Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 1996

Page 1


Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine V




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Convention Previews Globe '96, BCW&VVA, AOTE, OWWA, WEAO, AMWA How filtration evolved to cope with putjlie health issues

A long, lingering look iat lawyers - our editor's comment PCBs — what they are and ways to treat them Solving winter biosolids problems

FOR A SAFE ENVIRONMENT CALL US! Turbidity/Suspended Solids Analyzer and Sensors

Blanket Level Detectors

The Royce Model 7011 Suspended Sol ids Analyzer provides

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treatment plants, riv ers, lakes and other

Continuously moni

aqueous systems. A

tors and controls in terface level in tanks.

user friendly text screen provides menu

Numerically displays interface depth in

driven setup. The in

feet, meters or per

strument will read in

centage of total tank depth, Displays either depth of interface or distance from surface to interface.

Graphically displays full-depth interface profile on panel-mounted LCD graphical display. Trending Capability.

Applications; • Waste Treatment

• Any tank with a liquid/solid

• Petroleum

• Pulp & Paper

Parts Per Million

Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers


• Mining

either milligrams per liter or density per

centage and is auto-ranging. With features that include insitu calibration, automatic color compensation (Patent Pending), true microprocessor operation, and automatic

ambient light compensation (Patent Pending). The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly experienced in ef fluent streams (0-500 mg/l). The Model 73 submersible sensor is for medium ranges typically found in aeration basins (0-30,000 mg/L). The Model 74 in-line sensor is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS line applications (080,000 mg/l).

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen analyzers with features such as automatic caiibration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel electronics, and low maintenance self-cleaning probes. Four chan nel conversion available. Request Bulletins 9010/ 9040 and 94.

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Circle 251 on Reader Service Card

Circle 252 on Reader Service Card

Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

Portable instrumentation for pH,

Continuous Monitoring For

ORP, 88, Interface Level and DO

Gas and Fire

These Battery operated port able Analysers are rugged, water-proof and completely submersible. They are de signed for reliable remote op eration In Waste Treatment

Plants, rivers, lakes, etc. The

Model 500 pH/ORP Is avail able with an assortment of

Sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliable Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Portable Suspended Sol ids/Interface Analysers are Ideal for remote monitoring In

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2 Wide Operating Range , (.001 ppm to 100 ppm)

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aeration basins, short term

diurnal studies and laboratory applications. Each product features digital readout, microprocessor based electron ics with self-dlagnostlcs. All models except for the 711 have analogue and RS232 digital outputs.

The Crowcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4") 19" Eurocard Rack. The Gas Monitor operates witfi Crowcon's and other Manufacturers' Gas Detectors, includ

ing infra-red and Gas and fiame detector Sensors. Gas Monitor has a data logging facility which provides for con tinuous recordings of Gas levels. The System is supplied with self-installing supporting Software which operates in a Windows environment. Please ask for details on

Crowcon's Portable single and multi Gas Detectors.

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Automatic Liquid 8ampling

Effluent Sampler

8ludge 8ampler

Wherever It's Needed The EPS 1021 Effluent

Sampler is designed to extract samples of liq uid from an open chan nel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite container or sequentially into an ar ray of 24x1/2 litre con tainers for subsequent retrieval and analysis. Typical applications: • Crude sewage • Settled sewage • Final effluent

• Raw sludge • Most industrial

EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications


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The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler


of sewage sludge from a flow

is designed to extract samples ing pipeline or alternatively

The Epic!01 IT program mable portable waste-

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water sampler provides cost etteclive automatic

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ity to sample sludges contain ing a high level of non-homo geneous suspended solids. Typical Applications; • Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs

water. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers tor sub sequent analysis.

• Mechanical


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charge terminals

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 259(See page 17)

ISSN-0835-605X President STEVE DAVEY

February/March '96 Vol. 9 No. 1


Issued March, 1996

Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON CANTON (604) 274-3849 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON Sales Rep. COLLEEN DAVEY

Spring Convention Previews Globe '96, BCW&WA, AQTE, 0\N\NA, WEAO, AMWA and TES



Editorial Comment by Tom Davey

Tischnical Advisory Board

Impact of fire flow criteria on the cost of

Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumler

NOVAMANN (Ontario) Inc. Alan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CRA Consultants

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication pub lished by Environmental Science & Engi neering Publications Inc. An aii Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and dis tribution.

ES&E's readers inciude consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provinciai and federal envi


a small waterworks


Site specific considerations require different approaches in upgrading aeration systems


Project remediates land and treats coal tar contaminated groundwater in downtown Toronto


Integrating Occupational Health & Safety with Environmental Management Systems


Going beyond pulp friction & paper tigers


Hamilton OSO tank will reduce pollution and restore wildlife habitat


Leachability of cokes from Syncrude stockpiles


How filtration is evolving to cope with new public health issues


Autoclave decontamination used in Quebec FOB

decontamination facility


PCS destruction progress in 1995


Bioremediation -a potential solution for ciean-up ofPCBs


Durham Region solves its winter biosolids management problem


ronmental officials, water and wastewater

treatment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mail Sales

Product Agreement No. 18197

Departments Ad Index


Literature Reviews




Product Review


Date Pad


R&D News Reader Service Card

Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Web Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $25.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) AN advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Envi ronmental Science & Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271.

Industry Update


27 17

Our cover story. It's convention time again with two major con ferences in beautiful British Coiumbia alone. This spectacuiar shot of Vancouver Trade & Convention Centre is courtesy of Giobe '96 -see us at our booth there. We' II also be covering the AQTE, AMWA, OWWA, WEAO, The Toronto Environment Show and other meetings. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be field responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Industry Update Record attendence at Tradeshow/Conference/Workshops

Philip buys Zenon labs

- Plan to attend the 1996 meeting

Philip Environmental concluded an agree ment with Zenon Environmental Inc., to purchase the assets of Zenon Environmen tal Laboratories, January 31. The result is a

new laboratory company, Philip Analytical Services Corporation, comprised of Barringer Laboratories of Mississauga, pur chased by Philip in 1992,and the three Zenon locations in Burlington, Vancouver and Montreal.

The company is headed by Andrew Murray, previously President of Barringer. Foeus of the new environmental lab com

pany, said to be the largest in Canada, will be "business as usual" with ail locations con

tinuing to serve their current customers, while using the added capabilities and ca


pacities of the network to provide improved

All of the four classrooms were filled during the two day training workshops. The 10th Annual Toronto Environmental

Tradeshow and Conference, to be held May 7-8, has now firmly established itself as the premier annual private environmental expo sition. The 1995 exposition attracted crowds ofbuyers and specifiers to the delight of ex

hibitors. The Environmental Compliance Conference and Workshops, organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine,attracted some 500 delegates and presenters, a record since the Tradeshow/ Conference was first planned almost a

and broader services.

decade ago. Four years ago, ES&E was asked to or ganize and sponsor the Conference/Work shops. Attendance has risen steadily each year. The 1995 attendance was by far the larg est since the show began. Southex now owns and operates this annual event. Environmen talScience & Engineering Magazine has been the official Show Guide for the last three shows.

For conference registration call (905) 727-4666.

Take the Heacbiche Out of Pollution fkintrol. A.C. Carbone is Canadats only manufaclurer of Activated Carbon. So when you need it we will certainly have it.

We al.so offer a wide variety ofprepackaged,skidmounted,environmental systems for use in remedial treatment,emission control,corrosive gas control,

WWTP odor control,containment hoasings,water and wastewater treatment, lAQ's, solvent recovery and other activated carbon related

products including specially impregnated carbons for.specific contaminants. A.C. Carbone has your environmental remedy.

For more information, call write, or fax: A.C. Carbone Canada Inc. Carbone Active-Activated Carbon 300 Rue Brosseau

St. Jean-Sur-Richelieu, Quebec J3B 2E9 Phone:(514)348-1807 Fax:(514) 348-3311

Activated Carbon


For more information, Circle reply card No. 229 (See page 17)

Alcan and Quebec Iron and Titanium

(GIT) facilities declared RGB free Sanexen Environmental Services Inc. has

completed two large projects involving PCB transformer waste reduction and the disposal of all PCB wastes from Alcan and QIT. Waste reduction was accomplished at all sites by utilizing Sanexen's oil decontamina tion and transformer reduction technologies. At Alcan, 680 metric tonnes(MT) were reduced by ,75% leaving 190 MT for trans port and disposal. At QIT, 579 MT were reduced by 80% leaving 115 MT for trans port and disposal. Together, over 950 MT of metals was recycled and recovered through smelting. All the remaining PCB wastes were sent for final destruction to

Chem Security in Swan Hills, Alberta.

New Ontario standard

agreement clarifies

liability of lenders A streamlined procedure that allows credi tors to investigate a property in cases of in

solvency without assuming liability for past environmental damage to the site has been announced by the Ontario Ministry of Envi ronment and Energy.

Under the law, anyone assuming manage ment or control ofa property runs the risk of accepting responsibility for any past envi ronmental damage. A new Standard Agree ment with Lenders now allows creditors to

conduct environmental evaluations, deal with health and safety issues and prepare a property for resale without being deemed to have taken control. The agreement was de veloped with the help ofa multi-stakeholder

working group primarily representing gov ernment and financial institutions. There was

also input from the manufacturing,industrial, insurance and agricultural sectors.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Reader Feedback Dear Editor:

tence in our report states: "The Honour

I just read your article called "Wetland wastewater treatment systems across Canada

able Brenda Elliott was named Minister

Editor's note. If any reader can further help Mr. MIsse he can be reached at:

of the Environment and Energy on June 26,1995, shortly after her election to the Ontario Legislature as MPP for Guelph."

8400-124th St., Surrey, B.C. V3W 6K1 (604) 591-5111, Fax:(604) 591-3171

— Part H" in the November 1995 issue. I

noticed that Part I of this article appeared in

the September 1995 issue of ES&E. That issue has been misplaced in our office. Could you please either fax or mail me a copy of that article.

Many thanks, Nancy Bailey, Canadian Petroleum Products Institute Dear Sir:

I enjoy reading your publication that 1 have been receiving for a number of years now. From the name of the publication I have al ways assumed that the publication was tar geted towards the Canadian audience, but 1 guess that I was wrong to assume that. This is because ofan article in the November 1995

issue headlined "Effective, efficient,flexible andfair are the watchwordsfor new minis ter". With this headline I assumed that there was a new federal minister of the environ ment and I had missed the news of the cabi

net changes. But io and behold, the article was referring to the minister in Ontario! Please let me know who your audience

really is. If it is Ontario, then you should change the name accordingly! B. Bruce Sithole, Ph.D. Process Chemistry Division, Paprican

Shanahan's Ltd.

Dear Tom: Dear Sir:

Please find enclosed a cheque as payment in full of your invoice. We were very pleased with your kind assistance and with the ad itself. The referrals are very valuable to a fledgling business like ours! We want to advertise again in your fine publication. Grant Buchan-Terrell Windrush Innovations Dear Sir:

I receive and enjoy your magazine very much and must compliment you on the in-depth articles that are usually in your magazine. Since I am currently involved in research on the effects of mushroom composting on the environment, including air quality and the compost effects on potable groundwater, I would appreciate very much if you could send me any information that you may have in your file library on previous articles on mushroom composting. Keep up the good work.

piexed by his enquiry. The very first sen-

Corporation(OWMC)ceased operations. OWMC's services to industry were sup

ported by the Ontario Government. Follow ing the decision not to build the proposed hazardous waste treatment plant,this support has been now reduced to an extent that it is

impossible to continue providing pollution prevention and waste auditing services. OWMC helped Ontario companies re duce, reuse and recycle for over ten years. The Direct Assistance Program, waste au

diting workshops and publications sponsor ship ofthe Ontario Waste Exchange, all origi nated by OWMC,have contributed to reduc tions in the amount ofhazardous wastes gen erated in Ontario. It is with regret that we at

OWMC are terminating this work. We hope that trends in 3Rs that we have been part of, and we think stimulated, will continue to

grow to the benefit of Ontario's environment. Richard F. Nowina

Vice President, OWMC

Michael Misse

Editor's Note. I am gratified by Dr. Sithoie's enjoyment of ES&E but per-

I am writing to inform you that effective Sep tember 8, 1995, Ontario Waste Management


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more information. Circle reply card No. 230 (See page 17)

Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Collective noun urgently needed for lawyers "I do not like to speak ill of any man but I strongly suspect yonder gentleman to be a lawyer." Samuel Johnson

A mere three decades ago,

engineers and chemists were the dominant species at environmental meetings. It was, after all, their natural habitat and one which they had dominated—albeit imperfectly—^for well over a century. The only lawyer you would meet at those environmental meetings was Herrry Landis, then staffcounsel for the Ontario Water Resources Commission.

This, of course, was in the ancient re gime — when engineers quite literally surveyed all they ruled—which peaked around 1969 B.C.*, long before the commission became the environment

ministry. Environmental lawyers in this milieu were then so rare they would now be thought of as an endangered species. But the lawyers obeyed the Biblical in

junction to go out and multiply. And multiply they did, with a vengeance.

conquests which brought the rule oflaw. But once lawyers had entered the environmental field, like many new spe cies entering ecosystems, they had few natural enemies, or to phrase it more accurately, few enemies who were ef fective. Today,if you were to randomly throw a stick in any environmental con ference, the odds are very good that your missile would connect with a lawyer. We attempted to prove this theory under controlled conditions but failed when it was noted that some research

ers, mostly engineering students, were acmally aiming the sticks at lawyers. When challenged, one of the culprits said he had aimed at the lawyers because there were nojournalists in the audience. Impudent? Yes, but he had a point which will emerge later. The incident led to a realization that

there is no collective noun for a group of lawyers. We have a pride of lions, a

was no collective noun for a group of prostimtes. Reader Michael Robyns,of New Zealand, wrote that the committee

went to that citadel of correct English usage, the BBC, where they sought the elusive collective noun for prostitutes from various experts. Television cook Philip Harben was said to have responded with: "What about a tray full of tarts?" Sir Malcolm Sargent, the eminent conductor, riposted with "a fanfare of strumpets," while the then poet laureate, John Masefield, be ing steeped in literamre, amongst other things, offered "an anthology of prose," or "a novel of trollops." Appropriately, a lawyer had the last word on the matter. It was recounted

that the committee then mrned despair ingly to Sir Hartley Shawcross, who had been the attorney general and a prosecu tor at the Nuremburg Trials. With a law yer's caution he declined to help, but

The traditional environmental disci

plines—chemistry, civil and chemical engineering—trained in more passive research and scholarship,found they had no natural defences against the new le gal marauders whose keen intellects

But once lawyers had entered the environmental field, like many new species entering ecosystems, they had few natural enemies, or to phrase It more accurately, few enemies who were effective.

were trained in combative rhetoric and

unmatched knowledge of the legal ter rain. After all, how many engineers and chemists are there in our legislamres? You might need gas chromatography to locate one. How many lawyers are also lawmakers? You might need a computer to count them.

Having also penetrated governments, lawyers are able to make laws as well as argue cases. So, like the Roman Le gions, who also brought good roads and the rule oflaw to conquered territories, the new breed of lawyers challenged powerful corporate polluters, many of whom had been immune to environmen

tal regulation. Until recently Latin was essential to legal training. Indeed,such phrases as onus probandi, habeas cor pus and caveat emptor are, paradoxi cally, linguistic remnants of the Roman *Before CELA - the Canadian Environ

mental Law Association, founded in a

spirit of pro bono publico.

flock ofsheep,zschool offish and even an unkindness of ravens. For humans

we have a bevy of beauties, but no col lective noun for lawyers. This is sur prising really for the law is not only one ofthe oldest leamed professions but also the one with the best disposition for ver

with a brilliant, but pointed thrust, he warned: "Call them anything you like, but not on any account, a Finn of solici tors."

For the fourth estate, a collective

In 1994, a British newspaper fear lessly tackled the delicate issue of col lective nouns for another profession, the

noun — the scrum — recently evolved for those journalists who jostle around ce lebrities. After watching our U.S. breth ren frantically cover the O. J. Simpson trial, I think it might be appropriate to leave out the f, which ironically makes

oldest one in fact. Now I believe that

it a four letter word.

bal rhetoric.

truly great newspapers attract readers whose biting satire and insights match those ofprofessional scriveners. The in ternational edition of The Manchester

Guardian seems to have a plethora of talented readers who respond to various absurd scenarios that seem so abundant in the British Isles.

For example, when the British Wolfenden Committee's study on homosexual offences was nearing com pletion in 1957, it was realized that there

N.B. Some readers will no doubt tell me

that The Guardian of London dropped Manchester from Its original title decades ago. True, but the original name survives In an International edition published weekly, combining articles from Le Monde, The Washington Post and The Guardian. The Notes & Ouer/es column,

by Joseph Marker of The Guardian, regu larly attracts an unequalled range of witty anecdotes from around the globe.

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1996

^^jApplications; i •

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In Quebec: t


Industry Update Victoria toxoplasmosis outbreak


traced to water supply Last spring the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control

10610 - 172 Street • Edmonton, Alberta T5S 1H8 Phone:(403) 486-2400 Fax:(403) 486-2500

(BCCDC) began investigating after an unusually high number of cases of toxoplasmosis cases were reported in the Victoria

Flow Indicators


area between December and Inarch, 1995. While cat litter, cats, unpasteurized dairy products and uncooked meats were suspected sources, BCCDC and Capital District Region(CDR)staff, told a news conference that they have now determined that the likely source of the outbreak was water supplied by the Greater Victo ria Water District's(GCWD)Humpback Reservoir. At the same time, the Provincial Health Officer stated that new toxoplasmosis infections in the CRD had tapered off and that "the epidemioiogical evidence is that the outbreak oftoxoplasmosis in the CRD is over".

The remainder of the news release went on to say that this is only the second time toxoplasmosis has been associated with a water supply. The rate of toxoplasma infection in the rest of the province has not increased since this outbreak. This suggests that other water supplies and other sourcs of possible infection in the province are not of concern. The Provincial Health Officer said that although the chain of events may never be proven, BCCDC staff suspect that the fae ces of infected domestic or wild cats entered the reservoir or its

feeder streams, resulting in contamination of the water supply. A number of actions have been taken to reduce recurrences.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 232


The Greater Victoria Water District will stop using the Hump back Reservoir as a source for Victoria's water system, putting into place plans made before the recent toxoplasmosis outbreak. In addition, the BCCDC, with the assistance of internationally recognized toxoplasmosis experts, is developing tests to detect toxoplasmosis in drinking water. Currently, no such test exists.


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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 233 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Industry Update "Before this situation, communities have not had to concern themselves with the pos sibility that toxoplasmosis could spread through the water supply," the Provincial Health Officer stated. "There is no such thing as a completely safe water supply. However, local and provincial governments have been responsible in dealing with this situation." Over 10,000 people across the province were tested for toxoplasmosis. Of those, 5,500 were CRD residents and 5,000 ofthose were pregnant. 110 infections of toxoplas mosis have been identified in the CRD. 42

were in women who were pregnant at the time they became infected. 11 infants are infected and were being treated at the time of writing. Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. While many individuals become in fected without showing any sign of the dis ease, others exhibit flu-like symptoms, and/ or swollen glands in the neck,armpits or groin. Like the flu, most people with toxoplas mosis recover without any treatment. In a small number ofindividuals,the parasite can infect eyes,causing blurred vision or loss of sight. CWWA Bulletin

warming with an illustration ofthe New York City skyline where the water level is higher than the Statue of Liberty and most build ings except the World Trade Center towers. Kwong writes that nine out of 10 textbooks treat global warming as fact rather than theory, despite evidence that no serious glo bal warming is occurring. By elevating the study ofthe environment to apocalyptic scenarios ofdoom and gloom, educators become environmental advocates, stifling children's natural inclinations to un derstand and probe the natural processes, Kwong says. She notes that the Environ mental Protection Agency's Environmental

Education Division(EED)wields a $65 mil

lion budget to promote an agenda which sup ports environmental special interest groups, citing the division's own handbook, which states: "Environmental groups have the qualifications and experience to be of con siderable assistance to EED in establishing innovative and effective educational pro grams and activities. EED will work closely with all interested environmental organiza tions to ensure that the office stays on the cutting edge of environmental trends." Kwong writes that environmental educa

tors must abandon "sloganeering" and should postpone "issues teaching" until chil-

What's the One Thing You Need to Know About

Health, Safety and The Workplace Environment?

Is environmental

education producing a nation of

"Doomsday Kids?" Criticism of environmental education has

mounted over the past two years, with some arguing that environmental education efforts are largely doomsday oriented,fear generat ing, activist, and devoid ofscience teaching, according to a study released by the U.S. Center for the Study of American Business at Washington University. In Environmental Education: Getting BeyondAdvocacy, author Jo Kwong says that while these criticisms are well founded,they miss the "heart of the environmental educa

tion problem." Kwong writes that the envi ronmental education campaign is aimed at turning school children into environmental ists. This goal is founded on the mistaken

That April 22,23,24,1996 marks the 1996 edition of Health & Safety Conference and Trade Show at The Regal Constellation Hotel in Toronto. Mark your calendar today. It's the one Conference you can't afford to miss. Whether you're benchmarking your company's performance. Looking for leading edge developments in technology and services. Or

learning how to set up a basic safety program. It's your ESEM-1



belief that environmentalism leads to envi

ronmental literacy, says Kwong. She says environmental literacy is "the knowledge of natural and environmental systems and the

application ofthat knowledge towards prob lem solving." She writes that efforts to achieve environmental literacy will fail ife/7vironmentalists, rather than educators, pro vide the "teaching." Educators need to refocus perspective by teaching young chil dren the basic sciences, outdoor education, conservation, and in later years, integrate this knowledge with problem-solving skills,says Kwong. Kwong also cites examples from school science textbooks, including the text Con cepts and Challenges in Earth Science which depicts the catastrophic results of global


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Postal Code/Zip Code:



For more information on hoiv to register for Health & Safety 96, fill in the coupon and return to: tieatth & Safety 96, 250 Yonge Street, 28th Floor, Toronto, ON M5B2N4 Tel:(416)506-8692 Fax:(416) 506-<

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996



For more information, Circle reply card No. 234 (See page 17)

Industry Update dren have a good information and problemsolving basis. She says true environmental literacy is based on the teaching of nature study, conservation, core sciences, and the integration of science and economics.

Gulf War mystery: where did the oil go? In the aftermath of the Gulf War, scientists continuously surveyed the Persian Gulf to track the impact of millions ofgallons of oil spilled on land and sea. They noticed that the oil polluting some shores rapidly disap peared. At the same time, thick layers of microbes, called "microbial mats," were growing on top ofthe oil, apparently, some how absorbing and breaking down the oil.

Now the U.S. Department of Defense is funding a study ofthese mats at Northwestem University. How do they go about break ing down the oil? Which microbes are in

Passing of RVA founder

volved? Would it be feasible to use these

mats to sop up oil spills in other areas?

"All we know at this point is that sun light seems to enhance the activity of the mats in breaking down the oil," according to David A. Stahl, associate professor ofcivil engineering at North western's McCormick School of Engineering andApplied Science. "It may be that the microbes that use photo synthesis are doing the job, or it may be that their byproducts are being used by another microbe in the mat community, making it possible for them to do the job," he added. Roderick V. Anderson (Rod) founder of the


major Toronto-based consulting firm which bears his name, passed away on January 13,




1996 in his 87th year.

After graduating from the University of British Columbia in 1931, he moved east to

Ontario and joined Imperial Oil Company at Samia. In 1935, he accepted a five-year posting to Colombia in South America. He and his wife returned to Canada in 1940,

where he spent the war years working on the design and construction of an explosives plant in Niagara Falls, and with a Toronto firm designing armaments. In 1948, he formed a small consulting firm which addressed the need for munici DERRICK FLO-LINE SCREENING MACHINE

^waste water slurry being fed into a â– Derrick FIo-Llne screening machine

environmental demands, which are

jfcui-rently being placed on corporations and rnunicipalities to control B.O.D. (Biological Oxygen Demand) discharges and reduce in-plant treatment costs, have


A talented and respected engineer, Mr.

created a tremendous need for efficient,

Anderson worked hard to enhance the pro

reliable and cost effective equipment to reduce waste water solids concentra

tions. Derrick Corporation, with over 40 years of fine screening experience,is now

Recovery of processed carrots from a waste water stream using Derrick 0.43MM urethane screens.

fessional associations related to his disci

pline. He was an active member of the Pro

fessional Engineers of Ontario, the Engineer ing Institute of Canada, the Water Pollution Control Federation, and was a fifty-year

ieapable of offering this equipment tech nology to the waste water industry

worldwide.Through utilizing the Derrick "Flo-Line" screening unit design, high fluid

member of the American Water Works

capacities can be effectively handled at

Councillor of theAssociation of Professional

Association. In 1957 he was elected as a

Engineers of Ontario. A year later, he was

very fine screen mesh openings. This jq.equates to fewer overall units required higher sojids/particulate removal.

elected President of the Canadian Institute

of Sewage and Sanitation. In 1966 he was "ypical screen oversize recovery of ish solids from processing waste â– ater slurry at 50 mesh.


palities to catch up on basic municipal serv ices. The firm grew under his leadership, participating in a number of radar defense projects for the federal government and lo cal municipal works for the new Metro To ronto government, and numerous Canadian municipalities. Today, R.V. Anderson As sociates Limited, has offices in eight cities in Canada, and is currently involved in ma jor projects in India, Indonesia and the

Anderson served as Ontario Chainnan of the

Joint Committee of Canadian Engineers, and worked enthusiastically to finance the En gineers' Plaza for Expo '67 in Montreal. In




1586 Griffiths Place

2925 Miners Ave.

9030 Lesiie St. Unit 5

Kelowna, British CoiumbiaVIZ 2T7

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7K 4Z6

Richmond Hill. Ontario L4B IG2

Phone: 604-769-3848


Phone: 905-771-8400

Fax: 604-769-5859

Fax: 306-93i-l 128

Fax: 905-771-891 I

For more information, Circle reply card No. 235 (See page 17)

elected President of the Consulting Engi neers of Canada. Also during 1966, Mr.

1970 he was awarded the James F. MacLaren

Award for "outstanding achievement in the advancement ofpollution conttvl measures. " Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Industry Update Upgrade Your Pump

Precast box culverts

get the job done....fast!

Station With The

In the Fall of 1994, the Ontario Township of Brougham, called tenders for the replace ment of two 2100 mm diameter corrugated steel pipe (CSP) ci)|verts with 3000 mm x 3600 mm precast box culverts. The CSP culverts were originally installed in 1965 by Ontario Hydro during the construction of the Centennial Dam to carry the flow ofthe creek that empties into Black Donald Lake.

Industry's Leading Grinder Technology Dual-shafted Muffin Monster®

For 25 years we hove engineered instof/otion

There were two reasons for the decision

so/utions for virtuafly every type of pump station.

to replace the culverts with precast boxes. One was a strong environmental reason. The

technology protects your pumps better by providing the finest grind in the industry, capturing more solids and easily devouring the toughest of materials.

culverts had to be installed at the end of

Muffin Monster and Channel Monster® installations;

March when Ontario Hydro would open the flood gates of the dam and lower the water level in the lake. The water level could only be lowered for a maximum ofone week. Any greater length of time would cause damage to fish spawning grounds.

• Significantly reduce or eliminate station monitoring, maintenance and clean-up • Greatly diminish human exposure to hazardous and unsanitary materials • Limit work time in confined spaces • Reduce odors

Precast concrete culverts could be in Contact Your

stalled in the short time frame available.

