 2249 Angus Flexible Pipelines 753 Anthrafiiter 422 A.O. Smith Flarvestore Prod 1240 APCO Wiiiamette/Valve & Primer 1224

Aqua Data Aqua Freed Aquatapoxy/Raven Lining Aquatex Aquatic Life Aquatic Sciences

2644 530 1754 447 2540 430

ARMTEC Asdor Ashbrook

330 1128 1323


BioVir Labs


Birmingham Fastener


BPC Industries F.S. Brainard & Co British Gas PLC British Trade Office Bruner CaiciQuest Caldweii Tanks

1355 1447 852 153 2430 750 649

Caigon Carbon Caigon Cambridge Brass Capital Controls

2235 523 546 1719

Carboiine Carson-Brooks Plastics Carus Chemicals Cascade Waterworks Cathodic Protection Serv. CBI Walker

1849 648 1335 1251 1241 1946


Chemtrac Systems Chicago Bridge & iron Chicago Steel Tape Chlorine Chemistry Council

American Academy of Env. Eng.... 130 American Cast Iron Pipe 1631 American City & County Mag 2313 Amer. Cone. Pres. Pipe Assoc.... 1844 American Leasing 2551 American Polymer 131

Booth # 2027


Commercial Resins Conbraco industries Conservatek industries Consolidated Electric

2640 2321 1348 1029

Consumers Applied Tech




Control Microsystems


Controiotron C.P. Test Services Craftech Industries CRC Press Inc./Lewis Pub

1346 2355 2155 354

Crispin Multiplex CSR Flydro Conduit

1146 1735



Cuiiigan international


Data West


DBS Manufacturing


DeLoach Industries


Desalination Systems 2045 Devoe Coatings 1429 DeZurik, A Unit of General Signal. 741



Membrane Cassettes


Drinking W


Large s backwash vo

Replaceil Ry

Minimal Sludge Volume

ZeeWeed™ Single Step Process

The ZeeWeed™ Advantage • Cyst-free, Solids-free water • Iron and Manganese to < .01 mg/L • Low chemical use = Minimal sludge

Low Operational Costs Modular expansion on Demand Ultra Low Pressure = Low Energy


Come See Us at the

Environmental Inc.

AWWA in Toronto!

Tel: 905-639-6320

Booth #544

Fax: 905-639-1812


For more information, circle reply card No. 177 (See page 17)

In Ontario call: PRO mUK Tel: 416-485-1850 Fax: 416-485-9638

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996




Schlumberger Is Bridging The Future

FOR YOU.. . No matter what size your utility is today. Or what systems you will use tomorrow to increase efficiency and reduce costs.

Schlumberger is your bridge to the future with migrateable solutions to fit your changing needs. Find out more - and be the first to see the latest innovation in low cost, high productivity meter reading.

Exclusively from Schlumberger at our AWWA show booth in Toronto this summer.




Š 1996, Schlumberger Industries Inc.

Schlumberger Water 1600 Alabama Highway 229

Canadian Operations Schlumberger, Canada, LTD

Tallassee, AL 36078

7275 West Credit Avenue

Customer Service: 1-800-645-1892 FAX-IT!: 1-800-823-4417

1-800-363-7886 FAX: 905-858-0428

Water Division

Mississauga, Ontario L5N 5M9

For more information, circle reply card No. 185(See page 17)

AWWA Exhibitor List Booth # 732 953

Exhibitor DFW/HPI Diamond Plastics

DMD Div., Dresser Industries


D&S Sales/ Western Mule Cranes



Booth #



East Jordan iron Works EBAA iron E.H. Wachs

726 1625 1218

EiMCO Process Equipment


Ductile iron Pipe Research


DuPont DYK.


Elf Atochem Canada EMA Services


Emery-Tralligaz Ozone

445 647


Since 1905


FOOT VALVES Foot Valves help to maintain pump prime upon pump outage,

Silent Check Valves are designed



2 1/2" through 16" — Cast iron body, bronze disc and seat ring,


resilient seat, stainless steel spring.

Pressure Air Valves are used for the

venting of accumulating air while the system is in service and under pressure.

The Oldest Name In Air Release Valves Design Quality and Integrity Since 1905 Made In The U.S.A.

AIR & VACUUM VALVES Air and Vacuum Valves are

designed to vent large quantities of air when filling pipe lines allowing air to re-enter when draining to

prevent vacuum collapse.

to close before the pump stops

completely. This prevents flow reversal which eliminates water

hammer and system surges associated with valve closure. ANSI Class 125 and Class 250.

Crispin-Multiplex Manufacturing Co. P.O. Box 427 Berwick. PA 18603 717-752-4524, 800-AIR-VALV Fax: 717-752-4962

"See us at AWWA 1996, Booth No. 1146"

For more information, circle reply card No. 232


Forty years in this business has taught us that valves are critical to the reliability of your project and the long term cost-effectiveness of your plant.


Valves are not a component you want to cut corners on and risk compromising

your professional reputation. It's not a risk we're prepared to take either; with your reputation, or ours! When you specify l\IEO, you can be certain you are specifying quality valves without compromise. Regardless of the application, call us for immediate, expert attention to your valve requirements; support you should expect ... and definitely deserve. I/Ve're ready for your business.

WE'RE READY FOR YOUR BUSINESS Offering a complete line of valves for water and wastewater


amOVALVES 430 Norfinch Drive, Toronto, Ontario IV13N 1Y4

Tel: (416)661-6020 Fax:(416)661-6787


For more Information, circle reply card No. 233 (See page 17)


Booth #

Energy Technology Labs Ensys Environmental Prod

2440 2347

Envirex Envlromax Rubber Environmental Associates Environmental Health Labs Environmental Products

1031 2454 2354 337 740

Env. Sci. & Engineering Mag Environmental Systems EPRI Community Env. Center

124 751 145



Fabrico Mfg Fairbanks Morse Pump Fibergrate

1954 517 243

Fleldtech Fisher Research Lab Flomatic Valves

2246 414 1345

Floway Pumps Floyd 8. Salser Jr. & Assoc Fluid Conservation Sys Footage Tools Force Flow Equip

1155 1041 722 622 2241

Ford Meter Box Formulabs Foxboro Freedom Plastics

817 341 229 2050

Prey Water Engineering Fuji Tecom Detecnology

2332 336

GA Industries


GAF Filter Systems


Gaco Western


Gardiner Equip


General Alum & Chem General Chem GE Multllln General Filter GEOTELEC

2554 2140 2331 1025 1147

Glynwed Plastics IntI Goulds Pumps

2429 2547

GPK Products Great Lakes Instruments

1242 2223

Greey Lightnln/BIF Griffin Pipe Products

2423 1035

Hach Hansen Information Tech Marco Waterworks C.P. Harmsco Industrial Filters

1823 340 432 451

Harrignton (MARCO Fittings) J.P. Maynes and Associates Mays/Lee Brass

1840 344 2041

M.C.I. Stanchem

Mead Manufacturing Meath Consultants Inc

Menry Pratt M.E.R.C. Products


1545 734

1641 949

Mersey Products


MF Scientific MIAC/ROYCO

2035 1546

MSG Technology Mungerford & Terry Mydra-Shleld Manufacturing Mydra-Stop Mydro-Aeroblcs Hydro Flow Products Hydro Group Mydroserv Myprescon

2417 1850 2033 735 1323 2548 1922 247 327



Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

AWWA Exhibitor List Exhibitor InduMar Products

Booth # 428

Industrial Cutting Systems 849 Infiico Degremont 2217 INIVEN (Div. of Gonolog Corp.) .... 323 Insituform Tech




Intl. Dioxcide Intl. Ozone Assoc

2418 2312

Intl. Piping Serv.(IPSCO)


Intl. Teldata


Intl. Water & Irrigation Review 118 Interprovincial Corrosion Cntrl. ... 2436

Exhibitor Landmark Structures

Booth # 1745


Booth #

Mexalit Industrial, S.A. OF C.V.... 2325

Lang Filter Media


Mid-States Plastics

LaOue Corrosion Serv


Miller Pipeline 2122 Minerals Research & Recovery .... 527

Lawler, Matusky & Skelly Eng F.B. Leopold

2542 1323

Le-Ron Plastics


Lindsey Fabricators Liphook Couplers Systems LMI Milton Roy

1455 1336 656

Lowell M.A.B. Paints Madison Chem. industries

646 547 335

Ionics IPEX Itron ITXTech James Martin & Co JCM Industries JESCO America

947 2117 729 2145 149 1340 555

Magellan Systems Magnawand Marsh-McBirney Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties

2446 240 633

Master Meter


Mazzei Injector


J-M Mfg JRWT Trading

443 2333


Kemiron Kemwater North America

1846 850

Keystone Valve


Kinetico K.M.K. Consultants

434 1953

Koch Engineering Co. Koch Membrane Sys Krofta Engineering Kupferle Foundry KWH Pipe (Canada) Lafarge Calcium Aluminates Lafarge Pressure Pipe

841 2449 630 2025 1055 2049



A.Y. McDonald Mfg 835 McElroy Manufacturing 1929 McGard Inc., Special Prod. DIv... 2240 McWane Memtec America Merrick Industries Mesa Labs Met One Metal-Homme

919 723 332 244 1651 2148

Metal Samples


Metron-Farnler Metrotech John Meunier

423 937 2447


Miox Moore Prod./Krohne America MS Soft

1553 249 2346

Mueller Co., A Tyco Intl. Co Multi Fittings

1119 2233

Munters-Moisture Control Serv. .. 2147

Myron L. Company 325 Natgun 816 National Environmental Training... 312 National Lime


National Pump


National Research Council of Canada Neo Valves

2455 946

Niagara Conservation Corp


Nordstrom Valves, Inc Norit Americas, Inc

1852 1646

North American Pipe (NAPCO) Novamann Intl


NSF Intl NSS Industries

348 2441 935

Nupla O'Brien-Kreitzberg

2521 1848

OCV Control Valves


Ohmicron Env. Diagnostlcs/Kalyx. 442 Ontario Clean Water OPTO 22 Osmonics/Ozone Research &

141 350

Equip., an Osmonics Co





The Proven Protectors In The Fight Against Pipeline Corrosion "See us at

AWWA 1996, Booth No. 2436"

Award winning renderings of the Ajax Water Supply Plant, designed by SIMCOE ENGINEERING GROUP LIMITED Available in a complete line of sizes, shapes and weights. Made to strict standards of

chemistry, production control, testing and certification. Plus many other industry related products!