Local Representative

Poured-in-place culverts were not considered because the time required to complete the job would have been approximately 30 days. The second reason was related to per



formance of the CSP culverts. The Town

ship preferred to install precast concrete units

26 McCauley Drive, Bolton, Ontario, L7E 5R8 Phone:(905) 880-2418 Fax:(905) 880-2327

because of a more cost effective service life

of the system. The consulting engineer, Charlie Reinhardt of Janota Patrick Engi neering, supported the position oftheTownship to contract for precast concrete units because of performance considerations.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 247 (See page 17)


R.G.T. Clouthier Construction of

Pembroke, the successful bidder for the


project, approached M-Con Products Inc. to supply the precast box culvert system. The


3000 mm x 3600 mm box culverts were the

largest units ever manufactured by M-Con. There were 24 units, each unit weighing 18 tonnes and measuring 2.10 m in length. The units were shipped flat on trailers, then off-loaded and stood upright for installation. The first unit was unloaded at 10:00 a.m. on

Tuesday and installation was completed by 3:45 p.m. the following day.

Update Your Directory Please note the following changes to Com pany listings published in ES&E's January 1996 Directory and Buyers' Guide. 1. Guide to Consultants, Page 39

Nicole Scj^uin lieuionstrates the Oii-l.irie Computer Systeiu for the Cornioull WaterTreatmeiit Phiui to the Minister, Breiuin Elliott.

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Correct fax number is (416)497-0342 2. Equipment & Service Suppliers, Page 59 Pigmalion Environmental Services

The sltiff at Thorburn Penny welcomed the Minister of EnvironnTent and Energy, Brenda Elliott, to their head office in January. The Minister was visiting innovative companies in the enviroitmenlal field to discuss their views on the industry. These visits were an opportunity to solicit grass roots opinions on environmental issues in Ontario and possible ways the Ministry can provide improved service. Thorburn Penny is a consulting engineering firm, offering services in the development of water, wastewalcr and drainage systems. Since its inception in 1988, the company has been recognized as one of the province's leaders in alternate approaches to providing engineering services including turnkey SCADA, water and wastewater treatment facilities.

Correct phone number is 1-800-387-7581



Consulting Engineers

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 237 (See page 17)


Water Supply

Impact of fire flow criteria on the cost of a small waterworks

The theme of"more with les " is the reality of the cur ent economic order that is affecting all aspects oftoday's life. Our economy has a limited capacity to pay for new or

that designers are compelled to use. This area is one that warrants some study, in light of all ofthe current work done on the optimiza tion of the various waterworks components.

expanded infrastructure, including waterworks. This limi tation applies whether funding is accessed through user fees, the price of new housing or taxation by the various levels of govern ment. Other charges collected by the new wave of private/public undertakings are in the same category since the cost is ultimately

In Ontario, there are several design guidelines for waterworks components. The Ministry ofthe Environment and Energy(MOEE) guideline provides a recommended flow and duration that is based on population. The recommended fire flow provided by the MOEE

Table 1

guidelines is based on a formula that relates flow to population which is presented in the classical waterworks textbook Water Supply En

Typical Design FF Criteria Population 500

1,000 1,500 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

MOEE L/s 38 64 79 95 110 125 144

FUS L/S 100 125 150 175 200 225 250


L/S 65

65 65 65 65 65 65

Duration Hours 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Note: It has been assumed that a community of 500 or greater people has an arena or a community build ing of similar size - NFPA assessed to the same end user.

Current Practice

gineering hy Babbitt(McGraw-Hill, 1967). The other sources of design guidelines are the Fire Underwriters Survey(PUS),an organization supported by the insurance industry, and the American organization, the National Fire Protection Asso ciation (NFPA). In general, these guidelines provide recommended fire flows based on specific conditions in a community. These in clude building size, type of construction, separation, type of occu

pancy and whether sprinklers are installed. The fire flow warranted by the FUS guidelines is therefore independent of the size of the community, although it is reasonable to assume that larger commu nities will warrant higher flows because they will tend to have larger buildings with potentially greater hazards. For the typical "small town" in Ontario, the community centre, or the downtown where there are many old buildings without separation, will warrant the highest fire flows. The local fire department is often consulted on the level of fire

In the spirit of doing "more with less", we in the waterworks industry, are challenged to carry out various conserva tion measures. The objective is always to reduce the Table 2 domestic per capita consumption. Metering, for exam Storage Requirements ple, has proven to be a very effective measure in reduc Population MOEE NFPA Domestic FUS ing domestic demand. To date, however, little has been cu. metres cu. metres cu. metres CU. metres done to question the cost implications associated with 1,093 778 193 535 500 the fire flow capabilities incorporated into a waterworks. 1,512 972 387 963 1,000 The fire protection capabilities of a municipal water 527 1,291 1,930 1,165 1,500 works have significant associated costs. This impact in 633 1,628 2,348 1,358 2,000 creases greatly for small water systems where fire flows 844 2,150 2,960 1,745 3,000 are significantly greater than peak domestic demand. The 2.672 3,572 2,132 4,000 1,125 purpose ofthis discussion is not to condemn the fact that 4,184 1,406 3,230 2,519 5,000 municipal water systems incorporate fire protection ca Domestic demand at 450 Ud pabilities. The purpose is rather to advance the notion Storage based on A+B+C that there is a need for a better understanding of the sig nificance ofthese costs when evaluating the allocation of scarce financial resources. protection to be provided by the municipal waterworks. The direc There is also a need for a serious review of the fire flow criteria tion provided is usually based on the local method for fighting a fire and the available fire fighting equipment. Table 3 It is noteworthy to mention that some regulatory agencies Construction Cost of Elevated Storage impose very specific requirements on the design of fire protec MOEE NFPA Population FUS Domestic tion capabilities in a municipal waterworks. For example, in $1,GGG's $1,GGG'S $1,GGG'S $1,GOG'S communities under federal jurisdiction, regulators require that $437 500 $290 $428 $389 all equipment be ULC listed. This requirement poses signifi 1,000 $348 $530 $605 $486 cant restrictions on the type of pumping and other mechanical $422 1,500 $581 $676 $583 equipment that is acceptable. Federal regulators also require $822 $443 $651 $611 2,000 the pumping station building to be constructed of non-com $464 3,000 $753 $888 $785 bustible materials; the alternative is to install sprinklers. The $802 4,000 $506 $893 $853 question becomes whether the real intent is to provide a water $562 $969 $1,046 $1,008 5,000 supply system with fire flow capabilities or rather to provide a fire protection system that also provides domestic currently established for design of waterworks components. It seems water supply. that such criteria should be based on a risk analysis and meaningful Illustration of Cost Impact cost/benefit relationships. The agencies that establish current crite For illustration. Table I provides typical criteria for fire flow ria are not providing the most basic of data to Justify the parameters and durations that may be used in the design of a waterworks for a small town.

*R. J. Burnside & Associates Limited, Orangeviiie, Ontario 12

The fire flow capabilities of a waterworks have an impact on the

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

By R. De Carvalho, M. Eng., P. Eng. and S. Schauffert, P. Eng.* to 1.9. For a serviced population of 5,000 people the increase is over a range of 1.9 to

Table 4

Distribution Requirements Population 500

1,000 1,500 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000






mm.m 1,000's

mm.m 1,000's

mm.m 1,000's

mm.m 1,000's

169 337 506 674

329 658 987

484 860

408 662 913

1,011 1,348 1,685

1,276 1,680 2,507 3,330 4,102

1,316 1,974 2,632 3,290

1,131 1,599 2,026 2,393

Summary It should be noted that the data presented is for illustration and therefore should not

be interpreted for other purposes. It does show, however, that decisions on fire flow

criteria have a significant impact on the cost of the waterworks and therefore should be

given appropriate consideration. Those in the waterworks industry should demand that agencies such as FUS provide appropriate 337 mm.m/person Domestic data by which an overall risk and cost ben MOEE 658 mm.m/person efit analysis can be carried out so that the Varies with fire fiow requirements i.e. MOEE factor/(Q2/Q1)'^(2/5) FUS appropriate decisions can be made. At Varies with fire fiow requirements i.e. MOEE factor/(Q2/Q1)'^(2/5) NFPA present it is possible to estimate the costs ofimproving a waterworks but it is virtually impossible for the analy storage and conveyance components. Table 2 presents the corre sponding storage volumes and compares the requirements of the sis to quantify the savings that a homeowner will realize if the fire three fire flow criteria with a waterworks that does not have allow

protection capabilities of the municipal waterworks are upgraded.

ances for fire protection. It is evident that for small systems serv

ing about 500 people, the storage volume increases dramatically by a factor that ranges from 2.8 to 5.7. For a serviced population of 5,000 people, the impact is not as significant with the factor having a range of 2.3 up to 3.0. The corresponding cost ofthe storage facility, assuming elevated construction, does have some economy of scale with the smaller

systems having a higher unit cost. Table 3 shows that for a serviced population of500 people,elevated storage with fire protection would cost about 1.5 times the amount that would be warranted for do

mestic only. Due to the economy of scale associated with elevated storage, the premium for the fire flow volume is about 1.7 to 1.9 for a serviced population of 5,000 people. It should be noted that in practice elevated storage would likely not be a cost effective option

Table 5 Distribution Costs

Population 500

1,000 1,500 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000






$1,GOG'S $207 $415 $622 $829 $1,244 $1,658 $2,073


$1,GOG'S $257

$106 $212 $318 $425 $637 $849 $1,062

$305 $542 $804 $1,059 $1,580 $2,098 $2,584

$417 $575 $712 $1,008 $1,277 $1,508

Unit cost per mm.m: $0.63

for a domestic only system servicing a small population of less that 1,000 people.

For this discussion, the conveyance capacity per person has been estimated using the actual distribution system characteristics for a

representative small community. The sum of the products of the various lengths and diameters ofthe watermain was divided into the population serviced to establish a unit per capita conveyance pa rameter. This particular system was designed to meet MOEE guide lines and a unit conveyance of 658 mm.m per person was derived. The actual cost of construction for this particular system resulted in $0.63 per mm.m. For a 150 mm diameter watermain, the unit cost

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Table 6 Cost of Waterworks

Population 500

1,000 1,500 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000





$1,GOG'S $396 $561 $740 $868 $1,101 $1,355 $1,624

$1,GGG's $635 $944 $1,203 $1,480 $1,996 $2,460 $3,042

$1,GGG's $742 $1,147 $1,479 $1,880 $2,468 $2,991 $3,630

$1,GOO'S $646 $903 $1,158 $1,323 $1,793 $2,129 $2,515

corresponds to about $95 per metre. The increase in conveyance to provide for fire flow is adjusted by the ratio of the flows raised to the power of 2/5 derived from the Hazen Williams equation. Table 4 illustrates that conveyance increases by a range of 2 to 3 for a serviced population of 500 people. At a

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serviced population of 5,000 people, the conveyance increases by a factor of2 to 2.5. The typical costs presented in Table 5 also increase in the same proportion.

Table 6 provides a summary of the cost of the storage and distri bution components of the waterworks in relation to the different fire flow criteria. The analysis illustrates that for a serviced population of

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500 people, the cost of the waterworks can increase by a range of 1.6 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 238 (See page 17)


Industry Update Nature can clean up leaking UFTs

Influence of Tuberculated Cast Iron Water Mains on THM Formation

A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory study finds that bil lions of dollars could be saved and thousands of acres of land re

turned to use sooner if California adopted new approaches to clean ing up its leaking underground fuel tanks. The lab study found that, in most cases, naturally occurring mi crobes in soil and water can clean up fuel contamination as effec tively as human "pump-and-treat" efforts. Fuel contamination gen erally does not spread far, the study determined, and microbes will usually break down most pollutants before they can reach a source of drinking water—often as quickly as active clean-up efforts. The study recommends that, in many cases, active clean-up at low-risk sites be stopped and naturally occurring microbes allowed to complete the restoration. Sites being remediated through natural microbial action still would be cleaned to existing State regulatory standards. Current pump-and-treat methods for restoring a site are costly, and according to the Livermore study, ineffectual in reaching clean up standards in many geologic settings. The method pumps groundwater to the surface for treatment. Since some pollutants attach to soil particles, clean-up crews may have to pump and treat large volumes of water to flush away all pollutants. Protection of drinking water is an important consideration in dealing with leaking tanks, but the lab study found that over the past decade, only 0.5 percent of the State's 28,000 reported fuel leak cases resulted in some contamination of drinking water wells. The study estimates that only 0.0005 percent of California's total groundwater storage capacity is impacted by benzene — a toxic fuel component —at concentrations greater than 1 part per billion. Under existing regulations, current and future tank clean-up ef forts may cost $3 billion. Livermore scientists conclude that much of this money may be spent on cleaning groundwater that poses minimal risk to human health, the environment or groundwater re sources, or that has limited beneficial use. Their investigation con cluded that existing clean-up goals are derived from policies that have not kept pace with current knowledge and experience, espe cially with regard to natural bioremediation processes. Copies of the study — entitled Recommendations to Improve the Cleanup Processfor California's Leaking Underground Fuel Tanks — can be obtained by contacting Rachel Horsley at(916) 227-4313.

what your destination in process measurement,

ie're your first class ticket.

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(514)333-8555 Fax;(514)333-4662


maximum of 30 tonnes of unsorted


solid, non-hazardous waste.

During visits to the station between December 1993 and October 1994, Ministry inspectors estimated that the site contained between 300 and 1,000

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 236 (See page 17) 14

Toronto man and companies fined for illegal waste storage


1960 Montreal

The current method used in assessing THM formation potential is the standard SDS (simulated distribution system) test. In this procedure, finished (chlorinated) water is sealed in glass bottles and incubated under the same conditions(pH, temperature, and contact time) expected in the actual distribution network. The SDS test cannot, however, account for any interaction between the bulk wa ter and the internal pipe environment. Chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics of iron tubercles are potential sources of THM precursors over and above those present in the bulk water. Certain water quality improvement initiatives which may result in more favorable conditions for THM formation (eg. pH adjustment for corrosion control) may trigger this potential, and ultimately lead to increasedTHM levels in public drinking water. Laboratory experiments in this study have shown that the SDS test underestimates THM levels generated in resurrected tubercu lated pipes under certain conditions. This ongoing research employs both an extensive field monitoring program and controlled labora tory experimentation in the effort to better understand the important factors involved in this potential water quality program. By John Brereton and Don Mavinic, Excerptedfrom BCW&WA Watermark, December 1995



your satisfaction is our success

mains, with THMs.

A Toronto man and two associated companies were fined a total of $160,000 for illegally operating a waste transfer station in the city of East York, Metro Toronto. Wayne Richards ran a TURBIDITY waste transfer station at 1 Copeland St., East York, operating under the names OPACITY Leaside Recycling Inc. and 978767 THERMAL MASS FLOW Ontario Ltd. Mr. Richards was permit ted, under a certificate of approval(C GAS ANALYZERS of A)issued by the Ontario Ministry of OEM'S Environment and Energy, to store a

No matter


Trihalomethanes (THMs) may pose a health risk to consumers of chlorinated water supplies, given their classification as probable carcinogens. THMs are formed as the result ofslow chemical reac tions between natural organic matter present in water and applied chlorine disinfectant. Control strategies developed to prevent the formation of these compounds in drinking water mainly focus on treatment prior to distribution. However, there may also be a link between free chlorine residuals and tubercles, (mounds of corro sion products) commonly found in aging unlined cast iron water

tonnes of waste. A Ministry director's order was issued requiring Mr. Richards and the two companies to clean up the site and comply with the C of A. Charges were laid in May 1995 when it was determined that the condi tions ofthe director's order had not been met. Mr. Richards and 978767 Ontario

Inc. and Leaside Recycling Inc. were fined $10,000 apiece for each of two counts under Section 186(2) of the EPA, which involves failure to comply with a director's order.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996


Testing With These. New Hach Systems for Wastewater Testing

4 ppb,well below permit requirements for wastewater discharge. Maximum detection

Phosphate and Nitrogen Methods The convenience,accuracy, and small sample size of Hach's COD Test 'NTube^" vial chemistry system are now available for measuring phosishate and total persulfate and inorganic nitrogen, high- and low-range ammonia,

limit is 5 ppm.

nitrate and nitrite. Waste is

pH Monitoring System Hach EC 1000 System includes a versatile microprocessor-based controller featuring PID control capability,a non-clogging reference junction electrode,and a rugged pump module to insure consistant electrolyte delivery.

r Ultra Low Range

minimal and safely contained inside sealed,disposable vials.

5. Laboratory Tiirbidimeters

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Measures from 2-500 p>pb using patented DPD colorimetric method. Single-dose reagents,sealed with argon,


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Port-aux-Basques, Newfoundland Flow: 3 units of 135 m^/hr

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Compact and highly effective, the PULSAPAK® combines two proven Degremont technologies: the Pulsator Flocculator-Clarifier, and a sand and anthracite dual media

gravity filter. The PULSAPAK® produces clean water equal in quality to that produced by large installations.

A FULL TREATMEIIIT SYSTEM A reliable, competitively priced, high-performance system based on our

unique Pulsator technology, the PULSAPAK® is a complete, two-stage water treatment plant with minimal space requirements. It comes in six

standard sizes treating flows from 35 m-Vlir to 115 mVhr. To find out more about the PULSAPAK® and our full line of Degremont water treatment products, contact our offices today.

Breakeyville, Quebec Flow: 80 mVlir

Degremont Infiico ltd. 200-4145 N. Service Rd., Burlington, ON L7L 6A3 Tel: (905) 332-2322 • Fax: (905) 332-3007

160-D St-Joseph Blvd., Lachine, QC H8S 2L3 Tel: (514) 634-8011 • Fax: (514) 634-3102

For more information, Circle reply card No. 106(See page 17)


By R.G. Coulter and J.F. Myatt*

Site specific considerations require different approaches in upgrading aeration systems

Two recent Ontario projects undertaken by Proctor & Redfem involve upgrading existing aeration systems. The first project

is at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant

(PGP)in London, Ontario, the second at the

â– N"

Acton WastewaterTreatment Plant(WWTP)

in the Region of Halton. Although both projects involved retrofitting existing aera


tion tanks with more efficient aeration sys

tems,the systems selected were entirely dif ferent. The system recommended for the Ad elaide PGP was ceramic fine pore diffusers, while that recommended for the Aeton WWTP was hydraulic jets (Jet aeration). The construction of the upgrades to the Ad elaide PGP is nearing completion and the detailed design work on the Acton WWTP is underway. Both projects underscore the need to take into account site specific considerations in evaluating the appropriate technology for up grading aeration systems. The site specific considerations include 1) fouling potential (and the need and cost of a chemical clean ing system),2)the requirement or likelihood ofintermittent operation,3)the geometry of the existing tankage and 4)operational/main

tivated sludge (GAS) plant undergoing ex pansion from 27,300 to 36,400 mVday (6 to 8 MIGD) and upgrading, including conver sion to UV disinfection. The facility con

sists of two plants: The 6,800 mVday Plant 1 originally built in 1957 to serve London Township, and the 20,500 m3/day Plant 2

established in 1977, after London Township became part of the Gity of London. Both Plants currently employ dacron sock tubetype diffusers providing medium bubble transfer efficiencies in the range of 16 - 18%. The capacity expansion is being added to Plant 2 in the form of two aeration tanks

tenance considerations.

At the Adelaide PGP, the primary justi fication for upgrading the existing medium bubble aeration system is financial. The fi nancial evaluation carried out by Proctor & Redfem indicated that the payback period for changing the existing medium bubble aeration system to fine pore aeration was roughly six years and could he less if the Gity took advantage of the Ontario Hydro efficiency grants. At the Acton WWTP,the primary justifi cation for upgrading the existing mechani cal surface aeration system is process related. The existing mechanical surface aerators cause low wastewater temperatures in the winter time and this inhibits nitrification. A

submerged aeration system will alleviate this problem. The rationale for recommending jet aeration over a more conventional fine pore system was that the hopper bottomed geometry ofthe tank posed severe constraints to a fine pore system. As a result, jet aera tion was found to he more suitable in this

application even though the life cycle cost evaluation showed fine pore aeration to have a marginally lower overall cost. The following provides the technical de tails on each of the two projects and the ra tionale used in selecting the appropriate aera tion system. Adelaide PCP, London Adelaide is a nitrifying conventional ac-


QUALITY IN General Contracting,

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phone: (905) 670-2660 fax: (905) 670-9172

*Proctor & Redfem Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 239 (See page 17)


Aeration, cont'd. to complement the existing four together with related primary and final clarifier upgrades. Options considered for providing efficient aeration in the two new tanks included ce

ramic disks, membrane disks and jet aera tion, Also, as part ofthe preliminary design phase, the cost-effectiveness of converting from medium to higher efficiency diffusion systems in the existing four aeration basins was evaluated. The influent wastewaters at the Adelaide

POP are predominantly of domestic origin, with very little industrial content. It has no unusual levels ofsoluble BOD.,oil & grease, iron or carbonate loads which might indi

cate a potential for diffuser fouling. The 6:1 length/width ratio and 4.1 metre deep geom etry of tanks is well suited to fine pore diffusers. There is no requirement for and lit tle likelihood of intermittent diffuser opera tion, which would favour membrane diffus-

ers due to their characteristic of self-sealing when air flow is cut off.

The City of London has previously con verted other pollution control plants to fine pore difflisers, with good success. The City's previous experience with this system and the City's familiarity and availability of spare parts were therefore considerations in Proc tor & Redfem's evaluation. A life cycle cost

evaluation showed that fine pore aeration was the least cost option. Based on the fore going, ceramic fine pore aeration was rec ommended for the two new aeration tanks.

To evaluate the economics ofconverting the tube-type diffusers in the existing aera tion tanks to fine pore diffusers,the estimated annual difference in energy costs was com pared to the capital cost. Although the ex isting diffusers are relatively efficient in the range of 17%, it was estimated that an en ergy savings ofapproximately $50,000/year would result from a conversion to fine pore diffusers. This constitutes a simple payback

of roughly 6 years on the approximately $300,000 cost of converting the four exist ing tanks. This was considered an accept able payback period, and the financing of the conversion was further assisted by an Ontario Hydro efficiency incentive grant. Acton WWTP, Halton Hills, Ontario Like the Adelaide Plant, the Acton

WWTP consists of two CAS plants of un equal size providing the initial stages oftreat ment. The older Plant A handles approxi mately 1,000 mVd, while Plant B receives approximately 2,200 mVd,for a total of3,300 mVd, or approximately 73% of the current rated capacity of 4,500 mVd. Flows from the two CAS plants are combined for treat ment through common downstream proc esses consisting of a polishing pond, inter-


Both projects underscore the need to take into

account site specific considerations

in evaluating the appropriate technology for upgrading aeration systems. mittent sand filters and chlorine disinfection.

At present, the static sand filters are oper ated only during the summer time. The existing aeration systems in both CAS plants are mechanical surface aerators, and both routinely achieve nitrification in the summertime. However, wintertime nitrifi

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To upgrade the aeration system, the al ternatives of ceramic disks, flexible mem

problems. Rotork...More than

brane disks and jet aeration were considered by Proctor & Redfem. Among the fine pore alternatives, the predominantly domesticorigin wastewater again indicated no unu sual potential for diffuser fouling, nor is there any anticipation of intermittent diffuser op eration which might warrant selection of

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Continued on page 21 For more information, Circle reply card No. 240 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996


pumping highly corrosive effluent or fresh water, you wont your pumps to be out of sight — and out of mind. KSB is the world's largest pump manufacturer,


so we know the kind of low-maintenance

reliability you need. At l(SB, we manufacture a full spectrum of


centrifugal pumps, each customized to suit your specific pumping applications. Through extensive research, KSB has developed wear and corrosion resistant materials which allow our pumps to be used under the most severe operating conditions. From multi-thousand hp horizontal split case

water pumps, to submersible waste water putnps... our pumps are easily installed and forgotten. They keep on performing, year after year. After year. KSB Pumps Inc. 52 West Beaver Creek Rd.,|16, Richmond Hill, Ont. L4B1L9 Phone:(905) 882-4313 Fox;(905) 882-4315

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Aeration, cont'd. configuration is that the bottom metre ofthe tank would not be completely mixed and would result in solids deposition and related process treatment difficulties. To address this issue two options were considered in the preliminary design: 1) add supplementary mixing in the bottom portion ofthe tank and 2)infill that section of the tank. In the first option, the required diffuser density physi cally precluded placement of a mechanical mixer below the diffuser grid. An alterna tive was to delete 1 - 2 disks to allow pas sage of an air header to feed a grid ofcourse bubble diffusers to mix the lower section.

Figure 1: Tank Geometry of Acton, a key consideration in evaluating either type of fine pore disk relative to jet aeration was the tank geometry. The existing tankage is square and, im portantly, hopper bottomed, which creates constraints to the use of fine pore diffusers (Figure 1). The optimum elevation for a grid of fine pore diffusers was determined to be approximately 1 metre from the tank bottom. At deeper elevations, there is insufficient cross sectional area for the required number of disks, notwithstanding that transfer effi ciency increases with depth. Conversely, shallower placement of the diffuser grid in

creases the required number ofdiffusers and energy use due to the loss of transfer effi ciency with decreasing depth. For example, diffuser grids placed at the top ofthe hopper section would require 25% more air flow to transfer the same amount of oxygen as can be achieved by placing fewer diffusers at the elevation 1 metre above the bottom of the

tank. In either case, the required density of diffusers is such that the space between dif fusers would be only 50 - 70 mm (2-3 inches), which creates practical problems in terms of access for periodic maintenance. Another practical consideration in this

While this was feasible, the mixing air requirement was calculated to carry a 10% penalty in overall aeration energy. In the second option, filling in the portion of the hopper volume lying below the diffusers would adversely affect the bioreactor param eters. The hydraulic retention would be re duced by approximately 12% and the vol ume reduction would also have the conse

quence that MLSS levels would need to be 300 - 500 mg/L higher(in the range of3,000 - 3,500 mg/1) in order to meet Ministry of Environment and Energy (MOEE) guide lines for F:M and SRT for nitrifying facili ties. This in turn would require limiting daily wasting to 50 grams dry solids/mT In evaluating the jet aeration system,the tank geometry did not present a problem, as the radial aerators could be placed at the bottom of the tank. A typical drawing illus-

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Aeration, cont'd. trating the system is provided in Figure 2. The aerators would be easily accessible for maintenance and the bottom portion of the hopper would be completely mixed. In terms ofenergy requirements,fine pore and jet aeration systems achieve similar efficiencies by somewhat different mecha nisms. SOTE (Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency) values are similar, while alpha values and therefore SOR (Standard Oxy gen Requirement) values are somewhat higher in jet aeration systems, related to the considerably more intense mixing. The cal culated blower requirements are somewhat

less for the jet system, but the liquid pump ing horsepower which helps achieve the higher alpha values offsets this difference, and the net result is approximately equal. On the basis of assumed alpha and SOTE val-

Fluor Daniel Environmental to

merge with Groundwater

Technology, Inc. Fluor Daniel, Inc. and Groundwater Tech

nology, Inc. (GTI) announced today that a definitive agreement has been reached for Fluor Daniel to acquire 4.4 million shares of GTI, representing a 54.51 percent inter est after a recapitalization of GTI, a Norwood, Massachusetts, based environ mental remediation firm. Fluor Daniel's en

Figure 2: Jet Aeration System

ues for the respective systems, it was calcu lated that annual energy costs for the jet sys tem would be a modest five percent greater than those for the fine pore system. This comparison included the subjacent grid of course bubble diffusers for mixing the hop per section, in order to compare the two al

all estimated life cycle cost. The relative technical and cost merits of

the two systems, summarized above, were identified and evaluated in detail over the

course ofa value engineering workshop with Halton Region staff. The conclusion was

that the modest lifecycle cost disadvantage of the jet system was outweighed by its in herent compatibility with the existing tank age. This would enable Operations Staff to obtain the optimum operating parameters from the treatment system and provide bet

ternatives in terms ofequivalent reactor vol umes and operating parameters. In terms ofcapital cost, budget estimates

were obtained from 2 fine pore and 4jet sup pliers. These indicated that the capital cost ofthejet system was significantly higher than the fine pore systems, although the differ ence was only about two percent ofthe over

ter access for maintenance.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 268

Technology Works!

vironmental services unit will merge into GTI.