IN STOCK ■ FAST DELIVERY ■ COAST-TO-CGAST Interprovincial Corrosion Control company umiied 930 Sheldon Court, Burlington, ON, Canada L7L 5K6

Wafe/- Supply

• Pollution Control •


SCADA • Architectural Services • Energy Audits

International Corrosion Control inc. P.O. Box 441, Lewiston, N.Y., USA, 14092

Phone:(905) 634-7751 ■ Fax:(905) 333-4313


Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite # 10, Pickering, Ontario LIW 3W9 TEL: 905-831-1715


FAX: 905-831-0531


Since 1957

For more information, circie repiy card No. 187

For more information, circle repiy card No. 231

(See page 17)

(See page 17)

AWWA Exhibitor List

Pacific-Keystone Purification Sys. .. 321

Exhibitor Partlow David H. Paul Inc

Panametrics Parkson

PCI Ozone & Control Sys PeabodyTecTank

Exhibitor Ozonia North America

Booth # 2317

329 1746

Booth # 127 241

2229 928

Since 1897

A Member of The Weir Group PLC Serving the pollution control industry as authorized distributors for:

MoynoÂŽ Progressive Cavity Pumps Robbins & Myers Progressive Cavity Pumps Valchem Mixers Acrison Feeders

Peabody TecTauk Milton Roy Pumps Hayward Strainers Filtration Systems For more information contact: Peacock Inc., 2360 Millrace Court, Mississauga, ON L5N 1W2 Tel:(905)812-7100 Fax:(905)812-7203 For more information, circle reply card No. 230


Phillips Driscopipe Philmac Valves & Fittings Phipps & Bird

Pipeline Inspection(SPY)

Resilient Wedge Gate Valves Durable, Reliable... The Mueller 2360 series of Resilient

542 540 2046

Pitometer Associates Pitt-Des Moines

1640 617

Pittsburg Tank & Tower The Plastics Pipe Institute

2255 2023



Joseph G. Pollard Co Pollution Equip. News PolykenTech Powell Fabrication & Mfg

416 128 1647 420

PowerSeal PPG Industries PQ Precision Meters Preload Price Brothers ProMinent Fluid Controls PSDI/MAXIMO PUBLIC WORKS Pub

1650 1549 1948 1835 1541 1817 746 331 1540

Purac Engineering




Raco Mfg. & Eng


Radcom Tech Radiodetection Radix REDA

236 2445 623 1551

Reed Manufacturing


REHAU Industries

RJN Group Robar Industries

Roberts Filter Group (The)


1135 315

1243 450

Rodney Hunt, GA Industries Roediger Pittsburgh

2334 1941

The Roll Seal Valve Co Romac Industries

1246 1841

Ross Valve Mfg Royal Pipe Co./Royal Flex Lox

829 541

S & B Technical Prod Safe Water Solutions J.R. Schneider Co

1046 854 129

Schlumberger Industries


Schonstedt Instrument SensusTech

1441 1533


Wedge Valves meet or exceed current

Service Brass &Alum. Fittings

AWWA C509 standards, in addition

Severn Trent PLC


Severn Trent Systems


to being ULC/UL listed and FM approved.

Shimadzu Scientific Inst Sievers Instruments

2418 1133

Sigma Singer Valve

823 1047

Smith-Blair Solinst Canada

1232 2251

Speed Shore Spiniello Construction Star Pipe Products

1247 730 1829

Steel Plate Fabricators Assoc ST Environmental Services Sternson Stiles-Kem Div. of Met Pro STL Stoner Associates Stranco

2031 1719 1751 2141 1955 1719 551

Sulken + Kennedy LLP


Refinements such as long

polymer covered wedge guides not only stabilize the wedge but reduce internal wear, and ease operation. The Mueller 2360 series valves

are RATED at 250 psi and tested at 500 psi.

Sun River Innovations

An ISO 9002 Certified Manufacturer


1935 534 634

Pipeline Pigging Prod Pipeline Seal & Insulator


[Mueller Canada I

Booth #

For more information, circle reply card No. 184 (See page 17)

Sverdrup Civil Syscon Systems & Software


227 535 1855

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

AWWA Exhibitor List Exhibitor 3M Filtration Products TAABS/U.B.S Tabuchi

Booth # 846 1554 2349


Booth #

Troy Valve


Trumbull Ind. & Ludlow/Ronsselaer DIv. of Trumbull Industries 747 TSI Associates 424

Warminster Fiberglass Water & Wastes Digest Water Cond. & Purlf. Mag

T.T. Technologies Tyler Pipe Industries Tytronlcs Umgenl Water Explochem

Water Environment Federation

TADCO Manufacturing Talisman Systems Tank Industry Consultants Tapecoat TDJ Group

1951 1041 627 353 554

TD. Williamson Technical Products

948 1145

Underwriters Labs

Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Assoc

Tek-Rap Telemonltoring Manufacturing

1449 2550

Temcor Tetra Tech

Thor Div., Empire Level Mfg Thompson Pipe & Steel

845 1527 2545 343

Booth # 1017

1940 2244 246 313

Water Quality Assoc Water Specialties Water Technology IntI

413 1141 2517


WaterWorld Watts Industries

1749 1741

Unimin Universal Flow Monitors

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Westfall Manufacturing Westinghouse

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Westwood Chem Wheelabrator Clean Water

2344 417

2435 2422

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2412 1435 629 954

Wheeler Mfg Whirlpool

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Wllkins DIv./Zurn Industries Willis Corroon Work Area Protection X-Pando Products Zenon Environmental

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Victaullc Co. of America


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Pulp & Paper Focus

By Warren Johnson, P.Eng.