The combined company, which will be headquartered in Norwood, and remain a publicly traded entity, will operate as Fluor Daniel/GTI, Inc., and will be the environ mental services arm of Fluor Daniel, Inc.

The transaction is subject to approval by GTI's shareholders and other customary con ditions, and is expected to be finalized in the first quarter of 1996. Fluor Daniel/GTI, Inc. will operate as a subsidiary of Fluor Daniel, and will become one of the largest on-site remediation enti ties in the world. David L. Myers,currently president of Fluor Daniel's environmental services unit, will assume the role of chair man, while Walter C. Barber, chairman and chiefexecutive officer of GTI,will continue as the company's president and chiefexecu tive officer.

Fluor Daniel has Canadian offices in

Calgary and Vancouver while Groundwater Technology has offices inToronto, Montreal

and Halifax. For more information please contact Mr. Paul Wilson, Manager of Cana dian Operations, at Groundwater Technolo gy's Toronto office,(905) 670-1700.


In Ultrasonic Level Measurement The MultiRanger Plus' versatility, reliability and ease of use make it the most widely installed iSf ultrasonic level device

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For more information. Circle reply card No. 245 (See page 17)

Fi%-eiglit reasons. One company. •MANAGEMENT • Single Source Hazardous and Solid Waste Management • Training Services • Waste

Identification and Characterization • Project Supervision • Corporate Sites Program • Compliance Support • Specialized Storage • Preprinted Manifests and Labels • Insite™ Program • Analytical Services • Liabi l ity Protection ♦ COLLECTION • Inventory Management • Gas Cylinder Management • Lab Pack Services • Household Hazardous Waste Programs • Lab Pack Consolidation • Small Quantity Pickups • Bulking/Blending • Truck/Rail Transportation Services • Service Centre Network • Parts

Washer Service ♦ RECYCLING • Solvent Recovery • Fuels Blending • Paint Processing and Recycling • Ash Management • Batteries-Oil/Oi l Filter-Fluorescent Tube-Metals Drums ♦ TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL •

Biological • Physical • Solidification • Thermal • Stabilization • Fixation • Chemicals • Neutralization •

Volume Reduction • Cyanide Destruction • Precipitation • Waste Water Treatment • Secure Landfill • PCB Waste

Services ♦ ON SITE SERVICES • Mobile Dewatering • Thermal Drying • Detoxification • Site and Remediation Cleanup • Asbestos Removal • Tank Management • Emergency Response • Pipeline Remediation • Industrial Services • Confined Space Entry ♦ MONITORING • Air Monitoring • Industrial Hygiene Monitoring • Computerized Waste Tracking • Environmental Audits • Monitoring Wells

Laldlaw Enviromental Services • Localized Service Across Canada • 1-800-265-5130 or 1-800-361-2209 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 246(See page 17)

Groundwater Remediation

Project remediates land and treats coal tar contaminated groundwater In downtown

Aformer coal tar processing site


at the time) were spilled and left in the ground

included the construction of a groundwater collection system, the installation of a groundwater treatment facility and the in stitution of a monitoring program and pro cedure. A further condition required the owner to provide assurance that the groundwater collection, treatment and monitoring program operated etficiently before an oc cupation permit was granted. Site Development The building was completed in 1987 with

monitored to ensure timely clean-out, oth erwise the sumps will become overloaded, potentially overwhelming the treatment

where contaminants remain today. Neigh bouring sites also have contributed and con

all excavated material from the basement


area kept on site. The area surrounding the

was located on what is now prime commercial property close to downtown Toronto. The pro cessing facility, now removed from this lo cation, had produced creosote, tars, pitches, phenols, and naphthalene from 1925 until it closed in 1972. During this period of time, a substantial quantity of these products and resultant wastes (not considered hazardous

property which add to the complexity ofany proposed groundwater treatment process. This site had been reclaimed from a marsh with the surface elevation close to the water level of Lake Ontario. The

area was filled with silt dredged from the ship channel and "dump fill" such as building rubble, etc, was put on top of a subsoil consisting of silt that was carried into the marsh by the Don River.

velop. When the coal tar processing facility was shut down in 1971, the new owner demolished the building and the equip ment was scrapped. In 1984 ten storage

It was determined that the subsoil con

taminants would not pose a threat to the oc cupants if the site was covered with an im permeable layer. The contaminated subsoil could be left in place providing the water table was depressed to prevent contaminants from migrating off the site. The design of the site, building, drainage system, pump ing facility and treatment process satisfied these conditions.

Legislative Requirements The owner required the permission ofthe Ministry of the Environment to redevelop this property without the excavation of all contaminated soils. This permission was granted uniev Section 45 ofthe Environmen tal Protection Act ofOntario with a number of conditions attached.

These conditions

*Director, Simcoe Engineering Group Limited, Pickering, Ontario 24

Treatment Process

Extremely high concentrations of iron in the groundwater — and the con sequent heavy production ofa calcium/ iron/sulphide slag forming precipitate in the treatment system—precluded the

tremely difficult at best, making the property prohibitively expensive to de

contaminants were removed.

moving off site. Further, the level of tars and silt accumulation within the sumps is


Excavation of this site would be ex

creosote, heavy tars, raw tars, phenolics and contaminated water were removed. In all, over 2,500 m^ of tars and 1,500,000 litres of water were removed to the appropriate dis posal facilities. Also all remaining surface

vides assurance that the contaminants are not

The groundwater collection system is designed to prevent the escape of contaminated groundwater, which is treated before discharge to the sanitary sewer. The treatment system is de signed to remove light oils, heavierthan-water tars, silts, and dissolved hy drocarbons and phenols and consists of four basic stages: I) Gravity separa tion; 2) Pumping; 3) Centrifugation; and 4) Absorption on activated char

tinue to contribute contaminants to this

tanks that contained considerable amounts of

water, they are simply swept along by the motion ofthe groundwater through the drain age system towards the pumping facility. A groundwater monitoring program, us ing strategically placed piezometers, pro

structure was covered with asphalt, with the exception of a narrow grass strip along the

use of alternative methods such as UV, ozonolysis or osmosis. 1) Gravity Separation. In the first stage of treatment, the heaviest undissolved contaminants are removed by gravity. The

boulevard. Some 95% of the site was cov

gravity separators are simply a pair of 2

ered with an impermeable material, elimi nating evaporation of contaminants and in filtration of rainwater.

Continuous air monitoring within the building shows no measurable migration of hydrocarbons, verifying the integrity of the subsurface isolation.

Groundwater Collection System

The groundwater is collected by two sets of weeping tiles; one surrounds the basement area of the main building and another fol lows the footings ofthe structure that is con structed at grade level. These tiles are inter rupted at regular intervals by manholes to enable observation of flow. These weeping tiles discharge into collection sumps where sand and some ofthe tars and silts settle out,

constituting the initial phase ofthe treatment process. This groundwater is then pumped through a treatment process, lowering groundwater levels, so preventing flooding of the basement level and providing an ef fective method ofcontrolling the movement of subsoil contaminants. The soil contami

nants(except for phenols) are not soluble in

metre diameter concrete manholes contain

ing a stilling well and weirs connected to gether with an upward sloping 600 mm di ameter concrete pipe. The tars and sediments which settle to the bottom of the manholes

are removed periodically by pumper truck and transported to a hazardous waste dis posal site for incineration. The design ofthe gravity separation proc ess provides for the removal of the bulk of the tars and silts within the primary collec tion manhole.There are pockets ofcreosote, light tars and heavy tars throughout the site, and the relative amounts within the groundwater will differ. The lighter tars will re quire a longer settling time and thus more tars will carry over into the secondary col lection manhole. The upward sloping con crete pipe increases the settling time, allow ing the tars to accumulate at the invert and subsequently slide back down into the pri mary manhole for removal. The secondary collection manhole provides additional set tling and a sectioned area containing two submersible pumps.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

By G.R. Baker* dition placed on the approval provided by the Ontario Minis try ofthe Environment and En ergy, a comprehensive opera




tion and maintenance manual was assembled. This manual


was detailed in such a manner that both technical and non


technical staffcould understand




















the operational procedures as maintenance personnel experi enced in building maintenance services would in all probabil ity be the operators. The manual contains, within the appendices, copies of all reports, relevant permits, list of contacts and groundwater data. The owner is registered as a waste generator and has a reg istration for tars, groundwater and spent GAC packs. These wastes are considered hazard ous and cannot be removed



from the property except to sites licensed to receive such wastes

probes and a Milltronics pump controller. The pumps are enclosed in 1500 mm x 100 mm diameter PVC slotted pipe well screens. Due to the low ceiling height, the dis charge piping is divided into sections with unions to facilitate pump removal. 3)Centrifugal Separation. The third stage of the treatment process is through an Alfa

large Disposorb F400 disposable GAC packs through which water clarified by centrifugation is pumped before discharge. These packs, when 'spent', are removed to an ap propriately licensed hazardous waste dis posal site. Peripheral Equipment 1. Surge Tank. A 10,000 L steel tank is located within the treatment room to satisfy a number of operational concerns: •to store excess groundwater in the event of any inflow increase • to store water during any treatment failure

Laval model WSPX2044TGT-70 separator. This is a continuous flow solids ejecting cen

• to store water during maintenance activi

2)Pumping. The two pumps located in the secondary collection manhole are 50 mm diameter Grundfoss Environmental pumps with environmentally protected Franklin motors which are controlled by water level

trifuge which means that the separated tars and solids are automatically ejected as they accumulate. The groundwater is pumped into the centrifuge at a predetermined rate. This unit is capable of handling flow rates of up to 30 L/min, although it is more effi

• to store GAC backwash water ties.


This tank is for temporary storage only. The drain is manually set to allow a slow discharge over a lengthy period oftime back into the primary collection manhole, allow ing this groundwater to proceed through the

cient at rates below 20 L/min.

treatment process.

The Alfa Laval separator selected for this process can be set up either as a clarifier to process heavier substances or as a purifier to remove both heavy and light substances. The centrifuge was initially set up as a purifier, but little or no light oils were found so the unit was reset as a clarifier as the cen

2. Sludge/Tar Holding Tank. A 2,500 L holding tank is located just outside of the treatment room within the asphalt covered parking lot. The tank has been designed to accommodate both light and heavy contami nants and has an overflow which discharges to the primary collection manhole. A baffle

trifuge can handle higher flow rates in this

has been installed within the tank to contain


the lighter oils and prevent them from being discharged through the overflow. The centrifuge ejects 1.7 L of water, tars, and sludges every ten minutes. Tars and sludges settle to the bottom ofthis tank while the water overflows back to the primary col lection manhole. Periodically, this tank is pumped out — coincident with the pumping

4) Granular Activated Carbon. The final stage in the treatment process is adsorption of dissolved organic compounds on to acti vated carbon — GAC. In this step the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) are reduced in concentration to near the limit

of detection; the benzene, toluene, ethyl-

benzenes and xylenes are reduced to the low parts per billion, and the phenols to the low parts per million. The effluent at this point

out of the collection manhole to minimize the number of calls to the hazardous waste hauler.

Maintenance and Operation

meets Metro Toronto's sewer use by-law. The units used are a series of standard

As the operation of this facility is a con

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

transported by licensed carriers. As a condition of occupancy the Minis try of Labour and the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy have outlined in the terms ofagreement conditions with which the owner must comply. The owner is re quired to: • perform an annual air quality survey; • perform chemical analysis of effluent dis charged to the sanitary sewer; • provide an annual report to the MGEE on specific operational data including quantity, quality, groundwater flow and the occurrence of any spills etc.; • provide quarterly totals of groundwater pumped. A contaminated property does not always require a substantial investment to enable the owner to develop a site. Providing the con taminated soil and groundwater are con tained and all relevant permits and condi tions are met, the contaminated soil can re

main in the ground. In some respects this method is an improvement over transport ing and landfilling as that would simply move the problem rather than correcting it. The above is an excellent example of an in novative solution to an otherwise very ex

pensive problem if it were to be solved by conventional techniques. Acknowledgements The author would like to acknowledge the substantial contribution to the project of Gerald White, M.Sc., M.B.A., of Cutforth/ White Associates who was instrumental in

obtaining the relevant approvals for the owner to develop the site. References

Cutforth/White Associates, "Groundwater Treatment and Collection System Operating Manual", July 1994. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 117 25

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1425 Bayview Avenue

10558 — 31st Avenue

243 Boulevard Brien — Bureau 210

Toronto, Ontario, M4G 3A9

Edmonton, Alberta T6J 2Y3

Repentigny, Quebec J6A 6M4

416/485-1850 FAX: 416/485-9638

403/435-0882 FAX: 408/430-9183

514/582-4266 FAX: 514/585-5464




Province of Ontario

Western Provinces

Province of Quebec

For more information, Circle reply card No. 101 (See page 17)

R&D News Upgrading Sewage

the National Water Research Institute have

Treatment Plants

developed an ultra-sensitive Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometric method which makes possible the direct determina-

As part of the Severn Sound Remedial Ac tion Plan, XCG Consultants reviewed op tions available and relative costs of reduc

TCDD equivalent when the reference

ing total phosphorus loadings from eight water pollution control plants discharging


directly into Severn Sound. It was found that

a 59% reduction could be achieved by proc ess modifications at relatively small capital cost. As described by S.G. Nutt in the IVater Quality Research Journal of Canada, fur

ther improvements would require major capi

R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality

tal investment. It would be more cost effec

tive to impose more stringent effluent limits at some plants than others to achieve the overall phosphorus discharge objectives for the Sound.

Thallium In the Great Lakes Although it is a highly toxic element, the presence of thallium in surface waters has

been studied to a much lesser degree than other toxic elements such as lead, cadmium or mercury. This is primarily because thallium is often undetected by classical ana lytical methods. V. Cheam and colleagues at For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Association on Water Quality, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada,3439 River Road South, Gloucester, ON K1A 0H3, Tel;(613)990-9849, Fax:(613)990-2855.

matic compounds.The results of the assays, described by N.J. Bunce and colleagues in Environmental Science & Technology, were expressed as TCDD equivalents. The detec tion limit was approximately 100 pg of

Association Canadienne sur la

Qualite de I'Eau

tion ofthallium in lake waters. A paper published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research reports for the first time the con centration and the distribution of dissolved and total thallium in the waters of the three

Great Lakes and some point sources.

Screening Assay for DIoxIn-IIke Compounds University of Guelph scientists assayed PCDDs,PCDFs, and related compoijnds by binding the analytes competitively with fixed aliquotes of radio labelled 2,3,7,8tetrachloro-p-dioxin(TCDD)and C57BL/6 mouse hepatic Ah receptor. Additive bind ing to the receptor was observed for a wide range of structural types of chlorinated aro

radiogland was pH]TCDD.The assay does not require prior knowledge of the identi ties of the compounds of the mixture and is

intended for use as a screening tool.

Fate of Organic Chemicals In Sewage Treatment Plants University of Toronto scientists B. Clark, J.G. Henry and D. Mackay have developed a mass balance model for correlating and predicting the steady-state phase concentra tions, the process stream fluxes, and the fate of organic chemicals in a sewage treatment plant. As described in Environmental

Science & Technology, input data are the chemical's properties and the plant's design and operating parameters. The model is al gebraically simple, robust, and can be run on a personal computer.The relative amounts

of chemical that are likely to be stripped or volatilized, sorbed to sludge, biodegraded, and discharged in the effluent can be as sessed.

Treatment of High Ammonia Landfill Leachate

J.P. Henderson (City ofVancouver)and J.W. Atwater (University of British Columbia) used a pre-denitrifying anaerobic filter and

Inorganic Coagulants For water and wastewater

treatment, Eaglebrook has the product and the system, too. You'll get outstanding results with Eaglebrook's Ferrous Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Ferric Sulfate and FerriClear.

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Find the solutions at Eaglebrook. Phone (800) 268-5317 in Canada (800) 387-5021 in USA

EAGLEBROOK* INC. of CANADA Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more information, Circle reply card No. 102 (See page 17)


R&D News, cont'd. a rotating biological contactor(RBC)to re move nitrogen from a high ammonia(2140 mg/L) landfill leachate. The results, pub lished in the Canadian Journal ofCivil En gineering, indicate that greater than 95% ammonia removal can be achieved with RBC

ammonia-N loading rates up to 1.5 g/(m- d). At RBC loading rates of 1.5-3.0 g/(m^ d), ammonia removal ranged from 80% to 90%.

Nitrogen removal averages 66% including an estimated 54% removal in the RBC. Ni

trogen removal in the RBC appeared to be simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

Water Quality Trends in Severn Sound

A paper published by Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy scientist A.F. Gemza describes the spacial and temporal

ters have been declining at an annual rate of about 0.70 pg/L, response has been limited in the nearshore areas.

Removal of PAHs and HNCs

from Municipal Wastewater Samples of raw municipal sewage and pri mary and secondary effluent were monitored by WastewaterTechnology Centre scientists H. Melcer, P. Steel and W.K. Bedford for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 24 heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds (HNCs).As described in Water Environment Research, the PAHs tended to partition to the solid phase while the HNCs were pre dominantly in the liquid phase. Removal efficiencies of 98.3% for PAHs and 96.3% for HNCs were realized. A fate of contami

nants model,Toxchem, was used to forecast

the impact of different process strategies for minimizing the discharge of PAHs.

Ecosystem Response to PCB

A lengthy review of the available technical reports, government documents, books, and periodical articles that document the current knowledge about water and fish tainting in

A study published m Environmental Science & Technology describes an environmental

the river basins of northern Alberta has been

in various media and organisms of Lake

tion of phosphorus control guidelines. As

exhibit signs of eutrophication in nearshore areas despite the construction ofseveral sew age treatment plants. Improvements in trophic state indicators have been marginal suggesting limited success in controlling phosphorus concentrations. Although total phosphorus concentrations in the open wa

Technology provides an

abbreviated version of the full review.

Off-Flavour Tainting by Pulp Mill Effluents

trends in Severn Sound since the introduc

described in the Water Quality Research Journal ofCanada, the Sound continues to

in Water Science

PAHs in Wastewater Sludges The fate of polynuclear aromatic hydrocar bons during anaerobic digestion of munici pal sludges was investigated by Enviromega scientists in a two-stage pilot scale digester system. W.J. Parker and H.D. Monteith found that primary digester removal efficiencies ranged from 23% for acenaphthene to 62% for acenaphthylene. Secondary digester removal efficiencies ranged from 22% for acenaphthylene to 42% for phenanthrene. Less than 2.5% ofthe can didate compounds entering the digestion system was present in the secondary digester supernatant.As described in Water Environ ment Research, a dynamic model of the pri mary digester incorporating mixed first-or der biodegradation kinetics was calibrated for each of the candidate compounds.


fate and food chain bioaccumulation model

of the time response of PCB concentrations

published by University ofAlberta scientists

Ontario to changes in external PCB loadings

S.L. Kenefick and S.E. Hrudey. Although there isrelatively little information on taint

to the lake. The model and observed PCB

concentration time trends in herring gull

eggs, lake trout, sculpins, smelt, water, and

ing attributable to pulp mills in the area, dis cussions of other pulp mill related incidents

sediment are used to reconstruct the time

oftaste and odour throughout the world were also reviewed. A paper published recently

response and PCB loading history for Lake Ontario. Simon Eraser University scientists

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R&D News, cont'd. F.A.P.C. Gobas, M.N. Z'Graggen, and X. Zhang then assess the past and future time response ofPCB concentrations in the Lake Ontario's food web to PCB inputs. Sediment Lead Loads in

the Niagara River In a paper published in the Journal ofGreat Lakes Research, J.R. Elliott(Wilfred Laurier University)and A.H. El-Shaarawi(National Water Research Institute) develop a method

characterized the odorous compounds in extracts ofbleached kraft pulp mill effluents (BKME) using olfactory gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. B.G. Brownlee and colleagues iden tified three sulfur compounds: dimethyl disulfide, 3-methylthiophene, and thioani-


to estimate sediment lead loads from Lake

Erie to the Niagara river and from the river to Lake Ontario. Using weekly data for over a six year period, autoregressive time series models containing terms for trend and seasonality were developed for the average daily load at the head and the mouth of the river, as well as for the load ratio and differ ence between the two sites. The average load at both sites decreased dramatically from 1986 to 1992.

Measurement of Partition Coefficients University of Toronto scientists T. Harner and D. Mackay have developed and tested novel methods for measuring the octanol-

water partition (K^^) coefficient. Data are reported in Environmental Science & Tech nology for six chlorobenzenes, five PCBs, and DDT over the temperature range -10 to

+20°C with values approaching 10'^. varies log-linearly with the reciprocal ofab solute temperature and increases by a factor of approximately 30 over this temperature range. The temperature coefficient is ap proximately 62 kJ/mol for chlorobenzenes and 70 kJ/mol for PCBs. It is suggested that, for hydrophobic chemicals, it is preferable to measure directly since this avoids handling aqueous solutions.

R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quaiity Association Canadienne sur ia

Quaiite de i'Eau

sole (methyl phenyl sulfide). As described in their paper published in Water Science & Technology, typical concentration of these three compounds in BKME were 1,0.05,and 0.5 pg/L,respectively. Efforts to identify an other odour peak with a pronounced alkyl sulfide odour, eluting just after 3-methylthiophene, were unsuccessful.

Removal of Odour Compounds

tively removed biodegradable organic mat ter, chlorinated by-products, and ozonation by-products from drinking water during a large pilot-scale study using the North Saskatchewan River. They followed the removal of odour through different process trains involving biological treatment during the annual spring runoff. The results, pub lished in Water Science & Technology, veri fied the futility of relying on a strictly oxidative treatment like ozone for odour

removal. It also showed that biological treat ment using granular activated carbon could produce an essentially odour-free effluent during a transient raw water odour event.

Biodegradation of Creosotes in Groundwater The interactions among seven creosoterelated compounds during their aerobic bio degradation in groundwater were studied in factorial experiments by scientists from the University of Waterloo, the Biotechnology

Research Institute, and Ecole Polytechnique. In general, the more hydrophobic and recal citrant compounds were more affected by substrate interaction. Mineralization of pcresol was not affected by substrate interac tion whereas p-cresol inhibited mineraliza tion of phenanthrene, but other compounds

from Raw Water

did not. These and other results related to

S.E. Hrudey and colleagues at the Univer sity of Alberta and Golder Associates have shown that biological water treatment effec

the mineralization of carbazole have been

published by D. Millette and colleagues in Environmental Science & Technology.

FRP Digester, Odour Control, and Freeze Protection Covers

Fate of Pesticides in Municipal Wastewater Treatment The fate of two insecticides (lindane and diazinon)and three herbicides(2,4-D,2,4,5T, and atrazine) at concentrations of2 to 10 pg/L in municipal wastewater treatment was

investigated by Enviromega and Wastewater Technology Centre scientists. Only lindane was found to be biodegradable to any ex tent. As reported in Water Environment Research, loss of pesticides from the system


• Nemato offers complete design, manufacturing, and installation capabilities to provide tfie solutions you need

due to sorption to mixed liquor solids was

small. Because the pesticides examined were mostly refractory to activated sludge treat ment under the conditions examined, H.D.

Monteith and colleagues recommend that it is desirable to limit their entry to wastewater collection and treatment systems to minimize their impact on receiving waters.

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Bleach Kraft Pulp Mill Odours Scientists from the National Water Research

Institute and the University of Alberta have


For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Association on Water Quaiity, Environmentai Technology Centre, Environment Canada,3439 River Road South, Gloucester, ON KIA 0H3, Tel:(613)990-9849, Fax:(613)990-2855.

1605 McEwen Drive, Whitby, Ontario, Canada LIN 7L4



Represented by: ENVIROCAN Wastewater Treatment Equipment(905)880-2418

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 105 (See page 17)


R&D News, cont'd. Severn Sound Sediment

In a paper published in the Watei- Quality Research Journal of Canada, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy scien tists G. Krantzberg and R.K. Sherman de scribe the sediment chemistry of Lake Huron's Severn Sound and its bioassess-

ment. Fine grained sediment of the Sound contains metals that exceed the Ontario Min

istry ofEnvironment and Energy's lowest ef fect level while sediment in Penetang Bay

Bioconcentration of PAHs

has concentrations of Cr that are above the

In a paper published in Environmental Science & Technology, J. Hellou (Fisheries and Oceans Canada), D. Mackay (Trent Uni versity), and B. Fowler (Axys Analytical Services) describe and model the uptake of polycyclic aromatic compounds from con

provincial Severe Effect Level, the level at which a compound is expected to be detri mental to the majority of benthic species. Nevertheless, chronic bioassays resulted in little measurable sublethal toxicity evidently due to the limited bioavailability of metals.


Area Code &Tel:



taminated sediments into the muscle of fmfish. Biota-sediment accumulation factors

(BSAF) were deduced showing that the more water soluble PAHs displayed higher BSAFs. A simple fugacity model describing the equi librium and kinetics of the uptake of chemi cals from sediment suggests that the more soluble PAHs are approaching equilibrium during the 4-month exposure period. How ever, the less soluble PAHs require a much longer time to reach steady state because of

FAX (905)841-7271 for quick response Company

iri Fish

their low concentration in water.

Chlorobornanes in Toxaphene Treated Lakes Scientists from the University of Alberta and

Address: Postal


Prov: _

the Freshwater Institute isolated chlorobor


nanes from recent and older sediments, as well as from rainbow trout muscle, in two

Signature: ,


□ n

Municipal & Govt. Official Provincial Government

Federal Government

n Consulting engineer/consultant □ Industrial (Please specify area of activity)

prairie lakes that were treated with toxaphene pesticide in the early 1960s. As described in Environmental Science & Technology, cored sediments representing the years of treatment contained high concentrations of chlorobor

nanes with a gas chromatographic peak pat tern similar to technical toxaphene. Analy sis of near-surface sediments and of fish by D.W. Schindler and colleagues also yielded


higher than normal qhlorobomane concen trations. Significant residual chloroboranes

Circle the numbers below for FREE information on the products in the March issue that interest you. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110

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For more informatiori about products, services and articles In this Issue (March '96), you can A Mail in the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mail this if faxing is not convenient) Be sure to fill In your name, address and job function and signature. ENVIRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkway. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6

in surface sediments and in fish indicate that

other toxaphene-treated lakes should be re-examined.

Sorptlon of Pollutants by Ice and Snow

In a paper published in Environmental Science & Technology, J.T. Hoff and col leagues from the Universities of Waterloo and Toronto describe two complementary methods of measuring the sorption of nonpolar organic vapours to snow and ice. A gas chromatographic retention time method using a column containing ice-coated Chromosorb P has the advantage of giving pre

cise determinations of the air-ice surface par tition coefficient for volatile chemicals. A

snow pack method involves measuring the sorption of chemical from a gas stream into a bed of snow, the quantity sorbed being determined by the change in gas concentra tion and by directly measuring the snow con centration.

For more Information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Association on Water Quality, Environmental Tech nology Centre, Environment Canada, 3439 River Road South, Gloucester,

ON K1A0H3, Tel: (613) 990-9849, Fax:

(613) 990-2855. 30

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905) 727-4666. Odour Control

Treating odours with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is

Zebra Mussels


detaiied in a technicai bulietin.

Systems are discussed that dis pense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odours. Other topics include: storage and air collection needs.

To help controi zebra mussels, one solution involves the use of JAVEX-

12 sodium hypochlorite, which kills the larvae. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread, if you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept in formed of the latest information,

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

please contact us. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

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Professional Products Division

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Cyanide Removal Using sodium hypochiorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes

E PUMP Co.Ine.

Double Disc Pumps Pump MonuFocfurers To The Process Industry

is detaiied. Bulletin reviews dos

ages, equipment, as well as stor age, safety and handling data. Particuiariy applicable to metal recover or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive Circle reply card No. 202

opposition of each other to create suction, discharge and "induced flow" of the fluid through the pump. Equipump Inc. Circle reply card No. 203

Digital Field/Lab Fluorometer


The 10-AU Digital Fluorometer from Turner Designs is a rugged field portable instru ment that can be set-up for continuous flow monitoring or discrete sample analysis. A watertight case, Internal data logging, au tomatic range changing, and unmatched stability make the 10-AU the Instrument of

Plastic Chambers

Canada Inc.

Cultec Contactor™ and Recharger™ plastic leaching chambers used for on-site wastewater and stormwater

management, are available in five model sizes ranging from 12.4" to 30.5" high to accommodate a vari ety of applications. Designed to re place conventional pipe and stone trenches or concrete galleries. Pat ented interlocking rib design. Nation ally and internationally accepted

choice for field studies. With an indoor

case and the discrete sampling system for 13mm or 25mm test tubes,the 10-AU func

tions well In an enclosed field setting. Ap plications Include fluorescent tracer stud ies, chlorophyll analysis, emergency oil spill response,oceanographic studies, and lake & reservoir management.

since 1987.

Hoskin Scientific Limited

Gravenhurst Plastics

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innovative Solutions to '90s

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905)727-4666.

Wastewater Treatment


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WHMIS Trainer Manual

WHMIS Employee Manual

Everything a trainer needs to know

The classroom companion to your

about WHMISI Canwit's WHMIS Trainer Manual is divided into 5 mod


and French. IPEX Inc.


Contains the same 5 modules of

ules, each covering a specific part of WHMIS legislation. Included in the Manual is a "session planning" form you can copy and use to make your training sessions run smoothly. Four

WHMIS Information and a glossary. Each module Is easy to understand and includes review questions that, when answered, ensure the mate rial is understood.

bonuses included: more than 40 over


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Chain & Flight Coliection Systems for Rectanguiar

FREE 1996 Instrumentation


The National Instruments 1996 catalogue features new versions of the company's LabVIEW®, LabWINDOWS®/CVI, and HiQ® application software products. Other new software products include Measure™, a new spreadsheet add-in for direct data acquisition and control and VirtualBench™, a family of Windows-based turnkey virtual instruments. New hardware products in

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clude GPIB, DAQ, and VXI interfaces for

PCI-based computers; new PCMCIA in terfaces; new MXI-2 interfaces; and serial interfaces for industrial communications

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Above Ground Storage Tank Fireguard is an above ground pe troleum storage tank which is two hour fire rated, ballistics tested and

carries a 30 year warranty. It Is the safe, lightweight, practical and eco nomical solution to many environ mentally sensitive fuel storage ap plications. Available in Canada only from Westeel In capacities from 900 to 45,000 litres. In rectangular or cylindrical design. Westeel Industrial Products

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The Complete Systems Approach To Dewatering Th9 first namo In Solios/Uquld

Seuflratlon Technology Hwilar4 SyiHri NrMimtdpil end ls<i»lrt9lJle;IlcaUni

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Environmental Science eS Engineering, March 1996

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cali ES&E at(905)727-4666. Noise reduction lessens

Low-Cost Solution to

worker fatigue

cleanup of urban runoff

Eckoustic Functional Panels -

Fossil Filter™ (patent pending) Is a trough apparatus which utilizes filter paks containing EPA-approved absorbents, installed in water drain age Inlets to collect hydro-carbons and other contaminants, while per mitting the undisturbed passage of water. Fossil Filter"^" adapts to any size or shape of drainage Inlet.

(EPFs)- the practical, efficient so lution to noise reduction needs.

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XSORB® Is the filter medium con

tained in the filter paks. XSORB® was designed specifically to absorb petroleum-based contaminants.

rooms and administration areas.

Eckel Industries

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M.J. International

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Centrifugal decanters for thickening and dewatering waste sludge


Sludge Thickening and Dewatering Centrico offers this 10 page iiiustrated brochure comparing centrifu gal decanters to belt filter press and frame press technologies. Design features of clarifying decanters and their benefits are explained, such as closed design, low operating costs, continuous operation with least op erator attention, and compliance with environmental regulations.

Motionless Mixers The proven molionless mixer tlut

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of dosing chemicals. Statlflo motion less mixers are commonly used In coaguiatlon/flocculation, flash mixing of dilute polyeiectrolyte, alum, caus tic, etc., pFI control, disinfection/ chlorinatlon/fluorldation/ozonatlon

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Proven Designs. Value Engineering. Knowledgeableltecommendations.

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Submersible pumps from KSB. Amacan K, Amacan pnt/snt


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underdrain systems. General Filter Company Circle reply card No. 220


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propeller For the pumping of mixed water, for surface drainage and municipal and Industrial water supply. The abbre viation ECB stands for Ever Clean

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supply tubular shafts up to a normal diameter of 1,500 mm. KSB Pumps Inc.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

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Highest sample integrity, data you can count on. Simple to understand, efficient to use. Small and lightweight, handling is easy.

Rugged construction, sealed controller, it's built to last. 900 and 900 MAX, you have a choice. Sigma's 900 Samplers are all fo cused on one primary purpose: to help you sample and monitor water quality. Easily,

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OIL/WATER MONITORS FOR LEVEL & SPILLS Arjay Engineering Ltd., a Canadian manufacturer of control instrumentation

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Meter, detecting levels 0 to 500 ppm. For more information, Circie reply card No. 179

STORM WATER SAMPLING Sigma's 900 MAX Portable Samplers can operate for a full week in the field between battery changes,even with the ability to internally log flow, pH, D.O.and other water quality parameters. The controlier has the capacity to log up to 116,000 data points which can be re trieved with a hand-held Data Transfer

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VOC MONITORING The Photovac MicroTIP portable datalogging PID is the instrument of choice for environmental, industrial hy giene, and safety professionals need ing to monitor volatile organic com pounds (VOC) in a variety of applica tions. The MicroTIP provides immedi ate determination of contaminant levels

over a range of 0.1 to 2000 ppm.

VOICE AUTO DIALER ProTalk automatically dials the tel ephone and tells you the problem in clear, toll-quality voice. You can cus tomize ProTalk to expand capacity from the basic eight alarm inputs and four relay outputs up to 64 inputs and 32 out puts. With the ProTalk Model SPX Alarm Annunciator you can monitor up to 110 analog values, digital status or analog trip points.

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HAZARDOUS GAS MONITOR HCN - Jet Fuels - Alcohols - Halogenated Hydrocarbons - Solvents -'PERC - Freons - Ethers - Esters - Gasoline ETC - Ketones. The Enmet ISA-M Gas Monitor can be custom calibrated to

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Circie reply card No. 184 For more information, circle reply card No. 185(See page 17)


By Archie Kerr, M.Eng., CIH, ROH*

Integrating Occupational Health & Safety with Environmental Management Systems

Over the last few years there has been a major thrust by many companies to improve customer satisfaction, quality and develop

systems for continuous improvement of manufactured products. The ISO 9000 series

are easily measured and managed. It is more

ofthe company are being met in occupational

difficult to measure the success or failure of

health, safety and the environment. There is also a need to determine if a company is meeting all the environmental, occupational health and safety regulations. The audit may also provide significant cost savings and re

OH&S and environmental systems. Ifthese systems cannot be measured they become almost impossible to manage. There must be a set of targets, goals or benchmarks that

standards and certification

duce future environmental li

process has required com panies to implement effective

abilities and increased Work

ers' Compensation payments.

management systems in many

The audit recommendations

facets of the business. ISO

will provide a pathway into the future and determine the key

9004 requires quality man agement and quality system guidelines to be implemented.

elements in the OH & S and

environmental systems To effectively report progress companies must have a proper yardstick for measure

The draft ISO 14000 series

deals with maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and protecting human health at work and play.

ment and some idea what is

acceptable and the progress that is being made over time.

These draft standards when

complete will outline the re quirements for an effective en vironmental management sys tem and how to elfectively con duct an audit of this system.

Audits are an effective meas

urement tool and require the auditors to review specific in formation and conduct inter

Smelting operation outside Canada.

There are a number of subcommittees that

have been set up around the world to de velop the various aspects ofthe environmen tal management system(EMS)standards for the ISO. Recently there have been some committee discussions regarding occupa tional health and safety and the close rela tion to some aspects of EMS. These com

must be used to show progress. An audit can be an effective tool for evaluating a com pany's performance and to see if the goals

mittees are seriously considering the integra tion of both environment and occupational health and safety into a single management system standard. Integrated Environment, Occupational Health and Safety (OH & S) systems must

develop a program that addresses both the common elements and specific topics that are not interrelated. The program elements must cover the legal and moral obligations regarding both the environment and OH & S and should outline the necessary aspects to ensure that both the employees and the general population are adequately protected. Boards of Directors are now being held more accountable for the day to day deci sions that are being made regarding occupa tional health, safety and the environment. There is a need to keep upper management and the Board more informed. Management are demanding short precise accounts of the current issues. When potential problems are identified these people will want to know what action will be taken to eliminate the risk or to control the risk and minimize the

consequences to people,the environment and

views with management and employees. The audit can be made more efficient if it is designed to cover both envi ronmental and occupational health and safety

Contaminated soil? Hazardous waste? HAZCO responds with professional service and responsible waste solutions. Environmental Remediation Services

• Site services, remediation and decommissioning • Landfill and pond decommissioning • Underground storage tank decommissioning •

Pond construction and liner installation

• Water and sludge treatment • Waste disposal options - onsite treatment, stabilization, recycling, incineration, landfill •

Well-site reclamation

Hazardous Waste Management Services •

Licensed Waste Transfer Station

• • • • •

Documentation and waste profiling Repackaging and transportation Disposal options Container systems- waste bins, bag systems, tanks and drums Waste reduction, filter compaction and drum crushing HAZCO Environmental Services Ltd.


Head Office: 200, 5720 - 4 Street S.E., Calgary, Alberta T2H1K7

the bottom line.

Quality and profitability are issues that "Manager, Occupational Health & Safety Services, Goodfellow Consultants Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Calgary: Vancouver: Grande Prairie: Olds/Red Deer:

(403) 297-0444 (604) 231-0737 (403) 354-3279 (403) 556-1333

Manitoba: Edmonton: Richmond C.A.: Toli Free:

(204) 378-2910 (403) 449-1114 (510) 232-1826 1-800-667-0444

For more information, Circle reply card No. 107 (See page 17)


OH & S, cont'd. issues.

The audit will determine the

strengths and weaknesses in both systems. Figure: 1 outlines what must be done to im plement a successful management system. By analyzing the needs and opportunities with an audit, a company is in a position to develop systems to limit environmental li abilities and control both the occupational health and safety hazard potential within the workplace. All personnel that are likely to be affected must be trained so they under stand their responsibilities and can take ap propriate action. To help hold people ac countable a measurement system should be put in place to monitor results. The moni toring results must be used and will provide for continuous improvement to the devel oped systems.

Analyze Needs & Opportunities

Develop Systems

Train Management & Employees

Provide for

Continuous Improvement

Figure 1: Develop Systems and Allow for Continuous Improvement

occupational health and safety program there is a need for an effective management sys tem. Environment, Occupational Health and Safety professionals should not go out and try and reinvent the management wheel. The ISO 9000 series standards for quality should be used. A company's success in many cases is based on effective management systems. Figure: 2 outlines an effective management system model. There must be interaction between departments such as manufacturing, purchasing, marketing, and financial plan ning. In the past management always spent

rectly affect the bottom line. This includes effective health, safety and environmental systems. Indeed some companies state that there is nothing more important than occu pational health, safety and the environment. Figure: 2 indicates that the foundation for a company's success is based on firm OH & S and environmental programs. These pro grams will affect all other aspects of a com pany's operation. For this reason it makes good sense to implement the most effective system possible. In many cases the same production and maintenance management personnel are re sponsible for implementing both the envi ronment and OH & S systems and programs in the plant. To simplify the system both program key elements should be combined

much of their time in these areas as these

whenever there are common elements. An

activities affected the bottom line and prof its ofa company in the very short term. Many companies now realize that there are a num ber of these issues that will directly or indi-

integrated program could include the follow ing key elements that are common to both

To have an effective environmental and

environment as well as OH & S:

• Policy





> Product


Life Cycle

r Systems k Purchasing

Marketing Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Systems

Figure 2: Effective Environment, Occupational Health and Safety Systems are a Company's Foundation for Success


• Communication.

Key elements that are not common and

must be developed for the OH & S program include:

• Joint Health and Safety Committee • Workplace inspection and control

• Accident investigation and follow-up • Emergency response. There are a number of safety guidelines

that must be developed to meet a specific need within the industry. Some of the more common technical issues would include; lockout procedures, hearing conservation

programs, air purifying respirators, handling and storing flammable solvents, confined space, working offladders and platforms, etc. The environmental key elements that are notcommon to the integrated program include: • Objectives and goals for air, water and waste • Operational controls • Emergency response • Reporting to government agencies. Environmental guidelines would have to lution control operation, spills clean-up and disposal procedures, waste reduction pro grams, transportation of dangerous goods, PCB handling and storage, pollution con trol equipment preventative maintenance



• Management and employee responsibility and accountability • Training • Recordkeeping • Program auditing

be developed and include: air and water pol



Monitor Results


The integrated environment, occupa tional health and safety system must be dy namic and allow for continuous improve ment. To successfully implement such a sys tem within a company requires a commit ment from management and someone who is in charge ofthe integrated program. This person must also have the authority and power to make such a program work. Smaller companies may have to look at a consultant to conduct the auditing, and im plementation of such an integrated system. The integrated environment, occupational health and safety system should become part ofthe company's overall organization struc ture and business plan. It will require man agement, supervisors and employees to all do their part to make such a system effective and become preventative rather than reac tive in providing a clean environment for the general public and a safe healthful workplace for all employees. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 118

Pulp & Paper trends

By Mme Lise Lachapelle*

Going beyond pulp friction & paper tigers

I find it particularly stimulating to be here in British Columbia, because the

B.C. pulp and paper industry has such importance and high profile. Some may consider this a dubious benefit. I, for one, welcome this visibility and high profile — if it also brings light to the

ofrecovered paper in the world. Quite sim ply, we can use as much as we can get our hands on. So your blue boxes are the key to our industry. The industry and the environment. Be tween 1989 and 1996,the industry will have

debate on environmental and economic concerns. This stand-off between en vironmental concerns and eco

what can happen when regulation makes in dustry less competitive by putting most of the cost into administration instead of into

achieving results. Regulations which micro manage problems but overlook the big pic ture can be particularly problematic. One practical example is in the area of effluent regulation. I have spoken to mill operators who have proudly shown me new technologies for reducing

nomic concerns is really at the heart of the challenge facing Canada's pulp and paper pro ducers. Traditionally, environ

effluent and then informed me

that their efforts were being un dermined by other industries, or indeed municipalities, up stream which continue to pol

mentalists ask Canadians to choose the environment over

lute. Where is the net benefit

the eeonomy. Traditionally,the industry asks Canadians to choose the economy over the environment. In my opinion, this extreme polarization of viewpoints is as predictable as

for the public? Surely, the ob jective of regulation in this case is to provide a net benefit

it is outdated. This is 1995 not 1965. The

to the end user ofthe river. And

this is not what is happening. Maybe we should start to look at regulation from the point of Canada's forests not only maintain our largest industries, they also are a recreational resource worth billions. Photo, ES&E - T. Davey

pulp and paper industry has made major strides in harvesting, regenera tion, mill technology, pollution control and public participation. We simply have a lot more to offer Canadians who value their en

vironment and their economy. The sad irony is we don't need this level of confrontation and infighting. The sad irony is that while we are bogged down in controversy, everyone loses out. The sad irony is that we have all the ingredients to put together a practical,competitive andsus tainable pulp and paper industry. I say this in part because 1 view this industry from a unique perspective. As a business person coming into the industry just over a year ago, I don't take for granted its aehievements or its limitations or indeed its press releases. In fact, I harboured a few preconceptions my self. But over the last 13 months, I have learned some basics about the industry which have surprised me. Let me share a few with you:

Recycling. One ofthe strongest misconcep tions is that because we make paper, we don't want people to recycle. Nothing could be further from the truth. We are actually Cana da's number one supporter ofrecycling—out of environmental interest and self interest.

Right now,more than 60 mills in Canada use recovered paper either entirely or par tially and $1.5 billion has recently been in vested in recycling and de-inking facilities. We used 4 million tonnes of recovered pa per in 1994. To satisfy customer demand, we have actually become the largest importer 'President & Chief Executive Officer,

Canadian Puip and Paper Association, speaking in October, 1995 to The Eraser institute, Vancouver, B.C.

invested $5.2 billion in pollution reduction measures—r/iar'5 about 60 times what it cost

to build GM Place. And our industry did this in the depths ofa recession. In the proc ess we have virtually eliminated dioxins and furans from mill effluent and revitalized riv ers and streams like the Fraser River here in B.C.

The resource is being protected. Canada has 416 million hectares of forested land.

Each year the Canadian forest products in dustry harvests one half of one percent of the commercially productive forest area. The balance (206 million hectares) is in a wil derness state and will probably remain so for as far as we can see into the future.

The resource is being renewed. For every hectare of timber eut, the industry regener ates as much or more — and we've been do

ing it for decades. If the industry has made a mistake here, it's in allowing this work to go on largely unnoticed. Nevertheless, it is staggering. I think these few examples demonstrate that the industry is not static and not stag nant. By the same token, if you were to say: 'we need to do more', I would be the first to agree. We have a ways to go in terms of solving all our problems. The question is — how do we get there? The traditional route is through govern ment regulation. Traditionally, regulation has impacted the industry in virtually every facet of operations from protection offorest land to management of forests and land use and of course the effluents from pulp and paper mills. Regulation can be both posi tive and negative. Let me share some of my concerns. As a former senior government official, 1 know

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

view of the river or stream or

ecosystem? Another interesting example: recycling content legislation in some ofthe U.S. states

means that Canadian suppliers are literally going to extraordinary lengths to meet re quirements for recycled content. Since there is not enough recycled material in Canada, producers will import material by truck or rail from the U.S. to plants in places like Thunder By. Then the paper is processed and the finished product is shipped back South again. What is the net impact of that process on our environment? How much fossil fuel are we saving? How much are we burning? Let me be clear. The industry is not now and never has been against regulation. There is a definite role for regulation which is: smart and motivating, nondiscriminatory and participative, practical and focused on re sults. However, I think there is an even greater potenhaX for industry leadership and innovation. In many cases, the prevailing theory is that no alternative to regulation exists; that companies have to be dragged kicking and screaming to improve their en vironmental performance and that only regu lation can do this. This again is outdated and because it is based on what I call tradi

tional "either or" thinking: either the envi ronment or the economy. It ignores the fact that there are powerful economic imperatives found in environmen tal improvements. Perhaps the simplest one

is found in responsible forest management. It goes like this: If we're out oftrees, we're out ofbusiness. I agree that some ofthe forestry methods can and should be improved to better reflect changes in social values but we also have thousands of employees in this province 37

Pulp & Paper trends, cont'd. alone whose job it is to regenerate our for ests through land management plans. These plans are extensive, detailed and long-term, some 25, 50 and even 80 years out. Name another industry that takes strategic planning that seriously! The other most powerful motivating force for change is the customer. 80% of what we produce is sold to nearly 100 countries around the world. Customer preferences don't give us a choice. We have to reduce pollution, increase recycling, improve pro ductivity and manage forests carefully. That process in turn is leading Canada's pulp and paper industry to go beyond mere compliance and seek out innovation. That surprises some people. It shouldn't. This is

tem becomes practical for all types ofopera tions. But the industry is working steadily toward this objective and there are two me

chanical pulp mills in Canada which are op erating under the concept of a closed loop mill. One is here in B.C.(Louisiana Pacific). En route to closed loop technology, the

industry is also benefitting by drastically re ducing use of chlorine, using less water and energy and reducing effluent. As an illustration, since 1988: • use of elemental chlorine is down 92%

• organochlorines are down 75% • dioxins and furans are down 99%.

You might say to these statistics(as 1 once did): so what? Well, for example, it means that exactly 72 days ago,the Government of

not altruism. It is self-interest but it does

Canada announced that levels of dioxin had

generate clear benefits, cost-effective tech nologies and measurable results. Let me give you three examples which we are currently working on: 1. Closed loop technology. This was once thought impossible but is now well within

decreased to the point where the B.C. coastal fishing areas will reopen for shellfish har vesting. In many areas of the B.C. coast, consumption advisories have been lifted or

the realm of possibility. And what is closed loop technology? It's a "no-escape" concept. It means gradually making the pulp mill into a self-contained operation, reusing water over and over instead of expelling it, elimi nating effluent, with zero or near-zero im pact on the environment.

Right now there are still some major re search hurdles to overcome before the sys


2. An environmental management pro gram. A second area where we're moving beyond compliance is an environmental management program designed to continu

ally improve the industry's environmental performance. Although industry would be the main player, we would rely on an out side independent advisory group to begin work on a framework and policy. It is intended to cover manufacturing, re-

cycling and the health of workers. The pro gram will be designed around detailed codes of practice for our operations and will show through regular, public reports how the in

dustry does — or does not — measure up. Our commitment is a serious one. Our

members are prepared to stake their reputa tions on the results. In fact, compliance with this program will be a requirement for mem bership within CPPA. 3. A set of industry-wide standards for sustainable forest practices. This is par ticularly pertinent to the debates going on in

British Columbia. In the case of Clayoquot Sound for example, the recommendations of

the Clayoquot Sound Scientific panel relate very specifically to the Clayoquot site and

its particular ecosystem and forest type. Some people have suggested, that you sim ple take those findings and apply them to every other ecosystem or forest site across Canada. This is simply not the case. It's like saying: "all forests look alike". This is a form of ecochauvinisin.

Those 120 recommendations apply to Clayoquot for Clayoquot factors like: size of roads, permits, harvesting levels, silvicul ture, watersheds, soil protection, and so on. The smart way to bring the same level of environmental responsibility to other forests

is to step back and look at the big picture. That means designing environmental protec tion from the perspective of the end user — in this case the forest.


WUh our new stainless, y€ni gain nwre,

Canada. When 1 talk about standards here 1

mean CSA-approved standards ready as early as 1996.

We are all familiar with CSA standards.

They provide an assurance of safety when you buy an electrical appliance. In our case, we want those standards to bring the same

MORE protection from harsh operating environments.

sense of confidence and assurance to our

MORE motor options —■ from duai


voltage three phase to high torque capacitor start single phase.

MORE accessories to choose from, including piggyback mechanical float switches, control panels and basins.

It will indicate that a producer has used

sustainable means of identifying, harvesting and protecting the soil and ecosystem. For consumers, those standards will tell you and me and every one of our customers around the world that our products come from for

ests which are being managed sustainably. And we would like to see this concept adopted internationally through the Interna

MORE sizes available for your pump and mixer requirements.

All of these new models are competitively priced, so call us today for the name of

your local ABS representative — and get

more for less!

_ A company in the Cardo Group

J )

To do that you must use applicable stand ards for sustainable forest management which takes into account different species, different soil types and different regions of

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tional Organization for Standardization (ISO).

These are just three examples of how to apply continuous improvement to the envi ronmental performance of the pulp and pa per industry. The key element in each of these initiatives is public participation and consultation. We need help and that means cooperation with stakeholders, government and environmentalists as well as public dis cussion, public participation and public in put.


For more information, Circle reply card No. 108 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

GORMAN-RUPP HAS THE WASTEWATER PUMPING SYSTEM TO FIT YOUR NEEDS Gorman-Rupp manufactures a complete line of pre-englneered, factory-built packaged lift stations. Whettier it's a small or large wastewater collection system, we can provide an efficient, reliable pumping system including motors, controls, valves and piping ready for hook-up on site. Electronio Pressure Switch features dependable, solid-state construction and provides accurate, trouble-free monitoring of wet well liquid level. Bubbler Control design eliminates problems common to other bubbler systems. Controls are NEMA rated, UL/GSA Listed and will easily interface with users telemetry. Gorman-Rupp lift stations feature self-priming, solids-handling T-Series pumps specially designed for dependable wastewater handling. Mounted high and dry above the liquid being pumped with only the suction line in the sump,there's no need to disconnect the piping for servicing. A removable coverplate provides quick, easy access to the pump Interior for removal of clogs or maintenance of components. And, no special tools are needed. T-Series pumps Base-mounted "autostart" pump station with bubbler control and standby engine automatically drives pump if power fails and eliminates need for expensive generator set.

are available In 3",4",6",8" and 10" sizes with

capacities u p to 3,200 gpm and heads to 130'. Rugged,economical fiberglass-reinforced enclosures house all equipment. They resist corrosion, mildew, mold and fungus and provide all-weather protection. Compact, low silhouettes and forest green colour blends in perfectly with surrounding landscaping. Enclosures provide easy access to interior equipment for


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GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 BurwellRd., St. Thomas,Ont.N5P3R7 Phone:(519)631-2870 Fax:(519)631-4624 Telex: 064-73530 Distributors across Canada. Oonsuit the Yeliow Pages foryournearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 109(See page 17)

Spring Conferences

Spring Convention Previews Some 250 of the world's top speakers will be at GLOBE 96 in Vancouver, BC; this is the fourth GLOBE Conference and Trade

Fair on developing the business of the envi

March 26 - 29 World Trade Centre, Vancouver, B.C.

ronment. Over 7,000 international business

GLOBE 94 as their environmental business

destination. Even greater partici pation is expected at GLOBE 96. Opening Plenary Session The Keynote Address will be given by the Honourable Maurice F. Strong, P.C., O.C. - Toronto,

Learn about market access and financ

ing strategies from successful environmen tal companies, trade facilitators and finan ciers in International Markets.

leaders from 56 countries around the Pacific

Rim, Asia, the Americas and Europe chose


The Conference will also feature two I (il.OHf. i'mnniation of Caiuuia


days of technical presentations on Thursday and Friday, March 28 and 29. Topics will include: environmental management and auditing; greening the internet; water and wastewater treatment

innovations; pollution preven tion; clean energy; and resource recovery applications. This conference component will be complemented by prod uct demonstrations occurring on

Ontario. Conference Over 70 seminars and work

the trade fair floor.

shops on corporate strategy, en

Globe '96 workshops will

vironmental markets and invest


ment will be presented by more than 200 international experts. Other programs at GLOBE 96

• Surviving Close Encounters

include a series of industrial site

• Implementing ISO 14000 • Environmental CostAccounting

with the Media and Public

visits, featuring environmental technology demonstrations for members ofinternational delega

• Environmental Performance Index

• Reporting on Environmental

tions. There are also some related


outside events happening in con junction with GLOBE 96, such

• Infrastructure Project Financing • Capital Structuring and Strate gic Planning for Environmental

as the OECD Towards Sustain

able Transport conference, and the 26th Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment. The Conference Program is structured in "Tracks", each of which addresses a specific topic

Firms TVade Fair

You can view 500 of the

world's leading environment and clean technology firms from NorthAmerica, Europe andAsia. International buyers and joint ven ture partners from over 30 coun

or area:

1. Environment Policy and Regu lation

2. Corporate Environmental


4. Investing in Environmental Business 5. Global Environmental Markets I & II

6. Market Access and Financial Strategies Corporate Strategy sessions will enable you to find out how ISO 14000, NAFTA, voluntary codes and other policy develop ments will affect your business operations. You can leam how to boost company per formance by applying environmental man agement tools and pollution prevention strat egies from the world's leading corporations. In Finance and Investment you can re ceive expert intelligence on trends shaping environmental industry growth, technology development and environmental financing strategies from investment analysts, fund managers, investment bankers and environ ment industry executives, from such com panies as: Severn Trent, Gartner Lee Inter national,RBC Dominion Securities, ExportImport Bank of Japan, Philip Utilities, Mol ten Metal Technology, EBI Capital Group, 40

tries will be at GLOBE 96.

Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre, site of GLOBE

Strategy 3. Applying Pollution Prevention to Facili

Coopers & Lybrand, Earth Technology Cor poration, AGRA Industries, Technology Funding, Peregrine Investment Holdings, and Caisse de Depot et Placement du

For further information please contact: GLOBE Foundation of Canada, World Trade Centre, Tel: (604) 775-1994, Fax:(604) 666-8123, Email: info@globe.apfnet.org dress. Minister Elliott, a founding member of Guelph's Round Table on Environment

Water Environment Association of Ontario

WEAO's 25th Annual

and Economy, is making a concerted effort to involve environmental professionals in implementing the new government's envi ronmental agenda. Technical Program Sessions will cover:

1. The changing market for municipal serv

Symposium and


OPCEA Exhibition

2. Legal issues with impacts on the wastewater servicing industry.

March 24-26

3. WWTP 101: Fundamentals ofthe WWTP

Regal Constellation Hotel,

design process. 4. Combined sewer overflow control—policy and implementation experience. 5. Cost-effective capital upgrades to

Toronto, Ontario The Honourable Brenda Elliott, Ontario

Minister of Environment and Energy, will open the WEAO Technical Symposium and OPCEA Exhibition with the keynote ad


6. PWOD session.

Continued on page 42

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996





















Complete mixing gives you the edge As the Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process gains popularity'in wastewater treatment, the critical role played by mixing becomes even more important.

Complete mixing improves the overall process and prevents short circuiting and dead zones. However, the mixing must be strong enougla to ensure good distribution of the tank's contents, yet gentle enough to minimize the shearing of the floe. Flygt Submersible Mkeis are ideal for BNR applications. Why? Because Flygt Submersibles am at low speed, produce low turbulence, and draw in a minimal amount of air. Moreover, they consume minimal power compared to conventional, long-shaft mixei-s. Flygt 4600 Series Submei'sible Mixere are compact, direct-drive units whose principal advantage in BNR applications is flexibility-i.e. the flow can be pointed in any direction to minimize hydraulic losses and maximize the amount of energy utilized for agitation. In anoxic zones, Flygt Banana Blade Mrxei'S are an excellent choice because they provide gentle mLxing and outstanding energy efficiency. Currently, some 90 Flygt Submei'sible Mixere are being used in BNR processes across Canada. If you're thinking about adopting the BNR process in your facility, you can rely on Flygt Submei'sible Mixere to provide the suspension in your suspended growth process. For more information, call your nearest Flygt representative today.

ITT Flygt, 300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Ciaire, Quebec H9R 4V5 (514) 695-0100 F;l\: (514) 697-0602 Vancouver • Calgaiy • Fxlmonton • Saskatoon • Winnipeg • Tluincler Bay • Hamilton • Etobicoke • Sudbuiy • Ottawa • Pointe-Claire • Quebec • Val d'Or • iMoncton • Halifax • St. John's (.NT)

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 110(See page 17)

Spring Conferences 7. Introduction to new technologies.

8. Pulp and Paper Industry update — com pliance techniques for large and small mills.

Workshops Three workshops are being held in con junction with the Technical Symposium and

9. Land-based wastewater treatment systems.


10. Nutrient removal and disinfection.

1. Problem Solving: Activated Sludge. Saturday, March 23. The primary objec

11. Automation and modelling — tools for effective process control of WWTPs. 12. Biosolids management.

13. Sidestreams: Leachate,septate and other nasties. Professional Wastewater

Operations Division The members ofPWOD have developed a one-day session focussing on issues which are important to operators, including those related to health and safety and training. The Operations Challenge will be held on Tuesday. The competition will consist of 5 events for wastewater treatment plant operators. Fun and fast paced, the Opera tions Challenge has become a focal point for registrants.

tive of the course is to provide the candi dates with a framework for solving problems at wastewater treatment plants which use the activated sludge process. This will be ac complished using a combination ofconven tional instruction techniques and "hands-on" training. 2.Wastewater Microbiology For Operators Saturday and Sunday, Mareh 23, 24. There will be a repeat of last year's sold out microbiology workshop. This seminar will provide hands-on experience in the de scribing of the microorganisms and micro biological principles of basic wastewater treatment. Techniques for interpreting and applying these principles to controlling the activated sludge process will be covered.

3. Surfing the Internet for Environmental Information. Sunday, March 24. How can Internet information help envi ronmental professionals complete projects more efficiently? Where can one find new business opportunities? This one-day session in association with Sheridan College will un ravel these and other mysteries.

0PCE4 Equipment Exhibition In tandem with the technical symposium, a comprehensive exhibition will be held where equipment suppliers, consultants, publishers and laboratories will be on hand to unveil their latest products and services. The exhibition will be held on Monday after noon and all day Tuesday. For further information contact: Sandy Pickett:(416)502-1440,fax:(416)502-1786.

Ontario Water Works Association


Ontario Municipal Water Association 1996 Joint Annual Conference - April 21-24 Radisson Hotel London Centre / London Convention Centre London, Ontario

The 1996 Joint Annual Conference of the Ontario Water Works Association - Ontario

C. University Forum - Using Reactor Theory to Control DBP For mation: Disinfection Optimization Study for

cal System Variables on Biofilm Accumula tion in Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Use of a Factorial Design Protocol to Assess DBP Formation with Respect to Physical-Chemical Water Quality Variables When Employing Ozone - A Comprehensive Evaluation ofthe Effects of Oxidants on Biologically Active Drink ing Water Filters Tbesday, April 23 Early Bird Session

section, AWWA,and the Ontario Municipal Water Association, takes place April 21-24. The four-day conference features ad dresses from several well-known speakers including the Honourable Brenda Elliott, Minister of the Environment & Energy. Monday, April 22 Morning Opening Session Welcome to London by Dianne Haskett, Mayor of London; Awards Presentation; Keynote Address by the Honourable Brenda Elliott; OWWA and OMWA Annual Busi ness Meetings; Poster Session; and Tapping

- In Vitro Survival of Ctyptosporidium Oocysts in Natural Waters and its Impact on Watershed Management - Biofilm Utilization of Biodegradable Organic Compounds in a Bench-Scale Dis tribution System - Modelling Disinfection By-Products in Distribution Systems


- Bench Scale Assessment of The Influence

The Waterworks Customer and The Water

Afternoon Concurrent Sessions A. OMWA - Management Political

of BOM,Disinfectant Residual, and Physi

works Industry? The moderator will be

the Ottawa-Britannia Water Purification Plant

- Development of an Amperometric Biosensor for the Rapid Monitoring of Nitrates in Surface and Groundwaters

- What Can Water Efficiency Accomplish When There Is No Capital Money? Plenary Session - Privatization — Is It In The Best Interest Of

Issues - Part I

- After The Social Confract - What Next?

- Who Are We? Why Are We? Where Are We? An Update On Ontario Clean Water Agency - Waterworks Training Needs and How To Provide Them

- The OMWA-OCWA Water Efficiency Pro gram For Youth B. Small Systems - Amalgamation Problems Incorporating Three Water Systems Together into One Sys tem

- Sustainability of Small Water Systems in Developing Countries - Standardization of Six Treatment Plant

Computer Applications Within a Single Municipality - Building A Safety Program 42

Pipe tapping contests are always a popular attraction at AWWA conventions.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Spring Conferences Steve Paikin of TVO.

- OWWEA Annual Business Meeting

British Columbia Water & Waste Association

April 21-24

- Poster Session

Afternoon Concurrent Sessions

Grand Okanagan Lakefront Resort & Conference Centre

D. Process & Distribution'

Kelowna, British Columbia

- This Particle Counts

- The Disinfection By-Product Dilemma - The Big Freeze - Corrosion Control

E. Management & Political Issues - Part II -The Environmental Bill of Rights: A New Window On Ontario's Environniental Deci

sion Making - Director & Officer Liability

- Using A Real Cost Basis For Setting Water Rates

The BC Water and Waste Association is hold

ing its 24th Conference and Manufacturers' Display in Kelowna, B.C. The conference theme is Partnering — The Future. There will be three days oftech nical seminars, MSC displays, historical dis plays, wine tasting and tours, as well as a spouse/youth program. Monday, April 22 Afternoon Concurrent Sessions

- Promoting Your Water Utility F. Groundwater

- Practical Aspects of Well Maintenance: investigative Techniques - Impacts On Municipal Groundwater Qual ity From Rural Land Use Practices - Land Use Planning Based On Groundwater Protection Issues

- Integrated Approach To Groundwater Protection and Management Wednesday, April 24

Wastewater TVeament

- Future Regulatory Policy Framework for Sewage Treatment in B.C. - Ammonia Removal in Sequencing Batch Reactors

-Optimization of Biological Nutrient Re moval in a Pilot-Scale Trickling Filter Activated Sludge Process - District of Campbell River, Nomi Wood Environmental Center, Innovative Technol

ogy for Oxidation Ditch Treatment


Water Treament

together - Public/Private Partnerships in Waterworks Today - City of Kelowna Water Metering - Design Build Partnering - Lessons from the B.C. Water Sector Experience Operations - Safety Issues - Hydraulics for Operators - Liability Issues for a Public Utility - Science or Black Magic Afternoon Concurrent Sessions Sewerage - Installation of a Gravity Sewer Collection System using Directional Drilling (Trenchless) Technology -Simple Solutions for Odour Control GVRD's NewWestminster Interceptor - Standard Construction Materials

Storm Drainage and CSO's - Reducing the frequency of SSO's: Accom modate or Eliminate Inflow/Infiltration

1. Labatt Brewery 2. Ford (Talbotville) Assembly Plant

- Enhanced Disinfection - Pilot Testing Victoria Water District

Investigative Assessment Program

3. General Motors Diesel Plant For more information contact Astrid

- City of Penticton - WaterTreatment Project - Surface Water Supply - Okanagan Regional Planning - A history ofARDA/ARDSA in the Okanagan Residuals Management - Residuals Management - Central Okanagan

-Evaluation ofStorm Infiltration: A Kelowna

Tallon, OWWA, tel: (416) 252-7060, fax: (416) 252-3908.

- Mine Reclamation with Biosolids -

Princeton. B.C.

- City of Vancouver 1994/1995 Phase I CSO

Case Study Water Conservation

- Wastewater Management & Water Conser vation in Vernon - The National Action Plan for Water Use

Efficiency: What are the Implications for Municipalities in B.C. - The Alberta Prespective - Best Management Practices for Golf

Quebec Environmental

- Dealing with Retail High Grade Sludges - City of Kelowna - Biosolids Recycling Small Water Systems - City of Rossland - Water Treatment Plant Design Overview - Case Studies of Leak Detection Programs

Technology Tradeshow April 10-11

in Small Communities

- Guidelines for Raised Mound/Pressure

- Small Rapid Rate Filtration Plants - Surface WaterTreatment for Small Systems

Distribution Designs - Regulatory Framework for Alternate Onsite Systems Wednesday, April 24


Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec This is the ideal place to discover new tech nologies and identify eventual business part ners. More than 2,500 visitors and 200 ex hibitors are expected at this year's tradeshow, featuring 80 technical sessions. Attendees at the tradeshow will include:

Heads of business, senior executives in the

industry; institutional and government admin istrators; decision makers and consultants from the public and private sectors. The Quebec Environmental Technology Association(AQTE)and The Quebec Envi

ronmental Industry Services Association (AESEQ)joined forces in December 1995 and are now known as AQTE/AESEQ; it is the most important environmental industry association in Quebec with 500 companies and over 1,500 individual members. For more information contact: Jean-

Pierre Dubois, Tel: (514) 270-71 10, Fax: (514) 270-7154.

in Idaho

Tuesday, April 23 Morning Concurrent Sessions Wastewater Treament

- Water Reclamation and Re-Use, Waste-

water Treatment and Recycling in B.C. - A Closed Loop Building in Sooke - Use of Sequencing Batch Reactor Tech nology at the District of Kent WWTP - Sewage Lagoon Design Using Wetlands and Other Upgrading Technologies to Achieve Non-Acutely Toxic Effluent for Cold and Temperate Climates - Phosphorus Removal Efficiency in the Okanagan Wastewater Treatment Systems


Small Wastewater Systems - Guidelines for Site Investigations - Cold Climate Systems

Concurrent Sessions

CWWA Rate Structure Workshop The background and philosophy of set ting municipal rates and wastewater rates in the 1990s.

The afternoon session will proceed to a demonstration of the use of the computer model in setting an actual rate structure. Receiving Water Management Planning - Frascr River Basin Planning - A Water Quality Index for B.C. - Sannich Inlet Study -Trends in Water Quality in B.C. 1985 -1995

- Choosing a Coagulant Program for Pota

- Liquid Wastewater Management Planning in the Okanagan - Establishment of Priorities - Eraser River Dilution/Dispersion Study - Remote Sensing Techniques

ble Water Treatment

- CRD Outfall: Environmental Studies

- Groundwater Regulation and Supply Issues Partnering - Communications Planning - Bringing it all

For further information please contact Catherine Gibson at (604) 936-4982, fax: (604) 931-3880.

Water Treatment

- Biological Filtration for Iron and Manga nese Removal

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996


Spring Conferences Alr&Waste Manaflsineni Association

Air & Waste Management Association Ontario Section - April 28-29 Toronto, Ontario

The Air & Waste Management Associa tion's 1996 Spring Conference & Annual General Meeting will split its time between The Guild Inn of Scarborough and the Metro Toronto Zoo. This year's theme is, "State-ofthe-Art Environmental Practice" in Ontario.

The event begins with 2 Sunday work shops. One for elementary and secondary school teachers,focuses on the Association's Environmental Resource Guide series on air

pollution and water pollution prevention. The workshop allows teachers to test class

with Environmental Quality Assessment.

IFAT9G 11th international

Sessions in stream 2 include: health risk

methods,ambient and source monitoring, as

Trade Fair - May 7-11

well as a session on indoor air. This last

session is linked to a tour of H VAC systems for Metro Zoo pavilions! The third stream of parallel sessions spot lights Waste Management & Remediation, with sessions on industrial waste manage ment,remediation, as well as waste exchange and waste stewardship. This session stream also ends at the Metro Toronto Zoo with a

Munich, Germany IFAT 96 will present environmental technol ogy for modem wastewater and waste dis posal and show future solutions in the sew age and refuse sector. A leading International Trade Fair for Waste Water and Waste Disposal: Sewage, Refuse, Recycling, Public Cleansing and

room exercises and demonstrations for

session on Organic Waste Technologies and

Winter Road Service, IFAT 96 will be held

grades: JK-3; 3-8, and 9-12. The other Sun day workshop looks at Contaminated Sites and is part of AWMA's Professional Work shop Series on industrial approvals in

a tour of the Zoo's well known "Zoo Poo"

in Munich for the 11th time.

composting system. MSW Incineration Workshop

For years, Germany has been both the largest supplier and one of the largest users of environmental technology on the world market. In this respect, market events in this sector have the best technological and eco nomic background in the Federal Republic. This is particularly evident from past suc


Conference activities begin on Monday

with plenary speakers, a Tradeshow and three streams of parallel sessions. Stream 1 focuses on Industrial Systems & Technology and includes individual ses sions on environmental management sys

tems, pollution prevention; industrial ecol ogy, electronic information systems and emergency planning and response. The second set of parallel sessions deals

On May 1, the Association will host an information workshop and tradeshow on the incineration of municipal solid waste. Under the banner,"MSWIncineration: Burn

ing Questions",the workshop will begin with a breakfast debate with proponents both questioning the value of incineration and advocating a role for incineration.

cesses recorded at the Munich Trade Fair Centre.

IFAT's international significance is also

apparent from the cooperation of important

For further information contact: Air &

Waste Management Association (Ontario) Tel: (905) 773-9650, Fax:(905) 773-9751.

organizations and associations in the prepa ration and implementation ofIFAT 96. They Continued on page 46

W2O Inc. Announcement George Zukovs, President of W2O Ino., is pleased to announce that Dr. I^ike Hulley has joined the company, estab lishing an office in Kingston, Ontario, fyiike, a civil engineer, received his Ph.D. (environmental engineering) and Ivl.Sc. (hydrology) from Queen's University. Mike is a former faculty member of the Royal Military Goilege in the depart ment of civil engineering and brings over 10 years of water resources project and R&D experience to W2O. Mike has worked throughout North America and Europe on a broad range of water resources projects. He has extensive experience with development and application of custom computer models in support of a variety of surface and groundwater investigations. Mike's project experience includes assimilative capacity assess ments for rivers in Canada and the U.S., safe-yield evaluations for large municipal wellfields, combined sewer overflow (080) evalu ations, development of stormwater management plans, stormwater facility designs, water quality investigations, and site assessments. Mike joins W2O as an Associate and he will be leading the water resources group which specializes in surface water quality and groundwater modelling. W2O is a multi-disciplinary environmental engineering company with a head office located in Mlssissauga, Ontario. The scope of services provided by W2O include combined sewer and 080 modelling, water quality and flow monitoring, wastewater and water treatment plant evaluation, optimization and design, and municipal infrastructure studies. 44

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 111 (See page 17)



• Filtration

• Membrane Systems • Ion Exchange • Lakeside Equipment Corp. • Aeration • "Rotamat" Screens and Grit Removal

• Spiraflo Peripheral Feed Ciarifiers



580 PARK ST., REGINA, SASKATCHEWAN (306)761-3210, FAX:(306)721-5610

For more information. Circle reply card No. 112 (See page 17)


Diagnostics gnos-(\



P.O. Box 1373,


High Pressure Water Jetting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

Ontario K9J 7H6 Phone/Fax: 1-705-749-3276




TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning

Internal Video Inspection of Piping and Mechanical Systems.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 136

You Have a Coating Problem?"

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 133


Plant Facilities & Mobile Services gi




Biosollds and Waste Utilization • Liquid and Dewatered Appiication. • Digester and Lagoon Cieaning. • Contract Faciiity Operations. • Spiiis Response & Industriai Wastes.


• Steel Grit


"Leaders in Quality & Performance"


Clarifiers, Pipe, Tanks, Structural Steel, Concrete, Small Parts

42 Taber Road, Rexdale, Ontario Canada M9W 3A8

^gs -zincRich -TankLinings

748-5443 Fax:(416)748-5913


• Plastic Flame Coating

For more information. Circle reply card No. 137

Mall — P.O. Box 60069

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2


Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre

Environmental Specialists

4449 Hwy #25, Oakvllle, Ont. L9T 2X5


Wastewater Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flowmetering Plant Air Clean Up

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 134 -



Portable Test Equipment:pH, Turbidity

Suspended Solids, Og, DO,(Conductivity



2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7, Tel (905) 277-0331, Fax (905) 277-2588


For more information. Circle reply card No. 138


6nthrafilter ^


Media & Cool Ltd.



ta;(61.9) 751-1080 FA)t(519) 751-0617

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 135




• Monitoring Wells • Recovery Wells

• Municipal Well Drilling • Industrial Well Drilling • Construction Drilling • Well Testing and Rehabilitation

• Gas Extraction Wells

• Deep Monitoring Well Specialists R.R. #1 (Bast Place)


147 North Street West Wingham, Ontario

Waterloo, Ontario

Davidson "Since 1900"

(519) 664-1422

(519) 357-1960

For more information, Circle reply card No. 139

For more

information about

• environmental remediation • full service zebra mussel control


1^ GreenwDDd f

• Industrial diving & underwater video • excavating & mechanical contracting

EnvironniEntal inc.

• wastewater treatment

in this section, The

call Penny Davey

Environmental Solution

(905) 727-4666


■- ■ ■ ■ ■

6970 Oakwood Drive

181 University Avenue

Niagara Falls, Ontario

Suite 1101, Box 11

L2E 6S5

Toronto, Ontario M5H 3M7

Tel: (90S) 357-1735 Fax:(905) 357-7256

Tel: (416) 594-1155 Fax: (416) 594-0711


For more information. Circle reply card No. 140 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996


Spring Conferences are, in particular: - EWPCA (European Water Pollution Con trol Association e.V) - ISWA(International Solid Wastes and Pub lic Cleansing Association) - FEAD (European Federation of the Waste Industry) - Abwassertechnische Vereinigung e.V.



- Verband KommunaleAbfallwirtschaft und

Monday, April 22

Stadtreinigung e.V.(VKS). Once again, EWPCA, ISWA and VKS are organizing the European Sewage and

Morning Concurrent Sessions - Agricultural Machinery Rescue - Confined Space For Transportation - Transfer of Training Strategies: How to Make Learning Pay Off in Performance - New Worker Awareness Workshop Afternoon Concurrent Sessions - Agricultural Machinery Rescue - Lift Truck Safety Awareness -Accident/Incident Investigation

Refuse Symposium during I FAT 96. For more information contact Unilink, Tel:(416) 291-6359, Fax:(416) 291-0025.

Health & Safety '96 Conference and Tradeshow-April 22-24

Tuesday, April 23

Regal Constellation Hotel,

Morning Concurrent Sessions

Toronto, Ontario The theme of this year's conference is "Health & Safety Today and Tomorrow.... Training, Teamwork, Technology". The conference features a very strong lineup of speakers for the special sessions including Wilson J.Fl. Southam, Dr.Kenneth Wolf, Major John Fl. Long, and Dr. Stuart Smith. Intensive training and information workshops, equipment demonstrations, mock trials, and a Casino Night are also in cluded in the conference events. Sessions

- Diesel Fumes

Managers. You can design your own con ference program from the many topics avail able to meet your special needs. Whatever your area of interest, you'l 1 find a number of topics that will give you the learning expe rience you're looking for. Early Bird/Luncheon Sessions Tuesday, April 23 Early Bird: "Forget Safety, Forget Technol ogy" - Mr. Wilson J. H. Southam Luncheon - "Workplace Violence" - Dr. Kenneth Wolf

Conference sessions are 90 minutes long and range from information sessions to hands-on learning opportunities. We have

Wednesday, April 24 Early Bird: "The Oklahoma City Bombing Lessons Learned" - Major John H. Long

topics of real interest to J.H.S.C. Members,

Luncheon - "Environment and the Work

Health and Safety Professionals and Senior

place" - Dr. Stuart Smith

- Spills Response - Fork Lift Safety Afternoon Concurrent Sessions - Repetitive Strain Injuries - Water Rescue for Firefighters - Work Area Protection — Doing It Right

Wednesday, April 24 Morning Concurrent Sessions - M.l.P.P.

- Effective Presentations

- Transportation of Dangerous Goods - Policy and Procedure Writing Afternoon Concurrent Se.ssions - M.l.P.P. (continues) -Accident Scene Patient Care For more infomiation contact: Health &

Safety '96, c/o IRIS Registration Inc., Tel: (905) 415-8451, Fax:(905) 415-8450.

Potable water.

Portable plant. Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quiokly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for munioipal plants and whierever addi tional or improved water is needed. Eacli Monoplant oontains olarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant pro duces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For oomplete information, contact Ecodyne Ltd., Graver Water J .

Division, Oakville, Ontario, (905)827-9821;

Calgary, Alberta, (403)255-9797



For more information. Circle reply card No. 113 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Centrico: Bringing You a World of Dewatering Expertise. In addition to Westfalia Separator wastewater treatment equipment, Centrico now offers the HysepÂŽ line of decanters, greatly expanding the choices available to our customers.

The Hysep line of decanters has long been chosen by those seeking high capacity coupled with low operating costs. The Hysep HD line offers the patented self centering Hyflex flexible bearing design, overcoming speed limitations imposed by fixed main bearings. The result is high speed, high torque and high G-force with minimum noise and vibration.

The Westfalia Separator CA Series of decanters features a patented 2-gear drive for maximum sludge thickening and dewatering. The two cyclo gears and the low noise three-phase AC motor provide high operating reliability and low operating costs.This line is also available with an optional continuous pressure discharge feature. Today's Technology and Applications. Now under the GEA umbrella, both products will be marketed in North America by Centrico. The result: more choices of equipment to satisfy all requirements and budgets. Worry free maintenance. To protect your investment we offer service contracts so you never have to worry about whether its time for a tune-up or to replace worn parts. And

Westfalia Separator CA 755

to better serve our customers, we have a dedicated decanter

repair facility in Houston, offering fast turn-around and factory-trained technicians. To find out more, call any of our offices Hsted below.

Hysep HD 44

V Centrico Headquarters: 100 Fairway Court

Centrico Southwest: 5202 Brittmoore

Centrico Midwest:

Centrico South:

3400 Third Avenue

Foster City, CA 94404

Houston, TX 77041

725 Tollgate Road Elgin, IL 60123

360 Sixth Street S.W.

Northvale, NJ 07647

(201) 767-3900

(415) 349-8900

(713) 849-2181

(847) 742-0800

Centrico West:

Winter Haven, FL 33880 (941) 299-3900

For more information, Circle reply card No. 114(See page 17)

Centrico, Inc.

Centrico Canada: 1100 Burloak Drive

Burlington, ON L7L6B2 (905) 319-3900

Combined sewage overflows

Hamilton CSO tank will reduce pollution and restore wildlife habitat

Whilethe subjectofCombined

Sewage Overflows (CSOs) certainly lacks elegance, it is part of the harsh reality cre ated by ever-expanding urban areas and over burdened sewer infrastructure. The City of Hamilton, Ontario is a case in point, a large municipality growing around an old system of combined sewers dating back to the 1800's.

As urban areas continue to grow they trap even larger volumes ofstorm runoff. Heavy and sustained rain falls can produce enor mous volumes of rain water that inundate

the combined sewer system, mixing with untreated sewage and surging towards the local sewage treatment plant. At the treat ment plant this surge becomes unmanage able, leaving a vast quantity ofoverflow dis charging into the local waterbasin, which, in Hamilton's case, is Cootes Paradise and Hamilton Harbour. The ultimate cost ofsuch

events is a polluted harbour area that looks nothing like paradise, affecting not only the immediate ecosystem but end users like the residents of Hamilton.

In October 1992, the Regional Munici pality of Hamilton-Wentworth, in response to the recently adopted Hamilton Harbour Remedial Action Plan, developed their own Pollution Control Plan. Essentially the Region's plan involves construction of in tercepting tanks to capture as much of the overflow events as possible. The King/Main CSO being built by Kenaidan, valued at $23.8 million, is the third tank since the Region's plan was adopted.

Bird's eye view of the 75,000 cubic metre sewage holding tank displaying the beginnings of the irregular saw toothed profile. sign and start up had to be accelerated to meet the program deadlines. The tank, designed by R.V. Anderson Limited, will capture flow from two major drainage areas, the King and Dundurn wa

events. After the 'event', the over

flow will be pumped back into the system at a rate that the sewage plant

metre diameter. These tunnels will become

tersheds which flow into Cootes Paradise via Chedoke Creek. The Cathedra)

tank is meant to completely cap ture all but two to three of the ap proximately 24 annual overflow

I ii li

njM ?^\

: Access Phase 2

■=1 ;

I'j ^i -■ ; c


• ■ Road

Phase 1

Hamilton CSO Tank

Rick Randal, as crews work through the January and February deep freeze and thaw. The tank itself will require the placement of 25,100 cubic metres of concrete which has dictated an almost daily pouring cycle. It will have a capacity of 75,000 cubic metres and will have a special self cleaning system of buckets to wash and flush the empty tank. Also part of the contract are three tun nels, each approximately 100 metres long, constructed using tunnel boring machine

technology; the largest tunnel will have a 3.2

As the general contractor, Kenaidan's job is to construct the massive concrete holding tank and bury it under Hamilton's Cathedral Park. The structure will require the handling of 180,000 cubic metres of fill that is part of an old garbage dump which served the Hamilton area between 1880 and 1920. Because nearly

the tank's links with the existing combined sewer system and the existing sewage treat ment plant. With all the tunnel work taking place underground, traffic on the busy 403 and its adjacent ramps will not be disrupted. When the tank is completed it will be backfilled with approximately 3.4 metres of fill and capped with clay and topsoil to form a cricket pitch. But before the cricket bats begin to swing, there still is a small moun

can handle.