Wet oxidation for pulp & paper industry wastes

ConorPacific Environmental

Technologies Inc. (CPET) has the global rights to a

patented wet oxidation tech nology(originally developed by a Dan ish consortium consisting of RISO National Laboratory and NKT Research Center (NKT/RISO))used for destroy ing hazardous and non-hazardous ma terial contained in liquids and soils. CPET also has the Canadian rights for the Eco Waste Technologies (EWT) supercritical wet oxidation technology and various other technologies under development, including catalyzed wet oxidation technologies. The technologies have effective ap plications for the treatment of organic contaminants in water, soil, sludge and




sediment remediation,for various indus

tries including the pulp and paper, chemical,and petrochemical industries. The Technologies The technologies used by CPET are based on the principle of using unique combinations of temperature, pressure, flow and exposure to gaseous oxygen in a pipe reactor to decompose contami nants in liquid form or as a slurry. De pending on the compounds requiring treatment, the degree of destruction is

Transportable liquids demonstration plant, Edmonton, Alberta.

reactor system and heat recovery and discharge separation as shown schema tically in Figure 1. NKT/RISO

The NKT/RISO process is a subcritical wet oxidation carried out at

pressures of 100-170 bars and between 220-300째C in a continuous pipe reactor tmder turbulent flow conditions. Oxy gen is injected and dissolved in the re controlled to the most economical level. actor at various predetermined Processing Schematic points and in measured amounts to HEAT achieve the optimum reaction ki EXCHANGER netics. The process is exothermic but some heat is required at start up and, thereafter, cooling is re quired to overcome heat buildup. REACTOR This is accomplished using heat OXYGEN HIGH TREATED exchangers that typically allow an PRESSURE EFFLUENT PUMP TRIM HEAT overall energy recovery of 80%. Figure 1 The reactor is a closed system and, Wet oxidation is defmed as the proc therefore, gaseous waste product emis


ess where organic contaminants in liq uids, or solids, are extracted into water where they are contacted with an oxi-

dant under conditions that promote their rapid destruction, which in this case are, 220-290째 C or over 374째 C and at pres sures of 100 - 250 bar.

The general configuration of the re actor systems includes a feed prepara tion and analysis tank, feed pump, heat recovery, preheater, oxygen injection/ *Conor Pacific Environmental

Technologies Inc., Vancouver, B.C. 72

sion is controlled. Where complete oxi dation takes place, carbon dioxide and water are the by-products. Due to the controlled oxygen addition, pressures and temperamres, the reactor and proc ess equipment can be easily constructed from unique combinations of readily available materials, so the overall capi tal costs are low.

physical properties of water make organics highly soluble. Under these con ditions the organic materials are easily dissolved in water and contact with oxy gen allows oxidation to proceed rapidly. Compared to the NKT/RISO process the reaction proceeds much faster so a smaller reactor system is required. Due to the higher temperatures and pressures the materials of construction are more

exotic and expensive, resulting in over all higher capital costs than the NKT/ RISC system. Large organic molecules are broken down into carbon dioxide and smaller

oxygen-rich organic compounds, mainly carboxylic acids or, if oxidation is complete, to carbon dioxide and wa ter. Where complete oxidation is not cost-effective or required, the degree of destruction can be regulated so that com pounds containing sulphur, chlorine or nitrogen are converted to sulphate, chlo ride, and ammonium nitrate or gaseous nitrogen respectively. These com pounds are generally very water-solu ble, and in the case of soils, are easily separated from the soil matrix where after-treatment of the discharge liquids may be completed using a conventional biological process.


Identified Uses

The EWT process is a super critical wet oxidation process carried out at tem peratures above 374째C and at pressures of over 220 bar where changes in the

Pulp and paper companies have shown particular interest in the tech nologies for site remediation associated Continued on page 74

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

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application system for routine titrations or complex procedures involving multiple electrodes, titrants & reagents, and file linking. PC-Titrate uses a personal computer to control the titration, acquire and analyze data. Your system will be expandable with changes in computer and software technology.

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For more information, circle repiy card No. 179 (See page 17)

Pulp & Paper Focus with previous wood treatment activities and treatment of high organic content streams to close bleach plants, and to increase chemical recovery capacity and treat contaminated sludges and water ways.

In particular the technologies have been used to:

• Reduce high concentrations of organics, both hazardous and non-hazardous, to levels that are easily biologically pol ished (municipal sewer dischargable). The NKT/RISO process is typically most cost-effective for this application. • Completely destroy high concentra tions of organics and discharge fully treated waters(cleaner than raw receiv ing water standard). The EWT process

is typically most cost-effective for this application, depending on the contami nants and treatment targets. • Extract and destroy organic contami nants in soils and sludges. For exam

ple,coal tar and PAH contaminated soils or sludges treated to CCME residential park land standards. For this applica

tion for any company or industry to re

nated liquids, lagoon sludges, or wet

duce or eliminate an environmental li


ability is a clear-cut economic benefit.

Feed contaminant types, concentra tions and treatment levels are agreed to and the materials are accepted for treat ment in a feed pile or feed tank. The

Where the economic benefit is not

immediately apparent, delays may oc cur. By offering a range of treatment options on an all-in cost basis, compa nies are able to easily understand the al ternatives and select the most cost- and

regulatory-effective option. The end re sults desired are most importantly se lected on the basis of what is required. Typical examples of the treatment lev els that have been demonstrated and clude: • 99.9%+ destruction of hazardous or

organics, • destruction of restricted organic con taminants to CCME dischargeable levels, • sufficient organic destraction to allow cost-effective chemical recovery. The Economics

on the contaminants and treatment tar

on the contaminants and treatment tar

tion required and volumes requiring treatment. Due to the significant differ ences changes in these variables can have,cost comparisons are only relevant on a clearly defined case, or on a rela tive basis. In general, the technologies are most applicable for feed organic con


centrations of 5,000-300,000 PPM,un der conditions where the contaminants are in wet conditions such as contami-

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Figure 2 In comparison to incineration, the technologies are easier to permit and are

less affected by high moisture contents and the destruction efficiencies are more

The treatment costs for the technolo

gies are dependent on the contaminants,

CPET believes that the best motiva


•99.999%+ destruction of all C-H-O-N

their concentrations,the level ofdestmc-

Targeted Results

^wet' Wet Oxidation

ganics and 70-90%+ reduction in COD,

process can be cost-effective depending gets.

Treatment on a pile to pile basis

contracted for with the technologies in

tion, either the NKT/RISO or EWT

• Destroy organic contaminants mixed with inorganic chemicals allowing chemical recovery. The NKT/RISO or EWT process can be used, depending

materials are treated on site and re

turned, treated to the target levels and to a discharge pile or pipe at a cost per tonne (all costs in) basis.

insensitive to variations in fuel values of the waste stream.

In comparison to biological systems the technologies are compact and can treat hazardous wastes and biologically toxic materials at high concentrations and at high destruction levels. Case studies have shown treatment cost re

ductions of up to 50% compared to ex isting treatment options. Typical examples of all-in treatment costs including capital, return on capital, maintenance,labour and all utilities, are: • $0.02-0.25/litre using the NKT/RISO process with discharge of municipally acceptable wastewaters to a municipal waste treatment system including mu nicipal charges or a biological polish ing system. • $0.08-0.50/litre using the EWT super critical process, discharging waters that are cleaner than the raw receiving waters.

• $75-200/tonne for treating contami nated soils and/or sludges to CCME lev els acceptable for final disposition ofthe solids at the site they were removed

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Costs for chemical recovery are so dependent on the contaminant and re sidual levels that can be accepted in the chemicals being recovered that no gen eral numbers are meaningful. It can be

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stated, however, that the economics of

Visit ES&E magazine's web site http://www.esemag.com 74

wet oxidation for chemical recovery have proven cost-effective. For more information,

circle reply card No. 182 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

Environmental Insurance

By Brian Benn*

Improving the bottom line with environmental Insurance

Forest products companies in

Canada today face intense scrutiny oftheir environmen tal performance by a wide variety ofinterested parties. And while many such companies spend millions of dollars to protect the environment in which they operate, and have developed environmental management systems, losses from pollution incidents, either

gradual or sudden, can still occur. Such companies may not have considered all the options for protecting their corpo rate image and enhancing their balance sheet.

Environmental liability insurance, which has developed in response to cov

erage gaps in property and general li ability policies, can play an important role in a company's response to society's ever-changing environmental expecta tions.

Over the past two decades, general

liability policies have typically con tained major limitations or exclusions for environmental liability. For exam

ple, general liability policies often ex clude coverage unless the pollution re sults from a hostile fire, or unless the

pollution is discovered within 120 hours after its commencement. And even then,

they may exclude cleanup costs or pol lution caused by the insured's wastes! Coverage gaps created by such ex clusions leave companies open to ex pensive cleanup and litigation costs in the event of any leaks, subsurface con tamination(the most costly to address), cumulative effects ofeffluent discharges or air emissions, existing contamination, and many other sudden and/or gradual pollution exposures. To be addressed properly, environ mental liabilities need to be handled

under separate environmental liability policies. While many companies rec ognize the limitations of the general li ability and property coverages in this regard, certain myths persist regarding environmental risk management and insurance.

One common myth is that compli ance with environmental regulations is sufficient. The reality is that risks go 'Manager, Environmental Risks, Commerce and Industry Insurance Company of Canada, a member company of AIG.

Fletcher Challenge's P&P plant at Elk Falls, BO recently completed major environ mental treatment facilities. (ES&E, Nov. 1992) Photo courtesy, Columbia Geosystems, Ltd., Calgary, Alberta. well beyond compliance issues. Even mately be required and the timing of companies that are in full compliance those expenses may be highly uncertain. today may be faced with sudden events Environmental insurance can help a or gradual undetected releases of pol company contain or reduce the costs and lutants that can pose significant cleanup risks of anticipated remediation. costs and third-party claims. 5. Minimizing the potential for large un Another common mjdh is that envi insured risks can be a challenge with the ronmental insurance is unavailable or exclusionary language relating to pol too expensive. In reality, virtually every lution on most general liability policies. aspect ofrisk is insurable, and while the Environmental insurance programs can range ofcoverages has increased, prices help fill in such coverage gaps. have decreased. Possible problems Risk management What would your company do ifone Environmental insurance addresses or more of the following scenarios oc many of the challenges of risk manage curred? ment: • A new secondary treatment facility is 1.Public scrutiny will not diminish, but built to meet stricter federal Effluent Regulation criteria for BOD, TSS, and environmental insurance can help pro tect a company's corporate image by Toxicity. During start-up ofthe facility, providing the services of environmen variations in the aliquots ofnutrients and tal crisis management experts. Services treatment chemicals affect the toxicity range from reviewing existing plans to of the final effluent. Neighboring fish running facility-specific simulations. farms are negatively affected, and bring 2. Directors and officers may be con claims for property damage and loss of cerned about their personal liabilities. business. Environmental insurance automatically • A leak is detected in the underground includes directors, officers and other caustic soda piping system at a pulp mill. employees, while acting in their duties It is further discovered that both shal as such, as insureds under the coverage. low and deep aquifers and associated 3. Pressures for disclosure of environ soil formations are impacted,indicating mental liabilities in financial statements the leak has occurred over a long pe are increasing. Insurance can be shown riod of time and suggesting extensive as evidence to the financial markets that cleanup will be required. potential liabilities have been addressed. •Effluent from a mill has negatively af 4. Containing the costs of dealing with fected the taste ofa species offish in the known contamination is a challenge, river to which the mill discharges. since the extent ofcleanup that will ulti Continued overleaf