The Region's manager for this project, Otka Hudoba, says the need for the tank had been previously identified through numer

all the excavated material will be used as

tain of material to be moved and the matter

backfill, one of the challenges has been to

ous studies and the Canada/Ontario Infra

manage the enormous amount of fill on site

structure works program really helped get the ball rolling. "We had to meet the pro gram's funding conditions with 85% of cash flow used by March 1996 and 100% com pletion by March 1997," says Ms. Hudoba. This meant the project's planning and de

while building the tank. The contractor's team developed a soil management plan to excavate, stockpile, and backfill in stages as the structure is built. "Our soil plan is work

of 9,000 cubic metres of concrete to be poured. When this huge public works contract is completed, and the wildlife habitat restored, the people of Hamilton might well think that


ing out well, despite the extreme winter weather," says Kenaidan's site supervisor

Cootes Paradise is appropriately named again. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 119

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1996

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS The issue of zebra mussels

is attracting increasing attention from municipalities, utilities, government agencies and industries around the Great Lakes. One solution involves the use

of JAVEX-12'sodium

We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on this subject. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control the spread of zebra mussels.

hypochlorite, which kills the

if you'd like to discuss this current problem, or be kept

zebra mussel larvae.

informed of the latest

information, please fill out tf

Yes, please keep me informed on the use of JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite for controiiing zebra mussels. For current project â–Ą For future project â–Ą For research purposes D Your name Title

Organization Address

Postal Code

Phone: (


Mail to: Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. 255 Wicksteed Ave., Toronto, Ontario M4H 1G8 Phone: (416) 421-6000 Fax: (416) 425-9320

For more information, Circle reply card No. 115 (See page 17)

Coke leachate

By Keng H. Chung\ Louis C.G. Janke, R. Dureau & E. Furimsky^

Leachability of cokes from Syncrude stockpiles Five samples of coke taken from Syncrude stockpiles were evaluated according to the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure to determine content of regulated elements, such as arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium and silver as well as volatile organics. One sample of drainage water from the stockpile was also evaluated. For all samples, contents of the elements and volatile organics

In this regard, it is essential to ensure that the leachability of the Environmental Pro tection Agency (EPA) designated priority inorganic contaminants, as well as that of the volatile polynuclear aromatics and other organics, is within the acceptable limits. Thus, the long term effects ofthe stockpiles on surface and groundwaters should he clearly understood. This requires a sulTicient database established according to the meth ods and procedures accepted by the environ

were lower than detection limits of the

mental authorities. Such methods were used

analyzer confirming that the cokes are virtually non-leachable. The increased severity, i.e., leaching at pH=2 and pH=4 had little effect on leachability of regulated species and volatile organics.

for evaluation of leachability of the coke samples from Syncrude stockpiles. For one sample, the leachability was performed at different pH levels which were adjusted by sulphuric acid. The aim was to simulate po tential leaching from the stockpile under ex tremely severe leaching conditions. The EPA's Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was used for

Syncrude Canada Ltd. in Fort

McMurray, Alberta operates the largest synthetic crude oil plant in the world, converting the Athabasca bitumen to Syncrude Sweet Blend crude (1). As part of this operation, about 2,000 tonne/day ofthe coke are being stock piled in proximity to the plant. After many years of the opera tion, the stockpiled coke represents a sig

the coke evaluations.

This method deter

mines the leachability of solid residues and the mobility of both organic and inorganic contaminants present in liquid, solid and multiphase systems. The method is consid-

dian Electrical Association (4)in Canada and the International Energy Agency (5) pub lished numerous studies on environmental

aspects ofsolid and liquid wastes from power plants. The National Petroleum Refiner As sociation (6) in the USA has focused atten tion on hazardous wastes generated by the refining industry. The Canadian refining in dustry is carefully monitoring all related de velopments as well. The information on this subject is extensive and beyond the scope of this study. In Canada,regulations exist related to the generation, storage and transportation of solid wastes (7). These solid wastes have to be assessed for their content ofinorganic and organic pollutants. For example, utilities have to satisfy these regulations for bottom and fly ashes from coal combustion. In the US, hazardous wastes are regulated by the "Toxicity Characteristic" rule and adminis tered by the EPA. It states that a solid waste exhibits the characteristic oftoxicity if, when using the approved methods,the extract from a representative sample ofthe waste contains any ofthe regulated contaminants at the con centration equal to or greater than the re spective regulatory level. The list of the

EPA regulatory con

nificant amount of a

taminants can be

high heating value solid fuel (2). At present, the

found in the EPA

Federal Register (March 29, 1990).

utilization ofthe coke

The EPA sets all

to produce hydrogen, electricity and steam

regulatory levels for

for plant and local

on a health-based

consumption cannot compete with the natural gas which is

concentration thresh old and a dilution at

hazardous chemicals

tenuation factor. For

available at much

inorganic priority el

lower cost, or a high heating value gas produced as a by

ements, these levels are shown in Table 1. The concentra tion threshold identi

product in the plant. However, once eco nomics are attractive,

combustion and gasification appear to he the technologies of choice for coke utilization. In the meantime, it is the primary objective of Syncrude Canada Ltd. to ensure that the stockpiles of coke do not pose any environ mental hazards.

fied as the Chronic

ered representative ofthe situation in a solid waste landfill. It is generally accepted that TCLP method is adequate for indicating the potential of landfill wastes to pose hazards ifdisposed improperly. The method has been adapted by some other countries. Environmental Regulations Extensive efforts have been made in all

'Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton

^Natural Resources Canada, Energy

industrialized countries to develop and main tain regulations and laws to control handling, transportation, storage and disposal of the

Research Laboratories, do 555 Booth Street Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0G1

wastes generated by various industrial proc esses. For example, the Electric Power Re search Institute P) in the USA, the Cana

Research Centre, 9421-17 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H4


Toxicity Reference Level (CTRL) indicates how much of the

chemical adversely affects human health while the dilution/attenuation factor indicates

how easily the chemical could leach into ground water. However, it is established that

by the time the chemical reaches the ground water, it will he diluted by at least a factor of 100. Thus, the levels set by the "Toxicity Characteristic" rule were determined by mul tiplying the health-based number by a dilu tion/attenuation factor of 100.

Syncrude Coke During fluid coking operation in Syncrude plant, schematics of which are

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Coke leachate, cont'd. Table 1: Toxicity characteristic constitu ents and regulatory levels. Constituent

Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead

Mercury Selenium Silver

Chronic toxicity Regulatory reference level






1.0 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01

100.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 0.2 1.0



Final Rule. In the present work, representa tive samples were taken from bulk samples in accordance with RCRA guidelines using "Test Method for Evaluating Solid Waste" (SW-846). The Method 1311 TCLP of the Federal Register was used for the sample

apparatus. The resulting slurry was filtered using a Millipore 142 mm Hazardous Waste holder, containing a glass fibre filter (Nucleopore GFF, nominal pore size 0.7 pm). The TCLP extracts were treated ac cording to the RCRA SW-846 guidelines.


products Air

shown in Fig. 1, bitumen previously sepa rated from oil sands using the hot water sepa ration process, is sprayed into the fluidized

Fuel gas to CO boiler




reactor Bitumen

bed ofthe hot coke in the coker reactor. Part

ofthe coke is being steam stripped and con tinuously withdrawn from the coker reactor and transferred to the burner for partial com

Steam Hot coke Product coke


■ to stockpile

As a result of combustion, the tempera

2000 ton/day

ture of the coke is increased. The hot coke is then transferred back to the coker reactor

as the source of heat for coking reactions. About 2000 tonne/day of the coke is being continuously withdrawn from the burner and transferred to the stockpiles. It can be esti mated from the flow rates ofthe coke streams

that most of coke particles will travel many times between the coker and the burner. The

prolonged exposure ofcoke particles at these temperatures will result in the formation of graphite like structures. Such structures are known to have a low reactivity. Thus, it was observed that ignition of the coke particles occurred above 400°C compared with about 250 °C for medium reactive coals (8). This suggests that self-ignition of Syncrude coke in the stockpiles can be ruled out completely. It is also believed that metal-containing compounds in the coke are buried in the car bon matrix in such a way that they cannot be accessible by water. This ensures low leachability of the metals during stockpil ing. Syncrude operates five coke cells of which #1 to 4 are filled and #5 is being cur rently filled. It is anticipated that elemental sulphur, which is another by-product of the Syncrude operation, could be stockpiled on top of coke cells in the future. EXPERIMENTAL

Coke samples

The coke samples were taken from five stockpiles, numbered 1 to 5, in proximity to the Syncrude plant. Proximate, ultimate and ash analyses of the samples are shown in Table 2, where numbers in brackets indicate years of the coke stockpiling. One sample of drainage water, taken from the coke cell #4, was also submitted for the evaluations. Description of TCLP All details of the method are given in the Federal Register Part 11; EPA40 CFR 261 et al. "Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Toxicity Characteristics Revisions;

Fig. 1 Simplified schematic of Huid coker operation at Syncrude.

preparation. A preliminary evaluation, car ried out on a 5 g sub-sample of each coke confirmed that sodium acetate is the most


Inorganic contaminants SW-846 method 3020 was used for acid

suitable extraction liquid. To simulate se

digestion of the extracts for metal analysis

vere leaching conditions,two diluted H^SO^

by ICP-AES (Jan'cd Ash model 9000 simul taneous spectrometer). In addition to the

extraction solutions having pH=2 and pH=4, were used. Subsequently, 100 g ofeach coke was extracted for 18 h in a rotary agitation

"Toxicity Characteristic" rule regulated met als such as Ag, As, Hg, Se, Ba, Cd, Cr and

Table 2 Analysis of Syncrude cokes from stockpiles. Coke # Years











0.44 5.40 4.85





0.69 7.52




0.25 4.81 4.99







80.73 1.63










6.63 1.50

1.73 6.15

2.03 6.52


1.66 1,98 6.84 2.04








41.26 24.94












4.84 0.35 1.63

4.63 0.40


0.25 4.26

2.86 0.21




1.40 1.87


1.46 2.88 1.67


Proximate, wt.% Moisture Ash

Volatiles Fixed carbon

Ultimate, wt. % Carbon

Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur Oxygen Ash composition

SIO^ AiPs FeO,


0.23 4.20




1.29 2.73









1.16 1.93 0.14








4.86 1.16 0.25 0.08


1.83 0.20 0.11 4.46 1.08 0.26 0.08 2.90




4.94 1.24 0.27 0.09 2.62












Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

0.80 0.21


0.82 0.29






Coke leachate, cont'd. ability of self-ignition of the coke samples (8). The content ofelements including the regulated elements(Table 1)and halogens in the coke samples is shown in Table 3. Compared with other carbonaceous solids, e.g., some coals, these values are low. For example, there is no detectable mercury content. The content of halogens is low as well. Relatively high contents of va nadium, nickel and titanium are typical for cokes derived from bitu men. It is expected that at least vanadium and nickel could be added to the list of the regulated metals in the future. Leachability of Inorganic Elements Results on leachability of the cokes are shown in Table 4. Mer cury is not shown in Table 4. This analysis was not performed because no mercury was detected in the cokes. Also, it can be cal culated from the results in Table 3 and volume ofthe leaching solu tions used for TCLP that even if all cadmium and selenium present in cokes were leached out, their amounts in leachates would be sig nificantly lower than their regulatory levels. It is quite obvious that a total leaching of these metals from coke is impossible to achieve. Thus, based on the regulatory levels of the regulated elements (Ta ble 1), all five samples ofthe coke can be classified as virtually nonleachable. Concentrations of the elements which may be regulated in the future, i.e., vanadium, nickel, zinc, beryllium, copper, stron

Table 3 Content of elements In cokes (ppm). COKE#






18 61

10 38






46 0.05

Elements Arsenic Barium



10 48 0.06

Chromium Lead














Mercury Selenium

(0.006) (0.006)













0.5 12 1892

0.5 12







18 941




3538 497


13 9 4396 619 132 66



496 75 894

19 6721 698 194 102 520 136 1358 699

Boron Calcium Cobalt

Copper Iron

Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel



10 4138 603







Sodium Strontium







568 50


1092 12 12

4095 456 111

88 498 94 768 625








Titanium Vanadium Zinc

1400 1766

1372 1599




1713 13



1458 1639 20









32 12


tium, cobalt and other are also low.


The results on leachability performed for pH=2 and pH=4 as well as for deionized water are shown in Table 5. The leachate

which was spiked by some priority elements is also included to in

dicate the reliability of the method. All currently regulated ele ments were unaffected by increasing the severity of leaching, i.e., changing pH from about 7 to 2. It is emphasized that the pFI=2 represents a very severe environment. It is unlikely that such an environment can be encountered in stockpiles. The concentrations ofiron, nickel, vanadium and manganese in the leachate obtained at pH=2 were significantly higher than those at pH=4, but still very

Halogens 74


Pb,20 other elements were also determined. SW-846 method 7470

was used to prepare samples for determining of Hg by cold vapour atomic absorption (AA). Methods 7061 and 7741 were used for low to be of any concern. sample preparation for determination of As and Se, respectively, Leachability of Volatile Organlcs by hydride generation AA. A Perkin-Elmer 500 AA spectrometer, No organic substances could be detected in the leachates inspite equipped with a MHS-20 Mercury/Hydride system was used for of a high sensitivity ofthe instrument employed. Thus, little differ determining the three regulated constituents. ence was observed between the trace of the extract from the extrac Volatile organlcs tion of the deionized water (blank) and that of the leachates. The The leachates from the TCLP extraction were analyzed for a only peaks observed were the same as those of trace amounts of series of polynuclear aromatics. The procedure Table 4 Analysis of leachates (ppm). used was the adaptation of the EPA Method COKE# 1 2 3 4 4 SPIKE 5 525.1. This procedure was modified to use a Reg ulatory fused silica capillary column with a flame ioniElements Level zation detector as developed by Supelco Cor Arsenic 5 (0.23) (0.23) (0.23) (0.23) 1.97 (0.23) poration in conjunction with EPA. The ENVIBarium 100 (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) 18 solid phase extraction cartridges are a spe Cadmium 1 (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) 1.55 (0.001) cially cleaned organic phase, an improvement Chromium 5 (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) 1.79 (0.016)

to the original phases used in EPA 525.1 devel

opment. Sensitivity of the method was con firmed by the analysis of known amounts of

several polynuclear compounds. The average level of detection was estimated to be 2.1 ppm. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

All results shown in brackets in Tables 3,4


Mercury Selenium Silver

Beryllium Boron Calcium


and 5 indicate the element is lower than the value


listed. For example, the concentrations of lead


and cadmium for all leachates listed in Table 4

Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum

are lower than 0.003 and 0.001 ppm, respec tively. Characterization of cokes

Proximate and ultimate analyses (Table 2) indicate that the composition ofthe samples ex hibited little change over the years. Interest ingly enough, rather low oxygen content, in spite of a prolonged weathering, indicates a re sistance ofthe coke to oxidation. In similar situ

ations, the uptake ofoxygen by coal can be sig nificant. This observation confirms a low prob 52

5 0.2













(0.005) (1.0) (0.004) (0.09)

(0.005) (1.0) (0.004) (0.09)

(0.005) (1.0) (0.004) (0.09)

(0.005) (1.0) (0.004) (0.09)

(0.005) (1.0) (0.004) (0.09)

(0.005) (1.0) (0.004) (0.09)









(0.04) (0.03) (0.07)

(0.04) (0.03) (0.07)

(0.04) (0.03)

(0.04) (0.03) (0.07)

(0.04) (0.03) (0.07)

2.3 0.11



0.09 3.8 0.17

(0.04) (0.03) (0.07) 1




0.1 0.06
















(0.29) (0.18) (0.15) (1.06) (0.05)


(0.29) (0.18) (0.15) (1.06) (0.05)


(0.29) (0.18) (0.15) (1.06) (0.45)

Potassium Strontium Tin



(0.15) (1.06) (0.05)


(0.15) (1.06) (0.05)


(0.15) (1.06) (0.45)

Vanadium 0.11 0.34 0.07 0.47 0.47 Zinc (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) ND - Not determined. 4SPIKE - Leachate 4 was spiked with 2 ppm of As, Pb, Cr and Cd.



Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Coke leachate, cont'd. all conditions employed during the analysis. The submitted sample ofthe drainage water was also analyzed. In this case, a

Table 5 Effect of pH on leachability (ppm). PH


PH 4

PH 2


(0.23) (0.05) (0.001) (0.016) (0.003)

(0.23) (0.05) (0.001) (0.016) (0.003)

(0.23) (0.05) (0.001) (0.016) (0.003)

(0.23) (0.05) (0.001) (0.016) (0.003)

Regulatory Elements Arsenic Barium

Level 5




Chromium Lead

5 5

single peak representing an unknown substance in quantities smaller than I ppm was found. No effort was made to identify this peak. This single peak was not found in any leachate. Nevertheless, the content of this compound is very low and may be well below regulatory limits. Conclusions

The present results confirm that the coke produced during the fluid coking operation in Syncrude is virtually non-leachable residue, therefore its disposal in landfills poses no hazard to the environment and underground waters. In view of the stringent environmental regulations, processes which can convert heavy feedstocks to liquid fuels without generating solid hazardous wastes are considered to be the processes of the future (9). The fluid coking process in Syncrude is one of such processes.











(0.005) (1.0) (0.004) (0.09) (0.11) (0.04) (0.03) (0.07) (0.05) (0.01) (0.017) (0.018) (0.29) (0.18) (0.15) (1.06) (0.05)

(0.005) (1.0) (0.004) (0.09)

(0.005) (1.0) (0.004)

(0.005) (1.0) (0.004)

0.28 1.3


(0.04) (0.03) (0.07)

(0.04) (0.03)

(0.04) (0.03)


0.1 0.03

0.3 0.16

1.6 16


team at Syncrude Canada Ltd. provided helpful discussion. The






analytical laboratory team at CANMET/ERL in Ottawa car ried out the experimental evaluations.

(0.29) (0.18) (0.15) (1.06) (0.05)

(0.29) (0.18) (0.15) (1.06) (0.05)

(0.018) (0.29)



Beryllium Boron Calcium Cobalt

Copper Iron

Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel

Phosphorus Potassium Strontium Tin

Titanium Vanadium




Acknowledgements Bill Hunter of Environmental Services and the Coker 2000

References available upon written request.



(1.06) (0.05) (0.03)

May 7-8,1996 Environmental Compliance '96 Toronto International Centre

NO - Not determined.

contaminants detected in the extraction agent (methylene chloride). It is emphasized that the change of pH (from about 7 to 2) had no effect on the leachability of the organic constituents. Thus, it may be

concluded with certainty that, with respect to the leachability of organic constituents, all tested samples of coke are virtually non-leachable under

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Product Review EPA-compliant documentation

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Chemical resistant lining

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is easy; in many cases in-house maintenance people can install the liner which is tailored to fit tanks of any shape or size. There is no need to sandblast to remove the old lining. The liner is prefabricated in one piece and folded to go through a man way if necessary. Kentain Products

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Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1996

Product Review Servo-drive solutions

Site Remediation Database The Wastewater Technology Centre's Site Remediation Division has com

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It) 111

via the internet.

REMTEC® contains technology SEW-Eurodrive has introduced a complete line of servo-motors and servo-amplifiers. Servo-drives offer many advantages over conventional drive systems, such as faster

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High concentration sensor




Sharpies® has in troduced


Super MD® series of high-perform ance, tubular bowl centrifuges for chemical process ing. With higher G forces and smaller footprints than disc-stack

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The HC-300 High Concentration Sensor, in combination with the BTG TxPro™ multi-

range suspended solids and turbidity trans mitter, is designed for reliable and accurate measurement of high concentration sludges and slurries. Using the unique 180° backscattered light-field control measuring prin ciple developed and patented by BTG, the HC-300 sensor responds over a wide range ofsolids concentrations. It is ideal for moni

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a large 4-digit LCD display, isolated 4-20mA output, and one control relay. The sensor is mounted at the top of the tank and the com pact, watertight NEMA4X enclosure and display can be mounted within 500 ft. (152 m)at a convenient location for operators. The L1T25 includes a built-in, 2-button

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ticular applications.

The Super MD series are sealed for containment of volatile liquids in liquid/ liquid extraction. For applications involv ing acidic liquids, they can be ordered in corrosion-resistant Hastalloy, Monel, and titanium. Other features include explo sion-proof motors and controls (Div I or H) and variable-frequency drives and brakes to optimize bowl speed. Alfa Laval Separation For more Information,

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Ultrasonic level/flow measurement

of corrosion-resistant materials and has no

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Level indicating transmitter The new L1T25 Level Indicating Transmit ter uses an ultrasonic sensor to accurately measure tank level for applications includ ing chemical inventory, water and Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

HydroRanger Plus is an advanced ultrasonic level and flow measurement system for the water and wastewater industries. The sys tem is designed to offer ease of operation and provide high reliability in the harshest environments. Advantages are sophisticated control capabilities including energy saving pump control, pump service ratio predeter mination, and rate pumping. Milltronics For more Information, Circle reply card No. 148 55

Product Review Dry and liquid storage

Ideal Environment has added a line of dry and liquid storage tanks and silos to its ex isting line ofstorage facilities for hazardous materials. The product is made ofglass fused to steel plates which makes it a corrosion and abrasion resistant structure.

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Pipe Profiling Sonar

Sampler uses non-CFC refrigerant

CSO monitoring

The All Weather Refrigerated Sampler from American Sigma uses R-134a, non-CFC re frigerant to comply with rules for protecting the environment. This refrigerated sampler is also designed with refrigeration compo nents on top ofthe unit to guarantee a longer service life in the harshest sampling envi

Dry channel setup can be a problem for some area velocity flow meters, but American Sigma's 950AV measures direct average ve locity eliminating the need for stream pro filing. The advanced 1 Mhz Doppler takes velocity measurements from the full cross section of flow and can read velocity down to 1" of depth. This higher frequency Dop pler provides a higher signal to noise ratio, requiring less filtering which gives the 950AV a quicker response to changes in level and velocity. Users can choose from submerged sen sor, bubbler, or ultrasonic depth measure ment in combination with velocity. Modem and alarm options provide remote data trans


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missions and notification of events. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

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Portable dredge

The Model 1512 Pipe Profiling Sonar pro duces high resolution colour images of the interior of liquid filled pipes or boreholes. The image produced is effectively a crosssection through the pipe. The sonar is moved through the pipe either on a float(if the pipe is not fully surcharged) or on skids or a con



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The'Mud Cat' is a cutterhead dredge which is truly portable and can be in operation within hours. The 'Mud Cat 915' is capable of pumping 9,100 litres/min. against 55 in. head (2,000 gal/min. against 180 ft. head). It is one of more than 900 Mud Cats that are used by Consolidated Giroux with special high volume and high debris capability pumps to pump bark, branches, small trees and debris that would plug a standard machine constantly. Consolidated Giroux

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Product Review


Ultra-Guard UV for water & wastewater treatment Ultraviolet light has the capability to treat liquid streams containing microbiological infections such as bacteria, viruses, and spores, etc., and disinfect them without the use of chemicals and without pro


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proprietary high-efficiency, high-intensity ultraviolet light producing lamp, installed in a patented flow control treatment chamber. High-intensity, high-efficiency ultraviolet lamps are as equally energy efficient as the normal low-pressure, low-intensity lamps that are used around the world to treat and disinfect potable water; how ever,the Ultra-Guard lamps are said to produce ultraviolet light that is 50 to 60 times more intense.

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Corrosion control systems


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fair since 1966, supported by ATV/EWPCA and VKS/ISWA and the IFAT advisory council, on which all the major organizations in the waste disposal field are represented. A successful team, since 1966.

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Unilink 50 Weybright Court, Unit 41, Agincourt, Ont., Canada MIS 5A8, Telephone (-i-4 16)291-63 59, Fax (+4 16)291-00 25 For more information. Circle reply card No. 169 (See page 17)


Product Review Niro HysepÂŽ line of

each condition.

The Structural Integrity booklet provides


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of corrugated polyethylene pipe, discusses the benefits ofthe pipe's nature and addresses many of the structural differences between flexible and rigid pipe. CPPA For more information, Circie repiy card No. 158

Closed top liners for chemical storage tanks

The merger of Centrico, Inc. and Niro Sepa ration, Inc. has resulted in a larger organiza tion offering a wider range of equipment choices to meet customers' needs. Niro's

Hysep line is now offered by Centrico. The Hysep line ranges from the MD models, for those interested in efficiency coupled with economy, to the sophisticated HD line with its high perfonnance and patented HyFlexÂŽ system.

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Gearmotors and speed reducers BNA Bonfiglioli North America offers one of the world's most extensive ranges of gearmotors and speed reducers from Italy's largest drive manufacturer. Included are: RAO/MRAO helical-bevel reducers and

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Closed top, flexible PVC liners prevent the fumes of harsh chemicals like sodium

hypochlorite,liquid alum orhydrofluosilicic acid from deteriorating the roof of storage tanks. Whether the tank is made of wood,

Technical booklets available The Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe Associa tion (CPPA) now has available two techni cal booklets at no charge: Structural Design Method ofCorrugated Polyethylene Drain

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steel, concrete or fibreglass, the liner pro vides a completely enclosed environment to protect the underside of the roof and pre vent any flaking material from contaminat ing the chemical. Kentain For more Information, Circle reply card No. 159

Plastic back pressure/ relief valves

Stormwater management

fi Chemline's new solid plastic SB Series Back Pressure/Relief Valves are an excellent

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construction (PVC, PP or PVDF bodies) offers high chemical resistance at reasonable

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For more information, Circie reply card No. 161

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

^Advertisers (Product and Service Shozvcase For information on advertising in this section, cail ES&E at(905)727-4666.

Portable hydrocarbon analyser

The Petrosense® PHA-100 is the world's

first patented fibre optic chemical sensor built into a portable analyzer. It is now possible to measure ppm levels of petro leum hydrocarbons in-situ. Petrosense® combines patented fibre optic chemical sensor(FOCS^^')technol ogy with digital electronics and an ad

Ultraviolet disinfection

Plastic pumps

Building on the modular system concept, Trojan engineers have created the Tro jan System UVSOOO^"'. Some of the ad

A new teclinical bulletin describing the use of thermoplastic pumps for water and

vances in the UV3000™ series include:

Vanton Pump & Equipment Corp. Appli cation Possibilities GrowforPlasticPumps presents comparative data on a wide choice of pump materials, various pump designs,

wastewater treatment is available from

Circle reply card No. 162

electronic ballasts for increased power efficiency; integrated solid-state circuitry to allow for greater monitoring capabil ity; operator-friendly programmable con trols to simplify operation and enhance performance. The system incorporates important features for simple and trouble-free in stallation and operation. Gravity flow brings wastewater to the UV unit. No pumps, pipe valves or fittings are neces sary. The UV lamp modules are installed in an open channel, outdoors. Trojan Technologies For more information, Circie repiy card No. 163

Sludge thickening and dewatering

New sewer early warning system

Chlorine storage and handling eliminated

EIMCO Process Equipment has intro duced an on-site disinfectant generating system for municipal potable water. The compact, skid-mounted system uses a patented, membraneless electrolytic cell to produce a powerful mixed oxidant so lution from salt water. The primary dis infecting agents - ozone, chlorine diox ide and hypochlorous acid-are substan tially more effective in combination than

These decanters can be effectively used for both thickening and dewatering wastewater. Adjustments in the machine parameters can be made quickly.