Environmental Science cS Engineering, June 1996


Pulp & Paper Focus

Eurocan installs water treatment plant

Clean water is a fundamental

requirement for efficient pulp and paper production. This requirement drove con

struction of a new 11.6 million dollar

water treatment plant at the Eurocan Pulp and Paper facility in Kitimat, on

from two separate intakes, located close to the existing river pumping station. The original intake, installed in 1970, consists of a large infiltration gallery constructed from a lateral grid of perfo rated pipe. The intake has failed to per-

with the original intake, now satisfies the total plant process demand. Raw water from both intakes flows into the

sump ofthe river pump station where it is elevated into the mill complex. Sand and silt, in the Kitimat River

water, have historically plagued the mill since operation began. The poor water quality causes rapid wear, plugging and pre

the north-west coast of British Columbia. The result has been

reduced operation and mainte nance costs and more efficient

mature failure of mechanical

pulp and paper production.

process equipment. The worst quality is encountered follow ing heavy rains or rapid snow melt when turbidity values can change from 20 NTUs to 300 NTUs within a 24 hour period. Several steps were previ ously undertaken by mill staff

The Eurocan Pulp and Paper Mill was originally constructed in 1971. The plant consists ofa woodhandling and preparation facility, a pulp mill and paper mill.

Process and domestic

water for the mill is supplied

to minimize the sand/silt load

from the Kitimat River and from

ground wells respectively. The process water demand ranges from 3,410 mVhr (15,000 USgpm) to 4546 mVhr(20,000 USgpm),the major ity of which used to be untreated. Raw

form up to expectations, particularly at low river flows, since its installation.

In 1972 a new direct pier type intake was constructed in the river, designed

ing including the installation of pressure filters, basket filters and cartridge filters. Most ofthis equip ment was installed at the point of appli cation with limited success. Costs for

*Associated Engineering, Alberta

the system. This intake, in conjunction

maintaining and replacing spare parts for this equipment have become prohibitive. Given the excessive O&M require-

Environmentai Insurance, cont'd.

unknown pre-existing conditions or new

Environmental Protection Program

Since the mill's neighbours rely on the

pollution conditions, generator liabili (EPP)combines risk transfer with riskties arising from pollution conditions at funding mechanisms to meet a compa specified non-owned locations, bodily ny's specific financial and risk manage ment needs. Advantages are that EPPs injury and property damage to third par provide consistent long-term coverage ties caused by pollution conditions, con tingent liabilities related to the use of while stabilizing insurance costs, poten third party transporters, underground tially reduce costs for anticipated reme diation and enhance a company's cash storage tanks, business interruption cov flow, evidence protection against envi erage for the insured, and more.

water is drawn from the Kitimat River

to increase the inflow of raw water into

fish for income, a multi-million dollar

claim is brought against the mill for the property damage. • A mill's old, unlined landfill has been used for many years to dispose of mis cellaneous garbage, wood wastes,incin erator ash, and refuse dumped by the neighboring residents. The leachate af fects the drinking water wells of the mill's neighbours, bringing claims for the mill to construct an entirely new water supply. • Under upset conditions, air emissions from boiler stacks and other point sources affect third parties by causing property damage (arising from deposi tion ofparticulate matter on neighboring residences and vehicles) and bodily in jury claims (arising from ammonia or chlorine gas clouds). Claims of nui sance related to odours emitted from the mill also occur. Solutions for fixed facilities

Pollution Legal Liability (PEL) is a flexible site-specific and transportation environmental liability program that addresses both sudden and gradual pol lution conditions. Coverage features can include on-site and off-site cleanup of 76

Solutions for known contamination

ronmental liabilities disclosed in the fi

Cleanup Cost Cap protects against cost over-runs during environmental remediation projects. This coverage

exposures at on-going operations and the expenses of known contamination.

removes much of the financial uncer

tainty associated with complex remedi ation projects, thus facilitating property transactions or financing related to the

nancial statements, and cover both the

While environmental insurance is an

important element of a company's over

risk of coverage being eroded by work

all insurance program and can be used to improve the bottom line, it must be viewed in the context of the company's entire financial strategy and insurance program. It is important to consider such factors as the benefits of having one insurer when policies might over lap, international coverage is needed, or other risks(such as hedging foreign ex change and commodity prices, or insur ing against shareholder actions, export risks or accounts receivable exposures)

the contractors do for others, or the risk

are of concem.

property. Owner-Controlled Insurance Pro

gram (OCIP) provides companies with coverage for the outside contractors and consultants that perform remediation work or other environmental services for

them. Key benefits of such a program are that the owner has coverage tailored and dedicated to its needs, without the

that coverage gaps might exist in the contractors' various policies.

For more information,

circle reply card No. 235

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

By G. Drachenberg, D. Popkin, and M. Kryczka* ments and ineffectiveness of previous mitigative efforts, a study team deter mined nothing less than fiill supply treat ment would resolve problems. Process Description The treatment requirements were ad

dressed by a 10,900 mVday (20,000 USgpm) solids contact clarification process. The overall process scheme

tact upflow clarifier where coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation proc esses take place. The clarified water flows by gravity into a 3,200 cubic me tre concrete clearwell under the water

treatment building. High lift pumps el evate the water from the clearwell into

River using the existing raw water pumphouse. The existing pumps and motors were replaced by four mixed flow vertical turbine units. New pump installation was required to convert the raw water pumphouse from high lift op eration to low lift operation.

the mill distribution system. All sludge generated from the clarifier process and also floor drain waste are discharged to a sludge chamber for disposal to the waste effluent ponds. Future expansion provisions include installation offour gravity filters to pro vide grade water if desired. The solids contact clarifier has also been designed to permit installation of tube settlers in the future, should increased capacity be required. The existing river pump station and new water treatment plant are connected to the mill steam plant control room via a fibre optic link. The new link permits remote operation of the pumping and

Chemicals are added at a flash mixer

water treatment facilities from either the

prior to the water entering the clarifier.

water treatment plant operator interface screen or the mill steam plant control

comprises: • raw water pumping, • flash mixing, • solids contact clarification,

• gravity filtration (future), • treated storage, • treated water pumping. Water is drawn from the Kitimat

Alum is used as the coagulant, polymer as a coagulant aid and caustic soda for pH adjustment and corrosion control. The chemically-treated water enters a 61 m(200 ft) diameter circular solids con


Construction and Implementation Eurocan's requirement that the entire facility be operational within one year

ABS Pumps


ITT Flygt


Acuflow ADI AIG Alfa Laval

43 58 17 15

KMK Consultants Laldlaw Env Mandel Scientific Mllltronlcs Mueller Nasco Plastics National Instruments Neo Valves OCPA O'Connor

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Analytical Meas

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Aqua Terra Aquatic Sciences Aquablast

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Brown Bear Can Am Ins

35 43



CH2M Gore & Storrle


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73 55



Parkson Corporation




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Crispin Multiplex


RPA Consultants

Davidson Env




Schlumberger Security insurance

Delcan Derrick

77 16

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Ecodyne Elmco

6 24

38 58,80

Fabricated Plastics Geomembrane Tech

58 74

Gorman Rupp


Great Lakes Env.

Great Lakes Instr. Hoffman

Interprov. Corrosion IPEX Inc


10,57 55


8 79 57,71 7,57 74

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SImcoe Southex Statlflo

69 49 57

Stormceptor Terminal City

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Waukesha WEF Zenon Zurich


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1996

the mill maintenance shut down in

March 1994, made it necessary to adopt a "Fast track" approach. The project was broken down into two phases and de sign and construction continued concur rently in order to achieve the project completion deadline. The first phase ofthe project required interruptions to the mill water supply, thereby necessitating implementation during the annual mill maintenance shutdown. Construction was carried out

through the fall and winter and Phase 1 was completed in less than seven months. Phase 1 consisted of:

•relocation ofa 250-vehicle parking lot to make room for the new water treat

ment plant; • retrofit of the existing river pump sta tion from high lift pumps driven by 450 hp, 2300 V, 1700 RPM motors to low lift pumps driven by 150hp,600V, 1170 RPM motors; • construction of a 36.5 m x 24.4 m x

4.9 m deep undergroimd reinforced conContinued overleaf




and that all necessary tie-ins and retro fits to existing facilities be made during


ti Peter J. Boyd, F.Eng., President and CEO of Delcan Corporation, is

pleased to announce that Geoffrey Addlson, P.Eng., has joined the com pany as the Vice-President of the En vironmental Division.

A 20-year veteran of Environmental Consulting, Geoff will be accountable for the business management and tech nical quality of all environmental en gineering and management projects.

29,58 19 12

19, 58,59 47 66 23

Delcan is a top international Engineer ing, Planning and Project Management firm with regional and local offices in Canada and the United States, as well as Hong Kong, Taiwan, Venezuela, Mexico and Turkey. 11

Pulp & Paper Focus SCRAPER DRIVE

nal rapid mixer or in the solids contaet


unit itself, depending on design. The water/solids mixture flows through ports near the top of the central mixing zone


into the flocculation zone. The floe settles to the bottom of the flocculation zone. Some of it is drawn





into the mixing zone, where it is mixed with the influent water. The rest flows, together with the flocculated water, un der the conical hood into the separation zone (the space between the conical hood and the tank walls) where the floe is separated from the water. The clari fied water flows upwards to the surface











of the unit, where it is collected by a


series of launders. Tube settlers are of


Figure 1

ten located just underneath the collec


tor launders. The floc which settles to the bottom ofthe unit is moved towards

Crete clearwell which provides 3200 m' of useable treated water storage. The


clearwell structure also functions as the

ated Engineering and Eurocan staff re sulted in the project being successfully completed on schedule and substantially under budget. Most importantly, the objective of providing a reliable clean water supply to raise mill efficiency, improve product quality, extend equip ment service life and reduce operation

foundation and main operating floor for the water treatment building and the 1260 L/s high lift pump station; •installation and tie-ins of 140 m of915

mm diameter underground pipeline. Phase 2 ineluded completion of the

The collaborative efforts of Associ

remaining water treatment facilities: •a 61 m diameter solids contact upflow clarifier,(supplied by Ecodyne Ltd.)ca pable of treating up to 1575 L/s of raw water to turbidity levels of less than 5

The treatment system has also been of


Pulp and Paper Mill.