American Sigma's 950 Water Quality Monitor is a low cost option for tracking sewer system flow and water quality. Suspended in a manhole, the 950 pro vides data for proactive sewer system management. It can monitor flow, ve locity, rainfall, and water quality param eters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity. Engineered for long life in harsh environments, it can be strategically placed within a sewer system to provide adequate warning ofdetrimen tal changes in flow and water quality. The Sigma 950 offers flow monitor ing options to best suit the conditions at


each site. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

EIMCO Process Equipment For more information,

vanced microprocessor. FOCS^''' tech nology is based on modulation of the transmitted light intensity when the sen sor is exposed to hydrocarbons. The Petrosense® sensor is designed with a proprietary chemical coating which re sponds reversibly to increasing or de creasing levels of petroleum hydrocar bons. Elemental Controls

For more information,

and a review of standard and custom non-

metallic pump/tank systems. Illustrations include a cut-away view of a fluoropolymer centrifugal pump, a close up of a thermoplastic sump pump with a unique seal device that prevents the escape of corrosive or toxic fumes from pressurized tanks, and various solid plastic pump bodies with colour coded flexible liners of six different elastomeric

materials. Vanton Pump For more Information, Circle repiy card No. 164

The Westfalia Separator CA 755 is a state-of-the-art decanter for wastewater

treatment. The extremely high bowl speed and scroll torque yield flow rates of up to 500 GPM. All CA series de canters feature a patented high torque 2gearbaekdrive, which results in extemely dry cake solids - 30% dry cakes at most municipal plants. The differential speed control automatically operates the equip ment proportionally to the solids load in the bowl.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 165 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 166

chlorine or ozone alone. Because these

chemicals are produced in solution, at the concentration in which they will be used, the need to store and handle toxic gases or corrosive concentrates is eliminated.

Circie repiy card No. 167 59

Product Review Analyzer measures pulp

Groundwater Sampler


High purge rates to 9 gpm,yet sampling rates as low as 100 ml/min, these are key advan tages of the Grundfos Redi-Flo2 ground-

The Systematix SX 4400 Automatic Analyzer quickly and reliably determines pulp sample lining content from the cook ing bleach process. The unit provides KAPPA Number, Permanganate (K#) test,

water sampler. The Solinst Portable

Grundfos System is very compact and easy to use. The convenient cart has pneumatic tires which allows easy transport over rough terrain. It fits easily into a pick up truck or van. The easily replaced tubing is mounted on a convenient reel. An adjustable height tubing guide protects the cables from sharp edges on well casings. Solinst Canada Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 175

or both.

The system is pre-programmed and precalibrated for standard tests with tempera ture compensation. Its memory will store up to 99 hours of data, which can be printed out or transmitted to a host computer. Wilier Engineering Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 173

New brakemotor The new generation of A.C. squirrel cage induction motors from BNA Bonfiglioli of fer a choice of two standard rectifiers which

can be supplied either preconnected to the motor supply voltage, in the motor terminal box for most common applications, or con nected to a separate power supply in the case of two speed motors or inverter driven ap plications. The NB rectifier is supplied as standard equipment on motors up to 3 HP. On larger sizes, or ifthe application requires a fast brake release for high cycling, the SB rectifier is supplied. This rectifier supplies the brake coil with a short energy burst, to

quickly release the brake and then reduces the power to a lower level to hold the brake open. BNA Bonfiglioli North America For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 176

HOPE pipeing systems Marlex® HOPE extrudec pipe is said to de liver a range of properties to meet virtually any piping application. The manufacturer claims the pipe offers: • Long-lasting, leak-free joints feature a unique and durable heat fusion joining

Vithe cost!

system. • Environmental stress crack resistance.

• Exceptional strength, even when buried at depths of over 1 GO feet. • Corrosion-resistant, impervious to hostile agents. CPI Equipment For more information.

Circle reply card No. 177

Data acquisition and control capability

System developers can use the DAQCard™1200, DAQCard-500, DAQCard-A0-2DC, and the DAQCard-ER-8 kit with notebook PCs equipped with PCMCIA slots in port FLOW


Ultraviolet disinfection is the new

able test and measurement and process moni toring and control applications. The new DAQCards feature power-down modes,so they draw less current while inac tive. The cards include NI-DAQ® Version 4.8 driver software for DOS and

Windows. In addition,the cards are designed

wave in effluent treatment —

together with LabVlEW® and LabWindows®/CVI application software so us ers are guaranteed compatibility and com

with high intensity, high efficiency

lamps, variable output, patented flow

plete access to the full hardware capabili

channel technology and operating

ties. National Instruments

For more information. Circle reply card No. 178

costs far lower than before! UV Systems Technology Inc. Tel: (604) 451-1069 Toll-Free: 1-800-801-5656 2800 Ingleton Avenue, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5C 6G7 Fax: (604) 451-1072

Online catalogue Access to the online catalogue ofthe Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Infor



For more information. Circle reply card No. 170 (See page 17)


mation (CISTI) is now available free using the Internet. The catalogue is a listing of titles for all major publications (serials, books, conference proceedings, reports) in the fields of science, technology, engineer-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Product Review ing and medicine worldwide. It is updated every week. Those who do not use the Internet to access the online catalogue will pay a telecommunications charge. CISTI's online catalogue can also be used to order copies ofthe full texts ofthese pub lications, but you must be registered with CISTI to place an order. CISTI

Thermal modelling Contaminated Soil

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 186



'H"? Ice Bath

Oti-Gas Analyzer (02, CO, C02)


Implnger ITTD Thermal desorption is an effective and widely accepted remediation technology for many types ofsoil and petroleum-based con taminants. An area of concern for clients consider

burst backwash system and proper chemi


■ Undberg furnace i'j Acetylene I Uridberg Furnace :M


cals, Johnson Intake Screen Systems offer positive protection against the growing prob lem ofzebra mussel encrustation. The sys tem approaches the problem by preventing the mussels from attaching on the intake rather than trying to deal with them once they



Air i

Zebra mussel problems

Through a combination ofconstruction with mussel-repelling alloys and a proprietary air


Fiberglass f :;

1^1 Insulation |

ing thermal treatment has been the expense and commitment involved in determining whether it is suitable for their particular con taminant and project application. Enco-Tec has addressed this issue with the develop ment ofa thermal desorption simulator. They are in the distribution system.



are able to take project-specific soil samples and run a complete simulation of the ther mal desorption process. Enco-Tec currently has test data on the following contaminants: creosote, PCP, PAH, pesticides, and various carbon fuel products. Enco-Tec Environmental Technology Systems

For more information, Circle reply card No. 187 Hydroburst™ air backwash was used to re

In a field test, a screen fabricated half of

move debris from the screen surface. A

304 stainless steel and half of Johnson Z-

alloy™ showed that the stainless steel sec

chemical feed system releases low levels of chemicals to control veligers that pass the

tion became encrusted with colonies of mus

screen. Wheelabrator

sels while the Z-alloy section remained clean with virtually no attachments. The

For more information. Circle reply card No. 188

Waste Water Management After more than 60 years ot service to North American utilities and municipalities, the Heath Companies are recognized as leaders and innovators in resource conservation, waste detection, and waste control

management. Heath programs can help engineers with aging sewer systems to manage immediate problems and to develop the strategies necessary tor future growth. The benefits ot sewer flow monitoring Using state ot the art electronic equipment, and applying sound, time-tested principles. Heath's sewer flow and

intiitration studies can save both time and money by: • Deterring the capitalization costs ot plant expansion • Reducing labour costs through programs ot planned maintenance

• introducing up-to-date reporting ot system conditions tor budget purposes and replacement programs • Extending equipment lite at sewage treatment plants • Realizing savings in operating costs it your problem Is waste water management, contact the Heath team ot engineering professionals. Enjoy the benefits ot their expertise and proven record ot successful service.

tHEATH Coh9u^tahts limited ... creative environmental solutions to liquid and energy losses. 2085 Piper Lane London, Ontario N5V 385 (519)659-1144 Fax:(519)453-2182

6923 Farreii Rd. S.E. Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514) 331-1580 Calgary, Alberta T2H 013 Vancouver, B.C.(604) 980-9552 (403) 258-0151 Fax:(403) 258-0577 Mississauga, Ont.(905) 273-3040 Regina, Sask.(306) 352-2231

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more information. Circle reply card No. 171 (See page 17)


Potable Water Treatment

How filtration is evolving to cope with new public health issues

Filtration of public water supplies water sunnlics

on a wide scale has its origin in

the use of slow sand filters in

England in the early 1800's. The filters, consisting of about Im of ungraded fine sand over a gravel bed in which was placed a perforated pipe collection system, were operated at rates of between 0.015 and 0.033 m/h. They were taken out of service for cleaning about every six months; clean ing was accomplished by scraping offthe top

isi n


75 - 100 cm of sand.

Filters were originally used simply for re moving particulate matter from surface water for aesthetic, rather than health, rea sons. Van Leuwenhoek's discovery of waterbome bacteria at the end of the previ ous century had still not registered in the minds of water purveyors. This was to change, in dramatic fashion, with the Broad Street cholera outbreak of 1854 in London, England. Over 500 people died in this sin gle incident after drinking contaminated water from a community well. By the 1860's and 70's, filtration of water supplies to pro tect the public health had gained widespread acceptance. The Hamburg cholera epidemic in the 1890's provided convincing proof of

Burlington Water Purification Piant, owned by the Regional l\/!uniclpallty of Haiton. Dual media filters equipped for air scour-assisted backwashing. Centrifugal blowers can be seen In the background. Piant expansion was completed in 1995. sociated with the more turbid waters of that attract labour with higher wage rates. country. Chemical treatment of the raw wa A refinement of the rapid sand filter, the ter was originally intended simply as a means dual media filter, appeared in the late 1950's of reducing the load on the filters. Subse and early 1960's. It was designed to allow quent research into colloid destabilization particulates to penetrate deeper into the fil

the effectiveness of slow sand filters in this

and filtration mechanisms demonstrated the

role. By the end of the 19th century slow sand filters were widely used throughout Europe and, to a lesser extent, in North

crucial role played by chemical pretreatment in effective filtration.

Water and Waste Treatment,

The filters, employing 0.75 - 0.9m of graded sand with an effective size of about 0.45mm, were operated at 4 - 5 m/h. The filters were cleaned daily by reversing the flow at a high rate, in the order of 30 m/h, and discharging the wash water to waste. In this way filters could be cleaned with a mini mum amount of labour, an important con

Acres & Associated Environmental Ltd.

sideration when industry was beginning to


Rapid sand filters were developed in the United States as an alternative to slow sand

filters, primarily to overcome problems as-

"Senior Engineer,

ter bed and to be operated at substantially higher rates than the conventional sand fil ter. Dual media filters employing 450 mm ofanthracite overlying 300 mm ofsilica sand have been installed in major water treamient plants in Canada and the United States since

the early I970's. Effective sizes are typically 1.1 mm for anthracite and 0.45 mm for sand.

Operating rates of 12 -15 m/h are common. Mixed media filters, also known as trimedia filters, were introduced about the same time as the dual media filters. The filters








1-800-681-6890 ■ INTERNATIONAL:(902)661-6890 FAX:(902)661-6892 - EMAIL: enGOtec@fox.nstn.ca


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 172 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

By Basil O'Brien, P.Eng.* comprise layers of anthracite, silica sand and garnet(or ilmenite)in descending order from the top ofthe filter. The anthracite and sand are generally similar in physical properties to that employed in dual media filters. Gar net and ilmenite are very fine dense media having effective sizes of about 0.15mm and specific gravities in the range of 4.0 to 4.2. Both mixed media and dual media filters

retain their initial stratification following backwashing because of the different spe cific gravities ofthe various media; the finer media have higher specific gravities than the coarser media.

Deep bed coarse monomedium filters began to receive attention in the late 1980's because oftheir high operating rates and rela tively small space requirements. Filters em ploying 1.5 - 2.0 m of anthracite or sand with an effective size of up to 1.5 mm have been used in major plants in the U.S. and in Aus tralia. The filters are operated at rates up to 33 m/h,about three times the rate commonly employed with dual media filters. Chemi cal pretreatment can include ozonation, to promote microflocculation,as well as coagu lation with a metal salt and use of a poly meric coagulant aid. Particle deposition occurs throughout the coarse monomedium filter leading to higher storage than with con ventional filters. Backwashing must be sup plemented by air scour. Any short article on filtration must, of necessity, leave more unsaid than the author would like. There is simply not enough time or space to include anything on diatamaceous earth filters, membrane filters or various pro prietary filters, such as the single valve or valveless automatic filter. Important consid erations such as filter rate control, back-

washing procedures and filter to waste cycles must be left to another time. Accept ing the foregoing limitations, let us look at some current developments in filtration of municipal water supplies and what the future might hold. The ability ofrapid sand filters to remove entomoeba hystolitica cysts from chemically coagulated water was well documented in

Monitoring of filter to waste turbidity, es sential tojudge when a recently backwashed filter is ready to go back into service, will become the norm.

Filters have traditionally used well rounded sand grains as a medium. Some interesting work is being done in western Canada on the use ofcrushed quartz in place of sand. The angular quartz particles have been shown to be more effective in remov

ing particulates from coagulated water than have the standard filter quality silica sand grains. Turbidities consistently less than 0.1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units) have been reported in the effluent of dual media filters employing anthracite and crushed quartz. At least two major plants in Alberta have recently refurbished their filters with crushed quartz in place of sand. Biologically active filters, long used in Europe for the breakdown and removal of natural organic matter(NOM)are receiving increasing attention in North America. This is being driven by the proposed inclusion of Total Organic Carbon(TOC)removal crite ria in the USEPA's Disinfectants/Disinfec

tion By-products(D/DBP)Rule. In Canada, several provinces, including Ontario, have adopted more stringent guidelines with re spect to trihalomethanes. This, and the in creasing use ofozone as a primary disinfect ant, will inevitably lead to a greater interest in biologically active filters. Filter adsorbers, combining the filtration and adsorbance capability of granular acti

vated carbon with the filtration properties of sand, will become more popular as a rela

tively inexpensive way of retrofitting exist ing plants concerned with taste and odour problems. These units also lend themselves

to biological activity, particularly when used in conjunction with ozone. The early filters, as we have seen, were used solely to improve the aesthetic value of municipal water supplies. As the biological activity on and within these filters was more fully understood, the removal of pathogens became their primary purpose. With the de velopment of the rapid sand filter and the introduction of chlorine to disinfect filtered water, the latter became the first line of de

fence against disease; filters were relegated to the role of paniculate removal to aid in effective disinfection. Giardia Lamblia and

Cryptosporidium have elevated the role of filters, once more, to that of protection against disease. Biologically active filters have enhanced that role. Filters are now

rightly accepted as an integral part of the water treatment process, designed to protect the consumer's health and improve the ap pearance and palatability of municipal water supplies Finally, one important factor that should

never be overlooked. In the ever changing role of filtration there is only one constant: the operator. The care and vigilance of the municipal filter operator is probably more important today than it has ever been. He or she will be forgotten at our peril.


the U.S. in the 1930's and40's. Recent work

has shown that a well operated granular fil ter will remove Giardia Lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, both of which are resistant to disinfection. This is of signifi cance, considering the outbreaks of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in communities served by municipal water supplies reported in the past decade. A greater emphasis is increasingly being placed on optimizing fil ter operation. Indeed, Ontario's Ministry of the Environment and Energy is currently seeking proposals from engineering consult ants to do precisely that. Plant operators can expect to have to pay particular attention to chemical pretreatment,

including pH adjustment for optimum co agulation, and the use of coagulant and fil ter aids. Continuous filter effluent monitor

ing for turbidity and particle size will be come more common, if not mandatory.

PARTNER WITH ROC, YOUR SINGLE SOURCE FOR ALL YOUR EMISSIONS MONITORING ANN EPA PROTOCOL GASES NEEOS. At BOC Gases, we're married to the idea of providing nothing less than the best in quality products and superior service for your stack monitoring needs. From the industry's most advanced cylinders and gas handling equipment to a full line of zero gases, certified gases, primary standards and EPA Protocol gas mixtures, BOC has everything you're looking for in a single-source supplier. And backed by North America's largest gases distribution network, we're committed to meeting your expectations for dependable local delivery. So if your current gases supplier relationship is showing signs of strain, let BOC give you the attention you deserve. For more information and a free copy of our new Reference Manual and Buyer's Guide, call (908) 501-2518.

BOC GASES Your Single Source For Environmental Solutions

For more information, Circle reply card No. 174


Focus on PCBs

Autoclave decontamination used In

Quebec PCB decontamination facility Les Recyclages Larouche inc(RLI) holds a certificate ofapproval from the Quebec Min istry of Environment permitting the interior storage (prior to treatment) of 150 tons of electrical capacitors, 360 tons of transform ers and 90 tons of light ballasts. The treat ment centre is located in Larouche, Quebec, approximately 300 km north of Quebec City and operates under the name of Les Recyclages Larouche inc. RLI is permitted to treat and recycle waste from the above mentioned equipment as well as other PCB contaminated materials such as PCB con

taminated cable, pipe, etc. The current structure consists of a preengineered steel frame structure measuring approximately 7,200 sq. ft. and is quickly and easily expanded to allow for the addi

tion oftreatment and storage capacity as the demand grows. Autoclave decontamination technology use at the facility has been pro vided by Cintec Environment Inc., the ma jority shareholder of RLI. This technology is the latest of similar proven technologies operating at three fixed facilities in Europe. The principle behind this technology is based on the use ofa solvent that can extract

PCBs from the casting, reservoirs and the transformers' cores. The decontamination

efficiency results from the cycles of phasechange of the solvent inside the materials containing PCBs. After decontamination,the solvent used is regenerated by distillation. For the transformers, the process pro vides for prewashing ofthe electrical equip ment. This prewashing enables workers to

Water Supply and Treatment Wastewater Treatment Arsenic Removal

Iron and Manganese Removal

ADI Limited Fredericton, NB C R O U P

Tel:(506)452-9000 Fax:(506)459-3954

Engineering, Consuiting, Procurement, Project Management

operate safely during dismantling in order to separate the casing from the core rich in copper or aluminum. Casings and cores are then separately put into a decontamination unit which consists of an autoclave under

vacuum, where they are submitted in a cy clic way to the action of a solvent in liquidvapor alternated phases. Decontaminated cores are then disman

tled and separated into different components. The metal armatures, screws and ferro-magnetic core, after decontamination, are then reprocessed as metals for a second fusion. It should he noted that, the dismantling op erations are performed without damaging the parts, enabling salvage of the metal parts, including casings. The cardboard, plastic and wood are torn to more or less fine shreds according to the incinerator or disposal requirements. The coils are salvaged as second fusion metals. For the capacitors, the process allows for the total draining of the capacitors. This ena bles safe operation during the process of putting the heads in place and the succes sive operations of separating the casings from the cores, generally made up of coils of paper and of aluminum.

It should be noted that, the

Ainley and


dtsmantting operations are performed without damaging the parts, enabttng salvage of the metal parts, inctudtng casings.




280 Pretty River Parl^way

48 High Street

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168


Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

Fax (613) 822-1573

The casings are put in the autoclave dedi cated to transformers, are decontaminated and the casings are destined for salvaging. The cores are treated in a special decon tamination unit which consists of autoclaves

Environmental Auditing and Management Pianning Waste Management solutions


to the 4 Rs

Wastewater Treatment

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

(416) 226-0148

under vacuum. The cores and the casings are submitted in a cyclic way to cleaning with an adequate solvent in liquid-vapor alter nated phases with accelerated or modified cycles according to the nature of the cores to facilitate the decontamination of the pa per and of the thin films of plastic material. Decontamination procedures have been perfected for each type of equipment, par ticularly for Askarel transformers and capaci tors (> 10,000 mg/kg of PCB) and mineral

oil transformers(< 10,000 m^kg of PCB). The technology and processes developed

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

enable us to attain within hours the decon

consulting engineers, architects, technology managers

tamination objectives of50 mg/kg in porous matter and 0.010 mg/100 cm^ on metallic

Environmental and Infrastructure Specialists


Planning and Management Design and Construction Operations and Optimization Water and Wastewater,Transportation and Urban Development Technologies Toronto (416)497-8600, Welland. Ottawa. Oshawa, Sudbury (Dennis), London, Moncton (Touchie), Fredericton (Touchie). Charlottetown (Atlantech)


The by-products are the recycled solvent and residual PCBs. The technology is not limited by the PCB concentration in the equipment. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 196 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

'»f- #

£ ■ ftW



Focus on PCBs

By Vince Chiricosta, MBA,P.Eng. and Graham Latonas*

PCB destruction progress In 1995 PCBs have long aroused political controversies which are quite disproportionate to their impact on both the environment and human

health. The US decision to open the borders to Canadian PCBs- and the Canadian Government's ban on

such cross border shipmentsinflamed the issue even further.

ES&E has invited leading figures involved in the controversy to debate the issues. This comment

by Vince Chiricosta and Graham Latonas is the first. We invite further contribution on the PCB treatment solution.

Overthe last 17 years Canadians, other than in Alberta, have had

limited options for the destruc tion oftheir PCB wastes. Send

ing PCBs to the US was banned in 1978. A number of companies have provided PCB management services, however, these were traditionally treatment of

prehensive treatment processes are used to eliminate a generator's liability. Once at Swan Hills, the PCBs are destroyed in the kiln where performance results have proven a destruction and removal efficiency(DRE) of 99.999999%, one hundred times better than required by regulations. The flue gases are treated in a sophisticated air pollution control system where again performance re sults are typically an order ofmagnitude bet ter than the most stringent limits. Solid residues remaining from the process(fly ash and bottom ash)are treated further on site as required, with the resulting non-hazardous product placed in secure, monitored and


lined landfill cells.

PCB Costs and Canadian Capacity CSAL's PCB pricing is competitive or lower than Canadian or proposed US op

How many tonnes of PCB wastes were destroyed In 1995? The first PCB shipments from Eastern Canada, did not start moving until late July,

ommend that owners of PCBs carry out the following steps. • get specific quotes based on your inven

tions. Most environmental consultants rec

1995, because of delays in obtaining trans


portation permits from Ontario. Nonethe-

•conduct a site visit and audit ofthe options being considered; • if unable to conduct the audit person ally, seek advice from an environmen tal consulting company that specializes

low level contaminated oil and reduc

tion technologies for transformers, bal

in this area; and

lasts and soil. These services did not

• review the risks and liability associ ated with each option. The Alberta Special Waste Treat ment Centre has a nominal capacity of 55,000 tonnes per year. When added to the capacity of other Canadian PCB providers, Canadian capacity could de stroy all the PCBs in Canada within three to four years. Given the finan cial constraints and priorities of PCB

eliminate the risks or liability as there was no final solution for the residual

PCBs. Storage was sometimes the only option available to generators outside of Alberta.

During 1995, significant strides were made for PCB destruction op tions. Chem-Security (Alberta) Ltd.

(CSAL), the operators of the Alberta Special Waste Treatment Centre (ASWTC)in Swan Hills, Alberta, re ceived approval to accept hazardous wastes, including PCBs, from across Canada. The Quebec government fi nalized a project with Cintec, Sanexen

owners and the rate at which PCBs will be taken out ofservice or removed from

storage, Canadian PCB destruction capacity exceeds current demand.

US Import / Export Today's Canadian environmental companies have invested in technology that is not only better than the older

and SNC to incinerate PCBs at 3 sites

and Eco-Logic announced a number of PCB remediation projects. Finally, generators had a complete solution for

facilities in the US, but also more in

novative. These technologies are be ing sought by countries around the world. Canadian companies are pro viding leading edge solutions at com petitive prices.

the destruction of their PCBs.

The Swan Hills Option The ASWTC, located near Swan Hills, Alberta, is a fully integrated haz

ardous waste management facility with the capability of treating all classes of

Transformer decontamination and recycling furnace

hazardous wastes at one location, with


Canadians now have solutions for

the exception of radioactive and explosive wastes. In the case of PCBs, the plant can treat all PCB materials including Askarels,

contaminated liquids, sludges, soil, debris, ballasts, capacitors,concrete etc. Metal from transformers, switches, breakers and electri

less, over 4000 tonnes of PCB wastes were destroyed from hundreds ofcustomers across Canada at the ASWTC. PCBs were shipped

from points as far as: Goose Bay - Labrador, Newfoundland, Vancouver Island and the Northwest Territories.

cal equipment is recycled using a patented recycling furnace. The destruction of PCBs is a good ex ample of how all of the integrated and com

choose to send their PCBs to Swan Hills.

*Chem-Security (Alberta) Ltd.

CSAL and its transporters assume liability the moment the generator loads the PCBs


on the vehicle (CSAL can provide loading or turnkey services). The key advantage is that a generator's liability is eliminated and there is no need for any on-site reduction or treating, test bums, lengthy public hearings or media attention associated with other op tions. Transportation can be arranged quickly, at the generator's convenience. CSAL provides one other unique assur ance. The Alberta Government is responsi ble for any long term liability. The elimina tion of liability for generators is second to

Complete Elimination of Liability Elimination of liability, at no risk, is the

primary reason hundreds of customers

their PCBs, that cannot be revoked should there be an incident or change in the US position concerning the importa

tion ofPCBs. This capability is jeopardized if Canadian companies must divide the Ca nadian market place with dozens of US com panies, after having made such an investment in technology and public hearings. Ultimately, generators must make the

decisions regarding how and where their hazardous wastes are to be managed. They now have a number of Canadian options for their PCB wastes that were not there at the

beginning of 1995. Circle card No. 197

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

still Storing Your PCBs?

PCB RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL Licensed PCB Management Facility Since 1989 Small or Large Quantities - All Types of PCB Waste PCB Lamp Ballast Recycling ON OUR SITE

PCB Transfonner Recycling^ON OUR SITE Packaging, Transportation, Remediation, Spill Cleanup Services offered Canada-wide NO PROCESSING ON YOUR SITE

Over 5,000 PCB Projects Completed Certificate of Recycling and Final Disposal

PROECOâ„¢ Corporation



1-800-661-5792 Alberta Tel.(403)440-1825 Fax (403)440-2428 7722-9th Street, Edmonton, AB T6P IL6

Quebec Tel.(514)683-3470 Fax (514)683-2906 Broker Inquiries Welcome For more Information, Circle reply card No. 195(See page 17)


Jeanlne Waugh

Taras (Terry) Obal

Denlse Archer

Ms. Jeanine Waugh, GET, an em ployee with GANVIRO for 13 years, is currently responsible for operations within the laboratory facility. Jeanine manages a team of chemists and technologists dedicated to environ mental analysis and directs imple mentation of in-house QA/QG proce

Dr. Taras (Terry) Obal, Ph.D., G.Ghem., wi l l be heading up

Ms. Denise Archer, B.A. Previously a project leader with the Proctor and Redfern laboratory, Denise has brought 14 years of environmental laboratory experience to GANVIRO. As inorganic supervisor, Denise man ages a team of chemists and tech nologists in the analysis of metals and general chemistry.


GANVIRO's Toronto Glient Services

Genter. Terry has over fifteen years of experience in environmental ana lytical chemistry and consulting. Most recently, Terry managed the opera tions of the GG&S Analytical Labora tory in Toronto.


Waterloo, ON. (519)747-2575 Toronto, ON. (416)499-9000

"Committed to Excellence in Environmental Analysis" Environmental Science i& Engineering, March 1996

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 225 (See page 17)


Focus on PCBs

By O.R Ward^'ÂŽ and K. Billingsley^

Bioremediation -a potential solution for the clean-up of PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chlorinated aromatic com

pounds with excellent dielectric properties and chemical stability. Their unique properties were of value in a wide range of industrial application but, in particular, their electrical insulating proper ties led to their widespread use as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers from 1930 to the 1960's. PCBs were produced commercially in the U.S. since 1929 and marketed under the name Aroclor until they were first banned for use, except in closed systems, in the 1970's. PCBs were

while in some eastern European countries similar bans were not introduced until the mid 1980's.