•installation ofthe water treatment plant chemical feed systems; • installation of the clarifier sludge blowdown and disposal system; • installation of the water treatment

building HVAC systems, testing labo ratory, and other aneillary systems. Extensive plarming, seheduling and expediting were required to meet the project deadlines and coordinate tie-ins

and maintenance costs was realized.

benefit to Kitimat River fish hatchery which obtains water from the Eurocan Solids Contact Clarification

The heart of the treatment process used in the Eurocan project was the sol ids eontact clarifier. A typical solids contact unit is illustrated in Figure 1. Water enters the central mixing zone through the influent line, and is mixed with previously-formed solids by the recirculation propeller. Coagulant chemicals are added either in an exter

during the plarmed mill shutdown pe


riod. Because of the tight schedule it


a central sludge sump by rotating scraper arms,from where it is withdrawn in the

form of a sludge for disposal. For the process to work properly, substantial amounts of solids must be maintained

in both the flocculation and the separa tion zones. Control of these solids is

one ofthe most important aspects ofthe operation of a solids contact system. A Graver solids contact clarifier sup plied by Ecodyne Limited was installed in the Eurocan project. The clarifier is equipped with a variable speed recirculator and hydraulic rake drive which are both adjustable over a 10/1 range. Feamres also included forward and reverse

operation ofthe rake drive. The Ecodyne clarifier was also designed to operate with a 1 metre ice cap. Adjustable weirs are provided in the effluent launder to main tain a eonstant level, thereby minimiz ing ice cap movement. For more information, circle reply card No. 234 STEAM PLANT CMP PLANT

was decided to use a precast, post-


tensioned concrete tank shell for the

large elarifier. The 48 clarifier wall pan els, weighing 11,340 kg each, were precast in Vancouver, barged to Kitimat, and erected on the cast-in-place rein forced concrete floor slab in only three days. The clarifier tank was complete and watertight within four weeks ofthe first wall panel being set. The procurement, scheduling and expediting of construction activities, material and equipment involved 14 major contracts and required more than 200 purchase orders. The majority of construction activities were undertaken


- 5000 - *000 USCPU


^ 0"

r [-^ '


-€7" -€r~


1 krI


15000 - 20000 USCPU







by Kitimat area contractors and trades 78

Envimnmental Science & Engineering, June 1996



^ Philip Environmental provides integrated environmental management services to generators of ~

both hazardous and non-hazardous


wastes.We deliver technology

based solutions,for continuing

or single event problems, reducing the costs of environmental compliance.Through the partnering process, we provide the trans portation, processes, technologies, expertise and experience that allows clients to focus

on their base business, while improving

profitability and regulatory compliance. With over 50 locations and the expertise of 3,100 employees, Philip Environmental can work with clients any where in North America, delivering fast, complete, and effec tive solutions.To see what we can do for

you, call I -800-429-5503. Ask for a copy of our integrated services on 3'A" diskette.

PHILIP Recycling Solutions for Every Environment

For more information, circle reply card No. 193(See page 17)

The Carrousel® denitIR™ System with Integral Anoxic Reactor

Controls Effluent

Nitpogon and Mixed Liquor Alkalinity For wastewater treatment applications where strict nitrogen effluent limits, high influent nitrogen, or low influent alkalinity require denitrification, EIMCO denitIR Systems offer an elegantly simple solution. The modified Carrousel basin shown here features an integral anoxic reactor where nitrates are biologically reduced and alkalinity restored in a single-basm system without recycle pumps or piping.

denitIR System Description 1. Denitrification Zone Screened, degritted wastewater and retmn activated sludge contact nitrate-rich, anoxic flow from the Carrousel basin. The combination of a dense biomass, nitrates and an abun dant carbon source(BOD)under anoxic conditions creates

the ideal environment for high rate denitrification. Alkalinity is restored along with much of the oxygen previously bound

denitIR Systems with fn-Basin Oenitrlflcatien:

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Control Gate


® Restore Alkalinity

2. Aerobic Zone The proven CaiTousel System achieves efficient oxidation of BOD and complete nitrification. Carrousel System design allows aerator power draw to be reduced by more than 50% without loss of mixing. Oxygen transfer can thus be adjusted so that the mixed liquor reaches an anoxic condition before passing the denitrification zone diversion gate.

® Recover Chemically Bound Oxygen ® Reduce or Eliminate Alkali Addition

3. Anoxic Flow Control Gate Nitrate recycle rate is easily controlled by an adjustable gate on the denitIR wall which controls flow into the by-pass channel. This by-pass directs a portion of the main channel flow to the anoxic zone. Carrousel System aerators provide all necessary circulation.

il?il Main Office • 5155 Creekbank Rood • Mississauga, ON •(905} 625-6070• FAX:(905)625-3519 WestefTi Office • 220-259 Midpark Way S.E. • Calgary, AL•(403) 256-6812• FAX:(403) 256-7071 Eco Equipement FEP Inc.•Terrebonne, QC •(514)477-7879 • FAX:(514)477-7880 Atlantic Purification Systems Ltd.• Dartmouth, MS •(902)469-2806 • FAX:(902)463-3529


EIMCO PROCESS EQUIPMENT ,4 Division ofBaker Hughes Canada Inc.

For more information, circle reply card No. 194 (See page 17)