In the United States, PCBs are the pre dominant hazardous waste type at approxi mately 20% of sites on the National Priori ties List alone. It is estimated that 26 mil

lion cubic metres ofsoils and sediments from

these sites are contaminated with PCBs. By extrapolation, the extent of PCB contami nated soils in Canada might be 4-5 million cubic metres. Owners ofPCB contaminated

waste have typically left the contaminated soil or other material

marketed in various countries under

undisturbed or have

different trade names; in Japan as Kanechlor and Santotherm;in France as Phenochlor and Pyralene; in Ger many as Clophen;in Italy as Fenclor; and in Czechoslovakia as Delor. In the late 1960's information recalcitrance of PCBs and their

handling and disposal procedures were not regulated,inadvertent and substan tial contamination of soils, sediments and water had occurred over the years. In most western countries complete bans for all new uses ofPCBs were in place in the late 1970's

Biorem Technologies Inc., ^Microbia! Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Waterloo

in a manner which facilitates opti mal removal ofthe contaminants in

terms ofrate and extent of degrada tion. In general, the contaminant Owen Ward provides the carbon source for se stored the material in lection ofa microbial population de Kate Billingsley locked compounds grading that material, and other on-site. process parameters including nutrients, oxy Bioremediation is advantageous for treat gen supply and moisture content are control ment of contaminants in that it is a destruc led. First reports ofthe abilities of microor tive technology, converting contaminants to ganisms to degrade PCBs emerged in 1973 carbon dioxide, water and inorganic ions. and since then our understanding ofthe PCBBioremediation is also a very cost-effective degrading processes employed by microor technology and consequently there is a con- ganisms has advanced dramatically. Bacte rial strains attacking PCB molecules using aerobic metabolic processes have been found to favour degradation ofthe less chlorinated 'Environmental professionals PCBs leaving the more highly chlorinated

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Environmental Audits

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PO Box 2205, Str> B. St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (905)641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T 7H8 (519) 383-7822



ure 1. Chlorination can occur at ten differ

ent positions so that 209 possible PCB con geners exist. Commercial PCB products are characterized typically with respect to the percentage chlorine by weight in the prod uct. Aroclor products are distinguished by a 4 digit number, the last 2 digits of which indicate the average percentage of chlorine by weight in the product. Hence, well known Aroclors 1242, 1248,1254 and 1260 contain 42,48, 54 and 60% chlorine by weight. processes involve creation of con ditions in soil, slurry or aqueous me dia favourable for growth of the contaminant-degrading organisms

characteristic ability to bioaccumulate,leading to major concerns regarding their persistence in the en vironment. Total U.S. production

timated at 5.94 X 10" kg,and because

cations of these atoms. A general diagram ofthe biphenyl molecule is illustrated in Fig

Conventional bioremediation

began to emerge on the biological

ofPCBs from 1929 to 1974 was es

tinuing demand and strong incentive for de velopment of a PCB biodegradation process. Industrially produced PCBs represent a complicated mixture ofchlorobiphenyl mol ecules varying with respect to the numbers of chlorine atoms per molecule and the lo


molecules untouched. A time course of the

degradation of Aroclors, containing 54% and 42% chlorine by weight, by a Pseudomonas strain in aqueous media,illustrates its greater capacity to degrade the less chlorinated Aroclor 1242(Figure 2). Where the PCBs had an average of54% chlorination, the bacteria degraded 43% of the contaminant in a 24 hour period. With a lower level of PCB chlorination (42%), the

Figure 1.




Structure of the biphenyl molecule. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

THESRs: REDUCE, RECYCLE then get RID of your














for decontamination

of electrical equipment for metal recovery PCBOâ„¢, for decontamination

and reclaiming of mineral oils Site Remediatian

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REGISTERED BROKER TO CHEMSECURITY (ALBERTA) INC. For more information, Circle reply card No. 226(See page 17)

Focus on PCBs bacterium degraded 80% ofthe contaminant in 12 hours. Chromatograms of Aroclor

Figure 2. Time course of degradation of Aroclor 1242 and 1254 by a Pseudomonas strain.

1242 before and after bacterial treatment

Aroclor 1242

demonstrate the disappearance of many of the PCB congeners as a result of biodegradation (Figure 3). These data from studies in our laboratories illustrate the high rates ofPCB degradation which can be achieved with selected bacteria cultivated under con

trolled conditions. Different PCB-degrading Aroclor 1254

bacterial strains also manifest different afifini-

ties for degradation ofparticular PCB isomers, so that a combination of bacterial strains can

often be more effective than a single strain in the aerobic degradation process. Environmental monitoring of PCB con taminated sediment of the upper Hudson River revealed that PCB levels were alter

ing over time. Intensive research over the past 8 years has confirmed that dechlor-

40 time (h) 60


ination of PCBs including the highly chlo

rinated congeners occurs under anaerobic

radation of the less chlorinated products of

conditions and these so called reductive

the anaerobic step.

dechlorination processes are now being char acterized. Anaerobic biodegradation proc

Lignin degrading fungi have also been found to degrade hydrophobic contaminants including polyaromatic hydrocarbons and PCBs. However, optimal conditions for growth, production of the key enzymes at tacking these contaminants and optimization of the enzymatic degradation step have not been adequately characterized to enable this technology to be routinely applied in com

esses occur at much slower rates than aero

bic processes and two-stage anaerobic/aero bic microbial processes have been proposed to treat PCBs. The first stage, an anaerobic

process to remove chlorine atoms from the highly chlorinated PCBs is followed by an aerobic step to promote more efficient deg-







mercial bioremediation processes. Other strategies also offer potential to deal with the most challenging component surrounding PCB bioremediation, namely, degradation of the more highly chlorinated congeners. Chemical and biological meth ods, resulting in production of free radicals which then react with these congeners con verting them to products which are more amenable to aerobic degradation, represent promising first steps as a pretreatment to be

^antientig THE FUTURE British Columbia Water and Waste Association 24th Annual Conference

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April 21 - 24, 1996 at the

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Technical Sessions on:

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• Water Management • Small Water Systems

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317,103rd Street.


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Saskatoon (Sask.),

(Qua.). J3G4S5

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tel: 514-467-9307

te/.- 705-733-0111

tel: 306-373-7070

fax: 514-467-5094

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 227 (See page 17)

Technical Transfer Topic A CWWA Rate Structure Workshop Topic B Receiving Water Management Planning Irrigation

Forfurther information please contact Catherine Gibson at(604) 936-4982 orfax:(604) 931-3880.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 194 (See page 17)

Focus on PCBs followed by aerobic bioremediation.

Figure 3. Chromatograms of Aroclor 1242

PCBs,being hydrophobia molecules, are quite insoluble in water and have a tendency

before and after biotreatment witfi a Pseudomonas strain.

to bind tightly to soil particles. These prop erties ofPCBs can reduce the bioavailability of these molecules to degrading bacteria thereby slowing down the overall bioreme diation process. Strategies, including use of chemical or biological surfactants or micro organisms which produce surfactant-like molecules or particles, are being explored with a view to desorbing PCBs from the soil matrix and accelerating the biodegradation

before biotreatment


The Natural Sciences and Engineering

Research Council ofCanada through its stra tegic grant programme is currently funding a project on PCB Bioremediation in the au thors' laboratory at the Microbial Biotech nology Laboratory, University of Waterloo and at the laboratories of Drs. Phil Fedorak




and Mike Pickard at the University of Al berta. This project, which aims to develop an integrated process for accelerated degra dation of PCBs, is addressing many of the strategies described above. Current knowledge ofbiological systems, both cellular and enzymatic, for degradation ofPCBs, based on laboratory and/or field tri als, suggests that bioremediation technologies will emerge in the very near future to treat PCBs. These technologies are likely to be cost effective and advantageous in that com plete conversion ofthe contaminants to chlo ride, carbon dioxide and water will occur.


after biotreatment


Specialized tools. Sophisticated technology. Secure transportation. The Alberta Special Waste Treatment Centre is unique in its ability to eliminate your liability for all hazardous wastes, including PCBs, through comprehensive treatment technologies: □ high-temperature incineration □ recycling furnace □ physical/chemical treatment □ stabilization □ secure landfill.

We assume full liability for transportation, destruction and residual management as soon as your waste is loaded onto our vehicles. We also issue a Certificate of Destruction for all waste received,

providing due diligence. To learn more about our full range of services, call: 1-800-633-5552.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

For more information, Circle reply card No. 228 (See page 17)


Wastewater treatment

By C.S. Lee, P. Eng.* and R. Waite, P. Eng.

Durham Region solves its winter biosoiids management problem

Anaerobically and aerobically

digested biosoiids have been applied on agricultural land in the Region of Durham under the Region's Soil Enrichment Program since 1974. Land application of biosoiids is a form of recycling of usable resources and is con sidered to be the most economic and envi

ronmentally acceptable means of bio soiids management. Some of the biosoiids currently generated in the Region is inciner


ated at the Duffin Creek Water Pollution

Control Plant (WPCP), when land applica tion of biosoiids is not possible. Under the MOEE guidelines, biosoiids can be applied on agricultural land only un der certain conditions. In the Region ofDur ham,due to the moderate climate and preva lence of sandy soils, application to agricul tural land is possible for as long as seven to nine months ofthe year, requiring either stor age, or other management techniques to be

pursued for the remaining three to five months of the year. The current biosoiids storage capacity at the Region's WPCPs is, however, less than two months.

A Biosoiids Management Study was un dertaken by Simcoe in 1990 to review the Region's biosoiids management methods. Based on the recommendations from the

Aerial view of architectural concept from northwest.

sultation Working Committees(PCWC) in

of thirteen biosoiids management alterna

Phases 1, 2 and 3 of the Class EA.

tives was screened to a Short List of nine alternatives for further evaluation. A set of

Class EA Process

In Phase 1 of the Class EA, the problem was defined as "the lack of a suitable

biosoiids management method during nonspreading weather or soil conditions". Phase 2 was separated into two steps; Phase 2A and Phase 2B. Phase 2A included the selec

tion ofa preferred winter biosoiids manage

Region embarked on an ambitious public

ment method, while Phase 2B covered the selection of a preferred site. A number of different biosoiids manage ment alternatives were considered by the Region, in consultation with the Phase 2A

consultation process, forming Public Con-

PCWC. Some of the alternatives included

'Special Assistant to the Commissioner of Works, Region of Durham "Senior Project Manager, Simcoe Engineering Group Limited.

storage on WPCP site(s), centralized stor age using lagoons, centralized dewatering with composting, centralized biosoiids dewatering with landfilling, etc. A two step evaluation process was used. A Long List

1990 Biosoiids Management Study Report, the Region initiated a Class EA in 1992 to find a solution to their winter problem. The



biopiles, landfarming bio.slurry reactor processes biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects

Specializing in the design, clevelupnienl, and implenienlation of biuremediatiun systems

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C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers

criteria was developed, in consultation with the PCWC, to evaluate both the Long and Short Lists. The storage of biosoiids in en closed tanks located at, or adjacent to, one or more WPCPs was ultimately selected by the Region, in consultation with the PCWC, as the Region's preferred winter biosoiids management method. The Region, in consultation with the Phase 2B PCWC,then investigated a number of possible sites for the preferred winter biosoiids management method. Nine sites of all existing WPCPs in Durham Region were initially considered(Long List ofsites) in Phase 2B. The nine candidate sites were

reduced to three sites (Short List of sites) for further evaluation. The three candidate

sites(Corbett CreekWPCP,Harmony Creek WPCP, Port Darlington WPCP) were then evaluated against a more detailed set of cri teria. Based on this evaluation, the storage of biosoiids in enclosed tanks located at, or adjacent to, the Corbett Creek WPCP was ultimately selected by the Region, with the concurrence of the Phase 2B PCWC,as the preferred site and the preferred solution to the Region's winter biosoiids management problem. The Region initiated Phase 3 in Novem ber 1994. The objective was to select a pre ferred preliminary design concept, in con sultation with a Phase 3 PCWC. A detailed

evaluation ofthe biosoiids storage tank shape and height was initially considered. Sepa rate sets of evaluation criteria were used to

Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontorio Sfrcot, Suile 201,

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evaluate the tank shape and tank roof height above grade. A rectangular storage tank was ultimately selected, in consultation with the PCWC,as the preferred tank shape. The rectangular tank configuration al-

Continued on page 75 72

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

Concrete pipe's survived it all. Fads come and go quicker than you can say "disco fever'.' But strong, durable concrete pipe is here to stay. In fact, concrete pipe has passed the test of time for decades now. And when you consider the benefits, it's no wonder why.

Concrete pipe adapts to the most high tech design, respects the environment, and creates local jobs in the process. Specify concrete pipe for your next project. It wil l be the best move you've made since "The Flustle".

Concrete Pipe...Here to Stay For concrete pipe manufacturers in your area, contact:

OCp*Q Ontario concrete pipe association

6299 Airport Road, Suite 508, Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1N3 Phone:(905) 677-1010 Fax:(905) 677-1007

For more information, Circie reply card No. 189(See page 17)



BUSINESS The 10th Annual Toronto Environmental Show & Conference

May 7th and 8th, 1996 It's Canada's leading source of practical and cost effective solutions to your environmental problems and you can't afford to miss it!

• See and compare new products and services from 200 leading industry suppliers • Network with over 4,000 of Canada's best and brightest environmental professionals • Participate in 16 workshops organized by the publishers of Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine • Develop alliances, find new suppliers, and source new products

The 10th Annual Toronto Environmental Show is the place to find the answers to your waste management and industrial pollution control problems. Mark your calendar now!

Toronto Environmental Show & Conference May 7th and 8th, 1996 International Centre, Mississauga, Ontario To register FREE or for further information call or fax:

Pat Atkinson, Southex Exhibitions Tel: 403.469.2400 Fax: 403.469.1398

For more information, Circle reply card No. 190(See page 17)

Wastewater treatment, cont'd.


lowed for more efficient use of the site and

would provide more design layout flexibil ity than other tank shapes such as circular tanks. The rectangular shape was also felt to have less of a visual impact on the sur rounding area as well as a lower capital cost than circular tanks. A tank roof height of about 4.7 m above grade was selected as the preferred height above grade. The rationale included the lowest capital cost, lowest noise impact, and the least visual impact on the surrounding area ofthe alternatives that were


Environmental Engineers, Planners and Scientists 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

(416) 499-4687 fax (416)499-9000 phone Waterloo






Barrie • Cambridge • London • Niagara • Ottawa



Four design/siting alternatives were then evaluated. Alternatives 1 to 3 were sited on


vacant, industrially zoned land, located west

Eastern Region




of the Corbett Creek WPCP. Alternative 4


was located in the north-east comer of the Corbett Creek WPCP site. A total of 25 cri


teria including an assessment of the impact of the proposed facility on adjacent resi dences, businesses, wildlife, wetland,the wa


Tel: (416)441^111 Fax: (416)441-4131


Pacific Region Vancouver


Tel: (604) 595-9333 Fax: (604) 595-9458

Offices across Canada and Overseas


terfront trail, as well as other social and eco nomic factors, were used to evaluate the four

design/siting alternatives. Micro Climate Study for Noise and Odour Impact A comprehensive micro climate study


• Planning • Engineering

was conducted to address the concerns of

local businesses and residents regarding po tential off-site noise and odour impacts from the proposed facility. Gas samples were collected from exist ing biosolids storage facilities in the Regions of Halton and Durham to quantify the odour of the gas likely to be produced by the pro posed facility. The odour content was meas ured in odour units. An odour unit (o.u.) is the quantity of an odorous substance which, when dispersed in 1 m^ of odorous-free air, becomes just detectable under laboratory conditions by 50% of a panel of "normal" human observers whose sensitivity to the odour represents the mean ofthe population. An odour panel was established to quantify the odorous gas present inside the biosolids storage tanks in terms of odour units/m'. Based on the results of this analysis, a maximum odour concentration of 887 o.u./

m^ was used, in conjunction with an estimated flow rate ofodorous gases from the biosolids tank to calculate an odorous emission rate

(o.u./s). A computer model was then used in conjunction with historical climatic data for Table 1


Alt. 1

Alt. 2

Alt. 3

Alt. 4





Change in odour level at the nearest home.

Change in odour level at the nearest business.





• Environmental Science Toronto » London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax

Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg • Vancouver * Ye II o w k n i f e • Washington

1 00

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Change in

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Environmental/Occupational Healtfi and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: ' Workplace and safety audits

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7070 Mississauga Road. Suite 160 Mississauga. Ontario, L5N 7G2 Canada

Tel: (905) 858-4424 Fax: (905) 858-4426

Environmental Noise and Vibration Assessments

Design and Specification of Mitigation Measures Audit Measurements

odour level

at the nearest





location on the waterfront trail.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

HOWE GASTMEIER CHAPNIK LIMITED 2000 Argcntia Road. Plaza I. Suite 203, Mississauga, Ontario L5N IP7

Phone: (905) 826-4044

Tax: (905) 826-4940 75

Wastewater treatment, cont'd.




proposed facility and biosolids haulage truck ing activities at the nearest residences, busi


nesses, and the waterfront trail.


The MOEE Interim Guide to Estimate

and Assess Landfill Air Impacts suggests that

Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,

a value of 1 o.u/m^ over 10 minutes is a rea

Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138

Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 415

ISIJagger Hims ■ll LIMITED • Water Supply

o.u/m^ that were predicted from the Biosolids Holding Facility under worst case scenarios. The results of the analysis indicated that the estimated odour levels from the Biosolids

* Indastrial Minerals and Aft^ircfiate liesaurces

Holding Facility on the surrounding area is well below the MOEE guidelines of 2.0 o.u/ m' and, as such, is not considered to have a significant impact on the surrounding area. A computer noise model was also used as part of the micro climate study to esti

• Iinvironmenlal l*ri>perty Assessment Hemediation

• Gett-linviranmenlal ISnftiiwerin}'

NEWMARKET OFFICE Toll Free (800) 263-7419

• Waste' Water IJispasetl

ST. CAFHARINES OFFICE Toll Free (800) 668-2598

sonable objective. Converting the MOEE guideline to a 5 second value translates I o.u./m^ as a 10 minute average to 2 o.u/m' as a 5 second average. Table 1 is a summary of the estimated odorous concentrations in

Environmental Consulting Engineers • Waste Management

the preferred site area to estimate the worst case odour that might be generated from the

WINDSOR OFFICE Toll Free (800) 545-5406

mate the worst case off-site noise that could

be generated from the proposed facility and

Environmental Management Consultants for Water and Pollution Control Projects =












(905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869


(705)679-5979 (705)679-5750


the biosolids haulage trucking activities at the nearest residences, businesses, the wa terfront trail, and the wetland. Table 2 is a summary of the predicted noise levels in dBA from the Biosolids Holding Facility

(519) 743-61)1 (519)743-3330

under the worst case scenarios.

Consultants Limited

Continued on page 78

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5





R.V. Anderson



Associates Limited






P.O. Bag 4300. Lakeflcid, Ontario Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Pa.-i 705-652-6365










K.A. Morrison, P.Eng., president of R.V. Anderson Associates Limited, is pleased to announce that the following individu als have been appointed to the position of associate of the firm:

Bruce Buchanan, P.Eng. Paul Capello, C.E.T. Kenneth Collicott, P.Eng. Tonl GadzovskI, OAA


D.J. Hare, P.Eng.

Robert Kuzyk, P.Eng., M.Sc.

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment

Peter Lau, P.Eng. Sally Mclntyre, B.A. Hon. Les Nemeth, C.E.T.

Brian Wheeler, P.Eng. MacViro Consultants Inc. 7270WoodbineAvenue, 3rd. Floor, Markham, Ontario L3R4B9

(905)475-7270 ♦ Fax:(905)475-5994

• Hydrogeology


MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel: (613) 548-3446 Fax: (613) 548-7975


• Waste management • Engineering geolGgy • Environmental audits

• Site decommissioning & rehabilitation

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

has been engaged in the practice of consulting engineering and technology management since 1948. The organi zation comprises environmental and in frastructure specialists for technologies related to water, wastewater, transpor tation, urban development and telecom munications.

The company is wholly owned by the principals and associates, with a quali fied staff complement of 150, providing services to the public and private sec tors, in Canada and internationally. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

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16 10 27 46 80 62 26 39 45 53 15 35 9 61 57 70 41 11 17 19 23 22 8 29 73 21 65 79 18 69 74 28 7 20 45 11 60 8 44 44 14

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Site Remediation


Tel:(905) 513-9400 Fax:(905) 513-9405



Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Monor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. LIW 3W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fox: 905-831-0531


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996



Wastewater treatment, cont'd. Table 2


Ait. 1

Alt. 2

Alt. 3

Alt. 4

Change in background noise levels at nearest residence due to on-site activity.





Change in background noise leveis at nearest business due to on-site activity.





Change in background noise levels at













nearest location on the waterfront trail

due to on-site activity.

Change in background noise levels at nearest wetland due to on-site activity.

impact considerations during the eonstruction and operational phases of the facility. At the core of the mitigating measures is the establishment of a Public Liaison Com

mittee (PLC) consisting of a represehtative from each stakeholder group. The PLC will funetion during the design,constructibn, and operation phases ofthe project to assure that the development of the wildlife habitat re placement plan and management of the fa cility will be responsive to the corlcerhs of the public and the terms of the commitment made by the Region. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 198

Change in background noise levels at nearest residence due to bio-soiids


trucking activity.

Change in background noise levels at nearest business due to bio-soiids













trucking activity. Change in background noise levels at nearest location on the waterfront trail

due to bio-solids trucking activity. Change in background noise leveis at nearest wetland due to bio-solids

trucking activity. A qualitative scale used by the MOEE for qualifying noise impacts is: up to 3 dBA the loudness is hardly perceptible(Marginal to None Impact Rating); 4 to 5 dBA is no ticeable(Low Impact Rating); 6 to 10 dBA is almost twice as loud (Moderate Impact Rating); and 11 plus dBA is more than twice as loud (High Impact Rating). The results of the micro climate study

indicated that there would be no significant impact from noise and odour from the pro posed facility at the nearest residences, busi nesses, wetland, and waterfront trail. The results were used to assess potential odour and noise impacts from the four design/sit ing alternatives on the surrounding area. Based on the results of the evaluation, de

sign/siting alternative No 4, located within

the north-east corner of the Corbett Creek

WPCP site, was identified as the preferred design/siting alternative. A preliminary ar chitectural rendering of the proposed facil ity is shown in Figure 1. Mitigating Measures A comprehensive list of mitigating meas ures was developed by the Region, in con sultation with the PCWC,to mitigate the im pacts of the preferred design/siting alterna tive on the surrounding area. One of the major issues raised during the impact assess ment was the displacement ofexisting wild life habitat on the currently vacant land within the Corbett Creek WPCP site. As a

result, a substantial habitat replacement scheme was proposed as a mitigating meas ure. The mitigating measures also included

UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone: (905) 238-0007

March 24 - 26, 1996. Water Enviropriient Association of Ontario, Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition. Toronto, ON. Contact:(416)502-1440, fax: (416) 502-1786. March 26,1996. Canadian Environmental Auditing Association Technical Conference, "Benchmarking the Latest Industry Tech niques and Standards". Vancouver, B.C. Contact: (905) 567-4705, fax; (905) 5677191.

March 26 - 29, 1996. Globe 96 Interna tional Trade Fair and Conference, Vancou ver, B.C. Contact: Patricia Maisonville, (604) 775-1994, fax:(604) 666-8123. March 29 - 30, 1996. Ontario Ground Water Association Annual Convention and

Trade Show. Niagara Falls, ON. Contact: OGWA,(519) 869-8933, fax: (519) 8698940.

March 31 - April 3, 1996. NO-DIG '96, the North American Society for Trenchless Technology's International Conference. NewOrleans, Louisiana. Contact: NASTT(312) 644-0828, fax: (312) 644-8557. April 16 - 18, 1996. HYDROTOP 96, the World Water Market Symposium & Exhibi tion. Marseilles, France. Contact: Frederic de Bernard, ITN International, (301) 9836173, fax:(301) 983-5264. April 21 - 24, 1996. Ontario Water Works


Association, AWWA and Ontario Munici pal Water Association, 1996 Joint Annual Conference, "Service Is Our Business". London, ON. Contact:(416)252-7060,fax: (416) 252-3908. April 28 - 30,1996. Air & Waste Manage


ment Association, Ontario Section Spring Conference and Annual Meeting. Toronto,


ON. Contact: Jody Sabo,(416) 232-1435. fax:(416) 291-0025.

Innovative Consnlting in Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc.

Tel:(905} 821-1127

Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774

Kitchener, Ontario


May 7-8,1996 Environmental Compliance '96

» Corporate Environmental Policy Development • Und Application of Wastewater » Phase 1 Environmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

• Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment » Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization • Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the 3Rs. » Hydrogeology and Groundwater Investigations

Toronto International Centre

10th Annual Toronto "Due Diligence" Conference. Presented by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine. For more information, contact:

Tel:(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905) 841-7271.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1996

The First Name In Solids / Liquid Separation Technology

The Tower Press...The Most Innovative Belt Filter Press Available!

Thearrangement TOWER PRESS, with its innovative vertical of pressure rollers, is the latest in Belt Filter Press design technology. It features a dependable, maintenance-free pneumatic belt tensioning and center pivot tracking roll system that continuously monitors and also automatically corrects any misalignment of the dewatering belts.

Proven design, engineering and manufacturing capabilities have built our reputation for top systems performance. For equipment that runs better and longer contact the experts at Roediger. TOWER BELT FILTER PRESS FEATURES:

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Center Pivot Belt Steering Rolls For Extended Belt Life Unique Pneumatically Actuated Doctor Blades and Plow Lifts Fully Adjustable Wedge Zone Design Flexibility Permits Compacted Gravity and Wedge Zones Gravity Filtrate Recycle for Filter Belt Wash Elevated Discharge for Ancillary Equipment Clearance Ji-.i

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Pneumatically actuated plows shown lifted up and off the belt for

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Roediger manufactures long-term, low maintenance sludge and slurry handling equipment: Belt Filter Presses

Gravity Belt Thickeners Thermal Sludge Dryers

Individual stainless steel

Sieve Drum Concentrators

drain pans, deflectors or troughs prevent re-wetting of the preceding and following sludge cake.

Polymer Systems

Unique Pneumatically Actuated Doctor Blades

Lime Post Treatment Modules

Vacuum Sewer Systems We offer sales, leasing and testing as well as technical help and on-slte demonstrations.

Roediger Pittsburgh, inc. • 3812 Route 8, Allison Park, PA 15101 • 412/487-6010 • Fax 412/487-6005

For more information,

p.j. Hannah Equipment Sales • Burnaby, British Columbia • 604/430-1531 • Fax 604/430-6367 H2Flow Equipment, Inc. • Toronto, Ontario • 416/245-7808 • Fax 416/614-0653

write or call:

H2Fiow Equipment, Inc. • St. Laurent, Quebec • 514/335-7957 • Fax 514/335-5916 For more information, Circie reply card No. 191 (See page 17)


Process Technology for Treatment Economy

EIMCO Products for Water and Wastewater Treatment Include: Grit Collection Systems Floeculators & Mixers

Primary & Secondary Clarifiers Solids-Contact Clarifiers

Trac-Vac" Suction Sludge Collectors MetalWeave" Flow Control Baffles


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£IMC0products help environmental professionals manage natural resources and financial ones with equal success. As

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treatment standards for water and wastewater

become more strict and municipal revenues more scarce, each investment in treatment capacity must yield higher, more reliable returns.EIMCO provides a comprehensive array of equipment, processes and services, each designed for the highest stan dards of dependable performance, efficient opera tion and long-term economy.For more information on EIMCO processes, equipment, and services, contact your local sales representative.

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For more information. Circle reply card No. 192(See page 17)